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Changing behaviour patterns of disadvantaged unemployed youth through an intervention strategy using.. Long, Frances Jackia 1987

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CHANGING BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS OF DISADVANTAGED UNEMPLOYED YOUTH THROUGH AN INTERVENTION STRATEGY USING COMPUTER-BASED TRAINING TECHNIQUES By FRANCES LONG B.F.A. in Fine Arts, N.S.C.A.D., 1976 B.A. in Art Education, N.S.C.A.D., 1976 B.F.A. in Fine Arts and Education N.S.C.A.D., 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1987 (£> Frances LONG, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Administrative/ Adult and Higher Education The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date April 01, 1987  DE-6(3/81) ABSTRACT This thesis is concerned with changing behaviour patterns of a number of unemployed disadvantaged youth associated with an intervention strategy called Career Start. Career Start uses computer-based technology in its instructional program, which attempts to address simultaneously three significant barriers to youth employment. These barriers are grade level attainment, low self-esteem, and destructive attitudes towards work. The participants in Career Start numbered 169 youths between the ages of 15 and 24. All had been classified as severely employment disadvantaged by the classification methods of Employment and Immigration Canada. The youths were interviewed to ascertain specific background characteristics and the reasons why they were unemployed. They were also tested before and after participation in the program to determine whether or not barriers to employment had been reduced. There was some evidence of improvement in academic scores, primarily in the language and mathematics areas. In addition, there was a reduction in the barriers to employment as measured by the Vocational Opinion Index. The Culture Free Self-Esteem Index also showed that the self-esteem of the participants was raised after participation in the program. ii The employment objectives of Employment and Immigration Canada were also taken into consideration during the study. During the first year the objectives were exceeded by 36 percent of the subjects and, during the first nine-month period of the second year, the objectives were again exceeded. Data were statistically analyzed using the Chi-square Test for Independence, the Non Parametric Sign Test, cross-tabulations, and frequency tables. The study indicated that Career Start had the potential to be a successful intervention strategy in addressing the problems of unemployed and disadvantaged youth. The research also generated a number of related issues in need of further study. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS PRELIMINARY MATERIALS PAGE ABSTRACT ii TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF TABLES viACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION 1 A. PURPOSE 5 B. RATIONALE 7 C. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 9 D. DEFINITION OF TERMS 10 1. CAREER START PARTICIPANTS 12. COMPUTER BASED TRAINING 2 E. RESTRICTIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF STUDY 14 1. RESEARCH 12. CONFLICT OF INTEREST 15 CHAPTER TWO - REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 16 A. INTRODUCTION 1B. YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT 17 C. DISADVANTAGED UNEMPLOYED YOUTH 23 D. ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND EMPLOYABILITY 32 E. ATTITUDES TOWARDS WORK AND EMPLOYABILITY 37 F. SELF-ESTEEM AND EMPLOYABILITY 39 G. INTERVENTION STRATEGIES 43 i v TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTINUED PAGE H. INTERVENTION STRATEGIES - INCREASING 49 EMPLOYABILITY OF DISADVANTAGED UNEMPLOYED YOUTH I. SUMMARY 57 CHAPTER THREE - METHODOLOGY 58 A. DESIGN OF THE STUDYB. THE INTERVENTION STRATEGY - CAREER START 60 C. METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION 68 D. METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS 72 CHAPTER FOUR - DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE 74 A. CHARACTERISTICS OF APPLICANTS TO CAREER START 74 B. BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT PRESENT IN THE SAMPLE 82 C. NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS PRE-TESTED AND POST-TESTED 96 CHAPTER FIVE - RESULTS 98 A. DEGREE OF SUCCESS CROSS-TABULATED WITH PARTICIPANT 98 CHARACTERISTICS AND BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT B. DEGREE OF SUCCESS CROSS-TABULATED WITH THE 109 CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS, VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX, AND THE CULTURE FREE SELF-ESTEEM C. PAIRED SAMPLE PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF THE 125 CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS, VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX AND THE CULTURE FREE SELF-ESTEEM v TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTINUED PAGE D. SUCCESS RATE OF CAREER START PARTICIPANTS TO MEET 136 THE FUNDING REQUIREMENTS OF EMPLOYMENT AND IMMIG RATION CANADA E. SUMMARY 139 CHAPTER SIX - CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 142 A. SUMMARY 14B. CONCLUSION 7 C. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 149 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 154 APPENDICES 158 A. CAREER START PARTICIPANT PROFILES 160 B. INTERVIEW FORM 176 C. BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT DATA COLLECTION FORM 181 vi LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 UNEMPLOYMENT RATES BY AGE GROUPS (CANADA AND 19 THE UNITED STATES) 2 UNEMPLOYMENT RATES IN THE CIVILIAN POPULATION 27 BY AGE, RACE AND SEX, 1981 3 NATIVE AND NON-NATIVE YOUTH (AGED 20-24) 29 BY HIGHEST LEVEL OF SCHOOLING AND AVERAGE INCOME, 1981 4 RATES OF UNEMPLOYMENT FOR NATIVE AND NON- 30 NATIVE YOUTH 5 PERCENTAGE OF THE CANADIAN POPULATION NOT IN 35 SCHOOL FULL TIME WHO HAVE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLING OR LESS, 1981 6 PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS - AGE AND SEX 74 7 PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS - LEVEL OF 76 EDUCATION CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX 8 PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS - DURATION OF 77 LAST JOB CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX 9 PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS - REASON FOR 78 LEAVING LAST JOB CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX 10 PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS - LENGTH OF LAST 79 EMPLOYMENT CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX 11 PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS- FINANCIAL 80 SITUATION CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS - CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE 84 AND SEX 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS - CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE 86 AND SEX 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS - CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE 88 AND SEX 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS - CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE 90 AND SEX vii LIST OF TABLES CONTINUED PAGE 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS - CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE 92 AND SEX 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS - CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE 94 AND SEX 13 PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS - PREVIOUS 101 EDUCATION LEVEL AND SUCCESS 14 PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS - LENGTH OF 102 PREVIOUS EMPLOYMENT WITH SUCCESS 15 BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT CROSS-TABULATED BY 105 DEGREES OF SUCCESS 15 BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT CROSS-TABULATED BY 106 DEGREES OF SUCCESS 15 BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT CROSS-TABULATED BY 107 DEGREES OF SUCCESS 15 BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT CROSS-TABULATED BY 108 DEGREES OF SUCCESS 16 CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS BY VARYING DEGREES 111 OF SUCCESS 16 CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS BY VARYING DEGREES 112 OF SUCCESS 16 CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS BY VARYING DEGREES 113 OF SUCCESS 16 CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS BY VARYING DEGREES 114 OF SUCCESS 17 VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX BY DEGREES OF SUCCESS 117 17 VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX BY DEGREES OF SUCCESS 118 17 VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX BY DEGREES OF SUCCESS 119 17 VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX BY DEGREES OF SUCCESS 120 17 VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX BY DEGREES OF SUCCESS 121 18 SELF-ESTEEM AND DEGREES OF SUCCESS 123 viii LIST OF TABLES CONTINUED PAGE 18 SELF-ESTEEM AND DEGREES OF SUCCESS 124 19 PAIRED SAMPLES - PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF 127 THE CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS 19 PAIRED SAMPLES - PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF 128 THE CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS 20 PAIRED SAMPLES - PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF 130 THE VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX 20 PAIRED SAMPLES - PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF 132 THE VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX 20 PAIRED SAMPLES - PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF 133 THE VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX 21 PAIRED SAMPLES - PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF 135 THE CULTURE FREE SELF-ESTEEM TEST 22 TRAINING AND PLACEMENT STATISTICS AUGUST 07, 138 1984 - APRIL 30, 1986 ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank the people and agencies who have contributed extensively to this paper. From the University of British Columbia, I especially wish to thank Dr. John Dennison, my advisor, and Dr. Gordon Selman, a committee member. From Vancouver Community College, President Dr. Paul Gallagher, who not only permitted access to the data, but also served as a committee member. The Continuing Education Division of Vancouver Community College permitted design of the Career Start project in a fashion which facilitated the thesis. Frans Jansen, of Control Data Corporation, was invaluable for his assistance with the statistical analysis. I am grateful to my friends and family who prodded me to complete the work: Karen Tallman, Gary Howe, Oliv Caarle, Nancy Jennings and Jack & Margaret Long, Dr. Frank Beinder, Tom Toulson, Joy Zemel Long and John McLaren. I am grateful to the Career Start participants who learned how to type and use Wordstar because of my thesis: Scott Pilgrim, Geoff Arnouse, Mary Lou Dell and especially Claudette Beauchesne who took the thesis as her project and completed the task. Most importantly, I am grateful to the Career Start staff: Greg Miller, Valerie McNeill, Muriel McRae and Rick Watson for their many patient hours. x CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION One of Canada's continuing, and certainly one of its most serious, problems is the failure of a high percentage of the country's young people to find a place in the labour force. In June 1985, figures from Statistics Canada (unadjusted) showed the rate of unemployment in the whole of Canada to be ten percent. In British Columbia, for the same period, the rate was 14.2 percent, indicating that the rate of unemployment in British Columbia was 4.2 percent higher than the Canadian average. For young Canadian adults, aged 15-24, the problem was even more acute. This group found it difficult, if not impossible, to compete in the job market. As a result, the national rates of unemployment for that particular age group was 19.2 percent. Again, the rate of unemployment among young adults in B.C. was noticeably higher than the national rate. In June 1985, Statistics Canada showed the unemployment rate for young adults in B.C. to be 24.2 percent, or five percent higher than the national average. For those aged 15-19 the rate was 19.9 percent and for those aged 20-24 the rate was 18.8 percent. The post war baby boom from about 1945 to 1965 resulted in large numbers of children and adolescents. While young people in the 1970's found jobs after finishing school, young adults today are facing unemployment. Breaking into the permanent labour force is becoming more and more difficult for young people. -1-To address the youth unemployment problem there is a number of intervention strategies being offered across the country. These are programs aimed at providing training and services which offer young people the opportunity to develop those skills necessary for long-term economic stability and independence. However, while these programs are tailored to fit the needs of the majority of the unemployed youth group, there is a number of individuals within this group who require a special approach to job training. This special group includes young adults with severe employment disadvantages which add to their difficulties in obtaining and retaining jobs. The specific disadvantages may consist of one or more of the following: lack of education psychological problems physical disabilities criminal history poor family background a history of drug or alcohol problems lack of work experience poor life skills poor communication skills long-term social assistance recipient In order to make them more employable, these disadvantaged young people often require instruction and assistance in -2-attaining basic or high school skills, life coping skills and job seeking strategies. There are a variety of intervention strategies designed to work with the unemployed, disadvantaged youth. These strategies concern themselves primarily with upgrading life or academic skills or job search techniques. Few attempt to attack all three problem areas at the same time. Public and private colleges, vocational and technical schools offer single courses or programs in either job search techniques or basic or high school skills upgrading. Employment and Immigration Canada purchases training seats directly from these programs or co operates with them to offer initiatives which generally are geared to the employment disadvantaged through the Canada Jobs Strategy program. This study is concerned with the impact of one intervention strategy on the behaviour of disadvantaged, unemployed youth, in British Columbia. The initiative under investigation is funded by the Federal Government through Employment and Immigration Canada. The program is called 'Career Start', and uses computer-based technology to address those barriers to employment exhibited by the target group. Specifically, the intervention strategy concentrates on upgrading basic and/or high school skills, upgrading life coping skills and developing job seeking strategies in order to make youth more employable. -3-The thesis is divided into five separate chapters. The first chapter introduces the reader to the problem to be examined, defines the terms and limitations of the study and provides the purpose and reason for the thesis. Chapter Two presents literature relevent to the topic, beginning with an overview of the general problem of youth unemployment. Section B deals with unemployed youth who suffer a number of disadvantages and looks at the factors contributing to their problems. The three sections that follow concentrate on the relationship of youth employability and academic achievement, attitudes towards work, and participants levels of self-esteem. The findings are summarized in the concluding section of Chapter Two. Chapter Three describes the design of the study, discusses the intervention strategy program Career Start, and explains the methods used for collection and analysis of the data. Chapter Four describes the sample used for the study. This includes characteristics of applicants, the nature of their disadvantages, and the number of participants used for test and re-test purposes. Chapter Five describes participant characteristics and their barriers to employment, and shows how these characteristics influence their success or failure after program -4-participation. This success rating is also cross-tabulated with test results from the Canadian Achievement Tests, Vocational Opinion Index and the Culture Free Self-Esteem. Paired samples of pre and post-test results are investigated to determine if there has been an increase or decrease in their scores. The last area investigated in this chapter is the ability of the project to meet the quantifiable objectives as set out by Employment and Immigration Canada. The study concludes with Chapter Six in which the information presented is summarized, conclusions are drawn and implications for further research are presented. A. PURPOSE There are few studies concerned with measuring the success rate of intervention strategies which use computer-based technology in the three subject areas of interest in this study: basic and high school skills upgrading, life skills and job search skills. The purpose of this study is to assess summatively the success rate among participants of one intervention program which uses computer-based training in the three subject areas listed above. The assessment proceeds from two perspectives: -5-On the one hand the success of the Career Start Program will be discussed with respect to those objectives set out by Employment and Immigration Canada: a. During each year of operation to place a minimum of 50 graduates in employment or further employment directed training. b. To enroll a minimum of 75 participants. c. To graduate 75 precent of the participants."^ Prior to participation in the Career Start program, participants will be evaluated as to the extent of their barriers to employment. Following participation, they will again be evaluated to measure the level of change. The information which is required in order to assess the project's success will be collected from the participants who have graduated or obtained and retained employment or resorted to further employment related training. These data will be measured directly against the quantifiable goals and objectives set out by Employment and Immigration Canada. 1• Career Start (A C.E.I.C. Youth Job Corps Program)  1984/1985 Operating Proposal, Vancouver Community College, June 1984, p.9 -6-A second perspective which is useful in assessing the Career Start Program involves the study of changes in various behaviours and skills of the participants at pre-program levels and those attained after the program. Scores for pre and post-participation will then be available for analysis of academic skill levels, attitudes towards work, and a measure of self-esteem. B. RATIONALE Over the years the Federal Government has developed a number of different initiatives to deal with the problem of unemployed youth. Various job creation experiments of Employment and Immigration Canada led the way to a strategy which was called 'Job Development'. Job Development projects were funded by the Employment and Immigration Canada through the Employment Development Branch of Canada Jobs Strategy. Approximately thirty Job Development projects have been established in the British Columbia/Yukon Division of Employment and Immigration Canada. These projects have been designed to meet similar goals and objectives. Although funding and techniques vary, they were established to overcome a variety of employment barriers suffered by disadvantaged, unemployed youth. -7-The projects differ dramatically. Each works with specific target groups within the general category of employment disadvantaged youth. For example, one project has been designed to work with young native women, another with multicultural youth, while others involve the physically handicapped, mentally handicapped etc. There are other projects which work solely with unemployed youth who are unemployed because of one primary disadvantage eg: alcohol or drug dependency, criminal history etc. In addition, the projects also differ dramatically in design, in methodology, referral and intake procedure, placement and job search philosophy, management techniques, length of program, number of participants, and staffing levels. Two projects in the British Columbia/Yukon division of Employment and Immigration Canada involve youth between the ages of 15 to 24 who are unemployed because of a number of the employment barriers previously outlined. Career Start is the name given to a project which is funded to the maximum allotment of $350,000 per annum by the Employment Development Branch of Employment and Immigration Canada. The project is sponsored by the Continuing Education Division of Vancouver Community College and receives its educational support services from Control Data Canada Limited. -8-Career Start is the only government funded job development program for severely disadvantaged youth in Western Canada that utilizes computer-based training in its design. It is also unique in Western Canada in that it provides for the upgrading of basic and high school skills. Utilizing a blend of audio and visual aids, and computer-based lessons, it allows each participant to advance at his or her own individual pace. The participants also receive instruction in self-directed job search techniques. There is a continuous intake of applicants into the program and the average stay of a participant is two and one half months. C. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM There are two separate problems under investigation in this study. The first problem is to determine if the Career Start project was successful in meeting the quantifiable goals and objectives set out by Employment and Immigration Canada. This involves the calculation of the number of participants who successfully graduated, and obtained and retained employment for a ten-week period after participation in the project. The second problem under investigation involves the study of changes in various behaviours and skills of the participants at pre-program levels and those attained after completion of the program. Behaviour patterns looked at are defined in the study as 'Barriers to Employment'. These issues are concerned with dress, cleanliness, problems with authority and criminal history. Skills that will be measured include basic and high school skills achievement levels and self-esteem. D. DEFINITION OF TERMS 1. CAREER START PARTICIPANTS In order to be accepted into the Career Start project, participants must be classified as severely employment disadvantaged. This assessment, based on the applicants' personal and individual problems, then places them in the classification of Special Needs Clients, as defined by Employment and Immigration Canada (Employment Development Branch) in its policy manual developed in 1985. This manual defines Special Needs Clients as two specific groups: i. Clients with opportunity related employment barriers who regardless of their job readiness/skill level, are normally associated with certain identifiable groups (e.g. women, natives, disabled persons); and ii. Clients with personal/individual problems which adversely affect their employability, regardless of availability of opportunity and regardless of target group membership. The Career Start project works specifically with the -10-second type of Special Needs Clients. The policy manual goes on to say that: Special Needs Clients . . . are a heterogeneous grouping of non-job ready but employable clients, who, by virtue of their personal problems, cannot be adequately assisted through use of regular (E.I.C.) programs and services. The primary categories of employability dimensions most applicable in considering the service requirements of Special Needs Clients are the following: a. Motivational/Attitudinal b. Emotional c. Socio/Economic d. Educational/Skill Within these broad categories the policy continues along more specific lines: They generally have poor communication skills, including difficulties in relating to peers and/or supervisory personnel; They have poor self-image or low self-esteem; They experience personal problems adversely affecting employability or hampering them from obtaining/retaining employment including, for example, problems which are material, family-centered and dependencies on drugs and/or alcohol; They are generally in receipt of, or require supportive services provided through community based agencies in addition to employment related services provided through E.I.C... They require enhanced counselling intervention and the extensive use of . . . job creation programs such as Job Corps . . . and ultimately marketing to employers. 2. Policy Manual,- Employment Development Branch, Canada Employment and Immigration , 1985, p.23 -11-2. DEFINITION OF COMPUTER-BASED TRAINING This study is concerned with assessment of a program that is dependent on computer-based training. Computer-Based Training is "a term used to describe a computerized system that aids learning. It includes three aspects: i. Computer-Managed Instruction (CMI) ii. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) iii. Computer- Supported Learning Aids (CSLA) Career Start utilizes only the first two: i.Computer-Managed Instruction CMI is a computerized method of testing, record-keeping and decision-making. It assists administrative, classroom, and individual learner management. The three main functions of CMI are: TESTING - Participants are given randomly selected tests, usually of the true or false or multiple choice type. The CMI system scores each question, delivers diagnostic feedback and, when appropriate, gives additional and different questions based on previous responses. RECORD-KEEPING - Responses to test items are recorded as confidential information. -12-PRESCRIPTION GENERATION - Based on information received from the record-keeping and testing aspects of CMI, lessons are generated and when that particular learning objective is met, and only then the learner proceeds to the next unit of study. ii. Computer-Assisted Instruction CMI performs the role of test administration and record keeping while computer-assisted instruction (CAI) presents the instruction itself. It is an interactive process between a learner and a direct instructional role assumed by the computer. Pacing is controlled, and the content is adapted according to the needs or abilities of the learners. Feedback is provided to the students regarding their responses and the lessons are then adapted for either advancement or remedial alternatives. The level of difficulty is controlled by the learner. -13-E. RESTRICTIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 1. RESEARCH The review of the literature pertaining to this study has been restricted to studies from Canada and the United States. While the studies investigate the nature of the problem of disadvantaged unemployed youth, discussion of the literature is limited to three distinct reasons for unemployment; these are the self-esteem of the youth, previous academic attainment, and attitude towards work. The literature reviewed also includes studies about the success rate of American strategies which intervene between unemployment of disadvantaged youth and full time, long-term employment. Similar information is not available in Canada on a national basis. -14-2. CONFLICT OF INTEREST Some concern has been expressed that a conflict of interest could occur since the author of the study is employed as Manager of the Career Start Project. As Manager, the author was enabled from the beginning to design the project in a manner which facilitated data collection for the study. This gave the author immediate access to information and the authority to collect it. The author feels that she has dealt with the data received in an objective manner. It should also be noted that research collected by her has benefited the program by providing valuable data on participants in the program to the counsellors employed by Career Start. As a result policies, procedures and counselling techniques have been improved and adapted to meet the needs of the participants. Special effort has been made to ensure that the author's own judgements did not intrude. -15-CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE A. INTRODUCTION The chapter dealing with the Review of the Literature is presented in eight separate sections. The majority of the information has been drawn from studies done in the United States. While there is little information that related directly to the study of disadvantaged unemployed youth, there is some that related indirectly and could provide contributing factors to the problem. The second section presents an overview of the general problem of youth unemployment both in Canada and the United States. Section three deals with unemployed youth who suffer specific disadvantages and looks at the factors which contribute to them. The three sections which follow concentrate on the relationship of youth employability and academic achievements, attitudes towards work and their levels of self-esteem. Section seven looks at intervention strategies that are designed to address the problem of unemployed youth. The material here is drawn from U.S. studies. Section eight covers intervention strategies designed to accommodate disadvantaged unemployed youth and to assist them in -16-obtaining and retaining jobs. This section draws from both U.S. and Canadian studies. The last section of this chapter is a summary of pertinent literature. B. YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT In February 1986, The Special Senate Committee on Youth (originally established in 1984) published a comprehensive report on its finding on the plight of unemployed youth in Canada. The Committee's mandate had been to examine the problems and issues facing Canadian young people and its report was entitled "Youth: A Plan of Action".3 The committee found that approximately half a million young Canadians fall into the category of the 'unemployed' as defined in Statistics Canada data. In addition, there were another 20,000 young people who had given up any hope of finding work and had even stopped looking for jobs. The report also took note of a group which it described as underemployed young people. The term 'underemployed' describes those who are working at part-time jobs because they are unable to find full-time 3. Youth: A Plan of Action. Report of the Special Senate  Committee on Youth.The Honourable Jacques Hebert, Chairman, Queen's Printer, February 1986. -17-employment. Taking those three classifications and adding their numbers together, the report found the actual number of unemployed youth in Canada was close to 700,000. In looking for reasons for this alarming figure, the report points to the 'post-war baby boom' from about 1945 to 1965, which resulted in large numbers of children and adolescents in the 1960's and 1970's. The latter was a period of prosperity and high employment that was in sharp contrast to what was to take place in the 1980's in terms of opportunities for young people. While young people in the 1970's found secure jobs following their education, young people today are facing educational cutbacks as well as unemployment. Breaking into the permanent labour force is becoming more and more difficult for young people. The situation is an ever increasing problem, not only in Canada, but in other industrialized countries. Betwen 1976 and 1983, youth unemployment almost doubled in the United States, tripled in Italy, increased seven fold in Spain, and eleven times in the United Kingdom. As reported by the Special Senate Committee on Youth, young people suffer a disproportionately higher level of joblessness compared to adults, both in the United States and in Canada. During 1984 the total unemployment rates declined from that of 1983. However the youth unemployment rate was 17.9 percent as opposed to a national adult rate of 9.3 percent during 1984. This situation is illustrated in the following Table 1. -18-TABLE I UNEMPLOYMENT RATES BY AGE GROUP (percent) 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 TOTAL UNEMPLOYMENT Canada United States 7.5 7.0 7.6 7.5 11.0 9.5 11.9 9.4 11.3 7.4 ADULT UNEMPLOYMENT Canada 5.4 5.6 8.4 9.4 9.3 United States 5.0 5.4 7.3 7.4 5.7 YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT Canada 13.2 13.3 18.7 19.9 17.9 United States 13.3 14.3 17.0 16.4 13.3 YOUTH- 15-24 years ADULT- 25 and over. SOURCE: OECD, Labour force statistics, 1963-1983 Paris 1985, p.469,471, as cited in Youth: A Plan of Action, p.76 4.Youth: A Plan of Action. Report of the Special Senate  Commitee on Youth. The Honourable Jacques Hebert, Chairman, Queen's Printer, Feb. 1986, p.76 -19-A Report from the Minister of State (Youth) entitled " A New Statistical Perspective on Youth in Canada " reports that in general, youth unemployment rates are higher than adults for two reasons: youth are likely to be entering the labour force for the first time, or having left their jobs (voluntarily or not) are re-entering the labour force, a phenomenon which often involves an initial period of unemployment. The Report goes on to say that for unemployment of six months duration and over, Canada's youth as a group was third highest behind France and the Netherlands in its share of long term unemployment. Some 35.4 percent of those unemployed six months or longer in 1982 were youths. For unemployment of twelve months duration and over, Canada's youth as a group was second highest (behind the Netherlands) in its share of long term unemployed. Some 32.4 percent of its workers unemployed twelve months and over in 1982 were in the youth group.^ Young people have less job experience, fewer interpersonal and job-related skills and fewer employment contacts than older people. Young people often switch jobs before settling on a career and have substantial periods of unemployment between jobs. But there are other reasons suggested for the increasing trend toward unemployment among youth, inadequate training and 5. Youth: A New Statistical Perspective on Youth in  Canada from the Minister of State (Youth) Celine Hervieux Payette. Public Affairs Branch, Employment and Immigration Canada, Hull, Quebec. 1984, p.257 6. Ibid, p.257 -20-education; demographic increases in youth leading to increased competition; high minimum wages, which lead to employer preference for more experienced workers, U.I. benefits, discrimination in a tight market and structural changes in the 7 economy. Historically, young people entered the labour force and worked their way up the career ladder. Rapidly increasing technological change has resulted in employment instability however, and traditional patterns of career progress have been disrupted. Many jobs which would have become available for young people are being displaced by new technology while others have fallen victim to recessionary economic conditions. Canadian young people between the ages of 15 and 24 are the last hired and the first fired, are more easily shunted into part-time jobs and are frequently victims of short term employment which qualifies them solely for the next stint of U.I.C.9 7. Youth; A Plan of Action, p.78 8. Ibid, p.82 9. Ibid, p.75 -21-F.T. Denton, in a study by the Ontario Economic Council, shows that the largest single category of unemployed young people is that of job losers.^ About half of all males 15-24 and about three-quarters of all females 15-24 on average over the year, were unemployed in 1977 because of job losses.^ According to the Special Senate Committee on Youth, there are hidden thousands of people, young and old, who have given up on Canada Employment Centres and the full-time yet fruitless task of job hunting and who often resort to other means by which to earn at least some money. The Commitee found youth taking to the streets and offering services such as hairdressing, mending, mechanical repairs and odd jobs, painting, babysitting and so on. On the other hand, they found that young people felt that their peers who went into drug trafficking, prostitution and theft did so because of the money, even though this choice cuts 12 them off from the mainstream of society. 10. F. T. Denton et al. Unemployment and Labour Force  Behaviour of Young People. Evidence from Canada and Ontario. Ontario Economic Council Research Studies. University of Toronto Press, 1980, p.85 11. F.T. Denton et al. p.85 12 . Youth: A Plan of Action, p.12 -22-C. DISADVANTAGED UNEMPLOYED YOUTH A Report from the Office of the Minister of State on disadvantaged unemployed youth shows that these youth cover the 15 to 24 year age range and usually have had disadvantaged backgrounds - child abuse, broken homes, family violence, crime, drugs, alcoholism, attempted suicide, pregnancy, prostitution, and always failure in the school system. They are usually on welfare, transient, semi-literate and lacking in their work 13 skills and work ethic. The increase in crime exceeds the growth in the juvenile population. Over the past twenty years alleged 'crimes against the person' committed by young people is eight times the level of 1962 and the number of alleged crimes against property is six times the 1962 level.^ Although juvenile crime has increased more rapidly then adult crime, crime rates for adults remain higher, especially for violent crimes. 13. Focus on Youth. Report from the Office of the Minister of State (Youth) the Honourable Celine Hervieux Payette, Public Affairs Branch, Employment and Immigration Canada, Hull, Quebec, 1984, p.54 14. Youth: A New Statistical Perpective on Youth in Canada p.119 -23-In 1981, the largest group of inmates in adult correctional centres in Canada were aged 20 to 24 and the second largest 25 to 29. The proportion of female offenders among juveniles has increased from one in ten in 1962 to one in five in 1977. This is double the rate of increase experienced by adult female offenders.^ In a Canadian Mental Health Association Study, Sharon Kirsh reports that prison admissions and unemployment show the most consistently significant relationship. When specific crime rates were used rather than total rates, property crimes tended to show more frequently the predicted relationship with unemployment than did crimes of violence.^ The same study showed that while the relationship between male unemployment rates and adult property crime rates is consistently reported as positive, information between juvenile crime and unemployment is not as straightforward. Some studies argue that limited employment opportunities, added to the anguish and frustation of poverty, encourage juvenile crimes. Others suggest that juvenile delinquency is a by-product of affluence, industrialization, and high unemployment. She refers to Guttentag, who in 1968, makes peace between two camps by 15. Youth: A PI an of Action, p.19 16. Sharon Kirsh, Unemployment: Its Impact on Body and  Soul. Canadian Mental Health Association, 1983, p.37 -24-pointing out their common ground: high population mobility. With mobility comes a lack of stable neighbourhoods, a sense of anomie (a lack of standards for normal behaviour), and increased intergenerational conflict (especially accompanying social change).* ^ Forty-six percent of Canadian youth just out of school who are currently unemployed, or not in the labour force are very likely to be members of families with an income of less than 18 $20,000. Some eighteen percent of out-of-school youth received Unemployment Insurance benefits and five percent reported receiving social assistance.^ Nearly two thirds of measured youth unemployment (in the United States) in 1978 was experienced by the ten percent of the youth labour force which was unemployed for fifteen weeks or longer. This group is disproportionately black and poor, and many lack basic academic skills. Although most of them ultimately find some employment, they are likely to be plagued 20 by low pay and recurrent unemployment in later years. 17. Sharon Kirsh, p. 38 18. Youth: A New Statistical Perspective on Youth in  Canada. p.289 19. Focus on Youth, p.29 20. Sandra Christensen. Improving Youth Employment  Prospects: Issues and Options. A CB0 Study, Congress of the U.S.A. Washington, D.C, Congress Budget Office, Feb. 1982, p.6 Although the size of the youth labour force will drop -25-during the 1980's, thereby reducing youth unemployment relative to the total, there will remain a core of disadvantaged youths who are more likely to face chronic employment problems. These (American) youths who are disproportionately black and poor, will probably continue to require assistance to overcome their economic and educational handicaps if they are to become 21 productive members of the labour force. Most of the projected decline in the size of the youth labour force is confined to white males, the group with the fewest labor market problems. Whereas labour force projections for 1990 indicate a fourteen to fifteen percent decline for white males aged 16 to 24, those for non white youths range from 22 a three percent decline to a twenty-four percent increase. Rate of unemployment for minority youth is two and a half times greater than of that of white youths in the same age group and sex. This situation is illustrated in Table 2. 21. Sandra Christensen, p.15 22. Ibid p.31 -26-TABLE 2 UNEMPLOYMENT RATED IN THE CIVILIAN POPULATION BY AGE, RACE AND SEX 1981 (in percent) YOUTHS YOUTHS ADULTS (16-19) (20-24) (25-54) ALL MALES 20.1 13.2 5.4 White Males 17.9 11.6 4.9 Non White Males 38.3 24.9 10.3 ALL FEMALES 19.0 11.1 6.3 White Females 16.6 9.1 5.5 Non White Females 38.6 24.5 10.8 SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, USA.^38 cited in Improving Youth Employment Prospects, p.15 In a report on the unemployed for Business Week U.S.A., Aaron Bernstein writes that the conventional wisdom is that minority unemployment is a fact of life that no one can do much about. But he says that it doesn't have to remain that way. Until recently, most experts argued that racism is the major cause of minority unemployment. Bernard E. Anderson, a Princeton University economist, says some scholars now believe that social class has become a bigger factor. This theory holds that racism excluded blacks from education and jobs in the past, but it is 24 mainly the resulting poverty that keeps them unemployed today. 23. Sandra Christensen, p.15 24. Aaron Bernstein et al. "The Forgotten Americans." Business Week U.S.A., Sept. 2, 1985 p.52 -27-Table 3 shows that young native people in Canada have significantly less income than non-native youth and that this figure is related to the level of educational attainment. "Statistics consistently reinforce the link between education and employment; unemployment rates for young people with lf§s schooling are much greater than for more educated peers." 25. Youth: A Plan of Action p.79 -28-TABLE 3 NATIVE AND NON-NATIVE YOUTH (aged 20-24) BY HIGHEST LEVEL OF SCHOOLING AND AVERAGE INCOME IN 1981 EDUCATIONAL LEVEL LESS THAN GRADE NINE NATIVE INCOME NON-NATIVE Male Female $ 5,683, 3,559. $ 8,479. 4,867. GRADES 09-13 Male Female 8,494. 5,089. 11,233, 7,374, TRADES Male Female 10,421. 6,383. 11,836, 7,667, NON UNIVERSITY Male Female 9,312. 5,997. 10,864, 7,978, UNIVERSITY Male Female 9,007. 6,190. 6,498, 6,498. TOTAL Male Female $ 8,195. $ 5,196. $10,310. $ 7,299. SOURCE: G.E. Priest, Aboriginal Youth in Canada: a Profile Based Upon 1981 Census Data, Canadian Statistical Review, September,19^, p. xvii, as cited in Youth: A Plan of Action, p.37 26. Ibid, p.37 -29-If native youth have little opportunity for acquiring education, it follows that their chances of finding a job remain low. Discrimination in urban markets, inadequately targeted employment programs, lack of training and lack of job possibilities in the rural areas where they live, are all major barriers to gaining employment. For native women, who have children at an early age with virtually no day care facilities, the problem is more acute. TABLE 4 RATES OF UNEMPLOYMENT FOR NATIVE AND NON-NATIVE YOUTH. NATIVE YOUTH 15-19 years 20-24 years RATE OF UNEMPLOYMENT MALES FEMALES 27.4% 19.5% 28.5% 19.7% NON-NATIVE YOUTH 15-19 years 14.9% 15.9% 20-24 years 11.3% 11.4% SOURCE: G.E. Priest, "Aboriginal Youth in Canada: A Profile Based Upon 1981 Census Data" Canadian Statistical Review, September 25,19^5,, p. xvi, as cited in Youth: A Plan of Action, p.40 27. Youth: Ibid, p.40 -30-Table 4 shows comparative unemployment rates for native and non-native young people for Canada as a whole; some regional rates are much higher. Values, attitudes and different socio-economic levels regarding education; lower class 2 8 for further education. experiences associated with contributed to different values adults having little aspiration 28. Charlotte W. Farr et al. "Correlating the test of Adult Basic Education and the Test of General Education Development." "Lifelong Learning. American Association of Adult and Continuing Education, June 1986, p.18 -31-D. ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND EMPLOYABILITY Denton, in the report published by the Ontario Economic 29 Research Council, stated that at the same time as the school age population was growing rapidly, social attitudes towards education were changing. Education was seen as being in large measure, a productive investment, and a source of future economic growth once those who had received it took their places in the labour force and put their newly acquired "human capital" to productive use. It was observed that fei^er years of schooling were associated with higher rates of unemployment, and this influenced prevailing views on the benefits of education. Technology was thought to be changing rapidly and only the well-trained could hope to adapt. In short, the ticket to job security was a good education or the acquisition of modern occupational skills. As a result, young people stayed in school longer, so that their labour force participation rates fell sharply during the 1950's and 1960's. Never before had there been so many people of school age, and never before had such large proportions actually been in school. 29. F.T. Denton et al. 30. F.T. Denton et al., p.03 -32-The present situation with regard to the high youth unemployment rates contrast sharply with earlier expectations both of the young people themselves and of society generally: the increased emphasis and expenditures on education have not brought about the job security and rapid economic growth that 31 had been anticipated. A Report by David Ross called "Youth Economic Activity", found that as the level of education increases, so too does the labour force participation rate for 15 to 24 years olds. However, this is partly due to age: older youths have both higher level of education and higher participation rates. But perhaps more significantly, education level is inversely related to the likelihood of unemployment. In 1982, 31.9 percent of these with 0-8 years of schooling were unemployed compared to 32 10.3 percent for those with post secondary education. In 1986 the Special Senate Committee on Youth reported that the gap between the opportunities of those who receive a post secondary education and those who do not is increasing. The need for young people to stay in school is obvious when we look 33 at the unemployment statistics. 31. F.T. Denton et al., p. 04 32. Youth Economic Activity. Report by David P. Ross, for the Social Trends Analysis Directorate, Policy Co-ordination, Analysis and Management, Systems Branch, Dept. of the Secretary of State, Canada. Dec. 1984, p.07 33. Youth: A Plan of Action p.73 -33-In December 1985, a Statistics Canada survey found that young people (15 to 24 years) with only elementary education had an unemployment rate of 27.6 percent. For those with a post-secondary diploma or certificate, or a university degree, the unemployment rate was 9.8 percent. This implies, that despite the criticisms of the education system, there is a relationship 34 between completing school and being more likely to find a job. The youth population who have left school with some post secondary education made up 15.3 percent. For those who are out of school with this advantage, some 97.2 percent are 35 participating in the labour force. The percentage of youth not in school with primary/secondary attainment declined while the 3 6 proportion of unemployed increased between 1977 to 1983. Even in the late 1970's, when overall unemployment rates were in the order of 7.5 percent, youth unemployment rates were about 13 percent. At the same time those out of school with only primary/secondary education experienced unemployment rates in the order of 17 percent. In 1979 and 1980 this figure dropped to just over 15 percent, but with the recession, rose to 22.9 37 percent in 1982 and 23.9 percent in 1983. 34. Youth. A Plan of Action, p.73 35. Ibid, p. 73 36. Youth: A New Statistical Perspective on Youth in  Canada. p.347 37. Ibid, p.325 -34-Young people today are much less likely than older Canadians to have only elementary education. Table 5 shows the percentage of the Canadian population who have elementary schooling or less. TABLE 5 PERCENTAGE OF THE CANADIAN POPULATION NOT IN SCHOOL FULL TIME WHO HAVE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLING OR LESS, 1981. POPULATION 15 and over 22.3% POPULATION 15-24 years 7.115-19 year olds 10.5% 20-24 year olds 5.8SOURCE: Statistics Canada, School Attendance and Level of School, cat.92-914 Volume 1, 1984, p.21 as cited in Youth: A New Statistical Perspertive on Youth in Canada, p.280 Educators generally agree that having less than nine years of schooling may be termed "functional illiteracy"- the inability to function in a society which requires a certain 39 level of education. 38. Youth: A New Statistical Perspective on Youth in  Canada p.280 39. Youth: A Plan of Action, p.52 -35-Many studies have focussed on the relationship between low level of educational attainment and disadvantaged family backgrounds. Researchers have also suggested that young people from better-off families adapt more easily to school, while those from poorer families are frequently alienated, drop out rates for students from lower socio-economic families, especially those in remote areas of the country, are relatively However, many educators are finding that today's youth are reaching high school without the basic skills they should have acquired in the lower grades. In other words, the education system is not teaching young people what it purports to Al teach. When employers do hire high school graduates, they found that they are inadequately prepared in the basic skills (such as reading, writing, spelling and math skills), and that these skills and the teaching of oral communication skills must improve in the school system if young people are to maintain their jobs and obtain future employment in the 1990's and in the year 2000.42 AO. Ibid, p.74 Al. Youth: Ibid, p.52 42. Business and Education Survey: Employer and Employee  Perception of School to Work Preparation Parker Project Number 3, Bulletin No.4372, p.19 -36-E. ATTITUDES TOWARDS WORK AND EMPLOYABILITY. A poor work attitude, poor work habits, and tardiness and undependability were unanimously identified by both employers and employees as the characteristics most frequently leading to 43 recent high school graduates or dropouts losing their jobs. A monograph on youth labour markets in the United States summarizes the results of a study of employers of youth in five central city labour markets which reported when those factors which were important and unimportant in the search for and selection of youthful employees; cosmetic factors such as appearance, dress, speech and mannerisms were cited as the most important with dependability second. Physical strength, school completion and technical training had little relevance as selection factors. Young people could do the jobs they were being offered. Overwhelmingly, the propensity to withdraw was cited as the most serious problem in hiring youth, followed by other dependability factors such as tardiness and absenteeism.^ 43. Business and Education Survey: Employer and Employee  Perceptions of School to Work Preparation, p.17 44. Garth L. Mangum. Monograph Series Lessons from Youth  Programs: All You Ever Wanted to Know About Labour Market  and didn't Know Who to ask. (A Handbook for Practitioners.) Prepared for the Employment and Training Administration. Olympus Pub. & Co..Utah, U.S.A. 1982, p.47 -37-According to Sommers and Eck (1977), only 20 percent of those aged 16-19 in 1965 reported working at the same occupation in 1970. The rate for the entire adult population aged 16 and over, was 47 percent for men and 40 percent for women, which indicates that adults were not exceptionally stable either. This suggests that youth exhibit a strong pattern of learning from experience, that career decisions made during the late teens have very little likelihood of remaining stable. People change, they take risks; they consider new possibilities; jobs A A- 45 and occupations disappear. According to Garth Mangum, far more important than occupational skills training for youth is the development of attitudes, values and decision-making skills which form the base upon which productivity depends and occupational skills are • A 46 acquired. The Goldfarb Youth Study of 1983, commissioned by the (Canadian) Secretary of State, based on a random sample of 1,209 youth age 15 to 24, and using telephone interviews, found that 80 percent of the youth ranked unemployment as a very important issue, while 71 percent ranked inflation as very important. The number one aspiration of youth in the same survey 45. Miriam Johnson & Robert Wegmann. Monograph Series. Lessons from Youth Programs: Job Search Training for Youth. Prepared for the Employment and Training Administration.Olympus Pub. Co., Utah,U.S.A.. 1982, p.27 46. Garth L. Mangum, p.79 -38-was 'having a job' (87 percent). Being successful and having a stable, fulfilling family life were important aspirations for 47 over 80 percent of the sample. F. SELF-ESTEEM AND EMPLOYABILITY. The overall state of mental health of young persons is difficult to measure and covers a wide range of conditions (including emotional equilibrium, schizophrenia, neurosis, alcoholism, and personality problems). On a scale of Emotional Equilibrium, approximately 3.8 percent of males 15-19 years reported having negative feelings compared to males 20-24 years. Using the same test, females appear to be somewhat more prone to reporting negative feelings: In 1978/1979, 6.8 percent of females 15-19 years scored negatively, compared to 4.8 percent of those 20-24 years. No data were available to establish a trend over time. Alcoholism and emotional psychosis became two of the five leading reasons for admission to psychiatric institutions among males 20-24 years old. Alcoholism was not one of the five 49 leading reasons for females. 47. Youth: A Plan of Action, p.03 48. Youth: A New Statistical Perspective on Youth in  Canada, p.114 49. Ibid, p.114 -39-For young people job prospects are now poor, families are often in a state of flux, while social and moral values are changing. All these factors could contribute to the high youth suicide rates. Suicide has been related to the lack of social integration, feelings of "alienation" in the population, transience, rapid changes in values, income and lifestyle. The 1981 suicide rate among Canadian people 15-19 years old has increased five and one half times over the rate in 1961, while the rate among 20-24 years is about three and one halftimes that of 1961. The male suicide rate is five and one half times that of the female rate. The increase reflects major tensions and anxieties facing young people, especially young males, and is symptomatic of more pervasive social unrest and personal anxieties among young people in Canada.""^ In 1978, Canada and West Germany had the second highest suicide rate (for 52 youth 15-24). Finland was first. The Special Senate Committee on Youth chaired by the Honourable Jacques Hebert in 1986, states that while they were unable to establish a direct relationship between youth 50. Youth: A Plan of Action, p. XII 51. Youth: A New Statistical Perspective on Youth in  Canada, p.114 52. Ibid, p.134 -40-unemployment and the upsurge in alcohol and drug abuse, prostitution, suicide and delinquent behavior in general, the members of the committee concluded that while unemployment may not be the only cause of these problems, it is nonetheless a 53 leading one. David Brazil, from the Newfoundland and Labrador Youth Advisory Council, in his report to the Special Senate Committee on Youth, stated that the unique nature of youth unemployment showed that in terms of a cause and effect relationship, unemployment may lead to certain problems or stem from others. People who have experienced unemployment, or the unemployment of a close relative, generally have experienced lower self-esteem, lower satisfaction with life and feelings of social alienation and were less capable of controlling their own lives. Through these psychological factors and their link with unemployment, it is easy to see how early experiences \irith joblessness can lead to social problems such as alcohol and drug abuse or crime. 53. Youth: A Plan of Action, p.XII 54. Ibid, p.82 -41-In "Enhancing Self-Esteem & Achievement", James Battle quotes Thompson, who found that there was no significant difference between the self-esteem of economically advantaged youth and disadvantaged children. He did discover, however, a significant difference between the self-esteem of older (high school aged) advantaged and disadvantaged children, in favour of the economically advantaged subjects. The advantaged subjects reported more positive concepts than his economically disadvantaged subjects. Thompson concluded that: It is logical to assume that disadvantagement (economic status) will ultimately affect self-concept and that this effect increases as the disadvantaged person gets older. 55. James Battle, Ph.D. Enhancing Self-Esteem and  Achievement- A Handbook for Professionals. Special Child Publications, Washington,U.S.A., 1982, p.49 -42-G. INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Sandra Christensen, in her study of youth employment, states that youth labour market policy in the United States has two sometimes conflicting goals: to increase the current employment of youths and to enhance their long term employability. While higher employment rates for youths may be of immediate value in terms of greater income and reduced criminal activity, the long term basis for public concern about youth unemployment is that today's jobless youth may become 5 6 tomorrow's hard to employ adults. United States federal programs designed to alleviate the employment problems of young people were studied in 1982 and found to fall into three distinct and yet interdependent categories: 1) increasing employment demand 2) improving labor market transitions 3) increasing employability A strategy of increasing employment demand will fail if those in need of help are not ready for jobs. Improving matching mechanisms will be futile if there are no jobs or employable youth to be matched. Improvement in the qualifications of youths will be ineffective if too few jobs are available. 56. Sandra Christensen, p.33 57. Ibid, p.33 -43-1) Increasing Employment Demand. The major task is to increase the number of jobs offered to youth, without necessarily changing their qualifications. There are three categories of strategies in this area: i) tarReted job tax credit - provides non refundable tax credit to employers hiring persons in specific groups, including disadvantaged youths. ii) economic development program- provides place oriented incentives for private sector investment in areas of high unemployment or low income. iii) minimum wage provisions- The Fair Labour Standards Act currently provides for minimum hourly wage. 2) Improving Labour Market Transition. Studies indicate that many youths are poorly informed about effective ways to search for jobs. The transition from school to work, or from one job to another, takes them longer than necessary, thereby increasing their average period of unemployment. This problem is likely to be more serious for low income and minority youths. -44-If labour market demand is strong, training in job search techniques can be a low cost method of reducing unemployment among job ready youths, by lessening the time it takes them to find work. Placement activities can do little though, for young people who are not job ready or when employment demand is weak. The United States Employment Service distributes funds to state employment service agencies which provide job seekers with information about the labour market and placement assistance. This agency attempts to improve the ability of youths to negotiate the transition from school to work or from one job to another, without necessarily altering either the structure of employment demand or their job qualifications. The results of a pilot study of the United States Employment Service in 1977 show that while 42 percent of job seekers received at least one referral to a job, only 2.6 percent received counselling, 5.4 percent were tested, and 0.4 59 percent were referred to a training program. The Employment Service does nothing to develop the employability of job applicants, although it provides aptitude testing and ,,. 60 counselling. 58. Sandra Christensen, p. 36 59. Ibid, p.84 60. Ibid, p.82 -45-3) Increasing Employability. This area is devoted to increasing the qualifications of youths, thereby improving their ability to compete for existing jobs. The U.S.A. has two initiatives which are designed to increase employability: i)Vocational Education Act- provide federal dollars to supplement vocational expenditures at the state and local level. Vocational education programs provide job skills training in secondary and post secondary schools.^ A criticism of this type of training is found in a study in youth unemployment by Kenneth B. Hoyt when he states that if youths of today are able to capitalize on such opportunities (changing vocations), it is essential that they be equipped with a set of general employability skills and attitudes that will provide each with maximum flexibility and adaptability throughout their adult working life. Such skills and attitudes include: a) basic academic skills; b) good work habits; c) a desire to work; d) a basic understanding of career interests and abilities; 61. Ibid, p. 39. -46-e) understanding of educational and career opportunities available for choice; f) career decision-making skills; g) job seeking/finding/getting/holding skills; h) skills in overcoming bias and stereotyping: i) skills in humanizing the workplace for oneself. Hoyt goes on to say that the development of such skills and attitudes required a longitudinal effort beginning in the early elementary school years and continuing into adulthood. To wait until age 16, before beginning this program, as it is the 6 2 case in the secondary schools, is to invite failure. ii Comprehensive Employment Training Act (CETA)-provides training and work experience programs targeted to the 6 3 economically disadvantaged. Some youths, especially those from disadvantaged or minority backgrounds, are not ready for the labour market and cannot compete successfully with adults or other youths for available jobs. They are not readily employable under current conditions.^4 62. Kenneth B. Hoyt, Director Career Education V.S.O.I. Contributions of Career Education to Reducing Youth Unemployment Journal of Industry. Education Co-operation. Vol.1, No. 2, 1980, pp.16-18 63. Ibid, p.39. 64. Ibid, p.36 -47-The CETA, enacted in 1973, authorizes a full range of training and employment related services, including classroom and on-the-job training, work experience, basic and remedial education, counselling, job search assistance and payment of allowances.^ This study will concentrate on intervention strategies designed specifically for disadvantaged youth which fall under the CETA mandate. For the purpose of comparative analysis the areas studied will be those that show the rate of change in behaviour patterns of disadvantaged youth during participation in an intervention strategy. 65. Kenneth B. Hoyt, Director Career Education V.S.O.I. Contributions of Career Education to Reducing Youth Unemployment Journal of Industry. Education Co-opertion. Vol. 1, No. 2, 1980 pp. 16-18 -48-H. DISADVANTAGED YOUTH AND INTERVENTION STRATEGIES-INCREASING EMPLOYABILITY OF DISADVANTAGED UNEMPLOYED YOUTH The study 'Focus on Youth' points out that disadvantaged youth have unique problems which require long term solutions if those problems are to be overcome. Schools and employers cannot deal with their multiple problems; many youth require special in-depth counselling. Disadvantaged youth require financial, psychological and moral support to improve their situation. For those youth, the development of self-respect, confidence and social skills has to take place before or along with training in marketable skills. To date, the most successful programs include counselling, job preparation, life skills, placement and 6 6 continuing support while in a job. One purpose of the United States employment and training programs is to provide a second chance to those who have failed to obtain an adequate preparation for employment from the school system. This program is described in some detail by Miriam Johnson & Robert Wegmann in their study for the U.S. Employment 6 7 and Training Administration: i. Information- Participants are informed of the effectiveness of directly approaching potential employers. They are also urged 66. Focus on Youth, p.54. 67. Miriam Johnson and Robert Wegmann, pp. 9 -49-to contact every friend, relative or acquaintance in order to see if this will turn up any appropriate job opening. As a practical matter, since lower income participants may have fewer well placed friends and relatives, most of the emphasis is on approaching employers directly. ii. Training- Some sort of script is provided to guide the participant when he or she phones employers. Practice in filling out job application forms is also provided. Programs also conduct extensive discussions of what to say and how to behave in an employment interview. Many will video tape participants in practice interviews which are then played back and suggestions made on how the interview behavior could be improved. iii. Material Support- Support provided in several forms i.e.: desk space, photocopying, typing, an answering service, phones, employers lists. iv. Social Support- A location where everyone is going about the tasks involved in seeking employment, discussing job search problems, going to job interviews, and so on. Both counsellors and other participants provide a sympathetic and understanding audience for the person who has become disadvantaged; at the same time, the structure of the program keeps the participant engaged in these efforts until a job is finally obtained... but -50-a consistent pattern is that unsuccessful participants are far more likely to have dropped out of the program than to have tried and failed. Not every program provides each of the above elements, of course, but most of these group job search programs provide most of these items. Program length is a critical determinant of how much any one program can offer. Taken together, these elements generate an intense focus on the process of obtaining employment and on the skills necessary for success in that process.^ CETA Work Incentive Programs In the early 1970's, Nathan Azrin, a behavioural psychologist who was responsible for finding employment for patients being discharged from a mental hospital, puzzled at 69 their initial lack of success. He surveyed a variety of people to find out how they first heard about their present job. Two-thirds of those responding heard about an opening from a friend, relative or acquaintance. Azrin also discovered that others had found their jobs after they applied to potential employers, even though they did so without knowing whether there was a job available. 68. Miriam Johnson & Robert Wegmann, pp 4, 5. 69. Ibid, pp 8, 9. -51-Azrin then tested this approach with the general population. He put an ad in a newspaper and passed the word to the Employment Service and local employers that his job finding program was available to the unemployed, free of charge. Those who applied were divided into a treatment group and a matched control group. Only the treatment group was admitted to what he described as the job club. No assistance was given to the control group. The average Job Club member began work in 14 days, compared to 53 days for those in the control group. Two months after the program began, 90 percent of the Job Club members were employed compared with 55 percent of those in the control group. Azrin was hired by the U.S. Department of Labour to super vise the training of Work Incentive (WIN) personnel in five cities. In each city, a random selection of welfare recipient WIN clients was assigned to a job club, rather than to whatever WIN services were being provided to facilitate employment. The final report on this project by Azrin in 1978 found that 62 percent of the WIN job club clients found jobs, compared to 33 percent of those receiving the other WIN services.^ 70. Miriam Johnson & Robert Wegmann, pp. 4, 5 -52-The CETA Work Experience programs have helped to increase immediate employment for disadvantaged youths, although they were not found to be effective at increasing long term employability.^ Work experience alone, even when well supervised, does not appear to increase the employability of youths. In fact, poorly supervised work experience may even tend the other way if it encourages the development or continuation 72 of poor work habits and attitudes. CETA Job Search Assistance Programs. In recent years there has been considerable experimentation with self-directed placement activities. Demonstration programs have been implemented for high school youths, for dropouts and for welfare recipients. The services generally provided can include career exploration, counselling, instruction in job search and interview skills, job development and job referral, although the mix and intensity of these components varies. Although the technique is too new to assess long term results, short term results from self-directed placement programs are generally positive. The gains from short duration job search training programs appear to be due entirely to their 73 success at reducing the time job seekers take to find a job. 71. Sandra Christensen, p. 37 72. Ibid, p.37 73. Ibid, p. 85 -53-The "Effectiveness of Two Job Search Assistance Programs for Disadvantaged Youth" by A. Hahn and B. Friedman, conducted an evaluation of the foregoing programs for both operation and 74 impact. The Job Factory in Cambridge, Massachusetts provided group activities, resume writing, job search skills amd placement assistance: and the Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, Workshop, assigned participants to one of three treatment groups to receive either individual career counselling and job placement services; and group job search skills workshops; or career counselling, and job search workshops. The project found that there were no significant differences in the rate of job finding among the three groups. No stipend was paid in the Pennsylvania Project. The Job Factory in Cambridge, Massachusetts paid youths a training stipend for doing the 'job' of finding a job. They found themselves supervised by a 'foreman', receiving a 'wage', and told that they were no longer unemployed since they now had a 'Job Factory'. They were expected tc work at that job from the time they punched the clock in the morning until they punched out at night. The study found that the stipend paid to participants in the Job Factory program had a great effect on program success. Participants in the Cambridge group showed marked improvement in their vocational attitudes as measured by pre and post-test results. 74. Andrei'/ Hahn & Barry Friedman. The Effectiveness of  Two Job Search Assistance Programs for Disadvantaged Youth:  Final Report. Office of Youth Programs (Dept. of Labour), Washington, D.C. 1981 -54-Overall, in both groups it was found that the intensity of the job search fostered by the moral support of the counsellors was the most significant component in the job search assistance programs.^ The longer job search skills training programs had a higher rate of long term job placement success, but were much more expensive to maintain. CETA JOB CORPS PROGRAM The Job Corps program has operated since 1973 under CETA. Seventy-five percent of its graduates have found a job, returned to school, or learned enough to enter the military. Prior to entrance, 40 percent of the members had an arrest record. The members live in centres away from their neighbourhoods. The goal is a socialization process that teaches disciplines needed for a job: how to get up on time, and how to deal with authorities.^ During 1975-1977 a sample of Job Corps participants and a control group of applicants, who did not participate, were interviewed at an entry point and an average of 18 months later. The evidence suggests that for those who stayed more than 90 days in Job Corps, the impacts relative to controls were concentrated in the social-attitudinal area: Self-esteem 75. Andrew Hahn & Barry Friedman, p. 24 76. Aaron Bernstein et al., p. 52 -55-increased, particularly for females, family relations improved both for males and somewhat for females, and attitudes toward authority improved while police involvement and the incidence of out of wedlock children declined. ^ Follow up of Job Corps participants who completed the program indicates that their post-program earning and employment rates are significantly higher than those of a comparable group of youths used as a control. Further, these benefits do not appear to decay over time. Although the intensive remedial education and training provided is expensive... one study estimates that benefits from the Job Corps exceed costs by at least 39 percent.^ 77. Eric Potter & Garth L. Mangum. Introduction to Monograph Series.Applying Le ssons of Youth Program. Prepared for the Employment and Training Administration. Olympus Pub. Co., Salt Lake City, 1982, p. 52 78. Sandra Christensen, p.63 -56-I. SUMMARY The rate of unemployment in Canada is the highest since the depression of the 1930's. However, the percentage of unemployed youth is presently double that of the adult rate. Studies from both Canada and the United States show that youth are disadvantaged due to family income, race, level of educational attainment, criminal history, low self-esteem and attitudes towards work. These disadvantaged youth have an even higher unemployment rate than the average unemployed youth. There is a considerable body of literature regarding follow-up studies of intervention strategies designed to aid both the general unemployment problem and to overcome the problem of disadvantaged unemployed youth. This material appears to be available only from the United States. The literature shows that some intervention strategies do show a good success rate in getting disadvantaged unemployed youth back into the labour force. This is particularly true if the programs combine remedial instruction with improving attitudes towards work as well as the upgrading of their self-esteem. -57-CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY. A. DESIGN This study will assess the degree of success of the intervention strategy called Career Start. This strategy has been designed to address the major employment barriers which restrict disadvantaged, unemployed youth from successfully obtaining and retaining permanent employment. There are two areas in which success of the program may be evaluated. The first is, that which the project is designed to achieve, namely the number of graduates obtaining and retaining steady employment for a ten week period after program participation. A second means of program assessment is also applied. This consists of measuring aspects of behavioural changes of participants before and after participation in the project. In this thesis the effectiveness of the project, as it affects change in academic achievement levels, self-esteem and attitudes towards work, will be assessed. Evaluation of the change of behaviour in the participants will be the key indicator of the program's success. Due to the uniqueness of the program a one group pre-test/ post-test experimental design method is used. -58-The population for the study is 172 participants who have been accepted into the project during its one and one half years of operation. The population for the test-retest portion of the study will be restricted to graduates who completed the post- tests prior to leaving Career Start. Some individuals who participated in the first portion of the study obtained jobs immediately and were not able to complete the post-tests prior to leaving, while others dropped out of the program without completing the post-test requirements. -59-B. THE INTERVENTION STRATEGY - CAREER START Using eight 'participant stand alone' computers and two 'authoring stations' (with word processing capabilities), the computer-based training techniques are supplemented with both group and individual learning methods. The project is staffed by a manager, program assistant, and two full-time counsellors. One counsellor works primarily in the selection and training components, while the other works primarily in the job search training area. There is one part-time person responsible for job placement. In order for the participants to learn the job finding and job keeping techniques necessary for retaining long term employment they must participate in five distinct components of the project: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) SELF-REFERRED SELECTION TRAINING JOB JOB APPLICATION PHASE PROCESS SEARCH PLACEMENT -basic & high school skills upgrading -life skills. 1. Self-Referred Application Potential applicants learn about the project from a variety of sources. These include a small newspaper ad, word of mouth, social workers from the Ministry of Social Services and -60-Housing, and special needs counsellors from Employment and Immigration Canada, and various probation officers. Individuals make contact directly with the project (usually by telephone) and are provided with a brief description of the project. The potential applicant is questioned to determine whether he meets the project's basic requirements and if so, is booked for an orientation session in which the project is explained in greater detail. Each component of the program is explained together with an explanation of the program requirements, should the applicant decide to apply for entrance. Candidates are encouraged to seek other options if the project is not clearly suited to their needs, and alternatives are discussed. Those who remain, complete a reading comprehension examination to determine whether they meet the minimum functioning level of Grade six. Results of the testing session are discussed with the applicants when they call the next day. If they fail the examination, alternatives are offered or they are encouraged to re-apply. Successful applicants are booked for a formal interview with a member of the Career Start staff. The same questionnaire is used in interviewing all applicants. While subjective analysis of the applicant is permitted, the types of barriers to employment are noted objectively, such as length of time unemployed, reasons for leaving past job, grade level completion, type of criminal history, etc. A resume and documented proof of job search (a -61-minimum of 20 hours) are required from the applicant. Once the information requested is brought back, the entire staff determine the suitability of each candidate for admission. An admission date is set or placement on a waiting list is confirmed. Should it be apparent that another service or agency would be better suited to assist the individual such services will be referred. 2. Selection Phase After acceptance into the program there is a two week 'selection phase'. During this time, applicants are paid a dollar an hour for the first week and two dollars an hour for the second week. The selection period provides the applicants with a chance to decide if the program meets their needs and interests and also gives the counsellors time to assess applicants' motivation and commitment to work. To pass selection, the applicant must demonstrate motivation by being punctual, attending all sessions and making necessary personal changes designed to increase employability, such as in hygiene, dress, lifestyle and hair length. The time in selection is used to build group support and learn life and pre-employment skills. Tests are given to determine academic skill level, vocational interests, job readiness and self-esteem. Based on the results of these tests an individual training plan is designed, which varies in length from six weeks to four months. -62-3. Training Process The staff regularly reviews the applicants' performance during the selection period and decides whether they should be hired into the training portion. If they are hired, they are paid minimum wage and begin their individualized training plan. Average duration of stay in the project is two and a half months. Instruction is delivered primarily through the PLATO (Program Learning and Automated Teaching Opportunities) computer-based learning system, and is supplemented by text and audio visual material. Participants progress through instructional material at their own pace, receiving assistance in selecting the path of instruction that is most appropriate to their needs. i. Academic Upgrading During the selection phase, the participants are assessed 79 through the Canadian Achievement Tests to determine their academic level in eight subject areas. Participants are then placed at the appropriate academic level in the curriculum, when they begin their studies and progress at their own pace. 79. J.D. Ayers et al. Canadian Achievement Tests - Class  Management Guide Form A. Canadian Test Centre, McGraw - Hill Ryerson Ltd., 1983 -63-The Basic Skills curriculum includes reading and mathematics, and the High School Skills curriculum includes high school reading, mathematics, writing and science, which begins at the ninth grade level of competency. Upon successful completion, participants write the Ministry of Education Grade 12 equivalency exams - General Educational Development (G.E.D.). ii. Life Skills The life skills portion of the program is designed to assist students to develop employability attitudes. It focuses on emotional, social and financial issues to help eliminate barriers to successful employment. Participants work at their own pace using PLATO courseware which is supplemented by text and audio visual material. Group support meetings and individual counselling sessions have been designed to support the work independently. All participants are involved in group support meetings which are confidential, issue oriented sessions, designed to help them to identify and overcome problems that may prevent them from finding jobs. Participation in group support meetings is intended to increase participants' self-esteem by assisting them to develop a positive approach to dealing with personal, educational, and work related issues that present barriers to employment. -64-Throughout this phase participants receive individual guidance to assist them in their job choice, career objectives and educational goals. Counselling also includes meetings to assist participants in their training plan and support in life skills development. 4. Job Search Process This portion of the program provides both instruction and practice in the techniques of self-directed job search, designed to assist employment disadvantaged participants to obtain and retaining employment for themselves. It is an intensive three week highly structured program. The participants receive classroom instruction (between two to four hours per day) and spend the rest of the time working on individual assignments or the PLATO Job Search course. Throughout the process of instruction, role play, practice, feedback and review, the participants learn to recognize and market their skills and abilities, write resumes, utilize proper telephone techniques, complete application forms for employment, develop a job search plan and prepare for and conduct professional job interviews. Participants develop positive attitudes towards work and increase self-confidence in their own ability to obtain and retain employment. -65-5. Job Placement The last portion of the Career Start training plan teaches participants how to reach the individual(s) who make the employment decisions. The relationship of various techniques to job attainment is discussed and studied, the concept is that the participants are about to "sell" their product (themselves) to an employer. Formulas, patterns, techniques are developed for each individual style, and various weekly and daily plans are introduced in conjunction with the geographical and occupational goals of the participants. As a group, the participants go out on a field trip to look for jobs. Each individual experiences the actual process of looking for work and afterward shares his concerns, fears, successes and progress later with the group. This experience reveals any remaining difficulties or barriers to obtaining employment. Follow-up of participants who complete the program is the responsibility of the Job Placement Co-ordinator. Initially, on- the-job progress is monitored on a weekly basis, sometimes by visitation, often by telephone, and where necessary, directly with the employer. Each participant is followed on an ongoing basis until he has obtained and retained employment for a ten -66-week period. All past participants are encouraged to remain in contact with Career Start staff. Use of the Career Start services and facilities are offered, a monthly newsletter is mailed to all past participants, and social occasions are arranged periodically. -67-C. METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION Data pertaining to the program and participants have been collected manually, and where available, by computer search. The tests are largely self-administered, and require either true or false answers or have a multiple choice selection. There are three sets of tests which are given at entry to the project and at completion of training: 1. academic skill level 2. self-esteem 3. attitude toward work 1. Academic Skill Level The Canadian Achievement Tests are a series of test batteries which are both norm referenced and criteria referenced. They measure achievement in reading vocabulary and comprehension, reference skills, spelling, language mechanics and expression, mathematics computation and concepts. Four levels (16 through 19) may be administered which permit both functional level testing and grade equivalency: level 16 - grades 5. 6 to 6. 9 level 17 - grades 6. 6 to 7. 9 level 18 - grades 7. 6 to 9. 9 level 19 - grades 9. 6 to 12 .9 -68-Depending on the score obtained, participants are placed at a skill level appropriate to their needs in either basic or high school academic skills. As noted earlier, participants progress at their own pace through computer-assisted instruction which is supplemented by text and audio visual topics. The subjects taken prepare them to challenge the Ministry of Education Grade 12 Equivalency Exam - General Educational Development (G.E.D). Some participants choose not to write the exam because of a strong desire to progress immediately into the job search portion of Career Start or are unable to do so because they are simply too young. Prior to entry into the job search portion, they are post-tested with the same tests. 2. Self-Esteem 8 0 The Culture Free Self-Esteem Inventory for Adults was designed to measure an individual's perception of self, and provides the instructor with greater insights into the subjective feelings of the participant. The test has been found reliable in test/re-test situations. The instrument, including the lie items, (which measure defensiveness) , consists of 40 items that are intended to measure an individual's general, personal and social self-perception. The items with 80. James Battle. Culture Free S E I Self - Esteem  Inventories for Children and Adults. Special Child Publications, Washington, U.S.A., 1981 -69-true or false answers indicate a measure of self-esteem. The participants then work on a life skills computer-assisted learning program designed to improve their self-esteem. These courses, in conjunction with corresponding group activities, group support meetings and individual counselling, are also designed to improve self-esteem. Increased self-esteem should assist in developing a positive approach in dealing with personal, educational and work related issues that present barriers to employment. The post-testing situation occurs after completion of the job search portion of Career Start. 3. Attitude Toward Work The Associates for Research in Behaviour, Inc. (Associates) developed a measurement of the adequacy or inadequacy of a trainee's Job Readiness Posture. The three psychological dimensions assessed are: attractions to work, losses associated with obtaining and retaining employment, 81 barriers to employment. The Vocational Opinion Index (V.O.I.) measures the job readiness of a trainee, who, from a disadvantaged background is participating in a training program to obtain a job. Designed, tested and normed for the disadvantaged population, it takes about 40 minutes to complete 81. Transition to Work III: Development and Implementation  V 0 I Transition System. Associates for Research in Behavior Inc., Pennsylvania, 1974 -70-and is used at both entrance to and exit from Career Start. The staff of Career Start use the results to assist the participants in the job search portion of Career Start to develop job readiness. The job search program is a self-directed, computer-assisted instruction program with emphasis on group work in areas such as telephone skills, interview practice and contacting employers for jobs. Participants are taught to obtain and retain their own jobs rather than to develop a reliance on the more traditional methods of work experience and job placement. After three weeks, job search participants are post-tested prior to graduation. -71-D. METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS A computer program was set up to handle all of the data regarding participant characteristics; barriers to Employment, pre and post-test results for the Canadian Achievement Tests, Culture Free Self-Esteem, and the Vocational Opinion Index. The data was entered on a Control Data 110 Computer using a Dbase II program. Once entered, the information was next transferred to a smaller disk size and next transferred to a language compatible on an IBM PC so that the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (S.P.S.S.) could be used to analyse the data. The procedures used for data analysis were as follows: 1. Applicant Characteristics- The data for the applicant characteristics were taken from interview forms used by the staff during the first formal interview session with the applicant prior to program entrance. The interview form is standard and staff ask questions in the same manner. The interview form used is found in Appendix B. The information gleaned from this form makes up the applicant characteristics. This information was then rank ordered and cross-tabulated by both age and sex. 2. Barriers to Employment- Data for the Barriers to employment form is obtained from the results of a confidential interview between the counsellor and the participant. Often the -72-information differs from the 'applicant characteristics' because the barrier is perceived rather than actual. For example, 50 applicants had criminal histories prior to entering the project. However, only 38 participants felt that their criminal record would prevent them from getting a job. One of the reasons for this is that in some cases the crimes were committed when the individual was a juvenile. On reaching the age of majority the criminal record remains behind them. Another reason might be due to the fact that a number of offenders are eligible for a pardon two years after having served their time in jail. They appear to feel that this wipes their slates clean. The Barriers to Employment form is found in Appendix C. 3. Pre and Post-Test Results- All of the data were computed and analyzed using a histogram in order to determine if there was a normal distribution. No normal distribution was found on any pair samples. It was then impossible to use a paired T-Test and have valid results. It was therefore necessary to use a non parametric test. These tests are used when the sample size is small (such as is the case in this study) or when there is not a normal distribution (also true in this study). The data was then analyzed using a test for simple gain or loss by the participants in each test area. 4. Degree of Success - All of the aforementioned areas were tested using non parametric test called the Chi-Square Test For Independence, to determine whether the relationship between success and the variable was significant. -73-CHAPTER FOUR DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE A. CHARACTERISTICS OF APPLICANTS TO CAREER START By the cut off date of April 30, 1986, 172 applicants had been accepted into the selection process of the Career Start program. Three of the applicants were over the age of 24 and have therefore been excluded from this study. Table 6 shows that of the remaining 169 applicants, 103 or 62 percent were males, while 66 or 38 percent were females. There were 40 males compared to 17 females in the 15-19 year age range and 63 males compared to 49 females in the 20-24 year age range. TABLE 6 AGE BY SEX AGE MALE FEMALE TOTAL 15 through 19 40 17 57 34% 20 through 24 63 49 112 66% COLUMN TOTAL 103 61% 66 38% 169 100% -74-Table 7 cross-tabulates age and sex with education level of applicants prior to entrance in the program. Junior High is defined as any completed grade level below grade 10, and also includes Basic Training for Skills Development (BTSD) level II. Senior High is defined as grades 10 through 12, and also includes BTSD level III. A graduate is defined as any who completed grade 12, BTSD level IV and the General Educational Development exam (GED). Post-Graduate describes any applicant who has completed any post secondary education, including both public and private training institutions. Sixty-one percent or 104 of the applicants to Career Start had not graduated from grade 12 or the equivalent. The Chi-Square Test for Independence shows that there is a relationship between age, sex and education level attained. The older the applicant, the higher the level of academic attainment. There is no significant difference between sexes and education level. -75-TABLE 7 LEVEL OF EDUCATION CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX. PREVIOUS EDUCATION LEVEL MALE 15-19 FEMALE MALE FEMALE ROW 15-19 20-24 20-24 TOTAL Junior High 16 11 39 23% Senior High 18 22 21 65 38% Graduate 15 16 40 24% Post Graduate 15 25 15% COLUMN TOTAL 40 24% 17 10% 63 63% 49 29% 169 100% X = 34.29 , P= .0001 Table 8 shows that there is a dependency between age and sex and duration of last job. Youth in the 20-24 year age range held their job for a longer period of time than the youth in the 15-19 age range. There was no significant difference between males and females. -76-TABLE 8 LENGTH OF LAST EMPLOYMENT CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX MALE 15-19 FEMALE 15-19 MALE 20-24 FEMALE 20-24 ROW TOTAL Never Worked 9 5% Less than One month 13 8% 1- 3 months 10 14 37 22% 3- 6 months 13 19 45 27% 6- 12 months 13 15 34 20% 12 months and up 0 14 13 30 18% COLUMN TOTAL 40 24% 17 10% 62 37% 49 29% 168 100% X = 34.0 , P= .0033 -77-Table 9 shows that 47 percent or 78 applicants were laid off from their last job. There were 14 more males in this category than females. Forty percent, or 67 applicants quit their last job prior to entrance in Career Start. Only eight percent were fired from their last job. Age and sex were found not to be related to the reason that the youths had left their last jobs. TABLE 9 REASON FOR LEAVING LAST JOB CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX MALE 15-19 FEMALE 15-19 MALE 20-24 FEMALE 20-24 ROW TOTAL Never Worked 9 5% Laid off 16 10 33 19 78 47% Fired 13 8% Quit 16 23 23 67 40% COLUMN TOTAL 39 23% 17 10% 63 38% 48 29% 167 100% X = 12.3 , P= .1942 -78-Table 10 shows that the length of unemployment between both the age groups and sex of the participants was not significantly different. Information from one applicant is missing from the data base. The length of time applicants were unemployed prior to project entry is independent of age or sex. TABLE 10 LENGTH OF UNEMPLOYMENT CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX MALE FEMALE MALE FEMALE ROW up to 19 up to 19 20-24 20-24 TOTAL Never Worked 3 2 0 4 9 5% Less than 3 months 3 1 6 5 15 9% 3-6 months 15 3 18 18 54 32% 6-9 months . 9 8 16 7 40 24% 9-12 months 6 0 8 8 22 13% 12-24 months 2 1 10 2 15 9% 24 months 2 2 4 5 13 8% COLUMN TOTAL 40 17 62 49 168 24% 10% 37% 29% 100% X2= 23.66 , P= . 1662 -79-Table 11 shows that 78 applicants or 46 percent were receiving social assistance prior to entry to Career Start and 22 applicants or 13 percent were receiving Unemployment Insurance. There is no relationship between age and sex and the financial situation of applicants, prior to program entry. TABLE 11 FINANCIAL SITUATION CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX MALE 15-19 FEMALE 15-19 MALE 20-24 FEMALE 20-24 ROW TOTAL Social Assistance 16 31 26 78 46% UIC 11 22 13% Part Time Work Saving 0 10 6% 3 6% Others 17 10 15 14 56 33% COLUMN TOTAL 40 24% 17 10% 63 37% 49 29% 169 100% X = 16.78 , P= .1597 -80-Of the 169 applicants, 50 had previous criminal histories, the majority of which were crimes pertaining to the breaking and entering of property. Amongst the young male offenders the majority of these property related crimes were also alcohol or drug related. Additionally, 13 of the 169 applicants, or eight percent, spoke English as their second language. Five were status native Indians and four were non-status Indians for a total of nine or four percent of the total sample. Thirty-seven percent, or 63 of the 169 applicants, were still living at home with their parents, while the remaining 63 percent were either renting or boarding. There was no significant difference between males and females. Twelve of the applicants, or seven percent, had dependents. -81-B. BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT PRESENT IN THE SAMPLE Of the 172 applicants, 148 were hired into the project. Of this number, two were over the age of 24 and were therefore excluded from this section of the study. Counsellors of the Career Start program met individually with 146 participants and, using a standard form designed by the staff, subjectively determined the most severe barriers to employment suffered by the participants. The form used for collection of data is found in Appendix C. The barriers looked at jointly by the counsellor and participant include the following: Problem with Authority; Lack of Education; Difficulties Relating to Peers; Attitudes in Previous Job; Lack of Working Experience; Personal or Social Problems; Physical Disability; Criminal History; Psychological Problems; Health Problems; Family Situation; Drugs and Alcohol; Economy; Desires for a Particular job; Age; Immaturity; Job Accessibility; Lack of Skills Required; Knowledge of Job Search Skills; Dress and Manner; Cleanliness; Communication Skills; Eye Contact. A Chi-Square Test for Independence was conducted for each of the 23 barriers to employment and contrasted with age and sex . -82-Table 12 shows that the employment barriers, 'Problem with Authority', 'Difficulties Relating to Peers' and 'Attitudes in Previous Job' were not significant problem areas for either male or female participants, regardless of age. Sixty percent of the participants felt that because they had less than grade 12 graduation, they would be unable to secure a job after leaving Career Start. A large majority of youth between 15 and 19 years old felt that a 'Lack of Education' was an employment barrier. There was no significant difference between the sexes in this belief. -83-TABLE 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX NO BARRIER 15-19 MALE FEMALE PROBLEM WITH AUTHORITY 25 16 DIFFICULTIES RELATING TO PEERS 30 16 ATTITUDES IN PREVIOUS JOB 29 14 LACK OF EDUCATION 5 4 20-24 MALE FEMALE 52 39 55 42 49 38 26 23 COLUMN TOTAL 132 90% 143 98% 130 89% 58 40% BARRIER PRESENT 15-19 MALE 6 FEMALE 0 20-24 MALE 5 FEMALE 3 1 0 2 0 2 2 8 4 26 12 31 19 COLUMN TOTAL 14 10% 3 2% 16 11% 60% TOTAL P 146 100% 5.4 .1421 146 100% 2.0 .5669 146 100% 1.3 .7230 146 100% 13.4 .0038 -84-Table 12 also shows that the employment barriers 'Lack of Working Experience', and 'Personal or Social Problems' and 'Physical Disabilities' were not significant when cross-tabulated with age and sex. The employment barrier 'Criminal History' in Table 12 is cross-tabulated with age and sex, and a relationship is found. There are significantly more males than females with criminal histories. In the 15-19 age range there are eleven males contrasted with one female and in the 20-24 age range there are 20 males contrasted with only six females. It also appears that the older the youth, the more likely it is that they will have a criminal history. It should be noted that 26 percent of the participants with an employment barrier in this category means that they thought that their crimes were severe enough to pose a problem in securing future, full-time employment. -85-TABLE 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX NO BARRIER 15-19 MALE FEMALE 20-24 MALE FEMALE COLUMN TOTAL LACK OF WORKING EXPERIENCE 10 3 25 13 51 35% PERSONAL OR SOCIAL PROBLEMS 28 13 44 35 PHYSICAL DISABILITY 120 82% 29 16 56 39 140 96% CRIMINAL HISTORY 20 15 37 36 108 74% BARRIER PRESENT 15-19 MALE FEMALE 20-24 MALE FEMALE 21 13 32 29 3 3 13 7 2 0 1 3 11 1 20 6 COLUMN TOTAL TOTAL 95 65% 146 100% 26 18% 146 100% 4% 146 100% 38 26% 146 100% X* P. 4.2 .2375 2.4 .4899 2.9 .4073 10.1 .0175 -86-Table 12 shows that the employment barriers 'Psychological Problems', 'Health Problems', and 'Family Situation' were found by the Chi-square Test of Independence to be unrelated to either age and sex. The employment barrier 'Drugs and Alcohol' was related to age and sex. More males than females in both age groups felt their drug or alcohol problems could be a barrier to employment. -87-TABLE 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS HEALTH PROBLEMS FAMILY SITUATION DRUGS & ALCOHOL NO BARRIER 15-19 MALE FEMALE 20-24 MALE FEMALE COLUMN TOTAL 31 16 55 42 144 99% 30 13 53 36 132 90% 23 10 46 26 105 72% 27 16 48 41 132 90% BARRIER PRESENT 15-19 MALE FEMALE 20-24 MALE FEMALE COLUMN TOTAL TOTAL 0 0 2 0 1% 146 100% 1 3 4 6 14 10% 146 100% 8 6 11 16 41 28% 146 100% 4 0 9 1 14 10% 146 100% X* P. 3.1 3667 4.5 2123 5.0 1685 7.1 0677 -88-Table 12 shows that regardless of age or sex, the employment barriers 'Economy' and 'Desires a Particular Job' were unrelated to the perceived failure to secure a particular job. Seventeen of the 15-19 year old males and females felt that age was indeed a barrier to employment, as shown in Table 12. This number was significantly higher than the number in the upper age ranges, who felt that age was not a barrier. There was no significant difference between the males and females in this attitude. 'Immaturity' was also rejected as not being an influential factor in job finding. Only five percent of the total population felt that this was a barrier, however seven of the eight youth with the perceived barrier were in the 15-19 year old age category. -89-TABLE 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX ECONOMY AGE DESIRES A PARTICULAR JOB IMMATURITY NO BARRIER 15-19 MALE 18 FEMALE 12 MALE 20-24 28 FEMALE 20-24 23 COLUMN 81 TOTAL 55% BARRIER PRESENT 21 9 55 42 127 87% 28 15 49 38 130 89% 27 13 56 42 138 95% 15-19 MALE FEMALE 13 4 10 7 3 1 4 3 20-24 MALE FEMALE 29 19 2 0 8 4 1 0 COLUMN TOTAL 65 45% 19 13% 16 11% 8 5% TOTAL X2 P. 146 100% 3.4 .3216 146 100% 34.3 0000 146 100% 1.05 7874 146 100% 12.7 0053 -90-Table 12 shows that the employment barriers 'Job Accessibility', 'Lack of Skills Required', 'Knowledge of Job Search Skills' and 'Dress and Manner' were not related to age or sex of the participants in the study. Participants felt that these areas did not pose significant problems in attaining employment. -91-TABLE 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX NO BARRIER 15-19 MALE FEMALE 20-24 MALE FEMALE COLUMN TOTAL JOB ACCESSIBILITY 28 12 54 35 129 88% LACK OF SKILLS 20 10 41 30 101 69% KNOWLEDGE OF JOB SEARCH SKILLS 14 6 32 26 78 53% DRESS AND MANNER 27 15 52 37 131 BARRIER PRESENT 15-19 MALE FEMALE 20-24 MALE FEMALE 4 3 3 7 11 6 16 12 17 10 25 16 4 1 5 5 COLUMN TOTAL 17 12% 45 31% 68 47% 15 10% TOTAL 146 146 146 146 100% 100% 100% 100% X2 4.1 .95 3.8 .77 P. .2489 .8127 .2765 .8556 -92-Again, Table 12 showed that regardless of age and sex, participants felt that there was no relationship to the idea that employment could not be found when the employment barriers listed were 'Cleanliness', 'Communication Skills', and 'Eye Contact'. -93-TABLE 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIER CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX CLEANLINESS NO BARRIER 15-19 MALE FEMALE 20-24 MALE FEMALE COLUMN TOTAL 30 16 57 41 144 99% COMMUNICATION SKILLS 23 12 43 27 105 72% EYE CONTACT 30 16 55 40 141 97% BARRIER PRESENT 15-19 MALE FEMALE 20-24 MALE FEMALE COLUMN TOTAL 1 0 0 1 2 1% 8 4 14 15 41 28% 1 0 2 2 5 3% TOTAL 146 100% 146 100% 146 100% P. 2.1 .5475 1.7 .6334 .79 .8496 -94-Table 12 lists 23 problems perceived by the youth as posing impediments to obtaining a job. Information was obtained from confidential interviews between a staff member and a participant. Only five of the 23 employment barriers studied were felt to pose a major problem for the participants in their efforts to gain employment. These barriers are 'Lack of Education', 'Criminal History', 'Drug and Alcohol Abuse', 'Age', and 'Immaturity'. The interviewees felt that these barriers were factors in their being unable to secure work. There was no significant difference of opinion between the sexes except in the employment barriers 'Drugs and Alcohol' and 'Criminal History' where young men were more concerned about these problems than were the young women. -95-C. NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS PRE-TESTED AND POST-TESTED The number of post-tests received from the participants prior to exiting the program did not match the number of applicants (169) who wrote all three sets of the pre-tests during the selection phase. Reasons for this discrepancy are as follows: i) Applicants who did not enter the training portion of the program from the selection phase were not required to complete the post-tests, since their length of stay was too short for evaluation purposes. ii) Trainees who were fired from the project due to violent behavior, attitude or punctuality were not required to complete the post-tests. The intent of the staff was to remove those fired from the project as quickly as possible. iii) Some of the participants who obtained entry level jobs were required to start immediately, and therefore were unable to complete the post-tests. iv) Some of the trainees who completed the post-tests did so in such a manner which made them unusable. v) At all times the project has participants in different stages of training. On the cut off date of April 30, 1986, 23 -96-people were not yet ready to leave or qualified to obtain jobs. Therefore post-tests were not completed by this group. Additionally, the three sets of post-tests were administered to the participants during different phases of the program, and therefore the usable number of returns vary from 93 for the Culture Free Self-Esteem; 81 for the Vocational Opinion Index, and from a low of 82 to a high of 90 for the Canadian Achievement Tests. -97-CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS The results of this study are presented in four sections. The first section presents data concerning the extent to which success after program participation is related to participant characteristics, and secondly to barriers to employment suffered by the subjects. The second section presents scores of the participants on three tests taken on entering the program and on leaving the program. The tests include the Canadian Achievement Tests, the Vocational Opinion Index and the Culture Free Self-Esteem Index. The results are compared with the degrees of success by the participants which were determined by the Career Start staff for the purposes of this study. The third section of this chapter presents an analysis of paired sample pre and post-test results from each of the three tests that were administered. The last section presents the success rate of the participants (as determined by the project staff) in meeting the quantifiable objectives required by Employment and Immigration Canada. A. DEGREES OF SUCCESS CROSS-TABULATED WITH PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS AND BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT For the purposes of this section, the degrees of success were defined by Career Start staff and cross-tabulated i^ith both -98-participant characteristics and perceived barriers to employment. The four degrees of success are defined as 'Highly Successful', 'Successful', 'Not Successful1 and 'Dropout'. The category of 'Highly Successful' was used by the staff to describe participants who: - were highly motivated by the program; - obtained a job using the self-directed job search method learned during the program; - retained employment for a ten-week period or more; - were promoted while working; - moved on to a subsequent job which offered more money or challenge; The category of 'Successful' was used to describe participants who: - obtained employment on their own but required continued support from the project staff in order to retain those jobs; - had to be placed in a job located for them by the staff and required continued support in order to keep those jobs; - required in-depth counselling or severe behavioural modification in order to obtain or retain employment. -99-The category of 'Not Successful' was used by the staff to describe participants who: - did not retain their jobs for a ten week period; - returned to their former lifestyle prior to program entry. The category of 'Dropout' includes 24 people who did not pass the selection phase or enter the training portion of the program. Also included are six participants who were either fired or withdrew from the program. In order to determine whether participant characteristics and success in the program were related, a series of cross-tabulations were done. The participant characteristics examined were: 'Age', 'Sex', 'Previous Education Level', ' Duration of Last Job', 'Reason for Leaving Last Job', 'Length of Unemployment', 'Financial Situation', 'Criminal History', 'English as a Second Language', 'Native Indian Status', 'Accommodation', and 'Number of Dependants'. Of the twelve cross-tabulations only two yielded Chi-Square values of .05 or less. Thus, while 'Previous Education' and 'Duration of Last Job' were related to success, it was determined that the other measured participant characteristics were not. -100-Table 13 presents previous education level crosstabulated with success. The Chi-Square Test of Independence is significant at P=.0156 suggesting that there is a relationship between the level of previous education and success in the program. Proportionately, the participants with junior or senior high level of education were highly represented in the 'Not Successful' and 'Dropout' group, while the 'Successful' and 'Highly Successful' participants showed a large representation in the senior high, graduate and post-graduate education categories. TABLE 13 PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS-PREVIOUS EDUCATION LEVEL AND SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL NOT DROP TOTAL SUCCESSFUL SUCCESSFUL OUT JUNIOR HIGH SENIOR HIGH GRADUATES POST-GRADUATES 15 34 26 20 10 18 6 8 4 0 8 5 1 0 39 65 40 25 TOTAL 95 42 18 14 169 =20.3 , P-.0156 -101-Table 14 cross-tabulates the length of previous employment with success, and indicates that participants who had never worked before, or who had worked for a short period of time, were more likely to dropout of Career Start than participants that had worked for a longer period of time, prior to program entry. TABLE 14 PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS-LENGTH OF PREVIOUS EMPLOYMENT WITH SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL NOT DROP TOTAL SUCCESSFUL SUCCESSFUL NEVER WORKED LESS THAN ONE MONTH ONE MONTH TO THREE MONTHS THREE MONTHS TO SIX MONTHS SIX MONTHS TO TWELVE MONTHS MORE THAN TWELVE MONTHS 21 23 21 20 10 11 0 13 37 45 34 30 TOTAL 95 41 18 14 168 X2- 24.§ , P-.0524 -102-Table 15 presents 23 Barriers to Employment. These barriers were subjectively determined by the counsellors of the Career Start program who met individually with each of the 146 participants. The form used for collection of data is found in Appendix C. After listing the 23 Barriers to Employment the Chi-Square Test was used to determine whether those barriers were independent from the categories of success. For the majority of the employment barriers, there was no significant dependence between the particular barrier and rated level of success in the program, however, five barriers to employment were found to be related to success. These barriers are: 'Problem with Authority', 'Dress and Manner', 'Cleanliness', 'Family Situation', and 'Alcohol and Drugs'. Data on 'Problem with Authority' shows, in Table 15, that the Chi-Square Test of Independence is significant at P= .0185 suggesting that there is a relationship between those who have no problem with authority and those who achieved success in the program. Of the six participants 'Dress and Manner' was found to of the six dropouts. The Chi highly significant at P= who dropped out of the program, be an employment barrier to five Square Test of Independence is 0000 suggesting that those -103-participants whose dress and manner was inappropriate were likely to withdraw from the program. The employment barrier 'Cleanliness' was rejected as being independent from success. Only two participants in Career Start showed 'Cleanliness' as a barrier to employment, one of whom was highly successful, while the other participant dropped out from Career Start. Eighty-six of the 87 'Highly Successful' participants did not have 'Cleanliness' as an employment barrier. 'Family Situation', the fourth employment barrier illustrated in Table 15, was rejected as being independent from success at the P=.0124 level. The most 'Highly Successful' participants were those that had no family situation problems which could prevent them from gaining permanent employment. Data on 'Alcohol and Drugs', shown in Table 15, posed no barrier to 83 of the 87 participants who were highly successful at obtaining and retaining employment after program exit. The Chi-Square Test of Independence is significant at P=.0005 suggesting that there is a relationship between those who have no problem with either alcohol of drugs and success in the program. -104-TABLE 15 BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT CROSS-TABULATED WITH DEGREES OF SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESS-SUCCESS- FUL FUL NOT DROP ROW PER- X' SUCCESS- OUTS TOTAL CENT FUL PROBLEM WITH AUTHORITY BARRIER 5 7 NO BARRIER 82 32 0 14 2 4 14 132 10 90 DIFFICULTIES RELATING TO PEERS ATTITUDES IN PREVIOUS JOB LACK OF EDUCATION LACK OF WORKING EXPERIENCE 146 100 10.1 .0185 BARRIER 3 0 NO BARRIER 84 39 0 14 0 6 3 143 2 98 146 100 2.0 .1256 BARRIER 8 4 NO BARRIER 79 35 2 12 2 4 16 130 11 89 146 100 3.5 .3164 BARRIER NO BARRIER 48 39 23 16 11 3 6 0 88 58 60 40 146 100 6.8 .0756 BARRIER NO BARRIER 56 31 26 13 8 6 5 1 95 51 65 35 146 100 1.3 .7220 -105-TABLE 15 BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT CROSS-TABULATED WITH DEGREES OF SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESS- NOT DROP ROW PER- X' SUCCESS- FUL SUCCESS- OUTS TOTAL CENT FUL FUL PERSONAL OR SOCIAL PROBLEMS BARRIER 11 9 NO BARRIER 76 30 5 9 1 5 26 120 18 82 ECONOMY AGE DESIRE PARTICULAR JOB IMMATURITY 146 100 5.3 .1449 BARRIER 42 18 NO BARRIER 45 21 5 9 0 6 65 81 45 55 146 100 5.7 .1221 BARRIER 10 5 NO BARRIER 77 34 2 12 2 4 19 127 87 146 100 2.3 .4960 BARRIER 10 4 NO BARRIER 77 35 1 13 16 130 11 89 146 100 .45 .288 BARRIER 4 2 NO BARRIER 83 37 1 13 1 5 8 138 6 94 146 100 1.6 .6448 -106-TABLE 15 BARRIER TO EMPLOYMENT CROSS-TABULATED WITH DEGREES OF SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESS- NOT DROP ROW PER- X* P SUCCESS- FUL SUCCESS- OUTS TOTAL CENT FUL FUL JOB ACCESSIBILITY BARRIER 10 6 NO BARRIER 77 33 1 13 0 6 17 129 12 88 LACK OF SKILLS REQUIRED 146 100 1.5 .6597 BARRIER 22 14 NO BARRIER 65 25 5 9 4 2 45 101 31 69 146 100 5.4 .1390 KNOWLEDGE OF JOB SEARCH SKILLS BARRIER 40 20 NO BARRIER 47 19 4 10 4 2 68 78 47 53 DRESS AND MANNERS CLEANLINESS 146 100 3.1 .3681 BARRIER 3 5 NO BARRIER 84 34 2 12 5 1 15 131 10 90 146 100 39.1 .0000 BARRIER NO BARRIER 1 86 0 39 0 14 1 5 2 144 1 99 146 100 11.1 .0109 -107-TABLE 15 BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT CROSS-TABULATED WITH DEGREES OF SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESS- NOT DROP ROW PER- X2 SUCCESS FUL SUCCESS- OUTS TOTAL CENT FUL FUL COMMUNICATION SKILLS BARRIER 23 13 2 3 41 28 NO BARRIER 64 26 12 3 105 72 EYE CONTACT 146 100 3.3 .3345 BARRIER 2 3 0 0 5 3 NO BARRIER 85 36 14 6 141 97 146 100 3.1 .3632 PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEM BARRIER 0 2 0 0 2 99 NO BARRIER 87 37 14 6 144 1 146 100 5.5 .1349 HEALTH PROBLEMS BARRIER 6 6 1 1 14 10 NO BARRIER 81 33 13 5 132 90 146 100 2.6 .4433 FAMILY SITUATION BARRIER 16 15 7 3 41 28 NO BARRIER 71 24 7 3 105 72 146 100 10.8 .0124 DRUGS AND ALCOHOL BARRIER 4 3 5 2 14 10 NO BARRIER 83 36 9 4 132 90 146 100 17.5 .0005 -108-B. DEGREES OF SUCCESS CROSS-TABULATED WITH THE CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS, VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX, AND CULTURE FREE SELF-ESTEEM The categories of success used for this section of the chapter are identical to the calculations used for comparison with participant characteristics and barriers to employment. The four classifications of success were determined by the staff of the project. The pre-test.results include both graduates from the program and participants still in the training portion. Participants who were still in the training program had not completed any post-tests prior to the cut off date of April 30, 1986. Table 16 shows the number of participants in each success category in each of the eight Canadian Achievement Tests. One hundred and sixty one participants completed all of the tests administered prior to program entry. The number of participants who wrote the post-tests varied with each test, from a low of 83 to a high of 91.The results of the tests were categorized into grade level equivalents. 'Elementary' includes grade levels one through five. 'Intermediate' includes grade levels six through seven. 'Junior' includes grade levels eight through nine, and 'Senior' includes grade levels ten through twelve. The Chi-square Test of Independence was conducted on each of the eight academic skill areas. The test results were calculated twice, first on the pre-test scores and secondly on -109-the post-test scores. This information was then cross-tabulated with the success rating scale of 'Dropout' through to 'Highly Successful'. No relationship was found to exist between the categories of success and the academic functioning level, with the exception of the 'Reference Skills' post-test. This test indicates that participants who were 'Successful' or 'Very Successful' also scored high in the senior range (grade 10-12) of the 'Reference Skill' component of the Canadian Achievement tests. -110-TABLE 16 CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS BY VARYING DEGREES OF SUCCESS ELEMEN- INTER-TARY MEDIATE PRE READING VOCABULARY HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 6 12 SUCCESSFUL 2 7 NOT SUCCESSFUL 2 0 DROPOUT 2 2 POST-READING VOCABULARY HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 1 6 SUCCESSFUL 0 1 NOT SUCCESSFUL 0 2 PRE-READING COMPREHENSION HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 10 8 SUCCESSFUL 5 4 NOT SUCCESSFUL 3 2 DROPOUT 3 2 POST-READING COMPREHENSION HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 3 4 SUCCESSFUL 2 2 NOT SUCCESSFUL 0 2 JR SR TOTAL PER- X' P CENT 18 55 91 56 10 21 40 25 2 13 17 11 5 4 13 8 161 100 10.5 .3043 6 42 55 62 4 21 26 30 0 5 7 8 88 100 5.2 .5163 10 63 91 56 6 25 40 25 0 12 17 11 0 8 13 8 161 100 6.5 .6848 3 45 55 62 0 23 27 30 0 5 7 8 89 100 5.7 .4489 -111-TABLE 16 CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS BY VARYING DEGREES OF SUCCESS ELEMEN- INTER- JR SR TOTAL PER- X2 P TARY MEDIATE CENT PRE-REFERENCE SKILLS HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 12 11 10 58 91 56 SUCCESSFUL 9 3 5 23 40 25 NOT SUCCESSFUL 2 2 2 11 17 11 DROPOUT 2 3 4 4 13 8 161 100 9.3 .4015 POST-REFERENCE SKILLS HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 4 1 9 40 54 65 SUCCESSFUL 2 3 3 16 24 29 NOT SUCCESSFUL 2 1 0 2 5 6 83 100 11.7 .0682 PRE-SPELLING SKILLS HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 13 14 14 50 91 56 SUCCESSFUL 6 8 4 22 40 25 NOT SUCCESSFUL 5 4 1 7 17 11 DROPOUT 5 3 3 2 13 8 161 100 12.2 .2001 POST-SPELLING SKILLS HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 1 6 8 41 56 61 SUCCESSFUL 2 3 5 18 28 31 NOT SUCCESSFUL 2 1 1 3 7 8 91 100 9.4 .1478 -112-TABLE 16 CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS BY VARYING DEGREES OF SUCCESS ELEMEN- INTER- JR SR TOTAL PER- T~ P TARY MEDIATE CENT PRE-LANGUAGE MECHANICS HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 27 15 10 39 91 56 SUCCESSFUL 16 7 6 11 40 25 NOT SUCCESSFUL 8 0 4 5 17 11 DROPOUT 8 3 0 2 13 8 161 100 14.7 .0981 POST-LANGUAGE MECHANICS HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 9 2 3 42 56 62 SUCCESSFUL 6 2 1 18 27 30 NOT SUCCESSFUL 3 0 0 4 7 8 90 100 4.1 .6627 PRE-LANGUAGE EXPRESSION HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 21 16 8 46 91 56 SUCCESSFUL 8 9 4 19 40 25 NOT SUCCESSFUL 6 2 0 9 17 11 DROPOUT 7 3 1 2 13 8 161 100 10.9 .2785 POST-LANGUAGE EXPRESSION HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 7 4 2 42 55 62 SUCCESSFUL 1 4 1 21 27 30 NOT SUCCESSFUL 1 1 1 4 7 8 89 100 4.6 .5833 -113-TABLE 16 CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS BY VARYING DEGREES OF SUCCESS ELEMEN- INTER-TARY MEDIATE PRE-MATH COMPUTATION HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 22 21 SUCCESSFUL 13 12 NOT SUCCESSFUL 7 5 DROPOUT 5 4 POST-MATH COMPUTATION HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 3 8 SUCCESSFUL 1 6 NOT SUCCESSFUL 1 2 PRE-MATH CONCEPTS HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 20 20 SUCCESSFUL 14 9 NOT SUCCESSFUL 6 2 DROPOUT 2 6 POST-MATH CONCEPTS HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 6 7 SUCCESSFUL 2 6 NOT SUCCESSFUL 1 1 JR SR TOTAL PER X2 P CENT 23 25 91 56 6 9 40 25 1 4 17 11 2 2 13 8 161 100 7.3 .6031 14 29 54 63 4 14 25 29 3 1 7 8 86 100 5.9 .4246 24 27 91 57 9 8 40 25 5 3 16 10 2 2 12 8 159 100 10.0 .3474 11 31 55 62 4 14 26 30 4 1 7 8 88 100 9.4 .1478 -114-Table 17 sumarizes the results of pre and post-tests from the Vocational Op inion Index. The Chi—Square Test of Independence was conducted on each of the 13 categories. The analysis were conducted twice, once on the pre-test scores and secondly on the post-test scores. Each category was then cross-tabulated vrith the varying degress of success. Two of the 13 areas tested showed a significant relationship with success, while one merely shows a trend towards a relationship. The 'New Situations and People' post-test item reported in Table 17, shows that independence is rejected at P=.0012 level. On closer examination of the data one can see that all of the five participants who were not successful in the program had an employment barrier defined as 'New Situations and People'. Fifty-four of the 84 participants had no problem with either new situations or people. These 54 participants were determined to be quite successful. The pre-test item 'Transportation' in Table 17 shows that there is a relationship between success and 'Transportation' (P=.0063). The participants who didn't perceive the ability to get to work as a problem area were more likely not to be successful in the program (13 out of 16) or dropped out of the program (seven out of nine). -115-The pre-test item 'Ability to Get and Hold a Job', also shown in Table 17, indicates a trend towards a relationship between success and attitude toward work. However, the majority of these participants who were successful in the program did not have an attitude problem about getting and keeping a job. -116-TABLE 17 VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX BY DEGREES OF SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESS- NOT DROP ROW PER- X^ P SUCCESS- FUL SUCCESS- OUT TOTAL CENT FUL FUL TIME TO CARE AND BE WITH FAMILY (PRE) TOO LOW 22 8 5 2 37 25 N/A PROBLEM 56 22 8 6 92 61 TOO HIGH 9 8 3 1 21 14 150 100 3.5 .7319 TIME TO CARE AND BE WITH FAMILY (POST) TOO LOW 13 6 2 0 21 25 N/A PROBLEM 39 8 2 0 49 58 TOO HIGH 7 6 1 0 14 17 84 100 PERSONAL FREEDOM (PRE) TOO LOW 8 5 3 1 17 11 N/A PROBLEM 59 21 8 7 95 63 TOO HIGH 20 12 5 1 38 26 150 100 4.3 .6273 PERSONAL FREEDOM (POST) TOO LOW 9 4 1 0 14 17 N/A PROBLEM 38 11 1 0 50 59 TOO HIGH 12 5 3 0 20 24 84 100 4.9 .2961 OVERALL LOSSES (PRE) TOO LOW 12 7 3 3 25 17 N/A PROBLEM 63 22 10 5 100 67 TOO HIGH 12 9 3 1 25 16 150 100 4.8 .5589 -117-TABLE 17 VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX BY DEGREES OF SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESS- NOT SUCCESS- FUL SUCCESS FUL FUL DROP ROW PER-OUT TOTAL CENT OVERALL LOSSES (POST) TOO LOW 10 4 N/A PROBLEM 40 10 TOO HIGH 9 6 INDEPENDENCE (PRE) TOO LOW 27 8 N/A PROBLEM 46 23 TOO HIGH 14 7 INDEPENDENCE (POST) TOO LOW 17 5 N/A PROBLEM 37 9 TOO HIGH 5 6 BETTER LIFE STYLE (PRE) TOO LOW 0 0 N/A PROBLEM 50 22 TOO HIGH 26 15 BETTER LIFE STYLE (POST) TOO LOW 6 4 N/A PROBLEM 36 10 TOO HIGH 17 6 2 0 16 19 1 0 51 61 2 0 17 20 84 100 6.1 .1875 9 3 47 31 4 3 76 51 3 3 27 18 150 100 9.2 .1598 3 0 25 30 2 0 48 57 0 0 11 13 84 100 3.5 .7374 0 0 0 0 9 5 86 57 5 3 49 33 150 100 3.5 .7374 0 0 10 12 4 0 50 59 1 0 24 29 84 100 2.6 .6147 -118-TABLE 17 VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX BY DEGREES OF SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESS- NOT DROP ROW PER X* P SUCCESS- FUL SUCCESS- OUTS TOTAL CENT FUL FUL BENEFITS TO WORKER (PRE) TOO LOW 29 10 3 3 45 30 N/A PROBLEM 51 23 11 5 90 60 TOO HIGH 7 5 2 1 15 10 150 100 2.2 .8914 BENEFITS TO WORKER (POST) TOO LOW 16 5 3 0 24 28 N/A PROBLEM 38 12 1 0 51 61 TOO HIGH 5 3 1 0 9 11 84 100 4.3 .3567 BENEFITS TO CHILDREN (PRE) TOO LOW 33 19 4 4 60 40 N/A PROBLEM 50 18 12 5 85 57 TOO HIGH 4 1 0 0 5 3 150 100 BENEFITS TO CHILDREN (POST) TOO LOW 24 11 2 0 37 44 N/A PROBLEM 31 8 3 0 42 52 TOO HIGH 4 1 0 0 5 6 84 100 1.6 .7930 OVERALL ATTRACTIONS (PRE) TOO LOW 27 11 1 3 42 28 N/A PROBLEM 51 23 13 4 91 61 TOO HIGH 9 4 2 2 17 11 150 100 5.7 .4555 -119-TABLE 17 VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX BY DEGREES OF SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESS- NOT SUCCESS- FUL SUCCESS FUL FUL OVERALL ATTRACTIONS (POST) TOO LOW 15 5 1 N/A PROBLEM 36 11 4 TOO HIGH 8 A 0 MEDICAL (PRE) PRESENT 36 10 8 NOT PRESENT 51 28MEDICAL (POST) PRESENT 19 7 1 NOT PRESENT AO 13 A CHILD CARE AND FAMILY (PRE) PRESENT 21 6 6 NOT PRESENT 66 32 10 CHILD CARE AND FAMILY (POST) PRESENT 7 A 0 NOT PRESENT 52 16 5 NEW SITUATIONS AND PEOPLE (PRE) PRESENT 3A 17 8 NOT PRESENT 53 21DROP ROW PER- J7 P OUT CENT 0 21 25 0 51 61 0 12 14 8A 100 1.6 .7976 5 59 39 A 91 61 150 100 A.6 .2030 0 27 32 0 57 68 8A 100 .Al .8134 3 36 24 6 114 76 150 100 3.A .3294 0 11 13 0 73 87 84 100 1.6 .4339 5 64 43 A 86 57 150 100 1.4 .6853 -120-TABLE 17 VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX BY DEGREES OF SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESS- NOT DROP ROW PER- X' SUCCESS- FUL SUCCESS- OUT TOTAL CENT FUL FUL NEW SITUATIONS AND PEOPLE (POST) PRESENT 15 10 NOT PRESENT 44 10 5 0 0 0 30 54 36 64 84 100 13.4 .0012 ABILITY TO GET AND HOLD A JOB (PRE) PRESENT 19 13 NOT PRESENT 68 25 8 8 4 5 44 106 29 71 ABILITY TO GET AND HOLD A JOB (POST) 150 100 7.0 .0693 PRESENT 9 7 NOT PRESENT 50 13 1 4 0 0 17 67 20 80 84 100 3.6 .1646 TRANSPORTATION (PRE) PRESENT 52 20 NOT PRESENT 35 18 3 13 77 73 51 49 TRANSPORTATION (POST) 150 100 12.3 .0063 PRESENT 28 12 NOT PRESENT 31 8 4 1 0 0 44 40 52 48 84 100 2.5 .2769 -121-Table 18 summarizes the item 'Self-Esteem' compared to the pre-determined degrees of success in the program. The levels of self-esteem range from very low to very high. The Chi-Square Test of Independence was conducted on the pre and post-test results of the general, overall, personal and social self-esteem scores of each participant. None of the four areas in Table 18 were found to have any relationship with success. While 159 participants completed the self-esteem pre-tests, the completed post-tests range from a low of 90 to a high of 93. -122-TABLE 18 SELF-ESTEEM AND DEGREES OF SUCCESS VERY LOW INTERME-LOW DIATE GENERAL SELF-ESTEEM (PRE) H.SUCCESSFUL 3 6 28 SUCCESSFUL 1 6 15 NOT SUCCESSFUL 0 5 5 DROPOUT 0 2 4 GENERAL SELF-ESTEEM (POST) H.SUCCESSFUL 0 4 8 SUCCESSFUL 0 3 6 NOT SUCCESSFUL 0 1 2 DROPOUT 0 0 0 OVERALL SELF-ESTEEM (PRE) H.SUCCESSFUL 7 9 41 SUCCESSFUL 7 7 19 NOT SUCCESSFUL 2 5 8 DROPOUT 2 2 5 OVERALL SELF-ESTEEM(POST) H.SUCCESSFUL 3 5 18 SUCCESSFUL 2 4 7 NOT SUCCESSFUL 1 1 3 DROPOUT 0 1 0 H.SUCCESSFUL - HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL HIGH VERY TOTAL PER- X P HIGH CENT 36 17 90 57 17 1 40 25 6 1 17 11 6 0 12 7 159 100 23 25 60 64 8 8 25 27 4 0 7 8 17.3 .1372 10 11 93 100 8.2 .5056 20 13 90 57 5 2 40 25 1 1 17 11 3 0 12 7 159 57 22 12 60 65 6 6 25 27 2 0 7 7 0 0 1 1 93 100 14.3 .2784 12.4 .4131 -123-TABLE 18 SELF-ESTEEM AND DEGREES OF SUCCESS VERY LOW INTERME-LOW DIATE PERSONAL SELF-ESTEEM(PRE) H.SUCCESSFUL 9 12 30 SUCCESSFUL 7 8 14 NOT SUCCESSFUL 2 7 2 DROPOUT 1 3 3 PERSONAL SELF-ESTEEM(POST) H.SUCCESSFUL 2 7 16 SUCCESSFUL 1 6 7 NOT SUCCESSFUL 1 3 0 DROPOUT 0: 1 0 SOCIAL SELF-ESTEEM (PRE) H.SUCCESSFUL 0 2 11 SUCCESSFUL 0 1 8 NOT SUCCESSFUL 0 1 2 DROPOUT 0 1 3 SOCIAL SELF-ESTEEM (POST) H.SUCCESSFUL 0 1 5 SUCCESSFUL 0 1 2 NOT SUCCESSFUL 0 1 0 DROPOUT 0 0 0 HIGH VERY TOTAL PER- X* P HIGH CENT 25 14 90 57 7 4 40 25 4 • 2. 17 11 4 1 12 7 159 100 12.6 .3949 25 10 60 64 6 5 25 27 2 1 7 8 0 0 1 1 93 100 36 41 90 57 17 14 40 25 7 7 17 11 5 3 12 7 14.1 .2892 159 100 5.3 .8011 24 30 60 64 10 12 25 27 3 3 7 8 1 0 1 1 93 100 HSUCCESSFUL = HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL -124-C. PAIRED SAMPLE PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF THE CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS, VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX, CULTURE FREE SELF-ESTEEM. In order to determine actual change between participants pre and post-test scores, it was first necessary to pair the samples. Since many of the participants who wrote the pre-tests did not write the post-tests, very small sample sets were created. The pre-test scores used for the comparison are those cases where post-test scores also exist. A non parametric test, the Sign Test, was used to compute actual cases that either increased or decreased or tied the post-test scores from the pre-test scores. The second method used was a frequency table that provided the mean average of each group, the pre-intervention strategy group, the post-intervention strategy group, and last, the pre-group scores substracted from the post-group scores. Table 19 shows the average gain in grade levels between pre and post-scores. It is interesting to note that the grade levels increased more in the language and mathematics areas than in reading, spelling and reference skills. In math computation, seventy-two percent of the participants increased their grade 82. Marija J. Norusis. Introductory Statistics Guide for  S.P.S.S. X. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1983. -125-level standing in their post-test scores, contrasted with thirty-eight percent in reference skills. The grade level increase in reference skills was .6, while in math concepts the total grade level gain was almost two full grade levels. It may be stated that computer assisted learning instruction in basic and high school skills significantly improved grade level standings in both language and mathematics, but did not significantly improve reading, spelling or reference skills. -126-TABLE 19 PAIRED SAMPLES- PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF THE CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS MEAN AVERAGE NEGATIVE CHANGE TIES POSITIVE CHANGE TOTAL READING VOCABULARY PRE-SCORES 11. POST-SCORES 11.7 POST-PRE .PERCENT 17 20 28 32 42 48 87 100 READING COMPREHENSION PRE-SCORES 11. POST-SCORES 11.7 POST-PRE .PERCENT 14 16 37 42 37 42 88 100 REFERENCE SKILLS PRE-SCORES 10.7 POST-SCORES 11.3 POST-PRE .6 PERCENT 17 21 34 41 31 38 82 100 SPELLING PRE-SCORES 10.2 POST-SCORES 11.2 PRE-POST 1. PERCENT 22 24 28 31 40 45 90 100 -127-TABLE 19 PAIRED SAMPLES- PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF THE CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS MEAN AVERAGE NEGATIVE CHANGE TIES POSITIVE CHANGE TOTAL LANGUAGE MECHANICS PRE-SCORES 8.9 POST-SCORES 10.7 POST-PRE 1.8 PERCENT 12 14 25 28 52 58 89 100 LANGUAGE EXPRESSION PRE-SCORES 9.4 POST-SCORES 11.2 POST-PRE 1.8 PERCENT 19 22 19 22 50 56 88 100 MATH COMPUTATION PRE-SCORES 8.8 POST-SCORES 10.5 POST-PRE 1.7 PERCENT 11 13 13 15 61 72 85 100 MATH CONCEPTS PRE-SCORES 8.8 POST-SCORES 10.6 POST-PRE 1.8 PERCENT 13 15 15 17 59 68 87 100 -128-Eighty-one participants wrote both pre and post Vocational Opinion Index tests. Table 20 summarizes the actual cases that either increased, decreased or tied post-tests in each category. The post-mean average is then subtracted from the pre-mean average in order to learn whether the change has been positive, negitive, or a tie. A value label was assigned to each change area. If the barrier to employment was 'Present' the numerical value would be one. If the barrier was 'Not Present', the numerical value would be zero. The desired numerical value for the mean average would be less than .5 . With the exception of one category, all of the pre-test mean averages were quite low. After program participation, the post-test mean averages decreased. The scores of the 81 cases became even closer to the desired numerical value of zero. The employment barrier 'Transportation' demonstrates a problem area. The pre-test score is .630 which is close to the numerical value lable of one. The post-test score, while considerably less is .519 still above the .5 level. -129-TABLE 20 PAIRED SAMPLES- PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF THE VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX MEDICAL PRESENT NOT • MEAN NEG. NO POS. TOTAL PRESENT AVER. CHANGE CHANGE CHANGE CASES PRE 27 54 .333 POST 25 56 .309 POST-PRE - 2 2 -.24 16 51 14 81 PERCENT 0 63 17 100 CHILD CARE AND FAMILY PRE 17 64 .210 POST 10 71 .123 POST-PRE - 7 7 -.87 12 64 5 81 PERCENT 5 79 6 100 NEW SITUATION AND PEOPLE PRE 35 46 .432 POST 27 54 .333 POST-PRE - 8 8 -.99 20 49 12 81 PERCENT 5 60 15 100 ABILITY TO GET AND HOLD A JOB PRE 24 57 .296 POST 16 65 .198 POST-PRE -.98 13 63 5 81 PERCENT 6 78 6 100 TRANSPORTATION PRE 51 30 .630 POST 42 39 .519 POST-PRE - 9 9 ' -.111 24 42 15 81 PERCENT 30 52 18 100 VALUES LABELS FOR MEAN AVERAGE: NOT PRESENT-O, PRESENT=1 -130-Table 20 goes on to summarize the cases that increase, decrease or tie pre-test scores and post-test scores. The numerical value labels assigned to the mean averages range from 'Too Low' represented by the numerical value of two, and 'Too High' represented by the numerical value of three. The mean averages are presented for all pre and post-tests in each category. The post-mean average is subtracted from the pre-mean average in order to learn whether the change has been negative, positive, or a tie. It is desirable for the mean average post-scores to be close to the numerical value of two. In the barrier 'Time to Care and Be With Family' the mean average post-score is 1.901, quite close to the desired numerical value of two. The mean average post-score is .049 higher than the pre-mean average of 1.852. This means that participants who were concerned about a job presenting less 'Time to Care and Be With Family' had perceived this factor as being less of a problem after participation in the Career Start program than when they first began. -131-TABLE 20 PAIRED SAMPLES- PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF THE VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX TOO NOT A TOO MEAN NEG. NO POS. TOTAL LOW PROBLEM HIGH AVER. CHANGE CHANGE CHANGE CASES TIME TO CARE AND BE WITH FAMILY PRE POST POST-PRE - 1 - 2 3 .049 15 47 19 81 PERCENT 9 58 . 23 100 PERSONAL FREEDOM PRE POST POST-PRE 5 - 4 - 1 - .074 21 45 15 81 PERCENT 26 56 18 100 OVERALL LOSSES PRE POST POST-PRE 2-3 1 .15 15 53 13 81 PERCENT 19 65 16 100 INDEPENDENCE PRE POST POST-PRE - 3 5-2 .012 17 46 18 81 PERCENT 21 57 22 100 BETTER LIFE STYLE 22 49 10 1.852 21 47 13 1.901 1 - 2 3 .049 9 53 19 2. 123 14 49 18 2.049 5 - 4 - 1 - 4 14 53 14 2.000 16 50 15 1.985 2 - 3 1 .15 27 42 12 1.815 24 47 10 1 .827 3 5 - 2 .012 PRE 11 47 23 2. 148 POST 9 49 23 2.173 POST-PRE - 2 2 0 2. 173 17 46 18 81 PERCENT 21 57 22 100 VALUE LABELS FOR THE MEAN AVERAGE: TOO L0W=1, NOT A PR0BLEM=2, TOO HIGH=3 -132-TABLE 20 PAIRED SAMPLES- PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF THE VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX TOO NOT TOO MEAN NEG. NO POS. TOTAL LOW PROBLEM HIGH AVER. CHANGE CHANGE CHANGE CASES BENEFITS TO WORKER PRE 28 44 9 1.765 POST 22 50 9 1.840 POST-PRE -6 6 0 .075 14 46 21 81 PERCENT 17 57 26 100 BENEFITS TO CHILDREN PRE 32 47 2 1.630 POST 34 42 5 1.642 POST-PRE 2 - 5 3 .012 14 52 15 81 PERCENT 17 64 19 100 OVERALL ATTRACTIONS PRE 24 50 7 1. 790 POST 20 49 12 1.901 POST-PRE - 4 - 1 5 • 111 11 50 20 81 PERCENT 14 62 24 100 VALUE LABELS FOR THE MEAN AVERAGE: TOO L0W=1, NOT A PR0BLEM=2, TOO HIGH=3 -133-Ninety three participants wrote both the pre and post-test of the Culture Free Self-Esteem Index. Table 21 shows the rate of change between the two mean average scores. Value labels were assigned to the scores. 'Very Low' self-esteem is represented by the numerical value of one, 'Low' is represented by the number two, 'Intermediate' self-esteem is represented by three, 'High' by the numerical value of four, and 'Very High' self-esteem by the number five. The mean average post-test scores were subtracted from the mean average pre-test scores. They show higher self-esteem after program participation than prior to entrance. The social self-esteem catagory is the closest to the desired value label of five with a post-mean average score of 4.344. -134-TABLE 21 PAIRED SAMPLES- PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF THE CULTURE FREE SELF-ESTEEM TEST VERY LOW INTER- HIGH AND MEAN NEG. NO POS. TOTAL AND LOW MEDIATE VERY HIGH AVER. CHANGE CHANGE CHANGE CASES PERSONAL SELF-ESTEEM PRE 28 29 36 3.075 POST 21 23 49 3.430 POST-PRE - 7 - 6 13 .355 17 36 39 93 PERCENT 19 39 42 100 SOCIAL SELF-ESTEEM PRE 4 13 76 4.183 POST 3 7 83 4.344 POST-PRE - 1 - 6 - 7 .161 18 46 29 93 PERCENT 9 50 31 100 GENERAL SELF-ESTEEM PRE 16 30 47 3.355 POST 8 16 69 4.011 POST-PRE - 8 - 14 22 .656 8 32 53 93 PERCENT 9 34 57 100. OVERALL SELF-ESTEEM PRE 26 42 25 2.914 POST 17 28 48 3.462 POST-PRE - 9 - 14 23 .548 10 41 42 93 PERCENT 1 44 45 100 VALUES LABELS FOR THE MEAN AVERAGE: very low= 1, low= 2, intermediate= 3, high= 4, very high= 5. D. SUCCESS RATE OF CAREER START PARTICIPANTS REQUIRED TO MEET THE FUNDING CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AND IMMIGRATION CANADA. Information for Table 22 was taken from the computer data base files and varies from the information kept manually by program staff. The main difference is found in the numbers of applicants accepted into the selection phase. The monthly reports kept manually show three more applicants, bringing the total from 172 to 175. It is felt by program staff that the information entered into the computer is more accurate, as the three people not included were in the selection phase for such a short period of time that they were not entered into the computer. The primary objective of the program is to place a minimum of 50 graduates in employment or further employment directed training. The secondary objectives of the program are to enroll a minimum of 75 participants and secondly to graduate 75 percent of the participants. The project was successful in meeting the requirements set out by Employment and Immigration Canada. In the first year of operation, the number of participants hired exceeded the secondary objective by 28 percent. Although only 71 percent of this number had graduated by July 31, 1985, 22 were still in training. After excluding this number which were carried forward into the next fiscal year, it was found that 92 percent -136-graduated. A total of 72 participants are included on the five day placement statistics; however, four did not graduate since they either quit or were fired. Sixty-eight graduates were placed in employment or further employment directed training. This exceeded the objective of 50 graduates by 36 percent. The time period of August 1, 1985 to April 30, 1986 includes only 75 percent of the 1985-86 fiscal year (August 1, 1985 - July 31, 1986). Although only 52 participants were hired during this time period, 22 were carried forward from the previous year. Table 22 also indicates that the number of graduates and the number of 5 day placements from August 1985 to April 1986 already exceeds the objectives set for the entire year. -137-TABLE 22 TRAINING AND PLACEMENT STATISTICS AUGUST 07, 1984- APRIL 30, 1986 APPLICANTS Accepted into the selection phase of the program PARTICIPANTS Hired into the training phase of the program Carried forward(1984-85) TOTAL In training (as of April 30,1986) Quit Fired Graduated EMPLOYMENT/EDUCATION Employed 5 days or more for minimum of 24hr/wk In school 5 days or more for minimum of 24hr/wk TOTAL August 7, 1984 to July 31, 1985 113 96 96 22 3 3 68 67 5 72 August 1, 1985 to April 30, 1986 59 52 22 74 11 0 0 63 60 2 62 Employed 10 weeks or more for minimum of 24hr/wk In school 10 weeks or more for minimum of 24hr/wk TOTAL 40 5 45 50 1 51 -138-E. SUMMARY Section A shows four categories of success in participant performance ranging from the 'Dropout' category to the 'Highly Successful' category. The Career Start staff rated each participant's success. The information was cross-tabulated with participant characteristics (found in Chapter Three) and barriers to employment (also found in Chapter Three). Of the twelve participant characteristics investigated only two yielded Chi-Square values of .05 or less. These are 'Previous Education Level' and 'Duration of Last Job'. The 'Successful' and 'Highly Successful' participants were noticably represented in the senior high, graduate, and post graduate education level categories. 'Duration of Last Job' when cross-tabulated with the degrees of success indicated that participants with sporadic work histories or lack of work experience were more likely to drop out than were those participants who had worked for longer periods of time. Five of the 21 employment barriers were shown to have an adverse effect on the success of the participants. The five barriers were 'Dress and Manner', 'Problems with Authority', 'Cleanliness', 'Family Situation' and 'Alcohol and Drugs'. Participants who perceived these as barriers to obtaining jobs were either not successful of dropped out of the program. -139-Section B shows results of crosstabulations between degrees of success by participants and three tests; the Canadian Achievement Test, the Vocational Opinion Index, and the Culture Free Self-Esteem Test. Testing following participation in the academic 'Reference Skills' indicated that participants who were successful also scored high in this test. Two of the thirteen employment barriers tested in the Vocational Opinion Index showed a relationship vrith the degree of success of participants. These were 'New Situations and People' and 'Transportation'. In both of these areas, participants who were successful did not decrease barriers to employment.The 'Self-Esteem' areas tested proved to have no relationship to success of the Career Start participants. Section C shows results of paired sample test scores from the three aforementioned tests. Grade levels in the basic and high school skills increased more in the language and mathematic areas than in the reading, spelling, and reference skills. All of the Vocational Opinion Index post-test results decreased from pre-test scores. This means that the barriers to employment were reduced after participation in the project, with the exception of transportation which remained a problem area for the participants. Table 21 shows that the self-esteem of participants was raised after participation in the project. -140-Section D discusses the success of the project in meeting the quantifiable objectives of Employment and Immigration Canada. During the first year the objectives were exceeded by 36 percent and, during the first nine month period of the second year, the objectives were already exceeded at the end of that period. -141-CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS A. SUMMARY Work on the thesis began in June, 1984, when the Career Start project was designed. It has taken two and one half years to complete the research. The population for the study was chosen from 172 applicants, three of whom were over the age of 24 and were therefore excluded. The remaining 169 applicants in the project formed the population for the study. Information on the characteristics of the population was taken from a standard form used by the staff of the project during the applicants' first interview (Appendix B). Information gathered demonstrates that many similar characteristics existed between the population studied and characteristics of disadvantaged unemployed youth in the review of the literature section. The applicants were between the ages of 15 and 24. Sixty-six percent were male. Forty-seven percent left their last job because they had been laid off. Sixty-one percent had not graduated from grade 12. The majority had been unemployed for more than three months, and were financially supported by either social assistance or unemployment insurance. Slightly fewer than one-half of the applicants had a criminal history (mainly property damage related) and thirty-seven percent of the applicants were still living at home. -142-In May, 1986, at the conclusion of the study, the staff of the project rated the 169 applicants according to degrees of success. The categories used were 'Highly Successful', 'Successful', 'Not Successful' and 'Dropouts'. This rating scale permitted an analysis of various characteristics pertaining to those applicants who were highly successful or dropouts. Due to the small size and the lack of a normal distribution in the population, non parametric tests had to be used for analytical purposes. The Chi-Square Test for Independence was used for the majority of the tests in the study. It was found that those applicants who had a lower level of educational attainment, problems with dress and manner, or cleanliness, were not successful in the project. This rating scale was next applied to 146 project participants who completed the Barriers to Employment Form in consultation with one of the two counsellors. If the participant had checked off the following problem areas: 'Problem with Authority', 'Lack of Education', 'Dress and Manner', 'Cleanliness', 'Family Situation ' and 'Drugs and Alcohol', he was unlikely to be highly successful. The rating scale of success was next applied to the three separate batteries of tests that were administered to the applicants. There was no relationship between success and the -143-academic scores attained in the Canadian Achievement Tests. Reference skills showed a trend towards a relationship between a 'Highly Successful' participant and a high score. With the exception of 'New Situations and People', post-test and the pre tests of 'Transportation' and 'Ability to Get and Hold a Job', in the Vocational Opinion Index, which measures attitudes towards work, it was found that there was no relationship between the barriers and success in the project. The Culture Free Self-Esteem Index results when tested for independence show that there was no significant relationship with success. In order to determine if participants' scores had increased or decreased in any of the three areas tested (academic upgrading, attitudes towards work and self-esteem), paired samples of subjects pre and post-test results were chosen for the analysis. Another non parametric test, The Sign Test, was chosen to compute the degree of change. The results of this analysis show that the scores of the participants did indeed improve after participation in the project. Some of the improvements were significant, primarily in the reading and mathematics areas of the academic upgrading portion, and in the self-esteem measure. In contrasting 'Career Start' with successful intervention strategies for the severely employment disadvantaged in the United States, certain commonalities are found. A conclusion -144-found in the report, 'Effectiveness of Two Job Search Assistance Programs for Disadvantaged Youth' was that the amount of time spent by the counsellors with the participants was significantly related to success. Career Start counsellors spend a great deal of time counselling individuals and groups. This could account for one reason why the project is successful. In the industrial model, demonstrated by the Job Factory in Cambridge, 8 3 Massachusetts, participants are paid a stipend, there is a foreman, and wages are deducted for lateness. This approach is found to be very successful. Career Start operated in much the same fashion; participants are hired into the project at mimimum wage, there is a manager of the project, similar to a foreman, and wages are deducted for lateness. Work experience was not found to be a valuable method for participants to obtain permanent employment. This was discussed in an evaluation of CETA work experience projects. Career Start rarely utilizes work experience for participants. The project was successful in meeting the quantifiable employment placement objectives set out by Employment and Immigration Canada for continued funding of the program. Data gathered from the monthly reports from Career Start show that of the 172 applicants to the project, 148 were actually hired, at 83. Andrew Hahn & Barry Friedman, p. 24 -145-minimum wage, into the training portion of Career Start. Of these participants 127 obtained jobs for five days or more and 90 retained these jobs for ten weeks. Seven participants returned to further their education, six of which remained in school for ten weeks or more. Eleven participants were still in the training portion of the program on the cut off date of April 30, 1986. Excluding the eleven participants still in training, the success rate of the intervention strategy Career Start is therefore 98 percent, which is 23 percent higher than required by the funding agency. It must be recognized that this summary provides only a brief overview of the report. The reader is encouraged to review previous sections for a more extensive discussion and analysis of the data. -146-B. CONCLUSIONS Any study of the Career Start program must take into consideration the two most important features of the program; these being the participants and the design of the program itself. Any conclusions drawn must look separately at the population and the program and then to the extent to which these two factors are related. Behaviour patterns of the Career Start participants stem from disadvantaged backgrounds. Generally these include family income, problems of abuse, academic attainment and economic conditions. In order to change those behaviour patterns one must teach the participant how to improve their lot in life. Career Start attemps to upgrade academic skills, through a computer-assisted learning process. It can be concluded from the results section that many of the participants' basic and high schools skills were improved. Performance significantly improved in both the language and mathematics areas, but not significantly improved in the reading, spelling or reference skills. The self-esteem of participants were definitely raised after involvement in the project. During the same period their perceived barriers to employment were decreased. One of the successful features of Career Start is the -147-generous amount of time that counsellors spend with the participants. Because of the computer-based methods of training they are able to spend their time counselling rather than teaching. Another conclusion that can be drawn regarding the success of Career Start is the fact that it is based on an industrial model. Although no study of this model has been done in Canada, in research in the United States it was found to be the most successful model for employment directed training of disadvantaged youth. For these reasons, the project has been successful in meeting its quantifiable objectives as set out by the funding agency, Employment and Immigration Canada. This does not mean, however, that the program in its present form is perfect. Based on the statistical evidence, it would appear that perhaps changes are needed in the computer-based training areas where some academic skills have not improved as significantly as others. It must also be stressed that all programs of this kind would benefit from an exchange of information and ideas and progress reports. In addition there must be more research at the federal level into all aspects of youth unemployment. The latter appears to be a problem that is here to stay. -148-C. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH The findings of this study make it obvious that there is still much research to be done in the field of youth unemployment in Canada. A number of question have been generated by the study and these can be broken down into two separate categories. The first group points out the need for further investigation into successful intervention strategies. Perhaps even more important is the second group which indicates a need for a more comprehensive study of the participants themselves, both before and after their involvement in an employment preparation strategy. i Intervention Stategies In spite of the fact that the Federal Government has over the years initiated a number of job creation programs, it has become apparent that very little in depth research into the problem has been conducted in Canada at the Federal level. This lack of investigative research into the relative value of such projects may be a direct result of the relationship between the Federal Government and the provinces on the whole question of education. Education in Canada is regarded as essentialy a provincial responsibility. -149-It becomes clear, therefore, that it is now critically important for Canada to engage in extensive research on the subject on a national scale. This need is made even more urgent by the fact that existing research indicates that the problem of unemployed youth is more severe in Canada than in the United States (see table 1). In particular, further study of the design of successful intervention strategies for that large target group of disadvantaged unemployed youth. This study, based on the design of the Career Start program, has shown that the target group involved face three significant barriers to employment: lack of education, low self-esteem and poor attitudes toward work. However, very few existing intervention strategies are designed to address all three of these problems at the same time. It would be both interesting and advantageous if a comparative analysis could be made of the success and failure rates of this approach to the problem. The results of this comparative analysis \vould provide the basis for an appropriate design for a successful intervention strategy which could be established from coast to coast. Another area in which there is very little existing research is in the area of self-directed job search techniques, (this process in used by the Career Start program), as opposed to the techniques of placing graduates in a job found for him by -150-the project staff. Some studies on the subject have been done in the United States and these indicate that short term results from self-directed placement programs are generally positive. While there are no long term results, because the technique is so new, it does raise several interesting possibilities. For instance, there could be a reduction in the costs of job finding programs, because where self-directed job search programs are used, fewer staff are required. It has also been observed that those who succeeded in finding their own jobs experienced improved self-esteem and generally seemed able to hold their jobs for a longer period. Yet another area requiring investigation is that of the effectiveness of computer-based training techniques in programs for disadvantaged unemployed youth. There would be some value in assessing the result achieved by computer-based training as opposed to results from traditional methods of instruction. In this regard, it would be extremely helpful if some formal exchange of information could be accomplished. Subsequent programs would thus be provided with guidelines and goals. The Career Start project is unique in that it utilizes computer-based delivery methods in three separate subject areas at one time. There are very few employment preparation intervention strategies in Canada or the United States which attempt concurrently to upgrade academic skill levels, increase the self-esteem of participants and improve their attitudes -151-towards full time employment. Even fewer intervention strategies use data-based technology to address these barriers. Again, this raises questions as to whether computer-based education techniques are more effective with the target group than traditional instruction, and in what area marked improvement is found. No provision has been made by the Career Start program for a long term follow up of participants who retain a job for longer than a ten week period. Investigation as to whether graduates retain their jobs successfully and manage to break the cycle of chronic unemployment would reveal the real degree of success of programs aimed at changing the behaviour patterns of severely employment disadvantaged youth, ii Participant Characteristics Before and After Participation In  an Intervention Stategy. While there are some young people today who have no trouble in finding jobs, there are others who face a multitude of problems when trying to enter the job market. Some of these problems seem to have been passed from one generation to another when the unemployed children of unemployed parents are involved. Therefore, one of the immediate questions to be answered is to what extent do participants in the Career Start project come from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. So far the project has not addressed these questions. -152-Other questions which could be addressed call for further investigation into the family backgrounds of the participants. How many grew up in families in which sexual or physical abuse or alcohol and drug abuse were considered normal behaviour? How many of the participants attempted suicide? Further investigation of the population should concentrate on determining relationships between pre and post-test scores in the three areas tested. For example, if a participant is found to show a low self-esteem as evidenced by the Culture Free Self-Esteem Inventory, will he also have a specific employment barrier as determined by the Vocational Opinion Index? This study has investigated many aspects of a particular intervention strategy designed to change the status of unemployed and disadvantaged youth. At the same time it has raised a number of related issues, many of which are crucial if the problems of youth unemployment are to successfully be addressed in the future. -153-SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS American Psychological Association. Publication manual of  the Psychological Association American Psychological Association, 1983 Ayers, J.D. et al. Canadian Achievement Tests - Class Management  Guide Form A. Canadian Test Centre, McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 1983 Battle, James. Culture Free S.E.I. Self-Esteem Inventories For  Children and Adults. Special Child Publications, Washington U.S.A., 1981 Battle, James Ph.D. Enhancing Self-Esteem and Achievement. A Handbook for Professionals. Special Child Publications. Washington, U.S.A. 1982 Denton, E.T.; Robb, A.L.; Spencer, B.G. Unemployment and Labour  Force Behavior of Young People. Evidence from Canada and  Ontario. Ontario Economic Council Research Studies. University of Toronto Press, 1980 Jackson, Michael P. Youth Unemployment. Croom Helm Ltd, Great Britain, 1985 Norusis, Marija J. Introductory Statistics Guide S.P.S.S. X. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1983 Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Thesis,  and Dissertations. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1973 PUBLICATIONS Bernstein, Aaron; Therrier, Lois; Emgardio, Pete; Wise, Deborah; and Pollack, Michael. The Forgotten Americans. Business Week, U.S.A. Sept. 2, 1985 Caldwell, Philip. Unleashing Excellence -Educating Employee to  Revitalize Business. Management World. Administrative Management Society. Pennsylvania, 1984 Dayton, Charles W. The Young Person's Job Search: Insights from  a Study. America Institute for Research. Journal of Counselling Psychology. Voe 28 No 4 1981 -154-Employer and Employee Perception of School to Work. Business and Education Survey Parker Project Number 3. Bulletin 4372 Farr, Charlotte W.; Moon, Charles E.; and Williams, Arnold Correlating the Test of Adult Basic Education and the Test  of General Education Development. Lifelong Learning. American Association of Adult and Continuing Education, June, 1986 Hoyt, Kenneth, B. Director, Career Education. V.S.O.I. Contributions of Career Education to Reducing Youth  Unemployment. Journal of Industry, Education Co-operation, Voll, No.2, 1980 Kulik, J.; Kulik, C; and Cohen, P. Effectiveness of Computer  Based College Teaching: A Meta Analysis of Findings. Review of Educational Research, 1980 Passmore, David Lynn. Changes of Job Loss Among Teenagers and  Young Adults: Implications for Vocational Education  Training. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Vocational Association, 1981 Priest, G.E. Aboriginal Youth in Canada: A Profile Based Upon  1981 Census Data. Canadian Statistical Review. Sept.,1985 Proceeding from the Recent UNESCO Conference. as reported in the Canadian Association for Adult Education. Learning Education Magazine. Vol. IV, Feb. 1985 Wichess, Samuel. Jobs for America's Graduates: A Youth  Employment Program That Means Business. The Clearing House V57: #5, pp. 179-200, January, 1984 REPORTS Career Start Evaluation Report by SERA Consulting Corporation for Employment and Immigration Canada, Vancouver, Canada, 1986 Christensen, Sandra. Improving Youth Employment Prospect: Issues  and Options.A CBO Study, Congress of the U.S.A., Congress Budget Office. Washington, D.C, Feb., 1982 Focus on Youth. Report from the Office of the Minister of State (Youth) The Honorable Celine Hervieux Payette. Public Affairs Branch, Employment and Immigration Canada. Hull, Quebec, 1984 -155-Hahn, Andrew and Friedman, Barry The Effectiveness of Two Job  Search Assistance Programs for Disadvantaged Youth. Final Report. Office of Youth Programs (Department of Labour) Washington, D.C, 1981 Hunter, Carmen St. John and Harman, David Adult Illiteracy in  the United States. A Report to the Ford Foundation. McGraw Hill Publishing Co.. Copyright 1979. Ford Foundation. Improving Youth Employment Prospects- Issues and Options. A CBO Study. Congress Budget Office. Kirsh, Sharon. Unemployment: Its Impact on Body and Soul. Canadian Mental Health Association, 1983 Johnson, Miriam; and Wegmann, Robert. Lessons From Youth  Programs: Job Search Training for Youth. Monograph Series. Prepared for the Employment and Training Administration. Olympus Publishing Co., Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A., 1982 Lacey, Richard. Basic Skills for Disadvantaged Youth. Monograph Series. Prepared for the Employment and Training Administration, Olympus Publishing Co., Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A., June, 1983 Magnum, Garth L. Lessons from Youth Programs: All You Ever Wanted  to Know About Labour Markets and Didn't Know Who to Ask.  (A Handbook for Practitioners.). Monograph Series. Prepared for the Employment and Training Administration. Olympus Publishing Co., Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A., 1982 Potter, Eric and Mangum, Garth L. Applying Lessons of Youth  Program. Introdiction to Monograph Series. Prepared for the Employment and Training Administration. Olympus Publishing Co., Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A., 1982 Transition to Work III: Development and Implementation of the  V.O.I. Transition System. Associates for Research in. Trio for Youth: Three Employment and Training Programs. Employment and Training Administration, Washington, D.C, Sept., 1979 Youth: A New Statistical Perspective on Youth in Canada. By the Minister of State (Youth) Celine Hervieux Payette. Public Affairs Branch, Employment and Immigration Canada. Hull, Quebec, 1984 Youth: A Plan of Action. Report of the Special Senate Committee  on Youth. The Honorable Jacques Hebert, Chairman. Queen's Printer, Feb. 1986 -156-Youth Economic Activity. Report for the Social Trend Analysis and Directorate, Policy Co-ordination, Analysis and Management by David P. Ross. Systems Branch. Department of the Secretary of State, Canada. December, 1984 Youth Knowledge Development . Report 6.2 School to Work Transition Series. The Initial Findings of the Youth Career Development Program Educational Testing Service. Washington, D.C. May 1980. Employment and Training Administration (DDC) Washington, D.C, Ofice of Youth Progress, May 1980 -157-APPENDICES -158-APPENDIX A CAREER START PARTICIPANT PROFILE -159-PARTICIPANT PROFILE #1 C.L. Female Age: 21 Education: Grade 12 Referred by: Special Needs Counsellor (Employment and Immigration) C.L. did not finish her Grade 12 studies in high school due to parental determined socialization problems. She eventually finished through correspondence. C.L. has never held a job and had very few marketable skills. Due to severe family sheltering, C.L. is emotionally handicapped and socially insecure. She had no confidence in her employability and suffered from performance anxiety when learning new tasks. A big independent step for C.L. was taking the bus and going to the store on her own after she began Career Start. Employment Barriers -Emotionally immature -Performance anxiety -inability to follow directions or retain information. -Poor socialization skills- difficulty relating to workers and supervisors. -No \\rorking experience -Lack of confidence in self-employability -Poor communication skills- tends to offend people by being too abrupt and pushy. -160-Individualized Action Plan I) Arranged psychological counselling once a week to help deal with performance anxiety, communication, emotional instability and family sheltering. II) Receiving ongoing one to one counselling within Career Start to support steps towards employment readiness and independence. III) Assigned office duties, placed in charge of front desk. Responsible for handling phones, arranging interviews and appointments, filing, photocopying and inventory. Helped increase social skills, confidence on the job and lessen performance anxiety. IV) Trained to operate word processor. Assisted in training other students, typing resumes and entering statistics. Helped increase social and employment confidence and improve communication skills. V) Responsible for hostess duties. Greet visitors, make coffee, collect coffee money from students and purchase products when needed. Helped increase social skills and confidence. VI) Trained in Job Search techniques. Improve communication skills and ability to market self to employers. Arrange two week work experience projects in various xvorking environments to improve job skills, -161-reduce performance anxiety and increase employment confidence. RESULT TO DATE CL. is still a participant with Career Start and has been involved in the program for three months. Work placements are being arranged in occupations she is interested in, an office, flowershop and library. In the near future with the assistance of Job Development funding, CL. will be placed in a position that best suits her abilities. -162-PARTICIPANT PROFILE #2 W.B. Female Age: 22 Education: Grade 10 Referred by: Friend W.B. has been out of school for six years and had not worked in five and a half years. She left school due to family problems. W.B. had a history of family problems and sexual and physical abuse. W.B. had struggled with a drug problem for seven years and recently spent time in a Detox Center, which has so far been successful. Employment Barriers - Lack of Education - Lack of work experience - Ex drug problems - Lack of confidence in her employability - Emotional problems - Lack of job search skills Individualized Action Plan I) Preparing to write Grade 12 Equivalency Exams (G.E.D.). Increase in employability confidence. II) Assigned office duties. Responsible for front desk operations, e.g. handling phones, arranging appointments, -163-and testing, inventory, filing and photocopying. Provided actual on-the-job work experience, thus increasing confidence. III) Referred to drug and alcohol counselling to help her find an alternative route to help her deal with emotional problems. IV) Trained in Job Search techniques. Improve communication skills and ability to market self. RESULTS TO DATE W.S. has been a participant of Career Start for two and a half months. She is presently studying for her G.E.D. which she is due to write in one month. She was employed on the Career Start front desk for one month. -164-PARTICIPANT PROFILE #3 J.H. Female Age: 23 Education: Grade 12 Certificate in Accounting Referred by: Special Needs Counsellor: Employment & Immigration, Fraser Street. J.H. has been out of school one year when she approached Career Start. She had very little work experience, none related to her training. She was suffering from extremely low self-esteem, discouragement and depression. Due to her emotional state and severe shyness, she was having problems marketing herself to employers. Employment Barriers - Physical disability; partial facial paralysis and speech impediment - Extremely low self-esteem - Poor communication skills - Multicultural background - Lack of work experience - Poor job seach skills Individualized Action Plan I) Assigned office duties: her responsibilities were -165-photocopying, mailing, filing, and bookkeeping. This provided actual on the job work experience thus increasing confidence on the job. II) Trained to operate word processor and enter statistics on computer. Assisted in training other students. Increased social and employment confidence. III) Responsible for Coffee Duties: i.e. make coffee, collect money from students, and purchase products when needed. Helped increase social skills and confidence. IV) Trained in Job Search techniques. Improved communication skills and ability to market self. RESULT TO DATE J.H. was a participant in Career Start for 4 1/2 months. She succeeded in securing full time permanent work as an accounting clerk with Lansdowne Nissan. Her salary is $7.50 an hour. She is still employed with the same company after seven months. -166-PARTICIPANT PROFILE #4 D.B. Female Age: 23 Education: Grade 12 (India) Bank Tellers Course 1984 Referred by: Newspaper ad D.B. had immigrated to Canada three years ago from India. She had never worked before and felt she had no marketable skills and, due to her cultural differences and non-assertive behaviour, was having difficulty marketing herself to employers. Employment Barriers - Cultural disadvantage - No work experience - Child care - Poor communication and assertiveness skills - Lack of confidence in her employability Individualized Action Plan I) Assigned office duties: her responsibilities were photocopying, filing, and answering phones. This provided D.B. with actual work experience, thus increasing her confidence in her employability. -167-II) Trained to operate Word Processor. Responsible for entering students resumes on Word Processor. Increased social and employment confidence. III) Trained in Job Search techniques. Improved communication skills and ability to market skills. IV) Responsible for hostess duties, i.e. greet visitors, make coffee, collect money from students and purchase products when needed. Helped increase social skills and confidence. RESULT TO DATE D.B. was a participant, in Career Start for 3 1/2 months when she was successful in securing a full time job with Loomis Courier Service as a secretary/receptionist earning $6.80 per hour. She worked there for five months and then was laid off. She immediately found another office position with Gelco Courier and has been there for 3 months. -168-PARTICIPANT PROFILE #5 D.H. Male Age: 19 Education: Grade 10 Referred by: Newspaper ad D.H. had been unemployed for three months when he started Career Start. His last job was with Katimavik, which he held for two months before quitting. D.H. had a scattered work history and his jobs had all been short-term placements. Employment Barrier - Lack of education - Lack of motivation - Poor communication skills - Poor job search skills - Inability to retain jobs - Sporadic work history Individual Action Plan I) Prepare for and write G.E.D. Grade 12. Increase employability confidence. II) Assisted in Production of Career Start Newsletter. Helped increase communication and interpersonal skills. -169-III) Responsible for coffee duties: make coffee, collect money from students and purchase products when needed. Helped increase social skills and confidence. IV) Trained in Job Search techniques. Improve communication skills and ability to market self. RESULTS TO DATE D.H. was a participant of Career Start for five months. He prepared for and wrote his G.E.D., but did not pass. D.H. had completed the program, but failed to find employment in the expected time and so was graduated. Two months after graduation D.H. found employment as a sander for Woodrose Woodworking earning $4.50 an hour. He has been employed there for one month and appears to be doing fine. -170-PARTICIPANT PROFILE #6 R.D. Male Age: 20 Education: Grade 9 Referred by: Newspaper ad R.D. had been unemployed for one year when he applied to Career Start. He had little work experience. Due to lack of education or training and few work skills he was having difficulty finding full time employment. Employment Barriers - Lack of education - Lack of working experience - Low self-esteem - Poor Job Search skills - Poor communication skills Individualized Action Plan I) Prepare for and write the G.E.D. Grade 12. Increase employability confidence. II) Assigned office duties: Responsible for photocopying, and answering front desk phones. Provided actual on-the-job work experience thus increasing confidence on the job. -171-Ill) Trained to operate training other students, confidence. Word Processor. Assisted in Increased social and employment IV) Responsible for coffee duties: Make coffee, collect money from other students. Increased social and employment confidence. V) Trained in Job Search techniques. Improve communication skills and ability to market self. RESULTS TO DATE R.D. was a participant in Career Start for 4 months. He was successful in obtaining his Grade 12, and secured a full time job as shipper/receiver earning $5.50 an hour. He left this position recently to take another full time position as a Bar-B-Que Chef for a lodge in Jasper Park earning $7.50 an hour. -172-PARTICIPANT PROFILE #7 G.O. Male Age: 20 Education: Grade 10 Referred by: Newspaper ad G.O. had been out of school two years and unemployed one and one half years when he started Career Start. Employment Barriers - Lack of education - Motivational - Negative attitude - Problem with authority - trouble taking orders - Poor communication skills - Lack of Job Search skills - Unrealistic wage expectations Individualized Action Plan I) Prepared to write G.E.D. Grade 12. Improve confidence in employability. II) Trained in Job Search techniques. Improve communication and ability to market self. -173-RESULTS TO DATE G.O. was a participant in Career Start for two months. He prepared for but did not write his G.E.D. - G.O. started Job Search but found employment before he completed the program. He worked at Action Maintenance for two days as a Janitor and then quit. He then went to work as a self-employed sub-contracting mason for 3 months. He is presently working at Murray Goldman's as a warehouse person earning $6.50/ hr. He also has a position in vehicle maintenance with B.C. Transit which is due to start soon. He will earn $17.00/ hr. -174-APPENDIX B INTERVIEW FORM -175-EVALUATION OF APPLICANT TO ENTER CAREER START DATE: , APPOINTMENT TIME: :  NAME: EARLY: LATE: ON TIME: AGE: DATE OF BIRTH: PLACE OF BIRTH: ;  |EXC. i SAT. POOR COMMENTS APPROPRIATE DRESS CLEANL1 NESS COMPOSURE EYE CONTACT CONF1DENCE i SEATING ARRANGEMENT 1 VERBAL COMMUNICATION • LISTENING SKILLS ENTHUS1 ASM 1 \ RESPONSE TO AUTHORITY l. POLITENESS 1 DISCLOSURE CO-OPERATION i COMMENTS: -176-JOB HISTORY LAST JOB HELD POSITION: ; LOCATION: DATE STARTED:__ DATE FINISHED:. LIKE/DISL IKE: : . HOW OBTAINED: WHY DID YOU LEAVE: FIRED: LAID OFF: QUIT: PREVIOUS EMPLOYMENT: __ INTERESTING WORK HELD J0B:_ LENGTH: LOCAT I ON: ; COMMENTS: ;  HAVE YOU LOOKED FOR WORK? • . HOW LONG? HOW MANY HOURS PER WEEK?__ HOW DO YOU GO ABOUT IT? NEWSPAPER CEIC FRIENDS AND CONTACTS COLD CONTACTING TELEPHONE MAILING OUT RESUME. WHY DO YOU WANT TO WORK? | ' -177-VOLUNTEER HISTORY JOB: LENGTH: COMMENTS: WHAT DO YOU FEEL PREVENTS YOU FROM GETTING A JOB?. FINANCIAL HOW DO YOU SUPPORT YOURSELF?. SOCIAL ASSISTANCE? WORKER:; OFF ICE : HOW LONG?. PHONE: DEFINITION OF "OTHER" OR "SELF-EMPLOYED" EDUCATION GRADE COMPLETED:. SCHOOL: LOCATI ON: WHY DID YOU LEAVE? COLLEGE:. PROGRAM: NIGHT SCHOOL: MEDICAL PHYSICAL? PSYCHOLOGICAL?. HISTORY OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE ALCOHOL ? DRUG? -178-CRIMINAL RECORD ALCOHOL RELATED?. REASON: • DRUG RELATED?. VIOLENT CRIME?. PROBATION END DATE: JAIL TERM END DATE: COMMENTS: SPARE TIME WHY ARE YOU APPLYING FOR CAREER START?. REALISTIC?. REALISTIC?. REALISTIC? CAREER GOAL CHOICE: WHY SHOULD I HIRE YOU?. WORK YOU WANT: 1. 2. 3. -179-APPENDIX C BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT DATA COLLECTION FORM -180-BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT Name: Date: Eval uator: At time of intake, client's main barrier(s) to employment are: Problems with authority Attitudes in previous job Lack of education Lack of working experience Personal or social problems Physical disability Criminal history Heal th' problems Family situation Drugs/Alcohol Economy (layoff, strike, etc.) Age Desires particular job Unrealistic Job Coals Immaturi ty Job Accessibility Lack of skill required Knowledge of job search skills Other: please define Check if Problem COMMENTS Life Skills Dress manner CI eanliness Communication skills Eye contact Other: PI ease Define COMMENTS: -181-

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