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Analysis of membership education : a study of the CCF Party in B.C., 1933-1961 Carle, Judith Jane 1982

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A N A L Y S I S OF M E M B E R S H I P STUDY  OF THE C C F P A R T Y  EDUCATION:  IN B . C .  1933 - 1961  by  JUDITH JANE B.A.,  CARLE  Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1977  THESIS SUBMITTED  IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF  THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER  FOR THE D E G R E E OF  OF  ARTS  in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E  STUDIES  Adult Education Division Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , Adult Higher Education We a c c e p t  t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g  to t h e r e q u i r e d  THE U N I V E R S I T Y  standard  OF B R I T I S H  COLUMBIA  A u g u s t 1982  c  and  Judith  Jane C a r l e ,  1982  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s for  s c h o l a r l y purposes may  department or by h i s or her  be granted by the head o f representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s for  f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department of  ADULT EDUCATION  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  September 1982  written  T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S  Page ABSTRACT  i  L I S T OF T A B L E S  iv  L I S T OF F I G U R E S  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  vi  CHAPTER INTRODUCTION.  .  1  Rationale f o r the Study  2  Scope o f t h e Study  4  Purpose of the Study  5  Methodol ogy.  I  •.  6  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  8  Plan of the Study  9  R E F O R M M O V E M E N T S AND A D U L T E D U C A T I O N  11  Introduction.  11  Great Britain  15  The C h a r t i s t  Movement  17  The C o - o p e r a t i v e Movement  20  The S o c i a l i s t - U n i o n  22  Movement  Canada The S o c i a l  24 Gospel Movement  .27  The A n t i g o n i s h Movement Farmers' O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Saskatchewan  29 ....  33  IV  METHODS, TECHNIQUES Introduction  AND  DEVICES  86  . .  86  House M e e t i n g s  87  Group D i s c u s s i o n s .  .  87  Study Groups  88  Correspondence Experiential  Courses  90  Learning  91  Drama  .  Radio  94  Grammophone  Recordings  96  Film V  II: III: IV: V: VI  96  CCF MEMBERSHIP EDUCATION I:  92  99  Formative Period:  1933-1939  100  Extension  Period:  1940-1945  105  Polarized Period:  1946-1951  Organization New  P e r i o d : 1952-1957  Party Period:  .'.  .  108  .......  114  1958-1961  CONCLUSION  117 122  CCF E d u c a t i o n a l  Emphasis:  Reform Movement  - Political  Internal  Factors Affecting  1933-1961 Party Dilemma. . .  123  Membership  Education External  122  126 Factors Affecting  Membership  Education  127  I - Formative P e r i o d : 1933-1939. . .  128  II - E x t e n s i o n  P e r i o d : 1940-1945  129  III - P o l a r i z e d P e r i o d : 1946-1951  130  IV - O r g a n i z a t i o n V - New  P e r i o d : 1952-1957  P a r t y P e r i o d : 1958-1961  131 132  i ABSTRACT A new C a n a d i a n  p o l i t i c a l party arose out of the depression  years  as a p r o t e s t t o t h e e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f that  period.  (CCF)  was  In  1932  the Co-operative  established,  Commonwealth  and t h e f o u n d e r s  movement b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r  of this  ideology of democratic  the s o l u t i o n f o r the problems f a c i n g Canada. the  New  Democratic  critique  of  the  Party  prevailing  principles of democratic and  a political  (NDP);  was  socialism.  party  that  and  new  political  s o c i a l i s m was  The CCF, l a t e r renamed  a movement  society,  Federation  was  that  offered  committed  movement  the prevailing  i d e o l o g y o f c a p i t a l i s m , and as a r e s u l t , needed t o e d u c a t e its  to the  T h e C C F was a r e f o r m  challenged  a  Canadian people to  cause. The  CCF d e v o t e d  education  a great deal of energy  o f p a r t y members.  organized  correspondence  and v o l u n t e e r  I t was t h e o n l y p o l i t i c a l courses,  established  time  party  study  to that  groups,  p r o v i d e d l e n g t h y and d e t a i l e d r e a d i n g l i s t s , p u b l i s h e d s t u d y  guides  f o r r e c o g n i z e d p o l i t i c a l b o o k s and had s i x s e p a r a t e p a r t y n e w s p a p e r s in simultaneous  publication.  clubs, education  In a d d i t i o n , t h e CCF e n c o u r a g e d  c l u b s and r a n summer s c h o o l s and h e l d  book  educational  conferences. P o l i t i c a l • s c i e n t i s t s and h i s t o r i a n s h a v e a c k n o w l e d g e d f o r some time  t h a t t h e CCF i n i t s e a r l y y e a r s  n e c e s s i t y to educate  held  a strong  belief  in the  i t s membership (Avakumovic, 1978; Robin,  Young,  1969b;  attempt  b y a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s t s t o s t u d y t h e CCF and i t s e d u c a t i o n a l  programs.  Zakuta,  The p r e s e n t  programs conducted  1964).  study  However, there  i s an e x a m i n a t i o n  b y t h e CCF i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  has  never  1973;  been  an  of the educational from 1933 t o 1961.  ii In  a d d i t i o n , the  study  i s an  a n a l y s i s of' a s h i f t  e m p h a s i s as a r e f o r m - p o l i t i c a l m o v e m e n t e v o l v e d political  in  educational  into a  competitive  party.  The  CCF  m o v e m e n t was  recognizing  the  membership.  need  avowedly educational  to  explain  Major p o l i t i c a l  democratic  successes  in i t s e a r l y years,  s o c i a l i s m to  its  new  and a d v a n c e s d u r i n g t h e  war  y e a r s s w a y e d t h e CCF t o w a r d s e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e g e n e r a l  public.  The  p o s t - w a r y e a r s w e r e a t i m e w h e n t h e CCF e v a l u a t e d i t s p o l i t i c a l and  d i r e c t i o n , as w e l l  as i t s c o m m i t m e n t  to  education.  " C o l d - W a r " a n d t h e a f f l u e n t f i f t i e s , t h e CCF its  original  fifties  and  i d e o l o g i c a l and early sixties  educational  an e f f o r t  was  p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , w h i c h e m e r g e d i n 1961 This  study  on  CCF  membership  concerns,  elections  had  a  world  emphasis.  a s t h e New  a discernable  and  effect  on  the  In  from  the  late  d i r e c t e d to forming  education  war  With  swayed once a g a i n  a  Democratic  national  Columbia  Economic  and  educational  new  Party.  in British  d i v i d e s the e v o l u t i o n o f the work i n t o f i v e p e r i o d s . political  goals  and  provincial emphasis  and  the content  and  p r o g r amming , The r e s e a r c h c o n c l u d e d extent  of  literature  various changed  movement y e a r s occurring political  that in B r i t i s h Columbia  educational during  were marked  the by  CCF's a great  in numerous e d u c a t i o n a l party  organizational  and  replacing  programs,  its  28  activities  year deal  The  educational  campaign emphasis.  The  history. of  projects.  The  creative  the early  activity  later years emphasis  educational  t h e CCF was v e r y m u c h i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e p o l i t i c a l c o n c e r n s as i t met i t s p o l i t i c a l o b l i g a t i o n s , and a s i t r e s p o n d e d wor1d .  and  saw  a  with  an  program  of  of the  CCF  to a changing  i ii  L I S T OF T A B L E S TABLE  Page  I  CCF P o p u l a r S u p p o r t  i n Canada: 1940 - 1945. . . .  II  National Elections,  1935 - 1 9 5 8 :  of III IV  VI VII  63  C C F Summer S c h o o l : 1 9 4 1 - 1 9 5 5 . . . .  E d u c a t i o n a l Programme Proposed Socialist  V  Percentage  P o p u l a r Vote, by P a r t i e s  Attendance  82  1934 - 1960  CCF C o r r e s p o n d e n c e CCF Drama F e s t i v a l :  77  by t h e  Fellowship  Study O u t l i n e s :  58  Courses:  89-90 1947  1936  91 93  VIII  Recommended  Study T o p i c s :  1933  101  IX  Recommended  Reading  1935  102  X XI  List:  1947 E d u c a t i o n S u r v e y :  Topic-Inter ests .....  N.C.N.P. P r i n t e d M a t e r i a l :  1960  110 120  iv  L I S T OF  FIGURES  Figure 1 2 3 4 5 6  Page Educational  E m p h a s i s : 1933  I - Formative Period:  - 1961  124  1933  - 1939  128  Period:  1940  - 1945  129  III - Polarized Period:  1946  - 1951  130  II - E x t e n s i o n  IV - O r g a n i z a t i o n V - New  Party  Period:  Period:  1952 1958  - 1957 - 1961  131 132  V  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  The  author  encouragement Selman. Knute  gratefully  acknowledges  r e c e i v e d from  the valuable  her committee  guidance  chairman,  Mr.  and Gordon  S p e c i a l t h a n k s a r e e x t e n d e d t o Dr. James T h o r n t o n and Dr. Buttedahl  for their  a s s i s t a n c e and  advice  as  committee  member s .  For t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n so k i n d l y gave o f t h e i r t i m e t o t a l k  Appreciation Library,  i s extended  University  to the staff  I am i n d e b t e d t o t h o s e who  about t h e CCF y e a r s .  of the Special  o f B.C., f o r t h e i r  Collections  a s s i s t a n c e with  various  documents.  For encouragement  and s u p p o r t t h r o u g h o u t t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s  the author i s deeply grateful  t o h e r f a m i l y and f r i e n d s .  thesis,  INTRODUCTION  A  new  depression  Canadian years  psychological operative the  as  political a  protest  conditions  of  Commonwealth  founders  democratic Canada.  of  The  ( N D P ) , • o f f er.ed committed believed  a  to in  the  renamed  principles reforming  institutions  of the country,  rather  benefiting  a  than  reform  movement  prevailing educate  and  ideology  people  The  was  of these  social, political in  educating  formed  by  movements  and e c o n o m i c people  to  the  movement  felt that  accepting  s o c i a l i s m , and that  this  problem.  strikes  as  the  socialist-liberal CCF  of  the  and  the  Co-  1932  established,  and  believed  that  society  Manifesto. social  the supplying  party and  Party  and  was CCF  economic  of human The  that  as  facing  The  and  needs of a few.  of the nation,  so,cial  Democratic  prevailing  a political  the  needs  CCF  was  challenged  the  a result, needed  to  to i t s cause.  CCF  each  and  New  their  the profit  was  of  f o r the problems  of  and  In  movement  the  of the  out  economic,  (CCF)  the solution  critique  arose  period.  political  later  the  the  that  new was  CCF,  to  Federation  this  socialism  movement  The  a number held  a common  c h a n g e , as w e l l necessity  i t was i g n o r a n c e  CCF  means  assumption  had t h e socialist  of  that  political  achieving  movements,  desire  for  as a s t r o n g change.  prevented  education  did not believe of  of reform  people  could  It  belief  The  in revolution  power.  major  held  from  overcome or  major a  as t o t h e e d u c a b i l i t y o f p e o p l e .  and r e f o r m i s t  CCF  dual The  belief in the utility of edu-  2 cation the  a s a m e a n s of a w a k e n i n g  classic  The  liberal  report  summarized way  of  (Maclnnis  p r o l e t a r i a t ; and  belief in the essential rationality  a  the  the uneducated  CCF  CCF's  conference strong  held  in  o f humans.  Toronto  in  commitment to education  1946  in this  Collection, 23-10):  . . . A democratic m o v e m e n t s u c h as o u r s c a n only f u n c t i o n well and r e m a i n h e a l t h y when t h e m e m b e r s h i p h a s a t h o r o u g h k n o w l e d g e of w h a t i t s program and p o l i c y i n v o l v e s . Because i t is a m o v e m e n t o f t h e ' c o m m o n man', e v e r y m e m b e r i s asked q u e s t i o n s and only when a l l m e m b e r s are able to answer these questions and c a n s t a t e t h e i r sound o p i n i o n i n d i s c u s s i o n on p o l i c y h a v e we r e a c h e d t h e t r u e s o c i a l d e m o c r a t i c standard that can drive our movement forward and to victory. The  CCF  education as  a  fore,  and  a reform  movement  were  party  became  years,  more  election campaigns  more  tration  on t h e p r a c t i c a l t a s k s  FOR  Histories a  educaton  success.  with  political  placed  on  membership  camThere-  concerns  organization  education.  movement  of t h e p o l i t i c a l  adult  approach  their research  as a r e s u l t t h e r e  and  and  the  This concen-  party.  STUDY  Canadian  socio-political  concentrated and  of  THE  whereas the CCF  achieve  was  of the reform  membership  organization  involved  and l e s s on  the decline  RATIONALE  to  emphasis  viewed  success,  that  e s s e n t i a l i f i t was  as t h e C C F  the later  recognized  marked  of  that  as t h e v e h i c l e f o r a c h i e v i n g  political  paigning  in  was  education to  the  to the rise  offer few subject.  and f a l l  are numerous general  i n s t i t u t i o n s , as  well  as  a  variety  examples  Most  of i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  h i s t o r i e s of of  have  adult  biographies  on  3 pioneer  adult  tended  to  context  educators.  neglect  examined  studies  the  Adult  political 1975)  adult  environment  and  goals  two  educational  programs  (1979)  studied  education  programs  economic  and  in  analyzed the  explanation.  growth  in relation  Selman  (1971  and  Columbia  which  ex-  environment in  growth  Saskatchewan,  political  of  Association and  institutions  the  (1981)  social  II.  economic  and  Selman  Canadian  British  the  milieu.  the prevailing  War  have  education in  and  of the  on  and  adult  political  within  studies  cultural  other researchers  ( 1 975 )  World  the social,  movement  and  Faris  of  and  Canadian  E d u c a t i o n (C.A.A.E.)  Blenkinsop  (1980)  on  by  ideology  conducted  amined  studies  of i t s social, economic  However,  for  Historians  were  of and  Lotz  which  established.  voluntary  adult  offered  a  (1973)  and  a co-operative  social, Baum  adult education  to the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c conditions  of  Nova  Scotia. There which  devoted  conditions Simon growth  a few  of  of  necessary. have  commitment  British  to the  studies  social,  of adult education  political  nineteenth-century Britain.  reform as  major  attention  (1972), Jepson  education  which  are  a  There  (1973)  and  movements means  of  have  been  examined to adult  a  Silver  and  establishing no  have  (1961),  traced  commitment  to  the adult  the  reforms  deemed  comparable  Canadian  studies  reform-political  education.  economic  Harrison  (1975)  their  and  movement  and  its  4 S_C 0_P_E__0 F_T_H E _ S T U D Y Political some in  scientists  time that  the CCF  the necessity  Robin,  and  been  an  historians  in i t s early  have  1969b;  i t s c o m m i t m e n t to  designed  as  an  conducted  by the CCF  adult  educationists  of  in British  educational  Columbia  Canada  is  an  and t h e e f f e c t  historical  reform-political tion an  movement  from  1933  include groups  of becoming  efforts  present  of  directives  between  a  are  provincial It  aimed  CCF  national  change.  emphasis  an  to  conditions  education. of a  educa-  Lastly,  itis moved  party.  and  movement, public.  CCF's  does  when  they  and have  not  women's  Although the  Columbia, the provincial  organization  It  Canadian  as t h e C C F  i t s membership  to the youth  British  1961.  examination of the  at t h e general  examined  national  body  goals  and  on  the  boundary  line  impact  organization.  is important education  determine.  on  to to  offered  study focusses  part  political  a competing political  directed  the programs or programs  documentation  in education!  study is restricted  educational  m e mbership  programs  and i t s c o m m i t m e n t to adult  of achieving  analysis of a shift  This  was  e x a m i n a t i o n and  as t h e m e a n s  in t h e d i r e c t i o n  t h i s had on  has  present study is  It i s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c - p o l i t i c a l of  1 978;  to study the CCF  The  the  belief  However, there  education.  examination  a strong  for  (Avakumovic,  Zakuta, 1964).  a t t e m p t by adult  acknowledged  years held  to educate i t s membership  1973; Young,  never  and  Lambert  and  to  acknowledge propaganda  (1938) defines  that  the  is sometimes  difficult  propaganda in this  way:  to  5  For i t is of the essence of propaganda that i t s h o u l d i n f l u e n c e p e r s o n s t o do o r t h i n k t h i n g s which they would not d o o r think i f left to t h e m s e l v e s ( p.9).  that  The  present  was  comprised  committed a  of members  that  education  political  who  ideology,  should  and  of  n o t be  its  clientele  clientele,  membership  is  and a  of  their  propaganda.  all efforts  to  concluded  correctness as  party,  adhered  I t c a n be  the  seen  of the study,  educate  of a  and who  for a committed  convinced  f o r the purpose  inform  philosophy,  of Principles.  designed  are  education  of a movement-political  political  or Declaration  membership  fore,  has examined  to a stated  Manifesto  then,  study  There-  by t h e CCF  considered  to  to be  education.  PURPOSE  OF  The by  THE  STUDY  purpose  political  of this  scientists and  membership  education.  that  political emphasis The  political  necessities  present  party,  Secondly,  as t h e m o v e m e n t  was p l a c e d  was t o e x a m i n e  the claim  and h i s t o r i a n s t h a t t h e C C F  movement  claim  a  study  of on  study  was  reform  committed  to  i t w a s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e  aspect  obtaining  membership will  and  was a  made  seek  of the CCF electoral  gave  way to t h e  victories,  less  education. to  answer  the  following  education  for their  questions: 1.  Was  the  CCF  committed  to providing  membership? a.  Did CCF  goals  and d i r e c t i v e s r e v e a l  ment to membership  education?  a  commit-  6  b.  Did  the  within 2.  their  When t h e C C F l o s t istics  political  election  turned concerns  Did the content programs change  3.  Did  social,  character-  party in the later  economic  and  education?  i t s attention were  programs offered to the b.  programs  l e s s e m p h a s i s on m e m b e r s h i p  the CCF  and  educational  organization?  an o r g a n i z e d  years, did i t place When  encourage  much of i t s early movement  and b e c a m e  a.  CCF  to  fewer  political  educational  membership?  of literature as t h e C C F political  and  educational  changed?  shifts  within  Canada  a f f e c t t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e C C F , and d i d t h i s i n f l u e n c e t h e content the  and extent  of the educational  programs offered to  membership? a.  Did the content tional  Was  literature  and  educa-  programs reflect the social, economic  political b.  of CCF  concerns  membership  affected  that faced  the CCF?  education  by political  and  and  programming  and e l e c t o r a l  concerns?  M_ET_H 0 _D 0 J . 0 G _Y No as  previous  a result  historical Maclnnis University the  study  most  records Memorial  of the sources of the  way:  CCF  conducted used  Columbia.  on t h i s s u b j e c t and  are primary  are catalogued  C o l l e c t i o n , ' S p e c i al  of British  following  has been  in the  Collections  The research  ones.  The Angus  Library, the  was c o n d u c t e d  in  7  1.  A  search  was  conducted  council  minutes:  reports  submitted  the  educational  the  minutes  1933 by  of  CCF  to  1961.  the  executive The  Education  activities  disclosed the  of  other  and  provincial  minutes  Committee,  revealed as  well  committees.  d i r e c t i o n and  as  Further,  political  goals  of  theprovincialCCF. 2.  The 1934  annual to  year's other 3.  1961.  They  activities  of  CCF  papers  revealing  4.  the  fairly the  reports  consistently  Education  were  studied:  summarized  Committee  and  the  various  and  memos  personal  were  educational  read  as  a  means  philosophy  of  of  various  leaders.  Personal  interviews  influential  people  were within  M.P.'s, M . L . A . ' s , a n d Legislature. and  convention  committees.  Personal  CCF  provincial  Vice  The  chairperson,  the  a leader  people  President  conducted  of  CCF. of the  interviewed the  provincial Campaign  with This  a  sample  sample  included  p r o v i n c i a l CCF included  provincial  a  CCF,  Organizer,  of  in  the  President Education  and  Provincial  Secretary. 5.  Bulletins, handbooks, study  outlines, courses,  various  were  CCF  educational  newspapers emphasis.  studied  for  brochures  and  content  and  8  D EFINITIO A of  CCF  N _ 0 _ F _ T E_ R M_S  number  this  study  of terms  understanding  CLUB The  provincial  club  status  that  CCF if  the  approved  proposed  I t was  members  Constitution  had  and  - CONSTITUENCY A  Executive  determined  constituency  to  application for CCF  club  a CCF club had to comprise  these  CCF  a r e c e n t r a l t o an  are defined below:  qualifications.  CCF  which  met  the  required  in the CCF Constitution ten or more  unanimously  members,  accept  the  and CCF  By-laws. ASSOCIATION Association  grouping  of  CCF  electoral  districts.  is  members  into  the  formal  provincial  and  rigid  and  federal  the  Yukon-  MEMBERSHIP Anyone  domiciled  Mackenzie CCF  federal  member  signing  in  on  British  electoral a  payment  Columbia  constituency of  of the following statement:  an  or  could  annual  fee  become and  (CCF Constitution)  I, t h e u n d e r s i g n e d , h e r e b y a p p l y f o r m e m b e r s h i p in t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth Federation and p r o m i s e t o s u p p o r t t h e p r o g r a m of the CCF as l a i d d o w n b y a n n u a l c o n v e n t i o n s , a n d t o a b i d e b y t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , a n d h e r e b y s t a t e t h a t I am not a member or supporter of any other political party.  a the  9  DEMOCRATIC  SOCIALISM  Democratic emphasis  s o c i a l i s m is a on  social  individualistic belief  that  resources insists  that  EXTENSION  of the  are c o n d u c t e d  THE  This  ments, adult  study  and  two  growth  and  presented  three  as  decline  the  of  study  of  the  community  ownership;  s o c i e t y will  and occur  educational  programs  members.  in  a  of  Major  a  of  the  in  are  movements  a in  century belief  promoting and  political  CCF  number  membership  presented  in  movevalue  social  analysis of Chapter  CCF  education, five.  of  change.  and four  methods,  in chapter  adult  nineteenth-  the  Chapter  of  one  and  Canadian  committees  educational  vast  of  CCF.  education.  various  Chapter  movements  national  provincial  trends  periods  reform  economic  of  chapters.  common  means  the  six  reform  membership  utilized  time  CCF  twentieth  shared  various to  devices  into five  of  holds  electoral process.  for non-CCF  is a social,  contribution  programs.  all aspects  which  education  detailed  private  describes three  all of  Chapter  to  is  Britain  describes  b e n e f i c i a l than  relationship between  and  century  that  on  STUDY  the  education  ideology  ordering  puts  rather than  control  social  which  EDUCATION  that  analyzes  an  democratic  refers  OF  is  means  and  new  This  PLAN  and  the  It  ownership  more  philosophy  co-operative  means. social  is  as a r e s u l t  and  political  the three their  is  a  techniques educational as  grouped The  final  10  chapter order  synthesizes  to s u m m a r i z e  material and  suggest  from some  the  preceding conclusions.  chapters  in  11 CHAPTER  REFORM  MOVEMENTS  I  AND ADULT  EDUCATION  HIJLOM£I_L°_J!  A  new body  of s o c i a l - p o l i t i c al t h e o r y  of t h e s o c i a l c o n s e q u e n c e s and is  H arries-Jenkins closely  from  linked  early  Thomas  ( 1 975 ) b e l i e v e  Paine,  nineteenth-century  things,  ( 1 975 )  p.7).  Allen  movements and  (1973)  suggests with  - andhence  Adult  Reconstruction  as  with  also  that  with  o freform  contend  and reform  owes a  Paine. F o r  natural  order  as truth political  and  " t h ehistory association  instances  of the  happiness  a n d H a r r i e s - J e n k i n s,  the intimate  Education  of  1975, reform  of r e l i g i o n  o fthe confusion o f  and t h e i m m e d i a t e  published  Committee a lengthy  Britain prior t o 1919.  T h e 1919  claims  moral  revolution.  interest i t  (p.353).  The  Great  of t h e  elements  ( 1972)  o f Thomas  as universal  i n Thomas  this religious dimension serves"  writings  andcombining (cited  o f social  education  Thomas  o f reform  and contains  and Simon  at "a renovation  is replete  reform  adult  o f principles  of man,  prosperity"  the concept  theories  widely-read  aims  a system  existence and  t o the  reform  that  t o an h i s t o r i c a l past  and H arries-Jenkins  deal  as a r e s u l t  of t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n .  that the relationship between great  emerged  that  Report  (cited  o f t h e B r i t i s h M i n i s t r y of  report  This report, i n A Design  t h e new theories  on adult  education i n  commonly referred to For Democracy,  and social  criticism  1 956 ) of  the  12 nineteenth  century  political were  reform,  mingled  prepare that  a  "found  expression  economic  in  reconstruction,  as h a r d l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e  new  reform  social  order"  movements  ment of adult  movements  have  education.  education  elements  in the  e f f o r t to  Simon  (1972)  contends  profoundly  He  further  which  adult  (p.174).  and  in  influenced  the  develop-  suggests:  From the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y each of these m o v e m e n t s , which s o m e t i m e s f u s e d i n t o one, had important political repercussions. And in each c a s e , e d u c a t i o n was s e e n as o f c r i t i c a l importance, not only in assisting political and economic change, but also in the effective f u n c t i o n i n g of the s o c i e t y of the future. The radical t r a d i t i o n in education is, then, that t r a d i t i o n w h i c h s e e s e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e as a k e y a s p e c t ( o r c o m p o n e n t ) o f r a d i c al . s o c i al c h a n g e (P-9) Thomas ship  and  between  adult  consensus  and  maintain  that  social  adult and  as  prevailing  education  conflict  reform  education  H arries-Jenkins  a  and  theories  education social  process  culture  of  has  the  society,  a  particular  promoting  concern.  C o n f l i c t t h e o r i s t s , on is  education.  These  inequalities  in  goal  of  adult  society. theory  The of  a  society  education concept  society  and  the  legitimate  theorists  the  role  of  to  These  focus and to  the  is a t t r a c t i v e to  view  a  hand,  adult  process  aim  or  for social  of  and  i t is the educate  the  maintain  social  derives  promoting  ideology  central  inform,  in  reformers,  that adult  economic  mission  and  from  the  theorists  maintaining  not  other  believe  reform  and  group  on  play  theorists  and  and  comes from  Consensus  transmitting  and  change  no  change. of  that the r e l a t i o n -  social change of society.  agitating  social  ( 1975 ) c l a i m  and  transform  the  conflict  among  them  13 adult  educationists,  but  are  not  Reform in  who  prepared  movements,  that  r e j e c t the  they  to  accept  according  involve  consensus  a  to  the  Young  break  with  theory  of  society,  revolutionary  model.  (1 969a)  evolve  traditional  slowly,  beliefs.  He  explains: P e o p l e do n o t l i g h t l y r e j e c t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d n o r m s of behaviour they have been raised and e d u c a t e d to r e s p e c t . When people do s e e k t o c h a n g e or d e s t r o y previously accepted institutions i t is usually because they have reached a position, for whatever reasons, where they can no l o n g e r c o n t i n u e t o l i v e as b e f o r e ; t h e y h a v e r e a c h e d a p o i n t where, t h e i r f r u s t r a t i o n , a n g e r or suffering demand relief, and relief requires change(p.l). Young  claims  that  when  purpose  together  for  the  sole  society,  they  can  be  claims  that  social  political  sector,  involved  with  not  action,  and  political tional  and  that  many  the  a  large  numbers  values  and  structures  of  between  social  adult  education  movements  lay  the  in the  appropriate  to  feel  end  prevailing to  in  further in  new  some social  i t is Silver social  forms  of  becomes  a  "the  educa-  process  and  "(p.107).  (1975), of  the  become  and  attained  Crysdale that  their  them.  dictates  that  the  He  reform  believes  persons  in  contends that  (1961)  than  come  involved  towards  according  of  Young  of  result,  popular  movements,  r e l i a b l e or  aim  Harrison  "when  longer  changes  movements invariably  objectives  as  of people  a "movement".  distinction  movements  that,  of  a  methods of struggle, r a t h e r Social  as  political  make  that  process. value  to  initiating  movements invariably become  to  argues  change that  referred  of  percentage  social issues; therefore,  necessary  (1975)  a large  the  order  arise central are  no  meet their essential needs  and  14 they or  agree,  more  or less, upon a program  s al v a t i o n " ( p. 268).  forming  or changing  These  reform  adult  education  Thomas  the social  order,  can  often  be  use  Fan's  education  (1975) views  movement,  presses  for reforms he  traditions,  or  as  an  of  goal  of r e -  elements  of i t .  than  play  a  static,  role  reform  to  be  a  in  and them.  movements  social  Silver  ones  and  which  behaviour.  that  to the existing society.  The  as  of  to one's  view  preserving  or  ( 1 9 7 5 ),  an  is  A  one  seen  upholder  as  d y n a m i c " ( p. 7 ) .  as an o r g a n i z a t i o n  in thought  changes  "can  according  desirability  changes  and  as  movement  according  claims,  subversive,  programs  about  radical  radical,  to  revolution,  i n t h e p r e v a i l i n g s o c i e t y , and  a social  to bring  the  rather  H a r r i e s - J e n k i n s ( 1 9 75 ) d e f i n e  adult  attempts  seen  set  or some  are dynamic  pressing f o r reforms  that  the  movements  movements  and  "those  Social  of reform,  agitator  popular  and  of the social attending  and  as  a  even  ancient  order,  and  it -  and  to  of  what  extent" (p.4). Reform the  movements,  belief that  working  for  places  before  success means  or  a wider  the  progress  even  and  personal  social  service,  progress.  Reform  bers  to view  education  society,  of  society,  and  1919  and  and  the  members  is  culture  than  i m p r o v e m e n t " ( p. 7 3 ) .  and  of  to the  d i f f u s i o n of k n o w l e d g e  i t s students  to social  reform  according  and  movements  ultimately  as  the  be  ideal less  a  "hold power  which i t individual  culture  emphasis  i s on  as  a  social  individual advancement  encourage  as a m e a n s  will  personal  The  n o t on  Report,  and  mem-  of r a i s i n g t h e g e n e r a l  level  vehicle  students  of  bringing  about  15 reform  and  social  change.  Harrison  (1961)  believes  that,  reform  movements  become  educational,  the  psychology  of  becomes  relevant  that  reform  the  themselves  an  to  adult  education.  movements education.  which  He  Silver  ( 1 97 5 )  advocated  when reform  contends  education  were  in  held  a  explains:  In c o u n t l e s s w a y s men f o u n d e d u c a t i o n , educated t h e m s e l v e s , e d u c a t e d one a n o t h e r . Radical poli t i c s were never f a r away from some form of . adult education (p.70). The firm  nineteenth-century  belief  citizenry has  in  as  a  tended  education  necessity  precondition  to  give  section  Simon  (1972)  ments  share  foundation  of  it  this  of  a  just,, more  adult  influenced  that  and  and  the  outlook  movements  adult  society.  They  education  more  conviction  to  the  of  at  adult least  and socialist  have  a  "causes".  education  can  democratic  informed  Their  character  view  adult  by  education  three  that  of r e l i g i o n ;  and  the  third,  political,  change.  and  t w e n t i e t h - c e nt ury  "re-formed"  was  popular  educated  social  reform  that  movements  moveas  a clear  the vision  make in c r e a t i n g  a  society,  BRITAIN  The  century  an  identified  belief,  equitable,  of  of  with  believes  reform  missionary  and  contribution  GREAT  a  movement  major  of the  the  social  in  the  England,  mass social  major the  contributors.  of  Great The  Britain  first  particularly rise  economic  movements. the which  reforms,  1830's were and  The and  education; nineteenth  1840's,  concerned were  was  contribution  s e c o n d , s c i e n t i f i c - t e c h ni c al  s o c i a l - r e f or m  movements and  movement  distinct  saw with from  16 movements climate  concerned  of  social  movements  of reform.  Britain  self  nineteenth-century  reform  message  with  witnessed  used  precursors for the  racy.  further claims:  He  social  that  unrest  education  (1961)  conception  necessary  It  adult  Harrison  the  improvement.  argues  of Utopian  beginnings  of  was  to  in  voluntary  spread  that  the  schemes  the  their  1840's in which  constructive  were democ-  T h e ' i s m s ' w h i c h a p p e a r as f a d s and c r a n k y i d e a s are the experiments of the social inventor. Unlike the unsuccessful experiments of the chemist or technologist, they are not kept p r i v a t e . . . . But the s o c i a l i n v e n t o r has to m a k e his e x p e r i m e n t s i n p u b l i c and his i d e a s are c o n s t a n t l y ' seen in the 'ism' stage (p.146). The  1919  political  education  Chartism, further what  Report  contends may  an  time, role  be  firmed  Simon  of  for bring  a  new about  the  history  to  the  Trade movements  the  largest  argues political  of  adult  social needed  as  order,  that  social  social  idealism  their  motive  political  educa-  as  three  movements  s t r u g g l e s of  of these  education,  outlook  the  movements  af-  as  well  reforms.  The  to  that 1919  states: T h e e n t h u s i a s m f o r k n o w l e d g e as right ordering of social life  as  the  endeavours.  necessary  believed  their  on  educational  being  of  Report  similar  Each  and  The  "had  these  and  and  social  early  sense,  practical  education  of  Unionism.  a fundamentally  organizing adult  and  of education.  necessity  viewed  would  (1972)  that traced  these in  a l l had  importance the  citizens  that  called,  that  desirability They  be  active part in the  and and  can  Co-operati vis m  t i o n " ( p . 17 3 ) . took  stated  a means of the . . . found  prepare knowledge Report  17 expression in movements in which political r e f o r m , e c o n o m i c r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and adult e d u cation were mingled as h a r d l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e e l e m e n t s i n t h e e f f o r t t o p r e p a r e a new s o c i a l ord er (p.174). With which the  general  occurred  reform  Chartist  movement  and  and  union  conditions  lost  or changed  died  out; the  much  of their  movement  involved  their  emphasis.  co-operative socialist  itself  with  century, The  societies re-  character;  and t h e  sectarian  concerns  p r o b l e m s. The  the  and working  during the later years of the nineteenth  movements subsided  organised trade  improvements in living  British  reform  development  twentieth ments and  of the educational  century  Britain.  developed  social  adult  a  and  contribution society.  THE  CHARTIST Chartism  employment,  (1961)  never  The  commitment of a  effect  on  institutions  of  reform  adult  believes that a  obtained  reform to  adult  more  move-  education the  British  of  moral  "backbone  have  British  to the growth  tory  profound  and p o l i t i c a l  received  i t could  their  a  relationship between  Harrison  sources.  had  The nineteenth-century  movement  which  intellectual period,  close  reforms.  education  stiffening"  movements  from  merely  movements  of  education,  made  equitable  this a  and p a r t i c i p a -  MOVEMENT arose  in  depression  Britain and  was  mainly  a working-class  and  radical  spirit.  It was  in  social  a  and  movement a movement  climate economic  with  of  high  inequity.  unIt  a pioneer proletarian  committed  to  education,  18 human  suffrage  and  political  reform.  It saw  education  as  a  'basic right' o f a l lc l a s s e s . Established the  London  M.A.  was  in 1837, the  Working  Men's  committed  to  philosophy stated (cited  Chartist movement  Association education  grew  (L.W.M.A.).  and  out of  The  political  L.W.  reform; its  in Silver, 1 975):  P o v e r t y , i n e q u a l i t y , and p o l i t i c a l i n j u s t i c e , are involved in g i v i n g to one portion of s o c i e t y the b l e s s i n g s of e d u c a t i o n , and l e a v i n g t h e o t h e r i n i g n o r a n c e . . . t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s e s , who a r e i n general the victims of this system of oppression and ignorance, have just cause of complaint against a l l partial systems of education (p.74). The was  L.W.M.A.  a  produced  document  suffrage,  equal  qualification members  which  out  th.e  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , annual  Parliament  became  the rallying  decade  brought  in  set  People's  under  1961)  practically  point  together  groups  Harrison,  (Silver,  every  in 1837.  principles  by ballot, 1975,  of no  Chartism's  The  that,  class,  banner. because  working-class  Eric  of  Charter and f o r a  radical  Glasgow  Chartism  aspiration,  property  and p a y m e n t  p.76).  working  It  universal  of the Chartist movement various  claims  Charter  parliaments,  f o r the franchise, vote  of  reformist  the  and (cited  encompassed  Chartists  could  indeed  be t h e t r u e p i o n e e r s i n a l l t h e g r e a t  movements of their  time.  Chartism  and  decade  aided  necessity The movement. and  became in  a  raising  of various social Chartist It  was  improvement  mass  working-class and p o l i t i c a l  movement a in  movement,  movement addition  was  on  that to  in just  consciousness  over to  a  the  reforms. the  whole  promoted  i t s concerns  a  secular  self-education with  social  19 reforms.  A  C h a r t i s t press  and  a  Chartist  and  c i r c u l a t e d in p u b l i c  among  small  Chartist per  newspaper.  The  It  had  was  1961,  Britain  for  and  promoted.  Chartist schools  teach  Sunday  schools  schools would and  was be  and  advocated  open  in the  in the  evening  were  purpose  of  for  and  The  by  Chartist leadership,  adult  political,  formed political  and  Great  Britain.  (1962), and  on  schools  that  education,-  activities.  halls  moral  order  community  youth  Chartist  Kelly  in  centered of  educational  and  arithmetic.  often  e s t a b l i s h m ent  for primary  to  subscribers  adults  writing  as the  classes were encouraged  logic.  according  1839  studying  classes  rooms,  well  groups  these  daytime  furthering  by  and  the  discussed as  60,000  of  in reading,  reading  were,  that  organized  were established throughout  churches  houses,  and  pamphlets  read,  Discussion  purpose  for various  libraries,  churches  p.101).  skills  opened,  grammar  addition,  ist  basic  public  40,000  mutual improvement  them  reading,  and  produce  was  estimated  the  philosophy,  to  newspaper  between  (Harrison,  throughout  e s t a b l i s h e d to  meetings  groups.  newspaper  week  was  and  Chartist  The  formed  general  In  Chartfor  the  knowledge.  H e. f u r t h e r s t a t e s : The most widespread and e f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l work a c c o m p l i s h e d by the C h a r t i s t s was that carried out under the auspices of' C h r i s t i a n Chartism, for the Chartist churches were everywhere a s s o c i a t e d with e d u c a t i o n a l work (p.141). Chartism  was  a  that  encouraged  the  examination  of t h e i r social, p o l i t i c a l  declined  birth  British  as  a  to  reform  movement  It  gave  social  radical  working-class  mass  popular  and  political to  and  adult  thinking,  engage  in  educational  movement  by  education and  critical systems.  1848,  but  it  20  laid  the  foundation  prepared Its  for the development  in and  agitation for universal  f o r and  emerged  THE  contributed  in the second  Robert  ment  by  of the first  emphasis  on  the  in shaping  operative  movement  producing  a wave  Founded  enemy  the  to Silver not  deny  that their  held  great  education  faith  equitable  to  and  of the  bring  saw about  education.  that  human  belief  that  environment  the  He  working  years  of  viewed  important  of bringing  about  of  more  were  improved,  reforms.  for,  action Silver  to  Owen and  in  r a t i o n a l and  the  The  are  l e d Owen  people,  once  increase.  accord-  characters  by h e r e d i t y .  a  as t h e  is formed  that  and not p o l i t i c a l social  message,  people's  abilities  would  Owen,  nineteenth  ignorance  predetermined  conditions  education  the  character  natural  class  environ-  proposals.  and c i r c u m s t a n c e s  believed  human  Owen's  In l a t e r y e a r s t h e c o -  c e n t r a l and c o n s i s t e n t  means  society.  environment  movement  in  movement  were  placed  the original teachings of  early  natures  as t h e  behaviour.  in the  The  co-operative  role that the social  Owen  by t h e i r  century.  British  f o r adult  reform  him.  that  nineteenth-century  social  Owen's  laws  of the  went beyond  ( 1 9 7 5 ), w a s  by  determined  human  co-operative  o f man.  reform  the  the  necessity  and  paved  Owen,  o f new  by  education  education  stressed the important  played  century,  half  movements  of Christian socialism.  half of the nineteenth  Influenced  philosophy  lities  the  MOVEMENT  great  and  to  CO-OPERATIVE  movement  ing  s o c i a l - p o l i t i c al  the ground  belief  way  for later  restrictive the  capabi-  co-operative as t h e v e h i c l e ( 1 97 5 )  points  21 out  that  Owen  and  his f o l l o w e r s r a p i d l y e s t a b l i s h e d  education  which,  in  previously  witnessed.  range He  and  intensity,  further  an  ideal  surpassed  of  anything  claims:  They were concerned with the education of c h i l d r e n and of a d u l t s , and with t h e c o n t e n t o f e d u c a t i o n ; t h e y p l a c e d e n o r m o u s e m p h a s i s on t h e r a t i o n a l p o w e r of k n o w l e d g e and t r u t h , and on social contact; they lectured, debated, published and o r g a n i z e d ; t h e y l o o k e d to e d u c a t i o n and to their own educational e f f o r t s to transform s o c i e t y (p.61). As was  a  soci al-econo m ic  committed  into  co-operative  England,  these  brotherhood,  own a  of  operative  communities than  opened  the  and  After  1860,  helped  and  1919  areas  and  individualism.  The  own  press;  published  and  economic idealistic  Report  its educational  formed  established  co-operative  of  of  co-operativis m  schools;  the  the  various  Britain  c o - o p e r a t i v i s m;  adult  alter The  and  on  amount  in  to  its  journals  regular  movement.  movement  adhered  co-operativis m  po s t - i n d u s t r i a l  Formed  established  considerable that  of  competition  and  libraries.  development thrust  communities.  pamphlets  co-operatives;  movement,  reorganizing  movement  newspapers,  achieved  the  rather  co-operative  their  to  reform  movement success,  and  a  volunteer  describes  the  co-  impact:  On its economic side the movement was an a t t e m p t to o r g a n i z e s o c i e t y , d i s i n t e g r a t e d by the c o m p e t i t i v e f o r c e s o f t h e new i n d u s t r i a l i s m , on the basis of mutual s e r v i c e . On i t s e d u c a t i o n a l s i d e i t w a s an a t t e m p t t o c r e a t e b y t r a i n i n g t h e p e r s o n a l , q u a l i t i e s and s o c i a l h a b i t s w h i c h m i g h t m a k e s u c h an o r g a n i s a t i o n p o s s i b l e ( p p . 1 8 2 - 1 8 3 ) The and  co-operative  political  reforms  movement could  not  believed be  that  needed  accomplished  social through  22  compromise  with  co-operation. posed  capitalism, but through  The middle-class  to revolution  believing  instead  transforming education  co-operative  t h e whole  and t h e p r a c t i c a l application and economic  SOCIALIST-UNION The  formed and  National  Union  organized  about  into  and  political  raising  districts  rights  working-class  England.  Although  ardor into  second  held  that,  through  of co-operative  com-  (N.U.W.C) was  o f protecting t h e working  and local  education.  reform.  The  branches,  which  t o be  held  an i m p o r t a n t  consciousness  itself  class  N.U.W.C.  was  weekly  These classes focused  and proved political  Classes  radical in the political  half of the nineteenth  and increased of the early that  established Union  as t h e means o f  on civil means of  i n post i n d u s t r i a l proposals  as a v i a b l e  i t advoindependent  force or alternative.  The wages  reforms,  proven.  of t h e Working  c a t e d , t h e N.U.W.C. d i d n o t v i e w political  be  parliamentary  meetings f o r political  were o p -  MOVEMENT  i n 1831 f o rt h e purpose  bringing  on  b e n e f i t s o f c o - o p e r a t i v i s m, a s  a l t e r n a t i v e t o c a p i t a l i s m , would  THE  They  based  political  communities  of society.  order  leaders  as t o g r a d u a l  in co-operative  munities, t h e moral an  as well  a social  union  of self-help unions  movement  membership  economic  to  security,  movements groups.  began  socialism  This and  However,  new aided  witnessed  rising  and t h e revolutionary  h a d , by t h e 1850's,  to reorganize  emerged.  century  b y t h e 1880's, t h e  and a r a d i c a l movement in  cooled  Socialist-  educated  establishing  a  its new  23 political  party.  The  Social  Socialist  Democratic  Leagues  nineteenth  were  century, they  the  Socialist  Leagues  the  majority  number unions  of  Socialist Labour  allied  in  among  to  latter  and t h e Fabian  By  by  the  caused  the  Socialist  t h e 1890's  i n H a r r i s o n , 1 9 6 1 , p.25 3), " t h e g r a n d - c h i l d r e n  trade  union  movement  socialist  movement that new  and  clubs. aided  schools  the  use  of  political  ties,  Independent  pamphlets and  socialist  of  leaders.  this  socialist  as b y  socialist  Labour literate period  Labour  "crusade"  as  schools,  a religion,  labour  and  and debates. and  population, printed  labour  Party  were  journals  which  Fabian  socie-  The the  its  churches, and  Labour  a  The  educated  of t h e union  pamphlets  Party  Party.  and  and t h e new  of  In 1 8 9 3 t h e  ( S i l v e r , 1 9 7 5 ).  organized  means  wrote  a s s o c i a t i o n s and  socialism  Sunday  discussions  f o r a growing  journals  through  of socialism  stimulated the  movement  as w e l l  The growth by  viewed  was p a r t o f a new  to socialism  adult  of battle".  Independent  pioneers  socialist-labour  members  the line  and t h e various  clubs established the British Many  a n d , as F r i e d r i c h E n g e l s  new  in  old Chartists are entering  or  a  enthusiasm  the  A  with  wave of labour 1890: (cited  arose,  workers.  Feuding  replaced  Societies.  in the  movement in  this period  and concessions.  the  T h e S.D.F. and  unskilled  during  of  until  t h e union  the  various  half  unions.  c o l l a p s e , t o be  and  in number  to organize  and  gains  the  the trade  helped  many  (S.D.F.)  small  strikes occurred  Leagues clubs,  with  trades  major  winning  formed  but remained  1880's, when  of  Federation  S.D.F.  produced  and t h e n e w s p a p e r s  numerous  articles  by  24 The al  nineteenth-century  ideas  and  movement political The  a  socialist-labour  assisted in paving party  which  movement  growth  in Britain  of  was  relied  a  new  the  to  emerge  ideology  on  and  ( 1 9 6 1 ) p o i n t s o u t t h a t , as t h e to a  achieve second  called  success, they phase,  for a political  union  in the  century.  twentieth to  the  Harrison  movements  educational  institutionalized  major  promote  awareness.  socialist-labour  an  The a  political  rather than  politic-  f o r s o c i a l i s m and  education  lost their  becoming  radical  consciousness.  way  heavily  produced  z e a l and  began entered  organizations  educational  which  approach.  CANADA The and of  twentieth  religious the  From  protest  economic the  reform  century  and  1890's  These  and  the  traditional  value  this  social, political During of the  people West.  i d e a s and  the  from The  Many  experience  with  to  the  the  that  many  economic  American  critical  new  country.  War,  various  World  reshaping  belief that  Canadian  in the  was  benefits  at odds  with  competition.  Canadians  developed  It  a  new  consciousness. of the  States and  twentieth and  British  of protest the  secular  were  the  p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e and  United  of  of  to  a common  various  that  Second  themselves  early years  knowledge  countries.  of  Canada  movements  fellowship, a belief  period and  in  institutions  movements held  co-operation  during  political  committed  of  was  reform  through  movements  society.  and  produced  century  v a r i o u s p o p u l i s t and  influx  Great  Britain  settled  settlers  brought  with  movements from  American  an  settlers  in  them  their  respective  had  first-hand  p r o - so c i a l i s t m o v e m e n t s i n  25 the  United  exposed  States.  Many  of  the  British immigrants  the  ideologies  of  Christian  to  Socialism British  and  Co-opera tivism.  immigrants  played  m o v e m e n t s in Canada.  an  He  argues  been  Socialism,  Avakumovic(1978)  important  had  Fabian  claims  r o l e in the  early  that reform  that:  These immigrants from the British Isles displayed a greater propensity to j o i n s o c i a l i s t g r o u p s or agrarian protest m o v e m e n t s in the Prairies than did native Canadians. Their knowledge of the outside world enabled them to make comparisons. W h a t t h e y saw d i d n o t p l e a s e t h e m . . . they were i n v a r i a b l y more c r i t i c a l of the s t a t u s quo and m o r e e a g e r f o r c h a n g e (p.14). By social  the  mid-1 920's  movements  in  education  and  through  inequities  would  be  there  Canada,  and  common  characteristics.  the  rural He  base  furthering  their  aims"(p.l9).  observers  have  alleged  that  a sense  of  content Young  and  geography,  economics,  "affected  failed  reacted  to  to  farmers  and  hostile,  they  not  earn  each  growth  -  other  British seemed  and  an  a means that  of  foreign  social commitment,  a concern  with  how  social  change.  significant factors  Canadian  protest  He  people  to the  with  most  living,  be  claims  had  was  Columbian to  as  many  education  politics.  their  had  that  adult  of the  only  that  economic  " a l l groups  (1975)  associated  and  believed  education  Canadian  urban  (1975) believes  that  Kidd  that  and  movements  adult  (1969a) i d e n t i f i e s the to the  or  viewed  practices  contributed  factors  and  social  rural  s o c i a l and  Faris  claims  English-speaking  social  ventures  greatly reduced.  differences,  by  numerous  movements  co-operative  despite  characterized  were  movements  explains  l i v e d , how  but  how  that they  they  aliens  in  "found their  own  as  these  earned  thought  r e s t o f C a n ad a " ( p . 1 ) . labourers  that  and  Western  their land,  world not  26 achieving they  the  fulfillment  first  emigrated"  disillusioned  with  solutions based  on  Christian movements absolved  movements  (Young,  1 9 6 9 a,  p.7).  economic  ( 1 974)  perspectives  felt  an  they  Campbell  Young  stacked  promises  prior knowledge  individual  workers  the  political  their  "provided the  appeared  the  and  plight" (p.130). urban  of  (1 969b)  alienated against  identity  an  and  what  was  that  system and  sought  the  early  happening blame the  in  in  He  that  for  his  farmers  which  found  explanation.  became  and  that  believes a  when  experiences.  of. the  them  and  system  man  by  seen  They  contend  on  working  had  the  and cards  the  protest  further  contends  that: T h e y w e r e u n i t e d w i t h o t h e r s who shared the d i s a b i l i t e s of p o v e r t y and political impotence. In a p u r p o r t e d l y c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y c r e a t e d a k i n d of c l a s s . T h i s c l a s s p r o v i d e d with a d o c t r i n e by the protest movements that explained the causes of the common affliction, allocated respons i b i l i t y f o r t h e c o n d i t i o n , and o f f e r e d a c u r e that did not do too much v i o l e n c e to the prevailing value system (p.35). The the  early  doctrines  committed of  the  for  of  to  and  the  The  problems  philosophy  situation.  The  the  social  they  gospel  The  cope  with  movement  economic  great  brotherhood,, and  to have  co-operative to  put  appealed  answers  farmers'  ventures the in the  faith and  capitalist  movement  shared.  Antigonish  depressed  and  competitive  as i t s e e m e d  organized  operative  the  movements  co-operativism  farmers  Saskatchewan  remedy  reform  reforming  nation.  workers  Canadian  and  and  were aspects  to  urban  solutions  movement adopted  in  a  co-  hardships  of  M a r i t i mes  sought  s i t u a t i o n by  in  collective  their to  action  27  and  the  British to  establishment  Columbia  their  ideology  social  a challenge  emerging  gospel  movement social  expression  from  theologies.  The  in Canada  new  of the  than  to  Canadian  new  the  social  politicial The search, for  during  a new  ideologies rejected the  class  The  evolved  and  trade  conditions, but  social A  Christian  Protestant  to social  gospel  movement  paved  later  ideology movement,  of  the had  on t h e s o c i a l  which  was  a c t i o n and c o -  individualism  movement  awareness  gospel  to  Intolerable  to  movement  the first three  ideology  housing,  impetus  class-conscious  and  older  a brief political  t h e way  evolved  into  for a a  new  ideology f o r Canada. social  Canada. poor  of the nation.  s o c i al - p o l i t i c al  for solutions  d i d n o t o r i g i n a t e as  and e c o n o m i c  history, but one that left i t s impact institutions  in  avenues f o r their protest.  i t i n t e r p r e t e d t h e S c r i p t u r e s as a c a l l rather  A  movement  p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l Europe.  operativism  labourers  MOVEMENT  to Canadian  Canadian  situation.  parties became  GOSPEL  The  militant in their search  a co-operative  and s o c i a l i s t  SOCIAL  co-operatives.  economic  rather than  The  the  became  vulnerable  unionism  THE  of  a  growing  health  struggle,  a  national  decades of the twentieth  century,  conditions,  as  problems  rising  facing  unemployment,  and soci a l - s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s with  and l i b e r a l i s m .  ideology  proposing  seen  social  dissatisfaction  o f c o nserv ati vi s m the communist  be  meet the growing  working  and poor  can  of dialectical  instead,  a  gave  the traditional The  social  gospel  materialism  modern  and  and  modified  28 form  of secular-religious socialism.  believed  I t was  and  parliamentary  Allen  and  Crysdale  (1973)  democracy.  (1975)  It  was  a r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c al  assumed  combined.  that  Smillie  relate  the  Baum  (1980)  (1975 )  to  heard  the preaching  o f Jesus  social  order  society"  (p.48).  Crysdale  secular  social  social  movement,  a  and  a  as  was  to  of  a  message  to  of  a judgment build  a  (1975) explains the social  life.  Christian justice  he f u r t h e r c l a i m s ,  summons  one be  questions  and t h e prophets  to  should  concern  gospel  gospel  movement,  thinking  i t s main  the  the  The  present  to  the  in  to society.  and  not  within i t .  intellectual  believes  gospel  refers  that  addressed  theology  Christian  movement  and  to  reformism,  sought,  one  that  adhering  Its  contend,  d e s t r o y t h e o l d o r d e r , b u t t o b u i l d a new  in  movement  i n r e t a i n i n g t h e r i g h t s of i n d i v i d u a l s and  constitutional  which  a  "heard on t h e  more gospel  just as:  ... a t e r m t h a t c a n be a p p l i e d t o a wide v a r i e y of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups in western societies who e m p h a s i z e d o n e a s p e c t o f C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f -the responsibility of each person f o r his neighbours and f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f just s o c i a l and political institutions. But in each country the social gospel . . . asumed somewhat d i f f e r e n t aspects. It gathered sufficient form and mom e n t u m i n C a n a d a i n t h e 1 9 1 0 ' s a n d 1 9 2 0's t o comprise a distinctive social movement (p.268). Handy gospel the  movement  good,  prefer "its  (1966)  and  social  leaders  that  believed that that,  good  to  and  men's  and  the men  through  educators,  leaders could  men  advantage. activists  and  that  a t t i t u d e s , to win t h e m  within  be e d u c a t e d  education,  private  w e r e n o t so m u c h  proclaimers, views  states  could He  as t h e y they  social  to  choose  be  led to  further  states,  were  sought  t o a new  the  preachers, to  change  r e l i g i o - s o c i al  29 faith"  (pp.10-11).  "was  comprised  conscious  men  informally  to  who  Gordon of  an  and  and  as r a d i c a l  Duckworth  (cited  "the been  well  as  security  built  laws"  of  criticism  a  this  the  legislation.  of  established (p.136).  social  gospel  t h e o r i e s on  which  programs  medicare  gospel a  in  social  It  It sought Canada  played  political Finally,  Co-operative  Antigonish  a  i t was  and  old  as age  in  economic  and  social  Movement  of  Canada  Nova  awareness It  was  social  a  and the  social economic  influencing  social  welfare  ideology  a  conditions  adult educational  with the  policies movement  and  political  Federation.  a rural during  Scotia  and  r o l e in  adopt  conditions  three  consistent  political  was  first  manner  major  an  the  improve  a  Commonwealth  Movement  developed  to  in  p a r t i e s to  which  Antigonish  social  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a new  the  The  to  pensions,  created  nation.  segment  and  ment  the  century  theology.  aided  and  welfare  to reform  traditional  party:  social  movement that proposed  two  that  and  met  a sick society,  that the  ideology.  large  Christian  of  classical  in  who  Christian community"  liberal  conditions  socially  (p.255).  of  Christian  strategy,  gospel  and  of  s o c i e t y of social  welfare  social  another,  maladies  contends  allowances,  influence  decades  of  in our  one  out  1975)  the  committed  knew  cells in the  family  retirement  The  who  that  of  discuss the  in Kidd,  foundations  have  group  resolutions, worked  themselves  laid  active  women  study  drafted  ( 1 97 5 ) c l a i m s  co-operative  the in was  1920's  the an  in  moveresponse  Mari t i m e s . adult  The  education  30 movement  that  concerning was  sought  principles to  and t e c h n i q u e s  claims  deliberate  the  of a reform  From  people  Antigonish  become  internationally recognized  movement  philosophy  adult and  education issues,  that  problems  the  and  South  an  American  understanding they  can  his successor,  people.  Lotz  of find Father  M.  (1973) contends  make  social,  created  and  problems and  people, of their  of life.  Baum  to that  Freire.  political  that  poverty  aware  way  Paulo  take  models  belief in  them  the  believed  philosophy  1  Coady, took that  to  educa-  on r e a l  that, once people  solutions  grew  adult  for tackling  educator  their  movement  of St.  and Scandinavian  Tompkins  adult  individual  department  Tompkins,  for a better  (1973) liken  a  objectives:  enhance  and sincere  would  search  i t was  had two  i t s attention  a strong  all the  in that  Tompkins  means  education  them  possesses  the  education.  the  MacDonald  reform.  English  " c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n ", h e l d  realities, and  had  adult  Lotz  be  problems,  them.  to  J. J.  to focus  could  and help  concept, to  and  and  on  adult  needed  Tompkins  held  ( 1980)  and  and  It  adult-education  as a s u c c e s s f u l  Father  of the movement  injustice. and  priest,  co-operati vis m  movement  at Antigonish,  f o r social action  Catholic  solve  in the extension  Xavier  of  fishermen  identify their  movement  welfare,  i t s base  Universiy  The  Francis  A  and  used  Movement  social  socio-economic  capabilities.  that  co-operatively  collective effort.  increase  tion  farmers  movement  to help  and  that  characteristics  to  self-help  creatively  ( 1979)  inform  t h e s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c r e a l i t i e s o f t h e i r r e g i o n .  a grassroots  and  to  of  Freire's  are educated and  economic  action.  Tompkins  the university to the  Tompkins  was t h e t h i n k e r  of  31 the  movement  while  (1980)  credits  Baum Xavier  University  expanding  the  directorship  Coady  was  prophet  Coady, the first  Extension  Antigonish  that  the  director  Department, Movement.  co-operative  and  It  propagandist.  of  St.  Francis  with  spreading  was  under  experiments  and  was  because  and  Coady's  ventures  were  org ani z e d . The early  Antigonish  critique  movement  was  economic people  social  involved He  capitalism.  in  believes  neither  as v i l l a i n  together  could  define  ( 1979)  argued  that  economic and  lives,  of t h e people, a  child  capable  of  and solve the  and  not just  as  a  (p.165).  movement terminology  stood  a  of the  to  He f u r t h e r  of  Baum  political  that  the  a  common  the  govern-  Gordon  the system  power  over the  nature  men's poverty  o f man  family,  of  as  as one  in the society of his  (1980),  social  redress  problems.  human  life  the  working  the true  and c r e a t i v e  form  and  an  people  i t perpetuated  i t denied  of contemporary  transcending".  because  by  against  distribution  According for  and t h a t  "was  to  viewed  their common  that  argues  bound  movement  member  of a free, useful  fellows"  were  movement  but because  God,  the  ( 1 9 7 3)  n o r as s a v i o u r ,  organization  women's  Lotz  i t was  claims  i t s attempts  movement  that  ( 1975)  in  grievances. the  radical  Faris  n o n - i d e o l o g i c al  and  ideology. ment  of  Movement  reform  science  the that  is called  stated:  s i n c e t h e m o v e m e n t t r i e d t o i n s e r t new principles into the present s o c i a l and economic o r d e r , i t was r e f o r m i s t ; b u t s i n c e t h e s e principles were based on an a l t e r n a t e vision of society, they in some s i g n i f i c a n t way transcended the present order, undermined i t and  Antigonish in  the  "system-  32 prepared struction There  are  definite  movement.  Baum  agreement character  the  Fan's  the and  Frank  Lotz  of  the  (1973 ) are in  lost  Miffin  ceased  reasons  reconideology  Movement  years.  the movement  and he c i t e s s e v e r a l  in  ( 1 975 )  Antigonish  in the postwar that  radical  contradictions  ( 1980),  that  1 980) c l a i m s order  people for a more of society (p.201).  its radical  (cited in  to challenge  Baum,  the social  why:  In p a r t i t w a s b e c a u s e t h e m o v e m e n t h a d b e e n s u c c e s s f u l i n c h a n g i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s of l i f e f o r a great many people, and in part b e c a u s e t h e l e a d e r s h a d b e e n w i l l i n g , f o r t h e s a k e of g r e a t e r institutional support, to soften their critical stance. T h e w a r a l l e v i a t e d s o m e of t h e d i r e social need in the province. As well, the g r o w t h of t h e s t o r e s a n d c r e d i t u n i o n s d e m a n d e d ever greater c o m m e r c i a l and t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e , tending to exclude the ordinary people from d i r e c t i n g t h e i r o w n e n t e r p r i s e s ( pp. 1 93 - 194). Faris a  plateau  gave  ( 1975 ) argues in the postwar  way  to  matters.  co-operative ceased  because  expertise,  as  as  social  and e c o n o m i c Laidlaw  the  of  of a l a c k  their  conditions  (cited in Lotz,  reached  missionary  zeal  about  administrative  and  ( 1979)  contends  the  concern  enterprises  Movement  as i t s e a r l i e r  MacDonald  gradually  well  the Antigonish  years  increasing  organizational many  that  the of  failure to  Antigonish  managerial adapt  and  to the  that  Movement technical changing  o f t h e po s t w a r p e r i o d. 1973) sums  up t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s  m o ve m e n t as: e c o n o m i c u p l i f t of t h e p o o r ; t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a p h i l o s o p h y of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n that focused on ordinary people in group action; helping labour to get organized; making the university relevant to e v e r y d a y l i f e ; and supporting the social teachings of the Catholic Church (p.108).  of  33  The  movement  numerous various  co-operative Nova  munities  learned  The  nition,  Movement  oriented towards political  ad u l t - e d uc a t i o n al and  equality  FARMERS' The  the  The  people  social  movement  which  which  disadvantaged in these  and c r e d i t a  and  economic  It  was  promo-ted  farmers  IN  and s e t t l e r s  and p o l i t i c a l  unique  distinct the  and  forms  first  to  reforms  a  unique,  education larger  circumstances  of adult  education  the  control  and t h e second  extent  as a the  of higher  an  the  of  Saskatchewan  government,  agricultural  s e c u r i t y which  societies  independent  constantly plagued farmers'  The  period,  and  federal movement  supported  The  and  extension  i t promoted  meet  the  government-  the  need  the Prairie  movements  Two  provincial,  because  not  growth  this  reform  production. did  natural,  programs.  during  independent  farmers  many  provincial  federal  economic  result,  emerged  component.  agricultural  a  idea of  that fostered the  major  sponsored  As  Canadian  the democratic  educational  of  f o r the Saskatchewan  goal  within  international recog-  in the province  agrarian  co-operation some  operate  SASKATCHEWAN  varied  under  governments, with  com-  co-operative  in t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e t w en t i e t h c e n t u r y f a c e d  of  in  unions.  grassroots  gained  and  community.  ORGANIZATIONS  economic,  clubs  t o e s t a b l i s h and  was  system.  a movement  and  mills  study  for  necessary  stores, factories,  prevailing  established  communities.  the skills  Antigonish  movement  and  enterprises  Scotian  co-operative  the  organized  emerged,  for  farmers. giving  34 rise  to a very different  period,  -c o - o p e r a t i v e  and, a c c o r d i n g viewpoints  form  of education.  enterprises  and  From  political  resulted,  unique  parties  to Blenkinsop (1979), in the stream  that  this  formed,  of ideas  and  a distinct  Saskatchewan consciousness  Blenkinsop  ( 1979)  e m erged. Upset favouring the  (1971)  Eastern  C.P.R.,  national  and  interests,  private  banks  grain  private  claim  agricultural  Exchange  Saskatchewan  on t h e c o m m e r c i a l and b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s o f c e n t r a l addition, or  the farmers' interests  represented in the  1901,  the  later  renamed  Territorial  (S.G.G.A.), C.P.R. The  the  farmers T.G.G.A. ideas  evolved into  of co-operation  education from  newspaper  Grain  associations  a new  protest  capitalist  political  facing  1904  brotherhood began  Gro wers'  to  identifies were  1911.  (T.G.G.A.), 1  Association  companies  and t h e  the  which  Saskatchewan  in Canada. movement to  three  utilized He  movement  system  a l o b b y and e d u c a t i o n a l  which  In  to the farmers' grievances.  radical  and  In  protected  governments.  Gro wers  the grain  voice  Blenkinsop (1979)  movement  to  a  as t h e c o m p e t i t i v e ,  public  local  to tackle  dependent Canada.  Association  Grain  the source of the problems  Association. for  Growers'  gave  became  federal  as  and t h e  not adequately  and  Saskatchewan  association  T.G.G.A.  identified  Grain  was o r g a n i z e d  This  were  provincial  tariffs  business monopolies such  elevators, the Grain  helped make  that  by  identified  The  and t h e  permeate  the  main  channels  the  farmers'  the  weekly  G uide, t h e annual c o n v e n t i o n and t h e  as t h e v e h i c l e s and social  f o r educating Prairie  awareness.  From  farmers  1919 t o 1 924 t h e  35 T.G.G.A., now and  reform  vincial  renamed  spirit  members  board  t h e S.G.G.A., l o s t  which  characterized  of parliament  of d i r e c t o r s and c o n t r i b u t e d  independence.  Blenkinsop  (1979)  left  behind  much  also  placed  less emphasis  organization emerged  farmers.  of  the  known  The  F.U.C.  of  t h e Wheat  Pool  of  co-operation  claims  gospel  became  and  a  on  Wheat  a  co-operative  Pool,  S.G.G.A.,  zeal, i t  programming.  A  of Canada  rival  (F.U.C.)  at t h e first and  of  convention co-operative  for the establish-  and t h e i m m e d i a t e  of the on  the  success  advantages  found  (1979),  farmers'  known  and t h e  an  informed  seen  as c o n t r i b u t i n g  and the preparation of Pool  organized  basis, and t h e  was  organized  so  the  experiment,  successful  that  157  (p.300).  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e F.U.C.  i t advantageous  became  was  Pool  on a t r i a l  Pool  Education,  In 1 9 2 8 , t h e W h e a t  schools  Blenkinsop  Wheat  maintaining  organization.  o f an e f f i c i e n t  two rival  organization  and c o - o p e r a t i v e  f o r the farmers  concentrated  were operational in 1929  The  S.G.G.A.  socialist  a priority  leaders f o r the future.  schools  as t h e  successfully pressed  viable  the management  to  that,  Union  the principle of co-operation,  according  on t h e S.G.G.A.  t o t h e s o c i al - p o l i t i c al d e m a n d s  demonstrated  educational 'programs  first  Pro-  over capitalism.  Education  around  years.  to the loss of i t s political  on e d u c a t i o n a l  based  of a co-operative  membership  involved  as t h e F a r m e r s  was  of the populist  i t s early  The constitution accepted  F.U.C.  philosophy. ment  of i t s social  i n 1921 to respond  the  to  became  much  to  as t h e  merge; United  and t h e  in 1926, the Farmers  of  new  Canada,  36 Saskatchewan new  farmers'  socialism, the  Section  ( U . F . C . , S.S.).  organization  a n d an e d i t o r i a l  U.F.C. ( c i t e d  was  The central theme one  in t h e Guide  in Blenkinsop,  of  of this  co-operation  summed  and  up t h e g o a l o f  1979):  Looking forward i t is being pointed out that the hope.of the future is in the development of the co-operative commonwealth. T h e man o r w o m a n who i s a t r u e c o - o p e r a t o r i s u n a l t e r a b l y o p p o s e d to t h e i d e a t h a t t h e c o m p e t i t i v e system with a code of business ethics. The ultimate goal of the co-operator is the substitution of the c o operative f o r the competitive system (p.313). The  U.F.C.  were  nearly  local  level  stressed  a thousand and  in  political  lodges  the  i n t h e U.F.C.  co-operative  problem  of raising  the political  farmers  concerning  the desirability  one  that  represented  the  Education  League  (F.E.L.)  organized  in Saskatchewan  within the farmers' class  lines;  commonwealth.  By  there at t h e  addressed  of the  of a third of  1 929  Education  schools  awareness  farmers  Saskatchewan  political  Canada.  the  The  party, Farmers'  of the U.F.C, avowedly socialist, in 1926 to press f o r radical  movement.  i t s goal  education.  was  The manifesto  policies  The F.E.L. divided s o c i e t y the  creation  of  a  o f t h e F.E.L. stated  was  along  co-operative (Blenkinsop,  1 979): The F a r m e r s ' E d u c a t i o n L e a g u e i s an e d u c a t i o n a l and agitational organization which bases i t s activities in the realities of the class struggle and endeavours to educate and organize t h e farmer to change the existing system of e x p l o i t a t i o n i n t o one t h a t will produce f o r use and not for profit (p.321). The  depression  o f 1929  followed  shattered  the  events  convinced  many  and t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l  Saskatchewan  of the Prairie  economy. farmers  that  drought  that  These  two  the end of  37  capitalism operative  was and  organizations political opera tiv ism  imminent. political paved  party, and  one  The  past  education  the  way  that  socialism.  for  three by  the  promoted  the  decades  of  various  farmers'  emergence the  of  ideology  a of  co-  third co-  38 CHAPTER  THE  CO-OPERATIVE  II  COMMONWEALTH  FEDERATION  _I_N T R 0 D U C T_IO_N Canadian  socialism  before  various  ments  united  had  Soci alist-L abour i n 1 932  Commonwealth  Federation.  socialist  decades  of the twentieth  various  socialist  ers,  and  then  movements, (with  on  of  ethnic  geographic  solutions settlement economy, enterprise  I t was i n t h i s  attracted  and  follow-  on  the fringe  Avakumovic  political the  and party  problems  (1978)  o f t h e West, t h e uneven and t h e highly  uneven  socialist of  from  a  by  federation, desire  for  urbanization,  performance  society farmers'  a  across  credits their  "their  posed  came  scattered  forming to  early  of the Saskatchewan  were  that  and educated  operated  and  period  protest  t h e whole,  education,  three  social  these  formal  of the  the first  of  obstacles  variety a  wide  success  in  and  an  collectivist the  rapid  of the Canadian  distribution of income  in a free  system"(p.281).  Socialism, logies,  was  move-  period  Members  region.  to  growth  parties  of members  period,  Co-operative  withered.  backgrounds,  established  as t h e  Canada  labour  succeeded,  had little  overcoming  in  incubation  and p r o - s o c i a l i s t  known  century.  parties,  the exception  movements),  parties  The formative  movements  evolved,  thirty-year  and b e c a m e  various  movements  a  like  other  was i m p o r t e d  from  social Europe.  reform Given  movements the great  and  ideo-  influx  of  39 British  immigrants  nineteenth Owenite ism  into  century,  Canada  during  the latter  i t is not surprising that  c o-o per.ati vis m , C h r i s t i a n s o c i a l i s m  played  socialist  an  important  ideology.  role  Many  to  replace  capitalism,  operation  and public ownership.  one  of the  British  and  ideas  Fabian  in the evolution  Canadians  ideology  years  social-  of a  Canadian  were  searching  for  that  was  on  Crysdale  based  (1975)  of  an co-  explains:  the old ideology of the inherent benevolence of nature and human h i s t o r y , based on n o t i o n s o f c l a s s i c a l l i b e r a l i s m and on a c l o s e d system of religious belief, which in the mid-nineteenth c e n t u r y was e x p r e s s e d i n e c o n o m i c t e r m s i n t h e d o c t r i n e o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e , was no l o n g e r t e n a b l e in t h e view o f many p e o p l e i n a wide v a r i e t y o f social positions (p.263). The and  reception  Campbell  of a political  (1974)  characteristics,  but also  c i r c u m s t a n c e s " ( p.19). ied  i t ,survived  adapted  and  throughout  its  even  though  AND  i t as forced  associated  of  reform,  and t h i s placed  traditional party  the  government.  whose  and  economic  or another  embod-  because i t  and  principles  PARTY  t h a t in t h e 1930's t h e l e a d e r s  The CCF  the  social  ideal  history.  process. social  i t s inherent  ideology  POLITICAL  viewed  i t was  form  original year  to Christian  s o c i a l i s m , as t h e C C F  in one  (1969b) contends  of the CCF  on  contemporary  in Canada altered  according  not only  Democratic  MOVEMENT  Young  party,  on  i t s twenty-nine  POLITICAL  members  "depends  idea,  movement,  to compete  itself  goal  a  with  rather  than  and t h e goal  i t in a different class  The t r a d i t i o n a l political  party  a  in the electoral  a "cause"  is to obtain  and  than  power to control seeks  electoral  40 victories,  while  associated  with  social  a  electoral  change.  explains  usually  success,  Wendell  King  that a movement  a local effort  movement  but  in  is a "group  changes  goals  with  (cited  community or a single event to inaugurate  has  that  social Young,  venture  are  not  reform  and  1969b,  p.4)  extending  beyond  and i n v o l v i n g a s y s t e m a t i c  in thought,  behaviour  and  social  relationships." The so  confederation of movements  in order  from  which  necessary. system; the  to become to  bring  by choosing  ( 1 96 9 b )  movement  and  movement The many 1935 (cited  about  The route they this  characteristics  Young  a stronger  of  and a  the  chose  social  political  party,  began  agree and  federation  of the  various  organizational problems the National in Zakuta,  Secretary  of the  deemed  on s o m e  Avaku movie that  the  the  of  ( 1978),  CCF  goals  was  a  of the  party often clashed.  reform  for the  they  base  the parliamentary  that  and t h e goals o f t h e p o l i t i c a l  a broader  to take  party.  (1964)  the CCF did  reforms  was t h r o u g h  political  Zakuta  formed  f o r c e , with  route, they a  which  movements  newly-formed  CCF,  M.J.  caused  CCF.  Coldwell,  In wrote  1964):  My year's experience as Secretary-Treasurer l e a d s m e t o b e l i e v e t h a t i f we a r e t o c o n d u c t our e d u c a t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l campaign efficiently, our affiliated bodies will have to c o o p e r a t e more c l o s e l y with t h e N a t i o n a l O f f i c e . I r e a l i z e , o f course, that i s to some extent due t o t h e f a c t t h a t we a r e a F e d e r a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n an o r g a n i z e d p a r t y ( p . 5 0 ) . Young movement federation.  (1969b) aspect The  and  Zakuta  of  the  CCF  CCF  was  helped  (1964) both  both  hindered  by the f a c t  believe and  that  the  helped  the  that i t s members  41 were  loyal  unbending need This  to  and faith  can  to  in  group  political  personnel  political  party  platform  to the  achievement  opposite  the  to  their  political  they  of  the  "seek by  present  to  directions, A  it  did  CCF  party.  not  the  CCF  It f u r t h e r d e f i n e d  C o l l e c t i o n , 30  the  point  to  To  and  possible of  compete,  the  non-threatening whom  belong  wholly  outline,  entitled  these  two  are  choices  were  a  and  Political  rests its  (1964) contends  position  of  ( 1 9 6 7 ),  acceptable  both  view.  adapt  largest  s o c i e t y , with  was  of  society.  the  Zakuta  study  2, c l a i m e d  form  and  a b e l i e f in  obliged  acceptable  "character  an  righteousness  p o l i c y " (p. 9 3).  an  "cause",  Schwartz  offering  public  the  wider  and  majority within the  CCF's  their  party  Engleman  and  to  and  p r i n c i p l e s and  of e l e c t o r a l v i c t o r y .  Today", lesson  (Maclnnis  to  must  others  needs  coalition  c a t e g o r y " ( p. 1 5 1 ) .  political  a  the  that  interest  because  original  according  aggregative  commitment  educate  hamper  "according  parties,  strong  and  in one's  cause  change  a  in t h e i r i d e o l o g y of r e f o r m ,  convert  faith  one's  had  moving in  in  either  "Socialism  movement opposing  that,  and  a  concepts  D - 17):  The CCF i s a m o v e m e n t among the people, a crusade f o r a new social order. Its progress t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e s members to make themselves fit r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of their cause in word and deed. It r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e y c o n v e r t the minds of others to a philosophy and program quite different from those of the older parties. The CCF i s also a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . The best c a u s e Tn t h e w o r l d r a r e l y w i n s s u p p o r t unless victory is organized. T h a t i s one of t h e main functions of our party. It is a democratic political organization through which policy is f o r m u l a t e d and v o t e s won. During  the  thirties,  the  CCF  was  more  movement  than  42 political  party.  political  party  it  be  would  Its and  able was  competing  in the  techniques  and  the 1941.  period, its  involvement  by  The  second  period  This  period  minor  party  saw  tion,  and  but  on the  CCF  the  of the CCF'  the  major  organization, members.  1950-1961.  This  and The  period  distinctiveness, a formal less  but  history  intensive  and  and  extensive  of  1932-  ideological (  not  and  extensive.  party:  1942-1949.  and  period saw  the  informal;  intensive third  by  survive.  movement:  mainly  the  to  greatest  intensive  early  adopt  in the  political  members  of  to  in order  was  that  The  However,  began  organization was  goals.  periods  had  a  electoral system  change.  distinct  that  was  party  party:  ideological  in the  becoming  less ideological distinctiveness, a growth  formal by  three  was  by  i t s soci a l - r e f or m  electoral process  first  this  involvement  winning  power  identified  distinctiveness;  party's  that  s t r a t e g i e s of i t s c o m p e t i t o r s  The  In  on  believed  and  achieve  not  ( 1964)  CCF.  entering to  emphasis  Zakuta  leadership  in  the  extensive  was  that  further  of  loss  a of  centralized  organiza-  involvement  of  party  members. Christian change  from  fundamental should  and a  Campbell  prevailing  change  in the  ( 1974)  ideology  contend to  understanding  a  that new  for society  one  "involves  o f s o c i e t y , and  be o r g a n i z e d " ( p . 7 1 ) . An i d e o l o g y , t h e y c l a i m : w i l l s e e k e i t h e r t o j u s t i f y an e x i s t i n g s t a t e o f a f f a i r s , and h e n c e p r e s e r v e i t f r o m c h a n g e ; or else i t will seek to r e v e a l i n a d e q u a c i e s in the a r r a n g e m e n t s and c o n s e q u e n t l y s k e t c h t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e new p o l i t i c a l system which will r e p l a c e the old one (p.7). The early CCF movement was convinced that  how  it  to a it  was  43 necessary  to educate  of d e m o c r a t i c referred  that  as  "a  great  C C F pamphlet,  " i f our movement  think  i t does  crusade"  -  educational  activities.  a  society  early,  the claim  would  educated  result  from  occur  their  only  political  party,  on more  i t became  concerns  after  absorbed  with  wide-scale  vigorous  adult  t h e majority of o f this  ideology.  of the characteristics  more  than  a  that the attainment of  to the correctness  as t h e C C F took  religious  30A-3B).  T h e C C F argued  would  - a s we  of a  of the CCF believed that  However,  organizational  An  made  of the character  Collection,  conversion  were  often  i st o be s u c c e s s f u l i t must bear  ideological  Canadians  were  crusade."  How T h e C C F Began,  early leaders  socialist  t o t h e new ideology  t h e early years  educational  something  (Maclnnis  The  Canadians  s o c i a l i s m ; as a r e s u l t  to  undated  and convert  with  its earlier  of a  electoral and  zeal f o r socialist  education.  o JLLJLL5LL.il L_I il The  impetus  advocating a  LS£.L  became  a political  reform  change  the political  social  depression and  years  came  political  movement  that  t h e various gospel  Western  Canada.  various urban  shared  formed  movements  parties, t h e social  from when  which  systems,  were  federal  movement  movements,  reform  a  o f capitalism and t h e establishment o f  Commonwealth  social  The  build  t h e abolition  Co-operative  CCF  to  and rural  a common  desire to  a confederation combined  movement,  in  forces  s o c i a l i s t - 1 ab o u r the  The  1932.  inthe  movements Saskatchewan  44  farmers'  movement,  and  a  small  group  of  radical  Eastern  intellectu als. A'vakumovic contend  that  inspired  by  three  socialism  provinces  that  the  British  Columbia  tended  to  be  educating Three  of  These  social  (SPC)  over  Canada 300  of  problem  in e d u c a t i n g  activities.  branches  in  order  Avakumovic  of the  ( 1 978)  urban  but  labour  Canada. the and  First  radical  World  War;  to t e a c h  about was  The  Socialist  necessary  and  of  Canada  to  distance  memberships  towns  Vancouver  bring  the  Morton  converts  recognized  i t was  Geographical their  and  from  to  in  across  w e l l as t w o  (SDPC)  eve  and  organizers.  in  the  parties felt  Marxism  revolution.  on  few  histories  two  militant  company  centers  l e a d e r s and  the  ( 1 969)  socialism  attracting  Canada  were  was  in the  urban  political  Young  c o - o p e r a t i v i s m.  p a r t i e s as  of  and  while  with  major  of union  Party  socialist  essentials  tinged  Marxism,  short-lived  had  two  was  Marxism,  in the  parties in  they  Columbia  socialist  Canada  socialist  British  in  dogmatic  Democratic  Party  and  and  radical  had  Social  ( 1 97 7 )  socialism preached  a generation  parties  Morton  class-conscious  prairie  explains  (1 978),  Montreal. the  the  necessary  a  particular  co-ordinating  their  contends:  . . .they made a valiant e f f o r t to understand the i n t r i c a c i e s of Marxism through self study. Often they explained the rudiments of scientific soc i a l i s m i n a way t h a t was w e l l a b o v e t h e h e a d s of the audience. Organization weaknesses prevented them from m o b i l i z i n g to the full e n e r g i e s o f t h o s e who were prepared to join a s o c i a l i s t party (p.25). The  SDPC  and  the  documented  the  various  devoted  articles  to  SPC  published socialist  socialist  theory  two  newspapers  activities and  in  which  Canada  developments  in  and the  45 international  socialist  and  Labour  churches  and  socialist  and sprang  leaders  mining  towns.  Canada  stated  communist  The  up;  socialist  lectured 1918  movement.  in  (Maclnnis  schools  literature proliferated;  various  Manifesto  Sunday  of  urban  the  centers  Socialist  and,  Party  of  Collection, 30A-2B):  The p o l i c y of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of C a n a d a i s to e d u c a t e t h e s l a v e s o f C a n a d a t o an understanding o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n and organize them for concerted political action. Realizing, furthermore, that no " s t e p - at - a - t i m e p o l i c y , no remedial legislation or p o l i t i c a l quackery can be substituted for working class knowledge, its propag a n d a , t h e r e f o r e , is one of enlightenment and education. 1  During  the  Independent Labour labour a  Labour  Party  parliamentary  Party  and,  by  to  a  The  ILP  and  the  the  socialist  was in and  to was  were  The  second  democratic  by  the  and  by  to  not  of  the  parties  and  won  most  (Avakumovic,  1 978,  socialism  in  movement the  period  protest  Canada which and  was  was  two  parties  British  Labour  democratic  declining.  for Their  membership  were  importantly,  put  forth  fewer  votes  p.48).  movement that the  embraced was  the  1 920's, s u p p o r t  candidates  and,  major social  of  labour  about  through  social  late  that  bring  of these  the  Canadian  convinced  occur  European  mid-  labour  in 1917-21;  a p r o t e s t ant  denominations  extent,  socialist  than  seats  were  would  successes  the  a shrinking circulation;trade-union  down; fewer 1927-29  it  parties:  and  strikes would  that  recent  lesser  had  CLP  Many of the l e a d e r s  However,  publications  but  labour  (ILP)  the  mass general  movements. various  two  Manitoba  system.  influenced  had  of  society,  1  Canada  Party  (CLP).  a g i t a t i o n and  socialist  were  1920's,  social  contributed  gospel.  This  the leading r e l i g i o u s  i n s p i r e d by  the  teachings  46 of  Christian  protestant social  ministers  problems  were  social  the  class  and  and  gospel  lay  It  leaders  attracted  who  rapidly-growing  questioning  and  based  Avakumovic  the  with  Marxist  society  brotherhood.  England.  disagreed  struggle  Canadian  in  in the  examining  The  a  socialists  were  urban  radical  economics, on  group  concerned  centers,  existing  the  a  and  who  system.  theory  proposed  co-operation  with  and  political socialist  of  and  of  instead Christian  (1978) c l a i m s :  the s i m i l e s they used on the p l a t f o r m and the way they expounded t h e i r s o c i a l i s t views helped to make d e m o c r a t i c s o c i a l i s m understandable and a c c e p t a b l e to thousands of Canadians who were put o f f by s h r i l l a g i t a t o r s and turgid Marxist propagandists (p.30). The  third  protest  political  system  farmers'  organizations  ment,  greatly  reaction  to  was  of  century,  disadvantage a result,  they  formed  searched  for  their  (1979) notes search  for  proposals.  government, t h a t (p.525). ideology  place  social that  by  in  their  the  and  future and  farmers'  at  and  the  first a  a the  decades economic  in Canada.  society,  and  As  explored  problems.  Blenkinsop  wealth  of  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and  o f Saskatchewan  movement.  by  three  distinct  as  self-help organizations,  a  brotherhood  move-  began  s e l f - e d u c a t i o n and  generated  various  farmers'  system  economic of  existing  sanctioned  in the  Canadian  process  they  were  capitalist  in the f a r m e r s '  Co-operation of the  gospel,  the  co-operatives  solutions,  and  by  existing  for  the  The  alienated  t h a t in the  It was  movement  Prairie farmers,  under the  challenge  Saskatchewan.  inequities  felt  solutions  to  farmers'  in  economic  government.  various  the  influenced  federal the  movement  was  became  Co-operation  in  their  ideas not  being the was  and  in the created  dominant seen  as  47 the  solution  competitive In tuals  the  economic  Eastern  hoping  socialist  Canada,  i n 1 932,  to become  party.  socialism  engendered  of the British  The  purpose  political  a group  the League f o r Social  with  Fabian  the  of the  wing  of  theories  of  was  (cited  intellec-  Reconstruction  for socialist  League  the  system.  a  Canadian democratic  Society, they formed  to the search  by  of radical  the intellectual  Familiar  association devoted  Canada.  woes  individualism of the capitalist  and e d u c a t o r s f o r m e d  (LSR),  an  for  the LSR  as  solutions for in  McNaught,  1959): to be a n u c l e u s around which might gather 'unattached critical spirits' who could accept n e i t h e r o f t h e o l d p a r t i e s and whose circums t a n c e s do n o t m a k e i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e m t o j o i n l a b o u r or f a r m e r p o l i t i c a l m o v e m e n t s ; i t would publish pamphlets, sponsor d i s c u s s i o n and study g r o u p s , a n d b u i l d up a b o d y o f i n f o r m a t i o n on s u c h q u e s t i o n s as p u b l i c o w n e r s h i p , p l a n n i n g , a n d the social s e r v i c e s (p.257). The  League shared  educational LSR  means  described  Young,  the Fabians' belief in gradual reform rather  itself  than  by  agitation or  in i t s inaugural  manifesto  through  violence. as  (cited  The in  1969b):  . . .an a s s o c i a t i o n o f m e n a n d w o m e n who a r e working f o r the establishment in Canada of a social order in which the basic principle regul a t i n g p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n and s e r v i c e will be t h e c o m m o n g o o d r a t h e r t h a n p r i v a t e p r o f i t (p.31). The socialist social  LSR  s o l u t i o n and had c o m e education  established Montreal  had s t u d i e d t h e s i t u a t i o n in Canada, d i s c u s s e d t h e  study and  had  to  groups,  Toronto,  be  to the conclusion that carried  particularly published  out in  pamphlets  in  a job of  Canada.  university circles and  articles,  They in and  48  participated socialism  in  l e c t u r e s in  were  advocated.  intellectual  a n a l y s i s of  Canada  was  The  and  LSR  as an  individuals socialist  which The  the  r e f e r r e d to  were  benefits  LSR  provided  economic  and  as  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n had  who  the  solutions for Canada  the  of  year  an of  the  CCF.  h i s t o r y , but  it continued an  with  problems  "brain trust"  with  democratic CCF  social  a short seven  identified  of  to  propose  and  to  have  i n f l u e n c e on  acted  as  a catalyst  Young  (1 969a) s t a t e s t h a t , by  the  CCF.  THE  DEPRESSION The  Great  Depression  various protest movements. over the  half a million Depression  affected  of  wage  already  class,  other  or  the  speaking  the to  workers,  hostile, they  were  and  one  (Selman, by  workers gave  political  to  than Young  aliens in their  new  p.3).  per  higher  by  1933,  The  hit harder East.  prairie  and  who  1920's. found  system than  The to  cent  a  political  impetus  (1969a), own  labouring  that doubled  system in the  the  unemployed,  in the  of  It s e v e r e l y  t h a t 25.06  existing  1 933,  effects  West.  1 976,  the  unite' these  The  particular,  b a n k r u p t c i e s , were  larger audiences  seemed  in  Columbia  Depression  according  in the  showed  province  skilled  existing  felt  in 1931  depth  farm  out of work.  and,  disillusioned  s e v e r i t y of the  criticized  and  in any  taken British  f a c i n g massive  middle and  in  Depression's  farmers, and  Columbia,  earners  the  were  particularly  A census  figure than at  were  British  population.  Canadians  to  the  length  those  who  were  now  Both their  land, failing to  farmers world achieve  49 the  promise  they  emigrated. system  had  seen  Depression  to  many  unemployed  economic  was  able to e s t a b l i s h itself.  need  co-ordinate  socialist  the  groups  across  action,  mass  capitalist  building  change  party  that  various  recognized  THE  third  a  pro-  convinced  that  have  and  the  the  t o be  socialist  not  built  main  towards  within the period  of  vehicle for political  incorporated  movements  political umbrella.  change  road  a national and  the  and  concerted  realized that  politicians  labour  CONFERENCE: groups,  national political  operate  through  provincial borders  farmer  of intellectuals  socialists  politicians,  recognized  were  t o be  In  movement-party  parties  that  have  political  Canadians.  Group,  They  first  the  under  one  This small group  are recognized  of  as t h e a r c h i t e c t s  fathers of the CCF.  CALGARY  group  the  Labour  socialist  would  would  and a c c e p t e d  founding  The  They  in Canada  Labour  of  believed  and  cut across  independent and  They  process,  labour,  group  various  society  education.  social  a  they  a g i t a t i o n and r e v o l u t i o n c o u l d  a socialist  socialist  in  disadvantaged  the country.  system.  parliamentary  flaws  as t h e G i n g e r  the  when  national political  depression,  to in Parliament  to  strike  the  land  the  and  c l i m a t e , a new  During  the  revealed  this  referred  in  were now  socialists,  gathered party.  ready  to establish a  1932 farm  and  a  small  in Calgary  in 1932 to launch  This  but diverse  small  in the midst  political  groups  group  of the depression  movement  in accordance  a of  to cowith  50  doctrines  of  socialism.  the  The  establish  social  delegates  a national  wealth  Federation,  Caplan  ( 1 973)  of  various  the  intend model was  of the to  ordinating  with  a  Calgary  the  party:  the  new  groups,  centralized  its  the  the  ideology  and  that  was  the  did  not  on  the  party  identity  autonomy,  a c t i v i t i e s to  federation  founders  Each  political  Common-  a  conventional  and  to  Labour, Socialist.  Conservatives.  own  Fabian  agreed  Co-operative  movement  and  of  conference  subtitle, Farmer,  that  L i b e r a l s and  their  to  the  protest  retain  and  political  argues  building  gospel  affiliating  achieve  group  while  co-  commonly-held  goals. An  eight-point  federation tion,  of  provisional  organizations,  program  which  was  advocated  adopted (Maclnnis  by  the  Collec-  30A-2B): that the CCF i s a f e d e r a t i o n of organizations whose purpose is the establishment i n C a n a d a of a Co-operative C o m m o n w e a l t h , in which the basic p r i n c i p l e r e g u l a t i n g p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n and e x c h a n g e w i l l b e t h e s u p p l y i n g of h u m a n n e e d s i n s t e a d of t h e m a k i n g o f p r o f i t s . The  provisional  socialist social all  orientation  economy  goods  banking,  and  natural  in t h a t  for the  the  CCF  it advocated  and  for  operation  (Avakumovic,  a  had  a  "planned  d i s t r i b u t i o n and the  financial system,  development,  resources"  of  production,  services"  c r e d i t , and  ownership,  program  and  1 978,  definite system  of  exchange  of  "socialization together control  p.57).  with of  the  of  the social  utilities  and  51  The of  provisional committee  writing a  the  LSR.  In  officially the  1933  endorse  original  lengthy  the  a second  the  recognized Manifesto  Christian,  natural  of  code,  economic  manifesto  in  to  held  launch  the  the  CCF.  of  Marxian  health  the  services  central  (cited  The  a  mixture  through  public  utilities a  and  national  greatly  in McNaught,  with  planning,  farmers,  government  a  socialism in  economic  and  by  Manifesto  (1969b),  for  Regina  replaced  s o c i a l i s m , shot  tenure  In  Regina  Young  institutions,  Regina  CCF.  was  It e m p h a s i z e d  s e c u r i t y of  concluded  was  the  (p.45).  for  of  and  platform  task  committee  manifesto,  socialized  powers  and  the  research  program  financial  resources,  labour  convention  delegated  Calgary  and  progressive reformism  CCF  the  i s , a c c o r d i n g to  Fabian,  nationalization  the  to  this document  eight-point  Regina  The  manifesto  f o u r t e e n - poi nt  became  of  political  of  increased  (Morton,  1 97 7 ) .  1959):  No CCF G o v e r n m e n t will rest c o n t e n t until i t has e r a d i c a t e d c a p i t a l i s m and put i n t o o p e r a t i o n the full p r o g r a m m e of socialized planning which will l e a d to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t in Canada of the C o - o p e r a t i v e C o m m o n w e a l t h (p.330).  THE  it  CCF  AND  The  CCF's  assumed  Canadians preached  ADULT  approach  that  once  would that  EDUCATION education  ignorance  be  in  "false  consciousness",  would  remedy  and  to  capitalism that  situation.  was  towards  attracted  belief  this  to  a The  that of  a  movement;  s o c i a l i s m was its  was  period task  ideology. due of  to  The  CCF  ignorance  socialist  then  dispelled  was  and  education to  educate  52 rational, but ignorant realities  of  lectual  capitalist  commitment  great  deal  radical  i t s members  leaders  the  movement  as an  its CCF  educational  the  clubs, published  CCF  democratic party  i t challenged needed  to  - that  therefore  in the  campaign.  i s , the one  and early  viewed CCF  to socialism  It immediately  had  through  established  and n e w s p a p e r s ,  and  books.  people  of  with  a  change  nation,  correctness  that  manifesto with  of the  the  (1969b) claims  dissatisfaction  directed toward  a  educational  The  the prevailing ideology  Young  agency f o r expressing  published  pamphlets  convince  socialism.  spent  t o a new  people  programs.  intel-  members  as " a g r e a t  educational  a variety of socialist  Since  cal  educational  an  as t h e r a n k - a n d - f i l e  in i t s ability to convert  various  produced  party  as w e l l  needed  and t h e  a n d , as a r e s u l t ,  r e f e r r e d to the CCF  and many  great faith  CCF  election pamphlet  crusade"; new  of capitalism  The  in educating  An  of the party  to the evils  economics.  from  of effort  ideology.  years  people  of  "the ideologi- is usually  the status  not maintenance."  an  quo  and i s  He  further  states: It i s a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y a m o v e m e n t as w e l l as a p a r t y and c a n only a t t r a c t people to i t s ranks by convincing them of the validity of i t s particular w e l l a n sc h a u u n g, s o m e t h i n g the 'old line parties' do n o t n e e d t o do b e c a u s e t h e y express the prevailing wellanschauung. To a c h i e v e i t s ends the i d e o l o g i c a l party must not only c a m p a i g n , i t must educate through whatever means are avail a b l e t o i t ( p . 2 9 7 ). The time Young  to  CCF  devoted  education  (1969b),  the  of  a  great  party  only  deal  of  members.  party  that  energy It  was,  organized  and  volunteer  according  to  correspondence  53 courses,  established study  reading  lists,  books  and  published  had  six  In  clubs,  educational  and  M.J.  Coldwell,  the  CCF  written and  during  neither  ( 1 969b)  Perhaps were  seen  as a  profound  and,  according  could  be  the  first  CCF  retired educator. teacher, and spent  as  teacher". the  first  Shaver  ( 1953)  claims  that  entering  decades  of  the  of  early  people  in  the  education  was  leaders of  of  man, Canada  founder  ex-school and  an  Woodsworth  in  century  1921,  of  teacher,  active was  e s s e n t i a l l y the  politics  Young  socialism.  an  activist  to  and  a  publications  acknowledged  Woodsworth,  claims made  rationality  understand  leader, rem ained  ( 1978)  These  the  social  Prior two  CCF.  the  policy  leaders  the  and  party  early  the  in  books  party.  academics,  belief  the  Canadian  minister,  party  the  and  more  and  and  advocating  Credit  (1969b), held that the  accept  James  Maclnnis and  abiding  to  Methodist  of  of  national leader  was  other  majority  and  Canadians,  produced  any  LSR  shape  Social  convert  CCF  aspect  Young  educated  The  the  to  to  schools.  the  Avakumovic  nor  teachers  and to  CCF.  effort  a  important  had  the  educational  both  articles  deal  simultaneous  summer  of  The  detailed socialist  clubs,  pamphlets  a great  volume than  because  and  in  ran  members  parties  that  book and  and  important  newspapers  socialism.  clergymen,  an  and  lengthy  for  had  books  old  contends  CCF  Lewis  intellectual  v a r i e t y and  party  1930s did  the  guides  records,  several  the  provided  they  direction for  comparable  both  David  democratic  provide  that  addition  wrote of  study  separate  publication.  benefits  groups,  adult a  born  "prophet  Woodsworth  organizing  various  54 adult He  education  endeavours  e s t a b l i s h e d the  from  Winnipeg  Montreal  People's  Montreal  People's  ing  the  training class for social  of  Manitoba  as  Citizenship, the  the  1922  for  m u s t be system."  workers  in  helped  farm  found  University  He  union  Winnipeg  to  Studies in  groups.  in  Columbia.  in e s t a b l i s h -  at t h e  handbook,  involved  education  and  instrumental  a  by  British  Rural  taught  education  and  gave  the  in in first  l e c t u r e s at M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y .  Viewpoint  thesis  study  was  political  was  preparing  for  Church,  Vancouver,  In  as  intended  Labour  extension  well  He  Forum  the  first  Forum.  to  Woodsworth  wrote  of  In t h i s s m a l l  Labour.  social  a complete He  laid  democracy turnover out  how  in  a  R e - C o n stru cti o n  volume,  Canada:  in the this  book,  "Our  present  would  come  he  from  o u t l i n e d his  ultimate  economic about  and  object social  (Woodsworth,  1922): S u c h a c h a n g e , we h o p e w i l l b e ' a c c o m p l i s h e d i n t h i s c o u n t r y by m e a n s of e d u c a t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n and the s e c u r i n g by the workers of the mac h i n e r y of g o v e r n m e n t . . . . But p h y s i c a l f o r c e p r o v o k e s r e a c t i o n . It is n e g a t i v e in c h a r a c t e r . I t i s an a t t e m p t e d short cut that delays rather than hastens permanent reform. We b e l i e v e t h a t m o r a l e n d s c a n be a t t a i n e d o n l y by use o f m o r a l means. H e n c e we emphasize the education of the people and t h e b a n d i n g them together for political action (p.4). In founding Maclnnis,  his p r e s i d e n t i a l address Regina  Conference  in  to  the 1933,  delegates he  attending  stated  1953):  T h a n k s t o t h e p i o n e e r s i n t h e S o c i a l i s t and Cooperative movements, we have at l e a s t the fundamental p r i n c i p l e s o n w h i c h we m a y b a s e o u r t e a c h i n g with r e g a r d to the C o - o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth . . . . Undoubtedly we s h o u l d p r o f i t by t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f o t h e r n a t i o n s and other  (cited  the in  55 t i m e s , b u t p e r s o n a l l y I b e l i e v e we in Canada m u s t work out our own s a l v a t i o n in our own way . . . . I am c o n v i n c e d t h a t we m a y develop in C a n a d a a d i s t i n c t i v e t y p e of s o c i a l i s m ( p p . 2 7 4 2 75 ). Woodsworth l e t t e r to  expressed  a CCF  similar views  colleague  (cited  in  two  Young,  years, later  in  a  1969b):  My e x p e r i e n c e i n p o l i t i c s h a s s h o w n me t h a t a t election time one has a splendid chance for c a r r y i n g on e d u c a t i o n a l p r o p a g a n d a . I believe t h a t a t t h i s s t a g e of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t t h i s s h o u l d -be one of the main reasons for entering candidates. We m u s t g e t a w a y f r o m t h e o l d i d e a of w i n n i n g at any c o s t and by any m e t h o d , and steadily b u i l d up a convinced and educated c o n s t i t u e n c y (p.50). In the  1940  CCF.  He  organizer.  group,  was  an  and of  Woodsworth  in the  to  lay a  social  group  of  of  of  national  emphasis  was  placed  organization,  and  educate  convert.  to  that  less  of  man.  produced In  Coldwell  political CCF.  1 935,  the  It  is  he  the  "a  aimed  at  economic (Young,  campaigning when  he  his l e a d e r s h i p David  victories  earlier this  shift  votes"  that  and  the more  political zeal"  emphasis  marks the  took  and  Lewis,  "missionary of  a  urged  Canada"  campaigning  in  discussion  campaign  in  secretary,  on  radio  studying  Under  political  becoming  educational  electoral  "getting  a  of  belief  Prior to  community  party on  a  supporters  to  the  direction  education  strong  held  educational  every  place  leadership  and  a new  However, for  second  he  Regina.  CCF  s i t u a t i o n in  to take the  for  national leader a veteran  Coldwell in  second  p r i n c i p a l and  e d u c a b i l i t y of  plans  1 9 6 9 b , p. 5 1 ) .  over  ex-school  parliament,  establishing  had  became the  "Citizens, Forum,"  meeting  and  Coldwell  Like  education member  M.J.  to from  decline  of  56 movement  aspect  (Avakumovie,  THE  in  1978;  EARLY The  the  first  political  of  1 933,  Columbia  opposition,  popular  vote;  official  opposition  in  Columbia  popular  vote.  and  election  boosted  cent,  and  the  (Morton, World  1977,  War  resulted seven  of  five  party  movement  came  1934.  in  the  1941  received  to  form  ten  years.  narrowly  p.14).  The  the  voters  the 25  per  the  per  cent  of  the  CCF  became  the  cent  of the  vote  largest  1943,  share the  Ontario  vote  from  forming  the  gaining  elected  the  national  first  the  Liberals which  5 to  31  per  government and  support.  socialist  in  provincial  f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s prior to  CCF  of  government, an  of the  missed  of  the  provincial election  coalition In  results  becoming  election forced  a  party's share  CCF  CCF 31  1934 and  The  p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n in  and  seats  In  CCF  in  seats  r e s u l t s of this  II saw  Saskatchewan  summer  CCF  the  the  the  new  1 933  p.286).  for  political  1964).  A  with  Conservatives power  in the  highly promising.  with  The  retained  the  Saskatchewan  1 95 3,  British  ushers  tests for the  and  in  official  (Maclnnis,  and  1933-1945  e l e c t i o n s were  British  CCF  Young, 1969b; Zakuta,  YEARS:  fall  these  of the  during  In  1944,  government  in  Canada. A  Gallup  more support  Poll than  this  clubs,  constituency  CCF  to  1945  period the  newspapers that the  1943  revealed  either the  During  six  in  CCF  CCF  that the  n a t i o n a l L i b e r a l s or  could  point to  a s s o c i a t i o n s , and  study  ( Y o u n g , 1969b, p.111). was  on  national CCF  the  threshold  had  Conservatives.  more than groups,  2,000 as  It appeared  local  well  as  in  1944  o f v i c t o r y , and  that  57 democratic  socialism  ( 1969b)  suggests  the  years  war  period. party the  IH  In  a  the  dramatic  growth  of the  abnormal  that  was  a result  less than  status  was  and  a  was  L i b e r a l s and  decade,  Beginning Liberals,  the  conceived  as  in  the  threatened  latter  with  under  became  aligned itself socialist  two  traditional  campaign  in  German  1977;  Y o u n g , 196 9b).  halted  in  decrease candidates tically  its  The  declined.  (Morton,  this major-  threat  by  CCF's  the  popular  p.14).  massive  King.  small  I). first  support  and  the  anti-CCF the  1978;  CCF  Morton,  advance  were  that  year  brought  a  and  in the  number  of  and  funding  Ontario  slipped to  CCF  and  diminish  compared  post-war  from  to  costly  its political  Membership  The  and  often  vote  The  Communist  community  (Avakumovic,  of popular  moved  Conservatives  The  e l e c t i o n of  the  political and  Mackenzie  massive  and  representation fell 1977,  years,  measures  business  which  growth  federal  In  a  Socialism  (Table  war  L i b e r a l party in order  one  percentage  elected  legislative  eight  press, the  1945,  of  policies.  The  dramatic  1945.  election, the  during  achieved  "Progressive"  the  National  in the  as  with  to  welfare  leadership  parties mounted  1944  CCF's  CCF  political  and  welfare  vote.  with  The  major  possible defeat  known  social  the  had  the  the  party  the  Young  c o n d i t i o n s of  of  "leftward"  new  a  stage  numerous social  promised  CCF  in  force.  1946-1955  defections, enacted  Conservatives  political  Conservatives.  P O S T - W A R __P E R I_ 0 D:  E  distinct  22  per  drama-  provincial cent,  thirty-four members would  never  regain  and to the  58 or r e p e a t t h e f e d e r a l  momentum  d u r i n g t h e war  electoral  successes i t achieved  years.  TABLE I  CCF  P O P U L A R S U P P O R T IN C A N A D A :  1940-1945* Bloc  CCF  Lib .  Cons .  Popu1ai r e  Others  9%  5 5%  31%  -  5%  1940  M a r . ( E 1 e c t i on)  1942  Jan .  10%  55  30  -  5  Sept.  21  39  23  -  17  Feb.  23  32  27  7  11  Sept.  29  28  28  9  6  Jan.  24  30  29  9  8  Sept.  24  36  27  5.  8  Jan.  22  36  28  6  8  Apr .  20  36  29  6  9  May  19  38  29  6  8  1943  1944  1945  June  2  19  40  27  5  9  June  9  17  39  29  5  10  June  1 1 ( E 1 e c t i o n ) 16  41  38  3  12  * G a l 1 up P o l 1 (cited  The planning,  i n Zakuta,  CCF  1964, p.156).  claimed  however,  the  to  have  Canadian  the voter  answer was  in  democratic  skeptical  of  a  59 political  party  CCF's  an  the  mentality  Middle-class  were  economic and  and  industrial  The  upwardly  the  CCF to  to  1950,  campaign.  and  economic  expanding  a majority  of  The  social  and  Canadians  in  the  work-ethic  a  to  not  and  Canadian  and  ethic.  party  which  particularly  during  to  competition, The  CCF  a  claimed  worker, but in r e a l i t y to  electorate  be  part  was  class-consciousness  and  i t s goal  of  during  of  the  and  socialism the  t o be  many  the  farmers  m i d d l e - c l ass.  r e s i s t a n t to  on  "rags  mosaic  attracted  fifties.  aspired  Canadians  and  a  political  co-operativism .  appeared  "Cold-War"  somewhat period  with  Union.  During within the  and  mobile  lecturing  Soviet  to  of the  were  profits  workers  anachronistic the  part  prosperous  party of the farmer  Finally,  of  protestant  Canadians  post-war  party  success.  depression  environment appeal  national  period.  Democracy,  criticized  achieved  impending  b e n e f i t s , did not  post-war  riches"  never  of  within  economic  the  had  "preaching"  disasters,  the  which  CCF the  this  period  continued. party  research Young  mounted  its  and  educational  (1969b) notes most  activity  that, from  ambitious  1945  educational  Hefurtherstatesthat:  The national office had both a d i r e c t o r of • r e s e a r c h and a d i r e c t o r of e d u c a t i o n . . . . In t h e y e a r e n d i n g J u n e 30, 1 9 4 8 , l i t e r a t u r e s a l e s from the national office were over $5,000, c o m p a r e d with $1,000 the p r e v i o u s year .... T h e r e w a s no s h o r t a g e o f p r o p a g a n d a , n o r i n d e e d o f s t u d y o u t l i n e s f o r s u c h b o o k s as " P l a n n i n g f o r Freedom," Coldwell's " L e f t Turn Canada", and Lewis' and Scott's "Make This Your Canada" (p.125). However,  adult  education  programs  within  the  CCF  party  60 enjoyed  less  popularity  1940's.  The  CCF's  competing  with  in  the  adult  education  provider  of  entertainment. period  to  class struggle, the The  concerns  strategies.  election In  post-war  It  recognized  countries  only  policy  after  years model  had In  1946  the  trade  union  committee  as  well  as  the  instances, 1978).  by  slowly  Courting  financial and  the  and  early  the  negotiations to  of  but  choice.  Canadian merge.  Two  a  the  to  in  the  salvation  began  of  into  political  to  election  resemble to  the  "old  center  - the  leadership  British  on  was  ties  established  four the  trade  CCF  placed  unions,  and,  successful  1954  results CCF the  Congress years  and  of  Labour  later,  in  union  members in  in  many  securing  disappointing  destined  Trades  the  (Avakumovic,  remained  appeared  in  national  provincial trade  proved  the  with a  a  Party.  successful  strong  CCF  took  Labour  leaders  election  In  t e l e v i s i o n as  communist  unions  1950's,  a  time  party  years,  various  replaced the  support,  perennial third (TLC)  succeeding  executives  more  established  movement.  on  as  willingness  socialism  union  In t h e  agencies  merge  the  trade  committees.  to  began  democratic  it  themselves  statements.  their British that  and  issues; p a r t i c u l a r l y , the  programming  the  early  CCF  1930's  found  with  less  debate  The  and  at  was  devoting  platforms  look  the  voluntary  began  educational  second was  and  clubs  associations,  and  now  competing  There  constituency  parties",  in  a b o l i t i o n of c a p i t a l i s m , and  CCF  and  and  study  than  programs  u n i v e r s i t i e s and  of  mankind.  1950's  educational  provider  "Cold-War"  the  Labour  1 956,  (CCL) the  to  be  a  Congress began Canadian  61 Labour  Congress  (CLC)  policy  in  Action  Committee  CLC  consultation  were  on  made  political  convention  and  up  came  into existence  with  the  the  of the  CLC  Education  of pro-CCF and  agreeing  leadership.  Political  largely  education  CCF  after  action  stated (Young,  The  upon  Political  Committee  of  the  unionists.  The r e s o l u t i o n  passed  the  at  founding  1969b):  T h e P o l i t i c a l E d u c a t i o n C o m m i t t e e be a u t h o r i z e d to i n i t i a t e d i s c u s s i o n s with f r e e t r a d e unions not a f f i l i a t e d with, t h e C o n g r e s s , with t h e p r i n c i p a l , farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s in Canada, with the coo p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t , and with t h e Co-operative C o m m o n w e a l t h F e d e r a t i o n or o t h e r p o l i t i c a l parties pledged to support the legislative program of the Canadian Labour Congress, excluding c o m m u n i s t and f a s c i s t d o m i n a t e d p a r t i e s , and to e x p l o r e and d e v e l o p c o - o r d i n a t i o n of a c t i o n i n t h e l e g i s l a t i v e and p o l i t i c a l f i e l d (p.131).  NEW  DIRECTIONS: The  falling  centrated p.14'3).  18,273, in the  The  contained  party's  it  after the  CCF  no  much  third  of  that  longer  that be  were to  no  attract  necessary to  the  Saskatchewan  recognized  Therefore, be  of  hit a record  attract  r h e t o r i c and  CCF  would  appeal.  class i t would  from  the  evident  electorate  1956,  could  principles  became  one  province  CCF  of  membership  with  anti-capitalist  leadership  It  1961  national party to  earlier  1956-  cries that  to  membership  con-  members of  to  with  1978,  with  their  Armageddon. Regina  realistic  change  n e c e s s a r y to r e d r a f t the  f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s , the  1954,  the  the  or  basis  growing  Regina  popular. of  the  of  the  middle-  Manifesto.  objections  membership  The  Manifesto  a larger percentage  appeal  d i s c u s s i o n , and  in  (Avakumovic,  the  longer  low  and  adopted  In  protests a  new  62 manifesto wing"  - the Winnipeg  of the CCF  modernization and  less  to  document  Engleman  democratic  means  the  supplying  of human  shall  be t h e p r i m a r y  with  the original  will  purpose  the  lands  human  Declaration  than  Regina  Manifesto  the  Schwartz  ( 1 9 6 7 ), statement  the "establishment  call  to eradicate  i s able  every  to enjoy  person  in  as a c i t i z e n  of a free  and p e a c e f u l  the  Canada  in  which  of human  life  It concluded  not  capitalism, but "The  in this land  CCF  and i n a l l  e q u a l i t y and f r e e d o m ,  d i g n i t y , and an o p p o r t u n i t y t o l i v e  de-  like  commonwealth  and t h e e n r i c h m e n t  and, a  read  a  shorter  was  universally-acceptable statement: until  was  a much  of our society."  Manifesto's  "right  It was  was  needs  The  Manifesto.  of a co-operative  not rest content  other  life  with  Winnipeg  Its opening  i t s aim  by  the  and  of the CCF.  Manifesto's:  rather  that  of the Regina  ideolization Regina  argued  radical  according  Declaration of Principles.  a sense  a rich  and  world"  (Young,  of  meaningful 1969b,  pp.313-317). The  strong  ties  and a f f i l i a t i o n  t h e new  o f t h e new  little  d i f f e r e n c e in t h e 1958 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n (Table share  of  the  seventeen  seats,  Coldwell.  The CCF  popular  including appeared  vote  that  of  As  Morton  Regina  Manifesto  ( 1 9 7 7) which  tied  fell  slightly  national  explains:  party  not  I I ) . The  and  it  leader  lost M.J.  changes  were  simply  the  t h e C C F t o t h e t h i r t i e s ; i t was t h e  name, the faces, the utterances, the ever-present - the entire image  made  of disappearing  more dramatic " I t was  and t h e  Declaration  t o be on t h e b r i n k  as a n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l f o r c e , u n l e s s made.  Winnipeg  CLC  prose  CCF's  and less r a d i c a l  with  of the party"  (p. 20).  righteousness  63  TABLE II  NATIONAL E L E C T I O N S - 1 9 3 5 - 1 9 5 8 : P E R C E N T A G E OF POPULAR VOTE, BY  1935  1940  1945  1949  1953  1957  1958  40  33  Liberal  44  55  41  50  49  C o n s e r v a t i ve  30  31  28  30  31  9  9  16  13  11  11  10  4  3  4  2  5  6  2  11  2  10  _5  4  3  I  100  100  99  100  100  100  100  defeat  of  CCF Social  Credit  Others  (cited in Zakuta,  Following council  of  the  1964,  the CLC  forces f o r the task committee  was  Committee  for  N.CNP  conducted  enlightening p a r t y , one and  an  the that  contained  righteousness.  traumatic and  the  leadership  o f b u i l d i n g a new  New  and  became  Party  educational  membership appealed  to  less  the  The  54  °  p.156)  formed the  4  PARTIES  of CCF  to  need  the  executive  CCF  combined  A joint as  For  CLC  the  "New  -  years  for  the  purpose  for  a  new  dogma Party"  CCF  National  three  s e g m e n t of the  movement's  established  the  known  campaign  a broader  of  party.  (NCNP).  the  1958,  the of  political, population  and  political  Clubs,  con-  64 ducted  numerous  published  seminars,  regular  newspapers, published.  "New  was  t h e longest, 1 977,  campaign  culminated  became what  p.21).  five A  of 1961 there  largest  days  The three  a part  were  teach-in  year  1961,  T.C. Douglas,  o f Canadian  was now c a l l e d  New with  claimed:  Party  over  "It  educational  2,000  was chosen,  Democratic  was  in our history"  history, its place  t h e New  CCF  8,500 m e m b e r s i n  d r a f t i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n t h e New  new leader,  pamphlets,  in t h e various  newspaper later  nation-wide  i n August,  Party"  Social Purpose for Canada  clubs, and a party  (Morton,  "New  articles  entitled  By t h e summer  New Party  take.  Party"  and a book  300  spending  produced  delegates  Party  would  and t h e C C F  t o be taken  by  Party.  fj 0J^fJ_L^SI_0^  The a  twenty-nine  political  party.  year  movement  In t h e p r o c e s s  h i s t o r y o f t h e C C F was a h i s t o r y o f  which  grew  of evolution  - educational  zeal  win  as t h e means  elections  Zakuta  ( 1 964)  movement with  t h e world,  organizations movements adapted ultimate  a centralized  much  of its early  by political  t o usher  that  and that  united  t h e decades,  coming t h e way  The various  t h e C C F i n 1 932  b u t t h e C C F never  goal, t o establish democratic  lost  to  society.  of the CCF  went  institutionalized.  to form  movement  in a socialist  t h e progress  the CCF  political  determination  was o n e o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n  and became  that  over  was replaced  suggests  to party  into  from  to terms of  all  protest  changed  and  sight o f its  socialism i n Canada.  65 CHAPTER  ADMINISTRATION  OF  CCF  III  MEMBERSHIP  EDUCATION  J_N T R 0 D U C T J _ 0 ^ The years  leadership  of  the  strongly believed  concerning  the  socialism. turn  An  inform  Angus  educated and  February  in 16th,  in the  principles  Maclnnis,  philosophy  British  M.P., in  1941:  need and  to  others summed  a  personal  Maclnnis  CCF  in the  early  educate  the  membership  applications  of  democratic  membership,  convert  1941  Columbia  it  to  was  the  up  thought, cause  the  of  (letter  Personal  Papers,  in  socialism.  CCF's  letter  could  educational  to  Mr.  Holmes,  54A-14):  . . . Y o u ask t h e q u e s t i o n 'Is i t p o s s i b l e t o so e d u c a t e t h e m a s s e s ( f o r s o c i a l c h a n g e ) i n t h e p r e s e n t e n v i r o n m e n t , and i s i t p o s s i b l e to c h a n g e the environment without educating the masses?' My a n s w e r t o t h a t q u e s t i o n m u s t b e a y e s and a no. It a l l d e p e n d s on w h a t i s m e a n t by 'education'. If by 'education' you mean to educate the masses to an understanding of abstract economics and social philosophy the a n s w e r i s no. When t h e s e e r s and t h e prophets d o n o t a g r e e , a n d we h a v e a n e w ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ' each week, what hope is there f o r the e d u c a t i o n of the masses. If by 'education' we mean working t o g e t h e r in all those c o n s t r u c t i v e a c t i vities which form our lives - trade unions, producers and consumers, co-operatives, adult e d u c a t i o n a l c i r c l e s w h e r e man's r e l a t i o n s to his fellows in a social world is explained, the answers yes .... The of by  the  British  1 933.  aspect  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e structure of Columbia  Membership  of the  new  CCF  movement  education  movement,  the  and  was  educational  were  firmly  considered  various  an  provincial  activities established important committees  66 were  established  and  growing  Associated  to  provide  membership. CCF  clubs  In  standing  direction  of the Executive:  and  were  c)  or  deleted,  twenty-eight-years other  the  education  f o r the CCF  The  by a dedicated  the  history of the  agent  employed.  programs  corps  The  courses;  operated  a successful  and  films;  provincial various adult  CCF  education  PROVINCIAL  seen  12):  the  to the  Radio;  added.  and  e)  a  number  For of  workers.  was  a  pamphlets  produced  a  great  educational corres-  l e c t u r e s and  seminars;  books;  The volunteer  in  designed  produced  and  carried  A t no t i m e  salaried  educators  school;  were  radio and  published  educators, wealth  programs  and  a  working  on  variety  of  programs.  The  role played  to  be  National  be  committees  members  and o r g a n i z e d  summer  EDUCATION  of  f o r CCF  volunteer  newspaper.  committees,  and  committees  of volunteer  planned  published  the  an a c t i v e r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g  provincial CCF  pondence  of  C r e d e n t i a l s ; b)  standing  Committee  played  subject  new  membership.  educational  out  be  Speakers  new  Education  shall  and  of these  and  specialized committees  shall  d)  Over the years, some  changed  there  Membership  Extension;  for the  Constitution  "that  which  a)  services  the  stated  committees,  Means;  Education."  1933,  (B.C.)  following  Ways  educational  19 3 3 - 196 1  by t h e p r o v i n c i a l Education  prime  Education  COMMITTEE:  importance  Committee  to  stated  the  CCF.  (Maclnnis  Committee In  1949  was the  C o l l e c t i o n , 26-  67 T h e r e a r e no m o r e i m p o r t a n t e d u c a t i o n a l bodies than the p r o v i n c i a l c o m m i t t e e s . I f t h e y do n o t f u n c t i o n , two results follow: local groups fail to g e t t h e n e c e s s a r y i n s p i r a t i o n and assistance and t h e r e f o r e l a n g u i s h or d i s a p p e a r ; and i t i s almost impossible for the national office to m a k e an e f f e c t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n . The  chairperson  annually had  by  to  the  be  duties.  council  educational  to  programs.  the  CCF  r e p o r t s to  the  conducted  numerous  carried  out  The fully had  executive  newspaper,  meetings, on  provincial Education  its  and various  Committee  r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s to  the  elect a  enlocal  provincial committee.  The  provincial  Committee  e f f o r t to  determine  o u t l i n e s , and  The  to  education  needs assessments for  1939,  the  i n an  subsequent  years.  1947,  1953  1945,  1950,  provincial Education new  designed  skills.  reports  their  submit  of the  affairs,  up  to  needs  current  taking  provincial convention  education  and  produced  published  books  assisted  submitted the  socialist  publications,  producing  pamphlets  on  aided  public  year.  and  and  CCF  the  speaking  were  1958. was  never  committee  Over the  pamphlets  articles  Literature  and  and  correspondence  international affairs,  committee  These  Committee  chairperson  to d e f i n e t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s f o r the  study  before  members  and  defined. , Each  Committee  appointed  secretary,  in 1935,  task  executive  was  committee  provincial  and or  and  progress  The  clubs  chairperson  educational  Committee  submitted  the  education  the  the  and  annually  couraged  by  committee  provincial  Education  provincial executive;  approved  The  reported  of the  years  courses on  p o l i c y , and  the and  socialism, campaign  to the  CCF  provincial  Committee  in  promoting  Speakers and  Committee  organizing  by  seminars  68  on  speech-making.  The  Education  nars, l e c t u r e s , weekend it  was  responsible  membership,  and  Committee  s c h o o l s , and for  the  winter  adult  assisted other  conducted  schools.  education  committees  semi-  In of  in their  general, the  CCF  educational  endeavours.  the  The  Education  early  years,  assumed  middle  years,  during  the  Administration Its  work,  Committee  or  and  o r i e n t a t i o n , and  campaign  matters.  new  During  education  chairpersons expertise  and and  programs  chairperson  divergent  varied  members  considerably  objectives  and  orientations.  Education  Committee,  Collection,  45-12):  from The  Mildred  as  circumstances was  programs.  year  to  Because annually,  different the  on  activities  appointed  and  years.  spent  and  orientations,  the  later  election  had  of  the  of time  usually  during  committees  such  plans  was  in  deal  period  concerns,  other  changed  a great  committee  for  Committees  this  committee  under the jurisdiction  emphasis  In e l e c t i o n y e a r s ,  a  came  Organization  on' e d u c a t i o n a l  a separate  responsibility  dictated.  infringed  was  levels  of  educational  year  first  chairperson  Osterhout,  stated  in  their of  the  (Maclnnis  although generally concerned with the e d u c a t i o n al w o r k o f t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e movement, t h i s c o m m i t t e e has been p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d in e n c o u r a g i n g clubs to develop a r e g u l a r method of study through the reading and discussion of pamphlets, books, and papers presenting the S o c i a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y and p r o g r a m . In 1 9 4 0  the  provincial  Education executive  made part of the  CCF  Committee that  made  "education  p o l i c y , with  a recommendation within  the  a g r e e m e n t to  to  the  movement  be  undertake  study  69 as a c o n d i t i o n o f  membership"  1954  Committee  Education  membership training paign  about  members  workers;  (Maclnnis  for  responsible  literature.  In  headquarters for  education  on  committees  to  program; and  or  cam-  propaganda  according  for all CCF most  to  common  The  c o n s t r u c t i v e r e s u l t can CCF and  and  distribute  and  the  was to  general  convinced form  CCF  and  public.  which  is the  a socialist  years CCF  the  pamph-  assisted  CCF  CCF other  Handbook,  because  was was  were  formed  further stated that  "in all  raw  opinions  reading  material  without  which  achieved." i f i t was  to  build a  socialist  government,  i t must  produce  socialist  literature  to  The  leadership  believed  CCF  literature  provincial  and  19 4 8  by  that  and  the  activities  be  a  at  literature.  Handbook  work, l i t e r a t u r e  books  to  the  method  develop  books,  educational  minds i n f l u e n c e d .  educational  articles  educational  available  twenty-eight  socialist  in  c i r c u l a t i o n of  made  to  For  socialist  and  was  Vancouver  regular  produce  Literature Committee  space  promoted  various  Literature,  1934  a  promotion  members.  Committee  newspaper  the  in  party  contributed  movement  and  the  1933-1961  be  The  The  informing  administrators  extension  to  Literature  little  conducting  established  the  as  history, philosophy,  p r o v i n c i a l CCF  essential  role  spokesmen,  COMMITTEE:  department  and  its  The  provincial  still  CCF  C o l l e c t i o n , 46-5).  C o l l e c t i o n , 49-2).  socialist  lets,  saw  party's  as  and  LITERATURE  1933  the  (Maclnnis  party  members that  the  70 victory the  of the  British  publications  Labour  Book  1948).  In  materials  produced  Club, the  on  Labour  and  the  CCF  by  the  early  organizers, A  in  years  of  platform  co-operation  responsible within ing  the  and  CCF.  This  committee  l i t e r a t u r e from  clubs. the  promoting  A  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of  (Maclnnis  due  to the  (CCF  Handbook,  LSR  produced  A f t e r 1941, were of  socialist  produced  by  volunteers.  appointed  annually.  Working  provincial  executive,  it  distributing socialist was  further  the  part  Society,  the  group  Literature  literature conference  CCF,  a large  and  provincial  itself  courses  the  in  Fabian  study  committee  was  was  policy.  was  with  assisting local  literature of  for  Party the  and  Committee  in 1945 British  and  p o l i t i c i a n s and  Literature  close  the  Labour  books, pamphlets, handbooks CCF  Party  responsible  encouraged  headquarters in  Toronto  Literature  literature  for  Committees.  encourag-  The  provincial  to  develop  to  the  in  1945  Committee  was  a  flow  local  CCF  summed  up  this  way  in  Collection, 23-10):  The first concern of the P r o v i n c i a l L i t e r a t u r e C o m m i t t e e i s t o s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t and unders t a n d i n g o f s o c i a l i s m and o f t h e w a y s and means of c a r r y i n g out our p r o g r a m , within our own m o v e m e n t a s w e l l as t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . Each secretary sale  in  display  CCF or  stimulate  club, every  the  e n c o u r a g e d , to Committee  was  committee,  the at  club  to  use vote  to  whose task  see  CCF of  purchase  that club  CCF a  encouraged  to was  there meeting  literature.  certain a stock  sum  of  of  CCF  appoint to  was  a literature  order  literature for  always  in  their  The  club  money  to  pamphlets  a literature area,  and  executive the and  to was  Literature socialist  71 books,  and  the  proceeds  additional  purchases.  encouraged  to  Organization „ The  work  debates  The  to  and  the  sales  seminars;  to  be  used  Committee  with  the  particularly during  Committee produce  were  Literature  in co-operation  Committees,  Literature  Committee  from  co-operated  for  was  also  Membership  campaign  with  and  periods.  the  Education  l i t e r a t u r e f o r study  groups,  discussions,  i t also  club  formulating  assisted  the  in  policy.  WOODSWORTH The Ontario  Woodsworth  and  i t s work  libraries the  who  did  or book  stores.  Woodsworth  Book  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Club  Memorial  members  members  1 9 5 3 - 1 96 1  Book  party  subjects,  by  CLUB:  Woodsworth  supply  rural  BOOK  with was  was  established  Foundation. books  deemed have  The  books were  social  by  the  goal  was  to  and . p o l i t i c a l  particularly important  not  Club  on  Its  i n 1953  the  advantages  offered  to the  of  for large  membership  on:  S o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s International affairs Canadian affairs History Biographies Fiction  The commercial Collection,  Woodworth book  Book clubs.  Club A  operated 1954  in a similar fashion  brochure  stated  2A-37):  T h e r e i s no m e m b e r s h i p f e e t o e n r o l i n t h i s B o o k Club. You simply order those books which you wish to p u r c h a s e . Books are mailed post-paid. A f t e r purchase of four books over any period you will r e c e i v e a f r e e premium book.  to  (Maclnnis  72 NEWSPAPER A CCF  COMMITTEE:  committee  newspaper  CCF  would  in  Com  The  its  and  edition  in  own  The  1943,  instrument  in  mulate  movement's  in  the  educational (Maclnnis 1. 2. 3.  name  helping  the  was  propaganda  it  was  An  to  a sound referred  weapon."  same  to the  year,  was  "an  a  basis  It went  of f a c t , "  as on  and was  "a to  194 3  essential  democratically  to  the  Federationist  a r t i c l e in  paper  membership  that  information  the  changed  the  a provincial  recognized  socialist  CCf__He w_s.  the  produce  published  p o l i c i e s on  year,  to  It was  for  ^££__Ne.ws. c l a i m e d  same and  press  to  the  later  1 933  newspaper,  of  the  in  membership.  first  mon w e a l t h .  1936,  formed  for the  need  education. the  was  1933-1961  forand  valuable  claim  that  Collection, 30E-11A): It provides information about" problems, s i t u a t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e C C F , n a t i o n a l l y and l o c a l l y . I t p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n as t o w h a t c l u b s , riding associations, district councils and e x e c u t i v e s are doing. It provides a means of communication b e t w e e n a l l m e m b e r s and s e c t i o n s o f t h e movement.  The  CCF  attending  the  News 1 954  Committee  reported  provincial convention  to  the  delegates  (Maclnnis  Collection  49-2): The £ £ £ Ne ws_ m u s t b e e s s e n t i a l l y t h e official organ oT a r e s p o n s i b l e p o l i t i c a l party, i n t e r p r e t i n g t h a t party's p o l i c i e s to the p u b l i c and i n a s e c o n d a r y way f u l f i l l the r o l e of a j o u r n a l d e d i c a t e d to the p u b l i c a t i o n of e x p e r i mental t h e o r i e s in soci al-econo m ic problems. The volunteer Committee  CCF  newspaper  was  writers, proof-readers was  habitually plagued  dependent and  on  designers. with  a The  number  of  Newspaper  f i n a n c i a l problems,  but  73 continued or  to publish f o r twenty-eight  monthly  basis,  volunteer  support.  national  news  depending The  of  published  regular  reviews  for  book  group  sharing  SPEAKERS A year,  In was  socialist  Speakers a  platforms  on s o c i a l i s t a  Bureau  set itself  a  weekly  amount  n a t i o n a l and and  of  inter-  co-operative  policies,  provided  supplied  study outlines column  for  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1933; later  that  was  in  operation.  of organizing a  available were  The  Speakers  Subject-Speakers  engagements for the CCF  list of speakers  made  CCF A)  the  and  books,  was  the task  1934 a comprehensive and  and  1 e t t e r s - t o - 1 h e - e d i t or  and c o - o r d i n a t i n g speaking  up  either  1 9 3 3 - 1 961  Committee  Speakers  drawn  on  concerns.  areas included in the list  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14  labour,  CCF  COMMITTEE:  Committee List  provided  d i s c u s s i o n s , and  membership  finances  newspaper  the  movements,  on  years  and t h e i r  subject  to the clubs.  (Maclnnis Collection,  SPEAKERS  LIST:  Economi c P l a n n i n g Socialization of Finance Social Ownership Agriculture External Trade Co-operative Institutions Labour Code Soc i a l i z e d H e a l t h B.N.A. A c t International Relations T a x a t i o n and P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s Freedom o f Speech Soci al J u s t i c e An E m e r g e n c y P r o g r a m  The  3 5 4 1 2 4 2 1 3 4 2 4 4 3  PLATFORM  speakers speakers speakers speaker speakers speakers speakers speaker speakers speakers speakers speakers speakers speakers  areas  subject  24-5):  1934  G E N E R A L P R I N C I P L E S OF T H E N A T I O N A L  clubs.  74 B) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.  2. 3. 4. 5.. 6. 7.  SUBJECTS  Education Social Services M a r x i an E c o n o m i c s M a t e r i a l i s t Conception of H i s t o r y Russia T h e C h u r c h a n d t h e CCF The Y o u t h and t h e CCF T h e P r e s s a n d t h e CCF Technocracy Municipal Finance Douglas System of Social C r e d i t Gessell System of Currency Women u n d e r t h e New S o c i a l O r d e r Birth Control C)  1.  OTHER  O T H E R S U B J E C T S NOT  R E L A T E D TO THE  J a p a n , A u s t r i a , H o l l a n d and Scandinavian countries J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y and t h e . D e p r e s s i on D e m o c r a c y and t h e W o r l d C r i s i s T h e New E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y C o n t e m p o r a r y L i t e r a t u r e and t h e World C r i s i s M o d e r n Drama and t h e L a b o u r P r o b 1 em Has t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s Justified i t s Existence In  1936  the  provincial  areas of responsibility 1. 2. 3.  4.  6 speakers 1 s p e a k e r "and o t h e r s ' 1 speaker 1 s p e a k e r "and o t h e r s ' 3 speakers 3 speakers 4 speakers 2 speakers 1 speaker 1 speaker 1 speaker 2 speakers A l l women s p e a k e r s A l l women s p e a k e r s  Speakers  CCF  3  speakers  1 1 1  speaker speaker speaker  1  speaker  1  speaker  1  speaker  PLATFORM  Committee  (Maclnnis Collection,  outlined its  45-14)  A l l s p e a k e r s s h a l l be u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f the Speakers Committee. A l l s p e a k e r s , i n c l u d i n g M . L . A . ' s a n d M.P.'s, shall attend the Speakers' Conferences held at H e a d q u a r t e r s or be s u b j e c t to r e p r i s a l s . No s p e a k e r s , i n c l u d i n g M . L . A . ' s a n d M.P.'s, shall make arrangements for tours, itin e r a r i e s , or m e e t i n g s , w i t h o u t c o n s e n t of t h e S p e a k e r s ' C o m m i t t e e and c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h s a m e. F o r m s s h a l l be f u r n i s h e d t h e c l u b s u p o n which they must r e p o r t to the Speakers' Committee concerning the presentation, e f f e c t , and n a t u r e o f t h e a d d r e s s e s made by our o f f i c i a l s p e a k e r s . Failure to c o m ply will a u t o m a t i c a l l y bar a club from obtaining f u r t h e r services of the C o m m i t t e e.  75 In  1938  Speakers  Spe.akers  Committee  regular In  a  basis,  with  usually  speakers  entitled  office  produced  of t h e e a r l y years lize.  Much  devolved the  upon  local  devote local  of  clubs  ments  A the  middle  purpose  summer  the CCF  School  national  The ambitious  Committee  failed  to  plans  materiaspeakers  M.P.'s  and  M.L.A.'s  were  to speaking  later  years  and  required  to  engagements for  a s s o c i a t i o n s , and speaking  engage-  increasingly became  the  members.  Committee  f o r CCF  summer  in socialist  site.  1948  (Maclnnis  the  C 0 M M I T T E E : 19 3 4 - 1 9 5 4  programs A  a six page  at p r o v i n c i a l headquarters  and  of planning,  school  Committee.  published and  the  on a f a i r l y  staff  of the elected  Summer  by  responsibility for co-ordinating  and c o n s t i t u e n c y  SCHOOL  held  Education  Notes.  amount of their time  responsibility  the  a Speech  Speakers  the office  in the  SUMMER  the  conducted  Committee  of the Speakers  organizations.  a fair  by  H i n t s on M a k i n g  a booklet,  was  classes being  sponsored  1939 the p r o v i n c i a l Education  booklet  of  Conference  Collection,  organizing members  school  brochure  was  was  education,  established  i n 1 934 f o r  and i m p l e m e n t i n g  an  and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . twofold:  to offer  and to provide  on t h e C C F  summer  The  annual goal  educational  a recreational  school  stated  24-7):  - i t ' s a place f o r r e c r e a t i o n f o r adult, youth and child. - i t ' s a place to learn of Socialism in a most pleasant fashion. - it's a place to a i r problems to folk from the rest o f t h e p r o v i n c e and g e t t h e i r help. - i t ' s a place to get a wider vision of the CCF.  that  76 The  first  operated  abandon  and  the  summer  until  Salt  Vancouver. Gabriola  In  the  site  at  Island,  and  had  was  Fulford at  Harbour  the  property  being  named  oceanfront  school's  report  tents  participants.  stated  that  A  (Maclnnis  to  moves in i t s The  and  Fisherman's  it par-  committee  purchased.  purchased  and  declining  many  was  and  1934,  the  property  cabins  Committee  held  forced school  in  until  1943  Island,  Permanent modate  were  held  years,  summer  p e r m an e n t  Spring  was  problems  The  a  school  twenty-one  financial  schools  on  for  project.  years  Lake  summer  annually  ticipation  early  CCF  St.  Cove on  first Mary's  in  West  Taylor  Bay,  Camp  Woodsworth.  were  used  to  accom-  1946  Summer  School  Collection, 24-7):  L e c t u r e s and c o n s e q u e n t d i s c u s s i o n s are u s u a l l y h e l d i n t h e o p e n a i r on a g r a s s y p l o t by the beach with an exquisite panorama of ocean, forest and mountain ranges. Morning sessions usually last about ninety minutes; afternoons a b o u t an h o u r ; e v e n i n g s e s s i o n s a b o u t t h e s a m e , o c c a s i o n a l l y s h o r t e n e d t o a d m i t an entertainment p e r i o d e n d i n g up w i t h c a m p f i r e singsongs. The  summer  school  consisted  recreational  program  from  it operatedd  for four  weeks, with  educational of  summer  Reports three to  and  sessions. 12  noon,  national policy leaders  and and  recreational  school  from  1945  to  The  1954  on  international  as  two-week  1944. one  and  From  week  for the  Summer  until  youth.  day  subjects  like trade  1945  A  School  usually  affairs,  educational-  was  held  and  survey  divided from  socialist unionism,  group  for  Committee  M.P.'s, M . L . A . ' s , u n i o n  lecturers  1954  usually allocated  session,  Prominent guest  a  reveals that the  morning  centered  to  programs  programs  programs.  served  1934  of  10  into a.m.  ideology, and  CCF  and  CCF  leaders.  The  77 afternoon The  was  usually free  evening  followed  by  In began  session social  the  to  "hiking,  featured  a  swimming  general  or  and  fishing."  group  discussion  activities.  1 950's  decline  Maclnnis  for  enrollment  (Information  of  summer-school  extracted  C o l l e c t i o n , f o l d e r s 2a-30 to  and  participants  compiled  49-10).  from  (Table  the  III)  TABLE I I I  A T T E N D A N C E CCF  SUMMER SCHOOL 1941  -  1955  1941  1942  1943  1944  1945  1946  1947  1948  1949  1950  1951  1952  1953  1954  1955  93  105  177  199  212  141  184  +  *  220  133  120  116  116  76  + Summer S c h o o l attendance, * No  Committee Report but  attendance  The  habits  in  summer attend  cease stated  the  months such  The  School  Convention  during  "there  has  in  use  their  available  of  and  and  there  the  appears  (Maclnnis  d i d not  list  1949.  Committee  years  Committee  (Maclnnis  that  1948  number of p a r t i c i p a n t s . "  recent  a camp"  to operate  "a r e c o r d  mentioned f o r the year  Summer  Provincial change  stated  f o r year  reported been  no  Collection  recommended  that  the  property  Gabriola  Collection, 24-7):  of  holiday be  the  a noticeable  pattern  to  to  the  our  time  longer  1956  trend  or  members' during  the  a desire  to  49-10). CCF be  summer sold.  The  school report  78  The C a m p C o m m i t t e e f e e l s t h a t t h e C a m p as i t has f u n c t i o n e d i n t h e l a s t f e w y e a r s has n o t fulfilled the purpose f o r which the camp was established, that i s ,to further education in CCF aims and policies. The Camp program provided has n o t f a i l e d , b u t t o o f e w p e o p l e h a v e a t t e n d e d to t a k e advantage of the opportunities , . . . Another d i s t u r b i n g f a c t has been t h e age group. In 1 9 5 5 , 5 5 % o f t h e c a m p e r s w e r e o v e r 6 0 o r u n d e r 16 y e a r s o f a g e . T h e f i n a n c i a l statement s h o w s t h a t o n c a m p o p e r a t i o n t h i s y e a r , we l o s t money f o r the first time in several years . . . . The C o m m i t t e e a p p r e c i a t e s very much t h e s e r vices and t h e l o y a l t y of t h e many outstanding speakers who have given of their time and m o n e y , b u t we f e e l we c a n n o l o n g e r c a l l u p o n them to speak again to the small audiences we have had in the past few years.  TRADE  UNION  In every  COMMITTEE:  1938 effort  establish  the  national  should  be  the necessary  relationship  between  Convention  also  they  establish  Trade  1. 2.  3. 4.  The existence  (Maclnnis  CCF  made,  Convention  CCF  provincially,  f o r maintaining  and  recommended Union  recommended  n a t i o n a l l y and  mechanism the  This  functions  1944- 1954  the trade to  a  union  with  to  harmonious movement.  provincial Councils  Committees  that  the  that  following  C o l l e c t i o n , 24-8):  To a c t as t h e o f f i c i a l c o n t a c t b e t w e e n t h e CCF and t h e Trade Union Movement. To f o s t e r h a r m o n i o u s r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e CCF and o r g a n i z e d Labor by a c a r e f u l presentation to the unions of CCF policy r e g a r d i n g unionism and l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n . To a c t as a r e s e a r c h c o m m i t t e e on a l l matters pertaining to unionism. To d i s s e m i n a t e among t h e C C F membership a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e h i s t o r y and p r i n c i p l e s of u n i o n i s m ; and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . provincial Trade i n 1 944, and  was  Union  Committee  engaged  (T.U.C.) c a m e  in educational  into  programming  79 for  a decade.  education  The goal  in t h e trade  consciousness members  of  with  o f t h e T.U.C. was t o p r o m o t e union  trade  unionists,  leadership skills.  lectures, and conferences, programs.  Classes  structure,  collective  economics,  CCF  and  monthly  monthly  unions.  articles  movement.  to  public  Trade  equip  CCF  T h e T.U.C. c o n d u c t e d  bargaining,  held  labour  school  trade-union  legislation,  speaking  socialist  and leadership.  The  t o t h e JLP_JL_.N£. JL a n d a l s o W  Bulletin,  which  Bulletin  of developments  The Education  seminars,  on  i tdistributed  unionists and t h e executives Union  union  to the summer  were  column Union  The Trade  and news  and  seminars  a regular  to CCF trade  of trade al  a  to raise the political  and contributed  policy,  T.U.C. c o n t r i b u t e d published  movement,  political  published  within  Committee  of a  education-  the trade  o f t h e T.U.C.  numerous pamphlets on C C F p o l i c y and labour  number  union produced  legislation.  These  pamphletswere: The C.P.R. P e n s i o n P l a n The Trade Union A c t i n Saskatchewan Can O r g a n i z e d L a b o r K e e p o u t o f P o l i t i c s The R i g h t t o S t r i k e Can a T r a d e U n i o n i s t L i v e a n d L e a r n P o l i t i c a l ' A c t i o n with CCF  INDUSTRIAL In of  CLUBS:  1943 the provincial executive  CCF industrial  ensuing  four  workers' rather club,  1943-194 7  years.  lives than  clubs.  These  clubs  were  the development  maintained  T h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e new  revolved  around  the communities  according  proposed  their  i n which  to the CCF Executive  place  they  clubs of  lived.  Committee,  for the was that  employment, An industrial was made  up  80 of CCF on  members  who  t h e job were  constitution The business the  to  activities  democratic  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  THE  and social  activities: they  members  agree  to  industrial club  events.  first,  There  The  CCF'ers  abide  by t h e  The  were  education,  two  were  parts to  to  educate  their fellow  workers  activities  (Maclnnis  were  were  the members  were to introduce  socialism.  club  and  of work.  of the CCF.  of the CCF  second,  place  together  and p l a t f o r m  educational  industrial  to band  functions  themselves;  had a c o m m o n  recommended  Collection,  for  24-8):  Study t h e C C F p r o g r a m and philosophy. Educate f e l l o w w o r k e r s i n C C F program and philosophy. Build democratic unions. Study the political problems of trade unions. Help t o d e t e r m i n e C C F p o l i c y on p o l i t i c a l concerns of organized labor. Help t o d e t e r m i n e u n i o n p o l i c y on p o l i t i c a l concerns of organized labor.  SOCIALIST  FELLOWSHIP:  Following  the  Vancouver-based Acknowledged organization  1950  CCF  1950-1 951  National  members  Convention,  formed  the Socialist  left-wing socialists, the group within  the CCF  to develop  from  the international socialist  fined  itself  in volume  11  formed  and  position..  of their  a  monthly  group  Fellowship. a  promote  The  of  separate socialism  Fellowship  bulletin,  Thought: The Socialist Fellowship is composed of CCF m e m b e r s who b e l i e v e t h a t S o c i a l i s m c a n o n l y be achieved by the application of scientific socialist methods. Its purpose is to create an e f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l g r o u p who c a n h a v e c o m plete freedom in the expression of their ideas. It b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e p o l i c i e s p u r s u e d b y t h e C C F ,  de-  Soci alist  81 both domestic and Socialist Principles. The  Fellowship  they - acknowledged were  educated  and  uninformed  of  was as  the  Collection,  concerned  that  in socialist  the  with  rest  CCF  new  was  policies  feared  a  the  as  what They  CCF  were  that these  majority.  defined  and  reform.  r e c r u i t s to  become  further  on  liberal  principles; they  r e c r u i t s would  Fellowship  should  a direction' towards  further concerned  not  foreign,  The  follows  new  purpose (Maclnnis  30D-23):  to r e t u r n to the basic p r i n c i p l e s of S o c i a l i s m , t o s p r e a d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of them and t o u r g e t h e i r a d a p t a t i o n i n d a y to d a y p o l i c y and to c o - o r d i n a t e a l l a c t i v i t i e s of t h e Left Wing a c r o s s C a n a d a and d r a f t a c o m m o n p o l i c y of a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Organized itself  after  Party.  in a  of the  they  attempted  to  monthly  Fellowship  minutes  preserve  and  box.  the  had  They  bulletin, formed  a program  of study  their  in  an  (Maclnnis  the  they  patterned  British  Labour  anonymity  study  Education  members  attempted  area.  correspondence organized  Fellowship  w e r e r e q u i r e d t o be  Vancouver  outside  post-office  organization  m o v e m e n t , and  groups  the  short-lived  or the y o u t h  other  off  the  left-wing  Members  of the. CCF,  1950,  Fearing by  sent  to  reprisals,  leaving to  groups,  Committee  a  form  names  Vancouver produced  and  a  organized  Collection, 30D-23) (Table  IV).  82  TABLE  IV  E D U C A T I O N A L PROGRAMME P R O P O S E D BY THE 1. 2.  4. 5.  The March  national  21,  1951,  Socialist  Fellowship acting  emergency  meeting  conference,  expulsion  "the will  on on  the  not  be  the  same  the  a majority  1957  the  declared:  "that  organized  Labour  legislative  aims"  Committee, executive the  seminars  the as  day  CCF  at t h i s t i m e  policy  The  quit the  the  provincial called  an  two-day  Fellowship  Fellowship  of  or  Conference  Labour  warrants  method  executive  p r o v i n c i a l CCF,  conferences.  called  Ottawa,  of  was  of  the  formed.  conducted  convention  the  support  accomplishing  Collection, 32-9A).  Joint-Liaison Committee and  group  on  1 957- 1 960  Federation  the  statement  disband.  B.C.  representing of the  The  to  best  a  from  members to  vote  (Maclnnis  of  a  as t h e • F e l l o w s h i p ' s  CCF.  the  issued  tolerated."  instructions  from  with  CCF  activities  J O I N T - L I A I S O N .C 0 M M I T T E E . : In  1960,  of  instructing party  concluded  the  Council that  executive,  THE  FELLOWSHIP  E v o l u t i o n a r y L o g i c ( D i a l e c t i c a l R e a s o n i n g ) 3-5 l e s s o n s O u t l i n e s o f H i s t o r y ( P r i m i t i v e Man t o M o d e r n • N a t i o n a l i s m ) 10 1essons O u t l i n e s of Marxian E c o n o m i c s ( B a r t e r i n g to Modern Wager S y s t e m s ) 5-8 l e s s o n s R e p l a c e m e n t o f C a p i t a l i s m b y Non S o c i a l i s t S y s t e m s ( S o c i a l C r e d i t , T e c h n o c r a c y and W e l f a r e S t a t e ) 2 l e s s o n s C u r r e n t P r o v i n c i a l and N a t i o n a l P r o b l e m s  3.  face  SOCIALIST  of its  A Joint-Liaison Federation From  numerous  1958  and to  campaign  83 THE  NATIONAL In  COMMITTEE  195 8 t h e C a n a d i a n  broadly  based  (Morton,  1977, p.20).  later  that  Ottawa For CCF  people's  same  a  three  Labor  The  CCF  the  PARTY:  1 9 5 8 - 196 1  Congress  (C.L.C.)  proposed  which  CCF  embraced  and  the CLC  the  for the  program,  seminars  of the  CLC  and  and  Collection,  CCF  Party  Labour  in  (N.C.N.P.).  C o u n c i l s , and to  discuss the  of a proposed  s e c r e t a r y H. T h a y e r liaison  CCF"  established  meetings  and c o n s t i t u t i o n  the  "a  proposal and,  CLC  New  years, the CLC, the provincial  notes of provincial  Maclnnis  NEW  accepted  Committee  organizations held  Personal  THE  movement  year,  National  feasibility,  goal  FOR  New  Party.  summed  (personal notes,  up t h e  H.  Thayer,  30 E - 1):  We a r e n o t t a l k i n g a b o u t a u n i t e d f r o n t . We a r e t a l k i n g a b o u t a New P a r t y w i t h t h e b e s t f e a t u r e s of t h e C C F and t h e Trade Union m o v e m e n t (p.8). The Clubs  N.C.N.P.  to  Com m i t t e e Party two  tion  the  increase  recruitment  published  a  pamphlets regional  published  encouraged  two  monthly  conferences. study  guides New  In  trade  union  outlining  movement  CCF  took  clubs  delegates  utilized from  the  B.C. a t t e n d e d  The  six  New  as w e l l as  the  N.C.N.P.  the program  and  constitu-  study  seminars  guides  and  N.C.N.P.  Party  Western  by t h e CLC study  were  used  meetings. clubs  of the national  produced  a  Party  members.  conference  c l u b s , New  two  New  1960,  These  advantage  newspaper, and t h e l i t e r a t u r e The  non-CCF  January  Party.  Columbia  of  newsletter, produced  as d i s c u s s i o n p a p e r s f o r n u m e r o u s British  of  and o r g a n i z e d a n a t i o n a l  of the proposed  In  development  regional  New  and  guides  and t h e Party  N.C.N.P. and  conference  CCF on  84 the  desirability  THE  BRITISH  of forming  COLUMBIA  a New  Party.  COMMITTEE  FOR  THE  N E W  PARTY:  1960-1961 In  December,  provincial the  CCF  New  seminars a New  Party. in the  The  British  o f 1961  on  FOUNDATIONS:  Woods worth  Foundation  were  separate  funds  for socialist  a variety of The porated  of Labour  Columbia conducted  the  and  the  Committee  for  eight  regional  f e a s i b i l i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g  in  CCF  and  the  teach  courses and  educational  affiliations  pamphlets,  f o r use  education  CCF  but  the to  providing  c o n t r i b u t e d to  and  of  within  undertake  House  and in  for  British  of membership.  was  and  Woodsworth and  booklets CCF.  committed  Columbians, Over the  an  research  Publishers,  outside the  1943,  incor-  It e s t a b l i s h e d  activities. brochures,  founded  was  establishing  philosophy.  a v a r i e t y of  socialist  with  Foundation  purpose  Woodsworth  Foundation,  the  foundations  Memorial  for  produced  and  activities.  Woodsworth  to  Toronto,  Committed  e d u c a t i o n , the two  education  Boag  political  movement.  1944,  in  affiliated  the  Publishers  political  Foundation  sciences, economics  to  1961  were  educational  House  contributed  providing  the  institution  Woodsworth  The  Memorial  from  October,  social  1943-  in Vancouver,  Ontario  educational  of  Federation  Committee  sp#ing  Boag  for  B.C.  Party.  The  House  the  established the  EDUCATIONAL  in t h e  1960,  to  regardless  years the  CCF  85  received  numerous  variety  of  property  in Vancouver  in  to  trust  hoped  that  Britain  educational  establish a Labour  would  was  used  the  Center  of  a Labour  grants from  be  by the was  and  belonging to a  similar on t h e  for a variety  was  Mr.  activities. Alan  Center for socialist  College  plagued  College  Foundation in support of  programs  established CCF  the  to  Vancouver  realized.  was  education. L abour site.  of educational  with economic never  the  Boag  In  problems  1943 offered It  Colleges The  the  was in  Center  programs, and  a  but  vision  .86 CHAPTER  METHODS,  IV  TECHNIQUES  AND  DEVICES  _I_NT R 0 DjJ _C TJ_0 N During for  the  for  most  their  members well of  s u i t a b l e and  programs. in  using  settings. for the  range the  late thirties  In  conference of  adult  early forties the  CCF  the  most a  adult  provincial  to  education  and  the  28th,  techniques to  train  techniques,  as  methods for a variety Conference  representatives.  techniques.  searched  need  Education  familiarize  Provincial Council, November  CCF  education  education  appropriate  convenors was  adult  recognized  v a r i e t y of  1936  education  and  expedient  The  a  as i n c h o o s i n g  held of  the  the  The  was purpose  p a r t i c i p a n t s with  The  Education  1 936,  Report  a to  stated:  I n an a f t e r n o o n a n d e v e n i n g s e s s i o n , m e t h o d s o f carrying on educational work in the clubs, through study groups, c e n t r a l i z e d c l a s s e s , deb a t e s , d r a m a t i c s , s i n g i n g and visual education were discussed. The value of the r a d i o , the l i t e r a t u r e d e p a r t m e n t , and c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s were also considered. In classes  1939,  the  for the  propagandists (Maclnnis CCF  purpose both  Education  in  material  C o l l e c t i o n , 46-3).  adult  the  need  education  1948  the  to  and  During  understand  (Maclnnis national  Committee  of t r a i n i n g members in this  m e m o r a n d a , b u l l e t i n s , h a n d b o o k s and  stressed  In  provincial  the  two  educators  and  teaching period  methods"  the  national  correspondence  p r i n c i p l e s and  C o l l e c t i o n , 1 -1,  Education  "as  held  23-5,  Committee  courses  methods  30 D - 1 8 ,  stated  of  46-3).  (Maclnnis  87 Collection,  30 D - 1 8 ) :  At first t h e idea that there are educational t e c h n i q u e s which have t o be s t u d i e d and u t i l i z e d may. s e e m u n f a m i l i a r . Why n o t j u s t go o u t a n d preach socialism? . . . . We n o w r e a l i z e how much we l e a r n i n d i r e c t l y b y d o i n g t h i n g s , b y visual aids, by dialogue and drama, by e n t e r t a i n m e n t , b y s h e e r c o l l e c t i v e f e l l o w s h i p . T h u s , we must consider both t h e direct approach by books and s t u d y g r o u p s and t h e i n d i r e c t m e t h o d s l e s s f a m iii a r t o u s.  HOUSE  MEETINGS  The  national  and  provincial executives  d i r e c t i v e s on t h e r e c o m m e n d e d  format  organizing  were  the home  constituency  or  meetings  club, business  meeting,  and  to  program.  The  education  responsibility national the  the  in planning  encouraged  Those  to conduct  their  first  part  numerous  meetings.  part  to  of the  an  or secretary  education  usually  took  of the educational program.  The  stated  that  a l l our work,  every  the  second  chairperson  Committee  underlying  f o r CCF  during  f o r the planning  Education  motive  concern  devote  issued  club  "education  and should  meeting"  should  be t h e  (Maclnnis  be  primary  Collection,  30 D - 1 8 )  GROUP  DISCUSSION  The most  group  discussion  commonly  encouraged  Education business F ar m  Committees. meetings,  Forum  and  were encouraged and  films.  The  and  was  Group  the  by  adult  the  national  discussions  at special  Citizen's Forum  education and  were  meetings  broadcasts.  held  technique provincial following  organized Group  around  discussions  after the introduction of CCF gramophone provincial  Education  Committee  discs  conducted  88  classes  and  seminars  on  circulated  instruction  series  of  discussion  topics  and  questions.  The  national  encouraged club  CCF  either  formal  written  use  of  a  concern  to or  aided  an  by  reviews  the  on  clubs were  pamphlets  (Table  to  Education from  V).  organize  for  various  the  outline.  book  articles  or  area  Study  study  as  followed  a  followed  a  without  the were  community  groups  supplied  CCF  regular  groups  a  were  by  the  by  book  newspaper.  The  Foundation, the  a  groups  subject,  The  study  groups,  on  circulated lists groups. of  Committees  time  Study by  a  also  and  p e r i o d i c a l l y sent information  study  Maclnnis  groups  reviews  from  also  periods  groups  subject  book  as  study  study  Woodsworth  a v a i l a b l e , and  at  provincial  and  groups  study  policy.  Committees  suitable  produced  compiled  how  CCF and  educational Education  or  published  Committees  defined  informal  guide  of  Committee  and  CCF  a specific  aspect  study  and  group-discussion  Education  at a s p e c i f i c  study  and  supplied  Formal  while  clubs,  which  establish  informal.  discussions, produced  the  provincial  examine  provincial  which  to  publications  Literature  to  provincial  or l o o k e d  written  encouraged  and  outline,  p a r t i c u l a r book  group  outlines  The or  study  sheets  clubs  activity.  holding  study of  (Information  outlines books  outlines  the  to  and were  national  and  extracted  and  C o l l e c t i o n , f o l d e r s 23-5  to  49a-12)  89 TABLE V STUDY O U T L I N E S : 1 9 3 4 - 1 9 6 0  1934 AUTHOR P r o v . Educ.Comm. P r o v . Educ.Comm, P r o v . E d u c . Comm Prov.Educ.Comm. Prov.Educ.Comm, Prov.Educ.Comm P r o v . Educ.Comm P r o v . E d u c . Comm  YEAR 1934 1934 1935 1935 1935 1935 1935 1935 1936 1939 1939 1939  TITLE The Case f o r S o c i a l i s m 6 Lessons L e t t e r s t o Judd 19 L e s s o n s Chairmanship at Public Meetings Chairmanship at Business Meetings S o c i a l i s m and t h e Farmer I n d u s t r i a l Economics P u b l i c S p e a k i ng Economics f o r Beginners Proletarian Lessons Regina Manifesto H i s t o r y ( p r i n t e d i n CCF News) Elementary Economics 14 L e s s o n s  1940 AUTHOR P r o v . E d u c . Comm. Burrard Club P r o v . E d u c . Comm.  YEAR  - 1939  - 1945 TITLE  1 9 4 0 Hi s t o r y ( r e v i s e d ) 1941 War b y R e v o l u t i o n ( p r i n t e d i n F e d e r at i on i s t ) 1 9 4 2 V i c t o r y a n d R e c o n s t r u c t i o n 14 L e s s o n s  1946-1951 AUTHOR  YEAR  P r o v . Educ.Comm, P r o v . Educ.Comm, P r o v . Educ.Comm.  1946 1946 1948  P r o v . Educ.Comm, Nat.Educ.Comm. Nat. Educ.Comm. Nat.Educ.Comm. Nat.Educ.Comm.  1949 1950 1951 1951 1951  TITLE Information Period 3 Lessons What L a b o r G o v e r n m e n t s a r e D o i n g : Study K i t s on P r o v i n c i a l Program 6 Lessons E s s e n t i a l s i n Economics 6 Lessons The N a t i o n a l Programme 4 Lessons Domestic Issues 4 Lessons International Issues 4 Lessons S o c i a l i s m Today 4 Lessons  90  1952 - 1957 AUTHOR  YEAR  Prov.Educ.Comm. Prov.Educ.Comm. Prov.Educ.Comm. Prov.Educ.Comm.  TITLE  1953 1954 1955 1957  U n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e CCF Understanding Government U n d e r s t a n d i n g Our Economy CCF S t u d y O u t l i n e  6 Lessons 6 Lessons 6 Lessons 4 parts  1958 - 1961 AUTHOR  YEAR  TITLE  N.C.N.P.  1960  N.C.N.P.  1960  CORRESPONDENCE  COURSES  Numerous membership. isolated enjoyed  formal groups.  correspondence It  areas,  was  had  House  correspondence  three  lessons,  were  marked  awarded  a certificate  Collection,  could  offered  courses  These particular  that  conflicting  learning  Woodsworth  approximately  courses  recognized  who  self-directed  courses.  S t u d y P a p e r o n C o n s t i t u t i o n o f New Party New P a r t y f o r C a n a d a : S t u d y P a p e r o n P r o g r amme.  courses  months,  were  or critiqued, upon  produced  members work  make  for the  who  schedules,  for were  lived  in  or  who  use of c o r r e s p o n d e n c e  i n 1947 a s e l e c t i o n individual  of five  members  organized f o r a term  structured into and t h e C C F  completion  23-5) (Table V I ) .  were  and of  eight to ten  participant  of the course  was  (Maclnnis  91 T A B L E VI CCF COURSE I COURSE II COURSE I I I C O U R S E IV COURSE V  CORRESPONDENCE COURSES:  1947  CCF G r o u p A c t i v i t i e s W i t h i n a C o m m u n i t y E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n i q u e s In CCF G r o u p A c t i v i t i e s H i s t o r y A n d F u n c t i o n O f T r a d e UUnn i o n s I n C a n a d a A g r i c u l t u r e - B e f o r e , D u r i n g And aAf f+t°»• e r T TH h e IJayWar S o c i a l i s m With Freedom flnH  0  E_ _X_P_E R JJE _N J J _ A L _ L _ E A R N J__N G The  CCF  clubs  were  encouraged  tial learning or co-operative encouraged  to  projects.  Credit  and  apply  Co-operative  fulfilling being  activities.  theories  Unions,  Nurseries  educative.  and  Buying  i n d i v i d u a l and  to participate in experienalso  practical  Co-operative  Libraries  while  Handbook  were  to  encouraged  needs,  The 1948 CCF  groups  knowledge  Clubs,  were  group  Study  as  a  means  at t h e same  of time  stated:  While a study group i s i m p o r t a n t to p r o v i d e t h e basis o f i n f o r m a t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n i n i t s e l f will never produce a co-operative commonwealth. Thus the education c o m m i t t e e must devote at least part of i t s time to f u r t h e r i n g more active types o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r o j e c t s through which CCF members can begin to put their ideas into practice and gain experience in democratic techniques. At and  the  purpose  Groups  1948  of Study-Action  were  recommended  program.  The  relevant  social  priate  action  encouraged little  provincial Education  to  activity  purpose  Groups as p a r t  was  to  and  community  on  them.  become  The  involved  actually resulted.  was  Conference outlined.  the  Study-Action  of the provincial have  problems  the and  provincial in  education  membership then  take  CCF  clubs  experiential  nature  study approwere  projects, but  92 D_RAMA Both be  a  The  the national  valuable  aid in  provincial  promoting  an  cause  instrument  of  the  H andbook  the emotions  two  appeal  types  "As  a non-fiction  than  a  activity  particularly was  viewed  when  The in  were  a group  way  experience  in  public  speaking,  participate  in  group  discussion.  well  who  appeal  suggested  CCF  clubs could socialist  ma-  techniques to use,  members  or  The  Play-reading  who  were  had  limited  hesitant  PI a y - p r o d u c t i o n  and  to  drama  were c o n s i d e r e d t o be u s e f u l f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s ,  as b e i n g a m e d i u m The  provincial  Committee  from period.  promoted  and  Drama  t h e i r own The  drama  of  Branch,  districts festival  provincial  in  new  members  active with  groups  encouraged  Community  an  1937,  Drama  Department  drama  had  to  provincial  15  to attract  CCF  1934  post-war  into  the  the  play has a  CCF  discussion.  of aiding  always  more  a good  c o n s i d e r e d •good  f o l l o w e d by  "has  makes  national  which  activities.  justice."  play-production of  as a u s e f u l  groups  for  novel  to  championing  b o o k , so  speech."  activities  Handbook,  society,  a good  and  considered drama  pleading  than  of dramatic  Both  and  stated:  p a r t i c i p a t e ; . pi a y - r e adi n g terial.  CCF  criticizing  oppressed,  further  stronger  for  CCF  s o c i a l - e d u c a t i o n al  t h e a t e r , a c c o r d i n g to t h e 1948  been  to  and  and  British  Education  Drama  resurgence  in the  this  time  were  Columbia. created  In a  each  (Selman,  of these 1 976,  districts  being  1 937  the  School  and  and by 1 939, t h e p r o v i n c e was and  funds.  enthusiastic  a slight at  and r a i s e  as  divided  conducted  p.31).  E d u c a t i o n r e p o r t o f 1936  stated that  they  93 "felt  the  importance  socialist music,  not  economics, etc.,  Collection,  to  but  socialist plays.  with  four  (Arthur  of  wrote  CCF  Drama  participating. Turner  Papers TABLE  CCF The G i a n t K i l l e r The G r e a t Money T r i c k C i t i z e n No. 3' Underground  In CCF  1 935  clubs  activities during  the  the  of mid  the  -  of  study art,  viewpoint" produced  Festival  Table  VII  was  of  drama,  (Maclnnis a number  held  lists  in  the  of 1936  plays  1-15): VII 1936  K i t s i l a n o B e a c h CCF D r a m a t i c G r o u p S o u t h H i l l CCF D r a m a t i c G r o u p A d v a n c e CCF D r a m a t i c G r o u p PAC P l a y - r e a d i n g G r o u p  drama  Dramatic  the  medium  and  DRAMA F E S T I V A L :  Education  promoting  the  socialist  clubs A  encouraging  using  the  CCF  short  presented  also  express  45-12).  clubs  only  Committee groups. Section  1930's ( M a c l n n i s  circulated  This of  the  Collection  letter  a  sums  Education 23-5):  Comrades: T h o s e who have r e a d or seen the p e r f o r m a n c e of any of the n e w e r s o c i a l p l a y s will a p p r e c i a t e t h e i m m e n s e p o w e r o f t h e d r a m a as a f a c t o r in the d e v e l o p m e n t of p r o g r e s s i v e thinking. The Education C o m m i t t e e is extending its work to i n c l u d e a l l f o r m s of d r a m a t i c present a t i o n and i t s a s s o c i a t e d c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . Many i n q u i r i e s have been sent to Headquarters during the last few months regarding the possibilities of developing this branch. A number of isolated groups have been nobly s t r u g g l i n g to find some f o r m , other than the regular speech making, for presenting our c o n c e p t i o n s a n d i d e a s . . .. E d u c a t i o n Com m i t t e e ( D r a m a t i c S e c t i o n)  letter up  to the  Committee  94  RADIO The of  national  radio  and  as a c a m p a i g n  executive  provincial and  i n 1 948 s t a t e d  CCF  recognized  educational  (Maclnnis  the  medium.  Collection,  potential  The  national  30D-18):  . . . There has been a steady decline in the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f printed p r o p a g a n d a and meetings, both public and p r i v a t e . The CCF must therefore make i n c r e a s i n g use of r a d i o : 1) t o make known i t s views and p o l i c i e s to t h e public; 2) t o e d u c a t e i t s m e m b e r s h i p a n d s u p p o r t e r s ; 3) to keep i n f o r m e d of the opinions of others. A and  provincial  was  responsible  programs,  A  -  financial weekly the  end  M.L.A.'s and  for  was e s t a b l i s h e d  raising  members  funds to  articles to the CCF  Committee  RADIO In  Committee  encouraging  contributing Education  Radio  form  listening  newspapers,  in the promotion  regular  and  radio groups,  assisting the  of gramophone  discs.  PROGRAMS  1947  a n d . 19 48  assistance Vancouver  the  from  radio  provincial the  Boag  program,  1948  financial  problems  and  CCF  members  contributed  producing  the programs.  Mainland  clubs  asking  establish  listening  establish  local radio  A  them  groups.  producing  programs radio  Radio  Committee,  Foundation,  "Make  of  or two clubs  for  in 1933-1934  This  produced  Your  forced  Canada".  to  publicize  Rural  clubs  a At  i t off the air.  by - writing  memorandum  with  was the were  the  sent  to  Lower  broadcasts  and  encouraged  similar to Vancouver's,  programs f o r a short  scripts  with  while.  to one  In  95 1 953,  the  provincial  short-lived M.L.A.'s  radio  taping  to f i n a n c i a l B  Radio  Committee  program the  on  a  sessions.  once  Vancouver  Once  again  again  produced  radio' station, the  show  a  with  succumbed  pressures.  L I S T E _N_I__N G _ G R 0 U PS  •  In  1935  (Maclnnis  the  provincial  Education  Committee  recommended  C o l l e c t i o n , 23-5) :  For s u p p l e m e n t a r y material i t is suggested that clubs f i n a n c i a l l y able, could i n s t a l a radio in the club room, and invite all interested to be present when e d u c a t i o n a l t a l k s are being broadc a s t ; e a c h one s h o u l d t a k e n o t e s and t a k e part in the r e s u l t i n g d i s c u s s i o n . The CCF  clubs  local and  national to  and  form  CBC Forum  listening  groups.  stated  programs,  political  Citi zens'  (Maclnnis  Education  listening groups  c u r r e nt - a f f a i r s the  provincial  was A  1949  "The as  national  Collection,  CCF  radio  Citizens' Forum,  program,  recognized  around  Committee  an  Nation's  Education  programs,  Farm  Business."  excellent  basis  Committee  26-12):  Citizens' Forum broadcasts provide a useful medium for building local group discussions. They have the further merit of providing a regular opportunity of bringing people outside the movement into contact with our work by inviting them into Citizens' Forums organized by CCF'ers. Furthermore the D.A.A.E. (Canadian Association for Adult Education) is anxious that our people should make as f u l l use of the b r o a d c a s t s as p o s s i b l e , a n d a r e w i l l i n g t o p r o v i d e f o r a n y m a i l i n g p r o g r a m we m i g h t suggest.  urged  for  Forum The CCF report  96 GRAMOPHONE The  RECORDINGS  national  gramophone  recordings  discussion recorded  groups. a number  Knowles.  In  available  to  casts.  and p r o v i n c i a l  For  In  Education Committees  (discs)  to  1943, t h e  1946  and  provincial  1948 clubs  discs,  of  local and  underwrote  the cost of producing  the  Columbia  clubs.  M.J.  Education  and  Committee  discs  were  Cold well's taped were  1951,  The  listening  M.J. C o l d w e l l a n d S t a n l e y  clubs  fee.  Collection,  1950  by  five-minute  production  (Maclnnis  In  used  national  of discussions with  these  British  be  produced  charged  the  gramophone provincial  Boag discs  discs  made broad-  a  small  Foundation f o r use  produced  by were  48-10):  International Policy T a b o r Theory of Value CCF and Trade Unions C C F P o l i c y In R e s p e c t t o TJT P o l f e y  Agriculture  r  FILM The films,  CCF  for educating  attracting Films"  recognized the value  new  (no  Collection  party  members.  date)  made  members  A  CCF  the  of visual and  circular following  as  aids, a  entitled  particularly  technique  for  " L e t Us  Use  statement - (Maclnnis  24-2): Visual aids are essential to quick learning Films attract people from a l l walks of life and o f a l l s h a d e s o f p o l i t i c a l o p i n i o n Films impress because of their ability to f o c u s the a t t e n t i o n upon the s u b j e c t Films are a proven means of inducing d i s c u s s i o n , t h o u g h t and action A militant socialist movement cannot aff o r d t o be t o o f a r b e h i n d t h e t i m e s  97 During  the  Film  Committee  with  film,  camera  allowance,  of  that  the  was  a  n e w 1 y - e s t ab 1 i sh e d  number  of  and  spring  practical  establishing months,  proceeded  on  to  medium  of  great  The  political  experiments  a  short-lived very  make  C o l l e c t i o n , 23-8)  provincial  a  slender  working  in p i c t u r e s , a c t i v i t i e s of the  " (Maclnnis film  a  films  committee  recording  B.C  a  two  "During  this  by  1940's,  conducted  producing  crew.,  history  early  class  working  class  committee  felt  potential  and  stated  further: . . . no l o n g e r w i l l we h a v e t o r e l y o n f a u l t y m e m o r y , or s o m e o n e else's s t o r y of i t . P i c t u r e s w i l l t a k e you r i g h t to t h e s c e n e o f a c t i o n and in t h e f u t u r e , now that the Movement is securing m o r e a n d m o r e e q u i p m e n t , we s h a l l b e J o h n n y o n t h e S p o t t o r e c o r d w o r k i n g c l a s s h i s t o r y as i t happens. The entitled panying the and  first "First  was An  also  From clubs,  1948  of  a slide/tape  1951,  trained  the  In  Vancouver  Film  Council,  throughout  B.C.,  previewed  committee  which  production  Newsreel." film  An  described  was  "Bloody  production,  five-page of the  Film  1948,  and  sports  day,  Sunday."  The  entitled "Heart  a and for  promoted  of  described  films  for  classes  in  Committee joined  the  conducted  Film  compiled  followed  of  city.  the  films,  accom-  scenes  commentary  Committee  projectionists,  g r o u p-1 e ad e r s h i p s k i l l s .  the  the  slide/tape  Vancouver's  conditions  to  Class  on  accompanying  socio-economic  a  in V a n c o u v e r , s c e n e s of a CCF  pictorial history  Vancouver."  the  Day  was  Working  commentary  W o r k e r ' s May a  produced  Canadian  ten-page  second film  the  film  list  of  established the  next  Film a  Councils policy  three  for years  98 (Maclnnis  C o l l e c t i o n , 47-16): Policy of  1.  Film  Com  mittee:  1948  B u i l d up a c a r d i n d e x o f f i l m s s u i t a b l e f o r s h o w i n g by the CCF, and d i s s e m i n a t e this i n f o r m a t i o n to CCF units Begin operations in Greater Vancouver in order to gain e x p e r i e n c e and, i f p o s s i b l e raise funds, then expand Encourage CCF units to join l o c a l Film Councils and make use of f i l m s as a m e d i u m o f e d u c a t i o n and propaganda.  2. 3.  In  1949,  determine clubs  The  the  responded,  (Maclnnis  the extent and,  committee to by  circulated  which  films  1951, the  were Film  a  questionnaire being  used.  Committee  to  Eight reported  C o l l e c t i o n , 48-10):  . . . t h e r e s e e m s t o be l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e m a i n p u r p o s e of t h i s c o m m i t t e e , t h e use of f i l m s f o r s o c i a l i s t e d u c a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n , i s b e i n g fulfilled. Although a few f i l m s are u t i l i z e d f o r discussions with s o c i a l i s t o b j e c t i v e s , f a r more are used merely for entertainment and as a means of g e t t i n g people to attend meetings. The film In  Film  promotion 1953  the  Committee from  1948  gave to  considerable 1951,  committee disbanded.  without  time  and  apparent  effort  to  success.  99 CHAPTER  CCF  For the provincial world  MEMBERSHIP  is  and  concerns  programming. with  described  national  political  the  had  Each  the  early  were  principles  of d e m o c r a t i c  war  political  years of  aimed  CCF  definite five  the  was  organized  political  education nated.  became In  1 958  the  CCF  or  education  programs  and  an  offered  to  the  future during  to  From  place become  1 952 and  again  1958  educational  Party.  CCF,  and  to  to  to  the  throughout  the  e f f e c t on  the  membership. and  early course.  t h i s p e r i o d , and a greater  the  the  emphasis  efficient  1 95 7  evaluated  material  educational  political  political  1961  and  CCF.  post-war  an  A  corresponds  members  1 940  p o p u l a r i t y in the  once  From  the  the  educational  of the  had  their  economy  periods  concerns  less important,  popularity.  a New  In  d i r e c t i o n s ; to  party.  political  establishing  and  of  of  periods.  on  t h e ' new  were introduced  education,  effect  years  programs  p u l l e d in two  five  realities  educating  evaluated  plans  membership  political  realities  CCF  education  into  educational  socialism.  educational  Organizational  on  at  a d e c l i n e in p o l i t i c a l  1950's,  membership  falling  formative  programs  With  a  of the  and  as  1 9 3 3 - 1 96 1  p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s , the  g o a l s , d i r e c t i o n and  In  choice  EDUCATION:  purpose of t h i s study,  CCF  war,  V  and  membership  concerns  domi-  its decline CCF  for the  in  planned purpose  of  100 I - FORMATIVE This was  period in the  marked  by  rapid  growth  1939  saw  the  h i s t o r y of the  membership  education  the  of  and  in  clubs.  several  British  and  The  years  and  the  be  studied  the  growing  a to for  experimentation  techniques; by  1933  committees  and  to  Columbia  s o c i a l i s m and  standing  establishment  methods  material  CCF  i n t e r e s t in d e m o c r a t i c  formation  work;  educational  1933-1939  a growing  in CCF  educational adult  PERIOD:  with  development  of  number  of  formed  to  C C F c l ub s. In  1 933,  provide  several  educational  Education,  and  the  newly-established In list  of  1 933  the  speakers  clubs.  In  subject  areas  (Table  VIII).  the  Drama  CCF  Group  the  new  and  and  all developed  Committee  subject the  areas,  Summer  The School  programs for  on  for  study  Marxist  Educational  association for working dialectical  drew  a  the  by  the  League men)  on  report  of  the  Speakers'  Committee  summed  up  the  educational  philosophy  its first  year  comprehensive i t to  up  an CCF  economics  courses  (Maclnnis  materialism  compiled circulating  committee  recommended  groups  movement.  clubs.  Speakers  Workers'  educational  for  were  Literature, Newspaper,  addition,  Study with  programs  Speakers,  Committees  provincial committees  study  of  the  groups  (an  correspondence  to i n t e r e s t e d CCF dated  of  encouraged,  Vancouver  sending  CCF  outline  were of  the  clubs.  The  December  1 933,  movement  during  C o l l e c t i o n , 24-5):  Many of the CCF club m e m b e r s are p r e j u d i c e d against Marxian economics, without exact know-  101 ledge of what they are. As t h e o l d Socialist g r o u p s , out of w h i c h t h e CCF has e v o l v e d , based t h e i r i d e a s on t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f K a r l M a r x , and we have a strong group of Marxians affiliated w i t h us t o d a y , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e C C F club members should inform themselves of this subj e c t , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y may be a b l e t o c o m e t o a c l e a r v i s i o n of the whole matter, r e t a i n those fundamental p r i n c i p l e s which are of value and r e j e c t t h e i d e a s and t h e t e r m s w h i c h are no l o n g e r a p p l i c a b l e in our modern c i v i l i z a t i o n . TABLE  VIII  R E C O M M E N D E D T O P I C S FOR 1. 2. 3. 4.  7 . 8. 9.  There CCF,  British  was and  a growing by  1 934  Columbia.  speaking  was  organized; first  an  Summer  assisted  1933  S o c i a l i s t Economics A Planned System of S o c i a l Economy f o r Canada Monetary Reform S o c i a l i z a t i o n o f I n d u s t r i e s , P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s and Natural Resources Co-operative Enterprises Democratic Methods of Gaining Control of the Economic LifeoftheCountry E d u c a t i on T h e O u t l o o k f o r P e a c e a n d War u n d e r C a p i t a l i s m a n d S o c i a l i sm C u r r e n t E v e n t s : P a r t i c u l a r l y with r e g a r d to p r e s e n t day National E f f o r t s toward S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  5. 6.  the  STUDY:  the  In  i n t e r e s t in d e m o c r a t i c there  that  distributed o u t l i n e was School  year to  185  a  and  Committee  in  clubs  "Why the  on  public  classes  Join the  were  CCF";  Education  preparing  and  throughout  outline  speakers's  on  held;  CCF  course  clubs;  produced  was  Speakers  were  socialism  the  Committee  material  on  the  CCFnationalmanifesto. In 232  1935  c l u b s by  the the  p r o v i n c i a l CCF end  of the  year.  continued The  to  grow,  chairperson  reaching  of the  1934  102 -  1 935  Education  addresses  to  constituency Education study  clubs  and  Committee  ties  along  the  Education  with  attempted  carried  Committee  to  on  establish  the membership  and  approximately  30  45-12).  promoting  by t h e committee. two  short  College  in  a recommended  The  socialist  reporting educational  Labour  with  lectures  Collection,  produced a  200  in  i t s work  clubs  suggested  oyer  meetings  (Maclnnis  sixty-six  the lines  delivered  public  associations  groups,  supplied  Committee  activi-  In t h a t study  year  courses,  Vancouver,  reading  list  and (Table  IX).  T A B L E IX RECOMMENDED READING L I S T : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Shop T a l k s on E c o n o m i c s Wage, L a b o r and C a p i t a l P r o l e t a r i a n Lessons Economics f o r Beginners The C a s e f o r S o c i a l i s m V a l u e , P r i c e and P r o f T t S o c i a l i s m , U t o p i a n and S c i e n t i f i c T e a c h i n g s o f K a r l Marx . . '. Communist M a n i f e s t o . 7  Two 1 935.  major  The  first  current  issues.  outlines  and  being  1935  was  faced  the absence  Many  of  the  the  Education  Report  The  second  Committee  of a definite clubs  were  problem  CCF  asking  material, but the provincial CCF  formulated.  Education  problems  Mercey Marx Keracher Keracher Henderson Marx Engels Lenin Marx  was  in  p o l i c y on for  study  p o l i c y was  still  financial.  The  to t h e 1935 p r o v i n c i a l c o n v e n t i o n  stated:  T h e r e i s no s t e n o g r a p h e r , no t y p e w r i t e r , a n d no e q u i p m e n t other than a desk. During the winter  103 months work has t o cease b e f o r e dusk, owing t o bad lighting and e q u i p m e n t . And as regards f i n a n c e , r e q u e s t s were sent into t h e Finance and Ways and Means Committee f o r attention to l i g h t i n g , f o r r e q u i r e d supplies, and f o r c a r f a r e for a stenographer who.would donate her services if t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were paid. In study  1 936,  the  classes  were  continuing  the  committees. 1.  3.  In  an  experiment.  reported  that  programs  Education outlines  essay  that  thirty  the committee  established new  was  by  prior  educational projects:  A  Committee  and  contest,  continued  the distribution  and  co nf er e nc e » f or  1937 t o e n c o u r a g e  continued  education  the  of  the  literature,  Winter  chairpersons  the establishment  pre-  School was  held  and c o n t i n u a t i o n of  groups. In  looked the  January  1 9 3 8 , an e d u c a t i o n  at t h e upcoming  Winter  clubs.  School  Summer  and  " How  Education  a Speakers to Organize Committee  conference  School,  educational  In 1 9 3 8 a d e b a t i n g  continued, on  and  also r e p o r t e d three  the  of study  conducted  study  in progress,  educational  They  1 937,  paration  late  Committee  Winter School. A two-week Winter School was h e l d i n t h e f a l l o f 1 936. Attendance wasdisappointing. Centralized Classes. Centralized classes in public speaking and d r a m a t i c s were held, and c l u b s and d i s t r i c t s w e r e e n c o u r a g e d t o organize centralized classes, i f feasible. Education Conference. An Education Conf e r e n c e was h e l d on O c t o b e r 3 r d , w i t h 65 educational convenors and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the Greater Vancouver area attending.  2.  in  Education  team  Conference  facing  established, Winter  Discussions a  which  the  held, and a p a m p h l e t  and Conduct circulated  held  the accomplishments  problems  was  was  letter  to  Groups." all clubs  of CCF  School produced The listing  104 material  available f o r study  establish  a film  In growing  and  plans  were  Committee  concerned  disinterest in the available educational sent  Vancouver  CCF  made  to  library.  1939 t h e E d u c a t i o n  committee  held  groups,  a  questionnaire  clubs.  on F e b r u a r y  The  on  itself  programs.  educational  minutes  of  an  24, 1 9 3 9 , r e v e a l t h e c o n c e r n  with  needs  a  The  to the  executive  meeting  of the  Education  Com m i t t e e : It i s p o s s i b l e t h a t o u r m e t h o d s o f a p p r o a c h a n d m e t h o d s o f e d u c a t i o n a r e no l o n g e r s u i t a b l e t o the needs o f the Movement. To d i s c o v e r w h e t h e r t h i s i s so, and what o t h e r steps might be t r i e d , a j o i n t m e e t i n g o f d i s t r i c t c o u n c i l d e l e g a t e s was held this week, as a result of which a questionnaire i s t o be s e n t t o a l l c l u b s i n Vancouver. The  results  discussion The and  group  was  the the  subjects considered analysis  results,  of  the  techniques,  Manifesto,  held  a  School  Winter  expectation war  questionnaire most  Regina made  Manifesto. plans  designed  suggested  favoured  most important  the committee  educational  the  of  medium.  were economics,  history,  Encouraged  a  nightly  basis  by  these  t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s on  o u t l i n e on t h e  c l a s s e s on h i s t o r y and e c o n o m i c s , on  the  educational  to hold  a study  that  and  f o r two  Regina operated  weeks.  o f an a u t u m n . f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n a n d t h e o u t b r e a k  curtailed further  months of 1939.  educational  work  during  the  The of later  105 II - E X T E N S I O N Two of  PERIOD:  federal  international  delivery grams  of  education  population  1940  CCF  outbreak  of  Only  one  club had  to  School  attendance  recommencing an  upcoming  Education of  April  p o l i c y , and of  be  the  available  study  cancelled fell.  for  federal  provincial  election  1940,  lack  and  further  its plans  education  con-  the  general  platforms. election  that  program  year.  the  of  was  support,  the  profound  for the  future.  of The  disappointing.  Regina  programs  a  during  federal  e l e c t i o n , and had  pro-  the  on  Educational  after the  education  election  programs  outline  and  membership  introducing  in  period  content  of  Membership  II and  a  ideological  period  preparing War  in the  Instead,  activities  for the  Committee 27,  World  during  The  first  electioneering,  used  classes  the  decreased.  educational  enthusiasm  point  education.  its function.  with  to  elections  a turning  membership  extended  limited  lack  provincial  marked  dramatically  itself  The  two  characterized  period  cerned  war  CCF  that  this  and  1 9 4 0 - 1 945  Manifesto,  and were  Summer slow  likelihood impact The  on  in of the  minutes  reveal:  F o r f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n a l w o r k , t h e C o m m i t t e e i s of the opinion t h a t the i m m e d i a t e p r o b l e m is to i m p r e s s upon the m e m b e r s h i p the seriousness of the existing situation in Canada, and the n e c e s s i t y f o r an a f t e r - t h e - w a r p r o g r a m t h a t w i l l a v e r t d i s a s t e r and c h a o s , and t h a t w i l l a f f o r d a foundation for a co-operative society. The C o m m i t t e e a l s o h a s i n m i n d t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of an e a r l y p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , with the possibility that the CCF may be the next provincial government. The i m p l i c a t i o n s of such a p o s s i b i l i t y are f a r - r e a c h i n g , and t h e C o m m i t t e e w o u l d stress the urgency of education along the l i n e s of p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The  Education  Committee  also  examined  the  desirability  of  106 becoming  involved  education.  The 14,  education  to the  something  along  1940,  committee  Collection,  public  committee  December  The  in  reported  that  outside the  education  "there  as  well  to the  as  provincial executive,  exists a  need  for  public in a d d i t i o n to our  lines  produced  of  the  numerous  membership  U.B.C.  taking  membership  extension  pamphlets  in  our -  courses."  1941  (Maclnnis  46-5):  I n f o r m a t i o n on t h e C C F H i n t s on P r a c t i c a l P o l i t i c s H i g h l i g h t s o f t h e CCF i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e H i g h l i g h t s o f t h e CCF i n t h e D o m i n i o n H o u s e Discussion Groups "Skeleton'Out! i n e of the Rowel 1-Si r o i s R e p o r t Readers' Guide" In 1 9 4 1  the  responsibilities members out  to  along  and  as clubs)  lines  committee.  The  of  Committee identified  intensive and  n o n - m e m b er s). the  topics  Education  of  education  extensive Membership  the  (i.e.,  adopted  Committee  defined its  study  done  c a r r y i n g the  education  programs  Education  (i.e.,  and  in by  CCF  1941  idea  continued  the  recommended  by  previous  five  major  study:  The Rowel 1 - S i r o i s R e p o r t C a n a d a -- A m e r i c a ' s Problem The P r o g r e s s i v e M o v e m e n t s i n G r e a t L e s s o n s on E c o n o m i c s  Britain  P l a t f o r m o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l CCF During attention outline  on  on  1942  the  three  areas:  " V i c t o r y and  Education  Committee  concentrated  leadership training, preparing Reconstruction"  and  the  a  its study  production  of  pa m p h l e t s . 1.  Leadership Training Classes These classes included matters covering club organization, discussion group work, publicity, chairmanship and the  107  2.  preparation  and  d e l i v e r y of  V i c t o r y and  Reconstruction  talks. Study  Outline  The n a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n 1941 p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t was broken i n t o 14 s e c t i o n s , f o r e a c h o f w h i c h a d i s c u s s i o n o u t l i n e l e s s o n was prepared. 3.  Pamphlets  1942  1. 2. 3. 4.  Economics for Workers Meet the CCF C a n a d a on t h e M a r c h CCF L i t e r a t u r e C o m m i t t e e  5.  Agriculture  In of the to  Produced:  1943,  the  Education  Committee  Administration Committee  the  provincial Executive.  itself  into  sub-co m m ittees,  union  members  unions.  Few  half  1943,  of  conduct  Catalogue  and  The and  Education made  programs  because,  once  the  and  a  responsibility  no l o n g e r r e p o r t e d  an  educational  educational  became  were  again  Committee  attempt  work  directly  in  to  have  their  conducted  divided CCF  respective in the  a federal election  first  appeared  i m m in e n t. In  1944,  for the work a  being  extension of  new  Victory  Research  committees.  Campaign,  and  arranged,  taken  education  and  Committee,  now  were  saw  to  produced  shared Civic  the  Training  produced,  classes with  educational  Committee  needs.  speaking  in c o n j u n c t i o n  Committees,  Union  together,  prepared  Education  majority of  Organization,  Trade  pamphlets  Comm i t t e e . prepared  latter task  The  post-war  was  Literature  the  extension  Handbook  and  Education  education, the  Department,  membership were  the  a n t i c i p a t e d f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n , the  number  tions,  CCF  the  a  were Victory  several  with Elec-  and  the  party's classes members'  held.  The  Campaign  campaign  and  108  general 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  education  1945, t h e majority  activities  reduced. Victory The  However, Campaign  committee  constituency educational After  of  the  civic  also  members  were  elections.  As  Education  the committee Committee sent  examining  being  busy a  Committee  continued  a questionnaire  carried out.  working  result, the  were  t o work  in the production  association to determine work  C o l l e c t i o n , 47-6, 47-3):  Japanese  of CCF  f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and  regular  to  (Maclnnis  A CCF Qui z I Wouldn't Talk About t h e A Woman's L e a f l e t A c t i o n o n t h e Home F r o n t Cook Book M a r c h i n g Home t o W h a t ? In  in  pamphlets.  of  greatly with t h e pamphlets.  to each  CCF club and  the amount  and extent of  Nineteen  the results, the Education  clubs  responded.  Committee  reported  t h e 1945 p r o v i n c i a l convention: . . . we m i g h t as w e l l f a c e t h e f a c t t h a t o u r CCF c l u b s and r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s as a whole have not developed well rounded educational, programs. T h e y a r e slow to use t h e modern methods, radio listening groups, f i l m s , discussion groups, dramatics and cultural groups, and participation i n a wide range of community projects. We h a v e y e t t o l e a r n t h a t i f t h e C C F is t o a t t a i n f u l l s u c c e s s , i t must b e c o m e m u c h more than an e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . It m u s t l e a r n t o r e a c h a l l k i n d s o f p e o p l e i n a l l kinds o f ways.  Ill  - POLARIZED From  This  1946- 1951  1946 t o 1951 t h e p r o v i n c i a l C C F was p o l a r i z e d i n t w o  directions; socialist  PERIOD:  to  remain  education,  period  saw  a  political  or to become  the national  movement  an o r g a n i z e d  committed political  and p r o v i n c i a l C C F  prepare  to party. two  109 major  plans  Education  for  education  Committees  and  from  1949  to r e t u r n i n g to f u n d a m e n t a l went ing  on  against the  the  CCF  into  Three  Year  through  socialist  backdrop a  organization;  of  1951  education,  activities  successful  and  The  provincial  were  committed  an  aimed  well  activity at  that  transform-  organized  political  party. A the  years  the  N.B.  1 946,  was  and  initiated  1948.  April  1946,  by  the  p r o v i n c i a l CCF  Its o b j e c t i v e s were p.11  (Maclnnis  September  21,  1946,  discuss the  proposed  Three  conference  explained  that:  o u t l i n e d in  program  of  program  of  at a p r o v i n c i a l c o n f e r e n c e  Year  Plan, the  for  C o l l e c t i o n , 47-7):  Double Membership. Triple CCF News subscriptions. Maintain an enlarged and sustained education of the public. Maintain an enlarged and sustained e d u c a t i o n within our o r g a n i z a t i o n .  4. On  1947  bulletin,  1. 2. 3.  Plan  official  held  r e p o r t of  to the  . . . the s o l u t i o n or the a n s w e r to the q u e s t i o n as t o w h y a t t h i s t i m e we h a v e s o m e 1 5 , 0 0 0 e x members, is the f a c t t h a t they can not have been properly educated in t e r m s of socialist e d u c a t i o n , o t h e r w i s e t h e r e w o u l d s i m p l y be no question about t h e i r adhering to the workers' party. But the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m has been b a s e d u p o n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f w h a t was p e r s o n a l l y a g r e e d t o be t h e - m i n i m u m n e c e s s a r y , t o m a k e i t i n t e r e s t i n g f o r new members. In  this  post-election,  Committee  conducted  movement;  published  an  on  "Information  held  an  Education  evaluation  a pamphlet  a three-session course Period";  post-war  Conference.  CCF  on  of  the  literature  educational  f u n c t i o n s and  a Speakers The  year,  within  the  films;  produced  philosophy  entitled  Workshop;  Conference  Education  and  conducted  recommended  that  110 the  Education  socialist material  Committee  knowledge on  The  the  CCF,  Education  directly  to to  continued  attempted  to  recommend  the  the  current  the  all  current  membership  the CCF  listing  in  subjects  again  and  ceased  they  the  followed  in  explanatory  once  to  The  by  future  of  C o l l e c t i o n , 4 7 - 12,  year and  and to  to  committees. sent  province.  considered  be  Education  needs,  Committee the  reported  preceding  educational  Education clubs  (Maclnnis  1947  of  on  information.  Committee.  programs  material  philosophy),  Executive,  d i r e c t i o n s t o be 1947,  to  responded,  affairs  determine  June  tionnaire  and  Administration  Committee  In  and  provincial  the  educational  (economics  Committee  the  responsible  provide  a  ques-  Twenty-three  most  4 7 - 1 7)  interest (Table  to  X).  TABLE X 1947 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  TOPIC-INTERESTS  H i s t o r y and P u r p o s e o f t h e CCF Topics of Current Interest B a s i c S o c i a l i sm World A f f a i r s Provincial Natural Resources  The  Education  preparations year.  The  Convention an  EDUCATION SURVEY:  for  an  election  Education that  explanation  Collection, 48-3). Literature  Committee  which  Committee  its first of  CCF As  Committee  of  1948 seemed  reported  educational policy  to  a result the produced  concerned likely to the  objective the  of  with  for later 1 949 was  to  provide (Maclnnis  Committee pamphlets  that  provincial'  membership  Education  a series  itself  and  and  the study  Ill  guides to  on  the  current  a f f a i r s and  provincial Council  educational  CCF  on  policy.  November  emphasis for that  The  13,  Education  1948,  Report  expressed  the  year:  With two e l e c t i o n s in the next year, those p e o p l e who w i l l be d o i n g t h e c a m p a i g n w o r k , C C F m e m b e r s , m u s t be f u l l y c o n v e r s a n t w i t h t h e CCF a i m s and P r o g r a m . W i t h t h i s i n m i n d , we are preparing a series of study kits based on the Provincial Program. The topics are: Health, Monopolies and Cartels, Co-operatives, Agric u l t u r e , N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s and Labor. A 1949  p r o v i n c i a l and prevented  educational year  the  direction  1949  of  also  the  CCF  into to  was  that  the  Committee  from  first by  eight  year  set  the  first  months  a great  following.  of analyzing  1949,  create next  organizational  1949,  the  marked  existence.  for the  The  of  a path  October,  necessary CCF  on  for  e l e c t i o n in  half  of  conducting the  year.  deal of concern  about  Bitter  defeats  national  political  of  and  in  the  provincial  d i r e c t i o n and  future  organization. In  came  Education  was  election  Executives party  the  activities  The  federal  a federal  national which  the  National  The  national  a three-year  plan  f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n , and growth  Executive  along  issued  with an  Expansion  Drive  Executive that  would  felt  it  was  prepare  the  N.E.D. s t r e s s e d educational  Education  Report  (N.E.D.)  the  idea  development. in  stated:  Your committee is of the opinion that the proposed three year p l a n o f f e r s an admirable o p p o r t u n i t y f o r b u i l d i n g an o r g a n i z a t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y to p r o m o t e e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , and to b u i l d i t a s an i n t e g r a t e d p a r t o f t h e o v e r a l l work of the m o v e m e n t . In f a c t i t i s m o r e t h a n an o p p o r t u n i t y ; i t i s a n e c e s s i t y w h i c h we can no l o n g e r i g n o r e . For without a greatly i n t e n sified educational program we shall never be  October,  112 able to build e f f o r t s will not nextelection. The  National  Expansion  CCF  organizers  be  work  throughout  the  educational in  theory,  to  the  hired  with  provincial  other  recommended  commence  be  It  current  part-time  felt  that  "in this  i n t e g r a t e d i n p r a c t i c e , as  August  activity"  26,  Committee  that  that  o r g an i z a t i o n - e d u c a t i o n  was  organization  Council,  convention and  to  will  Organization  campaign  Drive  provinces.  activities  National  vincial  soundly, and our educational remain e f f e c t i v e even until the  the  affairs  1 949,  well  (Education In  1949  recommended  to  the  Committee  pamphlets,  as  well  as  Report  p.3).  Education  way  the pro-  produce  as  literature  convinced,  however,  for can v assers. The that  1949  there  was  committee to  as  on  them  socialist  seven  regular The  reflected  to  speakers  Education the  need  pamphlets  C l a s s i c s , " and  groups  column  Committee  urgent  the  economics  study  promoted,  an  reintroduced  "Socialist  promoting  Education  in  for  socialist  and  the  books  A  was  and  produced  classes  the held,  £££_ii£w.£  Report Education  to  the  education.  that they  six-lesson study distributed.  course. and  the  devoted 1950  Committee's  Open  for  ed uc a t i o n : When y o u r C o m m i t t e e was f o r m e d , l a s t August, controversy on the causes of the e l e c t o r a l d e f e a t s was p r o f o u n d l y a g i t a t i n g t h e movement. A general desire for a new approach was obvious. By m a n y s t a t e m e n t s and c o m m e n t s o f fellow members a revival of Socialist Education seemed virtually necessary.  were  wrote  socialist  concern  course  Forums  provincial  began  Twenty-  committee to  The  referred  Literature Department  membership.  undertook  the  was  a  theory.  convention socialist  113 The  direction  and  Education  Committee  took  under the  a t t a c k , as b e i n g  Organization  convention tial  in  commenced ruption A  small  of  Council any  there  a  Committee in  the  CCF  policy.  provincial past  year  however, discussion circulation for  two  not  among general  task  even  is the  survey  by 1950  influen-  before  without  from  we  inter-  an  and  only the  The  of  of  project preparation  clubs."  The and  program  grounded  accomplished  gramophone  by  discs  to the  point  of  on 1951  view  success." was  committed deal  November  10,  that  gone  CCF  to  Education  a great  of  provincial  The  educational  spent  The  r e p o r t s . . . but  acknowledged  1951  1950.  the  task  of five  an  they  elections;  a few  outstanding  minutes  educational  " i t is difficult  education  Committee  been  and  activity."  socialism.  "from  the  state:  o f an  that  The  "the  stage  to the  p o l i c y by  continued  1950  production  socialism  that  this  came  essential  Report  disappointing,  Committee  sessions.  education  c i r c u l a t e d in e a r l y  11,  Education  Education  of basic  planning  was  of  the  has  provincial  deemed  evident  educational  convention  The study  of  was  The  was  conclusions  "fundamentals"  committee  the  to  set itself the  the  been  designed  February  lack  of  has  clubs  province-wide  is  work  Education  and  returns  minutes of  1949  date."  CCF  of  has  anything  the  number  The  CCF  present  the socialist  to the  "disapproval  questionnaire  activities  draw  that  doing  to the  opposed  the  that  in promoting  Committee.  claimed  persons  policy  has panel in  1951  organization,  to  of t i m e  1951,  in  reveal,  beyond  discussions was  the  the for  preparing  fundraising  and  114 pre-election year.  It  planning  was  organization ship  was  and  wanted  CCF  and in  the  the  and  111 the  formed  intruded  educate  skills.  to  focus  majority  of  planning,  1 952  equip  The  the  strategy  the  to  committed  the to  However, the  national  to disband,  Education  Committee  and  the  membership  produced  and  two  and  by-  were,  current  with  by  an  the  literature  CCF  were  and  offered  preparations  explanation  was  policy  organization  that  campaign was  these  its first priority  programs and  and  s e l e c t i o n of  about  members  Committee  Elections  party felt  organization  returned  programs  activities  dominate  the  socialists  establish  liaison.  educational  literature  policy for extension In  the  to  on  1 95 7  educational  inform and  1957  The  was  function.  working  to  to  Fellow-  wing"  was  the  unofficial  movement  Fellowship  1952-  to  activities.  and  platforms  campaign  on  the  Organization  a  beginning  educational  tended  1JL1110 D:  the  programs  economics.  to  and  of  Socialist  Fellowship  ordered  1952  new  "left  necessary  it ceased  period  years,  The  activities  The  acknowledged  i t was  a vehicle f o r the  elections latter  A 111  a  direction that  Marxist  1951  the  CCF.  educational  believed  spring of  committees  the  of  of  that  the  the  provincial Executives  became  and  group  p r i n c i p l e s of  In  to  within  with  policy  and  I l _ - L _ .211A  and  atmosphere  developed  this  much  p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l i s m .  education, on  this  concerned  taking,  basic  in  occupied  of  and CCF  programs. p r o v i n c i a l CCF and  activities.  became Two  involved general  in  campaign  elections  con-  115 sumed  the  being  set  1953  a t t e n t i o n of aside.  The  the  report  provincial convention  activities  membership, of the  revealed  with  educational  work  p r o v i n c i a l p r e s i d e n t to the  state of the  the  educational  o f 1 952 :  . . . our a c t i v i t i e s of the past year were very inadequate in many ways. W h i l e we d i d w e l l o n t h e o r g a n i z i n g f r o n t we did not p a r a l l e l that a c t i v i t y w i t h an e d u c a t i o n program. This will have serious consequences i f we a r e n o t a b l e t o meet this need in the very near f u t u r e . Our g r e a t e s t n e e d i s m o r e p e o p l e t o do m o r e j o b s . We experienced great difficulty in getting workers for our various committees. As a result, little work was done about education, l i t e r a t u r e and o t h e r p h a s e s o f our w o r k . A  letter  education to  an  in the  sent CCF.  enclosed  supporting person  was  of  November  the  in  1953  to  the  Approximately  questionnaire,  educational  the  Education  25,  1953:  work  fifty  with being  Committee  membership  concerning  members  almost  100  c a r r i e d on.  reported  responded per The  in the  cent chair-  CCF  News,  . . . we h a d a r o u n d f i f t y l e t t e r s . Only one of them said Tn my o p i n i o n y o u a r e w a s t i n g your time.' The rest said 'Go ahead.' And they s u g g e s t e d t h a t we p r e p a r e m a t e r i a l o n a h u n d r e d and one things, from the Cameron Report to cartels. We feel the CCF w a n t s an Education D e p a r t m e n t , n o t an E d u c a t i o n Committee. The  Education  questionnaire  Committee  responses,  It  worked  of  leadership training conferences  under written study  with  the by  the  undertook  title  Organization  "Understanding  well known  groups.  The  CCF  to  1953,  by  the  two  projects during the  year.  Committee and the  members  response  of  and  this  inspired  to  conduct  it produced CCF."  This  was  designed  series  was  a series  six  booklets  series f o r use  was by  encouraging.  116 Orders  were  filled  follow  with  a  series of  The  Education  Economy. with  their  that  the  CCF  development  with the with and  the  however,  need  plans of the  previous  organize the  membership  The  1954  CCF  within the  involved  in  organization report known (Maclnnis  the  for  to  hold  a body  committed  to  once  carry  again  unanimously  as t h e  CCF  districts  and  Program  worked  wished  and  campaign  adopted  on  organization  provincial Executive  extension  The  activity.  regional  various poll  our  satisfied  Society.  attempted and  to  recommendation  intellectual 1954  laid  wholly  Fabian  committee  The  provincial Council  stated  in  Committee  conferences.  activities  the  were  Understanding  not  Canadian  within  plans  made  of c r e a t i v e and  Organization  was  and  a  and called  Committee  Committee  education  sets  booklets  Education  the  Report  1200  six  establish  saw  The  over  activities,  committee to the  for  to  to have  education.  a planning  for Action.  and This  Collection, 49-1):  . . . CCF s u c c e s s in S a s k a t c h e w n has demons t r a t e d t h a t o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n t o d a y m u s t be b u i l t in t e r m s of t h e e l e c t i o n f i g h t . That is i t must b e p o l l o r g a n i z a t i o n . W h a t we must have is. a nucleus of members in every poll in the riding, m e m b e r s who w i l l carry on t h e y e a r r o u n d j o b s of collecting m e m b e r s h i p d u e s and CCF News s u b s c r i p t i o n s , who will canvass and d i s t r i b u t e l i t e r a t u r e , and i n g e n e r a l , a c t as C C F a g e n t s i n their particular area .... We c o m e to the q u e s t i o n of e d u c a t i o n . . . . It means, in s h o r t , k e e p i n g u p - t o - d a t e on s o c i a l i s t t r e n d s and i d e a s a l l o v e r t h e w o r l d and s p r e a d i n g t h e m t o as w i d e a c i r c l e a s we c a n r e a c h ( p . 6 , 7 ) . Two of the  p r o v i n c i a l b y - e l e c t i o n s i n 1955  time  Committee completed  and  efforts  undertook the  study  of c o m m i t t e e three  guide  personnel.  projects series  consumed  for  the  Understanding  a great The  Education  year. Our  deal  They  Economy,  117 worked  with  the  Organization  regional  Conferences,  regional  conferences.  In study  the  manual  for  Education  Committee  guides  and  prepared  material  on  regional  conferences  finances. year,  but  Organization  The  and  committee election  and  workshop  campaign,  now  and  assisted  a  the  sole  election  the  use and  were  the  of on held  responsibility dealt  of with  plans.  election.  with  federal  at  1 95 7 w e r e i n t e r r u p t e d  federal dealt  use  conferences  during  various  agriculture  federal election  which with  promoted  the  These  activities  by-elections a  were  Committee.  educational  organized  Eight they  organization, finance  the  a  conducting  the  the  three  produced  in  1 956  educational during  and  Committee  The  organizing  policy  and  campaigns  committee  and  financing  platforms.  The  producing  four  by  pa m p h l e t s :  by  1  The C C F N a t i o n al P r o g r a m T l 1 u s t r a t e ci T a b 1 o i d "Share C a n a d a ' s W e a l t h "Tan You" Do A n y Better  V:  NEW  PARTY  The working  period  and  the  this  period  The  Education  had  an  1958  to  1 9 5 8 - 1 961 1961  relationship between  of Labor  as  PERIOD:  was  advisory  become  majority  of  Canadian the  a minor  at  Labour  during this  committee  educational  characterized  the  establishment  Committee board  was  CCF  the  Congress. of the this  time,  New  period  and  minimal  B.C.  The  reflecting  with  programs  and  by  a  growing  Federation  culmination  Democratic  Party.  functioned  mainly  the  fact  that it  programming.  seminars  of  were  The  conducted  118 by  t h e J o i n t - L i ai so n  B.C. C o m m i t t e e In  National  its  f o r t h e New  1958 t h e Canadian  established  lished  Committee,  Liaison  Committee  for the  New  and  Committee  and  the CCF  for  future  the  Committee  Party.  Department  CCF.  comprised  held  meetings  election  and t h e  and t h e n a t i o n a l  The  In  o f t h e B.C.  N.C.N.P.  estab-  and  education, relationship  Columbia,  a  Joint-  Federation  of  Labour  to formulate  policy  and c o n f e r e n c e s  platforms,  as t h e  working  British  CCF  known  for political  to establish a co-operative  labour  Liaison  Congress  CCF-CLC  being  between  Labor  Education  Committees  Party.  a joint  a national  goal  Campaign  policy  that  would  be  acceptabletobothorganizations. The  Education  objective  as t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  throughout various  the province.  clubs  socialist  The weekend and  policies.  was  associations.  programs Education  workshop  organization.  produced and  of study  A  leaflets  on  CCF  discussion  f u r t h e r urged a program  that the  of study  questionnaire  on  regarding and  Only  organizations  took  the  concluded  that  at this  time.  nine  Organization  that  year,  182  groups  clubs  i n 1958 to study Later  primary  CCF  Committee were  minimal  Committees the problems the  conducted of  Education  p r i n c i p l e s f o r t h e use of  assisted the Organization  ences.  and  its  to  within the CCF and  saw  circulated  t o r e p l y , and t h e 1 958 E d u c a t i o n  educational  1958  The c o m m i t t e e  and  education  constituency  of  and a s s o c i a t i o n s c o m m e n c e  principles  membership  time  Committee  Committee  with  a  education Committee canvassers,  regional  Confer-  119 In  1 959,  attention  continued  of  actively  the  CCF.  involved  organization.  liaison The  in  The  with  building  a  J o i n t - Li.aiso n  These  conferences  constituency  basis,  the  conferences.  urged  local  tees,  and  to  submit  committee.  The  Conference  stated  were  received  reasonable The  to  form  regional  requests  for  assistance  report  that:  view  from  "In  any  assume that  of  the  CCF  and  members  of  both  of  these  combined Committee leaflet  was  upcoming The  three  of  sponsored  Together  Committee the  programs  We  at  previous  the  B.C.  a  School  to  Win.  A  the  provincial no  letters  Committee, were  1960  were  education.  it  is  formed."  dominated  the  Labour.  The  of urged The  Candidates  this committee  period  provincial  to  promote  J o i n t - L i aison  and  produced  Joint-Provincial Election  and  CCF  Commit-  I 960  Federation  for  multi-  this  fact that  of  organizations  of  a  Education  Education  election  political  formed,  on  the  the  regional  up  local committees  general  concerns  of  local no  to  campaign  seven  Committee  to  Education  provincial  set  favoured  Education  organizations  held  the  became  provincial  Committee were  dominated  Committee  strong  pattern  The  unions  Joint-Liaison  conferences.  regional  the  a  Campaign  commenced  work  on  election.  National  Committee  national seminars;  clubs;  produced  guides  and  a  numerous  for the  encouraged  monthly  New the  newspaper;  pamphlets  (Table  Party formation  and XI).  (N.C.N.P.)  held  of  New  Party  produced  two  study  120  T A B L E XI N.C.N.P. PRINTED MATERIAL: 1960 National Leaflet Mimeographed A r t i c l e Study Booklet Study  Booklet  New P a r t y M o n t h l y  The  Newspaper  provincial  campaign,  was  time-table  of  Columbia the  " C a n a d a N e e d s a New P a r t y " "A C a s e F o r New P a r t y C l u b s " " S t u d y P a p e r On C o n s t i t u t i o n O f T h e P r o p o s e d New P o l i t i c a l Party For Canada "New P a r t y F o r C a n a d a : S t u d y P a p e r On P r o g r a m " Jan.1960 - J u n e - J u l y 1961  CCF,  unable  to  study.  up  give  In  Committee  CCF  caught  provincial,  i t s attention  the last  f o r t h e New  membership  in a  month Party  to  of  1 960,  was  f o r the establishment  the  struck  election N.C.N.P.  a  British  to  prepare  o f t h e new  political  force. The Party.  year The  weekly,  1961 was d e v o t e d B.C.  and  associations formation  focused  the  New  on t h e proposed  was f o r m e d  this  committee  These  the would  were  be  Party. a  way  It  resolutions convention. Party.  of  eight  held  Party  clubs  and  and  met  bringing  the  almost  Party, the  nomination within  of  the CCF  Committee of  f o r t h e New  Party,  and  in the Spring  of 1961.  the  for the  program  recognized  New  constituency  An E d u c a t i o n  throughout  also  the  Education  seminars  the proposed was  New  b y d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e New  New  conducted  of studying  New  the  b y t h e B.C. C o m m i t t e e  seminars  purpose  of  Party  to the founding  two  for the  business  was d o m i n a t e d of  delegates  Committee  largely to establishing the  province  and c o n s t i t u t i o n o f that  membership  these up  to  seminars date  on  121 developments held  in  stated  the  Party.  1961  were  and  nor  well  attended.  Prince  George  to  a  April  New  March  successful, Secretary  concerning  (Maclnnis Collection,  A  The  eight  neither  letter  from  organizer, dated  seminars  particularly  the  Provincial  April  28,  1961,  30E-4):  . . . The s h o r t c o m i n g s (of the s e m i n a r ) which you point out c e r t a i n l y show the i m p o r t a n c e of s t a f f work. Basically, i t is a matter of money. We j u s t d o n ' t h a v e t h e n e c e s s a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e facilities. I f r a n k l y a d m i t we a r e n o t d o i n g t h e j o b w h i c h s h o u l d be d o n e . Another Secretary  to  letter a  of  Victoria  that  same  month  CCF  member  from  said  the  Provincial  (Maclnnis  Collection,  30E-4): Your criticism regarding lack of information are well founded. We a r e u p a g a i n s t t h e o l d s t o r y o f so m a n y t h i n g s t o be d o n e w i t h so few hands. From Canada  July  adopted  operative  31st a new  to  Commonwealth and  educational  national  CCF  was  emerged.  4th  CCF  delegates from  Constitution, image  zational  P arty  August  Federation. effort  successful,  and  of  and The  name for the combined  organized  in 1961  across  the  organi-  labour New  Co-  and  the  Democratic  122 CHAPTER  VI  CONCLUSION  The the  present  CCF  change  in  study  British  in CCF  has focussed Columbia.  educational  on  The  content  research  and  of  examined  a  emphasis,  and  a decline  offered.  The  study  the number  in  a d d i t i o n t r a c e d t h e e v o l u t i o n o f a ref or m - p o l i t i c al  to  an o r g a n i z e d  this study  of  the  and c o m p e t i t i v e  has been  national  changing  by  the  decline  in educational  evolved  i n t o an e f f i c i e n t  CCF  EDUCATIONAL The  study  membership 1933  to  Columbia  were  marked  occurring  in  a  vast  The  educational  emphasis.  It  Organization, (Figure 1).  the  CCF a  The  questions  concerning  the  movement  party.  and  movement  of  later New  changed  years  in  on from  British  creative  activity  educational  projects  for the  an  deal  emphasis  of  saw  with  and  political  content  great  years  in the  Campaign  of Canada.  1933 - 1961  number  emphasis  to the  milieu  the provincial CCF  early by  adjusted  as a r e f or m - p o l i t i c al  that  within  later  was  and d i r e c t i o n  and o r g a n i z e d  concluded  The  of the goals as t h e y  are  EMPHASIS:  1961.  the  study  movement  Fundamental  political  emphasis  education  membership.  and  has  party.  provincial CCF  economic  raised  political  an e x a m i n a t i o n  and  social,  questions  programs  has  education  in  into  of educational  membership  a  political  party  replacing  and  campaign  organization  years Party  that  the  needs  Committees  of the  dominated  123 FIGURE 1 EDUCATIONAL EMPHASIS: 1933-1961 I  Formative Period: 1933-1939 Political  Movements  Ideological  Education Committee  P o l i t i c a l Gains Actualized II  Education  Extension Period: 1940-1945 P o l i t i c a l Party  -> Administration Committee  Major P o l i t i c a l Threat III  IV  Current A f f a i r s  i  Education  Education Committee  P o l a r i z e d Period: 1946-1951 Movement-Party  > Organization Committee  Evaluation o f Direction  Education Committee  ;  — > Current A f f a i r s and ^ Ideological Education  Organization P e r i o d : 1952-1957 P o l i t i c a l Party  Org. & Camp . Committee  Campai gn  P o l i t i c a l Setbacks  Education Commi t t e e  Education  P o l i t i c a l Party  New Party Committee  Changes & Reorganization  Education Comnittee  Education for a New Party  New Party Period: 1958-1961  124  The  question  now  membership  education  years?  explanation  The  membership concerns  became  education  of the  obligations,  as  be  raised  less  is that  was v e r y  CCF  and  must.  of  the  a  as  priority  content  much  to  why  CCF  in the  later  and  emphasis  i n f l u e n c e d by the  m ove m ent-party i t responded  as i t m e t  to  a  on  political  i t s political  constantly  changing  environ ment.  REFORM A  MOVEMENT dilemma  that  r e f or m - p o l i t i c al movement The  seeks  political  A reform  - POLITICAL faced  and  to reform  and  to  majority.  The  to enact  change  achieves  propaganda.  a political  A  method  change  expedient  t o do  movement  and  so.  a  adheres  party.  the  people  a  i t was  both  A  reform  prevailing society. electoral victory. to the necessity of  itself  with  appealing  no n-r evol uti o n a r y  movement  education, through to  a  and  political  campaigning stated  political  a  and  ideology  party  will  or make  party  a  major  is that  distinction a reform  between  movement  a c o m m i t m e n t to a s t a t e d i d e o l o g y , and a belief i n education the  vehicle to enact  a  to i t s goals i f it.feels i t is politically  Therefore,  a political  that  hand, seeks  results  comparison,  and changes  was  political  is through  movement in  DILEMMA  party concerns  i t s desired  Weltanschauung; adaptations  a  needs to educate  whereas  party  CCF  p a r t y , on t h e o t h e r  change,  chooses  the  movement  movement  the  PARTY  change.  a has as  125 The  CCF  prevailing  was  social  and  was also a p o l i t i c a l pursuing  and  legislation majority  adopting  present  education  in  examined  concerns  study  British  concluded with  chronological CCF  The  Columbia  needs.  decline  CCF  The  research  instead  concerns.  and a l t e r e d i t s o r i g i n a l  appeal  to a larger segment  study  their  that  early distinct  education  a definite occurred  the movement  deby  charac-  i t s attention to made  Manifesto  another  in order to  of the voting population.  h i s t o r y o f t h e C C F i s t h e h i s t o r y o f a r e f or m - p o l i t i c al to  electoral  In f a c i n g t h i s  system.  statement a  The  membership  to turn  ideological  the  emphasis  five  In 1 956 t h e C C F  movement- coming  as  over  membership  from  programming  diminished  i t was  of the provincial  identified  concluded  of educational  change  The  deviated  the  party.  1961.  and c o n t e n t  CCF  choosing  found  CCF  to  the  from  change  traced  the  It was  support  and  1933  CCF  enact  of a political and  the  The  its educational  from  at t h a t t i m e  and p o l i t i c a l  to  movement  adapt  lost  analyzed  that  to educate;  campaign  CCF  periods with r e s p e c t to. CCF  and  teristic  gical  the  CCF to  it  education.  political  emphasis 1952.  The  survival  change,  opposed  to the process of  necessary, i t had to have  the educational emphasis  and  and  For  instead, the characteristics  The  CCF,  was c o m m i t t e d  votes.  population.  with  that  structures of Canada.  party that  for political  and  movement  economic  i t deemed  necessary  reform  winning  of the  years;  a  major  grips  or Manifesto,  aspect  of  the  with  and  the  political  reality ceased  movement.  reality  of the  i t altered its ideoloto rely The  on  education  de-emphasis  on  126 education in  by  1 956,  CCF  mark  was  extent  both  It within  a turning  conducted  a  responsibilities  many  election time B.  A of  in  a  part  of  within volunteer  whether  great  factors  decline  hardworking  party  expertise, and  a hazard hold to  of i t s  of  time  volunteer  responsibilities.  drawback  a f f e c t i n g the  the  turnover  education  appointed and  this  of  chairperson.  each had  year a  It  must  is the  fact  often  becomes  the years,  a  demands  of  limited  the  tasks.  serious  the  and  As  job  later  various  elsewhere.  Further,  p a r t i c u l a r l y in the  available for other  was  jobs  years,  tasks  manner. work  was  the with  their  volunteer  Comm ittee  CCF  members,  handled  CCF  Over  industrious  full the  provincial  workers.  Education  years),  a  EDUCATION  in the  the  of  was  The  emphasis.  a creative  other  energy  particular  war  and  campaigns,  the  person  corps  commitment  Turnover  played and  volunteers  to  and  a l t e r e d to  in t h i s study  examine  however, that  secondary  party having  to  educational  a  as a m o v e m e n t .  ideological components.  education  dedicated  noted,  Manifesto  Aspect  by  of  CCF  MEMBERSHIP  programming  Membership  result,  and  p r o v i n c i a l CCF  Volunteer  that  point for the  Regina  AFFECTING  is important  levels  p o p u l a r i z i n g of the  a political  FACTORS  educational  be  the  its educative  the  these  and  by t h i s t i m e  INTERNAL  A.  1 952,  (with  educational committee A one  deleterious  new  programming  volunteers, education  exception effect  chair-  during on  in  the  program  127 planning person  and  continuity.  and  committee  accomplished done,  and  1 953-  54  Each  by  how  the  attempted previous  to  go  about  summed  up  the  Provincial  year  the to  new assess  committee,  it.  The  problem  education what  what  her  had  been  needed  education in  chair-  to  be  chairperson  for  report  to  the  1954  Convention:  F i r s t , you f i n d out what has been done b e f o r e . You hunt t h r o u g h f i l e s and s h e l v e s . You ask. A g r e a t d e a l has been done b e f o r e . The CCF has a l w a y s t h o u g h t t h a t e d u c a t i o n was i m p o r t a n t . . . . B u t on t h e s h e l v e s o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l O f f i c e all t h a t is l e f t is a heap of m i m e o g r a p h e d sheets on a s s o r t e d s u b j e c t s . S o m e o f i t i s o u t o f d a t e . S o m e o f i t i s v e r y o b t r u s e and d i f f i c u l t to r e a d . We r e a d t h r o u g h i t a l l , t o s e e w h e t h e r we c o u l d o r s h o u l d r e - i s s u e . F i n a l l y we p u t i t b a c k i n t h e f i l e s and s t a r t e d a l l o v e r a g a i n .  J X T j i R N A L _ F A C T O RS The  CCF  came  into  a  period  of  depression, economic  hardships.  political  parties  questioning  the  environment, political ers'  intellectuals  operative  MEMBERSHIP  existence high  future  growing, of  various reform  labour and  Manifesto  and  adherents and  Commonwealth  goal. for  an  unemployment  D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with was  EDUCATION  during  and  capitalist  international  and  the  many  two  social  and  traditional  Canadians  democracy.  were  Within  this  m o v e m e n t s c a m e t o g e t h e r to form  p a r t y to c h a l l e n g e c a p i t a l i s m .  groups,  common  AFFECTING  Politically  socialist of The  the  parties, social  goal  Canada.  was  radical  gospel to  active  a  farmeastern  adopted  establish a  a Co-  128 I - FORMATIVE  PERIOD:  IDEOLOGICAL A the  great  were  responded  to  the  with  Numerous  these  clubs  provided  These  early  members  philosophical  Regina socialism content  as of  revolved  policies  of  (Figure  have  an  into  CCF  socialist of  to  socialism,  during  explanation  of  the  to  1930's,  educational  have  policy.  Formative in  As  the  Period  of  result, very  and  on  EXTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING MEMBERSHIP EDUCATION I - FORMATIVE PERIOD: 1933-1939 ^-  CCF P o l i t i c a l Reality Raison d'etre  Post Depression  Ideological Education (Marxian Economics)  Defining CCF P o l i c y  High Unemployment  E x p l a i n i n g Manifesto & CCF P o l i c y  Greatest Ideological Distinctiveness  S o c i a l & Economic Hardships  Experimentation with Educ. Techniques  P o l i t i c a l gains & success  Numerous Educational programs f o r members  Dramatic growth i n popularity & clubs  Labour Confrontations (B.C.)  Outbreak of W.W.  II  the  Marxian  2).  Education  the  much  FIGURE 2  Socio-Economic Factors  and  democratic  particular  Manifesto;  of  economic  of a  The  programs.  knowledge  explanation  Regina  analysis  the  understand  ideology, the  in  with  parties,  socialism.  ideological  formed  range  unhappy  traditional  democratic  anxious  to  two  and  clubs  wide  it translated  around  of  economic  were  education  economics;  ideology  a  and  Canadians,  p o l i c i e s of the  CCF  roots  Manifesto,  disenchanted  an  capitalism.  and  of  economic  attracted  CCF  EDUCATION  number  s o c i a l and  1 933- 1 939  CCF  129 II - E X T E N S I O N CURRENT The first Two  PERIOD:  1940-1945  AFFAIRS  EDUCATION  ideological content  period  was  dramatically  federal  and  two  period  created  a  rising  CCF  political result,  need  to  f o r c e in three  educational  dealt  post-war with  political  the  and  education  CCF  World  as  stood  for,  as  period  was  a  nationally.  As  centered  on  current  and  with  and  was  for  the  during t o be  few  and  exceptions for  general period  the  public. to  be  successful (Figure  3).  FIGURE 3 II - EXTENSION PERIOD: 1940-1945 Socio-Economic Factors World War II Growth i n B.C. Trade Unionism  Education  ^  Current A f f a i r s Education Trade Union Education  CCF P o l i t i c a l Reality Pre-occupation with 2 f e d ' l & 2 Prov'l elections 1941 - win m a j o r i t y i n B.C. 1943-win major gains i n Ontario  Period o f S o c i a l & economic u n c e r t a i n t y Planning f o r post-war re-construction  Explaining CCF P o l i c y to p u b l i c and Trade Unions Extension Education deemed important  a  affairs  produced  this  of  major  necessity,  Literature  was  year  during this  well  II.  five  a  platforms,  CCF  a  CCF  the  War  deemed  recognized  n e c e s s i t y i f the  the  realized it  was  candidates, was  what  literature  p o l i c y and CCF  during  It was  provinces,  reconstruction.  CCF  membership, Extension  world.  education  programs  changed  explain  popularity that  extension  e d u c a t i o n a l programs of  provincial elections during  particularly for a post-war  and  of the  1943-Gallop p o l l ahead o f L i b e r a l s & Conservatives 1944 - formed Saskatchewan government  a  )  130 III  - POLARIZED  PERIOD:  1 9 4 6 - 1 951  I-D E 0 L 0 G I C A L - C U R R E N T The in  post-war  national  p r o v i n c i a l CCF  CCF  educational  of  turning  point.  concentrate  It  was  Would  on  with  during and  its educational current  affairs  CCF.  The  CCF  remain  education; and  a political  party. As  decline  period  marks  an  in  or  a  become  CCF  attempted  This is very  and  competitive campaigns?  t o be  both  a  much r e f l e c t e d in  a result, ideological education  distinguish this  the  important  movement  move-  r e s u l t e d in a p o l a r i z a t i o n developing  within  provincial Education  Committee  for  national  and  executive  provincial efficient  and  CCF  period.  and  This  ideological education  an  This  a  a political  providing  developing  brought  skills for election  that the  education  period  programming  expertise  projects.  EDUCATION  popularity.  this period  ment-party conflict the  the  membership  party  movement  reconstruction  and  history  political  and  AFFAIRS  the  organized  was  committed  membership, were  political  to  while  the  committed  to  party  (Figure  4).  FIGURE 4 III - POLARIZED PERIOD: 1946-1951 Socio-Economic Factors Post-war & re-construction S o c i a l & economic s t a b i l i t y returns "Cold-War" period  Education  £  Ideological Education Current A f f a i r s Education Planning f o r the future P u l l i n two d i r e c t i o n s : Education-Organization  CCF P o l i t i c a l Reality Decline i n Federal Popularity C o a l i t i o n government in B.C. Social L e g i s l a t i o n becomes e s t a b l i s h e d federal p o l i c y  131 I V - 0 R G A _N II A TJ. 0 _N_P_E R I 0 D: CAMPAIGN The this  programs  the  programs  method  of  content  to work  changed, conducting  of  membership  concerned  Election  ceased  dominating  and  became  organization.  of  EDUCATION  emphasis  period  1 952-1957  periods  exist, and and  a  planning  duties  became  educational programs.  These  and  and  education  and  conferences  during  skills  when  membership.  were organized f o r policy development, campaign  time  election  of the  area  campaign  were  with  time  with  education  concerns  The  format  the  popular  conferences  for organization  and  ( F i g u r e 5).  FIGURE 5 IV - ORGANIZATION PERIOD; 1952-1957 Socio-Economic Factors  "Cold-War" period Korean War Prosperous f i f t i e s High employment Competition with u n i v e r s i t i e s & other agencies as s u p p l i e r of adult education  Education  <:  Education f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n and campaign s k i l l s Education Committee becomes a minor comnittee  Educ. Comnittee responsible to Organization Comm.  CCF P o l i t i c a l Reality Decline i n P o p u l a r i t y Federal & P r o v i n c i a l E l e c t i o n s dominate concerns o f CCF De-ideolization of Manifesto (1956)  Need to counter Social C r e d i t  132 V - NEW  PARTY  PERIOD:  1 958- 196 1  IJ21 £ A TJ.0 N _ F 0 R _ C H _ O G _E  The centered  educational on  change  educational  programs  and r e o r g a n i z a t i o n  programs  were  mittee,  and  the  function  steadily  declined.  Various  were  established from  objective  and  a  by  New  outlines  New  Party.  Party  and  Liaison  New  Party  this  of the CCF. by  and  the of  New  period  Very  Education this Party  Their goal  and e d u c a t e  Education  during  activities  to the necessity  seminars,  and a New  organized  1958 to 1961.  was t o c o n v i n c e  labour - movement  offered  and  Com-  committee Committees educational  the membership  and t h e  o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a new  during Party  this  period  literature,  newspaper  was  New  few  image  dominated Party  study  (Figure 6).  FIGURE 6 V - NEW PARTY PERIOD: 1958-1961 Socio-Economic Factors Decline i n P o p u l a r i t y Prosperous period High employment Numerous s o c i a l welfare l e g i s l a t i o n enacted  ^  Education  ^  New Party Education CLC P o l i t i c a l Educ. National Committee f o r New Party - Education Committee  B.C. Committee f o r New P a r t y - Education Comm.  CCF P o l i t i c a l Reality 1958 - CLC votes f o r co-operation with CCF CLC-CCF decide t o e s t a b l i s h new party New Party CCF-LABOUR L i a i s o n 1961-Membership votes f o r "New Party" N.D.P.  133 The years,  CCF  movement  recognizing  membership. years  Major  swayed  post-war  years  the  "Cold-War" from  and  was  s u c c e s s f u l , and  and  British  opposition  a time  1933  victory,  the  CCF  electioneering of  national  and  democratic co-operative  image.  "modernized"  or  Principles  ism,  was  promised into the  freedom.  From  a  emerged was  1937,  and  from  in  produced.  to  1956, and  n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and  1958  popular to  and 1961  the  close  to  improve  its  must  shed  on  votes  analyzing  that if  t h e i r old was  Declaration from  platform and  to  their  Manifesto  eradication  concerted  other  placed  conclusion  shifted  vague a  in  Winnipeg  CCF  With  so  enough  Regina  the  political  of  was  of  to the  the  effort  downgrading  leadership, came  In  possibility  to  Emphasis  survive, they  The  real  to  winning  CCF  once  1961.  coming  led  work. the  very  to  encouraged  turn  With  emphasis.  official  1941  In  to  1961.  the  the  as  swayed  organizational in  CCF  The  updated,  more  major  faced  CCF  educational  the  and  In  the  education.  This  were  and  to  provincial defeats, socialism  war  its commitment  educational  government.  education,  the  polarized  increasingly  campaigning  during  was  government.  tactics. its  canvassing,  was  gains  to i t s  thinking  Party  to  provincial  the  and  in i t s e a r l y  democracy  a f f l u e n t f i f t i e s , the  a New  the  which  when  Columbia,  from  social  extension  early sixties  forming  form  successes  provincial election they  aspects  explain  towards  the  educational  i t s o r i g i n a l i d e o l o g i c a l and  late fifties  each  to  d i r e c t i o n and  the  In  need  CCF  were  political  avowedly  political  the  CCF  again  the  was  of  a  platform  of  capital-  of e q u a l i t y well  and  planned  134 effort  was  adoption  o f a New  The  on  emphasis  occurred  on  socialism  as  did not  education. a result  and  for the  Canada.  in  consciously  British  political  decrease  a political  party.  or  party  its  coming  to  process.  It  with  adopting  In c h o o s i n g  component,  i t s goal  movement of  into  i n ed uc a t i o n a l  of the electoral  education;  to reach  education  The decrease  of a  nature  of i t s educational  in  voted  the evolution - of a movement  CCF  of a political  in order  membership  membership  of remaining  reform  characteristics much  The  the competitive  the choice  identity  CCF  membership  with  emphasis  lost  on  party.  emphasis  had  the  t r a c e s and parallels  political  terms  and  Party.  research  Columbia a  successful,  a  major  the  major  the latter, i t  adopting  of establishing  a  political democratic  135 BIBLIOGRAPHY A.  PRIMARY SOURCES  SPECIAL COLLECTIONS LIBRARY U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A I.  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