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Changing behaviour patterns of disadvantaged unemployed youth through an intervention strategy using.. 1987

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CHANGING BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS OF DISADVANTAGED UNEMPLOYED YOUTH THROUGH AN INTERVENTION STRATEGY USING COMPUTER-BASED TRAINING TECHNIQUES By FRANCES LONG B.F.A. i n F i n e A r t s , N.S.C.A.D., 1976 B.A. i n A r t E d u c a t i o n , N.S.C.A.D., 1976 B.F.A. i n F i n e A r t s and E d u c a t i o n N.S.C.A.D., 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t and Hi g h e r E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as con f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1987 (£> F r a n c e s LONG, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e / A d u l t and H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A p r i l 01, 1987 DE-6(3/81) ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s i s concerned with changing behaviour p a t t e r n s of a number of unemployed disadvantaged youth a s s o c i a t e d with an i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y c a l l e d Career S t a r t . Career S t a r t uses computer-based technology i n i t s i n s t r u c t i o n a l program, which attempts to address simultaneously three s i g n i f i c a n t b a r r i e r s to youth employment. These b a r r i e r s are grade l e v e l attainment, low s e l f - e s t e e m , and d e s t r u c t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards work. The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Career S t a r t numbered 169 youths between the ages of 15 and 24. A l l had been c l a s s i f i e d as s e v e r e l y employment disadvantaged by the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n methods of Employment and Immigration Canada. The youths were in t e r v i e w e d to a s c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the reasons why they were unemployed. They were a l s o t e s t e d before and a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program to determine whether or not b a r r i e r s to employment had been reduced. There was some evidence of improvement i n academic scores, p r i m a r i l y i n the language and mathematics areas. In a d d i t i o n , there was a r e d u c t i o n i n the b a r r i e r s to employment as measured by the V o c a t i o n a l Opinion Index. The C u l t u r e Free Self-Esteem Index a l s o showed that the s e l f - e s t e e m of the p a r t i c i p a n t s was r a i s e d a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program. i i The e m p l o y m e n t o b j e c t i v e s o f E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a w e r e a l s o t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e s t u d y . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r t h e o b j e c t i v e s w e r e e x c e e d e d by 36 p e r c e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s a n d , d u r i n g t h e f i r s t n i n e - m o n t h p e r i o d o f t h e s e c o n d y e a r , t h e o b j e c t i v e s w e r e a g a i n e x c e e d e d . D a t a w e r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y a n a l y z e d u s i n g t h e C h i - s q u a r e T e s t f o r I n d e p e n d e n c e , t h e Non P a r a m e t r i c S i g n T e s t , c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n s , and f r e q u e n c y t a b l e s . The s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t C a r e e r S t a r t had t h e p o t e n t i a l t o be a s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y i n a d d r e s s i n g t h e p r o b l e m s o f u n e m p l o y e d and d i s a d v a n t a g e d y o u t h . The r e s e a r c h a l s o g e n e r a t e d a number o f r e l a t e d i s s u e s i n n e e d o f f u r t h e r s t u d y . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS PRELIMINARY MATERIALS PAGE ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF TABLES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION 1 A. PURPOSE 5 B. RATIONALE 7 C. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 9 D. DEFINITION OF TERMS 10 1. CAREER START PARTICIPANTS 10 2. COMPUTER BASED TRAINING 12 E. RESTRICTIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF STUDY 14 1. RESEARCH 14 2. CONFLICT OF INTEREST 15 CHAPTER TWO - REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 16 A. INTRODUCTION 16 B. YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT 17 C. DISADVANTAGED UNEMPLOYED YOUTH 23 D. ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND EMPLOYABILITY 32 E. ATTITUDES TOWARDS WORK AND EMPLOYABILITY 37 F. SELF-ESTEEM AND EMPLOYABILITY 39 G. INTERVENTION STRATEGIES 43 i v TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTINUED PAGE H. INTERVENTION STRATEGIES - INCREASING 49 EMPLOYABILITY OF DISADVANTAGED UNEMPLOYED YOUTH I. SUMMARY 57 CHAPTER THREE - METHODOLOGY 58 A. DESIGN OF THE STUDY 58 B. THE INTERVENTION STRATEGY - CAREER START 60 C. METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION 68 D. METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS 72 CHAPTER FOUR - DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE 74 A. CHARACTERISTICS OF APPLICANTS TO CAREER START 74 B. BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT PRESENT IN THE SAMPLE 82 C. NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS PRE-TESTED AND POST-TESTED 96 CHAPTER FIVE - RESULTS 98 A. DEGREE OF SUCCESS CROSS-TABULATED WITH PARTICIPANT 98 CHARACTERISTICS AND BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT B. DEGREE OF SUCCESS CROSS-TABULATED WITH THE 109 CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS, VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX, AND THE CULTURE FREE SELF-ESTEEM C. PAIRED SAMPLE PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF THE 125 CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS, VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX AND THE CULTURE FREE SELF-ESTEEM v TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTINUED PAGE D. SUCCESS RATE OF CAREER START PARTICIPANTS TO MEET 136 THE FUNDING REQUIREMENTS OF EMPLOYMENT AND IMMIG- RATION CANADA E. SUMMARY 139 CHAPTER SIX - CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 142 A. SUMMARY 142 B. CONCLUSION 147 C. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 149 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 154 APPENDICES 158 A. CAREER START PARTICIPANT PROFILES 160 B. INTERVIEW FORM 176 C. BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT DATA COLLECTION FORM 181 v i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 UNEMPLOYMENT RATES BY AGE GROUPS (CANADA AND 19 THE UNITED STATES) 2 UNEMPLOYMENT RATES IN THE CIVILIAN POPULATION 27 BY AGE, RACE AND SEX, 1981 3 NATIVE AND NON-NATIVE YOUTH (AGED 20-24) 29 BY HIGHEST LEVEL OF SCHOOLING AND AVERAGE INCOME, 1981 4 RATES OF UNEMPLOYMENT FOR NATIVE AND NON- 30 NATIVE YOUTH 5 PERCENTAGE OF THE CANADIAN POPULATION NOT IN 35 SCHOOL FULL TIME WHO HAVE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLING OR LESS, 1981 6 PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS - AGE AND SEX 74 7 PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS - LEVEL OF 76 EDUCATION CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX 8 PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS - DURATION OF 77 LAST JOB CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX 9 PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS - REASON FOR 78 LEAVING LAST JOB CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX 10 PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS - LENGTH OF LAST 79 EMPLOYMENT CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX 11 PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS- FINANCIAL 80 SITUATION CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS - CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE 84 AND SEX 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS - CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE 86 AND SEX 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS - CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE 88 AND SEX 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS - CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE 90 AND SEX v i i LIST OF TABLES CONTINUED PAGE 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS - CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE 92 AND SEX 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS - CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE 94 AND SEX 13 PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS - PREVIOUS 101 EDUCATION LEVEL AND SUCCESS 14 PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS - LENGTH OF 102 PREVIOUS EMPLOYMENT WITH SUCCESS 15 BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT CROSS-TABULATED BY 105 DEGREES OF SUCCESS 15 BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT CROSS-TABULATED BY 106 DEGREES OF SUCCESS 15 BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT CROSS-TABULATED BY 107 DEGREES OF SUCCESS 15 BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT CROSS-TABULATED BY 108 DEGREES OF SUCCESS 16 CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS BY VARYING DEGREES 111 OF SUCCESS 16 CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS BY VARYING DEGREES 112 OF SUCCESS 16 CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS BY VARYING DEGREES 113 OF SUCCESS 16 CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS BY VARYING DEGREES 114 OF SUCCESS 17 VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX BY DEGREES OF SUCCESS 117 17 VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX BY DEGREES OF SUCCESS 118 17 VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX BY DEGREES OF SUCCESS 119 17 VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX BY DEGREES OF SUCCESS 120 17 VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX BY DEGREES OF SUCCESS 121 18 SELF-ESTEEM AND DEGREES OF SUCCESS 123 v i i i LIST OF TABLES CONTINUED PAGE 18 SELF-ESTEEM AND DEGREES OF SUCCESS 124 19 PAIRED SAMPLES - PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF 127 THE CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS 19 PAIRED SAMPLES - PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF 128 THE CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS 20 PAIRED SAMPLES - PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF 130 THE VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX 20 PAIRED SAMPLES - PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF 132 THE VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX 20 PAIRED SAMPLES - PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF 133 THE VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX 21 PAIRED SAMPLES - PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF 135 THE CULTURE FREE SELF-ESTEEM TEST 22 TRAINING AND PLACEMENT STATISTICS AUGUST 07, 138 1984 - APRIL 30, 1986 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o t h a n k t h e p e o p l e and a g e n c i e s who h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d e x t e n s i v e l y t o t h i s p a p e r . F r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I e s p e c i a l l y w i s h t o t h a n k D r . J o h n D e n n i s o n , my a d v i s o r , and D r . G o r d o n S e l m a n , a c o m m i t t e e member . F r o m V a n c o u v e r C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e , P r e s i d e n t D r . P a u l G a l l a g h e r , who n o t o n l y p e r m i t t e d a c c e s s t o t h e d a t a , b u t a l s o s e r v e d a s a c o m m i t t e e member . The C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n D i v i s i o n o f V a n c o u v e r C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e p e r m i t t e d d e s i g n o f t h e C a r e e r S t a r t p r o j e c t i n a f a s h i o n w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e d t h e t h e s i s . F r a n s J a n s e n , o f C o n t r o l D a t a C o r p o r a t i o n , was i n v a l u a b l e f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . I am g r a t e f u l t o my f r i e n d s and f a m i l y who p r o d d e d me t o c o m p l e t e t h e w o r k : K a r e n T a l l m a n , G a r y Howe, O l i v C a a r l e , N a n c y J e n n i n g s and J a c k & M a r g a r e t L o n g , D r . F r a n k B e i n d e r , Tom T o u l s o n , J o y Z e m e l L o n g and J o h n M c L a r e n . I am g r a t e f u l t o t h e C a r e e r S t a r t p a r t i c i p a n t s who l e a r n e d how t o t y p e and u s e W o r d s t a r b e c a u s e o f my t h e s i s : S c o t t P i l g r i m , G e o f f A r n o u s e , M a r y L o u D e l l and e s p e c i a l l y C l a u d e t t e B e a u c h e s n e who t o o k t h e t h e s i s a s h e r p r o j e c t and c o m p l e t e d t h e t a s k . M o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , I am g r a t e f u l t o t h e C a r e e r S t a r t s t a f f : G r e g M i l l e r , V a l e r i e M c N e i l l , M u r i e l McRae and R i c k W a t s o n f o r t h e i r many p a t i e n t h o u r s . x CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION One o f C a n a d a ' s c o n t i n u i n g , and c e r t a i n l y one o f i t s mos t s e r i o u s , p r o b l e m s i s t h e f a i l u r e o f a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s y o u n g p e o p l e t o f i n d a p l a c e i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . I n J u n e 1 9 8 5 , f i g u r e s f r o m S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a ( u n a d j u s t e d ) showed t h e r a t e o f u n e m p l o y m e n t i n t h e w h o l e o f C a n a d a t o be t e n p e r c e n t . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r t h e same p e r i o d , t h e r a t e was 1 4 . 2 p e r c e n t , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e r a t e o f u n e m p l o y m e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was 4 . 2 p e r c e n t h i g h e r t h a n t h e C a n a d i a n a v e r a g e . F o r y o u n g C a n a d i a n a d u l t s , a g e d 1 5 - 2 4 , t h e p r o b l e m was e v e n more a c u t e . T h i s g r o u p f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t , i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e , t o c o m p e t e i n t h e j o b m a r k e t . As a r e s u l t , t h e n a t i o n a l r a t e s o f u n e m p l o y m e n t f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r age g r o u p was 1 9 . 2 p e r c e n t . A g a i n , t h e r a t e o f u n e m p l o y m e n t among y o u n g a d u l t s i n B . C . was n o t i c e a b l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e n a t i o n a l r a t e . I n J u n e 1 9 8 5 , S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a showed t h e u n e m p l o y m e n t r a t e f o r y o u n g a d u l t s i n B . C . t o be 2 4 . 2 p e r c e n t , o r f i v e p e r c e n t h i g h e r t h a n t h e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e . F o r t h o s e a g e d 1 5 - 1 9 t h e r a t e was 1 9 . 9 p e r c e n t and f o r t h o s e a g e d 2 0 - 2 4 t h e r a t e was 1 8 . 8 p e r c e n t . The p o s t war baby boom f r o m a b o u t 1945 t o 1965 r e s u l t e d i n l a r g e n u m b e r s o f c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s . W h i l e y o u n g p e o p l e i n t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s f o u n d j o b s a f t e r f i n i s h i n g s c h o o l , y o u n g a d u l t s t o d a y a r e f a c i n g u n e m p l o y m e n t . B r e a k i n g i n t o t h e p e r m a n e n t l a b o u r f o r c e i s b e c o m i n g more and more d i f f i c u l t f o r y o u n g p e o p l e . - 1 - To a d d r e s s t h e y o u t h u n e m p l o y m e n t p r o b l e m t h e r e i s a number o f i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s b e i n g o f f e r e d a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y . T h e s e a r e p r o g r a m s a i m e d a t p r o v i d i n g t r a i n i n g and s e r v i c e s w h i c h o f f e r y o u n g p e o p l e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p t h o s e s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y f o r l o n g - t e r m e c o n o m i c s t a b i l i t y and i n d e p e n d e n c e . H o w e v e r , w h i l e t h e s e p r o g r a m s a r e t a i l o r e d t o f i t t h e n e e d s o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e u n e m p l o y e d y o u t h g r o u p , t h e r e i s a number o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t h i s g r o u p who r e q u i r e a s p e c i a l a p p r o a c h t o j o b t r a i n i n g . T h i s s p e c i a l g r o u p i n c l u d e s y o u n g a d u l t s w i t h s e v e r e e m p l o y m e n t d i s a d v a n t a g e s w h i c h add t o t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n o b t a i n i n g and r e t a i n i n g j o b s . The s p e c i f i c d i s a d v a n t a g e s may c o n s i s t o f one o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : l a c k o f e d u c a t i o n p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s c r i m i n a l h i s t o r y p o o r f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d a h i s t o r y o f d r u g o r a l c o h o l p r o b l e m s l a c k o f w o r k e x p e r i e n c e p o o r l i f e s k i l l s p o o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s l o n g - t e r m s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r e c i p i e n t I n o r d e r t o make them more e m p l o y a b l e , t h e s e d i s a d v a n t a g e d y o u n g p e o p l e o f t e n r e q u i r e i n s t r u c t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e i n - 2 - a t t a i n i n g b a s i c o r h i g h s c h o o l s k i l l s , l i f e c o p i n g s k i l l s and j o b s e e k i n g s t r a t e g i e s . T h e r e a r e a v a r i e t y o f i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s d e s i g n e d t o w o r k w i t h t h e u n e m p l o y e d , d i s a d v a n t a g e d y o u t h . T h e s e s t r a t e g i e s c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s p r i m a r i l y w i t h u p g r a d i n g l i f e o r a c a d e m i c s k i l l s o r j o b s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s . Few a t t e m p t t o a t t a c k a l l t h r e e p r o b l e m a r e a s a t t h e same t i m e . P u b l i c and p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s , v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s o f f e r s i n g l e c o u r s e s o r p r o g r a m s i n e i t h e r j o b s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s o r b a s i c o r h i g h s c h o o l s k i l l s u p g r a d i n g . E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a p u r c h a s e s t r a i n i n g s e a t s d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e s e p r o g r a m s o r c o - o p e r a t e s w i t h them t o o f f e r i n i t i a t i v e s w h i c h g e n e r a l l y a r e g e a r e d t o t h e e m p l o y m e n t d i s a d v a n t a g e d t h r o u g h t h e C a n a d a J o b s S t r a t e g y p r o g r a m . T h i s s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i m p a c t o f one i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y on t h e b e h a v i o u r o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d , u n e m p l o y e d y o u t h , i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The i n i t i a t i v e u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s f u n d e d by t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t t h r o u g h E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a . The p r o g r a m i s c a l l e d ' C a r e e r S t a r t ' , and u s e s c o m p u t e r - b a s e d t e c h n o l o g y t o a d d r e s s t h o s e b a r r i e r s t o e m p l o y m e n t e x h i b i t e d by t h e t a r g e t g r o u p . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y c o n c e n t r a t e s on u p g r a d i n g b a s i c a n d / o r h i g h s c h o o l s k i l l s , u p g r a d i n g l i f e c o p i n g s k i l l s and d e v e l o p i n g j o b s e e k i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n o r d e r t o make y o u t h more e m p l o y a b l e . - 3 - The t h e s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e s e p a r a t e c h a p t e r s . The f i r s t c h a p t e r i n t r o d u c e s t h e r e a d e r t o t h e p r o b l e m t o be e x a m i n e d , d e f i n e s t h e t e r m s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y and p r o v i d e s t h e p u r p o s e and r e a s o n f o r t h e t h e s i s . C h a p t e r Two p r e s e n t s l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v e n t t o t h e t o p i c , b e g i n n i n g w i t h an o v e r v i e w o f t h e g e n e r a l p r o b l e m o f y o u t h u n e m p l o y m e n t . S e c t i o n B d e a l s w i t h u n e m p l o y e d y o u t h who s u f f e r a number o f d i s a d v a n t a g e s and l o o k s a t t h e f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e i r p r o b l e m s . The t h r e e s e c t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f y o u t h e m p l o y a b i l i t y and a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t , a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s w o r k , and p a r t i c i p a n t s l e v e l s o f s e l f - e s t e e m . The f i n d i n g s a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n o f C h a p t e r T w o . C h a p t e r T h r e e d e s c r i b e s t h e d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y , d i s c u s s e s t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y p r o g r a m C a r e e r S t a r t , and e x p l a i n s t h e m e t h o d s u s e d f o r c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . C h a p t e r F o u r d e s c r i b e s t h e s a m p l e u s e d f o r t h e s t u d y . T h i s i n c l u d e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a p p l i c a n t s , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r d i s a d v a n t a g e s , and t h e number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s u s e d f o r t e s t and r e - t e s t p u r p o s e s . C h a p t e r F i v e d e s c r i b e s p a r t i c i p a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e i r b a r r i e r s t o e m p l o y m e n t , and shows how t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n f l u e n c e t h e i r s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e a f t e r p r o g r a m -4- p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s s u c c e s s r a t i n g i s a l s o c r o s s - t a b u l a t e d w i t h t e s t r e s u l t s f r o m t h e C a n a d i a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s , V o c a t i o n a l O p i n i o n I n d e x and t h e C u l t u r e F r e e S e l f - E s t e e m . P a i r e d s a m p l e s o f p r e and p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s a r e i n v e s t i g a t e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e h a s b e e n an i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e i n t h e i r s c o r e s . The l a s t a r e a i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o j e c t t o meet t h e q u a n t i f i a b l e o b j e c t i v e s a s s e t o u t by E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a . The s t u d y c o n c l u d e s w i t h C h a p t e r S i x i n w h i c h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i s s u m m a r i z e d , c o n c l u s i o n s a r e d r a w n and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e p r e s e n t e d . A. PURPOSE T h e r e a r e few s t u d i e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h m e a s u r i n g t h e s u c c e s s r a t e o f i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h u s e c o m p u t e r - b a s e d t e c h n o l o g y i n t h e t h r e e s u b j e c t a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t i n t h i s s t u d y : b a s i c and h i g h s c h o o l s k i l l s u p g r a d i n g , l i f e s k i l l s and j o b s e a r c h s k i l l s . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o a s s e s s s u m m a t i v e l y t h e s u c c e s s r a t e among p a r t i c i p a n t s o f one i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o g r a m w h i c h u s e s c o m p u t e r - b a s e d t r a i n i n g i n t h e t h r e e s u b j e c t a r e a s l i s t e d a b o v e . The a s s e s s m e n t p r o c e e d s f r o m two p e r s p e c t i v e s : - 5 - On the one hand the success of the Career S t a r t Program w i l l be d i s c u s s e d with r e s p e c t to those o b j e c t i v e s set out by Employment and Immigration Canada: a. During each year of o p e r a t i o n to place a minimum of 50 graduates i n employment or f u r t h e r employment d i r e c t e d t r a i n i n g . b. To e n r o l l a minimum of 75 p a r t i c i p a n t s . c. To graduate 75 precent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . " ^ P r i o r to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Career S t a r t program, p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l be evaluated as to the extent of t h e i r b a r r i e r s to employment. Foll o w i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n , they w i l l again be evaluated to measure the l e v e l of change. The i n f o r m a t i o n which i s r e q u i r e d i n order to assess the p r o j e c t ' s success w i l l be c o l l e c t e d from the p a r t i c i p a n t s who have graduated or obtained and r e t a i n e d employment or r e s o r t e d to f u r t h e r employment r e l a t e d t r a i n i n g . These data w i l l be measured d i r e c t l y a gainst the q u a n t i f i a b l e goals and o b j e c t i v e s set out by Employment and Immigration Canada. 1• Career S t a r t (A C.E.I.C. Youth Job Corps Program) 1984/1985 Operating P r o p o s a l , Vancouver Community C o l l e g e , June 1984, p.9 - 6 - A s e c o n d p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h i s u s e f u l i n a s s e s s i n g t h e C a r e e r S t a r t P r o g r a m i n v o l v e s t h e s t u d y o f c h a n g e s i n v a r i o u s b e h a v i o u r s and s k i l l s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a t p r e - p r o g r a m l e v e l s and t h o s e a t t a i n e d a f t e r t h e p r o g r a m . S c o r e s f o r p r e and p o s t - p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l t h e n be a v a i l a b l e f o r a n a l y s i s o f a c a d e m i c s k i l l l e v e l s , a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s w o r k , and a m e a s u r e o f s e l f - e s t e e m . B. RATIONALE O v e r t h e y e a r s t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t h a s d e v e l o p e d a number o f d i f f e r e n t i n i t i a t i v e s t o d e a l w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f u n e m p l o y e d y o u t h . V a r i o u s j o b c r e a t i o n e x p e r i m e n t s o f E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a l e d t h e way t o a s t r a t e g y w h i c h was c a l l e d ' J o b D e v e l o p m e n t ' . J o b D e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s w e r e f u n d e d by t h e E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a t h r o u g h t h e E m p l o y m e n t D e v e l o p m e n t B r a n c h o f C a n a d a J o b s S t r a t e g y . A p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y J o b D e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a / Y u k o n D i v i s i o n o f E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a . T h e s e p r o j e c t s h a v e b e e n d e s i g n e d t o meet s i m i l a r g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s . A l t h o u g h f u n d i n g and t e c h n i q u e s v a r y , t h e y w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d t o o v e r c o m e a v a r i e t y o f e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r s s u f f e r e d by d i s a d v a n t a g e d , u n e m p l o y e d y o u t h . - 7 - The p r o j e c t s d i f f e r d r a m a t i c a l l y . E a c h w o r k s w i t h s p e c i f i c t a r g e t g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e g e n e r a l c a t e g o r y o f e m p l o y m e n t d i s a d v a n t a g e d y o u t h . F o r e x a m p l e , one p r o j e c t h a s b e e n d e s i g n e d t o w o r k w i t h y o u n g n a t i v e women, a n o t h e r w i t h m u l t i c u l t u r a l y o u t h , w h i l e o t h e r s i n v o l v e t h e p h y s i c a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d , m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d e t c . T h e r e a r e o t h e r p r o j e c t s w h i c h w o r k s o l e l y w i t h u n e m p l o y e d y o u t h who a r e u n e m p l o y e d b e c a u s e o f one p r i m a r y d i s a d v a n t a g e e g : a l c o h o l o r d r u g d e p e n d e n c y , c r i m i n a l h i s t o r y e t c . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p r o j e c t s a l s o d i f f e r d r a m a t i c a l l y i n d e s i g n , i n m e t h o d o l o g y , r e f e r r a l and i n t a k e p r o c e d u r e , p l a c e m e n t and j o b s e a r c h p h i l o s o p h y , management t e c h n i q u e s , l e n g t h o f p r o g r a m , number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , and s t a f f i n g l e v e l s . Two p r o j e c t s i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a / Y u k o n d i v i s i o n o f E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a i n v o l v e y o u t h b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 15 t o 24 who a r e u n e m p l o y e d b e c a u s e o f a number o f t h e e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r s p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d . C a r e e r S t a r t i s t h e name g i v e n t o a p r o j e c t w h i c h i s f u n d e d t o t h e maximum a l l o t m e n t o f $ 3 5 0 , 0 0 0 p e r annum by t h e E m p l o y m e n t D e v e l o p m e n t B r a n c h o f E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a . The p r o j e c t i s s p o n s o r e d by t h e C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n D i v i s i o n o f V a n c o u v e r C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e and r e c e i v e s i t s e d u c a t i o n a l s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s f r o m C o n t r o l D a t a C a n a d a L i m i t e d . -8- C a r e e r S t a r t i s t h e o n l y g o v e r n m e n t f u n d e d j o b d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m f o r s e v e r e l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d y o u t h i n W e s t e r n C a n a d a t h a t u t i l i z e s c o m p u t e r - b a s e d t r a i n i n g i n i t s d e s i g n . I t i s a l s o u n i q u e i n W e s t e r n C a n a d a i n t h a t i t p r o v i d e s f o r t h e u p g r a d i n g o f b a s i c and h i g h s c h o o l s k i l l s . U t i l i z i n g a b l e n d o f a u d i o and v i s u a l a i d s , and c o m p u t e r - b a s e d l e s s o n s , i t a l l o w s e a c h p a r t i c i p a n t t o a d v a n c e a t h i s o r h e r own i n d i v i d u a l p a c e . The p a r t i c i p a n t s a l s o r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n s e l f - d i r e c t e d j o b s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s . T h e r e i s a c o n t i n u o u s i n t a k e o f a p p l i c a n t s i n t o t h e p r o g r a m and t h e a v e r a g e s t a y o f a p a r t i c i p a n t i s two and one h a l f m o n t h s . C. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM T h e r e a r e two s e p a r a t e p r o b l e m s u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y . The f i r s t p r o b l e m i s t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e C a r e e r S t a r t p r o j e c t was s u c c e s s f u l i n m e e t i n g t h e q u a n t i f i a b l e g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s s e t o u t by E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a . T h i s i n v o l v e s t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s who s u c c e s s f u l l y g r a d u a t e d , and o b t a i n e d and r e t a i n e d e m p l o y m e n t f o r a t e n - w e e k p e r i o d a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r o j e c t . The s e c o n d p r o b l e m u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n v o l v e s t h e s t u d y o f c h a n g e s i n v a r i o u s b e h a v i o u r s and s k i l l s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a t p r e - p r o g r a m l e v e l s and t h o s e a t t a i n e d a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m . B e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s l o o k e d a t a r e d e f i n e d i n t h e s t u d y a s ' B a r r i e r s t o E m p l o y m e n t ' . T h e s e i s s u e s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h d r e s s , c l e a n l i n e s s , p r o b l e m s w i t h a u t h o r i t y and c r i m i n a l h i s t o r y . S k i l l s t h a t w i l l be m e a s u r e d i n c l u d e b a s i c and h i g h s c h o o l s k i l l s a c h i e v e m e n t l e v e l s and s e l f - e s t e e m . D. DEFINITION OF TERMS 1. CAREER START P A R T I C I P A N T S I n o r d e r t o be a c c e p t e d i n t o t h e C a r e e r S t a r t p r o j e c t , p a r t i c i p a n t s mus t be c l a s s i f i e d a s s e v e r e l y e m p l o y m e n t d i s a d v a n t a g e d . T h i s a s s e s s m e n t , b a s e d on t h e a p p l i c a n t s ' p e r s o n a l and i n d i v i d u a l p r o b l e m s , t h e n p l a c e s them i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f S p e c i a l N e e d s C l i e n t s , a s d e f i n e d by E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a ( E m p l o y m e n t D e v e l o p m e n t B r a n c h ) i n i t s p o l i c y m a n u a l d e v e l o p e d i n 1 9 8 5 . T h i s m a n u a l d e f i n e s S p e c i a l N e e d s C l i e n t s a s two s p e c i f i c g r o u p s : i . C l i e n t s w i t h o p p o r t u n i t y r e l a t e d e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r s who r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r j o b r e a d i n e s s / s k i l l l e v e l , a r e n o r m a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c e r t a i n i d e n t i f i a b l e g r o u p s ( e . g . women, n a t i v e s , d i s a b l e d p e r s o n s ) ; and i i . C l i e n t s w i t h p e r s o n a l / i n d i v i d u a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t t h e i r e m p l o y a b i l i t y , r e g a r d l e s s o f a v a i l a b i l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y and r e g a r d l e s s o f t a r g e t g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p . The C a r e e r S t a r t p r o j e c t w o r k s s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e - 1 0 - s e c o n d t y p e o f S p e c i a l N e e d s C l i e n t s . The p o l i c y m a n u a l g o e s on t o s a y t h a t : S p e c i a l N e e d s C l i e n t s . . . a r e a h e t e r o g e n e o u s g r o u p i n g o f n o n - j o b r e a d y b u t e m p l o y a b l e c l i e n t s , w h o , by v i r t u e o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s , c a n n o t be a d e q u a t e l y a s s i s t e d t h r o u g h u s e o f r e g u l a r ( E . I . C . ) p r o g r a m s and s e r v i c e s . The p r i m a r y c a t e g o r i e s o f e m p l o y a b i l i t y d i m e n s i o n s mos t a p p l i c a b l e i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e r v i c e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f S p e c i a l N e e d s C l i e n t s a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g : a . M o t i v a t i o n a l / A t t i t u d i n a l b . E m o t i o n a l c . S o c i o / E c o n o m i c d . E d u c a t i o n a l / S k i l l W i t h i n t h e s e b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s t h e p o l i c y c o n t i n u e s a l o n g more s p e c i f i c l i n e s : T h e y g e n e r a l l y h a v e p o o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s , i n c l u d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e l a t i n g t o p e e r s a n d / o r s u p e r v i s o r y p e r s o n n e l ; T h e y h a v e p o o r s e l f - i m a g e o r l o w s e l f - e s t e e m ; T h e y e x p e r i e n c e p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t i n g e m p l o y a b i l i t y o r h a m p e r i n g them f r o m o b t a i n i n g / r e t a i n i n g e m p l o y m e n t i n c l u d i n g , f o r e x a m p l e , p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r e m a t e r i a l , f a m i l y - c e n t e r e d and d e p e n d e n c i e s on d r u g s a n d / o r a l c o h o l ; They a r e g e n e r a l l y i n r e c e i p t o f , o r r e q u i r e s u p p o r t i v e s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h c o m m u n i t y b a s e d a g e n c i e s i n a d d i t i o n t o e m p l o y m e n t r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h E . I . C . . . T h e y r e q u i r e e n h a n c e d c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n and t h e e x t e n s i v e u s e o f . . . j o b c r e a t i o n p r o g r a m s s u c h a s J o b C o r p s . . . and u l t i m a t e l y m a r k e t i n g t o e m p l o y e r s . 2 . P o l i c y M a n u a l , - E m p l o y m e n t D e v e l o p m e n t B r a n c h , C a n a d a E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n , 1 9 8 5 , p . 2 3 - 1 1 - 2. D E F I N I T I O N OF C O M P U T E R - B A S E D T R A I N I N G T h i s s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h a s s e s s m e n t o f a p r o g r a m t h a t i s d e p e n d e n t on c o m p u t e r - b a s e d t r a i n i n g . C o m p u t e r - B a s e d T r a i n i n g i s "a t e r m u s e d t o d e s c r i b e a c o m p u t e r i z e d s y s t e m t h a t a i d s l e a r n i n g . I t i n c l u d e s t h r e e a s p e c t s : i . C o m p u t e r - M a n a g e d I n s t r u c t i o n ( C M I ) i i . C o m p u t e r - A s s i s t e d I n s t r u c t i o n ( C A I ) i i i . C o m p u t e r - S u p p o r t e d L e a r n i n g A i d s ( C S L A ) C a r e e r S t a r t u t i l i z e s o n l y t h e f i r s t t w o : i . C o m p u t e r - M a n a g e d I n s t r u c t i o n CMI i s a c o m p u t e r i z e d m e t h o d o f t e s t i n g , r e c o r d - k e e p i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . I t a s s i s t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , c l a s s r o o m , and i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n e r m a n a g e m e n t . The t h r e e m a i n f u n c t i o n s o f CMI a r e : T E S T I N G - P a r t i c i p a n t s a r e g i v e n r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d t e s t s , u s u a l l y o f t h e t r u e o r f a l s e o r m u l t i p l e c h o i c e t y p e . The CMI s y s t e m s c o r e s e a c h q u e s t i o n , d e l i v e r s d i a g n o s t i c f e e d b a c k a n d , when a p p r o p r i a t e , g i v e s a d d i t i o n a l and d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n s b a s e d on p r e v i o u s r e s p o n s e s . R E C O R D - K E E P I N G - R e s p o n s e s t o t e s t i t e m s a r e r e c o r d e d as c o n f i d e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . -12- P R E S C R I P T I O N GENERATION - B a s e d on i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e r e c o r d - k e e p i n g and t e s t i n g a s p e c t s o f C M I , l e s s o n s a r e g e n e r a t e d and when t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e i s m e t , and o n l y t h e n t h e l e a r n e r p r o c e e d s t o t h e n e x t u n i t o f s t u d y . i i . C o m p u t e r - A s s i s t e d I n s t r u c t i o n CMI p e r f o r m s t h e r o l e o f t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and r e c o r d - k e e p i n g w h i l e c o m p u t e r - a s s i s t e d i n s t r u c t i o n ( C A I ) p r e s e n t s t h e i n s t r u c t i o n i t s e l f . I t i s an i n t e r a c t i v e p r o c e s s b e t w e e n a l e a r n e r and a d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e a s s u m e d by t h e c o m p u t e r . P a c i n g i s c o n t r o l l e d , and t h e c o n t e n t i s a d a p t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e n e e d s o r a b i l i t i e s o f t h e l e a r n e r s . F e e d b a c k i s p r o v i d e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r r e s p o n s e s and t h e l e s s o n s a r e t h e n a d a p t e d f o r e i t h e r a d v a n c e m e n t o r r e m e d i a l a l t e r n a t i v e s . The l e v e l o f d i f f i c u l t y i s c o n t r o l l e d by t h e l e a r n e r . -13- E. RESTRICTIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 1. RESEARCH The r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o t h i s s t u d y h a s b e e n r e s t r i c t e d t o s t u d i e s f r o m C a n a d a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . W h i l e t h e s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o b l e m o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d u n e m p l o y e d y o u t h , d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i s l i m i t e d t o t h r e e d i s t i n c t r e a s o n s f o r u n e m p l o y m e n t ; t h e s e a r e t h e s e l f - e s t e e m o f t h e y o u t h , p r e v i o u s a c a d e m i c a t t a i n m e n t , and a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s w o r k . The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d a l s o i n c l u d e s s t u d i e s a b o u t t h e s u c c e s s r a t e o f A m e r i c a n s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h i n t e r v e n e b e t w e e n u n e m p l o y m e n t o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d y o u t h and f u l l t i m e , l o n g - t e r m e m p l o y m e n t . S i m i l a r i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t a v a i l a b l e i n C a n a d a on a n a t i o n a l b a s i s . - 1 4 - 2. CONFLICT OF INTEREST Some c o n c e r n h a s been e x p r e s s e d t h a t a c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t c o u l d o c c u r s i n c e t h e a u t h o r o f t h e s t u d y i s e m p l o y e d a s M a n a g e r o f t h e C a r e e r S t a r t P r o j e c t . As M a n a g e r , t h e a u t h o r was e n a b l e d f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g t o d e s i g n t h e p r o j e c t i n a manner w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e d d a t a c o l l e c t i o n f o r t h e s t u d y . T h i s g a v e t h e a u t h o r i m m e d i a t e a c c e s s t o i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e a u t h o r i t y t o c o l l e c t i t . The a u t h o r f e e l s t h a t s h e h a s d e a l t w i t h t h e d a t a r e c e i v e d i n an o b j e c t i v e m a n n e r . I t s h o u l d a l s o be n o t e d t h a t r e s e a r c h c o l l e c t e d by h e r h a s b e n e f i t e d t h e p r o g r a m by p r o v i d i n g v a l u a b l e d a t a on p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e p r o g r a m t o t h e c o u n s e l l o r s e m p l o y e d by C a r e e r S t a r t . As a r e s u l t p o l i c i e s , p r o c e d u r e s and c o u n s e l l i n g t e c h n i q u e s h a v e been i m p r o v e d and a d a p t e d t o meet t h e n e e d s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . S p e c i a l e f f o r t h a s b e e n made t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e a u t h o r ' s own j u d g e m e n t s d i d n o t i n t r u d e . - 1 5 - CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE A. INTRODUCTION The c h a p t e r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e R e v i e w o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e i s p r e s e n t e d i n e i g h t s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n h a s been d r a w n f r o m s t u d i e s done i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . W h i l e t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e s t u d y o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d u n e m p l o y e d y o u t h , t h e r e i s some t h a t r e l a t e d i n d i r e c t l y a n d c o u l d p r o v i d e c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s t o t h e p r o b l e m . The s e c o n d s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s an o v e r v i e w o f t h e g e n e r a l p r o b l e m o f y o u t h u n e m p l o y m e n t b o t h i n C a n a d a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . S e c t i o n t h r e e d e a l s w i t h u n e m p l o y e d y o u t h who s u f f e r s p e c i f i c d i s a d v a n t a g e s and l o o k s a t t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e m . The t h r e e s e c t i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f y o u t h e m p l o y a b i l i t y and a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t s , a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s w o r k and t h e i r l e v e l s o f s e l f - e s t e e m . S e c t i o n s e v e n l o o k s a t i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s t h a t a r e d e s i g n e d t o a d d r e s s t h e p r o b l e m o f u n e m p l o y e d y o u t h . The m a t e r i a l h e r e i s d r a w n f r o m U . S . s t u d i e s . S e c t i o n e i g h t c o v e r s i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s d e s i g n e d t o a c c o m m o d a t e d i s a d v a n t a g e d u n e m p l o y e d y o u t h and t o a s s i s t them i n - 1 6 - o b t a i n i n g and r e t a i n i n g j o b s . T h i s s e c t i o n d r a w s f r o m b o t h U . S . and C a n a d i a n s t u d i e s . The l a s t s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s a summary o f p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e . B. YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT I n F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 6 , The S p e c i a l S e n a t e C o m m i t t e e on Y o u t h ( o r i g i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 9 8 4 ) p u b l i s h e d a c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e p o r t on i t s f i n d i n g on t h e p l i g h t o f u n e m p l o y e d y o u t h i n C a n a d a . The C o m m i t t e e ' s m a n d a t e had been t o e x a m i n e t h e p r o b l e m s and i s s u e s f a c i n g C a n a d i a n y o u n g p e o p l e and i t s r e p o r t was e n t i t l e d " Y o u t h : A P l a n o f A c t i o n " . 3 The c o m m i t t e e f o u n d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f a m i l l i o n y o u n g C a n a d i a n s f a l l i n t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f t h e ' u n e m p l o y e d ' a s d e f i n e d i n S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a d a t a . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e w e r e a n o t h e r 2 0 , 0 0 0 y o u n g p e o p l e who had g i v e n up a n y hope o f f i n d i n g w o r k and had e v e n s t o p p e d l o o k i n g f o r j o b s . The r e p o r t a l s o t o o k n o t e o f a g r o u p w h i c h i t d e s c r i b e d a s u n d e r e m p l o y e d y o u n g p e o p l e . The t e r m ' u n d e r e m p l o y e d ' d e s c r i b e s t h o s e who a r e w o r k i n g a t p a r t - t i m e j o b s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e u n a b l e t o f i n d f u l l - t i m e 3 . Y o u t h : A P l a n o f A c t i o n . R e p o r t o f t h e S p e c i a l S e n a t e C o m m i t t e e on Y o u t h . T h e H o n o u r a b l e J a c q u e s H e b e r t , C h a i r m a n , Q u e e n ' s P r i n t e r , F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 6 . - 1 7 - employment. T a k i n g those t h r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and adding t h e i r numbers t o g e t h e r , the r e p o r t found the a c t u a l number of unemployed youth i n Canada was c l o s e to 700,000. In l o o k i n g f o r rea s o n s f o r t h i s a l a r m i n g f i g u r e , the r e p o r t p o i n t s to the 'post-war baby boom' from about 1945 to 1965, which r e s u l t e d i n l a r g e numbers of c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s i n the 1960's and 1970's. The l a t t e r was a p e r i o d of p r o s p e r i t y and h i g h employment t h a t was i n sharp c o n t r a s t to what was to t a k e p l a c e i n the 1980's i n terms of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r young p e o p l e . While young people i n the 1970's found s e c u r e j o b s f o l l o w i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n , young people today are f a c i n g e d u c a t i o n a l c u t b a c k s as w e l l as unemployment. B r e a k i n g i n t o the permanent l a b o u r f o r c e i s becoming more and more d i f f i c u l t f o r young p e o p l e . The s i t u a t i o n i s an ever i n c r e a s i n g problem, not o n l y i n Canada, but i n o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s . Betwen 1976 and 1983, youth unemployment almost doubled i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , t r i p l e d i n I t a l y , i n c r e a s e d seven f o l d i n S p a i n , and e l e v e n times i n the U n i t e d Kingdom. As r e p o r t e d by the S p e c i a l Senate Committee on Youth, young people s u f f e r a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h e r l e v e l of j o b l e s s n e s s compared to a d u l t s , both i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and i n Canada. D u r i n g 1984 the t o t a l unemployment r a t e s d e c l i n e d from t h a t of 1983. However the youth unemployment r a t e was 17.9 p e r c e n t as opposed t o a n a t i o n a l a d u l t r a t e of 9.3 p e r c e n t d u r i n g 1984. T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g T able 1. -18- TABLE I UNEMPLOYMENT RATES BY AGE GROUP (percent) 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 TOTAL UNEMPLOYMENT C a n a d a U n i t e d S t a t e s 7 . 5 7 . 0 7 . 6 7 . 5 1 1 . 0 9 . 5 1 1 . 9 9 . 4 1 1 . 3 7 . 4 ADULT UNEMPLOYMENT C a n a d a 5 . 4 5 . 6 8 . 4 9 . 4 9 . 3 U n i t e d S t a t e s 5 . 0 5 . 4 7 . 3 7 . 4 5 . 7 YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT C a n a d a 1 3 . 2 1 3 . 3 1 8 . 7 1 9 . 9 1 7 . 9 U n i t e d S t a t e s 1 3 . 3 1 4 . 3 1 7 . 0 1 6 . 4 1 3 . 3 Y O U T H - 1 5 - 2 4 y e a r s A D U L T - 25 and o v e r . S O U R C E : O E C D , L a b o u r f o r c e s t a t i s t i c s , 1 9 6 3 - 1 9 8 3 P a r i s 1 9 8 5 , p . 4 6 9 , 4 7 1 , a s c i t e d i n Y o u t h : A P l a n o f A c t i o n , p . 7 6 4 . Y o u t h : A P l a n o f A c t i o n . R e p o r t o f t h e S p e c i a l S e n a t e C o m m i t e e on Y o u t h . The H o n o u r a b l e J a c q u e s H e b e r t , C h a i r m a n , Q u e e n ' s P r i n t e r , F e b . 1 9 8 6 , p . 7 6 - 1 9 - A Report from the M i n i s t e r of State (Youth) e n t i t l e d " A New S t a t i s t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e on Youth i n Canada " r e p o r t s that i n g e n e r a l , youth unemployment r a t e s are higher than a d u l t s f o r two reasons: youth are l i k e l y to be e n t e r i n g the labour f o r c e f o r the f i r s t time, or having l e f t t h e i r jobs ( v o l u n t a r i l y or not) are r e - e n t e r i n g the labour f o r c e , a phenomenon which o f t e n i n v o l v e s an i n i t i a l p e r i o d of unemployment. The Report goes on to say that f o r unemployment of s i x months d u r a t i o n and over, Canada's youth as a group was t h i r d h ighest behind France and the Netherlands i n i t s share of long term unemployment. Some 35.4 percent of those unemployed s i x months or longer i n 1982 were youths. For unemployment of twelve months d u r a t i o n and over, Canada's youth as a group was second highest (behind the Netherlands) i n i t s share of long term unemployed. Some 32.4 percent of i t s workers unemployed twelve months and over i n 1982 were i n the youth group.^ Young people have l e s s job experience, fewer i n t e r p e r s o n a l and j o b - r e l a t e d s k i l l s and fewer employment c o n t a c t s than o l d e r people. Young people o f t e n switch jobs before s e t t l i n g on a career and have s u b s t a n t i a l periods of unemployment between jobs . But there are other reasons suggested f o r the i n c r e a s i n g trend toward unemployment among youth, inadequate t r a i n i n g and 5. Youth: A New S t a t i s t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e on Youth i n Canada from the M i n i s t e r of State (Youth) C e l i n e Hervieux Payette. P u b l i c A f f a i r s Branch, Employment and Immigration Canada, H u l l , Quebec. 1984, p.257 6. I b i d , p.257 -20- e d u c a t i o n ; d e m o g r a p h i c i n c r e a s e s i n y o u t h l e a d i n g t o i n c r e a s e d c o m p e t i t i o n ; h i g h m i n i m u m w a g e s , w h i c h l e a d t o e m p l o y e r p r e f e r e n c e f o r more e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s , U . I . b e n e f i t s , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n a t i g h t m a r k e t and s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e s i n t h e 7 e c o n o m y . H i s t o r i c a l l y , y o u n g p e o p l e e n t e r e d t h e l a b o u r f o r c e and w o r k e d t h e i r way up t h e c a r e e r l a d d e r . R a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e h a s r e s u l t e d i n e m p l o y m e n t i n s t a b i l i t y h o w e v e r , and t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f c a r e e r p r o g r e s s h a v e been d i s r u p t e d . Many j o b s w h i c h w o u l d h a v e become a v a i l a b l e f o r y o u n g p e o p l e a r e b e i n g d i s p l a c e d by new t e c h n o l o g y w h i l e o t h e r s h a v e f a l l e n v i c t i m t o r e c e s s i o n a r y e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s . C a n a d i a n y o u n g p e o p l e b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 15 and 24 a r e t h e l a s t h i r e d and t h e f i r s t f i r e d , a r e more e a s i l y s h u n t e d i n t o p a r t - t i m e j o b s and a r e f r e q u e n t l y v i c t i m s o f s h o r t t e r m e m p l o y m e n t w h i c h q u a l i f i e s them s o l e l y f o r t h e n e x t s t i n t o f U . I . C . 9 7 . Y o u t h ; A P l a n o f A c t i o n , p . 7 8 8 . I b i d , p . 8 2 9 . I b i d , p . 7 5 - 2 1 - F . T . D e n t o n , i n a s t u d y by t h e O n t a r i o E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l , s h o w s t h a t t h e l a r g e s t s i n g l e c a t e g o r y o f u n e m p l o y e d y o u n g p e o p l e i s t h a t o f j o b l o s e r s . ^ A b o u t h a l f o f a l l m a l e s 1 5 - 2 4 and a b o u t t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f a l l f e m a l e s 1 5 - 2 4 on a v e r a g e o v e r t h e y e a r , w e r e u n e m p l o y e d i n 1977 b e c a u s e o f j o b l o s s e s . ^ A c c o r d i n g t o t h e S p e c i a l S e n a t e C o m m i t t e e on Y o u t h , t h e r e a r e h i d d e n t h o u s a n d s o f p e o p l e , y o u n g and o l d , who h a v e g i v e n up on C a n a d a E m p l o y m e n t C e n t r e s and t h e f u l l - t i m e y e t f r u i t l e s s t a s k o f j o b h u n t i n g a n d who o f t e n r e s o r t t o o t h e r means by w h i c h t o e a r n a t l e a s t some m o n e y . The C o m m i t e e f o u n d y o u t h t a k i n g t o t h e s t r e e t s and o f f e r i n g s e r v i c e s s u c h a s h a i r d r e s s i n g , m e n d i n g , m e c h a n i c a l r e p a i r s and odd j o b s , p a i n t i n g , b a b y s i t t i n g and so o n . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e y f o u n d t h a t y o u n g p e o p l e f e l t t h a t t h e i r p e e r s who wen t i n t o d r u g t r a f f i c k i n g , p r o s t i t u t i o n and t h e f t d i d so b e c a u s e o f t h e m o n e y , e v e n t h o u g h t h i s c h o i c e c u t s 12 them o f f f r o m t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f s o c i e t y . 1 0 . F . T . D e n t o n e t a l . U n e m p l o y m e n t and L a b o u r F o r c e B e h a v i o u r o f Y o u n g P e o p l e . E v i d e n c e f r o m C a n a d a and O n t a r i o . O n t a r i o E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l R e s e a r c h S t u d i e s . U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 8 0 , p . 8 5 1 1 . F . T . D e n t o n e t a l . p . 8 5 12 . Y o u t h : A P l a n o f A c t i o n , p . 1 2 - 2 2 - C. DISADVANTAGED UNEMPLOYED YOUTH A Report from the O f f i c e of the M i n i s t e r of State on disadvantaged unemployed youth shows that these youth cover the 15 to 24 year age range and u s u a l l y have had disadvantaged backgrounds - c h i l d abuse, broken homes, fa m i l y v i o l e n c e , crime, drugs, a l c o h o l i s m , attempted s u i c i d e , pregnancy, p r o s t i t u t i o n , and always f a i l u r e i n the school system. They are u s u a l l y on welf a r e , t r a n s i e n t , s e m i - l i t e r a t e and l a c k i n g i n t h e i r work 13 s k i l l s and work e t h i c . The i n c r e a s e i n crime exceeds the growth i n the j u v e n i l e p o p u l a t i o n . Over the past twenty years a l l e g e d 'crimes a g a i n s t the person' committed by young people i s eig h t times the l e v e l of 1962 and the number of a l l e g e d crimes a g a i n s t property i s s i x times the 1962 l e v e l . ^ Although j u v e n i l e crime has i n c r e a s e d more r a p i d l y then a d u l t crime, crime r a t e s f o r a d u l t s remain higher, e s p e c i a l l y f o r v i o l e n t crimes. 13. Focus on Youth. Report from the O f f i c e of the M i n i s t e r of State (Youth) the Honourable C e l i n e Hervieux Payette, P u b l i c A f f a i r s Branch, Employment and Immigration Canada, H u l l , Quebec, 1984, p.54 14. Youth: A New S t a t i s t i c a l P e r p e c t i v e on Youth i n Canada p.119 -23- In 1981, the l a r g e s t group of inmates i n a d u l t c o r r e c t i o n a l c e n t r e s i n Canada were aged 20 to 24 and the second l a r g e s t 25 to 29. The p r o p o r t i o n of female o f f e n d e r s among j u v e n i l e s has i n c r e a s e d from one i n ten i n 1962 t o one i n f i v e i n 1977. T h i s i s double the r a t e of i n c r e a s e e x p e r i e n c e d by a d u l t female o f f e n d e r s . ^ In a Canadian M e n t a l H e a l t h A s s o c i a t i o n Study, Sharon K i r s h r e p o r t s t h a t p r i s o n a d m i s s i o n s and unemployment show the most c o n s i s t e n t l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . When s p e c i f i c crime r a t e s were used r a t h e r than t o t a l r a t e s , p r o p e r t y c r i m e s tended to show more f r e q u e n t l y the p r e d i c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h unemployment than d i d c r i m e s of v i o l e n c e . ^ The same study showed t h a t w h i l e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between male unemployment r a t e s and a d u l t p r o p e r t y crime r a t e s i s c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p o r t e d as p o s i t i v e , i n f o r m a t i o n between j u v e n i l e crime and unemployment i s not as s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . Some s t u d i e s argue t h a t l i m i t e d employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , added to the ang u i s h and f r u s t a t i o n of p o v e r t y , encourage j u v e n i l e c r i m e s . Others suggest t h a t j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y i s a by-product of a f f l u e n c e , i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , and h i g h unemployment. She r e f e r s t o G u t t e n t a g , who i n 1968, makes peace between two camps by 15. Youth: A PI an of A c t i o n , p.19 16. Sharon K i r s h , Unemployment: I t s Impact on Body and S o u l . Canadian M e n t a l H e a l t h A s s o c i a t i o n , 1983, p.37 -24- p o i n t i n g out t h e i r common ground: h i g h p o p u l a t i o n m o b i l i t y . With m o b i l i t y comes a l a c k of s t a b l e neighbourhoods, a sense of anomie (a l a c k of s t a n d a r d s f o r normal b e h a v i o u r ) , and i n c r e a s e d i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t ( e s p e c i a l l y accompanying s o c i a l change).* ̂ F o r t y - s i x p e r c e n t of Canadian youth j u s t out of s c h o o l who are c u r r e n t l y unemployed, or not i n the l a b o u r f o r c e are very l i k e l y t o be members of f a m i l i e s w i t h an income of l e s s than 18 $20,000. Some e i g h t e e n p e r c e n t of o u t - o f - s c h o o l youth r e c e i v e d Unemployment I n s u r a n c e b e n e f i t s and f i v e p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . ^ N e a r l y two t h i r d s of measured youth unemployment ( i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ) i n 1978 was e x p e r i e n c e d by the ten pe r c e n t of the youth l a b o u r f o r c e which was unemployed f o r f i f t e e n weeks or l o n g e r . T h i s group i s d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y b l a c k and poor, and many l a c k b a s i c academic s k i l l s . A l t h o u g h most of them u l t i m a t e l y f i n d some employment, they a re l i k e l y t o be plagued 20 by low pay and r e c u r r e n t unemployment i n l a t e r y e a r s . 17. Sharon K i r s h , p. 38 18. Youth: A New S t a t i s t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e on Youth i n Canada. p.289 19. Focus on Youth, p.29 20. Sandra C h r i s t e n s e n . Improving Youth Employment P r o s p e c t s : I s s u e s and O p t i o n s . A CB0 Study, Congress of the U.S.A. Washington, D.C, Congress Budget O f f i c e , Feb. 1982, p.6 Alt h o u g h the s i z e of the youth l a b o u r f o r c e w i l l drop -25- d u r i n g t h e 1 9 8 0 ' s , t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g y o u t h u n e m p l o y m e n t r e l a t i v e t o t h e t o t a l , t h e r e w i l l r e m a i n a c o r e o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d y o u t h s who a r e more l i k e l y t o f a c e c h r o n i c e m p l o y m e n t p r o b l e m s . T h e s e ( A m e r i c a n ) y o u t h s who a r e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y b l a c k and p o o r , w i l l p r o b a b l y c o n t i n u e t o r e q u i r e a s s i s t a n c e t o o v e r c o m e t h e i r e c o n o m i c and e d u c a t i o n a l h a n d i c a p s i f t h e y a r e t o become 21 p r o d u c t i v e members o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . M o s t o f t h e p r o j e c t e d d e c l i n e i n t h e s i z e o f t h e y o u t h l a b o u r f o r c e i s c o n f i n e d t o w h i t e m a l e s , t h e g r o u p w i t h t h e f e w e s t l a b o r m a r k e t p r o b l e m s . W h e r e a s l a b o u r f o r c e p r o j e c t i o n s f o r 1990 i n d i c a t e a f o u r t e e n t o f i f t e e n p e r c e n t d e c l i n e f o r w h i t e m a l e s a g e d 16 t o 2 4 , t h o s e f o r non w h i t e y o u t h s r a n g e f r o m 22 a t h r e e p e r c e n t d e c l i n e t o a t w e n t y - f o u r p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e . R a t e o f u n e m p l o y m e n t f o r m i n o r i t y y o u t h i s two and a h a l f t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n o f t h a t o f w h i t e y o u t h s i n t h e same age g r o u p and s e x . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 2 . 2 1 . S a n d r a C h r i s t e n s e n , p . 1 5 2 2 . I b i d p . 3 1 - 2 6 - TABLE 2 UNEMPLOYMENT RATED IN THE CIVILIAN POPULATION BY AGE, RACE AND SEX 1981 ( in percent) YOUTHS YOUTHS ADULTS (16-19) (20-24) (25-54) ALL MALES 20.1 13.2 5.4 White Males 17.9 11.6 4.9 Non White Males 38.3 24.9 10.3 ALL FEMALES 19.0 11.1 6.3 White Females 16.6 9.1 5.5 Non White Females 38.6 24.5 10.8 SOURCE: Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s , U S A . ^ 3 8 c i t e d i n Improving Youth Employment P r o s p e c t s , p.15 In a r e p o r t on the unemployed f o r B u s i n e s s Week U.S.A., Aaron B e r n s t e i n w r i t e s t h a t the c o n v e n t i o n a l wisdom i s t h a t m i n o r i t y unemployment i s a f a c t of l i f e t h a t no one can do much about. But he says t h a t i t doesn't have t o remain t h a t way. U n t i l r e c e n t l y , most e x p e r t s argued t h a t r a c i s m i s the major cause of m i n o r i t y unemployment. Bernard E. Anderson, a P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y e conomist, says some s c h o l a r s now b e l i e v e t h a t s o c i a l c l a s s has become a b i g g e r f a c t o r . T h i s t h e o r y h o l d s t h a t r a c i s m e x c l u d e d b l a c k s from e d u c a t i o n and jo b s i n the p a s t , but i t i s 24 main l y the r e s u l t i n g p o v e r t y t h a t keeps them unemployed today. 23. Sandra C h r i s t e n s e n , p.15 24. Aaron B e r n s t e i n et a l . "The F o r g o t t e n Americans." B u s i n e s s Week U.S.A., Sept. 2, 1985 p.52 -27- T a b l e 3 shows t h a t y o u n g n a t i v e p e o p l e i n C a n a d a h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s i n c o m e t h a n n o n - n a t i v e y o u t h and t h a t t h i s f i g u r e i s r e l a t e d t o t h e l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t . " S t a t i s t i c s c o n s i s t e n t l y r e i n f o r c e t h e l i n k b e t w e e n e d u c a t i o n and e m p l o y m e n t ; u n e m p l o y m e n t r a t e s f o r y o u n g p e o p l e w i t h l f § s s c h o o l i n g a r e much g r e a t e r t h a n f o r more e d u c a t e d p e e r s . " 2 5 . Y o u t h : A P l a n o f A c t i o n p . 7 9 - 2 8 - TABLE 3 NATIVE AND NON-NATIVE YOUTH (aged 20-24) BY HIGHEST LEVEL OF SCHOOLING AND AVERAGE INCOME IN 1981 EDUCATIONAL LEVEL L E S S THAN GRADE N I N E NATIVE INCOME NON-NATIVE M a l e F e m a l e $ 5,683, 3,559. $ 8,479. 4,867. GRADES 09-13 M a l e F e m a l e 8,494. 5,089. 11,233, 7,374, TRADES M a l e F e m a l e 10,421. 6,383. 11,836, 7,667, NON U N I V E R S I T Y M a l e F e m a l e 9,312. 5,997. 10,864, 7,978, U N I V E R S I T Y M a l e F e m a l e 9,007. 6,190. 6,498, 6,498. TOTAL Male Female $ 8,195. $ 5,196. $10,310. $ 7,299. S O U R C E : G . E . P r i e s t , A b o r i g i n a l Y o u t h i n C a n a d a : a P r o f i l e B a s e d Upon 1981 C e n s u s D a t a , C a n a d i a n S t a t i s t i c a l R e v i e w , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 ^ , p . x v i i , a s c i t e d i n Y o u t h : A P l a n o f A c t i o n , p .37 26. I b i d , p .37 -29- I f n a t i v e y o u t h h a v e l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a c q u i r i n g e d u c a t i o n , i t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e i r c h a n c e s o f f i n d i n g a j o b r e m a i n l o w . D i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n u r b a n m a r k e t s , i n a d e q u a t e l y t a r g e t e d e m p l o y m e n t p r o g r a m s , l a c k o f t r a i n i n g and l a c k o f j o b p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s w h e r e t h e y l i v e , a r e a l l m a j o r b a r r i e r s t o g a i n i n g e m p l o y m e n t . F o r n a t i v e women, who h a v e c h i l d r e n a t an e a r l y age w i t h v i r t u a l l y no day c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , t h e p r o b l e m i s more a c u t e . TABLE 4 RATES OF UNEMPLOYMENT FOR NATIVE AND NON-NATIVE YOUTH. NATIVE YOUTH 1 5 - 1 9 y e a r s 2 0 - 2 4 y e a r s RATE OF UNEMPLOYMENT MALES FEMALES 27 .4% 1 9 . 5 % 2 8 . 5 % 19 .7% NON-NATIVE YOUTH 1 5 - 1 9 y e a r s 14 .9% 15 .9% 2 0 - 2 4 y e a r s 1 1 . 3 % 11 .4% SOURCE: G . E . P r i e s t , " A b o r i g i n a l Y o u t h i n C a n a d a : A P r o f i l e B a s e d Upon 1981 C e n s u s D a t a " C a n a d i a n S t a t i s t i c a l R e v i e w , S e p t e m b e r 2 5 , 1 9 ^ 5 , , p . x v i , a s c i t e d i n Y o u t h : A P l a n o f A c t i o n , p . 4 0 2 7 . Y o u t h : I b i d , p . 4 0 - 3 0 - T a b l e 4 shows c o m p a r a t i v e u n e m p l o y m e n t r a t e s f o r n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e y o u n g p e o p l e f o r C a n a d a a s a w h o l e ; some r e g i o n a l r a t e s a r e much h i g h e r . V a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and d i f f e r e n t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s r e g a r d i n g e d u c a t i o n ; l o w e r c l a s s 2 8 f o r f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n . e x p e r i e n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n t r i b u t e d t o d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s a d u l t s h a v i n g l i t t l e a s p i r a t i o n 2 8 . C h a r l o t t e W. F a r r e t a l . " C o r r e l a t i n g t h e t e s t o f A d u l t B a s i c E d u c a t i o n and t h e T e s t o f G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n D e v e l o p m e n t . " " L i f e l o n g L e a r n i n g . A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f A d u l t and C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , J u n e 1 9 8 6 , p . 1 8 - 3 1 - D. ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND EMPLOYABILITY D e n t o n , i n t h e r e p o r t p u b l i s h e d by t h e O n t a r i o E c o n o m i c 29 R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , s t a t e d t h a t a t t h e same t i m e a s t h e s c h o o l age p o p u l a t i o n was g r o w i n g r a p i d l y , s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s e d u c a t i o n w e r e c h a n g i n g . E d u c a t i o n was s e e n a s b e i n g i n l a r g e m e a s u r e , a p r o d u c t i v e i n v e s t m e n t , and a s o u r c e o f f u t u r e e c o n o m i c g r o w t h o n c e t h o s e who had r e c e i v e d i t t o o k t h e i r p l a c e s i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e and p u t t h e i r n e w l y a c q u i r e d "human c a p i t a l " t o p r o d u c t i v e u s e . I t was o b s e r v e d t h a t f e i ^ e r y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g w e r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r r a t e s o f u n e m p l o y m e n t , and t h i s i n f l u e n c e d p r e v a i l i n g v i e w s on t h e b e n e f i t s o f e d u c a t i o n . T e c h n o l o g y was t h o u g h t t o be c h a n g i n g r a p i d l y and o n l y t h e w e l l - t r a i n e d c o u l d hope t o a d a p t . I n s h o r t , t h e t i c k e t t o j o b s e c u r i t y was a good e d u c a t i o n o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m o d e r n o c c u p a t i o n a l s k i l l s . As a r e s u l t , y o u n g p e o p l e s t a y e d i n s c h o o l l o n g e r , so t h a t t h e i r l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s f e l l s h a r p l y d u r i n g t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s a n d 1 9 6 0 ' s . N e v e r b e f o r e had t h e r e b e e n so many p e o p l e o f s c h o o l a g e , and n e v e r b e f o r e had s u c h l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s a c t u a l l y b e e n i n s c h o o l . 2 9 . F . T . D e n t o n e t a l . 3 0 . F . T . D e n t o n e t a l . , p . 0 3 - 3 2 - The p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e h i g h y o u t h u n e m p l o y m e n t r a t e s c o n t r a s t s h a r p l y w i t h e a r l i e r e x p e c t a t i o n s b o t h o f t h e y o u n g p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s and o f s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y : t h e i n c r e a s e d e m p h a s i s and e x p e n d i t u r e s on e d u c a t i o n h a v e n o t b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e j o b s e c u r i t y and r a p i d e c o n o m i c g r o w t h t h a t 31 had been a n t i c i p a t e d . A R e p o r t by D a v i d R o s s c a l l e d " Y o u t h E c o n o m i c A c t i v i t y " , f o u n d t h a t a s t h e l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n i n c r e a s e s , so t o o d o e s t h e l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e f o r 15 t o 24 y e a r s o l d s . H o w e v e r , t h i s i s p a r t l y due t o a g e : o l d e r y o u t h s h a v e b o t h h i g h e r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n and h i g h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s . B u t p e r h a p s more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , e d u c a t i o n l e v e l i s i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f u n e m p l o y m e n t . I n 1 9 8 2 , 3 1 . 9 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e w i t h 0 - 8 y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g w e r e u n e m p l o y e d c o m p a r e d t o 32 1 0 . 3 p e r c e n t f o r t h o s e w i t h p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . I n 1986 t h e S p e c i a l S e n a t e C o m m i t t e e on Y o u t h r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e gap b e t w e e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f t h o s e who r e c e i v e a p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n and t h o s e who do n o t i s i n c r e a s i n g . The n e e d f o r y o u n g p e o p l e t o s t a y i n s c h o o l i s o b v i o u s when we l o o k 33 a t t h e u n e m p l o y m e n t s t a t i s t i c s . 3 1 . F . T . D e n t o n e t a l . , p . 04 3 2 . Y o u t h E c o n o m i c A c t i v i t y . R e p o r t by D a v i d P . R o s s , f o r t h e S o c i a l T r e n d s A n a l y s i s D i r e c t o r a t e , P o l i c y C o - o r d i n a t i o n , A n a l y s i s and M a n a g e m e n t , S y s t e m s B r a n c h , D e p t . o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , C a n a d a . D e c . 1 9 8 4 , p . 0 7 3 3 . Y o u t h : A P l a n o f A c t i o n p . 7 3 - 3 3 - I n D e c e m b e r 1 9 8 5 , a S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a s u r v e y f o u n d t h a t y o u n g p e o p l e ( 1 5 t o 24 y e a r s ) w i t h o n l y e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n had an u n e m p l o y m e n t r a t e o f 2 7 . 6 p e r c e n t . F o r t h o s e w i t h a p o s t - s e c o n d a r y d i p l o m a o r c e r t i f i c a t e , o r a u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e , t h e u n e m p l o y m e n t r a t e was 9 . 8 p e r c e n t . T h i s i m p l i e s , t h a t d e s p i t e t h e c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m , t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p 34 b e t w e e n c o m p l e t i n g s c h o o l and b e i n g more l i k e l y t o f i n d a j o b . The y o u t h p o p u l a t i o n who h a v e l e f t s c h o o l w i t h some p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n made up 1 5 . 3 p e r c e n t . F o r t h o s e who a r e o u t o f s c h o o l w i t h t h i s a d v a n t a g e , some 9 7 . 2 p e r c e n t a r e 35 p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . The p e r c e n t a g e o f y o u t h n o t i n s c h o o l w i t h p r i m a r y / s e c o n d a r y a t t a i n m e n t d e c l i n e d w h i l e t h e 3 6 p r o p o r t i o n o f u n e m p l o y e d i n c r e a s e d b e t w e e n 1977 t o 1 9 8 3 . E v e n i n t h e l a t e 1 9 7 0 ' s , when o v e r a l l u n e m p l o y m e n t r a t e s w e r e i n t h e o r d e r o f 7 . 5 p e r c e n t , y o u t h u n e m p l o y m e n t r a t e s w e r e a b o u t 13 p e r c e n t . A t t h e same t i m e t h o s e o u t o f s c h o o l w i t h o n l y p r i m a r y / s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d u n e m p l o y m e n t r a t e s i n t h e o r d e r o f 17 p e r c e n t . I n 1979 and 1980 t h i s f i g u r e d r o p p e d t o j u s t o v e r 15 p e r c e n t , b u t w i t h t h e r e c e s s i o n , r o s e t o 2 2 . 9 37 p e r c e n t i n 1982 and 2 3 . 9 p e r c e n t i n 1 9 8 3 . 3 4 . Y o u t h . A P l a n o f A c t i o n , p . 7 3 3 5 . I b i d , p . 73 3 6 . Y o u t h : A New S t a t i s t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e on Y o u t h i n C a n a d a . p . 3 4 7 3 7 . I b i d , p . 3 2 5 - 3 4 - Y o u n g p e o p l e t o d a y a r e much l e s s l i k e l y t h a n o l d e r C a n a d i a n s t o h a v e o n l y e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n . T a b l e 5 shows t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n who h a v e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g o r l e s s . TABLE 5 PERCENTAGE OF THE CANADIAN POPULATION NOT IN SCHOOL FULL TIME WHO HAVE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLING OR LESS, 1 9 8 1 . P O P U L A T I O N 15 and o v e r 2 2 . 3 % P O P U L A T I O N 1 5 - 2 4 y e a r s 7 .1% 1 5 - 1 9 y e a r o l d s 1 0 . 5 % 2 0 - 2 4 y e a r o l d s 5.8% S O U R C E : S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , S c h o o l A t t e n d a n c e and L e v e l o f S c h o o l , c a t . 9 2 - 9 1 4 V o l u m e 1, 1 9 8 4 , p . 2 1 a s c i t e d i n Y o u t h : A New S t a t i s t i c a l P e r s p e r t i v e on Y o u t h i n C a n a d a , p . 2 8 0 E d u c a t o r s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e t h a t h a v i n g l e s s t h a n n i n e y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g may be t e r m e d " f u n c t i o n a l i l l i t e r a c y " - t h e i n a b i l i t y t o f u n c t i o n i n a s o c i e t y w h i c h r e q u i r e s a c e r t a i n 39 l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . 3 8 . Y o u t h : A New S t a t i s t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e on Y o u t h i n C a n a d a p . 2 8 0 3 9 . Y o u t h : A P l a n o f A c t i o n , p . 5 2 - 3 5 - Many s t u d i e s h a v e f o c u s s e d on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l o w l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t and d i s a d v a n t a g e d f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d s . R e s e a r c h e r s h a v e a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t y o u n g p e o p l e f r o m b e t t e r - o f f f a m i l i e s a d a p t more e a s i l y t o s c h o o l , w h i l e t h o s e f r o m p o o r e r f a m i l i e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y a l i e n a t e d , d r o p o u t r a t e s f o r s t u d e n t s f r o m l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a m i l i e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e i n r e m o t e a r e a s o f t h e c o u n t r y , a r e r e l a t i v e l y H o w e v e r , many e d u c a t o r s a r e f i n d i n g t h a t t o d a y ' s y o u t h a r e r e a c h i n g h i g h s c h o o l w i t h o u t t h e b a s i c s k i l l s t h e y s h o u l d h a v e a c q u i r e d i n t h e l o w e r g r a d e s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m i s n o t t e a c h i n g y o u n g p e o p l e wha t i t p u r p o r t s t o A l t e a c h . When e m p l o y e r s do h i r e h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s , t h e y f o u n d t h a t t h e y a r e i n a d e q u a t e l y p r e p a r e d i n t h e b a s i c s k i l l s ( s u c h a s r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , s p e l l i n g and ma th s k i l l s ) , and t h a t t h e s e s k i l l s and t h e t e a c h i n g o f o r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s mus t i m p r o v e i n t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m i f y o u n g p e o p l e a r e t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r j o b s and o b t a i n f u t u r e e m p l o y m e n t i n t h e 1 9 9 0 ' s and i n t h e y e a r 2 0 0 0 . 4 2 A O . I b i d , p . 7 4 A l . Y o u t h : I b i d , p . 5 2 4 2 . B u s i n e s s and E d u c a t i o n S u r v e y : E m p l o y e r and E m p l o y e e P e r c e p t i o n o f S c h o o l t o Work P r e p a r a t i o n P a r k e r P r o j e c t Number 3 , B u l l e t i n N o . 4 3 7 2 , p . 1 9 - 3 6 - E. ATTITUDES TOWARDS WORK AND EMPLOYABILITY. A p o o r w o r k a t t i t u d e , p o o r w o r k h a b i t s , and t a r d i n e s s and u n d e p e n d a b i l i t y w e r e u n a n i m o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d by b o t h e m p l o y e r s and e m p l o y e e s a s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s mos t f r e q u e n t l y l e a d i n g t o 43 r e c e n t h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s o r d r o p o u t s l o s i n g t h e i r j o b s . A m o n o g r a p h on y o u t h l a b o u r m a r k e t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s u m m a r i z e s t h e r e s u l t s o f a s t u d y o f e m p l o y e r s o f y o u t h i n f i v e c e n t r a l c i t y l a b o u r m a r k e t s w h i c h r e p o r t e d when t h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h w e r e i m p o r t a n t and u n i m p o r t a n t i n t h e s e a r c h f o r and s e l e c t i o n o f y o u t h f u l e m p l o y e e s ; c o s m e t i c f a c t o r s s u c h a s a p p e a r a n c e , d r e s s , s p e e c h and m a n n e r i s m s w e r e c i t e d a s t h e mos t i m p o r t a n t w i t h d e p e n d a b i l i t y s e c o n d . P h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , s c h o o l c o m p l e t i o n and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g had l i t t l e r e l e v a n c e a s s e l e c t i o n f a c t o r s . Y o u n g p e o p l e c o u l d do t h e j o b s t h e y w e r e b e i n g o f f e r e d . O v e r w h e l m i n g l y , t h e p r o p e n s i t y t o w i t h d r a w was c i t e d a s t h e mos t s e r i o u s p r o b l e m i n h i r i n g y o u t h , f o l l o w e d by o t h e r d e p e n d a b i l i t y f a c t o r s s u c h a s t a r d i n e s s and a b s e n t e e i s m . ^ 4 3 . B u s i n e s s and E d u c a t i o n S u r v e y : E m p l o y e r and E m p l o y e e P e r c e p t i o n s o f S c h o o l t o Work P r e p a r a t i o n , p . 1 7 4 4 . G a r t h L . Mangum. M o n o g r a p h S e r i e s L e s s o n s f r o m Y o u t h P r o g r a m s : A l l Y o u E v e r Wan ted t o Know A b o u t L a b o u r M a r k e t and d i d n ' t Know Who t o a s k . (A H a n d b o o k f o r P r a c t i t i o n e r s . ) P r e p a r e d f o r t h e E m p l o y m e n t and T r a i n i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . O l y m p u s P u b . & C o . . U t a h , U . S . A . 1 9 8 2 , p . 4 7 - 3 7 - A c c o r d i n g t o Sommers and Eck (1977), o n l y 20 p e r c e n t of those aged 16-19 i n 1965 r e p o r t e d working at the same o c c u p a t i o n i n 1970. The r a t e f o r the e n t i r e a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n aged 16 and ove r , was 47 p e r c e n t f o r men and 40 pe r c e n t f o r women, which i n d i c a t e s t h a t a d u l t s were not e x c e p t i o n a l l y s t a b l e e i t h e r . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t youth e x h i b i t a s t r o n g p a t t e r n of l e a r n i n g from e x p e r i e n c e , t h a t c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s made d u r i n g the l a t e t e ens have very l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d of r e m a i n i n g s t a b l e . People change, they t a k e r i s k s ; they c o n s i d e r new p o s s i b i l i t i e s ; j o b s A A-  4 5 and o c c u p a t i o n s d i s a p p e a r . A c c o r d i n g to G a r t h Mangum, f a r more i m p o r t a n t than o c c u p a t i o n a l s k i l l s t r a i n i n g f o r youth i s the development of a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s k i l l s which form the base upon which p r o d u c t i v i t y depends and o c c u p a t i o n a l s k i l l s a r e • A 46 a c q u i r e d . The G o l d f a r b Youth Study of 1983, commissioned by the (Canadian) S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e , based on a random sample of 1,209 youth age 15 to 24, and u s i n g t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w s , found t h a t 80 p e r c e n t of the youth ranked unemployment as a very i m p o r t a n t i s s u e , w h i l e 71 p e r c e n t ranked i n f l a t i o n as very i m p o r t a n t . The number one a s p i r a t i o n of youth i n the same survey 45. M i r i a m Johnson & Robert Wegmann. Monograph S e r i e s . Lessons from Youth Programs: Job Search T r a i n i n g f o r Youth. Prepared f o r the Employment and T r a i n i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . O l y m p u s Pub. Co., Utah,U.S.A.. 1982, p.27 46. G a r t h L. Mangum, p.79 -38- was ' h a v i n g a j o b ' ( 8 7 p e r c e n t ) . B e i n g s u c c e s s f u l and h a v i n g a s t a b l e , f u l f i l l i n g f a m i l y l i f e w e r e i m p o r t a n t a s p i r a t i o n s f o r 47 o v e r 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e s a m p l e . F. SELF-ESTEEM AND EMPLOYABILITY. The o v e r a l l s t a t e o f m e n t a l h e a l t h o f y o u n g p e r s o n s i s d i f f i c u l t t o m e a s u r e and c o v e r s a w i d e r a n g e o f c o n d i t i o n s ( i n c l u d i n g e m o t i o n a l e q u i l i b r i u m , s c h i z o p h r e n i a , n e u r o s i s , a l c o h o l i s m , and p e r s o n a l i t y p r o b l e m s ) . On a s c a l e o f E m o t i o n a l E q u i l i b r i u m , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 . 8 p e r c e n t o f m a l e s 1 5 - 1 9 y e a r s r e p o r t e d h a v i n g n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s c o m p a r e d t o m a l e s 2 0 - 2 4 y e a r s . U s i n g t h e same t e s t , f e m a l e s a p p e a r t o be somewhat more p r o n e t o r e p o r t i n g n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s : I n 1 9 7 8 / 1 9 7 9 , 6 . 8 p e r c e n t o f f e m a l e s 1 5 - 1 9 y e a r s s c o r e d n e g a t i v e l y , c o m p a r e d t o 4 . 8 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e 2 0 - 2 4 y e a r s . No d a t a w e r e a v a i l a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h a t r e n d o v e r t i m e . A l c o h o l i s m and e m o t i o n a l p s y c h o s i s became two o f t h e f i v e l e a d i n g r e a s o n s f o r a d m i s s i o n t o p s y c h i a t r i c i n s t i t u t i o n s among m a l e s 2 0 - 2 4 y e a r s o l d . A l c o h o l i s m was n o t one o f t h e f i v e 49 l e a d i n g r e a s o n s f o r f e m a l e s . 4 7 . Y o u t h : A P l a n o f A c t i o n , p . 0 3 4 8 . Y o u t h : A New S t a t i s t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e on Y o u t h i n C a n a d a , p . 1 1 4 4 9 . I b i d , p . 1 1 4 - 3 9 - For young people j o b p r o s p e c t s are now poor, f a m i l i e s are o f t e n i n a s t a t e of f l u x , w h i l e s o c i a l and moral v a l u e s are ch a n g i n g . A l l these f a c t o r s c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o the h i g h youth s u i c i d e r a t e s . S u i c i d e has been r e l a t e d t o the l a c k of s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n , f e e l i n g s of " a l i e n a t i o n " i n the p o p u l a t i o n , t r a n s i e n c e , r a p i d changes i n v a l u e s , income and l i f e s t y l e . The 1981 s u i c i d e r a t e among Canadian people 15-19 ye a r s o l d has i n c r e a s e d f i v e and one h a l f t i m e s over the r a t e i n 1961, w h i l e the r a t e among 20-24 ye a r s i s about t h r e e and one h a l f t i m e s t h a t of 1961. The male s u i c i d e r a t e i s f i v e and one h a l f t i m e s t h a t of the female r a t e . The i n c r e a s e r e f l e c t s major t e n s i o n s and a n x i e t i e s f a c i n g young p e o p l e , e s p e c i a l l y young males, and i s symptomatic of more p e r v a s i v e s o c i a l u n r e s t and p e r s o n a l a n x i e t i e s among young people i n Canada.""^ In 1978, Canada and West Germany had the second h i g h e s t s u i c i d e r a t e ( f o r 52 youth 15-24). F i n l a n d was f i r s t . The S p e c i a l Senate Committee on Youth c h a i r e d by the Honourable Jacques Hebert i n 1986, s t a t e s t h a t w h i l e they were unable to e s t a b l i s h a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between youth 50. Youth: A P l a n of A c t i o n , p. X I I 51. Youth: A New S t a t i s t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e on Youth i n Canada, p.114 52. I b i d , p.134 -40- u n e m p l o y m e n t and t h e u p s u r g e i n a l c o h o l and d r u g a b u s e , p r o s t i t u t i o n , s u i c i d e and d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o r i n g e n e r a l , t h e members o f t h e c o m m i t t e e c o n c l u d e d t h a t w h i l e u n e m p l o y m e n t may n o t be t h e o n l y c a u s e o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s , i t i s n o n e t h e l e s s a 53 l e a d i n g o n e . D a v i d B r a z i l , f r o m t h e N e w f o u n d l a n d and L a b r a d o r Y o u t h A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l , i n h i s r e p o r t t o t h e S p e c i a l S e n a t e C o m m i t t e e on Y o u t h , s t a t e d t h a t t h e u n i q u e n a t u r e o f y o u t h u n e m p l o y m e n t showed t h a t i n t e r m s o f a c a u s e and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p , u n e m p l o y m e n t may l e a d t o c e r t a i n p r o b l e m s o r s t e m f r o m o t h e r s . P e o p l e who h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d u n e m p l o y m e n t , o r t h e u n e m p l o y m e n t o f a c l o s e r e l a t i v e , g e n e r a l l y h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d l o w e r s e l f - e s t e e m , l o w e r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l i f e and f e e l i n g s o f s o c i a l a l i e n a t i o n and w e r e l e s s c a p a b l e o f c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r own l i v e s . T h r o u g h t h e s e p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s and t h e i r l i n k w i t h u n e m p l o y m e n t , i t i s e a s y t o s e e how e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e s \ i r i t h j o b l e s s n e s s c a n l e a d t o s o c i a l p r o b l e m s s u c h a s a l c o h o l and d r u g a b u s e o r c r i m e . 5 3 . Y o u t h : A P l a n o f A c t i o n , p . X I I 5 4 . I b i d , p . 8 2 - 4 1 - I n " E n h a n c i n g S e l f - E s t e e m & A c h i e v e m e n t " , J a m e s B a t t l e q u o t e s T h o m p s o n , who f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e l f - e s t e e m o f e c o n o m i c a l l y a d v a n t a g e d y o u t h and d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n . He d i d d i s c o v e r , h o w e v e r , a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e l f - e s t e e m o f o l d e r ( h i g h s c h o o l a g e d ) a d v a n t a g e d and d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n , i n f a v o u r o f t h e e c o n o m i c a l l y a d v a n t a g e d s u b j e c t s . The a d v a n t a g e d s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d more p o s i t i v e c o n c e p t s t h a n h i s e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d s u b j e c t s . Thompson c o n c l u d e d t h a t : I t i s l o g i c a l t o a s sume t h a t d i s a d v a n t a g e m e n t ( e c o n o m i c s t a t u s ) w i l l u l t i m a t e l y a f f e c t s e l f - c o n c e p t and t h a t t h i s e f f e c t i n c r e a s e s a s t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d p e r s o n g e t s o l d e r . 5 5 . J ames B a t t l e , P h . D . E n h a n c i n g S e l f - E s t e e m and A c h i e v e m e n t - A H a n d b o o k f o r P r o f e s s i o n a l s . S p e c i a l C h i l d P u b l i c a t i o n s , W a s h i n g t o n , U . S . A . , 1 9 8 2 , p . 4 9 - 4 2 - G. INTERVENTION STRATEGIES S a n d r a C h r i s t e n s e n , i n h e r s t u d y o f y o u t h e m p l o y m e n t , s t a t e s t h a t y o u t h l a b o u r m a r k e t p o l i c y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a s two s o m e t i m e s c o n f l i c t i n g g o a l s : t o i n c r e a s e t h e c u r r e n t e m p l o y m e n t o f y o u t h s and t o e n h a n c e t h e i r l o n g t e r m e m p l o y a b i l i t y . W h i l e h i g h e r e m p l o y m e n t r a t e s f o r y o u t h s may be o f i m m e d i a t e v a l u e i n t e r m s o f g r e a t e r i n c o m e and r e d u c e d c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t y , t h e l o n g t e r m b a s i s f o r p u b l i c c o n c e r n a b o u t y o u t h u n e m p l o y m e n t i s t h a t t o d a y ' s j o b l e s s y o u t h may become 5 6 t o m o r r o w ' s h a r d t o e m p l o y a d u l t s . U n i t e d S t a t e s f e d e r a l p r o g r a m s d e s i g n e d t o a l l e v i a t e t h e e m p l o y m e n t p r o b l e m s o f y o u n g p e o p l e w e r e s t u d i e d i n 1982 and f o u n d t o f a l l i n t o t h r e e d i s t i n c t and y e t i n t e r d e p e n d e n t c a t e g o r i e s : 1) i n c r e a s i n g e m p l o y m e n t demand 2) i m p r o v i n g l a b o r m a r k e t t r a n s i t i o n s 3 ) i n c r e a s i n g e m p l o y a b i l i t y A s t r a t e g y o f i n c r e a s i n g e m p l o y m e n t demand w i l l f a i l i f t h o s e i n n e e d o f h e l p a r e n o t r e a d y f o r j o b s . I m p r o v i n g m a t c h i n g m e c h a n i s m s w i l l be f u t i l e i f t h e r e a r e no j o b s o r e m p l o y a b l e y o u t h t o be m a t c h e d . I m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f y o u t h s w i l l be i n e f f e c t i v e i f t o o few j o b s a r e a v a i l a b l e . 5 6 . S a n d r a C h r i s t e n s e n , p . 3 3 5 7 . I b i d , p . 3 3 - 4 3 - 1) I n c r e a s i n g E m p l o y m e n t Demand . The m a j o r t a s k i s t o i n c r e a s e t h e number o f j o b s o f f e r e d t o y o u t h , w i t h o u t n e c e s s a r i l y c h a n g i n g t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . T h e r e a r e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f s t r a t e g i e s i n t h i s a r e a : i ) t a r R e t e d j o b t a x c r e d i t - p r o v i d e s non r e f u n d a b l e t a x c r e d i t t o e m p l o y e r s h i r i n g p e r s o n s i n s p e c i f i c g r o u p s , i n c l u d i n g d i s a d v a n t a g e d y o u t h s . i i ) e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m - p r o v i d e s p l a c e o r i e n t e d i n c e n t i v e s f o r p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n v e s t m e n t i n a r e a s o f h i g h u n e m p l o y m e n t o r l o w i n c o m e . i i i ) m in imum wage p r o v i s i o n s - The F a i r L a b o u r S t a n d a r d s A c t c u r r e n t l y p r o v i d e s f o r min imum h o u r l y w a g e . 2) I m p r o v i n g L a b o u r M a r k e t T r a n s i t i o n . S t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t many y o u t h s a r e p o o r l y i n f o r m e d a b o u t e f f e c t i v e ways t o s e a r c h f o r j o b s . The t r a n s i t i o n f r o m s c h o o l t o w o r k , o r f r o m one j o b t o a n o t h e r , t a k e s them l o n g e r t h a n n e c e s s a r y , t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r a v e r a g e p e r i o d o f u n e m p l o y m e n t . T h i s p r o b l e m i s l i k e l y t o be more s e r i o u s f o r l o w i n c o m e and m i n o r i t y y o u t h s . -44- I f l a b o u r m a r k e t demand i s s t r o n g , t r a i n i n g i n j o b s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s c a n be a l o w c o s t m e t h o d o f r e d u c i n g u n e m p l o y m e n t among j o b r e a d y y o u t h s , by l e s s e n i n g t h e t i m e i t t a k e s them t o f i n d w o r k . P l a c e m e n t a c t i v i t i e s c a n do l i t t l e t h o u g h , f o r y o u n g p e o p l e who a r e n o t j o b r e a d y o r when e m p l o y m e n t demand i s w e a k . The U n i t e d S t a t e s E m p l o y m e n t S e r v i c e d i s t r i b u t e s f u n d s t o s t a t e e m p l o y m e n t s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s w h i c h p r o v i d e j o b s e e k e r s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e l a b o u r m a r k e t and p l a c e m e n t a s s i s t a n c e . T h i s a g e n c y a t t e m p t s t o i m p r o v e t h e a b i l i t y o f y o u t h s t o n e g o t i a t e t h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m s c h o o l t o w o r k o r f r o m one j o b t o a n o t h e r , w i t h o u t n e c e s s a r i l y a l t e r i n g e i t h e r t h e s t r u c t u r e o f e m p l o y m e n t demand o r t h e i r j o b q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s o f a p i l o t s t u d y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s E m p l o y m e n t S e r v i c e i n 1977 show t h a t w h i l e 42 p e r c e n t o f j o b s e e k e r s r e c e i v e d a t l e a s t one r e f e r r a l t o a j o b , o n l y 2 . 6 p e r c e n t r e c e i v e d c o u n s e l l i n g , 5 . 4 p e r c e n t w e r e t e s t e d , and 0 . 4 59 p e r c e n t w e r e r e f e r r e d t o a t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m . The E m p l o y m e n t S e r v i c e d o e s n o t h i n g t o d e v e l o p t h e e m p l o y a b i l i t y o f j o b a p p l i c a n t s , a l t h o u g h i t p r o v i d e s a p t i t u d e t e s t i n g and , , . 60 c o u n s e l l i n g . 5 8 . S a n d r a C h r i s t e n s e n , p . 36 5 9 . I b i d , p . 8 4 6 0 . I b i d , p . 8 2 - 4 5 - 3) I n c r e a s i n g E m p l o y a b i l i t y . T h i s a r e a i s d e v o t e d t o i n c r e a s i n g t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f y o u t h s , t h e r e b y i m p r o v i n g t h e i r a b i l i t y t o c o m p e t e f o r e x i s t i n g j o b s . The U . S . A . h a s two i n i t i a t i v e s w h i c h a r e d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e e m p l o y a b i l i t y : i ) V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A c t - p r o v i d e f e d e r a l d o l l a r s t o s u p p l e m e n t v o c a t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e s a t t h e s t a t e and l o c a l l e v e l . V o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s p r o v i d e j o b s k i l l s t r a i n i n g i n s e c o n d a r y and p o s t s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . ^ A c r i t i c i s m o f t h i s t y p e o f t r a i n i n g i s f o u n d i n a s t u d y i n y o u t h u n e m p l o y m e n t by K e n n e t h B . H o y t when he s t a t e s t h a t i f y o u t h s o f t o d a y a r e a b l e t o c a p i t a l i z e on s u c h o p p o r t u n i t i e s ( c h a n g i n g v o c a t i o n s ) , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e y be e q u i p p e d w i t h a s e t o f g e n e r a l e m p l o y a b i l i t y s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s t h a t w i l l p r o v i d e e a c h w i t h maximum f l e x i b i l i t y and a d a p t a b i l i t y t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r a d u l t w o r k i n g l i f e . S u c h s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s i n c l u d e : a ) b a s i c a c a d e m i c s k i l l s ; b ) g o o d w o r k h a b i t s ; c ) a d e s i r e t o w o r k ; d ) a b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c a r e e r i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s ; 6 1 . I b i d , p . 3 9 . - 4 6 - e ) u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e d u c a t i o n a l and c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r c h o i c e ; f ) c a r e e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s k i l l s ; g ) j o b s e e k i n g / f i n d i n g / g e t t i n g / h o l d i n g s k i l l s ; h ) s k i l l s i n o v e r c o m i n g b i a s and s t e r e o t y p i n g : i ) s k i l l s i n h u m a n i z i n g t h e w o r k p l a c e f o r o n e s e l f . H o y t g o e s on t o s a y t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u c h s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d a l o n g i t u d i n a l e f f o r t b e g i n n i n g i n t h e e a r l y e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l y e a r s and c o n t i n u i n g i n t o a d u l t h o o d . To w a i t u n t i l age 1 6 , b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g t h i s p r o g r a m , a s i t i s t h e 6 2 c a s e i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , i s t o i n v i t e f a i l u r e . i i C o m p r e h e n s i v e E m p l o y m e n t T r a i n i n g A c t ( C E T A ) - p r o v i d e s t r a i n i n g and w o r k e x p e r i e n c e p r o g r a m s t a r g e t e d t o t h e 6 3 e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d . Some y o u t h s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e f r o m d i s a d v a n t a g e d o r m i n o r i t y b a c k g r o u n d s , a r e n o t r e a d y f o r t h e l a b o u r m a r k e t and c a n n o t c o m p e t e s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h a d u l t s o r o t h e r y o u t h s f o r a v a i l a b l e j o b s . They a r e n o t r e a d i l y e m p l o y a b l e u n d e r c u r r e n t c o n d i t i o n s . ^ 4 6 2 . K e n n e t h B . H o y t , D i r e c t o r C a r e e r E d u c a t i o n V . S . O . I . C o n t r i b u t i o n s o f C a r e e r E d u c a t i o n t o R e d u c i n g Y o u t h U n e m p l o y m e n t J o u r n a l o f I n d u s t r y . E d u c a t i o n C o - o p e r a t i o n . V o l . 1 , N o . 2 , 1 9 8 0 , p p . 1 6 - 1 8 6 3 . I b i d , p . 3 9 . 6 4 . I b i d , p . 3 6 - 4 7 - The C E T A , e n a c t e d i n 1 9 7 3 , a u t h o r i z e s a f u l l r a n g e o f t r a i n i n g and e m p l o y m e n t r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s , i n c l u d i n g c l a s s r o o m a n d o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g , w o r k e x p e r i e n c e , b a s i c and r e m e d i a l e d u c a t i o n , c o u n s e l l i n g , j o b s e a r c h a s s i s t a n c e and p a y m e n t o f a l l o w a n c e s . ^ T h i s s t u d y w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e on i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r d i s a d v a n t a g e d y o u t h w h i c h f a l l u n d e r t h e CETA m a n d a t e . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s t h e a r e a s s t u d i e d w i l l be t h o s e t h a t show t h e r a t e o f c h a n g e i n b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d y o u t h d u r i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y . 6 5 . K e n n e t h B . H o y t , D i r e c t o r C a r e e r E d u c a t i o n V . S . O . I . C o n t r i b u t i o n s o f C a r e e r E d u c a t i o n t o R e d u c i n g Y o u t h U n e m p l o y m e n t J o u r n a l o f I n d u s t r y . E d u c a t i o n C o - o p e r t i o n . V o l . 1, N o . 2 , 1980 p p . 1 6 - 1 8 - 4 8 - H. DISADVANTAGED YOUTH AND INTERVENTION STRATEGIES- INCREASING EMPLOYABILITY OF DISADVANTAGED UNEMPLOYED YOUTH The study 'Focus on Youth' p o i n t s out t h a t d i s a d v a n t a g e d youth have unique problems which r e q u i r e l o n g term s o l u t i o n s i f those problems are t o be overcome. S c h o o l s and employers cannot d e a l w i t h t h e i r m u l t i p l e problems; many youth r e q u i r e s p e c i a l i n - d e p t h c o u n s e l l i n g . Disadvantaged youth r e q u i r e f i n a n c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and moral s u p p o r t t o improve t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . For those y o u t h , the development of s e l f - r e s p e c t , c o n f i d e n c e and s o c i a l s k i l l s has to tak e p l a c e b e f o r e or a l o n g w i t h t r a i n i n g i n mark e t a b l e s k i l l s . To d a t e , the most s u c c e s s f u l programs i n c l u d e c o u n s e l l i n g , j o b p r e p a r a t i o n , l i f e s k i l l s , placement and 6 6 c o n t i n u i n g s u pport w h i l e i n a j o b . One purpose of the U n i t e d S t a t e s employment and t r a i n i n g programs i s to p r o v i d e a second chance t o those who have f a i l e d t o o b t a i n an adequate p r e p a r a t i o n f o r employment from the s c h o o l system. T h i s program i s d e s c r i b e d i n some d e t a i l by M i r i a m Johnson & Robert Wegmann i n t h e i r study f o r the U.S. Employment 6 7 and T r a i n i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : i . I n f o r m a t i o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s are inf o r m e d of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of d i r e c t l y a p p r o a c h i n g p o t e n t i a l employers. They a re a l s o urged 66. Focus on Youth, p.54. 67. M i r i a m Johnson and Robert Wegmann, pp. 9 -49- t o c o n t a c t e v e r y f r i e n d , r e l a t i v e o r a c q u a i n t a n c e i n o r d e r t o s e e i f t h i s w i l l t u r n up any a p p r o p r i a t e j o b o p e n i n g . As a p r a c t i c a l m a t t e r , s i n c e l o w e r i n c o m e p a r t i c i p a n t s may h a v e f e w e r w e l l p l a c e d f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s , mos t o f t h e e m p h a s i s i s on a p p r o a c h i n g e m p l o y e r s d i r e c t l y . i i . T r a i n i n g - Some s o r t o f s c r i p t i s p r o v i d e d t o g u i d e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t when he o r s h e p h o n e s e m p l o y e r s . P r a c t i c e i n f i l l i n g o u t j o b a p p l i c a t i o n f o r m s i s a l s o p r o v i d e d . P r o g r a m s a l s o c o n d u c t e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n s o f wha t t o s a y and how t o b e h a v e i n an e m p l o y m e n t i n t e r v i e w . Many w i l l v i d e o t a p e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n p r a c t i c e i n t e r v i e w s w h i c h a r e t h e n p l a y e d b a c k and s u g g e s t i o n s made on how t h e i n t e r v i e w b e h a v i o r c o u l d be i m p r o v e d . i i i . M a t e r i a l S u p p o r t - S u p p o r t p r o v i d e d i n s e v e r a l f o r m s i . e . : d e s k s p a c e , p h o t o c o p y i n g , t y p i n g , an a n s w e r i n g s e r v i c e , p h o n e s , e m p l o y e r s l i s t s . i v . S o c i a l S u p p o r t - A l o c a t i o n w h e r e e v e r y o n e i s g o i n g a b o u t t h e t a s k s i n v o l v e d i n s e e k i n g e m p l o y m e n t , d i s c u s s i n g j o b s e a r c h p r o b l e m s , g o i n g t o j o b i n t e r v i e w s , and so o n . B o t h c o u n s e l l o r s and o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s p r o v i d e a s y m p a t h e t i c and u n d e r s t a n d i n g a u d i e n c e f o r t h e p e r s o n who h a s become d i s a d v a n t a g e d ; a t t h e same t i m e , t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p r o g r a m k e e p s t h e p a r t i c i p a n t e n g a g e d i n t h e s e e f f o r t s u n t i l a j o b i s f i n a l l y o b t a i n e d . . . b u t - 5 0 - a c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n i s t h a t u n s u c c e s s f u l p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e f a r more l i k e l y t o h a v e d r o p p e d o u t o f t h e p r o g r a m t h a n t o h a v e t r i e d and f a i l e d . N o t e v e r y p r o g r a m p r o v i d e s e a c h o f t h e a b o v e e l e m e n t s , o f c o u r s e , b u t mos t o f t h e s e g r o u p j o b s e a r c h p r o g r a m s p r o v i d e mos t o f t h e s e i t e m s . P r o g r a m l e n g t h i s a c r i t i c a l d e t e r m i n a n t o f how much any one p r o g r a m c a n o f f e r . T a k e n t o g e t h e r , t h e s e e l e m e n t s g e n e r a t e an i n t e n s e f o c u s on t h e p r o c e s s o f o b t a i n i n g e m p l o y m e n t and on t h e s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s i n t h a t p r o c e s s . ^ CETA Work I n c e n t i v e P r o g r a m s I n t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 ' s , N a t h a n A z r i n , a b e h a v i o u r a l p s y c h o l o g i s t who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f i n d i n g e m p l o y m e n t f o r p a t i e n t s b e i n g d i s c h a r g e d f r o m a m e n t a l h o s p i t a l , p u z z l e d a t 69 t h e i r i n i t i a l l a c k o f s u c c e s s . He s u r v e y e d a v a r i e t y o f p e o p l e t o f i n d o u t how t h e y f i r s t h e a r d a b o u t t h e i r p r e s e n t j o b . T w o - t h i r d s o f t h o s e r e s p o n d i n g h e a r d a b o u t an o p e n i n g f r o m a f r i e n d , r e l a t i v e o r a c q u a i n t a n c e . A z r i n a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h a t o t h e r s had f o u n d t h e i r j o b s a f t e r t h e y a p p l i e d t o p o t e n t i a l e m p l o y e r s , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y d i d so w i t h o u t k n o w i n g w h e t h e r t h e r e was a j o b a v a i l a b l e . 6 8 . M i r i a m J o h n s o n & R o b e r t Wegmann, pp 4 , 5 . 6 9 . I b i d , pp 8 , 9 . - 5 1 - A z r i n t h e n t e s t e d t h i s a p p r o a c h w i t h t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . He p u t an ad i n a n e w s p a p e r and p a s s e d t h e w o r d t o t h e E m p l o y m e n t S e r v i c e and l o c a l e m p l o y e r s t h a t h i s j o b f i n d i n g p r o g r a m was a v a i l a b l e t o t h e u n e m p l o y e d , f r e e o f c h a r g e . T h o s e who a p p l i e d w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o a t r e a t m e n t g r o u p and a m a t c h e d c o n t r o l g r o u p . O n l y t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p was a d m i t t e d t o wha t he d e s c r i b e d a s t h e j o b c l u b . No a s s i s t a n c e was g i v e n t o t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . The a v e r a g e J o b C l u b member b e g a n w o r k i n 14 d a y s , c o m p a r e d t o 53 d a y s f o r t h o s e i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . Two m o n t h s a f t e r t h e p r o g r a m b e g a n , 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e J o b C l u b members w e r e e m p l o y e d c o m p a r e d w i t h 55 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . A z r i n was h i r e d by t h e U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r t o s u p e r - v i s e t h e t r a i n i n g o f Work I n c e n t i v e (WIN) p e r s o n n e l i n f i v e c i t i e s . I n e a c h c i t y , a r a n d o m s e l e c t i o n o f w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t WIN c l i e n t s was a s s i g n e d t o a j o b c l u b , r a t h e r t h a n t o w h a t e v e r WIN s e r v i c e s w e r e b e i n g p r o v i d e d t o f a c i l i t a t e e m p l o y m e n t . The f i n a l r e p o r t on t h i s p r o j e c t by A z r i n i n 1978 f o u n d t h a t 62 p e r c e n t o f t h e WIN j o b c l u b c l i e n t s f o u n d j o b s , c o m p a r e d t o 33 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e r e c e i v i n g t h e o t h e r WIN s e r v i c e s . ^ 7 0 . M i r i a m J o h n s o n & R o b e r t Wegmann, p p . 4 , 5 - 5 2 - The CETA Work E x p e r i e n c e p r o g r a m s h a v e h e l p e d t o i n c r e a s e i m m e d i a t e e m p l o y m e n t f o r d i s a d v a n t a g e d y o u t h s , a l t h o u g h t h e y w e r e n o t f o u n d t o be e f f e c t i v e a t i n c r e a s i n g l o n g t e r m e m p l o y a b i l i t y . ^ Work e x p e r i e n c e a l o n e , e v e n when w e l l s u p e r v i s e d , d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o i n c r e a s e t h e e m p l o y a b i l i t y o f y o u t h s . I n f a c t , p o o r l y s u p e r v i s e d w o r k e x p e r i e n c e may e v e n t e n d t h e o t h e r way i f i t e n c o u r a g e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o r c o n t i n u a t i o n 72 o f p o o r w o r k h a b i t s a n d a t t i t u d e s . CETA J o b S e a r c h A s s i s t a n c e P r o g r a m s . I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e h a s been c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h s e l f - d i r e c t e d p l a c e m e n t a c t i v i t i e s . D e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o g r a m s h a v e b e e n i m p l e m e n t e d f o r h i g h s c h o o l y o u t h s , f o r d r o p o u t s and f o r w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s . The s e r v i c e s g e n e r a l l y p r o v i d e d c a n i n c l u d e c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n , c o u n s e l l i n g , i n s t r u c t i o n i n j o b s e a r c h and i n t e r v i e w s k i l l s , j o b d e v e l o p m e n t and j o b r e f e r r a l , a l t h o u g h t h e m i x and i n t e n s i t y o f t h e s e c o m p o n e n t s v a r i e s . A l t h o u g h t h e t e c h n i q u e i s t o o new t o a s s e s s l o n g t e r m r e s u l t s , s h o r t t e r m r e s u l t s f r o m s e l f - d i r e c t e d p l a c e m e n t p r o g r a m s a r e g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e . The g a i n s f r o m s h o r t d u r a t i o n j o b s e a r c h t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s a p p e a r t o be due e n t i r e l y t o t h e i r 73 s u c c e s s a t r e d u c i n g t h e t i m e j o b s e e k e r s t a k e t o f i n d a j o b . 7 1 . S a n d r a C h r i s t e n s e n , p . 37 7 2 . I b i d , p . 3 7 7 3 . I b i d , p . 85 - 5 3 - The " E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f Two J o b S e a r c h A s s i s t a n c e P r o g r a m s f o r D i s a d v a n t a g e d Y o u t h " by A . Hahn and B . F r i e d m a n , c o n d u c t e d an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e f o r e g o i n g p r o g r a m s f o r b o t h o p e r a t i o n and 74 i m p a c t . The J o b F a c t o r y i n C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s p r o v i d e d g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s , r e s u m e w r i t i n g , j o b s e a r c h s k i l l s amd p l a c e m e n t a s s i s t a n c e : and t h e W i l k e s - B a r r e , P e n n s y l v a n i a , W o r k s h o p , a s s i g n e d p a r t i c i p a n t s t o one o f t h r e e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s t o r e c e i v e e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g and j o b p l a c e m e n t s e r v i c e s ; and g r o u p j o b s e a r c h s k i l l s w o r k s h o p s ; o r c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g , and j o b s e a r c h w o r k s h o p s . The p r o j e c t f o u n d t h a t t h e r e w e r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r a t e o f j o b f i n d i n g among t h e t h r e e g r o u p s . No s t i p e n d was p a i d i n t h e P e n n s y l v a n i a P r o j e c t . The J o b F a c t o r y i n C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s p a i d y o u t h s a t r a i n i n g s t i p e n d f o r d o i n g t h e ' j o b ' o f f i n d i n g a j o b . They f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s s u p e r v i s e d by a ' f o r e m a n ' , r e c e i v i n g a ' w a g e ' , and t o l d t h a t t h e y w e r e no l o n g e r u n e m p l o y e d s i n c e t h e y now had a ' J o b F a c t o r y ' . They w e r e e x p e c t e d t c w o r k a t t h a t j o b f r o m t h e t i m e t h e y p u n c h e d t h e c l o c k i n t h e m o r n i n g u n t i l t h e y p u n c h e d o u t a t n i g h t . The s t u d y f o u n d t h a t t h e s t i p e n d p a i d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e J o b F a c t o r y p r o g r a m had a g r e a t e f f e c t on p r o g r a m s u c c e s s . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e C a m b r i d g e g r o u p showed m a r k e d i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s a s m e a s u r e d by p r e and p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s . 7 4 . Andre i ' / Hahn & B a r r y F r i e d m a n . The E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f Two J o b S e a r c h A s s i s t a n c e P r o g r a m s f o r D i s a d v a n t a g e d Y o u t h : F i n a l R e p o r t . O f f i c e o f Y o u t h P r o g r a m s ( D e p t . o f L a b o u r ) , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . 1981 - 5 4 - O v e r a l l , i n b o t h g r o u p s i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e j o b s e a r c h f o s t e r e d by t h e m o r a l s u p p o r t o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s was t h e mos t s i g n i f i c a n t c o m p o n e n t i n t h e j o b s e a r c h a s s i s t a n c e p r o g r a m s . ^ The l o n g e r j o b s e a r c h s k i l l s t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s had a h i g h e r r a t e o f l o n g t e r m j o b p l a c e m e n t s u c c e s s , b u t w e r e much more e x p e n s i v e t o m a i n t a i n . CETA JOB CORPS PROGRAM The J o b C o r p s p r o g r a m h a s o p e r a t e d s i n c e 1973 u n d e r C E T A . S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f i t s g r a d u a t e s h a v e f o u n d a j o b , r e t u r n e d t o s c h o o l , o r l e a r n e d e n o u g h t o e n t e r t h e m i l i t a r y . P r i o r t o e n t r a n c e , 40 p e r c e n t o f t h e members had an a r r e s t r e c o r d . The members l i v e i n c e n t r e s away f r o m t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . The g o a l i s a s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s t h a t t e a c h e s d i s c i p l i n e s n e e d e d f o r a j o b : how t o g e t up on t i m e , and how t o d e a l w i t h a u t h o r i t i e s . ^ D u r i n g 1 9 7 5 - 1 9 7 7 a s a m p l e o f J o b C o r p s p a r t i c i p a n t s and a c o n t r o l g r o u p o f a p p l i c a n t s , who d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e , w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d a t an e n t r y p o i n t and an a v e r a g e o f 18 m o n t h s l a t e r . The e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t f o r t h o s e who s t a y e d more t h a n 90 d a y s i n J o b C o r p s , t h e i m p a c t s r e l a t i v e t o c o n t r o l s w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e s o c i a l - a t t i t u d i n a l a r e a : S e l f - e s t e e m 7 5 . A n d r e w Hahn & B a r r y F r i e d m a n , p . 24 7 6 . A a r o n B e r n s t e i n e t a l . , p . 52 - 5 5 - i n c r e a s e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r f e m a l e s , f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s i m p r o v e d b o t h f o r m a l e s and somewhat f o r f e m a l e s , and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d a u t h o r i t y i m p r o v e d w h i l e p o l i c e i n v o l v e m e n t and t h e i n c i d e n c e o f o u t o f w e d l o c k c h i l d r e n d e c l i n e d . ^ F o l l o w up o f J o b C o r p s p a r t i c i p a n t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e p r o g r a m i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e i r p o s t - p r o g r a m e a r n i n g and e m p l o y m e n t r a t e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e o f a c o m p a r a b l e g r o u p o f y o u t h s u s e d a s a c o n t r o l . F u r t h e r , t h e s e b e n e f i t s do n o t a p p e a r t o d e c a y o v e r t i m e . A l t h o u g h t h e i n t e n s i v e r e m e d i a l e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g p r o v i d e d i s e x p e n s i v e . . . one s t u d y e s t i m a t e s t h a t b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e J o b C o r p s e x c e e d c o s t s by a t l e a s t 39 p e r c e n t . ^ 7 7 . E r i c P o t t e r & G a r t h L . Mangum. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o M o n o g r a p h S e r i e s . A p p l y i n g L e s s o n s o f Y o u t h P r o g r a m . P r e p a r e d f o r t h e E m p l o y m e n t and T r a i n i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . O l y m p u s P u b . C o . , S a l t L a k e C i t y , 1 9 8 2 , p . 52 7 8 . S a n d r a C h r i s t e n s e n , p . 6 3 - 5 6 - I. SUMMARY The r a t e o f u n e m p l o y m e n t i n C a n a d a i s t h e h i g h e s t s i n c e t h e d e p r e s s i o n o f t h e 1 9 3 0 ' s . H o w e v e r , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f u n e m p l o y e d y o u t h i s p r e s e n t l y d o u b l e t h a t o f t h e a d u l t r a t e . S t u d i e s f r o m b o t h C a n a d a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s show t h a t y o u t h a r e d i s a d v a n t a g e d due t o f a m i l y i n c o m e , r a c e , l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t , c r i m i n a l h i s t o r y , l o w s e l f - e s t e e m and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s w o r k . T h e s e d i s a d v a n t a g e d y o u t h h a v e an e v e n h i g h e r u n e m p l o y m e n t r a t e t h a n t h e a v e r a g e u n e m p l o y e d y o u t h . T h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s d e s i g n e d t o a i d b o t h t h e g e n e r a l u n e m p l o y m e n t p r o b l e m and t o o v e r c o m e t h e p r o b l e m o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d u n e m p l o y e d y o u t h . T h i s m a t e r i a l a p p e a r s t o be a v a i l a b l e o n l y f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The l i t e r a t u r e shows t h a t some i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s do show a good s u c c e s s r a t e i n g e t t i n g d i s a d v a n t a g e d u n e m p l o y e d y o u t h b a c k i n t o t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i f t h e p r o g r a m s c o m b i n e r e m e d i a l i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h i m p r o v i n g a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s w o r k a s w e l l a s t h e u p g r a d i n g o f t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m . - 5 7 - CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY. A. DESIGN T h i s study w i l l a s s e s s the degree of su c c e s s of the i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y c a l l e d Career S t a r t . T h i s s t r a t e g y has been designed t o address the major employment b a r r i e r s which r e s t r i c t d i s a d v a n t a g e d , unemployed youth from s u c c e s s f u l l y o b t a i n i n g and r e t a i n i n g permanent employment. There are two areas i n which s u c c e s s of the program may be e v a l u a t e d . The f i r s t i s , t h a t which the p r o j e c t i s designed t o a c h i e v e , namely the number of graduates o b t a i n i n g and r e t a i n i n g steady employment f o r a ten week p e r i o d a f t e r program p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A second means of program assessment i s a l s o a p p l i e d . T h i s c o n s i s t s of measuring a s p e c t s of b e h a v i o u r a l changes of p a r t i c i p a n t s b e f o r e and a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p r o j e c t . In t h i s t h e s i s the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the p r o j e c t , as i t a f f e c t s change i n academic achievement l e v e l s , s e l f - e s t e e m and a t t i t u d e s towards work, w i l l be a s s e s s e d . E v a l u a t i o n of the change of beha v i o u r i n the p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l be the key i n d i c a t o r of the program's s u c c e s s . Due to the uniqueness of the program a one group p r e - t e s t / p o s t - t e s t e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n method i s used. - 5 8 - The p o p u l a t i o n f o r the study i s 172 p a r t i c i p a n t s who have been accepted i n t o the p r o j e c t during i t s one and one h a l f years of o p e r a t i o n . The p o p u l a t i o n f o r the t e s t - r e t e s t p o r t i o n of the study w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d to graduates who completed the post- t e s t s p r i o r to l e a v i n g Career S t a r t . Some i n d i v i d u a l s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the f i r s t p o r t i o n of the study obtained jobs immediately and were not able to complete the p o s t - t e s t s p r i o r to l e a v i n g , while others dropped out of the program without completing the p o s t - t e s t requirements. - 5 9 - B . THE I N T E R V E N T I O N STRATEGY - CAREER START U s i n g e i g h t ' p a r t i c i p a n t s t a n d a l o n e ' c o m p u t e r s and two ' a u t h o r i n g s t a t i o n s ' ( w i t h w o r d p r o c e s s i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s ) , t h e c o m p u t e r - b a s e d t r a i n i n g t e c h n i q u e s a r e s u p p l e m e n t e d w i t h b o t h g r o u p and i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g m e t h o d s . The p r o j e c t i s s t a f f e d by a m a n a g e r , p r o g r a m a s s i s t a n t , and two f u l l - t i m e c o u n s e l l o r s . One c o u n s e l l o r w o r k s p r i m a r i l y i n t h e s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g c o m p o n e n t s , w h i l e t h e o t h e r w o r k s p r i m a r i l y i n t h e j o b s e a r c h t r a i n i n g a r e a . T h e r e i s one p a r t - t i m e p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r j o b p l a c e m e n t . I n o r d e r f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o l e a r n t h e j o b f i n d i n g and j o b k e e p i n g t e c h n i q u e s n e c e s s a r y f o r r e t a i n i n g l o n g t e r m e m p l o y m e n t t h e y mus t p a r t i c i p a t e i n f i v e d i s t i n c t c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e p r o j e c t : ( 1 ) ( 2 ) ( 3 ) ( 4 ) ( 5 ) S E L F - R E F E R R E D S E L E C T I O N T R A I N I N G JOB JOB A P P L I C A T I O N PHASE PROCESS SEARCH PLACEMENT - b a s i c & h i g h s c h o o l s k i l l s u p g r a d i n g - l i f e s k i l l s . 1. S e l f - R e f e r r e d A p p l i c a t i o n P o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a n t s l e a r n a b o u t t h e p r o j e c t f r o m a v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s . T h e s e i n c l u d e a s m a l l n e w s p a p e r a d , word o f m o u t h , s o c i a l w o r k e r s f r o m t h e M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and - 6 0 - H o u s i n g , and s p e c i a l n e e d s c o u n s e l l o r s f r o m E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a , and v a r i o u s p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s . I n d i v i d u a l s make c o n t a c t d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e p r o j e c t ( u s u a l l y by t e l e p h o n e ) and a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t . The p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a n t i s q u e s t i o n e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r he m e e t s t h e p r o j e c t ' s b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t s and i f s o , i s b o o k e d f o r an o r i e n t a t i o n s e s s i o n i n w h i c h t h e p r o j e c t i s e x p l a i n e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . E a c h c o m p o n e n t o f t h e p r o g r a m i s e x p l a i n e d t o g e t h e r w i t h an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m r e q u i r e m e n t s , s h o u l d t h e a p p l i c a n t d e c i d e t o a p p l y f o r e n t r a n c e . C a n d i d a t e s a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o s e e k o t h e r o p t i o n s i f t h e p r o j e c t i s n o t c l e a r l y s u i t e d t o t h e i r n e e d s , and a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e d i s c u s s e d . T h o s e who r e m a i n , c o m p l e t e a r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n e x a m i n a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e y meet t h e min imum f u n c t i o n i n g l e v e l o f G r a d e s i x . R e s u l t s o f t h e t e s t i n g s e s s i o n a r e d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e a p p l i c a n t s when t h e y c a l l t h e n e x t d a y . I f t h e y f a i l t h e e x a m i n a t i o n , a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e o f f e r e d o r t h e y a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o r e - a p p l y . S u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a n t s a r e b o o k e d f o r a f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h a member o f t h e C a r e e r S t a r t s t a f f . The same q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s u s e d i n i n t e r v i e w i n g a l l a p p l i c a n t s . W h i l e s u b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e a p p l i c a n t i s p e r m i t t e d , t h e t y p e s o f b a r r i e r s t o e m p l o y m e n t a r e n o t e d o b j e c t i v e l y , s u c h as l e n g t h o f t i m e u n e m p l o y e d , r e a s o n s f o r l e a v i n g p a s t j o b , g r a d e l e v e l c o m p l e t i o n , t y p e o f c r i m i n a l h i s t o r y , e t c . A r e s u m e and d o c u m e n t e d p r o o f o f j o b s e a r c h ( a - 6 1 - min imum o f 20 h o u r s ) a r e r e q u i r e d f r o m t h e a p p l i c a n t . Once t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u e s t e d i s b r o u g h t b a c k , t h e e n t i r e s t a f f d e t e r m i n e t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f e a c h c a n d i d a t e f o r a d m i s s i o n . An a d m i s s i o n d a t e i s s e t o r p l a c e m e n t on a w a i t i n g l i s t i s c o n f i r m e d . S h o u l d i t be a p p a r e n t t h a t a n o t h e r s e r v i c e o r a g e n c y w o u l d be b e t t e r s u i t e d t o a s s i s t t h e i n d i v i d u a l s u c h s e r v i c e s w i l l be r e f e r r e d . 2 . S e l e c t i o n P h a s e A f t e r a c c e p t a n c e i n t o t h e p r o g r a m t h e r e i s a two week ' s e l e c t i o n p h a s e ' . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e , a p p l i c a n t s a r e p a i d a d o l l a r an h o u r f o r t h e f i r s t week and two d o l l a r s an h o u r f o r t h e s e c o n d w e e k . The s e l e c t i o n p e r i o d p r o v i d e s t h e a p p l i c a n t s w i t h a c h a n c e t o d e c i d e i f t h e p r o g r a m m e e t s t h e i r n e e d s and i n t e r e s t s and a l s o g i v e s t h e c o u n s e l l o r s t i m e t o a s s e s s a p p l i c a n t s ' m o t i v a t i o n and c o m m i t m e n t t o w o r k . To p a s s s e l e c t i o n , t h e a p p l i c a n t mus t d e m o n s t r a t e m o t i v a t i o n by b e i n g p u n c t u a l , a t t e n d i n g a l l s e s s i o n s and m a k i n g n e c e s s a r y p e r s o n a l c h a n g e s d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e e m p l o y a b i l i t y , s u c h a s i n h y g i e n e , d r e s s , l i f e s t y l e and h a i r l e n g t h . The t i m e i n s e l e c t i o n i s u s e d t o b u i l d g r o u p s u p p o r t and l e a r n l i f e and p r e - e m p l o y m e n t s k i l l s . T e s t s a r e g i v e n t o d e t e r m i n e a c a d e m i c s k i l l l e v e l , v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s , j o b r e a d i n e s s and s e l f - e s t e e m . B a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s e t e s t s an i n d i v i d u a l t r a i n i n g p l a n i s d e s i g n e d , w h i c h v a r i e s i n l e n g t h f r o m s i x w e e k s t o f o u r m o n t h s . - 6 2 - 3 . T r a i n i n g P r o c e s s The s t a f f r e g u l a r l y r e v i e w s t h e a p p l i c a n t s ' p e r f o r m a n c e d u r i n g t h e s e l e c t i o n p e r i o d and d e c i d e s w h e t h e r t h e y s h o u l d be h i r e d i n t o t h e t r a i n i n g p o r t i o n . I f t h e y a r e h i r e d , t h e y a r e p a i d min imum wage and b e g i n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t r a i n i n g p l a n . A v e r a g e d u r a t i o n o f s t a y i n t h e p r o j e c t i s two and a h a l f m o n t h s . I n s t r u c t i o n i s d e l i v e r e d p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h t h e PLATO ( P r o g r a m L e a r n i n g and A u t o m a t e d T e a c h i n g O p p o r t u n i t i e s ) c o m p u t e r - b a s e d l e a r n i n g s y s t e m , and i s s u p p l e m e n t e d by t e x t and a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l . P a r t i c i p a n t s p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l a t t h e i r own p a c e , r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e i n s e l e c t i n g t h e p a t h o f i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t i s mos t a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r n e e d s . i . A c a d e m i c U p g r a d i n g D u r i n g t h e s e l e c t i o n p h a s e , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e a s s e s s e d 79 t h r o u g h t h e C a n a d i a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r a c a d e m i c l e v e l i n e i g h t s u b j e c t a r e a s . P a r t i c i p a n t s a r e t h e n p l a c e d a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a c a d e m i c l e v e l i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m , when t h e y b e g i n t h e i r s t u d i e s and p r o g r e s s a t t h e i r own p a c e . 7 9 . J . D . A y e r s e t a l . C a n a d i a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s - C l a s s Managemen t G u i d e Form A . C a n a d i a n T e s t C e n t r e , McGraw - H i l l R y e r s o n L t d . , 1983 - 6 3 - The B a s i c S k i l l s c u r r i c u l u m i n c l u d e s r e a d i n g and m a t h e m a t i c s , and t h e H i g h S c h o o l S k i l l s c u r r i c u l u m i n c l u d e s h i g h s c h o o l r e a d i n g , m a t h e m a t i c s , w r i t i n g and s c i e n c e , w h i c h b e g i n s a t t h e n i n t h g r a d e l e v e l o f c o m p e t e n c y . Upon s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n , p a r t i c i p a n t s w r i t e t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n G r a d e 12 e q u i v a l e n c y exams - G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t ( G . E . D . ) . i i . L i f e S k i l l s The l i f e s k i l l s p o r t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m i s d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t s t u d e n t s t o d e v e l o p e m p l o y a b i l i t y a t t i t u d e s . I t f o c u s e s on e m o t i o n a l , s o c i a l and f i n a n c i a l i s s u e s t o h e l p e l i m i n a t e b a r r i e r s t o s u c c e s s f u l e m p l o y m e n t . P a r t i c i p a n t s w o r k a t t h e i r own p a c e u s i n g PLATO c o u r s e w a r e w h i c h i s s u p p l e m e n t e d by t e x t and a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l . G r o u p s u p p o r t m e e t i n g s and i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s h a v e been d e s i g n e d t o s u p p o r t t h e w o r k i n d e p e n d e n t l y . A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e i n v o l v e d i n g r o u p s u p p o r t m e e t i n g s w h i c h a r e c o n f i d e n t i a l , i s s u e o r i e n t e d s e s s i o n s , d e s i g n e d t o h e l p them t o i d e n t i f y and o v e r c o m e p r o b l e m s t h a t may p r e v e n t them f r o m f i n d i n g j o b s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n g r o u p s u p p o r t m e e t i n g s i s i n t e n d e d t o i n c r e a s e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s e l f - e s t e e m by a s s i s t i n g them t o d e v e l o p a p o s i t i v e a p p r o a c h t o d e a l i n g w i t h p e r s o n a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , and w o r k r e l a t e d i s s u e s t h a t p r e s e n t b a r r i e r s t o e m p l o y m e n t . - 6 4 - T h r o u g h o u t t h i s p h a s e p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c e i v e i n d i v i d u a l g u i d a n c e t o a s s i s t them i n t h e i r j o b c h o i c e , c a r e e r o b j e c t i v e s and e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s . C o u n s e l l i n g a l s o i n c l u d e s m e e t i n g s t o a s s i s t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e i r t r a i n i n g p l a n and s u p p o r t i n l i f e s k i l l s d e v e l o p m e n t . 4 . J o b S e a r c h P r o c e s s T h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m p r o v i d e s b o t h i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e i n t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f s e l f - d i r e c t e d j o b s e a r c h , d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t e m p l o y m e n t d i s a d v a n t a g e d p a r t i c i p a n t s t o o b t a i n and r e t a i n i n g e m p l o y m e n t f o r t h e m s e l v e s . I t i s an i n t e n s i v e t h r e e week h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d p r o g r a m . The p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c e i v e c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n ( b e t w e e n two t o f o u r h o u r s p e r d a y ) and s p e n d t h e r e s t o f t h e t i m e w o r k i n g on i n d i v i d u a l a s s i g n m e n t s o r t h e PLATO J o b S e a r c h c o u r s e . T h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o c e s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n , r o l e p l a y , p r a c t i c e , f e e d b a c k and r e v i e w , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s l e a r n t o r e c o g n i z e and m a r k e t t h e i r s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s , w r i t e r e s u m e s , u t i l i z e p r o p e r t e l e p h o n e t e c h n i q u e s , c o m p l e t e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r m s f o r e m p l o y m e n t , d e v e l o p a j o b s e a r c h p l a n and p r e p a r e f o r and c o n d u c t p r o f e s s i o n a l j o b i n t e r v i e w s . P a r t i c i p a n t s d e v e l o p p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s w o r k and i n c r e a s e s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r own a b i l i t y t o o b t a i n and r e t a i n e m p l o y m e n t . -65- 5 . J o b P l a c e m e n t The l a s t p o r t i o n o f t h e C a r e e r S t a r t t r a i n i n g p l a n t e a c h e s p a r t i c i p a n t s how t o r e a c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ( s ) who make t h e e m p l o y m e n t d e c i s i o n s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s t o j o b a t t a i n m e n t i s d i s c u s s e d and s t u d i e d , t h e c o n c e p t i s t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e a b o u t t o " s e l l " t h e i r p r o d u c t ( t h e m s e l v e s ) t o an e m p l o y e r . F o r m u l a s , p a t t e r n s , t e c h n i q u e s a r e d e v e l o p e d f o r e a c h i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e , and v a r i o u s w e e k l y and d a i l y p l a n s a r e i n t r o d u c e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . As a g r o u p , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s go o u t on a f i e l d t r i p t o l o o k f o r j o b s . E a c h i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s t h e a c t u a l p r o c e s s o f l o o k i n g f o r work and a f t e r w a r d s h a r e s h i s c o n c e r n s , f e a r s , s u c c e s s e s and p r o g r e s s l a t e r w i t h t h e g r o u p . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e r e v e a l s any r e m a i n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s o r b a r r i e r s t o o b t a i n i n g e m p l o y m e n t . F o l l o w - u p o f p a r t i c i p a n t s who c o m p l e t e t h e p r o g r a m i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e J o b P l a c e m e n t C o - o r d i n a t o r . I n i t i a l l y , o n - t h e - j o b p r o g r e s s i s m o n i t o r e d on a w e e k l y b a s i s , s o m e t i m e s by v i s i t a t i o n , o f t e n by t e l e p h o n e , and w h e r e n e c e s s a r y , d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e e m p l o y e r . E a c h p a r t i c i p a n t i s f o l l o w e d on an o n g o i n g b a s i s u n t i l he h a s o b t a i n e d and r e t a i n e d e m p l o y m e n t f o r a t e n -66- week p e r i o d . A l l past p a r t i c i p a n t s are encouraged to remain i n contact with Career S t a r t s t a f f . Use of the Career S t a r t s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s are o f f e r e d , a monthly ne w s l e t t e r i s mailed to a l l past p a r t i c i p a n t s , and s o c i a l o c c asions are arranged p e r i o d i c a l l y . - 6 7 - C. METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION D a t a p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e p r o g r a m and p a r t i c i p a n t s h a v e been c o l l e c t e d m a n u a l l y , and w h e r e a v a i l a b l e , by c o m p u t e r s e a r c h . The t e s t s a r e l a r g e l y s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d , and r e q u i r e e i t h e r t r u e o r f a l s e a n s w e r s o r h a v e a m u l t i p l e c h o i c e s e l e c t i o n . T h e r e a r e t h r e e s e t s o f t e s t s w h i c h a r e g i v e n a t e n t r y t o t h e p r o j e c t and a t c o m p l e t i o n o f t r a i n i n g : 1. a c a d e m i c s k i l l l e v e l 2 . s e l f - e s t e e m 3 . a t t i t u d e t o w a r d w o r k 1. A c a d e m i c S k i l l L e v e l The C a n a d i a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s a r e a s e r i e s o f t e s t b a t t e r i e s w h i c h a r e b o t h norm r e f e r e n c e d and c r i t e r i a r e f e r e n c e d . They m e a s u r e a c h i e v e m e n t i n r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y and c o m p r e h e n s i o n , r e f e r e n c e s k i l l s , s p e l l i n g , l a n g u a g e m e c h a n i c s and e x p r e s s i o n , m a t h e m a t i c s c o m p u t a t i o n and c o n c e p t s . F o u r l e v e l s ( 1 6 t h r o u g h 19) may be a d m i n i s t e r e d w h i c h p e r m i t b o t h f u n c t i o n a l l e v e l t e s t i n g and g r a d e e q u i v a l e n c y : l e v e l 16 - g r a d e s 5 . 6 t o 6 . 9 l e v e l 17 - g r a d e s 6 . 6 t o 7 . 9 l e v e l 18 - g r a d e s 7 . 6 t o 9 . 9 l e v e l 19 - g r a d e s 9 . 6 t o 12 . 9 - 6 8 - D e p e n d i n g on t h e s c o r e o b t a i n e d , p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e p l a c e d a t a s k i l l l e v e l a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r n e e d s i n e i t h e r b a s i c o r h i g h s c h o o l a c a d e m i c s k i l l s . As n o t e d e a r l i e r , p a r t i c i p a n t s p r o g r e s s a t t h e i r own p a c e t h r o u g h c o m p u t e r - a s s i s t e d i n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h i s s u p p l e m e n t e d by t e x t and a u d i o v i s u a l t o p i c s . The s u b j e c t s t a k e n p r e p a r e them t o c h a l l e n g e t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n G r a d e 12 E q u i v a l e n c y Exam - G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t ( G . E . D ) . Some p a r t i c i p a n t s c h o o s e n o t t o w r i t e t h e exam b e c a u s e o f a s t r o n g d e s i r e t o p r o g r e s s i m m e d i a t e l y i n t o t h e j o b s e a r c h p o r t i o n o f C a r e e r S t a r t o r a r e u n a b l e t o do so b e c a u s e t h e y a r e s i m p l y t o o y o u n g . P r i o r t o e n t r y i n t o t h e j o b s e a r c h p o r t i o n , t h e y a r e p o s t - t e s t e d w i t h t h e same t e s t s . 2 . S e l f - E s t e e m 8 0 The C u l t u r e F r e e S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y f o r A d u l t s was d e s i g n e d t o m e a s u r e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f s e l f , and p r o v i d e s t h e i n s t r u c t o r w i t h g r e a t e r i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e s u b j e c t i v e f e e l i n g s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t . The t e s t h a s been f o u n d r e l i a b l e i n t e s t / r e - t e s t s i t u a t i o n s . The i n s t r u m e n t , i n c l u d i n g t h e l i e i t e m s , ( w h i c h m e a s u r e d e f e n s i v e n e s s ) , c o n s i s t s o f 40 i t e m s t h a t a r e i n t e n d e d t o m e a s u r e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s g e n e r a l , p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n . The i t e m s w i t h 8 0 . J ames B a t t l e . C u l t u r e F r e e S E I S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r i e s f o r C h i l d r e n and A d u l t s . S p e c i a l C h i l d P u b l i c a t i o n s , W a s h i n g t o n , U . S . A . , 1981 - 6 9 - t r u e o r f a l s e a n s w e r s i n d i c a t e a m e a s u r e o f s e l f - e s t e e m . The p a r t i c i p a n t s t h e n w o r k on a l i f e s k i l l s c o m p u t e r - a s s i s t e d l e a r n i n g p r o g r a m d e s i g n e d t o i m p r o v e t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m . T h e s e c o u r s e s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s , g r o u p s u p p o r t m e e t i n g s and i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g , a r e a l s o d e s i g n e d t o i m p r o v e s e l f - e s t e e m . I n c r e a s e d s e l f - e s t e e m s h o u l d a s s i s t i n d e v e l o p i n g a p o s i t i v e a p p r o a c h i n d e a l i n g w i t h p e r s o n a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and work r e l a t e d i s s u e s t h a t p r e s e n t b a r r i e r s t o e m p l o y m e n t . The p o s t - t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n o c c u r s a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e j o b s e a r c h p o r t i o n o f C a r e e r S t a r t . 3 . A t t i t u d e T o w a r d Work The A s s o c i a t e s f o r R e s e a r c h i n B e h a v i o u r , I n c . ( A s s o c i a t e s ) d e v e l o p e d a m e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e a d e q u a c y o r i n a d e q u a c y o f a t r a i n e e ' s J o b R e a d i n e s s P o s t u r e . The t h r e e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i m e n s i o n s a s s e s s e d a r e : a t t r a c t i o n s t o w o r k , l o s s e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o b t a i n i n g and r e t a i n i n g e m p l o y m e n t , 81 b a r r i e r s t o e m p l o y m e n t . The V o c a t i o n a l O p i n i o n I n d e x ( V . O . I . ) m e a s u r e s t h e j o b r e a d i n e s s o f a t r a i n e e , w h o , f r o m a d i s a d v a n t a g e d b a c k g r o u n d i s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m t o o b t a i n a j o b . D e s i g n e d , t e s t e d and no rmed f o r t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o p u l a t i o n , i t t a k e s a b o u t 40 m i n u t e s t o c o m p l e t e 8 1 . T r a n s i t i o n t o Work I I I : D e v e l o p m e n t and I m p l e m e n t a t i o n V 0 I T r a n s i t i o n S y s t e m . A s s o c i a t e s f o r R e s e a r c h i n B e h a v i o r I n c . , P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1974 - 7 0 - and i s u s e d a t b o t h e n t r a n c e t o and e x i t f r o m C a r e e r S t a r t . The s t a f f o f C a r e e r S t a r t u s e t h e r e s u l t s t o a s s i s t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e j o b s e a r c h p o r t i o n o f C a r e e r S t a r t t o d e v e l o p j o b r e a d i n e s s . The j o b s e a r c h p r o g r a m i s a s e l f - d i r e c t e d , c o m p u t e r - a s s i s t e d i n s t r u c t i o n p r o g r a m w i t h e m p h a s i s on g r o u p w o r k i n a r e a s s u c h a s t e l e p h o n e s k i l l s , i n t e r v i e w p r a c t i c e and c o n t a c t i n g e m p l o y e r s f o r j o b s . P a r t i c i p a n t s a r e t a u g h t t o o b t a i n and r e t a i n t h e i r own j o b s r a t h e r t h a n t o d e v e l o p a r e l i a n c e on t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l m e t h o d s o f work e x p e r i e n c e and j o b p l a c e m e n t . A f t e r t h r e e w e e k s , j o b s e a r c h p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e p o s t - t e s t e d p r i o r t o g r a d u a t i o n . -71- D . METHOD OF DATA A N A L Y S I S A c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m was s e t up t o h a n d l e a l l o f t h e d a t a r e g a r d i n g p a r t i c i p a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; b a r r i e r s t o E m p l o y m e n t , p r e and p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s f o r t h e C a n a d i a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s , C u l t u r e F r e e S e l f - E s t e e m , and t h e V o c a t i o n a l O p i n i o n I n d e x . The d a t a was e n t e r e d on a C o n t r o l D a t a 110 C o m p u t e r u s i n g a D b a s e I I p r o g r a m . Once e n t e r e d , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was n e x t t r a n s f e r r e d t o a s m a l l e r d i s k s i z e and n e x t t r a n s f e r r e d t o a l a n g u a g e c o m p a t i b l e on an I B M PC so t h a t t h e S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( S . P . S . S . ) c o u l d be u s e d t o a n a l y s e t h e d a t a . The p r o c e d u r e s u s e d f o r d a t a a n a l y s i s w e r e a s f o l l o w s : 1. A p p l i c a n t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - The d a t a f o r t h e a p p l i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e t a k e n f r o m i n t e r v i e w f o r m s u s e d by t h e s t a f f d u r i n g t h e f i r s t f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n w i t h t h e a p p l i c a n t p r i o r t o p r o g r a m e n t r a n c e . The i n t e r v i e w f o r m i s s t a n d a r d and s t a f f a s k q u e s t i o n s i n t h e same m a n n e r . The i n t e r v i e w f o r m u s e d i s f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x B . The i n f o r m a t i o n g l e a n e d f r o m t h i s f o r m makes up t h e a p p l i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was t h e n r a n k o r d e r e d and c r o s s - t a b u l a t e d by b o t h age and s e x . 2 . B a r r i e r s t o E m p l o y m e n t - D a t a f o r t h e B a r r i e r s t o e m p l o y m e n t f o r m i s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e r e s u l t s o f a c o n f i d e n t i a l i n t e r v i e w b e t w e e n t h e c o u n s e l l o r and t h e p a r t i c i p a n t . O f t e n t h e - 7 2 - i n f o r m a t i o n d i f f e r s f r o m t h e ' a p p l i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ' b e c a u s e t h e b a r r i e r i s p e r c e i v e d r a t h e r t h a n a c t u a l . F o r e x a m p l e , 50 a p p l i c a n t s had c r i m i n a l h i s t o r i e s p r i o r t o e n t e r i n g t h e p r o j e c t . H o w e v e r , o n l y 38 p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t t h a t t h e i r c r i m i n a l r e c o r d w o u l d p r e v e n t them f r o m g e t t i n g a j o b . One o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s i s t h a t i n some c a s e s t h e c r i m e s w e r e c o m m i t t e d when t h e i n d i v i d u a l was a j u v e n i l e . On r e a c h i n g t h e age o f m a j o r i t y t h e c r i m i n a l r e c o r d r e m a i n s b e h i n d t h e m . A n o t h e r r e a s o n m i g h t be due t o t h e f a c t t h a t a number o f o f f e n d e r s a r e e l i g i b l e f o r a p a r d o n two y e a r s a f t e r h a v i n g s e r v e d t h e i r t i m e i n j a i l . They a p p e a r t o f e e l t h a t t h i s w i p e s t h e i r s l a t e s c l e a n . The B a r r i e r s t o E m p l o y m e n t f o r m i s f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x C . 3 . P r e and P o s t - T e s t R e s u l t s - A l l o f t h e d a t a w e r e c o m p u t e d and a n a l y z e d u s i n g a h i s t o g r a m i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e was a n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . No n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n was f o u n d on any p a i r s a m p l e s . I t was t h e n i m p o s s i b l e t o u s e a p a i r e d T - T e s t and h a v e v a l i d r e s u l t s . I t was t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y t o u s e a non p a r a m e t r i c t e s t . T h e s e t e s t s a r e u s e d when t h e s a m p l e s i z e i s s m a l l ( s u c h a s i s t h e c a s e i n t h i s s t u d y ) o r when t h e r e i s n o t a n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n ( a l s o t r u e i n t h i s s t u d y ) . The d a t a was t h e n a n a l y z e d u s i n g a t e s t f o r s i m p l e g a i n o r l o s s by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n e a c h t e s t a r e a . 4 . D e g r e e o f S u c c e s s - A l l o f t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d a r e a s were t e s t e d u s i n g non p a r a m e t r i c t e s t c a l l e d t h e C h i - S q u a r e T e s t F o r I n d e p e n d e n c e , t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s u c c e s s and t h e v a r i a b l e was s i g n i f i c a n t . - 7 3 - CHAPTER FOUR DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE A. CHARACTERISTICS OF APPLICANTS TO CAREER START By t h e c u t o f f d a t e o f A p r i l 3 0 , 1 9 8 6 , 172 a p p l i c a n t s had been a c c e p t e d i n t o t h e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s o f t h e C a r e e r S t a r t p r o g r a m . T h r e e o f t h e a p p l i c a n t s w e r e o v e r t h e age o f 24 and h a v e t h e r e f o r e been e x c l u d e d f r o m t h i s s t u d y . T a b l e 6 shows t h a t o f t h e r e m a i n i n g 169 a p p l i c a n t s , 103 o r 62 p e r c e n t w e r e m a l e s , w h i l e 66 o r 38 p e r c e n t w e r e f e m a l e s . T h e r e w e r e 40 m a l e s c o m p a r e d t o 17 f e m a l e s i n t h e 1 5 - 1 9 y e a r age r a n g e and 63 m a l e s c o m p a r e d t o 49 f e m a l e s i n t h e 2 0 - 2 4 y e a r age r a n g e . TABLE 6 AGE BY SEX AGE MALE FEMALE TOTAL 15 t h r o u g h 19 40 17 57 34% 20 t h r o u g h 24 63 49 112 66% COLUMN TOTAL 103 61% 66 38% 169 100% - 7 4 - T a b l e 7 c r o s s - t a b u l a t e s age and s e x w i t h e d u c a t i o n l e v e l o f a p p l i c a n t s p r i o r t o e n t r a n c e i n t h e p r o g r a m . J u n i o r H i g h i s d e f i n e d a s any c o m p l e t e d g r a d e l e v e l b e l o w g r a d e 1 0 , and a l s o i n c l u d e s B a s i c T r a i n i n g f o r S k i l l s D e v e l o p m e n t ( B T S D ) l e v e l I I . S e n i o r H i g h i s d e f i n e d as g r a d e s 10 t h r o u g h 1 2 , and a l s o i n c l u d e s BTSD l e v e l I I I . A g r a d u a t e i s d e f i n e d a s any who c o m p l e t e d g r a d e 1 2 , BTSD l e v e l I V and t h e G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t exam ( G E D ) . P o s t - G r a d u a t e d e s c r i b e s any a p p l i c a n t who h a s c o m p l e t e d any p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . S i x t y - o n e p e r c e n t o r 104 o f t h e a p p l i c a n t s t o C a r e e r S t a r t had n o t g r a d u a t e d f r o m g r a d e 12 o r t h e e q u i v a l e n t . The C h i - S q u a r e T e s t f o r I n d e p e n d e n c e shows t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a g e , s e x and e d u c a t i o n l e v e l a t t a i n e d . The o l d e r t h e a p p l i c a n t , t h e h i g h e r t h e l e v e l o f a c a d e m i c a t t a i n m e n t . T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n s e x e s and e d u c a t i o n l e v e l . - 7 5 - TABLE 7 LEVEL OF EDUCATION CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX. PREVIOUS EDUCATION LEVEL MALE 15-19 FEMALE MALE FEMALE ROW 15-19 20-24 20-24 TOTAL J u n i o r High 16 11 39 23% S e n i o r High 18 22 21 65 38% Graduate 15 16 40 24% Post Graduate 15 25 15% COLUMN TOTAL 40 24% 17 10% 63 63% 49 29% 169 100% X = 34.29 , P= .0001 T a b l e 8 shows that there i s a dependency between age and sex and d u r a t i o n of l a s t j o b . Youth i n the 20-24 year age range he ld t h e i r job f o r a l onger p e r i o d of t ime than the youth i n the 15-19 age range . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between males and f emales . -76- T A B L E 8 LENGTH OF L A S T EMPLOYMENT C R O S S - T A B U L A T E D WITH AGE AND SEX MALE 1 5 - 1 9 F E M A L E 1 5 - 1 9 MALE 2 0 - 2 4 F E M A L E 2 0 - 2 4 ROW TOTAL N e v e r W o r k e d 9 5% L e s s t h a n One m o n t h 13 8% 1- 3 m o n t h s 10 14 37 22% 3 - 6 m o n t h s 13 19 45 27% 6- 12 m o n t h s 13 15 34 20% 12 m o n t h s and up 0 14 13 30 18% COLUMN TOTAL 40 24% 17 10% 62 37% 49 29% 168 100% X = 3 4 . 0 , P= . 0 0 3 3 - 7 7 - T a b l e 9 shows t h a t 47 p e r c e n t o r 78 a p p l i c a n t s w e r e l a i d o f f f r o m t h e i r l a s t j o b . T h e r e w e r e 14 more m a l e s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y t h a n f e m a l e s . F o r t y p e r c e n t , o r 67 a p p l i c a n t s q u i t t h e i r l a s t j o b p r i o r t o e n t r a n c e i n C a r e e r S t a r t . O n l y e i g h t p e r c e n t w e r e f i r e d f r o m t h e i r l a s t j o b . Age and s e x w e r e f o u n d n o t t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e r e a s o n t h a t t h e y o u t h s had l e f t t h e i r l a s t j o b s . TABLE 9 REASON FOR LEAVING LAST JOB CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX MALE 1 5 - 1 9 FEMALE 1 5 - 1 9 MALE 2 0 - 2 4 FEMALE 2 0 - 2 4 ROW TOTAL N e v e r W o r k e d 9 5% L a i d o f f 16 10 33 19 78 47% F i r e d 13 8% Q u i t 16 23 23 67 40% COLUMN TOTAL 39 23% 17 10% 63 38% 48 29% 167 100% X = 1 2 . 3 , P= . 1 9 4 2 - 7 8 - T a b l e 10 shows t h a t t h e l e n g t h o f u n e m p l o y m e n t b e t w e e n b o t h t h e age g r o u p s and s e x o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . I n f o r m a t i o n f r o m one a p p l i c a n t i s m i s s i n g f r o m t h e d a t a b a s e . The l e n g t h o f t i m e a p p l i c a n t s w e r e u n e m p l o y e d p r i o r t o p r o j e c t e n t r y i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f age o r s e x . TABLE 10 LENGTH OF UNEMPLOYMENT CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX MALE FEMALE MALE FEMALE ROW up t o 19 up t o 19 2 0 - 2 4 2 0 - 2 4 TOTAL N e v e r W o r k e d 3 2 0 4 9 5% L e s s t h a n 3 m o n t h s 3 1 6 5 15 9% 3 - 6 m o n t h s 15 3 18 18 54 32% 6 - 9 m o n t h s . 9 8 16 7 40 24% 9 - 1 2 m o n t h s 6 0 8 8 22 13% 1 2 - 2 4 m o n t h s 2 1 10 2 15 9% 24 m o n t h s 2 2 4 5 13 8% COLUMN TOTAL 40 17 62 49 168 24% 10% 37% 29% 100% X 2 = 2 3 . 6 6 , P= . 1662 - 7 9 - T a b l e 11 shows t h a t 78 a p p l i c a n t s o r 46 p e r c e n t w e r e r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e p r i o r t o e n t r y t o C a r e e r S t a r t and 22 a p p l i c a n t s o r 13 p e r c e n t w e r e r e c e i v i n g U n e m p l o y m e n t I n s u r a n c e . T h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n age and s e x and t h e f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n o f a p p l i c a n t s , p r i o r t o p r o g r a m e n t r y . TABLE 11 FINANCIAL SITUATION CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX MALE 15-19 FEMALE 15-19 MALE 20-24 FEMALE 20-24 ROW TOTAL S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e 16 31 26 78 46% U I C 11 22 13% P a r t T i m e Work S a v i n g 0 10 6% 3 6% O t h e r s 17 10 15 14 56 33% COLUMN TOTAL 40 24% 17 10% 63 37% 49 29% 169 100% X = 16.78 , P= .1597 -80- Of t h e 169 a p p l i c a n t s , 50 had p r e v i o u s c r i m i n a l h i s t o r i e s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f w h i c h w e r e c r i m e s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g o f p r o p e r t y . A m o n g s t t h e y o u n g m a l e o f f e n d e r s t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e p r o p e r t y r e l a t e d c r i m e s w e r e a l s o a l c o h o l o r d r u g r e l a t e d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , 13 o f t h e 169 a p p l i c a n t s , o r e i g h t p e r c e n t , s p o k e E n g l i s h a s t h e i r s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . F i v e w e r e s t a t u s n a t i v e I n d i a n s and f o u r w e r e n o n - s t a t u s I n d i a n s f o r a t o t a l o f n i n e o r f o u r p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l s a m p l e . T h i r t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t , o r 63 o f t h e 169 a p p l i c a n t s , w e r e s t i l l l i v i n g a t home w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s , w h i l e t h e r e m a i n i n g 63 p e r c e n t w e r e e i t h e r r e n t i n g o r b o a r d i n g . T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n m a l e s and f e m a l e s . T w e l v e o f t h e a p p l i c a n t s , o r s e v e n p e r c e n t , had d e p e n d e n t s . - 8 1 - B. BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT PRESENT IN THE SAMPLE Of t h e 172 a p p l i c a n t s , 148 w e r e h i r e d i n t o t h e p r o j e c t . Of t h i s n u m b e r , two w e r e o v e r t h e age o f 24 and w e r e t h e r e f o r e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e s t u d y . C o u n s e l l o r s o f t h e C a r e e r S t a r t p r o g r a m met i n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h 146 p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d , u s i n g a s t a n d a r d f o r m d e s i g n e d by t h e s t a f f , s u b j e c t i v e l y d e t e r m i n e d t h e mos t s e v e r e b a r r i e r s t o e m p l o y m e n t s u f f e r e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . The f o r m u s e d f o r c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a i s f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x C . The b a r r i e r s l o o k e d a t j o i n t l y by t h e c o u n s e l l o r and p a r t i c i p a n t i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : P r o b l e m w i t h A u t h o r i t y ; L a c k o f E d u c a t i o n ; D i f f i c u l t i e s R e l a t i n g t o P e e r s ; A t t i t u d e s i n P r e v i o u s J o b ; L a c k o f W o r k i n g E x p e r i e n c e ; P e r s o n a l o r S o c i a l P r o b l e m s ; P h y s i c a l D i s a b i l i t y ; C r i m i n a l H i s t o r y ; P s y c h o l o g i c a l P r o b l e m s ; H e a l t h P r o b l e m s ; F a m i l y S i t u a t i o n ; D r u g s and A l c o h o l ; E c o n o m y ; D e s i r e s f o r a P a r t i c u l a r j o b ; A g e ; I m m a t u r i t y ; J o b A c c e s s i b i l i t y ; L a c k o f S k i l l s R e q u i r e d ; K n o w l e d g e o f J o b S e a r c h S k i l l s ; D r e s s and M a n n e r ; C l e a n l i n e s s ; C o m m u n i c a t i o n S k i l l s ; E y e C o n t a c t . A C h i - S q u a r e T e s t f o r I n d e p e n d e n c e was c o n d u c t e d f o r e a c h o f t h e 23 b a r r i e r s t o e m p l o y m e n t and c o n t r a s t e d w i t h age and s e x . - 8 2 - T a b l e 12 shows t h a t t h e e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r s , ' P r o b l e m w i t h A u t h o r i t y ' , ' D i f f i c u l t i e s R e l a t i n g t o P e e r s ' and ' A t t i t u d e s i n P r e v i o u s J o b ' w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b l e m a r e a s f o r e i t h e r m a l e o r f e m a l e p a r t i c i p a n t s , r e g a r d l e s s o f a g e . S i x t y p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t t h a t b e c a u s e t h e y had l e s s t h a n g r a d e 12 g r a d u a t i o n , t h e y w o u l d be u n a b l e t o s e c u r e a j o b a f t e r l e a v i n g C a r e e r S t a r t . A l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f y o u t h b e t w e e n 15 and 19 y e a r s o l d f e l t t h a t a ' L a c k o f E d u c a t i o n ' was an e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r . T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s i n t h i s b e l i e f . -83- TABLE 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX NO BARRIER 15-19 MALE FEMALE PROBLEM WITH AUTHORITY 25 16 DIFFICULTIES RELATING TO PEERS 30 16 ATTITUDES IN PREVIOUS JOB 29 14 LACK OF EDUCATION 5 4 20-24 MALE FEMALE 52 39 55 42 49 38 26 23 COLUMN TOTAL 132 90% 143 98% 130 89% 58 40% BARRIER PRESENT 15-19 MALE 6 FEMALE 0 20-24 MALE 5 FEMALE 3 1 0 2 0 2 2 8 4 26 12 31 19 COLUMN TOTAL 14 10% 3 2% 16 11% 60% TOTAL P 146 100% 5.4 .1421 146 100% 2.0 .5669 146 100% 1.3 .7230 146 100% 13.4 .0038 -84- T a b l e 12 a l s o shows t h a t t h e e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r s ' L a c k o f W o r k i n g E x p e r i e n c e ' , and ' P e r s o n a l o r S o c i a l P r o b l e m s ' and ' P h y s i c a l D i s a b i l i t i e s ' w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t when c r o s s - t a b u l a t e d w i t h age and s e x . The e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r ' C r i m i n a l H i s t o r y ' i n T a b l e 12 i s c r o s s - t a b u l a t e d w i t h age and s e x , and a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s f o u n d . T h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more m a l e s t h a n f e m a l e s w i t h c r i m i n a l h i s t o r i e s . I n t h e 1 5 - 1 9 age r a n g e t h e r e a r e e l e v e n m a l e s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h one f e m a l e and i n t h e 2 0 - 2 4 age r a n g e t h e r e a r e 20 m a l e s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h o n l y s i x f e m a l e s . I t a l s o a p p e a r s t h a t t h e o l d e r t h e y o u t h , t h e more l i k e l y i t i s t h a t t h e y w i l l h a v e a c r i m i n a l h i s t o r y . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t 26 p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h an e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r i n t h i s c a t e g o r y means t h a t t h e y t h o u g h t t h a t t h e i r c r i m e s w e r e s e v e r e e n o u g h t o p o s e a p r o b l e m i n s e c u r i n g f u t u r e , f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t . - 8 5 - TABLE 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX NO BARRIER 15-19 MALE FEMALE 20-24 MALE FEMALE COLUMN TOTAL LACK OF WORKING EXPERIENCE 10 3 25 13 51 35% PERSONAL OR SOCIAL PROBLEMS 28 13 44 35 PHYSICAL DISABILITY 120 82% 29 16 56 39 140 96% CRIMINAL HISTORY 20 15 37 36 108 74% BARRIER PRESENT 15-19 MALE FEMALE 20-24 MALE FEMALE 21 13 32 29 3 3 13 7 2 0 1 3 11 1 20 6 COLUMN TOTAL TOTAL 95 65% 146 100% 26 18% 146 100% 4% 146 100% 38 26% 146 100% X* P. 4.2 .2375 2.4 .4899 2.9 .4073 10.1 .0175 -86- T a b l e 12 shows t h a t t h e e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r s ' P s y c h o l o g i c a l P r o b l e m s ' , ' H e a l t h P r o b l e m s ' , and ' F a m i l y S i t u a t i o n ' w e r e f o u n d by t h e C h i - s q u a r e T e s t o f I n d e p e n d e n c e t o be u n r e l a t e d t o e i t h e r age and s e x . The e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r ' D r u g s and A l c o h o l ' was r e l a t e d t o age and s e x . M o r e m a l e s t h a n f e m a l e s i n b o t h age g r o u p s f e l t t h e i r d r u g o r a l c o h o l p r o b l e m s c o u l d be a b a r r i e r t o e m p l o y m e n t . - 8 7 - TABLE 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS HEALTH PROBLEMS FAMILY SITUATION DRUGS & ALCOHOL NO BARRIER 15-19 MALE FEMALE 20-24 MALE FEMALE COLUMN TOTAL 31 16 55 42 144 99% 30 13 53 36 132 90% 23 10 46 26 105 72% 27 16 48 41 132 90% BARRIER PRESENT 15-19 MALE FEMALE 20-24 MALE FEMALE COLUMN TOTAL TOTAL 0 0 2 0 1% 146 100% 1 3 4 6 14 10% 146 100% 8 6 11 16 41 28% 146 100% 4 0 9 1 14 10% 146 100% X* P. 3.1 3667 4 .5 2123 5.0 1685 7.1 0677 -88- T a b l e 12 shows t h a t r e g a r d l e s s o f age o r s e x , t h e e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r s ' E c o n o m y ' and ' D e s i r e s a P a r t i c u l a r J o b ' w e r e u n r e l a t e d t o t h e p e r c e i v e d f a i l u r e t o s e c u r e a p a r t i c u l a r j o b . S e v e n t e e n o f t h e 1 5 - 1 9 y e a r o l d m a l e s and f e m a l e s f e l t t h a t age was i n d e e d a b a r r i e r t o e m p l o y m e n t , a s shown i n T a b l e 1 2 . T h i s number was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e number i n t h e u p p e r age r a n g e s , who f e l t t h a t age was n o t a b a r r i e r . T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m a l e s and f e m a l e s i n t h i s a t t i t u d e . ' I m m a t u r i t y ' was a l s o r e j e c t e d a s n o t b e i n g an i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r i n j o b f i n d i n g . O n l y f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n f e l t t h a t t h i s was a b a r r i e r , h o w e v e r s e v e n o f t h e e i g h t y o u t h w i t h t h e p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r w e r e i n t h e 1 5 - 1 9 y e a r o l d age c a t e g o r y . - 8 9 - TABLE 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX ECONOMY AGE DESIRES A PARTICULAR JOB IMMATURITY NO BARRIER 15-19 MALE 18 FEMALE 12 MALE 20-24 28 FEMALE 20-24 23 COLUMN 81 TOTAL 55% BARRIER PRESENT 21 9 55 42 127 87% 28 15 49 38 130 89% 27 13 56 42 138 95% 15-19 MALE FEMALE 13 4 10 7 3 1 4 3 20-24 MALE FEMALE 29 19 2 0 8 4 1 0 COLUMN TOTAL 65 45% 19 13% 16 11% 8 5% TOTAL X 2 P. 146 100% 3.4 .3216 146 100% 34.3 0000 146 100% 1.05 7874 146 100% 12.7 0053 -90- T a b l e 12 shows t h a t t h e e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r s ' J o b A c c e s s i b i l i t y ' , ' L a c k o f S k i l l s R e q u i r e d ' , ' K n o w l e d g e o f J o b S e a r c h S k i l l s ' and ' D r e s s and M a n n e r ' w e r e n o t r e l a t e d t o age o r s e x o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s t u d y . P a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t t h a t t h e s e a r e a s d i d n o t p o s e s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b l e m s i n a t t a i n i n g e m p l o y m e n t . - 9 1 - TABLE 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIERS CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX NO BARRIER 15-19 MALE FEMALE 20-24 MALE FEMALE COLUMN TOTAL JOB ACCESSIBILITY 28 12 54 35 129 88% LACK OF SKILLS 20 10 41 30 101 69% KNOWLEDGE OF JOB SEARCH SKILLS 14 6 32 26 78 53% DRESS AND MANNER 27 15 52 37 131 BARRIER PRESENT 15-19 MALE FEMALE 20-24 MALE FEMALE 4 3 3 7 11 6 16 12 17 10 25 16 4 1 5 5 COLUMN TOTAL 17 12% 45 31% 68 47% 15 10% TOTAL 146 146 146 146 100% 100% 100% 100% X 2 4.1 . 9 5 3.8 .77 P. .2489 .8127 .2765 .8556 -92- A g a i n , T a b l e 12 showed t h a t r e g a r d l e s s o f age and s e x , p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t t h a t t h e r e was no r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e i d e a t h a t e m p l o y m e n t c o u l d n o t be f o u n d when t h e e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r s l i s t e d w e r e ' C l e a n l i n e s s ' , ' C o m m u n i c a t i o n S k i l l s ' , and ' E y e C o n t a c t ' . -93- TABLE 12 EMPLOYMENT BARRIER CROSS-TABULATED WITH AGE AND SEX CLEANLINESS NO BARRIER 15-19 MALE FEMALE 20-24 MALE FEMALE COLUMN TOTAL 30 16 57 41 144 99% COMMUNICATION SKILLS 23 12 43 27 105 72% EYE CONTACT 30 16 55 40 141 97% BARRIER PRESENT 15-19 MALE FEMALE 20-24 MALE FEMALE COLUMN TOTAL 1 0 0 1 2 1% 8 4 14 15 41 28% 1 0 2 2 5 3% TOTAL 146 100% 146 100% 146 100% P. 2.1 .5475 1.7 .6334 .79 .8496 -94- T a b l e 12 l i s t s 23 p r o b l e m s p e r c e i v e d by t h e y o u t h as p o s i n g i m p e d i m e n t s t o o b t a i n i n g a j o b . I n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d f r o m c o n f i d e n t i a l i n t e r v i e w s b e t w e e n a s t a f f member and a p a r t i c i p a n t . O n l y f i v e o f t h e 23 e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r s s t u d i e d w e r e f e l t t o p o s e a m a j o r p r o b l e m f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o g a i n e m p l o y m e n t . T h e s e b a r r i e r s a r e ' L a c k o f E d u c a t i o n ' , ' C r i m i n a l H i s t o r y ' , ' D r u g and A l c o h o l A b u s e ' , ' A g e ' , and ' I m m a t u r i t y ' . The i n t e r v i e w e e s f e l t t h a t t h e s e b a r r i e r s w e r e f a c t o r s i n t h e i r b e i n g u n a b l e t o s e c u r e w o r k . T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s e x c e p t i n t h e e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r s ' D r u g s and A l c o h o l ' and ' C r i m i n a l H i s t o r y ' w h e r e y o u n g men w e r e more c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e s e p r o b l e m s t h a n w e r e t h e y o u n g women. - 9 5 - C. NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS PRE-TESTED AND POST-TESTED The number o f p o s t - t e s t s r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s p r i o r t o e x i t i n g t h e p r o g r a m d i d n o t m a t c h t h e number o f a p p l i c a n t s ( 1 6 9 ) who w r o t e a l l t h r e e s e t s o f t h e p r e - t e s t s d u r i n g t h e s e l e c t i o n p h a s e . R e a s o n s f o r t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y a r e a s f o l l o w s : i ) A p p l i c a n t s who d i d n o t e n t e r t h e t r a i n i n g p o r t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m f r o m t h e s e l e c t i o n p h a s e w e r e n o t r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e p o s t - t e s t s , s i n c e t h e i r l e n g t h o f s t a y was t o o s h o r t f o r e v a l u a t i o n p u r p o s e s . i i ) T r a i n e e s who w e r e f i r e d f r o m t h e p r o j e c t due t o v i o l e n t b e h a v i o r , a t t i t u d e o r p u n c t u a l i t y w e r e n o t r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e p o s t - t e s t s . The i n t e n t o f t h e s t a f f was t o r e m o v e t h o s e f i r e d f r o m t h e p r o j e c t a s q u i c k l y a s p o s s i b l e . i i i ) Some o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s who o b t a i n e d e n t r y l e v e l j o b s w e r e r e q u i r e d t o s t a r t i m m e d i a t e l y , and t h e r e f o r e w e r e u n a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h e p o s t - t e s t s . i v ) Some o f t h e t r a i n e e s who c o m p l e t e d t h e p o s t - t e s t s d i d so i n s u c h a manne r w h i c h made them u n u s a b l e . v ) A t a l l t i m e s t h e p r o j e c t h a s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f t r a i n i n g . On t h e c u t o f f d a t e o f A p r i l 3 0 , 1 9 8 6 , 23 - 9 6 - p e o p l e w e r e n o t y e t r e a d y t o l e a v e o r q u a l i f i e d t o o b t a i n j o b s . T h e r e f o r e p o s t - t e s t s w e r e n o t c o m p l e t e d by t h i s g r o u p . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e t h r e e s e t s o f p o s t - t e s t s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s d u r i n g d i f f e r e n t p h a s e s o f t h e p r o g r a m , and t h e r e f o r e t h e u s a b l e number o f r e t u r n s v a r y f r o m 93 f o r t h e C u l t u r e F r e e S e l f - E s t e e m ; 81 f o r t h e V o c a t i o n a l O p i n i o n I n d e x , and f r o m a l o w o f 82 t o a h i g h o f 90 f o r t h e C a n a d i a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s . - 9 7 - CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n f o u r s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h s u c c e s s a f t e r p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and s e c o n d l y t o b a r r i e r s t o e m p l o y m e n t s u f f e r e d by t h e s u b j e c t s . The s e c o n d s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s s c o r e s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s on t h r e e t e s t s t a k e n on e n t e r i n g t h e p r o g r a m and on l e a v i n g t h e p r o g r a m . The t e s t s i n c l u d e t h e C a n a d i a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s , t h e V o c a t i o n a l O p i n i o n I n d e x and t h e C u l t u r e F r e e S e l f - E s t e e m I n d e x . The r e s u l t s a r e c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e d e g r e e s o f s u c c e s s by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w h i c h w e r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e C a r e e r S t a r t s t a f f f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y . The t h i r d s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s an a n a l y s i s o f p a i r e d s a m p l e p r e and p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e t e s t s t h a t w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d . The l a s t s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s t h e s u c c e s s r a t e o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ( a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e p r o j e c t s t a f f ) i n m e e t i n g t h e q u a n t i f i a b l e o b j e c t i v e s r e q u i r e d by E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a . A. DEGREES OF SUCCESS CROSS-TABULATED WITH PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS AND BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e d e g r e e s o f s u c c e s s w e r e d e f i n e d by C a r e e r S t a r t s t a f f and c r o s s - t a b u l a t e d i ^ i t h b o t h -98- p a r t i c i p a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s t o e m p l o y m e n t . The f o u r d e g r e e s o f s u c c e s s a r e d e f i n e d a s ' H i g h l y S u c c e s s f u l ' , ' S u c c e s s f u l ' , ' N o t S u c c e s s f u l 1 and ' D r o p o u t ' . The c a t e g o r y o f ' H i g h l y S u c c e s s f u l ' was u s e d by t h e s t a f f t o d e s c r i b e p a r t i c i p a n t s w h o : - w e r e h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d by t h e p r o g r a m ; - o b t a i n e d a j o b u s i n g t h e s e l f - d i r e c t e d j o b s e a r c h m e t h o d l e a r n e d d u r i n g t h e p r o g r a m ; - r e t a i n e d e m p l o y m e n t f o r a t e n - w e e k p e r i o d o r m o r e ; - w e r e p r o m o t e d w h i l e w o r k i n g ; - moved on t o a s u b s e q u e n t j o b w h i c h o f f e r e d more money o r c h a l l e n g e ; The c a t e g o r y o f ' S u c c e s s f u l ' was u s e d t o d e s c r i b e p a r t i c i p a n t s w h o : - o b t a i n e d e m p l o y m e n t on t h e i r own b u t r e q u i r e d c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t f r o m t h e p r o j e c t s t a f f i n o r d e r t o r e t a i n t h o s e j o b s ; - had t o be p l a c e d i n a j o b l o c a t e d f o r them by t h e s t a f f and r e q u i r e d c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t i n o r d e r t o k e e p t h o s e j o b s ; - r e q u i r e d i n - d e p t h c o u n s e l l i n g o r s e v e r e b e h a v i o u r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n o r r e t a i n e m p l o y m e n t . - 9 9 - The c a t e g o r y o f ' N o t S u c c e s s f u l ' was u s e d by t h e s t a f f t o d e s c r i b e p a r t i c i p a n t s who : - d i d n o t r e t a i n t h e i r j o b s f o r a t e n week p e r i o d ; - r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r f o r m e r l i f e s t y l e p r i o r t o p r o g r a m e n t r y . The c a t e g o r y o f ' D r o p o u t ' i n c l u d e s 24 p e o p l e who d i d n o t p a s s t h e s e l e c t i o n p h a s e o r e n t e r t h e t r a i n i n g p o r t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m . A l s o i n c l u d e d a r e s i x p a r t i c i p a n t s who w e r e e i t h e r f i r e d o r w i t h d r e w f r o m t h e p r o g r a m . I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s u c c e s s i n t h e p r o g r a m w e r e r e l a t e d , a s e r i e s o f c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n s w e r e d o n e . The p a r t i c i p a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e x a m i n e d w e r e : ' A g e ' , ' S e x ' , ' P r e v i o u s E d u c a t i o n L e v e l ' , ' D u r a t i o n o f L a s t J o b ' , ' R e a s o n f o r L e a v i n g L a s t J o b ' , ' L e n g t h o f U n e m p l o y m e n t ' , ' F i n a n c i a l S i t u a t i o n ' , ' C r i m i n a l H i s t o r y ' , ' E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e ' , ' N a t i v e I n d i a n S t a t u s ' , ' A c c o m m o d a t i o n ' , and ' N u m b e r o f D e p e n d a n t s ' . Of t h e t w e l v e c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n s o n l y two y i e l d e d C h i - S q u a r e v a l u e s o f . 0 5 o r l e s s . T h u s , w h i l e ' P r e v i o u s E d u c a t i o n ' and ' D u r a t i o n o f L a s t J o b ' w e r e r e l a t e d t o s u c c e s s , i t was d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e o t h e r m e a s u r e d p a r t i c i p a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e n o t . - 1 0 0 - T a b l e 13 p r e s e n t s p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n l e v e l c r o s s t a b u l a t e d w i t h s u c c e s s . The C h i - S q u a r e T e s t o f I n d e p e n d e n c e i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t P = . 0 1 5 6 s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e l e v e l o f p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n and s u c c e s s i n t h e p r o g r a m . P r o p o r t i o n a t e l y , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h j u n i o r o r s e n i o r h i g h l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n w e r e h i g h l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e ' N o t S u c c e s s f u l ' and ' D r o p o u t ' g r o u p , w h i l e t h e ' S u c c e s s f u l ' and ' H i g h l y S u c c e s s f u l ' p a r t i c i p a n t s showed a l a r g e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e s e n i o r h i g h , g r a d u a t e and p o s t - g r a d u a t e e d u c a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s . TABLE 13 PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS- PREVIOUS EDUCATION LEVEL AND SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL NOT DROP TOTAL SUCCESSFUL SUCCESSFUL OUT JUNIOR HIGH SENIOR HIGH GRADUATES POST-GRADUATES 15 34 26 20 10 18 6 8 4 0 8 5 1 0 39 65 40 25 TOTAL 95 42 18 14 169 =20.3 , P-.0156 - 1 0 1 - T a b l e 14 c r o s s - t a b u l a t e s t h e l e n g t h o f p r e v i o u s e m p l o y m e n t w i t h s u c c e s s , and i n d i c a t e s t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s who had n e v e r w o r k e d b e f o r e , o r who had w o r k e d f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e , w e r e more l i k e l y t o d r o p o u t o f C a r e e r S t a r t t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t had w o r k e d f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e , p r i o r t o p r o g r a m e n t r y . TABLE 14 PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS- LENGTH OF PREVIOUS EMPLOYMENT WITH SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL NOT DROP TOTAL SUCCESSFUL SUCCESSFUL NEVER WORKED LESS THAN ONE MONTH ONE MONTH TO THREE MONTHS THREE MONTHS TO SIX MONTHS SIX MONTHS TO TWELVE MONTHS MORE THAN TWELVE MONTHS 21 23 21 20 10 11 0 13 37 45 34 30 TOTAL 95 41 18 14 168 X 2 - 2 4 . § , P-.0524 - 1 0 2 - T a b l e 15 p r e s e n t s 23 B a r r i e r s t o E m p l o y m e n t . T h e s e b a r r i e r s w e r e s u b j e c t i v e l y d e t e r m i n e d by t h e c o u n s e l l o r s o f t h e C a r e e r S t a r t p r o g r a m who met i n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h e a c h o f t h e 146 p a r t i c i p a n t s . The f o r m u s e d f o r c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a i s f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x C . A f t e r l i s t i n g t h e 23 B a r r i e r s t o E m p l o y m e n t t h e C h i - S q u a r e T e s t was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h o s e b a r r i e r s w e r e i n d e p e n d e n t f r o m t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f s u c c e s s . F o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r s , t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d e p e n d e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p a r t i c u l a r b a r r i e r and r a t e d l e v e l o f s u c c e s s i n t h e p r o g r a m , h o w e v e r , f i v e b a r r i e r s t o e m p l o y m e n t w e r e f o u n d t o be r e l a t e d t o s u c c e s s . T h e s e b a r r i e r s a r e : ' P r o b l e m w i t h A u t h o r i t y ' , ' D r e s s and M a n n e r ' , ' C l e a n l i n e s s ' , ' F a m i l y S i t u a t i o n ' , and ' A l c o h o l and D r u g s ' . D a t a on ' P r o b l e m w i t h A u t h o r i t y ' s h o w s , i n T a b l e 1 5 , t h a t t h e C h i - S q u a r e T e s t o f I n d e p e n d e n c e i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t P= . 0 1 8 5 s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h o s e who h a v e no p r o b l e m w i t h a u t h o r i t y and t h o s e who a c h i e v e d s u c c e s s i n t h e p r o g r a m . Of t h e s i x p a r t i c i p a n t s ' D r e s s and M a n n e r ' was f o u n d t o o f t h e s i x d r o p o u t s . The C h i h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t P= who d r o p p e d o u t o f t h e p r o g r a m , be an e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r t o f i v e S q u a r e T e s t o f I n d e p e n d e n c e i s 0 0 0 0 s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h o s e - 1 0 3 - p a r t i c i p a n t s whose d r e s s and manner was i n a p p r o p r i a t e w e r e l i k e l y t o w i t h d r a w f r o m t h e p r o g r a m . The e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r ' C l e a n l i n e s s ' was r e j e c t e d as b e i n g i n d e p e n d e n t f r o m s u c c e s s . O n l y two p a r t i c i p a n t s i n C a r e e r S t a r t showed ' C l e a n l i n e s s ' a s a b a r r i e r t o e m p l o y m e n t , one o f whom was h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l , w h i l e t h e o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t d r o p p e d o u t f r o m C a r e e r S t a r t . E i g h t y - s i x o f t h e 87 ' H i g h l y S u c c e s s f u l ' p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d n o t h a v e ' C l e a n l i n e s s ' a s an e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r . ' F a m i l y S i t u a t i o n ' , t h e f o u r t h e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 1 5 , was r e j e c t e d a s b e i n g i n d e p e n d e n t f r o m s u c c e s s a t t h e P = . 0 1 2 4 l e v e l . The mos t ' H i g h l y S u c c e s s f u l ' p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e t h o s e t h a t had no f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n p r o b l e m s w h i c h c o u l d p r e v e n t them f r o m g a i n i n g p e r m a n e n t e m p l o y m e n t . D a t a on ' A l c o h o l and D r u g s ' , shown i n T a b l e 1 5 , p o s e d no b a r r i e r t o 83 o f t h e 87 p a r t i c i p a n t s who w e r e h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l a t o b t a i n i n g and r e t a i n i n g e m p l o y m e n t a f t e r p r o g r a m e x i t . The C h i - S q u a r e T e s t o f I n d e p e n d e n c e i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t P = . 0 0 0 5 s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h o s e who h a v e no p r o b l e m w i t h e i t h e r a l c o h o l o f d r u g s and s u c c e s s i n t h e p r o g r a m . - 1 0 4 - TABLE 15 BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT CROSS-TABULATED WITH DEGREES OF SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESS- SUCCESS- FUL FUL NOT DROP ROW PER- X' SUCCESS- OUTS TOTAL CENT FUL PROBLEM WITH AUTHORITY BARRIER 5 7 NO BARRIER 82 32 0 14 2 4 14 132 10 90 DIFFICULTIES RELATING TO PEERS ATTITUDES IN PREVIOUS JOB LACK OF EDUCATION LACK OF WORKING EXPERIENCE 146 100 10.1 .0185 BARRIER 3 0 NO BARRIER 84 39 0 14 0 6 3 143 2 98 146 100 2.0 .1256 BARRIER 8 4 NO BARRIER 79 35 2 12 2 4 16 130 11 89 146 100 3.5 .3164 BARRIER NO BARRIER 48 39 23 16 11 3 6 0 88 58 60 40 146 100 6.8 .0756 BARRIER NO BARRIER 56 31 26 13 8 6 5 1 95 51 65 35 146 100 1.3 .7220 -105- TABLE 15 BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT CROSS-TABULATED WITH DEGREES OF SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESS- NOT DROP ROW PER- X' SUCCESS- FUL SUCCESS- OUTS TOTAL CENT FUL FUL PERSONAL OR SOCIAL PROBLEMS BARRIER 11 9 NO BARRIER 76 30 5 9 1 5 26 120 18 82 ECONOMY AGE DESIRE PARTICULAR JOB IMMATURITY 146 100 5.3 .1449 BARRIER 42 18 NO BARRIER 45 21 5 9 0 6 65 81 45 55 146 100 5.7 .1221 BARRIER 10 5 NO BARRIER 77 34 2 12 2 4 19 127 87 146 100 2.3 .4960 BARRIER 10 4 NO BARRIER 77 35 1 13 16 130 11 89 146 100 .45 .288 BARRIER 4 2 NO BARRIER 83 37 1 13 1 5 8 138 6 94 146 100 1.6 .6448 -106- TABLE 15 BARRIER TO EMPLOYMENT CROSS-TABULATED WITH DEGREES OF SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESS- NOT DROP ROW PER- X* P SUCCESS- FUL SUCCESS- OUTS TOTAL CENT FUL FUL JOB ACCESSIBILITY BARRIER 10 6 NO BARRIER 77 33 1 13 0 6 17 129 12 88 LACK OF SKILLS REQUIRED 146 100 1.5 .6597 BARRIER 22 14 NO BARRIER 65 25 5 9 4 2 45 101 31 69 146 100 5.4 .1390 KNOWLEDGE OF JOB SEARCH SKILLS BARRIER 40 20 NO BARRIER 47 19 4 10 4 2 68 78 47 53 DRESS AND MANNERS CLEANLINESS 146 100 3.1 .3681 BARRIER 3 5 NO BARRIER 84 34 2 12 5 1 15 131 10 90 146 100 39.1 .0000 BARRIER NO BARRIER 1 86 0 39 0 14 1 5 2 144 1 99 146 100 11.1 .0109 -107- TABLE 15 BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT CROSS-TABULATED WITH DEGREES OF SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESS- NOT DROP ROW PER- X2 SUCCESS FUL SUCCESS- OUTS TOTAL CENT FUL FUL COMMUNICATION SKILLS BARRIER 23 13 2 3 41 28 NO BARRIER 64 26 12 3 105 72 EYE CONTACT 146 100 3.3 .3345 BARRIER 2 3 0 0 5 3 NO BARRIER 85 36 14 6 141 97 146 100 3.1 .3632 PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEM BARRIER 0 2 0 0 2 99 NO BARRIER 87 37 14 6 144 1 146 100 5.5 .1349 HEALTH PROBLEMS BARRIER 6 6 1 1 14 10 NO BARRIER 81 33 13 5 132 90 146 100 2.6 .4433 FAMILY SITUATION BARRIER 16 15 7 3 41 28 NO BARRIER 71 24 7 3 105 72 146 100 10.8 .0124 DRUGS AND ALCOHOL BARRIER 4 3 5 2 14 10 NO BARRIER 83 36 9 4 132 90 146 100 17.5 .0005 -108- B. DEGREES OF SUCCESS CROSS-TABULATED WITH THE CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS, VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX, AND CULTURE FREE SELF-ESTEEM The c a t e g o r i e s o f s u c c e s s u s e d f o r t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e c h a p t e r a r e i d e n t i c a l t o t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s u s e d f o r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and b a r r i e r s t o e m p l o y m e n t . The f o u r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f s u c c e s s w e r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s t a f f o f t h e p r o j e c t . The p r e - t e s t . r e s u l t s i n c l u d e b o t h g r a d u a t e s f r o m t h e p r o g r a m and p a r t i c i p a n t s s t i l l i n t h e t r a i n i n g p o r t i o n . P a r t i c i p a n t s who w e r e s t i l l i n t h e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m had n o t c o m p l e t e d any p o s t - t e s t s p r i o r t o t h e c u t o f f d a t e o f A p r i l 3 0 , 1 9 8 6 . T a b l e 16 shows t h e number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n e a c h s u c c e s s c a t e g o r y i n e a c h o f t h e e i g h t C a n a d i a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s . One h u n d r e d and s i x t y one p a r t i c i p a n t s c o m p l e t e d a l l o f t h e t e s t s a d m i n i s t e r e d p r i o r t o p r o g r a m e n t r y . The number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s who w r o t e t h e p o s t - t e s t s v a r i e d w i t h e a c h t e s t , f r o m a l o w o f 83 t o a h i g h o f 9 1 . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t e s t s w e r e c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o g r a d e l e v e l e q u i v a l e n t s . ' E l e m e n t a r y ' i n c l u d e s g r a d e l e v e l s one t h r o u g h f i v e . ' I n t e r m e d i a t e ' i n c l u d e s g r a d e l e v e l s s i x t h r o u g h s e v e n . ' J u n i o r ' i n c l u d e s g r a d e l e v e l s e i g h t t h r o u g h n i n e , and ' S e n i o r ' i n c l u d e s g r a d e l e v e l s t e n t h r o u g h t w e l v e . The C h i - s q u a r e T e s t o f I n d e p e n d e n c e was c o n d u c t e d on e a c h o f t h e e i g h t a c a d e m i c s k i l l a r e a s . The t e s t r e s u l t s w e r e c a l c u l a t e d t w i c e , f i r s t on t h e p r e - t e s t s c o r e s and s e c o n d l y on - 1 0 9 - the p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was then c r o s s - t a b u l a t e d w i t h the s u c c e s s r a t i n g s c a l e of 'Dropout' through to ' H i g h l y S u c c e s s f u l ' . No r e l a t i o n s h i p was found to e x i s t between the c a t e g o r i e s of s u c c e s s and the academic f u n c t i o n i n g l e v e l , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the 'Reference S k i l l s ' p o s t - t e s t . T h i s t e s t i n d i c a t e s t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s who were ' S u c c e s s f u l ' or 'Very S u c c e s s f u l ' a l s o s c o r e d h i g h i n the s e n i o r range (grade 1 0 - 1 2 ) of the 'Reference S k i l l ' component of the Canadian Achievement t e s t s . - 1 1 0 - TABLE 16 CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS BY VARYING DEGREES OF SUCCESS ELEMEN- INTER- TARY MEDIATE PRE READING VOCABULARY HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 6 12 SUCCESSFUL 2 7 NOT SUCCESSFUL 2 0 DROPOUT 2 2 POST-READING VOCABULARY HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 1 6 SUCCESSFUL 0 1 NOT SUCCESSFUL 0 2 PRE-READING COMPREHENSION HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 10 8 SUCCESSFUL 5 4 NOT SUCCESSFUL 3 2 DROPOUT 3 2 POST-READING COMPREHENSION HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 3 4 SUCCESSFUL 2 2 NOT SUCCESSFUL 0 2 JR SR TOTAL PER- X' P CENT 18 55 91 56 10 21 40 25 2 13 17 11 5 4 13 8 161 100 10.5 .3043 6 42 55 62 4 21 26 30 0 5 7 8 88 100 5.2 .5163 10 63 91 56 6 25 40 25 0 12 17 11 0 8 13 8 161 100 6 .5 .6848 3 45 55 62 0 23 27 30 0 5 7 8 89 100 5.7 .4489 - 1 1 1 - TABLE 16 CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS BY VARYING DEGREES OF SUCCESS ELEMEN- INTER- JR SR TOTAL PER- X2 P TARY MEDIATE CENT PRE-REFERENCE SKILLS HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 12 11 10 58 91 56 SUCCESSFUL 9 3 5 23 40 25 NOT SUCCESSFUL 2 2 2 11 17 11 DROPOUT 2 3 4 4 13 8 161 100 9.3 .4015 POST-REFERENCE SKILLS HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 4 1 9 40 54 65 SUCCESSFUL 2 3 3 16 24 29 NOT SUCCESSFUL 2 1 0 2 5 6 83 100 11.7 .0682 PRE-SPELLING SKILLS HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 13 14 14 50 91 56 SUCCESSFUL 6 8 4 22 40 25 NOT SUCCESSFUL 5 4 1 7 17 11 DROPOUT 5 3 3 2 13 8 161 100 12.2 .2001 POST-SPELLING SKILLS HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 1 6 8 41 56 61 SUCCESSFUL 2 3 5 18 28 31 NOT SUCCESSFUL 2 1 1 3 7 8 91 100 9.4 .1478 -112- TABLE 16 CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS BY VARYING DEGREES OF SUCCESS ELEMEN- INTER- JR SR TOTAL PER- T~ P TARY MEDIATE CENT PRE-LANGUAGE MECHANICS HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 27 15 10 39 91 56 SUCCESSFUL 16 7 6 11 40 25 NOT SUCCESSFUL 8 0 4 5 17 11 DROPOUT 8 3 0 2 13 8 161 100 14.7 .0981 POST-LANGUAGE MECHANICS HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 9 2 3 42 56 62 SUCCESSFUL 6 2 1 18 27 30 NOT SUCCESSFUL 3 0 0 4 7 8 90 100 4.1 .6627 PRE-LANGUAGE EXPRESSION HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 21 16 8 46 91 56 SUCCESSFUL 8 9 4 19 40 25 NOT SUCCESSFUL 6 2 0 9 17 11 DROPOUT 7 3 1 2 13 8 161 100 10.9 .2785 POST-LANGUAGE EXPRESSION HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 7 4 2 42 55 62 SUCCESSFUL 1 4 1 21 27 30 NOT SUCCESSFUL 1 1 1 4 7 8 89 100 4.6 .5833 -113- TABLE 16 CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS BY VARYING DEGREES OF SUCCESS ELEMEN- INTER- TARY MEDIATE PRE-MATH COMPUTATION HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 22 21 SUCCESSFUL 13 12 NOT SUCCESSFUL 7 5 DROPOUT 5 4 POST-MATH COMPUTATION HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 3 8 SUCCESSFUL 1 6 NOT SUCCESSFUL 1 2 PRE-MATH CONCEPTS HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 20 20 SUCCESSFUL 14 9 NOT SUCCESSFUL 6 2 DROPOUT 2 6 POST-MATH CONCEPTS HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL 6 7 SUCCESSFUL 2 6 NOT SUCCESSFUL 1 1 JR SR TOTAL PER- X 2 P CENT 23 25 91 56 6 9 40 25 1 4 17 11 2 2 13 8 161 100 7.3 .6031 14 29 54 63 4 14 25 29 3 1 7 8 86 100 5.9 .4246 24 27 91 57 9 8 40 25 5 3 16 10 2 2 12 8 159 100 10.0 .3474 11 31 55 62 4 14 26 30 4 1 7 8 88 100 9.4 .1478 -114- T a b l e 17 s u m a r i z e s t h e r e s u l t s o f p r e and p o s t - t e s t s f r o m t h e V o c a t i o n a l Op i n i o n I n d e x . The C h i — S q u a r e T e s t o f I n d e p e n d e n c e was c o n d u c t e d on e a c h o f t h e 13 c a t e g o r i e s . The a n a l y s i s w e r e c o n d u c t e d t w i c e , o n c e on t h e p r e - t e s t s c o r e s and s e c o n d l y on t h e p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s . E a c h c a t e g o r y was t h e n c r o s s - t a b u l a t e d v r i t h t h e v a r y i n g d e g r e s s o f s u c c e s s . Two o f t h e 13 a r e a s t e s t e d showed a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s u c c e s s , w h i l e one m e r e l y shows a t r e n d t o w a r d s a r e l a t i o n s h i p . The 'New S i t u a t i o n s and P e o p l e ' p o s t - t e s t i t e m r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 1 7 , shows t h a t i n d e p e n d e n c e i s r e j e c t e d a t P = . 0 0 1 2 l e v e l . On c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e d a t a one c a n s e e t h a t a l l o f t h e f i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s who w e r e n o t s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e p r o g r a m had an e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r d e f i n e d a s 'New S i t u a t i o n s and P e o p l e ' . F i f t y - f o u r o f t h e 84 p a r t i c i p a n t s had no p r o b l e m w i t h e i t h e r new s i t u a t i o n s o r p e o p l e . T h e s e 54 p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e d e t e r m i n e d t o be q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l . The p r e - t e s t i t e m ' T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ' i n T a b l e 17 shows t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s u c c e s s and ' T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ' ( P = . 0 0 6 3 ) . The p a r t i c i p a n t s who d i d n ' t p e r c e i v e t h e a b i l i t y t o g e t t o w o r k a s a p r o b l e m a r e a w e r e more l i k e l y n o t t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e p r o g r a m ( 1 3 o u t o f 16) o r d r o p p e d o u t o f t h e p r o g r a m ( s e v e n o u t o f n i n e ) . - 1 1 5 - The p r e - t e s t i t e m ' A b i l i t y t o G e t and H o l d a J o b ' , a l s o shown i n T a b l e 1 7 , i n d i c a t e s a t r e n d t o w a r d s a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s u c c e s s and a t t i t u d e t o w a r d w o r k . H o w e v e r , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e p a r t i c i p a n t s who w e r e s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e p r o g r a m d i d n o t h a v e an a t t i t u d e p r o b l e m a b o u t g e t t i n g and k e e p i n g a j o b . - 1 1 6 - TABLE 17 VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX BY DEGREES OF SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESS- NOT DROP ROW PER- X^ P SUCCESS- FUL SUCCESS- OUT TOTAL CENT FUL FUL TIME TO CARE AND BE WITH FAMILY (PRE) TOO LOW 22 8 5 2 37 25 N/A PROBLEM 56 22 8 6 92 61 TOO HIGH 9 8 3 1 21 14 150 100 3.5 .7319 TIME TO CARE AND BE WITH FAMILY (POST) TOO LOW 13 6 2 0 21 25 N/A PROBLEM 39 8 2 0 49 58 TOO HIGH 7 6 1 0 14 17 84 100 PERSONAL FREEDOM (PRE) TOO LOW 8 5 3 1 17 11 N/A PROBLEM 59 21 8 7 95 63 TOO HIGH 20 12 5 1 38 26 150 100 4.3 .6273 PERSONAL FREEDOM (POST) TOO LOW 9 4 1 0 14 17 N/A PROBLEM 38 11 1 0 50 59 TOO HIGH 12 5 3 0 20 24 84 100 4.9 .2961 OVERALL LOSSES (PRE) TOO LOW 12 7 3 3 25 17 N/A PROBLEM 63 22 10 5 100 67 TOO HIGH 12 9 3 1 25 16 150 100 4.8 .5589 -117- TABLE 17 VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX BY DEGREES OF SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESS- NOT SUCCESS- FUL SUCCESS- FUL FUL DROP ROW PER- OUT TOTAL CENT OVERALL LOSSES (POST) TOO LOW 10 4 N/A PROBLEM 40 10 TOO HIGH 9 6 INDEPENDENCE (PRE) TOO LOW 27 8 N/A PROBLEM 46 23 TOO HIGH 14 7 INDEPENDENCE (POST) TOO LOW 17 5 N/A PROBLEM 37 9 TOO HIGH 5 6 BETTER LIFE STYLE (PRE) TOO LOW 0 0 N/A PROBLEM 50 22 TOO HIGH 26 15 BETTER LIFE STYLE (POST) TOO LOW 6 4 N/A PROBLEM 36 10 TOO HIGH 17 6 2 0 16 19 1 0 51 61 2 0 17 20 84 100 6.1 .1875 9 3 47 31 4 3 76 51 3 3 27 18 150 100 9.2 .1598 3 0 25 30 2 0 48 57 0 0 11 13 84 100 3.5 .7374 0 0 0 0 9 5 86 57 5 3 49 33 150 100 3.5 .7374 0 0 10 12 4 0 50 59 1 0 24 29 84 100 2.6 .6147 -118- TABLE 17 VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX BY DEGREES OF SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESS- NOT DROP ROW PER X* P SUCCESS- FUL SUCCESS- OUTS TOTAL CENT FUL FUL BENEFITS TO WORKER (PRE) TOO LOW 29 10 3 3 45 30 N/A PROBLEM 51 23 11 5 90 60 TOO HIGH 7 5 2 1 15 10 150 100 2.2 .8914 BENEFITS TO WORKER (POST) TOO LOW 16 5 3 0 24 28 N/A PROBLEM 38 12 1 0 51 61 TOO HIGH 5 3 1 0 9 11 84 100 4.3 .3567 BENEFITS TO CHILDREN (PRE) TOO LOW 33 19 4 4 60 40 N/A PROBLEM 50 18 12 5 85 57 TOO HIGH 4 1 0 0 5 3 150 100 BENEFITS TO CHILDREN (POST) TOO LOW 24 11 2 0 37 44 N/A PROBLEM 31 8 3 0 42 52 TOO HIGH 4 1 0 0 5 6 84 100 1.6 .7930 OVERALL ATTRACTIONS (PRE) TOO LOW 27 11 1 3 42 28 N/A PROBLEM 51 23 13 4 91 61 TOO HIGH 9 4 2 2 17 11 150 100 5.7 .4555 -119- TABLE 17 VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX BY DEGREES OF SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESS- NOT SUCCESS- FUL SUCCESS- FUL FUL OVERALL ATTRACTIONS (POST) TOO LOW 15 5 1 N/A PROBLEM 36 11 4 TOO HIGH 8 A 0 MEDICAL (PRE) PRESENT 36 10 8 NOT PRESENT 51 28 8 MEDICAL (POST) PRESENT 19 7 1 NOT PRESENT AO 13 A CHILD CARE AND FAMILY (PRE) PRESENT 21 6 6 NOT PRESENT 66 32 10 CHILD CARE AND FAMILY (POST) PRESENT 7 A 0 NOT PRESENT 52 16 5 NEW SITUATIONS AND PEOPLE (PRE) PRESENT 3A 17 8 NOT PRESENT 53 21 8 DROP ROW PER- J7 P OUT CENT 0 21 25 0 51 61 0 12 14 8A 100 1.6 .7976 5 59 39 A 91 61 150 100 A.6 .2030 0 27 32 0 57 68 8A 100 .Al .8134 3 36 24 6 114 76 150 100 3.A .3294 0 11 13 0 73 87 84 100 1.6 .4339 5 64 43 A 86 57 150 100 1.4 .6853 -120- TABLE 17 VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX BY DEGREES OF SUCCESS HIGHLY SUCCESS- NOT DROP ROW PER- X' SUCCESS- FUL SUCCESS- OUT TOTAL CENT FUL FUL NEW SITUATIONS AND PEOPLE (POST) PRESENT 15 10 NOT PRESENT 44 10 5 0 0 0 30 54 36 64 84 100 13.4 .0012 ABILITY TO GET AND HOLD A JOB (PRE) PRESENT 19 13 NOT PRESENT 68 25 8 8 4 5 44 106 29 71 ABILITY TO GET AND HOLD A JOB (POST) 150 100 7.0 .0693 PRESENT 9 7 NOT PRESENT 50 13 1 4 0 0 17 67 20 80 84 100 3.6 .1646 TRANSPORTATION (PRE) PRESENT 52 20 NOT PRESENT 35 18 3 13 77 73 51 49 TRANSPORTATION (POST) 150 100 12.3 .0063 PRESENT 28 12 NOT PRESENT 31 8 4 1 0 0 44 40 52 48 84 100 2.5 .2769 -121- T a b l e 18 summarizes the item ' S e l f - E s t e e m ' compared to the p r e - d e t e r m i n e d degrees of s u c c e s s i n the program. The l e v e l s of s e l f - e s t e e m range from very low to very h i g h . The Chi-Square Test of Independence was conducted on the pre and p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s of the g e n e r a l , o v e r a l l , p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l s e l f - e s t e e m s c o r e s of each p a r t i c i p a n t . None of the f o u r a r e a s i n T a b l e 18 were found to have any r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s u c c e s s . While 159 p a r t i c i p a n t s completed the s e l f - e s t e e m p r e - t e s t s , the completed p o s t - t e s t s range from a low of 90 to a h i g h of 93. -122- TABLE 18 SELF-ESTEEM AND DEGREES OF SUCCESS VERY LOW INTERME- LOW DIATE GENERAL SELF-ESTEEM (PRE) H.SUCCESSFUL 3 6 28 SUCCESSFUL 1 6 15 NOT SUCCESSFUL 0 5 5 DROPOUT 0 2 4 GENERAL SELF-ESTEEM (POST) H.SUCCESSFUL 0 4 8 SUCCESSFUL 0 3 6 NOT SUCCESSFUL 0 1 2 DROPOUT 0 0 0 OVERALL SELF-ESTEEM (PRE) H.SUCCESSFUL 7 9 41 SUCCESSFUL 7 7 19 NOT SUCCESSFUL 2 5 8 DROPOUT 2 2 5 OVERALL SELF-ESTEEM(POST) H.SUCCESSFUL 3 5 18 SUCCESSFUL 2 4 7 NOT SUCCESSFUL 1 1 3 DROPOUT 0 1 0 H.SUCCESSFUL - HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL HIGH VERY TOTAL PER- X P HIGH CENT 36 17 90 57 17 1 40 25 6 1 17 11 6 0 12 7 159 100 23 25 60 64 8 8 25 27 4 0 7 8 17.3 .1372 1 0 1 1 93 100 8.2 .5056 20 13 90 57 5 2 40 25 1 1 17 11 3 0 12 7 159 57 22 12 60 65 6 6 25 27 2 0 7 7 0 0 1 1 93 100 14.3 .2784 12.4 .4131 -123- TABLE 18 SELF-ESTEEM AND DEGREES OF SUCCESS VERY LOW INTERME- LOW DIATE PERSONAL SELF-ESTEEM(PRE) H.SUCCESSFUL 9 12 30 SUCCESSFUL 7 8 14 NOT SUCCESSFUL 2 7 2 DROPOUT 1 3 3 PERSONAL SELF-ESTEEM(POST) H.SUCCESSFUL 2 7 16 SUCCESSFUL 1 6 7 NOT SUCCESSFUL 1 3 0 DROPOUT 0: 1 0 SOCIAL SELF-ESTEEM (PRE) H.SUCCESSFUL 0 2 11 SUCCESSFUL 0 1 8 NOT SUCCESSFUL 0 1 2 DROPOUT 0 1 3 SOCIAL SELF-ESTEEM (POST) H.SUCCESSFUL 0 1 5 SUCCESSFUL 0 1 2 NOT SUCCESSFUL 0 1 0 DROPOUT 0 0 0 HIGH VERY TOTAL PER- X* P HIGH CENT 25 14 90 57 7 4 40 25 4 • 2. 17 11 4 1 12 7 159 100 12.6 .3949 25 10 60 64 6 5 25 27 2 1 7 8 0 0 1 1 93 100 36 41 90 57 17 14 40 25 7 7 17 11 5 3 12 7 14.1 .2892 159 100 5.3 .8011 24 30 60 64 10 12 25 27 3 3 7 8 1 0 1 1 93 100 HSUCCESSFUL = HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL -124- C. PAIRED SAMPLE PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF THE CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS, VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX, CULTURE FREE SELF-ESTEEM. I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e a c t u a l c h a n g e b e t w e e n p a r t i c i p a n t s p r e and p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s , i t was f i r s t n e c e s s a r y t o p a i r t h e s a m p l e s . S i n c e many o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s who w r o t e t h e p r e - t e s t s d i d n o t w r i t e t h e p o s t - t e s t s , v e r y s m a l l s a m p l e s e t s w e r e c r e a t e d . The p r e - t e s t s c o r e s u s e d f o r t h e c o m p a r i s o n a r e t h o s e c a s e s w h e r e p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s a l s o e x i s t . A non p a r a m e t r i c t e s t , t h e S i g n T e s t , was u s e d t o c o m p u t e a c t u a l c a s e s t h a t e i t h e r i n c r e a s e d o r d e c r e a s e d o r t i e d t h e p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s f r o m t h e p r e - t e s t s c o r e s . The s e c o n d m e t h o d u s e d was a f r e q u e n c y t a b l e t h a t p r o v i d e d t h e mean a v e r a g e o f e a c h g r o u p , t h e p r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y g r o u p , t h e p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y g r o u p , and l a s t , t h e p r e - g r o u p s c o r e s s u b s t r a c t e d f r o m t h e p o s t - g r o u p s c o r e s . T a b l e 19 shows t h e a v e r a g e g a i n i n g r a d e l e v e l s b e t w e e n p r e and p o s t - s c o r e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e g r a d e l e v e l s i n c r e a s e d more i n t h e l a n g u a g e and m a t h e m a t i c s a r e a s t h a n i n r e a d i n g , s p e l l i n g and r e f e r e n c e s k i l l s . I n ma th c o m p u t a t i o n , s e v e n t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r g r a d e 8 2 . M a r i j a J . N o r u s i s . I n t r o d u c t o r y S t a t i s t i c s G u i d e f o r S . P . S . S . X . New Y o r k , M c G r a w - H i l l Book C o m p a n y , 1 9 8 3 . - 1 2 5 - l e v e l standing i n t h e i r p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s , c o n t r a s t e d with t h i r t y - e i g h t percent i n r e f e r e n c e s k i l l s . The grade l e v e l i n c r e a s e i n r e f e r e n c e s k i l l s was .6, while i n math concepts the t o t a l grade l e v e l gain was almost two f u l l grade l e v e l s . I t may be s t a t e d that computer a s s i s t e d l e a r n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n b a s i c and high school s k i l l s s i g n i f i c a n t l y improved grade l e v e l standings i n both language and mathematics, but did not s i g n i f i c a n t l y improve read i n g , s p e l l i n g or r e f e r e n c e s k i l l s . -126- TABLE 19 PAIRED SAMPLES- PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF THE CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS MEAN AVERAGE NEGATIVE CHANGE TIES POSITIVE CHANGE TOTAL READING VOCABULARY PRE-SCORES 11. POST-SCORES 11.7 POST-PRE .7 PERCENT 17 20 28 32 42 48 87 100 READING COMPREHENSION PRE-SCORES 11. POST-SCORES 11.7 POST-PRE .7 PERCENT 14 16 37 42 37 42 88 100 REFERENCE SKILLS PRE-SCORES 10.7 POST-SCORES 11.3 POST-PRE .6 PERCENT 17 21 34 41 31 38 82 100 SPELLING PRE-SCORES 10.2 POST-SCORES 11.2 PRE-POST 1. PERCENT 22 24 28 31 40 45 90 100 -127- TABLE 19 PAIRED SAMPLES- PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF THE CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS MEAN AVERAGE NEGATIVE CHANGE TIES POSITIVE CHANGE TOTAL LANGUAGE MECHANICS PRE-SCORES 8.9 POST-SCORES 10.7 POST-PRE 1.8 PERCENT 12 14 25 28 52 58 89 100 LANGUAGE EXPRESSION PRE-SCORES 9.4 POST-SCORES 11.2 POST-PRE 1.8 PERCENT 19 22 19 22 50 56 88 100 MATH COMPUTATION PRE-SCORES 8.8 POST-SCORES 10.5 POST-PRE 1.7 PERCENT 11 13 13 15 61 72 85 100 MATH CONCEPTS PRE-SCORES 8.8 POST-SCORES 10.6 POST-PRE 1.8 PERCENT 13 15 15 17 59 68 87 100 -128- E i g h t y - o n e p a r t i c i p a n t s w r o t e b o t h p r e and p o s t V o c a t i o n a l O p i n i o n I n d e x t e s t s . T a b l e 20 s u m m a r i z e s t h e a c t u a l c a s e s t h a t e i t h e r i n c r e a s e d , d e c r e a s e d o r t i e d p o s t - t e s t s i n e a c h c a t e g o r y . The p o s t - m e a n a v e r a g e i s t h e n s u b t r a c t e d f r o m t h e p r e - m e a n a v e r a g e i n o r d e r t o l e a r n w h e t h e r t h e c h a n g e h a s b e e n p o s i t i v e , n e g i t i v e , o r a t i e . A v a l u e l a b e l was a s s i g n e d t o e a c h c h a n g e a r e a . I f t h e b a r r i e r t o e m p l o y m e n t was ' P r e s e n t ' t h e n u m e r i c a l v a l u e w o u l d be o n e . I f t h e b a r r i e r was ' N o t P r e s e n t ' , t h e n u m e r i c a l v a l u e w o u l d be z e r o . The d e s i r e d n u m e r i c a l v a l u e f o r t h e mean a v e r a g e w o u l d be l e s s t h a n . 5 . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one c a t e g o r y , a l l o f t h e p r e - t e s t mean a v e r a g e s w e r e q u i t e l o w . A f t e r p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e p o s t - t e s t mean a v e r a g e s d e c r e a s e d . The s c o r e s o f t h e 81 c a s e s became e v e n c l o s e r t o t h e d e s i r e d n u m e r i c a l v a l u e o f z e r o . The e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r ' T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ' d e m o n s t r a t e s a p r o b l e m a r e a . The p r e - t e s t s c o r e i s . 6 3 0 w h i c h i s c l o s e t o t h e n u m e r i c a l v a l u e l a b l e o f o n e . The p o s t - t e s t s c o r e , w h i l e c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s i s . 5 1 9 s t i l l a b o v e t h e . 5 l e v e l . - 1 2 9 - TABLE 20 PAIRED SAMPLES- PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF THE VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX MEDICAL PRESENT NOT • MEAN NEG. NO POS. TOTAL PRESENT AVER. CHANGE CHANGE CHANGE CASES PRE 27 54 .333 POST 25 56 .309 POST-PRE - 2 2 -.24 16 51 14 81 PERCENT 20 63 17 100 CHILD CARE AND FAMILY PRE 17 64 .210 POST 10 71 .123 POST-PRE - 7 7 -.87 12 64 5 81 PERCENT 15 79 6 100 NEW SITUATION AND PEOPLE PRE 35 46 .432 POST 27 54 .333 POST-PRE - 8 8 -.99 20 49 12 81 PERCENT 25 60 15 100 ABILITY TO GET AND HOLD A JOB PRE 24 57 .296 POST 16 65 .198 POST-PRE -.98 13 63 5 81 PERCENT 16 78 6 100 TRANSPORTATION PRE 51 30 .630 POST 42 39 .519 POST-PRE - 9 9 ' -.111 24 42 15 81 PERCENT 30 52 18 100 VALUES LABELS FOR MEAN AVERAGE: NOT PRESENT-O, PRESENT=1 -130- T a b l e 20 g o e s on t o s u m m a r i z e t h e c a s e s t h a t i n c r e a s e , d e c r e a s e o r t i e p r e - t e s t s c o r e s and p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s . The n u m e r i c a l v a l u e l a b e l s a s s i g n e d t o t h e mean a v e r a g e s r a n g e f r o m ' T o o L o w ' r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e n u m e r i c a l v a l u e o f t w o , and ' T o o H i g h ' r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e n u m e r i c a l v a l u e o f t h r e e . The mean a v e r a g e s a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l p r e and p o s t - t e s t s i n e a c h c a t e g o r y . The p o s t - m e a n a v e r a g e i s s u b t r a c t e d f r o m t h e p r e - m e a n a v e r a g e i n o r d e r t o l e a r n w h e t h e r t h e c h a n g e h a s been n e g a t i v e , p o s i t i v e , o r a t i e . I t i s d e s i r a b l e f o r t h e mean a v e r a g e p o s t - s c o r e s t o be c l o s e t o t h e n u m e r i c a l v a l u e o f t w o . I n t h e b a r r i e r ' T i m e t o C a r e and Be W i t h F a m i l y ' t h e mean a v e r a g e p o s t - s c o r e i s 1 . 9 0 1 , q u i t e c l o s e t o t h e d e s i r e d n u m e r i c a l v a l u e o f t w o . The mean a v e r a g e p o s t - s c o r e i s . 0 4 9 h i g h e r t h a n t h e p r e - m e a n a v e r a g e o f 1 . 8 5 2 . T h i s means t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s who w e r e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t a j o b p r e s e n t i n g l e s s ' T i m e t o C a r e and Be W i t h F a m i l y ' had p e r c e i v e d t h i s f a c t o r as b e i n g l e s s o f a p r o b l e m a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e C a r e e r S t a r t p r o g r a m t h a n when t h e y f i r s t b e g a n . - 1 3 1 - TABLE 20 PAIRED SAMPLES- PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF THE VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX TOO NOT A TOO MEAN NEG. NO POS. TOTAL LOW PROBLEM HIGH AVER. CHANGE CHANGE CHANGE CASES TIME TO CARE AND BE WITH FAMILY PRE POST POST-PRE - 1 - 2 3 .049 15 47 19 81 PERCENT 19 58 . 23 100 PERSONAL FREEDOM PRE POST POST-PRE 5 - 4 - 1 - .074 21 45 15 81 PERCENT 26 56 18 100 OVERALL LOSSES PRE POST POST-PRE 2 - 3 1 .15 15 53 13 81 PERCENT 19 65 16 100 INDEPENDENCE PRE POST POST-PRE - 3 5 - 2 .012 17 46 18 81 PERCENT 21 57 22 100 BETTER LIFE STYLE 22 49 10 1.852 21 47 13 1.901 9 53 19 2. 123 14 49 18 2.049 14 53 14 2.000 16 50 15 1.985  - 3 27 42 12 1.815 24 47 10 1 .827  - 2 PRE 11 47 23 2. 148 POST 9 49 23 2.173 POST-PRE - 2 2 0 2. 173 17 46 18 81 PERCENT 21 57 22 100 VALUE LABELS FOR THE MEAN AVERAGE: TOO L0W=1, NOT A PR0BLEM=2, TOO HIGH=3 -132- TABLE 20 PAIRED SAMPLES- PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF THE VOCATIONAL OPINION INDEX TOO NOT TOO MEAN NEG. NO POS. TOTAL LOW PROBLEM HIGH AVER. CHANGE CHANGE CHANGE CASES BENEFITS TO WORKER PRE 28 44 9 1.765 POST 22 50 9 1.840 POST-PRE -6 6 0 .075 14 46 21 81 PERCENT 17 57 26 100 BENEFITS TO CHILDREN PRE 32 47 2 1.630 POST 34 42 5 1.642 POST-PRE 2 - 5 3 .012 14 52 15 81 PERCENT 17 64 19 100 OVERALL ATTRACTIONS PRE 24 50 7 1. 790 POST 20 49 12 1.901 POST-PRE - 4 - 1 5 • 111 11 50 20 81 PERCENT 14 62 24 100 VALUE LABELS FOR THE MEAN AVERAGE: TOO L0W=1, NOT A PR0BLEM=2, TOO HIGH=3 -133- N i n e t y t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s w r o t e b o t h t h e p r e and p o s t - t e s t o f t h e C u l t u r e F r e e S e l f - E s t e e m I n d e x . T a b l e 21 shows t h e r a t e o f c h a n g e b e t w e e n t h e two mean a v e r a g e s c o r e s . V a l u e l a b e l s w e r e a s s i g n e d t o t h e s c o r e s . ' V e r y L o w ' s e l f - e s t e e m i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e n u m e r i c a l v a l u e o f o n e , ' L o w ' i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e number t w o , ' I n t e r m e d i a t e ' s e l f - e s t e e m i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h r e e , ' H i g h ' by t h e n u m e r i c a l v a l u e o f f o u r , and ' V e r y H i g h ' s e l f - e s t e e m by t h e number f i v e . The mean a v e r a g e p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s w e r e s u b t r a c t e d f r o m t h e mean a v e r a g e p r e - t e s t s c o r e s . They show h i g h e r s e l f - e s t e e m a f t e r p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a n p r i o r t o e n t r a n c e . The s o c i a l s e l f - e s t e e m c a t a g o r y i s t h e c l o s e s t t o t h e d e s i r e d v a l u e l a b e l o f f i v e w i t h a p o s t - m e a n a v e r a g e s c o r e o f 4 . 3 4 4 . - 1 3 4 - TABLE 21 PAIRED SAMPLES- PRE AND POST-TEST RESULTS OF THE CULTURE FREE SELF-ESTEEM TEST VERY LOW INTER- HIGH AND MEAN NEG. NO POS. TOTAL AND LOW MEDIATE VERY HIGH AVER. CHANGE CHANGE CHANGE CASES PERSONAL SELF-ESTEEM PRE 28 29 36 3.075 POST 21 23 49 3.430 POST-PRE - 7 - 6 13 .355 17 36 39 93 PERCENT 19 39 42 100 SOCIAL SELF-ESTEEM PRE 4 13 76 4.183 POST 3 7 83 4.344 POST-PRE - 1 - 6 - 7 .161 18 46 29 93 PERCENT 19 50 31 100 GENERAL SELF-ESTEEM PRE 16 30 47 3.355 POST 8 16 69 4.011 POST-PRE - 8 - 14 22 .656 8 32 53 93 PERCENT 9 34 57 100. OVERALL SELF-ESTEEM PRE 26 42 25 2.914 POST 17 28 48 3.462 POST-PRE - 9 - 14 23 .548 10 41 42 93 PERCENT 11 44 45 100 VALUES LABELS FOR THE MEAN AVERAGE: very low= 1, low= 2, in te rmedia te= 3, high= 4, very high= 5. D. SUCCESS RATE OF CAREER START PARTICIPANTS REQUIRED TO MEET THE FUNDING CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AND IMMIGRATION CANADA. I n f o r m a t i o n f o r T a b l e 22 was t a k e n f r o m t h e c o m p u t e r d a t a b a s e f i l e s and v a r i e s f r o m t h e i n f o r m a t i o n k e p t m a n u a l l y by p r o g r a m s t a f f . The m a i n d i f f e r e n c e i s f o u n d i n t h e n u m b e r s o f a p p l i c a n t s a c c e p t e d i n t o t h e s e l e c t i o n p h a s e . The m o n t h l y r e p o r t s k e p t m a n u a l l y show t h r e e more a p p l i c a n t s , b r i n g i n g t h e t o t a l f r o m 172 t o 1 7 5 . I t i s f e l t by p r o g r a m s t a f f t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n e n t e r e d i n t o t h e c o m p u t e r i s more a c c u r a t e , a s t h e t h r e e p e o p l e n o t i n c l u d e d w e r e i n t h e s e l e c t i o n p h a s e f o r s u c h a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e t h a t t h e y w e r e n o t e n t e r e d i n t o t h e c o m p u t e r . The p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e o f t h e p r o g r a m i s t o p l a c e a min imum o f 50 g r a d u a t e s i n e m p l o y m e n t o r f u r t h e r e m p l o y m e n t d i r e c t e d t r a i n i n g . The s e c o n d a r y o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p r o g r a m a r e t o e n r o l l a min imum o f 75 p a r t i c i p a n t s and s e c o n d l y t o g r a d u a t e 75 p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . The p r o j e c t was s u c c e s s f u l i n m e e t i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s s e t o u t by E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a . I n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f o p e r a t i o n , t h e number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s h i r e d e x c e e d e d t h e s e c o n d a r y o b j e c t i v e by 28 p e r c e n t . A l t h o u g h o n l y 71 p e r c e n t o f t h i s number had g r a d u a t e d by J u l y 3 1 , 1 9 8 5 , 22 w e r e s t i l l i n t r a i n i n g . A f t e r e x c l u d i n g t h i s number w h i c h w e r e c a r r i e d f o r w a r d i n t o t h e n e x t f i s c a l y e a r , i t was f o u n d t h a t 92 p e r c e n t - 1 3 6 - g r a d u a t e d . A t o t a l o f 72 p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e i n c l u d e d on t h e f i v e day p l a c e m e n t s t a t i s t i c s ; h o w e v e r , f o u r d i d n o t g r a d u a t e s i n c e t h e y e i t h e r q u i t o r w e r e f i r e d . S i x t y - e i g h t g r a d u a t e s w e r e p l a c e d i n e m p l o y m e n t o r f u r t h e r e m p l o y m e n t d i r e c t e d t r a i n i n g . T h i s e x c e e d e d t h e o b j e c t i v e o f 50 g r a d u a t e s by 36 p e r c e n t . The t i m e p e r i o d o f A u g u s t 1, 1985 t o A p r i l 3 0 , 1986 i n c l u d e s o n l y 75 p e r c e n t o f t h e 1 9 8 5 - 8 6 f i s c a l y e a r ( A u g u s t 1, 1985 - J u l y 3 1 , 1 9 8 6 ) . A l t h o u g h o n l y 52 p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e h i r e d d u r i n g t h i s t i m e p e r i o d , 22 w e r e c a r r i e d f o r w a r d f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r . T a b l e 22 a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e number o f g r a d u a t e s and t h e number o f 5 day p l a c e m e n t s f r o m A u g u s t 1985 t o A p r i l 1986 a l r e a d y e x c e e d s t h e o b j e c t i v e s s e t f o r t h e e n t i r e y e a r . - 1 3 7 - TABLE 22 TRAINING AND PLACEMENT STATISTICS AUGUST 0 7 , 1 9 8 4 - APRIL 3 0 , 1986 APPLICANTS A c c e p t e d i n t o t h e s e l e c t i o n p h a s e o f t h e p r o g r a m PARTICIPANTS H i r e d i n t o t h e t r a i n i n g p h a s e o f t h e p r o g r a m C a r r i e d f o r w a r d ( 1 9 8 4 - 8 5 ) TOTAL I n t r a i n i n g ( a s o f A p r i l 3 0 , 1 9 8 6 ) Q u i t F i r e d G r a d u a t e d EMPLOYMENT/EDUCATION E m p l o y e d 5 d a y s o r more f o r min imum o f 2 4 h r / w k I n s c h o o l 5 d a y s o r more f o r m i n i m u m o f 2 4 h r / w k TOTAL August 7 , 1984 to July 3 1 , 1985 113 96 96 22 3 3 68 67 5 72 August 1, 1985 to A p r i l 3 0 , 1986 59 52 22 74 11 0 0 63 60 2 62 E m p l o y e d 10 w e e k s o r more f o r min imum o f 2 4 h r / w k I n s c h o o l 10 w e e k s o r more f o r min imum o f 2 4 h r / w k TOTAL 40 5 45 50 1 51 - 1 3 8 - E. SUMMARY S e c t i o n A shows f o u r c a t e g o r i e s o f s u c c e s s i n p a r t i c i p a n t p e r f o r m a n c e r a n g i n g f r o m t h e ' D r o p o u t ' c a t e g o r y t o t h e ' H i g h l y S u c c e s s f u l ' c a t e g o r y . The C a r e e r S t a r t s t a f f r a t e d e a c h p a r t i c i p a n t ' s s u c c e s s . The i n f o r m a t i o n was c r o s s - t a b u l a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( f o u n d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e ) and b a r r i e r s t o e m p l o y m e n t ( a l s o f o u n d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e ) . Of t h e t w e l v e p a r t i c i p a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n v e s t i g a t e d o n l y two y i e l d e d C h i - S q u a r e v a l u e s o f . 0 5 o r l e s s . T h e s e a r e ' P r e v i o u s E d u c a t i o n L e v e l ' and ' D u r a t i o n o f L a s t J o b ' . The ' S u c c e s s f u l ' and ' H i g h l y S u c c e s s f u l ' p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e n o t i c a b l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s e n i o r h i g h , g r a d u a t e , and p o s t g r a d u a t e e d u c a t i o n l e v e l c a t e g o r i e s . ' D u r a t i o n o f L a s t J o b ' when c r o s s - t a b u l a t e d w i t h t h e d e g r e e s o f s u c c e s s i n d i c a t e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h s p o r a d i c w o r k h i s t o r i e s o r l a c k o f work e x p e r i e n c e w e r e more l i k e l y t o d r o p o u t t h a n w e r e t h o s e p a r t i c i p a n t s who had w o r k e d f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s o f t i m e . F i v e o f t h e 21 e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r s w e r e shown t o h a v e an a d v e r s e e f f e c t on t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . The f i v e b a r r i e r s w e r e ' D r e s s and M a n n e r ' , ' P r o b l e m s w i t h A u t h o r i t y ' , ' C l e a n l i n e s s ' , ' F a m i l y S i t u a t i o n ' and ' A l c o h o l and D r u g s ' . P a r t i c i p a n t s who p e r c e i v e d t h e s e a s b a r r i e r s t o o b t a i n i n g j o b s w e r e e i t h e r n o t s u c c e s s f u l o f d r o p p e d o u t o f t h e p r o g r a m . - 1 3 9 - S e c t i o n B shows r e s u l t s o f c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s b e t w e e n d e g r e e s o f s u c c e s s by p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h r e e t e s t s ; t h e C a n a d i a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t , t h e V o c a t i o n a l O p i n i o n I n d e x , and t h e C u l t u r e F r e e S e l f - E s t e e m T e s t . T e s t i n g f o l l o w i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e a c a d e m i c ' R e f e r e n c e S k i l l s ' i n d i c a t e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s who w e r e s u c c e s s f u l a l s o s c o r e d h i g h i n t h i s t e s t . Two o f t h e t h i r t e e n e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r s t e s t e d i n t h e V o c a t i o n a l O p i n i o n I n d e x showed a r e l a t i o n s h i p v r i t h t h e d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h e s e w e r e 'New S i t u a t i o n s and P e o p l e ' and ' T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ' . I n b o t h o f t h e s e a r e a s , p a r t i c i p a n t s who w e r e s u c c e s s f u l d i d n o t d e c r e a s e b a r r i e r s t o e m p l o y m e n t . T h e ' S e l f - E s t e e m ' a r e a s t e s t e d p r o v e d t o h a v e no r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s u c c e s s o f t h e C a r e e r S t a r t p a r t i c i p a n t s . S e c t i o n C shows r e s u l t s o f p a i r e d s a m p l e t e s t s c o r e s f r o m t h e t h r e e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d t e s t s . G r a d e l e v e l s i n t h e b a s i c and h i g h s c h o o l s k i l l s i n c r e a s e d more i n t h e l a n g u a g e and m a t h e m a t i c a r e a s t h a n i n t h e r e a d i n g , s p e l l i n g , and r e f e r e n c e s k i l l s . A l l o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l O p i n i o n I n d e x p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s d e c r e a s e d f r o m p r e - t e s t s c o r e s . T h i s means t h a t t h e b a r r i e r s t o e m p l o y m e n t w e r e r e d u c e d a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r o j e c t , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w h i c h r e m a i n e d a p r o b l e m a r e a f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . T a b l e 21 shows t h a t t h e s e l f - e s t e e m o f p a r t i c i p a n t s was r a i s e d a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r o j e c t . - 1 4 0 - S e c t i o n D d i s c u s s e s the success of the p r o j e c t i n meeting the q u a n t i f i a b l e o b j e c t i v e s of Employment and Immigration Canada. During the f i r s t year the o b j e c t i v e s were exceeded by 36 percent and, during the f i r s t nine month period of the second year, the o b j e c t i v e s were already exceeded at the end of that p e r i o d . - 1 4 1 - CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS A. SUMMARY Work on t h e t h e s i s b e g a n i n J u n e , 1 9 8 4 , when t h e C a r e e r S t a r t p r o j e c t was d e s i g n e d . I t h a s t a k e n two and one h a l f y e a r s t o c o m p l e t e t h e r e s e a r c h . The p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h e s t u d y was c h o s e n f r o m 172 a p p l i c a n t s , t h r e e o f whom w e r e o v e r t h e age o f 24 and w e r e t h e r e f o r e e x c l u d e d . The r e m a i n i n g 169 a p p l i c a n t s i n t h e p r o j e c t f o r m e d t h e p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h e s t u d y . I n f o r m a t i o n on t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n was t a k e n f r o m a s t a n d a r d f o r m u s e d by t h e s t a f f o f t h e p r o j e c t d u r i n g t h e a p p l i c a n t s ' f i r s t i n t e r v i e w ( A p p e n d i x B ) . I n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t many s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t h e p o p u l a t i o n s t u d i e d and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d u n e m p l o y e d y o u t h i n t h e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e s e c t i o n . The a p p l i c a n t s w e r e b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 15 and 2 4 . S i x t y - s i x p e r c e n t w e r e m a l e . F o r t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t l e f t t h e i r l a s t j o b b e c a u s e t h e y had b e e n l a i d o f f . S i x t y - o n e p e r c e n t had n o t g r a d u a t e d f r o m g r a d e 1 2 . The m a j o r i t y had b e e n u n e m p l o y e d f o r more t h a n t h r e e m o n t h s , and w e r e f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r t e d by e i t h e r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e o r u n e m p l o y m e n t i n s u r a n c e . S l i g h t l y f e w e r t h a n o n e - h a l f o f t h e a p p l i c a n t s had a c r i m i n a l h i s t o r y ( m a i n l y p r o p e r t y damage r e l a t e d ) and t h i r t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e a p p l i c a n t s w e r e s t i l l l i v i n g a t home . - 1 4 2 - I n M a y , 1 9 8 6 , a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e s t u d y , t h e s t a f f o f t h e p r o j e c t r a t e d t h e 169 a p p l i c a n t s a c c o r d i n g t o d e g r e e s o f s u c c e s s . The c a t e g o r i e s u s e d w e r e ' H i g h l y S u c c e s s f u l ' , ' S u c c e s s f u l ' , ' N o t S u c c e s s f u l ' and ' D r o p o u t s ' . T h i s r a t i n g s c a l e p e r m i t t e d an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h o s e a p p l i c a n t s who w e r e h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l o r d r o p o u t s . Due t o t h e s m a l l s i z e and t h e l a c k o f a n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n , non p a r a m e t r i c t e s t s had t o be u s e d f o r a n a l y t i c a l p u r p o s e s . The C h i - S q u a r e T e s t f o r I n d e p e n d e n c e was u s e d f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e t e s t s i n t h e s t u d y . I t was f o u n d t h a t t h o s e a p p l i c a n t s who had a l o w e r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t , p r o b l e m s w i t h d r e s s and m a n n e r , o r c l e a n l i n e s s , w e r e n o t s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e p r o j e c t . T h i s r a t i n g s c a l e was n e x t a p p l i e d t o 146 p r o j e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e B a r r i e r s t o E m p l o y m e n t F o r m i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h one o f t h e two c o u n s e l l o r s . I f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t had c h e c k e d o f f t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o b l e m a r e a s : ' P r o b l e m w i t h A u t h o r i t y ' , ' L a c k o f E d u c a t i o n ' , ' D r e s s and M a n n e r ' , ' C l e a n l i n e s s ' , ' F a m i l y S i t u a t i o n ' and ' D r u g s and A l c o h o l ' , he was u n l i k e l y t o be h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l . The r a t i n g s c a l e o f s u c c e s s was n e x t a p p l i e d t o t h e t h r e e s e p a r a t e b a t t e r i e s o f t e s t s t h a t w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e a p p l i c a n t s . T h e r e was no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s u c c e s s and t h e - 1 4 3 - a c a d e m i c s c o r e s a t t a i n e d i n t h e C a n a d i a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s . R e f e r e n c e s k i l l s showed a t r e n d t o w a r d s a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a ' H i g h l y S u c c e s s f u l ' p a r t i c i p a n t and a h i g h s c o r e . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f 'New S i t u a t i o n s and P e o p l e ' , p o s t - t e s t and t h e p r e - t e s t s o f ' T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ' and ' A b i l i t y t o G e t and H o l d a J o b ' , i n t h e V o c a t i o n a l O p i n i o n I n d e x , w h i c h m e a s u r e s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s w o r k , i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e b a r r i e r s and s u c c e s s i n t h e p r o j e c t . The C u l t u r e F r e e S e l f - E s t e e m I n d e x r e s u l t s when t e s t e d f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e show t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s u c c e s s . I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i f p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s c o r e s had i n c r e a s e d o r d e c r e a s e d i n any o f t h e t h r e e a r e a s t e s t e d ( a c a d e m i c u p g r a d i n g , a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s w o r k and s e l f - e s t e e m ) , p a i r e d s a m p l e s o f s u b j e c t s p r e and p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s w e r e c h o s e n f o r t h e a n a l y s i s . A n o t h e r non p a r a m e t r i c t e s t , The S i g n T e s t , was c h o s e n t o c o m p u t e t h e d e g r e e o f c h a n g e . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s show t h a t t h e s c o r e s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d i n d e e d i m p r o v e a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r o j e c t . Some o f t h e i m p r o v e m e n t s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t , p r i m a r i l y i n t h e r e a d i n g and m a t h e m a t i c s a r e a s o f t h e a c a d e m i c u p g r a d i n g p o r t i o n , and i n t h e s e l f - e s t e e m m e a s u r e . I n c o n t r a s t i n g ' C a r e e r S t a r t ' w i t h s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s f o r t h e s e v e r e l y e m p l o y m e n t d i s a d v a n t a g e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , c e r t a i n c o m m o n a l i t i e s a r e f o u n d . A c o n c l u s i o n - 1 4 4 - f o u n d i n t h e r e p o r t , ' E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f Two J o b S e a r c h A s s i s t a n c e P r o g r a m s f o r D i s a d v a n t a g e d Y o u t h ' was t h a t t h e amount o f t i m e s p e n t by t h e c o u n s e l l o r s w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o s u c c e s s . C a r e e r S t a r t c o u n s e l l o r s s p e n d a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e c o u n s e l l i n g i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s . T h i s c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r one r e a s o n why t h e p r o j e c t i s s u c c e s s f u l . I n t h e i n d u s t r i a l m o d e l , d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e J o b F a c t o r y i n C a m b r i d g e , 8 3 M a s s a c h u s e t t s , p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e p a i d a s t i p e n d , t h e r e i s a f o r e m a n , and wages a r e d e d u c t e d f o r l a t e n e s s . T h i s a p p r o a c h i s f o u n d t o be v e r y s u c c e s s f u l . C a r e e r S t a r t o p e r a t e d i n much t h e same f a s h i o n ; p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e h i r e d i n t o t h e p r o j e c t a t mimimum w a g e , t h e r e i s a m a n a g e r o f t h e p r o j e c t , s i m i l a r t o a f o r e m a n , and wages a r e d e d u c t e d f o r l a t e n e s s . Work e x p e r i e n c e was n o t f o u n d t o be a v a l u a b l e m e t h o d f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s t o o b t a i n p e r m a n e n t e m p l o y m e n t . T h i s was d i s c u s s e d i n an e v a l u a t i o n o f CETA w o r k e x p e r i e n c e p r o j e c t s . C a r e e r S t a r t r a r e l y u t i l i z e s w o r k e x p e r i e n c e f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s . The p r o j e c t was s u c c e s s f u l i n m e e t i n g t h e q u a n t i f i a b l e e m p l o y m e n t p l a c e m e n t o b j e c t i v e s s e t o u t by E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a f o r c o n t i n u e d f u n d i n g o f t h e p r o g r a m . D a t a g a t h e r e d f r o m t h e m o n t h l y r e p o r t s f r o m C a r e e r S t a r t show t h a t o f t h e 172 a p p l i c a n t s t o t h e p r o j e c t , 148 w e r e a c t u a l l y h i r e d , a t 8 3 . A n d r e w Hahn & B a r r y F r i e d m a n , p . 24 - 1 4 5 - m i n i m u m w a g e , i n t o t h e t r a i n i n g p o r t i o n o f C a r e e r S t a r t . Of t h e s e p a r t i c i p a n t s 127 o b t a i n e d j o b s f o r f i v e d a y s o r more and 90 r e t a i n e d t h e s e j o b s f o r t e n w e e k s . S e v e n p a r t i c i p a n t s r e t u r n e d t o f u r t h e r t h e i r e d u c a t i o n , s i x o f w h i c h r e m a i n e d i n s c h o o l f o r t e n weeks o r m o r e . E l e v e n p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e s t i l l i n t h e t r a i n i n g p o r t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m on t h e c u t o f f d a t e o f A p r i l 3 0 , 1 9 8 6 . E x c l u d i n g t h e e l e v e n p a r t i c i p a n t s s t i l l i n t r a i n i n g , t h e s u c c e s s r a t e o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y C a r e e r S t a r t i s t h e r e f o r e 98 p e r c e n t , w h i c h i s 23 p e r c e n t h i g h e r t h a n r e q u i r e d by t h e f u n d i n g a g e n c y . I t mus t be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h i s summary p r o v i d e s o n l y a b r i e f o v e r v i e w o f t h e r e p o r t . The r e a d e r i s e n c o u r a g e d t o r e v i e w p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s f o r a more e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n and a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . -146- B. CONCLUSIONS Any s t u d y o f t h e C a r e e r S t a r t p r o g r a m mus t t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e two mos t i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s o f t h e p r o g r a m ; t h e s e b e i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e d e s i g n o f t h e p r o g r a m i t s e l f . Any c o n c l u s i o n s d r a w n mus t l o o k s e p a r a t e l y a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n and t h e p r o g r a m and t h e n t o t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s e two f a c t o r s a r e r e l a t e d . B e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s o f t h e C a r e e r S t a r t p a r t i c i p a n t s s t e m f r o m d i s a d v a n t a g e d b a c k g r o u n d s . G e n e r a l l y t h e s e i n c l u d e f a m i l y i n c o m e , p r o b l e m s o f a b u s e , a c a d e m i c a t t a i n m e n t and e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s . I n o r d e r t o c h a n g e t h o s e b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s one must t e a c h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t how t o i m p r o v e t h e i r l o t i n l i f e . C a r e e r S t a r t a t t e m p s t o u p g r a d e a c a d e m i c s k i l l s , t h r o u g h a c o m p u t e r - a s s i s t e d l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . I t c a n be c o n c l u d e d f r o m t h e r e s u l t s s e c t i o n t h a t many o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' b a s i c and h i g h s c h o o l s s k i l l s w e r e i m p r o v e d . P e r f o r m a n c e s i g n i f i c a n t l y i m p r o v e d i n b o t h t h e l a n g u a g e and m a t h e m a t i c s a r e a s , b u t n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y i m p r o v e d i n t h e r e a d i n g , s p e l l i n g o r r e f e r e n c e s k i l l s . The s e l f - e s t e e m o f p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e d e f i n i t e l y r a i s e d a f t e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e p r o j e c t . D u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d t h e i r p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s t o e m p l o y m e n t w e r e d e c r e a s e d . One o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l f e a t u r e s o f C a r e e r S t a r t i s t h e -147 - g e n e r o u s amount o f t i m e t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s s p e n d w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . B e c a u s e o f t h e c o m p u t e r - b a s e d m e t h o d s o f t r a i n i n g t h e y a r e a b l e t o s p e n d t h e i r t i m e c o u n s e l l i n g r a t h e r t h a n t e a c h i n g . A n o t h e r c o n c l u s i o n t h a t c a n be d r a w n r e g a r d i n g t h e s u c c e s s o f C a r e e r S t a r t i s t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s b a s e d on an i n d u s t r i a l m o d e l . A l t h o u g h no s t u d y o f t h i s m o d e l h a s b e e n done i n C a n a d a , i n r e s e a r c h i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i t was f o u n d t o be t h e mos t s u c c e s s f u l m o d e l f o r e m p l o y m e n t d i r e c t e d t r a i n i n g o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d y o u t h . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , t h e p r o j e c t h a s been s u c c e s s f u l i n m e e t i n g i t s q u a n t i f i a b l e o b j e c t i v e s a s s e t o u t by t h e f u n d i n g a g e n c y , E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a . T h i s d o e s n o t m e a n , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e p r o g r a m i n i t s p r e s e n t f o r m i s p e r f e c t . B a s e d on t h e s t a t i s t i c a l e v i d e n c e , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t p e r h a p s c h a n g e s a r e n e e d e d i n t h e c o m p u t e r - b a s e d t r a i n i n g a r e a s w h e r e some a c a d e m i c s k i l l s h a v e n o t i m p r o v e d a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s o t h e r s . I t mus t a l s o be s t r e s s e d t h a t a l l p r o g r a m s o f t h i s k i n d w o u l d b e n e f i t f r o m an e x c h a n g e o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s and p r o g r e s s r e p o r t s . I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e mus t be more r e s e a r c h a t t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l i n t o a l l a s p e c t s o f y o u t h u n e m p l o y m e n t . The l a t t e r a p p e a r s t o be a p r o b l e m t h a t i s h e r e t o s t a y . -148 - C. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y make i t o b v i o u s t h a t t h e r e i s s t i l l much r e s e a r c h t o be done i n t h e f i e l d o f y o u t h u n e m p l o y m e n t i n C a n a d a . A number o f q u e s t i o n h a v e been g e n e r a t e d by t h e s t u d y and t h e s e c a n be b r o k e n down i n t o two s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r i e s . The f i r s t g r o u p p o i n t s o u t t h e n e e d f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . P e r h a p s e v e n more i m p o r t a n t i s t h e s e c o n d g r o u p w h i c h i n d i c a t e s a need f o r a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d y o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t h e m s e l v e s , b o t h b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n an e m p l o y m e n t p r e p a r a t i o n s t r a t e g y . i I n t e r v e n t i o n S t a t e g i e s I n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t h a s o v e r t h e y e a r s i n i t i a t e d a number o f j o b c r e a t i o n p r o g r a m s , i t h a s become a p p a r e n t t h a t v e r y l i t t l e i n d e p t h r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e p r o b l e m h a s b e e n c o n d u c t e d i n C a n a d a a t t h e F e d e r a l l e v e l . T h i s l a c k o f i n v e s t i g a t i v e r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e r e l a t i v e v a l u e o f s u c h p r o j e c t s may be a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t and t h e p r o v i n c e s on t h e w h o l e q u e s t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n . E d u c a t i o n i n C a n a d a i s r e g a r d e d a s e s s e n t i a l y a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . - 1 4 9 - I t becomes c l e a r , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i t i s now c r i t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r C a n a d a t o e n g a g e i n e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h on t h e s u b j e c t on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e . T h i s n e e d i s made e v e n more u r g e n t by t h e f a c t t h a t e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e p r o b l e m o f u n e m p l o y e d y o u t h i s more s e v e r e i n C a n a d a t h a n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( s e e t a b l e 1 ) . I n p a r t i c u l a r , f u r t h e r s t u d y o f t h e d e s i g n o f s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s f o r t h a t l a r g e t a r g e t g r o u p o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d u n e m p l o y e d y o u t h . T h i s s t u d y , b a s e d on t h e d e s i g n o f t h e C a r e e r S t a r t p r o g r a m , h a s shown t h a t t h e t a r g e t g r o u p i n v o l v e d f a c e t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t b a r r i e r s t o e m p l o y m e n t : l a c k o f e d u c a t i o n , l o w s e l f - e s t e e m and p o o r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d w o r k . H o w e v e r , v e r y few e x i s t i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s a r e d e s i g n e d t o a d d r e s s a l l t h r e e o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s a t t h e same t i m e . I t w o u l d be b o t h i n t e r e s t i n g and a d v a n t a g e o u s i f a c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s c o u l d be made o f t h e s u c c e s s and f a i l u r e r a t e s o f t h i s a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e m . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s \ v o u l d p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r an a p p r o p r i a t e d e s i g n f o r a s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y w h i c h c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d f r o m c o a s t t o c o a s t . A n o t h e r a r e a i n w h i c h t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h i s i n t h e a r e a o f s e l f - d i r e c t e d j o b s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s , ( t h i s p r o c e s s i n u s e d by t h e C a r e e r S t a r t p r o g r a m ) , as o p p o s e d t o t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f p l a c i n g g r a d u a t e s i n a j o b f o u n d f o r h i m by - 1 5 0 - t h e p r o j e c t s t a f f . Some s t u d i e s on t h e s u b j e c t h a v e been done i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e s e i n d i c a t e t h a t s h o r t t e r m r e s u l t s f r o m s e l f - d i r e c t e d p l a c e m e n t p r o g r a m s a r e g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e . W h i l e t h e r e a r e no l o n g t e r m r e s u l t s , b e c a u s e t h e t e c h n i q u e i s so new, i t d o e s r a i s e s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e r e c o u l d be a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e c o s t s o f j o b f i n d i n g p r o g r a m s , b e c a u s e w h e r e s e l f - d i r e c t e d j o b s e a r c h p r o g r a m s a r e u s e d , f e w e r s t a f f a r e r e q u i r e d . I t h a s a l s o b e e n o b s e r v e d t h a t t h o s e who s u c c e e d e d i n f i n d i n g t h e i r own j o b s e x p e r i e n c e d i m p r o v e d s e l f - e s t e e m and g e n e r a l l y seemed a b l e t o h o l d t h e i r j o b s f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d . Y e t a n o t h e r a r e a r e q u i r i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t h a t o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c o m p u t e r - b a s e d t r a i n i n g t e c h n i q u e s i n p r o g r a m s f o r d i s a d v a n t a g e d u n e m p l o y e d y o u t h . T h e r e w o u l d be some v a l u e i n a s s e s s i n g t h e r e s u l t a c h i e v e d by c o m p u t e r - b a s e d t r a i n i n g a s o p p o s e d t o r e s u l t s f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l m e t h o d s o f i n s t r u c t i o n . I n t h i s r e g a r d , i t w o u l d be e x t r e m e l y h e l p f u l i f some f o r m a l e x c h a n g e o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d . S u b s e q u e n t p r o g r a m s w o u l d t h u s be p r o v i d e d w i t h g u i d e l i n e s and g o a l s . The C a r e e r S t a r t p r o j e c t i s u n i q u e i n t h a t i t u t i l i z e s c o m p u t e r - b a s e d d e l i v e r y m e t h o d s i n t h r e e s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t a r e a s a t one t i m e . T h e r e a r e v e r y few e m p l o y m e n t p r e p a r a t i o n i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s i n C a n a d a o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w h i c h a t t e m p t c o n c u r r e n t l y t o u p g r a d e a c a d e m i c s k i l l l e v e l s , i n c r e a s e t h e s e l f - e s t e e m o f p a r t i c i p a n t s and i m p r o v e t h e i r a t t i t u d e s - 1 5 1 - t o w a r d s f u l l t i m e e m p l o y m e n t . E v e n f e w e r i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s u s e d a t a - b a s e d t e c h n o l o g y t o a d d r e s s t h e s e b a r r i e r s . A g a i n , t h i s r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s a s t o w h e t h e r c o m p u t e r - b a s e d e d u c a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a r e more e f f e c t i v e w i t h t h e t a r g e t g r o u p t h a n t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n , and i n wha t a r e a m a r k e d i m p r o v e m e n t i s f o u n d . No p r o v i s i o n h a s b e e n made by t h e C a r e e r S t a r t p r o g r a m f o r a l o n g t e r m f o l l o w up o f p a r t i c i p a n t s who r e t a i n a j o b f o r l o n g e r t h a n a t e n week p e r i o d . I n v e s t i g a t i o n a s t o w h e t h e r g r a d u a t e s r e t a i n t h e i r j o b s s u c c e s s f u l l y and manage t o b r e a k t h e c y c l e o f c h r o n i c u n e m p l o y m e n t w o u l d r e v e a l t h e r e a l d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s o f p r o g r a m s a i m e d a t c h a n g i n g t h e b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s o f s e v e r e l y e m p l o y m e n t d i s a d v a n t a g e d y o u t h , i i P a r t i c i p a n t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s B e f o r e and A f t e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n I n an I n t e r v e n t i o n S t a t e g y . W h i l e t h e r e a r e some y o u n g p e o p l e t o d a y who h a v e no t r o u b l e i n f i n d i n g j o b s , t h e r e a r e o t h e r s who f a c e a m u l t i t u d e o f p r o b l e m s when t r y i n g t o e n t e r t h e j o b m a r k e t . Some o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s seem t o h a v e been p a s s e d f r o m one g e n e r a t i o n t o a n o t h e r when t h e u n e m p l o y e d c h i l d r e n o f u n e m p l o y e d p a r e n t s a r e i n v o l v e d . T h e r e f o r e , one o f t h e i m m e d i a t e q u e s t i o n s t o be a n s w e r e d i s t o wha t e x t e n t do p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e C a r e e r S t a r t p r o j e c t come f r o m e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d b a c k g r o u n d s . So f a r t h e p r o j e c t h a s n o t a d d r e s s e d t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . -152- O t h e r q u e s t i o n s w h i c h c o u l d be a d d r e s s e d c a l l f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . How many g r e w up i n f a m i l i e s i n w h i c h s e x u a l o r p h y s i c a l a b u s e o r a l c o h o l and d r u g a b u s e w e r e c o n s i d e r e d n o r m a l b e h a v i o u r ? How many o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a t t e m p t e d s u i c i d e ? F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n s h o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e on d e t e r m i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n p r e and p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s i n t h e t h r e e a r e a s t e s t e d . F o r e x a m p l e , i f a p a r t i c i p a n t i s f o u n d t o show a l o w s e l f - e s t e e m a s e v i d e n c e d by t h e C u l t u r e F r e e S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y , w i l l he a l s o h a v e a s p e c i f i c e m p l o y m e n t b a r r i e r a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e V o c a t i o n a l O p i n i o n I n d e x ? T h i s s t u d y h a s i n v e s t i g a t e d many a s p e c t s o f a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y d e s i g n e d t o c h a n g e t h e s t a t u s o f u n e m p l o y e d and d i s a d v a n t a g e d y o u t h . A t t h e same t i m e i t h a s r a i s e d a number o f r e l a t e d i s s u e s , many o f w h i c h a r e c r u c i a l i f t h e p r o b l e m s o f y o u t h u n e m p l o y m e n t a r e t o s u c c e s s f u l l y be a d d r e s s e d i n t h e f u t u r e . - 1 5 3 - S E L E C T E D B I B L I O G R A P H Y BOOKS A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . P u b l i c a t i o n m a n u a l o f t h e P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1983 A y e r s , J . D . e t a l . C a n a d i a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s - C l a s s Managemen t G u i d e F o r m A . C a n a d i a n T e s t C e n t r e , M c G r a w - H i l l R y e r s o n L t d . 1983 B a t t l e , J a m e s . C u l t u r e F r e e S . E . I . S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r i e s F o r C h i l d r e n and A d u l t s . S p e c i a l C h i l d P u b l i c a t i o n s , W a s h i n g t o n U . S . A . , 1981 B a t t l e , J a m e s P h . D . E n h a n c i n g S e l f - E s t e e m and A c h i e v e m e n t . A H a n d b o o k f o r P r o f e s s i o n a l s . S p e c i a l C h i l d P u b l i c a t i o n s . W a s h i n g t o n , U . S . A . 1982 D e n t o n , E . T . ; R o b b , A . L . ; S p e n c e r , B . G . U n e m p l o y m e n t and L a b o u r F o r c e B e h a v i o r o f Y o u n g P e o p l e . E v i d e n c e f r o m C a n a d a and O n t a r i o . O n t a r i o E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l R e s e a r c h S t u d i e s . U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1980 J a c k s o n , M i c h a e l P . Y o u t h U n e m p l o y m e n t . Croom H e l m L t d , G r e a t B r i t a i n , 1985 N o r u s i s , M a r i j a J . I n t r o d u c t o r y S t a t i s t i c s G u i d e S . P . S . S . X . New Y o r k , M c G r a w - H i l l Book C o m p a n y , 1983 T u r a b i a n , K a t e L . A M a n u a l f o r W r i t e r s o f Term P a p e r s , T h e s i s , and D i s s e r t a t i o n s . C h i c a g o and L o n d o n : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1973 P U B L I C A T I O N S B e r n s t e i n , A a r o n ; T h e r r i e r , L o i s ; E m g a r d i o , P e t e ; W i s e , D e b o r a h ; and P o l l a c k , M i c h a e l . The F o r g o t t e n A m e r i c a n s . B u s i n e s s Week , U . S . A . S e p t . 2 , 1985 C a l d w e l l , P h i l i p . U n l e a s h i n g E x c e l l e n c e - E d u c a t i n g E m p l o y e e t o R e v i t a l i z e B u s i n e s s . Managemen t W o r l d . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Managemen t S o c i e t y . P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1984 D a y t o n , C h a r l e s W. The Y o u n g P e r s o n ' s J o b S e a r c h : I n s i g h t s f r o m a S t u d y . A m e r i c a I n s t i t u t e f o r R e s e a r c h . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y . Voe 28 No 4 1981 - 1 5 4 - E m p l o y e r and E m p l o y e e P e r c e p t i o n o f S c h o o l t o W o r k . B u s i n e s s and E d u c a t i o n S u r v e y P a r k e r P r o j e c t Number 3 . B u l l e t i n 4372 F a r r , C h a r l o t t e W . ; M o o n , C h a r l e s E . ; and W i l l i a m s , A r n o l d C o r r e l a t i n g t h e T e s t o f A d u l t B a s i c E d u c a t i o n and t h e T e s t o f G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n D e v e l o p m e n t . L i f e l o n g L e a r n i n g . A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f A d u l t and C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , J u n e , 1986 H o y t , K e n n e t h , B . D i r e c t o r , C a r e e r E d u c a t i o n . V . S . O . I . C o n t r i b u t i o n s o f C a r e e r E d u c a t i o n t o R e d u c i n g Y o u t h U n e m p l o y m e n t . J o u r n a l o f I n d u s t r y , E d u c a t i o n C o - o p e r a t i o n , V o l l , N o . 2 , 1980 K u l i k , J . ; K u l i k , C ; and C o h e n , P . E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f C o m p u t e r B a s e d C o l l e g e T e a c h i n g : A M e t a A n a l y s i s o f F i n d i n g s . R e v i e w o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 1980 P a s s m o r e , D a v i d L y n n . C h a n g e s o f J o b L o s s Among T e e n a g e r s and Y o u n g A d u l t s : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n T r a i n i n g . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e A n n u a l M e e t i n g o f t h e A m e r i c a n V o c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1981 P r i e s t , G . E . A b o r i g i n a l Y o u t h i n C a n a d a : A P r o f i l e B a s e d Upon 1981 C e n s u s D a t a . C a n a d i a n S t a t i s t i c a l R e v i e w . S e p t . , 1 9 8 5 P r o c e e d i n g f r o m t h e R e c e n t UNESCO C o n f e r e n c e . a s r e p o r t e d i n t h e C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . L e a r n i n g E d u c a t i o n M a g a z i n e . V o l . I V , F e b . 1985 W i c h e s s , S a m u e l . J o b s f o r A m e r i c a ' s G r a d u a t e s : A Y o u t h E m p l o y m e n t P r o g r a m T h a t Means B u s i n e s s . The C l e a r i n g H o u s e V 5 7 : #5, p p . 1 7 9 - 2 0 0 , J a n u a r y , 1984 REPORTS C a r e e r S t a r t E v a l u a t i o n R e p o r t by SERA C o n s u l t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n f o r E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a , V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a , 1986 C h r i s t e n s e n , S a n d r a . I m p r o v i n g Y o u t h E m p l o y m e n t P r o s p e c t : I s s u e s and O p t i o n s . A CBO S t u d y , C o n g r e s s o f t h e U . S . A . , C o n g r e s s B u d g e t O f f i c e . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C , F e b . , 1982 F o c u s on Y o u t h . R e p o r t f r o m t h e O f f i c e o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f S t a t e ( Y o u t h ) The H o n o r a b l e C e l i n e H e r v i e u x P a y e t t e . P u b l i c A f f a i r s B r a n c h , E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a . H u l l , Q u e b e c , 1984 - 1 5 5 - H a h n , A n d r e w and F r i e d m a n , B a r r y The E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f Two J o b S e a r c h A s s i s t a n c e P r o g r a m s f o r D i s a d v a n t a g e d Y o u t h . F i n a l R e p o r t . O f f i c e o f Y o u t h P r o g r a m s ( D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r ) W a s h i n g t o n , D . C , 1981 H u n t e r , C a r m e n S t . J o h n and H a r m a n , D a v i d A d u l t I l l i t e r a c y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . A R e p o r t t o t h e F o r d F o u n d a t i o n . McGraw H i l l P u b l i s h i n g C o . . C o p y r i g h t 1 9 7 9 . F o r d F o u n d a t i o n . I m p r o v i n g Y o u t h E m p l o y m e n t P r o s p e c t s - I s s u e s and O p t i o n s . A CBO S t u d y . C o n g r e s s B u d g e t O f f i c e . K i r s h , S h a r o n . U n e m p l o y m e n t : I t s I m p a c t on B o d y and S o u l . C a n a d i a n M e n t a l H e a l t h A s s o c i a t i o n , 1983 J o h n s o n , M i r i a m ; and Wegmann, R o b e r t . L e s s o n s F r o m Y o u t h P r o g r a m s : J o b S e a r c h T r a i n i n g f o r Y o u t h . M o n o g r a p h S e r i e s . P r e p a r e d f o r t h e E m p l o y m e n t and T r a i n i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . O l y m p u s P u b l i s h i n g C o . , S a l t L a k e C i t y , U t a h , U . S . A . , 1982 L a c e y , R i c h a r d . B a s i c S k i l l s f o r D i s a d v a n t a g e d Y o u t h . M o n o g r a p h S e r i e s . P r e p a r e d f o r t h e E m p l o y m e n t and T r a i n i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , O l y m p u s P u b l i s h i n g C o . , S a l t L a k e C i t y , U t a h , U . S . A . , J u n e , 1983 Magnum, G a r t h L . L e s s o n s f r o m Y o u t h P r o g r a m s : A l l You E v e r Wan ted t o Know A b o u t L a b o u r M a r k e t s and D i d n ' t Know Who t o A s k . (A H a n d b o o k f o r P r a c t i t i o n e r s . ) . M o n o g r a p h S e r i e s . P r e p a r e d f o r t h e E m p l o y m e n t and T r a i n i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . O l y m p u s P u b l i s h i n g C o . , S a l t L a k e C i t y , U t a h , U . S . A . , 1982 P o t t e r , E r i c and Mangum, G a r t h L . A p p l y i n g L e s s o n s o f Y o u t h P r o g r a m . I n t r o d i c t i o n t o M o n o g r a p h S e r i e s . P r e p a r e d f o r t h e E m p l o y m e n t and T r a i n i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . O l y m p u s P u b l i s h i n g C o . , S a l t L a k e C i t y , U t a h , U . S . A . , 1982 T r a n s i t i o n t o Work I I I : D e v e l o p m e n t and I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e V . O . I . T r a n s i t i o n S y s t e m . A s s o c i a t e s f o r R e s e a r c h i n . T r i o f o r Y o u t h : T h r e e E m p l o y m e n t and T r a i n i n g P r o g r a m s . E m p l o y m e n t and T r a i n i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C , S e p t . , 1979 Y o u t h : A New S t a t i s t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e on Y o u t h i n C a n a d a . By t h e M i n i s t e r o f S t a t e ( Y o u t h ) C e l i n e H e r v i e u x P a y e t t e . P u b l i c A f f a i r s B r a n c h , E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a . H u l l , Q u e b e c , 1984 Y o u t h : A P l a n o f A c t i o n . R e p o r t o f t h e S p e c i a l S e n a t e C o m m i t t e e on Y o u t h . The H o n o r a b l e J a c q u e s H e b e r t , C h a i r m a n . Q u e e n ' s P r i n t e r , F e b . 1986 - 1 5 6 - Y o u t h E c o n o m i c A c t i v i t y . R e p o r t f o r t h e S o c i a l T r e n d A n a l y s i s and D i r e c t o r a t e , P o l i c y C o - o r d i n a t i o n , A n a l y s i s and Managemen t by D a v i d P . R o s s . S y s t e m s B r a n c h . D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , C a n a d a . D e c e m b e r , 1984 Y o u t h K n o w l e d g e D e v e l o p m e n t . R e p o r t 6 . 2 S c h o o l t o Work T r a n s i t i o n S e r i e s . The I n i t i a l F i n d i n g s o f t h e Y o u t h C a r e e r D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m E d u c a t i o n a l T e s t i n g S e r v i c e . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . May 1 9 8 0 . E m p l o y m e n t and T r a i n i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (DDC) W a s h i n g t o n , D . C , O f i c e o f Y o u t h P r o g r e s s , May 1980 - 1 5 7 - APPENDICES -158- APPENDIX A CAREER START PARTICIPANT PROFILE -159 - PARTICIPANT PROFILE #1 C . L . F e m a l e A g e : 21 E d u c a t i o n : G r a d e 12 R e f e r r e d b y : S p e c i a l N e e d s C o u n s e l l o r ( E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n ) C . L . d i d n o t f i n i s h h e r G r a d e 12 s t u d i e s i n h i g h s c h o o l due t o p a r e n t a l d e t e r m i n e d s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o b l e m s . She e v e n t u a l l y f i n i s h e d t h r o u g h c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . C . L . h a s n e v e r h e l d a j o b and had v e r y few m a r k e t a b l e s k i l l s . Due t o s e v e r e f a m i l y s h e l t e r i n g , C . L . i s e m o t i o n a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d and s o c i a l l y i n s e c u r e . She had no c o n f i d e n c e i n h e r e m p l o y a b i l i t y and s u f f e r e d f r o m p e r f o r m a n c e a n x i e t y when l e a r n i n g new t a s k s . A b i g i n d e p e n d e n t s t e p f o r C . L . was t a k i n g t h e b u s and g o i n g t o t h e s t o r e on h e r own a f t e r s h e b e g a n C a r e e r S t a r t . E m p l o y m e n t B a r r i e r s - E m o t i o n a l l y i m m a t u r e - P e r f o r m a n c e a n x i e t y - i n a b i l i t y t o f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s o r r e t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n . - P o o r s o c i a l i z a t i o n s k i l l s - d i f f i c u l t y r e l a t i n g t o w o r k e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s . - N o \ \ r o r k i n g e x p e r i e n c e - L a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e i n s e l f - e m p l o y a b i l i t y - P o o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s - t e n d s t o o f f e n d p e o p l e by b e i n g t o o a b r u p t and p u s h y . - 1 6 0 - I n d i v i d u a l i z e d A c t i o n P l a n I ) A r r a n g e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g o n c e a week t o h e l p d e a l w i t h p e r f o r m a n c e a n x i e t y , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , e m o t i o n a l i n s t a b i l i t y and f a m i l y s h e l t e r i n g . I I ) R e c e i v i n g o n g o i n g one t o one c o u n s e l l i n g w i t h i n C a r e e r S t a r t t o s u p p o r t s t e p s t o w a r d s e m p l o y m e n t r e a d i n e s s and i n d e p e n d e n c e . I I I ) A s s i g n e d o f f i c e d u t i e s , p l a c e d i n c h a r g e o f f r o n t d e s k . R e s p o n s i b l e f o r h a n d l i n g p h o n e s , a r r a n g i n g i n t e r v i e w s and a p p o i n t m e n t s , f i l i n g , p h o t o c o p y i n g and i n v e n t o r y . H e l p e d i n c r e a s e s o c i a l s k i l l s , c o n f i d e n c e on t h e j o b and l e s s e n p e r f o r m a n c e a n x i e t y . I V ) T r a i n e d t o o p e r a t e w o r d p r o c e s s o r . A s s i s t e d i n t r a i n i n g o t h e r s t u d e n t s , t y p i n g r e s u m e s and e n t e r i n g s t a t i s t i c s . H e l p e d i n c r e a s e s o c i a l and e m p l o y m e n t c o n f i d e n c e and i m p r o v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s . V ) R e s p o n s i b l e f o r h o s t e s s d u t i e s . G r e e t v i s i t o r s , make c o f f e e , c o l l e c t c o f f e e money f r o m s t u d e n t s and p u r c h a s e p r o d u c t s when n e e d e d . H e l p e d i n c r e a s e s o c i a l s k i l l s and c o n f i d e n c e . V I ) T r a i n e d i n J o b S e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s . I m p r o v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s and a b i l i t y t o m a r k e t s e l f t o e m p l o y e r s . A r r a n g e two week w o r k e x p e r i e n c e p r o j e c t s i n v a r i o u s x v o r k i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s t o i m p r o v e j o b s k i l l s , - 1 6 1 - r e d u c e p e r f o r m a n c e a n x i e t y and i n c r e a s e e m p l o y m e n t c o n f i d e n c e . R E S U L T TO DATE C L . i s s t i l l a p a r t i c i p a n t w i t h C a r e e r S t a r t and h a s been i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o g r a m f o r t h r e e m o n t h s . Work p l a c e m e n t s a r e b e i n g a r r a n g e d i n o c c u p a t i o n s she i s i n t e r e s t e d i n , an o f f i c e , f l o w e r s h o p and l i b r a r y . I n t h e n e a r f u t u r e w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f J o b D e v e l o p m e n t f u n d i n g , C L . w i l l be p l a c e d i n a p o s i t i o n t h a t b e s t s u i t s h e r a b i l i t i e s . -162 - P A R T I C I P A N T P R O F I L E #2 W . B . F e m a l e A g e : 22 E d u c a t i o n : G r a d e 10 R e f e r r e d b y : F r i e n d W . B . h a s been o u t o f s c h o o l f o r s i x y e a r s and had n o t w o r k e d i n f i v e and a h a l f y e a r s . She l e f t s c h o o l due t o f a m i l y p r o b l e m s . W . B . had a h i s t o r y o f f a m i l y p r o b l e m s and s e x u a l and p h y s i c a l a b u s e . W . B . had s t r u g g l e d w i t h a d r u g p r o b l e m f o r s e v e n y e a r s and r e c e n t l y s p e n t t i m e i n a D e t o x C e n t e r , w h i c h h a s so f a r b e e n s u c c e s s f u l . E m p l o y m e n t B a r r i e r s - L a c k o f E d u c a t i o n - L a c k o f w o r k e x p e r i e n c e - Ex d r u g p r o b l e m s - L a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e i n h e r e m p l o y a b i l i t y - E m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s - L a c k o f j o b s e a r c h s k i l l s I n d i v i d u a l i z e d A c t i o n P l a n I ) P r e p a r i n g t o w r i t e G r a d e 12 E q u i v a l e n c y Exams ( G . E . D . ) . I n c r e a s e i n e m p l o y a b i l i t y c o n f i d e n c e . I I ) A s s i g n e d o f f i c e d u t i e s . R e s p o n s i b l e f o r f r o n t d e s k o p e r a t i o n s , e . g . h a n d l i n g p h o n e s , a r r a n g i n g a p p o i n t m e n t s , - 1 6 3 - and t e s t i n g , i n v e n t o r y , f i l i n g and p h o t o c o p y i n g . P r o v i d e d a c t u a l o n - t h e - j o b w o r k e x p e r i e n c e , t h u s i n c r e a s i n g c o n f i d e n c e . I I I ) R e f e r r e d t o d r u g and a l c o h o l c o u n s e l l i n g t o h e l p h e r f i n d an a l t e r n a t i v e r o u t e t o h e l p h e r d e a l w i t h e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . I V ) T r a i n e d i n J o b S e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s . I m p r o v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s and a b i l i t y t o m a r k e t s e l f . R E S U L T S TO DATE W . S . h a s b e e n a p a r t i c i p a n t o f C a r e e r S t a r t f o r two and a h a l f m o n t h s . She i s p r e s e n t l y s t u d y i n g f o r h e r G . E . D . w h i c h s h e i s due t o w r i t e i n one m o n t h . She was e m p l o y e d on t h e C a r e e r S t a r t f r o n t d e s k f o r one m o n t h . -164- P A R T I C I P A N T P R O F I L E #3 J . H . F e m a l e A g e : 23 E d u c a t i o n : G r a d e 12 C e r t i f i c a t e i n A c c o u n t i n g R e f e r r e d b y : S p e c i a l N e e d s C o u n s e l l o r : E m p l o y m e n t & I m m i g r a t i o n , F r a s e r S t r e e t . J . H . h a s b e e n o u t o f s c h o o l one y e a r when s h e a p p r o a c h e d C a r e e r S t a r t . She had v e r y l i t t l e w o r k e x p e r i e n c e , none r e l a t e d t o h e r t r a i n i n g . She was s u f f e r i n g f r o m e x t r e m e l y l o w s e l f - e s t e e m , d i s c o u r a g e m e n t and d e p r e s s i o n . Due t o h e r e m o t i o n a l s t a t e and s e v e r e s h y n e s s , she was h a v i n g p r o b l e m s m a r k e t i n g h e r s e l f t o e m p l o y e r s . E m p l o y m e n t B a r r i e r s - P h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y ; p a r t i a l f a c i a l p a r a l y s i s and s p e e c h i m p e d i m e n t - E x t r e m e l y l o w s e l f - e s t e e m - P o o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s - M u l t i c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d - L a c k o f w o r k e x p e r i e n c e - P o o r j o b s e a c h s k i l l s I n d i v i d u a l i z e d A c t i o n P l a n I ) A s s i g n e d o f f i c e d u t i e s : h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w e r e - 1 6 5 - p h o t o c o p y i n g , m a i l i n g , f i l i n g , and b o o k k e e p i n g . T h i s p r o v i d e d a c t u a l on t h e j o b w o r k e x p e r i e n c e t h u s i n c r e a s i n g c o n f i d e n c e on t h e j o b . I I ) T r a i n e d t o o p e r a t e w o r d p r o c e s s o r and e n t e r s t a t i s t i c s on c o m p u t e r . A s s i s t e d i n t r a i n i n g o t h e r s t u d e n t s . I n c r e a s e d s o c i a l and e m p l o y m e n t c o n f i d e n c e . I I I ) R e s p o n s i b l e f o r C o f f e e D u t i e s : i . e . make c o f f e e , c o l l e c t money f r o m s t u d e n t s , and p u r c h a s e p r o d u c t s when n e e d e d . H e l p e d i n c r e a s e s o c i a l s k i l l s and c o n f i d e n c e . I V ) T r a i n e d i n J o b S e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s . I m p r o v e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s and a b i l i t y t o m a r k e t s e l f . R E S U L T TO DATE J . H . was a p a r t i c i p a n t i n C a r e e r S t a r t f o r 4 1/2 m o n t h s . She s u c c e e d e d i n s e c u r i n g f u l l t i m e p e r m a n e n t w o r k a s an a c c o u n t i n g c l e r k w i t h L a n s d o w n e N i s s a n . H e r s a l a r y i s $ 7 . 5 0 an h o u r . She i s s t i l l e m p l o y e d w i t h t h e same company a f t e r s e v e n m o n t h s . - 1 6 6 - P A R T I C I P A N T P R O F I L E #4 D . B . F e m a l e A g e : 23 E d u c a t i o n : G r a d e 12 ( I n d i a ) Bank T e l l e r s C o u r s e 1984 R e f e r r e d b y : N e w s p a p e r ad D . B . had i m m i g r a t e d t o C a n a d a t h r e e y e a r s ago f r o m I n d i a . She had n e v e r w o r k e d b e f o r e and f e l t s h e had no m a r k e t a b l e s k i l l s a n d , due t o h e r c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s and n o n - a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r , was h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y m a r k e t i n g h e r s e l f t o e m p l o y e r s . E m p l o y m e n t B a r r i e r s - C u l t u r a l d i s a d v a n t a g e - No w o r k e x p e r i e n c e - C h i l d c a r e - P o o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n and a s s e r t i v e n e s s s k i l l s - L a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e i n h e r e m p l o y a b i l i t y I n d i v i d u a l i z e d A c t i o n P l a n I ) A s s i g n e d o f f i c e d u t i e s : h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w e r e p h o t o c o p y i n g , f i l i n g , and a n s w e r i n g p h o n e s . T h i s p r o v i d e d D . B . w i t h a c t u a l w o r k e x p e r i e n c e , t h u s i n c r e a s i n g h e r c o n f i d e n c e i n h e r e m p l o y a b i l i t y . - 1 6 7 - I I ) T r a i n e d t o o p e r a t e Word P r o c e s s o r . R e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n t e r i n g s t u d e n t s r e s u m e s on Word P r o c e s s o r . I n c r e a s e d s o c i a l and e m p l o y m e n t c o n f i d e n c e . I I I ) T r a i n e d i n J o b S e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s . I m p r o v e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s and a b i l i t y t o m a r k e t s k i l l s . I V ) R e s p o n s i b l e f o r h o s t e s s d u t i e s , i . e . g r e e t v i s i t o r s , make c o f f e e , c o l l e c t money f r o m s t u d e n t s and p u r c h a s e p r o d u c t s when n e e d e d . H e l p e d i n c r e a s e s o c i a l s k i l l s and c o n f i d e n c e . R E S U L T TO DATE D . B . was a p a r t i c i p a n t , i n C a r e e r S t a r t f o r 3 1/2 m o n t h s when s h e was s u c c e s s f u l i n s e c u r i n g a f u l l t i m e j o b w i t h L o o m i s C o u r i e r S e r v i c e a s a s e c r e t a r y / r e c e p t i o n i s t e a r n i n g $ 6 . 8 0 p e r h o u r . She w o r k e d t h e r e f o r f i v e m o n t h s and t h e n was l a i d o f f . She i m m e d i a t e l y f o u n d a n o t h e r o f f i c e p o s i t i o n w i t h G e l c o C o u r i e r and h a s been t h e r e f o r 3 m o n t h s . - 1 6 8 - P A R T I C I P A N T P R O F I L E #5 D . H . M a l e A g e : 19 E d u c a t i o n : G r a d e 10 R e f e r r e d b y : N e w s p a p e r ad D . H . had been u n e m p l o y e d f o r t h r e e m o n t h s when he s t a r t e d C a r e e r S t a r t . H i s l a s t j o b was w i t h K a t i m a v i k , w h i c h he h e l d f o r two m o n t h s b e f o r e q u i t t i n g . D . H . had a s c a t t e r e d w o r k h i s t o r y and h i s j o b s had a l l been s h o r t - t e r m p l a c e m e n t s . E m p l o y m e n t B a r r i e r - L a c k o f e d u c a t i o n - L a c k o f m o t i v a t i o n - P o o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s - P o o r j o b s e a r c h s k i l l s - I n a b i l i t y t o r e t a i n j o b s - S p o r a d i c w o r k h i s t o r y I n d i v i d u a l A c t i o n P l a n I ) P r e p a r e f o r and w r i t e G . E . D . G r a d e 1 2 . I n c r e a s e e m p l o y a b i l i t y c o n f i d e n c e . I I ) A s s i s t e d i n P r o d u c t i o n o f C a r e e r S t a r t N e w s l e t t e r . H e l p e d i n c r e a s e c o m m u n i c a t i o n and i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s . - 1 6 9 - I I I ) R e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o f f e e d u t i e s : make c o f f e e , c o l l e c t money f r o m s t u d e n t s and p u r c h a s e p r o d u c t s when n e e d e d . H e l p e d i n c r e a s e s o c i a l s k i l l s and c o n f i d e n c e . I V ) T r a i n e d i n J o b S e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s . I m p r o v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s and a b i l i t y t o m a r k e t s e l f . RESULTS TO DATE D . H . was a p a r t i c i p a n t o f C a r e e r S t a r t f o r f i v e m o n t h s . He p r e p a r e d f o r and w r o t e h i s G . E . D . , b u t d i d n o t p a s s . D . H . had c o m p l e t e d t h e p r o g r a m , b u t f a i l e d t o f i n d e m p l o y m e n t i n t h e e x p e c t e d t i m e and so was g r a d u a t e d . Two m o n t h s a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n D . H . f o u n d e m p l o y m e n t a s a s a n d e r f o r W o o d r o s e W o o d w o r k i n g e a r n i n g $ 4 . 5 0 an h o u r . He h a s been e m p l o y e d t h e r e f o r one m o n t h and a p p e a r s t o be d o i n g f i n e . - 1 7 0 - P A R T I C I P A N T P R O F I L E #6 R . D . M a l e A g e : 20 E d u c a t i o n : G r a d e 9 R e f e r r e d b y : N e w s p a p e r ad R . D . had been u n e m p l o y e d f o r one y e a r when he a p p l i e d t o C a r e e r S t a r t . He had l i t t l e w o r k e x p e r i e n c e . Due t o l a c k o f e d u c a t i o n o r t r a i n i n g and few w o r k s k i l l s he was h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g f u l l t i m e e m p l o y m e n t . E m p l o y m e n t B a r r i e r s - L a c k o f e d u c a t i o n - L a c k o f w o r k i n g e x p e r i e n c e - Low s e l f - e s t e e m - P o o r J o b S e a r c h s k i l l s - P o o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s I n d i v i d u a l i z e d A c t i o n P l a n I ) P r e p a r e f o r and w r i t e t h e G . E . D . G r a d e 1 2 . I n c r e a s e e m p l o y a b i l i t y c o n f i d e n c e . I I ) A s s i g n e d o f f i c e d u t i e s : R e s p o n s i b l e f o r p h o t o c o p y i n g , and a n s w e r i n g f r o n t d e s k p h o n e s . P r o v i d e d a c t u a l o n - t h e - j o b w o r k e x p e r i e n c e t h u s i n c r e a s i n g c o n f i d e n c e on t h e j o b . - 1 7 1 - I l l ) T r a i n e d t o o p e r a t e t r a i n i n g o t h e r s t u d e n t s , c o n f i d e n c e . Word P r o c e s s o r . A s s i s t e d i n I n c r e a s e d s o c i a l and e m p l o y m e n t I V ) R e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o f f e e d u t i e s : Make c o f f e e , c o l l e c t money f r o m o t h e r s t u d e n t s . I n c r e a s e d s o c i a l and e m p l o y m e n t c o n f i d e n c e . V) T r a i n e d i n J o b S e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s . I m p r o v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s and a b i l i t y t o m a r k e t s e l f . R E S U L T S TO DATE R . D . was a p a r t i c i p a n t i n C a r e e r S t a r t f o r 4 m o n t h s . He was s u c c e s s f u l i n o b t a i n i n g h i s G r a d e 1 2 , and s e c u r e d a f u l l t i m e j o b a s s h i p p e r / r e c e i v e r e a r n i n g $ 5 . 5 0 an h o u r . He l e f t t h i s p o s i t i o n r e c e n t l y t o t a k e a n o t h e r f u l l t i m e p o s i t i o n a s a B a r - B - Que C h e f f o r a l o d g e i n J a s p e r P a r k e a r n i n g $ 7 . 5 0 an h o u r . - 1 7 2 - P A R T I C I P A N T P R O F I L E #7 G . O . M a l e A g e : 20 E d u c a t i o n : G r a d e 10 R e f e r r e d b y : N e w s p a p e r ad G . O . had been o u t o f s c h o o l two y e a r s and u n e m p l o y e d one and one h a l f y e a r s when he s t a r t e d C a r e e r S t a r t . E m p l o y m e n t B a r r i e r s - L a c k o f e d u c a t i o n - M o t i v a t i o n a l - N e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e - P r o b l e m w i t h a u t h o r i t y - t r o u b l e t a k i n g o r d e r s - P o o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s - L a c k o f J o b S e a r c h s k i l l s - U n r e a l i s t i c wage e x p e c t a t i o n s I n d i v i d u a l i z e d A c t i o n P l a n I ) P r e p a r e d t o w r i t e G . E . D . G r a d e 1 2 . I m p r o v e c o n f i d e n c e i n e m p l o y a b i l i t y . I I ) T r a i n e d i n J o b S e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s . I m p r o v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n and a b i l i t y t o m a r k e t s e l f . - 1 7 3 - R E S U L T S TO DATE G . O . was a p a r t i c i p a n t i n C a r e e r S t a r t f o r two m o n t h s . He p r e p a r e d f o r b u t d i d n o t w r i t e h i s G . E . D . - G . O . s t a r t e d J o b S e a r c h b u t f o u n d e m p l o y m e n t b e f o r e he c o m p l e t e d t h e p r o g r a m . He w o r k e d a t A c t i o n M a i n t e n a n c e f o r two d a y s a s a J a n i t o r and t h e n q u i t . He t h e n went t o w o r k a s a s e l f - e m p l o y e d s u b - c o n t r a c t i n g mason f o r 3 m o n t h s . He i s p r e s e n t l y w o r k i n g a t M u r r a y G o l d m a n ' s a s a w a r e h o u s e p e r s o n e a r n i n g $ 6 . 5 0 / h r . He a l s o h a s a p o s i t i o n i n v e h i c l e m a i n t e n a n c e w i t h B . C . T r a n s i t w h i c h i s due t o s t a r t s o o n . He w i l l e a r n $ 1 7 . 0 0 / h r . - 1 7 4 - APPENDIX B INTERVIEW FORM -175- EVALUATION OF APPLICANT TO ENTER CAREER START DATE: , APPOINTMENT TIME: : NAME: EARLY: LATE: ON TIME: AGE: DATE OF BIRTH: PLACE OF BIRTH: ; | E X C . i SAT. POOR COMMENTS APPROPRIATE DRESS CLEANL1 NESS COMPOSURE EYE CONTACT CONF1DENCE i SEATING ARRANGEMENT 1 VERBAL COMMUNICATION • LISTENING SKILLS ENTHUS1 ASM 1 \ RESPONSE TO AUTHORITY l . POLITENESS 1 DISCLOSURE CO-OPERATION i COMMENTS: -176- JOB HISTORY LAST JOB HELD POSITION: ; LOCATION: DATE STARTED:__ DATE FINISHED:. LIKE/DISL IKE: : . HOW OBTAINED: WHY DID YOU LEAVE: FIRED: LAID OFF: QUIT: PREVIOUS EMPLOYMENT: __ INTERESTING WORK HELD J0B:_ LENGTH: LOCAT I ON: ; COMMENTS: ; HAVE YOU LOOKED FOR WORK? • . HOW LONG? HOW MANY HOURS PER WEEK?__ HOW DO YOU GO ABOUT IT? NEWSPAPER CEIC FRIENDS AND CONTACTS COLD CONTACTING TELEPHONE MAILING OUT RESUME. WHY DO YOU WANT TO WORK? | ' - 1 7 7 - VOLUNTEER HISTORY JOB: LENGTH: COMMENTS: WHAT DO YOU FEEL PREVENTS YOU FROM GETTING A JOB?. FINANCIAL HOW DO YOU SUPPORT YOURSELF?. SOCIAL ASSISTANCE? WORKER:; OFF ICE : HOW LONG?. PHONE: DEFINITION OF "OTHER" OR "SELF-EMPLOYED" EDUCATION GRADE COMPLETED:. SCHOOL: LOCATI ON: WHY DID YOU LEAVE? COLLEGE:. PROGRAM: NIGHT SCHOOL: MEDICAL PHYSICAL? PSYCHOLOGICAL?. HISTORY OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE ALCOHOL ? DRUG? -178- CRIMINAL RECORD ALCOHOL RELATED?. REASON: • DRUG RELATED?. VIOLENT CRIME?. PROBATION END DATE: JAIL TERM END DATE: COMMENTS: SPARE TIME WHY ARE YOU APPLYING FOR CAREER START?. REALISTIC?. REALISTIC?. REALISTIC? CAREER GOAL CHOICE: WHY SHOULD I HIRE YOU?. WORK YOU WANT: 1. 2. 3. -179- APPENDIX C BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT DATA COLLECTION FORM -180- BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT Name: Date: Eval uator: At time of intake, client's main barrier(s) to employment are: Problems with authority Attitudes in previous job Lack of education Lack of working experience Personal or social problems Physical disability Criminal history Heal th' problems Family situation Drugs/Alcohol Economy (layoff, strike, etc.) Age Desires particular job Unrealistic Job Coals Immaturi ty Job Accessibility Lack of ski l l required Knowledge of job search skil ls Other: please define Check i f Problem COMMENTS Life Skills Dress manner CI eanliness Communication skills Eye contact Other: PI ease Define COMMENTS: -181-

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