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Supervisory conferences from the teacher's perspective : a comparative analysis of teachers' interactive… Tyler, Janet Patricia 1989

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SUPERVISORY CONFERENCES FROM THE TEACHER'S PERSPECTIVE: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TEACHERS' INTERACTIVE RESPONSES IN TWO DIFFERENT DYADS by JANET PATRICIA TYLER B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t , and Higher Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1989 © Janet P a t r i c i a T y l e r , 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t , and Higher Education The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date 89 11 29 DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT This study investigated the development of two high conceptual level (HCL) teachers in supervision conferences, by examining their responses. HCL teachers were studied because the behaviours associated with HCL functioning can be equated with those which research has identified as characteristic of effective teachers. Furthermore, because studies have found that conceptual level fluctuates easily, i t seemed important to investigate the conditions under which supervision might be facilitative of high conceptual functioning. Supervision was thought of as a special case of adult cognitive development. Findings of studies regarding both facilitation of adult cognitive development and supervision of instruction were combined to develop a conceptual model representing facilitation of HCL teacher development. Based on findings reported in the literature, the model postulated that under ideal developmental conditions, an HCL teacher Will respond to supervision with comfort and confidence, with active involvement in problem solving, and with autonomous behaviour. The model was used to guide data collection and analysis. For each stage of the model indicators were chosen of teacher's responses and principal's behaviours that the research literature suggests would be apparent under supervisory conditions facilitative of HCL teacher development. These indicators were used to design instruments for the collection of frequency data regarding teacher's responses and principal's behaviours. One of the HCL teachers was supervised by a low conceptual level (LCD principal; the other, by a moderately high conceptual level (M/HCL) principal. The study attempted to ascertain whether the i i i responses of the teacher supervised by the M/HCL pr i n c i p a l would indicate that teacher had the better opportunity for development, and whether HCL teacher development seemed to be associated with the supervisor's CL, as previous studies have indicated, or with other factors. Videotapes of supervisory conferences and transcripts of subjects' stimulated r e c a l l interviews provided the sources of data. During observation of the videotapes, frequency data were collected by using the instruments that were designed for the study and which asked the question "Are subjects doing t h i s or that?" By contrast, the transcription data c o l l e c t i o n , which generated the greater amount of data, was more n a t u r a l i s t i c and asked "What are the subjects doing?" Unlike those of previous studies, the findings from t h i s study suggested that the HCL teacher who was paired with the M/HCL pr i n c i p a l had the lesser opportunity for development. Moreover, the teacher's development seemed to be associated with factors other than the principal's conceptual l e v e l , most notably the teacher's high conceptual l e v e l and the duration of the principal/teacher supervisory relationship. The findings also suggested that opportunity for development was associated with HCL teachers' comfort and confidence, active involvement, and autonomous behaviour and that the supervisor should f a c i l i t a t e these conditions. Based on the findings, the study concluded that the principal's conceptual l e v e l may not be an important factor i n HCL teacher supervision, that further study i s required to increase understanding of the conditions which nurture HCL teachers' development, that such study should include investigations of teacher/teacher supervision dyads, and that, with s l i g h t amendment, the conceptual model could be useful for these studies. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES x i i LIST OF FIGURES x i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i v Chapter 1. BACKGROUND, PURPOSE, AND RATIONALE 1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 1 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 3 RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY 4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 7 OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY 8 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 9 TOWARD A DEFINITION OF ADULT LEARNING 9 RESEARCH AND THRORIES OF ADULT LEARNING 11 Toward Recognition of Adult C o g n i t i v e Development 11 Theories of Adult C o g n i t i v e Development 13 Inc r e a s i n g the number of stages 13 Cog n i t i v e developmental domains 14 THE FACILITATION OF ADULT LEARNING 15 S e c u r i t y i n the Learning Environment 15 Safe t y and t r u s t 16 Importance of feedback 17 S e c u r i t y and A d u l t s ' I n d i v i d u a l Stages of L i f e and Experience 18 Stage of adulthood 19 V Career stage 19 Attending to Requirements Associated w i t h I n d i v i d u a l s ' C o g n i t i v e Developmental Levels 20 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Adult C o g n i t i v e Development 22 CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENTAL LEVELS AND THEIR PROMOTION 23 Behaviours C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Levels of Functioning 24 Concrete l e v e l 24 Abst r a c t l e v e l s 25 Promoting Higher Levels of Conceptual Fu n c t i o n i n g 25 R a i s i n g l e v e l s of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g 25 Ma i n t a i n i n g high l e v e l s of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g 27 LEVELS OF CONCEPTUAL FUNCTIONING AND CLINICAL SUPERVISORY SITUATIONS 28 Results of Studies of Conceptual L e v e l P a i r i n g s i n Supervisory S i t u a t i o n s 28 I m p l i c a t i o n s of Conceptual Levels f o r Glickman's (1985) Developmental Approach to Supe r v i s i o n 30 A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR FACILITATION OF LEARNING FOR HIGH CONCEPTUAL LEVEL TEACHER SUPERVISEES 31 The Three Dimensions of the Conceptual Model 32 The F i r s t Stage of the Conceptual Model 33 The Second Stage of the Conceptual Model 33 The T h i r d Stage of the Conceptual Model 35 The Conceptual Model and Observable Behaviours 36 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 37 Question 1 Sub-question 1.1 37 Sub-question 1.2 38 Sub-question 1.3 38 v i Question 2 38 Question 3 39 SUMMARY 39 3. RESEARCH DESIGN 41 DATA COLLECTION 42 C o l l e c t i o n of Frequency Data 43 C o l l e c t i o n of T r a n s c r i p t i o n Data 49 DATA ANALYSIS 50 P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s 50 A n a l y s i s of Ex t r a c t e d T r a n s c r i p t i o n Data 50 OVERVIEW OF PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 51 4. RESULTS OF PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS 52 ANALYSIS OF FREQUENCY DATA 52 Teacher's Comfort and Confidence 52 Dyad #1 teacher's comfort and confidence 53 Dyad #2 teacher's comfort and confidence 56 teacher's A c t i v e Involvement 62 Dyad II teacher's a c t i v e involvement 63 Duad #2 teacher's a c t i v e involvement 68 Teacher's Autonomous Behaviour 72 Dyad #1 teacher's autonomous behaviour 73 Dyad #2 teacher's autonomous behaviour 76 Concluding Comments Regarding the A n a l y s i s of Frequency Data 76 PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF TRANSCRIPTION DATA 80 Dyad #1 Time Management Concerns 81 Dyad #1 pre-workshop conference 82 Dyad #1 post-workshop conference 84 Dyad #2 Time Management Concerns 86 v i i Dyad #2 pre-workshop conference 86 Dyad #2 post-workshop conference 88 Concluding Comments Regarding Time Management Concerns 89 SUMMARY 90 5. TEACHER'S COMFORT AND CONFIDENCE 93 DYAD #1: TEACHER'S COMFORT AND CONFIDENCE 95 Teacher's Comfort and Confidence i n Pre-Workshop Conference 95 P o s i t i v e , i n t e r e s t e d , and hopeful a t t i t u d e 95 Open and t r u s t i n g a t t i t u d e 98 Teacher's Comfort and Confidence i n Post-Workshop Conference 100 P o s i t i v e , i n t e r e s t e d , and hopeful a t t i t u d e 101 Open and t r u s t i n g a t t i t u d e 103 Summary of Dyad #1 Teacher's Comfort and Confidence 105 DYAD #2: TEACHER'S COMFORT AND CONFIDENCE 106 Teacher's Comfort and Confidence i n Pre-Workshop Conference 106 P o s i t i v e , i n t e r e s t e d , and hopeful a t t i t u d e 107 Open and t r u s t i n g a t t i t u d e 110 Teacher's Comfort and Confidence i n Post-Workshop Conference 112 I n i t i a l i n t e r e s t e d , h o peful, and open a t t i t u d e 113 Decline i n i n t e r e s t e d and hopeful a t t i t u d e 115 Summary of Dyad #2 Teacher's Confort and Confidence 117 High l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g 117 Some in a p p r o p r i a t e support 118 Reguirment f o r two forms of support 118 BETWEEN DYAD COMPARISON OF TEACHERS' COMFORT AND CONFIDENCE 119 v i i i High L e v e l of Conceptual F u n c t i o n i n g 120 A d a p t a b i l i t y 120 Sel f - c o n f i d e n c e 121 P r i n c i p a l ' s Supportive Behaviours 122 Environmental S e c u r i t y 122 Support f o r HCL f u n c t i o n i n g 123 SUMMARY 124 6. TEACHERS' ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT 126 DYAD #1: TEACHER'S ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT 128 A c t i v e Involvement i n Dyad #1 Pre-Workshop Conference 129 Relates p r i n c i p a l ' s observations t o own pers p e c t i v e of events 130 Ap p l i e s own ideas 133 A c t i v e Involvement i n Dyad #1 Post-Workshop Conference 134 Relates p r i n c i p a l ' s observations t o own pers p e c t i v e of events 134 Ap p l i e s own ideas 137 Summary of Dyad #1 Teacher's A c t i v e Involvement 139 P r i n c i p a l ' s "reading" and f l e x i n g " t o challenge 140 Teacher's high l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g 141 C o l l a b o r a t i v e s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p 142 DYAD #2: TEACHER'S ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT 143 Ac t i v e Involvement i n Dyad #2 Pre-Workshop Conference 143 Relates p r i n c i p a l ' s observations to own perspec t i v e of events 144 Ap p l i e s own ideas 146 Ac t i v e Involvement i n Dyad #2 Post-Workshop Conference 148 Summary of Dyad #2 Teacher's A c t i v e Involvement 152 ix Teacher's high l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g 152 P r i n c i p a l ' s "reading" and f l e x i n g " t o challenge 153 Lack of c o l l a b o r a t i o n 154 BETWEEN-DYAD COMPARISON OP TEACHERS' ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT 154 SUMMARY 157 7. TEACHERS' AUTONOMOUS BEHAVIOUR 159 DYAD #1: TEACHER'S AUTONOMOUS BEHAVIOUR 160 Teacher's Autonomous Behaviour i n Problem S o l v i n g During Conferences 162 Evidence of Previous Autonomous Problem S o l v i n g A p p l i c a t i o n 163 Summary of Dyad #1 Teacher's Autonomous Behaviour 165 DYAD #2: TEACHER'S AUTONOMOUS BEHAVIOUR 166 Teacher's Autonomous Behaviour i n Problem S o l v i n g During Conferences 166 Evidence of Previous Autonomous Problem S o l v i n g A p p l i c a t i o n 167 Summary of Dyad #2 Teacher's Autonomous Behaviour 168 BETWEEN-DYAD COMPARISON OP TEACHERS' AUTONOMOUS BEHAVIOUR 168 Factors Associated w i t h S c a r c i t y of Autonomous Behaviour 169 Previous A p p l i c a t i o n of Autonomous Behaviour f o r Problem S o l v i n g 170 SUMMARY 171 8. ASSOCIATION OP TEACHERS' RESPONSES WITH FACTORS OTHER THAN THE PRINCIPAL'S CONCEPTUAL LEVEL 173 PRINCIPAL'S SUPERVISORY EXPERIENCE 173 P r i n c i p a l ' s Requirement of Struc t u r e d Conference Plan 174 X Dyad #1 p r i n c i p a l ' s requirements f o r s t r u c t u r e 174 Dyad 12 p r i n c i p a l ' s requirements f o r s t r u c t u r e 175 Comparison of p r i n c i p a l s ' requirements f o r s t r u c t u r e 176 A b i l i t y t o Observe and Report S p e c i f i c D e t a i l s 177 PRINCIPAL'S PRESENTATION OF CANDID PICTURES OF EVENTS 178 Dyad #1: P r i n c i p a l ' s P r e s e n t a t i o n of Candid P i c t u r e s of Events 178 Dyad #2: P r i n c i p a l ' s P r e s e n t a t i o n of Candid P i c t u r e s of Events 179 MEASURED CONCEPTUAL LEVEL VERSUS FUNCTIONAL CONCEPTUAL LEVEL IN THE SUPERVISORY ROLE 180 Dyad #1: P r i n c i p a l ' s Measured vs. F u n c t i o n a l Conceptual Levels 181 Dyad #1: P r i n c i p a l ' s Measured vs. F u n c t i o n a l Conceptual Levels 182 THE DURATION OF THE DYAD'S SUPERVISORY RELATIONSHIP 185 Time f o r Learning How conferences Can Become B e n e f i c i a l 186 B u i l d i n g Mutual Understanding 188 THE TEACHER'S HIGH LEVEL OF CONCEPTUAL FUNCTIONING 189 Dyad #1: " P u l l i n g " of P r i n c i p a l ' s Development i n Supervisory Role 191 Dyad #2: " P u l l i n g " of P r i n c i p a l ' s Development i n Supervisory Role 194 SUMMARY 196 9. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS 199 SUMMARY 199 Findi n g s of Frequency Data A n a l y s i s 202 Teacher's comfort and confidence 202 Teacher's a c t i v e involvement Teacher's autonomous behaviour Fi n d i n g s of T r a n s c r i p t i o n Data A n a l y s i s Teacher's comfort and confidence Teacher's a c t i v e involvement Teacher's autonomous behaviour CONCLUSIONS Findings of the Study i n Comparison to Those of Previous Research Favourable c o n d i t i o n s f o r HCL teacher development Fact o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h favourable c o n d i t i o n s f o r HCL teachers' development Extensions t o Glickman's model of developmental s u p e r v i s i o n Summary of Substantive Conclusions A p p l i c a b i l i t y of Conceptual Model and Data C o l l e c t i o n Methods IMPLICATIONS I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Purposes of Further Research P r i n c i p a l ' s l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g Teacher's HCL and the d u r a t i o n of the su p e r v i s o r y conference Teacher/teacher dyads The nature of HCL teachers' o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a c t i v e involvement and autonomous behaviour I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Further Use of the Conceptual Model I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P r a c t i c e REFERENCES APPENDIX A. RECORDING INSTRUMENTS FOR TEACHER'S RESPONSES AND PRINCIPAL'S BEHAVIOURS x i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE 4.1 NUMBER OF DYADIC INTERACTIONS IN SUPERVISORY CONFERENCES 53 4.2 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 1 RESPONSES BEHAVIOURS IN DYAD #1 PRE-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE 55 4.3 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 1 RESPONSES BEHAVIOURS IN DYAD #1 POST-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE 57 4.4 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 1 RESPONSES BEHAVIOURS IN DYAD #2 PRE-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE 59 4.5 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 1 RESPONSES BEHAVIOURS IN DYAD #2 POST-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE 61 4.6 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 2 RESPONSES BEHAVIOURS IN DYAD I I PRE-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE 64 4.7 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 2 RESPONSES BEHAVIOURS IN DYAD #1 POST-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE 67 4.8 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 2 RESPONSES BEHAVIOURS IN DYAD #2 PRE-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE 69 4.9 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 2 RESPONSES BEHAVIOURS IN DYAD «2 POST-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE 70 4.10 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 3 RESPONSES BEHAVIOURS IN DYAD #1 PRE-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE 74 4.11 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 3 RESPONSES BEHAVIOURS IN DYAD #1 POST-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE 75 4.12 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 3 RESPONSES BEHAVIOURS IN DYAD #2 PRE-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE 77 4.13 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 3 RESPONSES BEHAVIOURS IN DYAD #2 POST-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE 78 x i i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1 CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR FACILITATION OF DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH CONCEPTUAL LEVEL TEACHER SUPERVISEES 34 9.1 REVISED CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR FACILITATION OF DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH CONCEPTUAL LEVEL TEACHER SUPERVISEES 213 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study was made p o s s i b l e by the ge n e r o s i t y of Dr. Peter Grimmett and Dr. P a t r i c i a Crehan, who gave me access t o data c o l l e c t e d during t h e i r own previous study. Their kind o f f e r to lend me s u p e r v i s i o n conference videotapes and st i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t i o n s provided the i n i t i a l encouragement t o proceed. Four f a c u l t y members a s s i s t e d my progress en route. Every step was accompanied by inestimable i n s p i r a t i o n and encouragement from my research s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. P a t r i c i a Crehan. I express my deepest a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r her e n t h u s i a s t i c r e c e p t i o n of my ideas, her keen c r i t i c a l eye, and her generous donations of time on my behalf. I extend g r a t i t u d e , a l s o , to the other two members of my s u p e r v i s o r y committee: Dr. Jean H i l l s , whose sharp sense of conceptual c l a r i t y and l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y kept me on my toes; and Dr. Peter Grimmett, whose knowledge of s u p e r v i s i o n and astute understanding of my purpose kept me on t r a c k . To Dr. Ian Housego, I owe thanks f o r not only the time he c o n t r i b u t e d as fo u r t h examiner, but a l s o the kind support and wise counsel he provided i n h i s e a r l i e r r o l e as my graduate programme a d v i s e r . F i n a l l y , I have pleasure i n acknowledging the debts of g r a t i t u d e I owe both to Nancy Horsman, c o u n s e l l o r i n the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Women Students' O f f i c e , f o r encouraging my f i r s t and subsequent re t u r n s to u n i v e r s i t y , and to my husband and two sons f o r t h e i r patience and support. 1 Chapter 1 BACKGROUND, PURPOSE, AND RATIONALE This study o r i g i n a t e d from a c u r i o s i t y about whether s u p e r v i s o r y conferences have value, and i f so, what c o n d i t i o n s might determine t h e i r value as l e a r n i n g experiences f o r su p e r i o r or p o t e n t i a l l y s u p e r i o r teachers. Because t h i s c u r i o s i t y was evoked by an i n t e r e s t i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i a t i o n s i n s u p e r v i s i n g p r i n c i p a l s ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and v a r i a t i o n s i n teachers' l e a r n i n g , the s u p e r v i s o r y conference was conceptualized as a s p e c i a l case of a d u l t l e a r n i n g which could guide d e c i s i o n s about what t o observe when e x p l o r i n g these r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The background f o r t h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i s drawn from t h e o r i e s of developmental l e a r n i n g and the s u p e r v i s i o n of teaching. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY I n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of l e a r n i n g experiences f o r a d u l t s has been recommended by researchers such as Rogers (1977) and Thornton (1986). The d e s i r a b i l i t y of teacher educators m i r r o r i n g , i n t h e i r work w i t h teachers, i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n s i m i l a r to th a t which the teachers i d e a l l y employ with t h e i r p u p i l s has been advocated by others such as McNergney (1980), Glickman (1985), and G l a t t h o r n (1984). In a d i s c u s s i o n of research r e s u l t s , Rogers (1977) revealed s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n requirements f o r s u c c e s s f u l a d u l t l e a r n i n g ; f o r example, the i n v i t a t i o n t o l e a r n should be geared t o the a d u l t ' s own p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i n t e r e s t s ; the pace of l e a r n i n g should be i n d i v i d u a l l y adjusted; and 2 knowledge of the r e s u l t s of an a d u l t ' s l e a r n i n g should be provided promptly. The r e s u l t s of Thibodeau's (1980) e m p i r i c a l study enabled her t o suggest not only t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n a l approach and content should have relevance to an a d u l t ' s i n d i v i d u a l s o c i a l and career g o a l s , but a l s o t h a t course p r e s e n t a t i o n should match the a d u l t ' s i n d i v i d u a l c o g n i t i v e l e v e l . Suggestions regarding the i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of teacher education w i t h respect t o c o g n i t i v e developmental l e v e l s have been based on Loevinger's model of ego development ( W i t h e r e l l and E r i c k s o n , 1978) and ( S p r i n t h a l l and T h i e s - S p r i n t h a l l , 1983), and on both Hunt's model of conceptual development and Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning development ( S p r i n t h a l l and T h i e s - S p r i n t h a l l , 1983). Hunt's conceptual l e v e l model seems t o be u s e f u l i n teacher education because i t suggests not only the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of teachers and p u p i l s f u n c t i o n i n g at each l e v e l , but a l s o the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t teachers who f u n c t i o n at high conceptual l e v e l s are more capable, i n comparison to t h e i r low conceptual counterparts, of producing the behaviours t h a t seem to c h a r a c t e r i z e e f f e c t i v e teaching. Glickman (1985) and G l a t t h o r n (1984) have suggested i n s t r u c t i o n a l s u p e r v i s i o n models th a t attempt t o accommodate the conceptual development l e v e l s of i n d i v i d u a l supervisees i n s u p e r v i s i o n conferences. Other resea r c h e r s , such as Grimmett and Housego (1983) and S p r i n t h a l l (1980), have incorporated Hunt's model of conceptual systems i n the frameworks they used t o study the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s u p e r v i s o r s ' conceptual l e v e l s and t h e i r a b i l i t y to provide i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s u p e r v i s i o n f o r teachers. However, there seems to be l i t t l e i n the research t o i n d i c a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u p e r v i s i n g p r i n c i p a l s ' conceptual l e v e l s and i n s e r v i c e teachers' l e a r n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y f o r those teachers 3 vho are capable of f u n c t i o n i n g a t a high conceptual l e v e l . The purpose of the present study addresses t h i s lacuna. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY High conceptual l e v e l (HCL) teachers' responses during s u p e r v i s o r y conferences were the main focus of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s study. The i n t e n t i o n was t o examine whether the responses matched those which research l i t e r a t u r e suggests would be apparent under i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r HCL teachers t o f u n c t i o n a t th a t l e v e l . The secondary focus of i n v e s t i g a t i o n was on the s u p e r v i s i n g p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours i n order to f a c i l i t a t e examination of connections between these and the teachers' responses. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the study attempted t o f i n d evidence of: (1) whether high conceptual l e v e l teachers' responses during s u p e r v i s o r y conferences appear to be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the conceptual l e v e l of the s u p e r v i s i n g p r i n c i p a l ; and (2) whether high conceptual l e v e l teachers' responses during the s u p e r v i s o r y conference appear to be ass o c i a t e d w i t h f a c t o r s other than the p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l . In keeping w i t h the purpose of t h i s study, two HCL teachers were chosen as the supervised s u b j e c t s . To f a c i l i t a t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n of whether or not the high conceptual l e v e l teachers' responses appeared to be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s u p e r v i s i n g p r i n c i p a l s ' conceptual l e v e l s , one low conceptual l e v e l (LCD p r i n c i p a l and one moderately high l e v e l (M/HGL) p r i n c i p a l were chosen as the s u p e r v i s o r s . The M/HCL p r i n c i p a l was chosen because no high conceptual l e v e l teacher/high conceptual l e v e l p r i n c i p a l p a i r i n g was a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s study. 4 RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY Conscientious teachers worry c o n s i d e r a b l y about maintaining b r i g h t p u p i l s ' or i d e n t i f i e d high I.Q. p u p i l s ' a b i l i t i e s and become very concerned about those who seem t o be performing below t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i n s c h o o l . In such cases, the teachers give much a t t e n t i o n t o questions of how to a d j u s t t h e i r teaching methods to improve the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n f o r these p u p i l s . Teachers b e l i e v e t h a t when a t a l e n t f o r any area of l e a r n i n g i s d i s p l a y e d by a p u p i l , t h a t t a l e n t should be c a r e f u l l y nurtured. Such a t t e n t i o n to the t a l e n t e d or g i f t e d p u p i l has been only one of many kinds of a t t e n t i o n t o p u p i l s ' p o t e n t i a l and to s p e c i a l i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g requirements of c h i l d r e n . Host teachers of a d u l t s r e a l i z e the importance of a t t e n d i n g t o a d u l t s ' i n d i v i d u a l requirements, but, u n t i l r e c e n t l y , teacher educators recognized only the i n d i v i d u a l requirements that a r i s e from teachers' content area s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s and ignored those i n d i v i d u a l requirements t h a t a r i s e from teachers' personal d i f f e r e n c e s (McNergney, 1980). This i m p l i e s t h a t , i n teacher education, s u p e r i o r or p o t e n t i a l l y s u p e r i o r teachers have been t r e a t e d e x a c t l y l i k e any others. McNergney (1980), Glickman (1985) and G l a t t h o r n (1984) have suggested t h a t i n d i v i d u a l e d u c a t i o n a l approaches to i n s e r v i c e teacher education are long overdue. I t i s apparent t h a t conceptual l e v e l might be used as a c r i t e r i o n f o r judgement of a teacher's p o t e n t i a l . According t o Hunt's theory, high conceptual l e v e l teachers are those most l i k e l y t o adapt r e a d i l y and s u c c e s s f u l l y t o the m u l t i p l i c i t y of events and p u p i l d i f f e r e n c e s that are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n the classroom environment. Thus, because t h i s adaptive behaviour has been suggested as an important f a c t o r i n 5 e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g , c o n s c i e n t i o u s teacher educators might be persuaded of the importance of aiming to develop and/or maintain high l e v e l s of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g i n i n s e r v i c e teachers. Glickman (1985) p o i n t s out t h a t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , the high conceptual l e v e l teacher i s a rare species and t h a t , a l s o , i f teachers who have the c a p a b i l i t y of f u n c t i o n i n g a t a high conceptual l e v e l are not encouraged to do so, t h e i r high l e v e l s may not be maintained. I t seems t h a t teacher educators have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o save the high conceptual l e v e l teacher from becoming an endangered s p e c i e s . In i n s e r v i c e teacher education, the s u p e r v i s i o n conference can o f f e r the opp o r t u n i t y f o r a teacher to r e c e i v e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d help f o r l e a r n i n g . Because the a d u l t l e a r n i n g l i t e r a t u r e has suggested t h a t a d u l t s l e a r n best i n s i t u a t i o n s wherein a t t e n t i o n i s paid t o the unique set of needs of the l e a r n e r , i t seems important t o i n v e s t i g a t e whether or not teachers' responses and p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours i n d i c a t e t h a t the oppo r t u n i t y i s being taken during s u p e r v i s i o n conferences to attend t o teachers' i n d i v i d u a l requirements as a d u l t l e a r n e r s . The i n c l u s i o n of a d u l t l e a r n i n g theory s p e c i f i c t o f a c i l i t a t i o n of a d u l t c o g n i t i v e development represents the major d i f f e r e n c e between the t h e o r e t i c a l base and design of t h i s s u p e r v i s i o n study and t h a t of Thies-S p r i n t h a l l (1980). One of the purposes of the T h i e s - S p r i n t h a l l study, t h a t i s , "to i n v e s t i g a t e the impact of s u p e r v i s i o n upon the student teachers" (1980:17), i s s i m i l a r t o the f i r s t purpose of t h i s study. T h i e s - S p r i n t h a l l ' s r e s u l t s suggested t h a t f o r a student teacher the a v a i l a b i l i t y of an opportunity t o l e a r n may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the conceptual l e v e l of h i s / h e r s u p e r v i s i n g teacher, and that a high conceptual l e v e l student teacher may s u f f e r a miseducative experience 6 when mismatched with a low conceptual l e v e l s u p e r v i s i n g teacher. Because T h i e s - S p r i n t h a l l (1980:19) a l s o suggested t h a t her r e s u l t s " i n d i c a t e t h a t student teacher and s u p e r v i s o r i n t e r a c t i o n may p a r a l l e l the t e a c h e r - p u p i l i n t e r a c t i o n s t u d i e s of Hunt (1971)", i t seems important to i n v e s t i g a t e whether or not the same holds t r u e f o r s u p e r v i s i n g p r i n c i p a l and teacher i n t e r a c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of the high conceptual l e v e l teacher. However, a d u l t l e a r n i n g theory suggests t h a t important d i f f e r e n c e s may e x i s t between the i n s e r v i c e teacher as an a d u l t l e a r n e r and both the student teacher and the school p u p i l , who as l e a r n e r s are s t i l l s o c i a l i z e d t o the conventions of formal l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s . Thus, f o r t h i s study, those aspects of a d u l t l e a r n i n g theory which address f a c i l i t a t i o n of a d u l t c o g n i t i v e development were combined with Hunt's conceptual development theory t o provide a t h e o r e t i c a l base which d i f f e r s from t h a t of the T h i e s - S p r i n t h a l l (1980) study which combined Kohlberg's and Rest's moral judgement development theory w i t h Hunt's theory. Although T h i e s - S p r i n t h a l l d i d not do so, Grimmett and Housego (1983) d i d study p r i n c i p a l / t e a c h e r dyads. Grimmett and Housego observed s y s t e m a t i c a l l y the i n t e r a c t i o n s of s u p e r v i s i n g p r i n c i p a l s and teachers i n s u p e r v i s o r y conferences and found evidence to suggest t h a t " e f f e c t i v e ... i n s t r u c t i o n a l s u p e r v i s i o n may r e q u i r e s u p e r v i s o r s who are capable of f u n c t i o n i n g at a high conceptual l e v e l " (1983:5). However, i n the Grimmett and Housego study, high conceptual l e v e l p r i n c i p a l s were pa i r e d only w i t h high conceptual l e v e l t e achers, and the researchers suggested t h a t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n was needed t o help determine how the conceptual l e v e l s of teacher supervisees themselves might i n f l u e n c e the outcomes of s u p e r v i s i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h i s study w i l l examine not only 7 whether high conceptual l e v e l teachers' responses are d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s u p e r v i s i n g p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l , but a l s o whether they are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a c t o r s other than the p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l . S i l v e r (1975:63) suggested t h a t the f i n d i n g s of her study i n d i c a t e d t h a t " p r i n c i p a l s w i t h more complex c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s would be capable ... of r e c o g n i z i n g i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and acknowledging i n d i v i d u a l requirements d e s p i t e h i g h l y d i v e r s i f i e d s t a f f " . This a s s e r t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t a high conceptual l e v e l p r i n c i p a l would be more l i k e l y than a low conceptual l e v e l p r i n c i p a l t o perceive c o r r e c t l y and adapt t o the p a r t i c u l a r requirements of i n d i v i d u a l teachers; i . e . , to supervise teachers as a d u l t s . Thus, S i l v e r ' s r e s u l t s seem t o add support t o the importance of e x p l o r i n g whether or not high conceptual l e v e l teacher supervisees' responses, during s u p e r v i s i o n conferences, seem t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the conceptual l e v e l of the s u p e r v i s i n g p r i n c i p a l . LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The major l i m i t a t i o n s of the study stem from the f a c t t h a t the sample of s u p e r v i s o r s , teachers, and conferences was small and not randomly s e l e c t e d . As i s common i n t h i s type of research, the sub j e c t s were v o l u n t e e r s , and thus t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and behaviours i n the su p e r v i s o r y conference may not be completely t y p i c a l of a l l those who might f i n d themselves i n s i m i l a r circumstances. Furthermore, no attempt was made t o c o n t r o l the co n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s such as type of school and grade l e v e l i n order t o standardize the task environment i n which the 8 s u p e r v i s i o n experience took p l a c e . Thus, without the c o n f i r m a t i o n o£ f u r t h e r r esearch, the r e s u l t s of t h i s study cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d w i t h c e r t a i n t y t o any population of p r i n c i p a l / t e a c h e r dyads. For the same reason, and a l s o because the h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n p r i n c i p a l / t e a c h e r s u p e r v i s i o n d i f f e r s from t h a t In e i t h e r p r e s e r v i c e s u p e r v i s i o n or peer s u p e r v i s i o n , the r e s u l t s cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d w i t h c e r t a i n t y to any popu l a t i o n of p r e s e r v i c e dyads or dyads i n v o l v i n g peer-s u p e r v i s i o n . OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY A d e s c r i p t i o n of the study i s presented i n chapters two to nine. Chapter 2 contains a review of the research l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o a d u l t l e a r n i n g and t o l e v e l s of conceptual development. The informa t i o n contained i n the review r e v e a l s d e f i n i t i o n s of terms t o be used l n the present study, and a l s o serves as the b a s i s f o r the formation of a conceptual framework t h a t guides the methods of both data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s . The chapter concludes w i t h the research questions. Chapter 3 begins w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of data sources and an expl a n a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the conceptual framework and the data t o be c o l l e c t e d . This i s followed by a d e s c r i p t i o n of the data c o l l e c t i o n methods. F i n a l l y , an e x p l a n a t i o n of f i v e phases of data a n a l y s i s i s provided. D i s c u s s i o n and f i n d i n g s of the f i v e phases of the data a n a l y s i s are presented l n chapters four t o e i g h t . Chapter 9 begins w i t h a summary, followed by some conclusions and i m p l i c a t i o n s of the present study f o r i n s e r v i c e education of high conceptual l e v e l teachers. 9 Chapter 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE This review w i l l c o n t a i n a d i s c u s s i o n of research l i t e r a t u r e based on t h e o r i e s of a d u l t l e a r n i n g and t h e o r i e s of conceptual development, the two t o p i c s t h a t form the cornerstones of the conceptual model and research questions developed f o r the present study. To f a c i l i t a t e d i s c u s s i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e , and of the development of the conceptual model and research questions, the contents of t h i s chapter w i l l be presented i n seven s e c t i o n s : (1) a d e f i n i t i o n of a d u l t l e a r n i n g ; (2) development of t h e o r i e s of a d u l t l e a r n i n g ; (3) important f a c t o r s i n the f a c i l i t a t i o n of a d u l t l e a r n i n g ; (4) conceptual l e v e l s and t h e i r promotion and maintenance; (5) the relevance of conceptual l e v e l s to c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n ; (6) a conceptual model f o r the present study; and (7) the research questions. TOWARD A DEFINITION OF ADULT LEARNING Because the i n i t i a l purpose of the l i t e r a t u r e review i s t o d i s c u s s the research which has i n d i c a t e d t h a t a d u l t l e a r n i n g i s p o s s i b l e and under what c o n d i t i o n s i t i s p o s s i b l e , i t seems necessary at t h i s p o i n t t o d e s c r i b e and j u s t i f y the d e f i n i t i o n of a d u l t l e a r n i n g t h a t w i l l be used. For t h i s purpose, two strands of t h e o r i e s that have guided a d u l t l e a r n i n g s t u d i e s w i l l be compared t o r e v e a l which one has relevance f o r the present study and, t h e r e f o r e , can suggest a p e r t i n e n t d e f i n i t i o n of a d u l t l e a r n i n g . 10 Brabeck (1984:12) i n d i c a t e s t h a t there are two s e t s of t h e o r i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t u d i e s of a d u l t l e a r n i n g : (1) " t h e o r i e s of aging", i . e . , t h e o r i e s about age-related changes i n a d u l t s ' c a p a c i t y t o l e a r n ; and (2) " t h e o r i e s of growth", i . e . , t h e o r i e s about s e q u e n t i a l changes i n the development of a d u l t s ' c a p a c i t y t o engage i n more a b s t r a c t reasoning. Long (1983) e x p l a i n s t h a t e a r l y t h e o r i e s of aging suggested a negative r e l a t i o n s h i p between age and a d u l t s ' c a p a c i t y t o l e a r n . He s t a t e s t h a t they prompted many s t u d i e s and a long debate which seems to be concluding t h a t the e a r l y t h e o r i e s were i n c o r r e c t . Studies t h a t caused them t o doubt the t h e o r i e s of aging suggested to B a l t e s and Schaie a concept of " p l a s t i c i t y " i n a d u l t c o g n i t i o n ; t h a t i s , a c a p a b i l i t y t o develop new a b i l i t i e s and t o improve o l d ones ( S p r i n t h a l l and T h i e s - S p r i n t h a l l , 1983:23). B a l t e s and Schaie hypothesized t h a t given appropriate l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s a d u l t s can increase t h e i r l e v e l s of c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g . S p r i n t h a l l and T h i e s - S p r i n t h a l l (1983) re p o r t a l s o t h a t whereas previous p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s such as those of Skinner have f a i l e d t o provide t h e o r i e s of a d u l t growth, the c o g n i t i v e developmental t h e o r i e s have o f f e r e d promise. Furthermore, c o g n i t i v e developmental t h e o r i e s provide the advantage of o f f e r i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s of d i f f e r e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s under which i n d i v i d u a l s who f u n c t i o n at the v a r i o u s l e v e l s may improve t h e i r l e v e l s of f u n c t i o n i n g . Thus, because s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a d u l t c o g n i t i v e development theory suggest the usefulness of i n v e s t i g a t i n g a d u l t l e a r n i n g as a d u l t c o g n i t i v e development, the type of a d u l t l e a r n i n g t h a t i s of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study i s growth i n an a d u l t ' s l e v e l of c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g . On the b a s i s of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , the purpose of the remainder of the a d u l t l e a r n i n g l i t e r a t u r e review i s t o examine the 11 research s t u d i e s which have suggested t h a t a d u l t l e a r n i n g as c o g n i t i v e development can indeed occur. The terms "adult l e a r n i n g " and "adult c o g n i t i v e development" w i l l be used synonymously. RESEARCH AND THEORIES OF ADULT LEARNING U n t i l the 1960s, s t u d i e s of a d u l t c o g n i t i v e development were d i s a p p o i n t i n g i n th a t they were unable t o o f f e r evidence of i t s occurrence. Instead, they suggested t h a t c o g n i t i v e development was l i m i t e d t o progression during youth and adolescence and t o r e g r e s s i o n d u r i n g o l d age (Allman, 1980). However, during the 1960's, renewed i n t e r e s t i n t h e o r i e s of c o g n i t i v e developmental stages r e s u l t e d i n adaptations t h a t o f f e r e d more promising suggestions about a d u l t s ' l e a r n i n g (Allman,1980). Toward Recognition of Adult C o g n i t i v e Development Pia g e t ' s research on c o g n i t i v e development i n c h i l d r e n prompted a considerable number of childhood c o g n i t i o n s t u d i e s (Long, HcCrary, and Ackermman, 1980). The r e s u l t s of Pi a g e t ' s and h i s a s s o c i a t e s ' extensive e m p i r i c a l research suggested t h a t c o g n i t i v e development i n v o l v e s progression through a h i e r a r c h y of stages, and th a t movement from one stage t o the next represents a s h i f t toward attainment of a more complex system f o r processing experience (Long e t a l . , 1980). Piaget proposed t h a t c h i l d r e n progress through four h i e r a r c h i c a l stages of c o g n i t i v e development, and t h a t the l a s t of these stages i s a t t a i n e d between the ages of 12 and 15 years. He thereby suggested e a r l y adolescence as the 12 f i n a l p e r i o d of c o g n i t i v e growth (Piaget and Inhelder, 1969). Pia g e t named t h i s f o u r t h stage the formal operations stage, and c h a r a c t e r i z e d i t as i n v o l v i n g the development of a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s . The formal operations stage was considered by Piag e t t o be not only a f i n a l stage, but a l s o a stage that was maintained throughout adulthood (Long et a l . , 1980). I n t e r e s t i n the relevance of Pi a g e t ' s theory t o a d u l t c o g n i t i v e development seems t o have evolved f o r two separate reasons: f i r s t , many a d u l t l e a r n i n g researchers had l o s t f a i t h i n the a b i l i t y of other t h e o r i e s t o provide a theory f o r a d u l t l e a r n i n g and b e l i e v e d t h a t P i a g e t ' s theory o f f e r e d greater promise f o r t h i s purpose (Long e t a l . , 1980); and second, some P i a g e t i a n researchers' observations caused them to question whether the stage of formal operations was a t t a i n e d by a l l adolescents and whether or not t h i s f o u r t h stage remained s t a b l e throughout adulthood. However, according t o Long (1980), i t was not u n t i l 1972 t h a t Piaget conceded t h a t f o r some people the c o n d i t i o n s f o r formal thought may not develop u n t i l 20 years of age, and t h a t under disadvantaged c o n d i t i o n s , they may never develop a t a l l . P i a g e t a l s o suggested t h a t a person may reach the f o u r t h stage i n d i f f e r e n t areas of t h i n k i n g a t d i f f e r e n t times (Long e t a l . , 1980). Piaget advocated research i n t o the formal operations stage i n adulthood so th a t a d u l t education could be designed t o f o s t e r growth t h a t would enable a d u l t s t o f u n c t i o n a t t h i s stage ( S p r i n t h a l l and S p r i n t h a l l , 1983). Thibodeau's s t u d i e s suggest t h a t a d u l t s advance to the formal operations stage when the task i s "rel e v a n t t o the developmental needs of the l e a r n e r " (1980:29). Some research s t u d i e s 13 have found evidence of regression i n adults toward the t h i r d Piagetian stage; that i s , the stage of concrete operations (Long et a l . , 1980). Theories of Adult Cognitive Development This sub-section w i l l include descriptions of two sets of suggestions that have resulted from research on the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of Piaget's theory to adult learning: (1) the necessity of increasing the number of stages i n order to accommodate adequately description of adult cognitive development; and (2) the existence of several domains of cognitive development that extend into adulthood. Increasing the number of stages. Long and Hirza (1980:21) suggest that continued studies along Piagetian l i n e s have led researchers to suggest that the formal operations stage i s "...overly gross and requires refinement." Long and Mirza propose that the formal operations stage should be conceived of as involving several levels of abstract thinking. They suggest that adult education should pay attention to the p o s s i b i l i t y of there being q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t levels within the formal operations stage. In her studies, Mirza (1975) i d e n t i f i e d four such l e v e l s . She also suggested that although a minority of adults were found to be at either the concrete stages or the lower levels of the formal operations stages, the number contained i n t h i s minority was large enough to imply the d e s i r a b i l i t y of careful investigation into how adults can be helped to a t t a i n and maintain the higher stages. Both Brabeck (1984), and Long (1980) c i t e researchers who suggest that Piaget's theory should be expanded to include adult cognitive 14 developmental stages t h a t are more complex than the formal operations stage. Brabeck (1984:13) c i t e d researchers such as A r l i n (1975), F i s c h e r (1981), and Broughton (1980) who have proposed the e x i s t e n c e of l e v e l s of f u n c t i o n i n g t h a t are a t t a i n a b l e by a d u l t s and are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by "mature t h i n k i n g . . . i n c l u d e i n g ) r e f o r m u l a t i o n of complex problems"; "sy n t h e s i s of d i v e r s e and c o n f l i c t i n g a b s t r a c t systems"; and "complex views about the nature of knowing and of knowledge i t s e l f " . C o g n i t i v e developmental domains. In the t r a d i t i o n of P i a g e t , a number of s e q u e n t i a l developmental h i e r a r c h i e s have been proposed i n s e v e r a l domains of c o g n i t i v e development. These t h e o r e t i c a l models suggest t h a t development w i t h i n the v a r i o u s domains can take place during adulthood. Among the models are Kohlberg's (1969) theory of moral reasoning development; Loevinger's (1966) theory of ego development; and Hunt's (1974) theory of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g development ( c i t e d i n S p r i n t h a l l and T h i e s - S p r i n t h a l l , 1983). Brabeck (1984) de s c r i b e s Kitchener and King's (1981) model and instrument f o r measurement of r e f l e c t i v e judgement developmental l e v e l s , which she employed i n her study of a d u l t c o g n i t i v e development. She a l s o r e f e r s t o a number of other recent developmental t h e o r i e s and research models such as those of P e r r y (1970), Labouvie-Vief (1982) and Moshman and Timmons (1982). Research s t u d i e s employing P i a g e t ' s and others' t h e o r i e s of developmental stages extending i n t o adulthood have provided evidence th a t a d u l t s can l e a r n ; t h a t i s , they can a t t a i n higher l e v e l s of c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g . However, the evidence suggests t h a t the success of such a d u l t l e a r n i n g i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o n d i t i o n s under which i t i s attempted. A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of research on a d u l t l e a r n i n g has 15 i n v e s t i g a t e d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of environments t h a t s u c c e s s f u l l y f a c i l i t a t e a d u l t l e a r n i n g . THE FACILITATION OF ADULT LEARNING The purpose of t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o d i s c u s s the research l i t e r a t u r e on c o n d i t i o n s found t o be conducive t o a d u l t l e a r n i n g . These w i l l be presented i n three c a t e g o r i e s : (1) c o n d i t i o n s which support the a d u l t l e a r n e r s ' f e e l i n g s of comfort and confidence by ensuring s e c u r i t y i n the l e a r n i n g environment; (2) c o n d i t i o n s which support the a d u l t ' s l e a r n e r ' s f e e l i n g s of comfort and confidence by o f f e r i n g developmental o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t are r e l e v a n t t o the a d u l t l e a r n e r ' s i n d i v i d u a l stages of l i f e , c a r e e r , and experience; and (3) c o n d i t i o n s which f a c i l i t a t e improvement i n i n d i v i d u a l a d u l t l e a r n e r s ' l e v e l s of c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g . S e c u r i t y i n the Learning Environment The l i t e r a t u r e t o be discussed i n t h i s subsection w i l l be t h a t which has suggested how the l e a r n i n g environment can support the a d u l t l e a r n e r ' s f e e l i n g s of comfort and confidence. The d i s c u s s i o n w i l l i n c l u d e explanations of the n e c e s s i t y of p r o v i d i n g support f o r the l e a r n e r ' s f e e l i n g s of s a f e t y and t r u s t i n the l e a r n i n g environment; and the n e c e s s i t y of b o l s t e r i n g the l e a r n e r ' s confidence not only by supplying frequent, immediate, and p o s i t i v e feedback, but a l s o by a s s u r i n g that the l e a r n i n g experience has personal relevance f o r the l e a r n e r . 16 Safety and t r u s t . Most educators recognize that for any learner to accept the challenge inherent i n developmental change, interactions between teacher and learner should take place i n an environment that provides a sense of security for the learner. However, t h i s provision may be even more important for an adult learner than i t i s for a c h i l d . The basis of t h i s suggestion i s that under conditions of personal threat or stress, the learning performance of adults seems to be even more susceptible to the effects of anxiety than that of children (Long, 1983). Adults seem to find i t harder to overcome feelings of past f a i l u r e or to cope with test s i t u a t i o n s . Rogers (1977) states that adults have d i f f i c u l t y coping with the time l i m i t a t i o n s that younger learners can manage. She suggests t h i s may be because adults are more concerned with accuracy, or because they l i k e to take time to gather more information before making responses. Adults lose confidence i f they are unable to cope with the pace, and they benefit when they are able to set the i r own pace for learning and when the length of t r a i n i n g can be adjusted to s u i t t h e i r pacing requirements (Rogers, 1977). There also seem to be char a c t e r i s t i c s of adulthood that do not apply to childhood but which have the potential to increase stress i n learning s i t u a t i o n s . For instance, teachers probably view the learning of new ways to solve classroom problems as a threat to th e i r current routines, and as Lieberman and M i l l e r (1984:27) suggest "Changing a routine that has become comfortable over the years i s incredibly complicated." Because conditions i n the teacher's working environment may lower his/her morale (Lieberman and M i l l e r , 1984), the teacher's stress l e v e l w i l l possibly be increased i n situations i n which he/she i s required to learn new s k i l l s for his/her career. 17 Long (1983) i n d i c a t e s t h a t there are some f a c t o r s i n the i n s t r u c t o r / l e a r n e r r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t are more p e r t i n e n t f o r a d u l t l e a r n e r s than f o r c h i l d r e n . He s t a t e s t h a t a d u l t s need t o be able t o i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s and t o f i n d them competent i n both subj e c t matter and i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s . This seems to match the suggestion of Galloway, S e l t z e r , and W h i t f i e l d (1980) t h a t the a d u l t l e a r n e r needs to be able t o t r u s t and f i n d the i n s t r u c t o r c r e d i b l e . Furthermore, Galloway et a l . (1980:264) s t a t e t h a t f o r the a d u l t l e a r n e r "Trust and c r e d i b i l i t y depend on (the i n s t r u c t o r ' s ] accurate reponsiveness and acceptance." A t r u s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between a d u l t l e a r n e r and i n s t r u c t o r would seem to be a p r e c o n d i t i o n of the i n s t r u c t o r ' s o p p o r t u n i t y t o f o l l o w Roger's (1977) recommendation t h a t the a d u l t l e a r n e r be encouraged t o d i s c u s s and weigh h i s / h e r previous experience a g a i n s t new inf o r m a t i o n . Importance of feedback. Growth or maintenance of an a d u l t l e a r n e r ' s confidence i s r e l a t e d t o hi s / h e r p e r c e p t i o n of hi s / h e r previous performance and personal progress. Thornton (1986), Thibodeau (1980), and Rogers (1977) s t r e s s the importance of immediate feedback for a d u l t l e a r n e r s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a d u l t s t o know immediately whether or not t h e i r answers are c o r r e c t or t h e i r performances acceptable. Every opportunity t o provide p o s i t i v e feedback should be u t i l i z e d . I f negative feedback i s unavoidable, i t should be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the importance of development r a t h e r than with the di s g r a c e of d e f i c i t . 18 S e c u r i t y and A d u l t s ' I n d i v i d u a l Stages of L i f e and Experience S p r i n t h a l l and T h i e s - S p r i n t h a l l (1983:30) s t a t e t h a t "Any e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l model must o f f e r major personal support as a d i r e c t part of the i n s t r u c t i o n " because i t i s p a i n f u l f o r a d u l t s t o cope w i t h the change th a t accompanies development. In order t o minimize pain and maximize support, and thereby to promote s e c u r i t y , i t seems reasonable t o suggest t h a t the i n s t r u c t o r should demonstrate awareness and respect f o r the a d u l t l e a r n e r ' s i n d i v i d u a l l i f e stage, career stage, and experience by presenting a r e l e v a n t developmental task f o r the l e a r n e r . Rogers (1977) mentions t h a t the teacher of a d u l t s should not merely dispense inform a t i o n but instead should respect the a d u l t l e a r n e r ' s own d e c i s i o n s , experiences, and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Knowledge of the stage of an a d u l t ' s experience may not be h e l p f u l f o r r e c o g n i z i n g the a d u l t ' s l e a r n i n g requirements because these w i l l be dependent on how the a d u l t has processed h i s / h e r experiences. However, knowledge of the a d u l t ' s l i f e stage and career stage and the t y p i c a l accompanying a t t i t u d e s may be much more h e l p f u l . P i aget's l a t e r b e l i e f s included the suggestion t h a t formal operations may only be reached i n areas p e r t a i n i n g t o p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . Thibodeau (1980) found t h a t task achievement i s enhanced when a d u l t education i s based on career and developmental requirements. Consequently, she suggested t h a t both i n d i v i d u a l stages of experience and of c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g have important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the planning of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a l experiences (Thibodeau, 1980). 19 Stage of adulthood. Glickman (1985:48) discusses the successive concerns of adulthood. He suggests t h a t the young a d u l t i s concerned wit h "occupation and l i f e dreams"; the middle-aged a d u l t , " c r e a t i v e expansion"; and the older a d u l t , "establishment of inner order". He a l s o suggests t h a t i n t e r e s t s at each stage d i f f e r : the young a d u l t b e l i e v e s h i s / h e r dreams t o be a t t a i n a b l e and wishes t o s t r i v e towards them; the middle-aged a d u l t becomes more autonomous and concentrates on e s t a b l i s h i n g p r i o r i t i e s , re-examining s e l f , and r e v i s i n g plans; and the older a d u l t wishes t o focus on concluding important a c t i v i t i e s . Career stage. Thibodeau (1980) found t h a t before planning development ta s k s f o r an a d u l t , i t was important t o consider c a r e f u l l y both h i s / h e r stage of career development and l e v e l of c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of career stages p o s s i b l y have important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o n t i n u i n g career education. Por i n s t a n c e , Glickman (1985:55) s t a t e s t h a t the f i r s t three years of teaching tend t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by "high i d e a l s and e x p e c t a t i o n s " , and a f t e r the f i r s t three years many, but not a l l , teachers s e t t l e i n t o a r o u t i n e of monotonous procedures. The f i n a l years of teaching continue i n the same way f o r those who remain i n the p r o f e s s i o n . Glickman p o i n t s out t h a t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these stages are not congruent w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l i f e stages. Glickman (1985) discusses the concerns of teachers a t v a r i o u s career stages t h a t he suggests p a r a l l e l the ego development l e v e l s proposed by Loevinger and the moral reasoning l e v e l s proposed by Kohlberg. Thus, Glickman expresses a b e l i e f i n the relevance of s e v e r a l domains of c o g n i t i v e development t o teacher education. 20 Attending t o Requirements Associated w i t h I n d i v i d u a l s ' C o g n i t i v e  Developmental L e v e l s P i a g e t ' s theory of c o g n i t i v e development suggests t h a t a t the beginning of a l e a r n i n g experience, m a t e r i a l s and methods should be adapted t o the l e a r n e r ' s c u r r e n t l e v e l of c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g (Wadsworth, 1971). Thibodeau (1980) found t h a t a match between an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o g n i t i v e l e v e l and course p r e s e n t a t i o n were important f o r development. She a l s o cautioned t h a t a d u l t s operating a t formal o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l s should be given o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x e r c i s e t h i s l e v e l i f they are t o avoid r e g r e s s i o n t o the concrete stage (Thibodeau, 1980). However, Pi a g e t ' s theory of e q u i l i b r a t i o n , which complements h i s c o g n i t i v e developmental theory, suggests t h a t f o r growth i n c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g , course p r e s e n t a t i o n must be s l i g h t l y more complex than t h a t which matches the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c u r r e n t c o g n i t i v e l e v e l . The theory of e q u i l i b r a t i o n s t a t e s t h a t i f gradual and s e q u e n t i a l adjustments t o e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s and methods are designed t o challenge the l e a r n e r ' s c u r r e n t l e v e l of f u n c t i o n i n g , the l e a r n e r ' s d e s i r e t o recover e q u i l i b r i u m helps him/her t o begin f u n c t i o n i n g at the next more advanced stage of c o g n i t i v e development (Wadsworth, 1971). Suggestions about how developmental growth might be encouraged has a l s o been included i n the developmental models of s e v e r a l recent developmental t h e o r i s t s . As discussed above, recent researchers have proposed models of h i e r a c h i c a l stages i n a number of developmental domains such as ego development, moral reasoning development, r e f l e c t i v e judgment development, and conceptual development. From among these, Hunt's Conceptual L e v e l Theory seems t o o f f e r the c l e a r e s t d e s c r i p t i o n of how 21 growth i n a domain of developmental functioning can be helped. Hunt presents a Conceptual Level matching model wherein he suggests that an educator must take into account not only the environment that w i l l be ef f e c t i v e for a student's "contemporaneous1' conceptual stage, but also the environment that w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the student's progress toward a higher stage of functioning (Hunt and S u l l i v a n , 1975:49). The developmental stages i n Hunt's Conceptual Level theory "can be described in terms of increasing interpersonal maturity and increasing understanding of one's s e l f and others" (Hunt and Sullivan 1974:209). Oja and S p r i n t h a l l (1978) note that, i n addition, Hunt's conceptual stage theory suggests "more complexity i n processing information ... and a learning s t y l e requiring less structure". Hunt suggests that with regard to students' long term requirements, teachers should d i r e c t t h e i r e f f o r t s towards enabling students to reach the highest stage of conceptual development. Glickman's work on developmental supervision i s an example of attending to the requirements associated with a teacher's current l e v e l of cognitive functioning i n order to f a c i l i t a t e cognitive developmental growth. To help supervisors determine suitable approaches for individual supervisees, Glickman (1985) developed a typology that combined Hunt's conceptual l e v e l stages, Kohlberg's moral reasoning stages, and Loevinger's ego stages and thereby described some of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n the levels of cognitive functioning of teachers. Other researchers, including S p r i n t h a l l and Thies-Sprinthall (1983), have concentrated mainly on developmental requirements related to individuals' levels of conceptual functioning. 22 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r A d u l t C o g n i t i v e Development Research r e s u l t s appear t o have provided ample evidence t h a t , given s u i t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s , a d u l t s can improve t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l s of c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g . The c o n d i t i o n s t h a t support such improvement seem t o be those which are congruent w i t h the s e c u r i t y requirements of a d u l t l e a r n e r s and w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l requirements connected t o t h e i r l i f e s tages, career stages, and l e v e l s of c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g . When such c o n d i t i o n s are met, i t seems the a d u l t l e a r n e r i s b e t t e r prepared to cope w i t h the challenges inherent i n c o g n i t i v e development. Thornton (1986) s t a t e s t h a t the u l t i m a t e aim of a d u l t education should be attainment of s e l f - d i r e c t e d n e s s , which i s e s s e n t i a l to achievement of f u l l l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l and s e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n . Adults w i l l e x h i b i t autonomous behaviour i f l e a r n i n g helps them t o advance through the l e v e l s of Hunt's developmental model t o the highest stage, which he r e f e r s t o as the independent stage, or i f they have p r e v i o u s l y a t t a i n e d and maintained t h i s stage (Hunt and S u l l i v a n , 1974). Adults f u n c t i o n i n g a t the independent stage should be encouraged t o e x e r c i s e t h i s c a p a b i l i t y i n order t o maintain t h e i r high l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . W i t h e r e l l and E r i c k s o n (1978) used Loevinger's ego developmental model i n a study of i n s e r v i c e teacher education as a d u l t development. However, Hunt's conceptual developmental model seems to have been used more o f t e n than any other developmental model i n s t u d i e s of teacher education. This i s p o s s i b l y because the theory o f f e r s not only d e s c r i p t i o n s of the course of i d e a l development and of a person's stage of development i n contemporaneous terms, but a l s o s p e c i f i e s the 23 environment t h a t s u i t s developmental progression (Hunt and S u l l i v a n , 1974), and because "Research on CL [conceptual l e v e l ] and teaching s t y l e s r a i s e s i n t e r e s t i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e " (McNergney and C a r r i e r 1981:138). The r e s u l t s of s t u d i e s of the a s s o c i a t i o n of v a r i o u s conceptual l e v e l p a i r i n g s (Grimmett and Housego, 1983; Grimmett and Crehan, 1988) and i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n the p a i r s i n s u p e r v i s i o n (Thies-S p r i n t h a l l , 1980; Grimmett and Crehan, 1987) have r a i s e d i n t e r e s t i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s . Thus, f o r purposes of the present study, the review of the developmental l e a r n i n g l i t e r a t u r e w i l l focus on th a t which i s concerned w i t h conceptual development. CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENTAL LEVELS AND THEIR PROMOTION Conceptual development theory, along w i t h r e l a t e d c o g n i t i v e development t h e o r i e s , suggests t h a t i t s stages are organized i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l sequence. Oja and S p r i n t h a l l (1978) imply t h a t the l e v e l s i n the sequence of conceptual development apply t o both c o g n i t i v e complexity and l e a r n i n g s t y l e . Conceptual theory a l s o " s p e c i f i e s the environment most l i k e l y t o produce developmental p r o g r e s s i o n " (Hunt and S u l l i v a n 1974:207). Thus, t o i l l u s t r a t e the usefulness of conceptual l e v e l s theory f o r i n d i v i d u a l i z e d approaches i n a d u l t education, i t seems necessary t o de s c r i b e not only the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c behaviours of persons f u n c t i o n i n g a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s i n the sequence, but a l s o what c o n d i t i o n s the theory suggests w i l l f a c i l i t a t e conceptual development f o r i n d i v i d u a l s f u n c t i o n i n g a t the v a r i o u s l e v e l s . 24 Behaviours Characteristic of Levels of Functioning Glickman (1985:51) states that "results of research on stages of ...conceptual...development of teachers are s i m i l a r to findings of the population of a l l adults". When he q u a l i f i e s t h i s by claiming that most teachers were found to be functioning at low conceptual l e v e l s , he implies that t h i s i s also true of most adults. Thus, the levels of conceptual functioning that have relevance for individual approaches i n adult education seem to be not only the higher l e v e l s , which are characterized by abstract thinking and autonomous behaviour, but also the lower l e v e l s , which are characterized by concrete thinking and dependence on authority. Concrete l e v e l . An adult functioning at the concrete l e v e l i s l i k e l y to be compliant, dependent on authority, and concerned with rules (Kidd, 1973). Hunt found that teachers functioning at a low conceptual stage were " r i g i d , i n f l e x i b l e , employed a limited repertoire of teaching modes and most of a l l could not 'read and f l e x ' with pupils" ( S p r i n t h a l l and Thies-Sprinthall, 1980:284). The lack of a b i l i t y to "read and f l e x " suggests these teachers show l i t t l e responsiveness to students' individual requirements and seem to be "immune to pupil impact" (Sprin t h a l l and Thies-Sprinthall, 1980:284). Glickman (1985) states that teachers functioning at t h i s l e v e l tend to blame classroom problems on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of students and are unable to attribute any blame to t h e i r own behaviour. Their concerns for s e l f preservation contrast with the concerns of those who operate at more abstract levels of thought. 25 A b s t r a c t l e v e l s . An a d u l t who f u n c t i o n s a t a higher conceptual l e v e l l e a r n s t o empathize with others and may even have a b i l i t y t o e n v i s i o n the s e l f both i n r e l a t i o n t o and apart from others (Glickman, 1985). Kidd (1973) l i s t s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these l e v e l s as independence, s e l f a s s e r t i v e n e s s , and q u e s t i o n i n g . S p r i n t h a l l and Thies-S p r i n t h a l l (1980:284) s t a t e t h a t a higher stage teacher "can provide f o r d i f f e r e n t i a l l e a r n i n g environments based on the requirements of the l e a r n e r " . S i l v e r found t h a t p r i n c i p a l s a t higher l e v e l s of conceptual development were, as S p r i n t h a l l and T h i e s - S p r i n t h a l l (1983:19) co g e n t l y s t a t e d i n reference t o her work, "more f l e x i b l e i n problem s o l v i n g , more responsive, l e s s r i g i d , and l e s s a u t h o r i t a r i a n . " Because a d u l t s f u n c t i o n i n g a t the more complex l e v e l s seem t o demonstrate more humane and democratic behaviours ( S p r i n t h a l l and Thies-S p r i n t h a l l , 1983) and greater autonomy, i t seems d e s i r a b l e f o r a d u l t education, e s p e c i a l l y teacher education, t o encourage development and maintenance of higher l e v e l s of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . Promoting Higher L e v e l s of Conceptual F u n c t i o n i n g There seem t o be two major c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r the promotion of a d u l t conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g : the f i r s t i s the n e c e s s i t y t o help r a i s e the conceptual l e v e l s of those f u n c t i o n i n g a t lower l e v e l s ; and the second i s the n e c e s s i t y t o maintain the conceptual l e v e l of those f u n c t i o n i n g a t high l e v e l s . R a i s i n g l e v e l s of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . A necessary beginning i n developmental education i s t o present l e a r n i n g experiences t h a t match 26 the l e a r n e r ' s c u r r e n t l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g and, very g r a d u a l l y , t o introduce i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t w i l l s t i m u l a t e growth toward the next stage i n the sequence ( S p r i n t h a l l and T h i e s - S p r i n t h a l l , 1983). An example of a matched environment i s provided by Kidd (1973) who s t a t e s t h a t persons f u n c t i o n i n g a t lower conceptual l e v e l s r e q u i r e a h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d e d u c a t i o n a l environment wherein they are presented w i t h a l i m i t e d number of a l t e r n a t i v e s and some encouragement f o r independence. Glickman (1985) suggests t h a t t o increase a b s t r a c t i o n f o r a person f u n c t i o n i n g a t a low conceptual l e v e l , the person should i n i t i a l l y be presented w i t h f a m i l i a r and c o n c r e t e l y based experience and in f o r m a t i o n , and l a t e r should be introduced g r a d u a l l y t o novel experiences and information r e q u i r i n g r e t e n t i o n of a mental image. Glickman would probably use h i s " d i r e c t i v e approach" (1985:142-145) t o a i d the task described above; t h a t i s , he would guide and c o n t r o l the process of development while h e l p i n g the l e a r n e r t o f e e l secure. For an i n d i v i d u a l f u n c t i o n i n g above the concrete l e v e l but s t i l l a t a lower l e v e l of, a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g , Glickman might introduce a more c o l l a b o r a t i v e method whereby the l e a r n e r would be given more opp o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s and a i d d i r e c t i o n of h i s / h e r own l e a r n i n g . S p r i n t h a l l and T h i e s - S p r i n t h a l l (1983) mention the usefulness of p r o v i d i n g the low conceptual l e a r n e r w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e - t a k i n g experience; t h a t i s , the person i s r e q u i r e d t o perform an i n t e r p e r s o n a l task t h a t i s s l i g h t l y more complex than h i s / h e r c u r r e n t s t y l e , For example, he/she might be i n v i t e d t o counsel, t o s u p e r v i s e , or t o t r y a new teaching model. Programs f o r these l e a r n e r s must be continuous and accompanied by guided r e f l e c t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n . 27 The developmental environments suggested by S p r i n t h a l l and Thies-S p r i n t h a l l and by Glickman resemble the environment suggested i n Hunt's Conceptual Level matching model because they take into account both the contemporaneous and the developmental requirements of the learner. Glickman (1985) refers to the "optimal mismatch"; i . e . , Hunt's conception of the ideal relationship between learner and environment for the promotion of development. According to McNergney and Carrier (1981:202), Hunt suggests the developmental environment "should be s l i g h t l y more challenging and more complex than the person's present l e v e l of development". They explain that i n Hunt's theory the teacher's creation of an environment that i s just beyond the c a p a b i l i t i e s manifested by the learner's conceptual l e v e l enables the teacher to encourage small increments in development. McKibbin and Joyce (1980:254) state that " I f the optimal mismatch i s achieved, the [learner] can function adequately but i s 'pulled' toward greater development". McNergney and Carrier (1981) also allude to the importance of correct judgment for the "optimal mismatch". They explain that the learner might reject a c t i v i t i e s i n too complex an environment and might find no stimulation for development i n an environment that perfectly matches and therefore does not challenge his/her conceptual l e v e l . Maintaining high levels of conceptual functioning. Kidd (1973) states that to maintain the i r high levels of conceptual functioning, individuals should be allowed to be highly autonomous, have the opportunity for numerous alternatives, and be subject to only low normative pressure. Glickman would probably suggest a non-directive approach for a supervisor working with a teacher functioning at t h i s 28 l e v e l ; that i s , the supervisor would act mainly to stimulate and encourage the teacher's own thoughts, r e f l e c t i o n s , and decisions about his/her teaching. LEVELS OF CONCEPTUAL FUNCTIONING AND CLINICAL SUPERVISORY SITUATIONS Thies-Sprinthall (1980) investigated the effects of various combinations of conceptual levels i n supervising teacher/student teacher pairings. Grimmett and Housego (1983) investigated which l e v e l of supervisor conceptual l e v e l tended to be associated with supervisee development i n supervisor/teacher pairings. Following a discussion of the findings of these two studies, the i r implications for Glickman's framework of developmental supervision w i l l be considered. Results of Studies of Conceptual Level Pairings i n Supervisory Situations Based on Hunt's suggestion of the relevance of high teacher conceptual levels to conditions that seem to be conducive to pupils' learning, Thies-Sprinthall (1980) questioned whether supervisors having high conceptual levels would provide e f f e c t i v e supervision while those with lower conceptual levels might provide ine f f e c t i v e or even negative supervision. She studied what she referred to as "matched" and "mismatched" supervisor and student teacher pairs. "Matched" indicated that the conceptual levels of both members of the pair were the same, and "mismatched" indicated that the conceptual levels were opposites. Thies-Sprinthall's results suggested that supervisors with high 29 conceptual l e v e l f u n c t i o n i n g were able t o be e f f e c t i v e when in v o l v e d i n e i t h e r a matched or a mismatched p a i r . 1 This seemed t o be because these s u p e r v i s o r s were more responsive, able t o adapt t o the supervisees' requirements, and able t o perceive a c c u r a t e l y competence i n teacher performance. In c o n t r a s t , i t seemed th a t s u p e r v i s o r s w i t h low conceptual l e v e l f u n c t i o n i n g were unable t o be e f f e c t i v e i n e i t h e r the matched or mismatched s i t u a t i o n s . They seemed unable t o n o t i c e any d i f f e r e n c e s i n the q u a l i t y of teaching i n the two d i f f e r e n t groups of student teachers. They gave teachers i n both groups average r a t i n g s , and tended t o give greater r e c o g n i t i o n t o the l e s s f l e x i b l e , more d i r e c t methods of t e a c h i n g employed by the low conceptual l e v e l student teachers. They seemed unable t o recognize good q u a l i t y teaching methods and unable t o adapt t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r y s t y l e t o the requirements of t h e i r supervisees. In t h e i r study of a s m a l l sample of s u p e r v i s o r y p a i r s , Grimmett and Housego (1983) found r e s u l t s s i m i l a r t o those of T h i e s - S p r i n t h a l l . They found t h a t the a b s t r a c t f u n c t i o n i n g s u p e r v i s o r s tended t o s t i m u l a t e the teachers t o analyse and make d e c i s i o n s about t h e i r own t e a c h i n g . These s u p e r v i s o r s seemed t o be encouraging autonomy i n t h e i r s u p e r visees, and they employed d i r e c t feedback only i f the supervisee had d i f f i c u l t y w i t h a n a l y s i s . In c o n t r a s t , the researchers found t h a t the concrete f u n c t i o n i n g s u p e r v i s o r s seemed unable t o " f l e x " to the " p u l l " manifested by t h e i r s upervisees' requirements. Instead supervisees seemed t o be r e q u i r e d t o respond t o t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s ' " p u l l s " . Problems were observed i n concrete f u n c t i o n i n g s u p e r v i s o r s ' 1. A r e c e n t l y completed study by Grimmett and Crehan (1988) c a s t s doubt on the " e f f e c t i v e n e s s " of high CL p r i n c i p a l s ' conferencing w i t h low CL teachers; i . e . , a mismatched p a i r i n g . 30 attempts to give feedback. Sometimes they used untrue statements to soften the impact of corrective feedback, and often preoccupation v i t h irrelevant or immediate d e t a i l appeared to prevent t h e i r recognition of occasions vhen t h e i r supervisees appeared ready to receive feedback. Implications of Conceptual Levels for Glickman's (1985) Developmental  Approach to Supervision The cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of lov conceptual l e v e l supervisees suggest that, to begin with, they v i l l respond best to d i r e c t methods of supervision, which w i l l provide them with structure, d i r e c t guidance, and support. To f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r development, the supervisor would gradually introduce the collaborative s t y l e to encourage the supervisee to begin contributing to analysis and decision-making regarding his/her teaching. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of high conceptual l e v e l teachers suggest that usually they w i l l respond most re a d i l y to Glickman's non-directive supervisory approach whereby they w i l l be encouraged to be autonomous regarding decisions about thei r teaching. On occasions when a high conceptual l e v e l teacher recognizes that the p r i n c i p a l has equal or greater expertise on an issue, the teacher may prefer the p r i n c i p a l to employ Glickman's collaborative supervisory approach. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i f a high conceptual teacher i s faced with a teaching s i t u a t i o n wherein he/she possesses l i t t l e expertise, i n i t i a l l y the teacher may prefer Glickman's d i r e c t i v e supervisory approach, especially i f the teacher wants to acquire the new i n s t r u c t i o n a l knowledge quickly. The high conceptual l e v e l supervisor seems to be able to recognize the appropriate supervisory s t y l e to be used for a variety of conceptual 31 levels of supervisees and in a variety of situations. Therefore, the supervisor who functions at abstract levels is able to use any of Glickman's three supervisory styles depending on the supervisee and the context. In contrast, i t appears that the low conceptual supervisor will probably be limited to employing a direct style of supervision through which he/she may attempt to impose highly structured methods on the supervisee, in authoritarian fashion. The concrete functioning supervisor seems unlikely to be able to recognize the desirability of differentiating his/her supervisory style to meet supervisees' individual requirements and thus will probably apply direct methods regardless of supervisees' conceptual levels, and f a i l to advance to either collaborative methods or non-directive methods. A CONCEPTUAL HODEL FOR FACILITATION OF DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH CONCEPTUAL LEVEL TEACHER SUPERVISEES Synthesis of the literature on adult learning and conceptual levels seems to suggest a three-dimensional, three stage model for the facilitation of growth in adults' conceptual development which could be applied in the context of the supervisory conference and be adapted to any conceptual level. The three stages in the model are not entirely distinct from one another. Figure 1 attempts to illustrate the three stages as three partially interlocking cubes. The cubes are depicted as having increasing size to indicate an association between the supervisee's improvement in conceptual functioning and the ideal progression in principal/teacher interactions. In the illustration of the second and third stages, the labels indicating the teacher's 32 responses represent t h e o r e t i c a l l y i d e a l responses of a high conceptual l e v e l teacher. These responses are r a t e d " i d e a l " because theory suggests t h a t t h e i r presence i n d i c a t e s the teacher i s r e c e i v i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y t o f u n c t i o n a t h i s / h e r high conceptual l e v e l . Thus, the l a b e l s transform t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n of the model i n t o a v e r s i o n t h a t represents a t h e o r e t i c a l i d e a l of the f a c i l i t a t i o n of development f o r only a high conceptual l e v e l teacher supervisee. The Three Dimensions of the Conceptual Model Because the conceptual model was developed t o provide a framework t o guide the planning of c a t e g o r i e s of behaviours t o be observed i n p r i n c i p a l / t e a c h e r s u p e r v i s o r y conferences, the three dimensions, as i n d i c a t e d i n Figure 1, were l a b e l l e d : (1) p r i n c i p a l ' s behaviours, (2) teacher's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and (3) teacher's responses. Theories of a d u l t l e a r n i n g suggest a r e l a t i o n s h i p between and among these three dimensions: the teacher's responses w i l l be dependent on the s u i t a b i l i t y of the p r i n c i p a l ' s behaviours w i t h regard t o v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the teacher. I f the p r i n c i p a l , as s u p e r v i s o r , employs behaviours t h a t accommodate the i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the teacher, as a d u l t l e a r n e r , then the t h e o r i e s suggest t h a t the teacher w i l l respond i n ways which i n d i c a t e development i s i n progress. Three stages i n t h i s developmental progress are conceptualized i n the model. 33 The F i r s t Stage of the Conceptual Model The f i r s t stage of the model d e p i c t s the f i r s t component i n the p o s t u l a t e d process of f a c i l i t a t i n g the teacher's development; i . e . , a c q u i r i n g the confidence t o accept the challenge and pain t h a t w i l l be encountered i n the second and t h i r d stages. The l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h a t t o acquire confidence a l l teachers w i l l need t o f e e l secure i n the l e a r n i n g environment, and t h a t the p r i n c i p a l can provide a secure environment by being s u p p o r t i v e . The f i r s t cube i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t i n the s i t u a t i o n which the l i t e r a t u r e c h a r a c t e r i z e s as i d e a l , the p r i n c i p a l w i l l read and f l e x t o support the requirements of i n d i v i d u a l teachers and thereby c r e a t e comfort and increase the teacher's confidence. According t o the l i t e r a t u r e , the teacher who d i s p l a y s f e e l i n g s of comfort and confidence should be able t o cope with the second stage of the developmental process. The Second Stage of the Conceptual Model The second stage i s depicted as p a r t l y overlapping the f i r s t t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t the p r i n c i p a l w i l l continue "reading" and " f l e x i n g " t o support the teacher's i n d i v i d u a l requirements i n c l u d i n g those a s s o c i a t e d wit h the teacher's conceptual l e v e l . While s t i l l c o n t i n u i n g t o support, the p r i n c i p a l ' s main task i n the second stage i s t o present a c h a l l e n g e , i . e . , a problem t h a t i s s l i g h t l y too d i f f i c u l t t o s o l v e at the teacher's c u r r e n t l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . In the case of the high conceptual l e v e l teacher, the problem s o l v i n g should r e q u i r e the teacher t o f u n c t i o n a t h i s / h e r high l e v e l . The second cube i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t i n Figure 2.1. CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR FACILITATION OF DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH CONCEPTUAL LEVEL TEACHER SUPERVISEES 35 the second stage of the i d e a l developmental process, the p r i n c i p a l w i l l read and f l e x t o challenge s u i t a b l y the teacher's conceptual l e v e l , and, i f he/she i s c o r r e c t l y c h a l l e n g i n g the teacher t o f u n c t i o n a t a high conceptual l e v e l , the teacher w i l l become a c t i v e l y i nvolved i n the problem s o l v i n g . However, a t h i r d stage i n the process i s r e q u i r e d t o encourage the teacher t o f u n c t i o n f u l l y a t h i s / h e r conceptual l e v e l . The T h i r d Stage o f t h e C o n c e p t u a l Model According t o the research l i t e r a t u r e , high conceptual l e v e l teachers are capable of more than a c t i v e involvement i n problem s o l v i n g : they are capable of t a k i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s o l v i n g the problem independently. Thus, the p r i n c i p a l ' s main task i n the t h i r d stage of the developmental process i s t o " p u l l " the teacher's conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g u n t i l the teacher i s f u n c t i o n i n g f u l l y a t a high conceptual l e v e l . The second and t h i r d cubes are depic t e d as overlapping because the teacher's a c t i v e involvement does not end when independent problem s o l v i n g begins, and because the p r i n c i p a l ' s reading and f l e x i n g to challenge conceptual l e v e l does not end when attempts t o " p u l l " the teacher's f u n c t i o n i n g begin. The p r i n c i p a l a l s o continues to be supportive because conceptual l e v e l i s s u s c e p t i b l e t o r e g r e s s i o n under c o n d i t i o n of s t r e s s . The t h i r d cube i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t i n the t h i r d stage of the i d e a l developmental process, the p r i n c i p a l w i l l read and f l e x t o " p u l l " the teacher's conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g u n t i l the teacher i s f u n c t i o n i n g f u l l y a t the high conceptual l e v e l , and when the " p u l l " i s s u c c e s s f u l the teacher w i l l d i s p l a y autonomy i n problem s o l v i n g . 36 The Conceptual Model and Observable Behaviours The conceptual model t h a t a r i s e s from the l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h a t even though "the l e a r n i n g processes themselves are not observable...." (Thornton, 1986:65), the outcome of l e a r n i n g , t h a t i s , behavioural changes c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of achieved developmental growth, can be observed. Furthermore, the model suggests t h a t the teacher e x h i b i t s an i d e a l sequence of observable responses during the occurrence of development i n the teacher's l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . According to the model, the i d e a l responses w i l l be evoked by a p r i n c i p a l who i s p r o f i c i e n t a t reading and f l e x i n g t o support the teacher's requirements, t o challenge the teacher's conceptual l e v e l , and t o " p u l l " the teacher's conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . The observable i d e a l sequence of responses f o r the high conceptual l e v e l teacher begins w i t h comfort and confidence, proceeds t o a c t i v e involvement i n problem s o l v i n g , and culminates i n autonomous behaviour. Observed occurrence of t h i s sequence might suggest t h a t the high conceptual l e v e l teacher i s responding t o an o p p o r t u n i t y e i t h e r t o maintain h i s / h e r high l e v e l of conceptual' f u n c t i o n i n g or t o develop the high l e v e l of which he/she i s capable. To guide observation of t h i s sequence of responses i n the s u p e r v i s o r y conferences which are the o b j e c t s of t h i s study, f i v e research questions were posed i n i t i a l l y . 37 RESEARCH QUESTIONS I n i t i a l l y , the research questions included two main questions and three sub-questions. The three sub-questions were designed t o help o b t a i n an answer t o the f i r s t main qu e s t i o n . The f i r s t main question was de r i v e d from the f i r s t s t a t e d purpose of the study, t h a t i s , t o f i n d evidence of whether high conceptual l e v e l teachers' responses d u r i n g s u p e r v i s o r y conferences appear t o be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the conceptual l e v e l of the s u p e r v i s i n g p r i n c i p a l . Because the answer t o the f i r s t main question could not be determined before answers t o the sub-questions were obtained, the order i n which the four questions were addressed i n the study was s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from the order i n which they are presented here: Question 1 W i l l the responses of a high conceptual l e v e l (HCL) teacher who i s p a i r e d w i t h a moderate/high conceptual l e v e l (M/HCL) p r i n c i p a l be i n d i c a t i v e of h i s / h e r greater o p p o r t u n i t y to f u n c t i o n a t a high conceptual l e v e l d u r i ng the s u p e r v i s i o n conference than the HCL teacher who i s p a i r e d w i t h a low conceptual l e v e l (LCL) p r i n c i p a l ? Sub-question 1.1. W i l l the responses of the HCL teacher who i s pa i r e d w i t h the M/HCL p r i n c i p a l i n d i c a t e more comfort and confidence during the s u p e r v i s i o n conference than those of the HCL teacher who i s p a i r e d w i t h the LCL p r i n c i p a l ? 38 Sub-question 1.2. W i l l the responses of the HCL teacher who i s pa i r e d w i t h the M/HCL p r i n c i p a l i n d i c a t e more a c t i v e involvement during e x p l o r a t i o n of observations and i n problem s o l v i n g than those of the HCL teacher who i s p a i r e d w i t h the LCL p r i n c i p a l ? Subquestion 1.3. W i l l the responses of the HCL teacher who i s pai r e d w i t h the M/HCL p r i n c i p a l i n d i c a t e more autonomy and independent t h i n k i n g than those of the HCL teacher who i s p a i r e d w i t h the LCL p r i n c i p a l ? The second main question was d e r i v e d from the second main purpose of the study, t h a t i s , t o f i n d evidence of whether high conceptual l e v e l teachers' responses d u r i n g the s u p e r v i s o r y conference appear t o be ass o c i a t e d w i t h f a c t o r s other than the p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l . Question 2 W i l l the responses of the HCL teachers appear t o be a s s o c i a t e d wit h f a c t o r s other than the p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l ? During the course of data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s , some emerging information suggested the d e s i r a b i l i t y of posing a t h i r d research question. I t began t o seem important t o analyze teachers' comments t o f i n d i n f o r m a t i o n about the f a c t o r s with which the teachers appeared to as s o c i a t e t h e i r responses during s u p e r v i s i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , a t h i r d question was formulated. 39 Question 3 Did the teachers seem t o a s s o c i a t e t h e i r responses with behaviours of the p r i n c i p a l t h a t might be a t t r i b u t e d t o the p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l or w i t h behaviours t h a t might be a t t r i b u t e d to other f a c t o r s ? SUMMARY Research on a d u l t c o g n i t i v e development has found evidence that a d u l t s are capable of c o g n i t i v e developmental growth. Thus, when a d u l t l e a r n i n g i s de f i n e d as a d u l t c o g n i t i v e development, i t can be s a i d t h a t a d u l t s are able t o l e a r n . Furthermore, as the l i t e r a t u r e review attempts t o demonstrate, the f a c i l i t a t i o n of a d u l t l e a r n i n g can be conceived of as a d i f f e r e n t process from the teaching of younger p u p i l s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r educators of a d u l t s t o consider the generic and the i n d i v i d u a l requirements of a d u l t l e a r n e r s . There are claims i n the research l i t e r a t u r e t h a t developmental requirements of a d u l t s are not l i n k e d t o age but t o l i f e stages, career stages, and stages of c o g n i t i v e development. Conceptual l e v e l theory seems t o be a u s e f u l guide f o r the f a c i l i t a t i o n of teachers' c o g n i t i v e development i n the i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s t y l e of a d u l t education. R e s u l t s of s t u d i e s using conceptual development theory have encouraged researchers t o present suggestions f o r i t s continued use i n s t u d i e s of both pre-s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e teacher education. I t appears e s s e n t i a l f o r f a c i l i t a t o r s of teacher development t o recognize the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a d u l t s f u n c t i o n i n g a t v a r i o u s conceptual l e v e l s and t o understand the environmental c o n d i t i o n s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e the growth of i n d i v i d u a l s who 40 f u n c t i o n at the v a r i o u s l e v e l s . These requirements suggest the f a c i l i t a t o r of teacher development needs t o f u n c t i o n at a high a b s t r a c t l e v e l i n order t o be s e n s i t i v e and able t o adapt. Synthesis of research f i n d i n g s on a d u l t l e a r n i n g and on conceptual l e v e l s seems t o enable the i n s e r v i c e s u p e r v i s o r y conference t o be conceived of as a s p e c i a l case of a d u l t c o g n i t i v e development and t o be dep i c t e d i n a conceptual model. The conceptual model has guided the formation of research questions f o r t h i s study. The next chapter i n c l u d e s e x p l a n a t i o ns of how the model i s used t o guide d e c i s i o n s about c a t e g o r i e s of behaviours t o be recorded, t o a i d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c behaviours to be recorded w i t h i n each category, and t o guide d e c i s i o n s about a n a l y s i s of the recorded data. 41 Chapter 3 RESEARCH DESIGN The research reported here i s an e x p l o r a t o r y study of data c o l l e c t e d i n an e a r l i e r , l a r g e r study (Grimmett and Crehan, 1987, 1988). In the present study, q u a l i t a t i v e data were c o l l e c t e d through an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l data. The study compares two p r i n c i p a l / t e a c h e r s u p e r v i s i o n dyads w i t h respect t o teacher responses i n s u p e r v i s o r y conference i n t e r a c t i o n s . The dyads are r e f e r r e d t o as Dyad II and Dyad 12. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the two dyads s t u d i e d are shown below w i t h i n the design of the o r i g i n a l study. P r i n c i p a l Teacher Treatment Treatment Treatment CL CL (1) (2) (3) Dyad I I L H - X Dyad 12 M/H H - X Figure 2: Research Design The conceptual l e v e l (CL) of the p r i n c i p a l i s the independent v a r i a b l e . In dyad I I , the p r i n c i p a l has a low conceptual l e v e l ( L C D ; i n dyad 12, the p r i n c i p a l has a moderately high conceptual l e v e l (H/HCL). The two dyads are drawn from the l a r g e r study (Grimmett and Crehan, 1987, 1988), which i n v o l v e d a t o t a l of 15 dyads composed of volunteer s u b j e c t s from elementary s c h o o l s . In the l a r g e r study, three treatments 42 were employed as a d d i t i o n a l independent v a r i a b l e s : (1) conferencing s k i l l s t r a i n i n g f o r the p r i n c i p a l s ; (2) classroom management workshops for the p r i n c i p a l s and teachers; and (3) the same classroom management workshops f o r the teachers only. In the present study, the treatments were employed as c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s : n e i t h e r p r i n c i p a l r e c e i v e d conferencing s k i l l s t r a i n i n g ; both p r i n c i p a l s and teachers attended the classroom management workshops. The teacher's conceptual l e v e l became a f o u r t h c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e i n t h i s study because i n both dyads the teacher has a high conceptual l e v e l (HCL). The teachers' responses d u r i n g the s u p e r v i s i o n conferences were the v a r i a b l e of main i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study. Explanations of the methods of data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s employed i n the study are presented i n the f o l l o w i n g two s e c t i o n s . DATA COLLECTION Three sources of data were used: (1) videotapes of two post-observation conferences f o r each dyad; (2) t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of the audiotapes of the p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the research s u b j e c t s ; and (3) t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of excerpts of conference dialogue a s s o c i a t e d w i t h events i d e n t i f i e d d u r i ng s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l . The videotapes were used as the source of the frequency data. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s were used i n two d i f f e r e n t ways: f i r s t , t o check the v a l i d i t y of observations from the videotapes and; second, as a f u r t h e r source of q u a l i t a t i v e data. The d i s c u s s i o n of data c o l l e c t i o n methods w i l l be presented i n two subsections: (1) c o l l e c t i o n of frequency data using observation instruments designed f o r the present study; and (2) c o l l e c t i o n of t r a n s c r i p t i o n data. 43 C o l l e c t i o n of Frequency Data Frequency data of observed behaviours were c o l l e c t e d by viewing the videotapes of the s u p e r v i s o r y dyads' conferences. The conceptual model, presented i n Chapter 2, was used to guide the development of three c a t e g o r i e s of behaviours t o be observed. Each category represents a stage i n the model and i n c l u d e s two subcategories t h a t correspond w i t h two of the model's dimensions; i . e . , teacher's responses and p r i n c i p a l ' s behaviours. Each of these subcategories c o n t a i n s a p o s i t i v e and a negative s u b d i v i s i o n . The p r i n c i p a l ' s behaviours and teacher's responses i n the p o s i t i v e s u b d i v i s i o n s are those which correspond to the i d e a l behaviours and responses represented i n the conceptual model f o r the i d e a l f a c i l i t a t i o n of development f o r an HCL teacher. The research l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h a t the i d e a l s i t u a t i o n , portrayed i n the model, may be observed i n dyad #2 wherein both the s u p e r v i s i n g p r i n c i p a l and the teacher have high conceptual l e v e l s . The research l i t e r a t u r e a l s o suggests t h a t the i d e a l developmental s i t u a t i o n may not be observed i n dyad #1 because the p r i n c i p a l has a low conceptual l e v e l and i s more l i k e l y to e x h i b i t the behaviours c l a s s i f i e d below as negative. The term "negative" i s a p p l i e d t o these behaviours because the l i t e r a t u r e suggests they could be i n e f f e c t u a l or even miseducative f o r the HCL teacher's development i n dyad #1. To a i d observation of whether the teacher i n dyad I I responds i n ways that i n d i c a t e miseducation, a s e t of teachers' "negative" responses which c o n t r a s t w i t h the teachers' " p o s i t i v e " responses have been des c r i b e d . Although the p r i n c i p a l behaviours and teacher responses i n 44 the negative s u b d i v i s i o n s are i n d i r e c t c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o the behaviours and responses represented i n the conceptual model f o r i d e a l f a c i l i t a t i o n of development f o r an HCL teacher, they have nevertheless been d e r i v e d w i t h the a i d of the model. Thus, although the conceptual model i l l u s t r a t e s a developmentally p o s i t i v e s i t u a t i o n , i t was used t o guide the development of both the p o s i t i v e and negative behaviour c a t e g o r i e s t h a t were needed t o provide data f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the a s s o c i a t i o n between HCL teachers' conceptual development and both high and low conceptual l e v e l p r i n c i p a l s . A l i s t of t i t l e s f o r the three c a t e g o r i e s , t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e sub-categories, and the p o s i t i v e and negative demensions of the sub-categories f o l l o w s . Category 1: Subjects' Behaviours i n F i r s t Stage of Model 1.1: Teacher's responses P o s i t i v e : I n d i c a t o r s of comfort and confidence , Negative: I n d i c a t o r s of discomfort 1.2: P r i n c i p a l ' s behaviours P o s i t i v e : I n d i c a t o r s of "reading" and " f l e x i n g " t o be supportive of teacher Negative: I n d i c a t o r s of "non-reading", r i g i d i t y , and lack of support f o r the teacher Category 2: Subjects' Behaviours i n Second Stage of Model 2.1: Teacher's responses P o s i t i v e : I n d i c a t o r s of a c t i v e and i n t e r e s t e d involvement 4 5 Negative: I n d i c a t o r s of passive or defensive involvement 2.2: P r i n c i p a l ' s behaviours P o s i t i v e : I n d i c a t o r s of "reading" and " f l e x i n g " t o provide challenge Negative: I n d i c a t o r s of r i g i d i t y and lack of challenge f o r teacher Category 3: Subjects' Behaviours i n Th i r d Stage of Model 3.1: Teacher's responses P o s i t i v e : I n d i c a t o r s of autonomy and independence Negative: I n d i c a t o r s of r e l i a n c e or compliance 3.2: P r i n c i p a l ' s behaviours P o s i t i v e : I n d i c a t o r s of "reading" and " f l e x i n g " t o " p u l l " teacher's conceptual development Negative: I n d i c a t o r s of p o t e n t i a l t o depress teacher's conceptual development To a i d observation of behaviours, an attempt was made t o i d e n t i f y four s p e c i f i c behaviours t h a t could be c l a s s i f i e d under each of the p o s i t i v e and negative s u b d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n each of the s i x subcategories. The review of l i t e r a t u r e was used to guide i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of four p o s i t i v e and four negative observable behaviours f o r each of the s i x sub-categories of behaviour. The behaviours s e l e c t e d f o r Category 1 were ex t r a c t e d mainly from three sources i n the a d u l t education l i t e r a t u r e (Thibodeau, 1980; Rogers, 1977; and Thornton, 1986) and from S p r i n t h a l l and T h i e s - S p r i n t h a l l ' s (1980) d i s c u s s i o n of Hunt's terms "read" and " f l e x " . Some of the behaviours s e l e c t e d f o r Category 2 and f o r Category 3 were e x t r a c t e d from Grimmett and Housego (1983), but most were 46 e x t r a c t e d from Glickman's (1985) d e s c r i p t i o n s of d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n . L i s t s of the s p e c i f i c behaviours t o be observed w i t h i n the p o s i t i v e and negative s u b d i v i s i o n s of each of the three c a t e g o r i e s f o l l o w . The instruments designed t o a i d observation of the behaviours are d i s p l a y e d i n Appendix A. Category 1: Subjects' Behaviours i n F i r s t Stage of Model 1.1: Teacher's responses P o s i t i v e : I n d i c a t o r s of comfort and confidence D A s k s questions and/or r e f l e c t s before making responses 2) Maintains p o s i t i v e and hopeful a t t i t u d e 3) Responds openly and w i t h t r u s t 4) D i s p l a y s i n t e r e s t Negative i n d i c a t o r s of discomfort 1) I n t e r a c t s i n s e c u r e l y ( f l u s t e r e d ) 2) Develops negative and f r u s t r a t e d a t t i t u d e , l e a d i n g t o despondency or compliance 3) Responds d e f e n s i v e l y or h e s i t a n t l y 4) D i s p l a y s p h y s i c a l s i g n s of i n s e c u r i t y and/or d i s i n t e r e s t 1.2: P r i n c i p a l ' s behaviours P o s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r s of "reading" and " f l e x i n g " t o be supportive of teacher 1) Allows time f o r teacher t o question and/or r e f l e c t , before expecting teacher t o respond 2) Is responsive t o teacher's questions and statements 3) Provides accurate and p o s i t i v e feedback 4) Attempts t o l i n k presented problems w i t h teacher's career stage and experience. 47 N e g a t i v e : I n d i c a t o r s of "non-reading", r i g i d i t y , and lack of support f o r teacher 1) Dominates t a l k and time 2) Is non-responsive t o teacher's questions and statements 3) Provides negative feedback 4) D i s p l a y s p h y s i c a l i n d i c a t o r s of a u t h o r i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e Category 2: Subjects' Behaviours i n Second Stage of Model 2.1: Teacher's responses P o s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r s of a c t i v e and i n t e r e s t e d involvement 1) Explores p r i n c i p a l ' s observations 2) R e l a t e s p r i n c i p a l ' s observations t o past experiences and notes i m p l i c a t i o n s 3) Asks questions t o a i d own c l a r i f i c a t i o n of new ideas 4) A p p l i e s own ideas p o s i t i v e l y and i n r e l a t i o n t o p r i n c i p a l ' s ideas Negative i n d i c a t o r s of passive or defensive involvement DDoes not explore and e v e n t u a l l y appears t o accept p r i n c i p a l ' s observations 2) Abandons attempts t o draw own inferences from p r i n c i p a l ' s observations 3) Abandons use of questions f o r purposes of own c l a r i f i c a t i o n 4) Involvement becomes defensiveness of own b e l i e f s and classroom behaviours 2.2: P r i n c i p a l ' s behaviours P o s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r s of "reading" and " f l e x i n g " t o provide challenge f o r teacher 1) I n v i t e s teacher's a n a l y s i s and q u e s t i o n i n g of observations 2) Demonstrates i n t e r e s t and a t t e n t i v e n e s s to teacher's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of problems 3) R e f l e c t s and probes to help teacher c l a r i f y thoughts about problem 48 4 ) R e f l e c t s and probes to encourage teacher t o r e l a t e own ideas p o s i t i v e l y w i t h p r i n c i p a l ' s ideas about the problem Negative i n d i c a t o r s of r i g i d i t y and lack of challenge f o r teacher 1) I d e n t i f i e s and s t a t e s problem 2) I s non-receptive t o teacher's i n f o r m a t i o n or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n regarding problem 3) Presents own thoughts about problem 4) Hakes suggestions regarding p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s Category 3: Subjects' Behaviours i n Third Stage of Model 3.1: Teacher's responses P o s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r s of autonomy and independence 1) Proposes a set of a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s t o problem 2) S e l e c t s p r e f e r r e d s o l u t i o n and s e t s goals and o b j e c t i v e s 3) Suggests plans f o r implementation 4) Suggests plans f o r e v a l u a t i o n Negative i n d i c a t o r s of r e l i a n c e or compliance 1) Seeks or accepts p r i n c i p a l ' s s o l u t i o n 2) Seeks or accepts p r i n c i p a l ' s suggestions regarding goals and o b j e c t i v e s 3) Seeks or accepts p r i n c i p a l ' s implementation plans 4) Seeks or accepts p r i n c i p a l ' s e v a l u a t i o n plans 3.2: P r i n c i p a l ' s behaviours P o s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r s of 'reading" and " f l e x i n g " to " p u l l " teacher's conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g : 1) Probes and c l a r i f i e s t o encourage teacher t o generate s o l u t i o n s and a l t e r n a t i v e s . 2) Encourages teacher t o explore and t o s e l e c t from a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s by c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e consequences 3) Encourages teacher through q u e s t i o n i n g t o c o n s o l i d a t e ideas i n the s e t t i n g of goals and o b j e c t i v e s 49 4)Encourages teacher through q u e s t i o n i n g t o plan implementation and e v a l u a t i o n and t o make commitments t o these Negative i n d i c a t o r s of p o t e n t i a l t o depress teacher's conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g : 1) S e l e c t s own s o l u t i o n 2) States the r a t i o n a l e f o r the s o l u t i o n 3) Sets goals and o b j e c t i v e s 4) Imposes implementation plan and s e l e c t s e v a l u a t i o n method C o l l e c t i o n of T r a n s c r i p t i o n Data T r a n s c r i p t i o n data were c o l l e c t e d through in-depth examination of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of the dialogue from the s u b j e c t s ' s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r and from the conference s e c t i o n s t h a t were r e c a l l e d . D e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f , and d i r e c t quotations from, s u b j e c t s ' remarks about s u p e r v i s i o n conference i n t e r a c t i o n s which they chose t o r e c a l l were c o l l e c t e d from the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of the s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w s . D e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f , and quotations from, the r e c a l l e d i n t e r a c t i o n s were c o l l e c t e d from the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of the s u p e r v i s i o n conference d i a l o g u e . The s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w data included s u b j e c t s ' own thoughts and opinions regarding the s u p e r v i s i o n conference, and t h e i r own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h e i r responses and behaviours. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data were not c o l l e c t e d according t o predetermined c a t e g o r i e s or i n d i c a t o r s as were the frequency data. Moreover, the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data were used f o r two purposes d i f f e r i n g from t h a t f o r which the frequency data were used. F i r s t , the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data were used t o v a l i d a t e f i n d i n g s from the a n a l y s i s of 50 the frequency data; and second, they were used t o f a c i l i t a t e f u r t h e r q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s r e q u i r e d f o r answering the second and t h i r d research questions. DATA ANALYSIS The data a n a l y s i s was conducted i n two main stages. The f i r s t stage involved a two-part p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s ; and the second, a th r e e -p a r t a n a l y s i s of t r a n s c r i p t i o n data. P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s The two p a r t s of the p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d of f i r s t , an a n a l y s i s of the frequency data and, second, a p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data. The i n t e n t i o n of the second part of t h i s a n a l y s i s was t o f i n d and e x t r a c t s e c t i o n s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g data t h a t could overcome p r a c t i c a l problems, caused by the la r g e volume of the data t h a t emerged, f o r a n a l y s i s and f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n of f i n d i n g s . A n a l y s i s of E x t r a c t e d T r a n s c r i p t i o n Data The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data e x t r a c t e d during the second part of the p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s were examined f o r evidence regarding teachers' comfort and confidence, a c t i v e involvement, and autonomous behaviour. The a n a l y s i s proceeded w i t h the i n t e n t of a l l o w i n g t h i s evidence t o emerge from the dat a , r a t h e r than w i t h the purpose o f searching the data 51 f o r predetermined i n d i c a t o r s . In a d d i t i o n , the a n a l y s i s sought f o r s u b j e c t s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of conference i n t e r a c t i o n s i n order t o f i n d evidence regarding f a c t o r s with which the teachers' responses may have been a s s o c i a t e d . OVERVIEW OF PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION The d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s from the analyses w i l l be presented i n the next four chapters. Chapter 4 w i l l c o n t a i n d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s from the p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s . Chapters 5, 6, and 7 w i l l c o n t a i n , r e s p e c t i v e l y , d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s from the a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s f o r evidence of teachers' comfort and confidence, a c t i v e involvement i n problem s o l v i n g , and autonomous behaviour. Chapter 8 w i l l c o n t a i n d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s from the a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s f o r evidence that teachers' responses may have been d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a c t o r s other than the p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l . W i thin these four chapters, the LCL p r i n c i p a l i n Dyad II w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as Lorna and the HCL teacher l n Dyad 12 as Luke. The M/HCL p r i n c i p a l i n Dyad 12 w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as Hugh and the HCL teacher i n Dyad 12 as Helen. Quotations from the t r a n s c r i p t s of the s u b j e c t s ' dialogue w i l l be referenced by l i n e numbers i n the t r a n s c r i p t s . The l i n e numbers w i l l be preceded by a colon and the number one or two depending on whether the quo t a t i o n a p p l i e s t o the s u b j e c t ' s f i r s t or second conference. 52 Chapter 4 RESULTS OF PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to present and d i s c u s s the f i n d i n g s from the p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s . The chapter i s d i v i d e d i n t o two main s e c t i o n s which correspond w i t h the two p a r t s of the p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s : (1) the a n a l y s i s of the frequency data; and (2) a p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of data from the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of the s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w and conference d i a l o g u e s . ANALYSIS OF FREQUENCY DATA The p r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of f i n d i n g s from the a n a l y s i s of the frequency data are d i v i d e d i n t o three subsections. Each addresses one of the three c a t e g o r i e s of teacher's responses t h a t are included i n the three stages of the model: (1) teacher's comfort and confidence; (2) teacher's a c t i v e involvement; and (3) teacher's autonomous behaviour. Teacher's Comfort and Confidence This f i r s t stage of the a n a l y s i s addressed research sub-question 1.1 and the f i r s t stage of the conceptual model; t h a t i s , data were analyzed f o r evidence of whether the responses of the Dyad 12 HCL teacher, Helen, who was p a i r e d w i t h the M/HCL p r i n c i p a l , Hugh, i n d i c a t e d more comfort and confidence than those of the Dyad #1 HCL teacher, Luke, who was pa i r e d w i t h the LCL p r i n c i p a l , Lorna. The instruments f o r 53 r e c o r d i n g the frequency of Category 1 behaviours and responses (see Appendices A - l and A-2) enabled the c o l l e c t i o n of enough data t o f a c i l i t a t e p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of the teachers' comfort and confidence and the p r i n c i p a l s ' supportive behaviours. The data were a l s o analyzed for evidence of a s s o c i a t i o n s between the teachers' responses and the p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours t o match those suggested i n the research l i t e r a t u r e . F i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n f o r t h i s stage of the a n a l y s i s are presented f i r s t f o r Dyad #1, and second f o r Dyad #2. Dyad #1 teacher's comfort and confidence. The f i r s t frequency count reported f o r the Dyad #1 pre-conference i s the number of i n t e r a c t i o n s which took place between the two members of the dyad. This number, d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4.1, i n d i c a t e s t h a t 26 i n t e r a c t i o n s occurred. For purposes of t h i s count, f o r a l l four conferences, an i n t e r a c t i o n was TABLE 4.1 NUMBER OF DYADIC INTERACTIONS IN SUPERVISORY CONFERENCES Conference Pre- Post-26 27 13 14 defined as e i t h e r a s i n g l e behaviour by one member of the dyad p a i r e d w i t h a response from the other member, or an uninterrupted set of paired behaviours and responses which focussed on a s i n g l e i s s u e . 5 4 The number of i n t e r a c t i o n s was recorded to a i d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a l l other frequency data, i n c l u d i n g those d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4.2 regarding the teacher's comfort and confidence during the Dyad #1 pre-conference. For i n s t a n c e , because 26 i n t e r a c t i o n s were recorded, the r e p o r t of 19 responses i n d i c a t i n g that Luke " d i s p l a y s i n t e r e s t " means tha t i n 19 out of a t o t a l of 26 i n t e r a c t i o n s Luke d i s p l a y e d i n t e r e s t . Thus, the 19 can be i n t e r p r e t e d as evidence t o suggest t h a t d u r i n g most of the conference Luke d i s p l a y e d i n t e r e s t . The t o t a l number of i n t e r a c t i o n s reported f o r a conference does not equal the sum of the numbers d i s p l a y e d to r e p o r t the frequency counts f o r the e i g h t i n d i c a t o r s of comfort and confidence. This i s because a s i n g l e response contained w i t h i n a s i n g l e i n t e r a c t i o n was o f t e n found t o be d e s c r i b a b l e i n terms of more than one of the i n d i c a t o r s of comfort and confidence. For example, a s i n g l e response might i n v o l v e q u e s t i o n i n g and/or r e f l e c t i n g , demonstrating openness and t r u s t , and d i s p l a y i n g i n t e r e s t . For Dyad #1, two of the p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r s of comfort and confidence were d i f f i c u l t t o observe and/or record i n the frequency count of the teacher's responses. F i r s t , the i n d i c a t o r "asks questions and/or r e f l e c t s before making responses" caused d i f f i c u l t y because i t d i d not seem t o be a p p l i c a b l e to almost h a l f of the i n t e r a c t i o n s , which the p r i n c i p a l i n i t i a t e d by g i v i n g p o s i t i v e feedback. Second, observation and r e c o r d i n g of "maintains a p o s i t i v e and hopeful a t t i t u d e " was d i f f i c u l t because although, "a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e " was u s u a l l y observed, i t could not be recorded when "a hopeful a t t i t u d e " was not observed. Moreover, i t was d i f f i c u l t to observe hopefulness during the many i n t e r a c t i o n s wherein the p r i n c i p a l seemed t o be e n q u i r i n g about the 55 TABLE 4.2 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 1 RESPONSES AND BEHAVIOURS IN DYAD #1 PRE-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE TEACHER: COMFORT AND CONFIDENCE I PRINCIPAL:"READING AND FLEXING" TO SUPPORT RESPONSE 1 T o t a l BEHAVIOUR 1 T o t a l POSITIVE POSITIVE 1) Asks questions and/or r e f l e c t s before making responses 1 15 1) Allows teacher time t o r e f l e c t before expecting response 1 15 2) Maintains p o s i t i v e and hopeful a t t i t u d e 1 15 2) Is responsive t o teacher's questions and statements 1 20 3) Responds openly and with t r u s t 1 19 3) Provides accurate and p o s i t i v e feedback 1 20 4) D i s p l a y s i n t e r e s t 1 19 i 4) L i n k s presented prob-lems with teacher's career stage and experience 1 18 NEGATIVE NEGATIVE 1) I n t e r a c t s i n s e c u r e l y 1 0 ! 1) Dominates t a l k and time 1 6 2) Develops negative & f r u s -t r a t e d a t t i t u d e , maybe despondent or compliant 1 0 ! 2) Is non-responsive t o teacher's questions and statements 1 0 3) Responds d e f e n s i v e l y or h e s i t a n t l y 1 0 1 3) Provides negative feedback 1 o 4) D i s p l a y s p h y s i c a l s i g n s of i n s e c u r i t y and/or d i s i n t e r e s t 1 0 I 4) D i s p l a y s p h y s i c a l i n d i c a t i o n s of a u t h o r i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e 1 0 56 teacher's past and c u r r e n t s o l u t i o n s f o r problems r a t h e r than addressing p o s s i b l e requirements f o r new s o l u t i o n s . Nevertheless, the frequency data d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4.2 seem t o be s u f f i c i e n t t o suggest t h a t Luke experienced comfort and confidence, and t h a t Lorna f r e q u e n t l y performed behaviours which the research l i t e r a t u r e suggests would be s u p p o r t i v e . The d i s t i n c t predominance of p o s i t i v e responses and behaviours, d i s p l a y e d i n the t a b l e , suggests t h a t Luke's responses i n d i c a t i n g h i s comfort and confidence may have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Lorna's p o s i t i v e , supportive behaviours. Although one negative behaviour i s reported f o r Lorna ( i . e . , "dominates t a l k and t i m e " ) , the absence of any negative responses f o r Luke suggests that he d i s p l a y e d no l o s s of comfort and confidence i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h i s behaviour. Table 4.3 d i s p l a y s frequency data c o l l e c t e d d u r i ng observation of the Dyad #1 post-workshop conference f o r i n d i c a t o r s of Luke's comfort and confidence and Lorna's support. The frequencies d i s p l a y e d suggest t h a t , although some of the counts are s l i g h t l y lower, the p a t t e r n of i n t e r a c t i o n s was s i m i l a r t o that i n the f i r s t Dyad #1 conference. The data r e v e a l t h a t Luke maintained h i s comfort and confidence i n t h i s second conference and t h a t h i s comfort and confidence again seemed t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Lorna's p o s i t i v e , supportive behaviours. Dyad #2 teacher's comfort and confidence. Data d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4.1 i n d i c a t e t h a t there were only t h i r t e e n i n t e r a c t i o n s during the Dyad #2 pre-workshop conference. The discrepancy between t h i s number and t h a t f o r the Dyad #1 pre-conference occurred p a r t l y because the Dyad |1 conference took 30 minutes, whereas the Dyad #2 conference l a s t e d f o r s l i g h t l y l e s s than 20 minutes. The d i f f e r e n c e a l s o occurred because the 57 TABLE 4.3 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 1 RESPONSES AND BEHAVIOURS I N DYAD #1 POST-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE TEACHER: COMFORT AND CONFIDENCE PRINCIPAL:"READING" AND "FLEXING" TO SUPPORT RESPONSE 1Total BEHAVIOUR 1 T o t a l POSITIVE POSITIVE 1) Asks questions and/or r e f l e c t s before making responses 1 11 1) Allows teacher time t o r e f l e c t before expecting response 1 10 2) Maintains p o s i t i v e and hopeful a t t i t u d e 1 9 2) Is responsive t o teacher's questions and statements 1 16 3) Responds openly and w i t h t r u s t 1 17 I 3) Provides accurate and p o s i t i v e feedback 1 16 4) D i s p l a y s i n t e r e s t 1 17 | 4) L i n k s presented prob-lems w i t h teacher's career stage and experience 1 15 NEGATIVE NEGATIVE 1) I n t e r a c t s i n s e c u r e l y 1 0 | 1) Dominates t a l k and time 1 5 2) Develops negative & f r u s -t r a t e d a t t i t u d e , maybe despondent or compliant 0 | 2) Is non-responsive t o teacher's questions and statements 0 3) Responds d e f e n s i v e l y or h e s i t a n t l y 0 1 3) Provides negative feedback 0 4) D i s p l a y s p h y s i c a l s i g n s of i n s e c u r i t y and/or d i s i n t e r e s t 0 1 4) D i s p l a y s p h y s i c a l i n d i c a t i o n s of a u t h o r i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e 0 58 Dyad #2 M/HCL p r i n c i p a l , Hugh, f r e q u e n t l y prolonged h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the d i a l o g u e . Hugh's share of one of the Dyad #2 i n t e r a c t i o n s occupied four minutes; t h a t i s , one f i f t h of the whole conference. In comparison t o the number of i n t e r a c t i o n s d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4.1, the frequency data d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4.4 suggest t h a t Helen's responses demonstrated a f a i r amount of comfort and confidence, which may have been as s o c i a t e d w i t h Hugh's behaviours i n d i c a t i n g supportiveness. However, Helen appears t o have d i s p l a y e d a p o s i t i v e and hopeful a t t i t u d e during only s i x of the t h i r t e e n observed i n t e r a c t i o n s . During the c o l l e c t i o n of frequency data regarding the teacher's comfort and confidence, the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t were encountered f o r Dyad #1 with two of the p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r s , which included "maintains a p o s i t i v e and hopeful a t t i t u d e " , d i d not occur f o r Dyad #2. Thus, i t seems p o s s i b l e t o suggest that the infrequency w i t h which Helen's responses demonstrated maintenance of "a p o s i t i v e and hopeful a t t i t u d e " may have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Hugh's negative behaviours, such as the infrequency with which he i n d i c a t e d responsiveness t o Helen's questions and statements. Furthermore, the data i n d i c a t e t h a t Helen d i s p l a y e d a few negative responses which may have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h negative behaviours enacted by Hugh. Helen's responses i n d i c a t e d compliance on three occasions and despondency on a f o u r t h . These responses are reported i n the frequency count d i s p l a y e d f o r the second negative i n d i c a t o r of comfort and confidence. Thus, the count of four i n c l u d e s o n ly responses i n d i c a t i n g compliance or despondency. Helen never responded i n ways which i n d i c a t e d a negative or f r u s t r a t e d a t t i t u d e . With regard to the t h i r d negative i n d i c a t o r of comfort and TABLE 4.4 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 1 RESPONSES AND BEHAVIOURS IM DYAD #2 PRE-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE TEACHER: COMFORT AND CONFIDENCE 1 PRINCIPAL: "READING" AND "FLEXING" ! TO SUPPORT RESPONSE (Total BEHAVIOUR 1 T o t a l POSITIVE POSITIVE 1) Asks questions and/or r e f l e c t s before making responses 1 7 1) Allows teacher time t o r e f l e c t before expecting response 1 7 2) Maintains p o s i t i v e and hopeful a t t i t u d e 1 6 2) Is responsive to teacher's questions and statements 1 6 3) Responds openly and with t r u s t 1 7 3) Provides accurate and p o s i t i v e feedback I 6 4) D i s p l a y s i n t e r e s t 1 8 1 4) L i n k s presented prob-lems w i t h teacher's career stage and experience 1 5 NEGATIVE NEGATIVE 1) I n t e r a c t s i n s e c u r e l y 1 0 I 1) Dominates t a l k and time 1 8 2) Develops negative & f r u s -t r a t e d a t t i t u d e , maybe despondent or compliant 1 4 I 2) Is non-responsive t o teacher's questions and statements 1 5 3) Responds d e f e n s i v e l y or h e s i t a n t l y 1 2 I 3) Provides negative feedback 1 4 4) D i s p l a y s p h y s i c a l s i g n s of i n s e c u r i t y and/or d i s i n t e r e s t 1 3 1 4) D i s p l a y s p h y s i c a l i n d i c a t i o n s of a u t h o r i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e 1 1 60 confidence, two i n c i d e n t s of Helen responding h e s i t a n t l y were counted. Helen never responded d e f e n s i v e l y . On three occasions, Helen responded w i t h f a c i a l expressions suggestive of disappointment and p o s s i b l e d i s i n t e r e s t . In Table 4.4, these responses are reported as p h y s i c a l s i g n s of i n s e c u r i t y and/or d i s i n t e r e s t . A n a l y s i s of the frequency data suggests t h a t Helen's negative responses may have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the frequency w i t h which Hugh both dominated t a l k and time and appeared non-responsive t o Helen's questions and statements. The absence of defensiveness i n Helen's a t t i t u d e suggests t h a t she d i d not respond n e g a t i v e l y t o the four occasions when Hugh provided negative feedback. The a n a l y s i s of the frequency data f o r the Dyad #2 pre-workshop conference revealed evidence t o suggest Helen mostly r e t a i n e d p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s of comfort and confidence. However, i n comparison t o eighteen i n d i c a t i o n s of Hugh's non-supportive behaviours, the nine negative i n d i c a t i o n s regarding Helen's comfort and confidence suggest t h a t the amount of comfort and confidence r e t a i n e d by Helen may not have been e n t i r e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Hugh's behaviours. As was the case f o r the pre-workshop conferences, the frequency data d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4.5 i n d i c a t e t h a t a lower t o t a l number of i n t e r a c t i o n s occurred i n the Dyad #2 post-conference than i n the Dyad #1 post-conference; that i s , fourteen i n t e r a c t i o n s as opposed to twenty-seven. The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h i s number of i n t e r a c t i o n s seemed to be mainly l i n k e d to the d i f f e r e n c e i n length of the two conferences. The Dyad #2 post-workshop conference took only 14 minutes, whereas the Dyad I I conference took 31 minutes. In the second Dyad #2 conference, the number of i n t e r a c t i o n s was not connected, as i t was i n the f i r s t conference, with Hugh's behaviour. Hugh d i d not prolong h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s to TABLE 4.5 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 1 RESPONSES AND BEHAVIOURS I N DYAD #2 POST-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE TEACHER: COMFORT AND CONFIDENCE IPRINCIPAL:"READING" AND "FLEXING" I TO SUPPORT RESPONSE 1 T o t a l I BEHAVIOUR 1 T o t a l POSITIVE 1 POSITIVE 1) Asks questions and/or r e f l e c t s before making responses t 6 1 1) Allows teacher time t o 1 r e f l e c t before 1 expecting response 6 2) Maintains p o s i t i v e and hopeful a t t i t u d e 1 3 1 2) Is responsive t o I teacher's questions and 1 statements 1 3 3) Responds openly and w i t h t r u s t 1 5 1 3) Provides accurate and I p o s i t i v e feedback I 8 4) D i s p l a y s i n t e r e s t 1 3 4) L i n k s presented prob- I lems w i t h teacher's I career stage and | experience I 2 NEGATIVE NEGATIVE i 1) I n t e r a c t s i n s e c u r e l y ! 0 I 1) Dominates t a l k and time | 5 2) Develops negative & f r u s -t r a t e d a t t i t u d e , maybe despondent or compliant 2 1 2) I s non-responsive t o I teacher's questions and I statements I 3 3) Responds d e f e n s i v e l y or h e s i t a n t l y 1 | 3) Provides negative I feedback I 1 4) D i s p l a y s p h y s i c a l s i g n s of i n s e c u r i t y and/or d i s i n t e r e s t 1 | 4) D i s p l a y s p h y s i c a l I i n d i c a t i o n s of | a u t h o r i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e j 1 62 i n t e r a c t i o n s i n the second conference. On the f i v e occasions when Hugh dominated t a l k and time during the second Dyad #2 conference, h i s domination took the form of d i r e c t i n g d i s c u s s i o n s toward what appeared t o be h i s own i n t e r e s t s . In the frequency data, t h i s behaviour i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the r e p o r t s t h a t Hugh l i n k e d problems w i t h Helen's career stage and experience i n only two out of fourteen i n t e r a c t i o n s , and t h a t on three occasions he was unresponsive t o Helen's questions and statements. A n a l y s i s of the frequency data suggests t h a t the infrequency w i t h which Helen's responses i n d i c a t e d maintenance of a p o s i t i v e and hopeful a t t i t u d e , or d i s p l a y e d i n t e r e s t , may have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the infrequency w i t h which Hugh d i s p l a y e d regard f o r her statements, and f o r her career stage and experience. The frequency data d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4.5 f o r the Dyad #2 post-workshop conference report fewer negative and p o s i t i v e behaviours f o r Hugh than f o r the pre-workshop conference. A n a l y s i s of the data r e v e a l s evidence of a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n Helen's comfort and confidence t h a t may have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r e d u c t i o n i n the frequency of Hugh's supportive behaviours. Teachers' A c t i v e Involvement This second stage of the a n a l y s i s addressed research sub-question 1.2 and the second stage of the conceptual model; t h a t i s , data were analyzed f o r evidence of whether the responses of the Dyad #2 HCL teacher, Helen, who was p a i r e d w i t h the M/HCL p r i n c i p a l , Hugh, i n d i c a t e d more a c t i v e involvement than those of the Dyad #1 HCL teacher, Luke, who 63 was p a i r e d w i t h the LCL p r i n c i p a l , Lorna. The frequency data f o r teachers' responses were analyzed f o r i n d i c a t i o n s of a c t i v e involvement, and the frequency data f o r p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours were analyzed f o r i n d i c a t i o n s of "reading" and " f l e x i n g " t o challenge the teacher. In a d d i t i o n , the observed teachers' responses and p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours were analyzed f o r evidence of a s s o c i a t i o n s matching those suggested i n the research l i t e r a t u r e . The i n d i c a t o r s used i n the instruments f o r r e c o r d i n g the frequency of Category 2 behaviours and responses (see Appendices A-3 and A-4) were found t o be inadequate f o r c o l l e c t i n g data which were u s e f u l t o the a n a l y s i s of the teachers' a c t i v e involvement i n e x p l o r a t i o n of observations and i n problem s o l v i n g . Although evidence of the teacher's a c t i v e involvement seemed apparent, the responses o f f e r i n g t h i s evidence d i d not match the predetermined responses used as i n d i c a t o r s i n the re c o r d i n g instrument and t h e r e f o r e could not be Included i n the frequency count. The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of these l i m i t e d data are presented f i r s t f o r Dyad #1, and second f o r Dyad #2. Dyad #1 teacher's a c t i v e involvement. Frequency data, d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4.6 regarding the teachers' a c t i v e involvement, were sparse because many of the i n t e r a c t i o n s contained the g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g of p o s i t i v e feedback, and a l s o because problem s o l v i n g r a r e l y progressed f a r enough d u r i n g the conference to produce behaviours corresponding to those described i n the r e c o r d i n g instruments. Issues were r a r e l y i d e n t i f i e d as problems and were u s u a l l y approached not so much as challenges but more as issues which might have the p o t e n t i a l t o suggest ch a l l e n g e s . Decisions about t h i s p o t e n t i a l were not u s u a l l y made during TABLE 4.6 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 2 RESPONSES AND BEHAVIOURS IN DYAD #1 PRE-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE TEACHER: ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT 1 PRINCIPAL:"READING" AND "FLEXING" TO CHALLENGE RESPONSE T o t a l BEHAVIOUR 1 T o t a l POSITIVE POSITIVE 1) Explores p r i n c i p a l ' s j observations 2 1) I n v i t e s teacher's analy-s i s and que s t i o n i n g of observations 1 8 2) Relates p r i n c i p a l ' s 1 obs'v'ns t o past I experiences and notes 1 i m p l i c a t i o n s 1 5 2) Demonstrates i n t e r e s t i n teacher's i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n of problems 1 5 3) Asks questions t o a i d I own c l a r i f i c a t i o n of new | ideas 1 0 1 3) R e f l e c t s and probes t o help teacher c l a r i f y thoughts about problem 1 14 4) A p p l i e s own ideas p o s i t - | i v e l y and i n r e l a t i o n t o I p r i n c i p a l ' s ideas I 2 1 4) R e f l e c t s and probes t o encourage teacher t o r e -l a t e own ideas +vely w i t h p r i n c i p a l ' s ideas 2 NEGATIVE 1 NEGATIVE 1) Does not explore & even- I t u a l l y seems t o accept I p r i n c i p a l ' s observations I 4 1 1) I d e n t i f i e s and s t a t e s problem 1 2) Abandons attempts t o draw I own inferences from 1 p r i n c i p a l ' s obs'v'ns 1 0 1 2) Is non-receptive t o teacher's i n f o r m a t i o n or i n t e r p r e t ' n of problem 0 3) Abandons q u e s t i o n i n g used I f o r own c l a r i f i c a t i o n I 0 ! 3) Presents own thoughts about problem 3 4) Involvement becomes def- 1 ensiveness of own I b e l i e f s and behaviours I 0 1 4) Makes suggestions regarding p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s 0 65 the conferences. The pre-workshop conference frequency data i n Table 4.6 i n d i c a t e t h a t , i n f i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s out of twenty-six, Luke was observed to " r e l a t e the p r i n c i p a l ' s observations to past experiences and note i m p l i c a t i o n s " . The issues being discussed on these occasions were the only ones which both Luke and Lorna appeared t o have a l r e a d y accepted as re p r e s e n t i n g problems r e q u i r i n g s o l u t i o n s . The data i n Table 4.6 show th a t i n fourteen out of twenty-six i n t e r a c t i o n s Lorna used r e f l e c t i n g and probing t o help Luke t o c l a r i f y h i s thoughts about problems. To f a c i l i t a t e use of t h i s i n d i c a t o r i n frequency data c o l l e c t e d f o r Dyad tfl, "thoughts about problems" was conceived of as thoughts about p o t e n t i a l l y problematic issues r a t h e r than thoughts about i d e n t i f i e d problems and p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . This d e f i n i t i o n was chosen as a means of adapting the i n d i c a t o r t o what appeared t o be Lorna's approach t o "problems". When the i n d i c a t o r " a p p l i e s own ideas p o s i t i v e l y and i n r e l a t i o n t o p r i n c i p a l ' s ideas" was used i n the c o l l e c t i o n of frequency data, " i d e a s " was conceived of as new ideas proposed f o r s o l v i n g problems of cu r r e n t concern. Therefore, the count d i d not includ e those ideas which during the conference were mentioned among explanations of r a t i o n a l e s f o r c u r r e n t l y a p p l i e d methods. Two of the p o s i t i v e responses i n d i c a t i v e of teacher's a c t i v e involvement which are described i n Table 4.6 r e f e r to " ideas". The data d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4.6 i n d i c a t e t h a t Luke e x h i b i t e d one of these responses only twice and the other one never. The infrequency of these responses suggests t h a t new ideas were r a r e l y apparent during the conference, t h e r e f o r e the o p p o r t u n i t i e s were e q u a l l y 66 r a r e f o r Luke t o apply "ideas p o s i t i v e l y and i n r e l a t i o n to (Lorna's! ideas". A n a l y s i s of the frequency data i n Table 4.6 r e v e a l s evidence t o suggest t h a t Lorna more f r e q u e n t l y d i s p l a y e d behaviours which were p o s i t i v e r a t h e r than negative i n d i c a t o r s of "reading" and " f l e x i n g " t o challenge Luke. However, the a n a l y s i s suggests t h a t Luke responded i n f r e q u e n t l y d u r ing the f i r s t Dyad #1 pre-conference i n ways which i n d i c a t e d a c t i v e involvement. As was the case i n the pre-workshop conference, many of the i n t e r a c t i o n s i n the post-workshop conference c o n s i s t e d of the g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g of p o s i t i v e feedback. Again, t h i s may p a r t l y account f o r the p a u c i t y of data d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4.7 f o r behaviours and responses regarding a c t i v e involvement. Lorna provided p o s i t i v e feedback even more f r e q u e n t l y d u r i n g t h i s second conference than during the f i r s t . This may p a r t l y e x p l a i n why she l e s s f r e q u e n t l y e x h i b i t e d behaviours t o challenge Luke to become a c t i v e l y involved i n problem s o l v i n g d u r i ng the second conference. As was the case f o r the f i r s t conference, Luke r a r e l y had reason to note i m p l i c a t i o n s d u r ing the second conference. This i s r e f l e c t e d i n the low frequency ( i . e . , s i x occurrences i n twenty-seven i n t e r a c t i o n s ) d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4.7 f o r the response t h a t i n c l u d e s t h i s behaviour. Many of the Dyad #1 members' p o s i t i v e responses and behaviours included i n the frequency counts d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4.7, were observed during the l a t t e r part of the conference. During t h a t time, Luke's candid d i s c l o s u r e of a time management problem t h a t had occurred a f t e r Lorna had l e f t h i s classroom seemed to i n i t i a t e a set of i n t e r a c t i o n s which incorporated a l l the p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r s of a c t i v e involvement TABLE 4.7 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 2 RESPONSES AND BEHAVIOURS I N DYAD #1 POST-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE TEACHER: ACTIVE INVOVEMENT IPRINCIPAL:"READING" AND "FLEXING" | TO CHALLENGE RESPONSE 1 T o t a l I BEHAVIOUR T o t a l POSITIVE 1 POSITIVE 1) Explores p r i n c i p a l ' s observations 1 2 I 1) I n v i t e s teacher's analy-I s i s and qu e s t i o n i n g I of observations 5 2) Rel a t e s p r i n c i p a l ' s obs'v'ns t o past experiences and notes i m p l i c a t i o n s t 6 1 2) Demonstrates i n t e r e s t 1 i n teacher's i d e n t i f i -1 c a t i o n of problems i 4 3) Asks questions t o a i d own c l a r i f i c a t i o n of new ideas 1 2 1 3) R e f l e c t s and probes t o I ! help teacher c l a r i f y I thoughts about problem | 13 4) A p p l i e s own ideas p o s i t -i v e l y and i n r e l a t i o n t o p r i n c i p a l ' s ideas 4 4) R e f l e c t s and probes t o I encourage teacher t o r e - | l a t e own ideas +vely I wi t h p r i n c i p a l ' s ideas I 6 NEGATIVE 1 NEGATIVE 1 1) Does not explore & even- 1 t u a l l y seems t o accept j p r i n c i p a l ' s observations I 6 1 1) I d e n t i f i e s and s t a t e s 1 problem I 0 2) Abandons attempts t o draw 1 own inferences from I p r i n c i p a l ' s obs'v'ns I 1 I 2) Is non-receptive t o | teacher's i n f o r m a t i o n or I i n t e r p r e t s of problem I 0 3) Abandons q u e s t i o n i n g used I f o r own c l a r i f i c a t i o n | 0 1 3) Presents own thoughts I about problem I 3 4) Involvement becomes def- 1 ensiveness of own I b e l i e f s and behaviours 1 0 1 4) Makes suggestions I regarding p o s s i b l e I s o l u t i o n s 1 1 68 described i n Table 4.7. During the s e c t i o n of the conference wherein Lorna and Luke were a t t e n d i n g t o t h i s problem, Luke responded not only by a p p l y i n g " h i s own ideas p o s i t i v e l y and i n r e l a t i o n t o the p r i n c i p a l ' s " but a l s o i n ways corresponding t o the other p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r s of a c t i v e involvement described i n Table 4.7. However, during the remainder of the conference although Lorna d i s p l a y e d more p o s i t i v e than negative behaviours, only a few of Luke's responses matched the i n d i c a t o r s of a c t i v e involvement described i n the Table 4.7. A n a l y s i s of the frequency data f o r the Dyad #1 post-workshop conference revealed evidence t o suggest t h a t responses i n d i c a t i n g Luke's a c t i v e involvement occurred i n f r e q u e n t l y . There d i d not appear t o be s u f f i c i e n t evidence from which to draw any inferences regarding an a s s o c i a t i o n between Luke's responses and Lorna's behaviours. Dyad #2 teacher's a c t i v e involvement. Frequency data regarding the teacher's a c t i v e involvement were even more scarce f o r Dyad #2 than they were f o r Dyad #1. As was the case f o r Dyad t l , occasions f o r p o s i t i v e feedback reduced the number of i n t e r a c t i o n s concerned w i t h problem s o l v i n g . However, other reasons f o r the s c a r c i t y of frequency data f o r the teacher's a c t i v e involvement d i f f e r e d from those f o r Dyad #1. For Dyad #2, evidence suggested t h a t behaviours and responses matching those described i n Table 4.8 and Table 4.9 as p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r s regarding a c t i v e involvement occurred r a r e l y because of two circumstances: (1) Hugh only attempted t o introduce problem s o l v i n g f o r one i s s u e ; and (2) Hugh refused t o attend t o a problem which Helen i d e n t i f i e d . The frequency data i n Tables 4.8 and 4.9 i n d i c a t e t h a t Helen had almost n e g l i g i b l e a c t i v e involvement i n both of the Dyad #2 conferences. 69 TABLE 4.8 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 2 RESPONSES AND BEHAVIOURS I N DYAD #2 PRE-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE TEACHER: ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT PRINCIPAL:"READING" AND "FLEXING" TO CHALLENGE RESPONSE T o t a l BEHAVIOUR 1Total POSITIVE POSITIVE 1) Explores p r i n c i p a l ' s observations 0 1) I n v i t e s teacher's analy-s i s and qu e s t i o n i n g of observations I 1 2) Relates p r i n c i p a l ' s obs'v'ns t o past experiences and notes 1 i m p l i c a t i o n s j 0 2) Demonstrates i n t e r e s t i n teacher's i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n of problems 1 2 3) Asks questions t o a i d I own c l a r i f i c a t i o n of new I ideas 1 0 1 3) R e f l e c t s and probes t o help teacher c l a r i f y thoughts about problem 1 0 4) A p p l i e s own ideas p o s i t - I i v e l y and i n r e l a t i o n t o | p r i n c i p a l ' s ideas 1 0 1 4) R e f l e c t s and probes t o encourage teacher t o r e -l a t e own ideas +vely wit h p r i n c i p a l ' s ideas 0 NEGATIVE 1 NEGATIVE 1) Does not explore & even- 1 t u a l l y seems t o accept 1 p r i n c i p a l ' s observations 1 3 1 1) I d e n t i f i e s and s t a t e s problem 3 2) Abandons attempts to draw I own inferences from I p r i n c i p a l ' s obs'v'ns I 2 1 2) Is non-receptive t o teacher's i n f o r m a t i o n or i n t e r p r e t ' n of problem 4 3) Abandons q u e s t i o n i n g used 1 f o r own c l a r i f i c a t i o n 1 0 1 3) Presents own thoughts about problem 6 4) Involvement becomes def- I ensiveness of own 1 b e l i e f s and behaviours 1 0 1 4) Makes suggestions regarding p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s 3 70 TABLE 4.9 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 2 RESPONSES AND BEHAVIOURS I N DYAD #2 POST-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE TEACHER: ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT (PRINCIPAL:"READING" AND "FLEXING" I TO CHALLENGE RESPONSE T o t a l I BEHAVIOUR To t a l POSITIVE 1 I POSITIVE 1) Explores p r i n c i p a l ' s observations I 1 I 1) I n v i t e s teacher's analy-1 s i s and qu e s t i o n i n g 1 of observations 2 2) Relates p r i n c i p a l ' s 1 obs'v'ns t o past I experiences and notes I i m p l i c a t i o n s I 1 I 2) Demonstrates i n t e r e s t 1 i n teacher's i d e n t i f i -1 c a t i o n of problems 1 2 3) Asks questions t o a i d I own c l a r i f i c a t i o n of new I ideas I 0 3) R e f l e c t s and probes t o j help teacher c l a r i f y 1 thoughts about problem 1 2 4) A p p l i e s own ideas p o s i t - | i v e l y and i n r e l a t i o n t o j p r i n c i p a l ' s ideas I 0 4) R e f l e c t s and probes t o I encourage teacher t o r e - I l a t e own ideas +vely | wi t h p r i n c i p a l ' s ideas j 0 NEGATIVE 1 NEGATIVE 1 1) Does not explore & even- I t u a l l y seems t o accept j p r i n c i p a l ' s observations I 1 | 1) I d e n t i f i e s and s t a t e s ( problem I 1 2) Abandons attempts t o draw I own inferences from I p r i n c i p a l ' s obs'v'ns | 1 I 2) I s non-receptive t o I teacher's i n f o r m a t i o n o r | i n t e r p r e t ' n of problem 1 2 3) Abandons q u e s t i o n i n g used 1 f o r own c l a r i f i c a t i o n I 0 | 3) Presents own thoughts I about problem ( 2 4) Involvement becomes def- | ensiveness of own | b e l i e f s and behaviours j 0 t 4) Makes suggestions I regarding p o s s i b l e I s o l u t i o n s | 0 The data r e v e a l t h a t Helen o c c a s i o n a l l y responded i n ways t h a t were negative w i t h regard to a c t i v e involvement. In Table 4.8, f i v e occurrences of negative responses are reported f o r the f i r s t Dyad #2 conference as opposed to no occurrences of p o s i t i v e responses. In Table 4.9, two occurrences of negative responses and two occurrences of p o s i t i v e responses are reported. A n a l y s i s of the data regarding Helen's negative responses suggests t h a t Helen tended t o f o r f e i t a c t i v e involvement i n favour of accepting Hugh's observations and suggestions. With regard t o Hugh's behaviours i n the pre-workshop conference, the data d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4.8 suggest more negative than p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t i o n s of "reading" and " f l e x i n g " t o present a challenge f o r Helen to become a c t i v e l y i nvolved i n problem s o l v i n g . This was most evident i n the s i x occasions, among t h i r t e e n i n t e r a c t i o n s , upon which Hugh "present[ed] h i s own thoughts about problem!s]". A n a l y s i s of the data suggests t h a t Hugh was more i n t e r e s t e d i n presenting h i s own ideas about problems and s o l u t i o n s than he was i n e i t h e r a t t e n d i n g t o Helen's ideas or encouraging her to c l a r i f y ideas. The evidence suggested t h a t the infrequency of Helen's involvement i n the f i r s t Dyad #2 conference may have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Hugh's behaviours. Data d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4.9, suggest t h a t , although r a r e , Hugh's behaviours more f r e q u e n t l y d i s p l a y e d p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t i o n s of c h a l l e n g i n g Helen's a c t i v e involvement during the second conference than i n the f i r s t . Comparative a n a l y s i s of the data d i s p l a y e d i n Tables 4.8 and 4.9 suggests a decrease i n the frequency of Hugh's negative behaviours regarding supportiveness f o r Helen. For i n s t a n c e , the count d i s p l a y e d f o r "presents own thoughts about problems" dropped to two occurrences among fourteen i n t e r a c t i o n s . This behaviour seemed t o be accompanied by 72 a s m a l l increase i n Helen's p o s i t i v e responses and a small decrease i n her negative responses. However, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t a n a l y s i s of the frequency data suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y of a s l i g h t improvement during the second Dyad #2 conference, evidence suggests a low incidence Helen's a c t i v e involvement i n both conferences. Furthermore, the infrequency with which Helen's responses i n d i c a t e d a c t i v e involvement appeared t o be as s o c i a t e d w i t h the infrequency w i t h which Hugh's behaviours i n d i c a t e d "reading" and " f l e x i n g " t o challenge Helen t o become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n problem s o l v i n g . Teachers' Autonomous Behaviours This t h i r d stage of the a n a l y s i s addressed research sub-question 1.3 and the t h i r d stage of the conceptual model; that i s , data were analyzed f o r evidence of whether the responses of the Dyad 82 HCL teacher, Helen, who was p a i r e d w i t h the M/HCL p r i n c i p a l , Hugh, i n d i c a t e d more autonomous behaviour than those of the Dyad #1 HCL teacher, Luke, who was paired w i t h the LCL p r i n c i p a l , Lorna. Very few of e i t h e r the Category 3 negative or p o s i t i v e behaviours, or responses i n d i c a t i n g autonomous behaviour occurred during any of the conferences. Therefore, i t was d i f f i c u l t to c o l l e c t frequency data using the instruments designed f o r r e c o r d i n g the Category 3 behaviours and responses (see Appendices A-5 and A-6). The data c o l l e c t e d f o r teachers' responses were analyzed f o r i n d i c a t i o n s of autonomous behaviour, and those c o l l e c t e d f o r p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours were analyzed f o r i n d i c a t i o n s of "reading" and " f l e x i n g " t o " p u l l " the teacher towards f u n c t i o n i n g at h i s / h e r high conceptual l e v e l . In a d d i t i o n , the observed teachers' responses and 73 p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours were analyzed f o r evidence of a s s o c i a t i o n s matching those suggested i n the research l i t e r a t u r e . The r e s u l t s of t h i s stage of the a n a l y s i s are presented f i r s t f o r Dyad 81, and second f o r Dyad #2. Dyad #1 teacher's autonomous behaviour. Frequency data d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4.10 suggest t h a t Luke's responses d i d not demonstrate any autonomous behaviour during the Dyad 81 pre-workshop conference. A n a l y s i s of the data revealed evidence t o suggest t h a t although Lorna's behaviours d i d not d i s p l a y any negative i n d i c a t i o n s regarding her "reading" and " f l e x i n g " t o " p u l l " Luke towards f u n c t i o n i n g at h i s high conceptual l e v e l , they d i s p l a y e d very few p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t i o n s . The evidence suggests t h a t the absence of autonomous behaviour i n Luke's responses may have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the infrequency of Lorna's " p u l l i n g " behaviours. Luke's responses and Lorna's behaviours recorded i n Tables 4.10 and 4.11 were observed on the few occasions when problem s o l v i n g was pursued during the Dyad 81 conferences. A n a l y s i s of the data suggests t h a t o nly during the second conference d i d Luke respond t o Lorna's p o s i t i v e behaviours by d i s p l a y i n g autonomous behaviours. A n a l y s i s of the data a l s o suggests t h a t Luke's one negative response may have been as s o c i a t e d w i t h the few negative behaviours shown f o r Lorna. I t appears t h a t the p a u c i t y of Luke's responses i n d i c a t i v e of autonomous behaviours may have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the infrequency w i t h which Lorna behaved i n ways which i n d i c a t e d she was "reading" and f l e x i n g " to " p u l l " Luke toward f u n c t i o n i n g at h i s high conceptual l e v e l . TABLE 4.10 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 3 RESPONSES AND BEHAVIOURS IN DYAD #1 PRE-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE TEACHER: AUTONOMOUS BEHAVIOUR PRINCIPAL:"READING" AND "FLEXING" I- TO "PULL" RESPONSE ITotal BEHAVIOUR 1 T o t a l POSITIVE 1 POSITIVE 1) Proposes a s e t of a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s t o problem 1 0 1) Probes & c l a r i f i e s t o encourage teacher's generation of s o l u t i o n s and a l t e r n a t i v e s 1 1 2) S e l e c t s p r e f e r r e d s o l u t i o n and s e t s goals and o b j e c t i v e s I o 2) Encourages teacher t o explore and s e l e c t from a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s by c o n s i d e r i n g consequences 1 1 3) Suggests plan f o r implementation 1 0 1 3) Encourages teacher by ques t i o n i n g t o c o n s o l i d -ate ideas i n the s e t t i n g of goals and o b j e c t i v e s 1 4) Suggests plan f o r e v a l u a t i o n 1 0 I 4) Encourages teacher t o pla n iraplem't'n & eval'n and commit t o these 0 NEGATIVE NEGATIVE 1 1) Seeks or accepts p r i n c i p a l ' s s o l u t i o n 1 0 I 1) S e l e c t s own s o l u t i o n 0 2) Seeks or accepts p r i n c i -p a l ' s suggestions regar-ding goals & o b j e c t i v e s 1 0 1 2) States the r a t i o n a l e f o r own s o l u t i o n 0 3) Seeks or accepts p r i n c i -p a l ' s implementation plan 1 0 I 3) Sets goals and o b j e c t i v e s 0 4) Seeks or accepts p r i n c i -p a l ' s e v a l u a t i o n plan 1 o I 4) Imposes implementation plan and s e l e c t s 1 e v a l u a t i o n method 0 TABLE 4.11 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 3 RESPONSES AND BEHAVIOURS I N DYAD #1 POST-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE TEACHER: AUTONOMOUS BEHAVIOUR PRINCIPAL:"READING" AND "FLEXING" I TO "PULL" RESPONSE 1Total BEHAVIOUR ITotal POSITIVE 1 POSITIVE 1) Proposes a set of alternative solutions to problem 1 1 1) Probes & c l a r i f i e s to encourage teacher's generation of solutions and alternatives 1 1 2) Selects preferred solution and sets goals and objectives 1 1 2) Encourages teacher to explore and select from alternative solutions by considering consequences 1 1 3) Suggests plan for implementation 1 0 I 3) Encourages teacher by 1 questioning to consolid- I ate ideas i n the setting 1 of goals and objectives 1 0 4) Suggests plan for evaluation 1 0 1 4) Encourages teacher to I plan implem't'n & eval'nj and commit to these I 0 NEGATIVE NEGATIVE 1 1) Seeks or accepts prin c i p a l ' s solution 1 t 1) Selects own solution I 2 2) Seeks or accepts p r i n c i -pal's suggestions regar-ding goals & objectives 0 1 2) States the rationale for 1 own solution | 1 3) Seeks or accepts p r i n c i - 1 pal's implementation plan I 0 1 3) Sets goals and I objectives 1 0 4) Seeks or accepts p r i n c i - 1 pal's evaluation plan 1 0 1 4) Imposes implementation 1 plan and selects I evaluation method 1 0 7 6 Dyad #2 teacher's autonomous behaviour. The frequency data d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4.12 r e v e a l evidence t o suggest t h a t Helen's responses provided only negative i n d i c a t i o n s regarding autonomous behaviours f o r problem s o l v i n g . A n a l y s i s of the data revealed f u r t h e r evidence t o suggest t h a t Helen's responses may have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Hugh's behaviours. The data show that Hugh performed only negative behaviours w i t h regard t o "reading" and " f l e x i n g " t o " p u l l " Helen towards f u n c t i o n i n g at her high conceptual l e v e l . The a n a l y s i s of the frequency data a l s o suggest t h a t the absence of responses i n d i c a t i n g Helen's autonomous behaviour, shown i n Tables 4.12 and 4.13, was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the absence of behaviours i n d i c a t i n g Hugh's e f f o r t s t o " p u l l " Helen's conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g toward the high l e v e l t h a t would match her c a p a b i l i t y . Concluding Comments Regarding the A n a l y s i s of Frequency Data The instruments used f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of frequency data were not designed t o c o l l e c t data f o r which v a l i d i t y could be e s t a b l i s h e d , nor was there any i n t e n t i o n i n t h i s study t o c l a i m r e l i a b i l i t y of the instruments. I t was hoped that data c o l l e c t e d w i t h the instruments would provide a rough p i c t u r e of patterns of s u b j e c t s ' i n t e r a c t i o n s f o r each stage of the conceptual model - a p i c t u r e t h a t could be c l a r i f i e d and, i f necessary, c o r r e c t e d by comparing i t t o the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data. However, i t o n l y seemed p o s s i b l e t o c o l l e c t s u f f i c i e n t data t o form a rough p i c t u r e regarding the teachers' comfort and confidence. Because the observed responses and behaviours r a r e l y matched those predetermined as i n d i c a t o r s regarding a c t i v e involvement and autonomous behaviour, i t TABLE 4.12 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 3 RESPONSES AND BEHAVIOURS IN DYAD »2 PRE-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE TEACHER: AUTONOMOUS BEHAVIOUR 1 PRINCIPAL: "READING" AND 'FLEXING" t TO "PULL" RBSPONSE 1Total BEHAVIOUR 1Total POSITIVE 1 POSITIVE 1) Proposes a set of alternative solutions to problem 1 0 1) Probes & c l a r i f i e s to encourage teacher's generation of solutions and alternatives i 0 2) Selects preferred solution and sets goals and objectives 1 0 2) Encourages teacher to explore and select from alternative solutions by considering consequences 0 3) Suggests plan for implementation 1 0 I 3) Encourages teacher by questioning to consolid-ate ideas i n the setting of goals and objectives 0 4 ) Suggests plan for evaluation 1 0 I 4 ) Encourages teacher to plan implem't'n & eval'nl and commit to these 0 NEGATIVE NEGATIVE 1 1) Seeks or accepts prin c i p a l ' s solution 1 2 1 1) Selects own solution 2 2) Seeks or accepts p r i n c i -pal's suggestions regar-ding goals & objectives 1 0 I 2) States the rationale for 1 own solution 1 2 3) Seeks or accepts p r i n c i -pal's implementation plan 1 1 I 3) Sets goals and 1 objectives 1 0 4 ) Seeks or accepts p r i n c i -pal's evaluation plan ! 1 1 4 ) Imposes implementation 1 plan and selects 1 evaluation method 1 1 TABLE 4.13 SUMMARY OF FREQUENCY DATA: CATEGORY 3 RESPONSES AND BEHAVIOURS IN DYAD #2 POST-WORKSHOP CONFERENCE TEACHER: AUTONOMOUS BEHAVIOUR 1 PRINCIPAL:"READING" AND "FLEXING" I TO "PULL" RESPONSE 1Total BEHAVIOUR I Total POSITIVE 1 POSITIVE 1) Proposes a set of alternative solutions to problem 1 0 1) Probes & c l a r i f i e s to encourage teacher's generation of solutions and alternatives 1 0 2) Selects preferred solution and sets goals and objectives 1 0 1 2) Encourages teacher to explore and select from alternative solutions by considering consequences 0 3) Suggests plan for implementation 1 0 I 3) Encourages teacher by 1 questioning to consolid-| ate ideas i n the setting 1 of goals and objectives I 0 4) Suggests plan for evaluation 1 0 1 4) Encourages teacher to 1 plan implem't'n & eval'nl and commit to these I 0 NEGATIVE NEGATIVE 1 1) Seeks or accepts prin c i p a l ' s solution 0 1 1) Selects own solution 1 0 2) Seeks or accepts p r i n c i -pal's suggestions regar-ding goals & objectives i 0 1 2) States the rationale for I own solution I 0 3) Seeks or accepts p r i n c i - | pal's implementation plan 1 0 1 3) Sets goals and | objectives I 0 4) Seeks or accepts p r i n c i - 1 pal's evaluation plan I 0 1 4) Imposes implementation 1 plan and selects I evaluation method I 0 79 was d i f f i c u l t t o form even a rough p i c t u r e of these two stages. During observation of the videotapes, evidence regarding the teachers' a c t i v e involvement and autonomous behaviours seemed t o be present. However, the responses and behaviours t h a t seemed t o c o n t a i n t h i s evidence were d i f f e r e n t from those described by the i n d i c a t o r s of a c t i v e involvement and autonomous behaviour described i n the data c o l l e c t i o n instruments. However, t h i s evidence supported r a t h e r than r e f u t e d the ex i s t e n c e of the second and t h i r d stages p o s t u l a t e d i n the conceptual model: the problem was not th a t the c a t e g o r i e s of a c t i v e involvement and autonomous behaviour had been predetermined i n c o r r e c t l y ; but r a t h e r t h a t the s e t s of responses and behaviours which had been predetermined as i n d i c a t o r s f o r these c a t e g o r i e s were not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l types of responses and behaviours t h a t appeared t o o f f e r evidence of a c t i v e involvement and autonomous behaviour. Suggestions made on the b a s i s of the small amounts of frequency data i t was p o s s i b l e t o c o l l e c t , seemed t o have l i t t l e value even f o r the formation of rough p i c t u r e s of the teachers' a c t i v e involvement and autonomous behaviour. This problem with the frequency data seemed t o increase the importance of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data. Instead of being needed j u s t as a v a l i d i t y check and source of f u r t h e r q u a l i t a t i v e data as o r i g i n a l l y a n t i c i p a t e d , the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data were now r e q u i r e d to be the major source of inform a t i o n regarding the new evidence of a c t i v e involvement and autonomous behaviour which could not be recorded on the b a s i s of the predetermined i n d i c a t o r s . The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data were c a r e f u l l y examined f o r the new kinds of evidence. However, because of the l a r g e volume of both the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data and the emergent evidence, i t appeared that a n a l y s i s 80 of a l l the data and the p r e s e n t a t i o n of f i n d i n g s would be i m p r a c t i c a l . Thus, t o make these tasks more manageable, a p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data was performed i n order t o e x t r a c t s e t s of data t h a t could f a c i l i t a t e a n a l y s i s f o r new evidence regarding teachers' a c t i v e involvement and autonomous behaviour. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF TRANSCRIPTION DATA During t h i s a n a l y s i s , i t was found t h a t both dyads addressed time management as a concern. Two aspects of time management were addressed by both Dyad #1 and Dyad #2: o r g a n i z i n g t i m e - e f f i c i e n t l e s s o n openings; and o r g a n i z i n g t i m e - e f f i c i e n t performance of r o u t i n e t a s k s . An a d d i t i o n a l concern f o r Dyad #1 was how to r e v i t a l i z e l e s s o n endings when they appeared t o be i n danger of becoming wasted time. The i n t e r a c t i o n s r e l e v a n t to these concerns appeared t o c o n t a i n data that could be e x t r a c t e d and provide a b a s i s f o r the a n a l y s i s of t r a n s c r i p t i o n data. The time management concerns were s e l e c t e d f o r three reasons: (1) f o r both dyads, time management was a concern that evoked s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r a c t i o n t o a c t as a r i c h source of data; (2) i t seemed u s e f u l t o compare data regarding a concern h e l d i n common by both dyads; and (3) f o r Dyad #2, time management was the only concern t h a t arose i n both conferences and involved more than one i n t e r a c t i o n . In order t o acquire data from the t r a n s c r i p t i o n excerpts t h a t might e v e n t u a l l y f a c i l i t a t e a comparison of new evidence regarding the teachers' responses and the three stages of the conceptual model, i t seemed necessary f i r s t t o gain a c l e a r e r understanding of the sub s t a n t i v e content of the conference s e c t i o n s r e l e v a n t to each dyad's 81 time management concerns. The purpose of the remainder of t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o present the f i n d i n g s f o r the a n a l y s i s of the sub s t a n t i v e content of each dyad's time management concerns and s e c t i o n s of the conferences r e l a t e d t o these concerns. The i n t e n t i o n i s f o r t h i s i nformation t o be h e l p f u l as a source of re f e r e n c e , i n forthcoming chapters, f o r pr e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s from the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s regarding s u b j e c t s ' comfort and confidence, a c t i v e involvement, and autonomous behaviour during conference s e c t i o n s r e l a t e d t o time management concerns. The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of the su b s t a n t i v e content of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e time management concerns are presented f i r s t f o r Dyad #1, and second f o r Dyad #2. Dyad #1 Time Management Concerns During her s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , Lorna, the LCL p r i n c i p a l i n dyad #1, mentioned t h a t d u r ing t h e i r pre-observation conference she and Luke, the HCL teacher i n dyad #1, had s e l e c t e d e i g h t areas f o r observation. When Lorna named these areas, she d i d not mention time management. However, o r g a n i z a t i o n was one of the areas named, and i t appeared that w h i le observing Luke's lesson o r g a n i z a t i o n , Lorna had noted some d e t a i l s of h i s time management. During the post-observation conferences, Lorna's references t o time management issues were presented w i t h i n two d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t types of feedback. The two types seemed d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from one another according to d i f f e r e n c e s i n purpose. The purpose of the f i r s t type seemed t o be r e s t r i c t e d t o the p r o v i s i o n of p o s i t i v e , supportive feedback i n the form of p r a i s e . The purpose of the second type seemed to 82 be i n v e s t i g a t i v e : Lorna seemed t o be requesting Luke to c l a r i f y her understanding of events she had observed and of h i s r e l a t e d classroom behaviours. Within the two conferences, Lorna r e f e r r e d to three s p e c i f i c time management i s s u e s . The i n t e r a c t i o n s r e l a t e d t o these issues occupied only s m a l l s e c t i o n s of the conferences. However, a f o u r t h time management concern which was introduced by Luke occupied a f a i r l y l a r g e s e c t i o n of the second conference. Luke revealed h i s own concern about a s p e c i f i c aspect of h i s time management, and he a c t i v e l y sought Lorna's guidance i n s o l v i n g the problem. Luke made a b r i e f e r reference to the same concern during the f i r s t Dyad #1 conference. The f i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n regarding the s u b s t a n t i v e content of the time management concerns and r e l a t e d conference s e c t i o n s w i l l be addressed f o r the Dyad II pre-workshop and post-workshop conferences s e p a r a t e l y . Dyad 81 pre-workshop conference. To begin the f i r s t conference, while p r a i s i n g the manner i n which Luke's p u p i l s entered the classroom and q u i c k l y s e t t l e d down t o work, Lorna seemed to be commending the time e f f i c i e n c y of Luke's lesson opening. Lorna enquired whether Luke always gave p u p i l s an opening a c t i v i t y s i m i l a r t o the quick d r i l l t h a t he gave to begin the lesson she observed. In response, Luke described h i s r e g u l a r opening a c t i v i t i e s and h i s r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e i r use. Luke's r e p l y seemed to enable Lorna t o a s c e r t a i n that Luke c o n s c i o u s l y used the opening a c t i v i t y so t h a t h i s p u p i l s "can get r i g h t down, r i g h t i n t o i t " (1:95). Lorna seemed to be at l e a s t p a r t l y concerned about time management when she enquired about Luke's system of o r g a n i z a t i o n whereby he 83 r e q u i r e d h i s p u p i l s to come up t o him and c o l l e c t t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l sheets. She s a i d , " i t d i d n ' t seem t o be a problem, um and I don't know why because i t q u i t e o f t e n can be s o r t of chaos when they've a l l got t h e i r sheets and everybody's l o o k i n g f o r them and t h a t s o r t of t h i n g . Were they c l e a r l y l a b e l l e d or ...?" (1:588-592). Despite her concern, she appeared t o accept Luke's e x p l a n a t i o n of h i s reasons f o r t h i s procedure, and d i d not encourage him t o continue t h i n k i n g about the problem d u r i n g the conference. Toward the end of the conference, Luke's r e f l e c t i o n s on one of Lorna's observations seemed to arouse h i s own concern about an aspect of h i s time management. Lorna had remarked about Luke's reinforcement of h i s expectations f o r p u p i l s ' behaviour when they were given f r e e r time during the l a t t e r part of the l e s s o n . Among her remarks, Lorna included the observation t h a t Luke had t o l d p u p i l s i t would be pack-up time i f they were not on t a s k , and she enquired, " I j u s t wondered have you ever had t o do t h a t ? " (1:551-552). Luke r e p l i e d , "Yes" (1:553) and proceeded t o r e f l e c t on how he had needed t o ask students t o pack up e a r l y not only on occasions when they seemed t o have l o s t i n t e r e s t , but a l s o at times when he had completed h i s lesson plan before the l e s s o n time e x p i r e d . Luke followed t h i s r e p l y w i t h f u r t h e r r e f l e c t i o n s t h a t seemed to i n d i c a t e t h a t whereas he was u n w i l l i n g t o f i l l these empty times w i t h unproductive a c t i v i t i e s , he was needing t o f i n d some ways of f i l l i n g the times u s e f u l l y . By v e r b a l i z i n g her understanding of h i s comments, Lorna seemed to encourage Luke to continue h i s t h i n k i n g about the problem. However, she gave him no time t o do so w i t h i n the f i r s t conference. However, the problem emerged again among the time concerns t h a t were discussed i n the Dyad #1 post-workshop conference. 84 Dyad #1 post-workshop conference. Using an opening s i m i l a r t o that of t h e i r f i r s t conference, Lorna began the second Dyad #1 conference by p r a i s i n g Luke f o r h i s e f f i c i e n t p r e s e r v a t i o n of time a t the s t a r t of h i s le s s o n . She noted how he "proceeded very, very e a s i l y r i g h t i n t o , r i g h t i n t o the d r i l l and ... [the students'] response was very, very task o r i e n t e d " (2:23-25). She remarked on how Luke a l s o saved time by not g e t t i n g " i n t o a s t a t e about the k i d s l i s t e n i n g [ to i n s t r u c t i o n s ] " (2:27-28). In response t o t h i s feedback, Luke explained i n d e t a i l the methods whereby he b e l i e v e d he had impressed upon p u p i l s the important message that when " i n s t r u c t i o n s are being given you b e t t e r [ l i s t e n ] f i r s t time round" (2:38-39). Later i n the conference, while d e s c r i b i n g her observations of Luke's handling of two t r a n s i t i o n times, the p o s i t i v e tone of Lorna's c a r e f u l l y d e t a i l e d feedback suggested her approval. Lorna noted how Luke " l a i d out expectations f o r a change.. . t o l d them what [he was] going t o do and ... s a i d 'two minutes and then we begin'" thereby g i v i n g them time "to get ... themselves organized" (2:772-776). Luke responded by e x p l a i n i n g how he had developed h i s method of managing t r a n s i t i o n times. In h i s p r e c i s e e x p l a n a t i o n s , there seemed t o be evidence that Luke had used t h o u g h t f u l r e f l e c t i o n t o s o l v e independently some problems t h a t he had experienced p r e v i o u s l y d u r ing t r a n s i t i o n times. Luke mentioned how he had found t h a t a f t e r h i s own t r a n s f e r from secondary t o elementary t e a c h i n g , "I was so o f t e n on the k i d s a l l the [ t i m e ] , l i k e there's too much noi s e , too much commotion, and I was t r y i n g w e l l how do you get t h i s from one a c t i v i t y t o the next ... I thought, w e l l I won't worry about what they're doing i n between the a c t i v i t i e s 85 e s s e n t i a l l y , i n f a c t r u s t l e a l l the papers you l i k e , i f you have to get out of your seat, but you b e t t e r be ready" (2:137-144). When Lorna had completed her feedback from the l e s s o n observations, Luke volunteered some information about a time management problem he had experienced a f t e r Lorna had l e f t h i s classroom. He admitted t h a t h i s "lesson j u s t f e l l apart i n the l a s t seven minutes" (2:612), because the students seemed to have "had i t , the day was over!" (2:1280). Luke s t a t e d t h a t the students' mood was not s u i t e d to what he had prepared f o r the l a s t part of the l e s s o n . Thus, he admitted to having had the same problem to which he had a l l u d e d i n the f i r s t conference; i . e . , the d i f f i c u l t y of transforming the end of a lesson i n t o productive time when the o r i g i n a l lesson plan has f a i l e d i n t h i s regard. By making comments th a t i n d i c a t e d she was a t t e n d i n g to h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , Lorna seemed to encourage Luke t o continue r e f l e c t i n g on the problem. When he d i d not appear t o be nearing any s o l u t i o n s , Lorna made a t e n t a t i v e suggestion. Luke responded to Lorna's suggestion with i n t e r e s t and managed t o convert i t independently i n t o a s o l u t i o n which could f i t h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y and teaching s t y l e . Lorna and Luke made only the one attempt during e i t h e r of t h e i r conferences t o seek p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s f o r a time management problem. Even w i t h i n t h i s attempt, they d i d not progress beyond the stage of beginning t o s e l e c t a p r e f e r r e d s o l u t i o n to the problem from among a l t e r n a t i v e s . Lorna d i d not encourage Luke t o plan e i t h e r implementation or methods f o r e v a l u a t i n g the success of any h i s implementation e f f o r t s regarding h i s suggested s o l u t i o n s . Furthermore, Luke d i d not propose any such plans. In the Dyad #2 conferences, however, problem s o l v i n g d i d not progress very f a r f o r any of the teacher's time management concerns. 86 Dyad #2 Time Management Concerns The videotape dialogue i n d i c a t e s t h a t during a pre-conference, Hugh, the M/HCL p r i n c i p a l i n Dyad #2, and Helen, the HCL teacher i n Dyad 12, had decided they would concentrate on three o b j e c t i v e s f o r teacher growth. Hone of these was time management. Nevertheless, during t h e i r f i r s t p r i n c i p a l / t e a c h e r conference, Helen i n d i c a t e d that she had s u b s t a n t i a l concerns about her "sense of t i m i n g " (1:26.5-27). During both the pre-workshop and post-workshop conferences, Helen's statements implied t h a t she was anxious to improve her management of lesson time. Dyad #2 pre-workshop conference. As part of her response t o Hugh's opening enquiry i n t o how she f e l t about the l e s s o n , Helen revealed her time management concerns. She expressed her d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s e v e r a l features of her l e s s o n . Among these was her f a i l u r e not only t o f i n d enough time during the observed poetry lesson to include a l l the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t she had planned, but a l s o to p u l l "the lesson to a proper c o n c l u s i o n " (1:30). Hugh responded w i t h the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t "we j u s t simply ran out of time" (1:40), and h i s tone suggested he saw l i t t l e need f o r concern. Furthermore, Hugh implied t h a t he b e l i e v e d the conference d i s c u s s i o n should focus only on t h e i r p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d o b j e c t i v e s , and he s t a t e d " I don't want t o t a l k about summarizing and those aspects...at the present moment" (1:40-43). Although she had to bide her time, Helen seemed t o s e i z e the f i r s t p o s s i b l e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e i n s t a t e d i s c u s s i o n of her time management concern. When Hugh seemed s a t i s f i e d that d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i r o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i v e s was complete, he asked Helen i f there was anything e l s e she 87 wanted t o d i s c u s s . By responding with a resumption of her r e f l e c t i o n s upon p o s s i b l e causes of shortage of time i n her l e s s o n , Helen reminded Hugh immediately of her time management concerns. She speculated that her l e s s o n might have begun more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i f she had "shut down the [noon hour] gym game, put the scores up and s t a r t e d the l e s s o n w i t h a l i t t l e l e s s haste" (1:249.5-251). Helen continued by e x p l a i n i n g t h a t her u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l e s s o n s t a r t was a common occurrence. She had not b e l i e v e d i t appropriate t o attempt t o d i s g u i s e t h i s s i t u a t i o n while being observed by her p r i n c i p a l . Hugh responded by a s s u r i n g Helen that " I appreciated t h a t ... I d i d n ' t f i n d you to be ... a c t i n g at a l l d i f f e r e n t l y than what I thought you might normally do" (1:254-256). In a d d i t i o n , he i m p l i e d again h i s preference f o r them t o set aside Helen's time concerns and t o concentrate on the s e l e c t e d o b j e c t i v e s . Hugh s a i d , " I t h i n k t h a t i t i s e a s i e r f o r us t o get a t those t h i n g s t h a t you would l i k e t o see, um y o u r s e l f improve i n " (1:266-268) and t h a t "sometimes we lose when we're not focused i n on what we're t r y i n g t o i n c l u d e " (1:266-268). In h i s f i r s t s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , Hugh seemed to give f u r t h e r evidence of the importance he attached t o c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the agreed upon o b j e c t i v e s during conferences. While implying h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the conference, Hugh s a i d , " I think t h a t (Helen) and I were able t o say e x a c t l y what we wanted t o say t o each other and we covered the ground t h a t we decided...." (1:394-396). Between the pre-workshop conference and the post-workshop conference, according t o Hugh's statements i n h i s second r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , he and Helen d i d not have any formal conferences. However, Hugh mentioned t h a t " i n f o r m a l l y we have t a l k e d on many occasions because 88 she and I run i n the endowment lands two or three times a week" (2:444-446). However, he d i d not i n d i c a t e t h a t Helen's time management concern was ever discussed during the in f o r m a l t a l k s . The iss u e s which Luke s a i d he had broached i n these informal sessions seemed t o have no connection to time management. Neither Hugh nor Helen i n d i c a t e d d u r i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w s t h a t the time management problem was ever discussed again before t h e i r post-workshop conference. Dyad 82 post-workshop conference. Hugh ex p l a i n e d , i n h i s second r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , t h a t he envisaged the second conference as "the summation of the m a t e r i a l " and "more of a c o n g r a t u l a t o r y type" (2:436-437). Indeed, most of h i s comments during the second s u p e r v i s i o n conference were c o n g r a t u l a t o r y . However, i t was Hugh who r a i s e d Helen's time management problem i n t h i s second conference, and he d i d so by g i v i n g negative feedback. Hugh remarked t o Helen t h a t i f he had any c r i t i c i s m of her l e s s o n , i t was "that again you probably ran out of time and there was no p u l l i n g of the lesson together at the end where I th i n k t h a t , t h a t ' s r e a l l y a good q u a l i t y i n a lesson i f i t can be p u l l e d together i n the end because I think i t helps s o l i d i f y the l e a r n i n g t h a t ' s taken p l a c e " (73-76). In response, Helen immediately agreed with Hugh by s a y i n g : " I q u i t e agree...I d i d want t o give them time t o do t h i s t h a t and the other... and you're r i g h t i t ' s not p r o p e r l y drawn to a c l o s e " (80-89). F o l l o w i n g t h i s agreement with Hugh's obse r v a t i o n , Helen continued by r e f l e c t i n g on some of the ways i n which she had been attempting t o f i n d time i n her lessons t o include a l l the a c t i v i t i e s she planned. Twice 89 during Helen's r e f l e c t i o n s , Hugh appeared to persuade Helen that her time management problems were l e s s s e r i o u s than she thought. Once, Hugh seemed t o imply t h a t the length of the lesson was the problem. However, Helen p e r s i s t e d w i t h her r e f l e c t i o n s . She began t o contemplate methods f o r concluding noon hour gym a c t i v i t i e s more e f f i c i e n t l y , so she could improve the s t a r t i n g of her lessons. Quite suddenly, a suggestion Helen made about noon hour team s c o r i n g seemed t o prompt Hugh t o ask her f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n of the s c o r i n g methods she used i n a team system he had seen her employ f o r classroom management. F o l l o w i n g t h i s request, the conference d i s c u s s i o n digressed from Helen's attempts to begin s o l v i n g her time management problems. Helen d i d not appear to seek an oppo r t u n i t y to resume her e f f o r t s . One of Hugh's comments during h i s second s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w i m p l i e d that he d i d not pursue Helen's time management concern i n t h i s second conference because "immediately she agreed [ t h a t there was a problem] so there wasn't much debate " (2:482-484). Concluding Comments Regarding Time Management Concerns The a n a l y s i s of the su b s t a n t i v e content of the time management concerns and of the conference s e c t i o n s r e l a t e d t o the concerns revealed s e v e r a l v a r i a t i o n s i n the ways i n which these concerns were introduced and r e c e i v e d i n the conferences. For Dyad 81 most of the concerns were introduced by the p r i n c i p a l , who seemed e i t h e r t o be searching f o r evidence t h a t the teacher had thought out r e l a t e d procedures or to be i n t i m a t i n g t h a t the teacher should consider f u r t h e r problem s o l v i n g . However, i n n e i t h e r case, d i d the p r i n c i p a l seem t o i n d i c a t e that she 90 expected problem s o l v i n g f o r these concerns t o take place during the conference, nor d i d the teacher respond by p r e s s i n g f o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o problem s o l v e w i t h i n the conference. The Dyad 81 teacher introduced one time management concern and impl i e d that he needed some help t o sol v e h i s problem. The Dyad 81 p r i n c i p a l responded by h e l p i n g the teacher t o th i n k of some a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s f o r the problem. In c o n t r a s t , when the Dyad 82 time management concerns were introduced by the teacher, the p r i n c i p a l d i d not respond with behaviours t h a t encouraged the teacher t o problem s o l v e . Even when the Dyad 82 teacher introduced the concern, the p r i n c i p a l e x h i b i t e d a preference f o r not addressing. the concern as a problem r e q u i r i n g a s o l u t i o n . Despite the d i s p a r a t e methods whereby time management concerns were introduced and re c e i v e d i n the conferences, most of the s e c t i o n s of the conferences r e l e v a n t t o the concerns seemed to share an important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : they o f t e n seemed to c o n t a i n l i t t l e evidence of dyad members' i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours suggesting the i n t e n t i o n t o proceed very fa r with problem s o l v i n g w i t h i n the conferences. This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the s e c t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o time management concerns was t y p i c a l of other s e c t i o n s of the conferences. SUMMARY The two pa r t p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s included f i r s t , an a n a l y s i s of the frequency data and, second, a p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data. A n a l y s i s of the frequency data f o r the f i r s t stage of the conceptual model revealed evidence t o suggest t e n t a t i v e l y t h a t each teacher's comfort and confidence were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s / h e r 91 p r i n c i p a l ' s supportive behaviours. In c o n t r a s t , the analyses f o r the second and t h i r d stages of the model were unable t o r e v e a l s u f f i c i e n t evidence f o r making even t e n t a t i v e suggestions of a s s o c i a t i o n s between teachers' responses and p r i n c i p a l ' s behaviours. Moreover, these analyses revealed t h a t the teachers' responses i n d i c a t e d l i t t l e a c t i v e involvement or autonomous behaviour. The analyses seemed u n s a t i s f a c t o r y because of the sparse amounts of data c o l l e c t e d by the instruments designed t o record the frequency w i t h which teachers' responses matched predetermined i n d i c a t o r s of teachers' a c t i v e involvement and autonomous behaviour, and with which p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours matched predetermined i n d i c a t o r s of p r i n c i p a l s ' c h a l l e n g i n g and " p u l l i n g " of the teachers' conceptual l e v e l , a n a l y s i s of these data was d i f f i c u l t . The s p a r s i t y of data seemed to be caused by the predetermined i n d i c a t o r s , which appeared t o i n h i b i t r a t h e r than to help data c o l l e c t i o n . Although few of the teacher's responses and p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours t h a t were observed i n the s u p e r v i s i o n conference videotapings matched the predetermined i n d i c a t o r s , many of the observed teachers' responses and p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours seemed t o c o n s t i t u t e other kinds of evidence regarding a c t i v e involvement and autonomous behaviour. Because the responses and behaviours involved i n t h i s other evidence d i d not match the predetermined i n d i c a t o r s , they could not be recorded among the frequency data. Thus, because of the predetermined i n d i c a t o r s , the frequency data appeared t o be an incomplete source of evidence regarding teachers' a c t i v e involvement and autonomous behaviour. As a r e s u l t of the emergent need f o r new s e t s of data t o help r e v e a l the evidence t h a t the frequency data a n a l y s i s was unable to uncover regarding the second and t h i r d stages of the model, the 92 t r a n s c r i p t i o n data were r e q u i r e d t o f i l l a more important r o l e i n the study than had been a n t i c i p a t e d . However, because the l a r g e amount of t r a n s c r i p t i o n data presented some p r a c t i c a l problems f o r both data a n a l y s i s and p r e s e n t a t i o n of f i n d i n g s , a p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data was performed f o r purposes of i d e n t i f y i n g s e c t i o n s of the conference which contained r i c h s e t s of data and could be e x t r a c t e d f o r purposes of a n a l y s i s . The s e c t i o n s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s which contained dialogue regarding i n t e r a c t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o the teachers' time management concerns were e x t r a c t e d as a r e s u l t of the p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s . These s e c t i o n s were chosen mainly because they were r i c h sources of data, but a l s o because time management was a concern held i n common by both dyads and, thus, seemed t o increase the chances of c o m p a r a b i l i t y between f i n d i n g s f o r Dyad #1 and Dyad #2. P r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s from the a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data f o r evidence regarding the teachers' comfort and confidence, a c t i v e involvement, and autonomous behaviour w i l l be presented i n the next three chapters. 93 Chapter 5 TEACHERS' COMFORT AND CONFIDENCE The purpose of t h i s chapter i s t o present and d i s c u s s the f i n d i n g s from the f i r s t stage i n the a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data. The f i r s t stage of t h i s a n a l y s i s and both the second and t h i r d stages, which are presented i n Chapters 6 and 7 , were u n l i k e the three stages of the frequency data a n a l y s i s because of three d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h a t a n a l y s i s and the t r a n s c r i p t i o n a n a l y s i s . The f i r s t d i f f e r e n c e was i n the sources of data: the data f o r the frequency a n a l y s i s were obtained only from observing videotapes of the s u p e r v i s i o n conferences, whereas the data f o r the t r a n s c r i p t i o n a n a l y s i s were obtained from t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of the dialogue contained i n both the teachers' and p r i n c i p a l s ' s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r , and the s e c t i o n s of the s u p e r v i s i o n conferences t h a t s t i m u l a t e d the r e c a l l . The second d i f f e r e n c e was i n the data c o l l e c t i o n methods: frequency data were c o l l e c t e d by means of predetermined i n d i c a t o r s , t h a t i s , by que s t i o n i n g whether responses and behaviours appeared l i k e the i n d i c a t o r s and, i f so, how f r e q u e n t l y ; but, i n c o n t r a s t , data from the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s were allowed t o emerge by asking "What do the teachers' responses and p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours look l i k e ? " r a t h e r than "do the responses and behaviours look l i k e t h i s or t h a t ? " The t h i r d d i f f e r e n c e i nvolved the a p p l i c a t i o n of the three c a t e g o r i e s of teachers' responses and p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours from the three stages of the model: whereas a n a l y s i s of the frequency data was guided by 94 predetermined c a t e g o r i e s , the a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data was not; the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s sought t o f i n d whether the emerging informa t i o n regarding the teachers' responses and the p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours suggested these could f i t i n t o the c a t e g o r i e s p o s t u l a t e d by the model and, i f so, whether or not the responses and behaviours suggested new evidence regarding the c a t e g o r i e s . This f i r s t stage of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s , l i k e t h a t of the frequency data a n a l y s i s , a l s o addressed research sub-question 1.1 and the f i r s t stage of the conceptual model. That i s , data were analyzed for evidence of whether the responses of Helen, the Dyad #2 HCL teacher, who was p a i r e d w i t h Luke, the M/HCL p r i n c i p a l , i n d i c a t e d t h a t she experienced greater comfort and confidence while being supervised than d i d Luke, the Dyad 81 teacher, who was p a i r e d w i t h Lorna, the LCL p r i n c i p a l . For the most p a r t , t h i s a n a l y s i s revealed evidence to support, c l a r i f y , and add to f i n d i n g s from the frequency data a n a l y s i s ; however, i t a l s o uncovered evidence to r e f u t e two of the previous f i n d i n g s . Despite these d i s t i n c t i o n s between the two s e t s of f i n d i n g s , s i m i l a r i t i e s between them were s u f f i c i e n t t o suggest t h a t p r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of f i n d i n g s from the a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data for each s u p e r v i s i o n conference could be c l a s s i f i e d under two headings which r e f l e c t three of the i n d i c a t o r s used f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of frequency data: (1) teacher's p o s i t i v e , h o p e f u l , and i n t e r e s t e d a t t i t u d e ; and (2) teacher's open and t r u s t i n g a t t i t u d e . The remainder of t h i s chapter comprises the p r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of f i n d i n g s from the f i r s t stage of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s and i s d i v i d e d i n t o three s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t two s e c t i o n s c o n t a i n p r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of f i n d i n g s from the a n a l y s i s 95 regarding the teacher's comfort and confidence f o r each dyad. The t h i r d s e c t i o n compares the two dyads i n terms of the teachers' comfort and confidence. DYAD #1: TEACHER'S COMPORT AND CONFIDENCE As a r e s u l t of askin g the que s t i o n , "What do the teachers' responses and p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours look l i k e ? " r a t h e r than, "Do they look l i k e t h i s or t h a t ? " the data which emerged from the Dyad #1 t r a n s c r i p t i o n revealed evidence d i s t i n c t from t h a t revealed by the frequency data. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data supported and c l a r i f i e d the frequency d a t a , and revealed new evidence regarding the second, t h i r d , and f o u r t h i n d i c a t o r s of Category 1 responses. The p r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s from the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data are addressed f o r the Dyad #1 pre- and post-conferences s e p a r a t e l y . Teacher's Comfort and Confidence i n Pre-Workshop Conference Most of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data regarding the teacher's comfort and confidence i n the Dyad #1 pre-conference supported, c l a r i f i e d , and added to frequency data regarding both the teacher's p o s i t i v e , h o p e f u l , and i n t e r e s t e d a t t i t u d e , and h i s open and t r u s t i n g a t t i t u d e . Thus, p r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s are c l a s s i f i e d under the two headings which were described i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s chapter. P o s i t i v e , h o p e f u l , and i n t e r e s t e d a t t i t u d e . During h i s f i r s t s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , w i t h reference t o occasions such as th a t 96 when Lorna c a r e f u l l y described her observations of Luke's management of s t a r t - u p time, Luke s t a t e d h i s b e l i e f t h a t Lorna's a t t e n t i o n to d e t a i l helped him t o b e l i e v e t h a t she "may have some important t h i n g s t o t e l l me" (1:175-176). He revealed evidence of h i s p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n t o the accuracy of Lorna's observations when he exp l a i n e d : "you f e e l t h a t she's very i n t e r e s t e d i n what was going on i n th a t room...just by the amount of d e t a i l . . . s h e can r e f e r to and r e c a l l . You know she wasn't i n j u s t kind of g l a n c i n g around....I t h i n k t h a t ' s very important as f a r as I'm concerned then she may have some important t h i n g s to t e l l me, e i t h e r p o s i t i v e or negative...." (1:167-176) This e x p l a n a t i o n suggests t h a t Luke b e l i e v e d he had reason to be hopeful t h a t Lorna's observations would provide u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . These t r a n s c r i p t i o n data d i f f e r from the frequency data because they provide a d d i t i o n a l evidence t h a t Luke was hopeful. F o l l o w i n g Luke's e x p l a n a t i o n of Lorna's a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l , he mentioned that much of her feedback was p o s i t i v e , and he described two reasons why t h i s was important t o him: "she's very quick to poi n t out the p o s i t i v e t h i n g s and you know most of I th i n k what I r e c a l l were um f a i r l y p o s i t i v e kind of thi n g s so you know i t ' s always great t o get those kinds of s t r o k e s . But I'm always more w i l l i n g then to re c e i v e something l i k e i f she s a i d 'There's t h i s part t h a t d i d n ' t seem ... t o f i t ' o r , 'Why d i d you do t h a t ? ' I'd be much more w i l l i n g t o r e a l l y have a hard look at t h a t " (1:177-184). These remarks about Lorna's feedback c o n t a i n evidence which support and c l a r i f y the frequency data by suggesting t h a t her behaviours may have been among reasons why Luke never responded n e g a t i v e l y during the conference. Support f o r t h i s suggestion seemed apparent i n some of Luke's l a t e r , r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w comments which imp l i e d t h a t r e t e n t i o n of 97 h i s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Lorna's methods of p r o v i d i n g feedback. Luke noted t h a t when Lorna observed events t h a t made her "confident [he's] done something w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i v e purpose, and she's recognized t h a t i t worked w e l l " (1:268-270), then she o f f e r e d her feedback i n a d e f i n i t e l y p o s i t i v e way. However, he remarked t h a t i f Lorna i s "not sure whether [Luke] i s aware" of "something she's n o t i c e d " or "she i s not sure whether [something she had observed] i s p u r p o s e f u l " (1:273-278), then her feedback i s " o f f e r e d i n a n e u t r a l way" (1:275). Luke's d e s c r i p t i o n s of the " n e u t r a l way" seemed to be e x e m p l i f i e d i n the feedback which Lorna gave when, i n a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s of her observations, she probed f o r inform a t i o n about Luke's o r g a n i z a t i o n and time management f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p u p i l s ' worksheets. In h i s r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , Luke i n t e r p r e t e d Lorna's behaviour i n t h i s i n c i d e n t by suggesting t h a t she had "a l i t t l e b i t of concern . . . f o r how i t was done" (1:622-623) but "she hasn't been th a t strong t o say 'you should have done i t a d i f f e r e n t way'" (1:620-621). Luke s t a t e d t h a t Lorna showed enough concern t o make him t h i n k "perhaps I could have done i t i n an e a s i e r way" (1:624-625), but he b e l i e v e d t h a t at the same time she seemed t o be " r e s p e c t i n g t h a t , [he's] probably thought about how t o do [ i t ] " (1:628). Luke's r e a c t i o n suggested that t h i s " n e u t r a l " feedback provides him w i t h comfort and confidence. He s a i d : " I l e f t t h a t conference [with the b e l i e f ] t h a t I don't have t o change t h a t . But t h a t I w i l l t hink about i t and [ i f ] t h a t ' s the way [ I ] l i k e to do i t [I may] go ahead" (1:636-638). The evidence revealed i n these comments suggests t h a t Luke de r i v e d comfort and confidence from h i s perception of Lorna's respect f o r h i s 98 a b i l i t y t o th i n k f o r hi m s e l f . Moreover, i t suggests that Luke f e l t p o s i t i v e , h o p e f u l , and i n t e r e s t e d i n a s i t u a t i o n which allowed him autonomy and thereby o f f e r e d support f o r h i s high conceptual l e v e l . This evidence and t h a t which f o l l o w s adds new informat i o n t h a t was not found i n the frequency data. During h i s r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , Luke's r e c o g n i t i o n of Lorna's h a b i t of h o l d i n g up a mi r r o r so they could both give t h e i r "views of what was going on" and, t h e r e f o r e , both become "more aware of what's going on" (1:446), prompted him to pass remarks c o n t a i n i n g evidence t o suggest t h a t Lorna's o f f e r i n g of opportunites f o r him t o become inv o l v e d i n an a l y z i n g issues was important t o h i s comfort and confidence. In these remarks, Luke revealed t h a t he regarded Lorna's use of the " m i r r o r " as a s i g n t h a t she was " r e s p e c t i n g ( h i s twenty years o f ] experience and saying w e l l we're ... equals on t h i s b a s i s " (1:437-438). This evidence of both Luke's comfort and confidence i n a s s o c i a t i o n with the " m i r r o r " and h i s perception of the o p p o r t u n i t i e s the " m i r r o r " provided f o r him, suggests that he f e l t p o s i t i v e , h o p e f u l , and i n t e r e s t e d i n a s i t u a t i o n which supported h i s high conceptual l e v e l by o f f e r i n g him an opp o r t u n i t y f o r a c t i v e involvement. Luke's discernment of Lorna's respect f o r h i s a b i l i t i e s and experience may have been one of the f a c t o r s w i t h which h i s open and t r u s t i n g a t t i t u d e was a s s o c i a t e d . Open and t r u s t i n g a t t i t u d e . Toward the end of the conference, i n h i s r e f l e c t i o n s upon the endings of h i s less o n s , Luke revealed t h a t he was unsure of how to manage "dead" time which occurs when the a c t i v i t i e s planned f a i l t o f i l l the whole l e s s o n . His d e s c r i p t i o n of events to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s problem, demonstrated Luke's open and t r u s t i n g a t t i t u d e : 99 "the lesson's over t h i s i s what I had planned, and I t e l l them ... 'Look t h i s i s a l l I have planned today and i f you can't handle i t I've got nothing e l s e f o r you t o do.' I don't p u l l out ... f i f t y -e i g h t , you know, d i v i s i o n questions. Forget i t ! I t ' s done! ... I don't l i k e t o use what I'd l i k e them t o be working on as i f i t ' s l i k e a punishment" (1:557-567). In h i s s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , Luke's remarks included evidence which supported and c l a r i f i e d the suggestion derived from the frequency data t h a t h i s openness may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Lorna's behaviours. For ins t a n c e , Luke s t a t e d t h a t i f Lorna "were t o s t a r t t e l l i n g me how t o do something without me asking f o r i t " (1:442-443) instead of o f f e r i n g "the m i r r o r " f o r them both t o look i n together, " i t would j u s t c l o s e down the openness" (1:456-457). Luke explained that Lorna's n e u t r a l approach encouraged him t o "remain open" because he was "not f e e l i n g t h a t somebody's t r y i n g to l a y some e i t h e r small or b i g t r i p on [him]" (1:458-459). Luke declared himself to be a person who i s " g e n e r a l l y p r e t t y a t ease anyway" (1:290), and impl i e d that he i s "assured of [ h i m s e l f ] " (1:293). In these c l a i m s , Luke revealed evidence t o suggest he was f u n c t i o n i n g a t a high conceptual l e v e l , and th a t h i s openness and t r u s t was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l i n k e d t o h i s conceptual l e v e l . Nevertheless, by implying t h a t , on occasions which d i d not merit p o s i t i v e feedback, he would have stopped being open and t r u s t i n g i f Lorna had used a "negative" tone, he seemed t o suggest that i n s p i t e of h i s own confidence, Lorna's behaviours were important to h i s r e t e n t i o n of openness and t r u s t . Evidence of t h i s was revealed when Luke explained t h a t unless i n f o r m a t i o n i s given back t o the teacher i n a " n e u t r a l " r a t h e r than a negative tone, 100 "the teacher ... i s e i t h e r going to t r y and defend something which they r e a l l y aren't prepared t o defend ... maybe they had no reason for doing i t but they f e e l somehow th a t they b e t t e r defend t h i s ... or (they w i l l agree] t h a t something i s negative when perhaps they don't r e a l l y t h i n k t h a t i t i s negative or an important t h i n g , j u s t t o ... jump on s i d e w i t h the p r i n c i p a l " (1:306-314). Luke never responded d e f e n s i v e l y or c o m p l i a n t l y i n e i t h e r h i s pre-or h i s post-workshop conference. During h i s f i r s t r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , when an event i n which Luke perceived Lorna to be h o l d i n g up the " m i r r o r " f o r him apparently s t i m u l a t e d him t o declare "you know at t h i s p o i n t I'm p r e t t y p o s i t i v e about what's happening" (1:463-464), Luke provided f u r t h e r evidence t o suggest he a s s o c i a t e d h i s p o s i t i v i t y w i t h Lorna's behaviours. Teacher's Comfort and Confidence i n Post-Workshop Conference Findings from the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s f o r the Dyad #1 post-workshop conference revealed an increase of Luke's t r u s t i n Lorna. During h i s second s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , Luke's comments suggested t h a t he had an even c l e a r e r p e r c e p t i o n of the f a c t o r s which he a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the r e t e n t i o n of h i s comfort and confidence. Although most of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data supported, c l a r i f i e d , or added to the frequency data, one of the a d d i t i o n s suggested a po i n t of disagreement. The f i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n f o r the a n a l y s i s of Luke's responses i n d i c a t i n g h i s comfort and confidence d u r i n g the second Dyad #1 conference are presented under the same headings as those used f o r the f i r s t conference. 101 P o s i t i v e , h o p e f u l , and i n t e r e s t e d a t t i t u d e . In h i s concluding remarks f o r h i s second r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , Luke seemed to imply t h a t the i n t e r e s t he d i s p l a y e d i n the s u p e r v i s i o n process was a response t o the i n t e r e s t Lorna i n d i c a t e d through her d e t a i l e d and p o s i t i v e feedback. He s a i d : " I t h i n k she looks on ( s u p e r v i s i o n ] as a chance t o see some teaching. She t e l l s me that she i s e x c i t e d by the kinds of t h i n g s t h a t she sees, not j u s t i n my room ... t h a t she enjoys t h a t opportunity, and I enjoy the opportunity t o be able t o t a l k t o someone th a t I t h i n k i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l about what I'm doing. [Someone] who i s not t e s t i n g me, t e s t i n g i n a l l s o r t s of ways. I've p r e t t y short patience w i t h somebody t h a t ' s j u s t doing t h e i r paper work. I ' l l l e t them record whatever they want t o record and ... go away and be s a t i s f i e d they've got enough paper" (2:672-683). Lorna's own s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l comments on the feedback she gave Luke about h i s e f f i c i e n t use of time i n h i s opening a c t i v i t y , suggest t h a t Luke's response was as she would have wished i t t o be, f o r she s t a t e d : " i n an i n t e r v i e w you seem to be going over the obvious, but I t h i n k you always have t o remember ... t h a t the person who was doing the work i s not i n a p o s i t i o n always to see some of those t h i n g s . . . . I t h i n k most of us ... have teachers doing a r e a l l y good job and they o f t e n don't know ... what's good about i t . I t h i n k i n an i n t e r v i e w one of the t h i n g s that you need to do i s p o i n t out those very, very s p e c i f i c t h i n g s " (2:1204-1221). When combined, Lorna's and Luke's comments support and c l a r i f y the a s s o c i a t i o n between Luke's responses and Lorna's behaviours suggested by the frequency data. The comments seem to imply t h a t there may be an a s s o c i a t i o n between Luke's f e e l i n g s of comfort and confidence and Lorna's p r o v i s i o n of an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r them t o c l a r i f y c o l l a b o r a t i v e l y t h e i r understanding of areas of concern. A n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data revealed evidence t o suggest t h a t s u p e r v i s i o n had become a c o l l a b o r a t i v e a c t i v i t y f o r Luke and Lorna. 102 In Lorna's opening feedback regarding the e f f i c i e n t way i n which Luke had proceeded i n t o h i s lesson's opening a c t i v i t y , Lorna c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y demonstrated accuracy i n her d e s c r i p t i o n s by i n c l u d i n g s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s of observed events. In h i s response, Luke volunteered i n f o r m a t i o n about the r a t i o n a l e and the development of h i s time saving methods of g i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . By so doing, Luke seemed t o be r e a c t i n g to h i s inference of Lorna's i n t e r e s t not only by attempting t o c l a r i f y her understanding of the s i t u a t i o n , but a l s o by d i s p l a y i n g h i s own i n t e r e s t i n the i s s u e . The w i l l i n g n e s s d i s p l a y e d by Luke i n t h i s o f f e r of e x t r a i n f o r m a t i o n may a l s o have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Lorna's frequent h a b i t of r e f l e c t i n g h i s comments, and thereby demonstrating her i n t e r e s t i n h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . During the r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , on being reminded of Lorna's comments about h i s lesson opening, Luke reacted by p o i n t i n g out another c o l l a b o r a t i v e aspect of the Dyad #1 conferencing. Lorna's comments about Luke's t i m i n g and the opening events of h i s l e s s o n , s t i m u l a t e d Luke t o r e v e a l t h a t he perceived Lorna t o be r e i n f o r c i n g some of her own g o a l s . He explained t h a t "probably f o r her a task o r i e n t e d atmosphere i s something t h a t she wants t o promote i n t h i s s c h o o l . I'm doing i t . Keep doing t h i s -she made t h i s p o i n t p r e t t y c l e a r . She l i k e s t h a t . You're w e l l organized, the k i d s look w e l l organized, they're g e t t i n g on w i t h the job. Keep doing that...Here are some agenda items t h a t I have, th a t I want t o make sure t h a t you continue because I f i r m l y agree with those t h i n g s " (2:81-97) Immediately afterwards, however, Luke a l s o noted t h a t h i s opening a c t i v i t y i n cluded a time management feat u r e t h a t Lorna "wouldn't a l l o w " (2:91) i n her own classroom, yet "she's l e t t i n g me know very c l e a r l y t h a t ... t h a t ' s a d i f f e r e n c e we may have but I can see your p o i n t of view and i t seems to work very w e l l " (2:91-95). While Luke continued t o 103 e l a b o r a t e , he seemed t o demonstrate comfortable f e e l i n g s about t h i s r e c i p r o c i t y ; t h a t i s , h i s own and Lorna's w i l l i n g n e s s to accept each other's b e l i e f s about teaching methods. Luke a l s o noted h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of how Lorna gives p r a i s e whenever i t i s due. He s t a t e d t h a t "She sees something good she says t h a t i t ' s good" (2:130-131), and t h i s was evident when, du r i n g the conference, Lorna reported her observations of Luke's e f f i c i e n c y i n managing time d u r i n g t r a n s i t i o n s i n h i s le s s o n . Luke responded t o t h i s occasion of Lorna's p r a i s e w i t h openness and i n t e r e s t , which was shown i n h i s exp l a n a t i o n of how previous r e f l e c t i o n s had enabled him to develop h i s c u r r e n t system of managing lesson t r a n s i t i o n s . The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s revealed evidence to suggest not only t h a t Luke's comfort and confidence were a s s o c i a t e d with Lorna's p o s i t i v e l y supportive behaviours, but a l s o why Lorna's h a b i t of prolonging her c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the dialogue d i d not e l i c i t any form of negative response from Luke. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data seemed t o r e f u t e the frequency data t h a t counted t h i s , behaviour as negative. When Lorna's share of an i n t e r a c t i o n was prolonged, the cause o f t e n seemed t o be her habit of r e p o r t i n g i n d e t a i l . This may p a r t l y account f o r why t h i s "negative" behaviour d i d not appear to i n t e r f e r e w i t h Luke's comfort and confidence. On the c o n t r a r y , according to h i s own statement i n h i s r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , Luke f e l t s u f f i c i e n t l y comfortable and confident when Lorna had f i n i s h e d p r esenting her observations that he made a conscious e f f o r t t o demonstrate h i s t r u s t and h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r her support. Open and t r u s t i n g a t t i t u d e . Luke demonstrated extreme openness i n h i s method of " t r y i n g t o i n d i c a t e t o [Lorna] that [he] appreciate[d] her 104 very p r o f e s s i o n a l approach t o o b s e r v a t i o n " (2:601-602). Luke explained t h a t he decided t o admit t o Lorna t h a t the l a s t seven minutes of h i s l e s s o n were wasted, and t o i n d i c a t e to her that he needed t o develop ideas on how t o avoid "dead" time a t the end of lessons. Evidence that Luke's openness was an i n t e n t i o n a l response t o Lorna's support extended f a r beyond any evidence obtainable from the frequency data, and i s shown c l e a r l y i n h i s s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l of the event: "I'm going t o r e v e a l t o her some weakness i n what happened a f t e r she had l e f t the room...I th i n k i t ' s important f o r her t o know th a t I've got confidence i n her. So a l r i g h t I'm going to do t h a t by l a y i n g myself open a b i t here and say look the l e s s o n j u s t f e l l apart i n the l a s t seven minutes, now I'm going t o give ... w e l l I want some help f o r one t h i n g , but I'm going t o give her the o p p o r t u n i t y t o take that p o s i t i o n of being someone t h a t can provide me w i t h some help" (2:603-616). The p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r r e c o l l e c t e d that Luke had volunteered information s i m i l a r l y d u r i n g an e a r l i e r i n c i d e n t i n the conference, and asked whether t h i s occasion was a l s o an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t Luke was f e e l i n g comfortable. Luke agreed t h a t h i s response on that occasion d i d i n d i c a t e h i s comfort. The reference t o the occasion prompted Luke t o r e c a l l , w i t h regard t o Lorna's observation of h i s l e s s o n s , that he had "confidence i n what she was doing ... t h a t she was [not] there because w e l l you have t o do these things every now and again ... and have t o go check out the room" (2:658-662). The openness i n Luke's a t t i t u d e during h i s demonstration of a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r Lorna's p r o f e s s i o n a l manner seemed t o d i s p l a y not only h i s comfort and confidence, but a l s o h i s d e s i r e t o encourage Lorna t o continue the behaviours which he found su p p o r t i v e . Further evidence of t h i s d e s i r e seemed t o be revealed by some of Lorna's statements. During her second s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , Lorna s t a t e d t h a t , f o l l o w i n g 105 t h e i r conferences, Luke had given her p o s i t i v e and v a l u a b l e feedback on her observation methods and her conference behaviours. She noted that she found i t u s e f u l t o have been t o l d by Luke t h a t he was " d e l i g h t e d w i t h " how she "saw so many more t h i n g s than he f e l t [anyone] has ever seen before" (2:1580-1581). Summary of Dyad #1 Teacher's Comfort and Confidence Evidence revealed by the t r a n s c r i p t i o n a n a l y s i s mostly seemed to support, c l a r i f y , and add t o f i n d i n g s of the frequency a n a l y s i s . In one in s t a n c e , however, the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data seemed t o c o n t r a d i c t the frequency data. Evidence suggested t h a t the comfort and confidence d i s p l a y e d i n Luke's responses were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c e r t a i n of Lorna's behaviours which he regarded as s u p p o r t i v e . The behaviours t o which Luke responded p o s i t i v e l y included both Lorna's c a r e f u l l y d e t a i l e d feedback and her tendency t o accept h i s ideas instead of r e q u i r i n g him t o accept her own. I t appeared t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n , Luke a s s o c i a t e d h i s comfort and confidence with both the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a c t i v e involvement, which was provided by Lorna's " m i r r o r " p i c t u r e s ; and the opportunity Lorna gave him t o behave autonomously, which he b e l i e v e d t o r e s u l t from Lorna's respect f o r h i s experience and a b i l i t y . The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s a l s o revealed t h a t Luke's comfort and confidence were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s regard f o r himself as an assured person. Comparison of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data from the f i r s t and second conferences suggested t h a t a c o l l a b o r a t i v e and mutually r e s p e c t f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p which e x i s t e d between Luke and Lorna was being strengthened over time. Luke's open admission of h i s time management problem and the 106 ensuing i n t e r a c t i o n s at the end of the second conference seemed t o exemplify t h i s development. The mutual respect and c o l l a b o r a t i o n t h a t seemed evident during the Dyad 11 conferences was not apparent during the Dyad #2 conferences. DYAD #2: TEACHER'S COMFORT AND CONFIDENCE As was the case f o r Dyad #1, a s k i n g the question, "What do the teachers' responses and p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours look l i k e ? " r a t h e r than, "Do they look l i k e t h i s or t h a t ? " helped data to emerge from the Dyad #1 t r a n s c r i p t i o n data and t o r e v e a l evidence d i s t i n c t from t h a t revealed by the frequency data. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data mostly supported and c l a r i f i e d , or added t o , the frequency data, but a l s o c o n f l i c t e d on one p o i n t . The p r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of f i n d i n g s from the a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data address each Dyad #2 conference s e p a r a t e l y . Teacher's Comfort and Confidence i n Pre-Workshop Conference For the pre-workshop conference, i t was d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n a c l e a r p i c t u r e of Helen's comfort and confidence from her r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w comments. This was because of the c a u t i o n she exerted i n what appeared t o be an anxious attempt t o sound supportive of her p r i n c i p a l . Helen f r e q u e n t l y im p l i e d her b e l i e f that maintenance of her comfort and confidence was helped by Hugh's supportive a t t i t u d e . However, some of her comments suggested t h a t there may have been some aspects of Hugh's 107 behaviour about which she e i t h e r p r e f e r r e d t o remain non-committal or f e l t unable t o e x p l a i n . For example, among her c l o s i n g comments, Helen s t a t e d : " I saw [the conference] as a p o s i t i v e t h i n g and I f i n d Hugh an unthreatening kind of person so from t h a t p o i n t of view i t was the i n t e r v i e w was ok" (1:421-423). Further evidence that emerged from the complete a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data helped t o c l a r i f y Helen's comment. The f i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n f o r the a n a l y s i s of Helen's responses i n d i c a t i n g her comfort and confidence during the Dyad #2 pre-workshop conference are presented under the same headings as those used the Dyad #1 conferences. P o s i t i v e , h o peful, and i n t e r e s t e d a t t i t u d e . A f t e r he had opened the conference by commenting on Helen's lesson i n a way t h a t seemed designed t o put her at ease, Hugh s a i d to Helen, "I'd ... l i k e to ask you how you f e l t about the l e s s o n " (1:17-18). In her r e p l y , Helen gave an assessment of her performance t h a t i n d i c a t e d she was worried about her lack of achievement regarding two of the three o b j e c t i v e s which she and Hugh had agreed upon during t h e i r pre-observation conference. In connection wi t h her perceived poor performance regarding one of the o b j e c t i v e s , increased student p a r t i c i p a t i o n , Helen im p l i e d t h a t i t had been exacerbated by her poor "sense of t i m i n g " (1:27). Helen's r e f l e c t i o n s appeared t o prompt her t o d e s c r i b e some of the problems she had observed i n her time management, i n c l u d i n g her f a i l u r e to p u l l "the lesson t o a proper c o n c l u s i o n " (1:30). The thoughts Helen revealed while i d e n t i f y i n g her time management concern i m p l i e d t h a t she was anxious t o improve i n t h i s area. 108 Nevertheless, she d i d not show sign s of e i t h e r f r u s t r a t i o n or l o s s of hope when Hugh reacted by s t a t i n g i n a gentle tone, " I don't want to t a l k about (time management concerns] so w e ' l l leave t h a t " (1:40-41). Instead, by l i s t e n i n g i n t e n t l y t o Hugh's feedback and suggestions regarding the dyad's three p r e v i o u s l y chosen o b j e c t i v e s , Helen appeared w i l l i n g t o comply with Hugh's d e c i s i o n t o abandon d i s c u s s i o n of time management. On the b a s i s of videotape observation, t h i s response was recorded as compliant and, t h e r e f o r e , as negative, i n the frequency data. However, the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data seemed to suggest that t h i s coding was i n c o r r e c t . When Helen s e i z e d the f i r s t o p p ortunity t o resume d i s c u s s i o n of her time management concerns, she revealed a lack of w i l l i n g n e s s t o comply with Hugh's d e c i s i o n t o abandon a dialogue around them. Moreover, the i n t e r e s t d i s p l a y e d by Helen's o c c a s i o n a l i n t e r r u p t i o n s of Hugh's lengthy monologues i n order t o add informa t i o n t o c l a r i f y or amend h i s understanding of an i s s u e , seemed t o r e f u t e frequency data suggestions of Helen's compliance. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data revealed instances when Helen's responses d i s p l a y e d i n t e r e s t i n s p i t e of Hugh's negative behaviours. Because the i n t e r e s t seemed t o be produced on her own i n i t i a t i v e , i t appeared that these responses were a s s o c i a t e d with Helen's high conceptual l e v e l . These f i n d i n g s supported those suggested by the frequency data. Upon r e - i n t r o d u c i n g her time management concerns, by c a r e f u l l y r e f l e c t i n g on p o s s i b l e causes of her problem and by t e n t a t i v e l y suggesting some s o l u t i o n s , Helen appeared t o have r e t a i n e d hope that Hugh would help her to solve them. However, Hugh reacted to only one of Helen's remarks, t h a t i s , her ex p l a n a t i o n that while observing the problem i n her t r a n s i t i o n from ending noon hour games t o s t a r t i n g her 109 l e s s o n , Hugh had seen a t y p i c a l occurrence. When Hugh reacted to the comment by c l a i m i n g he "appreciated t h a t ... [he] d i d n ' t f i n d [Helen] t o be o r c h e s t r a t i n g anything" (254-255), he may have been attempting to support Helen by p u t t i n g her at ease, but i n s t e a d , by i g n o r i n g Helen's intended focus, he f a i l e d to support her i n t e r e s t i n s o l v i n g t h a t problem. One of the conference events, i n connection w i t h which Helen's responses and r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w comments revealed evidence regarding the a s s o c i a t i o n of her r e t e n t i o n of p o s i t i v i t y with her high conceptual l e v e l , was not r e l e v a n t t o her time management concerns. Nevertheless, because i t was the only event f o r which Helen's r e c a l l comments revealed evidence regarding her responses, i t was included i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s . The event involved Helen's apparent acceptance of Hugh's negative, though k i n d l y expressed, opinions regarding an aspect of her s u b j e c t matter p r e s e n t a t i o n . Because Hugh's opinions remained e n t i r e l y unchanged i n s p i t e of Helen's calm and a r t i c u l a t e d e s c r i p t i o n of her own p e r s p e c t i v e of the events, Helen's eventual acceptance of h i s ideas was recorded i n the frequency data as compliance. However, the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data revealed t h a t t h i s coding to be an e r r o r . In r e p l y to the p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s enquiry about whether she had f e l t uneasy at any time during the conference, Helen r e c a l l e d the above events, but seemed anxious to e x p l a i n t h a t "No," Hugh's negative comments had not made her f e e l uneasy, and she continued: " I guess perhaps some of the ... I d i d n ' t know th a t some, I won't say c r i t i c i s m s because t h a t i s n ' t the word ... I j u s t r e a l i z e d there was a b i t of a gap there ... I don't mean t h i s t o be defensive because ... I guess ... you never r e a l l y communicate wholly w i t h anybody at any time.... I t d i d n ' t make me f e e l uncomfortable but I had a sense t h a t we're r e a l l y on d i f f e r e n t wave lengths. And t h a t ' s not a c r i t i c i s m of him at a l l " (1:435-450). 110 Helen r e c a l l e d t h a t she made a "conscious d e c i s i o n to leave the gap alone" (1:455), and i m p l i e d that she d i d so because she a s s o c i a t e d the gap w i t h understandings of poetry (the subject matter) r a t h e r than with methodology, which she b e l i e v e d t o be the p e r t i n e n t focus of her s u p e r v i s i o n . The n o t i o n of "conscious d e c i s i o n " i m p l i e s that Helen maintained s u f f i c i e n t confidence t o b e l i e v e she could exert some c o n t r o l over the d i r e c t i o n of the conference. Her comment a l s o i m p l i e s t h a t instead of being a s i g n of l o s s of confidence i n her own b e l i e f s and teaching d e c i s i o n s , Helen's "compliance" was a s i g n of r e t e n t i o n of confidence, and a l s o a t a c t i c designed to c l o s e d i s c u s s i o n of a discrepancy. Here the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data r e v e a l evidence which r e -i n t e r p r e t s the f i n d i n g s from the frequency data. Because the t a c t i c was Helen's own "conscious d e c i s i o n " and t h e r e f o r e an autonomous behaviour, t h i s response appears t o have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Helen's high conceptual l e v e l . This a l s o seemed to be the case f o r some of Helen's responses which i n d i c a t e d openness and t r u s t . Open and t r u s t i n g a t t i t u d e . While n o t i n g , i n response to Hugh's enquiry i n t o how she f e l t about the l e s s o n , t h a t she had f a i l e d t o achieve some of her o b j e c t i v e s and had mismanaged time, Helen's tone was very s o f t . This gave her responses a t r u s t i n g sound which suggested Helen b e l i e v e d t h a t Hugh would r e c e i v e them k i n d l y . Hugh d i d seem anxious t o reassure Helen, f o r he introduced h i s feedback by d e c l a r i n g : "as you l a i d out the o b j e c t i v e s to me i n our pre-conference I thought you achieved a l l of them" (2:33-35). Unf o r t u n a t e l y , because Hugh's ensuing feedback was negative regarding two out of the I l l three pre-planned o b j e c t i v e s , i t c o n t r a d i c t e d h i s p o s i t i v e i n t r o d u c t o r y d e c l a r a t i o n . The "re-assurance" thus seemed t o have had the purpose of preparing Helen t o r e c e i v e both Hugh's ensuing negative feedback and h i s d e c i s i o n about the inapproprlateness of att e n d i n g t o Helen's time management concern. This d i d not appear t o damage Helen's t r u s t which was s t i l l evident toward the end of the conference when Helen attempted t o re-open d i s c u s s i o n of her time management concerns. Helen's admission t o Hugh th a t both her d i f f i c u l t y i n managing time a t the end of noon hour games and her consequential hasty lesson openings were "the way ... i t r e a l l y i s ... whether or not you're here observing" (1:252-253) suggested both openness and a t r u s t i n Hugh. In her c l o s i n g comments t o Hugh i n t h e i r s u p e r v i s i o n conference, Helen passed a comment that supported the f i n d i n g from the frequency data t h a t she a s s o c i a t e d her f e e l i n g s of comfort with Hugh's supportive behaviours. Helen announced, "There's one other t h i n g I'd l i k e t o say: i t was a l o t e a s i e r having you i n the room than I guess I have o c c a s i o n a l l y experienced being observed. I t ' s a c r e d i t t o you that you do put teachers a t ease here on s t a f f . I thought i t was ok, so I di d n ' t mind the presence of you and the two people from the u n i v e r s i t y " (1:274-277.5). This statement, and Helen's accompanying tone, suggested t h a t Helen was anxious to l e t Hugh know she valued h i s supportive a t t i t u d e , and th a t she may have hoped her comments would encourage him to continue h i s supportive behaviours. In her r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , Helen explained t h a t she had e s t a b l i s h e d a favourable impression of Hugh during a previous working r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h him. She s t a t e d t h a t t h i s impression had a t t r a c t e d her t o her present school when Hugh became i t s p r i n c i p a l . This t r a n s c r i p t i o n 112 information seems t o add a new dimension to the frequency data f i n d i n g of an a s s o c i a t i o n between Helen's comfort and confidence and Hugh's behaviours. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data suggest t h a t , because Hugh d i d not d i s p l a y r e a l supportiveness during the conference, Helen's openness and t r u s t may have been a response grounded i n e i t h e r her p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d impression of him or her own b e l i e f i n h i s supportiveness. When Helen answered the p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s f i n a l q u e s t i o n , "are there any other comments which you th i n k would be u s e f u l f o r me t o know i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h a t conference and the observation data?" (1:492-494) she may have been p r o t e c t i n g her previous impression i n her c a r e f u l l y guarded r e p l y . Helen's h e s i t a n c y i n expressing her f e e l i n g s about the conference suggested t h a t she was confused and may have had some s l i g h t doubts. She e x p l a i n e d : " I , I don't r e a l l y know how t o , I guess I haven't s o r t of sorted through my thoughts on [the conference] a l l that c l e a r l y , so I ' l l l e t t hat question go a c t u a l l y , I have a general s o r t of vague f e e l i n g , but I don't know how to describe i t " (495-498). Whether or not i t can be i n f e r r e d from t h i s comment th a t Helen had developed some doubts by the end of the f i r s t conference, she d i d seem to provide c l e a r e r evidence, during her second r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , that she experienced some discomfort during her second conference. Teacher's Comfort and Confidence i n Post-Workshop Conference This part of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s revealed evidence t h a t Helen became i n c r e a s i n g l y l e s s i n t e r e s t e d and hopeful i n the second conference than she had been during the f i r s t . Although she d i d not 113 c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e her reasons, i n her second r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w comments, Helen expressed disappointment w i t h the post-workshop conference. She intimated t h a t she f e l t deprived of support f o r some personal needs, which were probably connected w i t h her high conceptual l e v e l . The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data supported, c l a r i f i e d , and added to the frequency data f o r i n d i c a t o r s 2,3,and 4 f o r category 1.1. The nature of the evidence t h a t emerged from the post-workshop conference t r a n s c r i p t i o n data f i t t e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : (1) evidence of Helen's i n i t i a l h o p e f u l , i n t e r e s t e d , and open a t t i t u d e ; and (2) evidence of an eventual d e c l i n e i n Helen's hopefulness and i n t e r e s t . I n i t i a l i n t e r e s t e d , h o peful, and open a t t i t u d e . F o l l o w i n g h i s h i g h l y c o n g r a t u l a t o r y opening comments, Hugh asked Helen how she f e l t the l e s s o n had gone. In her r e p l y , she seemed to be hoping Luke would respond w i t h a c l e a r view of her l e s s o n , f o r she revealed: "I couldn't r e a l l y t e l l . . . . I wasn't a l l t h a t aware of how w e l l i t was going, because I was nervous to-day. I d i d f e e l t h a t the c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t e d w e l l . I f e e l c o n f i d e n t of t h e i r keenness f o r the t o p i c . In terms of how i t appears t o other people I can't, w e l l I don't have a sense of t h a t " (2:12-19). Helen attended w i t h i n t e r e s t t o Hugh's observations which, although they were p o s i t i v e , lacked d e t a i l . That i s , they d i d not include c a r e f u l d e s c r i p t i o n of s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s t o provide c l a r i f i c a t i o n of observed events. The data from the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s added information overlooked by the frequency data. Hugh continued h i s c o n g r a t u l a t o r y feedback by d e c l a r i n g t h a t "from a t e c h n i c a l p o i n t of view ... I have no c r i t i c i s m whatsoever...." (2:60-114 61). Despite the announcement t h a t he had no c r i t i c i s m , Hugh followed h i s p r a i s e by n o t i n g : " i f I were t o c r i t i q u e the lesson i n one respect [ i t would be] t h a t again you probably ran out of time and there was no p u l l i n g of the lesson together at the end ... I think t h a t ' s a good q u a l i t y i n a l e s s o n i f i t can be p u l l e d together i n the end ... I th i n k i t helps s o l i d i f y the l e a r n i n g t h a t ' s taken p l a c e . Everybody has a chance t o r e f l e c t ... and I t h i n k t h a t c e r t a i n l y adds t o r e c a l l l a t e r " (2:584-590). Although, during t h e i r previous conference, Hugh had d e f l e c t e d d i s c u s s i o n away from Helen's attempts to address her time management concerns, Helen d i d not respond to Hugh's c r i t i c i s m with any s i g n s of defensiveness or f r u s t r a t i o n . On the c o n t r a r y , she responded immediately by s a y i n g "I q u i t e agree" (2:592), and w i t h apparent i n t e r e s t and hopefulness, Helen proceeded to r e f l e c t openly on how her poor t i m i n g s p o i l e d her l e s s o n , and how she might make c o r r e c t i o n s . In response t o Helen's agreement t h a t she needed to deal w i t h her problem, Hugh attempted t o comfort her. He d i d so by suggesting t h a t the a c t i v i t i e s which ran over time were worthwhile and compensated f o r those missed, and t h a t Helen's time mismanagement was excusable. This type of comforting behaviour seemed t o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n view of Helen's acknowledged wish to develop b e t t e r time management s k i l l s . Although the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data suggested t h i s s u p e r v i s o r y behaviour was i n a p p r o p r i a t e , i t had been coded i n the frequency data as negative. Hugh's behaviour d i d not deter Helen, and thus, the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data seemed to support the f i n d i n g s from the frequency data t h a t Helen's responses may not a l l be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Hugh's behaviours. By immediately resuming her r e f l e c t i o n s on time management problems and some p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s , Helen seemed hopeful about r e t a i n i n g a focus on 115 time management. As i n the f i r s t conference, however, her e f f o r t s were thwarted because a reference she made to team scores f o r noon hour games d e f l e c t e d Hugh's i n t e r e s t . The reference reminded him about Helen's team system of classroom management, and he reacted by asking Helen t o d i s c u s s t h a t system. Helen seemed unaware, momentarily, and then s u r p r i s e d that Hugh's a t t e n t i o n had swerved away from her time management concern, but although she appeared s l i g h t l y taken aback, she showed no sign s of f r u s t r a t i o n or annoyance. Instead, she complied with Hugh's request by d e s c r i b i n g her classroom team system. Helen made no f u r t h e r attempt t o remind Hugh of her concern about time management. Decline i n i n t e r e s t e d and hopeful a t t i t u d e . Although she d i d not appear t o lose i n t e r e s t completely, Helen seemed l e s s hopeful and i n t e r e s t e d a f t e r Hugh d e f l e c t e d her attempts t o introduce problem s o l v i n g f o r her time management. The issues discussed i n the remaining p o r t i o n of the conference had no connection to any of the dyad's pre-conference o b j e c t i v e s . Hugh's eagerness t o be supportive appeared t o be one of h i s reasons f o r d i v e r t i n g the conference away from Helen's time management concerns. Hugh seemed to o f f e r Helen comfort by minimizing the relevance of her time management concerns t o the q u a l i t y of her le s s o n . He thereby provided a p o t e n t i a l l y f a l s e view of Helen's l e s s o n . Hugh's behaviour was recorded i n the frequency data as p o s i t i v e , but the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data suggested t h a t i n s t e a d of p r o v i d i n g Helen w i t h comfort, t h i s type of behaviour may have caused Helen t o develop some discomfort d u r i n g the second conference. Towards the end of her r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , while remaining c a r e f u l t o s t r e s s her a p p r e c i a t i o n of Hugh's p o s i t i v e 116 a t t i t u d e , Helen revealed evidence of her disappointment and i t s p o s s i b l e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Hugh's behaviours: "I f e e l t h a t [Hugh] r e a l l y does focus on the p o s i t i v e and I t h i n k t h a t ' s r e a l l y g r e at. I don't know what I ... I guess what I'm saying i s I wonder i f i n f a c t he, I won't say the word withholds, but I wonder i f he almost i n h i s always seeing the p o s i t i v e perhaps doesn't give back a c l e a r p i c t u r e of the l e s s o n ... because he r e a l l y doesn't focus on inadequacies or shortcomings w i t h i n the lesson i t s e l f . . . . he i s always very p o s i t i v e . I t h i n k t h a t ' s r e a l l y good and he p o i n t s out, he adds to your sense of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e but I don't know that I've heard a l l t h a t needs t o be s a i d t h a t could have been s a i d about the lesson - I don't know"(2:227-248). Helen continued by r e i t e r a t i n g her p r a i s e f o r Hugh's p o s i t i v i t y , and when the p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r asked, "You wouldn't want t o take away the p o s i t i v e n u r t u r i n g ? " (2:267-268), Helen r e p l i e d : "No, I wouldn't want to take away the p o s i t i v e ... I would have thought there might have been something e l s e t o say about the lesson ... I don't know, you know, I'm very used t o k i d s and I don't step back very o f t e n and look at t h i n g s o b j e c t i v e l y I guess. You know I'm i n the middle of i t , so I guess I'm l o o k i n g f o r more things t o be made aware of t h a t I can improve on ... because I f e e l c o n f i d e n t t h a t Hugh a l r e a d y i s very supportive I guess I look a l s o to him as an observer i n my classroom t o o f f e r more suggestions" (2:269-279). In both s e t s of comments, Helen appeared to suggest she would have l i k e d Hugh to help her form an accurate p i c t u r e of her lesson e s p e c i a l l y i n areas r e q u i r i n g improvement. Helen's c l o s i n g comments i n her r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w suggested t h a t any discomfort she f e l t during the post-workshop conference was probably a s s o c i a t e d w i t h her disappointment t h a t she d i d not o b t a i n any inform a t i o n t h a t could help her to improve. Thus t r a n s c r i p t i o n data both supported and c l a r i f i e d the frequency data which suggested a d e c l i n e i n Helen's comfort and confidence. She s a i d , " I want 1 1 7 t o develop or grow more - improve, and you know I th i n k t h a t ' s what I had s o r t of thought might come about" (2:296-298). Summary of Dyad #2 Teacher's Comfort and Confidence The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s revealed evidence to support some but not a l l of the f i n d i n g s f o r the a n a l y s i s of frequency data. Evidence was found t o support the f i n d i n g s regarding both Hugh's negative behaviours, and the a s s o c i a t i o n of the apparent d e c l i n e i n Helen's comfort and confidence w i t h those behaviours. However, evidence was found t o contest the f i n d i n g s from the a n a l y s i s of frequency data which suggested that Helen was compliant. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s revealed evidence t o suggest that responses i d e n t i f i e d i n the a n a l y s i s of frequency data as evidence of Helen's compliance were, on the c o n t r a r y , p o s i t i v e behaviours a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Helen's high conceptual l e v e l . The a n a l y s i s revealed t h a t many of Helen's p o s i t i v e responses were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h her conceptual l e v e l ; that Hugh's supportive behaviours were not congruent w i t h Helen's comfort and confidence requirements; and th a t Helen e v e n t u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d two forms of support t h a t she needed. High l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . Evidence i n Helen's responses t h a t suggested she was f u n c t i o n i n g at a high conceptual l e v e l included d i s p l a y s of her a d a p t a b i l i t y , autonomous behaviour, and s e l f -confidence. Further evidence included a conspicuous absence of f r u s t r a t i o n , compliance, or defensiveness among Helen's responses. Although she v e r b a l l y a s s o c i a t e d her f e e l i n g s of comfort and confidence 118 w i t h Hugh's supportiveness, an a n a l y s i s of her i n t e r a c t i v e thoughts suggested t h a t most of these f e e l i n g s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a high l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g because the nature of Hugh's support o f t e n seemed i n a p p r o p r i a t e to her. Some in a p p r o p r i a t e support. Among Hugh's behaviours which appeared to demonstrate h i s i n t e n t i o n to be supportive were: o f f e r i n g of p r a i s e ; use of a gentle tone and other "comforters" to prepare Helen f o r the impact of negative feedback; and attempts t o minimize or even deny the s i g n i f i c a n c e of problems i d e n t i f i e d by Helen. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data suggested the l a t t e r two of these behaviours may be i n a p p r o p r i a t e w i t h respect t o Helen's high conceptual l e v e l , d e s p i t e t h e i r s urface appearance of supportiveness which enabled them to be recorded as p o s i t i v e i n the frequency data. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data c l a r i f i e d t h i s discrepancy by suggesting that some of Helen's i n i t i a l comfort and confidence may have been a s s o c i a t e d with her i n i t i a l impression of these two behaviours as p o s i t i v e and sup p o r t i v e . Moreover, because Helen had a pre-formed opinion of Hugh's p o s i t i v i t y , which she had gained during a previous working acquaintanceship w i t h him, she may have been vu l n e r a b l e t o a ccepting the surface appearance of some of Hugh's "supportive" conference behaviours. By the end of the second conference, i t appeared t h a t Helen's impressions had changed. Requirement f o r two forms of support. Evidence suggested that Helen e v e n t u a l l y r e a l i z e d she needed two forms of support f o r her comfort and confidence: (1) environmental s e c u r i t y , and (2) opportunity t o f u n c t i o n a t a high conceptual l e v e l . Although Helen seemed s a t i s f i e d 119 t h a t she r e c e i v e d the f i r s t form of support, she appeared disappointed t h a t Hugh had f a i l e d t o provide the second. Evidence of the second form of support was not a v a i l a b l e i n the frequency data, but the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data suggested t h a t Helen l i n k e d the missing support w i t h Hugh's f a i l u r e t o provide complete and accurate p i c t u r e s of her l e s s o n . This suggested t h a t she r e q u i r e d the type of support that the t h i r d category of Hugh's "supportive" behaviours prevented her from r e c e i v i n g . Moreover, the requirement Helen recognized was one t h a t may have had p o t e n t i a l t o support personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h her high conceptual l e v e l . That i s , the candid p i c t u r e could enable Helen to u t i l i z e her w i l l i n g n e s s to analyze negative aspects of her l e s s o n , and could provide the complete set of i n f o r m a t i o n she needed i n order t o sol v e her problems i n her r e f l e c t i v e and a n a l y t i c s t y l e . BETWEEN DYAD COMPARISON OF TEACHERS' COMFORT AND CONFIDENCE In t h e i r responses, both teachers demonstrated comfort and confidence. However, i t appeared t h a t by the end of the post-workshop conferences, Luke's comfort and confidence had increased, whereas Helen's had decreased. There was evidence to suggest t h a t the two teachers' comfort and confidence was d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with h i s / h e r p r i n c i p a l ' s supportive behaviours, and that Luke and Helen recognized t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . However, f o r both teachers, there was a l s o evidence t o suggest that maintenance of t h e i r comfort and confidence may have been p a r t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r own high conceptual l e v e l s . F i ndings and d i s c u s s i o n f o r t h i s comparative a n a l y s i s are presented i n two s e c t i o n s which address: (1) evidence of teacher's comfort and 120 confidence which appeared t o be as s o c i a t e d w i t h the teacher's high conceptual l e v e l ; and (2) evidence of teacher's comfort and confidence which appeared to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r i n c i p a l ' s supportive behaviours. High L e v e l of Conceptual F u n c t i o n i n g Both teachers appeared to be f u n c t i o n i n g at t h e i r high conceptual l e v e l s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , n e i t h e r Luke nor Helen d i s p l a y e d any si g n s of f r u s t r a t i o n or defensiveness. When Lorna enquired about events i n Luke's le s s o n s , he responded c o n f i d e n t l y and openly even i f he suspected Lorna had doubts about h i s handling of the events. When Hugh c o n t i n u a l l y evaded d i s c u s s i o n of Helen's time management problems, she d i d not appear t o be f r u s t r a t e d , and u n t i l the l a t t e r h a l f of the post-workshop conference, she seemed c o n f i d e n t l y determined t o avoid compliance with Hugh's wish t o abandon the t o p i c . Both Helen and Luke demonstrated a d a p t a b i l i t y and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , and t h e i r comfort and confidence seemed t o be as s o c i a t e d w i t h each of these q u a l i t i e s . A d a p t a b i l i t y . In t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e responses, both Helen and Luke seemed t o demonstrate a d a p t a b i l i t y . Evidence suggested t h a t both were able t o support t h e i r own comfort by adapting t o t h e i r p r i n c i p a l ' s agendas. In Helen's case t h i s a b i l i t y may have saved her from becoming f r u s t r a t e d on those occasions when Hugh not only refused t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o concerns she had i d e n t i f i e d h e r s e l f , but a l s o d i v e r t e d d i s c u s s i o n i n s t e a d toward t o p i c s t h a t s u i t e d h i s personal agenda. Even 121 when Helen's i n t e r e s t seemed to d e c l i n e i n the second conference, she d i d not demonstrate lack of i n t e r e s t i n the t o p i c t h a t Hugh requested her t o d i s c u s s . Evidence suggested t h a t Luke had developed the a b i l i t y to c a p i t a l i z e on h i s adaptation t o Lorna's agenda as a means of g a i n i n g her acceptance of h i s agenda, and thereby i n c r e a s i n g h i s comfort. When Helen d i v e r t e d her a t t e n t i o n and i n t e r e s t t o issues which Hugh wished t o d i s c u s s , she may have been hoping t h a t her a c t i o n would encourage Hugh to r e c i p r o c a t e w i t h regard to her own concerns. However, there was no evidence t o support t h i s suggestion. S e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . Neither Helen nor Luke ever attempted t o blame t h e i r time management problems on f a c t o r s outside themselves. There was evidence t o suggest t h a t both teachers had s u f f i c i e n t confidence t o accept and even t o admit t h a t t h e i r problems were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r own behaviours. Furthermore, both Helen and Luke not only seemed anxious to r e c e i v e an observer's view of events i n v o l v i n g t h e i r problems, but a l s o appeared w i l l i n g to accept t h a t t o a l l e v i a t e the problems some changes i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e behaviours would be r e q u i r e d . To f e e l comfortable i n t h i s approach t o problem s o l v i n g , d e s p i t e t h e i r apparent s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , both teachers suggested t h a t they r e q u i r e d t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s to provide support f o r t h e i r comfort and confidence. 122 P r i n c i p a l ' s Supportive Behaviours Both teachers appeared t o b e l i e v e t h a t support f o r t h e i r comfort and confidence was an important component i n the p r i n c i p a l ' s p r o v i s i o n of an opportunity f o r development. In t h i s regard, evidence suggested t h a t the two teachers b e l i e v e d i n the importance of the p r i n c i p a l ' s support f o r both t h e i r s e c u r i t y requirements and t h e i r high conceptual l e v e l requirements. Environmental s e c u r i t y . In t h e i r r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w s , both Helen and Luke provided evidence t h a t they a s s o c i a t e d t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o speak openly w i t h the e x i s t e n c e of a secure environment provided by t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p r i n c i p a l s ' supportive behaviours. Helen implied t h a t her open and t r u s t i n g a t t i t u d e was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Hugh's p o s i t i v e and unthreatening manner. Luke implied t h a t h i s openness was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h not o n l y Lorna's p o s i t i v e feedback, but a l s o her " n e u t r a l " feedback. He suggested that i f she had used a negative r a t h e r than a " n e u t r a l " tone to introduce her doubts about h i s behaviours, he would have "shut down the openness". Luke a l s o appeared t o f e e l secure i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the respect he perceived Lorna t o be showing f o r h i s a b i l i t y and experience because she accepted h i s methods and r a t i o n a l e s even when they d i d not f i t her own, and she allowed him t o make h i s own d e c i s i o n s regarding problems. Evidence was found i n Helen's second r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w to suggest t h a t she may have a s s o c i a t e d the d e c l i n e i n her comfort w i t h s p e c i f i c behaviours performed by Hugh. Helen's discomfort involved disappointment because she had not r e c e i v e d the opportunity to improve t h a t she had 123 expected. The evidence suggested t h a t Helen a s s o c i a t e d the missing o p p o r t u n i t y with Hugh's h a b i t of r e t a i n i n g p o s i t i v i t y by never f o c u s s i n g on her shortcomings and thereby denying her a t r u e p i c t u r e of her l e s s o n . Moreover, i t appeared t h a t Helen f e l t insecure i n an environment wherein f a c t s were withheld or d i s t o r t e d , and thereby denied her the op p o r t u n i t y t o face and examine the t r u t h . This behaviour of Hugh's a l s o seemed to have the e f f e c t of denying Helen the opportunity t o f u n c t i o n at her high conceptual l e v e l i n problem s o l v i n g . Support f o r HCL f u n c t i o n i n g . Evidence suggested that both Helen and Luke a s s o c i a t e d t h e i r f e e l i n g s of comfort with t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p r i n c i p a l ' s e f f o r t s t o provide them o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a c t i v e involvement i n a n a l y s i s or i n problem s o l v i n g ; t h a t i s , with the amount of support provided f o r t h e i r high conceptual l e v e l s by t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p r i n c i p a l s . In t h i s regard, both Helen and Luke seemed t o perceive importance i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p r i n c i p a l ' s e f f o r t s t o provide candid p i c t u r e s of lesson events, and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y to become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n c l a r i f y i n g these p i c t u r e s . Evidence suggested t h a t Luke a s s o c i a t e d h i s comfort with Lorna's p r e s e n t a t i o n of a c c u r a t e l y d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e s , and t h a t Helen was disappointed because Hugh f a i l e d t o provide her with c l e a r p i c t u r e s . In a d d i t i o n , Luke provided evidence t h a t h i s comfort and confidence was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an opportunity to work c o l l a b o r a t i v e l y w i t h Lorna i n a n a l y z i n g and c l a r i f y i n g the p i c t u r e s , and w i t h Lorna's assumption t h a t f o l l o w i n g the dyad's c o l l a b o r a t i v e c l a r i f i c a t i o n of p i c t u r e s he would make d e c i s i o n s independently wit h regard t o problem s o l v i n g . These were o p p o r t u n i t i e s which Helen d i d not r e c e i v e from Hugh. Luke's comments about h i s 124 o p p o r t u n i t y t o make d e c i s i o n s independently revealed t h a t he ass o c i a t e d h i s comfort and confidence with the p r i n c i p a l ' s respect f o r h i s need t o behave autonomously. Support f o r t h e i r s t a t e d b e l i e f s i n the importance of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p r i n c i p a l ' s supportive behaviours was provided by what appeared to be Helen's and Luke's e f f o r t s t o encourage continuance of the behaviours. Luke's encouragements continued throughout both conferences and culminated i n the request f o r Lorna's help w i t h h i s volunteered "dead" lesson endings problem. On the c o n t r a r y , Helen's encouragements f o r Hugh were confined t o the f i r s t conference wherein she seemed e s p e c i a l l y eager to provide him with p o s i t i v e feedback on h i s hab i t of p u t t i n g "teachers a t ease". SUMMARY Evidence suggested t h a t whereas Helen, the HCL teacher who was supervised by the M/HCL p r i n c i p a l , s u f f e r e d a d e c l i n e i n one aspect of her comfort and confidence during the s u p e r v i s i o n p e r i o d , Luke, the HCL teacher who was supervised by the LCL p r i n c i p a l , experienced maintenance and p o s s i b l y an increase i n h i s comfort and confidence. Findings r e s u l t i n g from the a n a l y s i s of the teachers' r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w s seemed to o f f e r a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . Both teachers provided evidence t o suggest they b e l i e v e d there was an a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e i r f e e l i n g s of comfort and confidence and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p r i n c i p a l ' s behaviours. I t appeared t h a t both teachers attached notable importance t o two sets of behaviours which they regarded as sup p o r t i v e : (1) behaviours which supported t h e i r requirements f o r environmental 125 s e c u r i t y : and (2) behaviours which provided them o p p o r t u n i t i e s to become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n a n a l y s i s or i n problem s o l v i n g , or t o behave autonomously, i . e . , t o f u n c t i o n at t h e i r high conceptual l e v e l s . Evidence revealed t h a t i n connection w i t h these requirements, both teachers' wanted the p r i n c i p a l t o : (1) employ non-threatening methods and behaviours; and (2) present candid p i c t u r e s of lesson events connected w i t h the teachers' problems. The Dyad #1 LCL p r i n c i p a l appeared to perform both these behaviours, whereas the Dyad #2 M/HCL p r i n c i p a l appeared t o use only non-threatening methods. The teachers' comfort and confidence a l s o seemed to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r high conceptual l e v e l s . This s e c t i o n of the a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data revealed t h a t each teacher b e l i e v e d t h a t , i n order t o f e e l comfortable and conf i d e n t d u ring s u p e r v i s i o n , he/she needed the p r i n c i p a l t o provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s both f o r a c t i v e involvement i n a n a l y s i s and problem s o l v i n g and f o r autonomous behaviour. Chapters 6 and 7 w i l l r e p o r t the f i n d i n g s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s regarding evidence of whether or not the teachers' responses suggested t h a t they r e c e i v e d these o p p o r t u n i t i e s . 126 Chapter 6 ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT The purpose of t h i s chapter i s t o present and d i s c u s s the f i n d i n g s f o r the second stage i n the a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data. This a n a l y s i s i s u n l i k e the second stage of the frequency data a n a l y s i s i n the three ways explained i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to Chapter 5. However, the second stage of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s i s l i k e the corresponding stage of the frequency data a n a l y s i s i n that i t addressed research sub-question 1.2 and the second stage of the conceptual model. That i s , data were analyzed f o r evidence of whether the responses of Helen, the Dyad #2 HCL teacher, who was p a i r e d with Hugh, the M/HCL p r i n c i p a l , i n d i c a t e d t h a t she experienced more a c t i v e involvement while being supervised than d i d Luke, the Dyad #1 teacher, who was p a i r e d w i t h Lorna, the LCL p r i n c i p a l . The frequency data i n d i c a t e d that few of the teachers' responses and p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours matched the responses t h a t were predetermined to be i n d i c a t o r s of the teachers' a c t i v e involvement and the p r i n c i p a l s ' c h a l l e n g i n g of the teachers t o become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d . Thus, the a n a l y s i s of the frequency data was unable to f i n d much evidence regarding the teachers' a c t i v e involvement i n t h e i r conferences. However, from the a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data new evidence emerged, some of which suggested t h a t teachers could become a c t i v e l y involved i n s u p e r v i s i o n conferences and that p r i n c i p a l s could challenge teachers t o do so i n ways t h a t were d i f f e r e n t from those p o s t u l a t e d by the predetermined i n d i c a t o r s . 127 Some new evidence was found among data t h a t emerged regarding teachers' responses. These data revealed a s t y l e of response t h a t could be described as " r e l a t e s p r i n c i p a l ' s observations t o own per s p e c t i v e of events". Although t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e statement appears s i m i l a r t o the predetermined i n d i c a t o r " r e l a t e s p r i n c i p a l ' s observation t o previous experience and notes i m p l i c a t i o n s " , there are three important d i f f e r e n c e s between the two. F i r s t , the new evidence d i d not include "notes i m p l i c a t i o n s " because t h i s was r a r e l y apparent, d u r i n g the conference. Second, the new evidence suggested that while "previous experience" was o f t e n a component of "own p e r s p e c t i v e " , i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data, i t was not the only component. That i s , "own pe r s p e c t i v e " was not l i m i t e d t o being only "previous experience". T h i r d , the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a l s o suggested t h a t the immediate purpose of the response was c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p a l ' s observations. This purpose d i f f e r s from t h a t i n the predetermined i n d i c a t o r 2.1.3 which r e f e r s to asking questions f o r " c l a r i f i c a t i o n of new ideas". Other new evidence emerged regarding p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours. The data suggested reasons why the teacher was observed r a r e l y to "apply own ideas p o s i t i v e l y and i n r e l a t i o n t o the p r i n c i p a l ' s " ; f o r example, ways i n which p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours can o f f e r d i s i n c e n t i v e s f o r teachers t o apply t h e i r own new ideas during conferences. Moreover, the data revealed that the HCL teacher i n Dyad #2 made strong attempts t o apply her own ideas d e s p i t e such d i s i n c e n t i v e s and a r e s u l t i n g lack of opportunity. The p r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s f o r the second stage of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o three main s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t two s e c t i o n s p e r t a i n t o teacher's a c t i v e 128 involvement f o r each dyad. The t h i r d s e c t i o n compares the two dyads i n terms of the t e a c h e r s 1 a c t i v e involvement. DYAD #1: TEACHER'S ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s suggested t h a t Luke was o f t e n a c t i v e l y involved d u r ing h i s s u p e r v i s i o n conferences, that t h i s a c t i v e involvement was i n problem s o l v i n g on one occasion, but i n a l l other i n s t a n c e s , comprised only a n a l y s i s and c l a r i f i c a t i o n of issues r e f e r r e d t o i n Lorna's feedback. In t h i s l a t t e r type of a c t i v e involvement, Luke's responses seemed t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of Lorna's feedback. In her f i r s t r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , Lorna's c l o s i n g comments included evidence to suggest t h a t she d i d not intend to present her feedback as though she were addressing problems i n need of a s o l u t i o n . Instead, Lorna's comments impl i e d t h a t the purpose of her feedback was t o present Luke w i t h a candid p i c t u r e of events, and t o challenge him t o take a c l o s e r look at them h i m s e l f . These t r a n s c r i p t i o n data r e f u t e d suggestions from the frequency data t h a t Lorna r a r e l y presented challenges f o r Luke. She e x p l a i n e d : "I think I look at the time ... as a time i n which I'm observing c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h a t I'm able t o see i n the classroom that the teacher's not able to see ... a large part of the time I'm r e a l l y r a i s i n g questions, I hope opening some doors t h a t maybe [he/she hasn't] thought about, but r e a l l y l e a v i n g i t t o [him/her] t o make some d e c i s i o n s about the k i n d of s t r a t e g y [he/she] uses to make the changes" (1:1491-1502). Support f o r the n o t i o n of an a s s o c i a t i o n between h i s a c t i v e involvement and Lorna's behaviours seemed t o be evident i n Luke's 1 2 9 comments suggesting that he i n t e r p r e t e d her i n t e n t i o n s as she would have wished. Luke surmised: "[Lorna] i s , I t h i n k , j u s t t r y i n g t o be a m i r r o r , so I can see what's going on i n the classroom b e t t e r ... and now t h a t [she's] held up the m i r r o r ... maybe [ I ] can change some th i n g s or do t h i n g s d i f f e r e n t l y or do [them] b e t t e r ... a l l we're doing i s j u s t , g i v i n g our views of what was going on so that we're more aware of [ i t ] and then maybe ... I can go away and t h i n k about i t and maybe improve what was going on or do nothing" (1:424-448). A p o r t i o n of t h i s q uotation was a l s o used i n Chapter 5 t o show Luke's comfort and confidence i n connection with Lorna's " m i r r o r " . I t i s used here because i t provides u s e f u l i n s i g h t s i n t o the nature of Luke's a c t i v e involvement i n the conference. Luke's comments suggest he i n f e r r e d t h a t Lorna d i d not intend t h a t he should address the i s s u e s she presented as problems t o be solved during the conference, but r a t h e r as issues r e q u i r i n g c l a r i f i c a t i o n t o provide a b a s i s f o r making d e c i s i o n s , a f t e r conferences, about whether the issues were problems and, i f so, how they could be s o l v e d . Further f i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n of Luke's a c t i v e involvement w i l l be presented s e p a r a t e l y f o r the pre-workshop conference and the post-workshop conference. A c t i v e Involvement i n Dyad #1 Pre-Workshop Conference In t h i s f i r s t conference, time management concerns were addressed during three i n t e r a c t i o n s . Each seemed to f i t one of the three d i f f e r e n t types of i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t occurred w i t h i n the Dyad #1 conferences: (1) an i n t e r a c t i o n i n i t i a t e d by Lorna p r o v i d i n g p o s i t i v e feedback; (2) an i n t e r a c t i o n i n i t i a t e d by Lorna p r o v i d i n g " n e u t r a l ' feedback; and (3) an i n t e r a c t i o n i n i t i a t e d by Luke i d e n t i f y i n g a problem he had perceived 130 h i m s e l f . In the p r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of f i n d i n g s i n t h i s s e c t i o n , an attempt w i l l be made t o show evidence of whether, and i f so how, Luke became a c t i v e l y i nvolved i n each of these three s t y l e s of i n t e r a c t i o n . The p r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s i s c l a s s i f i e d under headings which r e f e r t o two types of teacher response: (1) r e l a t e s p r i n c i p a l ' s observations t o own persp e c t i v e of events; and (2) a p p l i e s own ideas. Relates p r i n c i p a l ' s observations t o own perspective of events. In what seemed to be attempts to c l a r i f y both h i s own and Lorna's p i c t u r e s of events that were r e l e v a n t t o issues she introduced, Luke r e l a t e d Lorna's observations to h i s own p e r s p e c t i v e . Because the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data revealed t h a t Luke's responses f r e q u e n t l y d i s p l a y e d t h i s form of a c t i v e involvement, they c o n f l i c t e d w i t h the frequency data which suggested that Luke was r a r e l y a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d . The f i r s t feedback Lorna provided regarding time management involved p o s i t i v e observations of Luke's expectations of h i s p u p i l s ' e n t r y and lesson commencement. On t h i s occasion, Luke d i d not respond by r e l a t i n g Lorna's observations t o h i s own p e r s p e c t i v e , but he appeared to do so as a r e s u l t of the query which accompanied Lorna's next ob s e r v a t i o n . A f t e r d e s c r i b i n g a p i c t u r e of the lesson's opening a c t i v i t y , Lorna appeared to be e i t h e r seeking c l a r i f i c a t i o n of her observations or c h a l l e n g i n g Luke t o examine h i s own view of t h i s a c t i v i t y when she enquired: "are (the p u p i l s ) used to n e a r l y always doing a d r i l l s o r t of t h i n g ? " (1:84). The contents of Luke's r e p l y suggested that i n order t o examine and c l a r i f y both the p i c t u r e presented by Lorna and h i s own understanding, he was r e f l e c t i n g on both the reasoning behind h i s lesson 1 3 1 opening and i t s impact upon h i s students. Without f u r t h e r probing from Lorna, Luke ex p l a i n e d : " I t ' s not always [a d r i l l ] , but I guess they pick up on some cl u e s ... because I t r y not to do a l l that many d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s a t the beginning of the c l a s s . I l i k e them t o be f a m i l i a r w i t h what they're going to do, so i t i s a r o u t i n e t h i n g ... i t tends t o be something t h a t i s independent, they can do i t and they don't need help w i t h i t and they don't have to ask questions about i t " (1:86-93). F o l l o w i n g Luke's r e p l y , Lorna d i d not continue probing, which suggests t h a t when she challenged Luke to analyze h i s own pe r s p e c t i v e of h i s opening a c t i v i t i e s , she was t r y i n g "to get to know h i s procedures b e t t e r ... and t o be convinced t h a t the t h i n g s he i s doing he has a reason f o r " (1:1475-1478). The absence of f u r t h e r probing combined with the enthusiasm of Lorna's expression when she noted t h a t Luke's plans enabled h i s p u p i l s t o "get r i g h t down, r i g h t i n t o i t " (1:95), suggested she was s a t i s f i e d t h a t the e f f i c i e n t s t a r t she saw d i d not happen by chance and would not expect Luke t o i d e n t i f y the issue as a problem. However, when Lorna appeared t o challenge Luke to r e l a t e h i s own persp e c t i v e to the next s e t of observations t h a t she presented i n her " n e u t r a l " way, she d i d not i n d i c a t e the same p o s i t i v i t y f o l l o w i n g Luke's r e f l e c t i o n s . While g i v i n g feedback regarding Luke's management of a lesson t r a n s i t i o n wherein p u p i l s ' were c o l l e c t i n g t h e i r worksheets, Lorna provided a candid p i c t u r e of what she had observed, but while she reported her observations, she seemed t o probe simultaneously. She s a i d : " I wondered, although i t turned out t o be f a i r l y organized, but I had the f e e l i n g when you s t a r t e d i n t o t a k i n g out the sheets and you d i d n ' t have them i n any s o r t of order and the k i d s a l l s o r t of got up from t h e i r desks and came to you and i t d i d n ' t seem t o be a 132 problem, and I don't know why because i t q u i t e o f t e n can be ... when they've a l l got out of t h e i r seats and everybody's l o o k i n g f o r [ t h e i r papers] ... were they c l e a r l y l a b e l l e d ...? (1:583-592) Evidence of Luke's attempts t o r e l a t e Lorna's observations to h i s own persp e c t i v e i n order to c l a r i f y h i s view of events seemed t o be revealed i n some of h i s comments. Luke noted that the papers were named and he began t o e x p l a i n h i s procedure, but he seemed t o i n t e r r u p t himself by r e f l e c t i n g upon the f a c t t h a t these procedures d i d not work at a l l w e l l w i t h another of h i s c l a s s e s . His response suggested that t h i s might be an i s s u e , which, as a r e s u l t of h i s a c t i v e involvement i n attempting t o c l a r i f y the p i c t u r e , he would i d e n t i f y as a problem to be solved a f t e r the conference. In the l a s t i n t e r a c t i o n , d u r i ng t h i s conference, regarding time management concerns, Luke appeared t e n t a t i v e l y to i d e n t i f y a problem while he r e l a t e d Lorna's observations t o h i s own p e r s p e c t i v e . In response t o Lorna's probing i n t o h i s procedure of t e l l i n g students t h a t i f they were not on task during t h e i r f r e e r time i t would become pack-up time, Luke admitted t h a t " sometimes i t ' s pack-up time means ... t h a t ' s i t . You know the lesson's over, t h i s i s what I had planned, and I t e l l them t h a t . 'Look t h i s i s a l l I have planned today and i f you can't handle i t I've got nothing e l s e f o r you to do, I don't p u l l out ... f i f t y e i g h t , you know, d i v i s i o n questions ... I don't l i k e to use what I'd l i k e them t o be working on as i f i t ' s l i k e a punishment" (1:555-567). Although Lorna r e f l e c t e d some of Luke's thoughts by say i n g , "So you don't want t o give d i v i s i o n questions because t h a t ' s [not something] you should [ r i s k seeming l i k e a punishment]" (1:572-573), she d i d not encourage him t o do any f u r t h e r t h i n k i n g about the problem during the 133 conference. Instead, Lorna returned to her observations of events during the free-time segment of Luke's l e s s o n . However, during the second Dyad 81 conference, w i t h stronger emphasis, Luke re-introduced h i s concern about having "dead" time a t the end of some of h i s le s s o n s , and together he and Lorna addressed the issue as a problem t o be so l v e d . On th a t occasion, Luke had the opportunity t o apply h i s own ideas i n r e l a t i o n t o Lorna's ideas. However, there were few o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r him t o respond i n t h i s way during the f i r s t conference. A p p l i e s own ideas. The a n a l y s i s of s e c t i o n s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data r e l e v a n t t o time management problems revealed t h a t no new ideas were discussed i n reference t o these concerns. With regard t o the non-occurrence of new ideas, the a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data seemed to v a l i d a t e the suggestions derived from the a n a l y s i s of the frequency data d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4.6. The absence of new ideas and of Luke's attempts t o apply them may have been a r e s u l t of Lorna's conferencing s t y l e . Because Lorna i n i t i a t e d most of the conference i n t e r a c t i o n s , they tended t o be dominated by her s t y l e of presenting issues as p o s s i b l e problems r a t h e r than as a c t u a l problems, and t h i s appeared t o provide a d i s i n c e n t i v e f o r Luke to suggest new ideas f o r the s o l u t i o n of problems. Thus, i n t h e i r f i r s t conference, p o s s i b l y because Lorna's conferencing behaviours d i d not encourage the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of presented issues as problems, and because Luke only a l l u d e d t o h i s "dead" time concern, few problem s o l v i n g a c t i v i t i e s occurred. Thus, there seemed t o be l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e f o r Luke t o present new ideas or t o apply ideas p o s i t i v e l y and i n r e l a t i o n t o Lorna's. On the c o n t r a r y , Luke d i d have an opportunity to 134 apply h i s own ideas i n r e l a t i o n to Lorna's ideas d u r i n g t h e i r second conference. A c t i v e Involvement i n Dyad #1 Post-workshop Conference With the exception of the occasion when Luke d i s c l o s e d h i s "dead" time problem, Lorna i n i t i a t e d most of the i n t e r a c t i o n s . Thus, as was the case i n the f i r s t conference, the s t y l e of most of the i n t e r a c t i o n s was determined by Lorna's purposes. Again, on some occasions Lorna's purpose seemed t o be t o support Luke by p r o v i d i n g not only p o s i t i v e feedback, but a l s o a p i c t u r e of events i n h i s classroom; and on other occasions Lorna's purpose seemed t o be challenge Luke t o examine her p i c t u r e of events, to analyze and compare h i s own p i c t u r e w i t h hers, and thereby c l a r i f y h i s own. In t h i s second conference, an even higher p r o p o r t i o n of Lorna's p r e s e n t a t i o n s of observations were p o s i t i v e as opposed to " n e u t r a l " than i n the f i r s t conference. A l l of her feedback on time management concerns was p o s i t i v e . In an attempt to e x p l a i n t o what extent Luke's a c t i v e involvement seemed t o be as s o c i a t e d w i t h Lorna's purposes and behaviours, the pr e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of f i n d i n g s from the second Dyad #1 conference are presented i n two subsections corresponding t o those used for the f i r s t conference. Relates p r i n c i p a l ' s observations t o own persp e c t i v e of events. When Lorna presented p o s i t i v e feedback on her observations by p r a i s i n g Luke's e f f i c i e n t time management during h i s lesson opening, h i s g i v i n g of i n s t r u c t i o n s , and h i s lesson t r a n s i t i o n s , Luke responded on each 135 occasion by r e l a t i n g her observations t o h i s own p e r s p e c t i v e . There was no evidence of r e f l e c t i n g or probing behaviours accompanying Lorna's p o s i t i v e feedback. Thus, because Lorna's behaviours on these occasions d i d not inclu d e provoking or encouraging Luke to analyze her observations, Luke's responses d i d not seem t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h her behaviours. This evidence from the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data, which suggests t h a t o c c a s i o n a l l y Luke's r e f l e c t i v e and a n a l y t i c responses were independently i n i t i a t e d and t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s high conceptual l e v e l , was not a v a i l a b l e from the frequency data. The predetermined i n d i c a t o r s were unable to d i s c e r n teachers' independently i n i t i a t e d behaviours. The f i r s t evidence of Luke's independent i n i t i a t i o n of a c t i v e involvement emerged from h i s response to p o s i t i v e feedback provided by Lorna near the beginning of the conference. This occasion was the f i r s t i n v o l v i n g a time management issue and seemed t o provide a u s e f u l example of Luke's even more eager a c t i v e involvement during the second conference, as compared t o the f i r s t , i n c l a r i f y i n g the dyad's p i c t u r e s of events t h a t were r e l e v a n t to issues of concern. F o l l o w i n g her opening c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s on the q u a l i t y of h i s l e s s o n , Lorna gave c l e a r and p o s i t i v e feedback on Luke's management of lesson s t a r t - u p time. She commented: "The quick d r i l l t h a t I know you do on a very r e g u l a r b a s i s I think went extremely w e l l , and I guess because I've noted before, and as I saw today, you have l i t t l e ways of making i t d i f f e r e n t .... your i n s t r u c t i o n s were r e a l l y good. I thought there was r e a l l y l o t s of good c h i t t e r , c h a t t e r but you proceeded very, very e a s i l y r i g h t i n t o ... the d r i l l and I thought .. t h e i r response was very, very task o r i e n t e d . . . . One of the t h i n g s t h a t you do r e a l l y w e l l i s t h a t you never s o r t of get i n t o a s t a t e about the f a c t of the k i d s l i s t e n i n g . I sensed that they knew that those i n s t r u c t i o n s that you [were about t o ] give were important and i f they missed them tough l u c k ! (2:16-25) 136 Without any probing from Lorna, Luke responded by openly r e l a t i n g Lorna's observations t o h i s own p e r s p e c t i v e on h i s methods of coping with time taken f o r g i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . Luke s t a t e d : "Yes, I do adopt that s o r t of a t t i t u d e , and I must e x p l a i n t o you ... i f there's too much noise i n the room or something l i k e t h a t . F i n e ! I w i l l say i t again or do something to make sure t h a t most have heard i t , but i f i t ' s j u s t r o u t i n e s t u f f and they don't get i t the l i g h t s aren't going t o f a l l o f f . Nothing too s e r i o u s ! But I th i n k they get an important message that when i n s t r u c t i o n s are being given you b e t t e r get them f i r s t time around." (2:31-39) When Luke's comments seemed to remind Lorna of another of her observations f o r which she immediately proceeded t o give f u r t h e r p o s i t i v e feedback. In connection w i t h Luke's management of time during a t r a n s i t i o n , Lorna noted: "you l a i d out expectations f o r a change, when you l e f t the q u i z , then you t o l d them what you were going to do and you s a i d ... 'Two minutes and then we begin!' which gave them time to get t h e i r t h i n g s and get themselves organized and they're not upset" (2:772-776). In response, Luke r e l a t e d Lorna's observation to h i s own perspective by presenting her w i t h a p i c t u r e of how attempts t o s o l v e previous problems had r e s u l t e d i n the t r a n s i t i o n time management she had observed. Again, Luke's a c t i v e involvement appeared t o be independently i n i t i a t e d because Lorna's feedback was not accompanied by behaviours t h a t might have encouraged Luke t o become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d . He r e f l e c t e d : " I d i d n ' t do t h a t kind of t h i n g i n secondary. But I found t h a t i n the elementary s i t u a t i o n ... l a s t year, I f e l t t h a t I was so o f t e n on the k i d s a l l the time, l i k e there's too much noise, too much commotion ... I was t r y i n g (to decide] how do you get ... from one a c t i v i t y to the next and t h a t ' s what I thought, w e l l I won't worry 137 about what they're doing i n between the a c t i v i t i e s e s s e n t i a l l y , i n f a c t r u s t l e a l l the papers you l i k e , i f you have to get out of your seat do, but you b e t t e r be ready." (2:777-786) Because most of Lorna's feedback was p o s i t i v e d u r i n g t h i s conference and, consequently, she seemed t o have l i t t l e occasion t o probe and encourage Luke t o c l a r i f y her observations, Lorna d i d not provide Luke w i t h many o p p o r t u n i t i e s to d i s p l a y h i s r e f l e c t i v e n e s s and h i s a n a l y t i c a b i l i t y . However, i n the execution and content of responses such as the two quoted above, i t appears that Luke may have been intending to s u s t a i n Lorna's impression of h i s a n a l y t i c a b i l i t i e s and, thereby, encourage her t o continue a l l o w i n g him o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o apply them. Although the time management issues t h a t were introduced by Lorna i n t h i s conference involved p o s i t i v e feedback, the issue introduced by Luke was one t h a t he had i d e n t i f i e d f o r himself as problematic. In the i n t e r a c t i o n connected with t h i s i s s u e , Luke had the opportunity to apply h i s own ideas p o s i t i v e l y i n r e l a t i o n to Lorna's ideas. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data from t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n supported and c l a r i f i e d the corresponding frequency data. A p p l i e s own ideas. When Luke recounted how "dead' time had occurred d u ring the l a s t segment of h i s l e s s o n , which Lorna had not observed, he explained that when he t r i e d "to get ( h i s p u p i l s ] r e d i r e c t e d ... to begin on the problems .... There [was] no way, [they'd] had i t , the day was over!" (2:1278-1280). By acknowledging Luke's concern i n her comment, "You di d n ' t f e e l too s u c c e s s f u l a f t e r t h a t time" (2:1281), Lorna seemed to demonstrate i n t e r e s t i n Luke's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a problem. She appeared anxious to help Luke to f i n d 138 s o l u t i o n s when she began to probe f o r information on how Luke u s u a l l y d e a l t w i t h "dead" time. She asked, "Ok ... the ten minutes ... what s o r t of t h i n g do you do the r e ? " (2:1285-1286). In a s p i r i t e d response, Luke d e c l a r e d , " I , I b o i l ... I get mad at the s i t u a t i o n . I don't mind i f , maybe up t o f i v e minutes where a l r i g h t , I've accomplished what I wanted ... and we happen t o f i n i s h a b i t e a r l y .... But [the time l o s t to-dayj was j u s t a couple of minutes longer than what I wanted..." (2:1287-1293). Luke r e f l e c t e d t h a t by a l l o w i n g a casual d i s c u s s i o n a t the end of the previous a c t i v i t y , he may have i n t e r f e r e d w i t h h i s students' a b i l i t y to s e t t l e down t o the seatwork he had planned as a c l o s i n g a c t i v i t y . This seemed t o prompt Lorna to a f f i r m the importance of s o l v i n g the problem by implying t h a t i t was not unique t o h i s classroom: " maybe ... [ i t i s a problem] t o t h i n k about not j u s t i n your c l a s s but i n a l l c l a s s e s , because there are those s o r t of f i v e to ten minute times when sometimes ... we j u s t have to recognize the f a c t t h a t as you have ... t h a t i n many of these cases t h a t ' s i t as f a r as the k i d s are concerned. You're not going t o get more out of them and maybe ... although you had such a v a r i a t i o n , maybe j u s t f o r t h a t time you need t o be t h i n k i n g of some very ... short productive kind of t h i n g t h a t can be done at these times .... I t may be j u s t a r e c o g n i t i o n of what's r e a l i s t i c , I suppose" ( 2: 1300-1311) Lorna's tone suggested she was i n v i t i n g Luke t o propose some s o l u t i o n s , but h i s response d i d not co n t a i n any. This lack of ideas from Luke seemed t o prompt Lorna to suggest a t e n t a t i v e s o l u t i o n . She s a i d : "you know ... maybe t h a t ' s the time f o r teachers to maybe f i n d something they're r e a l l y comfortable w i t h . I used to l i k e reading poetry. Yet I di d n ' t get comfortable with spending long periods on poetry, but I d i d f i n d i n a short few minutes t h a t I could maybe do some [poetry r e a d i n g ] . The k i d s would of t e n be q u i t e w i l l i n g to j u s t s i t and be read t o " (2:1317-1324). 139 In h i s response, Luke attempted to c l a r i f y h i s thoughts about the idea. Lorna's r e f l e c t i o n of Luke's comments appeared to help him to r e l a t e h i s ideas with hers, so th a t suddenly he proclaimed t h a t he could "pick some t h i n g s out of the newspaper, f o r instan c e " (2:1333-1334). In suggesting t h i s a c t i v i t y , Luke was ap p l y i n g h i s own ideas p o s i t i v e l y i n r e l a t i o n t o Lorna's because he had used a newspaper during h i s le s s o n . For the lesson ending, he suggested t h a t he could j u s t read something from the newspaper that he found i n t e r e s t i n g and thereby provide a r e l a x i n g a c t i v i t y f o r h i s students. Luke suggested i t would be u s e f u l t o have some such a c t i v i t y " s o r t of on hand" t h a t "he could j u s t go t o (and] r e l a x f o r a minute" when h i s lesson " f i n i s h e d a few minutes e a r l y " (2:1335-1337). By drawing the conference t o a c l o s e , a t t h i s p o i n t , Lorna appeared s a t i s f i e d t h a t she and Luke had given h i s "dead" time problem as much a t t e n t i o n as she b e l i e v e d necessary d u r i n g the conference. She appeared t o assume th a t s i n c e Luke had begun t o t h i n k of h i s own s o l u t i o n s , he would continue, a f t e r t h e i r conference, t o make d e c i s i o n s regarding h i s "dead" time problem. Summary of Dyad #1 Teacher's A c t i v e Involvement Evidence from the frequency data suggested t h a t , d u r i ng both conferences, only a few of Luke's responses matched the i n d i c a t o r s of a c t i v e involvement described i n Tables 4.6 and 4.7. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data revealed evidence t o suggest t h a t t h i s circumstance appeared to be ass o c i a t e d w i t h Lorna's s t y l e of presenting feedback. The new evidence revealed t h a t Lorna presented her observations of events as issues f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n and contemplation; she im p l i e d o n ly t e n t a t i v e l y t h a t the 140 issues may represent problem areas r e q u i r i n g improvement. Yet, i t appeared t h a t these behaviours represented ways th a t were d i f f e r e n t from those p o s t u l a t e d i n the predetermined i n d i c a t o r s and suggested new evidence of ways by which p r i n c i p a l s might challenge teachers t o become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r conferences. Evidence suggested t h a t Lorna intended the within-conference c l a r i f i c a t i o n of issues to provoke Luke to contemplate the c l a r i f i e d p i c t u r e s of events, t o d i s c e r n a f t e r the conference whether they represented problems, and, i f so, to decide independently about p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . Because Lorna i n i t i a t e d most of the i n t e r a c t i o n s , there was l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e f o r Luke to become a c t i v e l y involved i n problem s o l v i n g during the conference i n ways po s t u l a t e d by the predetermined i n d i c a t o r s of teachers' a c t i v e involvement. However, the a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data revealed evidence t h a t d u r i n g the conferences Luke was o f t e n a c t i v e l y involved i n other ways; th a t i s , he was involved i n a n a l y s i s f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the dyad's combined p i c t u r e s of events r e l e v a n t to the issues presented by Lorna. Evidence suggested that Luke's a c t i v e involvement i n c l a r i f i c a t i o n of p i c t u r e s was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h three f a c t o r s : (1) Lorna's "reading" and " f l e x i n g " to challenge Luke to c l a r i f y p i c t u r e s of events; (2) Luke's high l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g ; and (3) the dyad's c o l l a b o r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . P r i n c i p a l ' s "reading" and " f l e x i n g " to challenge. Lorna f r e q u e n t l y probed and r e f l e c t e d i n connection w i t h her p r e s e n t a t i o n of " n e u t r a l " feedback. During her r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w s , Lorna provided evidence of two purposes behind her attempts t o encourage Luke t o e x p l a i n h i s pers p e c t i v e on events: (1) t o c l a r i f y her own p i c t u r e of the events; and 141 (2) t o enable Luke t o c l a r i f y h i s p i c t u r e of events. With regard t o Lorna's f i r s t purpose, she seemed to want t o a s c e r t a i n whether events she had observed had happened by chance or whether they had been planned by Luke. With regard t o her second purpose, Lorna wanted to help Luke t o c l a r i f y h i s p i c t u r e of events so t h a t i t could provide a b a s i s f o r h i s after-conference d e c i s i o n s about whether events represented problems and, i f so, how they may be s o l v e d . Thus, the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data revealed that Lorna presented a challenge f o r Luke. However, the challenge was not presented i n a way that could be discerned by the pre-determined i n d i c a t o r s and thereby captured i n the frequency data. Teacher's high l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . The extent of Luke's e f f o r t s d u r i ng the conference to present h i s own p e r s p e c t i v e on events suggested that h i s a c t i v e involvement i n c l a r i f i c a t i o n of issues was a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s a b i l i t y to analyze s i t u a t i o n s , which, i n t u r n , seemed t o be a s s o c i a t e d with h i s high conceptual l e v e l . When Lorna probed and r e f l e c t e d to encourage Luke to t h i n k about and t o d e s c r i b e h i s own per s p e c t i v e of events, the extent of Luke's a n a l y s i s sometimes seemed to exceed the extent of Lorna's probing. For i n s t a n c e , Luke o c c a s i o n a l l y gave a comprehensive and d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s i n response t o a s i n g l e and f a i r l y simple enquiry from Lorna. Furthermore, i n some instan c e s , Luke provided a c a r e f u l and u s e f u l a n a l y s i s of h i s pers p e c t i v e on events without any previous prompting behaviour from Lorna. This was e s p e c i a l l y n o t i c e a b l e i n the second conference as a response t o Lorna's frequent p o s i t i v e feedback. 142 C o l l a b o r a t i v e s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p . Luke's a c t i v e involvement i n c l a r i f y i n g issues seemed a l s o t o be a s s o c i a t e d with the c o l l a b o r a t i v e nature of the Dyad #1 s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p . In Chapter 5, the f i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n about Luke's comfort and confidence r e f e r r e d to the a s s o c i a t i o n of Luke's comfort w i t h Lorna's h a b i t of "holding up a m i r r o r " to provide him w i t h a p i c t u r e of events. Much of Luke's a c t i v e involvement was i n c o l l a b o r a t i v e c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the "mirrored" p i c t u r e s . C o l l a b o r a t i o n was a l s o evident i n the dyad's i n t e r a c t i o n s during t h e i r problem s o l v i n g f o r Luke's "dead" time problem. The evidence which revealed t h i s c o l l a b o r a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e from the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data but not from the frequency data. Although f o r most of the dyad's conferencing time Luke seemed prepared to adapt to the issues presented by Lorna, i n the second conference, Lorna demonstrated that she was able t o adapt when Luke presented an i s s u e ; i . e . , h i s "dead" time concern. Although d u r i n g the remainder of the time, i t was not Lorna's i n t e n t i o n to suggest s o l u t i o n s , she d i d so when i t appeared t h a t Luke had no ideas t o help solve h i s problem. In her r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , Lorna noted that i n cases l i k e Luke's she w i l l "throw i n some suggestions" (2:1360) i n the hope tha t they " w i l l t r i g g e r (the teacher) to f i n d something t h a t [he/she i s ] r e a l l y comfortable w i t h " (2:1363-1364). This appears t o be a f u r t h e r example of Lorna's " f l e x i n g " to accommodate Luke's high conceptual l e v e l . Lorna's c o r r e c t "reading" of Luke's conceptual l e v e l was suggested by evidence presented i n Chapter 5 of Lorna's r e c o g n i t i o n of Luke as a " t h o u g h t f u l person" and "an a n a l y t i c a l person" (2: 1463-1464). 143 Even though Lorna's behaviours d i d not often match those described as p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r s of "reading" and " f l e x i n g " t o challenge Luke's conceptual l e v e l , the evidence i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data regarding Luke's a c t i v e involvement i n c l a r i f y i n g i ssues suggests t h a t Lorna behaved i n ways t h a t presented a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t challenge f o r Luke. Lorna challenged Luke t o decide f i r s t whether an issue represented a problem, and only a f t e r t h a t t o make d e c i s i o n s about s o l u t i o n s t o the problem. In c o n t r a s t evidence i n Dyad #2 suggests t h a t the teacher was not challenged. DYAD #2: TEACHER'S ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT In Dyad #2, evidence suggested t h a t behaviours and responses t o match those described i n Tables 4.8 and 4.9, as i n d i c a t o r s of a c t i v e involvement, occurred r a r e l y because of two circumstances: (1) the M/HCL p r i n c i p a l , Hugh, only attempted t o introduce problem s o l v i n g f o r one i s s u e ; and (2) Hugh denied the need to attend t o a problem which was f i r s t i d e n t i f i e d by the HCL teacher, Helen. The a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data revealed evidence to suggest explanations f o r the lack of a c t i v e involvement and of Helen's attempts t o become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d . P r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s are presented f o r each conference s e p a r a t e l y . A c t i v e Involvement i n Dyad #2 Pre-Workshop Conference During t h e i r pre-workshop conference, Helen and Hugh addressed four i s s u e s . Three of these issues were the o b j e c t i v e s they had agreed 144 upon during t h e i r pre-observation conference; (1) development of an a n t i c i p a t o r y s e t ; (2) congruence of subject matter and lesson events; and (3) student p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The f o u r t h issue was time management. Helen announced t h i s concern during the conference. The a n a l y s i s of t r a n s c r i p t i o n data concentrated p r i m a r i l y on data from the conference s e c t i o n s r e l a t e d to the time management i s s u e . However, t o provide s u f f i c i e n t data f o r a n a l y s i s of a c t i v e involvement i n t h i s conference, i t seemed u s e f u l a l s o t o analyze t r a n s c r i p t i o n data from the conference s e c t i o n s r e l e v a n t to the other three i s s u e s . The p r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of f i n d i n g s from the a n a l y s i s of the teacher's a c t i v e f involvement i n e x p l o r a t i o n of the p r i n c i p a l ' s observations and i n problem s o l v i n g w i l l be c l a s s i f i e d under the same headings as those used fo r the Dyad SI conferences. Relates p r i n c i p a l ' s observations t o own perspective of events. When, f o l l o w i n g h i s opening comments, Hugh s a i d to Helen " I ' d j u s t l i k e to ask you how you f e l t about the l e s s o n " (1:17-18), Helen responded by i d e n t i f y i n g the problems she perceived i n her les s o n . She noted: "Well, I was aware t h a t we got o f f t r a c k i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the metaphor and I was l o s i n g congruence .... I d i d n ' t think my sense of t i m i n g was very good. I should have had a double p e r i o d , and get i n t o a b i t more c h o r a l work, and have the k i d s stand up and do the poem by themselves ... my t i m i n g (prevented! ... p u l l i n g the lesson t o a proper c o n c l u s i o n ...." (1:19-30) Hugh prevented Helen from c o n t i n u i n g her apparent attempts to r e f l e c t upon the problems she perceived w i t h her t i m i n g because he demonstrated i n t e r e s t o n l y i n those which matched the dyad's three pre-chosen o b j e c t i v e s . For those, Hugh provided feedback on h i s 145 observations. However, w i t h regard t o the time management problems, Hugh s a i d he wanted to "leave t h a t " (1:41-42). To begin h i s feedback, Hugh gave a c a r e f u l l y d e t a i l e d , but somewhat negative, p i c t u r e of h i s observation of Helen's l o s s of congruence during the c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n of metaphor. When Hugh paused b r i e f l y during h i s feedback, Helen i n t e r r u p t e d i n order to r e l a t e Hugh's observations to her own persp e c t i v e of events; but when Hugh resumed h i s feedback by i g n o r i n g Helen's perspective and c o n t i n u i n g t o present h i s own, she appeared to accept Hugh's observations. As was i n d i c a t e d i n Chapter 5, i t was t h i s occasion which prompted Helen i n her r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w to note t h a t she "made a conscious d e c i s i o n t o leave the gap alone" (1:455). F o l l o w i n g t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n , i n response to Hugh's p o s i t i v e feedback on her development of an a n t i c i p a t o r y s e t , Helen t e n t a t i v e l y expressed s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h i s part of her lesson but d i d not attempt to r e l a t e Hugh's observations to her own p e r s p e c t i v e . Upon completion of Hugh's observations f o r t h i s i s s u e , he asked Helen "How d i d you f e e l about ...your a b i l i t y t o a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e the k i d s i n the lesson ...? (1:125-126). In her response, Helen s t a t e d " th a t was something t h a t I was a b i t disappointed i n ... I f e l t i t was ra t h e r teacher d i r e c t e d ...." (1:128-130). Helen began t o t r y r e f l e c t i n g on events r e l e v a n t to t h i s aspect of her l e s s o n , but she appeared t o be having d i f f i c u l t y i n c l a r i f y i n g her thoughts. Hugh d i d not r e f l e c t and probe to help Helen to c l a r i f y her thoughts. Instead, he s t a t e d t h a t during the lesson Helen was "staging r a t h e r than r e a l l y a l l o w i n g [ p u p i l s ] to r e a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h t h e i r own notions and idea s " (1:138-139). Immediately, Hugh followed t h i s comment by proceeding with a " d i r e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n a l 146 approach" (Glickman, 1985:169) t o suggest how Helen could solve her problems, and thereby prevented Helen from having any a c t i v e involvement i n f i n d i n g s o l u t i o n s . I t was the g i v i n g of these suggestions t h a t occupied o n e - f i f t h of the t o t a l conference time. In the p o s i t i v e feedback which Helen o f f e r e d Hugh toward the end of the conference, she seemed to be r e f e r r i n g t o h i s suggestions f o r improvement of p u p i l p a r t i c i p a t i o n when she s a i d , "your suggestions, I guess, are the kinds of t h i n g s I'm l o o k i n g f o r " (1:225-226). When Hugh had o f f e r e d h i s ideas f o r improvement i n her p u p i l s ' a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , Helen d i d not ask any questions, nor d i d she apply any of her own ideas p o s i t i v e l y and i n r e l a t i o n to Hugh's. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data suggested t h a t the absence of t h i s response, which was a l s o evident from the frequency data, may have been a s s o c i a t e d with the f a c t t h a t , i n h i s apparent determination to impress h i s own ideas, Hugh neglected t o give Helen e i t h e r o p portunity or encouragement to express her id e a s . However, Helen appeared t o act more determinedly with regard to her time management problems, and f o r these she d i d suggest some of her own ideas. A p p l i e s own ideas. When Hugh had completed h i s feedback on the dyad's pre-chosen o b j e c t i v e s he asked Helen, "Anything e l s e you want?" (1:242-243). Helen took the opportunity immediately t o remind Hugh of her time management concerns. She r e f e r r e d to her s p e c i f i c concern with regard to her lesson openings. In her response, Helen appeared to be not only t r y i n g to convey t o Hugh her p i c t u r e of r e l e v a n t events, but a l s o to seek feedback on h i s observed p i c t u r e . She explained: 147 " I don't know whether I seemed d i s o r g a n i z e d but I should have shut down the game i n the gym a couple of minutes e a r l i e r . I l o s t a few minutes at the s t a r t of the lesson ... I perhaps should have, you know, shut down the gym game, put the scores up and s t a r t e d the lesson w i t h a l i t t l e l e s s haste. I don't know i f th a t came across t o the observer ... but I mean however, t h a t ' s the way i t r e a l l y i s and whether or not you're here observing i s n ' t r e a l l y r e l e v a n t " (1:244-253). Hugh's r e a c t i o n t o Helen's comments contained n e i t h e r a p r e s e n t a t i o n of h i s own p i c t u r e of these events, nor any r e f l e c t i n g and probing t o encourage Helen t o continue c l a r i f y i n g her own thoughts about the problem. Instead, Hugh's thoughts seemed to be s t i m u l a t e d only by Helen's l a s t comment, f o r Hugh reacted by sa y i n g : "I a ppreciated t h a t , I mean I di d n ' t f i n d you t o be o r c h e s t r a t i n g anything, or a c t i n g at a l l d i f f e r e n t l y than what I thought you might normally do ...that's e x a c t l y what happens sometimes i n the gym ... you can't a r t i f i c i a l l y j u s t cut them o f f and say 'Oh my goodness, I've got a performance i n the classroom'. No I appreciated t h a t , and I t h i n k t h a t i t i s e a s i e r f o r us to get at those t h i n g s t h a t you would l i k e to see y o u r s e l f improve i n . " (1: 254-268). Hugh's comment seems to imply t h a t he may not have f u l l y recognized that Helen was anxious t o improve her time management. During h i s r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , the same i m p l i c a t i o n seemed t o re-appear. In h i s f i n a l r e p l y t o the p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r , Hugh s t a t e d , " I th i n k [Helen] and I were able to say e x a c t l y what we wanted to say t o each other and we covered the ground t h a t we decided " (1:394-396). However, these i m p l i c a t i o n s seem to be r e f u t e d by the f a c t that i t was Hugh who r e -introduced the problem during the second Dyad 82 conference. In her comments above, Helen seemed t o be t e n t a t i v e l y forming ideas f o r improving her time management. She repeated t h i s behaviour i n the second 148 conference, but, as i n the f i r s t , she had no opportunity to apply her ideas i n r e l a t i o n t o Hugh's because he d i d not suggest any. Dyad #2 Teacher's A c t i v e Involvement i n Post-Workshop Conference Evidence i n Hugh's r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w suggests that f o r t h i s conference, Hugh had two purposes i n mind: (1) to be " c o n g r a t u l a t o r y " (2:438); and (2) i n accordance with h i s own philosophy of t e a c h i n g , t o encourage Helen t o r e f l e c t on "a p a r t i c u l a r s l a n t [she has] on l i f e and how i t ' s r e f l e c t e d i n the classroom" (2:653-654). With regard to the f i r s t purpose, Hugh p r a i s e d both Helen's achievement of l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r her p u p i l s , her p r o v i s i o n of an a n t i c i p a t o r y s e t , and the increased p u p i l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . With regard to Hugh's second purpose, he r e f l e c t e d and probed w i t h respect t o Helen's team system of classroom management and seemed thereby to be encouraging Helen to view her classroom i n terms of h i s philosophy. These two a c t i v i t i e s occupied most of the time i n the f i f t e e n minute conference. In the remaining time, Helen's time problem was the subject of the i n t e r a c t i o n s . For the second conference, the a n a l y s i s of Helen's a c t i v e involvement was concentrated only on the s e c t i o n s of the conference r e l e v a n t to the time management concerns. P r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s f o r Helen's a c t i v e involvement i n the Dyad #2 post-workshop conference are not c l a s s i f i e d under headings which match those used p r e v i o u s l y . Instead, f i n d i n g s from a n a l y s i s of the i n t e r a c t i o n i n the conference s e c t i o n that was r e l e v a n t to the time management concerns are presented and discussed i n order of 149 occurrence. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data from these i n t e r a c t i o n s support suggestions from the frequency data of an a s s o c i a t i o n between Helen's infrequent a c t i v e involvement and Hugh's behaviours. However, the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data r e v e a l s new i n f o r m a t i o n regarding Helen's a c t i v e involvement and a l s o c l a r i f i e s the a s s o c i a t i o n between i t s infrequency and Hugh's behaviours. When ap p r o p r i a t e , reference i s made during the d i s c u s s i o n t o responses t h a t correspond to the sub-headings used i n the previous p r e s e n t a t i o n s . F o l l o w i n g the many c o n g r a t u l a t o r y comments i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n , Hugh announced h i s c r i t i c i s m s regarding Helen's use of time which were reported i n Chapter 5. In response, f o r the f i r s t time i n t h i s conference, Helen d i s p l a y e d i n t e r e s t i n becoming a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d . Immediately, Helen began t o r e l a t e Hugh's observation t o her own p e r s p e c t i v e by saying: "I q u i t e agree ... I mean we w i l l continue t h i s tomorrow i n the language period w i t h ... the f i n i s h i n g up of the recordings and whatever e l s e .... Perhaps you know comparing our previous readings t o t h i s , but time r e a l l y i s a f a c t o r and I don't know i f you n o t i c e d but I was forever l o o k i n g at my watch. I d i d want t o give them time t o ... f o r the drawing of the c o n s t e l l a t i o n s . I d i d want t o give them time to do t h i s , t h a t , and the other. I t i s a short p e r i o d , and you're r i g h t i t ' s not p r o p e r l y drawn to a c l o s e " (2:80-89). Hugh d i d not "read" and " f l e x " to challenge Helen by r e f l e c t i n g and probing t o encourage her t o analyze her problem f u r t h e r . Nor d i d he o f f e r her f u r t h e r observations w i t h which she might have been able to r e l a t e her p e r s p e c t i v e . Instead, Hugh seemed to change h i s own view of the issue by implying t h a t i t d i d not represent a problem. He suggested t o Helen: 150 " I guess you have to balance [the cost of missing out some a c t i v i t i e s ] against the b e n e f i t s of a l l o w i n g a l l the k i d s to get an o p p o r t u n i t y to p r a c t i s e t h e i r reading on the tape-recorder. And I wouldn't want to t r y and say t h i s i s more valu a b l e and t h a t ' s l e s s ... i t j u s t would be n i c e i f we had that longer p e r i o d where a l l of the s t r i n g s could be t i e d up i n a package and everything emphasized (2:90-96). Although Hugh seemed to suggest outside f a c t o r s may account f o r Helen's problem, she appeared u n w i l l i n g to deny her r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the problem. Instead, Helen continued to r e f l e c t on a couple of s o l u t i o n s she had attempted, but about which she s t i l l f e l t unsure. Hugh seemed to block Helen's continued attempts to become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n problem s o l v i n g by remarking on how q u i c k l y the lesson time had passed. Hugh reacted to the c l o s i n g remark only by s a y i n g , "Well [the time] d i d go very q u i c k l y because I t h i n k everybody was having fun" (2:105-106). In her response, Helen seemed t o ignore Hugh's r e a c t i o n while undaunted she continued to pursue d i s c u s s i o n of her concern. She d i d so by s e l e c t i n g and r e f l e c t i n g upon a s p e c i f i c time management problem. As she had done i n the f i r s t conference, she r e f e r r e d t o her d i f f i c u l t y i n managing time during the t r a n s i t i o n from her noon hour gym a c t i v i t i e s t o her le s s o n . She e x p l a i n e d : "Part of i t i s , too, we get o f f to a l i t t l e b i t of a l a t e s t a r t . You know coming i n from the gym, and I had k i d s s c o r i n g the team p o i n t s and so on. I guess I could save time, you know I need more time at the beginning of the lesson .... I mean i t could be timed down" (2:107-112). Despite Helen's two attempts to begin t e n t a t i v e l y to form some ideas about how to solve her problem, Hugh n e i t h e r asked her any questions to help her to c l a r i f y her ideas, nor d i d he suggest any ideas 151 of h i s own. As a r e s u l t , Helen r e c e i v e d no suggestions to which she could attempt t o r e l a t e her own ideas. Instead, upon Helen's mention of " s c o r i n g the team p o i n t s " , Hugh was apparently reminded of Helen's team system of classroom management, and he asked, "I wonder i f you could comment on t h a t , on the s c o r i n g of p o i n t s f o r teams and so on. That's an i n t e r e s t i n g concept and I'm wondering" (2:113-115). Helen i n t e r r u p t e d . "Ohl I meant, I meant the house games", she s a i d (2:116). Hugh r e f l e c t e d , "Oh, the house games!" (2:117) Helen continued by e x p l a i n i n g , " G. was out s c o r i n g the games that had been played a t noon hour. He's i n charge of t h a t " (2:118-119). "But you do use the s c o r i n g system, the team approach i n the classroom?" Hugh queried (2:120). With a confused look on her face, and i n a puzzled tone, Helen repeated "In the classroom?" (2:122) "I wonder i f you could comment on t h a t ? " Hugh requested (2:123). At t h i s p o i n t , Helen's confusion seemed t o go away. She appeared to give up her attempts t o pursue her time management problems, and instead began to e x p l a i n how she used team s c o r i n g i n part of her system of classroom management. I t appeared t h a t Hugh had been s u c c e s s f u l i n s t e e r i n g the conference away from Helen's time management concern. Evidence i n h i s r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w suggests that Hugh had d i v e r t e d the conference on t o a t o p i c t h a t was u s e f u l i n regard t o the philosophy of teaching t h a t Hugh was anxious f o r Helen t o th i n k about. Helen made no f u r t h e r attempts t o r e - i n s t a t e d i s c u s s i o n of her time management problems. Thus, d e s p i t e Helen's own attempts t o c l a r i f y her own view of the problem, Hugh d i d not appear t o "read" her d e s i r e t o 152 be helped with f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . Nor d i d Hugh " f l e x " t o help c l a r i f y the p i c t u r e of events r e l e v a n t to Helen's problems and, thus, help provide her w i t h a foundation upon which t o base d e c i s i o n s about changes. Instead of "reading" and " f l e x i n g " t o challenge Helen's high conceptual l e v e l , Hugh seemed to be attempting t o rescue her from any t h r e a t s of cha l l e n g e . Helen's comments i n her r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , which were reported i n Chapter 5, i m p l i e d t h a t Hugh's attempts t o "rescue" Helen caused her disc o m f o r t . Summary of Dyad 82 Teacher's A c t i v e Involvement A n a l y s i s of the frequency data i n Tables 4.8 and 4.9. i n d i c a t e d t h a t Helen had almost n e g l i g i b l e a c t i v e involvement i n both of the Dyad 82 conferences. Findings from the a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data supported t h i s by r e v e a l i n g t h a t Helen was r a r e l y a c t i v e l y i nvolved e i t h e r i n e x p l o r a t i o n of the p r i n c i p a l ' s observations or i n problem s o l v i n g . Nevertheless, the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s revealed evidence to suggest t h a t Helen was involved i n at l e a s t three other a c t i o n s : she i d e n t i f i e d problems which she had observed i n her l e s s o n ; she presented p r e l i m i n a r y analyses of the problems she i d e n t i f i e d ; and she t e n t a t i v e l y attempted to form ideas f o r s o l u t i o n s of her problems. The l a t t e r two a c t i o n s , which occurred mainly i n connection w i t h her time management concerns, seemed t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h her high conceptual l e v e l . Teacher's high l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . Helen's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of problems was u s u a l l y a response to Hugh's questions about her impressions regarding her lessons. However, Helen's attempts 153 t o analyze events r e l e v a n t to the problems and t o suggest ideas for s o l u t i o n s d i d not occur i n response to any behaviour enacted by Hugh. These a c t i o n s seemed to be e n t i r e l y independent. They revealed evidence not only of Helen's a n a l y t i c a l approach t o her problems, but a l s o of her w i l l i n g n e s s t o propose t h a t changes i n her own behaviours might so l v e her problems. This evidence suggested the a c t i o n s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Helen's high conceptual l e v e l . However, Hugh d i d not seem to "read" from these behaviours that Helen was capable of t h i n k i n g independently about her problems and th a t she was equipped to face the challenge a s s o c i a t e d with change. I t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t Hugh recognized these q u a l i t i e s because evidence suggests that Hugh d i d not " f l e x " t o challenge Helen's high conceptual l e v e l . P r i n c i p a l ' s "reading" and ' f l e x i n g " to challenge . During the conference, Helen was n e i t h e r able t o continue her e f f o r t s t o s o l v e the problems she introduced nor to become a c t i v e l y involved i n any other problem s o l v i n g . In the f i r s t conference, Hugh demonstrated no i n t e r e s t i n s o l v i n g the time management problems which Helen introduced independently. In the second conference, although Hugh re-introduced the problems, when Helen concurred with Hugh's observations, again he seemed unin t e r e s t e d i n s o l v i n g them. Hugh d i d not acknowledge Helen's attempts t o analyze her problem and t o suggest s o l u t i o n s by r e f l e c t i n g and probing t o encourage her to continue, nor d i d he acknowledge her attempts to c l a r i f y her p i c t u r e of events by r e f l e c t i n g and probing to c l a r i f y h i s own p i c t u r e of events. 154 Lack of c o l l a b o r a t i o n . Hugh seemed determined to impress Helen t h a t i n h i s understanding of events, there were no time management problems. This behaviour seemed to be t y p i c a l of other evidence suggesting t h a t Hugh was more anxious to s t a t e which issues he b e l i e v e d represented problems and to convey h i s own thoughts about problems and p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s than he was to r e c e i v e Helen's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of problems or her suggestions f o r s o l u t i o n s . The lack of c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n problem s o l v i n g attempts i n the Dyad #2 conference seemed to be p a r t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s behaviour of Hugh's, and thereby c o n t r i b u t e d t o one of the c o n t r a s t i n g features of the teachers' a c t i v e involvement. BETWEEN-DYAD COMPARISON OF TEACHERS' ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT Frequency data i n d i c a t i n g the teacher's a c t i v e involvement were scarce f o r both Helen and Luke. Evidence d e r i v e d from the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data suggested t h i s was not only because many i n t e r a c t i o n s f o r both dyads involved the g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g of p o s i t i v e feedback, but a l s o because problem s o l v i n g d i d not progress i n ways th a t could be detected by the predetermined i n d i c a t o r s used f o r the frequency count. In Luke's case, the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s revealed t h a t the s c a r c i t y of frequency data was an inaccurate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the extent of h i s a c t i v e involvement. The predetermined i n d i c a t o r s were unable t o detect that Luke was a c t i v e l y involved i n c o l l a b o r a t i v e l y c l a r i f y i n g p i c t u r e s of events r e l e v a n t t o issues of concern. Although involvement i n t h i s a c t i v i t y was p r e l i m i n a r y to making d e c i s i o n s about whether issues represented problems and, i f so, how t o solve them, i t 155 nevertheless seemed t o represent p o s i t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and progress i n problem s o l v i n g . In Helen's case, a l s o , the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data revealed more informa t i o n than the frequency data. The predetermined i n d i c a t o r s included o n ly i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours, whereas Helen's attempts to i n i t i a t e a c t i v e involvement were u s u a l l y independent. However, there appeared to be no f u r t h e r s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two teacher's a c t i v e involvement. Helen attempted t o become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n a n a l y z i n g events and t e n t a t i v e l y suggesting s o l u t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o problems she observed i n her le s s o n . Evidence suggested t h a t Helen wanted Hugh t o help her c l a r i f y her understanding of these events by presenting h i s observations. However, Hugh seemed u n w i l l i n g to co-operate. For problems th a t Hugh was prepared to address, he suggested s o l u t i o n s h i m s e l f . He d i d not encourage or provide the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r Helen to become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n examining h i s s o l u t i o n s . Therefore, u n l i k e Luke, Helen was not a c t i v e l y involved i n any p o s i t i v e progress toward problem s o l v i n g . The extent of both teachers' a c t i v e involvement seemed to be p a r t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the extent of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p r i n c i p a l ' s c a p a c i t y t o "read" and " f l e x " i n order t o o f f e r challenge f o r the HCL teachers. There was evidence t h a t Lorna could "read" t h a t Luke was an a n a l y t i c a l person; f u r t h e r evidence suggested that she " f l e x e d " to provide him wit h not only o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o be a n a l y t i c a l , but a l s o to encounter c h a l l e n g e . On the c o n t r a r y , evidence suggested that Hugh d i d not "read" Helen's tendency t o analyze her problems; and t h a t he not o n l y omitted to " f l e x " to encourage Helen's analyses, but a l s o i n h i b i t e d her o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o encounter c h a l l e n g e . 156 Both teachers' a n a l y t i c a l approach t o issues or problems, and t h e i r acceptance of the n e c e s s i t y of changing t h e i r own behaviours to solve problems suggested t h a t both teachers were f u n c t i o n i n g at a high conceptual l e v e l . Evidence suggested t h a t p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t i o n s of Luke's a c t i v e involvement i n problem s o l v i n g were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s high conceptual l e v e l , w i t h Lorna's "reading" and " f l e x i n g " , and wit h the c o l l a b o r a t i v e nature of the Dyad #1 r e l a t i o n s h i p . P o s i t i v e i n d i c a t i o n s of Helen's a c t i v e involvement, however, seemed to be a s s o c i a t e d only with her high conceptual l e v e l . The only issues w i t h which Hugh seemed t o be comfortable were those f o r which he appeared sure t h a t he had ideas. For the issues about which he had ideas, Hugh seemed anxious to impress those ideas upon Helen. I t could a l s o be speculated that f o r the issues which Hugh appeared to a v o i d , he may have had no ready s o l u t i o n s to present to Helen and thereby f e l t unprepared t o address those issues as problems. This may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the lack of c o l l a b o r a t i o n t h a t seemed to e x i s t between Hugh and Helen. The i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours observed i n the conference while Luke and Lorna worked together at c l a r i f y i n g t h e i r p i c t u r e s of events seemed t o provide evidence of a c o l l a b o r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . Furthermore, Luke's and Lorna's r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w comments provided evidence t o suggest that each seemed t o understand w e l l the behaviours of the other. Neither of these two forms of evidence were apparent f o r Dyad #2, and observation of t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s seemed to r e v e a l a lack of c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h regard t o problem s o l v i n g . The evidence suggested t h a t the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the teacher's a c t i v e involvement may have been d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o l l a b o r a t i v e s t r e n g t h i n the dyad's s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p 157 SUMMARY Evidence suggested t h a t Luke had more opportunity than Helen to be a c t i v e l y involved i n i n t e r a c t i o n s wherein p o s i t i v e progress toward problem s o l v i n g occurred. T r a n s c r i p t i o n data regarding Luke's a c t i v e involvement and Lorna's c h a l l e n g i n g behaviours provided evidence of responses and behaviours that were d i f f e r e n t from those described by the predetermined i n d i c a t o r s . Lorna i n i t i a t e d most i n t e r a c t i o n s and d i d so by p r o v i d i n g candid p i c t u r e s of events she had observed. Luke responded by becoming a c t i v e l y involved i n comparing Lorna's p i c t u r e to h i s own per s p e c t i v e . This c o l l a b o r a t i v e type of i n t e r a c t i o n provided Luke with a p i c t u r e of events that he could use as a foundation f o r d e c i s i o n making f o l l o w i n g h i s conferences. Support f o r the new evidence regarding the usefulness of the " p i c t u r e " was provided by Helen, who implied she was disappointed t h a t Hugh d i d not present her with candid p i c t u r e s of her les s o n . Luke's a c t i v e involvement was u s u a l l y observed i n h i s responses t o Lorna's p r e s e n t a t i o n of observations, whereas Helen's was l i m i t e d to her own attempts t o i n i t i a t e the a p p l i c a t i o n of new ideas t o problems she had i d e n t i f i e d h e r s e l f . Hugh's behaviours provided Helen w i t h more d i s i n c e n t i v e than encouragement to respond i n ways i n d i c a t i v e of a c t i v e involvement. Because Luke, who was supervised by the LCL p r i n c i p a l , demonstrated greater a c t i v e involvement than Helen, who was supervised by the M/HCL p r i n c i p a l , the a c t i v e involvement of the teachers d i d not seem to be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with the p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l i n the d i r e c t i o n suggested by the r e s u l t s of s t u d i e s reported by T h i e s - S p r i n t h a l l (1980) and Grimmett and Housego (1983). Evidence i n the 158 present study suggested that the teachers' a c t i v e involvement was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r own high conceptual l e v e l s , and may have been d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s t r e n g t h of the dyad's c o l l a b o r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . 159 Chapter 7 TEACHERS' AUTONOMOUS BEHAVIOUR The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to present and d i s c u s s the f i n d i n g s from the t h i r d stage i n the a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data. This a n a l y s i s i s u n l i k e the t h i r d stage of the frequency data a n a l y s i s i n the three ways explained i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to Chapter 5. However, l i k e t h a t a n a l y s i s , t h i s t h i r d stage of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a l s o addressed research sub-question 1.3 and the t h i r d stage of the conceptual model. That i s , data were analyzed f o r evidence of whether the responses of Helen, the Dyad #2 HCL teacher, who was pai r e d w i t h Luke, the M/HCL p r i n c i p a l , i n d i c a t e d more autonomy than those of Luke, the Dyad #1 teacher, who was pai r e d w i t h Lorna, the LCL p r i n c i p a l . Although f i n d i n g s from the t h i r d stage of the frequency data a n a l y s i s suggested t h a t n e i t h e r of the teachers observed i n the study demonstrated much autonomous behaviour during h i s / h e r s u p e r v i s i o n conferences, the f i n d i n g s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s revealed t h a t one of the teachers was o f f e r e d the opportunity to problem s o l v e autonomously a f t e r the conference. This was new evidence regarding teachers' autonomous behaviour and could not be detected by the predetermined i n d i c a t o r s used i n the instruments f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of frequency data (see Appendices A-5 and A-6). The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a l s o revealed evidence i n the teachers' responses of some of t h e i r previous a p p l i c a t i o n s of autonomous problem s o l v i n g . This i n f o r m a t i o n seemed to be a u s e f u l i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the teachers' were f u n c t i o n i n g a t t h e i r high conceptual l e v e l s . 160 The p r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s from t h i s t h i r d stage of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o three main s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t two s e c t i o n s c o n t a i n the f i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n regarding teacher's autonomous behaviour f o r each dyad. The t h i r d s e c t i o n compares the two dyads i n terms of the teachers' autonomous behaviour. DYAD I I : TEACHER'S AUTONOMOUS BEHAVIOUR The a n a l y s i s of frequency data, reported i n Chapter 4, revealed a s c a r c i t y of autonomous behaviour among Luke's responses and suggested t h i s may have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an infrequency of Lorna's attempts t o " p u l l " Luke toward high conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . In c o n t r a s t , the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s revealed that Luke had l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s p l a y autonomous behaviours, and that t h i s l i m i t e d o p portunity was ass o c i a t e d w i t h Lorna's behaviour, although her behaviour d i d not represent a f a i l u r e t o "read" and " f l e x " t o " p u l l " Luke toward f u n c t i o n i n g at h i s high conceptual l e v e l . Evidence found during the a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data revealed t h a t f o r most issues addressed during t h e i r conferences, Lorna gave Luke the opp o r t u n i t y to behave autonomously a t an e a r l i e r stage than suggested i n the conceptual model. The conceptual model p o s t u l a t e s t h a t i f the p r i n c i p a l i s "reading" and f l e x i n g " w i t h regard t o the teacher's high conceptual l e v e l , before " p u l l i n g " the teacher toward the making of autonomous problem-solving d e c i s i o n s , he/she w i l l f i r s t challenge the teacher t o become a c t i v e l y involved i n the planning of a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s . Moreover, the conceptual model p o s t u l a t e s t h a t 161 both of these stages w i l l take place during the conference. This was not the case f o r the Dyad #1 conferences. Instead, Lorna seemed to "read" and " f l e x " t o " p u l l " Luke's high l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g by " c h a l l e n g i n g " him t o v e r i f y autonomously, a f t e r the conference, whether t h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i v e l y acquired p i c t u r e s i l l u s t r a t e d problems which r e q u i r e d s o l u t i o n s , and, i f so, t o perform independently the complete process of problem s o l v i n g . Luke's comments during h i s s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w s suggested t h a t Luke both understood Lorna's behaviours and appreciated the autonomy which they accorded him. Responses and behaviours are recorded i n Tables 4.10 and 4.11 f o r the few instances when problem s o l v i n g proceeded, as postulated by the model, during the conference. These instances occurred i n connection with the few occasions when Luke asked Lorna f o r suggestions. In the ensuing i n t e r a c t i o n s , Luke responded by d i s p l a y i n g autonomous behaviours. Although these were the only i n c i d e n t s which provided evidence of autonomous behaviour f o r s o l v i n g problems i d e n t i f i e d d u r i ng the conference, other i n c i d e n t s seemed t o r e v e a l u s e f u l information regarding Luke's autonomous behaviour. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s revealed t h a t during the dyad's c l a r i f i c a t i o n of events, Luke o f t e n demonstrated i n h i s responses how he had p r e v i o u s l y a p p l i e d independent problem s o l v i n g t o the i s s u e . The d i s c u s s i o n of the evidence revealed by the a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data w i l l be presented simultaneously f o r the two Dyad #1 conferences, and w i l l be subdivided i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : (1) teacher's autonomous behaviour i n problem s o l v i n g d u r ing conference; and (2) evidence of previous autonomous problem s o l v i n g a p p l i c a t i o n . 162 Teacher's Autonomous Behaviour i n Problem S o l v i n g During Conferences On one occasion i n the f i r s t conference and on two during the second, Luke imp l i e d t h a t he needed some informa t i o n and/or advice from Lorna. The most s a l i e n t of these occasions was when Luke d i s c l o s e d h i s problem w i t h "dead" time at the end of h i s lessons. Although he had h i n t e d about t h i s concern i n the f i r s t conference, he was much more d i r e c t about p r e s e n t i n g i t i n the second. Most of the behaviours and responses reported i n Table 4.11 f o r Luke were observed during the i n t e r a c t i o n s concerned w i t h Luke's problem w i t h "dead' time. These i n t e r a c t i o n s were explained i n d e t a i l i n Chapter 6, but are b r i e f l y o u t l i n e d here: a f t e r Luke announced the problem, Lorna probed and assured Luke t h a t other teachers shared h i s problem; she probed again but s t i l l Luke seemed t o have few ideas of h i s own; and then Lorna made her suggestion of a u s e f u l c l o s i n g a c t i v i t y , and she explained the r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s t e n t a t i v e l y proposed s o l u t i o n . Both Lorna's suggested s o l u t i o n and her explanation of i t s r a t i o n a l e were recorded as negative i n the frequency data (see Table 4.11). However, Luke's ensuing response suggested that these behaviours d i d not seem t o d e t r a c t from h i s opportunity to problem s o l v e autonomously: f o l l o w i n g a b r i e f a n a l y s i s of Lorna's i d e a , Luke q u i c k l y d e r i v e d an a l t e r n a t i v e one of h i s own. Evidence found d u r i n g the a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data suggested t h a t Luke's p o s i t i v e responses d u r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s r e l e v a n t to the "dead" time problem were as s o c i a t e d w i t h Lorna's behaviours. However, problem-solving proceeded no f u r t h e r d u r i n g the conference beyond Luke's suggestions of p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . That i s , Luke made no implementation plans nor e v a l u a t i o n 163 p l a n s , and Lorna d i d not attempt to impose any. Evidence to suggest t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t e d from Lorna's "reading" and " f l e x i n g " w i t h regard to Luke's high conceptual l e v e l was found i n Lorna's second r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w . During her i n t e r v i e w , Lorna commented, with regard t o implementation of the ideas her suggestion t r i g g e r e d f o r Luke, t h a t she d i d not think i t "appropriate to t r y f o r a commitment" (2: 1359). Lorna's r e c a l l comments t o the p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r provided evidence t h a t Lorna might r e q u i r e a commitment from some teachers t o t r y s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s t h a t she would observe l a t e r . That she d i d not r e q u i r e t h i s i m p l i e d Lorna's b e l i e f i n Luke's a b i l i t y to make autonomous d e c i s i o n s about implementation. Evidence t o support t h i s appeared when Lorna imp l i e d that she f e l t sure Luke would implement something i n order t o e l i m i n a t e h i s "dead" time problem, and t h a t regarding Luke's idea f o r e l i m i n a t i n g dead time at the end of lessons she was "sure t h a t he w i l l p ick t h a t up" (2:1452-1453). Development of Lorna's confidence t h a t Luke would "pick up" on h i s own idea may have been a s s i s t e d by evidence such as t h a t provided i n some of Luke's responses to Lorna's p o s i t i v e feedback. This evidence suggested Luke had p r e v i o u s l y implemented s u c c e s s f u l ideas t h a t had r e s u l t e d from autonomous problem s o l v i n g . Evidence of Previous Autonomous Problem-Solving A p p l i c a t i o n When Luke responded t o Lorna's p o s i t i v e feedback regarding h i s time-saving opening a c t i v i t i e s , he r e f l e c t e d on how the a c t i v i t i e s v a r i e d but were always "a r o u t i n e t h i n g " w i t h which students were s u f f i c i e n t l y f a m i l i a r to get themselves s t a r t e d independently. Thus, he 164 i m p l i e d t h a t he had c o n s c i o u s l y and independently planned these a c t i v i t i e s . Luke was s i m i l a r l y i n f o r m a t i v e during the second conference i n h i s response to Lorna's p o s i t i v e feedback on h i s e f f i c i e n t handling of t r a n s i t i o n times. His r e f l e c t i o n s upon how he had solved previous problems w i t h t r a n s i t i o n times provided evidence t h a t revealed Luke's a b i l i t y t o independently i d e n t i f y problems, f i n d s o l u t i o n s , and implement new ideas. These r e f l e c t i o n s were presented i n f u l l i n Chapter 6, but because they c o n t a i n some evidence regarding Luke's autonomy, a few excerpts are repeated here. Luke's comment th a t he had at one time been " t r y i n g how do you get t h i s from one a c t i v i t y t o the next" (2:139-141) suggested t h a t Luke had independently planned and a p p l i e d a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s f o r the problem. His declared d e c i s i o n t h a t " w e l l I won't worry about what they're doing between the a c t i v i t i e s e s s e n t i a l l y ... but [they had] b e t t e r be ready" (2:141-145), i m p l i e d how he had independently s e l e c t e d and implemented h i s idea of imposing a two-minute time l i m i t on t r a n s i t i o n s . Regardless of whether an issue had been approached by Lorna i n her " n e u t r a l " or her p o s i t i v e way, Luke responded o f t e n w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n that i n d i c a t e d h i s autonomous behaviours. When t h i s was a response to Lorna's " n e u t r a l " p resentations and accompanying probing, Luke may have provided t h i s i nformation because he i n f e r r e d that Lorna was searching f o r i t . Often, however, as on the two occasions discussed above and without any prompting from Lorna, Luke volunteered t h i s i nformation as a response t o Lorna's " p o s i t i v e " feedback. This suggests t h a t on these occasions, Luke may have been t a k i n g a d d i t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s to n o t i f y Lorna of h i s a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h problems autonomously, and may have 165 been hoping t h a t as a consequence Lorna might be encouraged t o continue t o provide him the opportunity f o r autonomy. Summary of Dyad #1 Teacher's Autonomous Behaviour A n a l y s i s of the frequency data suggested t h a t Luke's responses r a r e l y demonstrated autonomous behaviour and th a t t h i s non-performance was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the low frequency w i t h which Lorna behaved i n ways which would " p u l l " Luke's l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . However, the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s revealed c o n t r a r y evidence t h a t suggested Lorna was p r o v i d i n g Luke with an opportunity to make autonomous d e c i s i o n s about problem s o l v i n g , a f t e r the conferences, and thereby t o f u n c t i o n a t h i s high conceptual l e v e l . On the ra r e occasion when an issue was addressed during the conference as an e x p l i c i t problem, Luke d i s p l a y e d autonomous behaviours t h a t seemed t o be a s s o c i a t e d with Lorna's behaviours. However, even on these occasions, the process of problem s o l v i n g was not completed during the conference. Instead, Lorna l e f t Luke with the opportunity to make autonomous d e c i s i o n s regarding implementation a f t e r the conference. Despite the f a c t t h a t Luke's autonomous problem s o l v i n g behaviours regarding issues addressed during the conference could not be observed, a n a l y s i s of the conference i n t e r a c t i o n s revealed evidence w i t h i n many of Luke's responses t h a t h i s current procedures r e s u l t e d from the previous a p p l i c a t i o n of autonomous problem s o l v i n g . Moreover, i t appears t h a t these previous a p p l i c a t i o n s of autonomous problem s o l v i n g may have been as s o c i a t e d o nly w i t h Luke's high conceptual l e v e l , as there was no 1 6 6 evidence t o suggest t h a t they occurred i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h any i n t e r a c t i o n between himself and another person. DYAD #2: TEACHER'S AUTONOMOUS BEHAVIOUR The a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data revealed evidence to support the f i n d i n g s from the frequency data that the absence of Helen's autonomous behaviour may have been a s s o c i a t e d with Hugh's f a i l u r e to "read" and " f l e x " t o " p u l l " Helen's high conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . In a d d i t i o n , the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data revealed evidence t o suggest t h a t Hugh ofte n behaved i n ways which impaired o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Helen t o behave autonomously. The d i s c u s s i o n and f i n d i n g s f o r the a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data regarding the Dyad #2 teacher's autonomous behaviours are presented i n the same two subsections used i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r the Dyad #1 teacher: (1) teacher's autonomous behaviour i n problem s o l v i n g during conferences; and (2) other w i t h i n conference evidence of teacher's a b i l i t y t o s o l v e problems independently. Teacher's Autonomous Behaviour i n Problem S o l v i n g During Conferences In Chapter 6 , the f i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n regarding Helen's a c t i v e involvement i n d i c a t e d t h a t d u r ing her i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of her problems with time management, she appeared to be t e n t a t i v e l y forming ideas f o r improvements. Evidence suggested t h a t Helen's t e n t a t i v e proposals f o r change were made without any encouragement from Hugh. The independence t h a t Helen d i s p l a y e d through t h i s behaviour suggests t h a t she was 167 prepared and able t o proceed w i t h autonomous problem s o l v i n g . Evidence presented i n Chapter 6, however, revealed t h a t , by r e f u s i n g t o d i s c u s s time management and by d e f l e c t i n g d i s c u s s i o n away from the i s s u e , Hugh impeded Helen's attempts t o i n v o l v e h e r s e l f a c t i v e l y i n suggesting s o l u t i o n s . Thereby, he appeared a l s o t o thwart any approaches Helen may have been making toward autonomous problem-solving f o r her time management concerns. This evidence o f f e r s support f o r the suggestion derived from the a n a l y s i s of the frequency data d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4.12 t h a t Hugh engaged i n behaviours which seemed to have p o t e n t i a l f o r d i s c o u r a g i n g Helen's attempts t o behave autonomously. Although the frequency a n a l y s i s was unable to detect the behaviours reported above regarding Helen's time management, i n connection w i t h other concerns i t was able t o f i n d t h a t : Hugh s e l e c t e d s o l u t i o n s ; he s t a t e d the a s s o c i a t e d r a t i o n a l e s ; and he even suggested how, i n one case, the s o l u t i o n might be implemented and evaluated. Evidence suggested t h a t Hugh f a i l e d both to "read" Helen's a b i l i t y to problem s o l v e and t o " f l e x " t o encourage her to do so. Furthermore, there was no evidence among Hugh's comments during h i s s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w s to suggest that he expected Helen t o problem s o l v e independently outside of the conference time. Evidence of Previous Autonomous Problem-Solving A p p l i c a t i o n The o n l y s e c t i o n s of the conference which were r e l e v a n t t o time management concerns were those wherein Helen was attempting t o i n i t i a t e problem s o l v i n g f o r c u r r e n t concerns. There were no occasions upon which 168 Helen r e f e r r e d to any of her cu r r e n t time management procedures as s u c c e s s f u l . Thus, the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s was unable t o r e v e a l evidence of Helen's previous a p p l i c a t i o n of autonomous problem s o l v i n g t o issues which had been p r e v i o u s l y s o l v e d . Summary of Dyad #2 Teacher's Autonomous Behaviour Findings from the frequency data that Helen's responses provided no evidence of autonomous behaviour f o r problem s o l v i n g were supported by the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data, which a l s o added information t h a t Helen was attempting t o prepare h e r s e l f t o behave autonomously i n problem s o l v i n g . The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data both supported and c l a r i f i e d the suggestions from the frequency data t h a t the absence of Helen's autonomous behaviour was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Hugh's f a i l u r e to "read" and " f l e x " t o " p u l l " Helen's l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data revealed t h a t Hugh's behaviours not o n l y f a i l e d t o provide Helen w i t h the opportunity t o behave autonomously, but they a l s o impeded Helen's attempts to proceed toward autonomous problem s o l v i n g . Helen had no opportunity to demonstrate d u r i n g the conference t h a t she had solved previous problems independently. BETWEEN-DYAD COMPARISON OF TEACHERS' AUTONOMOUS BEHAVIOUR During t h e i r conferences, Luke demonstrated autonomous behaviour f o r s o l v i n g one problem on l y , but Helen demonstrated none. Evidence suggested t h a t f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e d to t h i s s c a r c i t y were d i f f e r e n t f o r each teacher. The o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the teachers t o demonstrate any 169 previous, s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n s of autonomous behaviour i n problem s o l v i n g were a l s o d i f f e r e n t . The f i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n f o r t h i s comparative a n a l y s i s i s presented i n two subsections, each of which addresses one of these d i f f e r e n c e s . Factors Associated w i t h S c a r c i t y of Autonomous Behaviour Although both Luke and Helen I d e n t i f i e d time management problems, only Luke rece i v e d the o p p o r t u n i t y t o behave autonomously with regard t o s o l v i n g h i s problem. Both the frequency data and the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data suggested t h a t Luke's autonomous behaviour i n problem s o l v i n g f o r h i s "dead" time problem was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both Lorna's behaviours and h i s own high l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . I t was the only occasion upon which Luke demonstrated autonomous behaviour, during the conferences, f o r s o l v i n g a problem. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data added t o the frequency data, however, by r e v e a l i n g t h a t Hugh had made autonomous d e c i s i o n s about i n t r o d u c i n g h i s "dead" time problem i n t o the conference. T r a n s c r i p t i o n data added to evidence revealed by the frequency data by suggesting t h a t f o r the time management problems which Helen introduced, Hugh behaved i n ways t h a t obstructed what appeared t o be Helen's attempts t o i n i t i a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r autonomous problem s o l v i n g . For problems that Hugh was w i l l i n g t o address, evidence suggested he e i t h e r f a i l e d t o provide encouragement and opportunity f o r Helen t o problem s o l v e autonomously, or he behaved i n ways which were negative w i t h regard t o her o p p o r t u n i t y t o behave autonomously. Thus, the infrequency of Helen's autonomous behaviour during the conference seemed t o be a s s o c i a t e d with not only Hugh's f a i l u r e to "read" and 170 " f l e x " to " p u l l " her l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g , but a l s o h i s a c t i o n s to repress some of Helen's behaviours t h a t appeared to be ass o c i a t e d with her high conceptual l e v e l . In Dyad #1, the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data added information t h a t most of the i s s u e s addressed were introduced by Lorna, and that her way of addressing issues provided a d i f f e r e n t kind of oppo r t u n i t y t o behave autonomously than t h a t pre-determined by the i n d i c a t o r s . Evidence suggested t h a t Luke i n f e r r e d from Lorna's s t y l e of i n t r o d u c i n g issues for c o l l a b o r a t i v e a n a l y s i s only, during the conferences, t h a t he was expected t o make autonomous problem s o l v i n g d e c i s i o n s afterwards. Luke demonstrated no autonomous behaviour f o r problem s o l v i n g i n connection w i t h these i s s u e s . Thus, most issues were not e x p l i c i t l y addressed as problems t o be solved during the conference, and the r e s u l t i n g infrequency w i t h which Luke demonstrated autonomous behaviour d i d , t h e r e f o r e , seem t o be as s o c i a t e d w i t h Lorna's behaviour. Thus, u n l i k e the absence of autonomous behaviours f o r Helen, the absence of autonomous behaviour during most of Luke's conference time was found t o be as s o c i a t e d w i t h behaviours t h a t were p o s i t i v e w i t h regard t o " p u l l i n g " h i s conceptual l e v e l ; t h a t i s , Lorna's p o s i t i v e e f f o r t s t o provide Luke w i t h an opportunity to make autonomous d e c i s i o n s about problem s o l v i n g a f t e r the conference. Previous A p p l i c a t i o n of Autonomous BfthavlPUr for Problem S o l v i n g Because the pre-determined i n d i c a t o r s used f o r c o l l e c t i o n of the frequency data could not d i s c e r n teachers' previous a p p l i c a t i o n of autonomous problem s o l v i n g , the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data provided a l l the 171 information about t h i s . In Luke's explanations of how he had planned and s e l e c t e d a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s i n order to develop procedures f o r which Lorna had given p o s i t i v e feedback, he was able t o i n d i c a t e the success of some of h i s previous autonomous e f f o r t s to sol v e problems. Because evidence suggested these e f f o r t s had been e n t i r e l y independent, they appeared t o be a s s o c i a t e d only w i t h Luke's high conceptual l e v e l . S i m i l a r evidence was not a v a i l a b l e f o r Helen. She seemed t o have no o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l a i n any previous, s u c c e s s f u l s o l u t i o n s f o r any of her time management problems, thus she seemed t o have no opportunity t o demonstrate t h a t she was able to independently s o l v e problems s u c c e s s f u l l y . SUMMARY The frequency data d i s p l a y e d i n Tables 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, and 4.13 i n d i c a t e t h a t Luke d i s p l a y e d autonomous behaviours very r a r e l y , and Helen d i s p l a y e d none. A n a l y s i s of the frequency data suggested t h a t t h i s infrequent occurrence may have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r i n c i p a l s ' infrequent " p u l l i n g ' ' behaviours. However, the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data revealed t h a t much of the evidence regarding the teacher's autonomous behaviour could not be discerned by the predetermined i n d i c a t o r s used fo r c o l l e c t i o n of the frequency data. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data revealed evidence of the teachers' autonomous behaviours d u r i n g the conference, and the teachers' previous a p p l i c a t i o n s of autonomous problem s o l v i n g . During t h e i r s u p e r v i s i o n conferences, an absence of autonomous behaviour was observed f o r Helen and a s c a r c i t y f o r Luke. For both teachers, absence of t h e i r behaviours appeared to be a s s o c i a t e d 172 d i f f e r e n t i a l l y w i t h the p r i n c i p a l ' s behaviours. In Helen's case, i t appeared t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Hugh's f a i l u r e to provide her w i t h any opportunity t o behave autonomously. In Luke's case, the absence appeared to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h not only Lorna's perception of Luke's c a p a b i l i t y f o r making independent d e c i s i o n s about problem s o l v i n g , but a l s o her p r o v i s i o n of an opportunity f o r him t o problem solve autonomously a f t e r the conference. Responses i n d i c a t i n g autonomous behaviour f o r problem s o l v i n g d u r ing the conference were observed f o r Luke. In p r o v i d i n g Luke an opportunity to behave autonomously, i . e . , t o f u n c t i o n at h i s high conceptual l e v e l , Lorna's behaviours d i d not seem to t y p i f y " p u l l i n g " as p o s t u l a t e d i n the conceptual model. Lorna's behaviour seems t o be best described as "reading" and " f l e x i n g " t o enable Luke t o acquire candid p i c t u r e s t h a t challenged him t o v e r i f y autonomously whether or not the issues were problems which r e q u i r e d s o l u t i o n s , and i f so what those s o l u t i o n s should be. Thus, Luke's opportunity f o r autonomy appeared t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s behaviour. The s c a r c i t y of the teachers' demonstrations of autonomous behaviours makes i t impossible t o answer the question of an a s s o c i a t i o n between teachers' responses i n d i c a t i n g autonomous behaviour and p r i n c i p a l s ' conceptual l e v e l . However, because Luke, who was supervised by the LCL p r i n c i p a l , Lorna, r e c e i v e d an opportunity t o behave autonomously, whereas Helen, who was supervised by the M/HCL p r i n c i p a l , Hugh, re c e i v e d none, there was evidence t o suggest t h a t the teachers' o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o f u n c t i o n at t h e i r high conceptual l e v e l s were not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l i n the way that the research l i t e r a t u r e would suggest. 173 Chapter 8 ASSOCIATION OP TEACHERS' RESPONSES WITH FACTORS OTHER THAN THE PRINCIPAL'S CONCEPTUAL LEVEL The f o u r t h stage of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s addressed the second purpose of the study and the second research q u e s t i o n ; t h a t i s , data were analyzed f o r evidence of whether the responses of the two HCL teachers i n the study seemed t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a c t o r s other than the p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l . The purpose of t h i s chapter i s t o present the f i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n regarding f i v e f a c t o r s t h a t were i d e n t i f i e d : (1) the p r i n c i p a l ' s s u p e r v i s o r y experience; (2) the p r i n c i p a l ' s e f f o r t s t o p o r t r a y lesson events c a n d i d l y ; (3) measured conceptual l e v e l versus p r i n c i p a l ' s f u n c t i o n a l conceptual l e v e l i n su p e r v i s o r y r o l e ; (4) the d u r a t i o n of the dyad's s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p ; and (5) the teacher's high l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . The f i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be presented i n f i v e s e c t i o n s which r e s p e c t i v e l y address each of the f i v e f a c t o r s . This a r t i f i c i a l segregation of each f a c t o r i s f o r purposes of o r g a n i z a t i o n only. I t does not represent d i s r e g a r d f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the teachers' responses may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a r i o u s combinations of the f a c t o r s , or th a t some f a c t o r s may be a s s o c i a t e d with one another. PRINCIPAL'S SUPERVISORY EXPERIENCE The two p r i n c i p a l s had d i f f e r e n t amounts of s u p e r v i s o r y experience. Lorna had been a school a d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r e i g h t years, and a 174 p r i n c i p a l f o r f i v e of these e i g h t years. In c o n t r a s t , Hugh was only i n h i s f i r s t year as a p r i n c i p a l . Thus, Lorna had a t l e a s t f i v e years of s u p e r v i s o r y experience, whereas, at the time of the Dyad 12 pre-workshop conference, Hugh had o n l y two months of experience. Evidence suggested t h a t the teachers' responses may have been d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours t h a t may have been l i n k e d t o the p r i n c i p a l s ' s u p e r v i s o r y experience: (1) requirement of adherence t o a s t r u c t u r e d conference p l a n ; and (2) a b i l i t y t o observe and r e p o r t s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s . P r i n c i p a l ' s Requirement of S t r u c t u r e d Conference Plan Evidence suggested that the two p r i n c i p a l s i n t h i s study d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r requirements regarding adherence t o a s t r u c t u r e d conference p l a n . The d i s c u s s i o n of these requirements and of how the teachers' responses may have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them i s presented f i r s t f o r Dyad 11 and second f o r Dyad #2. Dyad #1 p r i n c i p a l ' s requirements f o r s t r u c t u r e . Evidence suggested t h a t Luke's p o s i t i v e responses, i n c l u d i n g h i s development of ideas f o r s o l v i n g h i s "dead" time problem, were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Lorna's a m e n a b i l i t y t o making changes i n the conferencing s t y l e t h a t she c u s t o m a r i l y used w i t h Luke. Behaviours which t y p i f i e d her customary s t y l e , noted i n Chapters 5 and 6, i n c l u d e d : Lorna's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of issues to be d i s c u s s e d ; her p r o v i s i o n of d e t a i l e d feedback on observations r e l e v a n t t o the i s s u e s ; her encouragement of Luke's c l a r i f i c a t i o n of observations; and her allowance f o r Luke's autonomy i n 1 7 5 problem s o l v i n g . In her r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w s , Lorna's a r t i c u l a t e d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h i s conferencing s t y l e suggested i t was c o n s c i o u s l y planned. The i n t e r a c t i o n s regarding Luke's "dead" time problems, however, gave evidence of Lorna's w i l l i n g n e s s t o adapt her behaviours. Lorna's changed behaviours i n c l u d e d : receptiveness of Luke's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of problems; accommodation of d i s c u s s i o n regarding an issue f o r which she had no observations; and w i l l i n g n e s s t o present ideas when Luke imp l i e d he had none of h i s own. Lorna appeared amenable to a l t e r i n g her conferencing behaviours according t o both the s i t u a t i o n and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the teacher being supervised. Evidence suggested t h a t Luke responded p o s i t i v e l y t o behaviours that Lorna may not have employed while s u p e r v i s i n g some other teachers. Lorna's r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w comments i n d i c a t e d her i n c l i n a t i o n to adapt her conferencing approach t o s u i t teachers' requirements. The Dyad #2 p r i n c i p a l ' s comments suggested that he d i d not have the same i n c l i n a t i o n . Dyad #2 p r i n c i p a l ' s requirements f o r s t r u c t u r e . Hugh s t a t e d i n h i s f i r s t r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w t h a t "with another teacher (he was] using the same format'* (1:403-404) as he was using w i t h Helen. Yet he appeared unsure about h i s "format". He s t a t e d t h a t "I don't have a framework or an agenda" (1:401-402), and im p l i e d that he was searching f o r these. In Hugh's second r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , he seemed anxious about s t r u c t u r e when he revealed h i s concern about having " l i m i t e d s t r a t e g i e s " i n the second conference because of "not having a chance t o prepare" (2:881-882). This evidence suggests t h a t the reason f o r Hugh's i n s i s t e n c e on addressing only the dyad's pre-chosen o b j e c t i v e s was t o r e t a i n a 176 s t r u c t u r e d agenda. The content of Hugh's feedback i n d i c a t e d he had l i m i t e d h i s observations t o events t h a t were r e l e v a n t t o the o b j e c t i v e s i d e n t i f i e d d u r i n g the dyad's pre-observation conference. Because time management was not among those, Hugh's d i s m i s s a l of Helen's attempts to address her time concerns suggested he d i d not want t o i n t e r f e r e with h i s agenda e i t h e r by adopting new g o a l s , or by d i s c u s s i n g events f o r which he had no recorded observations. The infrequency of responses i n d i c a t i v e of Helen's a c t i v e involvement seemed t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Hugh's a v e r s i o n t o a l t e r a t i o n s i n h i s "agenda". I t was noted i n Chapter 5 th a t the d e c l i n e i n Helen's comfort and confidence seemed to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Hugh's omission of comments about "th i n g s ... that aren't of a p o s i t i v e nature" (2:258-259). During the second Dyad #2 conference, Hugh's r e f u s a l t o a l l o w Helen t o regard her time management as a problem may have been part of h i s attempt t o achieve the goal implied i n h i s r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , t h a t i s , t o make the conference "a c o n g r a t u l a t o r y type" (2:439). In connection w i t h t h i s , Hugh may have been f e a r f u l that acknowledgement of Helen's concerns might r e s u l t i n l o s s of p o s i t i v i t y . Comparison of p r i n c i p a l s ' requirements f o r s t r u c t u r e . Not only was Lorna b e t t e r able than Hugh t o de s c r i b e the r o u t i n e behaviours she used fo r s u p e r v i s i o n , but a l s o she was more amenable t o a l t e r i n g her r o u t i n e t o s u i t the s i t u a t i o n and the supervisee. This suggested t h a t Lorna d i d not r e q u i r e s t r u c t u r e t o help guide her s u p e r v i s o r y behaviours, whereas Hugh d i d . This d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r apparent requirements f o r s t r u c t u r e may have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the two p r i n c i p a l s ' experience. Lorna's greater experience may have helped her t o develop 177 s u f f i c i e n t confidence t o change or t o work without a plan i f necessary. Because the teachers' responses seemed t o be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r i n c i p a l ' s requirement f o r s t r u c t u r e , they seemed t o be i n d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r i n c i p a l ' s s u p e r v i s o r y experience as d i d the p r i n c i p a l ' s a b i l i t y t o observe and r e p o r t on s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s . A b i l i t y t o Observe and Report S p e c i f i c D e t a i l s I t was noted i n Chapters 5 and 6, and w i l l be discussed i n greater d e t a i l i n the next s e c t i o n , that Luke responded p o s i t i v e l y t o Lorna's p r e s e n t a t i o n of d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e s of events, and t h a t Helen seemed disappointed w i t h Hugh's f a i l u r e t o present e i t h e r d e t a i l e d or true p i c t u r e s . Hugh r a r e l y reported s p e c i f i c events and when he d i d , as i n the case of h i s r e p o r t of an occasion when Helen f a i l e d t o wait long enough f o r a student's response, he seemed t o r e c a l l no c l e a r e r d e t a i l than t h a t i t occurred " r i g h t i n the middle of the l e s s o n " (214). Hugh thereby f a i l e d t o enable Helen to r e c a l l the i n c i d e n t and r e f l e c t upon i t . Although the i n c i d e n t was r e l e v a n t t o one of the dyad's o b j e c t i v e s , Hugh's statement t h a t " I wish I , I f a i l e d t o w r i t e i t down .... (1:214-216) suggested t h a t , even f o r events r e l e v a n t t o the dyad's o b j e c t i v e s , Hugh found d i f f i c u l t y i n r e c o r d i n g h i s observations i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l . Most of Hugh's o b s e r v a t i o n a l feedback lacked the accuracy and d e t a i l t h a t was d i s p l a y e d i n Lorna's " m i r r o r " . I t seems reasonable t o assume t h a t , compared to Hugh, Lorna may have developed b e t t e r s k i l l s i n observing, r e c o r d i n g , and r e p o r t i n g s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s because of her greater amount of experience and p r a c t i c e i n classroom observation. This a b i l i t y t o observe and report 178 seemed t o be of importance i n another f a c t o r w i t h which the teachers' responses seemed to be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d ; that i s , the p r i n c i p a l ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n of candid p i c t u r e s of events. PRINCIPAL'S PRESENTATION OF CANDID PICTURES OF EVENTS Both Luke's and Helen's r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w comments gave evidence t h a t t h e i r responses were d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r o p p ortunity t o acquire a c l e a r p i c t u r e of events r e l e v a n t t o i s s u e s of concern. The evidence suggested t h a t both teachers a s s o c i a t e d t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p r i n c i p a l ' s e f f o r t s t o present candid p i c t u r e s of the events. Findings and d i s c u s s i o n regarding the p r i n c i p a l ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n of a candid p i c t u r e and the teachers' a s s o c i a t e d responses w i l l be presented s e p a r a t e l y f o r each dyad. Dyad #1: P r i n c i p a l ' s P r e s e n t a t i o n of Candid P i c t u r e s of Events The f i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n presented i n Chapters 5, 6, and 7 have r e s p e c t i v e l y revealed that Luke's responses i n d i c a t i n g comfort and confidence, a c t i v e involvement, and opportunity to behave autonomously appeared to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Lorna's p r e s e n t a t i o n of candid p i c t u r e s of events. I t was noted t h a t Luke repea t e d l y emphasized how "the amount of d e t a i l " i n Lorna's feedback and "the many s p e c i f i c t h i n g s that she can r e f e r to and r e c a l l " enabled him t o f e e l comfortable and confident t h a t "she [was] very i n t e r e s t e d i n what was going on i n [ h i s ] room" (1:167-171) and "she may have some important t h i n g s to t e l l [him], e i t h e r p o s i t i v e or negative...."(1:175-176). Lorna's frank and d e t a i l e d 179 observations provided Luke with a " m i r r o r " image of h i s l e s s o n . Moreover, evidence suggested t h a t Luke's responses i n d i c a t i n g a c t i v e involvement were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s opportunity to view the image with Lorna and t o j o i n her. i n i t s examination and c l a r i f i c a t i o n . This c o l l a b o r a t i v e a c t i v i t y seemed t o provide Luke with s u f f i c i e n t p r e p a r a t i o n f o r autonomous behaviour i n problem s o l v i n g . Whereas Luke's responses i n d i c a t i n g a p o s i t i v e opportunity f o r development seemed to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Lorna's p r e s e n t a t i o n of candid p i c t u r e s , Helen's comments suggested t h a t candid p i c t u r e s were the missing i n g r e d i e n t w i t h which she a s s o c i a t e d her lack of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r development. Dyad #2: P r i n c i p a l ' s Non-Presentation of Candid P i c t u r e s of Events In some of Helen's f i r s t r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w comments, reported i n Chapter 5, she expressed a p p r e c i a t i o n of Hugh's p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e . Although, at t h a t time, Helen seemed unsure of how t o describe her r e -a c t i o n t o any other aspects of Hugh's behaviour, i t was noted t h a t she was able to do so more a r t i c u l a t e l y i n her second conference. Then she revealed her concern t h a t Hugh was o m i t t i n g information she r e q u i r e d . Helen explained t h a t , "[Hugh] perhaps doesn't give back a c l e a r p i c t u r e of the lesson ... because he r e a l l y doesn't focus on inadequacies or shortcomings" (2:238-242), and t h a t she d i d not know i f she had "heard a l l t h a t needs t o be s a i d " (2:246-247). Helen's concern was p o s s i b l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Hugh's f a i l u r e t o help her t o c l a r i f y her own n o n - p o s i t i v e view of events r e l e v a n t to her time management problems. Perhaps because of h i s l e s s e r experience, Hugh 180 avoided t h i s i s s u e because he had not developed the s k i l l e x h i b i t e d by Lorna f o r pre s e n t i n g n o n - p o s i t i v e feedback i n a " n e u t r a l " way; i . e . , wi t h an unbiased a t t i t u d e . Hugh seemed only to a s s o c i a t e n o n - p o s i t i v e information w i t h teacher d i s c o m f o r t , but, i r o n i c a l l y , Helen's responses t o Hugh's h a b i t of a v o i d i n g or minimizing the non-positive seemed to be discomfort a t not being able t o acquire a candid p i c t u r e . Because Hugh's behaviours regarding non-positive feedback occurred i n s p i t e of Helen's demonstrated w i l l i n g n e s s to i d e n t i f y negative aspects of her tea c h i n g , i t appeared t h a t Hugh was n e i t h e r "reading" nor " f l e x i n g " to the l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g being demonstrated by Helen. This was one of s e v e r a l behaviours which suggested t h a t , while s u p e r v i s i n g Helen, Hugh was not f u n c t i o n i n g at the moderately high l e v e l suggested by h i s performance on Schroder et a l . (1967) Paragraph Completion Test of Conceptual L e v e l . Hugh's f a i l u r e t o present Helen with the candid p i c t u r e s she d e s i r e d seemed t o be p a r t l y a s s o c i a t e d with h i s lowered l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . MEASURED CONCEPTUAL LEVEL VERSUS FUNCTIONAL CONCEPTUAL LEVEL IN THE SUPERVISORY ROLE Evidence suggested t h a t the teachers' responses may have been d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r i n c i p a l ' s l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g i n the s u p e r v i s o r y r o l e . Although Hugh's behaviours suggested t h a t h i s l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g was low during h i s s u p e r v i s i o n of Helen, Lorna's behaviours, during her s u p e r v i s i o n of Luke, suggested t h a t she was f u n c t i o n i n g a t a higher l e v e l than the low one measured f o r her by the Schroder et a l . (1967) Paragraph Completion 181 Test of Conceptual L e v e l . The f i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n regarding the p r i n c i p a l ' s l e v e l s of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g as d i s t i n c t from h i s / h e r t e s t score w i l l be presented s e p a r a t e l y f o r each dyad. Dyad i l ; P r i n c i p a l ' s Measured vs. F u n c t i o n a l Conceptual Levels Evidence suggested t h a t Lorna was able both t o "read" Luke's high conceptual l e v e l and t o " f l e x " to h i s requirement t o f u n c t i o n at a high conceptual l e v e l . Evidence of Lorna's " f l e x i n g " suggested t h a t she was not f u n c t i o n i n g at a low conceptual l e v e l while s u p e r v i s i n g Luke. Although Lorna wished o c c a s i o n a l l y to impose her own teaching p h i l o s o p h i e s , she was more oft e n w i l l i n g to a l l o w Luke the autonomy of r e t a i n i n g h i s own; and although Lorna more oft e n i d e n t i f i e d the issues to be d i s c u s s e d , she d i s p l a y e d equal i n t e r e s t i n i s s u e s i d e n t i f i e d by Luke. During her second r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , Lorna provided evidence that she r e a l i z e d Luke was " w i l l i n g t o be c r i t i c a l of h i m s e l f " (2:1469). Lorna a l s o noted t h a t she could "ask any s o r t of c r i t i c a l question of him" without h i s i n t e r p r e t i n g i t as "an attempt on [her] p a r t to f i n d something to c r i t i c i z e him [ n e g a t i v e l y ] about" (2:1503-1506). Lorna demonstrated " f l e x i n g " t o t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c when she probed t o encourage Luke t o r e f l e c t upon the "dead" time problem he revealed. Nevertheless, before probing, Lorna seemed t o "read" and " f l e x " a c c u r a t e l y Luke's requirement f o r support of h i s comfort and confidence during d i s c u s s i o n the i s s u e . Instead of t r y i n g to r e t a i n p o s i t i v i t y by denying or minimizing Luke's problem, as Hugh d i d w i t h regard to Helen's i d e n t i f i e d time problems, Lorna emphasized the importance of f i n d i n g 182 s o l u t i o n s . She i m p l i e d t h a t these could be u s e f u l i n other areas of the school where teachers were expe r i e n c i n g "dead" time problems. I t has been noted t h a t evidence suggested Lorna recognized Luke's thoughtfulness and h i s a n a l y t i c a b i l i t y , and how a c c o r d i n g l y she gave him the opportunity t o both become a c t i v e l y involved i n a n a l y z i n g her feedback and t o problem so l v e autonomously. Thus, Lorna seemed to give evidence of f u n c t i o n i n g above her measured low conceptual l e v e l by r e c o g n i z i n g and responding when Luke re q u i r e d t e n t a t i v e suggestions regarding h i s "dead" time problem. The more p o s i t i v e nature of Luke's a t t i t u d e during s u p e r v i s i o n , i n comparison to Helen's, seemed to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the higher conceptual l e v e l a t which Lorna seemed t o be f u n c t i o n i n g i n the s u p e r v i s o r y r o l e , i n comparison t o Hugh. Dyad #2: P r i n c i p a l ' s Measured vs. F u n c t i o n a l Conceptual Levels The d e c l i n e i n Helen's p o s i t i v i t y appeared to be a s s o c i a t e d with Hugh's f a i l u r e t o " f l e x " t o the requirements of her conceptual l e v e l . P r e v i o u s l y d i scussed f i n d i n g s suggest that Hugh d i d not "read" the extent of e i t h e r Helen's wish to s o l v e her time management problems or her w i l l i n g n e s s to encounter r e l e v a n t n o n - p o s i t i v e feedback, nor d i d he " f l e x " t o help her f i n d s o l u t i o n s . This evidence suggests t h a t Hugh was f u n c t i o n i n g at a low conceptual l e v e l . Hugh's i n f l e x i b i l i t y seemed t o be p a r t l y connected w i t h h i s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t the dyad should concentrate on the o b j e c t i v e s s e l e c t e d during t h e i r pre-conference. Because evidence suggests t h i s i n s i s t e n c e may have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Luke's inexperience both i n classroom observation and i n conducting s u p e r v i s o r y 183 conferences, i t appears t h a t h i s low l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g may have a l s o been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s lack of experience. Evidence of Hugh's low l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g appeared i n h i s attempts not only t o encourage Helen to blame her time management problems on f a c t o r s other than her own behaviours, but a l s o t o blame f a c t o r s o utside himself f o r problems he encountered d u r i n g the conference i n t e r a c t i o n s . During h i s second st i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , Hugh i n d i c a t e d f e e l i n g s of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the second conference. He i m p l i e d t h a t he b e l i e v e d he should have t a l k e d l e s s , but he blamed Helen's shyness f o r h i s f e e l i n g "that I have t o ask a m i l l i o n questions t o get her t o open up" (2:474-475). Hugh st a t e d w i t h regard t o the d i s c u s s i o n of Helen's team system of classroom management "the interchange ... (was) a l l very s u r f a c e " and the t o p i c was " r e a l l y not the agenda" (732-734). Hugh blamed these d e f e c t s on having i n s u f f i c i e n t time t o plan f o r the conference, which was held immediately a f t e r the l e s s o n . He complained t h a t he had " l i m i t e d s t r a t e g i e s ... not having [had] a chance t o prepare" (2:881-882). Hugh's concern t h a t lack of p r e p a r a t i o n time i n t e r f e r e d w i t h h i s chance t o think about "where I was going, what I was doing, how I was doing i t " 2:890-891), seemed to provide a d d i t i o n a l evidence t h a t , as a s u p e r v i s o r , he was l e s s f l e x i b l e than Lorna. Her o p i n i o n t h a t "the hardest t h i n g ... i s t o f i n d time a f t e r the l e s s o n , c l o s e t o the l e s s o n when I t h i n k i t ' s r e a l l y important t o a c t u a l l y s i t down with that i n t e r v i e w " (2: 1518-1521) contrasted s h a r p l y w i t h Hugh's complaint about too l i t t l e time between lesson observations and s u p e r v i s o r y conferences. In a d d i t i o n a l remarks, Lorna i m p l i e d t h a t she p r e f e r r e d h o l d i n g a conference while d e t a i l s were f r e s h i n p a r t i c i p a n t s ' minds, whereas Hugh impl i e d t h a t he could not adapt 184 unless he had enough time between lesson and conference to t h i n k over lesson events and t o plan s u i t a b l e conference s t r a t e g i e s . Evidence suggested t h a t c o n t r a r y t o "reading 1 1 and " f l e x i n g 1 to areas i n which Helen d e s i r e d development, Hugh r e d i r e c t e d the conference towards i n s t r u c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s of h i s own. Hugh e x h i b i t e d t h i s s t y l e of behaviour when he evoked Helen's d e s c r i p t i o n of her team system of classroom management. In h i s second r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , Hugh explained the purpose of t h i s d i v e r s i o n t o the p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r : he wanted Helen t o be able t o r e f l e c t on how her own " s l a n t ... on l i f e ... i s r e f l e c t e d i n the classroom" (2:653-654), and thereby t o adopt a philosophy of teaching which Hugh had accepted as important. Helen's lack of oppo r t u n i t y f o r a c t i v e involvement and autonomous problem s o l v i n g seemed to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s a d d i t i o n a l behaviour of Hugh's demonstrating h i s f a i l u r e t o recognize or address the areas i n which Helen was i n t e r e s t e d i n developing. During the second conference, when Helen agreed with Hugh's observations regarding her time management problems, he f a i l e d to recognize that Helen's agreement presented an opportunity f o r them to problem so l v e c o l l a b o r a t i v e l y . Instead, he immediately attempted t o d i v e r t d i s c u s s i o n away from the problem. During h i s r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , because the reason Hugh gave f o r t h i s behaviour seemed t o be l i n k e d to a r i g i d n o t i o n about problem s o l v i n g , i t provided f u r t h e r evidence to suggest Hugh was f u n c t i o n i n g at a low conceptual l e v e l . Hugh s t a t e d that Helen "agreed [with h i s observations] so there wasn't much [to] debate" (2:482-484). Thereby, he suggested t h a t , because he envisioned c o n f l i c t was a p r e r e q u i s i t e , he could not e n t e r t a i n the idea of problem s o l v i n g f o r an issue about which there was agreement at the s t a r t . The ensuing 185 conference i n t e r a c t i o n s , wherein Hugh managed to avoid the problem while Helen attempted t o pursue i t , c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the many c o l l a b o r a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t occurred between Lorna and Luke. Evidence suggested t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i n the c o l l a b o r a t i v e nature of the p r i n c i p a l / t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s may have been a s s o c i a t e d with d i f f e r e n c e s between the d u r a t i o n s of the s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . THE DURATION OF THE DYAD'S SUPERVISORY RELATIONSHIP The d u r a t i o n of a dyad's s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p might be measured e i t h e r by years or by the number of formal s u p e r v i s i o n conferences the dyad has shared. According t o e i t h e r standard of measurement, the Dyad II r e l a t i o n s h i p was of longer d u r a t i o n than that of Dyad 82. The Dyad I I r e l a t i o n s h i p was i n i t s second year and the observed conferences were the dyad's f o u r t h and f i f t h , whereas the dyad 12 r e l a t i o n s h i p was only i n i t s f i r s t year and the observed conferences were t h e i r f i r s t and second. Because, i n t h i s study, evidence suggested the frequency of the teachers' p o s i t i v e responses t o s u p e r v i s i o n was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o l l a b o r a t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e s of events, i t seemed important t o analyze the data f o r evidence of whether the d i f f e r e n c e i n the c o l l a b o r a t i v e nature of the dyads' i n t e r a c t i o n s was l i n k e d t o the d i f f e r e n c e s between the lengths of the s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data revealed some evidence t o suggest why a c o l l a b o r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p may take time t o develop. The f i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n w i l l concentrate on two f a c t o r s which seemed to be the most ev i d e n t : (1) the requirement of time f o r dyad members to 186 c l a r i f y f o r themselves how t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r y conferences can be made b e n e f i c i a l , and (2) the requirement of time f o r the development of mutual understanding between teacher and p r i n c i p a l . Time f o r Learning How Conferences Can Become B e n e f i c i a l Among the f i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n presented i n Chapter 5, i t was noted t h a t Luke was aware t h a t , between the f i r s t and second year's conferences, a change had occurred i n Lorna's s u p e r v i s o r y behaviours. Luke's r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w comments about these changes revealed evidence of growth i n h i s understanding about which of Lorna's behaviours provided him w i t h an opportunity f o r development. In t h i s regard, he was able t o e x p l a i n a r t i c u l a t e l y why he b e l i e v e d Lorna's use of " n e u t r a l " feedback was more b e n e f i c i a l t o him than negative feedback. Luke explained that over time Lorna r e t a i n e d p o s i t i v e and " n e u t r a l " feedback, whereas she e l i m i n a t e d negative feedback. These comments revealed evidence t o suggest t h a t not o n l y Luke's, but a l s o Lorna's understanding of which behaviours were b e n e f i c i a l f o r Luke's development had increased over time. During t h e i r r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w s , whereas both Luke and Lorna d i s p l a y e d an understanding of how the behaviours enacted by Lorna were b e n e f i c i a l f o r Luke's development, t h i s understanding was not evident between Hugh and Helen whose r e l a t i o n s h i p was of s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n . The Dyad #2 members' comments during t h e i r f i r s t s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w s suggested they began t h e i r f i r s t conference without any c l e a r ideas of what behaviours should be used by the p r i n c i p a l t o c o n t r i b u t e to teacher development. Hugh's comments i n d i c a t i n g he was unsure about how to behave have been p r e v i o u s l y discussed i n connection w i t h h i s 187 inexperience i n the s u p e r v i s o r y r o l e . With regard to how he d i d behave, i n response t o qu e s t i o n i n g from the p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r , Hugh i n d i c a t e d that he was unaware th a t he i n t e r a c t e d w i t h Helen i n two d i f f e r e n t ways. When the p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r observed t h a t Hugh gave feedback when he appeared t o have a supportive purpose and began qu e s t i o n i n g and probing when he appeared to th i n k Helen could have behaved d i f f e r e n t l y , Hugh s t a t e d "whether, I c o n s c i o u s l y d i d th a t or not ... I can't say ...." (1:308-310). Hugh continued by implying t h a t he had not c o n s c i o u s l y planned these behaviours to e l i c i t s p e c i f i c types of response from Helen. In her f i r s t r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , evidence suggested t h a t Helen sensed Hugh had not behaved e x a c t l y as she would have l i k e d , and th a t she was unable t o i d e n t i f y what was mi s s i n g . Helen's comment that because of Hugh's unthreatening kind of behaviour she "saw the (conference] as a p o s i t i v e t h i n g ... so from t h a t p o i n t of view i t was ... okay" (1:421-423) seemed t o imply t h a t she sensed a need f o r more than p o s i t i v i t y . In response t o the p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s c l o s i n g i n v i t a t i o n t o help him t o i n t e r p r e t the conference and observation data, Helen's comment "I have a general s o r t of vague f e e l i n g , but I don't know how t o de s c r i b e i t " (1:497-498) suggested her unsureness of the nature of her a d d i t i o n a l requirements. During her second r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , however, Helen's t e n t a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of behaviours she would have l i k e d Hugh t o perform suggested t h a t her i n c r e a s i n g experience w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n was h e l p i n g her t o understand how Hugh could a i d her development. In a d d i t i o n t o support f o r her f e e l i n g s of s e c u r i t y , the behaviours Helen i d e n t i f i e d were those t h a t would help her to a c quire a candid p i c t u r e of her l e s s o n . 188 Although, during Hugh's second r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , he assigned blame to f a c t o r s other than h i m s e l f , he d i d seem t o be more aware of the inadequacies of the conference than he had been with regard to the f i r s t . For i n s t a n c e , Hugh's comment that "I t r y not to do as much t a l k i n g but...." (2:475-476) suggests t h a t he may have become aware of the u n d e s i r a b i l i t y of h i s tendency t o dominate t a l k and time. However, h i s statement t h a t t o make a conference s u c c e s s f u l he needed "a while t o go home and d i s t i l l and get below the surface of the act (seen i n the classroom!" (2:743-744), suggests Hugh f e l t r e q u i r e d t o draw inferences from h i s observations. This was incongruent w i t h Helen's im p l i e d requirement f o r a candid p i c t u r e formed from raw observations. Thus, Hugh's comment suggests that he had not developed an understanding of Helen's requirements. B u i l d i n g Mutual Understanding Evidence was presented i n Chapters 6 and 7 to suggest Hugh d i d not recognize the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n d i c a t i n g Helen's l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g and t h e r e f o r e d i d not understand her needs regarding opportunity f o r development. In a d d i t i o n , Hugh's statement, during h i s second r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , t h a t "as I get to know (Helen] over time I ' l l be able t o be more free about how I say t h i n g s " (2:693-694) suggests t h a t he f e l t he had not worked long enough with Helen to be sure of how to approach her. Although Hugh's comments d u r i n g h i s second r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w and h i s behaviours during the second conference suggested there was no improvement i n h i s understanding of Helen's requirements or her 189 responses, Helen's understanding of Hugh's behaviours d i d appear t o improve. This understanding seemed evident i n Helen's d e s c r i p t i o n s , d u r i ng her second r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , not only of Hugh's preference f o r r e t a i n i n g p o s i t i v i t y , but a l s o of how she i n f e r r e d an a s s o c i a t i o n between t h i s preference and Hugh's f a i l u r e to provide her w i t h candid p i c t u r e s of her l e s s o n . However, i t appeared that Hugh's f a i l u r e t o understand Helen's requirements and responses may have been p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the absence, d u r i n g Dyad 82 conferences, of the c o l l a b o r a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t were evident i n the Dyad 81 conferences. Lorna's understanding of Luke's requirements seemed evident not o n l y i n her enactment of behaviours t h a t provided him w i t h the op p o r t u n i t y t o use the a n a l y t i c a l a b i l i t y which she recognized he possessed, but a l s o i n her r e c o g n i t i o n of occasions t h a t warranted her suggesting ideas. Evidence suggested t h a t i n r e t u r n , Luke understood how and when Lorna was o f f e r i n g him autonomy; th a t she would a s s i s t him t o th i n k of s o l u t i o n s i f he i n d i c a t e d a requirement f o r help; and t h a t i t was prudent o c c a s i o n a l l y t o implement methods p r e f e r r e d by Lorna. In a d d i t i o n , Luke appeared t o understand t h a t Lorna r e q u i r e d support f o r her own development as a s u p e r v i s o r . Evidence which suggested t h a t Luke was able t o "read" and " f l e x ' t o encourage Lorna's development was among tha t which suggested t h a t the responses of both teachers i n the study may have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r high l e v e l s of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . 190 THE TEACHER'S HIGH LEVEL OF CONCEPTUAL FUNCTIONING The f i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n presented i n Chapters 5 and 6 included evidence t o suggest t h a t both Helen and Luke were f u n c t i o n i n g at a high conceptual l e v e l . Neither teacher was r e l u c t a n t to accept e i t h e r e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t suggestions that changes i n his/ h e r classroom management may be r e q u i r e d , and both teachers r e a d i l y d i s c l o s e d information regarding problems i n t h e i r classroom management which they had recognized f o r themselves. Neither teacher made excuses f o r h i s or her problems by a s s i g n i n g blame to f a c t o r s outside h i s or her c o n t r o l . Instead, each seemed t o imply h i s / h e r c o n v i c t i o n of having r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a l t e r h i s / h e r behaviours i n order t o solve problems. While p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e on issues discussed during conferences, both teachers demonstrated r e f l e c t i v e and a n a l y t i c s t y l e s of t h i n k i n g . The evidence suggested t h a t whereas some responses i n d i c a t i n g the teachers' high l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g may have been a s s o c i a t e d with the p r i n c i p a l s ' e f f o r t s t o support comfort and confidence or t o challenge a c t i v e involvement, others appeared t o be as s o c i a t e d w i t h the teachers' high conceptual l e v e l . The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s a l s o revealed evidence of the teachers' "reading" and " f l e x i n g " i n order t o encourage the p r i n c i p a l t o maintain or develop s u p e r v i s o r y behaviours t h a t were supportive of the teachers' requirements f o r s e c u r i t y , a c t i v e involvement, and autonomy. Because t h i s behaviour was autonomous and appeared t o in v o l v e "reading" and " f l e x i n g " t o the p r i n c i p a l ' s requirements, i t seemed t o be as s o c i a t e d with the teachers' high conceptual l e v e l . The purpose of t h i s s e c t i o n i s to present the f i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n regarding the 191 teachers' "reading" and " f l e x i n g " t o " p u l l " t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s ' development. Evidence revealed by the a n a l y s i s of t r a n s c r i p t i o n data w i l l be presented s e p a r a t e l y f o r each dyad. Dyad #1: " P u l l i n g " of P r i n c i p a l ' s Development i n Supervisory Role Evidence i n Luke's r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w s suggested t h a t he a s s o c i a t e d h i s comfort and confidence w i t h both the genuine i n t e r e s t Lorna demonstrated through her d e t a i l e d and accurate feedback, and the respect he b e l i e v e d Lorna demonstrated f o r h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s and experience by t r u s t i n g him t o make h i s own d e c i s i o n s w i t h regard t o problem s o l v i n g . In a d d i t i o n , the evidence suggested that Luke a s s o c i a t e d h i s o p p o r t u n i t y fo r a c t i v e involvement and autonomous behaviour w i t h three f a c t o r s : Lorna's habit of presenting feedback as though she were "holding up a m i r r o r " t o provide him w i t h a d e t a i l e d image of h i s l e s s o n ; Lorna's acceptance, i n most in s t a n c e s , of h i s methods and accompanying r a t i o n a l e s even when they d i d not match her own; and Lorna's " n e u t r a l " s t y l e of p r e s e n t i n g feedback and of probing f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of issues fo r which she may have gained negative impressions during her observations. Evidence suggested t h a t d u r i n g the two observed Dyad #1 conferences Luke responded to these behaviours i n ways th a t seemed intended t o encourage Lorna t o maintain her s t y l e of s u p e r v i s i o n w i t h him. In a d d i t i o n t o e x h i b i t i n g enthusiasm and i n t e r e s t , Luke d i s p l a y e d four types of responses whereby he appeared t o be "reading" and " f l e x i n g " t o encourage Lorna t o continue her behaviors: (1) by p r o v i d i n g d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s own p e r s p e c t i v e , he demonstrated h i s own 19 2 i n t e r e s t i n each issue r a i s e d by Lorna; (2) by conforming w i t h Lorna's r a t i o n a l e s and methods when she o c c a s i o n a l l y wanted these adopted school-wide, he d i s p l a y e d h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of Lorna's allowance and acceptance of h i s autonomous d e c i s i o n s about most teaching matters; (3) by seeking Lorna's help with h i s "dead" time problem and thereby informing her of h i s b e l i e f i n her a b i l i t y t o o f f e r him v a l u a b l e help, Luke attempted t o r e i n f o r c e Lorna's confidence i n the p o t e n t i a l usefulness of her s u p e r v i s i o n ; and (4) by g i v i n g Lorna p o s i t i v e feedback, f o l l o w i n g conferences, on aspects of her behaviour which he found s u p p o r t i v e . Lorna's own r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w comments i n d i c a t e d t h a t Luke's responses had the d e s i r e d impact on Lorna. In Lorna's second s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , she i m p l i e d Luke's d i s c l o s u r e and request f o r help regarding h i s "dead" time problem had impressed her. Lorna s t a t e d t h a t she regarded i t a s i g n of a s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r v i e w when Luke f e l t " f r e e t o be able t o r e f l e c t on the f a c t that [something's not always good]" (2: 1272-1274). In a d d i t i o n , Lorna's comments provided evidence that f o l l o w i n g the second Dyad #2 conference Luke had continued to give her p o s i t i v e feedback. Lorna reported t h a t : "[Luke] commented th a t ... he was d e l i g h t e d w i t h my s k i l l s ... of observation - t h a t I saw so many more things than he f e l t anyone has ever seen before. I was r e a l l y pleased about t h a t because I've r e a l l y wondered whether I was observing the t h i n g s t h a t were important to observe and whether I was able to ... record them and get them back to the teachers.... he t h i n k s t h a t one of the successes has been the f a c t t h a t I have looked at my r o l e ... as ... being an observer's r o l e and i t ' s a f t e r t h a t then we begin t o put the p i c t u r e together and decide more what i t means and ... he thought t h a t was a more s u c c e s s f u l approach (2: 1578-1596). These comments r e v e a l t h a t Luke attempted to provide Lorna with a d e t a i l e d and accurate p i c t u r e of her s u p e r v i s o r y behaviour. In h i s feedback, Luke demonstrated to Lorna t h a t he had analyzed her behaviours 193 w i t h c are, i n t e r e s t , and enthusiasm a l l of which l e n t c r e d i b i l i t y t o h i s feedback. Thus, h i s s t y l e of feedback seems to r e f l e c t Lorna's, and thereby to o f f e r her an o p p o r t u n i t y t o experience the value of her s t y l e of feedback t o i t s r e c e i v e r . Lorna i m p l i e d both her a p p r e c i a t i o n t h a t she was able t o "analyze [her approach] w i t h [Luke]" and her r e c o g n i t i o n that as a p r i n c i p a l "you don't always get a chance t o analyze with somebody e l s e " (2:1597-1598). Furthermore, Lorna mentioned throughout t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t Luke had given her "very p o s i t i v e and good feedback on what s o r t of t h i n g s I've been doing" (2:1568-1569) and "so t h a t ' s been g r a t i f y i n g " (2:1572). Because evidence suggests t h a t d uring the second year of Dyad #1 conferences, Lorna reacted p o s i t i v e l y to Luke's encouragement, i t seems p o s s i b l e that a change i n Lorna's feedback between the f i r s t and second years may have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the feedback Luke gave regarding the dyad's f i r s t three conferences. Luke comments regarding h i s f i r s t year with Lorna suggested t h a t Lorna's s t y l e had changed, i n the second year, to one which provided l e s s negative feedback, more " n e u t r a l " feedback, and thereby more autonomy f o r Luke. Although Luke r e f e r r e d t o r e c e i v i n g negative feedback from Lorna i n the f i r s t year, during the two videotaped conferences analyzed f o r t h i s study there was no evidence of Lorna g i v i n g negative feedback t o Luke. In h i s f i r s t r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w , Luke mentioned that i n t h e i r f i r s t year together, i f Lorna had a negative f e e l i n g about something "she j u s t s a i d f l a t out t h a t i t should be done d i f f e r e n t l y " (1:284-285). This statement im p l i e d t h a t Luke perceived a change t o have occurred i n Lorna's s t y l e of s u p e r v i s i n g him. During the dyad's second year together, Lorna d i d not propose anything 194 Luke should do except when she t e n t a t i v e l y o f f e r e d suggestions f o l l o w i n g Luke's i m p l i c i t or e x p l i c i t request f o r ideas. Some of Helen's responses resembled those whereby Luke attempted to i n f l u e n c e Lorna's s u p e r v i s o r y behaviour. Thus, although Helen seemed uns u c c e s s f u l , i t appears t h a t she may have been attempting to " p u l l ' ' the development of Hugh's conference behaviours. Dyad #2: " P u l l i n g ' ' of P r i n c i p a l ' s Development i n Supervisory Role Although Helen's attempts to " p u l l " Hugh's behaviour seemed to show some r e s u l t s i n the f i r s t conference, no r e s u l t s were evident i n the second. Helen had l e s s o pportunity t o " p u l l " Hugh's behaviours i n the second conference, and her one attempt was uns u c c e s s f u l . However, because Helen's comments i n her second r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w suggest she was beginning to understand how she would l i k e Hugh t o behave, i f t h e i r conferences were t o continue f o r a longer p e r i o d , i t seems p o s s i b l e t h a t Helen might make a greater e f f o r t than she d i d i n the observed conferences t o " p u l l " Hugh's behaviours. While presenting some of her own thoughts and ideas about her problems, Helen's demonstration of her a n a l y t i c a b i l i t i e s seemed to have the p o t e n t i a l t o encourage Hugh to provide her with o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o become a c t i v e l y involved and to behave autonomously i n problem s o l v i n g . With regard t o her time management problems, when Helen accompanied her i n t r o d u c t i o n s and responses with t e n t a t i v e ideas f o r s o l v i n g her problems, she may have been attempting not o n l y to a c t i v a t e problem s o l v i n g , but a l s o t o demonstrate her a b i l i t y to th i n k independently about her problems. Her v a l i a n t e f f o r t s suggested t h a t Helen may have been s t r i v i n g to " p u l l " Hugh towards 195 p r o v i d i n g her v i t h h i s observations of events a s s o c i a t e d v i t h her problems and thereby to provide her v i t h more informa t i o n on v h i c h to base d e c i s i o n s . When Helen responded by becoming a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n d i s c u s s i o n of issues of i n t e r e s t t o Hugh, she may have been hoping that he vould r e c i p r o c a t e v i t h respect t o issues about v h i c h she had concerns. Helen's comments tovard the end of the conference suggested t h a t Helen intended t o encourage Hugh t o continue those behaviours v h i c h she regarded as supportive of her f e e l i n g s of s e c u r i t y . Her p r a i s e f o r Hugh's supportive behaviour seemed a l s o t o suggest t h a t Helen vas "reading" and " f l e x i n g " t o support Hugh's needs for s e c u r i t y . Helen may a l s o have been responding v i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r h i s s e c u r i t y vhen she co-operated i n d i s c u s s i n g issues of h i s choice and vhen she decided t o appear t o comply v i t h some of h i s ideas to avoid continued d i s c u s s i o n of a t o p i c f o r v h i c h she b e l i e v e d agreement betveen h e r s e l f and Hugh vas u n l i k e l y . Although there vas some evidence to suggest Helen achieved s l i g h t success v i t h her attempts during the f i r s t conference to " p u l l " Hugh's behaviours regarding h i s attempts t o help her v i t h her student p a r t i c i p a t i o n problem, the r e s u l t s vere not evident during the second Dyad 12 conference. P o s s i b l y because Hugh's o b j e c t i v e vas t o make the conference " c o n g r a t u l a t o r y " , Helen seemed t o have l i t t l e o p p o rtunity t o " p u l l " Hugh's behaviours during t h e i r second conference. 196 SUMMARY Although the o v e r a l l , more p o s i t i v e nature of Luke's responses as compared with Helen's, with respect t o a l l three stages of the conceptual model, d i d not appear to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l , evidence d i d suggest that Luke's p o s i t i v e responses may have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h behaviours which were enacted by Lorna th a t may have been l i n k e d to f a c t o r s other than her conceptual l e v e l . D i f f e r e n c e s i n the teachers' responses appeared t o be connected with t h e i r p r i n c i p a l ' s needs and a b i l i t i e s t hat seemed t o be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the extent of the p r i n c i p a l ' s experience i n the s u p e r v i s o r y r o l e . Evidence suggested t h a t , because of inexperience, Hugh may have been more r e l i a n t on s t r u c t u r e than Lorna and t h a t t h i s r e l i a n c e seemed t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h Hugh's perception of Helen's needs. The greater p o s i t i v i t y i n Luke's responses, as compared t o Helen's, seemed t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Lorna's a b i l i t y t o observe and provide accurate, d e t a i l e d r e p o r t s . On the assumption t h a t i t takes time t o develop observation and r e p o r t i n g s k i l l s , Helen's and Luke's p o s i t i v i t y appeared a l s o t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the amount of the p r i n c i p a l ' s experience. The p r i n c i p a l s ' e f f o r t s t o present candid p i c t u r e s of events seemed to be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the development of t h e i r s k i l l s i n observation and r e p o r t i n g . Evidence suggested t h a t Luke perceived a strong a s s o c i a t i o n between h i s opportunity f o r development and Lorna's p r e s e n t a t i o n of candid p i c t u r e s of events. The a n a l y s i s of h i s responses i n d i c a t i n g o p portunity f o r development provided evidence of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . Helen's only i m p l i c a t i o n of a reason f o r her 197 d i s a p p o i n t i n g opportunity f o r development was her a s s o c i a t i o n of i t with Hugh's p r e s e n t a t i o n of d i s t o r t e d and incomplete p i c t u r e s of events. Thus evidence suggested t h a t the teacher's responses may have been imp o r t a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r p r i n c i p a l ' s d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f o r t s to present candid p i c t u r e s of events. The p r i n c i p a l s d i d not seem t o be f u n c t i o n i n g a t the conceptual l e v e l s suggested by t h e i r performances on the Paragraph Completion Test. On the c o n t r a r y , Hugh seemed to be f u n c t i o n i n g at a low l e v e l , and Lorna seemed t o be f u n c t i o n i n g a t a l e v e l higher than that suggested by her performance on the t e s t . Some of Hugh's behaviours, f o r instance those which im p l i e d h i s need f o r s t r u c t u r e , suggested t h a t the low l e v e l at which he was f u n c t i o n i n g i n h i s s u p e r v i s o r y r o l e may have been a s s o c i a t e d with h i s inexperience. A n a l y s i s of the p o s i t i v e or negative q u a l i t i e s of the teacher's responses suggested that they were d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r i n c i p a l ' s l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . Hugh's apparent pre-occupation w i t h not only h i s search f o r s t r u c t u r e , but a l s o h i s own b e l i e f s seemed t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o l l a b o r a t i o n between himself and Helen. In t h i s regard, however, the short d u r a t i o n of the Dyad 12 s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p a l s o seemed t o be a f a c t o r . Because the teachers' responses seemed t o be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the extent of c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h i n the dyadic r e l a t i o n s h i p , they seemed to be i n d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d u r a t i o n of the dyad's s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p . Evidence suggested that the greater length of the Dyad II r e l a t i o n s h i p had enabled both Lorna and Luke not only t o develop b e t t e r i n d i v i d u a l r e a l i z a t i o n s of what behaviours might be required of the p r i n c i p a l t o 198 make s u p e r v i s i o n b e n e f i c i a l f o r the teacher, but a l s o t o b u i l d mutual understanding of one another's requirements and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F i n a l l y , evidence suggested t h a t both Helen's and Luke's p o s i t i v e responses seemed to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r own high l e v e l s of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . Although Helen's p o s i t i v e responses seemed to be as s o c i a t e d only w i t h her high l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g , Luke's p o s i t i v e responses seemed t o be a s s o c i a t e d a l s o w i t h the other four f a c t o r s discussed i n t h i s chapter. However, because Luke appeared t o be e x e r c i s i n g h i s high conceptual l e v e l to encourage Lorna t o develop and maintain the behaviours t o which he responded p o s i t i v e l y , i t seemed p o s s i b l e that some of h i s responses which appeared to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h other f a c t o r s may a l s o have been i n d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s high l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . The evidence suggested t h a t both Helen's and Luke's high l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g may have been an important f a c t o r i n t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r development during s u p e r v i s i o n . 199 Chapter 9 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS The purpose of t h i s chapter i s t o present a b r i e f summary of the complete study, t o draw conclusions about both f i n d i n g s of the study and the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the model and instruments, and t o d e r i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s of the study f o r f u r t h e r research and use of the model and fo r p r a c t i c e . The contents of the summary include b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n s of the r a t i o n a l e and purpose, the development of the conceptual model and the instruments, the data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s methods, and the main f i n d i n g s of the a n a l y s i s . The conc l u s i o n s about the f i n d i n g s compare and co n t r a s t them w i t h those from previous s t u d i e s . The conclusions about the model and instruments i n v o l v e a c r i t i q u e of t h e i r usefulness i n the study. The i m p l i c a t i o n s i n c l u d e three s e t s of suggestions: (1) f o r f u r t h e r study of s u p e r v i s i o n f o r high conceptual l e v e l (HCL) teachers both l n p r i n c i p a l / t e a c h e r dyads and i n teacher/teacher dyads; (2) f o r a r e v i s e d conceptual model f o r the f a c i l i t a t i o n of development f o r HCL teachers, and f o r f u t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n s of both the r e v i s e d and the o r i g i n a l conceptual models; and (3) f o r the p r a c t i c e of HCL teacher s u p e r v i s i o n . SUMMARY This study sought t o examine the value of s u p e r v i s o r y conferences as l e a r n i n g experiences f o r expert or p o t e n t i a l l y expert teachers. Because the s u p e r v i s i o n conference was regarded as a s p e c i a l case of 200 a d u l t l e a r n i n g and because high conceptual l e v e l (HCL) suggested a means of i d e n t i f y i n g p o t e n t i a l l y good teachers, a conceptual framework was developed from t h e o r i e s of a d u l t l e a r n i n g and from Hunt's Conceptual Levels theory. As a r e s u l t , the purpose of the study became t w o f o l d : (1) to a s c e r t a i n whether or not high conceptual l e v e l teachers' responses d u r i n g s u p e r v i s o r y conferences appear t o be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the conceptual l e v e l of the s u p e r v i s i n g p r i n c i p a l ; and (2) to a s c e r t a i n whether high conceptual l e v e l teachers' responses d u r i n g the su p e r v i s o r y conference appear t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a c t o r s other than the p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l . L i t e r a t u r e on a d u l t l e a r n i n g and conceptual development was reviewed, and from a s y n t h e s i s of these two l i t e r a t u r e s , a three dimensional conceptual model was designed to represent the f a c i l i t a t i o n of development f o r an HCL teacher as c o n s i s t i n g of three stages. The model p o s t u l a t e d t h a t i f the teacher were being provided w i t h i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r his/ h e r development, c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s of responses would be observable during each stage: i n the f i r s t stage the teacher's responses would i n d i c a t e comfort and confidence; i n the second stage they would i n d i c a t e a c t i v e involvement i n problem s o l v i n g ; and i n the t h i r d stage they would i n d i c a t e autonomous behaviour. Each stage of the model was used t o i d e n t i f y from the research l i t e r a t u r e , i n d i c a t o r s of the teacher's responses and the p r i n c i p a l ' s behaviours t h a t would be apparent under i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r the HCL teacher t o f u n c t i o n at his/h e r high conceptual l e v e l . These i n d i c a t o r s were then used t o design instruments f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of frequency data regarding teacher's responses and p r i n c i p a l ' s behaviours. 201 The s u b j e c t s of the study were two p r i n c i p a l s and two teachers who formed two separate s u p e r v i s o r y dyads. Both of the teachers had high conceptual l e v e l s . One of the p r i n c i p a l s had a moderate/high conceptual l e v e l , whereas the other had a low conceptual l e v e l . The sources of data were videotapes of four s u p e r v i s i o n conferences, t h a t i s , two conferences f o r each dyad; the t r a n s c r i p t s of the conference d i a l o g u e s ; and the t r a n s c r i p t s of s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w s t h a t were held s e p a r a t e l y w i t h teachers and p r i n c i p a l s f o l l o w i n g each of t h e i r s u p e r v i s i o n conferences. Two d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t types of data were e x t r a c t e d from the above sources. The f i r s t were frequency data which were obtained by observing videotapes of two s u p e r v i s i o n conferences f o r each dyad. The data c o l l e c t i o n was f a c i l i t a t e d by aski n g the question "Do the teachers' responses and p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours look l i k e the predetermined i n d i c a t o r s , and i f so, w i t h what frequency?" The second were data obtained from t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of the dialogue i n both the teachers' and the p r i n c i p a l s ' s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r , and the s e c t i o n s of the s u p e r v i s i o n conferences t h a t s t i m u l a t e d the r e c a l l . U n l i k e the frequency data, the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data were not c o l l e c t e d by using any predetermined i n d i c a t o r s . Instead, the data were allowed t o emerge from the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s i n response t o the question "What do the teachers' responses and p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours look l i k e ? " The a n a l y s i s then examined whether the evidence t h a t was revealed about the responses and behaviours suggested they f i t t e d the stages of the conceptual model, and i f so, whether they v a l i d a t e d or c l a r i f i e d suggestions provided by the frequency data a n a l y s i s , or o f f e r e d new evidence of responses and behaviours t h a t should belong i n 202 the c a t e g o r i e s . Both s e t s of data were analyzed f o r evidence of the teachers' comfort and confidence, a c t i v e involvement i n problem s o l v i n g , and autonomous behaviour, and f o r evidence of p r i n c i p a l s ' behaviours wit h which the teachers' responses might be a s s o c i a t e d . In a d d i t i o n , the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data were analyzed f o r evidence of f a c t o r s , other than the p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l , w i t h which the teachers' responses appeared t o be a s s o c i a t e d . The main f i n d i n g s of the data analyses f o l l o w . F indings of Frequency Data A n a l y s i s The small amount of frequency data c o l l e c t e d f o r the second and t h i r d stages of the model meant t h a t the a n a l y s i s of these data produced very t e n t a t i v e f i n d i n g s . The main f i n d i n g s of the a n a l y s i s f o l l o w . Teacher's comfort and confidence. - The Dyad #1 teacher d i s p l a y e d comfort and confidence which seemed t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both h i s high conceptual l e v e l and the p r i n c i p a l ' s supportive behaviours. - The Dyad #2 teacher i n i t i a l l y d i s p l a y e d comfort and confidence which seemed t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both her high conceptual l e v e l and the p r i n c i p a l ' s supportive behaviours. In the second conference, a decrease i n the teacher's comfort and confidence seemed t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a decrease i n the p r i n c i p a l ' s supportive behaviours. Teacher's a c t i v e Involvement. - The Dyad I I teacher's a c t i v e involvement was i n f r e q u e n t , but no a s s o c i a t i o n between t h i s infrequency and the p r i n c i p a l ' s behaviours was apparent. 203 - The Dyad #2 teacher's a c t i v e involvement was i n f r e q u e n t . The infrequency appeared t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r i n c i p a l ' s infrequent enactment of c h a l l e n g i n g behaviours. Teacher's autonomous behaviour. - For Dyad #1, an infrequency of autonomous behaviour i n the teacher's responses seemed t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r i n c i p a l ' s infrequent enactment of " p u l l i n g 1 ' behaviours. - For Dyad #2, an absence of autonomous behaviour i n the teacher's responses seemed t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an absence of " p u l l i n g " among the p r i n c i p a l ' s behaviours. O v e r a l l , the frequency data a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Dyad #1 teacher d i s p l a y e d p o s i t i v e responses more f r e q u e n t l y than the Dyad #2 teacher, and the Dyad #2 p r i n c i p a l d i s p l a y e d negative behaviours more f r e q u e n t l y than the Dyad #1 p r i n c i p a l . F indings of T r a n s c r i p t i o n Data A n a l y s i s The t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s uncovered more information than the frequency data a n a l y s i s . The main f i n d i n g s f o l l o w . Teacher's comfort and confidence. - The Dyad #1 teacher experienced i n c r e a s i n g comfort and confidence t h a t seemed t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both h i s own high conceptual and the p r i n c i p a l ' s behaviours, which were supportive of the teacher's s e c u r i t y , a c t i v e Involvement, and autonomous behaviour. - The Dyad #2 teacher I n i t i a l l y d i s p l a y e d comfort and confidence which may have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h her impression of the p r i n c i p a l ' s supportiveness, but an eventual d e c l i n e i n her comfort and confidence seemed t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h her 204 p r i n c i p a l ' s discouragement of her e f f o r t s t o become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d . Teacher's a c t i v e Involvement. - The Dyad #1 teacher became a c t i v e l y i nvolved i n c o l l a b o r a t i v e c l a r i f i c a t i o n of candid p i c t u r e s of lesson events, which were presented i n the p r i n c i p a l * s feedback. - The Dyad #2 teacher was not encouraged by her p r i n c i p a l t o become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d , and her own attempts t o i n i t i a t e her a c t i v e involvement were discouraged. Teacher's autonomous behaviour. - The Dyad #1 teacher was given the opportunity t o use h i s c l a r i f i e d p i c t u r e s f o r making autonomous problem s o l v i n g d e c i s i o n s a f t e r h i s conferences. - The Dyad #2 teacher d i s p l a y e d no autonomous behaviour, and the p r i n c i p a l appeared t o be unaware of the teacher's a b i l i t y t o behave autonomously. O v e r a l l , the f i n d i n g s of the a n a l y s i s suggested t h a t the responses of the teacher who was pa i r e d w i t h the LCL p r i n c i p a l i n d i c a t e d he was provided w i t h more s u i t a b l e s u p e r v i s o r y c o n d i t i o n s f o r HCL teacher development than the teacher who was p a i r e d w i t h the moderate/high conceptual l e v e l p r i n c i p a l . The teachers' responses which provided p o s i t i v e evidence of t h e i r high conceptual l e v e l f u n c t i o n i n g d u r i n g the s u p e r v i s i o n conferences d i d not appear t o be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l , but d i d appear t o be a s s o c i a t e d wit h f a c t o r s other than the p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l . 205 CONCLUSIONS The concluding comments are d e r i v e d from two c a t e g o r i e s of i n f o r m a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from the study: (1) f i n d i n g s of the study i n comparison t o those of previous research; and (2) the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the conceptual model and the data c o l l e c t i o n methods. Findings of the Study i n Comparison t o Those of Previous Research Because the i n t e r a c t i o n s of only two s u p e r v i s o r y dyads were examined f o r t h i s study, i t i s not presumed that the c o n c l u s i o n s d e r i v e d from the f i n d i n g s apply n e c e s s a r i l y t o other dyads. However, because some i n t e r e s t i n g comparisons can be made between the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study and those of previous research, i t i s proposed t h a t the conclusions are worthy of p r e s e n t a t i o n because they appear t o have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r research. Both the comparison of f i n d i n g s w i t h those of previous research and the r e s u l t i n g c o n c l u s i o n s are presented i n three subsections: (1) favourable c o n d i t i o n s f o r HCL teacher development; (2) f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h favourable c o n d i t i o n s f o r HCL development; and (3) beyond Glickman*s developmental s u p e r v i s i o n . Favourable c o n d i t i o n s f o r HCL teacher development. Both teachers i n t h i s study demonstrated independence and a s s e r t i v e n e s s , t h a t i s , behaviours which Kidd (1973) l i s t e d as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a d u l t s f u n c t i o n i n g at a high conceptual l e v e l . Nevertheless, each teacher i m p l i e d t h a t , i n order t o f e e l comfortable and c o n f i d e n t , he/she re q u i r e d the support of a secure environment with features matching 206 those described by s e v e r a l researchers of a d u l t l e a r n i n g . The Dyad #2 teacher's remarks about the non-threatening nature of her conferences appeared t o support Long's (1983) claims t h a t a d u l t s r e q u i r e freedom from f e e l i n g s of personal t h r e a t and s t r e s s i n t h e i r l e a r n i n g environments. Evidence t h a t the Dyad #1 teacher d e r i v e d comfort from h i s p r i n c i p a l ' s p r o v i s i o n of p o s i t i v e feedback whenever due, and of non-p o s i t i v e feedback i n a " n e u t r a l " way, supported the f i n d i n g s of Thornton (1986), Thibodeau (1980), and Rogers (1977) t h a t a l l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o provide p o s i t i v e feedback t o a d u l t s should be u t i l i z e d , and t h a t unavoidable negative feedback should be presented i n a way t h a t emphasizes development as opposed t o d e f i c i t . Galloway, S e l t z e r , and W h i t f i e l d (1980) found t h a t a d u l t l e a r n e r s r e q u i r e t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s t o be a c c u r a t e l y responsive i n order t o f i n d them c r e d i b l e and trustworthy. This requirement was evident i n the Dyad #1 teacher's a p p r e c i a t i o n of h i s p r i n c i p a l ' s accurate feedback and i n not only the Dyad 12 teacher's disappointment i n her p r i n c i p a l ' s incomplete and inaccurate feedback, but a l s o her i m p l i e d concern about i t s lack of c r e d i b i l i t y . Based on the f i n d i n g s f o r both dyads, i t would appear t h a t environmental s e c u r i t y i s an important component of s u p e r v i s i o n t h a t aims t o provide developmental o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o HCL teachers. Thus, i t would appear t h a t p r i n c i p a l s ' s u p e r v i s o r y behaviours need t o o f f e r support f o r the HCL teacher's f e e l i n g s of s e c u r i t y i n ways which have been advocated as a r e s u l t of s t u d i e s of a d u l t l e a r n e r s . The f i n d i n g s suggested t h a t the HCL teachers i n the study d i d not f e e l comfortable and c o n f i d e n t i n a s u p e r v i s o r y s i t u a t i o n unless i t challenged them t o become a c t i v e l y involved and t o behave autonomously i n problem s o l v i n g ; t h a t i s , unless i t provided them with an o p p o r t u n i t y 207 t o f u n c t i o n at t h e i r high conceptual l e v e l . The Dyad #1 teacher appeared comfortable and c o n f i d e n t t h a t the p i c t u r e s , presented i n h i s p r i n c i p a l ' s feedback, provided him the o p p o r t u n i t y t o become a c t i v e l y i nvolved i n the a n a l y s i s of the events they i l l u s t r a t e d , and t o make problem s o l v i n g d e c i s i o n s autonomously a f t e r the conference. The Dyad #2 teacher expressed disappointment i n her p r i n c i p a l ' s f a i l u r e t o present candid- p i c t u r e s of l e s s o n events. She e x p l i c i t l y l i n k e d t h i s f a i l u r e w i t h her p r i n c i p a l ' s r e l u c t a n c e t o d i s c u s s negative aspects of her lessons. The Dyad 12 teacher's references t o t h i s r e l u c t a n c e seemed t o imply she was disappointed by her p r i n c i p a l ' s discouragement of. her attempts t o i n i t i a t e her own a c t i v e involvement i n problem s o l v i n g f o r concerns which she had i d e n t i f i e d h e r s e l f . From the f i n d i n g s , f o r both dyads, i t would appear t h a t while the HCL teacher needs environmental support i n order t o f e e l s u f f i c i e n t l y comfortable and c o n f i d e n t t o become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d or to behave autonomously, he/she l o s e s comfort or confidence i n a s i t u a t i o n which denies him/her o p p o r t u n i t i e s to become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d and t o behave autonomously. Thus, the f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t t o provide i d e a l developmental c o n d i t i o n s f o r the HCL teacher, the p r i n c i p a l needs to be behave i n ways which support both the s e c u r i t y and the high conceptual l e v e l requirements of the teacher. Factors a s s o c i a t e d w i t h favourable c o n d i t i o n s f o r HCL teachers'  development. The r e s u l t s of previous s t u d i e s (e.g., T h i e s - S p r i n t h a l l , 1980; Grimmett and Housego, 1983) i n d i c a t e d t h a t HCL p r i n c i p a l s were able t o be e f f e c t i v e when matched with a teacher of any conceptual l e v e l , whereas LCL p r i n c i p a l s were e f f e c t i v e w i t h none. On the c o n t r a r y , i n t h i s study, the responses of the HCL teacher, Luke, who was p a i r e d 208 with the LCL p r i n c i p a l , Lorna, o f f e r e d more evidence of s u p e r v i s o r y c o n d i t i o n s t h a t were favourable f o r HCL teacher development than d i d those of the HCL teacher, Helen, who was pa i r e d with the M/HCL p r i n c i p a l , Hugh. Helen's responses i n d i c a t e d l e s s comfort and confidence, l e s s a c t i v e involvement, and l e s s autonomous behaviour than d i d Luke's responses. Thus, from the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study, i t would appear t h a t the p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l , i . e . , the paper and p e n c i l measure, may not be an important f a c t o r i n the f a c i l i t a t i o n of s u p e r v i s o r y c o n d i t i o n s which are conducive t o HCL teachers' development. Although the f i n d i n g s suggested the p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l was not a f a c t o r w i t h which the teachers' responses were a s s o c i a t e d , they d i d r e v e a l f i v e other f a c t o r s w i t h which i t appeared p o s s i b l e t o make such an a s s o c i a t i o n . One of these, the p r i n c i p a l ' s e f f o r t s t o present candid p i c t u r e s , was discussed above. The other four f a c t o r s were: the p r i n c i p a l ' s l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g i n the s u p e r v i s o r y r o l e ; the p r i n c i p a l ' s s u p e r v i s o r y experience; the length of the su p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p ; and the teachers' high l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . A recent study by Grimmett and Crehan (1988) has noted the p o s s i b l e importance of the l a s t three of these f a c t o r s . Two of the f a c t o r s seem t o be e s p e c i a l l y important t o the f a c i l i t a t i o n of s u p e r v i s o r y c o n d i t i o n s conducive t o HCL teachers' development. The f i r s t i s the d u r a t i o n of the s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p , an important product of which may be a c o l l a b o r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p ; the second i s the teacher's own high conceptual l e v e l which seems t o be an important f a c t o r i n the development of the c o l l a b o r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . The p r i n c i p a l ' s a b i l i t y t o present candid p i c t u r e s i s a l s o revealed as an Important f a c t o r , but i t i s l i s t e d i n f o u r t h place because a 209 c o l l a b o r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p seems t o be a p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r i t s u s e f u l n e s s . This a b i l i t y may a l s o have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the conceptual l e v e l a t which the p r i n c i p a l was f u n c t i o n i n g i n the s u p e r v i s o r y r o l e , and w i t h the p r i n c i p a l ' s s u p e r v i s o r y experience. The more favourable s u p e r v i s o r y c o n d i t i o n s f o r HCL teacher development, which seemed t o e x i s t i n the Dyad 11 confences as compared t o the Dyad 12 conferences, appeared t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these other f a c t o r s . The f i n d i n g s suggest these f a c t o r s may be more important than the p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l i n the f a c i l i t a t i o n of s u p e r v i s o r y c o n d i t i o n s which can o f f e r development f o r the HCL teacher. Extending Glickman's model of developmental s u p e r v i s i o n . The p r i n c i p a l ' s behaviours t h a t seemed t o f a c i l i t a t e the Dyad #1 teacher's o p p o r t u n i t y f o r both a c t i v e involvement and autonomous behaviour d i d not appear t o match the " n o n - d i r e c t i v e " s t y l e which Glickman (1985) i m p l i e s i s s u i t a b l e f o r HCL teacher development. Rather, the Dyad #1 p r i n c i p a l ' s behaviours seemed t o f i t i n t o the category of behaviours which Glickman r e f e r s t o as " d i r e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n a l " . With the exception of one occasion when the teacher made an i m p l i c i t request f o r help w i t h a problem, the Dyad I I p r i n c i p a l merely presented her feedback and then probed and r e f l e c t e d t o challenge the Dyad I I teacher t o analyze her observations and h i s own p e r s p e c t i v e . However, instead of c o n t i n u i n g , as Glickman suggests, to probe and r e f l e c t In order t o encourage the teacher t o suggest ideas, t o f i n d a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s , and t o continue wit h the problem s o l v i n g process, the Dyad I I p r i n c i p a l gave the teacher the opportunity t o make a l l the problem s o l v i n g d e c i s i o n s autonomously 210 a f t e r the conference. She even l e f t i t t o the teacher t o decide independently whether or not the issue represented a problem. The Dyad #1 teacher appeared t o a t t r i b u t e h i s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r development t o the autonomy th a t h i s p r i n c i p a l ' s s u p e r v i s o r y s t y l e accorded him. The p r i n c i p a l ' s e f f o r t s t o present candid p i c t u r e s , t h a t i s , the behaviour t h a t seemed t o challenge the Dyad ffl teacher t o become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n a n a l y z i n g i s s u e s and t o problem so l v e autonomously, was i d e n t i f i e d i n the study as one of the f a c t o r s w i t h which the two teachers' p o s i t i v e responses seemed t o be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d . These f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t f a c i l i t a t i o n of development f o r HCL teachers does not a u t o n o m a t i c a l l y r e q u i r e a " n o n - d i r e c t i v e " approach. Moreover, i t would appear t h a t i t may be important f o r the p r i n c i p a l as s u p e r v i s o r t o be aware t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s , such as t h a t described above, may e x i s t f o r the f a c i l i t a t i o n of development f o r HCL teachers. Moreover, i t would appear that f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n i n order t o f i n d c o n d i t i o n s which f a c i l i t a t e development f o r HCL teachers i s d e s i r a b l e . Summary of Substantive Conclusions The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study give r i s e t o four important c o n c l u s i o n s regarding s u p e r v i s o r y c o n d i t i o n s which f a c i l i t a t e the development of HCL teachers, namely: (1) t o f a c i l i t a t e development of HCL teachers, s u p e r v i s i o n should o f f e r a secure environment and both op p o r t u n i t y and encouragement f o r a c t i v e involvement and autonomous behaviour i n problem s o l v i n g ; (2) the e x i s t e n c e of c o n d i t i o n s which f a c i l i t a t e development of HCL teachers may not be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s u p e r v i s o r ' s conceptual l e v e l ; 211 (3) the e x i s t e n c e of c o n d i t i o n s which f a c i l i t a t e development of HCL teachers may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a c t o r s other than the p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l , the most notable of which appear t o be the teacher's HCL, and the d u r a t i o n of the s u p e r v i s o r y dyad's r e l a t i o n s h i p ; and (4) there would appear t o be models f o r the f a c i l i t a t i o n of development f o r HCL teachers t h a t o f f e r a l t e r n a t i v e s t o Glickman's model of n o n - d i r e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n . A p p l i c a b i l i t y of Conceptual Model and Data C o l l e c t i o n Methods The instruments designed f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of frequency data regarding the teachers' comfort and confidence were usable, but those designed f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of data regarding the teachers' a c t i v e involvement and autonomous behaviour were inadequate. The inadequacy occurred mainly because the predetermined i n d i c a t o r s of a c t i v e involvement and autonomous behaviour d i d not match the responses and behaviours which were observed i n the videotapes. The i n d i c a t o r s i n the instrument were mostly d e r i v e d from Glickman's (1985) d e s c r i p t i o n s of behaviours t h a t would occur d u r i n g n o n - d i r e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n ( f o r the p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r s ) and d i r e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n ( f o r the negative i n d i c a t o r s ) , but these s u p e r v i s o r y s t y l e s were not employed by the p r i n c i p a l s i n the study. Moreover, because the s p e c i f i c i t y i n the d e s c r i p t i o n s of some of the behaviour i n d i c a t o r s prevented s i m i l a r , but not i d e n t i c a l , behaviours from being recorded, the instruments d i d not seem t o c o n t a i n enough behaviour i n d i c a t o r s . Despite the inadequacies of the instruments, the conceptual model from which the instruments were der i v e d was found t o be h e l p f u l . The three dimensions of the conceptual model and the three stages i t p o s t u l a t e d f o r the f a c i l i t a t i o n of development f o r an HCL teacher 212 provided a u s e f u l guide f o r the a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data. However, the f i n d i n g s of t h i s a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e t h a t t o r e f l e c t more a c c u r a t e l y the process t h a t the two HCL teachers i n the study would appear t o regard as f a c i l i t a t i v e of an opp o r t u n i t y f o r development, the conceptual model f o r HCL teachers needs t o be r e v i s e d . As has been discussed above, the responses of both teachers i n d i c a t e d t h a t t o f e e l comfortable and c o n f i d e n t they r e q u i r e d not only a secure environment, but a l s o the opportunity t o become a c t i v e l y i nvolved and t o behave autonomously; t h a t i s , t o f u n c t i o n a t t h e i r high conceptual l e v e l s . In Figure 9.1, the i l l u s t r a t i o n of the r e v i s e d model d e p i c t s t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n by n e s t i n g , i n s i d e the box c o n t a i n i n g the comfort and confidence dimension, both the box c o n t a i n i n g the a c t i v e involvement dimension and the beginning of the open ended box c o n t a i n i n g the autonomous behaviour dimension. In the r e v i s e d model, the dimensions of the stage c o n t a i n i n g a c t i v e involvement could e a s i l y be r e - l a b e l l e d t o make the model r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Dyad I I i n t e r a c t i o n s . The p r i n c i p a l ' s behaviour would be a l t e r e d to "read" and " f l e x " t o challenge w i t h candid p i c t u r e s of events, and the teacher's response would be a l t e r e d t o a c t i v e involvement i n a n a l y s i s and c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p a l ' s candid p i c t u r e . These behaviours are not described on the diagram of the r e v i s e d model i n order t h a t i t may be used t o examine s i t u a t i o n s wherein the a c t i v e involvement may not take the same form as i t d i d f o r Dyad I I i n t h i s study. The new model i s intended only t o represent f a c i l i t a t i o n of development f o r an HCL teacher. Because t h i s study d i d not i n v e s t i g a t e development f o r low conceptual l e v e l teachers, i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o say Fiqure 9 1 REVISED CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR FACILITATION OF DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH CONCEPTUAL LEVEL TEACHER SUPERVISEES £ 214 whether the new model could be adapted t o represent f a c i l i t a t i o n of development f o r LCL teachers. However, the r e s u l t s of t h i s study seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t the o r i g i n a l model could be adapted f o r use i n a study of LCL teacher development, and t h a t such a study might r e s u l t i n the development of a new model f o r LCL teachers. IMPLICATIONS Prom the conclusions of t h i s study, three s e t s of i m p l i c a t i o n s have been generated: (1) i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the purposes of f u r t h e r research s t u d i e s ; (2) i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r continued use of the conceptual model; and (3) i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Further Research Because the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study suggest t h a t the o p p o r t u n i t i e s fo r the two high conceptual l e v e l teachers i n the study t o f u n c t i o n at t h e i r high conceptual l e v e l d u r i ng s u p e r v i s i o n was not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l but r a t h e r w i t h other f a c t o r s , i t appears t h a t the purposes of f u r t h e r research must be t o gain b e t t e r understanding of which f a c t o r s are the most important t o HCL teachers' o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r development. P r i n c i p a l ' s l e v e l of conceptual f u n c t i o n i n g . The need f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , employing l a r g e r samples of s u p e r v i s o r y dyads, seems t o be i m p l i c a t e d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g the a s s o c i a t i o n between high conceptual l e v e l teachers' o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r development and the conceptual l e v e l 215 of t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s and/or the conceptual l e v e l a t which the p r i n c i p a l i s f u n c t i o n i n g , independent of the paper and p e n c i l measure, i n the s u p e r v i s o r y r o l e . The f i n d i n g , from t h i s study, t h a t n e i t h e r p r i n c i p a l was f u n c t i o n i n g a t h i s / h e r measured conceptual l e v e l , suggests the need f o r s t u d i e s of whether p r i n c i p a l s n e c e s s a r i l y f u n c t i o n i n the su p e r v i s o r y r o l e a t a l e v e l t h a t i s commensurate w i t h t h e i r measured conceptual l e v e l s , and whether t h i s v a r i e s w i t h experience. Moreover, the f i n d i n g s suggest the need t o i n v e s t i g a t e whether, i n s u p e r v i s o r y conferences, f a c i l i t a t i o n of c o n d i t i o n s under which HCL teachers can f u n c t i o n a t t h e i r high l e v e l s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a c t o r s other than the p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l ; f o r i n s t a n c e , the p r i n c i p a l ' s s u p e r v i s o r y experience. Teacher's HCL and the d u r a t i o n of the s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p . The f i n d i n g s from t h i s study suggested t h a t , i n s u p e r v i s o r y conferences f o r HCL teachers, both the teacher's and the p r i n c i p a l ' s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r development may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the teacher's h i g h conceptual l e v e l and the d u r a t i o n of the s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p . The evidence revealed about these two f a c t o r s seems t o suggest the need f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e i r importance i n p r i n c i p a l / t e a c h e r s u p e r v i s i o n . Moreover, i t seems t o poi n t toward the need f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of teacher/teacher s u p e r v i s o r y dyads, and the opportunity f o r development these may o f f e r HCL teachers i n comparison t o the opp o r t u n i t y o f f e r e d i n p r i n c i p a l / t e a c h e r dyads. Teacher/teacher dyads. P a r t of the r a t i o n a l e f o r suggesting the value of i n v e s t i g a t i n g teacher/teacher s u p e r v i s o r y dyads i s th a t i t i s 216 more l i k e l y f o r a teacher/teacher s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p t o be of long d u r a t i o n than a p r i n c i p a l / t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . This would be tru e whether the d u r a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p were t o be measured i n years or i n number of conferences h e l d . Given the time c o n s t r a i n t s placed upon the p r i n c i p a l , i t seems reasonable t o assume th a t few p r i n c i p a l / t e a c h e r s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s l a s t f o r more than one year a t a time, and th a t d uring t h a t one year, only two, or p o s s i b l y three observations and conferences take p l a c e . The greater ease w i t h which a teacher/teacher p a i r i n g could extend t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p and increase the number of t h e i r observations and conferences suggests the teacher/teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p as p o s s i b l y more advantageous than the p r i n c i p a l / t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . This advantage might be increased i f a c o l l a b o r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s an important f a c t o r as i s suggested by t h i s study. Por a teacher/teacher dyad, a c o l l a b o r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p might be b u i l t more q u i c k l y and e a s i l y than i n the p r i n c i p a l / t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p not only because of the greater a v a i l a b i l i t y of time, but a l s o because of the absence of h i e r a r c h i c a l a u t h o r i t y i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p . The absence of a u t h o r i t y may a l s o make i t e a s i e r f o r the HCL teacher t o e x e r c i s e h i s / h e r high conceptual l e v e l i n order t o encourage the other member of the dyad to behave i n ways th a t could be b e n e f i c i a l t o both members' development. The nature of HCL teachers' o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a c t i v e involvement  and autonomous behaviours. The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study r e g a r d i n g the d i f f e r e n c e between the nature of the a c t i v e involvement and autonomous behaviour t h a t was u s e f u l t o the Dyad I I teacher and the nature of the a c t i v e involvement and autonomous behaviour, p o s t u l a t e d on the b a s i s of 217 Glickman's (1985) model, p o i n t s t o the need t o i n v e s t i g a t e f u r t h e r how HCL teachers become a c t i v e l y i nvolved and behave autonomously during conferences t h a t succeed i n o f f e r i n g them development. In such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the question t o be asked would not be "do they do t h i s or t h a t ? " but i n s t e a d would be "what do they do?". Q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s would be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n because i t might uncover important i n f o r m a t i o n about the f a c i l i t a t i o n of development f o r HCL teachers. The r e v i s e d conceptual model could be used t o generate data fo r f u r t h e r study, and i t would be able t o f a c i l i t a t e examination of data f o r evidence of whether, i n common with the teachers i n t h i s study, comfort and confidence i s not complete f o r HCL teachers unless they are being challenged t o become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d and to behave autonomously. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Further Use of the Conceptual Model The three dimensions and the three stages of the conceptual model fo r the f a c i l i t a t i o n of development f o r the high conceptual l e v e l teacher were found t o be u s e f u l i n the a n a l y s i s of the q u a l i t a t i v e data. With the guidance of the conceptual model, evidence was found regarding not only the a s s o c i a t i o n of the teachers' o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h the p r i n c i p a l ' s conceptual l e v e l , but a l s o the other f i v e f a c t o r s . The usefulness of the model i n the q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s i n t h i s study i m p l i e s t h a t i t would be e q u a l l y u s e f u l i n any study which employs a l a r g e r sample i n attempts to f i n d data t o support or r e f u t e the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study. The r e v i s e d model does not change the three dimensions of the model or i t s three stages; i t merely i n v o l v e s a re-arrangement of the stages i n which the re-arrangement might more c o r r e c t l y be r e f e r r e d 218 t o as components. The r e v i s i o n does not prevent the new model from being used as the o r i g i n a l was i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n data a n a l y s i s f o r t h i s study. The instruments which were de r i v e d from t h e c o n c e p t u a l model f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of frequency data were not adequate because the i n d i c a t o r s used w i t h regard t o two stages of the model d i d not a n t i c i p a t e the behaviours performed by the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study. I f a new instrument were designed t o i n c l u d e both the o l d i n d i c a t o r s and new ones which could be d e r i v e d from t h i s study, the instrument would become rath e r cumbersome and would probably s t i l l not a n t i c i p a t e the behaviours t h a t might be observed among the i n t e r a c t i o n s of other s u p e r v i s o r y dyads i n v o l v i n g HCL teachers. The usefulness of the o r i g i n a l conceptual model f o r g u i d i n g the a n a l y s i s of d a t a , and f o r developing a new model, seems t o i n d i c a t e i t s p o t e n t i a l use f o r f u t u r e s t u d i e s of the i n t e r a c t i o n s of s u p e r v i s o r y dyads wherein the teachers have low or moderate conceptual l e v e l s . With adjustments, the model might be u s e f u l f o r attempting t o a s c e r t a i n whether the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r development f o r these other types of teacher supervisees are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the conceptual l e v e l of the p r i n c i p a l , or the teacher colleague i n the case of teacher/teacher dyads, or w i t h other f a c t o r s . Such a p p l i c a t i o n of the adjusted models might enable the development of new models f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g s u p e r v i s i o n of these other types of teacher supervisees. The f i r s t stage of the model would remain the same f o r a l l teachers i n order t o t e s t whether support f o r comfort and confidence i s important and takes the same form f o r a l l supervisees, and the second and t h i r d stages could be adjusted t o r e f l e c t Glickman's (1985) d i r e c t i v e s t y l e of s u p e r v i s i o n f o r low 219 conceptual l e v e l s upervisees, and Glickman's (1985) c o l l a b o r a t i v e s t y l e of s u p e r v i s i o n f o r moderate conceptual l e v e l supervisees. A c c o r d i n g l y , f o r the f i r s t of these models, the teacher's responses i n the second stage might be described as "acceptance of s o l u t i o n s " , and i n the t h i r d stage "acceptance of implementation and e v a l u a t i o n plans". For the second model, the teacher's response i n the second stage might be d e s c r i b e d as "open exchange of suggestions and d i f f e r e n c e s " , and i n the t h i r d stage might be " n e g o t i a t i o n behaviour". F i n a l l y , the dimensions and components of the r e v i s e d conceptual model make i t a p p l i c a b l e to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the i n t e r a c t i o n s d u r ing both peer, i . e . , teacher/teacher s u p e r v i s i o n , and p r i n c i p a l / t e a c h e r s u p e r v i s i o n . Thus, the model could be u s e f u l l y a p p l i e d t o s t u d i e s of high conceptual l e v e l teachers i n peer s u p e r v i s i o n dyads, and t o s t u d i e s v h i c h compare the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r development of high conceptual l e v e l teachers i n teacher/teacher dyads v i t h t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r development i n p r i n c i p a l / t e a c h e r dyads. The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study suggest t h a t i n v e s t i g a t i o n of these tvo types of dyads vould be p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l t o advance the knovledge base f o r i n s e r v i c e teacher development i n g e n e r a l , and f o r HCL teachers i n p a r t i c u l a r . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P r a c t i c e The f i n d i n g s of the study i m p l i c a t e that an HCL teacher's development may be f a c i l i t a t e d by a p r i n c i p a l vhose behaviours are congruent v i t h the teacher's need f o r comfort and confidence, a c t i v e involvement, and autonomous behaviour. To help achieve t h i s congruence, 220 according t o the f i n d i n g s of the study, the f i v e behaviours l i s t e d below should be employed by su p e r v i s o r s of HCL teachers. 1. S u p e r v i s i o n should m i r r o r the c o n d i t i o n s which teachers b e l i e v e enable them t o de a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h p u p i l s and p u p i l s ' l e a r n i n g i n classrooms. That i s , the sup e r v i s o r should recognize and adapt t o the i n d i v i d u a l needs of the teacher supervisee. The responses of the teachers i n the study revealed t h a t even i n the case of the HCL teacher, who t y p i c a l l y i s c o n f i d e n t , the sup e r v i s o r should o f f e r support by demonstrating respect and understanding of the teacher's personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as hi s / h e r classroom teaching experience and his / h e r previous impressions of s u p e r v i s i o n . 2. The sup e r v i s o r needs t o be unthreatening but f o r t h r i g h t i n presenting feedback on h i s / h e r observations. The development of one of the HCL teachers i n the study was repressed by s u p e r v i s o r y feedback which, though intended as support, had the e f f e c t of d i s m i s s i n g the problem which the teacher had i d e n t i f i e d , was prepared t o own, and wished to s o l v e . 3. Supervisors should c a p i t a l i z e on the HCL teacher's w i l l i n g n e s s t o i d e n t i f y h i s / h e r own problems. When one of the p r i n c i p a l s i n the study responded t o a problem i d e n t i f i e d by the teacher, teacher development r e s u l t e d . 4. Any pre-observation conference agreement made by the sup e r v i s o r and teacher should not be allowed t o impede o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r teacher 221 development which a r i s e i n the post-observation conference. Through i n s i s t e n c e on s t i c k i n g r i g i d l y w i t h the pre-observatlon p l a n , one of the p r i n c i p a l s i n the study f o r f e i t e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the teacher t o problem s o l v e . The i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s i s t h a t i f a teacher i d e n t i f i e s a d d i t i o n a l problems d u r i n g the post-conference, o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the teacher to address these problems should be provided. 5. Supervisors need t o develop s k i l l i n observing d e t a i l and r e p o r t i n g a c c u r a t e l y . These s k i l l s were found i n the study t o be b e n e f i c i a l t o the teachers' f a i t h t h a t the p r i n c i p a l i s i n t e r e s t e d i n the classroom events observed, and t h a t the p r i n c i p a l ' s feedback i s c r e d i b l e and thereby forms a u s e f u l b a s i s f o r a n a l y s i s , problem s o l v i n g , and teacher development. That s u p e r v i s o r s should attempt t o f a c i l i t a t e c o n d i t i o n s that o f f e r the teacher comfort and confidence, a c t i v e involvement, and autonomous behaviour seems t o be accentuated by evidence suggesting t h a t s u p e r v i s i o n t h a t meets these c r i t e r i a i n f l u e n c e s not only teacher development but a l s o t h e i r p u p i l s ' l e a r n i n g . 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T h i e s - S p r i n t h a l l 1980 "Educating f o r teacher growth: a c o g n i t i v e developmental p e r s p e c t i v e . " Theory Into P r a c t i c e , 19(4): 278-286 S p r i n t h a l l , N. A., & L. T h i e s - S p r i n t h a l l 1983 The teacher as an a d u l t l e a r n e r : a c o g n i t i v e developmental view, i n G. G r i f f i n (ed.), S t a f f Development. Eighty-second Yearbook of N.S.S.E., P a r t 2. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press. T h i e s - S p r i n t h a l l , L. 1980 " S u p e r v i s i o n : an educative or mis-educative process?" J o u r n a l of Teacher Education, 31(4): 17-20. Thibodeau, J . 1980 "Adult performance on P i a g e t i a n c o g n i t i v e t a s k s : i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a d u l t education." J o u r n a l of Research and Development i n Education, 13(3): 25-32. Thornton, J . E. 1986 " L i f e span l e a r n i n g and education", i n D. A. Peterson, J . E. Thornton, & J . E. B i r r e n (eds.), Education and Aging. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc. Wadsworth, B.J. 1971 P i a g e t ' s Theory of C o g n i t i v e Development: An I n t r o d u c t i o n f o r Students of Psychology and Education. New York: McKay. W i t h e r e l l , C.S. & V.L. E r i c k s o n 1978 "Teacher education as a d u l t development." Theory Into P r a c t i c e , 17(3): 229-238. APPENDIX A RECORDING INSTRUMENTS FOR TEACHER'S RESPONSES AND PRINCIPAL'S BEHAVIOURS 226 APPENDIX A - l Teacher CL Conference I. P r i n c i p a l CL RECORDING INSTRUMENT FOR CATEGORY 1 1.1: Teacher's Responses POSITIVE NEGATIVE Behaviour Freauencv T o t a l Behaviour Freauency T o t a l 1) Asks questions and/or r e f l e c t s I n t e r a c t s i n s e c u r e l y ( f l u s t e r e d ) 2) Maintains p o s i t i v e and hopeful a t t i t u d e Negative and/or frustated->des-pondent or compliant 3) Responds openly and with t r u s t Responds d e f e n s i v e l y or h e s i t a n t l y 4) Displays i n t e r e s t P h y s i c a l signs of i n s e c u r i t y and/or d i s i n t e r e s t 227 APPENDIX A-2 Teacher CL Conference I P r i n c i p a l CL RECORDING INSTRUMENT FOR CATEGORY 1 1.2: P r i n c i p a l ' s Behaviours POSITIVE NEGATIVE Behaviour Freauencv T o t a l Behaviour Freauencv T o t a l 1) Allows time f o r teacher to question and/or r e f l e c t Dominates t a l k and time 2) Responsive t o teacher's questions and statements Non-responsive to teacher's questions and statements 3) Provides accur-ate and p o s i t i v e feedback Provides nega-t i v e feedback 4) Li n k s problem with teacher's career stage and exp'ce P h y s i c a l signs of a u t h o r i t ' n a t t i t u d e 228 APPENDIX A-3 Teacher CL Conference #. P r i n c i p a l CL RECORDING INSTRUMENT FOR CATEGORY 2 2.1: Teacher's Responses POSITIVE NEGATIVE Behaviour Frequency T o t a l Behaviour Freauencv T o t a l 1) Explores p r i n c i p a l ' s observations Does not explore but instead accepts p r i n c i p a l ' s observations 2) Relates observations to past exp'ces and notes i m p l i c a t i o n s Abandons attempts to draw own i n f e r -ences from observations 3) Questions to a i d own c l a r i f i c a t i o n of new ideas Abandons gues-i o n i n g f o r purposes of c l a r i f i c a t i o n 4) A p p l i e s own ideas +vely & r e l a t i o n to p r i n c i p a l ' s Involvement becomes defensiveness of own b e l i e f s & behaviours APPENDIX A-4 Teacher CL Conference #. P r i n c i p a l CL RECORDING INSTRUMENT FOR CATEGORY 2 2.2: P r i n c i p a l ' s Behaviours POSITIVE NEC 5ATIVE Behaviour Freauencv T o t a l Behaviour Freauencv Total, 1) I n v i t e s teacher's questioning and a n a l y s i s of of obs'v'ns > I d e n t i f i e s and and s t a t e s problem 2) In t e r e s t e d and a t t e n t i v e to teacher's i d e n t i f i c ' n of problems Non-receptive to t ' c h ' r s information or i n t e r p r e t ' n . of problems 3) R e f l e c t s and probes to help teacher c l a r i f y thoughts Presents own thoughts about problem 4 )Encourages t'ch'r to r e l a t e own ideas +vely with p r i n ' p ' l s Makes sugges-t i o n s regard-ing p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s 230 APPENDIX A-5 Teacher CL Conference I P r i n c i p a l CL RECORDING INSTRUMENT FOR CATEGORY 3 3.1: Teacher's Responses POSITIVE NEGATIVE Behaviour Freauencv T o t a l Behaviour Freauencv T o t a l 1) Proposes a set of a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s to problem Seeks or accepts p r i n c i p a l ' s s o l u t i o n 2) S e l e c t s pre-f e r r e d s o l u -t i o n and s e t s goals and o b j e c t i v e s Seeks or accepts suggestions f o r goals & o b j e c t i v e s 3) Suggests plans f o r implementation Seeks or accepts p r i n c i p a l ' s implementation plans 4) Suggests plans f o r ev a l u a t i o n Seeks or accepts p r i n c i p a l ' s e v a l u a t i o n plans 231 APPENDIX A -6 Teacher CL Conference I P r i n c i p a l CL RECORDING INSTRUMENT FOR CATEGORY 3 3.2: P r i n c i p a l ' s Behaviours POSITIVE NEGATIVE Behaviour Freauencv T o t a l Behaviour Frequency Total 1) Probes and c l a r i f i e s to enc'rage t'cher to generate s o l u t i o n s S e l e c t s own s o l u t i o n 2) Encourages teacher to explore s o l u t i o n s and consequences States the r a t i o n a l e for the s o l u t i o n 3) Encourages teacher to s e t own goals and o b j e c t i v e s Sets goals and o b j e c t i v e s 4) Encourages teacher to plan implementation and eval'n Imposes imple-mentation plan and s e l e c t s eval'n method 

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