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The governance of three, post-secondary, two-year colleges in British Columbia, Canada Gray, Robert William 1975

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THE GOVERNANCE OF THREE, POST-SECONDARY, TWO-YEAR COLLEGES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA,CANADA. . by Robert W i l l i a m Gray B.A., A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y , 1962 Dip.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of Sydney, 1963 M.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A Thesis submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of Doctor of Education i n the Department' of E ducational A d m i n i s t r a t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , I.975 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. c Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada HjLJaj£ rhf i . ABSTRACT This study describes, and analyses the a c t i v i t i e s of the l a y governing boards of t h r e e , r e c e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d , two-year, post-secondary c o l l e g e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. Such d e s c r i p t i o n s and analyses w i l l prove u s e f u l to persons i n t e r e s t e d i n the continuing development of two-year c o l l e g e s i n the Province, and may a l s o serve to throw some a d d i t i o n a l l i g h t on the a c t i v i t i e s of, and problems faced by, lay governing boards In a wide range of o r g a n i z a t i o n types. The d e s c r i p t i o n s of governing board a c t i v i t i e s were guided by the work of Strauss et al.,(1963) i n which he suggested that an o r g a n i z a t i o n , at a given p o i n t i n time, be viewed as a combination of a formal order and negotiated order or working arrangements. Defined i n terms of w r i t t e n r u l e s and/or l e g i s l a t i o n , the formal order of the three boards was determined by i n s p e c t i o n of r e l e v a n t l e g i s l a t i o n and r e g u l a t i o n s . working arrangements were defined i n terms of a d e c i s i o n making process (.after Rubenstein and Haberstroh, 1966), having as i t s content c e r t a i n o r g a n i z a t i o n problems. The nature of these problems was suggested by the work of T a l c o t t Parsons(1960,1963,1968,1969), and R . J . H i l l s ( 1 9 7 2 ) . The working arrangements of the three boards were determined through i n t e r v i e w s w i t h persons c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the boards. i i . I t was found that the m a j o r i t y of governing board d e c i s i o n s had to do with the procurement of resources f o r , and i n the determination, of the kinds of s e r v i c e s to be o f f e r e d by, the c o l l e g e . While f i n a l approval f o r d e c i s i o n s i n a number of substantive areas was•found to be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a Government Department,, the d e c i s i o n making a c t i v i t i e s of the boards u s u a l l y c o n s i s t e d of the c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and approval of recommendations brought to-the boards by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s of the c o l l e g e s . A number of p o s s i b l e areas of change i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the governing boards were i d e n t i f i e d , along with a number of problems.;. • I t appeared that most, of the problems had a r i s e n as a r e s u l t of the newness of the governing boards and as a r e s u l t of some confusion over t h e i r r o l e i n the two-year c o l l e g e s . The study concludes with a number of recommendat-ions f o r change. F.L.Brissey (Research Supervisor) i i i . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE ABSTRACT ; i TABLE OP CONTENTS ; i i i LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OP FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT ; i x I. INTRODUCTION 1 Focus of the Study. 1 Conceptual Framework 2 S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study 5 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 6 O u t l i n e of the Thesis 7 I I . POST SECONDARY INSTITUTIONS AND THEIR GOVERNING BOARDS 8 Lay Governing Boards i n Post Secondary Education. . . .' 8 Roles and R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 8 Some Research Findings 12 Summary 17 The Two-Year College 18 Developments i n the United States and Canada. 18 The O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Design f o r Two-Year Colleges i n B r i t i s h Columbia 26 Some questions r a i s e d by the O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Design 30 R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h P u b l i c Schools 30 S p e c i f i c a t i o n of R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 32 Summary 33 I I I . AN ANALYSIS OF ORGANIZATION 35 The Nature of Organizations - Some Assumptions. 35 A View of Organization 36 Formal Order and Negotiated Order 38 . Change i n Organizations... 43 T„. - "crk'ns' Arrangements of T-i O r g a - i i K ^ l o 1 " • . ' i v . CHAPTER PAGE The Working Arrangements, of an Organization. ... 44 Working Arrangements as Process 44 The Concept of "Organization" 49 The Concept of "Problem"..,. 50 Summary 54 The Content of Working Arrangements 54 L e g i t i m a t i o n 57 I n t e g r a t i o n C E x t e r n a l ) 61 D i s p o s a l 65 Procurement 67 Technical Functions • . • 68 F a c i l i t y Maintenance 69-P o l i c y Implementation 71 I n t e g r a t i o n ( I n t e r n a l ) 72 S o c i a l i z a t i o n 73 Summary . . . . 74 Working Arrangements - A Ma t r i x 74 Summary and Conclusions..... 76 IV. METHODOLOGY. 79 S e t t i n g of the Study 1 79 Sources of Data 8 l Methods of Data C o l l e c t i o n 82 Interview 82 Documents 87 Organization of Data 87 Taped Interviews 87 Documents 91 Summary 93 V. THE SOCIAL ORDER OF TWO-YEAR COLLEGE GOVERNING BOARDS 94 L e g i t i m a t i o n . . . . . . 95 Resource Commitments to the Colleges 96 A u t h o r i t y Commitments to the Colleges 96 Formal Structure i n the Colleges 97 School Boards and the Colleges 98 Appointees to the Councils 108 Term of O f f i c e 110 Size of Councils 110 Legal Status of Councils I l l Two-Year College L e g i s l a t i o n 112 L e g i t i m a t i o n of Colleges at the l o c a l l e v e l . . . 112 Summary 117 V . CHAPTER PAGE IntegrationCExternal).... ., . . 118 C o n t r a c t u a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s 119 A u t h o r i t y R e l a t i o n s h i p s 120 Commitments to the Colleges - I n t e g r a t i o n . . . . 120 Summary .................... 122 D i s p o s a l i ...... 122 College Programmes 123 Councils and College Programmes..... 123 Boards and College Programmes 128 P r o v i n c i a l Government and College p r • ..• •-. Programmes • • • • 12 8 Pees'and Admission Requirements 131 Summary 132 Procurement 132 College Finances 133 Sources of College Finances 133 College Budgets 137 College Personnel 144 H i r i n g of F a c u l t y and S t a f f 144 Salary and Working Conditions .. 146 Buildings'and S i t e s 151 Summary : 154 TechnicaDhpEamefciehsori 154 Poflicy.tfmplementation 155 F a c i l i t y Maintenance 156 I n t e g r a t i o n ( I n t e r n a l ) 160 S o c i a l i z a t i o n 162 Summary 162 VI. DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS 166 The S o c i a l Order of the Three College C o u n c i l s . 166 Council d e c i s i o n making 166 Council s t r u c t u r e and d e c i s i o n making 168 C o u n c i l l o r background and d e c i s i o n making.. 168 The Chief Executive O f f i c e r and Council d e c i s i o n making 173 Models f o r Cou n c i l d e c i s i o n making 174 Summary 175 Councils and O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Problems 176 Areas of minimal involvement 176 L e g i t i m a t i o n 177 I n t e g r a t i o n ( E x t e r n a l ) 180 D i s p o s a l l 8 l Procurement 184 F a c i l i t y Maintenance 186 Summary 187 v i . CHAPTER PAGE Coun c i l P o l i c y Making. 188 Change and the S o c i a l Order of Councils 189 Changes In Council Environments 190 Changes w i t h i n Councils 191 The Conceptual Framework - A C r i t i q u e 197 Formal Order 198 Working Arrangements - Dec i s i o n making 199 Working Arrangements - Organization Problems. 202 The Methodology - A C r i t i q u e 203 Areas f o r Further Research 205 V I I . SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS...' 207 Conceptual Framework 208 The Study " 209 Conclusions 209 Recommendations I 211 Recommendations I I 212 BIBLIOGRAPHY 215 APPENDIX A 223 APPENDIX B 22 8 APPENDIX C 2 39 APPENDIX D 321 APPENDIX E 352 APPENDIX F • 354 APPENDIX G 359 v i i . LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I Return Rate f o r Interview Summaries 90 I I ' Frequency of Response to Statements on the Interview Summary 91 v i i i . LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE. PAGE 1. The Formal L e g i s l a t i v e Design f o r Two-Year College Governance i n B r i t i s h Columbia 28 2. The S o c i a l Order of an Organization and i t s Determinants 40 3. The Process of Change i n the S o c i a l Order of an Organization 45 4. A Model of O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Decision Making ( A f t e r Rubenstein and Haberstroh,1966,589)•••• 48 5. An O r g a n i z a t i o n a l D e c i s i o n Making Matrix 50 6. L e g i t i m a t i o n and I n t e g r a t i o n of Organization A.. 64 7. A Mat r i x f o r D e s c r i p t i o n of the working arrangements of an Organization or a group.... 75 8. An ORganizational Decision Making Ma t r i x 167 9. A Simple Decision Making P a t t e r n 200 i x . ACKNOWLEDGMENT No man i s an i s l a n d , l e a s t of a l l when he i s w r i t i n g a d i s s e r t a t i o n and thus the author wishes to acknowledge the support and encouragement of a number of I n d i v i d u a l s and groups. Thanks go to members of the Councils and a d m i n i s t r a t -ions of the three Colleges s t u d i e d , f o r without t h e i r w i l l -ingness to give of t h e i r time and comments, t h i s study could not have been undertaken. For t h e i r c r i t i q u e , time, and i n t e r e s t , thanks go to Drs J.Dennison, W.Hartrick, R . J . H i l l s , and G.Wootton; p a r t i c u l a r thanks go to Dr F.L.Brissey who acted as research d i r e c t o r . Last but by no means l e a s t my thanks go to Janet who waited...and waited...and waited. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Although r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p u b l i c l y supported organ-i z a t i o n s such as schools, u n i v e r s i t i e s , and h o s p i t a l s u l t i m a t e l y r e s t s with l e g i s l a t u r e s , i t has been usual to delegate some of t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to lay groups of v a r i o u s kinds and i n v o l v e them i n the governance of these p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In recent years, however, these l a y groups have become the subjects of i n c r e a s i n g s c r u t i n y , w i t h quest-ions r a i s e d about the ways i n which they are c o n s t i t u t e d , and more p a r t i c u l a r l y about the nature of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . While reasons f o r t h i s s c r u t i n y may vary an u n d e r l y i n g concern appears to be how best to provide f o r the e f f e c t i v e governance of p u b l i c l y supported o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Before r a i s i n g questions e f f e c t i v e governance however, i t seems important to determine j u s t what i t i s these governing boards a c t u a l l y do f o r despite t h e i r long h i s t o r y , -p a r t i c u l a r l y i n post-secondary education, there i s a dearth of i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . The present i n v e s t i g a t -i o n setpouts to describe the a c t i v i t i e s of three l a y govern-ing boards i n post-secondary education. Focus of the study. In B r i t i s h Columbia, during the l a t e nineteen f i f t i e s and e a r l y nineteen s i x t i e s , plans were drawn up f o r the establishment of. a system of p u b l i c , two-year c o l l e g e s . The enabling l e g i s l a t i o n passed i n 19&3, placed major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the governance of these new organ-i z a t i o n s i n the hands of l a y groups c a l l e d College C o u n c i l s . This study focussed on three of these College Councils i n an e f f o r t to determine j u s t what, i s was they d i d as they govern-ed the c o l l e g e s f o r which they were r e s p o n s i b l e . The f i r s t step was to i d e n t i f y and d i s p l a y the formal l e g i s l a t i v e design f o r two-year c o l l e g e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. • The second and major step was to i d e n t i f y and describe the working arrangements that the three Councils had developed as they have attempted to implement.the l e g i s l a t i v e • d e s i g n . M a t e r i a l f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n of these working arrangements was based j to a large extent, on i n t e r v i e w s with i n d i v i d u a l s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with the three Councils. An opportunity was al s o taken during these i n t e r v i e w s to move from the merely d e s c r i p t i v e and to seek some c r i t i q u e of the working arrangements that were being described. In summary, the study used i n t e r v i e w s and documents t o : (1) d i s p l a y the formal l e g i s l a t i v e design f o r two-year c o l l e g e s i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia; (2) to i d e n t i f y and describe the working arrangements of three two-year co l l e g e governing boards; and (3)'to seek some c r i t i q u e of the working arrangements from the persons interviewed. Conceptual framework. To carry out t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t was necessary not only to have.a c l e a r understanding of the nature of working arrangements, but also of the nature of o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the part working arrangements might play i n them. Strauss et al.,(1963l. suggest an approach to org-a n i z a t i o n that incorporates the n o t i o n of working arrange-ments. I t i s suggested that an o r g a n i z a t i o n , at a given point i n time, may be viewed as a combination of a formal order and a negotiated order. While the nature of t h i s formal order may vary, i t w i l l normally be found i n documents, i s o f t e n p r e s c r i p t i v e , and addresses such questions as the kinds of o r g a n i z a t i o n goals to be pursued, whatkkinds of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups are to be i n v o l v e d i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , what kinds of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s these i n d i v i d u a l s and groups are to have, and perhaps what procedures are to be f o l l o w e d i n order to achieve the s t a t e d goals. The f i r s t concern of t h i s study was to d i s p l a y the formal order of the two-year c o l l e g e s i n the Province. But, Strauss notes, the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the formal order may show considerable v a r i a t i o n i n the d e t a i l they contain. For example, a fiormaleordcr may be so d e t a i l e d that organiz-a t i o n members have few options open to them, i n how they d i s -charge t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . In other words t h e i r a c t u a l working arrangements are t i g h t l y p r e s c r i b e d and. p r o s c r i b e d . On the other hand, a formal order may be so g e n e r a l l y des-c r i b e d , that considerable i n t e r a c t i o n i s r e q u i r e d among o r g a n i z a t i o n members to determine the working arrangements that w i l l a l l o w them to achieve o r g a n i z a t i o n goals. Strauss r e f e r s to t h i s , i n t e r a c t i o n as n e g o t i a t i o n , and to i t s outcome as negotiated order. For the purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the terms negotiated order and working arrangements are synonymous, w i t h the l a t t e r being more commonly used. This study i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the d e s c r i p t i o n of working arrangements; the Strauss approach provides a r a t i o n a l e f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g working arrangements and places them i n a broader o r g a n i z a t i o n a l context but Strauss does not define working arrangements. I t was necessary t h e r e f o r e , to develop such a d e f i n i t i o n . Working arrangements were defined i n terms of a d e c i s i o n making process, having as i t s content a s e r i e s of o r g a n i z -a t i o n problems. The nature of these problems was suggested by the work of T a l c o t t Parsons(1960,1963,1968,1969) and R. J . H i l l s (.1972). The d e c i s i o n making process ..wasbbased on the work of Rubenstein and Haberstroh(,1966). This d e f i n i t i o n was used to guide the c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s of working arrangements of the three governing boards s t u d i e d . While the major concern of the study was the systematic d e s c r i p t i o n and . anaiysisoSftthewworkQingaarEangements. of three governing boards, i t was not assumed that these working arrangements, or the formal order of these boards, was s t a t i c . As a r e s u l t of changes e i t h e r w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n or i n i t s r e l e v a n t environment, the working arrangements, or the formal order of that o r g a n i z a t i o n might a l s o undergo some m o d i f i c a t i o n . Thus an attempt was al s o made to i d e n t i f y and describe areas of change w i t h i n the governing boards and i n t h e i r r e l e v a n t environments. S i g n i f i c a n c e of the study. Apart from the r a t h e r general statements contained i n l e g i s l a t i o n , no systematic d e s c r i p t i o n of the a c t i v i t i e s of two-year c o l l e g e governing boards i n B r i t i s h Columbia e x i s t s . This study sets out .to develop such a d e s c r i p t i o n , and to undertake such an a n a l y s i s . In essence, t h i s study sets out to determine the a c t u a l s t a t e of a f f a i r s that c h a r a c t e r i s e s the a c t i v i t i e s of t h r e e , two-year c o l l e g e governing boards. Such i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l prove valuable to those persons r e s p o n s i b l e f o r , and i n t e r e s t e d i n , the governance of co l l e g e s i n the Province. In a d d i t i o n , such inform a t i o n should provide a u s e f u l b a s e l i n e against which any proposed, or a c t u a l changes, might be considered. Beyond the merely l o c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the study, these d e s c r i p t i o n s and analyses should throw some l i g h t on the a c t i v i t i e s of lay governing boards i n a wide range of organ-i z a t i o n s . A second concern of the study i s to determine areas of p o s s i b l e change i n c o l l e g e governance, and broadly to r a i s e the question - How are the a c t i v i t i e s of the governing boards working out? Answers to t h i s question should be i n -v a l u a b l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r those i n d i v i d u a l s and groups charged with o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p u b l i c education i n the Province. L a s t , and by no means l e a s t , the study provides an opportunity to determine the u t i l i t y of the p a r t i c u l a r approach'to o r g a n i z a t i o n that u n d e r l i e s t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r , the concepts of formal order and working arrangements w i l l r e c e i v e c a r e f u l c r i t i q u e . L i m i t a t i o n s of the study. In using only three of the p o s s i b l e nine c o l l e g e s i n the Province, c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s were recognised. Each of the three c o l l e g e s i s markedly d i f f e r e n t one from the other, and from the other c o l l e g e s i n the Province along a number of dimensions such as s i z e , number of p a r t i c i p a t i n g school d i s t r i c t s , age, and t h e i r urban, or non-urban character. While the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these d i f f e r e n t f eatures remained to be determined, some caution must be exerc i s e d i n g e n e r a l i s i n g any f i n d i n g s to other c o l l e g e s . Findings should a l s o be read i n l i g h t of the f a c t -.that only those persons d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d with-the governing boards were used as sources of i n f o r m a t i o n . No attempt was made to tap other p o t e n t i a l sources, such as c o l l e g e f a c u l t y . I t should a l s o be noted that the f i n d i n g s and conclusions are based on data c o l l e c t e d during the Summer of 1973 3 and th e r e f o r e may not be a p p l i c a b l e to any other p e r i o d than t h a t . 7. Outline of the t h e s i s . The t h e s i s begins by reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e and research p e r t i n e n t to governing boards i n post-secondary education; moves to c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the features of two-year c o l l e g e development i n the united S t a t e s , and Canada, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r reference to B r i t i s h Columbia; then o u t l i n e s the major fe a t u r e s of the formal design f o r two-year c o l l e g e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The t h i r d chapter focusses on the development of the conceptual framework f o r the study, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r reference to the concept of working arrangements. Chapter f o u r d e t a i l s the methodology adopted to c o l l e c t the data, and chapter f i v e presents the data. The two concluding chapters are concern-ed w i t h d i s c u s s i o n of r e s u l t s and general conclusions. CHAPTER I I POST SECONDARY INSTITUTIONS AND THEIR GOVERNING BOARDS The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to d i s p l a y the formal r u l e s , or o r g a n i z a t i o n a l design of the two-year c o l l e g e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. As a background to t h i s d i s p l a y however, the chapter proposes (1) to review the l i t e r a t u r e and research f i n d i n g s as they r e l a t e to the nature and r o l e of la y governing boards i n post secondary education; and (2) to review the development of the two-year c o l l e g e , w i t h p a r t -i c u l a r reference to B r i t i s h Columbia. While examples i n t h i s chapter w i l l be drawn from the Canadian, and p a r t i c u l a r l y the B r i t i s h Columbia scene, some reference w i l l be made to the s i t u a t i o n i n the United States of America. The use of such references i s r e c o g n i t i o n not only of the p o t e n t i a l and a c t u a l i n f l u e n c e the United States has had on educational developments i n Canada, but of the f a c t that the two-year c o l l e g e movement i n the United States i s a much older one than i n Canada or i n other parts of the world. Lay Gover-rJlnTg Bo'drig .in! fQ§>f jgg&ntMr-y fd-u&dFf6:h' . Roles and R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p u b l i c post secondary education i n North America i s vested i n the l e g i s l a t u r e s of the various States .and Provinces, but i t has 9-been t r a d i t i o n a l to delegate some of t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to la y boards of various k i n d s , and to i n v o l v e them i n the g u i d i n g , the governing, or the managing of one or more of these i n s t i t u t i o n s . Although these boards p r e s e n t l y e x h i b i t wide v a r i a t i o n s i n s i z e , name, method of s e l e c t i o n , and term of o f f i c e , ( Martorana,1963; Rauh,1969), i t i s c l e a r that i n one form or another they have been a feat u r e of a l l l e v e l s of education i n North America almost since the f i r s t e d u c a tional i n s t i t u t i o n s were.established. Throughout the h i s t o r y of these boards, much has been w r i t t e n about t h e i r r o l e s and t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . For example, Perkins t r a c e s the e v o l u t i o n of governing boards i n the U n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g i n North America and notes: The board's o r i g i n a l r o l e was that of agent of i t s c r e a t o r - the church or the s t a t e . To t h i s was added the r o l e of bridge between s o c i e t y and the u n i v e r s i t y . In recent years, the board has begun to act i n i t s t h i r d r o l e - as agent f o r the u n i v e r s i t y community and p a r t i c u l a r l y as a court of l a s t r e s o r t f o r the u l t i m a t e r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t s between the i n t e r n a l c o n s t i t -uencies • of•the u n i v e r s i t y ( P e r k i n s , 1 9 7 3 j 2 0 3 ) -An,: Ana:ex^ "mp.xL>e ofiethe way i n which board r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are p r e s e n t l y viewed, at l e a s t i n the United S t a t e s , may be found i n a statement by the New York State Regents Advisory Committee on Educational Leadership. Their statement reads as f o l l o w s : i.A Board ... i s l e g a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r ass u r i n g that the c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y f u l f i l l s the d i s t i n c t i v e purposes f o r which i t was e s t a b l i s h e d . i i . A Board .... should understand and approve the ki n d of 10. education o f f e r e d by the c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y ; the board should a s c e r t a i n that i s q u a l i t y meets the h i g h -est standards p o s s i b l e and appropriate to i t s purposes; and the board should a s s i s t i n the planning f o r educational growth. i i i . A Board ... should c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t , counsel w i t h , and support the president of the c o l l e g e , r e l y i n g on him f o r l e a d e r s h i p i n educational p o l i c y planning and a s s i s t i n g him i n the e x e r c i s e of that l e a d e r s h i p . iv.A Board ... should promote understanding and cooperation between s o c i e t y and the c o l l e g e or. u n i v e r s i t y , by i n t e r p r e t i n g the opinions and .judgements of each of these to the other, thus f o s t e r i n g q u a l i t y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the development of educational programmes. v.A Board ... should oversee the a c q u i s i t i o n and investment of funds and the managment of f a c i l i t i e s f o r the implementation of the educational programme. (College.and U n i v e r s i t y • T r u s t e e s and Trusteeship, 1 9 6 6 , v - v i i ) Most of the l i t e r a t u r e on'the r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of l a y governing boards i n post' secondary education i s w r i t t e n out of the u n i v e r s i t y context, and although i t seems reasonable to suggest that two-year c o l l e g e boards have the same general r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as t h e i r colleagues i n other educational i n s t i t u t i o n s , i t may a l s o be suggested that two-year c o l l e g e governing boards do face some p a r t i c u l a r problems. Some of these p o t e n t i a l problems have been i d e n t i f i e d b y .Rauh(1969,128-134). Rauh suggests that the very newness of the two-year c o l l e g e , both as a type of o r g a n i z a t i o n as w e l l as i n time, can perhaps make p o l i c y development a more d i f f i c u l t and time consuming process f o r two-year c o l l e g e boards, than 11. f o r boards of more e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h a backlog of experience and with w e l l developed p o l i c i e s and procedures to handle most s i t u a t i o n s . In e f f e c t , Rauh argues that two-year c o l l e g e governing boards may have to break new ground i n many areas with few precedents to draw on. C l o s e l y a ssociated w i t h t h i s problem of newness, i s the dimly defined r o l e of the two-year c o l l e g e i n the educational spectrum of an area. . Not only do members of governing boards have to define the c o l l e g e f o r themselves, suggests Rauh, but they must a l s o t r y to r e l a t e t h i s new ki n d of i n s t i t u t i o n to other, more e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the secondary school and the u n i v e r s i t y . Most two-year c o l l e g e s seek to r e l a t e to the community i n which they are set and the development of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p presents yet another problem f o r the governing board. Rauh a l s o suggests that the r o l e of a governing board i n an avowedly community .oriented i n s t i t u t i o n may be a r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t and more d i f f i c u l t one than the board r o l e i n i n s t i t u t i o n s not so o r i e n t e d . While t h i s d i f f e r e n c e may be more a matter of degree, community•orientation perhaps emphasises the r o l e of the board and i t s members as a kind of bridge between the community•and the p r o f e s s i o n a l i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Rauh notes that the development of t h i s bridge may present problems, not only f o r board members,, but a l s o f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l i n the two-year c o l l e g e . In i d e n t i f y i n g these problems, Rauh does not appear t o be arguing f o r some kind of s p e c i a l status f o r the governing boards of two-year c o l l e g e s , r a t h e r he seems to be saying that the nature of board r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s may be somewhat d i f f e r e n t f o r d i f f e r e n t types of post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s and that these d i f f e r e n c e s should be noted. The present study should provide an e x c e l l e n t opportunity to determine i f problems of the kind Rauh has i d e n t i f i e d do i n f a c t e x i s t , and what i f anything the beards have done to meet the problems. While there i s u t i l i t y i n i d e n t i f y i n g problems that l a y governing boards might f a c e , and i n d i s p l a y i n g some of the w r i t i n g on board r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , to do so r a i s e s what appear to be some b a s i c questions. What do governing boards a c t u a l l y do i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to deal w i t h the problems that have been identified?:' What a c t i v i t i e s c h a r a c t e r i z e governing board a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to f u l f i l l t h e i r r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ? In an e f f o r t to f i n d some answers to these questions we t u r n to some of the research that has been c a r r i e d out on l a y governing boards i n post secondary education. Some Research F i n d i n g s . Although l a y governing boards have been i n existence f o r many years, and although there appears to be considerable agreement that they should play an important r o l e i n educational o r g a n i z a t i o n s , they.have 13. been the subject of r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Hartnett (1969) sums up the s i t u a t i o n i n the preface to a rep o r t on a study that he and Rauh (1969) undertook i n t o the nature of governing boards i n a wide range of post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the United States: Except f o r a now outdated and somewhat l i m i t e d survey by Beck (19^7), and a more recent study by Duster (1966), and a statewide study i n New York (College and U n i v e r s i t y Trustees and Trusteeship,1966), p r a c t i c a l l y nothing i n the way of e m p i r i c a l l y gathered i n f o r m a t i o n has been accumulated f o r t h i s r a t h e r e l i t e group of people. Most of what has been w r i t t e n has d e a l t p r i m a r i l y , almost e x c l u s i v e l y , with governing boards as groups or corporate e n t i t i e s , not as a c o l l e c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s . Consequently the ' l i t e r a t u r e . ' t e l l s us much about the t y p i c a l s i z e of governing boards, how they are s e l e c t e d , the source and nature of board a u t h o r i t y , and b a s i c board f u n c t i o n s , but precious l i t t l e about the people who form these boards.. (Hartnett ,1969 ,12 ) To t h i s statement may be added "..and precious l i t t l e about what i t i s these people do_ when they s i t as a board." In an e f f o r t to gather some data on these boards, Hartnett and Rauh developed a questionnaire and sent i t t o a sample of t r u s t e e s , or board members, i n various types of post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s throughout the United States of America. There were four broad areas - i n which inform a t i o n was sought: i . Who are the t r u s t e e s - t h e i r age,sex, education, r e l i g i o n , income,occupation, e d u c a t i o n a l and community a c t i v i t i e s , views on p o l i t i c s . i i . The nature of t h e i r s e r v i c e to the i n s t i t u t i o n - how much time, the extent of t h e i r f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s , f u n d - r a i s i n g , f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h educational l i t e r a t u r e . i i i . Their opinions - the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of p r e s i d e n t s , q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of t r u s t e e s , who should make what kinds of d e c i s i o n s , t h e i r views on various e d u c a t i o n a l i s s u e s and situations'. iv.What they a c t u a l l y "do" - the nature of t h e i r involvement i n s p e c i f i c c o l l e g e problems. (Rauh, 1969* 165) Commenting on the r e s u l t s of the study, Hartnett notes: I t i s naive to speak of the c o l l e g e t r u s t e e as i f he could be e a s i l y and a c c u r a t e l y described and the d e s c r i p t i o n thus provided were g e n e r a l i s a b l e to a l l t r u s t e e s . Though summaries,of the data y i e l d modal p a t t e r n s , i t i s a l s o important to see that there i s a great deal of d i v e r s i t y - i n terms of backgrounds -between and among t r u s t e e s s e r v i n g on boards of d i f f e r e n t types of i n s t i t u t i o n s . ( H a r t n e t t , 1 9 6 9 , ^ 9 ) With t h i s c a u tion i n mind, the modal t r u s t e e i d e n t i f i e d by the survey was a white male i n h i s l a t e f i f t i e s ' , w e l l educated- a n d " f i n a n c i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l . Many t r u s t e e s were business e x e c u t i v e s , and there was a tendency f o r them to spend more time on questions r e l a t i n g to finance and b u i l d i n g s , l e s s time on academic and student a f f a i r s . In cont r a s t w i t h the modal t r u s t e e , the two-year c o l l e g e t r u s t e e tended to be younger, t o be e l e c t e d to h i s p o s i t i o n , and tended to have l e s s formal education. No comparable data i s a v a i l a b l e f o r members of post secondary governing boards i n Canada. The United States' study a l s o tapped t r u s t e e views on which groups should have major involvement i n d e c i d i n g s i x t e e n i s s u e s commonly faced by post secondary i o r g a n i z a t i o n s . While again there i s a marked d i f f e r e n c e . among the types of educational i n s t i t u t i o n s s t u d i e d , the 15. general r e s u l t s were as f o l l o w s . Trustees appear to favour a h i e r a r c h i c a l system i n which d e c i s i o n s are made at the top and passed "down", but on the other hand, they do not want to :'.'rule" by' themselves. The. p a t t e r n appears to be, that w i t h the exception of p r e s i d e n t i a l appointment, t r u s t e e s p r e f e r d e c i s i o n s to r e s t with the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n alone, or with the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t r u s t e e s c o n j o i n t l y . In a d d i t i o n , Hartnett notes: . . . , there i s a' p e r c e p t i b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n the kinds of d e c i s i o n s t r u s t e e s f e e l . s h o u l d , and should not i n v o l v e other groups having s u b s t a n t i a l a u t h o r i t y . For example the areas that should have greatest f a c u l t y a u t h o r i t y are seen to be, by and l a r g e , academic matters... Student a u t h o r i t y i s judged r e l e v a n t i n matters- of student l i f e . (Hartnett,1969,3^) While these general patterns were i d e n t i f i e d , some s i p s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r - i n s t i t u t i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s can be noted: I t would appear that t r u s t e e s of s e l e c t i v e p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s are most i n c l i n e d to inc l u d e other members of the academic community i n the d e c i s i o n making process, while t r u s t e e s of n o n - s e l e c t i v e p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s are more i n c l i n e d toward a power-at-the-top sort of arrangement. N o t i c e , f o r example, that f i f t y percent or more of the t r u s t e e s f e e l that a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and/or t r u s t e e s alone should have major a u t h o r i t y i n d e c i d i n g 13 out of the 16 issues at p u b l i c j u n i o r c o l l e g e s , but only 4 of the 16 at s e l e c t i v e p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s . (Hartnett,1969,35) A study c a r r i e d out i n the Provinces of A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, developed some f i n d i n g s not u n l i k e those reported by. Hartnett and Rauh. In the Canadian study, i n d i v i d u a l s i n the two-year c o l l e g e s e t t i n g , t r u s t e e s or board members, and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , were asked to i n d i c a t e 16. who I t was they thought should be Involved, and who should be consulted on a wide range of p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s . A l a r g e percentage of the persons p o l l e d i n d i c a t e d that they p r e f e r r e d that most p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s be made u n i l a t e r a l l y by the board, but that other groups i n the i n s t i t u t i o n should be consulted.(Wallin,1972,67) No data was sought on the preferences of governing board members i n other types of post secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada to determine I f t h i s was a commonly held preference, or i f i t was l i m i t e d to two-year c o l l e g e boards. , The s i m i l a r i t y of W a l l i n ' s f i n d i n g s to those of the United States' study are worthy of note. Of course i t must be emphasised that both s t u d i e s were concerned with what t r u s t e e s , or governing board, members p r e f e r r e d , or how they thought d e c i s i o n s should be made, notattempt was made i n e i t h e r 'study'to determine i f that was the way i n which governing boards a c t u a l l y acted. I f research i n the United States on governing boards i n post secondary education i s somewhat l i m i t e d , research i n Canada i n t h i s a rea, apart from the work already c i t e d i s v i r t u a l l y non-existent. Two references should be noted however, i f only because they provide a s t a r t i n g point f o r anyone i n t e r e s t e d i n governance i n post-secondary Canadian education. In 1966, the Duff-Berdahl Report on U n i v e r s i t y Government was published. The major concern of t h i s Report was to make recommendations f o r change, but the authors d i d 17-study and rep o r t b r i e f l y on the s t a t e of u n i v e r s i t y governance across the country. Campbell (1971) surveys two-year c o l l e g e s across Canada, provides a d e t a i l e d l i s t i n g of a l l two-year c o l l e g e s and s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s , and i d e n t i f i e s the broad o u t l i n e s of the governing s t r u c t u r e of each i n s t i t u t i o n . Lay Governing Boards - A Summary. C e r t a i n conclusions may be drawn from t h i s b r i e f review of the l i t e r a t u r e and research: i . Some w r i t i n g has been done on the r o l e s , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and the problems faced by l a y governing boards in.post secondary education. Much of the work has been w r i t t e n out of the u n i v e r s i t y context and i t has l i t t l e to say about how l a y boards discharge t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s or i f and how they face any or a l l of the problems noted by Rauh. i i . R e l a t i v e l y few studi e s have been reported that s p e c i f i c a l l y deal w i t h l a y boards r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the governance of post secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s e i t h e r i n the United S t a t e s , or i n Canada. i i i . Any studies that have been reported,have tended to concern themselves w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of board members, and t h e i r preferences as to board r o l e i n c e r t a i n p o l i c y areas. In c o n t r a s t , the present study proposes to determine 18. what i t i s that the boards of some two-year c o l l e g e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia a c t u a l l y do as they discharge t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . An e f f o r t w i l l a l s o be made to i d e n t i f y those areas seen as s a t i s f a c t o r y and/or problematic by members of those boards. While reference has been.made to the o r g a n i z a t i o n known as the two-year c o l l e g e , the emphasis to date has been on the l a y governing board. Because t h i s study focusses on the l a y governing board of some two-year c o l l e g e s , i t i s appropriate at t h i s point to consider some of the features;.-of the o r g a n i z a t i o n known as the two-year c o l l e g e . Developments i n the U.S. and Canada. Those o r g a n i z a t -ions o f f e r i n g a wide range of edu c a t i o n a l programmes, (academic,technical,vocational) u s u a l l y i n the two years f o l l o w i n g what would normally be girade twelve graduation, are v a r i o u s l y r e f e r r e d to i n the l i t e r a t u r e as community c o l l e g e s , j u n i o r c o l l e g e s , or r e g i o n a l c o l l e g e s . The present study w i l l use the term "two-year c o l l e g e " to describe such o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The features that c h a r a c t e r i s e the two-year c o l l e g e s that are the subjects of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l become apparent as t h i s , chapter proceeds. The r o o t s of the two-year c o l l e g e l i e not only i n the events of nineteenth century United S t a t e s , but .in the 19. p h i l o s o p h i c , economic, and s o c i a l m i l i e u of the p e r i o d . A growing f a i t h In the power of education to open doors of • economic and s o c i a l o p p ortunity; the e g a l a t a r i a n i d e a l that a l l men and women must be given equal access to education; a growing p o p u l a t i o n ; a growing wealth that enabled the country to support more and more students i n c o l l e g e ; and a r i s i n g demand f o r s k i l l e d l abour, a l l combined to place new and d i f f e r e n t demands on education. C e r t a i n events helped to p r e c i p i t a t e the development of these new i n s t i t u t i o n s during the l a t t e r h a l f of the nine-teenth century. While e x i s t i n g u n i v e r s i t i e s were attempting to d i v e s t themselves of the f i r s t two years of undergraduate i n s t r u c t i o n by advocating the s t r e t c h i n g of the.secondary schools to i n c l u d e c o l l e g e l e v e l work, secondary schools were working to extend educational opportunity by the add-i t i o n of two years beyond grade twelve. (Monroe,1972,7-10) Out of t h i s f l u x of i n f l u e n c e s and events a new kind of educational o r g a n i z a t i o n began to emerge, and although various i n s t i t u t i o n s make the c l a i m of being the o r i g i n a l two-year c o l l e g e , i t seems c l e a r that the f i r s t . s u c h c o l l e g e was founded some time during the. l a s t h a l f of the nineteenth century, and.that i t was p r i v a t e l y supported. The f i r s t p u b l i c , two-year c o l l e g e s d i d not appear u n t i l a f t e r the t u r n of the century, but by 1920, p u b l i c , two-year c o l l e g e s i n high school d i s t r i c t s were to be found not only i n the 20. pioneering s t a t e s of C a l i f o r n i a , and I l l i n o i s , but a l s o i n Michigan, Minnesota, Kansa, Iowa, M i s s o u r i , and Texas. By 1960, p u b l i c , two-year c o l l e g e s e n r o l l e d eighty seven percent (87%) of the two-year c o l l e g e enrolments i n the United S t a t e s , (Monroe,1972,13) and by 1970, there were almost 1,100 c o l l e g e s e n r o l l i n g over two m i l l i o n students.(Monroe,1972, 13) As i n the United S t a t e s , so the e a r l y h i s t o r y of the two-year c o l l e g e i n Canada i s clouded by d e f i n i t i o n a l disputes and a p a u c i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n . (Mitchener,1960,407-408) One f a c t i s c l e a r however, the development of the two-year c o l l e g e i n Canada was sporadic u n t i l approx-imately 1950 when there i s evidence of growing i n t e r e s t i n the concept. In 1958 f o r .example, the Province of A l b e r t a passed a P u b l i c J u n i o r Colleges Act, p r o v i d i n g f o r the c r e a t i o n of p u b l i c , two-year c o l l e g e s . In 1950, Ontario appointed a Royal Commission to study education i n the Province. The Report of the Commission recommended, among other t h i n g s , that two-year c o l l e g e s be e s t a b l i s h e d . A f t e r some debate as to t h e i r nature and f u n c t i o n , Colleges of Applied A r t s and Technology (CAATS), were set up i n 1965. In March, 1961, a Royal Commission of I n q u i r y on Education i n the Province of Quebec was e s t a b l i s h e d under the chairmanship of Alphonse Parent. The Parent Report recommended c r e a t i o n 21. of a c o l l e g e system, and'the General and V o c a t i o n a l Colleges A c t , e s t a b l i s h i n g CEGEPS,(Colleges d'Enseignement General et P r o f e s s i o n e l ) was passed i n June, 1967, b r i n g i n g order to a f i e l d - t h a t had been occupied by s i x p a r a l l e l ' but d i s t i n c t c o l l e g e systems. Development i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The modern h i s t o r y of the two-year c o l l e g e i n B r i t i s h Columbia a l s o dates from the f i f t i e s when, under the terms of l e g i s l a t i o n passed i n 1958, the Council of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n was given permission to a u t h o r i s e the establishment of two types of c o l l e g e : i.School D i s t r i c t Colleges e s t a b l i s h e d by a School Board and a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and, i i . P r o v i n c i a l C o l l e g e s , i n a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and o f f e r i n g courses f o r the academic and p r o f e s s i o n a l education of students i n a l l f a c u l t i e s i n c l u d i n g education. (RSBC. PSA;1958 ,c.319, s.42) Two years l a t e r i n I960, the Report of the Royal Commission on Education,(Chant Report) recommended that Grade X I I I be made a v a i l a b l e throughout the Province by c r e a t i n g " c o l l e g i a t e academies".(B.C.Royal Commission on Education,i960,274) While n e i t h e r the academies nor the Colleges were e s t a b l i s h e d , the l e g i s l a t i o n and the recommend-at i o n s of the Commission were i n d i c a t i v e of a mood i n the Province that was r e c e p t i v e to the c r e a t i o n of some add-i t i o n a l post-secondary f a c i l i t i e s . What was the nature and f u n c t i o n of these- f a c i l i t i e s to be? Among many suggestions made, two should be noted because of t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e -ness and because of t h e i r apparent Influence on subsequent developments. At the 1962 convention of the B r i t i s h Columbia School Trustees' A s s o c i a t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g statement was adopted: WHEREAS school boards, have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of f u l f i l l i n g the aims of education i n B r i t i s h Columbia up to l e v e l s provided i n the p u b l i c schools; and WHEREAS school boards are equipped to produce the optimum use and value from community f a c i l i t i e s and personnel; and WHEREAS school boards are best equipped to provide c o o r d i n a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of l o c a l needs; to f u l f i l l the aims of p u b l i c school education, and a l s o to provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l other educational needs i n the community f o r a d u l t s as w e l l as c h i l d r e n , i n academic and v o c a t i o n a l f i e l d s a l i k e : THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the B r i t i s h Columbia School T r u s t e e s ' A s s o c i a t i o n adopt the f o l l o w i n g statement of p o l i c y : 'Boards of School Trustees should be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r meeting a l l educational needs of the community f o r ad u l t s as w e l l as c h i l d r e n , i n academic and v o c a t i o n a l f i e l d s a l i k e , i n c l u d i n g the development and operation of community c o l l e g e s , which pr o p e r l y are extensions of the p u b l i c school programme of the community.' (BCSTA,1962) In a d d i t i o n to t h i s basic p o l i c y statement, the A s s o c i a t i o n made the f o l l o w i n g recommendations: 1.Community Colleges should be e s t a b l i s h e d as a l o g i c a l . c o n t i n u a t i o n of the p u b l i c school system. 2.School Boards should operate and administer them. 3.Local taxpayers should a s s i s t In meeting both operating and c a p i t a l c o s t s . (BCSTA,1962,11) Also i n 1962, the then President of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, John B.MacDonald, published a report 23. e n t i t l e d , ' H i g h e r Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia and a plan  f o r the Future. Not only d i d t h i s r e p o r t recommend the establishment of two-year c o l l e g e s i n the Province , i t made recommendations as to t h e i r r o l e , l o c a t i o n s , methods of f i n a n c i n g , and of governance. Beginning w i t h the statement t h a t , "...we seek e x c e l l -ence i n .education: no l e s s e r goal i s worth the e f f o r t , " (1962,19), MacDonald l i s t e d two requirements that he saw as fundamental to the promotion of t h i s e x c e l l e n c e . . . . f i r s t , d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of op p o r t u n i t y , both i n respect to the kinds of educational experience a v a i l a b l e and the places where i t can be obtained. The second requirement i s self-government of i n d i v i d u a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n respect to s e t t i n g o b j e c t i v e s , standards,, admissions, s e l e c t i o n of s t a f f , c u r r i c u l a , personnel p o l i c i e s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , and a l l the other things that go to make up the t-her operation of a c o l l e g e . These two elements -' d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and self-government - together w i l l not insure e x c e l l e n c e , but i n t h e i r absence an e x c e l l e n t system of higher education i n B r i t i s h Columbia would be u n a t t a i n a b l e . (1962,19-20) Two types of i n s t i t u t i o n were envisaged by MacDonald; U n i v e r s i t i e s and four year c o l l e g e s o f f e r i n g degree programmes and advanced t r a i n i n g f o r those students who might have the necessary a b i l i t y and a p t i t u d e ; and two-year c o l l e g e s , o f f e r i n g a v a r i e t y of programmes of one or two years beyond Grade X I I . MacDonald a l s o suggested that the. Boards of School Trustees be in v o l v e d i n the establishment and operation of two-year c o l l e g e s , and that part of the costs of these c o l l e g e s be borne by the l o c a l taxpayer. Amendments to the P u b l i c Schools Act i n 1963, and i n 24. I965, were to incorporate many of the suggestions made by both MacDonald and the B r i t i s h Columbia School Trustees 1 A s s o c i a t i o n . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d that the 1958 amendments to the P u b l i c Schools Act had given the Co u n c i l of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n permission to au t h o r i s e the establishment of "School D i s t r i c t C o l l e g e s " and " P r o v i n c i a l C o l l e g e s " . In the I963 amendments, the term " r e g i o n a l c o l l e g e " was 'added and'defined as: A school with the same a u t h o r i t y to o f f e r courses as a school d i s t r i c t c o l l e g e has under t h i s Act, but established,, maintained, and operated by two or more a d j o i n i n g school d i s t r i c t s . (RSBC. P u b l i c Schools Ac.L , Amendment Act, 1963,c.319,s.42) A new d e f i n i t i o n of "school d i s t r i c t c o l l e g e " was a l s o o f f e r e d : "School d i s t r i c t c o l l e g e " means a school i n which t u i t i o n i n f i r s t and second year u n i v e r s i t y work and such other courses.at a post-secondary l e v e l as may be deemed d e s i r a b l e are o f f e r e d b y the a u t h o r i t y of a Board of School Trustees. (RSBC. P u b l i c Schools Amendment Act, 1963,c.319,s.42) The Act was f u r t h e r amended to a u t h o r i s e , through the Council of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n : The establishment,maintenance, and operation of a school ' d i s t r i c t , c o l l e g e by a Board i n which may be o f f e r e d such courses as may.be deemed d e s i r a b l e , and auth o r i s e the p r e s c r i p t i o n of r u l e s governing the operation of such d i s t r i c t c o l l e g e s . (RSBCIcPublic Schools Amendment Act, 1963,c.319,s.17) and i n a d d i t i o n , ...authorise the establishment, maintenance, and operation of a r e g i o n a l c o l l e g e by two or more a d j o i n i n g school d i s t r i c t s , i n which c o l l e g e may be o f f e r e d such courses as may be deemed d e s i r a b l e , and authorise the p r e s c r i p t i o n of r u l e s governing the operation of such c o l l e g e s . (RSBC. P u b l i c Schools Amendment Act, 1963, c.319,s.l7) Of s i g n i f i c a n c e i n these amendments was d e l e t i o n of any reference to a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and the involvement of l o c a l Boards of School Trustees i n the establishment, maintenance, and operation of both types of c o l l e g e . The 1963 amendments a l s o provided f o r the establishment of governing Councils to oversee the operation of the C o l l e g e s , e s t a b l i s h e d the composition of these C o u n c i l s j and o u t l i n e d t h e i r powers and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . P r o v i s i o n s f o r the f i n a n c i n g of the two-year c o l l e g e s were a l s o Included, w i t h property tax i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g School D i s t r i c t s r a i s i n g part of the operating expenses of the c o l l e g e s , and a large percentage of c a p i t a l expenses. In 1$. 1965, the term "school d i s t r i c t c o l l e g e " was deleted and the term " d i s t r i c t c o l l e g e " s u b s t i t u t e d . A " d i s t r i c t c o l l e g e " was defined as: ...a c o l l e g e e s t a b l i s h e d under t h i s Act by a Board of School Trustees i n which t u i t i o n i n the f i r s t and second years of U n i v e r s i t y work and other courses normally r e q u i r i n g completion of secondary school f o r admission are o f f e r e d by the a u t h o r i t y of the Board. (RSBC. P u b l i c Schools Amendment Act, 1965,c.319 ,s.2) T h e . d e f i n i t i o n of the term " r e g i o n a l . c o l l e g e " was a l s o modified to read: ... a c o l l e g e e s t a b l i s h e d under t h i s Act by Board of School Trustees of two or more a d j o i n i n g school d i s t r i c t s i n which t u i t i o n i n the f i r s t and second' years of u n i v e r s i t y work and other courses normally r e q u i r i n g the completion of secondary school f o r admission are o f f e r e d by the a u t h o r i t y of the Regional College C o u n c i l . (RSBC.Public Schools Amendment Act, 1965,c.319, s.2) Subsequent amendments to l e g i s l a t i o n made p r o v i s i o n f o r the appointment of a-Bursar, and a P r i n c i p a l , the l a t t e r nominated Chief Executive O f f i c e r of the College. In 1970 a l l l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to the C o l l e g e s , p r e v i o u s l y s c a t t e r e d throughout the P u b l i c Schools Act was c o n s o l i d a t e d and placed i n a separate s e c t i o n of the Act. In February 1970, the M i n i s t e r of Education announced that where f e a s i b l e , e x i s t i n g Colleges and P r o v i n c i a l V o c a t i o n a l Schools would be "melded" i n t o s i n g l e operations commencing A p r i l , 1 9 7 1 . (Brothers,1970) The Act was amended to prepare f o r t h i s e v e n t u a l i t y by d e s i g n a t i n g each c o l l e g e the " College Technical and V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e . " (RSBC. An Act to Amend the P u b l i c Schools Act, 1971, c.319, s.251) The f i r s t two-year c o l l e g e i n the Province was e s t a b l i s h e d i n Vancouver i n 1965» and by 1973 , eight other p u b l i c , two-year c o l l e g e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d throughout the Province. TKg, Or,gahTlzaflanTal, Dggj'gfir ff6R TwQ-YgaB C&ile&eS frfl v BnitTghT caiumBla • The design, or plan f o r two-year c o l l e g e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia may be found i n l e g i s l a t i o n . This l e g i s l a t i o n i d e n t i f i e s the number and nature of groups and i n d i v i d u a l s 27. to be i n v o l v e d i n the c o l l e g e s , and o u t l i n e s the powers and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of each. The f u l l t e x t of the r e l e v a n t l e g i s l a t i o n may be found i n Appendix B, and Figure 1 on page 28 i d e n t i f i e s the various i n d i v i d u a l s and groups and t r a c e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among them. Four groups and two i n d i v i d u a l s are i d e n t i f i e d by the l e g i s l a t i o n as having a part to play i n the c o l l e g e s . They are: i . The L e g i s l a t u r e , through the M i n i s t e r of Education and h i s / h e r Department, or through the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l , authorises the establishment of c o l l e g e s , approves both operating and c a p i t a l budgets, appoints some members to the governing c o u n c i l of each c o l l e g e , coordinates some of the programmes o f f e r e d by the c o l l e g e s , and has the r i g h t to modify the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l design of the c o l l e g e s through amendments to l e g i s l a t i o n . i i . One or more e l e c t e d Boards of School Trustees p a r t i c i p a t i n g In ahCo'lcbege, provide the framework f o r the establishment of a c o l l e g e , hold t i t l e to a l l c o l l e g e p roperty, have j u r i s d i c t i o n over the c o l l e g e , must approve the operating budget f o r the c o l l e g e and c o l l e c t some taxes on behalf of the c o l l e g e from the l o c a l area, and provide a m a j o r i t y of the members f o r the governing c o u n c i l ' o f the c o l l e g e . i l l . The governing boards of each c o l l e g e , or College 28. FIGURE 1 THE FORMAL LEGISLATIVE DESIGN FOR TWO-YEAR COLLEGE GOVERNANCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA C o u n c i l s , are composed of some appointed members, and a ma j o r i t y of el e c t e d members who are a l s o t r u s t e e s from the School Boards p a r t i c i p a t i n g In the c o l l e g e . These Councils are empowered to manage and administer, "the property, revenue, expenditure, business, and a f f a i r s of the College." (RSBC.PSA.1973,c.319,s.25). S p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c l u d e : p r o v i s i o n f o r , and management of la n d , b u i l d i n g s , arid equipment; appointment of s t a f f ; determination of f e e s ; p r o v i s i o n f o r the management and c a r r y i n g out of cur r i c u l u m ; determination of admission q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ; and pre p a r a t i o n of the budget. i v . Although not mentioned i n the P u b l i c Schools A c t, the Academic Board has some r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the two-year c o l l e g e s i n the Province. This Board, composed of two members appointed by the Senate of each U n i v e r s i t y i n . the Province, and three members appointed by the M i n i s t e r of Education, f u n c t i o n s t o : ...provide i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g to academic standards, and to advise appropriate a u t h o r i t i e s on o r d e r l y academic development of u n i v e r s i t i e s . . . a n d of c o l l e g e s e s t a b l i s h -ed under the P u b l i c Schools Act b-y7 keeping i n review the academic standards of each..."(RSBC. U n i v e r s i t i e s Act,1963,c.52,s.81) v. The P r i n c i p a l of the c o l l e g e i s named c h i e f executive o f f i c e r and: . . . s h a l l g e n e r a l l y supervise and d i r e c t the i n s t r u c t -i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and other s t a f f and e x e r c i s e such other powers and perform such other d u t i e s as are from time to time assigned to him by the c o l l e g e c o u n c i l . (RSBC.PSA.1973,c.319,s.259) 30. v i . The Bursar of the c o l l e g e , " s h a l l i n respect of the co l l e g e c a r r y out the d u t i e s and have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s p r e s c r i b e d i n the Act f o r a s e c r e t a r y - t r e a s u r e r of a school district."(RSBC.PSA.1973,c.319,s.260) Some Questions Raised by the O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Design Some of the questions r a i s e d by an a n a l y s i s of t h i s formal l e g i s l a t i v e design are of i n t e r e s t i n the present study and f a l l i n t o two main, groups, those concerning c o l l e g e r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the p u b l i c schools, and those concerning the s p e c i f i c a t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . R e l a t i o n s h i p s with P u b l i c Schools. The design f o r two-year c o l l e g e governance was o r i g i n a l l y p l a c e d , and continues to remain w i t h i n the P u b l i c Schools Act of the Province. This c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between P u b l i c School and two-year c o l l e g e l e g i s l a t i o n f o l l o w s a p a t t e r n that can be found i n the e a r l y development of two-year c o l l e g e s i n other areas of North America. I t i s not d i f f i c u l t to suggest some of the reasons f o r t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p : both the p u b l i c schools and the c o l l e g e s were viewed as . l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s drawing f i n a n c i a l and other.support.from a w e l l defined and r e l a t i v e -l y small geographical area; l o c a l school boards provided an already e x i s t i n g and presumably v i a b l e p l a t f o r m on which to b u i l d the. c o l l e g e ; and the major source of c l i e n t s f o r the new c o l l e g e s was of course the p u b l i c school system. S i m i l a r 31. reasons appear to have prompted the d e c i s i o n to make.use of the P u b l i c Schools Act and l o c a l School Boards i n the develop-ment of c o l l e g e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The other s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t i n t h i s Province was that the Boards of School Trustees a c t i v e l y campaigned f o r a major r o l e i n the proposed c o l l e g e s . While a number of very p r a c t i c a l reasons f o r the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between two-year c o l l e g e s and p u b l i c schools may be i d e n t i f i e d , given the lapse of a number of years, and the continued growth of the c o l l e g e s i n the P r o v i n c e , a number of questions might be r a i s e d about t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . What i s the present nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c o l l e g e s and the p a r t i c i p a t i n g school boards, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h regard to the governance of the c o l l e g e s ? Has the r o l e of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g boards undergone change? I f so, what i s the nature of t h i s change and what are some of the reasons f o r i t ? Do the boards wish t o r e t a i n a r o l e i n the c o l l e g e s ? I f so,, what kind of r o l e ? Some answers to such questions may be found by con-s i d e r i n g the s i t u a t i o n i n o l d e r , and longer e s t a b l i s h e d systems. ; In many areas of the United S t a t e s , e a r l y two-year c o l l e g e s u s u a l l y came i n t o existence as a r e s u l t of l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e , were financed l o c a l l y , and were u s u a l l y governed by the l o c a l school boards. As a r e s u l t there was l i t t l e demand, or need, f o r s p e c i f i c two-year c o l l e g e l e g i s l a t i o n and where necessary, e x i s t i n g p u b l i c school l e g i s l a t i o n was used or perhaps modified. I t was not u n t i l these c o l l e g e s began to p r o l i f e r a t e , to demand autonomy, and to cla i m s t a t e funds, that l e g i s l a t i o n d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y at the c o l l e g e s began to develop. A f t e r about 19^5, newly e s t a b l i s h e d two-year c o l l e g e s , i n the United States tended to develop i n independent d i s t r i c t s , independent that is., of school boards and school d i s t r i c t s . Since 19^5 many e s t a b l i s h e d c o l l e g e s went through l e g a l steps to divorce themselves from l o c a l school board c o n t r o l . As c o l l e g e s moved away from school board toward what they f e l t was greater independence many found themselves i n c r e a s i n g l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the st a t e government through l e g i s l a t i o n and f i n a n c i n g . (Thornton,1972,90) Perhaps t h i s trend i n the United States away from l o c a l school board involvement i n the c o l l e g e s , to greater autonomy f o r c o l l e g e s , subject however,to s t a t e l e g i s l a t i o n , w i l l be p a r a l l e l e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In p a r t , t h i s study w i l l provide the opportunity to look c l o s e l y at the present s t a t e of school board/college r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S p e c i f i c a t i o n of R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . While the l e g i s -l a t i v e design f o r two-year c o l l e g e s i n the Province i s qu i t e s p e c i f i c about the nature of the groups and i n d i v i d u a l s i n v olved i n the governance of the c o l l e g e s , there i s con-s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n the amount of d e t a i l given over to the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of these i n d i v i d u a l s and groups. In other 33. words there i s d e t a i l i n some areas, vagueness, and even s i l e n c e i n others. Why t h i s v a r i a b i l i t y i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n design? What e f f e c t s might i t have on the org a n i z a t i o n s that are the objects of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n ? There are a number of reasons that might be suggested f o r the v a r i a b i l i t y i n design. Perh'apstfche persons respons-i b l e f o r the design f e l t that the l e g i s l a t i o n should not go i n t o too much d e t a i l , i t should provide only general guide-l i n e s ; perhaps the persons r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the design were l o a t h , or unsure how to plan f o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h which they had had no experience; perhaps i t was f e l t that e x i s t i n g P u b l i c School l e g i s l a t i o n would be a p p l i c a b l e to the c o l l e g e s . Whatever the reason, or combination of reasons, i t i s c l e a r that the two-year c o l l e g e s i n the Province havehha.d_t;o develop working arrangements to compensate f o r any vagueness or s i l e n c e i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l design. I t i s to a d e s c r i p -t i o n of these working arrangements that the present i n v e s t -i g a t i o n i s d i r e c t e d . Post Secondary I n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e i r Governing Boards-A Summary This chapter began by reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e and research on lay governing boards i n post secondary education. I t was suggested that much of the w r i t i n g has been done out of the u n i v e r s i t y context, and much of i t addresses the question - What should governing boards do? R e l a t i v e l y few 34. research s t u d i e s i n the area were i d e n t i f i e d although those that have been c a r r i e d out have tended to concern themselves wi t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of board members, and with t h e i r preferences as to board r o l e i n c e r t a i n p o l i c y areas. A f t e r reviewing the development of the two-year c o l l e g e i n the United States and Canada, a t t e n t i o n moved to the formal l e g i s l a t i v e design f o r two-year c o l l e g e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The i n d i v i d u a l s and groups as s o c i a t e d with the c o l l e g e s were i d e n t i f i e d and t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were d i s p l a y e d . I t was suggested that the formal order f o r the c o l l e g e s tended to be somewhat vague g i v i n g r i s e to the question - What kinds of working arrangements have the c o l l e g e s and t h e i r govern-i n g boards developed to compensate f o r t h i s vagueness? I t was t h i s question that was the focus of t h i s study. CHAPTER I I I AN ANALYSIS OF ORGANIZATION I t has already been suggested that the a c t u a l working arrangements of an o r g a n i z a t i o n are determined by both the o r g a n i z a t i o n , or formal design, and by i n t e r a c t i o n among members of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The preceding chapter reviewed the o r g a n i z a t i o n design of two-year c o l l e g e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia; the present chapter proposes to take a more d e t a i l -ed look at the nature of organizations,,with a view to developing a conceptual framework that might guide the systematic d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s of the or g a n i z a t i o n s that are the objects of t h i s study. In o u t l i n e the chapter proposes.; (1) to d i s p l a y some bas i c assumptions made i n the study about the nature of o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; (2) to develop a view of o r g a n i z a t i o n that i s based i n part on a systems approach,, and i n part on some work of Strauss et a l . , (1963); and (3) to consider i n some d e t a i l the concept of "working arrangements". •"Bag KatuEB '& OR&.&WiZ.alM&MB fiomg jggump'tiion;s, A number of bas i c assumptions are made i n t h i s study about the nature of o r g a n i z a t i o n s . An o r g a n i z a t i o n i s not seen as an i s o l a t e d phenomenon, i t has r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h , and i s i n f l u e n c e d by, i t s environment. A l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s 36. share a number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d i n g Cl) o r i e n t a t i o n to a s p e c i f i c g o a l , or goals; (2) formal r u l e s ; and (3) people, who i n t h e i r r o l e s as members of the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t e r a c t w i t h one another e i t h e r as i n d i v i d u a l s or groups. This i n t e r a c t i o n w i l l , i n p a r t , determine which i n d i v i d u a l s or groups w i l l have what kinds of involvement i n the day to day work of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The r e s u l t s of t h i s i n t e r -a c t i o n w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as the "working arrangements" of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . A View of' Ofigafflfzal?! QnT . I t has only been i n recent years that the conceptual t o o l s have been a v a i l a b l e to suggest ways i n which an o r g a n i z a t i o n may be viewed as a whole, subject to change, and i n f l u e n c e d by i t s environment. E a r l y t h e o r i s t s tended to emphasize one, or r e l a t i v e l y few aspects of an o r g a n i z a t i o n , and to t r e a t an o r g a n i z a t i o n as a s t a t i c e n t i t y , almost i s o l a t e d from i t s environment. The " S c i e n t i f i c Management" approach of F r e d e r i c k Taylor f o r example, emphasized the need f o r r a t i o n a l planning,, and f o r people to be l o y a l to the formal s t r u c t u r e i f the o r g a n i z a t i o n was to work e f f e c t i v e l y . On the other hand, humans r e l a t i o n s researchers have sometimes given the impression that a l l formal s t r u c t u r e was bad, and that the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s should be paramount 37. i n the c r e a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n s . While attempts have been made to reach some accommodation of these, apparently opposing views, the dichotomy remains and may s t i l l be found i n much of the w r i t i n g on o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In contrast to these r a t h e r l i m i t e d and almost u n i -dimensional approaches to o r g a n i z a t i o n s , some t h e o r i s t s have begun to explore the i m p l i c a t i o n s of viewing o r g a n i z a t i o n s as complex adaptive systems. Systems theory suggests that e n t i t i e s may be analysed as complex sets of i n t e r - r e l a t e d components, subject to change, and i n f l u e n c e d by environment. Although such an approach appears to have considerable u t i l i t y to the study of o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i t has o f t e n remained an a b s t r a c t framework l a c k i n g the ki n d of e x p l i c a t i o n and p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n r e q u i r e d i f i t i s to be of use i n the d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s of o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The approach to o r g a n i z a t i o n suggested by Strauss et a l . , ( 1 9 6 3 ) , and discussed a l i t t l e l a t e r i n t h i s chapter represents one attempt to provide an e x p l i c a t i o n of the systems approach. Before c o n s i d e r i n g Strauss' work however, i t i s necessary to o u t l i n e some of the features of the complex adaptive system. Buckley(1968) o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g comments: We define a system i n general as a complex of elements or components, d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d i n a causal network, such that at l e a s t some of the components are r e l a t e d t o some others i n a more or l e s s s t a b l e way at any one time. The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s may be 38. mutual or u n i - d i r e c t i o n a l , l i n e a r , n o n - l i n e a r , or i n t e r m i t t e n t , and var y i n g i n degress of causal e f f i c a c y or p r i o r i t y . The p a r t i c u l a r kinds of more or l e s s s t a b l e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s of components that become e s t a b l i s h e d at any time c o n s t i t u t e the p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r e of the system at that time. Thus, the complex, adaptive system as a contin u i n g e n t i t y i s not to be confused w i t h the s t r u c t u r e which that system may manifest at any time. Making t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n allows us to s t a t e a fundamental p r i n c i p l e of open, adaptive systems: P e r s i s t e n c e or c o n t i n u i t y of  an adaptive system may r e q u i r e , as a necessary c o n d i t i o n , change i n i t s s t r u c t u r e , the degree of change being a complex f u n c t i o n of the i n t e r n a l s t a t e of the system, the st a t e of i t s r e l e v a n t environment, and the nature of the interchange between the two. (Buckley,1968,493) Buckley's statement h i g h l i g h t s two key ideas:(1) the noti o n that the s t r u c t u r e of a system, at any one time, may be viewed as a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e complex of i n t e r r e l a t e d components; and (2) the no t i o n that t h i s s t r u c t u r e may have to undergo change i f the system i s to p e r s i s t and change. Strauss p i c k s up on and expands both these ideas i n the approach to o r g a n i z a t i o n he has developed. Formal Order and Negotiated Order. Growing out of an i n t e r e s t i n how a measure of order i s maintained i n the face of i n e v i t a b l e change; and out of a study done on the premises of two p s y c h i a t r i c h o s p i t a l s , Strauss and h i s colleagues comment on the high l e v e l of a c t i v i t y or i n t e r -a c t i o n among members and c l i e n t s of the h o s p i t a l s . This a c t i v i t y they r e f e r to as "negotiation", and i t s outcome as "negotiated order". This "negotiated order" i n combination with a "formal order" c o n s i s t i n g of the formal r u l e s and 39. p o l i c i e s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , c o n s t i t u t e what Strauss r e f e r s to as the " s o c i a l order"f,,or s t r u c t u r e of an o r g a n i z a t i o n at a given point i n time. Strauss comments as f o l l o w s : ...one might maintain that no-one knows what the h o s p i t a l ' i s ' on any given day unless he had a comprehensive grasp of what combination of r u l e s , and p o l i c i e s , along w i t h agreements, understandings, p a c t s , c o n t r a c t s , and other working arrangements c u r r e n t l y obtains. In any pragmatic sense, t h i s i s the h o s p i t a l at the moment: t h i s i s i t s s o c i a l order. (Strauss et a l . , 1963,165) In other words, Strauss suggests that the s t r u c t u r e , or-" s o c i a l order" of an o r g a n i z a t i o n at a given point i n time may be viewed as a combination of (1) a formal order, c o n s i s t i n g of, and determined by the r u l e s and p o l i c i e s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n ; and (2) a negotiated order, determined by n e g o t i a t i o n or i n t e r a c t i o n among members of the o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n s i s t i n g of a s e r i e s of working arrangements of various kinds. In t u r n i t i s suggested that the r u l e s and p o l i c i e s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t s formal order, serve to set l i m i t s and give some d i r e c t i o n to t h i s n e g o t i a t i o n , and thus i n f l u e n c e the negotiated order or working arrangements. Figure 2 on page 40 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s view of the s o c i a l order and i t s determinants. In almost a l l instances the formal.order of an organ-i z a t i o n may be r e a d i l y d i s c e r n e d , not only because i t s very f o r m a l i t y lends i t s e l f to v i s i b i l i t y , but a l s o because the r u l e s and p o l i c i e s that determine the formal order are u s u a l l y w r i t t e n and open f o r i n s p e c t i o n . A simple example 40. RULES AND POLICIES NEGOTIATION SOCIAL ORDER or STRUCTURE = f (FORMAL ORDER NEGOTIATED ORDER ) WORKING ARRANGEMENTS) FIGURE 2 FIGURE' 2 THE SOCIAL ORDER.OF AN ORGANIZATION AND ITS DETERMINANTS may serve to i l l u s t r a t e . In team sports there are w r i t t e n r u l e s concerning the maximum number of persons to be a c t u a l l y p l a y i n g at any one time; a r u l e w i l l a l s o s p e c i f y the length of the game and the circumstances under which that time pe r i o d may be reduced or lengthened. I t i s expected and not s u r p r i s i n g that the formal order of a given game w i l l r e f l e c t these r u l e s . As f o r games, so f a r or g a n i z a t i o n s there w i l l be s p e c i f i c . r u l e s and an expected and not s u r p r i s i n g formal order. On the other hand i t would perhaps be unusual f o r the formal r u l e s to s p e c i f y a l l a c t i v i t i e s gin a game or i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n ; i n some areas r u l e s may never have been form-u l a t e d , or i f they have been formulated t h e i r g e n e r a l i t y may provide.only the broadest of g u i d e l i n e s to a c t i o n . Where r u l e s do not e x i s t , or are very g e n e r a l , group members may 41. negotiate or i n t e r a c t w i t h one another i n e f f o r t s to determine which members w i l l have what kinds of involvement i n various a c t i v i t i e s . As a r e s u l t of h i s work i n the h o s p i t a l s e t t i n g , Strauss suggested that the absence of e x t e n s i v e , c l e a r l y s t a t e d , or c l e a r l y b inding r u l e s , was one of the f a c t o r s l e a d i n g to the observed high frequency of n e g o t i a t i o n among members and c l i e n t s of that o r g a n i z a t i o n . That i s , a l l e l s e being equal, the fewer and/or the more a b s t r a c t the r u l e s , the p o s s i b l e greater frequency of n e g o t i a t i o n or i n t e r a c t i o n necessary to determine the working arrangements that would allow the day to day a c t i v i t i e s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n to get done. (This i s not to imply that there i s some kind of q u a n t i t a t i v e interdependence between the formal r u l e s and n e g o t i a t i o n . ) WhiWhile t h i s study does not intend to explore the r e l a t -i o n s h i p between formal r u l e s and the nature and amount of' n e g o t i a t i o n i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n , nor indeed to observe and describe the nature and amount of n e g o t i a t i o n , Strauss' approach does suggest some concepts and provide a base f o r the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n . This study proposes to describe three s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s at a p a r t i c u l a r point i n time; Strauss suggests t h a t . t h i s may be done by c o n s i d e r i n g the formal order of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and t h e i r working arrange-ments. While the notion of working arrangements w i l l r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l e x p l i c a t i o n , what Strauss has done has been to place working arrangements and formal order i n a broad o r g a n i z a t i o n a l context, suggesting how they both might be determined and as w i l l be seen i n a moment, howtthey both might undergo change over time. Before c o n s i d e r i n g change,and the nature of working arrangements„,an important question should be asked. Strauss developed t h i s view of o r g a n i z a t i o n out of work i n a h o s p i t a l , i s i t l i k e l y to be appropriate to the study of governing boards i n post Tsecondary educational i n s t i t u t i o n s ? Strauss suggests that i f the approach he has developed i s to be of use i n the study of o r g a n i z a t i o n s , they should possess c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s . I f an o r g a n i z a t i o n ( i ) u t i l i z e s personnel t r a i n e d i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t occupations, or C i i ) contains an occupational group i n c l u d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t r a i n e d i n d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n s , then ( i i i ) they are l i k e l y to possess somewhat d i f f e r e n t occupational p h i l o s o p h i e s , emphasising somewhat d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s ; then a l s o ( i v ) i f at l e a s t some personnel are p r o f e s s i o n a l s , the l a t t e r are l i k e l y to be pursuing careers that render them mobile-that i s , c a r r y i n g them i n t o and out of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . ... They are, of course, a t t r i b u t e s of u n i v e r s i t i e s , c o r p o r a t i o n s , and government agencies, as w e l l as h o s p i t a l s . I f an o r g a n i z a t i o n i s marked by one or more of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , then the concept of "negotiated order" should be an appropriate way to view i t . (Strauss et a l . , 1963,168) There i s reason to b e l i e v e that the o r g a n i z a t i o n s that are the objects of t h i s study d i s p l a y some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i d e n t i f i e d ; thus i t i s assumed that the approach developed by Strauss w i l l prove appropriate. 43. . Change In Organizations To complete t h i s d i s p l a y of Strauss' approach to o r g a n i z a t i o n and a l s o to provide a broader context i n which to view the notions of formal order and working arrangements, we t u r n b r i e f l y to the way i n which Strauss t r e a t s change i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d that Buckley (1968) suggested that the s o c i a l order, or s t r u c t u r e of a system may have to undergo change i f that system i s to p e r s i s t . Strauss addresses the idea of change i n the s o c i a l order of an o r g a n i z a t i o n as f o l l o w s : Any changes that impinge upon t h i s order ( i . e . the s o c i a l o r d e r ) . . . w i l l c a l l f o r r e n e g o t i a t i o n or r e -a p p r a i s a l , w i t h consequent changes i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l order... That r e c o n s t i t u t i n g of s o c i a l order we would hazard, can be f r u i t f u l l y conceived i n terms of a complex r e l a t i o n s h i p between the d a i l y n e g o t i a t i v e process, and a p e r i o d i c a p p r a i s a l process. The former not only allows the work to get done; i t a l s o r e a c t s back upon the more fo r m a l i s e d - and permanent - r u l e s and p o l i c i e s . (Strauss et a l . , 1963 5l65) That I s , i n response to changes w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t -ion and i t s r e l e v a n t environment, the s o c i a l order of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , c o n s i s t i n g of a formal order and working arrangements, may be subject to a p p r a i s a l . Presumably t h i s . a p p r a i s a l i s conducted i n an e f f o r t to determine whether the formal order and/or the working arrangements remain conducive to the achievement of o r g a n i z a t i o n goals. Should any part of the s o c i a l order be found d e t r i m e n t a l to the achievement of the goals of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , Strauss suggests that i t may be renegotiated and thus a new s o c i a l 44. order created. I t i s a l s o suggested that the r e n e g o t i a t i o n of the formal order of the o r g a n i z a t i o n may be a somewhat slower process than the r e n e g o t i a t i o n of the working arrange-ments. This process of change i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 3 on page45- Although o r g a n i z a t i o n change i s not of major concern i n t h i s study, the preceding d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be r e f e r r e d to when the r e s u l t s of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n are being discussed. The overview of o r g a n i z a t i o n j u s t completed provides a base on which the d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the nature of working arrangements canbbe developed. I t •is the purpose of the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s to explore the concept of working arrangements i n terms of process and content. The Work-ing Arrangements of an Qr-gan-izat-ion • I t w i l l be suggested that the working arrangements of an o r g a n i z a t i o n may be viewed i n terms of a process with a p a r t i c u l a r kind of content. The process w i l l be defined i n terms of a d e c i s i o n making model, the content w i l l be defined i n terms of a taxonomy of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problems. Working Arrangements as Process Making a d e c i s i o n , or s o l v i n g a problem may seem l i k e a simple u n i t a r y act of d e c i d i n g among a l t e r n a t i v e s , and much of the l i t e r a t u r e would seem to confirm t h i s impression; but many w r i t e r s on d e c i s i o n making and problem s o l v i n g I d e n t i f y a number of stages, or steps>in what they r e f e r to as the d e c i s i o n 45. RULES AND NEGOTIATION POLICIES \ SOCIAL ORDER(SOl) or = f STRUCTURE FORMAL ORDER (FOl) +- NEGOTIATED ORDER(NOl) or WORKING ARRANGEMENTS (WA1_) CHANGE(S) APPRAISAL As a r e s u l t of change(s) w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , or i n i t s r e l e v a n t environment, i s any part of the s o c i a l order det-r i m e n t a l to the achievement of or g a n i z a t i o n goals? Modify s o c i a l order through r e n e g o t i a t i o n S02=f(F02 + N02) WA2) Maintain e x i s t -ing s o c i a l order \ S01=f(SOI + NOl) WA1) FIGURE 3 THE PROCESS OF CHANGE IN THE SOCIAL ORDER OF AN ORGANIZATION 46. making ,or\problem s o l v i n g process. This i s not to d e t r a c t from the idea of d e c i d i n g among a l t e r n a t i v e s , but r a t h e r to point out that the steps preceding, and f o l l o w i n g the choice among a l t e r n a t i v e s , may be as important, and sometimes more s i g n i f i c a n t than the simple act of choosing. For example, Dewey (1933,120) describes a number of stages i n the process of s o l v i n g a problem: i.Immediate pressures on the d e c i s i o n maker are described as the " f e l t d i f f i c u l t y " i i . T h e a n a l y s i s of the type of problem and i t s b a s i c dimensions. i i i . T h e search f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s . iv.The c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the consequences of a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s . v.The t e s t of the l i k e l i e s t s o l u t i o n by a p p l y i n g i t to the problem s i t u a t i o n . Lindblom (1968) speaks of the . ' c l a s s i c a l " ' f o r m u l a t i o n i n p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n , and l i s t s the stages as f o l l o w s : i.Faced w i t h a given problem, i i . A r a t i o n a l man f i r s t c l a r i f i e s h i s g o a l s , v a l u e s , or o b j e c t i v e s , and then ranks or otherwise organizes them i n h i s mind; i i i . H e . t h e n l i s t s a l l important p o s s i b l e ways of -p o l i c i e s f o r - a c h i e v i n g h i s goals, iv.And i n v e s t i g a t e s a l l the important consequences that would f o l l o w from each of the a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s , v.At .which point he i s i n a p o s i t i o n to compare consequences of each p o l i c y w i t h g o a l s , vi.And so choose the p o l i c y w i t h consequences most c l o s e l y matching h i s goals. (Lindblom,1968,12) W r i t i n g about problem s o l v i n g i n p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , M a r s h a l l Dimock (1958), o u t l i n e s a s i m i l a r process: F i r s t there are always problems and the i s s u e s . Second, there are the f a c t s and analyses that need to be a p p l i e d to the i s s u e s . T h i r d , there i s the s e t t i n g f o r t h of a l t e r n a t i v e s and the pros and cons a p p l i c a b l e to each possibl'e s o l u t i o n - a l l t h i s i n the l i g h t of 47. larger institutional goals and objectives. Fourth there is the decision proper, which depends upon choosing among alternatives ...(T)imoek,1958,140) Other examples may be cited, but while the emphasis may differ slightly in each example, a number of common features may be identified. These features include (1) the notion of a problem; (2) the influence of organizational goals or objectives on the process; (3) the notion that a number of steps or stages are involved; and (4) the notion of a choice from among a number of alternatives. After reviewing the literature, and a number of research studies on decision making in various types of organizations, Rubenstein and Haberstroh (1966), develop a model of decision making that takes the common features already noted into account. This model, which is illustrated in Figure 4 on page 4,8, w i l l be used in the present study, with some slight modification, to guide the description of the working arrangements of the organizations that are the objects of the investigation. This model suggests that organizational decision making may be divided into a number of stages beginning with the identification of the problem>or problems. But identification of a problem does not mean that that problem w i l l be solved, for given limited time and resources, certain pri o r i t i e s must be set by the organization with the result that many problems may never get beyond stage one in the 48. 1 . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Problem(s) 2.Setting of P r i o r i t i e s 3.Generation of A l t e r n a t i v e S o l u t i o n s 4.Selection of a S o l u t i o n 5.Implementation •< 6.Evaluation FIGURE 4 A MODEL OF ORGANIZATIONAL DECISION MAKING (A f t e r Rubenstein and Haberstroh,1966,589) process. Stages three and four i n the model a r e - s e l f -explanatory, but i t should be noted that the s e l e c t i o n of a s o M l i o n to a problem,(Stage 4), and the implementation of that s o l u t i o n , ( S t a g e 5), are viewed as d i s t i n c t stages i n the process. I t i s p o s s i b l e that r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the implementation r e s t s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s or groups other than those who have proposed or s e l e c t e d the s o l u t i o n . These "other" groups may operate under somewhat d i f f e r e n t parameters than those who have sel-ee'fee'dttihess'dliution, hence : the d i s t i n c t i o n that i s drawn between s e l e c t i o n and 49. implementation. I t should a l s o be emphasised that t h i s model does not imply that a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s i n v o l v e a l l of these steps, or that they need n e c e s s a r i l y occur i n the sequence i l l u s t r a t e d . Some de c i s i o n s may i n v o l v e a somewhat d i f f -erent ordering of the stages, and i t i s al s o l i k e l y that the output of one stage may n e c e s s i t a t e the r e t u r n to a previous one. This recursiveness i s i n d i c a t e d by the arrows. While t h i s model does provide an h e u r i s t i c approach to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making, and to the working arrange-ments of an o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t does r a i s e two s i g n i f i c a n t questions. The f i r s t has to do wit h the nature of the concept " o r g a n i z a t i o n " i n the phrase "the d e c i s i o n making of the o r g a n i z a t i o n " ; the second question has to do w i t h the nature of the "problem" that the process i s t r y i n g to sol v e . The Concept of "Organization" I t would be somewhat naive to i n s i s t that the o r g a n i z a t i o n per se makes d e c i s i o n s , unless of course the term o r g a n i z a t i o n has been p e r s o n i f i e d i n the l i t e r a r y sense. Organizations are made up of people a c t i n g e i t h e r as i n d i v i d u a l s or i n groups, and i f the content of d e c i s i o n s i s ignored f o r the moment, i t i s conceivable that one or more i n d i v i d u a l s , or groups, could be i n v o l v e d i n almost any combination of stages i n the d e c i s i o n making model that has been presented. Figure 5 on page 50 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s s i t u a t i o n . 50. I n d i v i d u a l s or Groups Stages i n the De c i s i o n Making Process 1 2 3 4 5 6 A B C D • FIGURE 5 AN ORGANIZATIONAL DECISION MAKING MATRIX I f the v e r t i c a l a x i s i n Figure 5 l i s t s i n d i v i d u a l s and groups i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the h o r i z o n t a l a x i s represents stages i n the d e c i s i o n making process, i t seems p o s s i b l e , by f i l l i n g i n the various c e l l s to develop a p a t t e r n of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making. Such a matrix may have l i m i t e d use because i t w i l l be suggested that the p a t t e r n of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making w i l l vary not only w i t h the content of d e c i s i o n s , but a l s o over time. The matrix does under-li1nett.hepp6iihthh'©"We"ve,]s, that o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making r e f e r s to the ways i n which r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r various stages of the d e c i s i o n making process may be d i s t r i b u t e d among the various i n d i v i d u a l s and groups that c o n s t i t u t e the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The Concept of "Problem" Most w r i t e r s suggest that the d e c i s i o n making process begins w i t h the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " 51. of a problem, with the whole d e c i s i o n making process d i r e c t e d toward p r o v i d i n g a s o l u t i o n to that problem. What i s meant when an i n d i v i d u a l , or an o r g a n i z a t i o n , i s s a i d to be f a c i n g a problem? Dewey(1933) suggests that the o r i g i n s of a problem l i e i n a: . . . t r o u b l e d , p e r p l e x e d , t r y i n g s i t u a t i o n , where, the d i f f i c u l t y i s , as i t were spread throughout the e n t i r e s i t u a t i o n , i n f e c t i n g i t as a whole. I f we knew j u s t what the d i f f i c u l t y was and where i t l a y , the job of r e f l e c t i o n would be much e a s i e r that i t i s . . . a blocked suggestion leads us to r e i n s p e c t the c o n d i t i o n s that confront us. Then our uneasiness, the shock of d i s t u r b e d a c t i v i t y , gets s t a t e d i n some degree on the b a s i s of observed c o n d i t i o n s , of o b j e c t s . . . ; i t i s becoming a true problem, something i n t e l l e c t u a l , not j u s t an annoyance at being held up i n what we are doing. (Dewey,1933,100) For Dewey the notion of a problem appears to have two dimensions, (1) i t i s an annoying p e r p l e x i n g s i t u a t i o n which i n t u r n may lead to (2) a c l e a r e r statement of that s i t u a t i o n i n r a t h e r more s p e c i f i c terms. Dewey provides an example: The person who i s suddenly blocked and t r o u b l e d i n what he i s doing by the thought of an engagement to keep at a time that i s near and a place that i s d i s t a n t , has the suggestion of g e t t i n g there at once. But i n order to carry out t h i s suggestion,, he has to f i n d means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . In order to f i n d them he has to note h i s present p o s i t i o n and i t s distance from the s t a t i o n , the present time, and the i n t e r v a l at h i s d i s p o s a l . Thus the p e r p l e x i t y i s more p r e c i s e l y l o c a t e d : j u s t .so much ground to cover, so much.time to do i t i n . (Dewey,1933, 109) This c l e a r e r statement of the problem seems to take the form of the d e f i n i t i o n of the present s i t u a t i o n , or s t a t e , and the d e f i n i t i o n of some f u t u r e s i t u a t i o n o r s t a t e ; s h o u l d the two d e f i n i t i o n s be d i f f e r e n t , o n l y t h e n can t h e problem s o l v i n g p r o c e s s b e g i n , a l t e r n a t i v e s can be c o n s i d e r e d , and a s o l u t i o n t o the problem proposed. A s i m i l a r approach t o the n o t i o n o f problem and problem s o l v i n g i s t a k e n by B r i s s e y and Nagle (.1972): G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , every normal human b e i n g may be thought of as c o n d u c t i n g a c o n t i n u o u s s e a r c h f o r ways of r e l a t i n g t o b o t h the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l w o r l d . G i v e n a l l t h e p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s one might t h i n k o f , c e r t a i n ones a c q u i r e a c e r t a i n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s even though they may be i n j u r i o u s t o h e a l t h or pose a t h r e a t t o l i f e i t s e l f . I n o t h e r words, i n one way or a n o t h e r we come t o have c e r t a i n p r e f e r e n c e s c o n c e r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g us and our r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o , t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s . Some of our p r e f e r e n c e s are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h what we know (or s u s p e c t ) i s r e q u i r e d f o r good h e a l t h and g e n e r a l w e l l - b e i n g , o t h e r s a r e n o t . I n any c a s e , we can make t h i s i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n s t h e r e i s a c r i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between s p e c i f y i n g the a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s o f a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n and t h o s e t h a t someone p r e f e r s (whether or not what he p r e f e r s i s thought t o be "good f o r h i m " ) . ( B r i s s e y and Nagle,1972,1.19) I n t h i s a pproach, a problem i s d e f i n e d as a c l e a r l y d e t e c t -a b l e d i s c r e p a n c y between the a c t u a l and t h e p r e f e r r e d . When t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y can be ' i d e n t i f i e d t h e n the i n d i v i d u a l o r t h e group has a problem. T h i s o f c o u r s e says n o t h i n g about whether the i n d i v i d u a l or t h e group t h a t has i d e n t i f i e d the problem can, or i n d e e d wishes t o remove i t . There i s a l s o a n o t h e r sense i n which i t may be s a i d t h a t a problem e x i s t s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l o r a group may d e t e r m i n e t h a t the a c t u a l and t h e p r e f e r r e d c o n d i t i o n s a r e congruent. Under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s i t might seem t h a t t h e r e i s no problem, however, should the preference be to maintain t h i s congruence i n the face of a c t u a l or p o t e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s that might d i s t u r b congruence and create discrepancy, the i n d i v i d u a l or the group can be s a i d to have a problem and problem s o l v i n g a c t i v i t i e s might be undertaken. Thus i t i s suggested that a problem may be viewed not only as a discrepancy between an a c t u a l and a p r e f e r r e d s t a t e , but a l s o as the maintenance of a p r e f e r r e d s t a t e i n the face of a c t u a l or p o t e n t i a l disturbances. The emphasis i n the d i s c u s s i o n so f a r has been on the i n d i v i d u a l . What of problems faced by an o r g a n i z a t i o n ? Organizations or groups may be viewed as a number of i n d i v i d u a l s , or problem s o l v i n g systems engaging i n j o i n t i n q u i r y to determine whether they hold the same view of the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n , whether t h e i r preferences i n regard to that s i t u a t i o n are s i m i l a r , and whether they can agree on a c t i o n to reduce a discrepancy, or maintain an e x i s t i n g p r e f e r r e d s t a t e . To - carry out t h i s j o i n t i n q u i r y , problem s o l v i n g systems must communicate with one another so that each member of the group i s aware of the nature of the problem. In summary, two or more persons may decide or f i n d them-selves otherwise i n v o l v e d i n a kind of c o l l e c t i v e or j o i n t e f f o r t to solve problems. Under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s they may have a common i n t e r e s t i n s o l v i n g the same problem. At times, the commonality of t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and the i d e n t i t y of the problem to be d e a l t w i t h may be abundantly c l e a r to a l l , but t h i s i s by no means a f o r e -gone conclu s i o n . Discovering what s p e c i f i c problems are 54. to be dealt w i t h may be one of the most c r i t i c a l problems faced by those i n v o l v e d , and t h e r e f o r e , one of the f i r s t tasks to be dea l t with i n the course of j o i n t problem s o l v i n g . ( B r i s s e y and Nagle,1972,I.30) Thus i t i s argued that the concept of the problem remains s i m i l a r f o r both i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; a major d i f f e r e n c e being that communication among group members i s necessary f o r problem s o l v i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n an orga n i z -a t i o n . Working Arrangements as Process - A Summary The concern i n t h i s s e c t i o n has been to define working.arrangements i n terms of a d e c i s i o n making process. A d e c i s i o n making model based on the work of Rubenstein and Haberstroh was presented and discussed, with p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n being paid to the concept of a problem. But there i s more to d e c i s i o n making and working arrangements than process, d e c i s i o n s have some content, they are made about something; i t i s the purpose of the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n to suggest a way i n which the content of d e c i s i o n s , and working arrangements, might be taxonomised. The Content of Working Arrangements Organizations do not make d e c i s i o n s merely f o r the sake of making d e c i s i o n s ; d e c i s i o n s have some content, they are made about something. Problems do not e x i s t i n the a b s t r a c t , they too have content. What f o l l o w s i s a way of taxonomising o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s or problems drawing on the work of T a l c o t t Parsons (1960;1968;19'69) and R . J . H i l l s (1972).. In h i s w r i t i n g s on o r g a n i z a t i o n s , T a l c o t t Parsons has been concerned to i d e n t i f y and analyse those features that formal o r g a n i z a t i o n s have i n common, thus p r o v i d i n g some systematic bases f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s not only of a s i n g l e organization-, but al s o of v a r i a t i o n s among org-a n i z a t i o n types. (Parsons,i960,16) The features i d e n t i f i e d by Parsons are based on a p a r t i c u l a r view of o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t i s appropriate to consider t h i s view before proceed-i n g to the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f e a t u r e s . For Parsons, the d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of an organ-i z a t i o n i s i t s primacy of o r i e n t a t i o n to the attainment of a . s p e c i f i c goal,(Parsons,i960,17) , and the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s seen as "a mechanism by which goals somehow important to a s o c i e t y , or to various subsystems of i t , are implemented and to some degree•defined."(Parsons,i960,63) Thus an organ-i z a t i o n may be viewed i n two a n a l y t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t ways. On the one hand i t i s seen as a u n i t , or subsystem of a more i n c l u s i v e system, on behalf of which i t performs f u n c t i o n s of various kinds. I n t e r e s t here l i e s i n i d e n t i f y i n g and analysing the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the organ-i z a t i o n and i t s environing s i t u a t i o n . But the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a l s o viewed as a system i n i t s own r i g h t , and here concern i s with i d e n t i f y i n g the i n t e r n a l elements of the organ-i z a t i o n , t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 56. Parsons suggests that the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between any o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s environing s i t u a t i o n w i l l f a l l i n t o four area'ss, These areas, or f u n c t i o n s , he r e f e r s to as l e g i t i m a t i o n , i n t e g r a t i o n ( e x t e r n a l ) , procurement, and d i s p o s a l . The i n t e r n a l elements or f u n c t i o n s of an o r g a n i z -a t i o n are i d e n t i f i e d as t e c h n i c a l , f a c i l i t y maintenance, p o l i c y implementation, i n t e g r a t i o n ( i n t e r n a l ) , and s o c i a l -ization. While i t w i l l become c l e a r that the nature and s i g n i f i c a n c e of each of these.functions w i l l vary according to the goals of the p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n being considered, Parsons suggests that a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l types, be they economic, p o l i t i c a l , government, or e d u c a t i o n a l , must attend to a l l of these f u n c t i o n s i n some way. F a i l u r e to address one or more of the f u n c t i o n s , or an i n s u f f i c i e n t address to one or more of these f u n c t i o n s , may r e s u l t i n a th r e a t to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , and i n the extreme case to i t s d i s s o l u t i o n . In a very r e a l sense, these f u n c t i o n s may be viewed as problems of the kind already discussed. That i s , each f u n c t i o n represents an area of the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n which,, • e i t h e r a discrepancy e x i s t s between the a c t u a l and the p r e f e r r e d , or i f a s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l of operation has been reached, the concern w i l l be to maintain that l e v e l i n the face of p o t e n t i a l , or a c t u a l disturbances from w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n or from i t s environment. In both cases, 57. problem s o l v i n g , or d e c i s i o n making a c t i v i t i e s may be under-taken to deal with, the s i t u a t i o n . D i s c u s s i o n now moves to' a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the nature of each of the fun c t i o n s already i d e n t i f i e d . This consider-a t i o n w i l l take the form of: (.1) a general statement of the nature of each f u n c t i o n , followed by (2) a s p e c i f i c a t i o n of each f u n c t i o n i n l i g h t of the f a c t that the o r g a n i z a t i o n s that are the objects of t h i s study are educational i n nature. This s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s r e c o g n i t i o n of the f a c t that while a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s must perform each of the f u n c t i o n s , the s p e c i f i c nature of each f u n c t i o n w i l l d i f f e r from one organ-i z a t i o n type to another depending on the goals and value p a t t e r n of the p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n . A simple example may serve to i l l u s t r a t e . A l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s dispose of a product or s e r v i c e , but d i s p o s a l f o r a f i r m manufacturing automobiles i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t , a t - l e a s t i n d e t a i l s , to d i s p o s a l f o r an educational i n s t i t u t i o n . As f o r d i s p o s a l so f o r the other f u n c t i o n s ; thus the s p e c i f i c a t i o n of each of the fun c t i o n s i n the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n . L e g i t i m a t i o n The main point of reference f o r a n a l y s i n g the s t r u c t u r e of a n y - s o c i a l system such as an o r g a n i z a t i o n i s i t s value p a t t e r n . This defines the b a s i c o r i e n t a t i o n of the system,(in the present case, the o r g a n i z a t i o n ) , to the s i t u a t i o n i n which i t operates; hence i t guides the a c t i v i t i e s of p a r t i c i p a n t i n d i v i d u a l s . (Parsons,I960,20) Unless an o r g a n i z a t i o n i s deviant and not i n t e g r a t e d 58. i n the superordinate system,(usually s o c i e t y ) , the value p a t t e r n of an o r g a n i z a t i o n i m p l i e s b a s i c acceptance o f , or c o m p a t a b i l i t y w i t h , the more g e n e r a l i s e d values of that superordinate system. Given that the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l value p a t t e r n i s compatible w i t h , or d e r i v a b l e from, the value p a t t e r n of the superordinate system, the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l value p a t t e r n , the o r g a n i z a t i o n g o a l s , and the o r g a n i z a t i o n as a whole, are l e g i t i m a t e . In the most general sense, the values of the o r g a n i z a t i o n l e g i t i m i z e i t s existence as a system. But more s p e c i f i c -a l l y they l e g i t i m i z e the main f u n c t i o n a l patterns of operation which are necessary to implement the values... Hence, besides l e g i t i m a t i o n of the goal-type and i t s primacy over other i n t e r e s t s , there w i l l be l e g i t i m a t i o n of various categories of r e l a t i v e l y s p e c i f i c subgoals and of the operative procedures necessary f o r t h e i r attainment.(Parsons,i960,21) . I f an o r g a n i z a t i o n i s viewed as l e g i t i m a t e , an e v a l -u a t i o n i s made of the goals of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n terms of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the attainment of those goals to the f u n c t i o n i n g of the superordinate system. In other words, because a superordinate system has a h i e r a r c h y of v a l u e s , the achievement of c e r t a i n goals i s viewed as more important to the f u n c t i o n i n g of the superordinate system than others. Organizations seeking to achieve those valued goals w i l l be seen as more v a l u a b l e ; the measure of t h i s value i s the l e v e l of commitments that the superordinate system makes to various o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Commitments to o r g a n i z a t i o n s by the superordinate 59. system may take two forms. An•organization may be given c o n t r o l o f , or access t o , c e r t a i n s o c i e t a l resources, the supply of which i s not contingent on short run sanctions. Because the goals of educational o r g a n i z a t i o n s are valued h i g h l y , extensive commitments i n the form of money, land, and b u i l d i n g s are made to such o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A second form of commitment to or g a n i z a t i o n s may be the a u t h o r i t y to implement l e g i t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . That i s , access to power and the cond i t i o n s of i t s use may,be committed to a l e g i t i m a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n by s o c i e t y ; the nature and extent of t h i s a u t h o r i t y or power, and the co n d i t i o n s of i t s use w i l l u s u a l l y be s p e c i f i e d i n a c h a r t e r , or a c o n s t i t u t i o n , or i n l e g i s l a t i o n . This s p e c i f i c a t i o n h i g h l i g h t s the r e l a t i o n -ship between the o r g a n i z a t i o n and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d value p a t t e r n of society.and the agencies, such as l e g i s l a t u r e s , that bear primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r that i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d value p a t t e r n . There i s some r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two forms of commitment. In the case of an educational o r g a n i z -a t i o n f o r example, the f a c t that i t r e c e i v e s . a r e l a t i v e l y high l e v e l of commitments i n the form of s o c i e t a l resources, u s u a l l y means thkt l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l have a good deal to say about the a u t h o r i t y vested i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , as w e l l perhaps as the nature, the scope and the s t r u c t u r e of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . A l l t h i s goes to r e i n f o r c e the f a c t t t h a t s o c i e t y values education. 60. D i s c u s s i o n has so f a r been concerned w i t h the l e g i t -imation of the existence of a type of o r g a n i z a t i o n , and with the s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the s o c i e t a l commitments on which i t s f u n c t i o n i n g depends. But l e g i t i m a t i o n o f , and the s p e c i f i c -a t i o n of commitments to a .type, does not insure the l e g i t -imation of a p a r t i c u l a r concrete o r g a n i z a t i o n of that type i n a p a r t i c u l a r community. Hence, a more s p e c i f i c problem of l e g i t i m a t i o n i s that of e s t a b l i s h i n g , m a i n t a i n i n g , and enhancing a p o s i t i v e community a p p r a i s a l of the a c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r community. Although the l e g i t i m a t i o n of the g o a l ( s ) of the o r g a n i z a t i o n may be rooted i n i t s l i n k a g e w i t h superordinate system values, the l e g i t i m a t i o n of that goal by a p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r community cannot be assumed to occur a u t o m a t i c a l l y . In other words, while the two-year c o l l e g e as a type of o r g a n i z a t i o n may be l e g i t i m a t e , l e g i t i m a t i o n of College X In Region X does not a u t o m a t i c a l l y f o l l o w ; College X must undertake a c t i v i t i e s designed to demonstrate i t s worth-whileness and i t s commitment to the values and goals f o r which i t was e s t a b l i s h e d . I f the o v e r r i d i n g concerns are to l e g i t i m a t e the operation of the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n terms of superordinate system values, and to insure that the immediate community has confidence i n i t , what kinds of s p e c i f i c problems might be faced by an educational o r g a n i z a t i o n such as a two-year 61. c o l l e g e ? The f o l l o w i n g problems can be i d e n t i f i e d : (1) to maintain, or improve the s o c i e t a l commitments(resources), made to the o r g a n i z a t i o n ; (2) to maintain, or improve the org a n i z -a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e imposed on the i n s t i t u t i o n by l e g i s l a t i o n ; and (3) to e s t a b l i s h , ' maintain, and enhance a p o s i t i v e community a p p r a i s a l of the i n s t i t u t i o n by securing r e s p o n s i b l e s t a f f , seeking support from r e s p o n s i b l e members of the surrounding community, and by undertaking a c t i v i t i e s designed to demonstrate the worthwhileness of the organiz-a t i o n and i t s commitment to the values and goals f o r which i t was e s t a b l i s h e d . I n t e g r a t i o n ( E x t e r n a l ) While the broad p a t t e r n of l e g i t i m a t i o n i s given i n the r e l a t i o n between the s o c i e t a l and the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l value systems, the i n t e g r a t i o n of an or g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i t s environment i n v o l v e s the maintenance of c o m p a t a b i l i t y between the p r a c t i c e s and procedures under which the o r g a n i z a t i o n operates, and those of other o r g a n i z -a t i o n s and s o c i a l u n i t s . This above a l l i n v o l v e s adherence to values and patterns of operation which (a) are g e n e r a l i s a b l e beyond the. p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n , or (b) are considered j u s t i f i e d by the p a r t i c u l a r circumstances of the p a r t i c u l a r case, or type of o r g a n i z a t i o n . (Parsons, 1963,120) For example, o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as pris o n s and mental hos-p i t a l s may use c e r t a i n procedures and p r a c t i c e s not n e c e s s a r i l y compatible with the p r a c t i c e s i n s o c i e t y at l a r g e , but g e n e r a l l y these o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l be i n t e g r a t e d , not only because they are l e g i t i m a t e , but a l s o because the p r a c t i c e s used i n them are considered to be j u s t i f i e d by the circumstances found i n these types of o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Parsons i d e n t i f i e s three major complexes having to do with i n t e g r a t i o n ; they are i d e n t i f i e d as, the c o n t r a c t u a l , the a u t h o r i t y , and the u n i v e r s a l i s t i c r u l e complexes. The c e n t r a l feature of the complex I have c a l l e d c o n t r a c t u a l i s t h i s : I t :defines the o b l i g a t i o n s of l o y a l t y to the o r g a n i z a t i o n that are assumed by the providers of f a c i l i t i e s to i t , and by those :empcL>pyed by i t . (Parsons,1963,120) That i s , there are c e r t a i n p r a c t i c e s and procedures to be foll o w e d by an o r g a n i z a t i o n , and by s u p p l i e r s of f a c i l i t i e s to that o r g a n i z a t i o n , when they enter i n t o c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s one wit h another. Should an o r g a n i z a t i o n f a i l to f o l l o w these p r a c t i c e s and procedures, some question may a r i s e as to i t s i n t e g r a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , the a u t h o r i t y complex defines and l i m i t s the ways i n which the act i o n s of employees, and of the r e c i p i e n t s of the or g a n i z a t i o n ' s s e r v i c e s , can be bound by de c i s i o n s of re s p o n s i b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . "The e s s e n t i a l point i s t h a t , to carry out i t s f u n c t i o n s , the o r g a n i z a t i o n must be given some order of c o n t r o l over the human s i t u a t i o n s i n which t h i s i s done."(Parsons,1963,121) The a u t h o r i t y complex defines and l i m i t s the extent of t h i s c o n t r o l . The c o n t r a c t u a l and a u t h o r i t y complexes define i n a r e l a t i v e l y s p e c i f i c way what i s to be expected of an org-a n i z a t i o n , and thus the c o n d i t i o n s under which i t w i l l be t o l e r a t e d and supported by the community, and i n t e g r a t e d i n t o i t . Organizations such as the courts have been develop-ed to handle instances where o r g a n i z a t i o n s may deviate i n the c o n t r a c t u a l and a u t h o r i t y areas. But there i s an even more general l e v e l of expect-a t i o n s that transcends the p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s even of the type of o r g a n i z a t i o n . With due regard to i t s s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n s and needs, the o r g a n i z a t i o n must observe community standards of 'good practice'.(Parsons,1963,122) For example, the d i s c i p l i n a r y p r a c t i c e s of m i l i t a r y and penal o r g a n i z a t i o n s cannot be u n j u s t i f i a b l y severe; employees must be t r e a t e d f a i r l y ; and the i n t e r r o g a t i o n p r a c t i c e s of p o l i c e departments must not v i o l a t e b a s i c freedoms. In part of course, t h i s moves i n t o the area of c i v i l r i g h t s , and i f v i o l a t i o n i s f e l t to have occurred, the i n d i v i d u a l , or the group has recourse, o f t e n by using the process of law. While perhaps.doing gcoss i n j u s t i c e to the complexity i n v o l v e d i n the concepts of l e g i t i m a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n , Figure 6 on page 64 may serve to i l l u s t r a t e some of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The l a r g e t r i a n g l e represents the superordinate system, s o c i e t y ; at the highest l e v e l are the a b s t r a c t , s o c i e t a l v a l u e s , from which, i n i n c r e a s i n g s p e c i f i c i t y , may be derived s o c i e t a l goals and procedures. The smaller t r i a n g l e represents a s i n g l e o r g a n i z a t i o n , one of the many that may be found i n s o c i e t y . This o r g a n i z a t i o n 6:4. ,,FIGURE 6 FIGURE"6 LEGITIMATION AND INTEGRATION OF ORGANIZATION A l i k e s o c i e t y , has i t s v a l u e s , g o a l s , and p r o c e d u r e s . I f i t i s l e g i t i m a t e , t h e v a l u e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n A may be d e r i v e d from, o r c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e v a l u e s of the s u p e r -o r d i n a t e system; and i n the i n t e g r a t e d c a s e , the p r o c e d u r e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n A are c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e p r o c e d u r e s o f the s u p e r o r d i n a t e system. Any c o n f l i c t between the p r o c e d u r e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n A, and the p r o c e d u r e s g e n e r a l l y found i n the s u p e r o r d i n a t e system, w i l l be h a n d l e d by r e f e r e n c e t o t h e v a l u e s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , or t o the. i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s e d v a l u e p a t t e r n o f the s u p e r o r d i n a t e system, u s i n g some form of j u d i c i a l p r o c e s s . F o r an e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n such as the two-year 65-c o l l e g e , p a r t i c u l a r problems i n the area of i n t e g r a t i o n , i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : (1) to maintain adherence to patterns of o r g a n i z a t i o n and operation that are acceptable to the community at l a r g e ; (2) to adhere t o , and enforce standards of good p r a c t i c e ; (3) to adhere to e s t a b l i s h e d standards i n the s e l e c t i o n , r e t e n t i o n , and advancement of personnel; (4) to adhere to and enforce standards of competence f o r both employment and r r s t e n t i o n of personnel; (5) to adhere to and enforce standards of f a i r treatment i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h c l i e n t s , personnel, and community; (6) to be concerned w i t h , and maintain c o m p a t a b i l i t y between the o r g a n i z a t i o n demands placed on c l i e n t s , . s t a f f , and community, and those demands placed on those.groups from other sources; (7) to conform to and enforce standards of good conduct w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ; and f i n a l l y , (8) to maintain the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s f u n c t i o n i n the community as a whole, v i s a v i s other f u n c t i o n s , ensuring that the o r g a n i z a t i o n does not seek too many of the resources of the community, or r e c e i v e too few. Dis p o s a l For any o r g a n i z a t i o n , the primary boundary f u n c t i o n i s . t h a t of goal attainment, i n the process of which an i d e n t i f i a b l e output i s produced which can be u t i l i s e d by the environing systems of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The general nature of what i s produced i s s p e c i f i e d by the value system of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , and i f there were no changes i n the wants of those environing systems that make use of the output, then the e n t i r e process of production could be r o u t i n i s e d . However, the assumption of no change i n these environing systems i s a doubtful one, hence the o r g a n i z a t i o n must develop and continue to monitor, general p o l i c i e s concerning the kinds of goods and s e r v i c e s that w i l l be produced, the q u a l i t y and the q u a n t i t y of these goods and s e r v i c e s , as w e l l as to whom they w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e and on what terms. Decisions i n these areas have obvious i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the i n t e r n a l operations of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , but of present i n t e r e s t i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s d i r e c t c l i e n t s , both i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , as w e l l as r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the broader c o n s t i t u e n c i e s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n who might have an i n t e r e s t i n the nature of goods and s e r v i c e s produced. The general problem f o r the two-year c o l l e g e i s to ensure that s e r v i c e s and products are adapted to the oppor-t u n i t i e s , c o n d i t i o n s , and demands of ,the community i n which the c o l l e g e i s s e t . P a r t i c u l a r problems i n c l u d e : (1) to determine the kinds of s e r v i c e s or programmes to be o f f e r e d by the c o l l e g e ; (2) to determine•the b a s i s on which these s e r v i c e s or programmes are to be o f f e r e d ; more s p e c i f i c a l l y to determine the fees to be charged; (3<) to determine who i t i s can use the s e r v i c e s or programmes o f f e r e d ; more s p e c i f i c a l l y to determine who s h a l l be admitted to the c o l l e g e ; (4)to e s t a b l i s h and maintain some kind of e v a l u a t i o n 67. of the s e r v i c e s and programmes o f f e r e d ; and f i n a l l y , (5) to develop and maintain r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h those o r g a n i z a t i o n s that are the sources of c l i e n t s f o r the c o l l e g e , and with those o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n which c o l l e g e graduates might l a t e r move. Procurement In the context of d i s p o s a l , the o r g a n i z -a t i o n looks on i t s environment as the a c t u a l , or p o t e n t i a l r e c i p i e n t of i t s outputs. In the context of procurement, the environment i s seen as a source of the resources r e q u i r e d by the o r g a n i z a t i o n to achieve i t s goals. The most g e n e r a l i z e d resource i s money, and there w i l l be r u l e s that s p e c i f y the general manner i n which monetary resources are to b e - r a i s e d , as w e l l as where the primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e s i d e s . The concrete f a c i l i t i e s on which monetary resources are spent may be d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and personnel. In the a c q u i s i t i o n of human s e r v i c e s , concern w i l l be to e s t a b l i s h the b a s i s f o r t h e i r remuneration, to define q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r personnel, and to set f o r t h terms f o r the c o n t i n u a t i o n , and t e r m i n a t i o n of employment. For an ' educational o r g a n i z a t i o n such as a two-year c o l l e g e , p a r t i c u l a r problems i n the area of procurement i n c l u d e : (1) to e s t a b l i s h and maintain adequate monies f o r the operation of the c o l l e g e ; (2) to acquire f a c u l t y and other personnel, and determine t h e i r s a l a r i e s and working 68. c o n d i t i o n s ; (3) to provide the c o l l e g e w i t h s i t e s and the necessary b u i l d i n g s ; and (4) to provide other necessary-kinds of equipment f o r the operation of the c o l l e g e . The four problems considered thus f a r are e x t e r n a l i n nature; that i s they have to do w i t h problems that might e x i s t between an o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s r e l e v a n t environments. The problems that are now to be considered are seen as i n t e r n a l to the o r g a n i z a t i o n . T e c h n i c a l Functions The b a s i c f u n c t i o n of an organiz-a t i o n i s the d i r e c t implementation of i t s values and g o a l s , an a c t i v i t y l o c a t e d p r i m a r i l y i n the t e c h n i c a l , or operative sub-system of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . In the two-year c o l l e g e f o r example, i t i s the f a c u l t y who d i r e c t l y implement the values of the o r g a n i z a t i o n through t h e i r teaching a c t i v i t i e s ; the values of a manufacturing o r g a n i z a t i o n are d i r e c t l y implemented by the workers operating the machines. Whatever the nature of these t e c h n i c a l processes, once they are operating on a s a t i s f a c t o r y b a s i s , they may be conceived as being r o u t i n i z e d . The f a c t i s of course that wants are not s t a b l e , and adjustments must be made i n the outputs of an o r g a n i z a t i o n , adjustments that i n t u r n may have an i n f l u e n c e on the t e c h n i c a l f u n c t i o n s of that org-a n i z a t i o n . For the"'educational o r g a n i z a t i o n such as the two-year c o l l e g e the b a s i c problem has to do with the estab-lishment, maintenance, and improvement of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l 69. processes. D i s c u s s i o n of the t e c h n i c a l f u n c t i o n s of the o r g a n i z -a t i o n r a i s e s a number of questions about r e l a t e d f u n c t i o n s or problems. The c o n t i n u i n g operation of the t e c h n i c a l f u n c t -ions f o r example, depends on the maintenance of an adequate f a c i l i t y base;- should change be r e q u i r e d i n the t e c h n i c a l f u n c t i o n s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n c e r t a i n procedures would be r e q u i r e d to deal w i t h the a u t h o r i s a t i o n and enforcement of t h i s change, as w e l l as w i t h the r e a l l o c a t i o n -df the resources r e q u i r e d f o r the change; and f i n a l l y , i f change • -does occur, or i s r e q u i r e d , i n the t e c h n i c a l f u n c t i o n s of an o r g a n i z a t i o n , such change may bear unevenly on d i f f e r e n t elements of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , thus some a t t e n t i o n must be given to the mntegratftSn of the various i n t e r n a l elements of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The three i n t e r n a l f u n c t i o n s j u s t i d e n t i f i e d , f a c i l i t y maintenance, p o l i c y implementation, and i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n , . w i l l now be considered. F a c i l i t y Maintenance There are two aspects to t h i s f u n c t i o n . One has to do w i t h the maintenance and improve-ment of the patterns of a l l o c a t i o n of resources and o r g a n i z -a t i o n necessary to provide the f a c i l i t y base f o r t e c h n i c a l f u n c t i o n s . I t i s ..a matter of d e c i d i n g what needs to be done, who i s to do i t , i n what sequence, and w i t h what resources, i n c l u d i n g a u t h o r i t y . . The second aspect of t h i s f u n c t i o n has to do w i t h the 70. maintenance of an e f f e c t i v e system of f a c i l i t i e s f o r the performance of t e c h n i c a l f u n c t i o n s . This i n c l u d e s the replacement of personnel, the supplying of m a t e r i a l , the s u p e r v i s i o n of housekeeping operations, and, i n those org-a n i z a t i o n s that work with human beings, the channeling of c l i e n t s i n t o proper places. The d i s t i n c t i o n between the two aspects of t h i s f u n c t -io n may be stated t h i s way. Before the t e c h n i c a l f u n c t i o n s of an o r g a n i z a t i o n can be c a r r i e d out, c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s must be made about such things as: (1) the sequences i n these f u n c t i o n s ; (2) the a l l o c a t i o n of a u t h o r i t y f o r c a r r y i n g out the various t e c h n i c a l f u n c t i o n s ; and (3) c e r t a i n l e v e l s of f i n a n c i a l resources must be a l l o c a t e d to the various stages i n the sequences decided upon. An ongoing concern must presumably be with the improvement of these patterns of o r g a n i z a t i o n and a l l o c a t i o n , and w i t h the establishment of new patterns of o r g a n i z a t i o n and a l l o c a t i o n . Once these patterns have been e s t a b l i s h e d however, resources are expended, f a c i l i t i e s become obsolescent, and personnel must be replaced. Thus f a c i l i t y maintenance a l s o r e f e r s to the r e l a t i v e l y mechanical operation of r e p l a c i n g the f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d f o r the c o n t i n u a t i o n of t e c h n i c a l f u n c t i o n s . For an educational o r g a n i z a t i o n such as a two-year c o l l e g e , p a r t i c u l a r problems i n the area of f a c i l i t y main-tenance i n c l u d e : (1) the maintenance and improvement of the 71. o r g a n i z a t i o n a l framework i n which t e c h n i c a l f u n c t i o n s are c a r r i e d out; (2) the establishment and maintenance of e f f e c t -i v e patterns f o r the a l l o c a t i o n of human and m a t e r i a l resources to the t e c h n i c a l f u n c t i o n s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n ; (3) the establishment and maintenance of e f f e c t i v e patterns f o r the a l l o c a t i o n of c l i e n t s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ; (4) the maintenance of housekeeping operations; (5) the maintenance of r o u t i n e i n s t r u c t i o n a l operations; and (60 the s u p e r v i s i o n of personnel to ensure that a l l o c a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l -i t i e s are c a r r i e d out. P o l i c y Implementation Decisions concerning the nature, q u a n t i t y , and q u a l i t y of goal outputs, and the terms of t h e i r d i s p o s a l , not only commit the o r g a n i z a t i o n to the attainment of a g o a l , or g o a l s , i n r e l a t i o n to i t s environment, but a l s o e n t a i l r e l a t i v e l y s p e c i f i c i n t e r n a l measures designed to achieve the goal s t a t e . Put another way, p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s concerning the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s goal-output, have a two-fold s i g n i f i c a n c e . On the one hand, as already noted, they are outputs from the o r g a n i z a t i o n to i t s c l i e n t s , and to the.'-broader c o n s t i t u e n c i e s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . On the other hand, they are also the b a s i s of d i r e c t i v e s which p o l i c y makers give to the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , who must then t r a n s l a t e them i n t o processes that are i n t e r n a l to the o r g a n i z a t i o n . fThese processes have to do w i t h the a u t h o r i z a t i o n , and enforcement of measures to implement the 72. o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s commitments r e l a t i v e t o i t s environment. For t h e e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n such as the two-year c o l l e g e p a r t i c u l a r problems i n t h e a r e a o f p o l i c y implement-a t i o n w i l l have t o do w i t h : (1) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s i t u a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g p o l i c y development; (2) e s t a b l i s h m e n t and/or mod-i f i c a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s ; (3) assessment o f the adequacy of p o l i c i e s ; and (4) e s t a b l i s h m e n t and maintenance of p r o c e d u r e s f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g p o l i c i e s . I n t e g r a t i o n ( I n t e r n a l ) Any o r g a n i z a t i o n q u i c k l y b e g i n s t o d e velop s p e c i a l i s e d subsystems, but t h i s i n t e r n a l d i f f -e r e n t i a t i o n poses t h e problem o f t h e i r m u tual a d j u s t m e n t , i n o r d e r t h a t the system can f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y as a whole. I n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n i s concerned w i t h t h e m u t u a l adjustment of t h e s e subsystems so t h a t the b a s i c p a t t e r n of t h e system, or o r g a n i z a t i o n i s m a i n t a i n e d . A major t h r e a t t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t , o r t h e maintenance, of t h i s mutual adjustment i s the f a c t t h a t p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s , and t h e i r i n t e r n a l consequences, almost i n e v i t a b l y b ear unevenly on d i f f e r e n t groups and i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s unevenness and t h e r e l a t e d s h i f t i n g rewards and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s can c r e a t e s e r i o u s d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n , thus t h r e a t e n i n g t h e b a s i c p a t t e r n of. t h e o r g a n i z -a t i o n . The problem becomes one o f m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s u p p o r t of p e r s o n n e l f o r commitments t h a t may have v a r y i n g conseq-uences f o r d i f f e r e n t groups and i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e o r g a n i z -73. a t i o n . I n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n also has to do w i t h the c o - o r d i n a t -io n of p o l i c i e s and f a c i l i t i e s , that i s , seeing that the r e q u i s i t e f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d f o r p o l i c y implementation are a v a i l a b l e when r e q u i r e d . For educational o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as two-year c o l l e g e s , p a r t i c u l a r problems w i l l focus on: (1) the establishment and maintenance of the l o y a l cooperation of a l l personnel; (2) e s t a b l i s h i n g and maintaining support f o r p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s ; and (3) the establishment and maintenance of the c o o r d i n a t i o n of p o l i c i e s and f a c i l i t i e s . S o c i a l i z a t i o n One f i n a l problem may be i d e n t i f i e d . This has to do w i t h the f a c t that while the values of the o r g a n i z a t i o n may be shared, i n v a r y i n g degrees, by a l l categories of personnel i n that o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t i s much more p r o b l e m a t i c a l that new personnel possess,or are even aware of the values of the o r g a n i z a t i o n they have j u s t j o i n e d . S8 i t i s that most o r g a n i z a t i o n s provide a c t i v i t i e s f o r new personnel designed to expose them to the values of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . S i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s are c a r r i e d out by those o r g a n i z a t i o n s that work wi t h people; i n most u n i v e r s i t -i e s f o r example, there i s a week of o r i e n t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s f o r incoming students. For an educational organization.such as a two-year c o l l e g e , p a r t i c u l a r problems i n the area of s o c i a l i z a t i o n w i l l have to 74. do w i t h : (1) the establishment and maintenance of o r i e n t -a t i o n programmes f o r new personnel and c l i e n t s ; (2) the establishment and maintenance of procedures f o r the monitor-i n g of the performance of new personnel and c l i e n t s ; and (3) the establishment and maintenance of procedures f o r the ev a l u a t i o n of new personnel. The Content of Working Arrangements - A Summary In an e f f o r t to round out the notion of working arrangements, i t has been suggested that the work of T a l c o t t Parsons and R.J. H i l l s has-asome relevance. Nine o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problems have been i d e n t i f i e d and discussed, and together w i t h the d e c i s i o n making process discussed e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter, they go to make up a d e f i n i t i o n of working arrangements. Working Arrangements - A Mat r i x The taxonomy of org-a n i z a t i o n a l problems j u s t presented, and the. d e c i s i o n making model considered e a r l i e r , when placed together form a two-dimensional matrix that may be used to map, d e s c r i b e , and analyse, the working arrangements of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . This m a t r i x , which i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 7 5 on page 75, represents a refinement over the one considered e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter i n the d i s c u s s i o n on the d e c i s i o n making model. (See Figure 5 5 page 50) The matrix i n Figure 5 a l s o d i s p l a y e d the stages i n the d e c i s i o n making process along the h o r i z o n t a l a x i s , but the v e r t i c a l a x i s 75. Organization Functions or Problems Stages i n the Dec i s i o n Making Process 1 2 3 5 6 Ex t e r n a l i . i i . i i i . i v . I n t e r n a l i . i i . i i i . i v . v. FIGURE 7 A MATRIX FOR DESCRIPTION OF THE WORKING ARRANGEMENTS OF AN ORGANIZATION OR A GROUP. l i s t e d groups or i n d i v i d u a l s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t was suggested that such a matrix had l i m i t e d u t i l i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n , , because i n t e r e s t l a y al s o i n the content of d e c i s i o n s , and the ways i n which the d e c i s i o n making process might vary as a f u n c t i o n of d e c i s i o n content. The matrix d i s p l a y e d i n Figure 7 provides a way of mapping the working arrangements of e i t h e r an i n d i v i d u a l or a group, not only i n terms of the stages of the d e c i s i o n making . process, but a l s o i n terms of the content of the d e c i s i o n s . 76. ..' An A n a l y s i s of O r g a n i z a t i o n - Summary and Con c l u s i o n s ' : The i n t e n t o f t h i s c h a p t e r has been t o develop,and d i s p l a y , a v iew o f o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t would p r o v i d e a c o n c e p t -u a l framework f o r t h e s y s t e m a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s , of o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r groups i n v o l v e d i n t h e governance of t h r e e , p o s t - s e c o n d a r y , e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The s e a r c h f o r t h i s c o n c e p t u a l framework began w i t h a d i s p l a y o f some of the f e a t u r e s o f the open a d a p t i v e system. I t was s u g g e s t -ed t h a t g e n e r a l systems t h e o r y showed c o n s i d e r a b l e promise as a guide t o t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n the stu d y o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s , but t h a t t h i s promise c o u l d not be f u l f i l l e d u n t i l t h e concepts i n systems t h e o r y had been d e f i n e d more p r e c i s e l y . W i t h systems t h e o r y as background a t t e n t i o n t u r n e d t o the work o f an i n d i v i d u a l who had attemp t e d t o develop some p r e c i s i o n i n t h e study of o r g a n i z a t i o n s . S t r a u s s i d e n t i f i e d two elements of o r g a n i z a t i o n as f o r m a l o r d e r , and n e g o t i a t e d o r d e r , or w o r k i n g arrangements. He suggested ways i n which t h e s e two elements were determined,and i n which t h e y might undergo change. Except f o r some v e r y broad h i n t s , S t r a u s s makes no attempt t o d e f i n e t h e element he r e f e r s t o as n e g o t i a t e d o r d e r , or w o r k i n g arrangements. What S t r a u s s has done, however, was t o p r o v i d e a more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d framework f o r t h e elements he r e f e r s t o as f o r m a l o r d e r , and n e g o t i a t e d o r d e r , or w o r k i n g arrangements. Because t h i s study- was concerned t o i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e 77. the formal order and the working arrangements of an or g a n i z -a t i o n at a p a r t i c u l a r point i n time, i t was necessary to develop a c l e a r understanding of the nature of working arrangements. This was done by d e f i n i n g working arrangements i n terms of a d e c i s i o n making process having as i t s content a number of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problems suggested by the work of T a l c o t t Parsons and R . J . H i l l s . Haying considered the nature of formal order, and having developed a way of d e s c r i b i n g and a n a l y s i n g the negot-i a t e d order, or working arrangements of an o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t i s now p o s s i b l e to move to a d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s , or groups, that are the objects of t h i s study. Before proceeding to t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s , two a d d i t i o n a l comments are r e q u i r e d . This study sets out to describe the a c t i v i t i e s that p r e s e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i s e l a y governing boards as they are inv o l v e d i n the governance of two-year c o l l e g e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t must be emphasised t h e r e f o r e , that the content of these a c t i v i t i e s w i l l , i n the main, be the i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l problems of the two-year c o l l e g e . This i s not to deny the.t e x i s t e n c e , or the importance, of a c t i v i t i e s that might be p e c u l i a r to the l a y governing boards, r a t h e r i t i s to note that the convening problems of any governing board must be those faced by the o r g a n i z a t i o n that i s governed by the board. Thus i t i s suggested that the bulk of the 78. a c t i v i t i e s of a governing board w i l l have as t h e i r content, the problems faced "by the o r g a n i z a t i o n being governed. Hence the basic question d i r e c t e d at the sources of i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s study w i l l be - How i s the governing board p r e s e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n a number of areas of two-year c o l l e g e operations? Answers to t h i s question should provide some basi s f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n of the a c t i v i t i e s of governing boards as they are i n v o l v e d i n the governance of a number of two-year c o l l e g e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A second comment has to do with the nature and place of the c r i t i q u e of governing board a c t i v i t i e s that w i l l be sought i n t h i s study. Although the major i n t e n t of the study i s to deseribeanthe opportunity w i l l be taken to seek e v a l u a t i o n of governing board a c t i v i t i e s when speaking w i t h persons a s s o c i a t e d w i t h those boards. This c r i t i q u e i s not seen as a d i r e c t equivalent of the a p p r a i s a l that Strauss suggests takes place of the a c t i v i t i e s of an o r g a n i z a t i o n ; nor i s t h i s c r i t i q u e seen as the d i r e c t equivalent of e v a l u a t i o n , the f i n a l stage i n . t h e d e c i s i o n making process to be used i n the study. C r i t i q u e i n t h i s study i s viewed as a r e l a t i v e l y i n f o r m a l attempt to answer the question - How, i n the e s t i m a t i o n of those persons most c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d i n i t , i s the governance of two-year c o l l e g e s doing at t h i s point i n time? CHAPTER IV METHODOLOGY The purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d e t a i l t he method-o l o g y adopted i n t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I n o u t l i n e , t h e ch a p t e r p r o p o s e s : (1) t o c o n s i d e r t h e s e t t i n g of t h e s t u d y ; (2) t o d e t a i l t h e sources of d a t a ; (3) t o d i s p l a y t he methods used t o c o l l e c t d a t a ; and (4) t o o u t l i n e t h e ways i n which t h e d a t a were o r g a n i z e d and t r e a t e d . S e t t i n g o f t h e Study At t h e time o f the s t u d y , n i n e two-year c o l l e g e s e x i s t e d t hroughout the P r o v i n c e . F o r a number of r e a s o n s o n l y t h r e e of thos e c o l l e g e s were used as s e t t i n g s f o r the st u d y . The reaso n s were as f o l l o w s : (1) the t h r e e c o l l e g e s chosen were i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o one a n o t h e r , and were i n an a r e a t h a t was r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o the i n v e s t i g a t o r ; (2) f i n a n c i a l and time c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r made ac c e s s t o c o l l e g e s o t h e r t h a n the t h r e e chosen§.ialmost i m p o s s i b l e ; (3) t h e d e c i s i o n t o use i n t e r v i e w as a major d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t o o l suggested . the a d v i s a b i l i t y o f read y • g e o g r a p h i c a l a c c e s s ; and (4) the use o f a s m a l l e r number o f s e t t i n g s meant i t was p o s s i b l e t o i n t e r v i e w a l l r e l e v a n t i n d i v i d u a l s . I t i s r e c o g n i s e d t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n t o l i m i t t h e stu d y 80. t o o n l y t h r e e c o l l e g e s must r a i s e q u e s t i o n s as t o how g e n e r a l ! z a b l e a n y • f i n d i n g s o f the s t u d y may be t o o t h e r c o l l e g e s i n t h e P r o v i n c e . I t must a l s o be noted i n t h i s r e g a r d t h a t not o n l y do the t h r e e c o l l e g e s d i f f e r from one a n o t h e r a l o n g what may prove t o be s i g n i f i c a n t d i m e n s i o n s , t h e y a l s o may not be comparable, except i n v e r y g e n e r a l t e r m s , t o t h e o t h e r c o l l e g e s not s t u d i e d . F o r example, th e t h r e e c o l l e g e s s t u d i e d may be d e s c r i b e d as urban i n c h a r a c t e r , w h i l e most o t h e r c o l l e g e s i n the P r o v i n c e are s e t i n s m a l l urban c e n t r e s w i t h l a r g e r u r a l s u r r o u n d s . The t h r e e c o l l e g e s d i f f e r from one a n o t h e r and from o t h e r c o l l e g e s i n terms of numbers o f s t u d e n t s , t y p e s o f programmes o f f e r e d , p e r i o d s i n c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t , number of s c h o o l boards p a r t i c i p a t i n g , g e o g r a p h i c a l s p r e a d , and s i z e o f g o v e r n i n g b o a r d s . These f a c t o r s w i l l be n o ted a g a i n when the d a t a are p r e s e n t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , and t h e i r p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e on the d a t a w i l l be d i s c u s s e d when the d a t a a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n Chapter V I . The t h r e e c o l l e g e s and t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l boards used i n t h i s s t u d y i n c l u d e : (1) C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e , encompassing the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s o f West Vancouver, N o r t h Vancouver, and Howe Sound. T h i s c o l l e g e was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1968; (2) Douglas C o l l e g e , encompassing th e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s of Burnaby, C o q u i t l a m , Maple R i d g e , New W e s t m i n s t e r , S u r r e y , D e l t a , Richmond, and L a n g l e y . T h i s c o l l e g e was e s t a b l i s h e d 81. i n 1970; and (3) Vancouver C i t y C o l l e g e , e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1965 by the Vancouver School Board. Sources of Data P o t e n t i a l sources of data f o r t h i s study included a l l i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n , or as s o c i a t e d w i t h each of the three c o l l e g e s , and a l l documents p e r t a i n i n g to each c o l l e g e . A s e l e c t i o n from, the p o t e n t i a l sources was made on the b a s i s of the f a c t that the focus of the study was the a c t i v i t i e s of the governing board of each c o l l e g e . The f o l l o w i n g sources were used i n the study: (1) A l l members of the three College Councils as of May,1973- Included i n t h i s group were those e l e c t e d members of p a r t i c i p a t i n g Boards of School Trustees s i t t i n g as Co u n c i l members, and those members appointed by the Government. Only twenty s i x of a p o s s i b l e t o t a l of t h i r t y were a v a i l a b l e at the time the study was conducted; (2) The P r i n c i p a l s of the three c o l l e g e s . Under the l e g i s -l a t i o n , c o l l e g e P r i n c i p a l s are named as Chief Executive O f f i c e r arid i t was assumed that they would have close involvement with the governing bodies; (3) The Bursars of two of the c o l l e g e s . The Bursar i s named as s e c r e t a r y / t r e a s u r e r to the governing bodies and i s th e r e f o r e i n an e x c e l l e n t p o s i t i o n to observe governing board a c t i v i t i e s ; (4) College C o u n c i l minutes f o r the years 1972-73 I n c l u s i v e , were used to supplement i n t e r v i e w m a t e r i a l and to provide some perspective on the a c t i v i t i e s of the governing boards; 82. and (5) the P u b l i c Schools Act and r e l a t e d documents were used to a s s i s t i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the formal order of the three governing boards. Methods of Data C o l l e c t i o n The d e c i s i o n to adopt p a r t i c u l a r methods f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of data was p r e d i c a t e d on c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a number of f a c t o r s . These f a c t o r s i n cluded the f o l l o w i n g : (1) the purpose of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; (2) the nature of the sources of data; (3) p r a c t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by l i m i t e d time and f i n a n c e ; (4) the s t a t e of knowledge i n the area, t h i s s t a t e having been determined by a l i t e r a t u r e search; and (5) the nature of the concepts developed to guide the c o l l e c t i o n of data. Two methods, i n t e r v i e w and document study, were considered-appropriate and to have the most p o t e n t i a l u t i l i t y to the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Interview Factors that prompted the choice of i n t e r -view as a method of data c o l l e c t i o n a l s o i n f l u e n c e the nature of the i n t e r v i e w . Because the study attempts to describe a phenomenon about which r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i s known, and because the conceptual treatment, p a r t i c u l a r l y of the org-a n i z a t i o n f u n c t i o n s or problems has not been exhaustive, the d e c i s i o n was made to use a r e l a t i v e l y unstructured i n t e r v i e w . This meant that w h i l e the a n a l y s i s of working arrangements developed i n the preceding chapter was used to guide the 8 3 . development of the i n t e r v i e w schedule, the i n v e s t i g a t o r was f r e e to probe f u r t h e r , and to develop ideas that might not have been suggested by the conceptual a n a l y s i s , or may have been inadequately developed. This type of i n t e r v i e w takes various forms and goes under names such as "focussed i n t e r v i e w " , the " c l i n i c a l i n t e r v i e w " , or the "depth i n t e r v i e w " . In the "focussed i n t e r v i e w " as described by Merton, P i s k e , and Kendall(1956), the main f u n c t i o n of the i n t e r v i e w e r i s to focus a t t e n t i o n upon a given experience and i t s e f f e c t s . As a r e s u l t of the f o r m u l a t i o n of the research problem and from p r i o r a n a l y s i s of the s i t u a t i o n or experience i n which the respondent has p a r t i c i p a t e d , the i n t e r v i e w e r knows i n advance what t o p i c s or aspects of a question he wishes to cover. While t h i s l i s t of t o p i c s c o n s t i t u t e s a framework, the timing of questions and the manner i n which they are asked, are l e f t l a r g e l y to the i n t e r v i e w e r ' s d i s c r e t i o n . I n essence, t h i s describes the approach to i n t e r v i e w adopted i n the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n . There are however, a number of problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h such an approach. The burden on the i n t e r v i e w e r i s greater i n the r e l a t i v e l y unstructured approach f o r he has to be a t t e n t i v e to the ways i n which the i n t e r v i e w i s developing, a d j u s t i n g questions to s u i t the s i t u a t i o n , and p i c k i n g up on ideas and statements that might r e q u i r e add-84. i t i o n a l p r o b i n g . Such an approach r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s a l s o about the v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , and t h e i n f l u e n c e of i n t -e r v i e w e r b i a s b o t h d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w and i n the t r e a t m e n t o f d a t a . No f o r m a l a t t e m p t s were made i n t h e p r e s e n t i n -v e s t i g a t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h r e l i a b i l i t y , but as w i l l become c l e a r l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , e f f o r t s were made t o e s t a b l i s h the v a l i d i t y o f the i n t e r v i e w g u i d e and t o m i n i m i s e i n t e r -v i e w e r b i a s . An i n t e r v i e w g u i d e was devel o p e d t h a t f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y the a n a l y s i s o f w o r k i n g arrangements i n Chapter I I I . I n o u t l i n e , t h e i n t e r v i e w g u i d e (See Appendix A ) , c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e p a r t s : (1) a l i s t o f c o n t e n t a r e a s based on t h e P a r s o n i a n n o t i o n o o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problems; (2) an o u t l i n e based on the a n a l y s i s of d e c i s i o n making; and (3) q u e s t i o n s s e e k i n g a c r i t i q u e of g o v e r n i n g board a c t i v i t i e s . The development o f t h i s i n t e r v i e w guide was s u b j e c t t o a number of i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i a . On t h e one hand t h e g u i d e had t o r e f l e c t , as a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e , the c o n c e p t u a l framework, but on the o t h e r hand, the language used i n the i n t e r v i e w had t o be r e a d i l y u n d e r s t o o d by persons who.had no knowledge of t h i s c o n c e p t u a l framework. Thus t h e i n t -e r v i e w g u i d e was s u b j e c t t o c r i t i q u e and m o d i f i c a t i o n on th e s e two c o u n t s . To ensure a c c u r a t e r e f l e c t i o n of the c o n c e p t u a l framework, a number of persons on t h e t h e s i s committee who were aware o f , and k n o w l e d g e a b l e i i n , t h e 85. conceptual framework, reviewed the i n t e r v i e w guide, and at l e a s t one of the p i l o t i n t e r v i e w s using the conceptual framework. M o d i f i c a t i o n s were made to the i n t e r v i e w guide where deemed necessary. To ensure that the i n t e r v i e w guide, and i n f a c t the i n t e r v i e w e r ' s approach could be understood by persons who had no knowledge of the concepts on which the guide was based, the i n t e r v i e w guide was p i l o t t e s t e d using as s u b j e c t s , two i n d i v i d u a l s who were knowledgeabfleiintthe area of two-year c o l l e g e s , but who had had no exposure to the conceptual framework. Both i n t e r v i e w s were taped and subject to extensive c r i t i q u e d i r e c t e d not only at the nature of the questions asked, but a l s o at the i n t e r v i e w i n g technique. Where i s was deemed ap p r o p r i a t e , m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made. I n i t i a l contact with each c o l l e g e was made through the P r i n c i p a l , both to seek h i s cooperation i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and to seek advice on how best to contact i n d i v i d u a l members of C o u n c i l . The approaches recommended, and adopted, d i f f e r e d f o r each c o l l e g e , and are o u t l i n e d i n Appendix A Each i n t e r v i e w began wi t h the f o l l o w i n g preamble: As I i n d i c a t e d i n may l e t t e r , (or over the phone, or at the Council meeting), I am i n t e r e s t e d i n e x p l o r i n g two questions. 1. How i s the College Council p r e s e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n a number of areas of College operations? and 2. How does t h i s involvement appear to be working out? Is i t g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y , or do problems a r i s e from time to time? What changes might you recommend? What I would l i k e to do i s i d e n t i f y some areas of 86. College o p e r a t i o n , and then perhaps i f you would t h i n k out loud about the ways i n which you see the C o u n c i l p r e s e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n those areas. I am using a tape, recorder to ensure that I w i l l have a complete r e c o r d of the i n t e r v i e w ; I w i l l have complete c o n t r o l of the tapes, and when I have f i n i s h e d w i t h them, they w i l l be erased. I must a l s o add that my concern i s with general p a t t e r n s , and you and your comments w i l l ~j not be i d e n t i f i e d i n the f i n a l write-up. Do you have any questions? Questions r a i s e d at t h i s point u s u a l l y had to do, w i t h the o v e r a l l purpose of the study, what was to be done wi t h the m a t e r i a l when i t was c o l l e c t e d , or w i t h the procedures to be followed i n the i n t e r v i e w . The i n t e r v i e w then moved to the t o p i c s i n the guide, and the usual p a t t e r n was to f o l l o w through these t o p i c s one by one. In some cases, because of l i m i t e d time, or because a respondent i n d i c a t e d a l a c k of knowledge i n a p a r t i c u l a r area, or areas, sections were omiit.ted'd "or r e c e i v e d r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n . At the conclusion of each i n t e r v i e w , the i n v e s t i g a t o r i n d i c a t e d that a summary co n t a i n i n g the main points made i n the i n t e r -view would be returned to the respondent. In a l l but three cases, where t e c h n i c a l problems arose, i n t e r v i e w s were taped using a cassette tape recorder. In two of these cases, the data were l o s t a l t o g e t h e r and no attempt was made to repeat the i n t e r v i e w . In the t h i r d case notes were taken and a summary prepared using these notes. Interviews w i t h C o u n c i l members and College personnel, were c a r r i e d out mainly during June and J u l y , 1973. These • ~i'-" Ts >. • e-rane.l" in L i 87-i n t e r v i e w s averaged an hour i n l e n g t h , and ranged between f o r t y minutes and two hours. Documents Access was .obtained to the minutes of a l l but in-camera Council meetings f o r the three C o l l e g e s , f o r the period January, 1972, to approximately, September, 1973- These documents were i n the p u b l i c domain and r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r i n s p e c t i o n . The manner i n which the data i n these documents.were handled w i l l be o u t l i n e d i n the f o l l -owing s e c t i o n . Organization of Data Data e x i s t e d i n two forms, a s e r i e s of taped i n t e r -views, and a number of documents i n the form of minutes. I t was apparent that because of the sheer volume of thesecdata, before any a n a l y s i s could be attempted, some re d u c t i o n to more manageable proportions was r e q u i r e d . In essence t h i s c o n s i s t e d of c a t e g o r i z i n g and summarizing f o l l o w i n g the procedures o u t l i n e d below.-Taped Interviews I t had been a n t i c i p a t e d that the conceptual framework used to guide the i n t e r v i e w , could a l s o be used to guide the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n and summari.zing of the i n t e r v i e w data. In the main t h i s proved p o s s i b l e , but as the i n t e r v i e w s progressed, data having to do with the h i s t o r y or, or background t o , the a c t i v i t i e s being d i s -cussed were often forthcoming. In a d d i t i o n , reference was 88. o c c a s i o n a l l y made t o t h e f a c t t h a t c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s were i n t h e p r o c e s s of change. These a d d i t i o n a l d a t a were ju d g e d r e l e v a n t t o the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n and' p r o v i s i o n was made f o r them i n t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n and summarizing of t h e i n t e r -v i ew m a t e r i a l . I n t e r v i e w summary s h e e t s were p r e p a r e d w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g h e a d i n g s : (1) Content A r e a ; (2) Background/ H i s t o r y ; (3) P r e s e n t S i t u a t i o n ; (4) E v a l u a t i o n / C r i t i q u e ; (5) P l a n n e d Changes; and (6) Recommendations f o r Change. Each tape was th e n summarized under t h e s e h e a d i n g s . An example o f t h e i n t e r v i e w summary sheet and i t s use may be found i n Appendix The b a s i c p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n and summarizing p r o c e s s were as f o l l o w s : (1) as soon as p r a c t i c a b l e a f t e r the a c t u a l i n t e r v i e w , the i n v e s t i g a t o r s a t down w i t h t h e t a p e , any o t h e r n o t e s t a k e n d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w , and a s e r i e s of t h e summary s h e e t s a l r e a d y mentioned; (2) each tape was p l a y e d t h r o u g h and as each problem a r e a was d i s c u s s e d , the r e l e v a n t columns on the i n t e r v i e w summary sheet were f i l l e d i n . I t s s h o u l d be emphasized every i n t e r v i e w d i d not d e a l w i t h a l l the problem a r e a s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e c o n c e p t u a l framework, nor n e c e s s a r i l y would each column on the summary sheet be f i l l e d i n f o r each problem t h a t was d i s c u s s e d . These summary s h e e t s s e r v e d a number of pur p o s e s . W h i l e not d e s i g n e d t o r e p l a c e the t a p e s , they d i d p r o v i d e an 89-organized, manageable, and r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e source of informati o n about the content of the i n t e r v i e w s . Such a source of inf o r m a t i o n was to prove i n v a l u a b l e when the next stage i n data handling occurred. In a d d i t i o n , because these summary sheets were prepared soon a f t e r each i n t e r v i e w , they provided the i n v e s t i g a t o r with a constant reminder of what i n f a c t had been t a l k e d about, and they served to i d e n t i f y those areas i n which a d d i t i o n a l emphasis might be l a i d i n fu t u r e i n t e r v i e w s . At t h i s point i n t e r v i e w data e x i s t e d i n two forms, the a c t u a l tape r e c o r d i n g and any accompanying notes made during the i n t e r v i e w , and the interviewssummaries, c o n t a i n i n g , under the headings already noted, the main points made during each i n t e r v i e w . In an e f f o r t to' minimise biases or i n a c c u r -a c i e s that might have developed e i t h e r during the i n t e r -views themselves, or during the summarizing procedures, and to allow each person interviewed the opportunity to modify and/or judget the accuracy of the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e i r views, the tapes and the i n t e r v i e w summaries were used to prepare a summary of each i n t e r v i e w . I t must be emphasised that these summaries were not verbatim t r a n s -c r i p t s , but ra t h e r they represented an attempt to cover the . major p o i n t s made i n each i n t e r v i e w . Copies of these i n t e r v i e w summaries are contained i n Appendix C. A f t e r coding these summaries to ensure anonymity of 90. the i n t e r v i e w e e , two copies of the i n t e r v i e w summaries were forwarded to each person interviewed. A covering l e t t e r (See Appendix F ) , i n d i c a t e d that one copy was f o r t h e i r personal use, while a request was made that they check over the summary, make any c o r r e c t i o n s or a d d i t i o n s seen as d e s i r a b l e , or necessary, mark one of the statements at the conclusion of one of the summaries, and r e t u r n i t i n the enclosed stamped, addressed envelope. The three statements appended to the summary were as f o l l o w s : (1) The summary i s a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of my views; (2) The summary i s g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y , but please note that some changes have been made; and (3) The summary i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . I would p r e f e r that i t not be used u n t i l I have been contacted. The r e t u r n r a t e f o r the summaries i s i n d i c a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . No f o l l o w up was considered necessary. TABLE I RETURN RATE FOR INTERVIEW SUMMARIES Summaries Sent Summaries Returned Return Rate 31 27 87% Table I I on page 91 i n d i c a t e s the frequency of response to the three statements appended to each summary. Changes made by the interviewees to.the summaries were of two major 91. TABLE I I FREQUENCY OF RESPONSE TO STATEMENTS ON INTERVIEW SUMMARY Statement Frequency 1. The summary 12 2. The summary i s g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y but 14 please note 3. The summary i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . Please contact me 1 kinds: (1) c o r r e c t i o n of f a c t u a l statements; and (2) the a d d i t i o n of comments of various kinds. The i n v e s t i g a t o r met wit h the i n d i v i d u a l who i n d i c a t e d that the summary was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and c o r r e c t i o n s were made. These correct e d and approved summaries, along w i t h the tapes, were used to prepare a d e s c r i p t i o n of the working arrangements of the Council f o r each colleges.. These d e s c r i p t i o n s may be found i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter. Copies of these d e s c r i p t i o n s were forwarded to a l l persons i n t e r -viewed along w i t h a c o v e r i n g g l e t t e r . Among other things t h i s l e t t e r , ( S e e Appendix F ) , f o r m a l l y requested the i n t e r -viewee's permission to in c l u d e the summary of h i s / h e r i n t e r v i e w i n the d i s s e r t a t i o n . Documents Before o u t l i n i n g the procedures used to organize the minutes of the three College C o u n c i l s , i t i s u s e f u l to comment on the nature of these documents. Under the terms of l e g i s l a t i o n : (4) The minutes of the proceedings of a l l meetings of the c o l l e g e c o u n c i l s h a l l be l e g i b l y recorded i n a minute-book, and the minutes, c e r t i f i e d as co r r e c t by the bursar, s h a l l be signed by the chairman or other person p r e s i d i n g at that meeting or at the next meeting at which they are adopted. (5) The c o l l e g e c o u n c i l s h a l l f o r t h w i t h , a f t e r each meet-i n g , forward a copy of the minutes of that meeting to the p a r t i c i p a t i n g Boards and to the Department. (RSBC, PSA,c.41,s.25) In other words these minutes represent the o f f i c i a l r ecord of the proceedings of each C o u n c i l . Although i t i s recog-nised that documents of t h i s k i n d , ...can be a u s e f u l source of informat i o n about what has happened, and t h e i r value f o r t h i s purpose i s enhanced by the f a c t that t h e i r content i s independent of the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s s e l e c t i v e processes,... (Madge,1953,99) some doubts must be expressed about the completeness of such records. At best, minutes record the d e c i s i o n s made, they gen-e r a l l y have l i t t l e to say about what preceded that d e c i s i o n . Hence the minutes of the c o l l e g e c o u n c i l meetings were view-ed as a r a t h e r truncated v e r s i o n of the working arrange-ments of those bodies. On the p o s i t i v e side however, i t was recognised that they do provide an extensive record of the substantive areas i n which the c o u n c i l s have been i n v o l v -ed over time, and even i n some cases could provide clues as to the nature o f . c o u n c i l involvement i n those areas. In the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the minutes are viewed as adjuncts 93-t o the i n t e r v i e w m a t e r i a l . The minutes f o r the t h r e e C o u n c i l s were o r g a n i z e d and summarized under two headings as f o l l o w s : (1) S u b s t a n t i v e A r e a ; and (2) A c t i o n Taken/By Whom., Summaries of t h e s e minutes f o r each C o u n c i l may be found i n Appendix D. Methodology - A Summary The s e t t i n g s f o r t h i s study were i d e n t i f i e d as t h r e e two-year c o l l e g e s . Sources of d a t a i n c l u d e d a l l persons a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the. g o v e r n i n g boards of t h e s e t h r e e c o l l e g e s as o f May 1973 a as w e l l as g o v e r n i n g board minutes f o r the p e r i o d J a n u a r y , 1972, t h r o u g h September, 1973- A d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e s i n c l u d e d r e l e v a n t ' l e g i s l a t i o n and o t h e r f o r m a l documents h a v i n g t o do w i t h t h e t h r e e c o l l e g e s . I n t e r v i e w and document study were the two b a s i c methods used f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a i n t h i s s t u d y . Both methods were based on the c o n c e p t u a l framework d e v e l o p e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r . Data were o r g a n i s e d and c a t e g o r i s e d , a g a i n u s i n g the c o n c e p t u a l framework, t o p r o v i d e the raw m a t e r i a l used t o develop d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the a c t i v i t i e s of the t h r e e g o v e r n i n g b o a r d s . These d e s c r i p t i o n s are i n c l u d e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . CHAPTER V THE SOCIAL ORDER OF TWO-YEAR COLLEGE GOVERNING BOARDS I t has been suggested that the s o c i a l order of an org-a n i z a t i o n at a given point i n time may be viewed as a comb-i n a t i o n of a formal order and a negotiated order, or working arrangements. I t has f u r t h e r been suggested that the formal order c o n s i s t s of rules,' p o l i c i e s , and l e g i s l a t i o n , while the negotiated order, or working arrangements, may be viewed i n terms of a d e c i s i o n making process with a content c o n s i s t i n g of a number of o r g a n i z a t i o n problems. The major features of the formal order of two-year c o l l e g e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia were reviewed i n Chapter I I . Chapter IV d e t a i l e d the methods used to c o l l e c t and organize data p e r t a i n i n g to the working arrangements of the governing boards of t h r e e , two-year c o l l e g e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. What fo l l o w s draws the formal order and the working arrangements together i n t o a d e s c r i p t i o n of the s o c i a l order that present-l y c h a r a c t e r i s e s t h r e e , two-year c o l l e g e governing boards. This d e s c r i p t i o n i s d i v i d e d i n t o a number of sections w i t h each s e c t i o n corresponding with one of the o r g a n i z a t i o n problems i d e n t i f i e d i n the. conceptual framework f o r t h i s study. For each of these problems, reference w i l l be made not only to the r e l e v a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n r u l e s , and working arrangements, but a l s o t o any c r i t i q u e of the s o c i a l order 95. by the persons interviewed. Unless otherwise noted, the d e s c r i p t i o n that f o l l o w s r e f e r s to a l l three governing boards s t u d i e d . Where the a c t i v i t i e s of a p a r t i c u l a r board or boards vary from the general d e s c r i p t i o n , reference w i l l be made to i t . There i s one f i n a l note that should be made before proceeding. While the o r g a n i z a t i o n problems that provide the framework f o r t h i s chapter, have been, and w i l l continue to be t r e a t e d as though they are a n a l y t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t one from the others , i t should not be assumed that i n a concrete o r g a n i z a t i o n , the d i s t i n c t i o n s among problems w i l l be easy, or'even p o s s i b l e to make. This i s by way of not i n g that some overlap i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the various problems may be noted. •Legitimation. -• Leig-ifImafigi? -J I t has been assumed i n t h i s study that the value system and the goals of the two-year c o l l e g e i n B r i t i s h Columbia are d e r i v a b l e from, and compatible with,.the value system of the s o c i e t y i n which the c o l l e g e i s set. Therefore, the two-year c o l l e g e , as a type of o r g a n i z a t i o n , i s l e g i t i m a t e . Given t h i s general l e g i t i m a t i o n , c e r t a i n commitments are made t o , and c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r e s imposed on the type. The general nature of these commitments w i l l be I d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n , but a d e s c r i p t i o n of the working arrangements that have developed around them must wait u n t i l other 96. problems, notably procurement, are considered. The nature of the s t r u c t u r e imposed on the c o l l e g e s and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e i r governing boards w i l l a l s o be considered under t h i s heading, as w e l l as the nature of C o u n c i l involvement i n a c t i v i t i e s designed to e s t a b l i s h and maintain the l e g i t i m a t -ion of a p a r t i c u l a r c o l l e g e i n i t s community. Resource Commitments to the Colleges. F i n a n c i a l commitments to the two-year c o l l e g e s , p a r t -i a l l y based on enrolment f i g u r e s , and subject to the approval of various groups, notably the Department of Education, are drawn i n part from general revenue, and i n part from a tax based on property assessments i n a c o l l e g e r e g i o n . In a d d i t i o n , and again w i t h r e q u i s i t e approval, the two-year c o l l e g e i n the. Province has r e l a t i v e l y unproblematic access to other resources such as land,andrpersonnel. D e t a i l s of the s o c i a l order that e x i s t s around the a c q u i s i t i o n of a l l resources w i l l be considered under the heading of procure-ment . A u t h o r i t y Commitments to the Colleges. A u t h o r i t y to implement l e g i t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s u l t i m a t e l y r e s t s w i t h the l e g i s l a t u r e as the i n s t i t u t i o n a l -i s e d agent of s o c i e t y . A u t h o r i t y may, however, be delegated, or committed t o , Boards of School Trustees, and i n t u r n the r i g h t s , powers, d u t i e s , and l i a b i l i t i e s of a Board, or 97. or Boards p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the given c o l l e g e , may extend to that c o l l e g e . In a d d i t i o n , a u t h o r i t y to implement l e g i t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s may be -committed d i r e c t l y to the governing boards of the c o l l e g e s i n c e r t a i n areas, and i n p a r t i c u l a r ways. The nature and extent of t h i s a u t h o r i t y w i l l become apparent as the s o c i a l order that c h a r a c t e r i z e s governing board a c t i v i t i e s i n other o r g a n i z a t i o n problems i s described. Although there i s a high l e v e l of commitments to the two-year c o l l e g e s i n the Province, a not unexpected s i t u a t i o n given the high value placed on education by s o c i e t y , these commitments are most oft e n subject to the approval of two groups. These groups are; (1) the Board, or Boards of School Trustees p a r t i c i p a t i n g In a given c o l l e g e ; and (2) the L e g i s l a t u r e , through the Department of Education, and i t s M i n i s t e r . The s p e c i f i c nature of the r o l e of these two groups w i l l be d i s p l a y e d as the d e s c r i p t i o n proceeds. Formal Structure i n the Colleges. Any d i s c u s s i o n of commitments to the two-year c o l l e g e s i n the Province, must be coupled with c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e through which these commitments are made a v a i l a b l e . Of concern here w i l l be: (1) the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the c o l l e g e s and the p a r t i c i p a t i n g School Boards; (2) the r o l e of appointed members of the C o u n c i l s ; (3) the term of o f f i c e f o r Council members; (4) the s i z e of C o u n c i l s ; (5) the present l e g a l status of the C o u n c i l s ; and (6) the s t a t e of 98. two-year c o l l e g e l e g i s l a t i o n i n the Province. School Boards and the Colleges. As o u t l i n e d i n the l e g i s l a t i o n , an important feature of the s t r u c t u r e of the colleges,, i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Board, or Boards p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the c o l l e g e , and the c o l l e g e i t s e l f . A p r a c t i c a l expression of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p may be found i n the f a c t that one or more of the e l e c t e d members of the p a r t -i c i p a t i n g Boards are appointed, by the Boards, to s i t as members of the governing board, or College C o u n c i l . One of the c o l l e g e s studied has only one School Board p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i t . Between 1965, when t h i s c o l l e g e was e s t a b l i s h e d , and 1970, no separate governing board e x i s t e d f o r t h i s c o l l e g e , t h e . r o l e being performed by the School Board s i t t i n g from time to time as a College C o u n c i l . In 1970, the P r o v i n c i a l Government authorised the establishment of a separate College C o u n c i l , composed of f i v e t r u s t e e s from the p a r t i c i p a t i n g School Board, and a number of persons appointed from the c o l l e g e r e g i o n , by the M i n i s t e r of Education and the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l . Despite the c r e a t i o n of a separate C o u n c i l , t i e s with the School Board have remained very c l o s e . For example, at the time of d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n i n 1973, the Council and the School Board shared the same s e c r e t a r y / t r e a s u r e r / b u r s a r , the executive o f f i c e s of the c o l l e g e were housed i n the School Board o f f i c e s , and there was considerable overlap i n the programmes o f f e r e d by the two groups, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the area of c o n t i n u i n g education... Minutes of t h i s Council do i n d i c a t e that some moves are being made to sever t h i s close r e l a t i o n -ship i n the areas noted. For .a second c o l l e g e , the Council began i t s existence w i t h one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from each of the three p a r t i c i p a t i n g Boards, but f o r a number of reasons t h i s number was increased to two from each Board. The t h i r d c o l l e g e studied has only one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from each of the eight p a r t i c i p a t i n g School Boards. Given that two of the c o l l e g e s studied cover l a r g e geographical r e g i o n s , and have m u l t i p l e School Boards p a r t -i c i p a t i n g i n them, some c o n f l i c t might be expected between the concern of the c o l l e g e s to serve the whole r e g i o n , and the p o t e n t i a l l y narrower concern of a Board member represent-i n g a small part of that r e g i o n . There.appeared to be some general agreement amongst a l l persons interviewed that Board members, s i t t i n g as College C o u n c i l l o r s , should make every e f f o r t to act out of concern f o r the c o l l e g e and the whole c o l l e g e r e g i o n , r a t h e r than out of concern only f o r the i n t e r e s t s of the School Boards they represent. In one of the c o l l e g e s a kind.of formal agreement to act i n t h i s manner i s discussed and sought at the beginning of each new Council year. I t was emphasized however, that t h i s agreement, be i t 100. open or t a c i t , d i d not deny the r i g h t , and i n f a c t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , of an i n d i v i d u a l Trustee from a p a r t i c u l a r Board to voice the concerns of that Board. Be that as i t may, the dual r o l e of T r u s t e e / C o u n c i l l o r has apparently created c o n f l i c t f o r c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s . Where such c o n f l i c t has a r i s e n the r e s u l t s have apparently been v a r i e d , although the most common e f f e c t has been f o r the d e c i s i o n making process of the Council concerned to be h a l t e d on that p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e while the member, or members i n v o l v e d , have sought guidance from the Board, or Boards they represent. While r e l a t i v e l y few major c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d , many T r u s t e e / C o u n c i l l o r s d i d express concern over the f a c t that they were, i n a sense, r e q u i r e d to wear two hats. I t was often noted that they had been e l e c t e d f i r s t as a School Board Trustee, and then, i n many cases almost as an a f t e r -thought, they found themselves members of a body c a l l e d a College C o u n c i l , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the governance of an org-a n i z a t i o n about which they knew l i t t l e . Most of these people saw t h e i r major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y l y i n g with t h e i r Board and the e l e c t o r a t e i n the School D i s t r i c t , and many c o l l e g e issues were viewed from that p e r s p e c t i v e . Again i t should be emphasized that r e l a t i v e l y few of these c o n f l i c t s i t -uations were i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study; many T r u s t e e / C o u n c i l l -ors were aware of the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t however, and f e l t the need to mention i t i n i n t e r v i e w s . 'F.orrthe^college with 101. only one p a r t i c i p a t i n g Board, w i t h f i v e members of that Board s i t t i n g as College C o u n c i l l o r s , and with a c o l l e g e r e g i o n i d e n t i c a l with the School D i s t r i c t , c o n f l i c t s of the type noted f o r the other two c o l l e g e s have not occurred. Two very p r a c t i c a l concerns were g e n e r a l l y expressed by the persons interviewed about the present r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Boards and the Solfteges. One of these has to do with the c o n t i n u i t y i n Council membership; and the other w i t h the excessive time demands placed on T r u s t e e / C o u n c i l l o r s as they seek to do what are i n e f f e c t , two jobs. Under the present formal s t r u c t u r e , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r the t r u s t e e component of the Councils to change completely every year, e i t h e r through change i n the persons appointed by the p a r t i c i p a t i n g Boards, or as .a r e s u l t of e l e c t i o n s i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g School D i s t r i c t s . At two of the c o l l e g e s , there has been some change from year to year although a core group of t r u s t e e s has remained, p r o v i d i n g a measure of c o n t i n u i j y y For the bulk of 1973 i n the t h i r d c o l l e g e however, only one of the T r u s t e e / C o u n c i l l o r s had been on the Council before. While t h i s l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n may not n e c e s s a r i l y be t y p i c a l , i t was suggested that l a c k of c o n t i n u i t y i n C o u n c i l membership can create problems f o r a number of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups. Lack of c o n t i n u i t y means that c o l l e g e s may f i n d them-selves governed by a group w i t h l i t t l e background to draw on 102. when making d e c i s i o n s , a s i t u a t i o n that has apparently r e s u l t e d i n a slowdown i n the a c t i v i t i e s of Council because of the f e l t need to go back over d e c i s i o n s made some time i n the past by previous Councils.• As one long-time C o u n c i l member put i t - "We seem to be co n s t a n t l y r e - i n v e n t i n g the wheel." Where l a r g e changes occur i n Council membership, the c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y the p r i n c i p a l and the bursar, are faced w i t h the problem of how to provide incoming Council members with i n f o r m a t i o n about the nature of the c o l l e g e , i t s p o l i c i e s , and a c t i v i t i e s . Some concern was expressed over t h i s s i t u a t i o n both by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s and by Council members, f o r i t was f e l t that such inform a t i o n given by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was sometimes a l i t t l e suspect. This was not to imply any d i s t r u s t of the c o l l e g e admin-i s t r a t i o n , r a t h e r i t was to note a s i t u a t i o n that many f e l t was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . It'was a l s o emphasized that comments on the present l a c k of c o n t i n u i t y i n Council membership, was not a ple a f o r l i f e t i m e appointments, r a t h e r i t was to express concern over a s i t u a t i o n that i n the perception of many of the persons i n t e r v i e w e d , has created d i f f i c u l t i e s . Although no one method f o r ensuring c o n t i n u i t y was g e n e r a l l y endorsed, there was strong preference f o r a s i t u a t i o n that would guarantee that at l e a s t f i f t y percent of Council members would not change each year. This i t was suggested might be achieved 103-through staggered appointments and/or through the extension of the term of o f f i c e . More w i l l be s a i d about the term of o f f i c e i n l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n . Minutes of one of the Councils i n d i c a t e d that r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s had been made to the Depart-ment of Education to make some p r o v i s i o n f o r c o n t i n u i t y i n the membership of C o u n c i l s . A second area of concern that was noted by almost a l l T r u s t e e / C o u n c i l l o r s i n t e r v i e w e d , had to do with the amount of a d d i t i o n a l time involved should a t r u s t e e a l s o s i t as a member of a College C o u n c i l . It-was g e n e r a l l y agreed that the. time demands S'f the C o u n c i l , though not u s u a l l y as great as those of the School Board, were an added, and an unpaid burden. (School Trustees r e c e i v e an honorarium, or indemnity, plus expenses f o r t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s as Trustees; C o u n c i l members may r e c e i v e c e r t a i n expenses but do not r e c e i v e an honorarium.) I t was suggested that the a d d i t i o n a l time demands inv o l v e d i n a c t i n g as a Council member, has meant a number of t h i n g s . At one of the c o l l e g e s , a number of T r u s t e e / C o u n c i l l o r s i n d i c a t e d that they were l o a t h to serve on the Council f o r .a second year, even i f they were asked to do so; apart from anything e l s e t h i s compounds that c o n t i n u i t y problem already noted. It. was a l s o suggested that when time c o n f l i c t s arose between Board and Council a c t i v i t i e s , such c o n f l i c t s were u s u a l l y r e s o l v e d i n favour of the Board. In f a c t , many T r u s t e e / C o u n c i l l o r s quite openly admitted that 104. they were not g i v i n g the amount of time to C o u n c i l a c t i v i t i e s as perhaps was warranted. With the development of a number of standing committees f o r each C o u n c i l , the s i t u a t i o n was becoming even more d i f f i c u l t . One of the e f f e c t s of these time c o n f l i c t s was p a r t i c u l a r l y noted around December each year, f o r not only was the term of o f f i c e f o r a number.of people on the Council drawing to an end, but t h i s i s the time of School Board e l e c t i o n s . For those T r u s t e e / C o u n c i l -l o r s seeking r e - e l e c t i o n to the - School Board, record of attendance at C o u n c i l meetings tends to f a l l o f f . This f a c t was confirmed by C o u n c i l minutes. Despite the added burdens i n being a member of a' College C o u n c i l , i t was 'suggested that there was some competition among the members of some of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g Boards, to f i l l the dual r o l e . Because t h i s . r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c o l l e g e and the p a r t i c i p a t i n g Board, or Boards i s so dependent on the Trustee/ C o u n c i l l o r , i t i s perhaps not s u r p r i s i n g , t h a t t h i s person's pe r c e p t i o n of h i s r o l e , and indeed a t t i t u d e to the c o l l e g e , was o f t e n noted as instrumental to the ways i n which the Board viewed the c o l l e g e . On the one hand i s the Trustee/ C o u n c i l l o r who i s very p r o - c o l l e g e , and who ,takes every opportunity to report t o h i s Board on c o l l e g e a c t i v i t i e s ; at the other extreme i t was suggested that apart from the .. d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Council minutes, r e p o r t i n g to some of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g Boards has been spo r a d i c , and at times 105. n o n - e x i s t e n t . I n p a r t t h i s apparent l a c k o f communication may be a f u n c t i o n o f the T r u s t e e / C o u n c i l l o r ' s a t t i t u d e t o t h e c o l l e g e , and i n p a r t a f u n c t i o n o f t h e way i n which t h i s i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s h i s own r o l e as a T r u s t e e / C o u n c i l l o r , but a number of o t h e r r e a s o n s were a l s o s u g g e s t e d . F o r example some T r u s t e e / C o u n c i l l o r s f e l t t h a t t h e i r Boards were not p a r t -i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s • o f t he c o l l e g e perhaps because they saw major Board r e s p o n s i b i l i t y l y i n g w i t h e l e m e n t a r y and secondary s c h o o l i n g i n t h e d i s t r i c t ; perhaps because t h e c o l l e g e campuses were some d i s t a n c e from t h e d i s t r i c t and c o l l e g e o f f e r i n g s were m i n i m a l i n the immediate a r e a . I t was a l s o suggested t h a t most o f t h e Boards had p l a c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e t r u s t i n t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on t h e C o u n c i l ; w i t h most o f the Board time t a k e n up w i t h m a t t e r s h a v i n g t o do w i t h e l e m e n t a r y and secondary e d u c a t i o n i n t h e d i s t r i c t , l i t t l e - t i m e was l e f t over f o r l e n g t h y r e p o r t s on the a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e c o l l e g e , t h u s i t was o f t e n up t o the-Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on t h e C o u n c i l t o i n i t i a t e a t t h e Board l e v e l . There was a l s o a g e n e r a l f e e l i n g e x p r e s s e d t h a t t h e Board r o l e i n the c o l l e g e and i t s a c t i v i t i e s j had eroded over t i m e , and w i t h t h i s e r o s i o n , so i n t e r e s t had waned. In essence i t was suggested t h a t w h i l e t h e Boards may.appear t o have a p a r t t o p l a y i n the c o l l e g e s , t h i s p a r t i s p r e s e n t l y viewed as s y m b o l i c i n n a t u r e . \ 106 . T h i s i s not t o suggest t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the c o l l e g e s and the Boards has not been, and c o n t i n u e s t o . be a v a l u a b l e one. I t was noted t h a t Boards had p r o v i d e d t h e major impetus f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e c o l l e g e s ; Boards had p r o v i d e d manpower and e x p e r t i s e i n t h e e a r l y l i f e o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s ; . Boards have been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n p r o v i d i n g a c c e s s t o f a c i l i t i e s o f v a r i o u s k i n d s ; and Boards have p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t ' i n d e v e l o p i n g community support f o r the c o l l e g e s . I n a d d i t i o n , i t - w a s suggested t h a t B o a r d s , t h r o u g h t h e T r u s t e e / C o u n c i l l o r s , c o n t i n u e t o p r o v i d e a l e v e l o f e x p e r t i s e and knowledge i n a number o f . s p e c i f i c and s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a s , not t h e l e a s t o f which has t o do w i t h b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n about the p a r t i c u l a r d i s t r i c t t h e y r e p r e s e n t . I t was a l s o n o t e d t h a t because t h e s e T r u s t e e / . C o u n c i l l o r s have an i d e n t i f i a b l e c o n s t i t u e n c y , t h e y can p l a y a p o l i t i c a l r o l e - i n c o l l e g e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s e i t h e r w i t h i n t h e c o l l e g e r e g i o n or beyond. As t o t h e p r e f e r r e d n a t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between Boards and c o l l e g e s , o p i n i o n s were d i v i d e d . W h i l e l o c a l p r o p e r t y t a x e s were b e i n g used t o support the c o l l e g e s , and the Boards were p a r t o f t h e mechanism used t o c o l l e c t t h o s e t a x e s , t h e r e was g e n e r a l agreement t h a t Board i n v o l v e -ment o f some k i n d s h o u l d c o n t i n u e . Should t h i s l o c a l f i n a n -c i a l i n p u t be d i s c o n t i n u e d however, a number o f . p e r s o n s f e l t 107. that the present form of Board involvement through d i r e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the governing boards, was i n a p p r o p r i a t e and should cease; on the other hand some suggested a continued but modified Board involvement whether l o c a l finances were used to support the c o l l e g e s or not. Should Board i n v o l v e -ment cease a l t o g e t h e r a number of the persons interviewed saw the need f o r some l o c a l l y e l e c t e d component i n the gov-erning boards of the c o l l e g e s . Othersswere convinced that the method used to obtain a governing board was of l i t t l e consequence as long as the people.involved were i n t e r e s t e d i n the c o l l e g e s , and had time to give to the p o s i t i o n . Reasons f o r the c e s s a t i o n or diminution of Board i n -volvement i n the c o l l e g e s echoed some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s that have already been considered i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , while others had to do w i t h a strong f e e l i n g that the Boards should concentrate on elementary and secondary education-alone, and not extend themselves too f a r by being concerned with post-secondary, education. Reasons f o r continued Board involvement i n the c o l l e g e s covered a wide range. There was some f e e l i n g that i t would be premature to sever the r e l a t i o n s h i p at t h i s time, that given the youth of the c o l l e g e s , Boards could s t i l l provide valuable support i n a number of areas. Other reasons had to do with a b e l i e f that the Boards provided the only v i a b l e mechanism f o r l o c a l involvement i n the' colleges,, while f o r some people continued 108. Board involvement meant that they might be able to continue t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h an i n s t i t u t i o n to which they had become emotionally attached. In summary, no c l e a r cut p i c t u r e emerged as to the p r e f e r r e d nature of Board/college r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Appointees to the C o u n c i l s . In a d d i t i o n to Trustees appointed by the p a r t i c i p a t i n g Boards, the Councils have a mi n o r i t y of members appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor i n Coun c i l and the M i n i s t e r of Education. At present these appointments are made f o r one year terms, although there have been a number of re-appointments. Many of the people i n t e r v i e w e d , T r u s t e e / C o u n c i l l o r s and appointed members a l i k e , expressed concern about a number of th i n g s i n t h i s area. These concerns i n c l u d e d : (1) the shortness of the term of appointment, and the short n o t i c e of re-appointment; (2) the c r i t e r i a used i n determining who to appoint; and (3) the r o l e of the appointed member on College C o u n c i l s . To a l e s s e r extent s i m i l a r concerns were expressed about the T r u s t e e / C o u n c i l l o r s , so the d i s c u s s i o n that f o l l o w s can a l s o apply to them. I t was g e n e r a l l y agreed that f o r someone wi t h no p a r t -i c u l a r background i n education, or experience w i t h governing boards of some k i n d , a considerable period of time might elapse before any r e a l understanding of the nature of the c o l l e g e and the operations of the C o u n c i l , could be develop-109-ed. The shortness of n o t i c e of appointment to the Co u n c i l made i t d i f f i c u l t to prepare f o r . t h e r o l e i n any meaningful way, so i t was that a number of appointed members expressed some dismay at what they f e l t was t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to cope e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the C o u n c i l . The problem i s f u r t h e r com-pounded by the f a c t that l i k e the T r u s t e e / C o u n c i l l o r s , the short term of o f f i c e f o r appointees, and the o f t e n very short n o t i c e of re-appointment, makes them l o a t h to accept any long term commitments to Council or c o l l e g e a c t i v i t i e s . Some u n c e r t a i n t y was a l s o expressed as to the r o l e of an appointed member on a Council;-, most appointees recognized that they were appointed on the b a s i s of demonstrated e x p e r t i s e , experience, or because of membership i n , or of c e r t a i n groups, however no guidance was given by the app-o i n t i n g agency as t o what was expected of them. A number of suggestions were made regarding appointed members of Co u n c i l s . Many of these suggestions echo those already made f o r T r u s t e e / C o u n c i l l o r s and i n c l u d e : (1) a longer n o t i c e of appointment, or reappointment; (2) a longer term of appointment; (3) p r o v i s i o n f o r improved o r i e n t a t i o n f o r incoming appointed members of C o u n c i l s ; and (4) some s p e l l i n g out of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of appointed members of Cou n c i l s . While these concerns and recommendations were express-ed, there was a l s o general agreement that appointed members , : • h 110. of a l l three Councils had made valuable c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the c o l l e g e s . Term of O f f i c e . I t has already been suggested that some c o n s i d e r a t i o n be given to extending the present one year term of o f f i c e f o r a l l Council members. No s p e c i f i c time was mentioned although there appeared to be some agreement that the term be at l e a s t two years with p r o v i s i o n f o r over-lapping terms. Another suggestion had to do wi t h the date on which the term of o f f i c e p r e s e n t l y begins. At the moment t h i s term begins February 1 s t , while the College f i n a n c i a l year ends-March 31st, w i t h the p r o v i s i o n a l budget to be i n the hands of the Department of Education by December 1st of the preceding year. The r e s u l t has been that outgoing Council members have not been able to f o l l o w through w i t h the budget i n which they have been i n v o l v e d , and incoming Council members f i n d themselves d e a l i n g w i t h something about which they know very l i t t l e . The f a c t that c o n t i n u i t y i n Coun c i l membership i s not guaranteed only serves to compound t h i s s i t u a t i o n . I t was suggested that some change be con-sidered i n the appointment date. Size of the Co u n c i l s . Under present l e g i s l a t i o n no , minimum or maximum numerical s i z e of Councils i s mentioned, although the s i z e i s very much a f u n c t i o n of the number.of School Boards p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a given c o l l e g e . Council 111. s i z e was not mentioned i n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h two of the c o l l e g e s , p o s s i b l y because the Councils concerned were not l a r g e r than ten or eleven i n number. For the t h i r d c o l l e g e however, wit h eight p a r t i c i p a t i n g School Boards, and up to seven appointed members, there was some f e e l i n g that the C o u n c i l was reaching a point.where meaningful - i n t e r a c t i o n was d i f f -i c u l t . I t was -suggested that one of the p o s s i b l e r e s u l t s of the l a r g e numbers of persons on the C o u n c i l had been the growth of a committee s t r u c t u r e . Minutes of the C o u n c i l i n d i c a t e d that the growth of a committee s t r u c t u r e has been a recent phenomenon, c o i n c i d i n g w i t h , but not n e c e s s a r i l y caused by an increase i n the number of appointed members on the C o u n c i l . Minutes a l s o i n d i c a t e that, when t h i s C ouncil was s m a l l e r , the p a t t e r n was f o r the.Council to. s i t as a committee of the whole, apparently p r e f e r r i n g not to develop a committee s t r u c t u r e . There was some concern that groups re s p o n s i b l e f o r two-year c o l l e g e l e g i s l a t i o n d i d not a l l o w the Councils to become too l a r g e . Legal Status of C o u n c i l s . Under present l e g i s l a t i o n the Councils of two-year c o l l e g e s , u n l i k e School Boards, are not c o n s t i t u t e d as corporate bodies. Councils p r e s e n t l y have no l e g a l . s t a t u s per se with t i t l e to c o l l e g e property r e t a i n e d by p a r t i c i p a t i n g Boards.- While .this l a c k of l e g a l and/or corporate s t a t u s had apparently caused no problems f o r the C o u n c i l s , when t h i s issue was r a i s e d , there was a 112. general f e e l i n g that corporate status should be granted the Co u n c i l s . Such an a c t i o n i t was f e l t might help to f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h the i d e n t i t y of the c o l l e g e s as being separate from the Boards. Two-year .College Legislation.- At the present time a l l two-year c o l l e g e l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s contained i n the P u b l i c Schools Act. For the few persons who commented here, i t was g e n e r a l l y f e l t that i s made l i t t l e r e a l d i f f -erence whether the l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the c o l l e g e s was contained i n the P u b l i c Schools Act, or i n a separate Colleges Act. The only argument f o r a separate Act had to do wit h the f a c t that i t might help to remove the not i o n held by many people that the c o l l e g e s are simply appendages of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g Boards. A separate Act t h e r e f o r e , might help to f a c i l i t a t e the development of c o l l e g e i d e n t i t y . There was l i t t l e evidence, e i t h e r i n the i n t e r v i e w s , or i n the Cou n c i l minutes, that the general nature and place of c o l l e g e . l e g i s -l a t i o n had been discussed by i n d i v i d u a l C o u n c i l s . There was some i n d i c a t i o n i n Council minutes that these questions had been r a i s e d by P r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y by the B r i t i s h Columbia A s s o c i a t i o n of Colleges. L e g i t i m a t i o n of the Colleges .at the' l o c a l l e v e l . L e g i t i m a t i o n i s a problem faced not only by the type of o r g a n i z a t i o n c a l l e d the two-year c o l l e g e , but l e g i t i m a t i o n 113. i s a l s o faced by p a r t i c u l a r examples of that type of organ-i z a t i o n i n s p e c i f i c communities. What of i n d i v i d u a l C o u n c i l involvement i n a c t i v i t i e s designed to e s t a b l i s h and maintain the l e g i t i m a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r c o l l e g e i n i t s community? P r i o r to the establishment of any c o l l e g e , l e g i s l a t i o n r e q u i r e d that a p l e b i s c i t e be put to voters i n the proposed p a r t i c i p a t i n g School D i s t r i c t s , seeking approval i n p r i n c i p l e f o r the establishment of the c o l l e g e . For each of the three c o l l e g e s s t u d i e d , a good deal of time and energy was spent by a number of people, some of whom were l a t e r to become members of the College C o u n c i l s , i n attemptsd t o demonstrate the l e g i t i m a c y , the worthwhileness, of the proposed i n s t i t u t -ions to the e l e c t o r a t e . For two of the c o l l e g e s , the demonstration was apparently s u c c e s s f u l , f o r a l l seven proposed School D i s t r i c t s approved the p l e b i s c i t e f o r one of the c o l l e g e s , ( a n e i g h t h D i s t r i c t voted to enter at a l a t e r d a t e ) ; and three out of the four D i s t r i c t s approved the second c o l l e g e . (Some of the p o s s i b l e reasons f o r one of the D i s t r i c t s not approving the second c o l l e g e may be found i n Brown.M.J.(1973))• P r i o r to the establishment of the t h i r d c o l l e g e i n 1965 3 two p l e b i s c i t e s were taken to determine p u b l i c r e a c t i o n to the proposed i n s t i t u t i o n . The f i r s t p l e b -i s c i t e , which was open to a l l e l i g i b l e v o t e r s , passed by a narrow margin. The second p l e b i s c i t e , which was r e s t r i c t e d to property owners i n the proposed D i s t r i c t , was soundly 114. defeated, despite an intensive, p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s campaign. Although the response had been l e s s than e n t h u s i a s t i c , the School Board decided to use e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s and estab-l i s h a c o l l e g e . ( I t should be noted that t h i s c o l l e g e was, i n p a r t , created by drawing together a number of e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . The c o l l e g e p r e s e n t l y e x i s t s as a number of separate d i v i s i o n s under an umbrella a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . ) I t i s of course d o u b t f u l whether the approval or the f a i l u r e of these p l e b i s c i t e s t e l l us anything about the l e g i t i m a t i o n . o f the c o l l e g e s ,in t h e i r communities. C e r t a i n l y theypprovided an opportunity f o r the community, to voice i t s opinion on the proposed i n s t i t u t i o n s , b u t given the f a c t that at the time of the p l e b i s c i t e the c o l l e g e s d i d not e x i s t , and the f a c t that t h e i r features were perhaps only dimly p e r c e i v e d , i t might be argued that the e l e c t o r a t e was v o t i n g not so much on t h e i r worthwhileness, t h e i r l e g i t i m a c y , but on other f a c t o r s a l t o g e t h e r . Now tha What of Council involvement i n l e g i t i m a t i o n f o l l o w i n g the. establishment of the c o l l e g e s ? While the mere existence of a Council may serve, i n p a r t , to l e g i t i m a t e a c o l l e g e , •there was l i t t l e evidence, e i t h e r i n the i n t e r v i e w s or the minutes, to suggest that Councils had much involvement i n a c t i v i t i e s that could be broadly viewed as c o n t r i b u t i n g to the l e g i t i m a t i o n of the c o l l e g e s i n t h e i r communities. This of course does not imply that no such a c t i v i t i e s occur, but 115. r a t h e r that I n d i v i d u a l s and groups other then the Councils appear to have greater involvement. While there was general agreement among the persons Interviewed that the community as a whole appears to know r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e about the c o l l e g e s , l e t alone make any judgement on worthwhileness, opinions seemed d i v i d e d on the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s s t a t e of a f f a i r s , and what, i f anything, should be done about I t . Two f a c t o r s were u s u a l l y noted i n d i s c u s s i o n on Council i n v o l v e -ment i n t h i s area. The f a c t that c o l l e g e enrolments have continued to r i s e l e d a number of people to comment that the c o l l e g e appears to be viewed as a l e g i t i m a t e and worth-while o r g a n i z a t i o n by a r a t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t and growing p o r t i o n of the community i n which the co l l e g e s are set .• Under these circumstances some f e l t there was l i t t l e need to demonstrate the worthwhileness of the c o l l e g e s . In other words they had achieved l e g i t i m a c y and at the present time there was l i t t l e need to undertake a c t i v i t i e s to maintain i t . A second f a c t o r has to do wit h the f i n a n c i n g of the c o l l e g e s . With the removal of the n e c e s s i t y . f o r the c o l l e g e s to go to the taxpayers i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g D i s t r i c t s f o r approval to borrow c a p i t a l monies, i t was suggested that some of the immediate concern to demonstrate the worthwhile-ness of the c o l l e g e s to t h e i r communities had been removed. ( C a p i t a l expenses f o r the c o l l e g e s are now met out of 116. general revenue.) In f a c t , most of the persons interviewed agreed that i f the c o l l e g e s had had to o b t a i n monies v i a c a p i t a l r eferenda, there was l i t t l e chance they would have re c e i v e d approval from the taxpayers. How much t h i s l a c k of success might have been the r e s u l t of the general economic c l i m a t e , and how much the r e s u l t of a l a c k of something c a l l -ed l e g i t i m a t i o n at the l o c a l l e v e l , i s impossible to d e t e r -mine, but i t was suggested that when the need to .seek t a x -payer approval f o r c a p i t a l expenditures seemed a p o s s i b i l i t y there was a higher l e v e l of concern expressed by Councils over those a c t i v i t i e s that should be broadly l a b e l l e d p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , and which were designed to demonstrate the worthwhileness of the c o l l e g e s . As one person put i t , w hile l e g i t i m a t i o n had a payoff Councils were i n t e r e s t e d i n i t , now that there was no payoff, i t had become somewhat l e s s of a concern. While t h i s concern seldom shows up i n Council minutes, f o r one 'fiollege i t took the form of the Council a c t i v e l y encouraging•the c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to provide i n f o r m a t i o n about the c o l l e g e to l o c a l newspapers and other media; to move i n t o the community through speaking engagements of a l l k i n d s ; and to look c a r e f u l l y at the i m p l i c a t i o n s of c o l l e g e a c t i v i t i e s and' statements f o r t h e i r p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s on the a t t i t u d e s of persons i n the communities toward the c o l l e g e . Minutes and i n t e r v i e w s d i d i d e n t i f y two other 117. s p e c i f i c instances of Council involvement In l e g i t i m a t i o n at the l o c a l l e v e l . In one c o l l e g e , the Cou n c i l approved, and spent considerable time d i s c u s s i n g the r e s u l t s of a survey-designed to assess community awareness and support f o r the c o l l e g e . The data that were developed In t h i s survey were i n t e r p r e t e d and used to guide a d d i t i o n a l p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s e f f o r t s on behalf of the c o l l e g e , to develop programming, and f u t u r e planning of various kinds. In a second c o l l e g e , Council issued an i n v i t a t i o n to the l o c a l media to attend Council meetings; it.was noted that there had been l i t t l e response to t h i s i n v i t a t i o n s . While involvement of Councils i n t h i s area of l o c a l l e g i t i m a t i o n appears to be ra t h e r s m a l l , i n d i v i d u a l members of these C o u n c i l s , have, on occasion,.acted as advocates of the c o l l e g e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h . l o c a l and P r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s of various kinds. I t was a l s o noted that the Councils encourage p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out by the P r i n c i p a l and s t a f f , and g e n e r a l l y wish to be kept informed of a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s area. Some time ago, one Council went as f a r as appointing an i n d i v i d u a l whose major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y has been the handling of p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f o r the c o l l e g e . L e g i t i m a t i o n - A Summary This study assumed that the two-year c o l l e g e , as a type of o r g a n i z a t i o n i s l e g i t i m a t e . Given t h i s l e g i t i m a t i o n , the 118. sources and general nature of commitments to the two-year c o l l e g e s i n the Province were i d e n t i f i e d . The nature of the formal s t r u c t u r e s imposed by l e g i s l a t i o n on the c o l l e g e s was next considered, and i t was found that because the l e g i s l a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y s p e c i f i c i n t h i s area, l i t t l e . v a r i a t i o n was found among•ebilegelsgructures. Some of the problems created by t h i s s t r u c t u r e were considered, and suggestions f o r m o d i f i c a t i o n were d i s p l a y e d . The se c t i o n concluded w i t h d i s c u s s i o n of the r o l e played by Councils i n l e g i t i m a t i o n of c o l l e g e s i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r communities. I t was suggested that Council r o l e i n t h i s aspect of l e g i t i m a t i o n was sm a l l . I n t e g r a t i o n (Externajflrfl^eT^ , The general problems i n t h i s area a r e : ( l ) to e s t a b l i s h and maintain p r a c t i c e s and procedures i n the two-year c o l l e g e that are compatible w i t h p r a c t i c e s and procedures ,of other o r g a n i z a t i o n and s o c i a l u n i t s i n s o c i e t y ; Council i n v o l v e -ment i n c o n t r a c t u a l and a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l be considered; and, (2) to e s t a b l i s h and maintain the value of the f u n c t i o n s performed by the two-year c o l l e g e s f o r s o c i e t y , and hence with the l e v e l of commitments made to the c o l l e g e s ; Council involvement i n the determination of how much of c e r t a i n commitments are made to the c o l l e g e s w i l l be considered. .119-C o n t r a c t u a l Relationships..' Although the three Councils appear to have l i t t l e Involvement i n the development of c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the c o l l e g e and s u p p l i e r s of resources to the c o l l e g e , or i n the area of working c o n d i t i o n s , between the c o l l e g e and f a c u l t y and s t a f f , the present l e g i s l a t i o n r e q u i r e s that the Councils approve any c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s made i n these areas. Neither the minutes, nor'the i n t e r v i e w s gave much i n d i c a t i o n as to the nature of Council involvement i n the development or the approval of these c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s although i t was noted that c a r e f u l study i s made of p r e v a i l i n g p r a c t i c e s i n s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and where i t i s considered appropriate l e g a l advice sought, before c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are entered i n t o . I t was suggested that t h i s care w i t h c o n t r a c t -u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s was prompted i n part by the p e c u l i a r l e g a l non-status of the C o u n c i l , as w e l l as with a concern to f o l l o w accepted p r a c t i c e s . One person interviewed noted that a common question r a i s e d at the Co u n c i l of which he was a member, when c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s were up f o r con s i d e r -a t i o n , o f t e n took the form - "What are the,other c o l l e g e s doing i n t h i s area?" Another person noted, that h i s Cou n c i l had c o n s i s t e n t l y refused to negotiate w i t h f a c u l t y i n c e r t a i n areas of working c o n d i t i o n s , although i t was emphas-i s e d that t h i s r e f u s a l to negotiate would continue only as long as other c o l l e g e s and s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l s o refused 120. to negotiate i n those areas. In a d d i t i o n , a commonly expressed a t t i t u d e was, that as a p u b l i c body, the c o l l e g e s should n e i t h e r f a l l too f a r behind, nor lead the surrounding community i n c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s u p p l i e r s of resources. A u t h o r i t y Relationships..Under present l e g i s l a t i o n , broad r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r student d i s c i p l i n e l i e s w i t h the P r i n c i p a l of each c o l l e g e , although he i s req u i r e d to report to the Council when d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n has been c a r r i e d out, or i s contemplated. Interviews and minutes confirm that few such r e p o r t s have been made. The Council may a l s o be c a l l e d upon to act as a court of f i n a l appeal w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t -i o n on matters p e r t a i n i n g to c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , p a r t i c u l a r l y with c o l l e g e s t a f f , and on matters of student d i s c i p l i n e ; again Councils have apparently seldom been c a l l e d to act i n t h i s c a p a c i t y . Commitments to, the Colleges - I n t e g r a t i o n ..wHavihgcdet-ermined the general nature and sources of commitments to an o r g a n i z a t i o n l i k e a two-year c o l l e g e , a wide range of q u i t e s p e c i f i c d e c i s i o n s are req u i r e d that have to do with the qua n t i t y of each kind of commitment to be made t o the c o l l e g e . This i s a r e c o g n i t i o n of the f a c t ' t h a t commitments are f i n i t e , and must be used f o r a wide range of or g a n i z a t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s i n a given community. The c o l l e g e must make i t s -121. demands with an eye to the demands of other o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s i n the community; In other words there must be a concern with the i n t e g r a t i o n of c o l l e g e demands wit h a l l the other demands on community resources. Decisions as to the extent and nature of at l e a s t the f i n a n c i a l commitments to the c o l l e g e s .are i n c r e a s i n g l y being made at the s o c i e t a l l e v e l , that i s by the Department of Education, and the L e g i s l a t u r e . T r u s t e e / C o u n c i l l o r s r e t a i n a measure of involvement i n these a l l o c a t i v e d e c i s i o n s as long as a percentage of f i n a n c i a l support f o r the c o l l e g e s i s derived from the communities i n which the c o l l e g e s are set,,and there was evidence that T r u s t e e / C o u n c i l l o r s , and the Boards they represent, continue to show considerable i n t e r e s t i n the extent of resources drawn from the l o c a l community to support the c o l l e g e s , and thus, from t h e i r point of view at l e a s t , not a v a i l a b l e f o r elementary and second-ary education. I t may be s i g n i f i c a n t to note that when the co l l e g e s were drawing a l a r g e r percentage of l o c a l resources than at the present time, i t was suggested that there was some o p p o s i t i o n to the c o l l e g e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y from the p a r t i c i p a t i n g Boards, on the grounds that the c o l l e g e s were using community resources that should be d i r e c t e d to elem-entary and secondary sc h o o l i n g . As the percentage of r -resources drawn from the l o c a l area has decreased,.it was suggested that o p p o s i t i o n to the c o l l e g e s a l s o appears to 122. have diminished. This i s not to suggest that the only reason f o r diminished o p p o s i t i o n to the c o l l e g e s from the Boards came as a r e s u l t of a decrease i n the amount of l o c a l resources used to support the c o l l e g e s . I n t e g r a t i o n - A Summary I t appears that the three Councils play a r e l a t i v e l y minor r o l e i n the determination of c o m p a t i b i l i t y between p r a c t i c e s and procedures used by the c o l l e g e s and those i n other o r g a n i z a t i o n s and s o c i a l u n i t s . There i s a concern that they are compatible,but major Council r o l e appears to l i e i n the approval of these p r a c t i c e s and procedures a f t e r they have been developed. I t was al s o suggested that Councils are p l a y i n g a r e l a t i v e l y minor r o l e i n the determination of the amount of community resources wtol be a l l o c a t e d to the c o l l e g e s . The locus f o r d decisions i n t h i s area appears to be moving to the s o c i e t a l l e v e l . ;gl^o7safflL The general problem f o r the c o l l e g e s i s to ensure that s e r v i c e s and products are adapted to.the o p p o r t u n i t i e s , c o n d i t i o n s , and demands of the community i n which the c o l l e g e i s s e t . L e g i s l a t i o n i n t h i s area empowers Cou n c i l s : ti(>l) to provide f o r the management, and c a r r y i n g out of c u r r i c u l u m , t r a i n i n g , I n s t r u c t i o n , and education o f f e r e d by the c o l l e g e s ; (2) to determine fe e s ; and (3) to determine a l l questions 123-r e l a t i n g to the academic and other q u a l i f i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d of a p p l i c a n t s f o r admission to the c o l l e g e s . Council i n v o l v e -ment i n each of these areas w i l l be considered. College Programmes Courses p r e s e n t l y o f f e r e d by c o l l e g e s i n the Province f a l l i n t o three broad programme areas - U n i v e r s i t y T r a n s f e r , Career or T e c h n i c a l , and V o c a t i o n a l . Only one of the co l l e g e s studied o f f e r e d a l l three. While common ch a r a c t e r -i s t i c s i n the involvement of the three Councils i n t h i s area were i d e n t i f i e d , there were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s ; these d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be noted. Involvement of the Depart-ment of Education, and p a r t i c i p a t i n g Boards i n c o l l e g e prog-rammes w i l l a l s o be considered. Councils and College Programmes. At the longest e s t -a b l i s h e d of the three c o l l e g e s s t u d i e d , i t was suggested i n i n t e r v i e w s , and confirmed i n the minutes, that the Cou n c i l has had r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e to do with the programmes o f f e r e d by the c o l l e g e , c e r t a i n l y i n the period covered by t h i s study. This s t a t e of a f f a i r s was not seen as s u r p r i s i n g by most of the persons interviewed f o r they pointed to the f a c t that the c o l l e g e had been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r some time w i t h most of the programme or curricul u m a c t i v i t y o c c u r r i n g i n the e a r l y years of the c o l l e g e . The basic framework f o r Council Involvement i n prog-124. grammes i s o u t l i n e d i n a p o l i c y statement e n t i t l e d : " P o l i c y f o r the Establishment of Curriculum P r i o r i t i e s . " ( S e e Appendix G). While i t was not p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y the i n d i v i d u a l s or groups that had i n i t i a t e d the development of t h i s p o l i c y , i t was noted that a number of Council members had had considerable involvement i n i t s p r e p a r a t i o n . A f t e r i d e n t -i f y i n g some general g u i d e l i n e s to be used by the c o l l e g e i n the development of curr i c u l u m and programmes, the p o l i c y then sta t e s that the P r i n c i p a l i s a u t h o r i s e d : ...to develop s u i t a b l e procedures f o r the a d d i t i o n , s u b s t i t u t i o n , or d e l e t i o n of courses or programs; and to develop courses or programs which are i n accordance with the p o l i c y . The a p p l i c a t i o n of purely educational c r i t e r i a i s most s u i t a b l y made by the P r i n c i p a l and h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f , but the Council reserves to i t s e l f the r a t i f i c a t i o n of courses and programs recommended by the P r i n c i p a l to ensure that the courses are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f i n a n c i a l and s t a t u t o r y l e g i s -l a t i o n and o v e r a l l p o l i c y c o n s i d e r a t i o n . ( P o l i c y 29, Appendix G ) This p o l i c y makes i t q u i t e c l e a r ' t h a t major Council i n v o l v e -ment l i e s i n the r a t i f i c a t i o n , or approval, or proposed curricu l u m or programmes, developed under the i n f l u e n c e of t h i s p o l i c y . I t w i l l become apparent l a t e r i n t h i s d i s c u s s -i o n that the C o u n c i l may have other kinds of involvement as w e l l . In the t h i r d c o l l e g e s t u d i e d , and i n an apparent-attempt to provide an opportunity f o r greater Council involvement i n programme and c u r r i c u l u m , a Curriculum Review Committee of Council has r e c e n t l y been e s t a b l i s h e d . This 125. Committee was e s t a b l i s h e d at the I n s t i g a t i o n of the C o u n c i l . The purposes of t h i s Committee are: (1) to study the d i r e c t - . ion being followed by the c o l l e g e w i t h respect to programmes; (2) to make d i r e c t recommendations regarding p o s s i b l e areas f o r f u t u r e programme development; and (3) g e n e r a l l y t o provide a sounding board f o r any proposed changes i n the programmes o f f e r e d by the c o l l e g e . Persons interviewed noted that while i t i s too soon to determine the exact nature of the a c t i v i t i e s of t h i s Committee, i t does represent, potent-i a l l y at l e a s t , an a d d i t i o n a l l e v e l of Council involvement i n t h i s area. Some concern was expressed by members of t h i s C o u n c i l , that they had not begun to grapple w i t h the question of how to provide education f o r the whole community i n which the c o l l e g e i s s e t . This concern was summed up by the question - "Is the c o l l e g e s e r v i n g a l l groups i n the surrounding community?" I t was suggested that now that the c o l l e g e was reasonably w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , and some of.the more obvious programme needs had been met, i t was time f o r the c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and f a c u l t y , with encouragement from the Council,- to begin asking questions about the kinds of programmes that might meet the needs of the whole community. While these questions might be r a i s e d , Council members recognised there were a number of inherent problems i n f i n d i n g answers. The problems most often i d e n t i f i e d i n c l u d e d : (1) a l a c k of knowledge about community needs; (2) a per-126. ceived l a c k of community knowledge about the c o l l e g e and j u s t what i t might be able to do f o r the community, or groups i n i t ; (3) the l a c k of a ready source of r i s k money to under-w r i t e new programme ventures; and (4) the overlapping j u r i s d i c t i o n s of various community agencies and the need f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the r o l e s of these agencies v i s a v i s the c o l l e g e i n the area of programmes. While t h i s concern over the development of programmes designed to meet the needs of the whole surrounding community was mostsoften expressed by members of the t h i r d C o u n c i l , the concern was addressed by members of the other two C o u n c i l s . To leave the d i f f e r e n c e s and move to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s common to the three Councils as they are involved i n programmes. The f i r s t group of courses to be developed i n the three c o l l e g e s was U n i v e r s i t y Transfer. At present the:'three Councils may have two kinds of involvement with t h i s group: (1) Councils w i l l be kept informed of changes or m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n already e x i s t i n g courses; and (2) i n the u n l i k e l y event that the development of a new d i s c i p l i n e was contemplated, Council approval would be r e q u i r e d . In part because of the-slower development of Career or Technical programmes, major Council involvement l i e s here. While a Council member may suggest an area i n which a Career or Technical programme might be developed, the 127-usual p a t t e r n appears to be that the area be f i r s t i d e n t i f i e d and explored by an i n d i v i d u a l or group from w i t h i n the-c o l l e g e i t s e l f , o f t e n as the r e s u l t of a suggestion or a request from an i n d i v i d u a l or group i n the community.. At an e a r l y stage i n t h i s development, an advisory committee might be e s t a b l i s h e d ; such a committee might be composed of c o l l e g e f a c u l t y , persons working i n the proposed programme area i n the community, and perhaps a member, or members of C o u n c i l . Wh'ateverrtheepafctern both the minutes and the i n t e r -views confirm that Council i s kept informed of developments, and while Council may o f f e r suggestions of various k i n d s , at l e a s t u n t i l r e c e n t l y major Involvement f o r a l l three Councils has been l i m i t e d t o : (1) the g i v i n g or the w i t h -h o l d i n g of approval f o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l e d study i n a s p e c i f i c programme area, when i t has become apparent to the f a c u l t y i n v o l v e d , that a d d i t i o n a l time and money are r e q u i r e d ; and (2) the g i v i n g or w i t h o l d i n g or approval f o r a d e t a i l e d working proposal- f o r a new programme to be forwarded to the Department of Education f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n and p o s s i b l e approval f o r funding. In the.second-instance, the usual procedure has been -f o r the Councils to d i s c u s s the working proposal and i t s supporting m a t e r i a l , - u s u a l l y i n some d e t a i l . Questions are u s u a l l y r a i s e d about such t h i n g s as the extent of demand f o r the programme, the employment prospects f o r graduates, and .128. the b a s i c costs i n v o l v e d . Any very d e t a i l e d questioning of a proposal appears to be a f u n c t i o n of the background of i n d i v i d u a l C ouncil members. For example, a Co u n c i l member with an i n t e r e s t , or e x p e r t i s e , i n the area covered by the proposed programme might r a i s e and pursue q u i t e s p e c i f i c questions. Interviews suggest, and minutes confirm that Councils may spend considerable time reviewing proposed new programmes. This review may r e s u l t i n approval, postpone-ment, request f o r a d d i t i o n a l work to be c a r r i e d out, or on rar e occasions, r e j e c t i o n of the proposal a l t o g e t h e r . Boards and College Programmes. At the present time,-p a r t i c i p a t i n g • B o a r d s are kept Informed of development i n c o l l e g e programmes, e i t h e r by t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the C o u n c i l , or through Council minutes. The Boards appear to have no other involvement i n t h i s area except where they might encourage, and give b l e s s i n g to l i a i s o n between School D i s t r i c t s t a f f and c o l l e g e f a c u l t y i n those programme areas where a r t i c u l a t i o n between the School D i s t r i c t and the c o l l e g e might .be important. In-one of the c o l l e g e s i t was noted that there had been an i n c r e a s i n g frequency of t h i s k ind of l i a i s o n a c t i v i t y . P r o v i n c i a l Government and College Programmes. Should 1 a Council give t e n t a t i v e approval to a proposed programme, l e g i s l a t i o n r e q u i r e s that i t be forwarded to the Department 129. of Education where a P r o v i n c i a l C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee i s re s p o n s i b l e f o r reviewing i t . (See Appendix E f o r the guide-l i n e s under which t h i s Committee operates.) This Committee meets three or four times a year and i s r e s p o n s i b l e .for c o n s i d e r i n g a l l p r o p p s e d r p i h e g E a i n m e s i n the t e c h n i c a l , c a r e e r , and v o c a t i o n a l areas, and to make recommendations to the M i n i s t e r of Education as to whether such programmes be approved, and thus supported f i n a n c i a l l y , e i t h e r i n part or i n whole, by the . P r o v i n c i a l Government.. Except f o r the f a c t that Council approval must precede p r e s e n t a t i o n of the proposed programme to the Co n s u l t a t i v e Committee, Councils t y p i c a l l y have no involvement i n the pr e s e n t a t i o n of a programme proposal to the Committee. I t was g e n e r a l l y agreed however, that very few g u i d e l i n e s were extant f o r t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n , and as a r e s u l t past experience tended to be the only guide-Should t h i s Committee i n d i c a t e that i t w i l l not recommend approval, the proposal would come back to the c o l l e g e f o r a d d i t i o n a l work based on the suggestions made by the Committee, and then the procedure already o u t l i n e d would again be followed. Should t h i s Committee recommend approval, the proposal would come back to the Council f o r i t s f i n a l , and formal approval, and. then be included i n the c o l l e g e budget f o r the ensuing year. A number of comments were made about the P r o v i n c i a l 1 3 0 . Government involvement i n c o l l e g e programmes. I t was noted that not only i s considerable work r e q u i r e d p r i o r to sub-mission of a programmer.with no guarantee that approval w i l l be given e i t h e r by the C o u n c i l , or by the C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee, but a l s o a great deal of time can elapse between the o r i g i n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n to the Committee and a d e c i s i o n . In the i n t e r i m there i s l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n as to whether approval i s l i k e l y or not. I t was g e n e r a l l y f e l t that t h i s time lapse makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the c o l l e g e s to respond to needs that i n the e s t i m a t i o n of the c o l l e g e s and t h e i r C o u n c i l s , might r e q u i r e an immediate response. Although i t was noted that should a long delay between p r e s e n t a t i o n and approval seem l i k e l y , the c o l l e g e s do have the option of developing non-credit programming, such programmes might prove too c o s t l y f o r students given the f a c t that they must-be s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , or they might not be supported because they o f f e r no formal c o l l e g e c r e d i t . I t was suggested that i f t h i s approval process cannot be made s h o r t e r , then some i n d i c a t i o n be given e a r l y In that process as to the l i k e l i -hood of approval. I t was a l s o noted that some confusion p r e s e n t l y e x i s t s over the. c r i t e r i a a p p l i e d to proposed new programmes by the C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee. There was .general agreement that such c r i t e r i a e x i s t , but the f a c t that they have apparently not been s p e l l e d out, made the programmer development process 131. a f r u s t r a t i n g one. Despite the concerns that were g e n e r a l l y expressed, there was agreement that some kind of P r o v i n c i a l c o - o r d i n a t i n g f u n c t i o n was necessary i n the area of c o l l e g e programming. Fees and Admission Requirements I t appears that recommendations i n both these areas u s u a l l y emanate from the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s of the c o l l e g e s although minutes and Interviews confirm that the Councils consider such recommendations c a r e f u l l y , and where i t i s f e l t to be a p p r o p r i a t e , make m o d i f i c a t i o n s . Councils w i l l a l s o deal with requests f o r c o l l e g e s e r v i c e s from persons or groups from outside of the c o l l e g e r e g i o n . In the main each c o l l e g e i s set up to serve the r e s i d e n t s of a s p e c i f i c area but Councils may a l l o w students from outside t h i s area . to attend, or a l t e r n a t i v e l y approve the o f f e r i n g of c o l l e g e s e r v i c e s outside of the r e g i o n . Should students from out-or-region become e l i g i b l e f o r admission, Councils may e l e c t to apply a fee .premium and/or assign a p r i o r i t y to such a p p l i c a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r those programmes where-limited space might be a v a i l a b l e . I f c o n s i d e r a t i o n • i s given to o f f e r i n g o ut-of-region s e r v i c e s , persons interviewed suggest-ed that the major concern of Councils i s w i t h the i n f l u e n c e such o f f e r i n g might have on the r e g u l a r o f f e r i n g s l i n t t h e r e g i o n . Council i s a l s o concerned that no f i n a n c i a l l o s s be i n c u r r e d as a r e s u l t of out-of-region o f f e r i n g s . 132. Minutes confirm that the three Councils r e c e i v e r e g u l a r r e p o r t s on enrolment f i g u r e s , and persons interviewed suggest-ed that at l e a s t one of the Councils requests i n f o r m a t i o n on various breakdowns i n that enrolment. Such breakdowns have to do with such t h i n g s as school l a s t attended, d i s t r i c t of reside n c e , percentages i n various programmes, socio-economic background, mature or r e g u l a r student s t a t u s , and drop out r a t e s i n the various programmes. On the ba s i s of such informa t i o n i t was suggested that the Council might suggest, or approve m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n admission p r i o r i t i e s , or recommend that s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n be paid to a p a r t i c u l a r group, area, or even perhaps a p a r t i c u l a r school i n one of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g D i s t r i c t s . D i s p o s a l - A Summary Major involvement f o r each of the three Councils i n t h i s area appears to l i e i n : (1) c o n s i d e r a t i o n and approval, of proposals f o r new c o l l e g e programmes; (2) c o n s i d e r a t i o n and approval of recommendations concerning fees or admission requirements f o r the c o l l e g e s . Some evidence of a d d i t i o n a l involvement p a r t i c u l a r l y with c o l l e g e programmes has been i d e n t i f i e d , and v a r i a t i o n s among the three Councils have a l s o been noted. PrSSIIremen't Of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s area i s the nature of the s o c i a l 133. order that p r e s e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i s e s the a c t i v i t i e s of the three Councils as they are involved In the procurement of resources such as f i n a n c e s , personnel, and p h y s i c a l f a c i l -i t i e s of various kinds. I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d that these resources have already been r e f e r r e d to as the commitments made to the two-year college, because i t i s l e g i t i m a t e . But these commitments are made to the c o l l e g e only i n the sense that they are a v a i l a b l e ; each c o l l e g e must develop s p e c i f i c procedures through which i t must go i n order to a c t u a l l y o b t a i n these commitments. The concern i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s to i d e n t i f y and d i s p l a y the procedures developed by the three c o l l e g e s s t u d i e d . College Finances. While major a t t e n t i o n w i l l be d i r e c t e d at the proced-ures used by the three Councils to procure finances per medium of a mechanism c a l l e d the budget, i n i t i a l concern w i l l be with i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the sources of finances f o r the c o l l e g e s . Sources of College Finances. Colleges i n the Province have three main sources of revenue f o r t h e i r operating expenses. Student fees provide from eight to ten percent of the t o t a l , approximately s i x t y percent comes out of general revenue, while the remaining - f o r t y percent, minus student f e e s , i s drawn from a tax on property i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g 134. School D i s t r i c t s . A number of the persons interviewed were not happy about t h i s use of property t a x ; i t was argued that post secondary education should be the f i n a n c i a l responsib-., i l i t y of senior governments and supported out of general revenue. On the other hand some concern was expressed over, the p o s s i b l e l o s s of l o c a l c o n t r o l of the c o l l e g e s should a l l f i n a n c i a l support come from general revenue. I t was suggest-ed however, that since t h e . P r o v i n c i a l Government had assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l c a p i t a l f i n a n c i n g f o r the c o l l e g e s , o p p o s i t i o n to the use of l o c a l property taxes f o r the operat-in g expenses had somewhat diminished. U n t i l 1973, c a p i t a l f o r the c o l l e g e s was the shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the taxpayers i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g School D i s t r i c t s and the P r o v i n c i a l Government. Again the s p l i t approximated f o r t y percent l o c a l , s i x t y percent P r o v i n c i a l , but as with the operating expenses, i t was the P r o v i n c i a l Government who determined which expenses were shareable and which were s o l e l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the l o c a l taxpayer. The procedures f o r r a i s i n g c a p i t a l monies at the l o c a l l e v e l , as set out i n the P u b l i c Schools Act, involved p u t t i n g a referendum to the property owners i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g D i s t r i c t s , seeking approval to borrow a c e r t a i n amount of money f o r s p e c i f i e d purposes. I f approval f o r the borrowing was given, money was borrowed and r e p a i d over a number of years by r a i s i n g property taxes. This was the basic proced-135-ure r e q u i r e d of School Boards, and i t was assumed that i f , and when the c o l l e g e s r e q u i r e d c a p i t a l , they too would f o l l o w t h i s procedure. For one of the c o l l e g e s studied a considerable amount of c a p i t a l was r a i s e d through the sa l e o School Board property, so t h e . d i s c u s s i o n that f o l l o w s i s not as a p p l i c a b l e to t h i s c o l l e g e . Under Sections 217 and 254 of the P u b l i c Schools A c t, procedures are o u t l i n e d whereby c a p i t a l monies can be obtained without recourse to a referendum. C a p i t a l may be obtained e i t h e r (1) by p a r t i c i p a t i n g Boards borrowing money, up to a specified'amount, under c e r t a i n circumstances and with r e q u i s i t e approval, without reference to a referr-endum; or (2)- through l e a s i n g , again w i t h r e q u i s i t e approval While the l a t t e r method was more common, the end r e s u l t was • that the source of c a p i t a l expenses f o r the c o l l e g e s was the l o c a l taxpayer. In n e i t h e r case had the l o c a l taxpayer approved such expenditures of h i s taxes. The use of these Sections to ob t a i n c a p i t a l f o r the co l l e g e s was apparently viewed w i t h considerable m i s g i v i n g by many of the t r u s t e e s on p a r t i c i p a t i n g Boards, and t h i s method of r a i s i n g c a p i t a l i t was suggested, created some enmity between the c o l l e g e s and the Boards. Many members of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g Boards apparently f e l t , t hat the c o l l e g e s should have gone to c a p i t a l referenda as the Boards were re q u i r e d to do. On the other hand there was general agree-136. ment that there was l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d that taxpayers would approve a c a p i t a l referendum put by a c o l l e g e . Some of the obstacles to be faced by such a referendum were i d e n t i f i e d , and i n c l u d e d : (1) the r e l a t i v e youth of the c o l l e g e s and the consequent l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n about these new i n s t i t u t i o n s among the taxpayers, might make them very l o a t h to approve a referendum; (2) the p u b l i c concern over r i s i n g education, costs as evidenced by the f a i l u r e of a number of Board referenda; and (3) the geographical spread of the c o l l e g e regions made i t d i f f i c u l t to mount a campaign that would reach and convince a l l p o t e n t i a l v o t e r s . But the c o l l e g e s needed a source of c a p i t a l , and w i t h the Province l o a t h to act as that source, c o l l e g e s had l i t t l e choice. As one Council member put i t -"We were i n a p o s i t i o n of being damned i f we put a c a p i t a l referendum, and damned i f we used Sections 217 and 254, and faced with no b u i l d i n g s i f we d i d not obtain some c a p i t a l . " Since 1973, however, the P r o v i n c i a l Government has assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c a p i t a l finances f o r the c o l l e g e s ; the source of c a p i t a l i s now general revenue. I