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Motivational orientations of adult immigrants Petersen, Thomas B. 1986

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MOTIVATIONAL ORIENTATIONS OF ADULT IMMIGRANTS by THOMAS B. PETERSEN A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , Adult and Higher Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1986 © Thomas B. Petersen, 1986 32 In presenting th i s thes i s i n p a r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary s h a l l make i t f r ee l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes i s for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representat ives. It i s understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes is for f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wri t ten permission. Department of ft0A1/jn/. /7^?^7~~~ tf/<r/fK/? A2>t/c?T?l The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 D E - 6 (3/81) ABSTRACT H i s t o r i c a l l y , immigrants to Canada a r r i v e , l e a r n the language, search for s a t i s f y i n g work and l e a d p r o d u c t i v e , meaningful l i v e s . However, the b a r r i e r s are immense. Recently, Vancouver Community College at the King Edward Campus has t r i e d to meet the needs of a d u l t immigrant l e a r n e r s . The d i a g n o s i s of l e a r n e r s needs has a high p r i o r i t y i n a d u l t education. The general form of the Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale (EPS) d e s c r i b e s reasons why people partake in a d u l t education programs. However, because the data c o l l e c t e d to complete the general EPS was drawn from a middle c l a s s p o p u l a t i o n , i t d i d not r e f l e c t the reasons tendered by disadvantaged l e a r n e r s . A l s o , the language used on the instrument was too d i f f i c u l t . Subjects in t h i s study were Adult Basic Education (A.B.E.) students, e n r o l l e d i n programs at Vancouver Community C o l l e g e , predominately at King Edward Campus. During the f i r s t step 150 students were asked about why they were e n r o l l e d . These reasons were l i s t e d , e d i t e d and combined with the general form of the E.P.S. Care was taken to ensure that the items and the i n s t r u c t i o n s c o u l d be read at a grade seven l e v e l . The 120 item instrument was then administered to a d i f f e r e n t group of 257 p a r t i c i p a n t s at the c o l l e g e where the items had o r i g i n a t e d . Factor analyses produced a seven f a c t o r s o l u t i o n of 42 items with each f a c t o r c o n t a i n i n g 6 items. The seven f a c t o r s are: Communication Improvement; S o c i a l Contact; E d u c a t i o n a l P r e p a r a t i o n ; P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement; Family Togetherness; S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n ; C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t . For t e s t r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y purposes the instrument was administered twice (with a four week i n t e r v a l between a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s ) to 63 p a r t i c i p a n t s . R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each f a c t o r , as w e l l as the e n t i r e s c a l e , were c a l c u l a t e d . The instrument was deemed to be r e l i a b l e over time. The m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s of people from Canada were compared to those from the Middle East, A s i a , East Europe, West and South Europe, L a t i n and South America and other p l a c e s . There were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the mean scores (by country of b i r t h ) on the Communication Improvement, P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement, S o c i a l contact and Family Togetherness f a c t o r s . I t appears that a case can be made for arranging unique e d u c a t i o n a l experiences for people with d i f f e r e n t m o t i v a t i o n a l p r o f i l e s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ix CHAPTER I : CANADIAN MOSAIC 1 H i s t o r y of Immigration 1 Immigration P o l i c y in Canada 4 Immigration Educat ion in B r i t i s h Columbia 7 CHAPTER II: AN INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSE 10 Role at King Edward Campus 10 Current Mandate 11 CHAPTER II I: MOTIVATIONAL ORIENTATIONS 15 H i s t o r y and S i g n i f i c a n c e 15 Not ion of Congruence in Program P lann ing . . . 17 CHAPTER IV: METHOD 19 Item Generat ion 19 Secur ing R e l i a b i l i t y Data . . 20 Secur ing V a l i d i t y Data 21 Ques t i onna i re complet ion and i n te rv i ew . . . 21 Subject e s t i m a t i o n procedure 22 Researcher e s t i m a t i o n procedure 22 CHAPTER V: RESULTS I 23 Fac tor A n a l y s i s 23 P a r t i c i p a n t D e s c r i p t i o n 24 Communication Improvement 25 S o c i a l Contact 27 Educa t i ona l P repa ra t i on 28 P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement 29 Family Togetherness 30 S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n 31 Cogn i t i ve I n t e r e s t 32 V Summary 33 CHAPTER VI: RESULTS II '. 36 R e l i a b i l i t y 36 V a l i d i t y 37 Case Study One: "Laura" 38 Case Study Two: "Nancita" 39 Case Study Three: " A l i c i a " 40 Case Study Four: "William" 42 Case Study F i v e : "Zbeziak" 43 Case Study S i x : "Zenobixa" 44 Case Study Seven: "Jangjeet" 45 Case Study E i g h t : " P a t r i c i a " 47 Case Study Nine: " P a u l i n a " 48 CHAPTER V I I : RESULTS III 50 Concurrent V a l i d i t y 50 "Laura" 52 "Nancita" 55 " A l i c i a " 56 "William" 58 "Zbeziak" 59 "Jangjeet" 60 "Zenobixia" 62 " P a t r i c i a " 64 "Paulina" 65 Grand Means 66 CHAPTER V I I I : DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 69 Background to the Problem 69 Immigrants to Canada 69 M o t i v a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n s 71 Fac t o r s Where There Were D i f f e r e n c e s 71 Im p l i c a t i o n s f o r P r a c t i c e 74 Future Research 77 The Instrument 79 REFERENCES 81 v i LIST OF TABLES Table 1. S i g n i f i c a n c e of D i f f e r e n c e i n the Communication Improvement Scores of P a r t i c i p a n t s from D i f f e r e n t Countries 34 Table 2. Grand A.B.E./E.P.S. P a r t i c i p a n t Means for a Sub-sample of Nine P a r t i c i p a n t s Involved i n a V a l i d i t y Procedure 67 v i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Mean A.B.E./E^P.S. Communication Improvement scores f o r Canadian and immigrant p a r t i c i p a n t s at King Edward campus 26 Figure 2. Mean Basic Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale S o c i a l Contact scores for Canadian and immigrant p a r t i c i p a n t s at King Edward campus 27 Figure 3. Mean Basic Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale E d u c a t i o n a l P r e p a r a t i o n scores f o r Canadian and immigrant p a r t i c i p a n t s at King Edward campus 28 Figure 4. Mean Basic Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement scores f o r Canadian and immigrant p a r t i c i p a n t s at King Edward campus -. 29 Figure 5. Mean Basic Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale Family Togetherness scores for Canadian and immigrant p a r t i c i p a n t s at King Edward campus 30 Figu r e 6. Mean Basic Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n scores f o r Canadian and immigrant p a r t i c i p a n t s at King Edward campus 32 Figure 7. Mean Basic Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t scores for Canadian and immigrant p a r t i c i p a n t s at King Edward campus 33 Figure 8. Instrument employed to e l i c i t v a l i d i t y data 51 v i i i F i g u r e 9. A.B.E./E.P.S. Scale scores, respondent estimates and researcher estimates f o r "Laura" 53 Figu r e 10. A.B.E./E.P.S. Scale scores, respondent estimates and researcher estimates f o r "Nancita" 55 Figu r e 11. A.B.E./E.P.S. Scale scores, respondent estimates and researcher estimates f o r " A l i c i a " 57 Figure 12. A.B.E./E.P.S. Scale scores, respondent estimates and researcher estimates f o r "William" 58 Figu r e 13. A.B.E./E.P.S. Scale scores, respondent estimates and researcher estimates f o r "Zbeziak" 60 Figure 14. A.B.E./E.P.S. Scale scores, respondent estimates and researcher estimates f o r "Jangjeet" 61 Figu r e 15. A.B.E./E.P.S. Scale scores, respondent estimates and researcher estimates f o r "Zenobixa" 63 Figure 16. A.B.E./E.P.S. Scale scores, respondent estimates and researcher estimates f o r " P a t r i c i a " 64 Figure 17. A.B.E./E.P.S. Scale scores, respondent estimates and researcher estimates for "Pau l i n a " 66 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o thank Dr. B o s h i e r f o r h i s d e d i c a t i o n , a d v i c e and e n t h u s i a s t i c support d u r i n g the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . Thanks a l s o t o the Vancouver I n s t r u c t o r s A s s o c i a t i o n and members of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t the Ki n g Edward Campus of Vancouver Community C o l l e g e , f o r p r o v i d i n g r e s o u r c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s s t u d y . A s p e c i a l thanks t o H e l l a Danzer f o r h e l p w i t h g r a p h i c d e s i g n and u n f a i l i n g s u p p o r t . 1 CHAPTER I CANADIAN MOSAIC H i s t o r y of Immigration Canada has a v a r i e d e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n . Over four m i l l i o n immigrants from more than 50 e t h n i c groups have a r r i v e d s i n c e 1945. T h i s l a r g e migration prompted Prime M i n i s t e r P i e r r e Trudeau, on October 8th, 1971, to d e c l a r e that Canada i s committed to " m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m within a b i l i n g u a l framework ..." Furthermore, Trudeau d e f i n e d h i s view as a means to n a t i o n a l u n i t y . ...National u n i t y , i f i t i s to mean anything i n a deeply personal sense, must be founded on confidence i n one's own i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y ; out of t h i s can grow respect for that of others and a w i l l i n g n e s s to share ideas, a t t i t u d e s and assumptions. A vigorous p o l i c y of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m w i l l h e lp create t h i s i n i t i a l c o n f i d e nce. I t can form the base of a s o c i e t y which i s based on f a i r play f o r a l l ... (1971, p. 31) Canada has become cognizant of mistakes in i t s own immigration p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s , and i n the melting pot theory of i t s southern neighbour where l a r g e groups of e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s such as Blacks, Puerto Ricans, Mexicans and Cubans are l i v i n g i n ghettos l a r g e l y d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d s o c i a l l y , e d u c a t i o n a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y from the American mainstream. Canada's m u l t i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y attempts to address problems and hurdles that immigrants fa c e . No attempt i s made to e x p l a i n how immigrants' problems can be 2 solved or ameliorated but the p o l i c y of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m poses an important qu e s t i o n . What i s the most e f f e c t i v e way to have immigrants c o n t r i b u t e to the development of a country and at the same time maintain t h e i r i d e n t i t y , t h e i r own c u l t u r a l i n h e r i t a n c e and t h e i r independence as an i d e n t i f i a b l e c u l t u r a l group? The h i s t o r y of immigration shows that i n d i v i d u a l needs were l a r g e l y unacknowledged and economics have been the b a s i s for fo r m a l i z e d p o l i c y . Moreover, because mechanisms used to meet n a t i o n a l goals are implemented through various government departments and e d u c a t i o n a l programs, i t i s e s s e n t i a l to review and examine these to determine the extent to which immigrants' needs are being met. U l t i m a t e l y , the b e t t e r the goals of these programs are matched with the needs and goals of immigrants, the b e t t e r the chance of a pr o d u c t i v e , meaningful c o n t r i b u t i o n from immigrants congruent with both n a t i o n a l goals and i n d i v i d u a l needs. H i s t o r i c a l l y , the f e d e r a l department of immigration has determined what immigrants' needs are by a s e l e c t i o n process which most often r e f l e c t e d the views of the m i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e for a g r i c u l t u r e or manpower. U s u a l l y t h i s meant the a b i l i t y to work or s u s t a i n oneself was the sole c r i t e r i a for immigration to Canada. This l a r g e l y ignored other reasons p o t e n t i a l immigrants may have had for coming to Canada. There has been much f i n e tuning of the s e l e c t i o n 3 process due to pressure from groups that i n s i s t people come here f o r v a r i o u s reasons. However, in the main, immigrants' goals and a s p i r a t i o n s have been determined by the e x i s t i n g immigration and manpower p o l i c y of the day. The p o s i t i o n taken i n t h i s paper i s that there are a m u l t i p l i c i t y of reasons f o r which people come to Canada and, once here s e v e r a l f a c t o r s that impel them to p a r t i c i p a t e i n e d u c a t i o n a l programs. In the past, e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s have recognized that a d u l t immigrants can b e t t e r c o n t r i b u t e to t h e i r community once they have achieved minimal coping s k i l l s or c o r r e c t e d communication d e f i c i e n c i e s . H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h i s has been a main concern of a d u l t education movements in North America, a continent of immigrants. In the U.S.A. during the e a r l y years of organized a d u l t education (1919 — 1929) there was a major emphasis on c i t i z e n s h i p education and "Americanization;" t h i s l e d to the establishment of the N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n in 1921 which in turn became the Department of Adult Education i n 1924. The goals of these a s s o c i a t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s were remedial; they intended to solve immediate problems a s s o c i a t e d with i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , emancipation and u r b a n i z a t i o n . 4 Immigration P o l i c y i n Canada Immigration p o l i c y here i s deeply a s s o c i a t e d with the c u l t u r a l composition of Canadian s o c i e t y . A p r i m i t i v e , a g r i c u l t u r a l l y based s o c i e t y encouraged unregulated immigration and as i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n occured s e l e c t i v e immigration p o l i c y evolved to r e f l e c t the manpower needs of a more h i g h l y i n d u s t r i a l i z e d country. The f r e e - e n t r y p e r i o d ( 1 8 6 7 — 1 8 9 5 ) was based on a l a i s s e z - f a i r e p o l i c y . I t a t t r a c t e d a steady supply of immigrants, mainly from B r i t a i n and the U.S.A., with a promise of cheap land and s u b s i d i z e d t r a v e l . Immigration p o l i c y , under the c o n t r o l of the department of a g r i c u l t u r e , excluded no one. E v e n t u a l l y amendments were made to exclude c r i m i n a l s and paupers. Concern about the numbers of Chinese e n t e r i n g B.C. was r a i s e d . But, immigration continued i t s unhindered, unregulated course. Moreover, there were attempts to ameliorate harsh c o n d i t i o n s for newcomers. In 1 8 7 2 the Immigrant A i d S o c i e t i e s Act was passed to e s t a b l i s h c o n d i t i o n s to be met by o r g a n i z a t i o n s set up to help immigrants s e t t l e i n t h e i r new country. Between 1 8 9 6 and 1 914 (with Canada re c o v e r i n g from a severe depression i n the 1 8 9 0 ' s ) almost three m i l l i o n immigrants a r r i v e d . The M i n i s t e r of the I n t e r i o r , C l i f f o r d S i f t o n , c i t e d the need to t i e immigration to n a t i o n a l 5 economic p o l i c y . His aggressive promotion i n c l u d e d " f r e e l and," s u b s i d i z e d t r a v e l s l i d e shows, p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l and p a i d agents to f e r r e t out p o t e n t i a l newcomers who could meet hi s new s e l e c t i v e • immigration c r i t e r i a . He wanted farmers, farm workers and domestic servants used to hard work. Above a l l , S i f t o n t r i e d to avoid a t t r a c t i n g u n ionized i n d u s t r i a l workers who g r a v i t a t e d to urban c e n t r e s . He campaigned outside B r i t a i n for the f i r s t time and a t t r a c t e d groups of Poles, Ukranians, H u t t e r i t e s and Doukhobors as w e l l as "farming stock" from southern Europe. This p e r i o d marks the beginning of the Non-Anglo Saxon and Non-French Immigration. S i f t o n a l s o demanded that a r r i v e e s have "landing money" to support themselves and that they not replace jobs that "Canadians" c o u l d do. During 1914 and 1945 heavy unemployment, depression and war slowed immigration s i g n i f i c a n t l y , but s t i l l e f f o r t s were made to a t t r a c t a pop u l a t i o n s i m i l a r to those of the pre-war p e r i o d . S i f t o n s p e c i f i c a l l y excluded n a t i o n a l i t i e s u n l i k e l y to a s s i m i l a t e , f o r he thought t h i s would prevent the b u i l d i n g of a nation of s i m i l a r customs and i d e a l s . He a l s o excluded those he thought . l i k e l y to cause unemployment and lower the standard of l i v i n g by crowding i n t o urban c e n t r e s . In other words he wanted simple peasants to s e t t l e in r u r a l Canada, not s o p h i s t i c a t e d craftsmen or labour leaders who would help organize trade unions i n the c i t i e s . 6 From 1946 to 1961 over two m i l l i o n people immigrated to Canada but i t was evident during the post-war years that Canada was not able to a t t r a c t enough immigrants to f i l l vacant jobs. I t was made c l e a r under new r e g u l a t i o n s that while B r i t i s h , French and Americans were p r e f e r r e d , others who had s u i t a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l and labour backgrounds would be welcomed. There were s t i l l r e s t r i c t i o n s on Blacks and Asians. A l s o , during t h i s p e r i o d Canada brought i n thousands of refugees from Hungary and Egypt. This put s t r a i n s on va r i o u s segments of the popu l a t i o n as Canada s u f f e r e d yet another economic r e c e s s i o n from 1958 to 1961 which caused heavy unemployment. B a s i c a l l y , t h i s p e r i o d of immigration was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the c l o s e connection between r e s t r i c t i o n s for p r o s p e c t i v e immigrants and the economics of r e c e s s i o n and unemployment. Preference was given to p r o f e s s i o n a l occupations while many tradesmen and u n s k i l l e d workers were not encouraged. T h i s was a r a d i c a l s h i f t in p o l i c y compared to previous p e r i o d s . In 1966 a White Paper was re l e a s e d which o u t l i n e d f u t u r e immigration p o l i c y . E s s e n t i a l l y i t recommended a d d i t i o n a l migration to meet the demands of the labour market, expand the po p u l a t i o n , e n r i c h the c u l t u r e s t i l l f u r t h e r and continue to unite f a m i l i e s . While the report emphasized economic f a c t o r s as in the past, i t recommended that no d i s c r i m i n a t i o n e x i s t i n the s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a . People from a l l eth n i c groups should be considered. 7 Consequently, a point system was devised which would be a p p l i e d to p r o s p e c t i v e immigrants r e g a r d l e s s of e t h n i c o r i g i n , country or n a t i o n a l i t y . T h i s excluded refugees. The point system was devised to r e f l e c t a person's a b i l i t y to s u s t a i n him or h e r s e l f i n the Canadian economy and was not to be used to s e l e c t on the b a s i s of e t h n i c i t y but rather was a move toward a non-discrinminatory p o l i c y . While there are arguments concerning the extent to which the goals of an open p o l i c y have been achieved, i t i s important to note that the present c r i t e r i a i s achievement-oriented and p r i m a r i l y used to determine an immigrant's c a p a c i t y to maintain him or h e r s e l f economically. Immigration Education in B r i t i s h Columbia T h i s paper addresses an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s attempts to help l e a r n e r s of E n g l i s h as a second language (E.S.L). The f e d e r a l government, responsible. for immigration and manpower, r e f e r s to t h e i r f e d e r a l l y funded E n g l i s h courses as E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g (E.L.T.) so as to s a t i s f y the demands of the B r i t i s h North America Act which mandates education to the provinces but allows the f e d e r a l government to t r a i n f o r the purpose of f u l f i l l i n g manpower needs. Besides the need to adjust to a new c u l t u r e , immigrants have economic, s o c i a l and personal needs that may be understood and met i f thoroughly examined. It i s assumed that immigrants, l i k e a l l a d u l t s , p a r t i c i p a t e in education 8 courses for v a r i o u s reasons. To l e a r n a language to f i n d a job, the goal of f e d e r a l l y funded E.L.T. c l a s s e s and i n the main the goal of E.S.L. courses, i s only one reason why an immigrant may e n r o l l i n a language c l a s s . If a d u l t s ' needs are more a c c u r a t e l y a s c e r t a i n e d , program content can be b e t t e r matched to the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' needs. It i s recognized that attempts have been made in E.S.L. to meet " s p e c i a l " needs, although e s s e n t i a l l y these have aimed at meeting occ u p a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l needs such as Business E n g l i s h , a s p e c i a l i z e d course for nurses, and E.S.L. for q u a l i f i e d tradesmen and o f f i c e personnel. The King Edward Campus (K.E.C.) of the Vancouver Community Co l l e g e i s the l a r g e s t i n s t i t u t i o n f o r a d u l t immigrants in B.C. A l l p r o s p e c t i v e E.S.L. students are t e s t e d for t h e i r l e v e l of E n g l i s h and then placed i n a c l a s s of the a p p r o p r i a t e language l e v e l . T h i s i s an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l response to c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s and, i n s p i t e of recognized d i f f e r e n c e s in a d u l t s , immigrants are l a r g e l y d e a l t with in a uniform f a s h i o n . A f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s problem, Brown pointed out that there are p o s s i b l y b e t t e r methods to organize adul t immigrant l e a r n e r s of E n g l i s h . ... Because of varying c u l t u r a l backgrounds, varying s t r u c t u r e s of n a t i v e languages, and d i f f e r i n g behaviour changes r e q u i r e d , there i s perhaps some v a l i d i t y in e s t a b l i s h i n g homogenous l e a r n i n g groups ... homogenous c l a s s e s provide a more comfortable, relaxed s i t u a t i o n s i n c e the members of the c l a s s are at ease ... (1970, p. 29) 9 While homogeneous groups at very low l e v e l s of language i n s t r u c t i o n may be advantageous, i t i s argued l a t e r in t h i s paper that more i s gained by maintaining an et h n i c mix. 1 0 CHAPTER II AN INSTITUTIONAL REPOSNSE Role at King Edward Campus The present immigration point system might suggest that normally an immigrant would a r r i v e , s e t t l e and begin work. Such i s not the case. The b a r r i e r s to s a t i s f y i n g , p roductive work are immense and, i r o n i c a l l y , the p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d immigrant may f i n d higher hurdles to s u i t a b l e employment than those l e s s s k i l l e d and more e a s i l y placed i n t o s e r v i c e jobs. In the past i t was assumed, p o s s i b l y because of the expectations of the achievement-orientated p o i n t system, that immigrants need E n g l i s h t r a i n i n g to a s p e c i f i c l e v e l and a smattering of c i v i c s ; then they were ready to take t h e i r place i n the labour market. This need f o r E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g l e d to the establishment of the King Edward Campus, one of the l a r g e s t E.S.L. schools in North America, which in 1983 was p r o v i d i n g programs to more than 5,000 enrollments in 30 l o c a t i o n s throught the c i t y . There has been a tremendous e f f o r t made to meet immediate language needs with programs ranging from beginner's b i l i n g u a l c l a s s e s (School Canadiana) to v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l E n g l i s h programs. Current Mandate At K.E.C. there has been a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of programs in E.S.L. ranging from a d u l t l i t e r a c y to u n i v e r s i t y entrance courses, with approximately eleven l e v e l s between the two. Al s o , at va r i o u s l e v e l s there are concentrated s k i l l s courses designed to remedy s p e c i f i c language problems. The present broad goals of the E.S.L. programs o f f e r e d at K.E.C. are s u c c i n c t l y s t a t e d i n the 1981/1982 course calendar. The purpose of the E n g l i s h as a Second Language c l a s s i s to o f f e r students the opportunity to upgrade t h e i r E n g l i s h communication s k i l l s so that they can f u n c t i o n more e f f e c t i v e l y i n the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g community, or enter v o c a t i o n a l , academic or t e c h n i c a l post-secondary programs (1981, p. 42). The E.S.L. programs and mandate of King Edward Campus appear to have the p o t e n t i a l f l e x i b i l i t y to implement programs that f i t i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s ' needs, f u l f i l l the p r o v i n c i a l mandate and serve a l a r g e r s o c i a l need. The Report of the Committee on Continuing and Community Education in B.C. ( F a r i s , 1976Kencouraged t h i s f l e x i b i l i t y by recommending t h a t : 1. The p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y finance the development of an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d program i n E n g l i s h as a second language. 2. Programs be made a v a i l a b l e i n n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s when appropr i a t e and at times convenient to the l e a r n e r . (1976, p. 31) 1 2 Program planners would thus need to a c c u r a t e l y assess the p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s c l i e n t e l e research would: 1. Help i d e n t i f y t a r g e t audiences. 2. Assess the extent to which c l i e n t s ' needs are being met. 3. A i d i n the development of programs and c u r r i c u l u m which s u i t s l e a r n e r s ' needs and o r i e n t a t i o n . Like c h i l d r e n , immigrants often are unable to adequately express t h e i r needs, goals and a s p i r a t i o n s l a r g e l y because of language d e f i c i e n c i e s . Thus, courses are designed without the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the l e a r n e r . A lack of " g o o d - f i t " between l e a r n e r and e d u c a t i o n a l environment can lead to apathy, f r u s t r a t i o n , incongruence, s e l f doubt and u l t i m a t e l y a- lack of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In g e n e r a l , K.E.C. has a p r o v i n c i a l mandate f o r a s p e c i f i c p h i l o s o p h i c a l , s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l purpose which i s d i c t a t e d by the economics of immigration, a f e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l mandate i s to t r a i n immigrants in E n g l i s h as the program guide s t a t e s , "... to f u n c t i o n more e f f e c t i v e l y in the E n g l i s h speaking community" for the purpose of f i n d i n g employment, a f e d e r a l demand. How f l e x i b l e the program o b j e c t i v e s are and how responsive an o r g a n i z a t i o n i s to i n d i v i d u a l s ' needs depends p r i m a r i l y on the i n s t i t u t i o n a l commitment to the p r i n c i p l e s of a d u l t education. A strong commitment would mean that program goals w i l l pay p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to the s o c i a l r o l e and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a d u l t l e a r n e r s . 13 According to Verner and Booth's (1964) c r i t e r i a , K.E.C. i s an a d u l t education i n s t i t u t i o n . That i s , the p a r t i c i p a n t s have primary s o c i a l r o l e s other than that of " l e a r n e r " . They are a l s o spouses, parents, workers and c i t i z e n s ; the r o l e of " l e a r n e r " i s secondary. Adult immigrants have added disadvantages exacerbated by poor communication s k i l l s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . But they are a d u l t s . These problems for program planning are complex but not insurmountable. T h e i r r e s o l u t i o n w i l l be hindered i f program planners, i n s t r u c t o r s , c o u n s e l l o r s , and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s are unaware of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the a d u l t l e a r n e r . In a d d i t i o n , the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s f u l f i l l e d by a d u l t education, the s o c i a l r o l e , and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the a d u l t l e a r n e r a l l have important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r program planning and content. Incongruence a r i s e s when programs are developed without regard to the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of adult l e a r n e r s . Boshier and Peters (1976) argued that a d u l t education program developers, when making d e c i s i o n s r e l a t e d to l e a r n e r s ' outcomes and program content, should base t h e i r d e c i s i o n s on information from a number of sources i n c l u d i n g : 1. An a n a l y s i s of the needs, i n t e r e s t s and motives of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s ' s adult c l i e n t e l e . 2. The i n f l u e n c e of s o c i a l f o r c e s . 1 4 3. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the community. 4. The o r g a n i z a t i o n s ' purpose, philosophy and s t r u c t u r e . In summary, c l i e n t e l e research enables the i n s t i t u t i o n to i d e n t i f y t a r g e t audiences, assess the extent to which c l i e n t s are being reached and adjust programs to the needs and o r i e n t a t i o n s of l e a r n e r s . Adult educators have long been preoccupied with c l i e n t e l e analyses and, during the l a s t decade, one of the most prominent t r a d i t i o n s has stemmed from the d e s i r e to match program content and processes with the m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s of l e a r n e r s . T h i s study, which focused on motives for p a r t i c i p a t i o n , r e s u l t e d i n the c r e a t i o n of a f a c t o r i a l l y pure and r e l i a b l e instrument, norms and s c o r i n g key, which should help planners, c o u n s e l l o r s and i n s t r u c t o r s assess the e d u c a t i o n a l needs of ad u l t immigrants. 15 CHAPTER III MOTIVATIONAL ORIENTATIONS H i s t o r y and S i g n i f i c a n c e The needs and i n t e r e s t s of adult l e a r n e r s impel them to p a r t i c i p a t e in programs (Boshier & Peters, 1976). If the programs do not meet the needs of the c l i e n t e l e , p a r t i c i p a t i o n ceases. Houle (1961) suggested that a d u l t l e a r n e r s are of three types: g o a l , l e a r n i n g and a c t i v i t y o r i e n t e d . He maintained that the goal o r i e n t e d p a r t i c i p a t e because of a c l e a r cut goal while the l e a r n i n g o r i e n t e d p a r t i c i p a t e for the 'love of l e a r n i n g ' or for 'knowledge for i t s own sake.' The a c t i v i t y o r i e n t e d take part in e d u c a t i o n a l experiences for reasons most of t e n u n r e l a t e d to the o b j e c t i v e s of the course; they g e n e r a l l y enjoy the a c t i v i t y i t s e l f . Boshier (1971 ) maintained that Houle's typology o v e r - s i m p l i f i e d the case. Recently, Boshier and C o l l i n s (1985) c l u s t e r - a n a l y z e d a c o r r e l a t i o n matrix c a l c u l a t e d from Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale data provided by 13,442 l e a r n e r s i n d i f f e r e n t parts of the world. Houle's goal and l e a r n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s were d i s c e r n i b l e but the a c t i v i t y o r i e n t a t i o n was composed of s e v e r a l , l a r g e l y independent c l u s t e r s . In short, the s i t u a t i o n appears to be more 16 complex than Houle had envisaged. Boshier and C o l l i n s (1983) a l s o presented a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s and norms based on t h e i r l a r g e data set. P a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l for the f o l l o w i n g reasons: 1. S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n : to overcome d e f i c i e n c i e s in s o c i a l l i f e and education background. 2. P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement: to acquire s k i l l s for job advancement. 3. Community S e r v i c e : to acquire s k i l l s to take part i n s o c i a l or community a f f a i r s . 4. S o c i a l c o n t a c t : to meet new f r i e n d s and take part i n group a c t i v i t i e s . 5. E x t e r n a l E xpectations: to f u l f i l l e x pectations of another person such as f a t h e r , employer, s o c i a l worker or manpower o f f i c e r . 6. C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t : to l e a r n f o r the joy of l e a r n i n g with no p a r t i c u l a r g o a l . Boshier (1976) f u r t h e r hypothesized that p a r t i c i p a n t s were e i t h e r d e f i c i e n c y or growth motivated. D e f i c i e n c y motivated ( l i f e - c h a n c e ) p a r t i c i p a n t s were t r y i n g to s a t i s f t y the lower order needs in Maslow's h i e r a r c h y while growth motivated ( l i f e - s p a c e ) p a r t i c i p a n t s were equated to Maslow's s e l f - a c t u a l i z e d people. Life-chance and l i f e - s p a c e people have "important p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s ... r e l a t e d to c o n t i n u i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i o n over s e v e r a l years" (Boshier, 1976). Life - c h a n c e people p a r t i c i p a t e to 17 a c q u i r e coping s k i l l s or to solve immediate 'lower-order' needs and then withdraw or, at best, p a r t i c i p a t e s p o r a d i c a l l y to meet short-term g o a l s . L i f e - s p a c e p a r t i c i p a n t s tend to be ' l i f e l o n g ' o r i e n t e d . Boshier (1976) concluded that h i s m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c o u l d be viewed as f o l l o w s : Soc i a l / P r o f e s s i o n a l / E x t e r n a l / S t i m u l a t i o n Advancement Expecat ions LIFE-CHANCE P a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t i n g a l i f e - c h a n c e m o t i v a t i o n are d e f i c i e n c y motivated, young, have low o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s and income and have a h i s t o r y of sporadic p a r t i c i p a t i o n in a d u l t education. Community/Service C o g n i t i v e / I n t e r e s t LIFE-SPACE L i f e - s p a c e motivated p a r t i c i p a n t s tend to be f r e e d from d e f i c i e n c y , and 'express' rather than cope, and are d e s c r i b e d as s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g . Notion of Congruence in Program Planning As Cross (1980) noted, the notion of "matching" programs to l e a r n e r o r i e n t a t i o n s pervades the work of nearly a l l a d u l t education motivation t h e o r i s t s . At King Edward Campus i t has g e n e r a l l y been assumed that l e a r n e r s from d i f f e r e n t age, sex, e t h n i c , and other groups are i d e n t i c a l . In other words, t h e i r " m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s " are 18 constant. Thus, they are t r e a t e d the same. Hence, people from Hong Kong, A f r i c a and the P h i l i p p i n e s are subject to the same program content and processes. The purpose of the present study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the extent to which t h i s a s s e r t i o n can be s u s t a i n e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i n v e s t i g a t e d the extent to which scores on a measure of m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n v a r i e d as a f u n c t i o n of age, sex, country of b i r t h , and language spoken. The general form of the E.P.S. was o r i g i n a l l y developed in New Zealand. I t i s now used in many d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the world, but as Boshier (1983) explained, i s not e n t i r e l y s u i t a b l e f o r A.B.E. or E.S.L. populations because of the language used in some of the items. Thus, for the purposes of t h i s study, i t was necessary to design a new A.B.E./E.S.L. o r i e n t e d form of the E.P.S. This would be known as the Basic Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e . Boshier was i n t e r e s t e d in the psychometrics of t h i s problem; the author of t h i s t h e s i s was p r i m a r i l y i n t r i g u e d by r e l a t i o n s h i p s between B.E.P.S. scores obtained by immigrant p a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l l e d at the King Edward Campus. 19 CHAPTER IV METHOD Item Generation During the f i r s t step, 150 students at K.E.C. i n vari o u s l e v e l s of E.S.L. and c o l l e g e foundation courses were interviewed about why they were e n r o l l e d at the C o l l e g e . These reasons were l i s t e d and then e d i t e d and c a t e g o r i z e d . R e p e t i t i v e statements were e l i m i n a t e d ; e.g., "to speak b e t t e r " and "to l e a r n to speak b e t t e r " were combined to make one statement. T h i s process r e s u l t e d i n 120 statements on why students attended c l a s s e s . These reasons were l i s t e d , combined with s u i t a b l e items from the general form of the E.P.S. (Boshier, 1982) and assembled i n t o a new q u e s t i o n n a i r e of 120 items with a f o u r - p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e for responses. S p e c i a l care was taken to ensure that items and i n s t r u c t i o n s would be understood by a person with a Grade 7 reading l e v e l . The 120-item instrument was then administered to a d i f f e r e n t group of 257 p a r t i c i p a n t s at K.E.C. and the Vancouver V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e . The students were f i r s t asked to complete a q u e s t i o n n a i r e e l i c i t i n g demographic data concerning age, sex, country of b i r t h , language spoken and present c l a s s . They were then asked to read each statement 20 in the Basic Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale and i n d i c a t e the extent to which each 'reason' i n f l u e n c e d them to e n r o l l . Responses were e l i c i t e d on a f o u r - p o i n t s c a l e (much i n f l u e n c e , moderate i n f l u e n c e , l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e , or no i n f l u e n c e ) . P r i o r to c a l c u l a t i n g the nature of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between o r i e n t a t i o n scores and some marker v a r i a b l e s , i t was necessary to f a c t o r analyze the E.P.S. data which were coded so the number 1 was equal to 'No I n f l u e n c e , ' 2 equal to " L i t t l e I nfluence,' 3 equal to "Moderate Influence,' and 4 equal to 'Much Influ e n c e . ' An i n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n matrix was produced; t h i s was then f a c t o r e d and o r t h o g o n a l l y r o t a t e d to produce s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t s o l u t i o n s . The most s a t i s f y i n g s o l u t i o n contained seven f a c t o r s c o n s i s t i n g of s i x items each. Boshier (1983) used t h i s as the b a s i s of a paper presented at the Adult Education Research Conference; the present study l a r g e l y focussed on r e l a t i o n s h i p s between B.E.P.S. s c a l e scores and e t h n i c o r i g i n . Securing R e l i a b i l i t y Data In February, 1986, an a d d i t i o n a l 81 p a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l l e d i n C o l l e g e Preparatory E n g l i s h courses at King Edward Campus were administered the B.E.P.S. In March, 1986, the same 81 p a r t i c i p a n t s were given the same i n s t r u c t i o n s by the researcher and once again were 21 administered the B.E.P.S. A l l respondents were asked on both the t e s t and r e t e s t to f i l l out the f o l l o w i n g demographic data: age, sex, country of b i r t h and mother language spoken. For t e s t r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y i t was necessary to i d e n t i f y the respondents without j e o p a r d i z i n g t h e i r anonymity. Thus the respondents were asked to record on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h e i r date of b i r t h and the c i t y i n which they were born. S i x t y - t h r e e completed ' p a i r s ' were r e c e i v e d . Securing V a l i d i t y Data Questionnaire completion and interview A subsample of p a r t i c i p a n t s with c o n t r a s t i n g backgrounds was chosen to be interviewed. Questions were open-ended and respondents were encouraged to t a l k openly and f r e e l y about the f o l l o w i n g : personal family circumstances, economic circumstances, experience as an immigrant (reasons for l e a v i n g home country, coming to Canada, s e t t l i n g and advancing in Canada, fo r example), adaptation to the new c u l t u r e , and immediate and long range e d u c a t i o n a l and l i f e g o a l s . The atmosphere during the interview was informal and the respondents were f r i e n d l y and re l a x e d . Notes were taken by the researcher. 22 Subject e s t i m a t i o n procedure In t h i s step each respondent was asked to read over seven cards each headed by the name of a B.E.P.S. f a c t o r with s i x items l i s t e d under each f a c t o r heading. The researcher read aloud each item to the respondent and c l a r i f i e d any items which caused d i f f i c u l t y . The respondent then moved to the other s i d e of the room and was given an instrument, some c o i n s and some d i r e c t i o n s which s t a t e d : Move the coin s along the l i n e s marked s i x to twenty four. Six means "no i n f l u e n c e " and twenty four means "much i n f l u e n c e " . Please read the f a c t o r and estimate the extent to which you were i n f l u e n c e d by each f a c t o r to e n r o l in Co l l e g e Preparatory E n g l i s h courses. You may reread the items on the cards. When you are f i n i s h e d c a l l the researcher. The researcher then asked the respondent i f that c o n f i g u r a t i o n best represented them and when the subject was s a t i s f i e d marked the scores on a chart (see F i g . 8). The respondent was thanked. Researcher e s t i m a t i o n procedure During the time the respondents were making estimates concerning t h e i r reasons f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the researcher a l s o estimated t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n for p a r t i c i p a t i o n on a s i m i l a r s c a l e ranging from s i x to 24. The estimates were recorded on a chart along with the respondent's est imates. 23 CHAPTER V RESULTS I This chapter d e s c r i b e s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of respondents who completed the B.E.P.S., and r e l a t i o n s h i p s between o r i e n t a t i o n scores and the independent v a r i a b l e s . Factor A n a l y s i s In the f i r s t phase of t h i s study, responses from the 257 p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d , f a c t o r analyzed and o r t h o g o n a l l y r o t a t e d (Boshier, 1983). Several other f a c t o r s o l u t i o n s were examined. Items with loadings lower than .50 and impure items l o a d i n g on more than one f a c t o r were dropped. F i n a l l y a 7-factor s o l u t i o n composed of pure items that accounted for 58.19.of the variance was adopted. Each f a c t o r was composed of s i x items and a l l v a r i a b l e s had high loadings on only one f a c t o r . Factor I, 'Communication Improvement', i d e n t i f i e d respondents e n r o l l e d to improve w r i t t e n and v e r b a l communication s k i l l s . In most cases respondents r e q u i r e d improvement in communication s k i l l s to enable them to f u n c t i o n ( i . e . work, learn) b e t t e r i n t h e i r new country. Factor I I , ' S o c i a l Contact,' i d e n t i f i e d respondents who were e n r o l l e d to meet d i f f e r e n t people and to make new f r i e n d s . Factor I I I , 'Educational P r e p a r a t i o n , ' i d e n t i f i e d those 24 e n r o l l e d in a course to gain knowledge and s k i l l s to study f u r t h e r . Factor IV, ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement,' measured the extent to which the respondents were e n r o l l e d to enhance present job o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Factor V, 'Family Togetherness,' measured the respondents' d e s i r e to obtain s k i l l s r e l a t e d to family l i f e . Factor VI, ' S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n , ' measured the extent to which the p a r t i c i p a n t i s motivated to e n r o l l because of l o n e l i n e s s , i s o l a t i o n and boredom. Factor VII, 'Cognitive I n t e r e s t , 1 l a b e l e d respondents who were i n t r i n s i c a l l y motivated to e n r o l l for the 'love of l e a r n i n g . ' The f i n a l form of the Basic Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n  Scale (BEPS) c o n s i s t e d of seven f a c t o r s c o n t a i n i n g s i x items each f o r a t o t a l of 42 items. Items from each f a c t o r are spread throughout the instrument. P a r t i c i p a n t D e s c r i p t i o n In t h i s study a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s f i l l e d in an accompanying cover sheet p r o v i d i n g information concerning t h e i r age, sex, country of b i r t h , and language spoken at home. Factor scores on Communication Improvement were obtained by t o t a l l i n g the responses to Items 1, 8, 15, 22, 29 and 36; S o c i a l Contact scores were obtained by adding up responses to Items 2, 9, 16, 20, 30 and 37. The remaining f i v e f a c t o r scores were s i m i l a r l y scored. Mean s c a l e scores by age, sex and country of b i r t h c o u l d then be c a l c u l a t e d . 25 E t h n i c i t y (country of b i r t h ) was the v a r i a b l e of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . I f the d i v e r s e needs of a d u l t immigrants are to be met by e d u c a t i o n a l programs i t would help to know the extent to which d i f f e r e n t groups are motivated to attend programs for the reasons d i s c e r n e d i n t h i s study. For each BEPS f a c t o r the minimum score was s i x , while the maximum was 24. As noted, the BEPS c o n s i s t e d of seven f a c t o r s . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the mean E d u c a t i o n a l P r e p a r a t i o n , S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n , and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t s c a l e scores of people i n the e t h n i c groups encompassed by t h i s study. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s might have emerged had v a r i o u s groups been c o l l a p s e d together. In other-words, Asians, East Europeans, and the other groups p r e v i o u s l y named were not more or l e s s i n c l i n e d than each other to e n r o l f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n , s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n or c o g n i t i v e i n t e r e s t . Apparently, these are u n i v e r s a l 'motivators' not p a r t i c u l a r l y unique to any e t h n i c group. However, there were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores on the remaining f a c t o r s . Thus, the remainder of t h i s chapter i s l a r g e l y concerned with e n r o l l i n g f o r Communication Improvement, S o c i a l Contact, P r o f e s s i o n a l  Advancement and Family Togetherness. Communication Improvement Figu r e 1 shows that most immigrants, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , Asians (X = 19.23), East Europeans (X = 20.20) 26 and West and South Europeans (X = 17.33) had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher Communication Improvement scores (F = 15155, p<.00l) than respondents born in Canada (X = 12.59). Respondents 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 12 — 10 — < Q < < < CO < o CO CC < D UJ LU LU o cc D L U X H t -co D £ O •> co LU —1 Q Q 2 co < LU < < O CC LU X i -D o co cc LU X O Fig. 1. Mean Basic Education Participation Scale. "Communicat ion Improvement" score for " Canad i an " and immigrant participants at King Edward campus. from A s i a (X = 19.23) were more l i k e l y to be e n r o l l e d for S o c i a l Contact than were those from "Other" c o u n t r i e s (X = 16.42) . 27 S o c i a l C o n t a c t F i g u r e 2 p r e s e n t s t h e mean s c o r e s on S o c i a l C o n t a c t . A s i a n s a n d L a t i n A m e r i c a n s w e r e more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r s o c i a l c o n t a c t t h a n w e r e p a r t i c i p a n t s f r o m o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . O v e r a l l , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s shown i n F i g u r e 2 w e r e 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 12 -10 < < Z < u < CO < LU Q. f— o co cc < 3 LU LU °3 f-co LU LU a. O DC LU X (— o CO LU a H Q CO == < -2 LU < cc LU < f-o CO cc LU X f-o Fig. 2. Mean Basic Education Participation Scale. "Social Contact" score for "Canadian" and immigrant participants at King Edward campus. s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (F = 2 . 9 0 , p < . 0 0 9 ) . The T u k e y m u l t i p l e - r a n g e p r o c e d u r e showed t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( p < . 0 5 ) i n t h e s c o r e s o f A s i a n s (X = 1 3 . 6 4 ) a n d t h o s e f r o m t h e " o t h e r " c o u n t r i e s (X = 1 1 . 3 4 ) . 28 E d u c a t i o n a l P r e p a r a t i o n F i g u r e 3 shows the E d u c a t i o n a l P r e p a r a t i o n scores for each of the et h n i c groups. A n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t F - r a t i o of 24 -| 23 22 21 H 20 19 18 -17 16 — 15 14 —I 12 10 — < Q < Z < u < CO < f— LU ex. O CO cc < D LU LU o3 CO LU LU Q. O CC z> LU X o CO LU _1 2 LU z < CO LU X f -O CO LU X H o Fig. 3. Mean Basic Education Participation Scale. "Educational Preparation" score for " Canad i an " and immigrant participants at K ing Edward campus. 1.05 a t t e s t s to the f a c t that no group was more or l e s s i n c l i n e d than another to be e n r o l l e d for Educat i o n a l  P r e p a r a t i o n . Moreover, the Tukey procedure f a i l e d to detect any two groups that d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y at the .05 l e v e l . 29 P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement F i g u r e 4 shows that Canadians (X = 19.12) were more l i k e l y to be e n r o l l e d f o r P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement than were East Europeans (X = 14.10). A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s that 24 23 22 21 -20 19 -18 -17 16 15 -14 — 12 10 < < 2 < < co < LU CL H O CO CC < Z) LU LU (-co LU 5 LU CL O CC LU r f— o co LU Q H Q CO = < 2 LU < y cc LU < h-o co CC LU X t-o Fig. 4, Mean Basic Education Participation Scale. "Professional Advancement" score for "Canadian" and immigrant participants at King Edward campus. Canadian respondents have jobs or have had jobs but wish to upgrade t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s in order to advance to more c h a l l e n g i n g work while East European respondents, most of whom were w e l l educated, had not yet held a job i n Canada so 30 f i n d i n g a job would rank as more important than advancing i n a p r o f e s s i o n . The Tukey procedure revealed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean scores of "Canadians" and those born i n East Europe. Family Togetherness There were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between scores f o r West and South Europeans (X = 12.44) and Canadians (X = 9.18) on Family Togetherness ( F i g . 5). T h i s 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 12 10 < < Z < < CO < cu C l f- O CO cc < D LU LU o3 f-CO LU LU a. O cc Z) LU Z> o co LU r\ CO o2 < < y cc LU X r -Z) o co cc LU X f-o Fig. 5. Mean Basic Education Participation Scale. "Family Togetherness" score for "Canadian" and immigrant participants at King Edward campus. can p o s s i b l y be explained by the f a c t that West and South 31 Europeans t r a d i t i o n a l l y view strong family t i e s as important and, as t h e i r c h i l d r e n become "Canadianized" ( i . e . more independent, with l e s s family involvement) there i s a need to understand more about r e a r i n g a fam i l y i n Canada. The large number of s i n g l e parents and fam i l y break-ups may a l s o i n f l u e n c e t h e i r d e s i r e to l e a r n about " f a m i l i e s " i n t h e i r new country ( F i g . 5). In general, West and South European immigrants are not new immigrants and perhaps t h e i r w itnessing of change i n family r e l a t i o n s more s t r o n g l y urges them to understand these changes than other immigrant groups who are more recent a r r i v e e s and have not yet p e r c e i v e d any e r o s i o n of t h e i r strong family t i e s . The Tukey procedure showed that the l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e s were between the mean scores of "Canadians" and p a r t i c i p a n t s from West and South Europe. S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n Figure 6 shows the mean S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n scores. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in the scores of the various ethnic groups. Indeed, the Tukey procedure, which examined d i f f e r e n c e s i n a l l p o s s i b l e p a i r s of scores, found that none was d i f f e r e n t at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . 32 24 -23 -22 -21 -20 -19 -18 -16 -15 -14 -12 -10 S 9.56 9.92 9.28 ERICA ERICA DA .40 ERICA DA Pi UJ <: OTHER CANA ASIA EAST EUROI WEST & SOUTH EUROPE MIDDL EAST LATIN & SOUTH, OTHER Fig. 6. Mean Basic Education Participation Scale. "Social Stimulation" score for "Canadian" and immigrant participants at King Edward campus. C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t F i g u r e 7 shows t h e mean BEPS s c o r e s on t h e C o g n i t i v e  I n t e r e s t f a c t o r . N o t e t h a t t h e g r a n d mean was 1 7 . 0 3 w h i c h , on a 2 4 - p o i n t s c a l e , s u g g e s t s t h a t most p a r t i c i p a n t s were e n r o l l e d f o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t , i . e . , l e a r n i n g f o r i t s own s a k e . A s w e l l , t h e r e was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e means when s e p a r a t e d by c o u n t r y o f b i r t h . I n d e e d , t h e T u k e y p r o c e d u r e showed t h a t no two s c o r e s were d i f f e r e n t a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . 33 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 12 10 Fig. 7 Mean Basic Education Participation Scale. "Cognitive Interest" score for "Canadian" and immigrant participants al King Edward campus. Summary The SPSS a n a l y s i s of varia n c e r o u t i n e was used to compare the mean Communication Improvement scores of each ethnic group. The F - r a t i o (15.55, p<.00l) showed the o v e r a l l d i f f e r e n c e in the mean scores of each e t h n i c group when compared with a l l the ot h e r s . In a d d i t i o n , the Tukey multiple-range procedure was used to compare the mean score of each ethnic group with each of the other groups considered s e p a r a t e l y . Thus, the Asian score was compared with the Canadian, then with the Middle East, then the West < Q < z; < co < LU H O CO cc < D LU LU OJ a. O cc z> LU o$j •j-f— i— CO Z) S co UJ a s-Q CO i UJ o3 < o cc LU < X H D O co cc LU J _ r— o 34 and South European score, and so on. The output marks the most s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s in the matrix with an a s t e r i s k as f o l l o w s : Table 1. Significance of Difference in the Communication Improvement scores of participants from different countries. M E A N a o LU 3 o CO 63 c GROUP "D c o "a E < si +-* O CO ca Q. o 6 12.59 Canada 14.43 Middle East 16.12 Other 1 7 3 3 West & South Europe ^ gg Latin & South America 19.23 Asia 20.20 East Europe Now i t can be seen that although the o v e r a l l d i f f e r e n c e s were very s i g n i f i c a n t ( p < . 0 0 l ) the greatest mean d i f f e r e n c e s were between Canadians and West and South Europeans, Canadians and Asians, and Canadians and East Europeans. The absence of a s t e r i s k s in the remainder of the matrix shows that the mean scores of Canadians and people 35 from the M i d d l e East or " o t h e r " c o u n t r i e s were not d i f f e r e n t at the .05 l e v e l df s i g n i f i c a n c e . Our example has concerned the Communication  Improvement f a c t o r . Of the s i x non-Canadian e t h n i c groups, t h r e e were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r Communication Improvement than were Canadians (Table 1). There was n o t h i n g remarkable about t h i s r e s u l t . Indeed, those who see the community c o l l e g e as a v e h i c l e f o r h e l p i n g immigrants a c q u i r e language and communication s k i l l s s h o u l d be heartened to l e a r n t h a t a t l e a s t t h r e e e t h n i c groups had h i g h e r s c o r e s than Canadians on t h i s f a c t o r which, on a p r i o r i grounds, s h o u l d d i s t i n g u i s h Canadian from non-Canadian groups. In summary, t h e r e were f o u r f a c t o r s where the mean sc o r e s of people from d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , and t h r e e where the d i f f e r e n c e s were i n s i g n i f i c a n t : Communication Improvement - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s (F = 15.55) S o c i a l Contact - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s (F = 2.90) E d u c a t i o n a l P r e p a r a t i o n - i n s i g n i f i c a n t (F = 1.05) P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s (F 3.11) Fa m i l y Togetherness - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s (F = 2.85) S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n - i n s i g n i f i c a n t (F = .94) C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t - i n s i g n i f i c a n t (F = .58) 36 CHAPTER VI RESULTS II This chapter presents the r e s u l t s of a t e s t r e t e s t s i t u a t i o n of 81 respondents e n r o l l e d i n C o llege Preparatory E n g l i s h courses at King Edward Campus and t e s t r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y and c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y are d i s c u s s e d . R e l i a b i 1 i t y In February, 1986 an a d d i t i o n a l 81 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were administered to p a r t i c i p a n t s i n C o l l e g e Preparatory courses and re-administered to the same group in March 1986. S i x t y - t h r e e usable sets (with the ' t e s t ' and the ' r e t e s t ' both completed) were returned. For t e s t r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y purposes i t was necessary to i d e n t i f y the respondents without j e o p a r d i z i n g t h e i r anonymity. Thus, respondents were i n s t r u c t e d to record t h e i r date of b i r t h and c i t y of b i r t h on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Item responses from the f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were arrayed i n a computer f i l e with those from second a d m i n i s t r a t i o n l o c a t e d in the next l i n e . I n t e r - i t e m Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d so i t was p o s s i b l e to d e r i v e a t e s t r e t e s t c o e f f i c i e n t f o r each item as well as an o v e r a l l score which was c a l c u l a t e d by summing over the item c o r r e l a t i o n and d i v i d i n g by 42. 37 The four week t e s t r e t e s t Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s for each f a c t o r were c a l c u l a t e d and y i e l d e d the f o l l o w i n g : Communication Improvement r=. ; S o c i a l Contact r=. ; E d u c a t i o n a l P r e p a r a t i o n r=. ; P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement r=. ; S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n r=. ; C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t r=. . The o v e r a l l s t a b i l i t y - o v e r - t i m e c o e f f i c i e n t was c a l c u l a t e d by summing over item c o r r e l a t i o n s and d i v i d i n g by 42. This y i e l d e d an o v e r a l l t e s t r e t e s t c o e f f i c i e n t of . . Thus, the instrument appeared to be r e l i a b l e over time. V a l i d i t y In t h i s context " v a l i d i t y " concerns the extent to which the instrument measures what i t purports to measure. Thus, i s a person with a high "Communication Improvement" score a c t u a l l y e n r o l l e d f o r communication improvement purposes? This matter was i n v e s t i g a t e d by i n t e r v i e w i n g a small subsample of respondents e n r o l l e d at King Edward Campus in February, 1986. It was not p o s s i b l e to interview la r g e numbers of people' nor was i t deemed necessary to draw a random sample. Instead, i t was decided to s e l e c t nine people from c o n t r a s t i n g backgrounds. Those interviewed were a Chinese from Canton, mainland China, two Peruvians from Lima, two P o l i s h , a Chinese from Hong Kong, an Indian from a small v i l l a g e in the Punjab, a Columbian, and a Ch i l e a n from 38 Santiago. To maintain anonymity t h e i r names have been changed. Mean A.B.E./E.P.S. scores r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s s e c t i o n are d i s p l a y e d g r a p h i c a l l y i n Chapter V I I . Case Study One: "Laura" Laura, 28, was born and r a i s e d i n Canton, China. Her parents were both u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s in Canton and h i g h l y "career o r i e n t e d " . Her f a m i l y s u f f e r e d from p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s s i o n because they were academics, had owned land in the c i t y and c o u n t r y s i d e , and r e c e i v e d money from her grandfather in Hong Kong. She was sent to a boarding school where because of " f a m i l y neglect and lack of d i s c i p l i n e i n the school her grades were poor". The boarding school was a p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t e for f o r e i g n students in China. For example, e t h n i c Chinese Malaysians who were e x p e l l e d from Singapore attended. L a t e r , in high s c h o o l , her grades improved d r a m a t i c a l l y because she spent "hours studying i n the school c a f e t e r i a rather than go home to a very unharmonious domestic scene". She graduated from high school at the end of the c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n and subsequently f i n i s h e d nursing school. For a short while, she worked as a nurse. Her b o y f r i e n d , who had l e f t for Canada, came back to China. They were engaged, a p p l i e d for a v i s a and now l i v e in Vancouver. She o r i g i n a l l y attended King Edward Campus, to l e a r n o r a l E n g l i s h and found work at a l o c a l restaurant (who c a l l e d her to work while the employees 39 were on s t r i k e ) . She has since found work at a retirement home and has "learned to l i k e her job". She e n r o l l e d i n Co l l e g e Preparatory courses because she i s "very c u r i o u s " and "wants to study b i o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e s " , or "any course that w i l l l ead to higher education because I l i k e l e a r n i n g " . Laura scored high on Communication Improvement, Ed u c a t i o n a l Preparation and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t on the ABE/EPS. These scores confirm Laura's story as she s t a t e d she was very c u r i o u s , and wants to study b i o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e s . Furthermore, she s t a t e d that any course which l e d to a b e t t e r understanding of l i f e and a higher education would s u f f i c e because she l i k e d l e a r n i n g . She scored low on S o c i a l Contact and Family Togetherness. T h i s may be due to her f u l l time job, her strong commitment to her s t u d i e s and her not having c h i l d r e n . In Laura's case the s t o r y t o l d to the researcher s t r o n g l y suggests that the E.P.S. q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s are v a l i d . Case Study Two: "Nancita" Nancita, aged 29, was born and r a i s e d in Lima, Peru. Raised in a middle c l a s s environment with "education being important", Nancita f i n i s h e d high school and was "pushed i n t o u n i v e r s i t y " . A f t e r dropping out of u n i v e r s i t y she completed a two year s e c r e t a r i a l course and worked s p o r a d i c a l l y . While on a h o l i d a y in the U.S.A. with her famil y she met a Canadian, married, and l i v e d in C a l i f o r n i a 40 f o r a couple of years. Seeking change and refuge from m a r i t a l problems, she came to Vancouver because there "was family here and i t was easy to adjust to the l i f e s t y l e and I knew the c i t y before and l i k e d i t " . She d i v o r c e d and moved to Vancouver. Upon a r r i v a l , she worked at a l o c a l h o s p i t a l as a supply t e c h n i c i a n but soon bought a restaurant with her brother. She subsequently "bought and s o l d s e v e r a l take-out food p l a c e s " and p r e s e n t l y has a f a s t food o u t l e t . Her long range plans are to take a tourism course at a c o l l e g e or B.C.I.T. and work in the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y . She i s s e l f supporting and her present home environment i s supportive of her present plans. Nancita scored high on Communication Improvement and P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement on the B.E.P.S. T h i s corresponds roughly with her expressed d e s i r e to take f u r t h e r courses to get a job in tourism. Speaking, w r i t i n g and reading s k i l l s would be important for her as has been i n d i c a t e d . She has no family and her already high involvement i n business may e x p l a i n her low scores on Family Togetherness and S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n . Nancita's s t o r y appears to roughly confirm the r e s u l t s of the B.E.P.S. q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Case Study Three: " A l i c i a " A l i c i a , 42, was born and r a i s e d in Grodno, a small c i t y i n Poland. A l i c i a ' s family, well educated and middle c l a s s , had a t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e . She f i n i s h e d gymnasium 41 (high school m a t r i c u l a t i o n ) and, at the time, her f a t h e r s t r o n g l y urged her to study economics. She balked, a p p l i e d to study psychology in Warsaw but had t r o u b l e with the language component of the entrance examinations. She worked as an o f f i c e c l e r k u n t i l l e a v i n g Poland. Her brother was l i v i n g i n Germany and while she was v i s i t i n g him she decided not to r e t u r n to her n a t i v e country. She d i d n ' t want to l i v e i n Germany for reasons that "may be h i s t o r i c a l " nor d i d she want to apply for p o l i t i c a l asylum. She decided to apply to go to Canada based on information she had "heard from f r i e n d s " and immigration o f f i c e r s in Germany. She a r r i v e d i n 1982, spoke very l i t t l e E n g l i s h and e n r o l l e d i n the Manpower E n g l i s h Program at K.E.C. for f i v e months. She worked for two years as a volunteer f o r the Community A r t ' s C o u n c i l . She decided to e n r o l l i n C o l l e g e Preparatory courses to " f i n i s h grade 12 E n g l i s h and to acquire s k i l l s to take a program at the Vancouver' V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e to become a t r a v e l agent or to t r a i n in some area of tourism". Her long term goal i s "to have a s a t i s f y i n g job". A l i c i a scored high on Communication Improvement and low on Family Togetherness. I t ' s c l e a r that she views E n g l i s h courses, and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , academic reading and w r i t i n g s k i l l s taught in C o l l e g e Preparatory E n g l i s h , as necessary p r e q u i s i t e s to f u r t h e r study in c o l l e g e . She i s s i n g l e with no other family members in Canada; hence, the low score on Family Togetherness. 42 Case Study Four: "William" W i l l i a m , 23 years o l d , was born and r a i s e d i n Hong Kong. His parents were uneducated, working c l a s s and t r a d i t i o n a l . From a l a r g e f a m i l y of seven c h i l d r e n he attended elementary and secondary schools which were government supported. His father was a bus d r i v e r and h i s mother, a housewife. His ch i l d h o o d was "normal and happy". His s i s t e r s were l i v i n g in Canada so the f a m i l y , i n search of a "quiet environment and a c l e a n c i t y " decided to immigrate to Canada. W i l l i a m attended a Vancouver high school completing grades 11 and 12 but needs a C+ mark in E n g l i s h to take courses at B.C.I.T. He plans to study computer engineering. W i l l i a m scored high on Communication Improvement, S o c i a l Contact and E d u c a t i o n a l P r e p a r a t i o n . He i n d i c a t e d during the interview that he needed a C+ mark in E n g l i s h to enter B.C.I.T. which would account fo r h i s high score on the l a t t e r f a c t o r s . His high score on S o c i a l Contact i s not e x p l a i n a b l e as i t was not i n d i c a t e d during the i n t e r v i e w that the subject was' seeking companionship. His s i n g l e status and h i s p u r s u i t of a career may e x p l a i n h i s low scores on Family Togetherness and S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y . 43 Case Study F i v e : "Zbeziak" Zbeziak was born i n 1960 in the smail c i t y of Ludan, Poland. Born and r a i s e d in a middle c l a s s t r a d i t i o n a l family atmosphere, Zbeziak completed elementary and trade school before attending a t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e to study e l e c t r o n i c s f o r three years. T h i s t r a i n i n g i s comparable to in-house company t r a i n i n g . He was unhappy "with the lack of choices f o r career t r a i n i n g and h i s l i m i t e d s o c i a l l i f e " . At 21 he " l e f t Poland to change h i m s e l f " . He remarked, "a need for personal development and change made me l e a v e " . Refugee stat u s was granted i n A u s t r i a and he gained information about Canada from a P o l i s h f r i e n d . He was t o l d that "Canada would provide reasonable p o l i t i c a l , economic and s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y . A l s o , he "would f e e l comfortable", h i s f r i e n d advised. A f t e r a r r i v a l he l i v e d with a P o l i s h family for a year and, for f i v e months, s t u d i e d E n g l i s h at King Edward Campus in the Manpower E n g l i s h Program. Completing the manpower course, he sought work for one year and f i n a l l y landed a job as a j a n i t o r at an o f f i c e b u i l d i n g on afternoon s h i f t from four p.m. to ten p.m. He then e n r o l l e d i n the College Preparatory E n g l i s h Program with improvement in E n g l i s h as a major, immediate g o a l . A l s o , he wants "to meet d i f f e r e n t people, improve o r a l communication s k i l l s and study for s e l f improvement. "He has no long range career goals and h i s e d u c a t i o n a l goals are vague but 44 he expresses a strong d e s i r e "to gain general knowledge, become aware and l e a r n to think and to be". Recently, he was a candidate for the L t . Governor's Award. Zbeziak" scored high only on Communication Improvement. This seems to be at odds with the information given during the interview as there was an expressed d e s i r e to meet people and to study for the sake of knowledge but the subject d i d not score very high on S o c i a l Contact and C o g n i t i v e Interest-. His low scores on P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement, Family Togetherness and S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n correspond with the information y i e l d e d in the i n t e r v i e w . He has no family in Canada, he's not looking for a b e t t e r job and h i s education seems to be an i n d i v i d u a l p u r s u i t , a d e s i r e "to be", rather than s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n . Case Study S i x : "Zenobixa" Zenobixa, 51, was born i n Peru. She was the t h i r d of f i v e C h i l d r e n in a "very t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y " . She was encouraged to attend church r e g u l a r l y at which she balked. She encountered problems with her dominant father but as she matured "she understood him and h i s values b e t t e r " . A f t e r completing high school she t r a i n e d at a p u b l i c l i b r a r y as a l i b r a r i a n ( i n house t r a i n i n g ) . She worked as a s e c r e t a r y for seven years and l a t e r as a l i b r a r i a n for 15 years. She was i n v i t e d to Canada by a Peruvian f r i e n d as a t o u r i s t , stayed e i g h t months with three extensions and f i n a l l y , a f t e r 45 s e v e r a l v i s i t s with an immigration o f f i c e r , i t was suggested that she c o u l d stay i f she c o u l d f i n d work as a "nanny". She d i d t h i s f o r two years, got a working v i s a and a p p l i e d for landed immigrant s t a t u s . She wanted to stay i n Canada because she " l i k e s Vancouver and wants to l e a r n E n g l i s h . Als o , "wages are much higher than in Peru". Her long term goal i s to become a n u t r i t i o n i s t and t h i s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d her to e n r o l l i n C o llege Preparatory E n g l i s h courses at King Edward Campus. She can't f i n d work as a l i b r a r i a n here and doesn't want work that " i s not s a t i s f y i n g " . She has been in Canada for s i x years and has studied for one year and three months. Zenobixa "scored high on Communication Improvement and ' f a i r l y ' high on P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t . She sees language as the main b a r r i e r to P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement and her search f o r work that i s rewarding and s a t i s f y i n g . Her high score on C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t i s p o s s i b l y due to her previous work as a l i b r a r i a n in which search for knowledge i s a duty and a task. She has no family here and appears to be s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , independent and g o a l - d i r e c t e c l which may account for her low scores on Family Togetherness and S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Case Study Seven; "Jangjeet" Jangjeet, 21, from a family of ten c h i l d r e n , i s from a small r u r a l v i l l a g e in the Punjab, I n d i a . His father i s a 46 farmer and h i s mother a housewife i n a t r a d i t i o n a l Punjabi fa m i l y which, according to Jangjeet, "had high s t a t u s in the v i l l a g e " . T h eir economic status appears to be middle c l a s s . Jangjeet attended elementary school in the v i l l a g e and then completed high school i n a l a r g e r town nearby. The family was sponsored by the f a t h e r ' s brother to come to Canada. Jangjeet c i t e d "better o p p o r t u n i t i e s " as the main reason for coming to Canada. He st u d i e d at a Vancouver high school u n t i l 1984 passing a l l courses except E n g l i s h . His long term o c c u p a t i o n a l goal i s to be a computer t e c h n i c i a n while h i s immediate goal at King Edward Campus i s to acquire s u i t a b l e reading and w r i t i n g s k i l l s for f u r t h e r c o l l e g e s t u d i e s . He works part time at an Indian r e s t a u r a n t , l i v e s a t r a d i t i o n a l Punjabi l i f e s t y l e and i s p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e in the movement for "a separate s t a t e of K h a l i s t a n i n I n d i a " . Jangjeet's high scores on Communication Improvement, Ed u c a t i o n a l Preparation and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t are he re q u i r e s E n g l i s h 12 to embark on h i s long term e d u c a t i o n a l goal as a computer t e c h n i c i a n . A l s o , he appears to be i n q u i s i t i v e and very i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g about Canada. His high score on P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement may be a r e s u l t of a misunderstanding concerning the items on t h i s f a c t o r . His low scores on Family Togetherness and S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n may be accounted for because he has no family' of h i s own, i s young and s t i l l s t r o n g l y rooted to h i s eth n i c past and fa m i l y . 47 Case Study E i g h t : " P a t r i c i a " P a t r i c i a was born in 1962 in M e d e l l i n , Columbia. She was an only c h i l d when her mother d i e d . Her f a t h e r remarried when she was 12. Her father was often out of work and her step-mother s o l d f r u i t at a l o c a l market p l a c e . There was often a lack of money for food and amenities but somehow she managed to f i n i s h nine years of elementary and secondary s c h o o l i n g . Because of p e r s i s t e n t family problems she moved to Los Angeles to l i v e with an o l d e r s i s t e r . She e n r o l l e d i n ESL c l a s s e s f o r two years and contacted a Canadian she had befriended i n Columbia. They married and subsequently moved to Vancouver where she e n r o l l e d i n E n g l i s h courses at King Edward Campus. At the time she e n r o l l e d her short term goal was to l e a r n more E n g l i s h and a long term goal was to become a d e n t a l a s s i s t a n t but, s i n c e that time, has reconsidered, i s unsure of her future o c c u p a t i o n a l goal but wants "to study something, somewhere". " P a t r i c i a " scored high on Communication Improvement and E d u c a t i o n a l P r e p a r a t i o n . Even though her career plans are somewhat "unsure" she r e a l i z e s that mastery of E n g l i s h i s r e q u i r e d i f she i s to continue her s t u d i e s in any f i e l d . She has married a Canadian, has no c h i l d r e n , i s young and i s not f i r m l y rooted i n the community. This may e x p l a i n the low scores on S o c i a l Contact, Family Togetherness and S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y . 48 Case Study Nine: " P a u l i n a " P a u l i n a , 33, was born and r a i s e d in Santiago, C h i l e . Brought up i n a middle c l a s s f a m i l y , she attended p r i v a t e C a t h o l i c s c h o o l s . Education and t r a d i t i o n a l values were strong p r i o r i t i e s in her f a m i l y . While at high school she was i n constant t r o u b l e with school a u t h o r i t i e s and family for what they c a l l e d i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y but what she p r e f e r s to c a l l "a r e a c t i o n to middle c l a s s v a l u e s " . She graduated from high school and because of her "dominant mother" and "a d e s i r e to be f r e e " moved from home and began to f i n d h e r s e l f and s e t t l e down. She s t u d i e d at the U n i v e r s i t y of C h i l e i n V a l p a l a i s e f o r four years, f e l l in love and l e f t u n i v e r s i t y without a degree. She attended a p r i v a t e s e c r e t a r i a l school o b t a i n i n g a diploma and worked in an o f f i c e as a s e c r e t a r y for two years. She a l s o worked in p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , a d v e r t i s i n g and promotion and modeling jobs. She got married at 24 to a C h i l e a n M a r x i s t , moved to Edmonton and worked there at v a r i o u s jobs, u s u a l l y in s a l e s . Her s e l f esteem grew as she found b e t t e r jobs. She d i v o r c e d , remarried and moved to Vancouver. She and her new spouse subsequently s t a r t e d a f i s h camp. She e n r o l l e d in E n g l i s h Preparatory courses i n 1983 to upgrade p a r t i c u l a r communication s k i l l s to take other courses at a c o l l e g e or i n s t i t u t e to help her i n the t o u r i s t business. Meeting people with s i m i l a r goals was a l s o a f a c t o r f o r attending C o l l e g e Preparatory C l a s s e s . 4 9 P a u l i n a , who doesn't have a f a m i l y , scored low on only one f a c t o r , Family Togetherness. She scored high on Communication Improvement, P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t . Reading, w r i t i n g and speaking s k i l l s are a l l important f o r a s e l f employed entrepreneur in a t o u r i s t r e l a t e d business; hence, the high score i n Communication Improvement which was a l s o confirmed during the i n t e r v i e w . During the s i x months that she does not work i t s important that she " f i n d s s a t i s f y i n g work" which may e x p l a i n her high score on P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement. 50 CHAPTER VII RESULTS III Concurrent V a l i d i t y The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to d e s c r i b e procedures and report r e s u l t s p e r t a i n i n g to the concurrent v a l i d i t y of the A.B.E. form of the E.P.S. Concurrent v a l i d i t y concerns the extent to which scores from one measure resemble those from another. The data were gathered as f o l l o w s : Step One: Respondents were i n v i t e d to t a l k about t h e i r personal family h i s t o r y , economic circumstances, reasons for l e a v i n g t h e i r home country and choosing to l i v e in Canada, p o s i t i v e and negative r e a c t i o n s to the Canadian environment and short and long term e d u c a t i o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l g o a l s . Step Two: When they appeared to have given a complete s t o r y based on the questions the respondents were taken to a d i f f e r e n t part of the room and seven cards headed by the names of the seven EPS f a c t o r s with the items l i s t e d under each f a c t o r were shown to the respondent and di s c u s s e d . Then, the respondents were shown a f a c s i m i l e of F igure 8. They were asked to move c o i n s to an 51 a p p r o p r i a t e p o s i t i o n on the diagram to a p o s i t i o n which best represents t h e i r reasons f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g in Col l e g e Preparatory c l a s s e s . I | | I I I I V V V I V I I COMMUNICATION SOCIAL EDUCATIONAL PROFESSIONAL FAMILY SOCIAL COGNITIVE IMPROVEMENT CONTACT PREPARATION ADVANCEMENT TOGETHERNESS STIMULATION INTEREST 24 r 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 A.B.E./E.P.S. SCORE RESPONDENT'S ESTIMATE RESEARCHER'S ESTIMATE . Figure 8. Instrument employed to elicit validity data. ep Three: While respondents sat on one side of the room performing the tasks a s s o c i a t e d with step two, the researcher made h i s own estimates based on the m a t e r i a l that emerged during the interview, and noted these est imates. 52 Step Four: When i t appeared that the respondents had "completed" making t h e i r p r o f i l e , the researcher asked them, "does t h i s represent your reasons f o r attending your present course." If i t appeared i t d i d , the scores were noted i n the ap p r o p r i a t e place on a f a c s i m i l e of the diagram (see F i g . 8) and the respondent was thanked. Thus, concurrent v a l i d i t y was examined by comparing and c a l c u l a t i n g discrepancy scores between: 1. The respondent's s c a l e scores as d e r i v e d from t h e i r completed ABE/EPS q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 2. The respondent's estimates as d e r i v e d from the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned procedure i n v o l v i n g the chart and the c o i n s . 3. The researcher's estimates made f o l l o w i n g an interview about circumstances that preceded t h e i r enrollment at King Edward Campus. "Laura" Figure 9 shows Laura's scores on each of the EPS f a c t o r s as we l l as her "estimates", d e r i v e d from the p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d procedure, and the "researchers estimate", which was made while the respondent was in another part of the room. Fig u r e 9 a l s o shows two types of 53 discrepancy scores. The f i r s t score, between the "qu e s t i o n n a i r e " (as completed by the respondent) and the "respondent's estimate" was d e r i v e d by re c o r d i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two scores. The " q u e s t i o n n a i r e / I I I I I I I V V V I V I I COMMUNICATION SOCIAL EDUCATIONAL PROFESSIONAL FAMILY SOCIAL COGNITIVE IMPROVEMENT CONTACT PREPARATION ADVANCEMENT TOGETHERNESS STIMULATION INTEREST A.B.E./E.P.S. SCORE RESPONDENTS ESTIMATE RESEARCHER'S ESTIMATE Figure 9. A.B.E./E.P.S. Scale scores, respondent estimates and researcher estimates for "Laura". researcher" discrepancy score shows the d i f f e r e n c e between the respondent's score for each f a c t o r as d e r i v e d from the qu e s t i o n n a i r e , and the researcher's estimate, made during the i n t e r v i e w . 54 There are 42 items on the E.P.S. Each f a c t o r i s comprised of s i x items scored on a four p o i n t system. The minimum score i s s i x and the maximum 24. Thus the maximum p o s s i b l e discrepancy score i s 18 (denoting complete disagreement) and the minimum i s zero (denoting complete agreement). Over a l l seven f a c t o r s the maximum discrepancy i s 126; the minimum i s zero. R e c a l l i n g that the maximum p o s s i b l e discrepancy score summed over a l l seven f a c t o r s i s 126, a score of only 18 (questionnaire/respondent) or 12 ( q u e s t i o n n a i r e / researcher) represents c o n s i d e r a b l e "agreement" amongst the qu e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s for Laura and the two independent procedures employed to v a l i d a t e the E.P.S. r e s u l t s . I t was concluded that the interview y i e l d e d data which l a r g e l y confirmed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s . For example, the researcher's estimate e x a c t l y r e p l i c a t e d the respondents scores on S o c i a l Contact and P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement and there were only minor d i f f e r e n c e s on Communication Improvement (Discrepancy = 1, where the maximum p o s s i b l e was 1 8 ) , Family Togetherness (Discrepancy = 2), Edu c a t i o n a l Preparation (D = 4) and S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n (D = 5). In t h i s case the E.P.S. appeared to be a v a l i d p r e d i c t o r of Laura's motivation to p a r t i c i p a t e in the College Preparatory Program at King Edward Campus. 55 "Nancita" The t o t a l discrepancy (D) score f o r the questionnaire/respondent summed over a l l seven f a c t o r s was 13 and f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e / r e s e a r c h e r the discrepancy score 21, both out of a p o s s i b l e t o t a l of 126 (Figure 10). Figure 10. A.B.E./E.P.S. Scale scores, respondent estimates and researcher estimates for "Nancita". Again, the interview revealed information which corresponds c l o s e l y to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s . For example, the 56 researcher's estimates were e x a c t l y the same as the respondents on S o c i a l Contact and Family Togetherness with only minor d i f f e r e n c e s on a l l other f a c t o r s except f o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t where (D = 6) out of a p o s s i b l e 18. Thus, t h i s case study i n d i c a t e s that the EPS was a v a l i d p r e d i c t o r of "Nancita's" motivation to e n r o l l i n C o l l e g e Preparatory E n g l i s h courses. " A l i c i a " A score of 32 f o r the questionnaire/respondent and 24 for the q u e s t i o n n a i r e / r e s e a r c h e r out of a p o s s i b l e 126 represents " f a i r " agreement amongst A l i c i a ' s q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s and the two estimates made by the respondent and researcher a f t e r the interview (Figure 11). Even though these two discrepancy scores are higher than a l l other e i g h t cases, they s t i l l represent high agreement on most f a c t o r s and in the case of the questionnaire/respondent two f a c t o r s account fo r nearly 50 percent of the t o t a l discrepancy and for the q u e s t i o n n a i r e / r e s e a r c h e r one f a c t o r acounts for over 50 percent of the t o t a l discrepancy. For example, the discrepancy score of the questionnaire/respondent on P r o f e s s i o n a l advancement i s eight and the discrepancy score for the q u e s t i o n n a i r e / researcher on E d u c a t i o n a l P r e p a r a t i o n i s nine. These r e s u l t s may have a r i s e n from a misunderstanding of the meaning of P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement which the researcher 57 Figure 11. A.B.E./E.P.S. Scale scores, respondent estimates and researcher estimates for "Alicia". i n t e r p r e t e d as meaning "seeking advancement on a present job or in a s i m i l a r f i e l d of work" but i t ' s c l e a r upon a reread of the 'story' from the respondent that t h i s d e f i n i t i o n may be too narrow. The researcher i n t e r p r e t e d the subjects short and long term goals as educa t i o n a l p u r s u i t s rather than p r o f e s s i o n a l advancement. But, i t seems that the respondent's d e s i r e to " p r o f e s s i o n a l l y advance" or as the researcher i n t e r p r e t e d i t , a need to r e t r a i n " i n some area of tourism" f i t s both f a c t o r s . 58 "William" Figure 12 shows there was a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l e "agreement" amongst the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s and the 24 r 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 f-8 -COMMUNICATION IMPROVEMENT I I SOCIAL CONTACT I I I EDUCATIONAL PREPARATION I V PROFESSIONAL ADVANCEMENT V FAMILY TOGETHERNESS V I SOCIAL STIMULATION V I I COGNITIVE INTEREST A.B.E./E.P.S. SCORE RESPONDENT'S ESTIMATE. RESEARCHER'S ESTIMATE . Figure 12. A.B.E./E.P.S. Scale scores, respondent estimates and researcher estimates for "William". respondent a f t e r the i qu e s t i o n n a i r e and researcher Communication Improvement nterview (D = 18) and the (D = 22). For example, on (D = 1) Family Togetherness (D = 59 1) C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t (D = 1) S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n (D = 3) the researcher and the respondent agreed completely. Two f a c t o r s , S o c i a l Contact (D = 6) and P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement (D = 5) account f o r nearly 70 percent of the t o t a l discrepancy f o r the questionnaire/respondent while one f a c t o r , S o c i a l Contact (D = 12) accounts f o r nearly 60 percent of the t o t a l discrepancy f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e / r e s e a r c h e r . T h i s may i n d i c a t e a weakness i n the i n t e r v i e w i n g technique. The o v e r a l l r e s u l t s confirm that the EPS appears to be a v a l i d instrument f o r p r e d i c t i n g William's motivation to e n r o l l i n the C o l l e g e Preparatory E n g l i s h Program at King Edward Campus. "Zbeziak" The t o t a l discrepancy score for the questionnaire/respondent i s 31 while the t o t a l discrepancy score for the q u e s t i o n n a i r e / r e s e a r c h e r was s l i g h t l y lower at 27. The discrepancy for the respondent i s spread f a i r l y evenly over a l l seven f a c t o r s but f o r the researcher S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n (D = 10) and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t (D = 9) account for nearly 70 percent of the t o t a l d i screpancy. The researcher may have i n t e r p r e t e d "Zbeziak's" d e s i r e "to gain general knowledge, become aware and to l e a r n to think and to be "as more than an i n d i v i d u a l p u r s u i t l e a d i n g to a d e s i r e to understand s o c i a l change. This appears not to be so (Figure 13). 60 I I I I I I I V V V I V I I COMMUNICATION SOCIAL EDUCATIONAL PROFESSIONAL FAMILY SOCIAL COGNITIVE IMPROVEMENT CONTACT PREPARATION ADVANCEMENT TOGETHERNESS STIMULATION INTEREST A.B.E./E.P.S. SCORE RESPONDENT'S ESTIMATE RESEARCHER'S ESTIMATE Figure 13. A.B.E./E.P.S. Scale scores, respondent estimates and researcher estimates for "Zbeziak". In general the interview r e s u l t s again confirm the ABE/EPS as a v a l i d p r e d i c t o r of motivation to e n r o l i n c o l l e g e courses. I t should be noted that the respondent's estimates are s l i g h t l y higher on a l l f a c t o r s which may i n d i c a t e that the interview "elevated" a d e s i r e to score "high" on a l l f a c t o r s . "Jangjeet" A t o t a l discrepancy score of 22 was scored by the qu e s t i o n n a i r e / r e s e a r c h e r out of a t o t a l p o s s i b l e of 126 for 61 each (Figure 14). There was c o n s i d e r a b l e "agreement" i I I in iv v v i V I I COMMUNICATION SOCIAL EDUCATIONAL PROFESSIONAL FAMILY SOCIAL COGNITIVE IMPROVEMENT CONTACT PREPARATION ADVANCEMENT TOGETHERNESS STIMULATION INTEREST 8 -I I I I JL I L A.B.E./E.P.S. SCORE RESPONDENT'S ESTIMATE RESEARCHER'S ESTIMATE Figure 14. A.B.E./E.P.S. Scale scores, respondent estimates and researcher estimates for "Jangjeet". between the researcher and the respondent on a l l f a c t o r s except for P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement and Family Togetherness. While the questionnaire/respondent discrepancy score was one on P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement the researcher scored 11 on the same f a c t o r . Because the subject has worked only part time in h i s fa m i l y ' s business and has j u s t graduated 62 from high school i t seems e n l i k e l y to the researcher by d e f i n i t i o n of the f a c t o r that the subject could score high on P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement. I t ' s c l e a r , by the s u b j e c t ' s low discrepancy score on the same f a c t o r that the su b j e c t ' s " d e f i n i t i o n " of the f a c t o r i s d i f f e r e n t from that of the researcher. A l s o , on Family Togetherness the questionnaire/respondent's score i s 11 while the q u e s t i o n n a i r e / r e s e a r c h e r ' s score i s three. An expl a n a t i o n may be that the interview f u r t h e r c l a r i f i e d or i l l u s t r a t e d the items included in the f a c t o r . These two f a c t o r s , P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement (D = 11) and Family Togetherness (D = 11) make up nearly h a l f the t o t a l discrepancy f o r a l l seven f a c t o r s f o r both the respondent and the res e a r c h e r . Again, i n t h i s case the EPS appears to be a v a l i d p r e d i c t o r of the subject's motivation to take part in College Preparatory E n g l i s h . "Zenobixa" In t h i s case the two t o t a l discrepancy scores, questionnaire/respondent, 13, and q u e s t i o n n a i r e / r e s e a r c h e r , 21 again represent c o n s i d e r a b l e "agreement" amongst the qu e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s and the two independent procedures employed. The discrepancy score of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e / respondent on C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t (D = 6) represents n e a r l y h a l f the discrepancy score on a l l seven f a c t o r s . S i m i l a r l y , the discrepancy score of the researcher on E d u c a t i o n a l 63 Pre p a r a t i o n (D = 8) and S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n (D = 6) represents c l o s e to 70 percent of the discrepancy on a l l seven f a c t o r s (Figure 15). Thus, i t was concluded that the I I I I I I I V V V I V I I COMMUNICATION SOCIAL EDUCATIONAL PROFESSIONAL FAMILY SOCIAL COGNITIVE IMPROVEMENT CONTACT PREPARATION ADVANCEMENT TOGETHERNESS STIMULATION INTEREST A.B.E./E.P.S. SCORE RESPONDENT'S ESTIMATE RESEARCHER'S ESTIMATE Figure 15. A.B.E./E.P.S. Scale scores, respondent estimates and researcher estimates for "Zenobixa". E.P.S. appeared to c o r r e c t l y p r e d i c t the subject's motivation to partake in C o l l e g e Preparatory E n g l i s h at King Edward Campus. 64 " P a t r i c i a " A t o t a l discrepancy of 23 was scored by the questionnaire/respondent and 19 by the q u e s t i o n n a i r e / researcher, both out of a maximum t o t a l of 126 (Figure 16). I I I I I I I V V V I V I I COMMUNICATION SOCIAL EDUCATIONAL PROFESSIONAL FAMILY SOCIAL COGNITIVE IMPROVEMENT CONTACT PREPARATION ADVANCEMENT TOGETHERNESS STIMULATION INTEREST 24 -22 -20 -18 16 h 14 -12 -10 h 8 A.B.E./E.P.S. SCORE RESPONDENTS ESTIMATE. RESEARCHERS ESTIMATE Figu re 16. A.B.E./E.P.S. Scale scores, respondent estimates and researcher estimates for "Patr ic ia " . Thus that i t was concluded that the l a r g e l y confirmed the interview y i e l d e d information q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s . For 65 example, the researcher's estimates e x a c t l y r e p l i c a t e d the respondent's estimates on S o c i a l Contact (D = 1), Education P r e p a r a t i o n (D = 4) and S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n (D = 3) with a l l other f a c t o r s having low discrepancy scores. In t h i s case for the questionnaire/respondent one f a c t o r , Family Togetherness (D = 7) acounted f o r n e a r l y one t h i r d of the t o t a l discrepancy score on a l l seven f a c t o r s and s i m i l a r l y f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e / r e s e a r c h e r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t (D = 7) accounted f o r one t h i r d of the t o t a l discrepancy on a l l f a c t o r s . Thus, again i t was concluded that the EPS i s a v a l i d p r e d i c t o r of the subject's motivation to e n r o l in E n g l i s h courses at King Edward Campus. "Pau l i n a " The t o t a l discrepancy score for the questionnaire/respondent on a l l seven f a c t o r s was 10 and f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e / r e s e a r c h e r 14 out of a maximum of 126. Figure 17 shows strong "agreement" amongst the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the two independent procedures used to v a l i d a t e the EPS r e s u l t s . Thus, i t was concluded that the interview y i e l d e d information that l a r g e l y confirmed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s . In t h i s case the researcher's estimates e x a c t l y r e p l i c a t e d the respondents scores on Communication Improvement (D = 0) S o c i a l Contact (D = 1 ) and S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n (D = 2) and there are only minor d i f f e r e n c e s on the other seven f a c t o r s . Again, the EPS appears to be a 66 I I I I I I I V V V I V I I COMMUNICATION SOCIAL EDUCATIONAL PROFESSIONAL FAMILY SOCIAL COGNITIVE IMPROVEMENT CONTACT PREPARATION ADVANCEMENT TOGETHERNESS STIMULATION INTEREST Figure 17. A.B.E./E.P.S. Scale scores, respondent estimates and researcher estimates for "Paulina". v a l i d p r e d i c t o r of the sub j e c t ' s motivation to e n r o l in Col l e g e Preparatory E n g l i s h at King Edward Campus. Grand Means The mean B.E.P.S scores for the nine interviewees ( i n v o l v e d in the v a l i d a t i o n phase of the study) are shown in Table 2 and were as f o l l o w s : Communication Improvement = 21.67; S o c i a l Contact = 13.67; Educati o n a l Preparation = 17.78; P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement = 16.89; Family Togetherness 67 = 7.55; S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n = 8.78; C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t = 17.44. The mean "questionnaire/respondent" discrepancy T a b l e 2: Grand A.B.E./E.P.S. P a r t i c i p a n t Means f o r a Sub-sample of Nine P a r t i c i p a n t s Involved i n a V a l i d i t y Procedure C o m m u n i c a t i o n S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n a l P r o f e s s i o n a l F a m i l y S o c i a l C o g n i t i v e I m p r o v e m e n t , C o n t a c t P r e p a r a t i o n A d v a n c e m e n t T o g e t h e r n e s s S t i m u l a t i o n I n t e r e s t A . B . E . / E . P . S . s c o r e 21 .67 13 6 7 t 7 . 7 8 16. 8 9 7 . 5 5 a . 7 8 17 44 R e s p o n d e n t e s t i m a t e R e s e a r c h e r ' s e s t i m a t e 2 1 21 . 5 5 . 5 5 14 1 1 0 0 .78 t 9 21 5 5 .55 19 17 . 7 8  1 1 6 . 7 8 .67 9 12 . 7 8 .00 19 . 19 3 3 . 5 5 O u e s t / R e s p o n d e n t D i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e 1 . 6 7 2 . 5 5 2 . 2 2 3 . 3 3 4 . 44 2 . 7 8 3 . 7 8 Q u e s t / R e s e a r c h e r D t s c r e p a n c y s c o r e 1 . 44 2 . 5 5 3 . 7 8 3 . 1 t 1 . 3 3 4 3 3 4 . 3 3 scores were as f o l l o w s : Communication Improvement = 1.67; S o c i a l Contact = 2.55; E d u c a t i o n a l Preparation = 2.22; P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement = 3.33; Family Togetherness = 4.44; S o c i a l S t i m u l a t i o n = 2.78; C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t = 3.78. In i n t e r p r e t i n g these r e s u l t s readers should r e c a l l that A.B.E./E.P.S. scores range from a low of s i x ( i n d i c a t i n g "no i n f l u e n c e " ) to a high of 24 ( i n d i c a t i n g that the f a c t o r had "much i n f l u e n c e " ) . Thus discrepancy scores range from zero, i n d i c a t i n g complete agreement (between the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the respondent's estimates; or the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the researcher's estimate) to eighteen, 68 i n d i c a t i n g a complete lack of agreement (between, for example, the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c a l e score and the respondents e s t i m a t e ) . 69 CHAPTER VIII DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Background to the Problem Fundamental to a d u l t education i s the notion that p a r t i c i p a n t needs are a s s o c i a t e d with m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and that educators should t a i l o r programs a c c o r d i n g l y . This idea has f u e l l e d the m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n research t r a d i t i o n f o r more than twenty years. Most m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s t u d i e s employ the general form of the Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale (Boshier, 1982). This study used the newly developed Basic Education  P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale (Boshier, 1983) which has a very s a t i s f y i n g f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e . It was a p p l i e d to a unique group of l e a r n e r s more than h a l f of whom were people who had immigrated to Canada. Immigrants to Canada Barry Broadfoot, a humourist, s a i d a Canadian i s "an immigrant with s e n i o r i t y " . He i s a funny man, but beneath the humour i s a s e r i o u s and accurate assessment concerning the h i s t o r y of Canada. This vast land has hosted v a r i o u s waves.of immigrants, and d e s p i t e rigourous and onerous standards fo r admission, countinues to a t t r a c t people from other c o u n t r i e s . 70 During n a t i o n a l h o l i d a y s , r o y a l t o u r s , and grand events l i k e the Olympic Games, the m u l t i c u l t u r a l nature of Canada i s put on i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i s p l a y . Immigrants appearing before c i t i z e n s h i p c o u r t s are t o l d that Canada i s a "mosaic", not a "melting pot". Many immigrants have f l o u r i s h e d i n Canada and now occupy senior p o s i t i o n s i n p o l i t i c s , business, education or c u l t u r e . But d e s p i t e the apparent success of government p o l i c i e s , a l l has not been rosy in the immigration garden. Today there i s an a c t i v e group i n Vancouver seeking to redress apparent "wrongs" i n f l i c t e d on Japanese Canadians during World War I I . There i s a l s o c o n t i n u i n g embarrassment concerning the Komagata Maru i n c i d e n t (Ward, 1978). Moveover, many remember the e x p l o i t a t i o n of Chinese c o o l i e s ' imported to b u i l d the Canadian P a c i f i c railway. T h i s was an e x t r a o r d i n a r y engineering feat but i s seen by some as a black mark on the consciousness of Canada because of the way i n which workers were t r e a t e d (Morton, 1974). The p o i n t need not be laboured here. I t s u f f i c e s to say that racism has been an e s s e n t i a l element of l i f e i n Canada and today i s a l i v e - a n d - w e l l in pa r t s of B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a and other p l a c e s . The f e d e r a l government has begun to explore avenues and implement programs to "educate" the p u b l i c concerning t h i s problem, and u l t i m a t e l y e q u a l i z e the o p p o r t u n i t i e s for a l l Canadians. C e n t r a l to 71 t h i s paper i s the notion that i f immigrant needs in e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s are a c c u r a t e l y assessed, the goals of p a r t i c u l a r programs, and course o b j e c t i v e s would b e t t e r match the needs of p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s process may help immigrants a r t i c u l a t e , understand and meet t h e i r own g o a l s . Moreover, a good f i t between "needs" and programs may lead to more meaningful, productive l i v e s in Canada's economic and p o l i t i c a l mainstream. M o t i v a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n s Learners are motivated to take part in e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s for various reasons. Attempts in the past, such as those by Houle (1961), to group or c l u s t e r these l e a r n e r s o v e r - s i m p l i f i-ed the s i t u a t i o n . Data c o l l e c t e d f o r t h i s paper has c o n t r i b u t e d to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y s a t i s f y i n g and v a l i d instrument which can a c c u r a t e l y assess l e a r n e r s ' m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . Furthermore, i f programs or courses can be arranged or modified to meet these m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s while at the same time meeting i n s t i t u t i o n a l requirements, more s u c c e s s f u l and s a t i s f y i n g l e a r n i n g w i l l take p l a c e . F a c t o r s Where There Were D i f f e r e n c e s The ethnic groups d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with respect to the extent to which they were e n r o l l e d for 72 Communication Improvement, S o c i a l Contact, P r o f e s s i o n a l  Advancement and Family Togetherness. In some respects t h i s r e s u l t a t t e s t s to the p r e d i c t i v e (or perhaps c o n s t r u c t ) v a l i d i t y of the BEPS because on a - p r i o r i grounds, i t was reasonable to presume that e t h n i c groups would vary in the extent to which these f a c t o r s "motivated" them to e n r o l . Indeed, i t i s probable these f a c t o r s have v a r i a n c e i n common and are bound by an "immigrant adjustment" f a c t o r . A f t e r a l l , communication improvement, s o c i a l contact and p r o f e s s i o n a l advancement are a l l part of the "adjustment" process experienced by immigrants. There i s no a - p r i o r i ' reason to suppose that immigrants have a greater need fo r "family togetherness" than people born i n Canada. A l l f a m i l i e s , immigrant and non-immigrant, need "togetherness". But as noted above, immigrant f a m i l i e s face unique f o r c e s which must be handled in a d d i t i o n to those they share with Canadians. For example, as noted e a r l i e r , the erosion of t r a d i t i o n a l t i e s and the breakdown of the family u n i t r e f l e c t e d i n the high d i v o r c e rate may be a concern. The changing s t r u c t u r e , nature and r o l e of i n d i v i d u a l s i n the Canadian family in comparison to those of some ethnic groups (such as Chinese, Indian and South Europeans) may be a cause for concern or i n q u i r y . The notion of respect in e t h n i c f a m i l i e s i s often challenged by younger, more c u l t u r a l l y a s s i m i l a t e d family members; t h i s upsets the t r a d i t i o n a l family and sparks a need to understand 'new' r o l e s and 73 e x p e c t a t i o n s . In conversation with p a r t i c i p a n t s who scored high on Family Togetherness, the f o l l o w i n g " t e n s i o n - s t a t e s " were d i s c e r n i b l e : 1. I n d i v i d u a l choice versus family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . A. C h i l d r e n make career c h o i c e s r e g a r d l e s s of fami l y d e s i r e s . B. Youngsters date, engage in p r e - m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and s e l e c t a mate without r e f e r r i n g to or c o n s u l t i n g with the fa m i l y . C. F i l i a l respect i s eroded by education which i n e v i t a b l y encourages i n d i v i d u a l i s m and thus threatens t r a d i t i o n a l family t i e s . 2. "Canadian" versus " t r a d i t i o n a l " marriage. The immigrant p e r c e i v e s a bewildering v a r i e t y of "marriage" and other p a r t n e r s h i p s apparently condoned i n Canada; these are i n sharp c o n t r a s t to more p r o s c r i b e d t r a d i t i o n s from home. 3. "Canadian" youth c u l t u r e versus " t r a d i t i o n a l " values and behaviour. Immigrant parents question the wisdom of l i v i n g in Canada when t h e i r c h i l d r e n a r r i v e home wanting to dye t h e i r h a i r green so as to conform to the l a t e s t "punk" or other f a s h i o n . In other words, mass c u l t u r e has an ex t r a o r d i n a r y e f f e c t on immigrant as well as "Canadian" f a m i l i e s . Canadian parents remember t h e i r own obsession with Frank S i n a t r a , The Bea t l e s , or the Vietnam war. In 74 c o n t r a s t , a family from the Punjab, Hong Kong, or B r a z i l i s struck by the sharp c o n t r a s t between the behaviour and values of t h e i r c h i l d r e n and those that they r e c a l l from t h e i r own childhood, adolescence or e a r l y adulthood. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P r a c t i c e The problem i n v e s t i g a t e d here was p r i m a r i l y concerned ' with the extent to which immigrant m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s resembled those of people born i n Canada. I f everyone had a s i m i l a r m o t i v a t i o n a l p r o f i l e they c o u l d be t r e a t e d the same. B u t . i f there were marked d i f f e r e n c e s i n the m o t i v a t i o n a l p r o f i l e s of d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups, an argument concerning the need to make s p e c i f i c (or i d i o s y n c r a t i c ) arrangements could be e n t e r t a i n e d . As noted above, there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on three out of the seven f a c t o r s . The g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s were on the Communication Improvement (p<.00l) and P r o f e s s i o n a l  Advancement (p<.005) f a c t o r s . The highest mean score on Communication Improvement was obtained by East Europeans; the lowest (X = 1^2.59) was y i e l d e d by the 121 Canadians. Thus, on a 24-point s c a l e , the East Europeans and Canadians were separated by ne a r l y eight p o i n t s . T h i s was a s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e . However, d e s p i t e the d i f f e r e n c e , l i t t l e would be gained by c r e a t i n g "East European", Asian, or other homogeneous c l a s s e s except at the very lowest 75 l e v e l s of language a c q u i s i t i o n , because language l e a r n i n g g e n e r a l l y takes place when the 'new' c u l t u r e i s acceptable to the p a r t i c i p a n t . In other words, an attempt i s being made to overcome c u l t u r e shock, and e n r o l l i n g i n a course to l e a r n the language of the adopted c u l t u r e a t t e s t s to t h i s . I t i s one of the f i r s t steps in the process of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . As the m u l t i - e t h n i c classroom i s a microcosm of the general s o c i e t y , i t would h e l p to maintain the e t h n i c mix even though other minor t e c h n i c a l language i n s t r u c t i o n problems are present. However, the same p r i n c i p l e may not apply to other f a c t o r s . Bearing the p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d in mind, now would be the time to consider the Family Togetherness f a c t o r . The lowest mean scores (X = 12.86) were y i e l d e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s born i n the Middle E a s t . S l i g h t l y l e s s than four p o i n t s separated the highest from the lowest groups (on a 24-point s c a l e ) . This d i f f e r e n c e was not great, but because of the unique "togetherness" problems faced by f a m i l i e s from the Middle East, a case could be made for the c r e a t i o n of " s p e c i a l " environments fo r t h i s , and perhaps the West/South European and L a t i n groups. As noted above, the e t h n i c groups s t u d i e d here were, to a c e r t a i n extent, e n r o l l e d for d i f f e r e n t reasons. But the extent to which unique environments, t a i l o r e d to t h e i r needs as manifested in m o t i v a t i o n a l . o r i e n t a t i o n scores, would f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g , remains unknown. The d i f f e r e n c e s 76 were g r e a t e s t on the Communication Improvement f a c t o r . However, as noted, communication i s probably "improved" more by keeping people in heterogenous rather than homogenous groups. The d i f f e r e n c e s on Family Togetherness and P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement were l e s s than those found on the Communication Improvement f a c t o r . But because of the nature of these f a c t o r s , a case c o u l d be made for " t a i l o r i n g " . For example, with regard to Family Togetherness, some of the f o l l o w i n g suggestions concerning program content and processes were made by those s c o r i n g high on the Family Togetherness f a c t o r . These p a r t i c i p a n t s suggested that there be family c o u n s e l l i n g c l a s s e s , and family law and f i n a n c i a l c o u n s e l l i n g groups, d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : 1. Family C o u n s e l l i n g C l a s s e s - These .may help e x p l a i n d i f f e r e n c e s in family r o l e s to s p e c i f i c e t h n i c groups or to those of d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n s ; they would help, ameliorate family s t r i f e and f a c i l i t a t e adjustment to the c u l t u r e . 2. Family law and f i n a n c i a l c o u n s e l l i n g groups - p u b l i c and p r i v a t e l e g a l and f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s c ould fa'milarize ethnic f a m i l i e s with l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and f i n a n c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . With regard to the content of s p e c i f i c courses, i t was suggested that there be an "I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Canadian Family". T h i s would include the f o l l o w i n g : 77 1. H i s t o r y of the t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y u n i t in Canada. 2. Present-day expectations of the family u n i t . 3. Role of the i n d i v i d u a l i n the f a m i l y . 4. Study of d i f f e r e n c e s between Canadian et h n i c family e x p e c t a t i o n s , r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Future Research Of course, the problem with t h i s a n a l y s i s i s that p a r t i c i p a n t "motivation" i s only one v a r i a b l e that determines the design and management of i n s t r u c t i o n . If the i n s t r u c t o r were faced with very marked d i f f e r e n c e s in the motiv a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t ethnic groups, then t h i s might o v e r r i d e the i n f l u e n c e of other f a c t o r s such as the nature of the m a t e r i a l to be taught, the type of l e a r n i n g outcome, or c o l l e g e procedures. Country of b i r t h was a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r of four m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n scores. But, although s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was obtained, much of the varian c e in m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s remains unexplained. Moreover, although s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , the d i f f e r e n c e s between the et h n i c groups were not p a r t i c u l a r l y "marked"; thus, at t h i s stage, the c r e a t i o n of homogenous groups where "ethnic o r i g i n " i s the c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e cannot be recommended. Despite t h i s recommendation to r e t a i n the st a t u s quo, the study served to remind i n s t r u c t o r s of the f o l l o w i n g : 78 1 . The n e e d t o be s e n s i t i v e t o c u l t u r a l l y d e t e r m i n e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r t i c i p a n t m o t i v a t i o n , a n d 2 . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f a r r a n g i n g some c o u r s e c o n t e n t s p e c i f i c a l l y t a i l o r e d t o t h e u n i q u e n e e d s o f d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c g r o u p s . The f i r s t i s a r e c o m m e n d a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s ; t h e s e c o n d c o n c e r n s c o u r s e c o n t e n t . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s c o u l d i n c l u d e a r r a n g e m e n t s s u c h a s : 1. G r o u p i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s o f a l i k e o r i e n t a t i o n ; f o r e x a m p l e , f a m i l y t o g e t h e r n e s s , o r g r o u p i n g a c c o r d i n g t o more s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f i n e d p r o b l e m s s u c h a s c i t i z e n s h i p a t t a i n m e n t o r f a m i l y l e g a l p r o b l e m s . 2 . U s i n g c o m m u n i t y r e s o u r c e s t o i l l u s t r a t e a n d work on s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s w i t h i n a m u l t i - e t h n i c g r o u p ; f o r e x a m p l e , o b s e r v a t i o n a n d e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e l a w c o u r t s , t h e p o l i c e academy a n d t h e h u n d r e d s o f c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s t h a t a d v o c a t e s o l u t i o n s t o s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s . W i t h r e g a r d t o c o u r s e c o n t e n t , i t w o u l d be d e s i r a b l e t o e x p a n d t h e C a n a d i a n s t u d i e s p r o g r a m a n d p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s t o c o m p a r e t h e i r " r e l i g i o u s " , " l a b o u r " , " g o v e r n m e n t " , a n d " l e g a l " s y s t e m s w i t h t h o s e p r e v a i l i n g i n C a n a d a . I n t h i s r e g a r d i t w o u l d be d e s i r a b l e t o s t u d y t h e f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s : 1. H i s t o r y o f C a n a d i a n d e v e l o p m e n t . 2 . D e v e l o p m e n t o f i n s t i t u t i o n s . 79 3. Historic and present role of immigrants in Canada. 4. Aetiology and history of racism in Canada. 5. Nature and role of " p o l i t i c s " (broadly defined) in Canada. Of course, the King Edward and similar programs in the rest of the country have well developed "Canadian studies" courses. Although commendable, they probably need to be expanded. Moreover, a case can be made for using community resources and techniques in more imaginative and "experiential" ways. The Instrument The B.E.P.S. appears to be a f a c t o r i a l l y pure and v a l i d instrument well-suited to the King Edward Campus environment. For example, i f administered as part of the "climate-setting" process during the f i r s t or second session of a new course, i t could evoke enlightening discussion concerning participants' needs, motives and expectations. A sensitive instructor w i l l l i s t e n carefully to "data" generated by this process and might t a i l o r his or her instructional processes and course content accordingly. It could also be used to examine the extent to which "motives" that impel enrolment change as participants progress through a course or program. This data could be used several ways: 80 1 . To counsel students concerning f u t u r e o p t i o n s . 2. To measure the extent to which " a f f e c t i v e " o b j e c t i v e s are being met. 3. To measure changes in the p a r t i c i p a n t p o p u l a t i o n over time (To what extent i s the 1984 intake the same as or d i f f e r e n t to those s t a r t i n g i n 1983, 1982 and so on ? ) . Another research p o s s i b i l i t y would be to consider the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e n t i r e " p r o f i l e " rather than each f a c t o r s e p a r a t e l y . If the scores are p l o t t e d on a p a r t i c i p a n t p r o f i l e sheet which shows two "peaks" and f i v e " v a l l e y s ' w i l l t h i s p a t t e r n remain over time or i s t h i s a common pat t e r n f o r t h i s e t h n i c group ? Many questions c o u l d be asked. But i n answering them i t i s the t o t a l " p r o f i l e " , not the separate scores, that becomes the u n i t of a n a l y s i s . This would be a more d i f f i c u l t study than the one reported here because a p r o f i l e - s c o r i n g system would have to be developed. 81 REFERENCES Boshier, R.W. M o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s of a d u l t education p a r t i c i p a n t s : A f a c t o r a n a l y t i c e x p l o r a t i o n of Houle's typology. Adult Education, 1971, 2J_:2, 3-26. Boshier, R.W. M o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s r e v i s i t e d : L i f e - s p a c e motivation and the Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e . Adult Education, 1977, 27:2, 89-115. Boshier, R.W. Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e . Vancouver: Learning Press, 1982. Boshier, R.W. An A.B.E. o r i e n t e d form of the Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale. Proceedings of the Adult Education  Research Conference, Montreal, 1983. Boshier, R.W. and C o l l i n s , J.B. Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n  Scale f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e and socio-demographic c o r r e l a t e s for 12,000 l e a r n e r s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of L i f e l o n g  Education, 1983, 2:2, 163-177. Boshier, R.W. and C o l l i n s , J.B. The Houle typology a f t e r twenty years: A l a r g e - s c a l e e m p i r i c a l t e s t . Adult  Education, 1985, 35:3, 113-136. Boshier, R.W. and Peters, J.M. Adult needs, i n t e r e s t s and motives. In K l e v i n s , C. (Ed.) M a t e r i a l s and Methods i n Continuing Education, Canoga Park: Klevens P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1976, 197-212. Brown, J.D. E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g f o r immigrants. The  Journal of Education, 1970, 29-38. Calendar. King Edward. Campus. Vancouver: Vancouver Community C o l l e g e , 1981. Cross, P. Adults As Learners. San F r a n c i s c o : Jossey-Bass, 1 981 . F a r i s , R. Report of the committee on co n t i n u i n g and community education. V i c t o r i a : M i n i s t r y of Education of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976, p. 31. Houle, C O . The I n q u i r i n g Mind. Madison: U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin Press, 1961. 82 Morton, J . In the Sea of S t e r i l e Mountains. Vancouver: J . J . Douglas L t d . , 1974. Report of the Canadian immigration and p o p u l a t i o n study  (Green Paper). Ottawa, 1975. Trudeau, P.E. Information Canada: House of Commons Debates. Ottawa, 1971. Verner, C. and Booth, A. Adult Education. New York: Center f o r A p p l i e d Research i n Education, 1964. Ward, P.W. White Canada Forever. Montreal: McGill-Queen's U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1978. 

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