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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Teacher, parent and student differences concerning curriculum objectives : the physical education case Hunt, Edmund Arthur 1976

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TEACHER, PARENT AND STUDENT DIFFERENCES CONCERNING CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES: THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION CASE by EDMUND ARTHUR HUNT B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , J957 M.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1961 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS DOCTOR OF PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Dep a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1976 (IT) Edmund A r t h u r Hunt, 1976 In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of this thes i s for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of this thes i s fo r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Etlu. C a. V «C *> AJ "* iK>. V / H L "/C Department of £ t « t c t t T > e w rtcA ™ • m • >7K»-Tu? ^ The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date i } /fU Research S u p e r v i s o r : Dr. J.G.T. K e l s ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e c o n d i t i o n o f agreement-disagreement c o n c e r n i n g t h e r a n k e d i m p o r t a n c e o f sec o n d a r y s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s as p e r -c e i v e d by t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s . The methodology by which t h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d was t o be t e s t e d by an i n t e n s i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f one s u b j e c t a t one p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l o f c u r r i c u l u m f o r m u l a t i o n and s e l e c t i o n . The c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , a s u b j e c t t y p i c a l o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s , were i d e n t i f i e d and p r e -s e n t e d t o groups o f t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s . The o b j e c t i v e s were r a n k e d f o r t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e s t u d e n t s a t t h e member s c h o o l . The r e s p o n d e n t s were s e l e c t e d from s c h o o l communities o f h i g h , medium and low o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s and were i n s t r u c t e d t o rank p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s a c c o r d i n g t o i m p o r t a n c e by u s i n g a " f o r c e d c h o i c e " Q s o r t i n g t e c h n i q u e . The r e s u l t s were a n a l y z e d i n o r d e r t o determine the e x t e n t o f agreement-d i s a g r e e m e n t between groups i d e n t i f i e d by s c h o o l r o l e , s c h o o l l o c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , sex and g r a d e . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t the methodology f o l l o w e d i n t h i s s t u d y c o u l d i d e n t i f y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m d i f f e r e n c e s between t e a c h e r , p a r e n t and s t u d e n t groups. No r e a s o n was a p p a r e n t why t h i s methodology c o u l d n o t be used t o examine the department o b j e c t i v e s o f o t h e r s u b j e c t s w i t h i n a s c h o o l . i i I t was found t h a t a l l groups p l a c e d p h y s i c a l educa-t i o n as a s u b j e c t i n a p o s i t i o n o f m i d d l e i m p o r t a n c e r e l a t i v e t o t h e t o t a l s c h o o l program. As t o t h e r a n k i n g o f t h e twenty p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s , i t was found t h a t s c h o o l r o l e ( t e a c h e r , p a r e n t , s t u d e n t ) was t h e most p o w e r f u l d i s c r i m i n a t o r between group p r e f e r e n c e s . T h i s f a c t o r i d e n t i f i e d e l e v e n i m p o r t a n t r a n k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e groups. S c h o o l l o c a t i o n (west and e a s t ) i d e n t i f i e d t h e l o c u s o f two i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e s . O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s ( I , I I , I I I ) i d e n t i f i e d one i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e . The s t u d e n t group was d i v i d e d by sex and grade ( e i g h t and e l e v e n ) . The r e s u l t s showed i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r -ences between t h e sexes on f i v e o f t h e twenty o b j e c t i v e s . There were t h r e e i m p o r t a n t r a n k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between th e grade l e v e l s . The agreement between g r o u p s , d i v i d e d by s c h o o l l o c a t i o n , showed t h a t w e s t e r n t e a c h e r s a g r e e d w i t h w e s t e r n p a r e n t s on n i n e t e e n o f the o b j e c t i v e s . These same t e a c h e r s a g r e e d w i t h w e s t e r n s t u d e n t s on s i x t e e n o b j e c t i v e s . E a s t e r n t e a c h e r s agreed w i t h e a s t e r n s t u d e n t s on t h e rank o r d e r o f s i x t e e n o b j e c t i v e s and agreed w i t h the e a s t e r n p a r e n t s on o n l y f i f t e e n o f t h e twenty. These mixed r e s u l t s c a s t doubt upon t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t e a c h e r s , under the freedom o f t h e f i r s t s t a g e s o f c u r r i c u l u m d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , were c o n s i s t e n t l y m e e t i n g t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e i r c l i e n t s . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION The Purpose o f t h e Study G e n e r a l P e r s p e c t i v e s o f t h e Study S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Study Overview o f t h e T h e s i s 2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND THE RELEVANT LITERATURE PAGE 1 3 4 8 10 THE BACKGROUND RELEVANT LITERATURE G e n e r a l F i n d i n g s The Task o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s The Goodlad Model Sources o f Disagreement P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n L i t e r a t u r e D i s c u s s i o n : A C o n c e p t u a l Framework Summary 3. THE DESIGN OF THE STUDY The Problem and I t s Sub-Problems 4 5 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms V a r i a b l e s S c h o o l s and t h e Study P o p u l a t i o n L i m i t a t i o n s and D e l i m i t a t i o n s 4. INSTRUMENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS 52 INSTRUMENTATION 52 In s t r u m e n t Number One: Q36 52 12 12 17 17 19 23 29 32 35 43 45 46 47 48 50 i v CHAPTER PAGE In s t r u m e n t Number Two: Q20 54 Q S o r t i n g t h e Statements 58 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the T e s t 61 Method o f S c o r i n g 62 DATA ANALYSIS 68 M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e 68 U n i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e 70 Newman-Keuls P r o c e d u r e 71 V a l i d i t y 72 R e l i a b i l i t y 73 5. THE RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS 76 PHYSICAL EDUCATION WITHIN THE SCHOOL PROGRAM 76 The O v e r a l l View o f t h e Three P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n G o a l s 77 R e s u l t s o f t h e A n a l y s e s o f t h e R o l e by S c h o o l L o c a t i o n 80 The A n a l y s e s o f Stu d e n t P r e f e r e n c e by Sex and Grade 84 Summary o f Q36 DIFFERENCES IN THE RANK ORDER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION OBJECTIVES 87 An O v e r a l l View o f t h e R o l e F a c t o r 8 7 A n a l y s e s o f S c h o o l R o l e Combined W i t h S c h o o l L o c a t i o n 88 The E f f e c t o f O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s on P a r e n t and Stu d e n t P r e f e r e n c e s 102 The E f f e c t s o f Sex and Grade 105 M u l t i - v a r i a b l e I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s 111 CHAPTER Summary o f F i n d i n g s Between Groups Concerned W i t h Q20 Agreement Between E a s t e r n and Western Groups 6. DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND THE TOTAL SCHOOL PROGRAM DISAGREEMENT AND AGREEMENT CONCERNING PHYSICAL EDUCATION OBJECTIVES Disagreement C o n c e r n i n g P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s Agreement C o n c e r n i n g P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES T h e o r e t i c a l Concerns M e t h o d o l o g i c a l Concerns 7. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS IMPLICATIONS I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P r a c t i c e I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Theory I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R esearch BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX v i LIST OF TABLES TABLE O c c u p a t i o n a l R a n k i n g o f the L o c a l Areas PAGE From t h e 1971 Census 49 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Study P o p u l a t i o n 51 3 T e s t - R e t e s t C o r r e l a t i o n s Taken From the O r d e r i n g o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n G o a l s and O b j e c t i v e s By 100 Randomly S e l e c t e d D a v i d Thompson S c h o o l Grade E i g h t and Grade E l e v e n S t u d e n t s 75 4 Group Mean Scores and M u l t i p l e Comparisons Among t h e L e v e l s o f R o l e F a c t o r on Three R e p r e s e n t a t i v e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n G o a l s 7 8 10 ANOVA R e s u l t s o f t h e Three R e p r e s e n t a t i v e G o a l s A n a l y z e d f o r the S c h o o l R o l e and S c h o o l L o c a t i o n E f f e c t s ANOVA R e s u l t s : The Mean Scores o f Three P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n G o a l s and t h e R e s u l t i n g P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Average as A s s i g n e d by Tea c h e r s , P a r e n t s and S t u d e n t s D i v i d e d by West and E a s t MANOVA R e s u l t s : The Rank and Mean Scores o f Twenty P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s as A s s i g n e d by T e a c h e r s , P a r e n t s and S t u d e n t s MANOVA R e s u l t s : The Rank Order o f Twenty P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s as A s s i g n e d by T e a c h e r s , P a r e n t s and S t u d e n t s 11 R e s u l t s o f two-way ANOVAs on Twenty P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s and the F R a t i o s f o r E f f e c t s 81 82 7 MANOVA R e s u l t s : Three R e p r e s e n t a t i v e G o a l s T r e a t e d S i m u l t a n e o u s l y 85 8 The Mean Sc o r e s f o r 720 S t u d e n t s D i v i d e d by Sex and Grade 85 89 90 91 12 ANOVA R e s u l t s o f Newman-Keuls A n a l y s e s on Three L e v e l s o f R o l e F a c t o r f o r Twenty O b j e c t i v e s 91 13 ANOVA R e s u l t s : The Rank Order o f Twenty P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s as A s s i g n e d by T e a c h e r s , P a r e n t s and St u d e n t s 94 v i i TABLE PAGE 14 S e c t i o n s o f P r i o r i t y A s s i g n e d t o E l e v e n O b j e c t i v e s Showing Important Rank D i f f e r e n c e s Between T e a c h e r s , P a r e n t s and S t u d e n t s 95 15 R e s u l t s o f t h e Newman-Keuls A n a l y s i s on a l l S i x C e l l s o f t h e D e s i g n 96 16 P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s Showing Rank Orders A s s i g n e d by Teacher, P a r e n t and S t u d e n t Groups D i v i d e d by S c h o o l L o c a t i o n West and E a s t 98 17 S e c t i o n s o f P r i o r i t y A s s i g n e d t o Ten O b j e c t i v e s Showing I m p o r t a n t Rank D i f f e r e n c e s Between T e a c h e r s , P a r e n t s and S t u d e n t s D i v i d e d by West and E a s t 99 18 S e c t i o n s o f P r i o r i t y A s s i g n e d t o F i v e O b j e c t i v e s Showing Important Rank D i f f e r e n c e s Between Western P a r e n t s and E a s t e r n P a r e n t s 101 19 R e s u l t s o f 3 x 2 ANOVAs on Twenty P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s and t h e F R a t i o s f o r E f f e c t s R o l e V e r s u s O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s 103 20 The Ranks and Mean Sc o r e s A s s i g n e d t o P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s by P a r e n t s and S t u d e n t s D i v i d e d by O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s I , I I , I I I 104 21 MANOVA R e s u l t s : Twenty O b j e c t i v e s T r e a t e d S i m u l t a n e o u s l y f o r Sex x Grade 106 22 R e s u l t s o f 2 x 2 ANOVAs on Twenty P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s and the F R a t i o s f o r E f f e c t s Sex and Grade 107 23 The Rank and Mean Sc o r e s A s s i g n e d t o P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s by S t u d e n t s Grouped by Sex o r Grade 108 24 The Rank Order o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s A s s i g n e d by 720 S t u d e n t s When C l a s s i f i e d A c c o r d i n g t o Sex and Grade 110 25 S e c t i o n s o f P r i o r i t y A s s i g n e d t o O b j e c t i v e s Showing Important Rank D i f f e r e n c e s Between Stu d e n t Groups C l a s s i f i e d by Sex and Grade 111 V l l l TABLE PAGE 26 The Ranks and Mean Sc o r e s f o r Twenty P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s Ranked by S t u d e n t s Grouped by C r o s s e d F a c t o r s Sex and Grade 113 27 The Rank Placement o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s Ranked by S t u d e n t s Grouped by C r o s s e d F a c t o r s Sex and Grade 114 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1 A C o n c e p t u a l System f o r C u r r i c u l a r D e c i s i o n s and Data Sources 2 Method o f S c o r i n g the Columns o f Q36 3 Method o f S c o r i n g t h e Columns o f Q2 0 4 S e c t i o n s o f P r i o r i t y i n the Q36 A r r a y 5 S e c t i o n s o f P r i o r i t y i n t h e Q20 A r r a y 6 Two Way A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e D i s p l a y : S c h o o l R o l e and O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s 7 An I l l u s t r a t i o n o f Homogeneous Sub-sets I d e n t i f i e d by t h e Newman-Keuls P r o c e d u r e 8 A Graph o f t h e Mean Sc o r e s G i v e n t o the G o a l s o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n by T e a c h e r s , P a r e n t s and S t u d e n t s 9 A Graph o f t h e Mean Sc o r e s G i v e n t o the G o a l s o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n by T e a c h e r s , P a r e n t s and S t u d e n t s , D i v i d e d by West and E a s t 10 P a t t e r n s Showing I m p o r t a n t Rank D i f f e r e n c e s A s s o c i a t e d W i t h S c h o o l L o c a t i o n West and Ea 11 A Graph I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e N a t u r e o f the I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t Between Sex and Grade on O b j e c t i v e B 12 Suggested R e v i s i o n o f Goodlad's C o n c e p t u a l System f o r C u r r i c u l a r D e c i s i o n s and Data Sources X A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T T h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s a d e e p g r a t i t u d e t o t h e m e n f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w h o h e l p e d s h a p e h i s t r a i n i n g a s a s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r a n d t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n : D r . W . J . H a r t r i c k , C h a i r m a n ; D r . ' J . B l a n e y ; D r . L . B r i s s e y ; D r . L . D o w n e y ; D r . R . J . H i l l s , D r . I . H o u s e g o ; D r . J . H . W a l l i n . S i n c e r e t h a n k s a r e a l s o e x t e n d e d t o t h e c o m m i t t e e m e m b e r s : D r . J . G . T . K e l s e y , C h a i r m a n ; D r . A . R . H a k s t i a n ; D r . W . J . H a r t r i c k ; D r . G . S i n c l a i r ; D r . J . H . W a l l i n , f o r t h e i r a d v i c e a n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f m a j o r p o r t i o n s o f t h e t e x t . N o a m o u n t o f t h a n k s c a n p r o p e r l y e x p r e s s t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n f e l t b y t h e a u t h o r f o r t h e g r e a t a m o u n t o f t i m e , p a t i e n c e a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t t h a t w a s s o w i l l i n g l y g i v e n b y D r . J . G . T . K e l s e y . T h e a u t h o r w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k H e l e n S t e w a r t H u n t w i t h o u t w h o s e h e l p a n d s u p p o r t t h i s w o r k w o u l d h a v e b e e n i m p o s s i b l e . Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION The main a c t i v i t i e s o f any o r g a n i z a t i o n r e v o l v e around t h e p u r s u i t o f i t s chosen g o a l s . As a r e s u l t , many b u s i n e s s e s , and p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s a l i k e , t a k e g r e a t c a r e i n t he s e l e c t i o n o f g o a l s and i n t h e p e r i o d i c e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e . These a p p r a i s a l t a s k s p r e s e n t g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y t o some o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a n t o o t h e r s because o f the n a t u r e o f t h e i r p r o d u c t . F o r example, i t i s more d i f f i -c u l t f o r a s c h o o l system t o e v a l u a t e "the development o f i n d i v i d u a l p o t e n t i a l , " t h a n i t i s f o r a h e a l t h f o u n d a t i o n t o e v a l u a t e "the e r a d i c a t i o n o f p o l i o m y e l i t i s . " The problems i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e s e l e c t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f s c h o o l g o a l s and e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s have l o n g been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n e d u c a t i o n ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a -t u r e (Mulhern, 1959; G e t z e l s , Lipham and Ca m p b e l l , 1968). I t has become r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e f a r l e s s p r e c i s e t h a n t h o s e o f many o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n our s o c i e t y ( T y l e r , 1954; Goodlad, 1971; G r e e n f i e l d , 1967) . There would appear t o be a need, i n an age o f p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m , o f demands f o r s c h o o l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y and o f i n c r e a s i n g t e a c h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n , f o r some attempt t o a v o i d i m p r e c i s i o n and t o examine methods f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h -ment o f agreed-upon s t a t e m e n t s about t h e purpose o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s . 1 2 The v e r y statement o f t h i s need, however, r a i s e s s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s about t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f f i l l i n g i t . A r e e d u c a t o r s t o a d d r e s s t h e m s e l v e s t o g o a l s o f a s c h o o l system, t o g o a l s o f i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s , t o s p e c i f i c c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c -t i v e s , o r t o a l l t h r e e ? I s i t o n l y e d u c a t o r s who have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e problem, o r i s t h e p u b l i c a l s o r e s p o n -s i b l e ? Whatever g o a l s a r e s e l e c t e d , how s h a l l we know whether e d u c a t o r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s a r e i n agreement about th e s t a t e d p u r p o s e s ? And what i s t o be t h e p r i o r i t y o f i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e s e g o a l s ? To r a i s e t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i s t o i n d i c a t e t h e e x i s -t e n c e o f many o t h e r s and demonstrates t h e need f o r a s y s t e m a t i c approach t o a n s w e r i n g them. Not a l l can be answered a t once and, i n d e e d , answers t o any can p r o b a b l y be a c h i e v e d o n l y by a s t e p - b y - s t e p e x a m i n a t i o n o f the elements o f t h e t o t a l c o m p o s i t e problem i n such a way as t o p e r m i t each q u e s t i o n t o be a d d r e s s e d on t h e b a s i s o f answers o b t a i n e d t o a p r i o r one. Such a p r o g r e s s i o n s u g g e s t s t h e need f o r a framework f o r v i e w i n g t h e problem o f g o a l f o r m u l a t i o n a c r o s s a s c h o o l system. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f such a framework and the r e f i n e m e n t o f an accompanying methodology may l e a d t o a u s e f u l system f o r t h o s e e d u c a t o r s who w i s h t o d e v e l o p c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s t h a t w i l l encourage a h i g h degree o f c o o p e r a t i o n i n t h e i r p u r s u i t . The f o r m u l a t i o n and s e l e c t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c -t i v e s t h a t have h i g h agreement between c o o p e r a t i n g groups i s seen as an i m p o r t a n t f i r s t s t e p i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c u r r i c u l u m 3 development (Gross, 1964). The p r e s e n t s t u d y was concerned w i t h t h i s s t e p and f o c u s e d upon t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e e x t e n t o f agreement o r di s a g r e e m e n t between e d u c a t o r s and t h e i r c l i e n t s i n r e s p e c t t o t h e importance o f the o b j e c t i v e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r program. The f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s speak o f t h i s c o n c e r n by s p e c i f y i n g t h e purpose o f the s t u d y and by o u t l i n i n g t h e g e n e r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s i n whi c h i t was d e v e l o p e d . Another s e c t i o n o f t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r o u t l i n e s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t he s t u d y . The f i n a l s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s an o v e r v i e w o f t h e c o n t e n t o f the o t h e r c h a p t e r s i n t h i s t h e s i s . The Purpose o f the Study The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e c o n d i t i o n o f agreement-disagreement c o n c e r n i n g t h e importance of c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s as p e r c e i v e d by t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s . The methodology by whi c h t h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d was t o be t e s t e d by an i n t e n s i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f the o b j e c t i v e s o f one s u b j e c t a t one p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l o f c u r r i c u l u m f o r m u l a t i o n and s e l e c t i o n . T h i s i n t e n t i o n r e q u i r e d t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f a framework wh i c h would c l a r i f y some o f t h e a m b i g u i t i e s and ar e a s o f o v e r l a p t y p i c a l l y found i n g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n s o f s c h o o l g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s . Such a framework would s p e c i f y v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . I t a l s o r e q u i r e d the c r e a t i o n o f a means o f o b t a i n i n g s t a t e m e n t s o f o b j e c t i v e s and o f a s s e s s i n g agreement and d i s a g r e e m e n t . The s t u d y was t h e r e f o r e , c o n c e r n e d w i t h : 1) the s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f a g u i d i n g model o f c u r r i c u l u m development w h i c h d e f i n e s v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g con-c e r n i n g t h e f o r m u l a t i o n and s e l e c t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e s ; 2) t h e development o f an a c c e p t a b l e s e t o f s t a t e m e n t s about c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s f o r a s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t ; 3) t h e assessment o f the e x t e n t o f agreement and d i s a g r e e m e n t between groups o f t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s i n such a way t o i n d i c a t e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h d i s a g r e e m e n t was p r e s e n t and, i f s o , w i t h what f a c t o r s i t appeared t o be a s s o c i a t e d ; 4) t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s t o a s s e s s any i m p l i c a t i o n s t h e y may have f o r : use by p r a c t i t i o n e r s ; o r t h e r e f i n e m e n t o f t h e methodology d e v e l o p e d i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f t h e s t u d y ; o r t h e r e f i n e m e n t o f t h e s p e c i -f i e d c u r r i c u l u m model. G e n e r a l P e r s p e c t i v e s o f t h e Study P u b l i c s c h o o l s a r e viewed as s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f a s p o n s o r i n g p u b l i c . How e v e r , because o f t h e d i v e r s i t y o f s o c i e t y , t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t p e o p l e h o l d f o r s c h o o l s a r e a l s o d i v e r s e ; and, because r o l e s a r e d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o e x p e c t a t i o n s , ( S a r b i n , 1954; G e t z e l s , Lipham and C a m p b e l l , 1968), t h e n r o l e s , t o o , would have s i m i l a r v a r i a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , some r a t i o n a l method i s n e c e s s a r y t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e v a r i e d r o l e s w i t h i n a s c h o o l . One p l a c e t o b e g i n i s w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r s c h o o l s u b j e c t departments. 5 I n a p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y , as found i n many urban c e n t r e s , i t s h o u l d n o t be s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e r e would be many d i f f e r i n g groups s e e k i n g d i f f e r i n g v a l u e s a t i s f a c t i o n s from the s c h o o l s t h e y s u p p o r t . Because o f t h i s d i v e r s i t y , we might suppose t h a t t h e r e would be many e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t would not be met i f s c h o o l s sought t o s a t i s f y t h e m a j o r i t y o n l y . As c l i e n t s e r v i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h e y might be e x p e c t e d , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , t o a t t e n d as w e l l t o t h e needs and p r e f e r e n c e s o f a l l g r oups. I n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y , c l i e n t s c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o have t h e i r own v i e w r e g a r d i n g g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s and p r i o r i t i e s , and t h e s e may n o t always agree w i t h the g o a l s i d e n t i f i e d by t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . F o r as G e t z e l s , Lipham and Campbell (1968:168) have n o t e d : There seems l i t t l e doubt t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l and s o c i a l c l a s s p o s i t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e s e s t r a t i -f i c a t i o n s a r e p r o b a b l y l e s s sharp t h a n f o r m e r l y , c l e a v a g e s remain i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s i d e r a t a c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n s i n o u r s o c i e t y . The e x i s t i n g c l e a v a g e s s t i l l make f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e dilemmas, f o r t h e more n e a r l y t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r meets one s e t o f expec-t a t i o n s t h e more he r i s k s f a i l i n g t o meet a n o t h e r s e t . When t h i s s i t u a t i o n o c c u r s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t d isagreement o v e r g o a l p r i o r i t i e s c o u l d a r i s e . Disagreement of° t h i s k i n d m ight c o n t r i b u t e t o a reduced p r o b a b i l i t y o f g o a l a t t a i n m e n t , whereas a w o r k i n g l e v e l o f agreement would l i k e l y enhance c o o p e r a t i o n . The i m p o r t a n c e o f m o n i t o r i n g t h e l e v e l s o f a g r e e -ment-disagreement w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s has n o t escaped t h e 6 p r o f e s s i o n a l v i e w , f o r as Gross (1964:522) has n o t e d , "One o f t h e o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y has been the i n c r e a s i n g o r i e n t a t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s toward t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f more i n t e r e s t s o f t h e l a r g e r p u b l i c s . " I t i s assumed, however, t h a t t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e t o any change h o l d i n g a f a i r p r o b a b i l i t y o f s u c c e s s i s a r e a s o n a b l e l e v e l o f a g r e e -ment on g o a l s r e p r e s e n t i n g s h a red v a l u e s between t h e p r o f e s -s i o n a l s and t h e i r c l i e n t s . The s i t u a t i o n i s e n c a p s u l a t e d w e l l by Thompson and MacEwen (1958:187): The g o a l - s e t t i n g problem . . . i s e s s e n t i a l l y d e t e r m i n i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y , w h i c h i n t u r n becomes a q u e s t i o n o f what the s o c i e t y (or elements w i t h i n i t ) wants done o r can be persuaded t o s u p p o r t . Because the s e t t i n g o f g o a l s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a problem o f d e f i n i n g d e s i r e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between an o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s e nvironment, change i n e i t h e r r e q u i r e s r e v i e w and perhaps a l t e r a t i o n o f g o a l s . As n o t e d e a r l i e r , t h e b r oad q u e s t i o n o f g o a l f o r m u l a -t i o n and s e l e c t i o n i s i m p r e c i s e and r e q u i r e s a r a t i o n a l system t o d e f i n e and d e l i n e a t e t h e components t o be examined. Two elements o f t h e q u e s t i o n may be n o t e d i n t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n . They r e l a t e r e s p e c t i v e l y t o : 1) t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f what l e v e l s o f an e d u c a t i o n system might be s t u d i e d t o g i v e i n s i g h t i n t o the q u e s t i o n o f d i s a g r e e m e n t c o n c e r n i n g g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s ; 2) t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s . There a r e a t l e a s t f o u r major l e v e l s w i t h i n an e d u c a t i o n a l system where d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e f o r m u l a t i o n and s e l e c t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s a r e made. 7 T h i s c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i s found a t t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l i n l e g i s l a t i v e a s s e m b l i e s and on s c h o o l boards o f t r u s -t e e s , where t h e p u b l i c , t h r o u g h t h e i r e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , a t t e mpt t o s t a t e t h e p u b l i c ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r s c h o o l s . A n o t h e r l e v e l i s found a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l where p r o f e s s i o n a l s t r y t o form g o a l s t h a t w i l l s a t i s f y community p r e f e r e n c e s . A l s o , each s u b j e c t department would attempt t o d e f i n e what o b j e c t i v e s t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w i l l t r y t o a c c o m p l i s h . A f o u r t h l e v e l i s found i n each c l a s s r o o m where the t e a c h e r a t t e m p t s t o s e l e c t t h e c u r r i c u l u m t a s k s t h a t a r e most a p p r o p r i a t e t o each i n d i v i d u a l and h i s / h e r p r o g r e s s . I t may be seen a t any one o f t h e mentioned l e v e l s o f c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t h a t any g i v e n t o p i c w i l l change i n s p e c i f i c i t y as i t moves from t h e s o c i e t y o u t s i d e t h e s c h o o l and t h r o u g h t h e system t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s r o o m . A t t h e f i r s t l e v e l , t h e g o a l s , w h i c h may be d e f i n e d as " p r e f e r r e d f u t u r e c o n d i t i o n s , " a r e n e c e s s a r i l y g e n e r a l by n a t u r e because t h e y a t t e m p t t o a c t as t a r g e t s f o r a l a r g e s o c i e t y . The more s p e c i f i c s t a t e m e n t s by i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s as t o what b e h a v i o r s s t u d e n t s a r e t o know o r t o demonstrate a r e formed f o r each s u b j e c t and a r e c a l l e d o b j e c t i v e s . The d i s t i n c t i o n between g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s , t h e n , i s one o f s p e c i f i c i t y . The e x i s t e n c e o f s e v e r a l l e v e l s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and o f v a r y i n g degrees o f g o a l s p e c i f i c i t y i n d i c a t e t h e complex spectrum c o n f r o n t i n g any c u r r i c u l u m e x a m i n a t i o n . I n v i e w o f t h i s c o m p l e x i t y , i t was deemed p r a c t i c a l t o l i m i t t h e s t u d y , by f o c u s i n g on t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e s i n one s u b j e c t 8 a r e a a t t h e department l e v e l t o keep t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n t o a manageable s i z e . Any s c h o o l s u b j e c t c o u l d have been chosen a t random b u t , because o f t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r ' s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h i t s h i s t o r y and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , (Hunt, 1964) p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n was s e l e c t e d f o r an a n a l y s i s o f i t s c l a s s r o o m o b j e c t i v e s . S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Study I n t h e framework o f t h e above d i s c u s s i o n , i t would appear t o be good p r a c t i c e f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o i n q u i r e p e r i o d i c a l l y i n t o t h e l e v e l s o f agreement-disagreement among the major groups ( t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , s t u d e n t s ) w i t h i n t h e l o c a l s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f such i n q u i r y would g i v e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s more i n s i g h t i n t o t h e wants o f t h e d i v e r s e groups t h e y h e l p c o o r d i n a t e . Because o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y ' s f o c u s upon p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , the r e s u l t s may a l s o be o f b e n e f i t t o t e a c h e r s and t h e i r s t u d e n t s w i t h i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t f i e l d . The st u d y may p r o v i d e , f o r example, a u s e f u l , comprehensive l i s t o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s , a t a s p e c i f i c l e v e l o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e spon-s o r i n g p u b l i c would be v a l u a b l e t o t h o s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s a s p i r i n g t o community s e r v i c e . Improved c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g i s p o s s i b l e , f o r example, i n t h a t m i s s i n g elements might be i d e n t i f i e d and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l o f p r i o r i t y c o u l d be 9 g i v e n t o t h o s e c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s found t o be most impor-t a n t . A t h o r o u g h a n a l y s i s o f p u b l i c e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r a s c h o o l s u b j e c t would g i v e d a t a i m p o r t a n t t o t h e development o f h i g h l e v e l s o f c o o p e r a t i o n among c l i e n t s . W i t h i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s k i n d , s e v e r a l o p t i o n s become a v a i l a b l e . The admin-i s t r a t o r may: a) use t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o c i r c u m n a v i g a t e p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t a r e a s o f c u r r i c u l u m ; b) use t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o p l a n t o meet p a r e n t p r e f e r e n c e s ; c) use t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o p l a n t o meet s t u d e n t p r e f e r e n c e s ; d) use t h e i n f o r m a t i o n as a b a s i s f o r d i s c u s s i o n t o r e n d e r d i s a g r e e m e n t t o a n e g o t i a b l e l e v e l . I n many s c h o o l s / d i s a g r e e m e n t o v e r t h e importance and p r i o r i t y r a n k i n g o f c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s may a c t u a l l y e x i s t among t h e s e v e r a l i n t e r a c t i n g groups but remain i n an undiagnosed s t a t e . Some d i f f e r e n c e s a r e t o be e x p e c t e d , b u t i t i s not known t o what e x t e n t t h e y e x i s t o r where t h e y a r e l o c a t e d . C o n t r o v e r s i a l s i t u a t i o n s may be t a l k e d about but a r e t h e y o f t e n a n a l y z e d ? A p o t e n t i a l l y more u s e f u l s t r a t e g y t h a n d i s c u s s i o n , i s t o seek o b j e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e v i e w o f p e r s o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n a c u r r i c u l u m f i e l d and, t h e r e b y , d i s c o v e r t h e l o c u s and e x t e n t o f agreement and/or d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h i t s o b j e c t i v e s . I f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s a t t empt t o d i s c o v e r t h e l o c u s and e x t e n t o f agreement-disagreement c o n c e r n i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s w i t h i n t h e s u b j e c t o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , t h e n t h e r e must e x i s t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f o t h e r s u b j e c t s as w e l l . The methods used, and the i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d , w i l l p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e p r o c e s s o f t h a t c u r r i c u l u m development w h i c h seeks agreement between th e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s and t h e i r c l i e n t s . The r e s u l t s may t h e n be used t o add t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c u r r i c u l u m models p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e and may even a c t as a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e i r r e f i n e m e n t . The p r e s e n t s t a t e o f agreement-disagreement i n many p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h Columbia i s v i r t u a l l y unknown under the p r e s e n t system w i t h i n w h i c h t h e p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p s toward d e c e n t r a l i z e d c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a r e w e l l under way. The p o l i c y t h a t encourages each t e a c h e r t o f o r m u l a t e and s e l e c t o b j e c t i v e s t o meet t h e needs o f t h e community r e q u i r e s a system t o e v a l u a t e p r o g r e s s t o t h i s end. A methodology i s needed t o h e l p p r o f e s s i o n a l s d e t e r m i n e o b j e c t i v e s i n a p r e -c i s e and c o n s i s t e n t manner. Once the o b j e c t i v e s a r e g a t h e r e d , t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r need t o e v a l u a t e t h e v a l i d i t y o f the c h o i c e s . There must be a method p r o v i d e d t h a t w i l l measure the c l i e n t l e v e l s o f agreement-disagreement w i t h t h e chosen o b j e c t i v e s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o t e s t one method-o l o g y w i t h w h i c h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r can a s s i s t t h e t e a c h e r i n d i a g n o s i n g l e v e l s o f congruence between t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s . Overview o f t h e T h e s i s T h i s c h a p t e r has i n t r o d u c e d t h e need f o r t h e s t u d y and has o u t l i n e d i t s purpose. The g e n e r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s f r a m i n g t h e problem have been d e s c r i b e d , and some o f the p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s have been mentioned. Ch a p t e r 2 p r e s e n t s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l background t o t h e s t u d y and r e v i e w s t h e r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e . Two s p e c i f i c a r e a s of p r e v i o u s work a r e d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l and t h e i r r e l a t i o n -s h i p t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s s p e c i f i e d . C h a pter 3 p r e s e n t s t h e d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y i n c l u d i n g t h e problem and i t s sub-problems. D e f i n i t i o n s o f terms a r e g i v e n . C hapter 4 d i s c u s s e s t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and the d a t a a n a l y s i s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , t h e method o f s c o r i n g and the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e shown. C h a p t e r s 5 and 6 p r e s e n t t h e f i n d i n g s and t h e d i s -c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s . C h apter 7 p r e s e n t s the summary, c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s . Chapter 2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND THE RELEVANT LITERATURE T h i s c h a p t e r a m p l i f i e s t h e g e n e r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s o u t -l i n e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n . The f i r s t s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s a g e n e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l background t h a t t r a c e s t h e s o u r c e s o f t h e st u d y . A second s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s a r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n s o f p u b l i c e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r e d u c a t i o n , and t o f o u r s p e c i f i c a r e a s w i t h i n t h e g e n e r a l f i e l d : t he t a s k o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n , t h e model o f c u r r i c u l u m development p r o -posed by Goodlad (1966), s o u r c e s o f disag r e e m e n t on o b j e c t i v e s , and the o b j e c t i v e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . A t h i r d s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e main f i n d i n g s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e and d e s c r i b e s t h e c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r the s t u d y . The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h a summary s e c t i o n . THE BACKGROUND I n t e r e s t i n an a n a l y s i s o f d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n s c o n c e r n i n g c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s f o r any s u b j e c t depends i n p a r t upon one's p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f t h e p u b l i c secondary s c h o o l . I n t h e i r e s s e n t i a l r o l e , s c h o o l s may be viewed as s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e d i c a t e d t o f u l f i l t h e needs and p r e -f e r e n c e s o f t h e i r s p o n s o r i n g p u b l i c (Thompson and MacEwen, 1958; G r o s s , 1964; P a r s o n s , 1966). Hence, t h e g o a l s o f t h e 13 s c h o o l must r e f l e c t i n some way t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s and v a l u e s o f the s o c i e t y i n wh i c h i t f u n c t i o n s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , the s e l e c -t i o n o f s c h o o l g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o t h e s c h o o l ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e community. I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e q u i r e the c o o p e r a t i o n o f c o n s t i t u e n t s i f t h e y a r e t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e g o a l s t h e y have s e t f o r t h e m s e l v e s . I t i s f u r t h e r h e l d by many a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h e o r i s t s ( T y l e r , 1949; S e l z n i c k , 1957; G r o s s , 1964; G e t z e l s , Lipham and Ca m p b e l l , 1968; Goodlad, 1966; P a r s o n s , 1966, and G r e e n f i e l d , 1967) t h a t the degree o f c o o p e r a t i o n between groups i n complex s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s enhanced o r hampered by t h e degree t o wh i c h t h e r e i s agreement c o n c e r n i n g g o a l s . The a t t a i n m e n t o f g o a l agreement does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean a u t o m a t i c achievement o f t h e g o a l s t h e m s e l v e s . However, i t i s b e l i e v e d ( K a r i u s , 1973) t h a t by s e e k i n g a h i g h degree o f agreement w i t h r e s p e c t t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s , t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r i n c r e a s e d g o a l awareness and i n c r e a s e d g o a l commitment w i l l be enhanced. Hence, t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f g o a l achievement w i l l be i n c r e a s e d . C o n v e r s e l y , when t h e r e i s c o n f l i c t o r a l a r g e d i f f e r -ence o f o p i n i o n among t h e members o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s , t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o o p e r a t i o n i s reduced; and a c c o r d i n g l y , t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a c h i e v i n g any o f the g o a l s i s s i m i l a r l y r e d u c e d . I t would, o f c o u r s e , be impos-s i b l e t o e l i m i n a t e c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n ; nor would t h a t s i t u a t i o n be d e s i r a b l e . D i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n a r e seen 14 as s t i m u l i f o r change and growth and a so u r c e o f c r e a t i v i t y ( F o l l e t t , 1924; G r o s s , 1964). The p o s i t i o n i s t a k e n here t h a t a c e r t a i n u n d e f i n e d , w o r k i n g l e v e l o f g o a l agreement i s d e s i r a b l e t o i n c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a c h i e v i n g o r g a n i z a -t i o n g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s . I f a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f g o a l agreement i s i m p o r t a n t , t h e n i t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s a r e n o t s t a t i c b u t a r e c o n t i n u o u s l y i n a p r o c e s s o f m o d i f i c a -t i o n as t h e needs and wants o f member groups and o f t h e s o c i e t y change ( S e l z n i c k , 1957; E t z i o n i , 1961). Thus, changes o f th e s e s o r t s may v e r y e a s i l y c r e a t e g o a l i n c o n g r u e n c i e s . A t t i m e s , t h e r e f o r e , when t h e r e a r e changes e v i d e n t i n s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o r p r e f e r e n c e s , p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s (and e s p e c i -a l l y t h o s e t h a t a s p i r e t o community s e r v i c e ) s h o u l d a s s e s s t h e degree o f g o a l d i f f e r e n c e between them and t h e i r communities. Awareness o f s e r i o u s g o a l p e r c e p t i o n d i s c r e p a n c i e s would be v a l u a b l e n o t o n l y i n a v e r t i n g t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f any one group's e f f o r t toward g o a l achievement b u t a l s o i n h e l p i n g t o b r i n g about a more t o l e r a b l e l e v e l o f c o o p e r a t i o n which c o u l d ease the problems i n v o l v e d i n g u i d i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n toward i t s g o a l s ; f o r , as G e t z e l s , Lipham and C a m p b e l l , i n s p e a k i n g o f t h e s c h o o l s , have warned (1968:181): D i f f e r e n c e s among t h e v a r i o u s s u b - p u b l i c s i n t h e c u l t u r e i n wh i c h t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i s embedded, and d i f f e r e n c e s between e d u c a t o r s and n o n - e d u c a t o r s , have a s t r i c t b e a r i n g upon t h e f u n c t i o n a l problems f a c i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r — problems n o t o n l y o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l p u rposes b u t a l s o o f o p e r a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s , programs, p e r s o n n e l , p l a n t , and p r o v i s i o n f o r f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . One way t o h e l p ensure group s u p p o r t and g o a l con-gruence between o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e i r p u b l i c has been t o a s s i g n t h i s maintenance t a s k t o a c e n t r a l agency (Gross, 1964) P r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n systems i n Canada have had l o n g h i s t o r i e s o f such c e n t r a l i z a t i o n w h e r e i n government departments o f educa t i o n were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s c h o o l g o a l s , t h e i r f o r m u l a t i o n and p r o m u l g a t i o n . A l s o , t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s e g o a l s were b e i n g a c h i e v e d was a s s e s s e d t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y o f p r o c e s s e s such a s : d e p a r t m e n t a l e x a m i n a t i o n s , s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s and government i n s p e c t i o n . Such a s i t u a t i o n o f c e n t r a l i z e d c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n -making was n o t t o be t o l e r a t e d i n many o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o l l o w i n g t h e 1960s. There had e v o l v e d by t h i s t i m e a t r e n d toward autonomy by a whole c l a s s o f w o r k e r s known as p r o f e s s i o n a l s . T e a c h e r s , t o o , had f o l l o w e d t h i s t r e n d and were s e e k i n g a s h are i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and a c o l l e g i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u p e r i o r s (Kornhauser, 1957; Schmuck and R u n k e l , 1970). R o s e n t h a l (1969:1) noted t h a t "Classroom t e a c h e r s o r g a n i z e d t h e m s e l v e s and a r e s e e k i n g g u a r a n t e e s t h a t t h e y w i l l n o t o n l y be l i s t e n e d t o on m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g s c h o o l p o l i c y b u t t h a t t h e y s h a l l a l s o be g i v e n an a c t i v e p a r t i n d e t e r m i n i n g p o l i c y . " T h i s d e v e l o p i n g t r e n d toward p r o f e s s i o n a l autonomy and t h e d e s i r e f o r a s hare i n p o l i c y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada ( K e e l e r , 1969). I n c r e a s i n g t e a c h e r m i l i t a n c y (Shanker, 1969) c l a s h e d w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t power as e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h 16 e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s ( B i l l i n g s , 1971; K e p p e l , 1969). Some s t u d e n t s , f e e l i n g a new d i s c o n t e n t m e n t , ( K e n i s t o n , 1965) began a l i g n i n g t h e m s e l v e s a g a i n s t b o t h t e a c h e r s and t h e " e s t a b l i s h m e n t " o f t h e i r p a r e n t s ( S i l b e r m a n , 1970) i n a move toward "a r e l e v a n t c u r r i c u l u m . " One r e s u l t o f t h i s t r e n d toward autonomy c o u l d be c a l l e d t h e d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n o f s c h o o l s . T e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s , as t h e major groups a f f e c t e d by t h e g o a l s o f t h e s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n , wanted a v o i c e i n g o a l f o r m u l a t i o n . As Rothman has ob s e r v e d (1969:7): A fundamental change i s t a k i n g p l a c e i n p a t t e r n s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The d e m o c r a t i c i d e a l i s b e i n g t a k e n s e r i o u s l y i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e and thos e who a r e a f f e c t e d by d e c i s i o n s a r e more o f t e n demanding a s i g n i f i c a n t share i n making them. The s c h o o l board o f t r u s t e e s f o r t h e d i s t r i c t o f Vancouver r e a c t e d toward t h e d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s . On March 11, 1971, a l e t t e r from t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f s c h o o l s , Dr. R. F. Sharp, was s e n t t o e v e r y t e a c h e r i n t h e d i s t r i c t o u t l i n i n g t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l freedom o f t e a c h e r s and u r g i n g each t e a c h e r ". . . t o a d j u s t t h e c u r r i c u l u m and t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g p r o c e d u r e s and t o d e v e l o p and t r y o u t a l t e r n a t i v e s o r o p t i o n s t o meet t h e needs o f h i s s t u d e n t s . " The Department o f E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e t r e n d toward d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a i n 1974 by amending the P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t ( s e c t i o n 168) t o r e a d : S u b j e c t t o t h e r e g u l a t i o n s , a s c h o o l board o f t r u s t e e s may approve c o u r s e s o f s t u d y , t e x t -books, supplementary r e a d e r s , and s i m i l a r 17 i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r use i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . T h i s s e c t i o n f o r m e r l y had s t a t e d t h a t no c o u r s e o f s t u d y c o u l d be used w i t h o u t t h e a p p r o v a l o f the C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c -t i o n . D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t a s k appears now t o be i n t h e b e g i n n i n g s t a g e s o f development w i t h i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. I t s e f f e c t s are so f a r unknown. Whether o r n o t new p o l i c i e s have i n f l u e n c e d agreement-disagreement l e v e l s between t e a c h e r s and t h e i r c l i e n t s i s a q u e s t i o n open t o a n a l y s i s . RELEVANT LITERATURE The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d f a l l s i n t o f i v e main c a t e g o r -i e s : g e n e r a l f i n d i n g s ; t h e Task o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s , the Goodlad model; s o u r c e s o f d i s a g r e e m e n t ; and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Each t o p i c i s t r e a t e d under a s e p a r a t e h e a d i n g . G e n e r a l F i n d i n g s N a t i o n w i d e s u r v e y s have sought t h e e d u c a t i o n a l d e s i r e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s and c o n c e r n s o f c i t i z e n s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada (Coleman, 1966; C a r t e r and C h a f f e e , 1966; G a l l u p , 1973). These s u r v e y s sought r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n s t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w and q u e s t i o n n a i r e and f u r t h e r documented the d e s i r e o f c l i e n t s t o e x p r e s s c o n c e r n f o r , and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h , t h e s c h o o l s . C a r t e r and C h a f f e e (1966), f o r example, found t h a t s i x out o f 18 e v e r y seven c i t i z e n s i n t e r v i e w e d t h o u g h t t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n "were n o t g e t t i n g a l l t h e y c o u l d o u t o f e d u c a t i o n , e i t h e r f o r e v e n t u a l economic b e n e f i t s o r f o r s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o m p e t e n c i e s . " S i m i l a r l y , i n a s t u d y o f p a r e n t a l g r i e v a n c e s , J e n n i n g s (1968) found t h a t t h i r t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d had g r i e v a n c e s w i t h c o u r s e c o n t e n t , and twenty-seven p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r e n t s h e l d g r i e v a n c e s w i t h " o t h e r e v e n t s " a t s c h o o l such a s : methodology, r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s , and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . The U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e (1971:47) c o n c l u d e d i n a r e v i e w o f s i m i l a r l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g " e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l demands on t h e s c h o o l , " t h a t "the e x i s t e n c e o f such d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n has been t h e s u b j e c t o f a number o f n a r r a t i v e s , y e t r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been r e p o r t e d t h a t has s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e s p e c i f i c c o n c e r n s and expec-t a t i o n s o f t h e p u b l i c f o r e d u c a t i o n a l change." I n g e n e r a l , t h e work r e v i e w e d f o r t h i s s t u d y i l l u s t r a t e d a number o f d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n when t h e p r o c e s s was p e r c e i v e d by v a r y i n g groups. These d i f f e r e n c e s were by no means c o n s i s t e n t among the v a r i e t y o f r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g s . The main d i f f i c u l t y f o u n d , when comparing t h e l i t e r a t u r e , was due i n p a r t t o d i f f e r i n g methodology and d i f f e r i n g terms. What was needed, perh a p s , was a u n i f o r m approach t o t h e complex problem o f c o n t r o v e r s y c o n c e r n i n g p u b l i c s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a . A method was a l s o needed t h a t would somehow s t a n d a r d i z e t h e m y r i a d terms e n c o u n t e r e d when g a t h e r i n g t h e o p i n i o n s and p r e f e r e n c e s o f d i v e r s e groups. 19 A d e c i s i o n was a l s o r e q u i r e d as t o how d i f f e r e n c e s among groups • were t o be compared: by s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , r e l i g i o n , r a c e , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , o r o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . The Task o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s A more c o n s i s t e n t approach t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n r e g a r d -i n g the g e n e r a l g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n was found i n The Task o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s (Downey, 1960; Seager, 1959; S l a g l e , 1959; H a r t r i c k , 1961). These r e l a t e d s t u d i e s probed the ques-t i o n s o f c o n f l i c t w i t h i n p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n and t h e p e r c e p t i o n s h e l d by t h e p u b l i c f o r t h e t a s k o f e d u c a t i o n . Downey, Seager and S l a g l e sought answers t o t h r e e b a s i c q u e s t i o n s : 1) What a r e t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e t a s k o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n ? 2) To what e x t e n t does th e p u b l i c p e r c e i v e t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s as i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f s c h o o l i n g ? 3) How w i l l p e o p l e d i f f e r i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e v a r i o u s dimen-s i o n s ? The d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e t a s k o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n were d e t e r m i n e d by a h i s t o r i c a l r e v i e w and d i s t i l l a t i o n t o a summary o f s t a t e m e n t s o f g e n e r a l s c h o o l g o a l s . The g o a l s a r e g e n e r a l i n n a t u r e , as might be d e v e l o p e d by a c o n t r o l l i n g agency such as a p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e o r a s c h o o l b o a r d , f o r a p a r t i c u -l a r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . They a r e as f o l l o w s : A. I n t e l l e c t u a l Dimensions 1. POSSESSION OF KNOWLEDGE: A f u n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n . C oncepts. 2. COMMUNICATION OF KNOWLEDGE: S k i l l t o a c q u i r e and t r a n s m i t . 3. CREATION OF KNOWLEDGE: D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and i m a g i n a t i o n , a h a b i t . 4. DESIRE FOR KNOWLEDGE: A l o v e o f l e a r n i n g . B. S o c i a l Dimensions 5. MAN TO MAN: C o o p e r a t i o n i n day-to-day r e l a t i o n s . 6. MAN TO STATE: C i v i c r i g h t s and d u t i e s . 7. MAN TO COUNTRY: L o y a l t y t o one's own c o u n t r y . 8. MAN TO WORLD: I n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f p e o p l e s . C. P e r s o n a l Dimensions 9. PHYSICAL: B o d i l y h e a l t h and development. 10. EMOTIONAL: M e n t a l h e a l t h and s t a b i l i t y . 11. ETHICAL: M o r a l i n t e g r i t y . 12. AESTHETIC: C u l t u r a l and l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s . D. P r o d u c t i v e Dimensions 13. VOCATION-SELECTIVE: I n f o r m a t i o n and g u i d a n c e . 14. VOCATION-PREPARATIVE: T r a i n i n g and placement. 15. HOME AND FAMILY: Housekeeping, d o - i t - y o u r s e l f , f a m i l y . 16. CONSUMER: Pe r s o n b u y i n g , s e l l i n g and i n v e s t m e n t . The e x t e n t t o whi c h t h e s e a s p e c t s o f s c h o o l i n g were seen as i m p o r t a n t was d e t e r m i n e d by a " f o r c e d c h o i c e " s o r t i n g o f c a r d s b e a r i n g t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s . Each r e s p o n d e n t had t o d e c i d e upon an o r d e r o f importance f o r t h e s e s i x t e e n g o a l s t a t e m e n t s . The common st a t e m e n t s s t a n d a r d i z e d t h e t e r m i n o l o g y and a c t e d as a "language a s s i s t a n c e " f o r t h o s e n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e v a r i o u s p o s s i b i l i t i e s . V a r i o u s homogeneous gro u p s , c a l l e d s u b - p u b l i c s , were i d e n t i f i e d and sampled, and t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s f o r g e n e r a l s c h o o l g o a l s were r e l a t e d t o t h e demographic v a r i a b l e s o f : r e g i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , s c h o o l i n g , age, community t y p e , income, sex, r a c e , and p r o x i m i t y t o s c h o o l s . The r e s u l t s o f s t u d i e s by Downey, S l a g l e and Seager found t h a t t h e r e was, g e n e r a l l y , " a h i g h degree o f agreement r e g a r d i n g t h e t a s k o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l , " and "viewed as a whole . . . t h e r e was a s u r p r i s i n g l y h i g h agreement between e d u c a t o r s and n o n - e d u c a t o r s . " H a r t r i c k (1961) l a t e r f o c u s e d upon t h e q u e s t i o n : "Why i s t h e r e so much c o n t r o v e r s y w i t h r e s p e c t t o p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i f such g e n e r a l agreement e x i s t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e t a s k ? " He b e l i e v e d t h a t because t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e t a s k , as s t a t e d by Downey, Seager and S l a g l e , had been i n "terms o f g e n e r a l outcomes o r p r o d u c t s o f educa-t i o n " p o s s i b l y t h i s v e r y g e n e r a l i t y "tended t o o b s c u r e t h e a r e a s o f r e a l d i f f e r e n c e " ( H a r t r i c k , 1961:13). He f u r t h e r h y p o t h e s i z e d (1961:14) t h a t "perhaps t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s seeming paradox i s t h a t t h e r e a l s o u r c e o f d i f f e r e n c e i s n o t a t t h e l e v e l o f e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e t a s k . . . but r a t h e r a t the l e v e l s t h a t r e l a t e t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s t o t h e p r o c e d u r e s o f the s c h o o l . " H a r t r i c k , t h e r e f o r e , moved t o examine the more s p e c i f i c a r e a o f p r o c e d u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , i . e . , t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s h e l d f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n methods t h e s c h o o l s h o u l d u t i l i z e f o r each t a s k o r g o a l . T h i s would be c a l l e d t h e " h o w - t o - d o - i t " phase o r t h e means o f s e e k i n g t o a c h i e v e e d u c a t i o n a l aims. The hypotheses were t h a t : (a) Responses of s u b - p u b l i c members t o s e l e c t e d modes o f p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l g o a l s w i l l r e v e a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r o c e d u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s when a s s o c i a t e d w i t h independent v a r i a b l e s o f s c h o o l i n g and o c c u p a t i o n ; (b) Responses o f sub-p u b l i c members w i l l r e v e a l l e s s g e n e r a l agreement a t t h e l e v e l o f p r o c e d u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a n t h e y w i l l a t t h e l e v e l o f t a s k e x p e c t a t i o n s . As was h y p o t h e s i z e d , t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences t o be found when p r e f e r r e d p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e implementa-t i o n o f g e n e r a l g o a l s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e independent v a r i a b l e s o f " s c h o o l i n g " and " o c c u p a t i o n . " However, the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t p r e d i c t e d l e s s g e n e r a l agreement a t the l e v e l o f p r o c e d u r e s , t h a n a t t h e l e v e l o f t a s k , was r e j e c t e d . "Responses i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e h i g h - s c h o o l program i s p e r c e i v e d . g e n e r a l l y by s u b - p u b l i c members i n much t h e same way" ( H a r t r i c k 1961:134). These r e s u l t s d i d n o t s a t i s f y h i s s e a r c h f o r so u r c e s o f c o n t r o v e r s y c o n c e r n i n g t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s . The s t u d i e s o f Downey, Seager and S l a g l e examined p u b l i c p r e f e r e n c e s f o r g e n e r a l s c h o o l g o a l s i n an attempt t o i d e n t i f y a s o u r c e o f c u r r i c u l u m c o n t r o v e r s y . I n s t e a d , t h e y found g e n e r a l agreement. The H a r t r i c k s t u d y examined p u b l i c p r e f e r e n c e s f o r g e n e r a l s c h o o l g o a l s a t t h e more s p e c i f i c and t a n g i b l e l e v e l o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n b u t s t i l l found g e n e r a l agreement. G i v e n t h e c o n t i n u i n g e x i s t e n c e o f a t t a c k s on t h e s c h o o l system i t would appear t h a t t h e problem o f c o n t r o v e r s y c o n c e r n i n g s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a i n v i t e s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Of c o u r s e a new f o c u s f o r t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n would have t o be i d e n t i f i e d . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e r e f o r e , i t seems n e c e s s a r y t o 23 i n t r o d u c e a c u r r i c u l u m model t h a t w i l l p u t t h e Task o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s i n t o a framework t h a t would g u i d e f u r t h e r a d d i t i o n s t o i t . The Goodlad Model The t a s k o f e x a m i n i n g c u r r i c u l u m g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s can be f a c i l i t a t e d by means o f t h e c o n c e p t u a l framework o f f e r e d by Goodlad (1971) as a g u i d e f o r d e a l i n g w i t h problems o f c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n . He has a t t e m p t e d t o d e v e l o p a c o n c e p t u a l system (1971:1) "by means o f which t h e c e n t r a l problems o f c u r r i c u l u m can be s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d and r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r . " Goodlad has not c l a i m e d t h a t t h i s system w i l l p r o v i d e t h e p r e c i s i o n and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f t h e o r y . He does, however, su g g e s t t h a t a c o n c e p t u a l system such as he o f f e r s can p r o v i d e "realms f o r f r u i t f u l h y p o t h e s i z i n g . " The importance o f c o o p e r a t i o n among groups concerned w i t h t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l a has been approached by Goodlad a l o n g l i n e s s i m i l a r t o T y l e r (1949), h i s mentor. Goodlad v i e w e d t h e changes sought i n p u p i l b e h a v i o u r as end p r o d u c t s , c a l l e d " i n t e n d e d l e a r n i n g s . " A c u r r i c u l u m t o Good-l a d was, t h e n , s i m p l y a s e t o f i n t e n d e d l e a r n i n g s . More i m p o r t a n t , however, was h i s c o n c e r n f o r a " r a t i o n a l c u r r i c u -lum" w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f i n t e n d e d l e a r n i n g s w h i c h were t o be t h e p r o d u c t o f w i s e and e f f i c i e n t p l a n n i n g . That i s , t h e r e were t o be d e c i s i o n s d e t e r m i n i n g f i r s t t h e ends o f l e a r n i n g , t h e n t h e means. To s e l e c t l e a r n i n g s w i t h o u t c o n c e r n f o r ends was t o behave i r r a t i o n a l l y , he b e l i e v e d . E q u a l l y , one c o u l d 24 not s e l e c t a l t e r n a t i v e means w i t h o u t knowing what d e s t i n a t i o n was t o be sought. One r a t i o n a l way t o j u s t i f y means would be t o check t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s towards ends b u t as he has n o t e d (1971:14) " i f we have no i n f o r m a t i o n about where v a r i o u s r o a d s l e a d we cannot e v a l u a t e , i n terms o f r a t i o n a l i t y , t h e b e h a v i o u r o f a p e r s o n who f o l l o w s a g i v e n r o u t e i n s e a r c h o f a g i v e n d e s t i n a t i o n . " F u r t h e r , (1971:15) The ends and means adopted by s e v e r a l l e v e l s o f a u t h o r i t y i n an e d u c a t i o n a l system o r by the t o t a l s t a f f o f an i n s t i t u t i o n must be c o o r d i n a t e d . Each t e a c h e r might have a r a t i o n a l c o n c e p t i o n o f ends and means w i t h i n h i s immediate sphere b u t u n l e s s t h e r e i s co n -sensus among members o f t h e t o t a l s t a f f a t some l e v e l o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , t h e c u r r i c u l u m as a c o l l e c t i v e p r o d u c t w i l l n o t be r a t i o n a l . Goodlad's argument i s summarized and t h e need f o r c o o p e r a t i o n emphasized i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t (1971:15): R a t i o n a l i t y i n c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g as d e f i n e d here c a l l s f o r b o t h c l a r i f i c a t i o n and a c c e p t a n c e o f ends by t h o s e c o n d u c t i n g o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r -p r i s e . R a t i o n a l i t y i s impeded when r e s p o n -s i b l e e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s a r e unable t o r e s o l v e t h e i r own d i s a g r e e m e n t s o r t h e con-f l i c t i n g v i ews o f p o w e r f u l p r e s s u r e groups. H i s model c o n t a i n s c u r r i c u l u m elements and t h e l e v e l s o f a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r each c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n . I t i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 1 and i s d i s c u s s e d below. The elements o f a c u r r i c u l u m b e g i n w i t h t h e v a l u e s o f s o c i e t y a c c o r d i n g t o Goodlad. He d e f i n e s a v a l u e (1971:16) a s , "a b e l i e f t h a t something i s good o r bad, d e s i r a b l e o r u n d e s i r -a b l e . " V a l u e s , such as democracy, w o r l d peace o r good h e a l t h , do n o t i n themselves s p e l l o u t t a s k s o f e d u c a t i o n but a r e b a s i c Funded know-le d g e as a d a t a s o u r c e V a l u e s : s e l e c t e d by a s a n c t i o n i n g body E d u c a t i o n a l Aims: s e l e c t e d by a c o n t r o l l i n g agency SOCIETAL LEVEL G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s and L e a r n i n g O p p o r t u n i t i e s : S e l e c t e d by t h e P r o f e s s i o n a l T e c h n i c a l S t a f f INSTITUTIONAL LEVEL S p e c i f i c E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s and O r g a n i z i n g C e n t r e s : S e l e c t e d by Teachers INSTRUCTIONAL LEVEL * i L e a r n e r s He-C o n v e n t i o n a l wisdom as a d a t a s o u r c e F i g u r e 1 A C o n c e p t u a l System f o r C u r r i c u l a r D e c i s i o n s and Data Sources (Goodlad, 1971:65) 26 t o t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l aims o r g o a l s . An "educa-t i o n a l aim" i s a g e n e r a l t a r g e t f o r t h e gui d a n c e o f e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . S tatements o f e d u c a t i o n a l aim i m p l y b o t h t h e s e l e c -t i o n o f v a l u e s and the commitment o f e d u c a t i o n t o t h e i r a t t a i n -ment. They a r e r a t h e r vague s t a t e m e n t s o f d i r e c t i o n but p r o v i d e a sense o f the l a r g e r system o f v a l u e s t h a t i s t o g u i d e educa-t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s . From t h e s e aims can be d e r i v e d t h e more s p e c i f i c s t a t e m e n t s he c a l l s " e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s " which a r e i n d i c a t i o n s from the i n s t i t u t i o n s as t o what s t u d e n t s a r e t o know o r t o demonstrate. I t i s a t t h i s l e v e l where t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a r e t o r e f i n e t h o s e broad e d u c a t i o n a l aims, t h a t r e f l e c t t h e v a l u e s h e l d by t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y , i n t o s t a t e - , ments about p u p i l a c t i v i t y c o n t a i n i n g a b e h a v i o r a l element " s u f f i c i e n t l y e x p l i c i t f o r i t t o be o b s e r v e d o r t o be r e a d i l y e l i c i t e d by means o f a t e s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t " (Goodlad, 1971:18). S c h o o l s c o u l d t a k e t h e s e e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s and w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f a department o r program might then d e s i g n a t e t h e means as " l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s " f o r groups o f s t u d e n t s . These o p p o r t u n i t i e s might be found i n t h e form o f c o u r s e s , e x p e r i m e n t s o r o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s s u g g e s t i n g t h e g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r o f what t h e l e a r n e r w i l l be c a l l e d upon t o do, i n s e e k i n g t o a t t a i n e d u c a t i o n a l aims. The more s p e c i f i c elements o f a c u r r i c u l u m , w h i c h a r e t o be found i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , a r e c a l l e d " o r g a n i z i n g c e n t e r s f o r l e a r n i n g . " These o r g a n i z i n g c e n t e r s may be a book, a f i e l d t r i p , o r a q u e s t i o n , and a r e t o be d e r i v e d from the s e l e c t e d " e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . " The purpose b e h i n d r a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g was, i n Goodlad's v i e w , t o produce v a l i d and j u s t i f i a b l e i n t e n d e d l e a r n i n g s . He knew, however, t h a t v a l i d a t i o n and j u s t i f i c a t i o n c a l l f o r d a t a - s o u r c e s and p r o c e s s e s o f i n q u i r y and d e f i n e d t h e term " d a t a s o u r c e " as (1971:24) "a g e n e r a l c a t e g o r y o f phenomena o r c a t e g o r y by w h i c h phenomena a r e c l a s s i f i e d from w h i c h t h e d a t a a r e e x t r a c t e d o r might be e x t r a c t e d . " As a l r e a d y s t a t e d , Goodlad saw r a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g as i n v o l v i n g the d e r i v a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l aims from v a l u e s ; e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c -t i v e s from aims; and l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s from e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . Each element t h e n was a prime d a t a s o u r c e f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g . Other d a t a - s o u r c e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h e m p i r i c a l i n d u c -t i v e i n q u i r y , were n e c e s s a r y , however, beyond t h i s s i m p l e d e r i v a t i o n o f l o g i c a l d e d u c t i o n . T h i s c l o s e r a n a l y s i s might r e v e a l t h a t some o b j e c t i v e s a r e d e s i r a b l e b u t u n r e a l i s t i c , o r t h a t a l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y might be dropped because i t i s found t o be i n d i r e c t c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o t h e t e n e t s o f a group c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . Goodlad proposes (1971:27) " t u r n i n g t o v a l u e s as t h e p r i m a r y d a t a - s o u r c e i n s e l e c t i n g purposes f o r t h e s c h o o l and as a d a t a - s o u r c e i n making a l l subsequent c u r r i c u l a r d e c i s i o n s . " The v a l u e d a t a - s o u r c e s he has s e l e c t e d f o r t h e model a r e c a l l e d "funded knowledge" and " c o n v e n t i o n a l wisdom." These terms encompass T y l e r ' s " s u b j e c t m a t t e r s p e c i a l i s t , " " l e a r n e r " and " s o c i e t y " i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way. I n f i e l d s o f h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r , "funded knowledge" i s t h e d a t a -28 s o u r c e f o r s u b j e c t m a t t e r s p e c i a l i s t s . T h i s knowledge i s t h e r e s u l t o f s c i e n t i f i c f i n d i n g s and p r o c e s s e s b o t h t h e o r e t i c a l -d e d u c t i v e and e m p i r i c a l - i n d u c t i v e . I t i s used by s p e c i a l i s t s as t h e y " r e f i n e s t a t e m e n t s o f e d u c a t i o n a l aims t o t h e p o i n t where t h e y t a k e on t h e g r e a t e r c l a r i t y and s p e c i f i c i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . " T h i s funded knowledge i s not t h e o n l y s o u r c e o f v a l u e s t a t e m e n t s , however. C o n v e n t i o n a l wisdom i n the form o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f s , customs and u n d e r s t a n d i n g have t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e s as d a t a - s o u r c e s i n the r e f i n e m e n t o f educa-t i o n a l aims and t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . F o r some d e c i s i o n s i n r a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g i t i s n e c e s s a r y • (1971:64) " t o f i n d what c i t i z e n s b e l i e v e o r w i s h , o r what the p r o s p e c t i v e s t u d e n t s a l r e a d y know* I n o t h e r words, we w i s h t o t a p t h e i n t e r e s t s , w i s h e s , b e l i e f s , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f t h o s e who s a n c t i o n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l system o r consume e d u c a t i o n : t h a t i s t o a s s e s s t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l wisdom." Goodlad's model i s u s e f u l f o r an a n a l y s i s o f c u r r i c u l u m g o a l s and c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s i n t h a t t h e l e v e l s o f g e n e r a l i t y o f t h o s e ends a r e d e f i n e d w i t h i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . The t h r e e main t y p e s o f g e n e r a l i t y a r e found a t : 1) t h e S o c i e t a l l e v e l , i n w h i c h l a y boards o f e d u c a t i o n a t t h e l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l l e v e l s d e c i d e upon the g e n e r a l purposes o f s c h o o l i n g i n terms o f e d u c a t i o n a l aims; 2) t h e I n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l , (the s c h o o l i t s e l f ) where the e d u c a t i o n a l aims a r e made more s p e c i f i c as o b j e c t i v e s , by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f o f each s c h o o l by t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t e a c h e r s , c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i a l i s t s and admin-i s t r a t o r s ; 3) the I n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l , ( w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m ) where t e a c h e r s and l e a r n e r s d e c i d e upon t h e s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s and o r g a n i z i n g c e n t r e s ( l e a r n i n g t a s k s ) t o be used i n approach-i n g t h e more g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s and even b r o a d e r e d u c a t i o n a l aims. W i t h t h e Goodlad framework as a g u i d e , i t i s d i f f i -c u l t t o mix t h e t h r e e e d u c a t i o n a l ends o r the t h r e e d e c i s i o n -making l e v e l s d u r i n g c u r r i c u l u m d i s c u s s i o n . The model h e l p s d e f i n e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between c u r r i c u l u m s t a t e m e n t s . I t c a n -n o t , o f c o u r s e , d i s c r i m i n a t e between groups o f p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n c u r r i c u l u m - d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The f a c t o r s by w h i c h v a r i o u s groups may be c l a s s i f i e d and p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s o f d i s a g r e e m e n t i d e n t i f i e d a r e l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o a c t u a l d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n a s c h o o l o r a r e b e s t i d e n t i f i e d by p r i o r r e s e a r c h . S ources o f Disagreement There a r e many p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s o f d i s a g r e e m e n t . The Task o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s i n v e s t i g a t e d : s c h o o l r o l e , g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n , s e x , age, income, o c c u p a t i o n and y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n i n an a t t empt t o i d e n t i f y t h e more prominent s o u r c e s . The s c h o o l r o l e f a c t o r was d e f i n e d by Downey (1959) i n terms o f e d u c a t o r and n o n - e d u c a t o r . R e l a t e d t o t h i s f a c t o r he found (1959:64) " . . . s u b t l e d i s a g r e e m e n t s , v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e amount o f emphasis p e o p l e were w i l l i n g t o p l a c e upon the i n t e l l e c t u a l a s p e c t s o f e d u c a t i o n . " G e o g raphic r e g i o n was a n o t h e r p o s s i b l e s o u r c e o f d i s a g r e e m e n t a n a l y z e d w i t h i n t h e Task o f E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s . The r e s u l t s showed (Downey, 1959:65) t h a t : 30 I n t e r e s t i n g l y , g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n appeared t o be a d e t e r m i n e r o f e d u c a t i o n a l v i e w p o i n t . J u s t as t h e r e a r e r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e s , a p p a r e n t l y t h e r e a r e a l s o r e g i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s . The w e s t e r n r e g i o n , f o r example, tended t o f a v o u r t h e s o c i a l i z i n g a s p e c t s o f e d u c a t i o n ; t h e s o u t h e r n r e g i o n s emphasized p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and p e r s o n a l development; t h e e a s t e r n r e g i o n s p l a c e d emphasis upon moral t r a i n i n g ; and Canada f a v o u r e d t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l and the a e s t h e t i c . Other f a c t o r s : age, r a c e , r e l i g i o n , income and s e x , d i d n ot p r o v i d e r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s and were not recommended f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . The c o n c l u s i o n (Downey, 1959:65) was t h a t : Age was a somewhat l e s s r e l i a b l e p r e d i c t o r , as were r a c e and r e l i g i o n . I t was r a t h e r s u r -p r i s i n g t o n o t e , however, t h a t t h e o l d e r t h e r e s p o n d e n t , the more he tended t o f a v o u r the p h y s i c a l , t h e p a t r i o t i c , t h e m o r a l , and the f a m i l y a s p e c t s o f e d u c a t i o n ; the younger the r e s p o n d e n t , the more he tended t o f a v o u r the i n t e l l e c t u a l and r e l a t e d a s p e c t s . C a t h o l i c s , as a group, p l a c e d g r e a t e r emphasis upon the p a t r i o t i c , t h e c i v i c , and t h e m o r a l elements than d i d P r o t e s t a n t s . Negroes, as a group, p l a c e d g r e a t e r emphasis upon the p h y s i c a l , the s o c i a l , and the m o r a l t h a n d i d w h i t e s . Community-type, income, sex , and p r o x i m i t y t o s c h o o l d i d n o t prove t o be v a r i a b l e s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l v i e w p o i n t . Socio-economic s t a t u s has been i d e n t i f i e d , by s o c i o -l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , as an i n d i c a t o r o f v a r y i n g v a l u e p a t t e r n s ( A x e l r o d , 1956; B r a g e r , 1963). T h i s f a c t o r was i n v e s t i g a t e d by the Task o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s i n t h e t h r e e component p a r t s : income, o c c u p a t i o n and amount o f s c h o o l i n g . Downey (1959), Seager (1959), and S l a g l e (1959) found t h a t t h e income l e v e l s o f some 2,544 non-educators d i d not appear t o be a s s o c i a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e way i n w h i c h t h e y s o r t e d s i x t e e n g e n e r a l s c h o o l g o a l s . However, i t was c o n c l u d e d (Downey, 1959:44) t h a t 31 o c c u p a t i o n " . . . d i d p r ove t o be a r a t h e r s t r o n g and c o n -s i s t e n t p r e d i c t o r o f e d u c a t i o n a l v i e w p o i n t . " The " h i g h e r " o c c u p a t i o n s ( i . e . , p r o f e s s i o n a l , s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l , m a n a g e r i a l ) tended t o a s s i g n h i g h e r v a l u e s t o "knowledge, c r e a t i v i t y , d e s i r e t o l e a r n , w o r l d c i t i z e n s h i p , e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y and a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n . . . " (p. 4 7 ) . The " l o w e r " o r d e r o c c u p a t i o n s ( i . e . , s k i l l e d l a b o r , s e m i - s k i l l e d l a b o r , u n s k i l l e d l a b o r ) tended t o a s s i g n h i g h e r v a l u e s t o " s o c i a l s k i l l , p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g , m o r a l i t y , j o b t r a i n i n g and consumer e d u c a t i o n . . . " (p. 4 7 ) . S i m i l a r d i f f e r e n c e s were found t o e x i s t i n r e l a t i o n t o "amount o f s c h o o l i n g . " These f i n d i n g s were c o r r o b o r a t e d by H a r t r i c k (1961) i n h i s r e l a t e d s t u d y . He found t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n p l a c e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r v a l u e on t h o s e g o a l s concerned w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l development than d i d t h o s e w i t h l e s s t h a n h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n . The groups w i t h fewer y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g p l a c e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r v a l u e on v o c a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and t r a i n i n g , consumer management, mora l s t a n d a r d s and s o c i a l s k i l l s . The c o n c l u s i o n c o n c e r n i n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s r e a c h e d by t h e Task o f E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s (Downey, 1960:65) was: O c c u p a t i o n and amount o f s c h o o l i n g were the b e s t p r e d i c t o r s o f e d u c a t i o n a l b e l i e f . Perhaps t h e s e a r e r e l a t e d , but t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p does n o t e x p l a i n t h e whole phenomenon. These two v a r i a b l e s emerged more o r l e s s i n d e p e n d e n t l y as c o n s i s t e n t i n d i c a t o r s o f p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e t a s k . A l t h o u g h t h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e u s e f u l i n i n d i c a t i n g some o f t h e a r e a s where s o u r c e s o f d i s a g r e e m e n t might be found, they 32 n e v e r t h e l e s s need t o be seen i n the c o n t e x t o f the major f i n d i n g o f the Task o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s where, as no t e d e a r l i e r , t h e r e was f a r l e s s d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h the g e n e r a l g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n t h a n might be e x p e c t e d . The s u r p r i s i n g n a t u r e o f t h i s f i n d i n g has not d i m i n i s h e d the c o n c e r n f o r i d e n t i f y i n g l e v e l s o f agreement-disagreement because c r i t i c i s m o f e d u c a t i o n s t i l l abounds (Elam, 1971) and t h i s m ight be t a k e n as e v i d e n c e o f di s a g r e e m e n t about what happens i n s c h o o l s . H a r t r i c k < s (1961) attempt t o i s o l a t e an a r e a and sour c e o f disagr e e m e n t (see pp. 21-22 above) f o c u s s s e d on an e x a m i n a t i o n o f a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l from t h a t o f t h e e a r l i e r Task o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n s t u d i e s . H i s s t u d y r e t a i n e d t h e g e n e r a l i z e d s t a t e -ments o f e d u c a t i o n a l t a s k s which had been used by Downey, Seager and S l a g l e b u t a p p l i e d them as " o r g a n i z i n g c e n t r e s " and s t i l l f ound g e n e r a l agreement. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h e n , t h a t a f o c u s on more s p e c i f i c s t a t e m e n t s o f t a s k c o u l d r e v e a l more about any d i s a g r e e m e n t w h i c h might e x i s t . The p r e s e n t s t u d y a t t e m p t e d such a f o c u s and d i r e c t e d a t t e n t i o n t o one s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t a r e a , t h a t o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . B e f o r e d e s c r i b i n g the c o n c e p t u a l model w h i c h g u i d e d t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n , i t i s neces-s a r y t o r e v i e w i n more d e t a i l t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g t o the c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s o f t h a t s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t a r e a . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n L i t e r a t u r e The r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e concerned w i t h p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e v e a l e d a w e a l t h o f a r t i c l e s d e d i c a t e d t o l i s t i n g , c l a s s i f y i n g and a r g u i n g f o r the s u p p o r t o f v a r i o u s o b j e c t i v e s (Bucher, 1970; V o l t m e r and E s s l i n g e r , 1967). Some s t u d i e s emphasized p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s (AAHPER, 1965; CAHPER, 1966; H o w e l l and V a n V l i e t , 1967) w h i l e o t h e r s emphasized neuromuscular development ( C a s s i d y , 1963; C o w e l l , e t a l . , 1973; O b e r t e u f f e r and U l r i c h , 1962). Many su p p o r t e d i n t e r p r e t i v e development (Bookwalter and Vanderzwaag, 1969; L a S a l l e , 1957; U l r i c h , 1972) and s t i l l o t h e r s encouraged t h e p u r s u i t o f p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l a d j u stment ( C l a r k e , 1967; N i x o n and Cozens, 1953; Updyke, 1970). Most o f t h e a u t h o r s gave s u p p o r t t o o b j e c t i v e s under the g e n e r a l h e a d i n g s : p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , neuromuscular d e v e l o p -ment, i n t e r p r e t i v e development and p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t , but t h e r e was v a r i a t i o n i n t h e amount o f s u p p o r t g i v e n t o s p e c i f i c s t a t e m e n t s . F o r example, o n l y f o u r a u t h o r s ( C l a r k e , 1967; Nash, 1963; O'Keefe, 1955; W i l l i a m s , 1964) l i s t e d "freedom from d i s e a s e " as an o b j e c t i v e t o be c o n s i d e r e d under " o r g a n i c v i g o r . " I n a f u r t h e r example, o n l y two a u t h o r s ( O b e r t e u f f e r and U l r i c h , 1962) l i s t e d " f u n and amusement" as a prime o b j e c t i v e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Some r e s e a r c h was concerned w i t h t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s ( L a u r i t z e n , 1946; P r i c e , 1946; M e r r i t t , 1952; S c o t t , 1951) w h i l e o t h e r work was f o c u s s e d upon a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a s u b j e c t (Wear, 1961; B e l l , 1965; M i s t a , 1966). Some l i s t s o f o b j e c t i v e s were many y e a r s o l d ( H e t h e r i n g t o n , 1922; Wood, 1931; L a P o r t e , 1936; Nash, 1948). There was b u t one s t u d y f o u n d , t h a t was i n t e r e s t e d i n r a n k i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n o r d e r o f p r i o r i t y ( R osentswieg, 1 9 6 7 ) . One hundred Texas c o l l e g e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s ranked t e n o b j e c t i v e s t a k e n from th e E i g h t h A n nual R e p o r t o f t h e Committee on C u r r i c u l u m R esearch ( L a P o r t e , 1 9 3 6 ) i n a p a i r e d comparison o p i n i o n n a i r e . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r a n k i n g s o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s were " r e l a t i v e l y c o n s i s -t e n t . " "However, when the r a n k i n g o f t h e sexes was compared, a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e o c c u r r e d i n the o b j e c t i v e ranked most i m p o r t a n t " (Rosentswieg, 1 9 6 7 : 7 8 6 ) . Males had g i v e n top rank t o " o r g a n i c v i g o r " ( i . e . , p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s ) and second rank t o "neuromuscular s k i l l s . " Female i n s t r u c t o r s r e v e r s e d t h e s e two o b j e c t i v e s i n r a n k . T h i s f i n d i n g was d o u b l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t i t i n d i c a t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i f f e r e n c e s between the s e x e s . R e c e n t l y , t h e n o t i o n o f " u n i s e x , " w h i c h d e n i e s sex d i f f e r e n c e s , has been p r e s e n t e d as a t o p i c o f d i s c u s s i o n on t e l e v i s i o n and i n e s s a y s ( H a l l , 1 9 7 5 ; S p i l l a n e , 1 9 7 5 ) . T h i s v i e w promotes the p o p u l a r t r e n d toward e q u a l i t y o f t h e sexes i n s p o r t . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o s e a r c h more p r e c i s e l y i n t o t h e p r e f e r -ences h e l d f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s by males and f e m a l e s . The t e x t s and j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s t h a t d e a l t w i t h p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s were found m a i n l y t o be e x h o r t a -t i o n s t o pursue t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e t o r t h a t . I t became app a r e n t a f t e r e x a m i n i n g f o r t y o r more t e x t s t h a t t h e a u t h o r s d i d n o t have t h e advantage o f (a) w o r k i n g i n c o n c e r t , o r (b) w o r k i n g w i t h i n a s h a r e d c o n c e p t u a l framework such as G o o d l a d 1 s . I t i s p o s s i b l e , o f c o u r s e , t h a t i t was not t h e i r i n t e n t i o n t o c o m p i l e an a l l - i n c l u s i v e l i s t . As i t was t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y t o d e v e l o p a comprehensive statement of o b j e c t i v e s , a h i s t o r i c a l approach was a p p l i e d t o an examin-a t i o n o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e from 1950 t o 1974. I t was p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i l t h e l i s t s o f o b j e c t i v e s i n t o a complete and comprehensive d r a f t . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t was p o s s i b l e t o m a i n t a i n a c o n s t a n t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l w i t h i n Goodlad's framework. Hence, twenty s t a t e m e n t s were c o l l e c t e d w h i c h were d i r e c t e d t o t h e same l e v e l o f c u r r i c u l u m development and whi c h were independent s t a t e m e n t s o f outcome. DISCUSSION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The e a r l y s t a g e s o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m s e l e c t i o n t a s k a r e now i n p r o c e s s w i t h i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t s e f f e c t s a r e so f a r unknown. There a r e two p o s s i b l e l e v e l s o f c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g where t h e e f f e c t s upon g o a l agreement, i f any, may be f e l t . The g e n e r a l g o a l s from the s o c i e t a l l e v e l , passed down as t h e y a r e from s a n c t i o n e d a g e n c i e s , would n o t change. However, t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l and i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l s m ight. The premise b e h i n d d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i s t h a t i t w i l l produce a c l o s e agreement between t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s o f t h e 36 s c h o o l and t h e i r c l i e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e g o a l s t o be pu r s u e d . A s t u d y i s needed t o t e s t t h e outcome o f t h i s s h i f t i n c u r r i c u l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and t h e f i r s t a r e a t o be examined would be a t the i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l o f Goodlad*s model. A t t h i s l e v e l , the b r o a d e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s " f o r the s c h o o l , " from s o c i e t y , a r e r e s t a t e d as t h e more s p e c i f i c e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s o f the v a r i o u s s u b j e c t departments from " w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l . " A q u e s t i o n i m p o r t a n t t o t h e l e v e l s o f c o o p e r a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o a t t a i n t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s t h e n becomes: How i m p o r t a n t do d i f f e r -i n g groups o f p e o p l e v i e w s t a t e m e n t s o f purpose from s u b j e c t departments? Concern f o r the problem o f agreement and d i s a g r e e -ment w i t h i n p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n has l o n g been r e f l e c t e d w i t h i n t h a t l i t e r a t u r e d i r e c t e d toward t h e a n a l y s i s o f s c h o o l c u r -r i c u l a . W i t h i n t h i s l i t e r a t u r e , many v a r i a t i o n s a r e t o be seen. The s t a t e o f d i s a g r e e m e n t , f o r example, was o f t e n a l l u d e d t o by a v a r i e t y o f terms such a s : c o n t r o v e r s y , g r i e v a n c e s , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o r c o n f l i c t . The l i t e r a t u r e a l s o r e v e a l e d t h a t t h i s d i s a g r e e m e n t , o r p u b l i c d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s , had been approached i n many ways. The Task o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s p r e s e n t e d t h e mc c o n s i s t e n t approach t o the problem o f g e n e r a l s c h o o l g o a l s . No s t u d y c o u l d be found, however, t h a t i d e n t i f i e d t h e problem i n terms o f p u b l i c r e a c t i o n t o e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s d e v e l o p e d a t the department l e v e l i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l . W i t h i n t h e f i e l d o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , many e s s a y s c o n c e r n i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s u b j e c t were a v a i l a b l e , b u t t h e r e was a p a u c i t y o f r e s e a r c h d e v o t e d t o an a n a l y s i s o f c u r r i c u l u m outcomes. A s t u d y o f agreement c o n c e r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l i s a complex u n d e r t a k i n g . I t may be seen t h a t t h e modern, urban s c h o o l i s , t o d a y , a m u l t i f a c e t e d s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n composed o f a s t a f f sometimes i n e x c e s s o f one hundred t e a c h e r s and p r o v i d i n g up t o t w e l v e s u b j e c t a r e a s f o r two thousand s t u d e n t s . To a n a l y z e t h e e x t e n t o f agreement-d i s a g r e e m e n t f o r t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t w e l v e s u b j e c t a r e a s would be a d i f f i c u l t t a s k . A more r e a s o n a b l e s t r a t e g y would be t o examine one s u b j e c t a r e a f o r agreement-disagreement l e v e l s and t e s t , a t t h e same t i m e , t h e adequacy o f t h e methodology f o r s u ch an e x a m i n a t i o n . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f o t h e r departments c o u l d be made f o l l o w i n g r e f i n e m e n t o f t h e p r o c e d u r e s . F o r t h i s s t u d y , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n has been chosen f o r 'examina-t i o n . C e r t a i n p r e c a u t i o n s must be t a k e n when exa m i n i n g t h e impo r t a n c e o f o b j e c t i v e s t h a t e x i s t w i t h i n t h e framework o f a s u b j e c t f i e l d such as p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . I t s h o u l d be remembered, t h a t t h e s u b j e c t i t s e l f e x i s t s w i t h i n a n o t h e r framework o f t h e t o t a l s c h o o l program, i n v o l v i n g perhaps e l e v e n o t h e r departments. When o b j e c t i v e s a r e ra n k e d i n impo r t a n c e r e l a t i v e t o each o t h e r , t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n as t o t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r s c h o o l s u b j e c t s . We may d i s c o v e r t h a t a g i v e n o b j e c t i v e i s ra n k e d f i r s t among o t h e r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s and y e t s t i l l have t o ask: How i m p o r t a n t i s t h i s o b j e c t i v e when compared w i t h o b j e c t i v e s from o t h e r department o b j e c t i v e s such as E n g l i s h , s c i e n c e and mathematics? A comparison w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t departments might p r o v i d e a n o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h shows t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , a l t h o u g h a compulsory s u b j e c t , i s h e l d i n v e r y low importance r a n k i n g by one o r more groups. Downey (1959) demonstrated t h a t the g o a l , " p h y s i c a l h e a l t h and development," r e c e i v e d a rank o f t w e l v e o u t o f s i x t e e n s o c i e t a l g o a l s by e d u c a t o r s and n o n - e d u c a t o r s . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o d e t e r m i n e i n what r e g a r d t h e importance o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s h e l d i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s u b j e c t s i n t h e t o t a l s c h o o l program by a l l o w i n g r e s p o n d e n t s t o rank t h r e e g o a l s t h a t were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , i n r e l a t i o n t o t h r e e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g o a l s from e v e r y o t h e r s u b j e c t . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n would p r o v i d e an o u t s i d e r e f e r e n c e t o the p o s i t i o n o f importance w i t h which the s e p a r a t e and more s p e c i f i c p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s a r e h e l d . A n o t h e r c o n c e r n i s w i t h t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e groups o f p e o p l e who a r e t o agree o r d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e impor-ta n c e o f v a r i o u s o b j e c t i v e s . I t would seem r e a s o n a b l e t o a n a l y z e t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h o s e groups most d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by t h e o b j e c t i v e s t o be pursue d . The t h r e e main gro u p s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h any s c h o o l and i t s c u r r i c u l u m , a r e t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s . The d i f f e r i n g s c h o o l r o l e s o f t h e s e groups may p r o v i d e a ready c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p e o p l e a f f e c t e d by c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s , and i t i s t h e n p o s s i b l e t o d i s c u s s the t h e o r e t i c a l outcome o f a t e s t f o r agreement-disagreement between them. 39 I t may be t r u e t h a t t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s a r e i n c l o s e agreement c o n c e r n i n g t h e g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s and p r i o r -i t i e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s because t h e r e do e x i s t f o r them c h a n n e l s o f f o r m a l communication such a s : the p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l p r o c e s s , s c h o o l boards o f t r u s t e e s and p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s . The p r o b a b i l i t y i s h i g h t h a t s t u d e n t s c o n s i d e r s c h o o l s t o be " a d u l t c o n t r o l l e d " i n t h a t t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e d e s i g n e d , s p o n s o r e d , b u i l t and d i r e c t e d by a d u l t s w i t h o u t f o r m a l s t u d e n t i n p u t . There may be, as a r e s u l t , l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n w i t h i n t h e s t u d e n t groups as y e t u n a n a l y z e d . However, i t may a l t e r n a t i v e l y be t r u e t h a t t e a c h e r s , w o r k i n g c l o s e l y w i t h s t u d e n t s , a r e w e l l aware o f t h e i r c h a r g e s ' p r e f e r e n c e s and have made program a d j u s t m e n t s w i t h o u t much c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h p a r e n t s and so, perhaps , s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r a r e c l o s e l y a l i g n e d . Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s , i f t e a c h e r s a r e dominant i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s and a r e unconcerned w i t h t h e sh a r e d p r e f e r e n c e s o f p a r e n t and c h i l d , t h e n t h e r e m i g h t e x i s t a l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e t e a c h e r s and t h e s e two groups. F i n a l l y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the p a r e n t and s t u d e n t groups w i l l agree w i t h t e a c h e r p r e f e r e n c e s whether o r n o t a l l share i n t h e o b j e c t i v e s s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . I f t h i s l a s t p o s s i b i l -i t y be t h e c a s e , do d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r when t h e s e s c h o o l r o l e groups a r e f u r t h e r reduced t o sub-groups r e l a t e d t o o t h e r v a r i a b l e s ? C o u l d i t be t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s a r e more i m p o r t a n t l y a f u n c t i o n o f so c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s ? 40 There would appear t o be s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t p e o p l e can be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s by one o r more v a r i a b l e s such as income, y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g o r o c c u p a t i o n ( G e t z e l s , Lipham and Camp b e l l , 1968:168). The Task o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s s t u d i e d a l l t h r e e s e p a r a t e l y and found o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s t o be a s t r o n g i n d i c a t o r o f edu-c a t i o n a l v a l u e s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , the p r e s e n t w r i t e r d e c i d e d t o use o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s as a r e f l e c t i o n o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . I n the y e a r s s i n c e t h e Task o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s (1961), i n f l a t i o n a r y t r e n d s have put "income" i n t o s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n as a r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t i o n o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . F u r t h e r t h a n t h i s , i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g " y ears o f s c h o o l i n g . " On t h e b a s i s o f t h e e v i d e n c e from p a s t r e s e a r c h , i t seems p l a u s i b l e t o e x p e c t t h e v a l u e p a t t e r n s h e l d by v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s groups t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p e c i f i c programs i n t h e f i e l d o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . I t can be seen t h a t o b j e c t i v e s w i t h i n the f i e l d o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o s e v e r a l d i m e n s i o n s . O b j e c -t i v e s can be p l a c e d i n t o such c a t e g o r i e s a s : p h y s i c a l , n e u r o m u s c u l a r , s o c i a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l - i n t e r p r e t i v e and p e r s o n a l -e m o t i o n a l . I f we asked r e s p o n d e n t s t o c o n s i d e r t h e s e dimen-s i o n s w i t h i n t h e f i e l d o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , we might e x p e c t r e a c t i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e found by p r i o r r e s e a r c h . That i s t o say, t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who would p l a c e h i g h v a l u e on g e n e r a l s c h o o l g o a l s , i n t e l l e c t u a l and a e s t h e t i c i n n a t u r e , w i l l respond s i m i l a r l y t o analogous p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n 41 o b j e c t i v e s . I n d i v i d u a l s , showing p r e f e r e n c e f o r s o c i a l o r p r a c t i c a l g o a l s , w i l l a l s o i d e n t i f y o b j e c t i v e s s i m i l a r i n n a t u r e . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the h i g h e r t h e l e v e l o f occupa-t i o n a l s t a t u s , t h e g r e a t e r t h e tendency w i l l be t o p l a c e i m p o r t a n c e upon i n t e l l e c t u a l and a e s t h e t i c o b j e c t i v e s such a s : a) u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s c i e n c e b e h i n d p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and movement, (body c h e m i s t r y , anatomy, p h y s i c s ) ; b) e x p r e s s i o n o f beauty t h r o u g h s p o r t , ( g r a c e , c r e a t i v i t y , r h y thm); l o w e r o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l t e n d t o p r e f e r t h e s o c i a l and p r a c t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s such a s : c) development o f good a t t i t u d e s , (sportsman-s h i p , h o n e s t y , c o o p e r a t i o n ) ; d) development o f s a f e t y s k i l l s , ( f i r s t - a i d , swimming, l i f e s a v i n g ) . As i n many o t h e r l a r g e urban a r e a s , Vancouver s c h o o l s s e r v e communities h o l d i n g f a m i l i e s o f v a r y i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . I n a P l a n n e d Program B u d g e t i n g Systems P r o j e c t (1973), the U n i t e d Communities S e r v i c e s Agency e f f e c t i v e l y c h a r t e d t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f a l l Vancouver f a m i l i e s . T h i s p r o j e c t u t i l i z e d t h e B l i s h e n s c a l e (1965) and d a t a from t h e 1971 n a t i o n a l c e n s u s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e p r o j e c t c l e a r l y demonstrate o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s c l e a v a g e between w e s t e r n and e a s t e r n Vancouver. W i t h i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s k i n d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o compare t h e p r e f e r e n c e s f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s between groups o f p e o p l e from d i f f e r i n g communities. The l o c a t i o n o f a s c h o o l m i g h t be a f a c t o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g r e e -ment o r d i s a g r e e m e n t . I t may be found t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n e x i s t among t e a c h e r s who t e a c h i n communities o f d i f f e r i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . These d i f f e r e n c e s m i g h t appear d e s p i t e t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s c o u l d a l l be g e n e r a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as h i g h o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s (Adams, 1957; B l i s h e n , 1965; J o n e s , 1968). I t i s l o g i c a l t h a t a l l t e a c h e r s c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d a l i k e because o f t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s o f e d u c a t i o n , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , p r e s t i g e , income and o c c u p a t i o n . However, i t may a l s o be t r u e t h a t s e r v i c e - m o t i v a t e d t e a c h e r s have sought t o meet c l o s e l y t h e needs and p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l ' s commun-i t y and have put a s i d e p e r s o n a l v a l u e s . Under t h e s e c i r c u m -s t a n c e s , we c o u l d e x p e c t d i f f e r e n c e s among t e a c h e r s from s c h o o l s s e r v i n g d i f f e r i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s groups. Sex i s an o b v i o u s v a r i a b l e t o use i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between s t u d e n t s . Whether o r n o t t h e male-female r o l e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s i s a moot p o i n t . C e r t a i n l y , t h e r e i s l i t t l e r e s e a r c h t h a t has examined t h i s q u e s t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a r e c e n t t r e n d t h a t i s d e n y i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f male-female d i f f e r e n c e s i n s p o r t . A n o t h e r way i n w h i c h t o c l a s s i f y s t u d e n t s i s by grade l e v e l . Are t h e r e d i f f e r e n c e s between freshmen and s e n i o r s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ? S t u d e n t s b e g i n t h e i r secondary s c h o o l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n program i n grade e i g h t . The f i n a l y e a r o f compulsory p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s grade e l e v e n . S h o u l d t h e s e l e v e l s be s e e k i n g t o a t t a i n d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e s ? No r e s e a r c h s t u d y c o u l d be found t h a t answers t h i s q u e s t i o n . S c h o o l s may be c o n c e i v e d o f as s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e s p o n s i b l e , i n p a r t , f o r t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f p u b l i c e x p e c t a -t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g c u r r i c u l u m g o a l s , because i t i s t h r o u g h t h e i r g o a l s t h a t s c h o o l s r e f l e c t t h e v a l u e s and needs o f t h e commun-i t y . The e x t e n t t o whi c h p e o p l e agree w i t h t h e g o a l s o f t h e s c h o o l w i l l e f f e c t t h e amount o f c o o p e r a t i o n t h a t t h e y a r e w i l l i n g t o g i v e i n the p u r s u i t o f t h e s e g o a l s . The amount o f c o o p e r a t i o n i s s i m i l a r l y a f f e c t e d by the agreement l e v e l s g e n e r a t e d by o b j e c t i v e s as t h e more s p e c i f i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f g o a l s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the management o f s c h o o l s p e r i o d i c a l l y t e s t t h e l e v e l s o f agreement-disagreement c o n c e r n i n g t h e g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m t o encourage t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l s o f agreement and c o o p e r a t i o n . I t would be e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t t h e n , t o gauge t h e l e v e l s o f agreement-disagreement i n t i m e s o f change. W i t h the p r e s e n t s h i f t toward c u r r i c u l u m d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , l i t t l e i s known o f t h e e f f e c t s o f such a s h i f t . A methodology i s needed t o measure l e v e l s o f agreement-disagreement so t h a t a s t a r t can be made i n p r o v i d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w i t h advanced know-ledg e o f t h e a r e a s o f p o t e n t i a l c o n t r o v e r s y . One such approach t o the g a t h e r i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g o f p u b l i c r e s p o n s e s t o t h e imp o r t a n c e o f g o a l s was suggested by Downey (1959), S l a g l e (1959), Seager (1959) and H a r t r i c k (1961). T h i s Task o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s s t u d i e d g e n e r a l s c h o o l g o a l s from t h e s o c i e t a l l e v e l i n an a t t e m p t t o l o c a t e s o u r c e s o f c o n f l i c t c o n c e r n i n g c u r r i c u l a b u t , i n s t e a d , found g e n e r a l agreement. The p r e s e n t s t u d y w i l l a t t e m pt t o extend t h i s s e r i e s t h r o u g h t h e n e x t s t a g e o f department o b j e c t i v e s as i n d i c a t e d by t h e Goodlad model. P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n department o b j e c t i v e s w i l l be s u b j e c t e d t o an i n t e n s i v e e x a m i n a t i o n by t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s from Vancouver secondary s c h o o l s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f the i mportance o f t h e s e g o a l s w i l l be compared between groups v a r y i n g i n s c h o o l r o l e , o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , s c h o o l l o c a t i o n , sex and grade. The degree t o which t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s v i e w t h e importance o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a s u b j e c t , r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r s c h o o l s u b j e c t s , w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d . The degree o f s u c c e s s a c h i e v e d by t h e methods used i n t h i s a n a l y s i s s h o u l d have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f o t h e r s c h o o l departments. C h a p t e r 3 THE DESIGN OF THE STUDY I n t h i s c h a p t e r t h e problem and sub-problems a r e s t a t e d , terms a r e d e f i n e d and t h e v a r i a b l e s a r e l i s t e d . The Problem and I t s Sub-Problems The problem was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t and l o c u s o f agreement-disagreement between t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s as t h e y ranked t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e . T h i s problem was a d d r e s s e d by f o c u s i n g upon t h e f o l l o w i n g sub-problems: Sub-problem 1. To c o m p i l e a comprehensive and complete l i s t o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e r e s p o n -d e n t s t o rank i n o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e . Sub-problem 2 . To d e t e r m i n e t h e p o s i t i o n o f impor-t a n c e w i t h w h i c h p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a s u b j e c t i s h e l d i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s c h o o l s u b j e c t s by t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s when r a n k i n g , f o r each o f t h e t w e l v e s u b j e c t s , t h r e e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s c a l l e d "department g o a l s . " Sub-problem 3. To d e t e r m i n e t h e l o c u s o f any agreement-disagreement i n t h e r a n k i n g o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s by t h e t a r g e t groups by a n a l y z i n g t h e r e s p o n s e s as f o l l o w s : a) by s c h o o l r o l e b) by s c h o o l l o c a t i o n c) by o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f t h e c h i e f wage e a r n e r i n t h e f a m i l y d) by sex o f s t u d e n t e) by grade l e v e l o f s t u d e n t f ) by i n t e r a c t i n g c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms The main components o f t h i s s t u d y have been d i s c u s s e d i n e a r l i e r s e c t i o n s . T h e i r o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s a r e l i s t e d as f o l l o w s : Importance. Importance o f o b j e c t i v e s w i l l be d e t e r -mined by t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h th e r e s p o n d e n t s p e r c e i v e a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e t o be o f b e n e f i t t o t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e s t u d e n t s a t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l . T h i s w i l l be measured by t h e rank g i v e n t o t h e o b j e c t i v e . P r i o r i t y . The rank o r d e r i n g f o r o b j e c t i v e s w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s ( h i g h , m i d d l e , l o w ) . These s e c t i o n s w i l l be c a l l e d t h e o r d e r s o f p r i o r i t y . D isagreement. Disagreement i s t h e t e rm used t o d e s c r i b e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r a n k i n g o f o b j e c t i v e s which a r e not o n l y s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t b u t which a r e a l s o o f a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r o f p r i o r i t y ( h i g h , m i d d l e , l o w ) . See below, Method o f S c o r i n g . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . The t e rm p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n e x c l u d e s e x t r a m u r a l a t h l e t i c s and i n t r a m u r a l c o m p e t i t i o n s . I t r e f e r s o n l y t o t h e c l a s s r o o m c u r r i c u l u m . 47 S c h o o l r o l e . S c h o o l r o l e r e f e r s t o the p o s i t i o n h e l d by the respondent i n t h e s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t can be e i t h e r t e a c h e r , p a r e n t , o r s t u d e n t . S c h o o l l o c a t i o n . S c h o o l l o c a t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d by i t s p o s i t i o n r e l a t i n g t o Main S t r e e t i n Vancouver C i t y : west or e a s t . F o r f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h i s p o i n t see pp. 48-49. O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s was d e t e r m i n e d by comparing th e o c c u p a t i o n o f the c h i e f wage-earner i n the r e s p o n d e n t ' s f a m i l y t o the B l i s h e n s c a l e (1975). Those • o c c u p a t i o n s a p p e a r i n g i n the t o p t h i r d o f the s c a l e were termed s t a t u s I ; t h o s e i n t h e m i d d l e s e c t i o n were s t a t u s I I ; t h o s e o c c u p a t i o n s i n t h e l o w e r t h i r d o f t h e s c a l e were c a l l e d s t a t u s I I I . V a r i a b l e s The v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e problems are l i s t e d below: 1. The independent v a r i a b l e s : a) s c h o o l r o l e : t e a c h e r , p a r e n t , s t u d e n t ; b) s c h o o l l o c a t i o n : west o r e a s t s i d e o f Vancouver; c) o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s : d i v i s i o n I , I I o r I I I ; d) sex o f s t u d e n t : male o r f e m a l e ; e) grade of s t u d e n t : e i g h t o r e l e v e n . 2. The dependent v a r i a b l e s : a) t h e rank g i v e n t o each o f t h r e e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n department g o a l s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t o t a l s c h o o l program; 48 b) t h e rank g i v e n t o each o f twenty p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s as t h e y r e l a t e t o each o t h e r i n i m p o r t a n c e . S c h o o l s and t h e Study P o p u l a t i o n The o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s s c o r e s o f Vancouver communities were i d e n t i f i e d and ranked by t h e Vancouver P l a n n e d Program B u d g e t i n g Systems P r o j e c t (PPBS-Vancouver) u t i l i z i n g d a t a from th e 1971 n a t i o n a l c e n s u s . The t h r e e s c h o o l s w i t h t h e h i g h e s t r a t i n g and the t h r e e s c h o o l s w i t h the l o w e s t r a t i n g were s e l e c -t e d f o r t h e stu d y t o ensure t h a t the extremes o f the range o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s c a t e g o r i e s were used. The f o l l o w i n g d a t a i n T a b l e I , from the PPBS p r o j e c t , g i v e s the o c c u p a t i o n a l r a n k -i n g o f Vancouver communities and t h e i r s c h o o l s . The s c h o o l s chosen f o r t h e s t u d y because o f t h e i r s t a t u s I o c c u p a t i o n a l r a n k i n g were P r i n c e o f Wales, Magee and P o i n t Grey. These a r e w e s t e r n s c h o o l s . The s c h o o l s chosen f o r t h e i r s t a t u s I I I o c c u p a t i o n a l r a n k i n g were Templeton, T e c h n i c a l and G l a d s t o n e . These a r e e a s t e r n s c h o o l s . B r i t a n n i a s c h o o l was not used because o f the h i g h p o t e n t i a l f o r language, r e l i g i o u s and c u l t u r a l problems. T h i s s c h o o l has a h i g h o r i e n t a l p o p u l a -t i o n w h i c h would have made d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y among p a r e n t s , e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t . The s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n was made up from t h e s e s i x s c h o o l s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: a) T e a c h e r s : A l l t e a c h e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n from t h e s e l e c t e d s c h o o l s were t e s t e d . b) P a r e n t s : Twelve p a r e n t s were randomly s e l e c t e d f o r each o f the s c h o o l s from the p o o l o f p a r e n t s T a b l e 1 O c c u p a t i o n a l Ranking o f L o c a l A r e a s From S t a t i s t i c s Canada - 1971 Census RANK AREA SCORE SECONDARY SCHOOL 1. Shaughnessy 66.0 P r i n c e o f Wales 2. K e r r i s d a l e 51.0 Magee 3. A r b u t u s Ridge 50.0 P o i n t Grey 4. West P o i n t Grey 44.0 U n i v e r s i t y H i l l 5. Dunbar 43.5 L o r d Byng 6. O a k r i d g e 43.0 7. West End 25.0 K i n g George 8. K i t s i l a n o 23.0 K i t s i l a n o 9. Marpole 19.5 Winston C h u r c h i l l 10. K i l l a r n e y 19.0 K i l l a r n e y 11. L i t t l e M o u n t a i n 18.0 E r i c Hamber 12. F a i r v i e w - C a m b i e 18.0 13. Sunset 15.0 John O l i v e r 14. V i c t o r i a - F r a s e r v i e w 14.0 D a v i d Thompson 15. R e n f r e w - C o l l i n g w o o d 13.0 Windermere 16. R i l e y P a r k - K e n s i n g t o n 12.0 C h a r l e s Tupper 17. Mount P l e a s a n t 11.5 18. Cedar C o t t a g e 11.0 G l a d s t o n e 19. H a s t i n g s - S u n r i s e 10.0 T e c h n i c a l 20. Woodland-Grandview 9.0 Templeton 21. S t r a t h c o n a 8.5 B r i t a n n i a 22. C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t 8.0 50 whose c h i l d r e n had been t e s t e d . The p a r e n t group r e p r e s e n t e d t e n p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t sample. c) S t u d e n t s : One c l a s s o f t h i r t y grade e i g h t boys; one c l a s s o f t h i r t y grade e l e v e n boys; one c l a s s o f t h i r t y grade e i g h t g i r l s ; and one c l a s s o f t h i r t y grade e l e v e n g i r l s were s e l e c t e d a t random from each o f t h e s i x s c h o o l s . The sample p o p u l a t i o n numbers were t o t a l l e d as below i n T a b l e 2. L i m i t a t i o n s and d e l i m i t a t i o n s The p r e s e n t s t u d y has l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h a t i t i s depen-dent upon t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f s p u r i o u s d a t a i s c o n t r o l l e d somewhat by t h e f o r m a l s e t t i n g o f t h e t e s t environment and t h e presence o f an a d u l t t r a i n e d as a t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t o r . Furthermore the " f o r c e d c h o i c e " format o f t h e Q s o r t encourages a c o n s i d e r e d and complete o p i n i o n . The s t u d y i s d e l i m i t e d t o t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s from s i x Vancouver secondary s c h o o l s . The s c h o o l s s e l e c t e d were t h e t h r e e w i t h t h e h i g h e s t o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s r a t i n g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e 1971 census d a t a and t h r e e among t h e l o w e s t r a t i n g s . The s t u d e n t s were s e l e c t e d by c l a s s ; two grade e i g h t and two grade e l e v e n c l a s s e s p e r s c h o o l . 5 1 T a b l e 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e Study P o p u l a t i o n TEACHERS PARENTS STUDENTS Western S c h o o l s E a s t e r n S c h o o l s 1. Gr. 8 Gr. 11 2. Gr. 8 Gr. 11 3. Gr. 8 Gr. 11 4. Gr. 8 Gr. 11 5. Gr. 8 Gr. 11 6. Gr. 8 Gr. 11 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 TOTALS 42 72 720 52 Chapter 4 INSTRUMENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS The p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r has d e s c r i b e d t h e problem, i t s sub-problems, t h e s c h o o l s e l e c t i o n and the s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the i n s t r u m e n t s used t o g a t h e r t h e d a t a and t h e methods used t o a n a l y z e t h e d a t a . These w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n s . INSTRUMENTATION The two i n s t r u m e n t s used t o g a t h e r t h e d a t a were e n c l o s e d w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s i n a b o o k l e t , e n t i t l e d " C u r r i c u l u m O b j e c t i v e s O p i n i o n n a i r e . T h e f i r s t i n s t r u m e n t d i r e c t e d t h e s o r t i n g o f t h i r t y - s i x department g o a l s from t w e l v e s u b j e c t a r e a s i n t o a s p e c i f i e d framework and i s r e f e r r e d t o as Q36. The second i n s t r u m e n t d i r e c t e d t h e s o r t i n g o f twenty p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s i n t o a s p e c i f i e d framework and i s r e f e r r e d t o as Q20. In s t r u m e n t Number One: Q36 F o r t h e purpose o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p e r c e i v e d impor-t a n c e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n department g o a l s r e l a t i v e t o t h e See Appendix A f o r t h e C u r r i c u l u m O b j e c t i v e s O p i n i o n n a i r e . 53 department g o a l s o f o t h e r s c h o o l s u b j e c t s , a t h i r t y - s i x s t a tement i n s t r u m e n t was d e s i g n e d . The f i r s t t a s k was t o g a t h e r t h o s e g o a l s a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l t h a t were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e g o a l s o f t h e t w e l v e s u b j e c t departments u s u a l l y found t o e x i s t i n Vancouver secondary s c h o o l s . To g a t h e r a l l g o a l s o f a l l departments would have produced an u n w i e l d l y number o f s t a t e m e n t s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e t w e l v e d e p a r t -ment chairmen from t h r e e s c h o o l s were asked t o l i s t , i n c o n c e r t w i t h t h e i r department c o l l e a g u e s , "the t h r e e main g o a l s t h a t would r e p r e s e n t the work o f your department and, i n f a c t , t h e work o f your s u b j e c t c o l l e a g u e s t h r o u g h o u t Vancouver." The r e c e i v e d s t a t e m e n t s were then compared t o t h e p r i n t e d s t a t e m e n t s i n Course O u t l i n e s from s i x o t h e r s c h o o l s . These s t a t e m e n t s were, i n t u r n , compared t o t h e g o a l s f o r t h e v a r i o u s c o u r s e s p r i n t e d i n t h e Course o f S t u d i e s from t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n i n V i c t o r i a . M i n o r changes were made t o ensure a c o n s i s t e n c y o f language. F o r example, t h e s t a t e m e n t s were made p a r a l l e l t o an i n t r o d u c t o r y s t a t e m e n t w h i c h r e a d : "For secondary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , each department seeks t o p r o v i d e o r d e v e l o p : " A. P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n 1. P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s ( s t r e n g t h , endurance, s t r o n g h e a r t and l u n g s ) . 2. S k i l l s f o r s p o r t s ( r e c r e a t i o n a l , team, i n d i v i d u a l ) . 3. A t t i t u d e s o f s p o r t s m a n s h i p , teamwork and an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e . 54 The language f o r the t h i r t y - s i x s t a t e m e n t s i n Q36 was reduced from t h e t e c h n i c a l l e v e l t o l a y t e r m i n o l o g y t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f p i l o t s t u d i e s . F o r example, " i n c r e a s e d a e s t h e t i c awareness" became " i n c r e a s e d awareness o f beauty i n l i f e , " and "Compensation Board r e q u i r e m e n t s " became " s a f e t y s k i l l s r e q u i r e d i n i n d u s t r y . " I t was here t h a t an i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n r e v e a l e d i t s e l f . E v e r y department, when r e s t r i c t e d t o t h r e e c h o i c e s , i n d e p e n d e n t l y a r r i v e d a t : 1) a statement i n v o l v i n g t h e development o f s k i l l s p e c u l i a r t o t h a t s u b j e c t ; f o r example, m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s k i l l s ; home economic s k i l l s ; s c i e n c e s k i l l s ; 2) a statement i n v o l v i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e a c t i v -i t i e s p e c u l i a r t o t h e s u b j e c t ; f o r example, i n d u s t r i a l s a f e t y ; p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s ; computing m a t h e m a t i c a l problems; 3) a s t a t e m e n t c o n c e r n i n g t h e development o f know-le d g e o r an a t t i t u d e f o r a l i f e t i m e a p p r e c i a -t i o n f o r t h e work o f t h e s u b j e c t : f o r example, a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r good l i t e r a t u r e ; a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r f o r e i g n language; a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r a r t and t h e a t r e . The f i n a l l i s t o f s u b j e c t department g o a l s , chosen by t e a c h e r s i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e i r department c o l l e a g u e s , may be found under Appendix B. I n s t r u m e n t Number Two: Q20 A second i n s t r u m e n t (Q20) was d e s i g n e d i n o r d e r t o determine whether o r not d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e importance o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s was t o be the main purpose o f the s t u d y . However, b e f o r e t h i s purpose c o u l d be a t t e n d e d t o , t he o b j e c t i v e s themselves f i r s t had t o be g a t h e r e d . 55 T h e r e f o r e , a r e v i e w o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e s i n c e 1950 was un d e r t a k e n t o approach the q u e s t i o n : "What a r e the o b j e c t i v e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e c l a s s -rooms o f Canadian p u b l i c s c h o o l s ? " Textbooks and p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s w r i t t e n by p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t s were s e a r c h e d f o r s t a t e m e n t s concerned w i t h c l a s s r o o m p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s a p p r o p r i -a t e t o t h e Canadian s c h o o l . The s t a t e m e n t s were t h e n s o r t e d i n t o groups s h a r i n g a common element t h a t c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d as not a p p e a r i n g i n o t h e r s t a t e m e n t s . Redundancy was e l i m i n a t e d by s y n t h e s i z i n g c l o s e l y - r e l a t e d terms w i t h o u t d e s t r o y i n g t h e o r i g i n a l a u t h o r ' s c o n t e x t u a l i n t e n t . F o r example, t h e terms, "endurance" and " s t a m i n a , " c o u l d c l e a r l y be embraced w i t h i n t h e phr a s e " a b i l i t y t o r e s i s t muscle t i r e d n e s s . " When some terms such as "neuromuscular h y p e r t o n u s " may n o t be so r e a d i l y g e n e r a l i z e d , t h e y were i n c l u d e d i n t h e statement as examples r e l a t e d t o t h e s u b s t a n t i v e o b j e c t i v e as i n "good p o s t u r e and p l e a s i n g p h y s i c a l appearance (muscle t o n e , c o o r d i n a t i o n ) . " The language o f t h e st a t e m e n t s i n Q20 was f u r t h e r m o d i f i e d , as Q36 had been, so as t o be c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d by the layman. On s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , t h e st a t e m e n t s were r e a d , ranked and d i s c u s s e d by d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s o f e l e v e n , t w e l v e and t h i r t e e n - y e a r - o l d s t u d e n t s u n t i l q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g word meaning were e l i m i n a t e d . F o r example, "development o f c a r d i o - v a s c u l a r e f f i c i e n c y " became " p r o d u c i n g s t r o n g h e a r t and l u n g s . " The s t a t e m e n t s were th e n c l a s s i f i e d i n t o f i v e d i m e n s i o n s . 56 T h i s p r e l i m i n a r y work produced twenty d i f f e r i n g s t a t e m e n t s t h a t e x p e r t s i n t h e f i e l d o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n h o l d t o be t h e main o b j e c t i v e s o f a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s c u r r i c u l u m . The s t r u c t u r e was then m a i l e d t o f o u r o f t h e t e x t b o o k authors''' and t w e l v e men and women who were d i r e c t o r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n American and Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . They were asked whether o r not t h e twenty s t a t e m e n t s p r o v i d e d a comprehensive and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l i s t o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l ' s c l a s s r o o m o b j e c t i v e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . W i t h a few minor s u g g e s t i o n s f o r change, a l l agreed t h a t t h e l i s t was b o t h comprehensive and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . T h i s l i s t was as f o l l o w s : The P h y s i c a l Dimension A. C o r r e c t i v e e x e r c i s e s f o r body d e f e c t s ( o v e r w e i g h t , t e n s i o n , a t h l e t i c i n j u r y ) . B. P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and s t r e n g t h . C. A b i l i t y t o r e s i s t muscle t i r e d n e s s (endurance, s t a m i n a ) . D. A c t i v i t i e s d e s i g n e d t o produce s t r o n g h e a r t and l u n g s . E. Good p o s t u r e and p l e a s i n g p h y s i c a l appearance (muscle t o n e , c o o r d i n a t i o n ) . F. Freedom from d i s e a s e ( r e s i s t a n c e t o c o l d s , i n f l u e n z a , t u b e r c u l o s i s ) . The Psycho-Motor Dimension G. Development o f n a t u r a l s k i l l s ( r u n n i n g , jumping, d o d g i n g ) . H. S k i l l i n team s p o r t s ( f o o t b a l l , s o c c e r , b a s k e t b a l l ) . C. A. Bucher, R. C a s s i d y , M.L. H o w e l l , E. Metheny. 57 I . S k i l l i n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s f o r f r e e t ime ( g o l f , t e n n i s , d a n c e ) . J . Development o f s a f e t y s k i l l s ( f i r s t - a i d , swimming, l i f e s a v i n g ) . The S o c i a l Dimension K. Development o f good a t t i t u d e s ( s p o r t s m a n s h i p , h o n e s t y , c o o p e r a t i o n ) . L. Development o f l e a d e r s h i p and d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e d u r e s . The P e r s o n a l - E m o t i o n a l Dimension M. Development o f p r i d e i n o n e s e l f ; s e l f -s a t i s f a c t i o n t h r o u g h achievement; h i g h s e l f - e s t e e m . N. S e l f - a n a l y s i s and a d j u stment t o p h y s i c a l s h o r t c o m i n g s ( s i z e , h e i g h t , h a n d i c a p s ) . 0. M e n t a l h e a l t h and s t a b i l i t y ( c o n f i d e n c e , c o u r a g e , p a t i e n c e , s e l f - c o n t r o l ) . P. Fun and amusement. The I n t e l l e c t u a l - I n t e r p r e t i v e Dimension Q. E x p r e s s i o n o f b e a u t y t h r o u g h s p o r t ( g r a c e , c r e a t i v i t y , r h y thm). R. A l i f e t i m e d e s i r e f o r p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e . S. U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s c i e n c e b e h i n d p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and movement (body c h e m i s t r y , anatomy, p h y s i c s ) . T. Knowledge o f h e a l t h r u l e s ( s a f e t y r u l e s , n u t r i t i o n r u l e s ) . The development o f Q36 and Q20 r e s u l t e d i n s e p a r a t e s t a t e m e n t s o f t h i r t y - s i x department g o a l s and twenty p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s s t a t e d i n a language t h a t , a l t h o u g h s i m p l i f i e d , would remain i d e n t i f i a b l e by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l . F o l l o w i n g e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w by 1 6 0 young p u b l i c s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , t h i r t y - f i v e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s s t u d y i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a t 58 t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia examined t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s c r i t i c a l l y and c o u l d s u g g e s t no f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n s . Twenty-n i n e department chairmen i n Vancouver r e v i e w e d the l i s t s and found them s a t i s f a c t o r y and u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . F o r t y p a r e n t s from a Nanaimo secondary s c h o o l had worked w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t s w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y . Q S o r t i n g t h e Statements The development o f t h e Q s o r t i n g t e c h n i q u e i s u s u a l l y , a t t r i b u t e d t o Stephenson (1953). I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h i s t e c h n i q u e was used t o p a r t i a l l y rank t h e t h i r t y - s i x department g o a l s and t h e twenty p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s and t o a s s i g n a n u m e r i c a l v a l u e t o each s t a t e m e n t . "Q s o r t i n g " i s the d a t a g a t h e r i n g t e c h n i q u e used w i t h i n "Q methodology," a method o f s t u d y employed i n t h e f i e l d o f p s y c h o l o g y . Most o f t e n , "Q methodology" i s d e s i g n e d t o v i e w d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f one p e r s o n a l i t y such a s : m u s i c a l t r a i t s , m a t h e m a t i c a l t r a i t s , m e c h a n i c a l t r a i t s . Q methodology i n i t s e n t i r e t y does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y s u i t t h e purposes o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y w h e r e i n i t was proposed t h a t the c a r d s o r t s f o r l a r g e numbers o f p e o p l e would be examined. T h e r e f o r e , o n l y t h e "Q s o r t i n g " d a t a g a t h e r i n g t e c h n i q u e was used. The c h i e f advantage o f Q s o r t i n g as a method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i s t h a t i t i n v o l v e s t h e respondent i n an a c t i v e p r o c e s s t h a t p r o v i d e s a c o n s t a n t frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r h i s c o n t i n u o u s a p p r a i s a l o f c h o i c e s (Cronbach and G l e s e r , 1953: 327). T h i s advantage, f o r purposes o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , was 59 c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t t o o u t w e i g h the c h i e f d i s a d v a n t a g e w h i c h has been c l a i m e d f o r Q s o r t i n g ( G u i l f o r d , 1965) namely, t h a t i t s i p s a t i v e n a t u r e makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o compare t h e s o r t i n g done by two i n d i v i d u a l s u n l e s s a common s c a l e can be a s s u r e d . The p r e s e n t s t u d y d i d attempt t o a s s u r e a common s c a l e by i n s i s t i n g on r i g o r o u s l y s t a n d a r d i z e d p r o c e d u r e s b e i n g f o l l o w e d (see below pp. 61-62). I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t much o f t h e c r i t i c i s m c o n -c e r n i n g Q s o r t i n g i s due t o i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the complex Q methodology w i t h which " o u t s i d e j u d g e s " a t t e m p t t o d i s c e r n t r a i t s " w i t h i n " a n o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l . I t must be emphasized, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s m e r e l y u s i n g the t e c h n i q u e o f Q s o r t i n g as a method o f p a r t i a l l y r a n k i n g s t a t e m e n t s o f c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s . The c r i t i c i s m s o f t h i s form o f r a n k i n g have been c o u n t e r e d by B l o c k (1956:492) who c o n c l u d e d , when summarizing t h e e f f e c t s o f f o r c e d v e r s u s u n f o r c e d Q s o r t i n g t h a t : The f o r c e d approach i s more u s e f u l when i t e m o r d e r i s judged o f paramount i m p o r t a n c e . I n many i n s t a n c e s , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t the v a r i a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d by u n f o r c e d s o r t i n g can be a t t r i b u t e d t o p e r i p h e r a l o r u n i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s , o r i t s meaning be e x p r e s s e d w i t h i n t h e i t e m o r d e r . C o n s e q u e n t l y , no g r e a t l o s s i s s u f f e r e d and many b e n e f i t s a r e a c h i e v e d i n t h e s e c i r c u m t a n c e s by f o r c i n g a l l s o r t e r s i n t o comparable d a t a - s y s t e m s . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f l o s t d a t a because o f the f o r c e d c h o i c e i n Q s o r t i n g i s a m a t t e r open t o debate. Jones (1955), i n a s t u d y i n v o l v i n g t h r e e groups o f s u b j e c t s ( c o l l e g e , n e u r o t i c and p s y c h o t i c ) , c o n c l u d e d t h a t " c u r r e n t f o r c e d -60 d i s t r i b u t i o n p r o c e d u r e s r e s u l t i n a s i g n i f i c a n t l o s s o f i n f o r m a -t i o n w h i c h may be r e t a i n e d by use o f " f r e e s o r t " p r o c e d u r e s . . . ." (Jones, 1955:94). B l o c k (1956) conducted a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w o f t h i s p r o b lem and d e v e l o p e d an e m p i r i c a l s t u d y o f e f f e c t s o f f o r c e d and u n f o r c e d Q s o r t i n g p r o c e d u r e s . He con-c l u d e d t h a t : I n t h e v a r i o u s c o m p a r i s o n s , the f o r c e d Q - s o r t method appeared e q u a l o r s u p e r i o r t o t h e n a t u r a l u n f o r c e d Q - s o r t method. The " i n f o r m a t i o n " conveyed by t h e u n f o r c e d s o r t , o v e r and above t h a t c o n t a i n e d i n i t s f o r c e d e q u i v a l e n t , seems t o be a f u n c t i o n o f (1) r e s p o n s e s e t s o f l i m i t e d i n t e r e s t s and (2) r e s p o n s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s whose p s y c h o l o g i c a l meaning i s encompassed w i t h i n the f o r c e d -s o r t s i t u a t i o n ( B l o c k , 1956:492). The p r e s e n t w r i t e r r e c o g n i z e d t h e h a z a r d i n v o l v e d w i t h d e t e r m i n i n g d i f f e r e n c e s "between" i n d i v i d u a l s based upon measure-ment from " w i t h i n " t h e i n d i v i d u a l . T h e r e f o r e , w i t h i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y , s t r i c t bounds o f r e f e r e n c e were s t r u c t u r e d f o r the s o r t -i n g t a s k . I n t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h e s t u d y , (Q36) r e s p o n d e n t s p l a c e d t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n department g o a l s i n r e l a t i o n t o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g o a l s o f o t h e r s c h o o l s u b j e c t s . T h i s p r o v i d e d a n o r m a t i v e v i e w ( a c r o s s a p o p u l a t i o n ) o f p h y s i -c a l e d u c a t i o n ' s p e r c e i v e d i m p o r t a n c e . I n t h e second s e c t i o n , t h e s u b j e c t s were i n s t r u c t e d t o rank by Q20 each p h y s i c a l educa-t i o n o b j e c t i v e r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s o n l y . A l s o , t h e r a n k i n g s c o r e s o f o n l y one o b j e c t i v e a t a time were compared a c r o s s r e s p o n d i n g groups. The sum o f a l l twenty o b j e c t i v e s c o u l d n o t be compared a t one t ime because o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i p s a t i v e d a t a t h a t produces e q u a l sums and, t h e r e f o r e , e q u a l means. 61 The placement o f s t a b l e r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s around t h e s o r t i n g p r o c e d u r e was i n t e n d e d t o ensure t h a t the st u d y met t h e two demands o f measurement made by C a t t e l l (1945) when d i s c u s s -i n g i p s a t i v i t y ; i . e . , (a) t h a t t h e measurements s h a l l l i e i n a s i n g l e continuum, o f c o n s t a n t and d e f i n a b l e d i r e c t i o n , and (b) t h a t t h i s continuum s h a l l be t h e same f o r a l l s u b j e c t s ( C a t t e l l , 1945:297). A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e T e s t A p i l o t s t u d y i n a Nanaimo secondary s c h o o l a l l o w e d a p r a c t i c e r u n and r e f i n e m e n t o f t h e f i n a l t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s . The f i n a l r o u t i n e i n v o l v e d the r e s p o n d e n t s : (a) s e a t i n g them-s e l v e s a t i n d i v i d u a l t a b l e s i n a q u i e t s e t t i n g ; (b) c o m p l e t i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n s e c t i o n ; (c) r e a d i n g t h r o u g h the i n s t r u c t i o n s on the o p i n i o n n a i r e w i t h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r ; (d) d i s c u s s i n g t h e Q s o r t diagrams; (e) s o r t i n g t h e c a r d s b e a r i n g the s t a t e -ments, and (f) c o m p l e t i n g the answer s e c t i o n . The o p i n i o n n a i r e , i t s e l f , was s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . However, f o r t h i s s t u d y t i g h t c o n t r o l s were e x e r c i s e d . I n advance o f t h e t e s t i n g , a c h a i n o f e x p e r i e n c e was d e v e l o p e d . The a u t h o r a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e o p i n i o n n a i r e t o the v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s o f t h e s i x t e s t s c h o o l s . The n e x t day, t h e v i c e - p r i n c i p a l a d m i n i s t e r e d the o p i n i o n n a i r e t o a l l seven o f the t e a c h e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n h i s s c h o o l . The f o l l o w i n g day, the v i c e - p r i n c i p a l t h e n a d m i n i s t e r e d the t e s t s t o two grade e i g h t c l a s s e s and two grade e l e v e n c l a s s e s s e l e c t e d a t random from t h e s c h o o l . The t e s t i n g took p l a c e i n t h e s c h o o l c a f e t e r i a 62 where t h e r e was s u f f i c i e n t room a t c l e a r e d and q u i e t t a b l e s . The p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s a s s i s t e d by f o l l o w i n g a l i s t o f d i r e c t i o n s p r e s e n t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r . The v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s r e p o r t e d t h a t a l l s t u d e n t s u b j e c t s were a c t i v e l y engaged i n the work, and t h a t many r e s p o n d e n t s e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e t e s t and wanted t o d i s c u s s t h e r e s u l t s . S i m i l a r i n t e r e s t was e x p r e s s e d by t e a c h e r and p a r e n t s u b j e c t s . The p a r e n t sample was s e l e c t e d a t random from t h e s t u d e n t group. E i g h t names were drawn from each c l a s s o f s t u d e n t s t a k i n g t h e t e s t . A l e t t e r was s e n t t o t h e p a r e n t s i n v i t i n g one o f them t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . A f o l l o w -up t e l e p h o n e c a l l by t h e r e s e a r c h e r d e t e r m i n e d t h e i r answer, and arrangements were made f o r a home o r s c h o o l v i s i t . When an i n v i t a t i o n was r e j e c t e d , as happened on two o c c a s i o n s , t h e n e x t p a r e n t down t h e l i s t was t a k e n . The t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d by e i t h e r t h e r e s e a r c h e r o r two t r a i n e d a s s i s t a n t s f o l l o w i n g t h e same p r o c e d u r e s g i v e n t o t h e t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . Seventy-two p a r e n t s were t e s t e d i n t h e e v e n i n g s i n t h e p r i v a c y o f t h e i r homes o r i n s m a l l groups a t t h e i r l o c a l s c h o o l . T h i s number r e p r e s e n t e d t e n p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t sample and was deemed t o be o f manageable s i z e . Method o f S c o r i n g The s c o r e t h a t each p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n statement r e c e i v e d was dependent upon i t s f i n a l placement i n the Q s o r t i n g by t h e r e s p o n d e n t . As w i l l be seen i n F i g u r e 2, t h e r e a r e e l e v e n p o s s i b l e columns i n Q36. Placement o f a c a r d i n one 63 o f the columns earned a s c o r e from a h i g h o f e l e v e n t o a low o f one. I f t h e r e was more t h a n one c a r d i n a column t h e y a l l r e c e i v e d t h e same s c o r e as i n d i c a t e d by t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e column. The c a r d b e a r i n g t h e most i m p o r t a n t statement was t o be p l a c e d i n t h e f a r l e f t column and was g i v e n a s c o r e o f e l e v e n . The two n e x t most i m p o r t a n t c a r d s were t o be p l a c e d i n t h e n e x t column and r e c e i v e d a s c o r e o f t e n . T h i s p r o c e s s was r e p e a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o i n s t r u c t i o n s (see Appendix A) u n t i l a l l t he p l a c e s i n t h e Q s o r t were f i l l e d w i t h c a r d s . The l e a s t i m p o r t a n t s t a t e m e n t was p l a c e d a t t h e f a r r i g h t and was g i v e n a s c o r e o f one. F i g u r e 3 g i v e s a s i m i l a r i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e s c o r i n g f o r Q20. Here, t h e r e were b u t twenty spaces f o r t h e twenty c a r d s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n r e s u l t e d i n e i g h t columns. The s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t c a r d was p l a c e d i n t h e f a r l e f t column and r e c e i v e d a s c o r e o f e i g h t . The n e x t two most i m p o r t a n t s t a t e m e n t s were t o be p l a c e d i n column seven. T h i s p r o c e s s was r e p e a t e d u n t i l a l l t h e spaces i n t h e Q s o r t were f i l l e d . The s i n g l e l e a s t i m p o r t a n t c a r d was p l a c e d i n the f a r r i g h t space and r e c e i v e d a s c o r e o f one. The s c o r e f o r each g o a l (Q36) and each o b j e c t i v e (Q20) was t a b u l a t e d f o r e v e r y r e s p o n d e n t . The mean s c o r e f o r any g o a l o r f o r any o b j e c t i v e was the n d e t e r m i n e d f o r any c o m b i n a t i o n o f r e s p o n d e n t s . F o r example, the importance o f o b j e c t i v e A i n t h e vi e w o f grade e l e v e n g i r l s c o u l d be d e t e r -mind by c a l c u l a t i n g t h e group mean s c o r e from t h e s c o r e t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l had g i v e n t o t h i s o b j e c t i v e . The group mean 64 Score 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 most i m p o r t a n t l e a s t i m p o r t a n t F i g u r e 2 Method o f S c o r i n g t h e Columns o f Q36 Score most i m p o r t a n t l e a s t i m p o r t a n t F i g u r e 3 Method o f S c o r i n g t h e Columns o f Q20 65 s c o r e f o r grade e l e v e n g i r l s c o u l d t h e n be compared t o t h e group mean s c o r e on t h e same o b j e c t i v e f o r grade e l e v e n boys. The mean s c o r e s f o r a l l o b j e c t i v e s were a r r a n g e d i n d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r so t h a t a rank p o s i t i o n r e s u l t e d . Then i t c o u l d be seen, f o r example, t h a t grade e l e v e n g i r l s gave o b j e c t i v e A a rank p o s i t i o n o f t e n and o b j e c t i v e B a rank p o s i t i o n o f f o u r . D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r a n k i n g o f o b j e c t i v e A by any two groups c o u l d t h e n be s t u d i e d . I n o r d e r t o a s s i s t i n t h e assessment o f t h e importance o f any d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h might be o b s e r v e d , one f u r t h e r method o f s c o r i n g was r e q u i r e d . The q u e s t i o n o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e mean s c o r e s o f d i f f e r -e n t groups i s d e a l t w i t h i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , b u t i t s h o u l d be n o t e d a t t h i s p o i n t , t h a t a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ence need n o t be an i m p o r t a n t r a n k i n g d i f f e r e n c e . F o r example, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a mean o f 6.1 f o r t e a c h e r s f o r a g i v e n o b j e c t i v e i n Q20 would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from a mean o f 5.1 on t h e same o b j e c t i v e f o r s t u d e n t s . Would t h e s e means p r o v i d e a rank d i f f e r e n c e o f p r a c t i c a l o r e d u c a t i o n a l impor-t a n c e ? Because o f t h i s q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e o f s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , i t was d e c i d e d t o a r b i t r a r i l y a s s i g n t h r e e s e c t i o n s o f p r i o r i t y t o t h e Q a r r a y . F o r Q36, columns 11, 10, 9 and 8 c o m p r i s e d a s e c t i o n c a l l e d " h i g h p r i o r i t y . " Columns 7, 6 and 5 formed a s e c t i o n c a l l e d " m iddle p r i o r i t y " and columns 4, 3, 2 and 1 66 c o m p r i s e d the s e c t i o n c a l l e d "low p r i o r i t y . " F i g u r e 4 i l l u s -t r a t e s t h e s e s e c t i o n s . I n Q20, columns 8, 7 and 6 were c a l l e d " h i g h p r i o r -i t y . " Columns 5 and 4 c o m p r i s e d t h e s e c t i o n c a l l e d "middle p r i o r i t y " and columns 3, 2 and 1 formed t h e s e c t i o n c a l l e d "low p r i o r i t y . " F i g u r e 5 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s e s e c t i o n s . By d i v i d i n g t h e Q a r r a y s i n t o s e c t i o n s o f " h i g h , " " m i d d l e " and "low" p r i o r i t y , i t was p o s s i b l e t o make a judgment as t o t h e p r a c t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e 1 o f any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t -d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h might be i d e n t i f i e d by the F t e s t . Thus, a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e example Q20 means o f 6.1 f o r t e a c h e r s and 5.1 f o r s t u d e n t s would not have an i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e because b o t h groups would have put t h i s p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e i n t h e " h i g h p r i o r i t y " s e c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , we c o u l d n o t f o r e s e e any s e r i o u s c o n t r o v e r s y a r i s -i n g o v e r t h e p u r s u i t o f t h i s o b j e c t i v e i n t h e s c h o o l ' s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n program. Nor c o u l d we see a t i m e t a b l e committee o r a c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g committee making any major changes o r d e l e t i o n s . There would be l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e t o t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n ran k . I f , however, t e a c h e r s had g i v e n an o b j e c t i v e a rank i n t h e " h i g h p r i o r i t y " s e c t i o n w h i l e s t u d e n t s and/or p a r e n t s had g i v e n i t o n l y "middle p r i o r i t y " o r even l o w e r r a t i n g , t h e n p e r h a p s , p l a n n e r s would r e v i e w t h e emphasis g i v e n t o t h i s o b j e c t i v e by the p r o f e s s i o n a l s . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s l i n e o f t h o u g h t , t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r took " i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e s " t o mean t h o s e d i f f e r e n c e s which met the f o l l o w i n g two c r i t e r i a : S e c t i o n A H i g h P r i o r i t y S e c t i o n B M i d d l e P r i o r i t y S e c t i o n C Low P r i o r i t y 1 1 10 F i g u r e 4 S e c t i o n s o f P r i o r i t y i n t h e Q36 A r r a y S e c t i o n A H i g h P r i o r i t y S e c t i o n B M i d d l e P r i o r i t y S e c t i o n Low P r i o r i t y F i g u r e 5 S e c t i o n s o f P r i o r i t y i n t h e Q20 A r r a y 68 1) The d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e means between two o r more groups were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e F t e s t a t t h e .0025 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e ; 2) The rank f o r t h e o b j e c t i v e i n q u e s t i o n appeared i n a d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n o f p r i o r i t y . f o r two groups o f r e s p o n d e n t s . DATA ANALYSIS The raw d a t a were a n a l y z e d i n s e v e r a l ways. The f i r s t a n a l y s i s was by means o f a m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e t o g i v e a g e n e r a l v i e w o f t h e r e s u l t s . Next, an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i -ance was a p p l i e d t o each o b j e c t i v e s e p a r a t e l y . The Newman-Keuls m u l t i p l e - c o m p a r i s o n p r o c e d u r e was used i n c a s e s where a s i g n i f i -c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found i n the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . These a n a l y s e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e A m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (MANOVA) was used t o examine t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e mean s c o r e s a s s i g n e d t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s by groups o f t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s . MANOVA p r o v i d e d an " o v e r a l l " v iew o f the mean s c o r e s a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h i s s t r a t e g y was used t o i d e n t i f y t h e most prominent d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s b e i n g t h a t : t h e mean v e c t o r s f o r t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s were e q u a l . A v e c t o r was t a k e n t o be a m a t r i x h a v i n g o n l y one row o r one column. F o r example, i n Q20 t h e r e would be produced by t e a c h e r s a s e t o f means: one f o r 69 each o f t h e twenty o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s s e t c o u l d be c a l l e d t h e t e a c h e r v e c t o r . Each o f t h e twenty means w i t h i n t h e v e c t o r was c a l l e d a component o f the v e c t o r . Three v e c t o r s were produced: one each f o r the t e a c h e r , p a r e n t and s t u d e n t groups. MANOVA t e s t e d whether o r n o t t h e s e t h r e e mean v e c t o r s were e q u a l . Four MANOVAs were completed f o r t h i s s t u d y . They a s s e s s e d r e s p e c t i v e l y : (a) S c h o o l r o l e f a c t o r ( t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s ) w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g o a l s H, 0, F. (b) S c h o o l r o l e f a c t o r ( t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s ) w i t h twenty o b j e c t i v e s . (c) Combined sex and grade f a c t o r s f o r s t u d e n t s w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g o a l s H, 0, F. (d) Combined sex and grade f a c t o r f o r s t u d e n t s w i t h twenty o b j e c t i v e s . One o f t h e re a s o n s f o r em p l o y i n g MANOVA was t o i d e n t i -f y t he most prominent d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h o u t r i s k i n g Type I e r r o r ; t h a t i s , the er r o n e o u s r e j e c t i o n o f a t r u e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . The p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o m m i t t i n g a Type I e r r o r i s i n d i c a t e d by the l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e r e f o r e , w i t h but one MANOVA f o r a l l t he g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h e r e c o u l d be e x p e c t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o n l y one chance i n twenty o f making a Type I e r r o r (5 chances i n 100 o r 1 i n 2 0 ) . I f , however, t h e t e s t o f t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was und e r t a k e n f o r each o f t h e t w e n t y - t h r e e v a r i a b l e s , t h e n t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f e r r o r would be p r o p o r t i o n a l l y i n c r e a s e d . W i t h t h i s danger i n mind, MANOVA was used t o peruse t h e d a t a i n a g l o b a l way. The use o f t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e t e s t would g i v e t h e g e n e r a l 70 d i f f e r e n c e s and would a l s o i n d i c a t e a comparable a l p h a l e v e l f o r t h e more s p e c i f i c u n i v a r i a t e t e s t s . U n i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e F o l l o w i n g t h e MANOVA t e s t o f e q u a l i t y o f t h e v e c t o r s , an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) was used t o examine t h e e q u a l i t y o f t h e components o f t h e v e c t o r s . Hence, each mean s c o r e t a b u l a t e d f o r a group, f o r one o b j e c t i v e , was compared t o t h e mean s c o r e t a b u l a t e d f o r t h e same o b j e c t i v e by t h e o t h e r groups. F o r example, t h e t e a c h e r mean s c o r e f o r o b j e c t i v e A was com-pared t o t h e mean s c o r e o f p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s f o r o b j e c t i v e A: t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s b e i n g , t h a t t h e mean s c o r e s on o b j e c -t i v e A f o r a l l groups were e q u a l . Because t h e ANOVA would examine t h e mean s c o r e s f o r one o b j e c t i v e a t a t i m e , t h e r e would be an i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r o b a b i l i t y f o r Type I e r r o r . E r r o r r a t e i n c r e a s e s as t h e number o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t s i n c r e a s e s . To c o n t r o l f o r t h i s , a l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e comparable t o t h e MANOVA was used. The MANOVA l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e (.05) was d i v i d e d by the number o f o b j e c t i v e s (20) p r o d u c i n g a .0025 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i -cance t h a t was t o be used f o r t h e ANOVA. A l t h o u g h t h i s con-s e r v a t i v e a l p h a l e v e l would i n c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f Type I I e r r o r (the r e t e n t i o n o f a f a l s e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s ) i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s s t u d y s h o u l d , a t t h i s t i m e , be con-c e r n e d w i t h the most o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s between groups. I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , r e c o g n i z e d t h a t some Type I I e r r o r s might e x i s t . 71 The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) i s a u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e t h a t t e s t s whether o r not t h e means o f s e v e r a l p o p u l a t i o n s a r e e q u a l . A t t h e same t i m e , i t w i l l , i f more than one independent v a r i a b l e i s i n c l u d e d , a l s o t e s t f o r any i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . I n t e r a c t i o n i s a j o i n t e f f e c t o f two o r more v a r i a b l e s w h i c h may combine i n a s p e c i a l way t o e f f e c t an outcome. F o r example, the combined e f f e c t o f b e i n g a p a r e n t ( s c h o o l r o l e ) o f h i g h ( S t a t u s I) o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s may produce a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e t o o b j e c t i v e s t h a n i f each v a r i a b l e were c o n s i d e r e d by i t s e l f . ANOVA t a k e s t h e t o t a l v a r i a t i o n p r e s e n t i n a sample and s e p a r a t e s i t i n t o components. These components ar e then a n a l y z e d t o dete r m i n e whether o r n o t t h e n u l l hypo-t h e s i s o f e q u a l means s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d o r r e j e c t e d . The assumptions made a r e t h a t : (a) t h e random samples a r e from normal d i s t r i b u t i o n s , and (b) t h e normal p o p u l a t i o n s have e q u a l v a r i a n c e . By meeting the ANOVA r e q u i r e m e n t o f e q u a l o r p r o p o r -t i o n a l c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s , a two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e might appear as below i n F i g u r e 6. O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s H i g h M i d d l e Low O b j e c t i v e A D i v i s i o n I D i v i s i o n I I D i v i s i o n I I I Teachers P a r e n t s S t u d e n t s C e l l mean Row mean Row mean Row mean Column mean Column mean Column mean Grand mean F i g u r e 6 Two Way A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e D i s p l a y : S c h o o l R o l e and O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s 72 With t h e s e s t e p s c o m p l e t e d , i t i s the n p o s s i b l e t o f o r m u l a t e n u l l h ypotheses and a l t e r n a t e hypotheses c o n c e r n i n g t h e rows and columns. (a) H : o th e row means a r e e q u a l . the row means a r e not e q u a l . (b) H : o the column means a r e e q u a l . V t h e column means a r e not e q u a l . (c) H : o t h e r e i s no i n t e r a c t i o n . (d) H l ! t h e r e i s i n t e r a c t i o n . I n t h e example above, t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e would t e s t t h e e q u a l i t y o f t h e c e l l means o f t h e dependent v a r i a b l e ( s c o r e s g i v e n t o o b j e c t i v e A) f o r each row l e v e l and column l e v e l f o r t h e two independent v a r i a b l e s ( s c h o o l r o l e and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s ) . The Newman-Keuls P r o c e d u r e When t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f e q u a l row and column means i s r e j e c t e d by t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e , i t does not i n d i c a t e t h a t e v e r y c e l l mean d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from e v e r y o t h e r c e l l mean. I t i s l i k e l y , however, t h a t a t l e a s t one c e l l mean d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from one o t h e r c e l l mean. To f i n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l l c e l l means, t h e Newman-Keuls pr o c e d u r e was employed. To do t h i s , a l l t h e c e l l s i n the f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n , such as d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e 6, were s t r u n g o u t as though t h e y c o n s t i t u t e d l e v e l s o f a one-way ANOVA. These c e l l means were t h e n t e s t e d i n a p a i r w i s e manner by t h e Newman-K e u l s p r o c e d u r e . T h i s p r o c e d u r e compares e v e r y mean s c o r e w i t h 73 e v e r y o t h e r mean s c o r e and g i v e s t h o s e g r o u p i n g s t h a t a r e homo-geneous t o them s e l v e s but opposed t o o t h e r s . F o r example, when , the ANOVA i n d i c a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s between t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s o f west and e a s t l o c a t i o n on o b j e c t i v e A, the Newman-K e u l s t e s t examined a l l p o s s i b l e v a r i a t i o n s . The t e s t m ight have found two homogeneous s u b - s e t s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t : w e s t e r n t e a c h e r s , e a s t e r n t e a c h e r s and w e s t e r n p a r e n t s had e q u a l means but were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from: e a s t e r n p a r e n t s , w e s t e r n s t u d e n t s and e a s t e r n s t u d e n t s . F i g u r e 7 d i s p l a y s t h i s example: Teachers P a r e n t s S t u d e n t s Newman-Keuls O b j e c t i v e A T e s t i n d i - " E a s t 2.1 2.2 2.3 c a t e s two West 1.1 1.2 1.3 homogeneous s u b - s e t s a) 1 . 1 , 2 . 1 , 1.2 b) 2.2, 1.3, 2.3 F i g u r e 7 An I l l u s t r a t i o n o f Homogeneous Sub-sets I d e n t i f i e d by the Newman-Keuls Pr o c e d u r e V a l i d i t y C o n f i d e n c e i n the v a l i d i t y o f t h e " C u r r i c u l u m Objec-t i v e s O p i n i o n n a i r e " was h i g h because o f i t s s i m i l a r i t y t o the "Task o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n O p i n i o n n a i r e " used by Downey, Seager and S l a g l e (1959) and H a r t r i c k (1961). F u r t h e r , t h e language used had been a d j u s t e d t h r o u g h s i x p i l o t t e s t s (see pp. 55-58 above) i n response t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n s and q u e s t i o n s o f 280 s u b j e c t s . A f t e r t h i s p r e p a r a t i o n i t was assumed t h a t the 74 s t a t e m e n t s would p r o v i d e a common s t r u c t u r e t h a t would a c t as a v e r b a l a s s i s t a n c e t o p e o p l e u n t r a i n e d as e d u c a t o r s . R e l i a b i l i t y The r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e t e s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t was found t o be h i g h . One hundred grade e i g h t and grade e l e v e n s t u d e n t s were s e l e c t e d a t random and a t e s t - r e t e s t a n a l y s i s o f the proced u r e was conducted. The f i r s t t e s t was completed i n the s c h o o l c a f e t e r i a under s u p e r v i s e d c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n was r e p e a t e d one month l a t e r and p e r m i t t e d t h e t e s t I — t e s t I I c o r r e l a t i o n s from the twenty p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s and the t h r e e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n g o a l s . These c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e shown i n Ta b l e 3. The range o f the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s was from a h i g h o f .92 t o a low o f .55. The average f o r t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e twenty o b j e c t i v e s was .79.^" The mean r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the t h r e e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n g o a l s was .91. A l l o f t h e s e h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s might be i n f l a t e d somewhat because t h e y were c a l c u l a t e d on a h e t e r o -geneous sample. Because c o r r e l a t i o n v a l u e s a r e o r d i n a l , i t was neces-s a r y t o c o n v e r t them t o F i s h e r ' s z v a l u e s b e f o r e t h e mean r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t c o u l d be c a l c u l a t e d . 75 T a b l e 3 T e s t - R e t e s t C o r r e l a t i o n s Taken From t h e O r d e r i n g o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n G o a l s and O b j e c t i v e s By 100 Randomly S e l e c t e d D a v i d Thompson S c h o o l Grade 8 and Grade 11 S t u d e n t s P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n G o a l s P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s H .92 A .72 F .88 K .79 P .90 0 .90 B .82 G .71 L .83 Q .83 F . 90 C .75 H .86 M .79 R .83 Mean .91 D .79 I .77 N .55 S .83 E .81 J .75 0 .75 T .71 Mean .79 76 C h a p t e r 5 THE R E S U L T S OF THE A N A L Y S I S T h e p o s i t i o n o f i m p o r t a n c e h e l d b y p h y s i c a l e d u c a -t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t o t a l s c h o o l p r o g r a m i s d i s c u s s e d w i t h i n t h i s c h a p t e r . T h e r e i s a l s o a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r i o r i t i e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s a s s i g n e d b y g r o u p s o f t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s a n d s t u d e n t s c l a s s i f i e d b y s c h o o l r o l e , s c h o o l l o c a -t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , s e x a n d g r a d e . P H Y S I C A L E D U C A T I O N W I T H I N THE SCHOOL PROGRAM T h e t a s k i n t h e f i r s t s u b - p r o b l e m w a s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p o s i t i o n o f i m p o r t a n c e a s s i g n e d b y t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s a n d s t u d e n t s t o t h e t h r e e d e p a r t m e n t g o a l s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d w i t h t h o s e g o a l s o f o t h e r s c h o o l s u b j e c t s . T h e r e s p o n d e n t s r a n k e d t h i r t y - s i x d e p a r t m e n t g o a l s i n o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e s t u d e n t s a t t h e i r l o c a l s c h o o l . T h e c o m p l e t e l i s t o f d e p a r t m e n t g o a l s i s s h o w n i n A p p e n d i x C. T h e t h r e e w h i c h r e l a t e t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a r e H, F a n d 0: H - P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s ( s t r e n g t h , e n d u r a n c e , s t r o n g h e a r t a n d l u n g s ) . 0 - S k i l l s f o r s p o r t s ( r e c r e a t i o n , t e a m , i n d i v i d u a l ) . F - A t t i t u d e s o f s p o r t s m a n s h i p a n d t e a m w o r k a n d t h e e n j o y m e n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e . 77 The O v e r a l l View o f t h e Role F a c t o r and t h e Three P h y s i c a l  E d u c a t i o n G o a l s A one-way m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (MANOVA) was p e rformed t o examine th e d a t a from t h e s c h o o l r o l e groups ( t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s ) t r e a t i n g the t h r e e r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e g o a l s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . No attempt was made t o p e r f o r m t h i s a n a l y s i s f o r t h e o t h e r s u b j e c t g o a l s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were a s s o c i -a t e d w i t h t h e s c h o o l r o l e f a c t o r [F(6,61658) = 8.13, p<.01]. T h i s f i n d i n g was f o l l o w e d by s i m u l t a n e o u s m u l t i p l e comparisons f o r each o f t h e t h r e e g o a l s and each p a i r o f groups. The mean s c o r e s and t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e m u l t i p l e comparisons among the l e v e l s o f t h e r o l e f a c t o r on t h e t h r e e g o a l s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 4. An ANOVA was a l s o performed on the mean of the t h r e e g o a l s , H, 0, and F, f o r r o l e e f f e c t . The r e s u l t s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the t h r e e groups [F(2,822) = 17.33, p<.001]. T h i s f i n d i n g was f o l l o w e d up by m u l t i p l e comparisons u s i n g t h e Newman-Keuls p r o c e d u r e . The mean s c o r e s a s s i g n e d t o t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n average by t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d , a l o n g w i t h t h e t h r e e group means f o r g o a l s H, 0, and F, i n T a b l e 4. The r e s u l t s o f t h e m u l t i p l e comparisons p e r f o r m e d a r e i n d i c a t e d a t the r i g h t o f T a b l e 4. T h i s t a b l e shows t h a t t h e t e a c h e r p a r e n t and s t u d e n t groups had p l a c e d t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n average i n t h e m i d d l e s e c -t i o n o f p r i o r i t y , as d e s c r i b e d i n F i g u r e 8, w i t h t h e t h r e e mean s c o r e s f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a l l b e i n g above s i x and below e i g h t . These means were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from one a n o t h e r b u t were a l l i n t h e same m i d d l e s e c t i o n o f p r i o r i t y . 78 T a b l e 4 Group Mean Sc o r e s and M u l t i p l e Comparisons Among t h e L e v e l s o f R o l e F a c t o r on Three R e p r e s e n t a t i v e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n G o a l s Dependent V a r i a b l e Teachers P a r e n t s S t u d e n t s S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s 3 H P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s 7.85 6.42 7.65 P a r e n t s vs Teachers P a r e n t s vs S t u d e n t s 0 S p o r t s k i l l s 7.05 5.57 6.59 Teachers vs P a r e n t s P a r e n t s v s S t u d e n t s F A t t i t u d e s 8.40 6.82 7.23 Teachers vs P a r e n t s Teachers vs S t u d e n t s Mean f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n 7.77 6.52 7.15 Teachers vs P a r e n t s Teachers vs Stu d e n t s P a r e n t s vs S t u d e n t s The d i f f e r e n c e s were a s s e s s e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e by the s i m u l t a n e o u s m u l t i p l e comparisons method a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the MANOVA f o r H,0,F and by t h e Newman-Keuls m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i -son p r o c e d u r e , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ANOVA, f o r the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n mean. 79 S c a l e Teachers P a r e n t s S t u d e n t s H i g h P r i o r i t y 1 1 1 0 9 8 M i d d l e P r i o r i t y 7 6 5 H 0 X H 0 X H F 0 X Low P r i o r i t y 4 3 2 1 * i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e s X t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n average F i g u r e 8 A Graph o f t h e Mean S c o r e s G i v e n t o t h e G o a l s o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n by T e a c h e r s , P a r e n t s and S t u d e n t s 80 As a r e s u l t , t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s were not c o n s i d e r e d t o be e d u c a t i o n a l l y i m p o r t a n t . I t can be seen from T a b l e 4, t h a t when t h e p h y s i c a l -e d u c a t i o n department g o a l s were a n a l y z e d s e p a r a t e l y , t h e r e were some s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the mean s c o r e s , a l t h o u g h F i g u r e 8 shows t h a t f o r g o a l s H and 0 the means were a l l w i t h i n t h e m i d d l e s e c t i o n o f p r i o r i t y . P a r e n t s , f o r example, s c o r e d g o a l H ( p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s ) l o w e r than d i d t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was, i n f a c t , s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -c a n t but n o t o f " p r a c t i c a l " s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e sense d i s c u s s e d above (p. 6 6 ) . T h i s s i t u a t i o n was r e p e a t e d i n t h e s c o r i n g o f g o a l 0 ( s p o r t s k i l l s ) . These s c o r e s were, t h e r e f o r e , t a k e n as t o p i c s r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n (see pp. 80-84). The s c o r i n g o f g o a l F ( a t t i t u d e s ) a l s o showed s t a t i s -t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e groups. Teachers had p l a c e d t h i s g o a l above 8.0 i n t h e h i g h p r i o r i t y s e c t i o n w i t h a s c o r e o f 8.40. P a r e n t s (6.82 and s t u d e n t s (7.23) had p l a c e d g o a l F i n the m i d d l e p r i o r i t y s e c t i o n . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was not o n l y s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t b u t seemed a l s o t o be o f p r a c t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e because t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and d i f f e r e n c e i n s e c t i o n s o f p r i o r i t y s a t i s f i e d t h i s s t u d y ' s c r i t e r i a f o r " i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e s . " R e s u l t s o f t h e A n a l y s e s o f R o l e Combined W i t h S c h o o l L o c a t i o n The l o c u s o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s c o n n e c t e d w i t h g o a l s H, 0 and F c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d more p r e c i s e l y by f u r t h e r d i v i d -i n g t h e t e a c h e r , p a r e n t and s t u d e n t groups by s c h o o l l o c a t i o n , 81 west and e a s t . These d a t a were a n a l y s e d by a 3 x 2 ANOVA f o r each o f t h e s e dependent v a r i a b l e s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , t h e s i x means were s t r u n g o u t , as though i n a one-way d e s i g n , and the s i x means were compared u s i n g the Newman-Keuls p r o c e d u r e . T a b l e 5 d i s p l a y s t h e ANOVA r e s u l t s . T a b l e 5 ANOVA R e s u l t s o f Three R e p r e s e n t a t i v e G o a l s A n a l y s e d f o r S c h o o l R o l e and S c h o o l L o c a t i o n E f f e c t s Dependent V a r i a b l e s MS w (df-828) S c h o o l (df= l o c a t i o n =1) Sc h o o l R o l e (df=2) I n t e r a c t i o n (df=2) F P F p F p H 4.54 1.45 >.20 11.42 <.001 2.86 >.05 0 3.63 0.45 >.50 11.05 <.001 1.72 >.10 F 3.66 0.00 >.99 9.49 <.001 3.40 >.02 P.E. Average 18.55 0.83 >.50 17.33 <.001 3.09 >.04 T a b l e 6 p r e s e n t s t h e means f o r t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s d i v i d e d by west and e a s t . The r e s u l t s o f t h e Newman-Keuls m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e r i g h t o f T a b l e 6. They a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as f o l l o w s : any p a i r o f means t h a t have t h e same l i n e under them a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . I f means do n o t have t h e same l i n e under them t h e n t h e y a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . The p o s i t i o n i n g o f t h e g o a l s i n s e c t i o n s o f p r i o r i t y i s g r a p h i c a l l y d i s p l a y e d i n F i g u r e 9. W i t h i n t h i s f i g u r e , i t c a n be seen t h a t i t was e a s t e r n t e a c h e r s who demonstrated an " i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e " from w e s t e r n and e a s t e r n p a r e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e v i e w o f g o a l H — p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , w i t h e a s t e r n t e a c h e r s a s s i g n i n g more i m p o r t a n c e t o t h i s g o a l . Table 6 ANOVA Results: The Mean Scores of Three Physical Education Goals and the Resulting Physical Education Average as Assigned By Teachers, Parents and Students Divided by West and East Dependent Variable Teachers West East Mean Scores Parents West East Students West East H Physical Fitness 0 Sport s k i l l s F A ttitudes Physical Education Average 7.48 8.24 6.57 7.52 7.86 8.95 7.30 8.24 6.11 6.72 6.38 6.14 7.83 7.47 Si g n i f i c a n t Differences* 7.25 7.06 WP EP ES WT WS ET 5.75 5.39 6.63 6.54 EP WP ES WT WS ET 7.30 6.33 7.29 7.17 EP ES WS WP WT ET EP WP ES WS WT ET * The s i g n i f i c a n t differences were assessed by the Newman-Keuls multiple comparison procedure. **West Teacher = WT West Parent = WP West Student = WS East Teacher = ET East Parent = EP East Student = ES « 83 Teachers S c a l e West E a s t Parents West E a s t Students West E a s t 11 High P r i o r i t y 10 9 8 F H X Middle 7 P r i o r i t y 6 F H X F H X H F 0 X H X 0 H F X Low P r i o r i t y 4 3 2 1 Important d i f f e r e n c e s : H = e a s t e r n t e a c h e r s v s . e a s t e r n and western p a r e n t s . F = e a s t e r n t e a c h e r s v s . a l l o t h e r groups. X = e a s t e r n teachers vs a l l o t h e r groups F i g u r e 9 A Graph o f the Mean Scores Given t o the Goals o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n By Teachers, Parents and Students, D i v i d e d By West and E a s t 84 An o t h e r " i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e " was t o be found between e a s t e r n t e a c h e r s and a l l o t h e r groups o f r e s p o n d e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f g o a l F — g o o d a t t i t u d e s , w i t h e a s t e r n t e a c h e r s a s s i g n i n g h i g h p r i o r i t y t o t h i s g o a l . There were no i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e s c o n n e c t e d w i t h g o a l 0 — s k i l l development. The " p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a v e r a g e " a l s o showed one i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e . A g a i n , i t was t h e e a s t e r n t e a c h e r s who had s c o r e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n had a l l o t h e r r e s p o n d i n g groups and had p l a c e d i t i n the h i g h p r i o r -i t y s e c t i o n (8.24) as w e l l . I n o n l y two o f t h e p o s s i b l e e i g h t e e n c a s e s were t h e ..„. mean s c o r e s f o r t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n g o a l s n o t i n the m i d d l e p r i o r i t y s e c t i o n . E a s t e r n t e a c h e r s had p l a c e d g o a l s H and F i n t h e h i g h p r i o r i t y s e c t i o n w h i l e a l l t h e o t h e r groups had p l a c e d t h e g o a l s i n t h e m i d d l e p r i o r i t y s e c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , i t might be argued t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e r e were some s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e s e p a r a t e g o a l s , t h e groups o f t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s viewed p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l l y t h e same way: v i z . , o f m i d d l e i m p o r t a n c e . The A n a l y s e s o f Stu d e n t P r e f e r e n c e s by Sex and Grade The s t u d e n t group, numbering 720 re s p o n d e n t s i n a l l was d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l e r groups c l a s s i f i e d by sex and grade ( e i g h t and e l e v e n ) . The purpose o f t h i s d i v i s i o n was t o de t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s o r agreement w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r g r o u p i n g c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e impor-t a n c e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a s u b j e c t . 85 A 2 x 2 MANOVA o f t h e t h r e e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n g o a l s was t h e n p e r f o r m e d w i t h sex and grade as t h e independent v a r i -a b l e s . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found. Nor was t h e r e any i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . The r e s u l t s f o r t h i s MANOVA was g i v e n i n T a b l e 7. Ta b l e 7 MANOVA R e s u l t s f o r t h e Sex x Grade A n a l y s i s : Three R e p r e s e n t a t i v e G o a l s T r e a t e d S i m u l t a n e o u s l y F a c t o r Degrees o f Freedom F P Sex Grade Sex x Grade 3,714 3,714 3,714 1.14 0.56 0.35 >.05 >.50 >.50 A c o n s i s t e n t agreement w i t h placement w i t h i n t h e m i d d l e s e c t i o n o f p r i o r i t y i s d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e 8. T a b l e 8 The Mean Sc o r e s f o r 720 S t u d e n t s D i v i d e d by Sex and Grade Goals Males Gr.8 Gr. 11 Females Gr. 8 Gr. 11 Males Females Gr. 8 Gr. 11 H F 0 7.89 7.25 7.40 7.04 6.85 6.11 7.87 7.50 7.28 7.15 6.91 6.36 7.56 7.68 7.22 7.21 6.48 6.63 7.88 7.34 6.88 7.37 7.09 6.23 86 Summary o f Q36 The r e s u l t s o f t h i s f i r s t i n v e s t i g a t i o n p l a c e d p h y s i -c a l e d u c a t i o n i n a p e r s p e c t i v e r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r s u b j e c t s i n the t o t a l s c h o o l program. The r e s u l t s d emonstrated t h a t t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s viewed t h e imp o r t a n c e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n much t h e same way, and t h a t t h e y saw i t as b e i n g i n t he m i d d l e s e c t i o n o f p r i o r i t y . When t h e g o a l s were t a k e n s e p a r a t e l y , much the same r e s u l t was e v i d e n t . S i x t e e n o f the e i g h t e e n mean s c o r e s were i n t h e m i d d l e s e c t i o n o f p r i o r i t y . There were two means s c o r e s t h a t showed an i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e . E a s t e r n t e a c h e r s viewed a t t i t u d e development and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s as more i m p o r t a n t outcomes f o r the s t u d e n t s o f e a s t e r n s c h o o l s t h a n d i d any o t h e r group. S t u d e n t s showed h i g h agreement among themselves con-c e r n i n g the p e r c e p t i o n o f the g o a l s even when t h e s e s t u d e n t s had been c l a s s i f i e d i n t o s m a l l e r groups a c c o r d i n g t o sex and grade. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d an e x t e r n a l frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r the main t a s k o f t h e s t u d y w h i c h was t o examine the o b j e c t i v e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o each o t h e r . P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a s u b j e c t had been i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g o f m i d d l e i m p o r t a n c e . Now, t h e p r i o r i t i e s o f importance f o r th e v a r i o u s o b j e c t i v e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o u l d be d e t e r -mined. 87 DIFFERENCES IN THE RANK ORDER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION OBJECTIVES T h i s s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h t h e a n a l y s i s o f Q20. Teacher, p a r e n t and s t u d e n t groups a r r a n g e d twenty o b j e c t i v e s o f p h y s i -c a l e d u c a t i o n i n o r d e r o f importance as d e s i r e d outcomes o f the s c h o o l ' s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n program. The r e s u l t s c o u l d then be examined f o r i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e s between t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s f o r any g i v e n o b j e c t i v e . When t h e term " i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e " i s used, i t i s t o be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t i t r e f e r s t o a d i f f e r e n c e i n rank t h a t i s b o t h s t a t i s t i c a l l y and p r a c t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , i . e . , a p p e a r i n g i n d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s o f p r i o r i t y ( h i g h , m i d d l e , low) . The r e s u l t s w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n d i f f e r e n t sub-s e c t i o n s t h a t d e a l w i t h (a) the o v e r a l l v i e w , and (b) the d i f f e r e n c e s between t e a c h e r , p a r e n t and s t u d e n t r e s p o n s e s showing t h e e f f e c t s o f : 1. s c h o o l r o l e ( t e a c h e r , p a r e n t , s t u d e n t ) ; 2. s c h o o l l o c a t i o n (west and e a s t ) ; 3. o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s ( I , I I , I I I ) ; 4. sex (male, f e m a l e ) ; 5. grade ( e i g h t , e l e v e n ) ; 6. m u l t i v a r i a b l e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . An O v e r a l l View o f the Rol e F a c t o r The m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (MANOVA) i n d i -c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between groups c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o s c h o o l r o l e , i n t h e i r r a n k i n g o f the twenty o b j e c t i v e s [F(40,1624) = 8.84 p<.001]. 88 I n T a b l e 9, t h e r a n k s and mean s c o r e s a s s i g n e d by t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s t o t h e twenty o b j e c t i v e s a r e p r e s e n t e d . These means were t e s t e d by s i m u l t a n e o u s m u l t i p l e comparisons a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e MANOVA. The one o b j e c t i v e on w h i c h a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found i s a s t e r i s k e d . There was o n l y one o b j e c t i v e t h a t showed a s i g n i f i -c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . Teachers d i f f e r e d w i t h s t u d e n t s on the placement o f o b j e c t i v e R. As a r e s u l t , o n l y t h i s o b j e c t i v e was examined f o r i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e s as w e l l . T a b l e 10 was d i v i d e d i n t o h i g h , m i d d l e and low s e c t i o n s o f p r i o r i t y and d i s p l a y s t h e rank o r d e r o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s . W i t h i n t h i s t a b l e , i t may be seen t h a t t e a c h e r s s c o r e d o b j e c t i v e R, a l i f e l o n g d e s i r e f o r p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e , as o b j e c t i v e number one i n t h e t o p p r i o r i t y s e c t i o n . S t u d e n t s p l a c e d o b j e c t i v e R i n rank p o s i t i o n t e n w h i c h f e l l i n the m i d d l e p r i o r i t y s e c t i o n . A n a l y s e s o f S c h o o l R o l e Combined W i t h S c h o o l L o c a t i o n N e x t , a 3 x 2 ANOVA was performed on each o b j e c t i v e ( w i t h t h e 3 r o l e s c r o s s e d w i t h t h e 2 l e v e l s o f l o c a t i o n ) . The r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l r o l e f a c t o r w i t h the a d d i t i o n o f s c h o o l l o c a t i o n was done" t o reduce w i t h i n - c e l l e r r o r making p o s s i b l e a more p o w e r f u l e x p e r i m e n t a l paradigm. The Type I e r r o r c o n t r o l i n such a s e t o f twenty a n a l y s e s i s n o t o p t i m a l , o f c o u r s e , and t h e r e f o r e a v e r y s t r i n g e n t a l p h a l e v e l was employed (.0025) because o f the l a r g e number o f dependent v a r i a b l e s a n a l y s e d . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s appear i n T a b l e 11. 89 T a b l e 9 MANOVA R e s u l t s : The Rank and Mean Sc o r e s o f Twenty P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s as A s s i g n e d by T e a c h e r s , P a r e n t s and S t u d e n t s Teachers P a r e n t s S t u d e n t s O b j e c t i v e rank s c o r e rank s c o r e rank s c o r e A c o r r e c t i v e e x e r c i s e 15 3.71 16 3.89 9 4.67 B f i t n e s s 4 5.71 3 5.55 1 5.94 C stamina 11 4.36 12 4.33 8 4.62 D s t r o n g h e a r t 5 5.14 9 4.58 3 5.34 E p o s t u r e , g r a c e 8 4.76 6 4.84 12 4.46 F freedom from d i s e a s e 20 2.74 18 3.47 13 4.30 G n a t u r a l s k i l l s 6 4.97 10 4.48 7 4.79 H team s p o r t s 13 4.21 17 3.82 6 4.80 I r e c r e a t i o n s k i l l 3 5.80 14 4.02 14 4.27 J s e l f - e s t e e m 7 4.95 4 5.37 16 4.23 K s a f e t y -s k i l l s 12 4.36 7 4.78 5 4.86 L a t t i t u d e s 2 6.52 1 6.48 2 5.73 M l e a d e r s h i p 10 4.40 11 4.35 18 3.58 N s e l f - a n a l . 19 2.93 13 4.27 17 3.65 0 mental h e a l t h 9 4.55 2 5.69 4 4.88 P fun 14 3.81 20 3.22 11 4.62 Q beauty i n s p o r t 16 3.66 19 3.22 20 2.98 R l i f e l o n g e x e r c i s e 1 6.83 5 4.97 10 4.63 S S c i e n c e i n P.E. 18 3.12 15 4.00 19 3.28 T h e a l t h r u l e s 17 3.43 8 4.65 15 4.25 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p<.05): Teachers v s . S t u d e n t s . MANOVA R e s u l t s : The Rank Order o f Twenty P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s As A s s i g n e d By T e a c h e r s , P a r e n t s and S t u d e n t s T a b l e 10 Rank Teachers P a r e n t s S t u d e n t s 1 *R L B 2 L 0 L h i g h 3 1 B D importance 4 B J 0 5 D R K 6 G E H 7 J K G 8 E T P 9 0 D A m i d d l e 10 M G *R importance 11 C M C 12 K C E 13 H N F 14 P I I 15 A S T 16 Q A J low 17 T H N imp o r t a n c e 18 S F M 19 N Q S 20 F P Q * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p<.05). 91 T a b l e 1 1 R e s u l t s o f Two-Way A N O V A s o n T w e n t y P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s a n d t h e F R a t i o s f o r E f f e c t s a b MS D e p e n d e n t w S c h o o l L o c a t i o n S c h o o l R o l e I n t e r a c t i o n V a r i a b l e < d f = 8 2 2 ) ( d f = 1) ( d f = 2 ) f r a c t i o n 2) F P F P F P A 2 . 1 5 0 7.29 >.0025 1 5 . 6 9 <.001 1.11 >.25 B 2 . 6 1 5 1.47 >.10 3.08 <.05 0.25 >.77 C 1 . 8 8 8 0.69 <.50 2.37 <.10 0.14 <.10 D 2 . 5 0 0 4 . 9 1 >.01 3.72 >.01 1.94 >.10 E 2 . 6 0 3 2.14 >.10 1.84 >.10 2.02 >.10 F 2 . 9 9 0 1.90 >.10 2 1 . 1 6 <.001 4.84 >.01 G 2 . 1 3 0 0.01 >.50 0.82 >.25 1. 92 >.10 H 2 . 6 7 2 2.77 >.10 9.59 <.001 3.73 <.05 I 2 . 6 0 0 1.23 >.25 1 8 . 4 1 <.001 1.27 >.25 J 3 . 2 7 9 7.30 >.0025 9.58 <.001 3.37 <. 05 K 2 . 3 7 1 2 . 4 5 >.05 1.54 <.25 0.34 >.50 L 2 . 4 3 8 6.17 >.0025 1 1 . 4 6 <.001 4.67 >.0025 M 2 . 5 7 1 2.52 >.10 1 0 . 2 7 <.001 4.44 >. 01 N 2 . 0 4 7 1.59 <.25 1 1 . 3 9 <.001 3.26 >.05 0 2 . 4 8 1 2 .02 >.10 6.34 <.001 0.78 >.25 P 4 . 4 7 6 0.29 >.50 1 5 . 0 1 < . 0 0 l 0.02 >.50 Q 2 . 5 0 6 1.12 >.25 4 . 6 1 >.01 0.68 >.50 R 3 . 554 0.00 >.50 2 7 . 8 2 < . 0 0 l 0.87 <.50 S 2 . 8 1 1 4.32 <.05 7 . 0 1 <.001 1.19 >.25 T 2 . 3 0 4 0.94 >.50 7.86 <. 0 0 1 2.98 >.05 a O n l y F - r a t i o s w i t h a s s o c i a t e d p r o b a b i l i t y o f <.0025 a r e c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e f o r r e j e c t i o n o f t h e n u l l h y p o -t h e s i s b e c a u s e o f t h e l a r g e n u m b e r o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t s p e r -f o r m e d a n d t h e n u m b e r o f d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . MS* s f o r e f f e c t s a r e r e p r o d u c i b l e b y F ( f o r e f f e c t ) x MS^. c d f f o r t h e M S W i s 8 2 2 , r a t h e r t h a n 8 2 8 , b e c a u s e a t h i r d f a c t o r ( s e x ) w a s i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s e s f o r a d d i t i o n a l p o w e r , b u t i t i s n o t r e p o r t e d b e c a u s e i t i s l a r g e l y u n r e l a t e d t o t h e h y p o t h e s e s o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e s t u d y . 92 A p e r u s a l o f T a b l e 11 i n d i c a t e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h i r t e e n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s c h o o l r o l e . These s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f u r t h e r a n a l y s e d by the Newman-Keuls proc e d u r e and the r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 12. The o b j e c t i v e s marked w i t h an a s t e r i s k i n T a b l e 13 i n d i c a t e e l e v e n o f t h e t h i r t e e n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s t h a t showed i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e s , as w e l l as s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s because o f t h e i r p o s i -t i o n i n d i f f e r i n g s e c t i o n s o f p r i o r i t y . O b j e c t i v e s A,F,H,I, J,M,N,0,P,R and T showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s as w e l l as d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s between t h e groups i n the s e c t i o n s o f p r i o r i t y . T a b l e 14 shows t h e l e v e l s o f p r i o r i t y a s s i g n e d t o t h o s e o b j e c t i v e s showing s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and impor-t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e 3 x 2 ANOVA, a p p e a r i n g i n T a b l e 11, a l s o show t h e e f f e c t s t h a t s c h o o l l o c a t i o n f a c t o r had upon the o r d e r i n g o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s . I t may be seen t h a t t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s t o be found between re s p o n d e n t s from s c h o o l l o c a t i o n s west and e a s t . The r e s p o n s e s were n e x t examined by d i v i d i n g t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s i n t o groups c l a s s i f i e d west and e a s t so t h a t t h e r e were s i x groups t o be c o n s i d e r e d : w e s t e r n t e a c h e r s ; p a r e n t s ; s t u d e n t s ; and e a s t e r n t e a c h e r s ; p a r e n t s ; s t u d e n t s . The mean s c o r e s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 15. T h i s t a b l e a l s o r e c o r d s th e r e s u l t s o f t h e m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n s , by the Newman-Keuls p r o c e d u r e , when t h e s i x c e l l s were compared w i t h one a n o t h e r . 93 T a b l e 12 ANOVA R e s u l t s o f N e w m a n - K e u l s A n a l y s e s o n T h r e e L e v e l s o f R o l e F a c t o r 3 f o r T w e n t y O b j e c t i v e s D e p e n d e n t R o l e M e a n s V a r i a b l e T e a c h e r P a r e n t S t u d e n t (T) (P) (S) MS_. S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s w A c o r r e c t i v e e x e r c i s e 3 . 7 1 3.89 B f i t n e s s 5 . 7 1 5 . 5 5 C s t a m i n a 4.36 4 . 3 3 D s t r o n g h e a r t 5.14 4.58 E p o s t u r e , g r a c e 4.76 4.84 F f r e e d o m f r o m d i s e a s e 2.74 3.47 G n a t u r a l s k i l l s 4.97 4.48 H t e a m s p o r t s 4 . 2 1 3.82 I r e c r e a t i o n s k i l l 5.80 4.02 J s e l f - e s t e e m 4.95 5.37 K s a f e t y s k i l l s 4.36 4.77 L a t t i t u d e s 6.52 6.48 M l e a d e r s h i p 4 . 4 0 4 . 3 5 N s e l f -a n a l y s i s 2.92 4.27 0 m e n t a l h e a l t h 4.55 5.69 P f u n 3 . 8 1 3.22 Q b e a u t y i n s p o r t 3.66 3.22 R l i f e l o n g e x e r c i s e 6.83 4.97 S S c i e n c e i n P . E . 3.12 4.00 T h e a l t h r u l e s 3 . 4 3 4.65 4.67 5.94 4. 62 5.33 2 . 1 5 T v s S; P v s S 2 . 6 1 1.88 2 . 5 0 4.46 2 . 6 0 4.30 2 . 9 9 T v s P; T v s S; P v s S 4.79 2 . 1 3 4.80 2 . 6 7 T v s S; P v s S 4.27 2.60 P v s T; P v s S 4.23 3.28 P v s S 4.86 2.37 5.73 2 . 4 3 P v s S; T v s S 3.58 2.60 P v s S; T v s S 3 . 6 5 2.04 T v s P; T v s S; P v s S 4.88 2.48 T v s P; P v s S 4.70 4.47 T v s S; P v s S 2.98 2 . 5 0 4.63 3 . 4 3 T v s P; T v s S 3.2 8 2 . 8 1 T v s P; P v s S 4.25 2 . 3 0 T v s P; T v s S B e c a u s e t h e t h r e e g r o u p s ( T , P , S ) h a d d i f f e r i n q n ' s , a n a d -j u s t m e n t t o t h e u s u a l N e w m a n - K e u l s p r o c e d u r e h a d t o b e m a d e , i . e . ; K r a m e r ' s ( 1 9 5 6 ) m e t h o d o f a d j u s t m e n t . 94 T a b l e 13 ANOVA R e s u l t s : The Rank Order o f Twenty P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s As A s s i g n e d By T e a c h e r s , P a r e n t s and S t u d e n t s Rank Teachers P a r e n t s S t u d e n t s 1 R* L B 2 L 0* L 3 I * B D h i g h 4 B J * 0 i m p o r t a n c e 5 D R K 6 G E H* 7 J * K G 8 E T P* m i d d l e 9 0 • D A* imp o r t a n c e 10 M G R 11 C M C 12 K C E 13 H N* F* 14 P I I 15 A S T 16 Q A J low 17 H N imp o r t a n c e 18 s F M* 19 N Q S 20 F P Q * Important rank d i f f e r e n c e s : A s t e r i s k e d l e t t e r i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (p<.0025) and i s i n a d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n o f p r i o r i t y from t h e same l e t t e r n o t a s t e r i s k e d . 95 T a b l e 14 S e c t i o n s o f P r i o r i t y A s s i g n e d t o E l e v e n O b j e c t i v e s Showing Important Rank D i f f e r e n c e s Between T e a c h e r s , P a r e n t s and S t u d e n t s O b j e c t i v e Teacher Parent Student A C o r r e c t i v e e x e r c i s e low low mid* F Free from d i s e a s e low low mid* H Sport s k i l l s mid low h i g h * I R e c r e a t i o n a l s k i l l s h i g h * mid mid J S e l f - esteem mid* h i g h * low M Leadership mid mid low* N Adjustment t o shortcomings low mid* low 0 Mental h e a l t h mid h i g h * h i g h P Fun mid low mid* R L i f e l o n g e x e r c i s e h i g h * high mid T S a f e t y r u l e s low* mid low * The a s t e r i s k e d l e t t e r s have i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s from o t h e r groups o f t h e row. The r a n k i n g i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (p<.0025) from t h e rank a s s i g n e d by one o r more o t h e r groups. Table 15 Results of the Newman-Keuls Analysis on A l l Six C e l l s of the Design Means a Dependent Teachers Parents Students Homogeneous Groupings Variable West East West East West East w A Co r r e c t i v e 3.57 3.86 3.31 4.47 4.49 4.85 2.15 WP WT ET EP WS ES exercise B F i t n e s s 5.48 5.95 5.47 5.64 5.77 6.11 2.61 C Stamina 4.28 4.43 4.36 4.30 4.75 4.49 1.88 D Strong heart 4.90 5.38 4.22 4.94 5.30 5.37 2.50 E Posture, grace 4.81 4.71 4.44 5.25 4.41 4.52 2.60 F Freedom from 2.66 2.81 2.80 4.14 4.45 4.15 2.99 WT ET WP EP ES WS disease G Natural s k i l l s 5.24 4.71 4.52 4.44 4.72 4.87 2.31 H Team sports 4.38 4.04 4.28 3.36 4.65 4.92 2.67 EP ET WP WT WS ES I Recreation 5.71 5.90 4.53 3.53 4.33 4.22 2.60 EP ES WS WP WT ET s k i l l J Self-esteem 5.10 4.89 5.86 4.88 4.37 4.10 3.28 ES WS EP ET WT WP K Safety s k i l l s 4.57 4.14 4.47 5.08 5.01 4.72 2.37 L A t t i t u d e s 6.52 6.52 7.36 5.61 5.81 5.64 2.44 ES WS EP ET WT WP M Leadership 4.43 4.38 4.89 3.81 3.47 3.70 2.60 WS ES EP ET WT WP N S e l f - a n a l y s i s 3.09 2.76 3.80 4.75 3.61 3.68 2.04 ET WT WS ES WP EP 0 Mental he a l t h 4.76 4.33 5.83 5.55 4.93 4.83 2.48 ET WT ES WS EP WP P Fun 3.90 3.71 3.25 3.19 4.65 4.76 4.47 EP WP ET WT ES WS Q Beauty i n 3.71 3.61 3.41 3.03 2.99 2.96 2.50 sport R L i f e l o n g 6.62 7.05 5.19 4.75 4.73 4.54 3.43 ES WS EP WP WT ET e x e r c i s e S Science i n P.E. 2.71 3.52 3.75 4.25 3.22 3.34 2.81 WT WS ES ET WP EP T Safety r u l e s 3.52 3.33 4.22 5.08 4.30 4.21 2.30 ET WT WP ES WS EP I f the symbols f o r the group means (WT, ET, WP, EP, WS, ES) do not have the same l i n e under them, then the means f o r the groups are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . VO 97 T a b l e 16 a r r a n g e s t h e o b j e c t i v e s i n a rank o r d e r d i v i d e d by s e c t i o n s o f p r i o r i t y . E l e v e n s e p a r a t e o b j e c t i v e s a r e a s t e r i s k e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e t a b l e t o show i m p o r t a n t rank d i f -f e r e n c e s . O b j e c t i v e s A,F,H,I,J,M,N,0,P,R, and T showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s and some o f the groups p l a c e d t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s i n d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s o f p r i o r i t y . T a b l e 17 f u r t h e r a m p l i f i e s the i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e s o f the above-mentioned e l e v e n o b j e c t i v e s by i d e n t i f y i n g t h e l e v e l s o f p r i o r i t y f o r each o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s i n q u e s t i o n . A r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e homogeneous g r o u p i n g s i n T a b l e 15 r e v e a l e d t h r e e b a s i c p a t t e r n s o f agreement-disagreement between groups o f t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s d i v i d e d by west and e a s t . I t was seen t h a t : (a) w e s t e r n and e a s t e r n s t u d e n t s had r a n k e d o b j e c t i v e H w i t h i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r -ences from b o t h t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s ; (b) t e a c h e r s ranked o b j e c t i v e I so as t o show i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e s from b o t h s e t s o f p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s ; (c) w e s t e r n p a r e n t s , w e s t e r n t e a c h e r s and e a s t e r n t e a c h e r s had d i s a g r e e d w i t h w e s t e r n s t u d e n t s , e a s t e r n s t u d e n t s and e a s t e r n p a r e n t s on the p l a c e -ment o f t h r e e o b j e c t i v e s showing i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e s f o r F,J,M. These p a t t e r n s a r e d i s p l a y e d i n F i g u r e 10. When the t e a c h e r s were d i v i d e d by s c h o o l l o c a t i o n no i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e s were found. N e i t h e r were t h e r e any i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e s t o be found between w e s t e r n s t u d e n t s and e a s t e r n s t u d e n t s . The p a r e n t ' s group had shown i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h f i v e o b j e c t i v e s . T a b l e 18 l i s t s t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s . 98 P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s Showing Rank Orders T a b l e 16 ' h y s i c a Ord  A s s i g n e d by Teacher, P a r e n t and Stu d e n t Groups D i v i d e d by S c h o o l L o c a t i o n West and E a s t Rank Teachers P a r e n t s S t u d e n t s Order West E a s t West E a s t West E a s t 1 R* R* L B L B 2 L L J * L B L 3 I * B 0* 0 D D h i g h 4 B I * B E O H * p r i o r i t y 5 G D R T* P* o 6 J J M* K H* A* 7 D G G D K G 8 E E I J R P* 9 0 C K N* G K 10 K M E R C R m i d d l e 11 M O C A A* E p r i o r i t y 12 H K H G F* C 13 C H D C E I 14 P Q T F* J F* 15 Q A N S T T 16 A P S M I J low 17 T S Q I N M p r i o r i t y 18 N T A H M N 19 S F P P S S 20 F N F Q Q Q *Important rank d i f f e r e n c e s : A s t e r i s k e d l e t t e r i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (p<.0025) and i s i n a d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n o f p r i o r i t y from t h e same l e t t e r n o t a s t e r i s k e d . 99 T a b l e 17 S e c t i o n s o f P r i o r i t y A s s i g n e d t o E l e v e n O b j e c t i v e s Showing Important Rank D i f f e r e n c e s Between T e a c h e r s , P a r e n t s and S t u d e n t s D i v i d e d by West and * E a s t Teacher P a r e n t S t u d e n t O b j e c t i v e West E a s t West E a s t West E a s t A C o r r e c t i v e e x e r c i s e s low low low mid mid* h i g h * F F r e e from d i s e a s e low low low mid* mid* mid* H S p o r t s s k i l l s mid mid mid low h i g h * h i g h * I R e c r e a t i o n a l s k i l l s h i g h * h i g h * mid low low mid J S e l f - e s t e e m h i g h * h i g h * h i g h * mid mid low M L e a d e r s h i p mid* mid* h i g h * low low low N Adjustment t o sh o r t c o m i n g s low low low mid* low low 0 M e n t a l h e a l t h mid mid h i g h * h i g h h i g h h i g h P Fun mid low low low h i g h * mid* R Good a t t i t u d e s h i g h * h i g h * h i g h * mid mid mid T S a f e t y r u l e s low low mid h i g h * low low *The e l e v e n o b j e c t i v e s shown i n t h i s t a b l e a r e those whose r a n k i n g by a t l e a s t one group was s i g n i f i c n a t l y d i f f e r e n t (p<.002 5) from t h e rank a s s i g n e d by one o r more o t h e r groups. The a s t e r i s k e d l e t t e r s have i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s from o t h e r groups o f t h e row. 1 0 0 (a) Teachers P a r e n t s S t u d e n t s west e a s t Important Rank D i f f e r e n c e s H S p o r t s k i l l s S t u d e n t s vs p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s (b) Teachers P a r e n t s S t u d e n t s west X Imp o r t a n t Rank D i f f e r e n c e s I R e c r e a t i o n s k i l l s e a s t X Teachers vs p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s (c) Teachers P a r e n t s S t u d e n t s west X X Important Rank D i f f e r e n c e s F Freedom from d i s e a s e J S e l f - e s t e e m M L e a d e r s h i p s k i l l s e a s t X Western t e a c h e r s , e a s t e r n vs t e a c h e r s , w e s t e r n p a r e n t s e a s t e r n p a r e n t s , w e s t e r n s t u d e n t s , e a s t e r n s t u d e n t s F i g u r e 10 P a t t e r n s Showing Important Rank D i f f e r e n c e s A s s o c i a t e d W i t h S c h o o l L o c a t i o n West and E a s t 101 Table 18 Sections of P r i o r i t y Assigned to Five Objectives Showing Important Rank Differences Between Western Parents and Eastern Parents Objectives Western Parents Eastern Parents F Freedom from disease low mid J Self-esteem high mid M Leadership s k i l l s high low N Adjustment to shortcomings low mid T Safety rules mid high Differences s i g n i f i c a n t P<.0025 102 The E f f e c t o f O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s on P a r e n t - S t u d e n t P r e f e r e n c e s A n o t h e r t e s t o f agreement-disagreement between groups was made p o s s i b l e by d i v i d i n g p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s i n t o sub-gr o u p i n g s based upon o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e l e v e l s : I , I I , I I I . The r e s u l t s o f t h e 3 x 2 ANOVAs on the twenty p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s and t h e F r a t i o s f o r e f f e c t s on s c h o o l r o l e and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s a r e g i v e n i n Ta b l e 19. The r e s u l t i n g r a n k s and mean s c o r e s a s s i g n e d t o a l l o b j e c t i v e s by p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s c l a s s i f i e d by o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s ( I , I I , I I I ) a r e d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e 20. Because t h e r o l e f a c t o r has a l r e a d y been examined i n d e t a i l i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n t h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l n o t be examined f u r t h e r h e r e . P a r t i c u l a r l y as t h e y a r e i n c l o s e agreement (as would be expec-ted) w i t h t h o s e mentioned i n the e a r l i e r a n a l y s e s . On t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s f a c t o r however, two o b j e c -t i v e s (A,L) d i s p l a y e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e t h r e e l e v e l s . Newman-Keuls m u l t i p l e comparisons s p e c i f i e d t h e s i g n i -f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s as b e i n g : A - C o r r e c t i v e e x e r c i s e s S t a t u s I vs S t a t u s I I I L - Good a t t i t u d e s S t a t u s I vs S t a t u s I I I F o l l o w i n g t h i s , t h e s i x means from the 3 x 2 ANOVA were s t r u n g o u t as i n a one way d e s i g n and were compared u s i n g t h e Newman-Keuls p r o c e d u r e f o r o b j e c t i v e s A and L. The homo-geneous g r o u p i n g s were as f o l l o w s : A - P I P2 SI S2 P3 S3 L - S3 P3 SI S2 P2 P I S t a t u s I p a r e n t s d i f f e r e d from S t a t u s I I I s t u d e n t s on t h e r a n k i n g o f o b j e c t i v e A. S t a t u s I p a r e n t s p l a c e d 103 T a b l e 19 R e s u l t s o f 3 x 2 ANOVAs on Twenty P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s and th e F R a t i o s f o r E f f e c t s R o l e V e r s u s O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s MS Dependent w S c h o o l R o l e V a r i a b l e (df=786) (df=l) O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s (df=2) I n t e r a c t i o n (df=2) F P F P F p A 2.20 13.98 <.001 6.96 <.001 3.49 >.03 B 2.69 3.36 >.05 0.60 >.50 0.04 >.95 C 1.98 5.14 >.02 0.78 >,45 0.82 >.43 D 2.51 - 11.72 <.001 2.22 >.10 1.85 >.15 E 2.77 4.30 >.03 0.95 >.38 0.96 >.37 F 3.09 11.38 <.001 3.41 >.03 4.25 >.01 G 2.18 2.54 >.10 0.91 >.40 0.42 >.65 H 2.83 22.75 <.001 1.04 >.35 2.40 >.09 I 2.67 1.74 >.18 3.80 >.02 1.90 >.14 J 3.36 24.93 <.001 1.27 >.28 0.59 >.55 K 2.42 0.18 >.66 0.84 >.42 2.03 >.13 L 2.55 10.58 <.001 7.57 <.001 4.54 >.01 M 2.69 11.58 <.001 1.61 >.20 5.53 >.01 N 2.07 14.61 <.001 3.97 >.01 2.37 >.09 0 2.53 15.58 <.001 1.53 >.2l 1.16 >.30 P 4.45 29.31 <.001 2.07 >.12 0.87 >.41 Q 2.55 1.32 >.25 0.95 >.38 0.22 >.79 R 3.52 1.46 >.22 0.78 >.45 0.48 >.61 S 2.79 12.32 <.001 0.46 >.67 0.28 >.75 T 2.37 4.22 >.04 0.72 >.48 0.48 >.. 61 Only F - r a t i o s w i t h a s s o c i a t e d p r o b a b i l i t y o f <.0025 a r e c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e f o r r e j e c t i o n o f the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . Table 20 The Ranks and Mean Scores Assigned to P h y s i c a l Education O b j e c t i v e s by Parents and Students Divided by Occupational Status I ,11,III. Parents II Dependent V a r i a b l e rank mean rank mean A C o r r e c t i v e e x e r c i s e 18 3.18* 13 4.11 B F i t n e s s 4 5.44 2 5.63 C Stamina 9 4.59 11 4.25 D Strong h e a r t 10 4.52 12 4.22 E Posture 7 4.66 8 4.70 F Freedom from d i s e a s e 20 2.74 17 3.70 G N a t u r a l s k i l l s 14 4.22 9 4.66 H Team s p o r t s 13 4.29 18 3.59 I R e c r e a t i o n s k i l l s 8 4.62 19 3.55 J S e lf-esteem 3 5.62 6 5.03 K Safe t y s k i l l s 11 4.40 5 5.11 L A t t i t u d e s 1 7.29* 1 6.25 M Lea d e r s h i p 6 5.00 15 4.07 N S e l f - a n a l y s i s 16 3.74 10 4.44 0 Mental h e a l t h 2 6.11 3 5.40 P Fun 19 2.89 16 3.77 Q Beauty i n s p o r t 17 3.40 20 3.11 R L i f e l o n g e x e r c i s e 5 5.03 4 5.18 S Science i n P.E. 15 3.77 14 4.11 T Hea l t h r u l e s * 12 4.40 7 4.88 II I rank mean rank mean Students II rank mean II I rank mean 10 4.61 11 4 .56 10 4 . 58 6 4.87* 2 5.61 2 5.75 1 6 . 00 1 5. 61 15 4.05 8 4.71 9 4.64 8 4.75 6 5.22 3 5.26 3 5. 35 3 5. 38 5 5.33 13 4.42 11 4.51 11 4 .46 13 4.22 14 4 . 34 13 4 . 30 13 4.25 11 4.61 6 4.75 5 4.66 7 4 . 77 18 3.44 4 4 .68 4 4 . 74 4 4.93 16 3.83 16 4.39 16 4.21 14 4 . 22 9 5.50 12 4.45 15 4.21 16 4.05 8 4.83 9 5.01 8 4.87 9 4.71 1 5.61 1 5.82 2 5.83 2 5 . 55* 17 3.77 18 3.36 17 3.69 18 3.69 7 4.83 17 3.58 18 3.61 17 3.75 3 5.50 5 4 . 91 6 4 .86 5 4 . 87 20 2.88 10 4.66 7 4.76 12 4.43 19 3.11 20 3.09 20 2.75 20 3.08 12 4.55 7 4 . 74 12 4.61 10 4 . 56 14 4.16 19 3.25 19 3.23 19 3.35 4 4.66 15 4 . 24 14 4.29 15 4 .22 The a s t e r i s k e d l e t t e r s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<.0025) d i f f e r e n t from the same l e t t e r a s t e r i s k e d . o - 105 t h i s o b j e c t i v e i n t h e low s e c t i o n o f p r i o r i t y . S t a t u s I I I s t u d e n t s p l a c e d i t i n t h e h i g h c a t e g o r y . There were s i g n i -f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e placement o f o b j e c t i v e L b u t a l l groups had p l a c e d t h i s o b j e c t i v e i n the same h i g h s e c t i o n o f p r i o r i t y and so t h e r e was n o t an i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e on t h i s o b j e c t i v e . The E f f e c t s o f Sex and Grade No d i f f e r e n c e s between s t u d e n t groups had been i d e n t i f i e d by e i t h e r t h e s c h o o l l o c a t i o n o r o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s f a c t o r s . A f u r t h e r s e a r c h , u s i n g sex and grade ( e i g h t and el e v e n ) f a c t o r s , d i d uncover some i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e s between groups o f s t u d e n t s . The s i z e and compositon o f t h e sample d i d not p e r m i t a s i m i l a r e x a m i n a t i o n o f the t e a c h e r and p a r e n t groups. An o v e r a l l MANOVA (as d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e 21) o f t h e s t u d e n t d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were sex d i f f e r e n c e s (p<.05) and grade d i f f e r e n c e s a t t h e same l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . Twenty ANOVAs w i t h a p r o p o r t i o n a l (p<.0025) l e v e l o f s i g n i f i -cance s u p p o r t e d t h i s f i n d i n g and i d e n t i f i e d t he l o c u s o f d i f f e r e n c e . These r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 22. The r a n k s , mean s c o r e s and the s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences a s s i g n e d t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s by s t u d e n t s grouped a c c o r d i n g t o sex and grade f a c t o r s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 23. A s t e r i s k s i n d i c a t e n i n e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the means f o r males and f e m a l e s . Four o b j e c t i v e s showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences between t h e two g r a d e s . 106 T a b l e 21 MANOVA R e s u l t s : Twenty O b j e c t i v e s T r e a t e d S i m u l t a n e o u s l y f o r Sex and Grade F a c t o r Degrees o f Freedom Sex 20,697 Grade 20,697 Sex x Grade 20,697 F r a t i o p 7.43 <.01 3.95 <.01 1.87 <.05 F i g u r e 11 A Graph I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e Nature o f t h e I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t Between Sex and Grade on O b j e c t i v e B 1 0 7 T a b l e 22 R e s u l t s o f 2 x 2 ANOVAs o n T w e n t y P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s a n d t h e F R a t i o s f o r E f f e c t s S e x a n d G r a d e MS D e p e n d e n t w V a r i a b l e ( d f = 7 1 6 ) S e x ( d f = l ) G r a d e ( d f = l ) I n t e r a c t i o n ( d f = l ) F P F P F p A 2 .23 2 .53 > .11 0 .10 > .74 4 .30 > .03 B 2 .64 17 .79 < . 0 0 1 0 .10 > .75 1 5 .81 < . 0 0 1 C 1 .92 3 1 .92 < . 0 0 1 0 .30 > .50 1 .53 > .20 D 2 .57 1 .32 > .25 0 .63 > .42 0 .03 > .85 E 2 .73 26 .21 < . 0 0 1 0 .46 > .49 0 .18 > .66 F 3 .14 0 .06 > .79 2 .27 > .13 4, .32 > .03 G 2 .07 10 .86 < . 0 0 1 8 .74 > .003 0, .74 > .38 H 2, .69 36, .11 <, .001 15, .84 < .001 0, .23 > .69 I 2. .63 0, .00 .99 1, .17 >, .27 0. ,02 >, .88 J 3. .36 5, .94 .01 9. .55 <. .002 1. ,06 >, .30 K 2. ,42 5. ,93 ,01 4. ,09 >. ,04 0. 49 >. .48 L 2. ,57 1 1 . ,61 ,001 0. ,00 >. ,97 0. 10 >. ,74 M 2. 0 68 1 2 . 68 <. 0 0 1 0. 77 >. 37 0. 04 >. 82 N 1. 97 0. 82 >. 36 0. 16 >. 68 0. 26 >. 60 0 2. 4 5 1 0 . 4 0 <. 0 0 1 1 1 . 2 1 <. 0 0 1 1. 46 >. 22 P 4. 42 4. 45 >. 03 1 3 . 23 <. 0 0 1 0. 24 >. 62 Q 2. 50 1 0 . 5 5 <. 0 0 1 0. 0 1 >. 88 2. 47 >. 1 1 R 3. 4 5 6. 1 3 >. 0 1 5. 96 >. 01 0. 75 >. 38 S 2. 77 1. 4 5 >. 22 5. 20 >. 02 1. 05 >. 30 T 2. 35 3. 85 >. 05 8. 73 >. 0 0 3 5. 64 >. 0 1 O n l y F r a t i o s w i t h a s s o c i a t e d p r o b a b i l i t y o f <.0025 a r e c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e f o r r e j e c t i o n o f t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . T a b l e 23 T h e R a n k s a n d M e a n S c o r e s A s s i g n e d t o P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s b y S t u d e n t s G r o u p e d b y S e x o r G r a d e D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e M a l e r a n k m e a n F e m a l e r a n k m e a n G r a d e 8 r a n k mean A C o r r e c t i v e e x e r c i s e B F i t n e s s C S t a m i n a D S t r o n g h e a r t E P o s t u r e F F r e e f r o m d i s e a s e G N a t u r a l s k i l l s H T e a m s p o r t s I R e c r e a t i o n s k i l l J S e l f - e s t e e m K S a f e t y s k i l l s L A t t i t u d e s M L e a d e r s h i p N S e l f - a n a l y s i s 0 M e n t a l h e a l t h P F u n Q B e a u t y i n s p o r t R L i f e l o n g e x e r c i s e S S c i e n c e i n P . E . T H e a l t h r u l e s G r a d e 1 1 r a n k m e a n 1 0 4 . 5 9 8 4.77 8 4.70 10 4 . 6 5 1 6 . 1 8 * 2 5.66 1 5.96 1 5.92 5 4 . 9 7 * 12 4.38 7 4.69 9 4 . 7 1 3 5.4 0 3 5.26 3 5.29 4 5. 38 1 5 4 . 1 7 * 6 4.82 12 4.39 12 4.53 12 4 . 3 2 15 4.27 13 4.39 1 5 4 . 2 1 6 4 . 9 7 * 9 4.58 6 4.96 1 1 4 .62 4 5 . 1 5 * 1 3 4.36 4 5 . 0 6 * 3 4. 5 1 1 3 4 . 2 7 14 4 .28 15 4 . 2 1 14 4.34 16 4 . 0 6 1 1 4.43 16 4 . 0 1 * 1 3 4 . 4 5 8 4.74 5 5.00 5 4.97 8 4.75 2 5 . 5 4 * 1 5.95 2 5.7 1 2 5.75 1 7 3 . 7 8 * 18 3.34 18 3.65 18 3 . 5 1 1 8 3 . 6 0 17 3.69 17 3.66 17 3.63 9 4 . 6 9 * 4 5.10 9 4 . 6 7 * 5 5.08 1 1 4.44 7 4.81 14 4 . 3 1 * 6 4.92 20 2 . 8 0 * 1 9 3.19 20 2.96 20 2 . 9 9 7 4 . 78 10 4.46 10 4.47 7 4.7 9 1 9 3 . 3 6 2 0 3.18 19 3.43 1 9 3 .12 14 4 . 1 6 16 4.36 1 1 4 . 42 16 4 .08 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s ( p < . 0 0 2 5 ) m a l e v s f e m a l e a n d g r a d e e i g h t v s . g r a d e e l e v e n . 109 There were i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e s f o u n d , between t h e s e x e s , on f i v e o f t h e twenty p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s (C,E,G,H,0). There were i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e way grade e i g h t and e l e v e n s t u d e n t s viewed t h r e e o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s ( J , 0 , P ) . The rank o r d e r a s s i g n e d t o the o b j e c t i v e s by male and female s t u d e n t s i n grades e i g h t and e l e v e n a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 24. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n rank a r e a m p l i f i e d i n T a b l e 25 w i t h a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e c t i o n s o f p r i o r i t y a s s i g n e d t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s i n q u e s t i o n . M u l t i - v a r i a b l e I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s I n t e r a c t i o n i s an e f f e c t t h a t r e s u l t s from two i ndependent v a r i a b l e s w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r . An ANOVA t e s t s f o r i n t e r a c t i o n a t t h e same t i m e as i t t e s t s f o r row and column e f f e c t s . A n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n would suggest t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f the rows and columns a r e independent o f each o t h e r . I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e was but one s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r -a c t i o n e f f e c t i d e n t i f i e d by the ANOVAs. There was an i n t e r -a c t i o n e f f e c t between the two f a c t o r s sex and grade on p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e B — p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and s t r e n g t h . T h i s e f f e c t meant t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h i s o b j e c t i v e , o n l y when the two f a c t o r s were i n c o m b i n a t i o n . The t e s t r e v e a l e d t h a t grade e l e v e n males saw p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s as b e i n g more i m p o r t a n t t h a n d i d grade e l e v e n f e m a l e s . But t h a t grade e i g h t males saw i t s i m i l a r l y t o grade e i g h t f e m a l e s . The n a t u r e o f the i n t e r a c t i o n can be seen from f i g u r e 11 (see page 106). 110 T a b l e 24 The Rank Order o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s A s s i g n e d by 720 S t u d e n t s When C l a s s i f i e d A c c o r d i n g t o Sex and Grade Rank Male Female Grade 8 Grade 11 1 B L B B 2 L B L L h i g h 3 D D D H p r i o r i t y 4 H* 0 H D 5 C* K K 0 6 G* E G P 7 R P C R 8 K A A K m i d d l e 9 0* G 0* C p r i o r i t y 10 A R R A 11 P J T G 12 F C E E 13 I H F J 14 T I P* I 15 E* F I F 16 J T J * T low 17 M N N N p r i o r i t y 18 N M M M 19 S Q S S 20 Q S Q Q * Important rank d i f f e r e n c e s between males and females o r between grades 8 and 11. I l l T a b l e 25 S e c t i o n s o f P r i o r i t y A s s i g n e d t o O b j e c t i v e s Showing I m p o r t a n t Rank D i f f e r e n c e s Between S t u d e n t Groups C l a s s i f i e d by Sex and Grade* O b j e c t i v e Male Female Grade 8 Grade 11 C "Stamina E P o s t u r e G N a t u r a l s k i l l s h i g h low h i g h h i g h H Team s p o r t s J S e l f - e s t e e m 0 M e n t a l h e a l t h mid P Fun mid h i g h mid mid h i g h low mid mid mid h i g h h i g h * The seven o b j e c t i v e s shown i n t h i s t a b l e a r e tho s e whose r a n k i n g i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (p<.0025) between males and females o r grades 8 and 11. 112 The r a n k s and mean s c o r e s a s s i g n e d t o t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s by s t u d e n t s grouped a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c r o s s e d f a c t o r s o f sex and grade a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 26. I n t h i s t a b l e , the s t u d e n t s a r e grouped i n f o u r d i v i s i o n s : a) grade e i g h t males; b) grade e i g h t f e m a l e s ; c) grade e l e v e n males; d) grade e l e v e n f e m a l e s . The rank placement f o r a l l o b j e c t i v e s a s s i g n e d by t h e s e c r o s s e d f a c t o r groups a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 27. Summary o f F i n d i n g s Between Groups Concerned W i t h Q20 A way o f summarizing t h o s e f i n d i n g s w h i c h c a p t u r e the two main f o c u s e s o f c o n c e r n i s t o p u t them under two h e a d i n g s : (a) D i f f e r e n c e s between groups, and (b) Agreement between w e s t e r n and e a s t e r n groups. D i f f e r e n c e s between groups. There were e i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s between groups. 1. u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d groups o f t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s seemed t o r e g a r d the o b j e c t i v e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n much t h e same way. F o l l o w i n g a MANOVA, t h e o n l y i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e between the main groups o f t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , and s t u d e n t s was seen t o be t h e p r i o r i t y r a n k i n g by t e a c h e r s o f o b j e c t i v e R: a l i f e l o n g d e s i r e f o r e x e r c i s e . Teachers ranked t h i s o b j e c t i v e as f i r s t p r i o r i t y w h i l e s t u d e n t s ranked i t t e n t h . 2. The more p o w e r f u l ANOVAs i n d i c a t e d t h a t s c h o o l r o l e was the most e f f e c t i v e d i s c r i m i n a t o r between groups by i d e n t i f y -i n g t h i r t e e n o b j e c t i v e s d i s p l a y i n g s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s (A,F,H,I, Table 2 6 The Ranks, Mean Scores and Newman-Keuls Results for Twenty Physical Education Objectives Ranked by Students Grouped by Crossed Factors Sex and Grade Male Female Dependent Grade 8 Grade 11 Grade 8 Grade 11 Variable rank mean rank mean rank mean rank mean A Corrective exercise 8 4.71 11 4.44 9 4.66 8 4.85 B Fitness 1 5.98 1 6.42* 2 5.95 2 5.42 C Stamina 7 4.88 4 5.07 12 4.42 13 4. 35 D Strong heart 3 5.34 3 5.46 3 5.22 4 5.30 E Posture 14 4.15 15 4.18 7 4.74 7 4 .87 F Free from disease 12 4.29 12 4.36 11 4.53 16 4.05 G Natural s k i l l s 5 5.07 7 4.85 6 4.81 11 4.40 H Team sports 4 5.34 6 4.91 8 4.66 15 4.11 I Recreation s k i l l s 13 4.21 13 4.33 15 4.20 12 4.35 J Self-esteem 16 3.93 14 4.21 16 4.12 9 4.69 K Safety s k i l l s 6 4.89 10 4.57 4 5.09 6 4.93 L Attitudes 2 5.52 2 5.56 1 5.97 1 5.93 M Leadership 17 3.85 17 3.71 18 3.38 18 3.30 N Se l f - a n a l y s i s 18 3.65 18 3.55 17 3.69 17 3.70 0 Mental health 9 4.57 8 4.82 5 4.81 3 5.35 P Fun 15 4.14 9 4.79 10 4.55 5 5.05 Q Beauty i n sports 20 2.88 20 2.71 20 3.08 19 3.28 R Li f e l o n g exercise . 10 4.57 5 5.03 14 4.34 10 4.56 S Science 19 3.55 19 3.13 19 3.27 20 3.11 T Safety rules 11 4.40 16 3.83 13 4.40 14 4.33 * S i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . 1 1 4 T a b l e 27 T h e R a n k P l a c e m e n t o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s R a n k e d b y S t u d e n t s G r o u p e d b y C r o s s e d F a c t o r s S e x a n d G r a d e R a n k f o r M a l e F e m a l e O b j e c t i v e s G r . 8 G r . 1 1 G r . 8 G r . 1 B B L L 2 L L B B h i g h 3 D D D 0 p r i o r i t y 4 H C K D 5 G R 0 P 6 K H G K 7 C G E E 8 A 0 H A 9 0 P A J m i d d l e 10 R K P R p r i o r i t y 1 1 T A F G 12 F F C I 1 3 I I T C 14 E J R T 1 5 P E I H 16 J T J F l o w 17 M M N N p r i o r i t y 1 8 N N M M 19 S S S Q 20 Q Q Q S 1 1 5 J , L , M , N , 0 , P , R , S ,T) . E l e v e n o f t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s c o n f i r m e d i m p o r t a n t r a n k d i f f e r e n c e s b y a p p e a r i n g i n d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s o f p r i o r i t y t o o t h e r g r o u p s ( A , F , H , I , J , M , N , 0 , P , R , T ) . 3. T h e s a m e ANOVA i d e n t i f i e d t w o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -e n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s c h o o l l o c a t i o n ( A , J ) . T h e s e t w o o b j e c t i v e s a l s o d i s p l a y e d i m p o r t a n t r a n k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s . 4. When t h e m a i n g r o u p s w e r e d i v i d e d f u r t h e r b y s c h o o l l o c a t i o n , w e s t a n d e a s t , i t w a s p o s s i b l e t o e x a m i n e t h e p l a c e -m e n t o f t h e t h i r t e e n s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e s b y t h e s m a l l e r g r o u p s : w e s t a n d e a s t t e a c h e r s ; w e s t a n d e a s t p a r e n t s ; w e s t a n d e a s t s t u d e n t s . T h e r e w e r e e l e v e n ( A , F , H , I , J , M , N , 0 , P,R,T) i m p o r t a n t r a n k d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h m u s t f o r t h e m o s t p a r t r e m a i n a t t r i b u t a b l e t o s c h o o l r o l e f a c t o r a s t h e r e w e r e o n l y t w o o b j e c t i v e s ( A , J ) t h a t s h o w e d i m p o r t a n t r a n k d i f f e r e n c e s f o r s c h o o l l o c a t i o n . ( a ) T h e s t u d e n t g r o u p s s h o w e d i m p o r t a n t r a n k d i f f e r e n c e s f r o m b o t h p a r e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s i n t h e r a n k i n g o f o n e o b j e c t i v e . T e a c h e r P a r e n t S t u d e n t W e s t E a s t W e s t E a s t W e s t E a s t H - S p o r t s k i l l s m i d m i d m i d l o w h i g h h i g h (b) T e a c h e r s s h o w e d i m p o r t a n t r a n k i n g d i f f e r -e n c e s f r o m b o t h s e t s o f p a r e n t s a n d b o t h s e t s o f s t u d e n t s o n o n e o b j e c t i v e . T e a c h e r P a r e n t S t u d e n t W e s t E a s t W e s t E a s t W e s t E a s t I - R e c r e a t i o n s k i l l s h i g h h i g h m i d l o w l o w m i d 116 (c) There were f i v e i m p o r t a n t r a n k i n g d i f f e r -ences found between w e s t e r n p a r e n t s and e a s t e r n p a r e n t s . West P a r e n t E a s t P a r e n t F - Freedom from d i s e a s e low mid J - S e l f - e s t e e m h i g h mid M - L e a d e r s h i p h i g h low N - Adjustment t o sh o r t c o m i n g s low mid T - H e a l t h and s a f e t y r u l e s low h i g h (d) Three o f t h e s e same f i v e r a n k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s formed an a l i g n m e n t o f w e s t e r n t e a c h e r s , e a s t e r n t e a c h e r s and w e s t e r n p a r e n t s v e r s u s e a s t e r n p a r e n t s , w e s t e r n s t u d e n t s and e a s t e r n s t u d e n t s (F,J,M) w i t h the same p r i o r i t i e s as above. 5. When d i v i d e d by t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f the c h i e f wage e a r n e r i n t h e f a m i l y , p a r e n t s showed i m p o r t a n t r a n k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h s t u d e n t s on one o f the two s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e s . S t a u t s I P a r e n t s S t a t u s I I I S t u d e n t s A - C o r r e c t i v e e x e r c i s e s low h i g h 6. There were f i v e i m p o r t a n t r a n k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s t o be found w i t h i n the s t u d e n t group when d i v i d e d by sex. Males Females C - Endurance s t a m i n a h i g h mid E - Good p o s t u r e mid h i g h G - N a t u r a l s k i l l s h i g h mid H - S k i l l i n team s p o r t s h i g h mid 0 - M e n t a l h e a l t h low mid 117 7. There were t h r e e i m p o r t a n t r a n k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s t o be found w i t h i n t h e s t u d e n t group when d i v i d e d by grade. Grade 8 Grade 11 J - Hig h s e l f - e s t e e m mid h i g h 0 - M e n t a l h e a l t h and s t a b i l i t y mid h i g h P - Fun and amusement low h i g h 8. There was one s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t , con-c e r n i n g the p e r c e p t i o n o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , between the sex and grade f a c t o r s . Grade e l e v e n males saw p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s as b e i n g more i m p o r t a n t t h a n d i d t h e o t h e r groups. There was no i m p o r t a n t r a n k i n g d i f f e r e n c e , however. Agreement between e a s t e r n and w e s t e r n groups. There were seven c a s e s o f agreement between t h e s e groups. 1. Western t e a c h e r s agreed w i t h w e s t e r n s t u d e n t s on the rank o r d e r p o s i t i o n o f s i x t e e n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s ( a l l b u t F,I,P,R - T a b l e 1 5 ) . 2. E a s t e r n t e a c h e r s agreed w i t h e a s t e r n s t u d e n t s on the rank o r d e r o f s i x t e e n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s ( a l l b u t A,F,I,R - T a b l e 1 5 ) . 3. Western t e a c h e r s agreed w i t h w e s t e r n p a r e n t s on t h e rank o r d e r i m p o r t a n c e o f n i n e t e e n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c -t i v e s ( a l l b u t 0 - Ta b l e 1 5 ) . 4. E a s t e r n t e a c h e r s agreed w i t h e a s t e r n p a r e n t s on t h e rank o r d e r o f f i f t e e n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s ( a l l but (F,I,N,R,T - T a b l e 1 5 ) . 5. Western t e a c h e r s agreed w i t h e a s t e r n t e a c h e r s on the rank o r d e r o f a l l twenty o b j e c t i v e s . 1 1 8 6. W e s t e r n s t u d e n t s a g r e e d w i t h e a s t e r n s t u d e n t s o n t h e r a n k o r d e r o f a l l t w e n t y o b j e c t i v e s . 7. T e a c h e r s a n d s t u d e n t s s h o w e d a r e m a r k a b l e h o m o -g e n e i t y w i t h i n t h e i r o w n g r o u p s i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s , w h i l e p a r e n t s s h o w e d a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e i r w e s t a n d e a s t d i v i s i o n s o n t h e r a n k i n g o f f i f t e e n o b j e c -t i v e s ( a l l b u t F,J,M,N,T - T a b l e 1 8 ) . 1 1 9 C h a p t e r 6 DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS T h i s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s t h e r e s u l t s and a t t e m p t s t o account f o r some o f t h e major f i n d i n g s t h a t have emerged from the a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . The f i r s t s e c t i o n w i l l d e a l w i t h t h e placement o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e t o t a l s c h o o l program. T h i s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n o f agreement and d i s a g r e e m e n t c o n c e r n i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f p h y s i c a l educa-t i o n . A f i n a l s e c t i o n w i l l d e a l w i t h m e t h o d o l o g i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND THE TOTAL SCHOOL PROGRAM P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a s u b j e c t was p l a c e d c o n s i s -t e n t l y i n the m i d d l e s e c t i o n o f t h e s c o r i n g s c a l e by t h e t h r e e main groups o f r e s p o n d e n t s : t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s . T h i s agreement c o n c e r n i n g t h e imp o r t a n c e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a s u b j e c t w i t h i n t h e t o t a l s c h o o l program was i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e t e a c h e r group was composed e n t i r e l y o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t s . A p p a r e n t l y , t h e i r s u b j e c t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n d i d not skew t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e importance o f o t h e r s c h o o l s u b j e c t s . Teachers had a moderate v i e w o f t h e o v e r a l l i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i r s u b j e c t and agreed w i t h p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s i n t h i s r e g a r d . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y agreed as w e l l w i t h V o l t m e r and E s s l i n g e r (1967:46), who v i e w 120 p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f e d u c a t i o n and "not some s e p a r a t e , p a r t i a l l y r e l a t e d f i e l d . " Thus, t h e purpose o f t h e f i r s t t a s k had been s a t i s f i e d i n t h e d i s c o v e r y t h a t a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n was agreed upon by t h e t h r e e main gr o u p s . When t h e t h r e e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n g o a l s w i t h i n Q36 were c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y , two p a t t e r n s appeared t h a t i n v i t e d e x a m i n a t i o n by t h e more d e t a i l e d Q20. F o r t h e f i r s t , i t was seen t h a t t e a c h e r s i n e a s t e r n s c h o o l s had p l a c e d g r e a t e r emphasis, i n terms o f s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t mean s c o r e s , upon " a t t i t u d e development" and " p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s " t h a n d i d any o t h e r group. Because o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n t o t h e t e a c h e r s : i . e . , t o rank t h e o b j e c t i v e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e importance f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f s t u d e n t s a t t h e l o c a l s c h o o l , i t may be assumed t h a t t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e d t h i s emphasis t o be n e c e s s a r y f o r e a s t e r n s t u d e n t s . T h i s b e l i e f may have been born o f e x p e r i e n c e i n w o r k i n g w i t h e a s t e r n s t u d e n t s , o r o f some c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e needs o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s . The second p a t t e r n was p r o j e c t e d by s t u d e n t placement o f t h e t h r e e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g o a l s . S t u d e n t s had g i v e n t h e h i g h e s t r a t i n g t o " p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . " The mean s c o r e s and t h e o r d e r i n g o f the t h r e e g o a l s agreed w i t h t h o s e o f e a s t e r n p a r e n t s . Both t h e s e p a t t e r n s were judged t o be worthy o f f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a -t i o n by means o f Q20. 121 DISAGREEMENT AND AGREEMENT CONCERNING PHYSICAL EDUCATION OBJECTIVES Ar e a s o f disag r e e m e n t a r e i n t e r e s t i n g t o note but must be seen w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f the l a r g e measure o f a g r e e -ment found w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y . One s h o u l d n o t e x p e c t an i n o r d i n a t e amount o f di s a g r e e m e n t w i t h i n a s u b j e c t f i e l d t h a t has been w i t h i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l system i n Vancouver f o r c l o s e t o one hundred y e a r s . A l s o , t h e c o n s i s t e n t v i e w o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n by means o f Q36 has been n o t e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , d i s -agreement c o n c e r n i n g t h e p e r c e i v e d i m p o r t a n c e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n was found and i s d i s c u s s e d below. A s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e agreement found c o n c e r n i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s f o l l o w s . Disagreement C o n c e r n i n g P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s With t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d from Q20, t h e nex t i n s t r u m e n t , the ranks g i v e n t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s by t h e g e n e r a l groups o f t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s were examined f o r agreement-disagreement. The MANOVA r e s u l t s were s i m i l a r t o t h e f i n d i n g s o f Q36 and t h e Task o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s i n t h a t t h e r e were few d i f f e r e n c e s t o be found between t h e groups. I n f a c t , t h e r e was an i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e on o n l y one o b j e c -t i v e : "a l i f e l o n g d e s i r e f o r p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e . " T h i s d i f f e r e n c e o c c u r r e d between t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s and i s p r o b a b l y n o t t o o s u r p r i s i n g . As n o t e d e a r l i e r , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s had a p p a r e n t l y p u t a s i d e any i n c l i n a t i o n toward s u b j e c t b i a s when 122 r a n k i n g t h e i r s p e c i a l t y w i t h i n t h e t o t a l s c h o o l program. They had agreed w i t h p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s on t h e m i d d l e i m p o r t a n c e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . I t m ight be a r g u e d , however, t h a t t h e i r p e r s o n a l v i e w o f h i g h e s t v a l u e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r placement o f o b j e c t i v e R. Here i t was c l e a r t h a t "a l i f e l o n g d e s i r e f o r p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e " was o f t o p p r i o r i t y . S t u d e n t s , on t h e o t h e r hand, d i d n o t s h a r e t h i s v i e w . As had been found i n the Task o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s and as was p r e d i c t e d i n e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n , s t u d e n t s were e x p e c t e d t o . be most concerned w i t h immediate and t a n g i b l e g o a l s . T h i s e x p e c t a t i o n was met by s t u d e n t placement o f f o u r o f t h e t o p s i x o b j e c t i v e s , as l i s t e d i n rank o r d e r below. The t o p s i x o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e h i g h i m p o r t a n c e s e c t i o n f o r s t u d e n t s were: 1. B - P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and s t r e n g t h . 2. L - Development o f good a t t i t u d e s , ( s p o r t s m a n s h i p , h o n e s t y , c o o p e r a t i o n ) . 3. D - A c t i v i t i e s d e s i g n e d t o produce s t r o n g h e a r t and l u n g s . 4. 0 - M e n t a l h e a l t h and s t a b i l i t y , ( c o n f i d e n c e , c o u r a g e , p a t i e n c e , s e l f - c o n t r o l ) . 5. K - Development o f s a f e t y s k i l l s , ( f i r s t - a i d , swimming, l i f e s a v i n g ) . 6. H - S k i l l i n team s p o r t s , ( f o o t b a l l , s o c c e r , b a s k e t b a l l ) . The top r a n k e d o b j e c t i v e c o n c e r n i n g p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and s t r e n g t h by s t u d e n t s c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o the l o n g - t e r m o b j e c t i v e o f t e a c h e r s t h a t c a l l e d f o r the d e s i r e f o r p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e . I f s t u d e n t s t h i n k i n terms concerned w i t h t h e p r e -s e n t , r a t h e r t h a n th e f u t u r e , t h e n t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s o v e r o b j e c t i v e R i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . 123 What remains a s u r p r i s e , however, i s t h e h i g h r a n k -i n g g i v e n by s t u d e n t s t o o b j e c t i v e L - good a t t i t u d e s and o b j e c t i v e 0 - m e n t a l h e a l t h . These o b j e c t i v e s can be d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f l o n g range e f f e c t s and o f g r e a t e r a b s t r a c t i o n t h a n the immediate and t a n g i b l e o b j e c t i v e s such as B, D and H. T h i s a p p a r e n t d i s c r e p a n c y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h sex and grade f a c t o r s (p. 127). The s c h o o l r o l e f a c t o r was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e l e v e n i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e s as i d e n t i f i e d by the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e on twenty p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s . The same amount o f d i s a g r e e m e n t was n o t found w i t h s c h o o l l o c a t i o n f a c t o r nor o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s f a c t o r . I n must be c o n c l u d e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t s c h o o l r o l e was t h e most p o w e r f u l d i s c r i m i n a t o r between group p r e f e r e n c e s f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s . I t had been a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t s c h o o l l o c a t i o n would be as e f f e c t i v e as s c h o o l r o l e i n i d e n t i f y i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . W i t h the i n c r e a s e d power o f t h e ANOVAs, because o f t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f the two f a c t o r s , more s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s had been e x p e c t e d . E r r o r would be d e c r e a s e d w i t h t h e f a c t o r s b e i n g examined t o g e t h e r . How-e v e r , t h i s was n o t t o be the case as o n l y two i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s c h o o l l o c a t i o n were i d e n t i f i e d . S i m i l a r l y , more d i f f e r e n c e s were e x p e c t e d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . The Task o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s had i d e n t i f i e d " y e ars o f s c h o o l i n g " as a p o w e r f u l d i s c r i m i n a t o r and i t had been t h o u g h t t h a t t h i s f a c t o r would be r e f l e c t e d i n " o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . " A l s o , 124 because 97.35 p e r c e n t o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s I p a r e n t s l i v e d i n the west s i d e o f Vancouver, i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t much o f the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p a r e n t groups c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d . As i t now s t a n d s , the d i f f e r e n c e s between west p a r e n t s and e a s t p a r e n t s remain open t o s p e c u l a t i o n . T e a c h e r s , s i m i l a r -l y d i v i d e d , showed no d i f f e r e n c e s on t h e twenty o b j e c t i v e s . N e i t h e r d i d t h e s t u d e n t groups. The p a r e n t s d i s a g r e e d on f i v e o b j e c t i v e s and by so d o i n g produced an i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n whereby t h e w e s t e r n p a r e n t s were a l i g n e d w i t h w e s t e r n t e a c h e r s and e a s t e r n t e a c h e r s f o r t h r e e o f t h e s e same o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s p a t t e r n c o u l d i n d i c a t e t h e e f f e c t o f p o s t - s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i n g . The t e a c h e r groups b o t h west and e a s t , had p o s t secondary t r a i n i n g w h i l e t h e s t u d e n t groups had none. The two p a r e n t groups were not b a l a n c e d i n p o s t secondary t r a i n i n g as e v i d e n c e d by the f a c t t h a t 97.35 p er c e n t o f the w e s t e r n p a r e n t s were o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s I . T h i s c o n j e c t u r e c o n c e r n i n g the importance o f p o s t secondary t r a i n i n g i s g i v e n f u r t h e r s u p p o r t by t h e n a t u r e o f the o b j e c t i v e s showing t h e d i f f e r e n c e s . The w e s t e r n p a r e n t s showed p r e f e r e n c e s f o r o b j e c t i v e s t h a t were more a b s t r a c t e d as mental c o n s t r u c t s r a t h e r t h a n t h o s e t h a t were more t a n g i b l e and p r a c t i c a l i n form. The w e s t e r n group gave s i g n i f i c a n t l y more im p o r t a n c e (Table 15) t o a b s t r a c t e d o b j e c t i v e s such a s : J - enhanced s e l f - e s t e e m ; M - l e a d e r s h i p s k i l l s and d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e d u r e s ; L - development o f good a t t i t u d e s ; 0 - me n t a l h e a l t h , c o n f i d e n c e , p a t i e n c e . 125 Eastern parents gave s i g n i f i c a n t l y more importance to tangible and p r a c t i c a l objectives such as: F - freedom from disease; N - adjustment to physical shortcomings; T - knowledge of health rules, safety rules. Five of these objectives (F,J,M,N,T) were seen to y i e l d important rank differences (Table 18). These findings were consistent with the re s u l t s of the Task of Public Educa-ti o n Series wherein the factor "years of schooling" i d e n t i f i e d similar differences between groups involving tangible versus abstracted objectives. It i s conceivable then, that the results presented here might be r e f l e c t i n g the influence of post secondary years of schooling. One of the i n t e r e s t i n g observations that i n v i t e d closer examination was the homogeneity of the student response. Student groups had shown complete agreement even when they were subdivided according to school location and the occupa-t i o n a l status of t h e i r parents. Some important differences i n ranking did become apparent, however, when students were divided by sex and grade. Although the l i t e r a t u r e that r e f l e c t e d upon sex differences and physical education was sparse, there were indications that males might favour the more strenuous pur-suits than would females. This hypothesis would not be surprising to those f a m i l i a r with adolescent behaviour but was supported only i n part by t h i s study. Boys ranked endurance, natural s k i l l s , and team sport s k i l l s i n the high p r i o r i t y section, whereas g i r l s ranked these items as middle p r i o r i t y . 1 2 6 G i r l s r a nked good p o s t u r e and mental h e a l t h i n t h e h i g h p r i o r i t y s e c t i o n w h i l e boys p l a c e d t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s i n l o w e r s e c t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d an i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t under t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h i s sample w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t grade e l e v e n boys had p l a c e d p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s s i g n i f i -c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n had grade e i g h t boys and g i r l s o r grade e l e v e n g i r l s . I t must be no t e d however, t h a t g i r l s had agreed w i t h boys i n t h e p r i o r i t y s e c t i o n placement o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . Both groups saw t h i s o b j e c t i v e as h i g h p r i o r i t y . G i r l s had a l s o p l a c e d o b j e c t i v e D - s t r o n g h e a r t , and o b j e c t i v e K -s a f e t y s k i l l s , i n the h i g h p r i o r i t y s e c t i o n , as had boys. What d i f f e r e n c e s t h e r e were t h e n , were not w i d e s p r e a d nor were t h e y c o n s i s t e n t . There were t h r e e i n s t a n c e s o f i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r -ences between t h e grade l e v e l s , and one can o n l y s p e c u l a t e as t o t h e s o u r c e o f t h i s d i s a g r e e m e n t . Grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s and grade e l e v e n s t u d e n t s d i f f e r e d on t h e p e r c e i v e d i m p o r t a n c e o f o b j e c t i v e P - f u n and amusement; o b j e c t i v e J - s e l f - e s t e e m ; and o b j e c t i v e 0 - me n t a l h e a l t h and s t a b i l i t y . The o l d e r grade e l e v e n s t u d e n t s , i n t h e i r f i n a l y e a r o f secondary s c h o o l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , may have l o s t some o f the i n i t i a l e x c i t e m e n t t h a t o c c u r s when s t u d e n t s a r e f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d t o a new and v a r i e d program. Hence, i t was n o t s u r p r i s i n g t o note t h a t t h e grade e l e v e n s ranked " f u n and amusement" h i g h w h i l e grade e i g h t s p l a c e d t h i s o b j e c t i v e i n the 1 2 7 low s e c t i o n o f i m p o r t a n c e . P e r h a p s , t h e grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s f i n d " f u n " a n a t u r a l b y - p r o d u c t o f a new program, whereas the grade e l e v e n s , who a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h c o u r s e o f f e r i n g s , f i n d t h a t e x c i t e m e n t and amusement a r e elements t h a t have t o be i n j e c t e d . T h i s s t u d y made no a t t e m p t t o d e f i n e what " f u n and amusement" were and so we can o n l y s p e c u l a t e as t o t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A f u r t h e r s p e c u l a t i o n i s t o assume t h a t the h i g h placement by grade e l e v e n s t u d e n t s o f o b j e c t i v e J — h i g h s e l f -esteem and o b j e c t i v e 0 — m e n t a l h e a l t h and s t a b i l i t y , i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f i n c r e a s i n g m a t u r i t y . These h i g h e r o r d e r o b j e c -t i v e s were p l a c e d i n t h e m i d d l e s e c t i o n o f importance by grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s . Agreement C o n c e r n i n g P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s Why was t h e r e such a c o n s i s t e n t agreement w i t h i n the s t u d e n t group? There were no d i f f e r e n c e s i n r a n k i n g when s t u d e n t s were d i v i d e d by west and e a s t l o c a t i o n . Nor were t h e r e any d i f f e r e n c e s between s t u d e n t groups d i v i d e d by t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f t h e c h i e f wage e a r n e r i n t h e i r h o u s e h o l d . These r e s u l t s would seem t o e l i m i n a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f f i n d -i n g d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n t h e s t u d e n t group on any b a s i s o f s o c i o -economic s t a t u s . P e r h a p s , t h e s t u d e n t groups a r e a c t u a l l y bound i n agreement by one f a c t o r i n c l u d e d i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , t h a t b e i n g " y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g . " P o s s i b l y , s t u d e n t s a t t h e secondary l e v e l do c a r r y t h e i r own s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s w h i c h g e n e r a t e s an e d u c a t i o n a l b i a s . E d u c a t o r s might 128 be wary, t h e r e f o r e , i f t h e y e x p e c t s t u d e n t s t o s u p p o r t the e d u c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e i r p a r e n t s , f o r a p p a r e n t l y t h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y so, a t l e a s t as f a r as p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d . A n o t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n concerned the agreement among t e a c h e r s as t h e y ranked t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . I t was n o t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s agreed on t h e placement o f a l l twenty s t a t e m e n t s even when the t e a c h e r s were d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g t o w e s t - e a s t s c h o o l l o c a t i o n . As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r (pp. 35-36) the p o i n t was made t h a t Vancouver i s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f decen-t r a l i z i n g i t s c u r r i c u l u m s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s e s . One o f t h e p r e m i s e s , upon w h i c h d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i s based, i s t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e i n t h e b e s t p o s i t i o n t o meet the needs and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e i r c l i e n t s a t t h e l o c a l s c h o o l . The Vancouver s c h o o l board o f t r u s t e e s had, i n 1971, i n v i t e d t e a c h e r s by p e r s o n a l l e t t e r t o seek ways t o meet t h i s end. The r e s u l t s o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y have shown t h a t t h e r e a r e , i n d e e d , d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r e f e r e n c e s f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s a c r o s s Vancouver and y e t , t h e same d i f f e r e n c e s a r e not a p p a r e n t among t h e t e a c h e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . T h i s c o u l d mean t h a t t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s have n o t y e t found r e l i a b l e p r o c e d u r e s and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , t o a l l o w them t o a s s e s s a c c u r a t e l y t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e i r l o c a l communities. F u r t h e r t h a n t h i s , t h e n a t u r e o f the agreement between t e a c h e r , p a r e n t and s t u d e n t g r o u p s , d i v i d e d by west and e a s t , s t i m u l a t e s a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n : Whom s h o u l d t e a c h e r s s e r v e ? I f t e a c h e r s a r e p r i m a r i l y p r o f e s s i o n a l s s e e k i n g t o 129 s e r v e t h e needs and p r e f e r e n c e s o f the l o c a l community, whose needs and p r e f e r e n c e s s h o u l d t h e y b e g i n t o s a t i s f y ? The c h o i c e seems t o be between t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s o r t h o s e o f the s p o n s o r i n g p a r e n t . P a r e n t and s t u d e n t groups d i v i d e d by west and e a s t showed agreement on the r a n k i n g o f t w e l v e o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s (Table 1 6 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , an examina-t i o n o f the a r e a s o f agreement between t e a c h e r , p a r e n t and s t u d e n t groups does l i t t l e t o c l a r i f y the q u e s t i o n . Western t e a c h e r s agreed w i t h w e s t e r n p a r e n t s on t h e rank o r d e r o f n i n e -t e e n o b j e c t i v e s . Western t e a c h e r s agreed w i t h w e s t e r n s t u d e n t s on the rank o r d e r o f s i x t e e n o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s might i n d i c a t e t h a t w e s t e r n t e a c h e r s l o o k e d t o t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f p a r e n t s most o f t e n . E a s t e r n t e a c h e r s , a l t e r e d t h i s p a t t e r n . They to o agreed w i t h e a s t e r n s t u d e n t s on the rank o r d e r o f s i x t e e n o b j e c t i v e s . However e a s t e r n t e a c h e r s agreed w i t h e a s t e r n p a r e n t s on t h e rank o r d e r o f o n l y f i f t e e n o b j e c t i v e s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s p e c u l a t e as t o the r e a s o n s f o r t h e s e r e s u l t s because i t i s not known whether o r n o t t e a c h e r s had t r i e d t o meet t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f the s t u d e n t s o r o f the p a r e n t s . N e i t h e r i s i t known what p r o c e d u r e s were f o l l o w e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c l i e n t p r e f e r e n c e s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some t e a c h e r s s i m p l y d i d n o t t a k e the t i m e t o r e a d e i t h e r group, b e l i e v i n g measurement o f community p r e -f e r e n c e s t o be a t a s k o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 1 3 0 THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES T h e o r e t i c a l Concerns T h i r t e e n a r e a s o f disagreement were i d e n t i f i e d by ANOVA t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s c h o o l r o l e f a c t o r . S c h o o l l o c a -t i o n was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i m p o r t a n t r a n k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s f o r two o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s r e s u l t f o r c e d t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t s c h o o l r o l e was a s a t i s f a c t o r y v a r i a b l e t o use when s e a r c h i n g f o r p a t t e r n s o f d isagreement w i t h i n s c h o o l s . S c h o o l l o c a t i o n was n o t as e f f e c t i v e a d i s c r i m i n a t o r between p r e f e r e n c e s o f the r e s p o n d e n t s . N e i t h e r was occupa-t i o n a l s t a t u s as e f f e c t i v e as s c h o o l r o l e . I t had been hoped t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s would be a worthy s u b s t i t u t e f o r y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g . As had been noted e a r l i e r , i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n from the re s p o n d e n t s o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y c o n c e r n i n g " y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g " and so t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h i s f a c t o r remains i n q u e s t i o n . A n o t h e r problem, unexamined i n t h i s s t u d y , c o ncerns the p r o c e d u r e f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g the o b j e c t i v e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . There was no attempt t o examine a r e l a t i o n s h i p between means and ends. Nor was t h e r e any attempt made t o measure t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s were b e i n g a c h i e v e d . There was o n l y an e x a m i n a t i o n o f a method o f a n a l y z -i n g d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g the importance o f s u b j e c t o b j e c t i v e s . 131 The r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , d i d demonstrate t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g o b j e c -t i v e s may be found a t t h e department l e v e l o f c u r r i c u l u m development. These r e s u l t s , p l u s t h e r e c e n t growth toward d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , i n d i c a t e t h e i n c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f each s u b j e c t department i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m development p r o c e s s . I t would t h e r e f o r e seem b e n e f i c i a l t o e x p l o r e f u r t h e r f o r any d i s a g r e e m e n t c o n c e r n i n g t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l o b j e c t i v e s o f o t h e r s u b j e c t s . One f u r t h e r c o n c e r n o f t h i s s t u d y i n v o l v e d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f t h e Goodlad c o n c e p t u a l framework as i t a p p l i e s t o c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s d e v e l o p e d a t t h e de-partment l e v e l . Goodlad does n o t l a b e l any one s e c t i o n "the d e p a r t m e n t a l l e v e l . " One way o f i n t e r p r e t i n g h i s model i s how-e v e r t o assume t h a t d e p a r t m e n t a l o b j e c t i v e s a r e couched w i t h i n "the i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l . " Perhaps an e x p a n s i o n o f t h e Goodlad model s h o u l d be made t o emphasize t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an i n c r e a s e d i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l l e v e l , r e s u l t i n g from moves toward d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . A n o t h e r a d d i t i o n c o u l d be made f o r t h e same r e a s o n . Under d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e d emphasis upon t h e l o c a l s c h o o l b o a r d o f t r u s t e e s . T h i s would seem t o c a l l f o r a n o t h e r l e v e l . These two s u g g e s t e d r e f i n e m e n t s a r e d i s p l a y e d i n F i g u r e 12. 1 3 2 V a l u e s : s e l e c t e d b y a s a n c t i o n i n g b o d y E d u c a t i o n a l A i m s : s e l e c t e d b y a c o n t r o l l i n g a g e n c y S O C I E T A L L E V E L E d u c a t i o n a l A i m s : s e l e c t e d b y t h e l o c a l t r u s t e e s SCHOOL BOARD L E V E L F u n d e d k n o w l e d g e | a s a d a t a s o u r c e G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s a n d L e a r n i n g O p p o r t u n i t i e s : s e l e c t e d b y t h e P r o f e s s i o n a l T e c h n i c a l S t a f f I N S T I T U T I O N A L L E V E L S u b j e c t O b j e c t i v e s : s e l e c t e d b y t h e P r o f e s s i o n a l T e c h n i c a l S t a f f DEPARTMENT L E V E L S p e c i f i c E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s a n d o r g a n i z i n g c e n t e r s s t a t e d b e h a v i o r a l l y : s e l e c t e d b y t h e P r o f e s s i o n a l T e c h n i c a l S t a f f I N S T R U C T I O N A L L E V E L L e a r n e r s C o n v e n t i o n a l w i s d o m a s a d a t a s o u r c e F i g u r e 1 2 S u g g e s t e d R e v i s i o n o f G o o d l a d ' s C o n c e p t u a l S y s t e m f o r C u r r i c u l a r D e c i s i o n s a n d D a t a S o u r c e s 1 3 3 M e t h o d o l o g i c a l Concerns The l a c k o f agreement found between groups o f t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y c o n f i r m s t h e need f o r a r e l i a b l e methodology t h a t w i l l examine a r e a s o f c u r r i c u l u m c o n t r o v e r s y f o r the p r a c t i c i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l . The Goodlad model has p r o v i d e d a framework f o r the s t u d y o f c u r -r i c u l u m problems as w e l l as a c o n t r o l f o r the l e v e l o f g e n e r a l i t y o f the s t a t e m e n t s . The Task o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s has e x p l o r e d t h e s c h o o l g o a l l e v e l and has i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c u r r i c u l u m c o n t r o v e r s y by means o f a u s e f u l methodology. The p r e s e n t s t u d y has adopted t h i s methodology i n o r d e r t o e x p l o r e department o b j e c t i v e s . I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s s t u d y o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s w i l l i n c r e a s e the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the Goodlad framework and w i l l p r o v i d e i n f o r m a -t i o n u s e f u l t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l . One use o f t h e p r o c e d u r e s , and one t h a t i n c r e a s e s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e Goodlad framework, i s t h e t a s k o f form-u l a t i n g a complete l i s t o f o b j e c t i v e s f o r a s u b j e c t a t one l e v e l o f t h e model. The framework f o r c e s the p r o f e s s i o n a l t o r e f i n e a l i s t o f o b j e c t i v e s a t a p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l o f g e n e r a l -i t y . The language i s c o n s i s t e n t a t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f such a t a s k and t h e l a y p e r s o n can r e v i e w a complete l i s t o f p o s s i b l e o b j e c t i v e s w i t h o u t r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n the s u b j e c t f i e l d . The Q s o r t was found t o be u s e f u l i n t h e r e v i e w o f o b j e c t i v e s . A l l r e s p o n d e n t s had t h e complete a r r a y b e f o r e them t h r o u g h o u t t h e t a s k . The s o r t i n g i n v o l v e d t h e r e s p o n d e n t s 1 3 4 a c t i v e l y ; a l l completed t h e work w i t h o u t c o m p l a i n t ; and many e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e p r o c e s s . The h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y o f the t e s t r e - t e s t r e s u l t s seems t o add c o n f i d e n c e t o t h e Q s o r t i n g t e c h n i q u e f o r g a t h e r i n g such d a t a . I t was u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t more res p o n d e n t s were n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e t e a c h e r and p a r e n t groups so t h a t a more complete a n a l y s i s o f sex d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d be made. I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y sex d i f f e r e n c e s were s t u d i e d o n l y w i t h t h e s t u d e n t group composed o f 360 males and 360 f e m a l e s . The d i v i s i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r group by sex, produced t h e s m a l l numbers o f twenty-one males and twenty-one f e m a l e s . The p a r e n t group c o n t a i n e d a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a l s i x t e e n males t o f i f t y - s i x f e m a l e s . I t was t h e r e f o r e deemed unwise a t t h i s t i me t o f u r t h e r examine t h e e f f e c t s o f sex d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h comparisons between: female t e a c h e r , female p a r e n t , female s t u d e n t ; and male t e a c h e r , male p a r e n t , male s t u d e n t . 135 C h a p t e r 7 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS SUMMARY T h i s s t u d y was concerned w i t h i n c r e a s i n g , f o r s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c u r r i c u l u m agreement-disa g r e e m e n t w i t h i n p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n sought the l o c u s o f any such agreement-disagreement and whether o r not i t was a f u n c t i o n o f s c h o o l r o l e , s c h o o l l o c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , sex o r grade. I n p a r t i c u l a r , i t examined the e x t e n t o f agreement-disagreement t h a t e x i s t e d between t h e p u b l i c ' s p r e -f e r e n c e s f o r s u b j e c t c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s and thos e p r e f e r e n c e s h e l d by e d u c a t o r s t h e m s e l v e s . The p o s i t i o n o f importance t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n h o l d s i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s u b j e c t s i n the t o t a l s c h o o l program was a l s o d e t e r m i n e d by t h e same r e s p o n d e n t s . Thus t h e purpose o f the stu d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e c o n d i t i o n o f agreement-disagreement c o n c e r n i n g the importance o f c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s as p e r c e i v e d by t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s . The methodology was t o be t e s t e d by an i n t e n s i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f the o b j e c t i v e s o f one s u b j e c t a t one p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l o f c u r r i c u l u m f o r m u l a t i o n and s e l e c t i o n . The l e v e l o f c u r r i c u l u m f o r m u l a t i o n s e l e c t e d f o r the s t u d y was i d e n t i f i e d by t h e Goodlad (1971) c o n c e p t u a l frame-work and was i n d i c a t e d by t h e Task o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s (Downey, 1959; Seager, 1959; S l a g l e , 1959; H a r t r i c k , 1961). 136 I n o r d e r t o s e c u r e t h e n e c e s s a r y d a t a , t h e c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , a s u b j e c t t y p i c a l o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s , were i d e n t i f i e d and p r e s e n t e d t o groups o f t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s . The o b j e c t i v e s were ranked f o r t h e i r i m portance t o t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e s t u d e n t s a t the member s c h o o l . The r e s p o n d e n t s were s e l e c t e d from s c h o o l communities o f h i g h , medium and low o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s and were i n s t r u c t e d t o rank p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s a c c o r d i n g t o importance by u s i n g a " f o r c e d c h o i c e " Q s o r t i n g t e c h n i q u e . The r e s u l t s were a n a l y z e d i n o r d e r t o det e r m i n e the e x t e n t o f agreement-disagreement between groups i d e n t i f i e d by s c h o o l r o l e , s c h o o l l o c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , sex and grade. The l e v e l s o f agreement t h a t e x i s t between d i v e r s e groups c o n c e r n i n g c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s c o u l d have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s w i s h i n g t o s e r v e t h e i r s p o n s o r -i n g p u b l i c . H i g h agreement w i t h s u b j e c t o b j e c t i v e s would, we assume, i n d i c a t e a w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o o p e r a t e i n t h e p u r s u i t o f t h o s e o b j e c t i v e s ; low agreement, on t h e o t h e r hand, would i n d i c a t e s i t e s o f c o n t r o v e r s y . Many a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h e o r i s t s ( T y l e r , 1949; S e l z n i c k , 1957; G r o s s , 1964; G e t z e l s , Lipham and C a m p b e l l , 1968; P a r s o n s , 1966; G r e e n f i e l d , 1967) b e l i e v e t h a t the degree o f c o o p e r a t i o n between groups i n complex s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s enhanced by t h e degree t o whi c h t h e r e i s agreement c o n c e r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . Agreement c o n c e r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s would n o t mean an a u t o m a t i c achievement o f t h o s e o b j e c t i v e s , o f c o u r s e . Nor i s complete consensus l i k e l y t o be a c h i e v e d . However, i t i s 137 b e l i e v e d t h a t f o r t h e e f f i c i e n t a t t a i n m e n t o f o b j e c t i v e s w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n , some w o r k i n g l e v e l o f agreement i s a d e s i r a b l e s t a r t i n g p o i n t . T h e r e f o r e , i t would be o f v a l u e t o c h a r t t h e e x i s t i n g l e v e l s o f agreement t h a t might i n d i c a t e t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e a s o f h i g h c o o p e r a t i o n o r p o t e n t i a l c o n -f l i c t . The r e s u l t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h may be summarized under the t h r e e sub-problems t h a t were s p e c i f i e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . Sub-problem 1. To c o m p i l e a comprehensive and complete l i s t o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o rank i n o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e . The o p i n i o n s g a t h e r e d d u r i n g p i l o t s t u d i e s from t r a i n e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s i n d i c a t e d a h i g h v a l i d i t y c o n c e r n i n g the l i s t o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s . Moreover, th e h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s produced by a t e s t - r e t e s t s t u d y i n c r e a s e d c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f the l i s t o f t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s . Sub-problem 2. To d e t e r m i n e t h e p o s i t i o n o f i m p o r t a n c e w i t h which p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a s u b j e c t i s h e l d i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s c h o o l s u b j e c t s by t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s . T e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s p l a c e d t h r e e g o a l s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a s u b j e c t , on a s c o r -i n g s c a l e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h i r t y - t h r e e g o a l s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f e l e v e n o t h e r s c h o o l s u b j e c t s . The average placement o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n on t h e e l e v e n p o i n t s c o r i n g s c a l e was i n t h e m i d d l e s e c t i o n o f i m p o r t a n c e , as l i s t e d above i n T a b l e 5. 138 Sub-problem 3. To de t e r m i n e t h e l o c u s ' o f any agreement-disagreement i n the r a n k i n g o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s by the t a r g e t groups by a n a l y z i n g t h e re s p o n s e s as f o l l o w s : (a) by s c h o o l r o l e T e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s p l a c e d twenty p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s i n o r d e r o f imp o r t a n c e t o t h e w e l f a r e o f the s t u d e n t s a t t h e i r l o c a l s c h o o l . There were e l e v e n o b j e c -t i v e s t h a t were a s s i g n e d i m p o r t a n t rank d i f f e r e n c e s (Table 1 3 ) . (b) by s c h o o l l o c a t i o n Teachers west and e a s t showed i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s from t h e two o t h e r groups on t h e r a n k i n g o f one o b j e c t i v e . S t u d e n t s d i f f e r e d from b o t h t h e o t h e r groups on one o b j e c t i v e ( F i g u r e 1 0 ) . Teacher groups, west and e a s t , agreed on the r a n k i n g o f a l l twenty o b j e c t i v e s as d i d t h e s t u d e n t groups: west and e a s t . The w e s t e r n p a r e n t s were seen t o d i f f e r from e a s t e r n p a r e n t s on t h e r a n k i n g o f f i v e o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e l e n t i t s e l f t o t h e development o f an i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n . Western p a r e n t s agreed w i t h west and e a s t t e a c h e r s on the r a n k -i n g o f t h r e e o f t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s . The p e o p l e w i t h i n t h i s new g r o u p i n g showed i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h e a s t e r n p a r e n t s and west and e a s t s t u d e n t s on t h e r a n k i n g o f t h e same o b j e c -t i v e s . T h i s a l i g n m e n t c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as west t e a c h e r , e a s t t e a c h e r , west p a r e n t , as d i s t i n c t from e a s t p a r e n t , west s t u d e n t , e a s t s t u d e n t ( F i g u r e 1 0 ) . (c) by o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f the c h i e f wage e a r n e r i n t h e f a m i l y The p a r e n t groups (I) d i f f e r e d w i t h the s t u d e n t 139 groups I I I on the r a n k i n g o f one o b j e c t i v e . The s t u d e n t s agreed w i t h i n t h e i r group on t h e r a n k i n g o f a l l twenty o b j e c -t i v e s . The p a r e n t s , d i d not show w i t h i n group d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r a n k i n g o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s (Table 2 0 ) . (d) by sex o f s t u d e n t The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes on t h e r a n k i n g o f f i v e o f the twenty p h y s i c a l educa-t i o n o b j e c t i v e s (Table 2 2 ) . (e) by grade l e v e l o f s t u d e n t The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e grade l e v e l s on t h e r a n k i n g o f t h r e e o f t h e twenty p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s (Table 2 2 ) . (f) by i n t e r a c t i n g c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s There was but one i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t r e v e a l e d by a l l t h e a n a l y s e s . Grade e l e v e n males saw p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s as b e i n g more i m p o r t a n t t h a n d i d grade e i g h t m a l e s , grade e i g h t females o r grade e l e v e n f e m a l e s . However, t h e r e was no i m p o r t a n t r a n k i n g d i f f e r e n c e w i t h t h i s o b j e c t i v e . CONCLUSIONS Based upon the r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s a r e l i s t e d j 1) The c o m p i l e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s t a t e m e n t s p r o v i d e d a s a t i s f a c t o r y l i s t o f c l a s s r o o m o b j e c t i v e s w i t h w h i c h t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s c o u l d demonstrate t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s . The l i s t was s a t i s f a c t o r y t o b o t h s e x e s . 140 2) The r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h i n t h i s sample viewed p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a s u b j e c t t o be o f m i d d l e importance w i t h i n t h e t o t a l s c h o o l program. 3) "S c h o o l r o l e " was a s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t i n g f a c t o r w i t h w h i c h i n v e s t i g a t o r s c o u l d s u c c e s s f u l l y measure d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . 4) I t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s have as y e t , under t h e e f f e c t s o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , c o m p l e t e l y r e a r r a n g e d t h e p r i o r i t y o f t h e i r s u b j e c t s ' o b j e c t i v e s t o meet the p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e i r c l i e n t s on o p p o s i t e s i d e s o f the C i t y o f Vancouver. 5) I f o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s c a r r i e s an e d u c a t i o n a l b i a s i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e c a s e , i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a t l e a s t , t h a t t h i s b i a s i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y t r a n s f e r r e d from p a r e n t s t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The s t u d e n t s o f t h i s s t u d y appeared t o have t h e i r own c o n s i s t e n t v i e w p o i n t when t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s were compared t o t h o s e o f p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s . 6) Boys would appear t o g i v e more im p o r t a n c e t o endur-ance, n a t u r a l s k i l l s and team s k i l l s t h a n g i r l s do. G i r l s , on the o t h e r hand, seem t o p r e f e r good p o s t u r e and the p u r -s u i t o f mental h e a l t h more than boys do. 7) Grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s appeared t o p l a c e more v a l u e on t h e development o f n a t u r a l s k i l l s t h a n d i d grade e l e v e n s t u d e n t s . Grade e l e v e n s t u d e n t s p l a c e d more importance on h i g h s e l f - e s t e e m , m e n t a l h e a l t h and f u n t h a n d i d s t u d e n t s i n grade e i g h t . 1 4 1 IMPLICATIONS I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P r a c t i c e The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y have i n d i c a t e d s u b s t a n t i a l agreement between t h e r e s p o n d i n g groups c o n c e r n i n g t h e impor-t a n c e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s . However, i t was a l s o found t h a t i m p o r t a n t r a n k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s do e x i s t between t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s . I t would seem t h e r e f o r e , t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s a r e not c o m p l e t e l y m a t c h i n g t h e p r e f e r e n c e s and needs o f the p u b l i c . Perhaps, t e a c h e r s d i d n o t have t h e t i m e , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h e l p , nor the r e l i a b l e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n needed t o a s s i s t p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m p o s s i b i l i t i e s a t t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l ' s d i s p o s a l . One recommendation i s t h e n , t o use t h e p r o c e d u r e s s e t o u t i n the Task o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s so t h a t t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s can examine the l e v e l s o f agreement-disagreement f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . W i t h t h e f i r s t s t a g e s o f d e c e n t r a l i z e d c u r r i c u -lum d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g under way, i t seems e s s e n t i a l t o examine t h e o p i n i o n s o f p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s t o a v o i d t h e danger o f a c u r r i c u l u m dominated by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l . However, t h e d i f f i -c u l t y o f e l i c i t i n g p a r e n t response i s well-known t o e d u c a t o r s . Open m e e t i n g s , o r l e t t e r s , r u n t h e danger o f d o m i n a t i o n by p r e s s u r e groups t h a t a r e n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a randomly s e l e c t e d c r o s s s e c t i o n o f t h e community. The h i g h i n t e r e s t i n t h e Q s o r t i n g shown by a l l r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y and the r e s u l t i n g h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 142 t h e C u r r i c u l u m O b j e c t i v e s O p i n i o n n a i r e s h o u l d g i v e g r e a t encouragement t o t h o s e l o o k i n g f o r a p r o c e d u r e t h a t w i l l measure p a r e n t and s t u d e n t o p i n i o n . W i t h t h i s p r o c e d u r e , t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l can have more c o n f i d e n c e t h a t a t r u e r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n o f t h e b e l i e f s and needs o f t h e community a r e b e i n g sampled. A l s o , he can p r o v i d e a v e r b a l a s s i s t a n c e t o laymen and s t u d e n t s who would n o t be aware o f a l l t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f c h o i c e t h a t t h e y have. A second recommendation i s t o c o n t i n u e t h i s l i n e o f i n q u i r y w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t departments. I f t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n department o b j e c t i v e s i n d i c a t e the e x i s t e n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n d i s c u s s e d i n p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s , what i s t h e s t a t e o f agreement-disagreement w i t h i n o t h e r s u b j e c t s ? As y e t , t h e r e i s no a p p a r e n t r e a s o n why t h i s p r o c e d u r e c o u l d n o t be a p p l i e d t o o t h e r s u b j e c t s . I n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, S e c t i o n 168 o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l A c t p r o v i d e s a l e g a l c o n d i -t i o n t h a t encourages the development o f p r o c e d u r e s d e s i g n e d t o meet l o c a l needs and p r e f e r e n c e s . I t would now appear t h a t such a p r o c e d u r e has been i d e n t i f i e d t h a t would g i v e p r o f e s -s i o n a l s t h e c a p a b i l i t y t o measure community o p i n i o n . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Theory The s t u d y o f o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e importance o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f s u b j e c t departments i n secondary s c h o o l s c o u l d p r o c e e d w i t h t h e methodology used w i t h i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . The g u i d i n g framework f o r t h i s s t u d y was the Goodlad model, d e s c r i b e d on page 25. A r e f i n e m e n t o f t h e model, as s u g g e sted i n F i g u r e 12, might add p r e c i s i o n t o t h e c o n c e p t i o n 1 4 3 o f c u r r i c u l u m a n a l y s i s i n t h o s e secondary s c h o o l s under t h e e f f e c t s o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . There i s t h e a d d i t i o n o f a l e v e l t h a t c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s the i n f l u e n c e o f the l o c a l s c h o o l board o f t r u s t e e s . A l s o , t h e r e i s t h e a d d i t i o n o f a l e v e l t h a t c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f the s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t d epartments. I t i s t h e r e f o r e recommended t h a t f u r t h e r a t t e m p t s w i t h t h i s l i n e o f i n q u i r y c o n s i d e r t h e s e s u ggested r e f i n e m e n t s t o the g u i d i n g model. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R esearch A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l t h o u g h t p r o v o k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n o v e r t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s had been found a t t h e department l e v e l o f c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p -ment, t h e r e was n o t an overwhelming d i s p l a y o f d i s a g r e e m e n t . T h i s i s n o t t o o s u r p r i s i n g , d e s p i t e t h e f e a r s f o r p u b l i c d i s t r u s t t h a t some e d u c a t o r s may h o l d , o r newspaper r e p o r t s o f c o n t r o v e r s y d u r i n g e l e c t i o n p e r i o d s . One might e x p e c t , a f t e r one hundred y e a r s o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, t h a t a t l e a s t a few c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s have been s e t t l e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s always t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a major s i t e o f c u r r i c u l u m c o n f l i c t has been o v e r l o o k e d . There i s , as a r e s u l t , a c o m p e l l i n g need t o e x p l o r e c a r e f u l l y e v e r y f a c e t o f a g u i d i n g framework such as the Goodlad model. A f o u r t h recommendation t h e r e f o r e , i s t o move the s t u d y , f o l l o w i n g the c o m p l e t i o n o f the department a n a l y s i s , t o the next l e v e l o f Goodlad*s model i . e . , the c l a s s r o o m l e v e l . T h i s h o l d s p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f b e i n g a v e r y u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n p o o l f o r 1 4 4 a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s . P r o f e s s i o n a l s can l e a r n a g r e a t d e a l m e r e l y by c o m p l e t i n g t h e f i r s t t a s k o f t h e p r o c e d u r e : t h a t b e i n g the g a t h e r i n g o f a c o r e l i s t o f the c o u r s e o b j e c -t i v e s f o r a l l s u b j e c t departments. When t h i s i s done, laymen, s t u d e n t s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s a l i k e can d e t e r m i n e t h e t a r g e t s f o r ev e r y c o u r s e . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n would be v a l u a b l e t o s t u d e n t s i n c o u r s e s e l e c t i o n ; t o t e a c h e r s i n s t u d e n t e v a l a t i o n ; t o a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n , and t o p a r e n t s i n the a p p r a i s a l o f the s c h o o l s f o r whi c h t h e y pay. A f i f t h recommendation i s t o undertake f u r t h e r work w i t h the sex v a r i a b l e by e x p l o r i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r a n k i n g o f o b j e c t i v e s between t e a c h e r , p a r e n t and s t u d e n t groups as t h e y a r e s u b d i v i d e d by sex. I t was n o t p o s s i b l e i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t o examine d i f f e r e n c e s i n rank when p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s were d i v i d e d by s e x . An i n t e r e s t i n g p r o j e c t would be t o examine the e x t e n t o f agreement-disagreement between female t e a c h e r s and female s t u d e n t s and, o f c o u r s e , male t e a c h e r s and male s t u d e n t s . A s i x t h recommendation i s t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e r e s p o n d e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r y e a r s o f f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g . There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t "years o f p o s t - s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l -i n g " i s t h e common f a c t o r t o be found i n the agreement between a l l t e a c h e r s and w e s t e r n p a r e n t s . T h i s f a c t o r may a l s o be r e l a t e d t o the low r a n k i n g g i v e n t o thos e o b j e c t i v e s , p o s s e s s i n g a more a b s t r a c t c o n t e n t , by res p o n d e n t s w i t h o u t p o s t - s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i n g . A d m i n i s t r a t o r s armed w i t h knowledge o f t h i s k i n d would be b e t t e r p r e p a r e d d u r i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f program 145 o b j e c t i v e s . Items t h a t were m i s u n d e r s t o o d o r p o t e n t i a l l y -c o n t r o v e r s i a l , and t h e r e b y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s d i s c u s s i o n , would a l s o be i n d i c a t e d . F o r example, i t c o u l d be seen w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y t h a t t h e r e was the n o t i o n h e l d by some groups t h a t "freedom from d i s e a s e " c o u l d l e g i t i m a t e l y be a h i g h l y r e g a r d e d t a s k o f t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n d e p a r t -ment. I n c o n t r a s t , o t h e r groups c o n s i s t e n t l y p l a c e d t h i s o b j e c t i v e a t the l o w e s t l e v e l o f i m p o r t a n c e . T h i s s t u d y has attempted t o e x t e n d the Task o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s by c o n t i n u i n g t h e s e a r c h f o r the l o c u s o f p o t e n t i a l c u r r i c u l u m c o n t r o v e r s y . A method o f i d e n t i f y i n g d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n has been t e s t e d and has been found u s e f u l . I t i s now recommended t h a t f u r t h e r use be made o f the p r o c e d u r e s d e s c r i b e d , so t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s can have advance knowledge o f t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e i r programs r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g f o r c e d t o r e a c t t o disagreement as i t a r i s e s . 1 4 6 B I B L I O G R A P H Y A A H P E R 1 9 6 0 P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r H i g h S c h o o l S t u d e n t s . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n a n d R e c r e a t i o n . 1 9 6 5 T h i s I s P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n a n d R e c r e a t i o n . A d a m s , S. 1 9 5 7 O r i g i n s o f A m e r i c a n O c c u p a t i o n a l E l i t e s , 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 5 5 . T h e A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r -s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 6 2 : 3 6 0 - 6 8 A x e l r o d , M. 1 9 5 6 " U r b a n S t r u c t u r e a n d S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n . " A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , V o l . 2 1 , N o . 1 : 1 3 - 1 8 . B a c i l l u s , Z. F. 1 9 6 8 " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l G o a l s : T h e P r o b l e m o f G o a l D i s t o r -t i o n a n d D i s p l a c e m e n t . " T h e C a n a d i a n A d m i n i s t r a t o r , 7 : 2 1 - 2 5 . B a r n a r d , C. T. 1 9 6 4 T h e F u n c t i o n s o f t h e E x e c u t i v e . C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ( o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 3 8 ) . B a u e r n f e i n d , R. H. 1 9 6 2 " T h e M a t t e r o f I p s a t i v e S c o r e s . " P e r s o n n e l a n d G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 4 1 : 2 1 0 - 2 1 7 . 1 9 6 3 B u i l d i n g a S c h o o l T e s t i n g P r o g r a m . B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n C o . B e l l , M. M., L . J . M o y e r , a n d J . C. M i t c h e m 1 9 6 5 Womens* A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n P r o g r a m a t N o r t h e r n I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y . R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 3 7 : 5 1 5 . B i l l i n g s , T. A. 1 9 7 1 Some P r o p o s a l s f o r a M o r e P e r f e c t U n i o n . 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L i k e r t , A. 1961 New P a t t e r n s o f Management. New York: M c G r a w - H i l l . MacKay, D. A. 1964 " S h o u l d S c h o o l s Be B u r e a u c r a t i c ? " Canadian A d m i n i s t r a t o r , 4:5-8. Ma g u i r e , T. 0. 1969 " D e c i s i o n s and C u r r i c u l u m O b j e c t i v e s : A Methodology f o r E v a l u a t i o n . " The A l b e r t a J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 15:17-30. Manpower and I m m i g r a t i o n 1971 Canadian C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and D i c t i o n a r y o f Occupa-t i o n s : 1971. • Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n Canada. Mayhew, B. W. 1967 L o c a l A r e a s o f Vancouver. Research Department U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s o f t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a . McCloy, C. H. 1950 P h i l o s o p h i c a l Bases f o r P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . New York: A p p l e t o n C e n t u r y C r a f t s . McDiarmid, G. L. 1970 " R e v o l u t i o n i n C u r r i c u l u m o r R e v o l u t i o n i n S o c i e t y . " E d u c a t i o n Canada, 10:7-11. McNamara, V. D., and F. Enns 1966 " D i r e c t i v e L e a d e r s h i p and S t a f f A c c e p t a n c e o f t h e P r i n c i p a l . " Canadian A d m i n i s t r a t o r , 6:5-8. M e r r i t t , M. 1952 The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f S e l e c t e d P h y s i c a l , M e n t a l , E m o t i o n a l and S o c i a l F a c t o r s t o the R e c r e a t i o n P r e f e r e n c e s o f C o l l e g e Women. D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa. Metheny, E. 1945 P h y s i c a l Performance L e v e l s f o r H i g h S c h o o l G i r l s . The J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . 16:June. 1 5 4 M i k l o s , E . 1 9 7 0 " I n c r e a s i n g P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n D e c i s i o n M a k i n g . " T h e C a n a d i a n A d m i n i s t r a t o r , 9 : 2 5 - 2 9 . M i l l s , D. 1 9 7 2 "Some S o c i a l T r e n d s t h e S c h o o l s S h o u l d H e e d . " E d u c a t i o n C a n a d a , 1 2 : 3 0 - 3 5 . M i s t a , N. J . 1 9 6 6 " A t t i t u d e s o f C o l l e g e Women T o w a r d T h e i r H i g h S c h o o l P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n P r o g r a m s . " R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 3 9 : 1 6 6 - 1 7 4 . M o w r e r , 0. H. 1 9 5 3 "Q T e c h n i q u e . " P s y c h o t h e r a p y T h e o r y a n d R e s e a r c h , 1 : 3 1 6 - 3 7 5 . M o y e r , L . J . , J . C. M i t c h u m a n d M. M. B e l l 1 9 6 5 Womens' A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n P r o g r a m a t N o r t h e r n I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y . T h e R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 3 7 : 5 1 5 - 1 9 . M u l h e r n , J . 1 9 5 9 A H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n : A S o c i a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . New Y o r k : T h e R o n a l d P r e s s . N a s h , J . B. 1 9 6 3 P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n : I n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d O b j e c t i v e s . New Y o r k : A. S. B a r n e s . N e a l , N . D. 1 9 6 4 " C e n t r a l i z a t i o n a n d D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . " T h e C a n a d i a n A d m i n i s t r a t o r , 3 : 3 1 - 3 4 . N i x o n , E . W., a n d F . W. C o z e n s 1 9 5 3 A n I n t r o d u c t i o n t o P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . P h i l a d e l p h i a : W. B. S a u n d e r s C o . N u n n a l l y , J . 1 9 6 2 T h e A n a l y s i s o f P r o f i l e D a t a . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 5 9 : 3 1 1 - 1 9 . O b e r t e u f f e r , D., a n d C. U l r i c h 1 9 6 2 P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : T h e R o n a l d P r e s s . O ' K e e f e , P. R., A. A l d r i c h 1 9 5 5 E d u c a t i o n T h r o u g h P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t i e s . S t . L o u i s : C. V. M o s b y C o . P a r s o n s , T. 1 9 5 1 T h e S o c i a l S y s t e m . New Y o r k : T h e G l e n c o e F r e e P r e s s . 1 9 5 6 " S u g g e s t i o n s f o r a S o c i o l o g i c a l A p p r o a c h t o T h e o r y o f O r g a n i z a t i o n s . " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y , 1 : 6 3 - 8 5 . 155 P a r s o n s , T. 1966 "The P o l i t i c a l A s p e c t o f S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e . " V a r i e t i e s o f P o l i t i c a l Theory. D. E a s t o n ( e d . ) . Englewood, New J e r s e y : A p p l e t o n C e n t u r y C r o f t s . P i n e o , P. C., and J . P o r t e r 1967 " O c c u p a t i o n a l P r e s t i g e i n Canada." The Canadian Review o f S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y . U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a , 4:24-40. P o r t e r , M. R., J . P o r t e r and R. B l i s h e n 1973 Does Money M a t t e r ? P r o s p e c t s f o r H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n . I n s t i t u t e f o r B e h a v i o r a l R e s e a r c h , York U n i v e r s i t y . P r u e t e r , K. 1969 "Put More L e a d e r s h i p Where I t B e l o n g s : W i t h the S c h o o l . " S c h o o l P r o g r e s s , 38:56-57. P r i c e , H. D. 1946 The E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e P r i n c i p l e s Which Are E s s e n t i a l f o r t h e R e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e O b j e c t i v e s o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , New York U n i v e r s i t y . R a n d a l l , M. W., and W. K. Waine 1960 O b j e c t i v e s o f the P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n L e s s o n . London: G. B e l l and Sons L i m i t e d . R o s e n t h a l , A. 1969 The Contemporary Teachers Movement. Pedagogues and Power: Teacher Groups i n S c h o o l P o l i t i c s . S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Rothman, P. 1969 The New M i l i t a n c y o f T e a c h e r s . A n t i o c h N o t e s , 46:6. March. R o s e n t s w i e g , J . 1967 "A Ranking o f the O b j e c t i v e s o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . " The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 40:783-787. S a r b i n , T. R. 1954 R o l e Theory: Handbook o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . G. L. L i n d s a y , ed. Reading, M a s s a c h u s e t t s : Addison-Wesley. Schmuck, R. A., and P. J . Runkel 1970 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g f o r a S c h o o l F a c u l t y . C e n t r e f o r t h e Advanced Study o f E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon. S c o t t , H. A. 1951 C o m p e t i t i v e S p o r t s i n S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s . New York: Harper and B r o t h e r s . 156 Seager, R. C. 1959 "The Task o f the P u b l i c S c h o o l as P e r c e i v e d by P r o x i m i t y Sub P u b l i c s . " U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o . S e l z n i c k , P. 1957 L e a d e r s h i p i n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . E v a n s t o n , I l l i n o i s : Row, P e t e r s o n Co. Shanker, A. 1969 "The R e a l Meaning o f the New York C i t y Teacher's S t r i k e . " P h i D e l t a Kappan, 50:434-45. A p r i l . S i l b e r m a n , C. E. 1970 C r i s i s i n t h e C l a s s r o o m ; t h e Remaking o f American E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : Random House. S l a g l e , A. T. 1959 "The Task o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l as P e r c e i v e d by O c c u p a t i o n and Age S u b - P u b l i c s . " U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o . S p i l l a n e , R. R. 1975 How t o R a i s e Female Dragon S l a y e r s . P h i D e l t a Kappan, 56:486. S t a t i s t i c s Canada 1974 Vancouver. Census T r a c t B u l l e t i n : 1971 Census o f Canada. Ottawa. Stephenson, W. 195 3 The Study o f B e h a v i o u r . C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s . S t e w a r t , L. D. 1968 " D e c i s i o n Making i n C u r r i c u l u m Development." The Canadian A d m i n i s t r a t o r , 7:27-30. Sundland, D. M. 1962 "The C o n s t r u c t i o n o f Q S o r t s : A C r i t i c i s m : " P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review. 69:62-64. Thompson, J . C. 1971 P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e 1970's. Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l . Thompson, J . D., and W. J . McEwen 1958 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l G o a l s and Environment. American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 23:23-31. T y l e r , R. W. 1949 B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Chic a g o P r e s s . 157 T y l e r , R. W. 1966 New Dimensions i n C u r r i c u l u m Development. P h i D e l t a Kappan, 48:25. 1968 The C h a l l e n g e o f N a t i o n a l Assessment. Columbia, Ohio: C. E. M e r r i l l Co. U l r i c h , C. 1968 The S o c i a l M a t r i x o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . 1972 Tones o f Theory; A T h e o r e t i c a l S t r u c t u r e f o r P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n — A T e n t a t i v e P e r s p e c t i v e . Washington: American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n . U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s 1973 19 71 Census Data f o r S e l e c t e d A r e a s o f G r e a t e r Vancouver. Vancouver P l a n n e d Program B u d g e t i n g Systems P r o j e c t . Updyke, W. F., and P. B. Johnson 1970 P r i n c i p l e s o f Modern P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , H e a l t h , and R e c r e a t i o n . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , I n c . Van Hagen, W., G. D e x t e r and J . F. W i l l i a m s 1951 P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m . Sacramento: R. P. Brown Co. V a n n i e r , M., and H. F. F a i t 1964 T e a c h i n g P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n Secondary S c h o o l s . P h i l a d e l p h i a : W. B. Saunders. V e n d i e n , C. L., and N i x o n , J . E. 1968 The W o r l d Today I n H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n . Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l I n c . V o l t m e r , E. F., and A. A. E s s l i n g e r 1967 The O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . F o u r t h e d i t i o n . New York: A p p l e t o n -C e n t u r y - C r o f t s . W a lker, D. 1971 A N a t u r a l i s t i c Model f o r C u r r i c u l u m Development. S c h o o l Review. November 1-8. Wear, C. L. 1961 The E v a l u a t i o n o f A t t i t u d e Toward P h y s i c a l Educa-t i o n As An A c t i v i t y Course. The Research Q u a r t e r l y , 22:114-26. 158 Weiss, R. A. 1964 I s P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Our Most I m p o r t a n t O b j e c t i v e ? J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and R e c r e a -t i o n . F e b r u a r y 35:17. W i l l i a m s , J . F. 1964 The P r i n c i p l e s o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . P h i l a d e l p h i a : W. B. Saunders. W i l l i s , H. L. 1969 The New S t u d e n t . E d u c a t i o n and the I n n o v a t i v e S o c i e t y . Ottawa: The Canadian E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 42-53. Winer, J . 1962 S t a t i s t i c a l P r i n c i p l e s i n E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n . New York: M c G r a w - H i l l . Wood, T. D., and R. F. C a s s i d y 1931 The New P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . New York: The M a c M i l l a n Co. APPENDIX C u r r i c u l u m O b j e c t i v e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . O b j e c t i v e s f o r the T o t a l S c h o o l Programme. O b j e c t i v e s f o r the P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Programme. CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES QUESTIONNAIRE Th i s study i s being conducted by E. A. Hunt under the d i r e c t i o n o f the Centre f o r Education A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I t seeks to examine the e x t e n t to which t e a c h e r s , parents and students are i n agreement concerning the importance o f c e r t a i n aspects of a secondary school c u r r i c u l u m . E s s e n t i a l l y you are being asked to do two t h i n g s : (1) Think about the r e l a t i v e importance o f a v a r i e t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s , and (2) t o t h i n k more s p e c i f i c a l l y about the o b j e c t i v e s o f your secondary s c h o o l ' s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme. The i n s t r u c t i o n s on the f o l l o w i n g pages w i l l be a m p l i f i e d by the person a d m i n i s t e r i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and we ask t h a t you f o l l o w them c l o s e l y i n p r e p a r i n g your r e t u r n . You w i l l n o t i c e t h a t your name i s not r e q u i r e d — a l l r e t u r n s w i l l be anonymous. Your c o - o p e r a t i o n i s very much a p p r e c i a t e d . Thank you. E . A. Hunt D. Thompson Secondary School •_, 1755 E. 55 o\ Vancouver ° Section I. School 1. Do you take P.E. 8 or 11? (circle,one) P.B. 8 P.E. 11 2. Are you male or female? (circle one) Male Female 3. What is the occupation of the chief wage earner at your home? 4. More specifically, what does that person do? Section II. The two following pages contain instructions fox completing the two main tasks of this questionnaire. They are headed "Objectives for the Total School Programme" and "Objectives for the Physical Education Programme". The f i r s t task refers to ranking the objectives of several school subjects. The second refers to ranking the objectives relating to physical education class. With both these l i s t s you w i l l be asked to indicate the order of importance that you assign to each of the objectives on the given l i s t . Do not concern yourself with whether or not the objectives is actually being achieved. Simply think of what you would consider to be the ideal programme for you and your fellow students. O B J E C T I V E S FOR THE T O T A L SCHOOL PROGRAMME 3 I n s t r u c t i o n s : Y o u r t a s k i s t o a r r a n g e t h i r t y - s i x d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e s i n o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e e d u c a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s a t y o u r s c h o o l . Y o u w i l l b e g i v e n a s e t o f t h i r t y - s i x c a r d s B a c h c a r d c o n t a i n s t h e s t a t e m e n t o f a n o b j e c t i v e a n d a n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n l e t t e r (A) o r l e t t e r s ( K K ) . P l e a s e a r r a n g e t h e c a r d s on t h e t a b l e i n f r o n t o f y o u a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o l l o w i n a i n s t r u c t i o n s . * S e p a r a t e t h e c a r d s , r e a d them c a r e f u l l y , t h e n s o r t them i n t o t h r e e p i l e s . On t h e l e f t p l a c e t h e t e n o r e l e v e n w h i c h y o u r e g a r d a s m o s t i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e t o t a l s c h o o l programme On t h e r i g h t , p l a c e t h e t e n o r e l e v e n w h i c h a r e l e a s t i m p o r t a n t . P l a c e t h e r e m a i n d e r i n t h e m i d d l e . M o s t I m p o r t a n t R e m a i n d e r L e a s t I m p o r t a n t S o r t them f u r t h e r i n t o e l e v e n p i l e s — a s i l l u s t r a t e d b e l o w . The f i r s t p i l e w i l l c o n t a i n one c a r d o n l y — t h a t one b e i n g t h e s i n g l e m o s t i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t i v e . T h e s e c o n d p i l e s h o u l d c o n t a i n t h e two n e x t i m p o r t a n t — a n d s o o n . I t may b e a s sumed t h a t w h e r e t h e r e i s m o r e t h a n o n e c a r d i n a p i l e t h e r e w i l l be v e r y l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m . M o s t I m p o r t a n t B | E BBS n L e a s t I m p o r t a n t 3 . Y o u may c o n t i n u e m o v i n g t h e c a r d s u n t i l y o u a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e a r r a n g e m e n t . When y o u a r e s a t i s f i e d , p l e a s e w r i t e t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n l e t t e r s o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e s l o t s b e l o w . m o s t i m p o r t a n t l e a s t i m p o r t a n t O B J E C T I V E S FOR T H E P H Y S I C A L EDUCATION PROGRAMME I n s t r u c t i o n s t T h i s t i m e y o u r t a s k i s t o c o n s i d e r t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . T h e s e a r e a l s o p r i n t e d on c a r d s , but t h i s t i m e t h e r e a r e o n l y t w e n t y o f t h e m . Work as y o u d i d w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s c a r d s a n d u s e t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s p r i n t e d b e l o w . N o t i c e t h a t y o u w i l l e n d up w i t h o n l y e i g h t p i l e s i n s t e a d o f e l e v e n . 1. S e p a r a t e t h e c a r d s , r e a d them c a r e f u l l y , t h e n s o r t them i n t o t h r e e p i l e s . On t h e l e f t , p l a c e t h e f o u r o r f i v e w h i c h y o u r e g a r d a s m o s t i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e . On t h e r i g h t , p l a c e t h e f o u r o r f i v e w h i c h a r e l e a s t i m p o r t a n t . P l a c e t h e r e m a i n d e r i n t h e m i d d l e . M o s t I m p o r t a n t R e m a i n d e r L e a s t I m p o r t a n t X i s more than one card i n a p i l e there w i l l be very u t t l J difference oeJween^Sem m o s t i m p o r t a n t t o P . E . 1 . 2 3 CD B B 8 l e a s t i m p o r t a n t t o P . E . 3 . Y o u may c o n t i n u e m o v i n g t h e c a r d s u n t i l v o u a r e a a t i a f i o r i „HV, m o s t i m p o r t a n t t o P . E . 8 l e a s t i m p o r t a n t t o P . E . CO 1 6 4 OBJECTIVES FOR T H E T O T A L SCHOOL PROGRAMME The provision for or encouragement of: Ski l ls singing and choir work. Foreign language skills, (reading, writing and speaking in a foreign tongue). C. Industrial skills with tools, machines and hoists. Opportunities for personal and social coun-selling, (school problems, teen-age problems, life problems). E. Ability to adjust to the needs of a rapidly changing business world, (cooperation with superiors and co-workers, greater purchasing skills). Attitudes of sportsmanship and teamwork and the enjoyment of participation in physical Knowledge of career opportunities in industry, welding, auto-mechanics, carpentry, etc.). Physical fitness, (strength, endurance, strong heart and lungs). Experience in using the tools and vocabulary of drama and art, (stage lighting, scenery, make-up, directing, oil, brushes, clay). Interest in world events and a problem solving approach to international trends, (analyzing political anu historical developments. Personal discipline and scholarship in the approach to mathematical problems, (sound procedure, checking answers). An understanding of and appreciation for the work of science and scientists which will last usefully throughout life. M. Skills in home economics, (cooking, sewing, clothes-making, buying). N. Skills of expression as an art form, (drama, painting, pottery, design, stage sets, sculpture). O. Skills for sports, (recreation, team, individual). P. O. Business skills, (typing, shorthand, business machines, accounting). Respect for other cultures and foreign people through a study of their language. R. Safety skills required in industry, (safety equipment, job behavior). S. Guidance in educational programs and stand-ards, (university requirements, vocational schools, junior colleges). T. Appreciation of the arts. Increased awareness of beauty in life. An increased use of the senses in interpreting the human scene. 1 6 5 w. X. OBJECTIVES FOR T.'IE T O T A L SCHOOL P R O G R A M M E (continued) The provision for or encouragement of: Experience in performing music to a high standard in front of audiences and critics. V. Skills of science, (methods, terms, instru-ments, problem solving). Skills in the commercial preparation of food, (cafeteria, restaurant, gourmet meals). Lifelong desire for the skilful use of the English language. Knowledge of Canadian history and geo-graphy and world history and geography. Skills of computation and mathematical pro-blem-solving, (arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry). AA. An appreciation, awareness and understanding of our environment through the scientific method. BB. Knowledge of music theory and its historical development. CC. Testing personal skills and capabilities, (guidance in interpreting personal strengths and weaknesses). DD. Skills to read and understand English liter-ature, (poetry, prose, plays). EE. Positive attitudes and confidence in the use of mathematics, (personal independance in mathematics). FF. Citizenship skills to enable confident part-icipation in the Canadian political system, (law, democratic procedure, economics). GG. Skills of precise expression in the English language. (Writing, speaking, spelling). HH. A sense of responsibility and respect for family life and the community. Sound employee habits, (attendance, prompt-ness, neatness, dependability, pride in work). JJ. Desire for continued use of foreign language in reading and speaking. 1 6 6 OBJECTIVES FOR T H E PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME The provision for or encouragement of: A. Corrective exercises for body defects, (over-weight, tension, athletic injury). B. Physical fitness and strength. C. Ability to resist muscle tiredness, (endurance, stamina). Activities designed to produce strong heart and lungs. E. Good posture and pleasing physical appear-ance, (muscle tone, grace, rhythm, coordin-ation). Freedom from disease, (resistance to colds, influenza, tuberculosis). Development of natural skills, (running, jumping, dodging). Skill in team sports, (football, soccer, basket-ball). Skills in recreation activities for free time, (tennis, dance, golf). Development of safety ski l ls , (first-aid, s w i m -ming, life-saving). Development of good attitudes, (sportsman-ship, honesty, cooperation). M. Development of leadership and democratic procedures. N. Self-analysis and adjustment to physical short-comings, (size, height, handicaps). O. Mental Health and stability, (confidence, courage, patience, self-control). P. Fun and amusement. Q. Expression of beauty through sport, (grace, creativity, rjiythm). R. A lifetime desire for physical exercise. Understanding of the science behind physical fitness and movement, (body chemistry, anat-omy, physics). J. Development of pride in oneself. Self satis-faction through achievement. High self esteem. T. Knowledge of health rules, (safety rules, nutrition rules). 

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