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What the elementary schools should be doing : blueprints from three Canadian provinces - Ontario, Alberta,… Alapini, H. Olukayode 1981

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WHAT THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS SHOULD BE DOING: B l u e p r i n t s f r o m T h r e e C a n a d i a n P r o v i n c e s -O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a B . P h i l . , U r b a n V I I I U n i v e r s i t y , Rome, 1966 L . P h i l . , U r b a n V I I I U n i v e r s i t y , Rome, 1967 M.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D e p a r t m e n t o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t , a n d H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l 1981 © H. O l u k a y o d e A l a p i n i ( E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) / In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . C e n t r e F o r The S t u d y o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n E d u c a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 H. O l u k a y o d e A l a p i n i D a t e i i ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e d m a j o r p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m - d e f i n i n g d o c u m e n t s p r o d u c e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1969 t o 1977 i n O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , C a n a d a , i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y : ( 1 ) t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e p r e p a r a -t i o n o f t h e d o c u m e n t s , ( 2 ) t h e p r o c e s s e s by w h i c h t h e d o c u m e n t s w e r e p r e p a r e d , (3) t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s made c o n c e r n i n g p r i o r i t i e s f o r t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s c u r r i c u l u m , and ( 4 ) a n y p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e N i g e r i a n e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s . The c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n u s e d i n t h e s t u d y r e p r e s e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m a s a p r o c e s s o f s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and a p r o d u c t o f t h a t p r o c e s s . T h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n was u s e d as an a n a l y t i c a l t o o l t o e x a m i n e t h e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s . T h e s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e o f two t y p e s - p r o c e s s and p r o d u c t . The q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o p r o c e s s were i n t e n d e d t o i d e n t i f y i n t h e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s t h e p r o c e d u r e s u s e d f o r t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o p r o d u c t s o u g h t t o i d e n t i f y i n t h e d o c u m e n t s t h e c u r r i c u l a f o r t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . A c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e f i n d i n g s a b o u t t h e p r o c e d u r e s showed e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e O n t a r i o a n d t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t s on t h e one hand and t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t on t h e o t h e r . Two p o l i c y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g m o d e l s ( r a t i o n a l - p a r t i c i p a t o r y a nd r e a c t i v e -a d v e r s a r i a l ) w e r e u s e d t o e x a m i n e t h e p r o c e d u r e s . The r a t i o n a l - p a r t i c i p a -t o r y model was recommended f o r t h e N i g e r i a n e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s . An a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e p r o c e d u r a l m e t h o d s o b s e r v e d i n t h e t h r e e C a n a d i a n d o c u -m e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e m e t h o d s c o u l d a p p l y t o N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g s i n a p a r t i c u l a r way w h i c h c o u l d f a c i l i t a t e t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f b o t h t h e l i t e r a t e a n d t h e i l l i t e r a t e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f a s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . i i i A c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e f i n d i n g s a b o u t t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o r t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s showed t h a t t h e t h r e e C a n a d i a n d o c u m e n t s d i s p l a y i n t h e i r s t a t e m e n t s o f e n d s and means o f s c h o o l i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i e t y i n b r e a d t h , s p e c i f i c i t y , a n d c l a r i t y . T he a d v a n t a g e s o f s p e c i f i c i t y may be o f f s e t t o some e x t e n t by t h e way i n w h i c h b r o a d e r s t a t e m e n t s may f a c i l i t a t e c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k w h i c h t h e y p r o v i d e . i v T ABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i L I S T OF TABLES i x L I S T OF FIGURES x L I S T OF APPENDICES x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT x i i CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1 B a c k g r o u n d P e r s p e c t i v e s 2 The P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y 4 The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y 4 O v e r v i e w o f t h e T h e s i s 5 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 7 THE NATURE OF CURRICULUM 7 V a r i e t y o f D e f i n i t i o n s 7 C u r r i c u l u m a s an E d u c a t i o n a l D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g P r o c e s s 8 S o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n -m a k i n g p r o c e s s 8 I n s t i t u t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s 9 I n s t r u c t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s 9 C u r r i c u l u m as a P r o c e s s o f F o r m u l a t i n g E d u c a t i o n a l E n d s and Means 10 The S o c i e t a l E d u c a t i o n a l D e c i s i o n -m a k i n g p r o c e s s 10 SOME SOURCES OF CURRICULUM AND THE ENDS AND MEANS FOR SCHOOLING 13 The C u l t u r e 13 C u l t u r a l P l u r a l i s m 14 The L e a r n e r 14 SUMMARY 15 V Page CHAPTER THREE: CURRICULUM CONCEPTUALIZATIONS AND METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS 16 A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 16 C u r r i c u l u m as P r o c e s s 16 C u r r i c u l u m as P r o d u c t 17 THE APPLICATION OF THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 18 C u r r i c u l u m as P r o c e s s 19 C u r r i c u l u m as P r o d u c t 20 DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMS 21 THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS 21 Q u e s t i o n s P e r t a i n i n g t o C u r r i c u l u m as P r o c e s s 21 Q u e s t i o n s P e r t a i n i n g t o C u r r i c u l u m as P r o d u c t 22 CHAPTER FOUR: ONTARIO 24 ESTABLISHMENT OF INQUIRY 24 PROCEDURES FOR INQUIRY 26 P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n 26 P u b l i c I n v o l v e m e n t and R e s u l t i n g Themes 26 N a t i o n a l i s m and i n d e p e n d e n c e 26 M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m 27 R e l i g i o u s a n d m o r a l v a l u e s 27 Th e C o m m i s s i o n ' s F i n d i n g s 27 PHILOSOPHICAL BASES 28 The Whole C h i l d 28 L i f e i n a S o c i e t y 29 GENERAL ENDS 29 GENERAL MEANS 30 Man and t h e I n t e r c h a n g e o f h i s T h o u g h t s 30 S y l l a b i c mode 30 S o c i o - c u l t u r a l s y m b o l i c mode 30 Man a n d t h e E n v i r o n m e n t 30 Man and I d e a s a b o u t V a l u e s 31 v i Page E S S E N T I A L ENDS AND MEANS 32 SUMMARY 32 CHAPTER F I V E : ALBERTA 34 ESTABLISHMENT OF INQUIRY 34 PROCEDURES FOR INQUIRY 35 R e s e a r c h S t u d i e s 35 P u b l i c I n v o l v e m e n t 36 C o r r e l a t i v e P r o j e c t s 36 Themes I d e n t i f i e d 36 R e l i g i o u s v a l u e s 36 M a r r i a g e a nd c h i l d - c a r e 36 W o r k - e t h i c s 37 I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s 37 I n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s h i p s 37 Th e G o v e r n m e n t 37 A l c o h o l a n d D r u g s 38 C o m m i s s i o n ' s F i n d i n g s 38 PHILOSOPHICAL BASES 44 GENERAL ENDS 45 Human P o t e n t i a l s 45 Human C o m m u n i c a t i o n 46 The I n d i v i d u a l 46 GENERAL MEANS 47 F u l l f l o w e r i n g o f e a c h p e r s o n 48 Commitment t o m o r a l i t y 48 M e a n i n g t o p a t t e r n o f l i f e 50 ESSENTIAL ENDS AND MEANS 50 SUMMARY 51 CHAPTER S I X : B R I T I S H COLUMBIA 52 ESTABLISHMENT OF INQUIRY 53 PROCEDURES FOR INQUIRY 55 W o r k i n g P a p e r 55 v i i A n a l y s e s o f R e s p o n s e s 56 F i n a l D e c i s i o n s 56 PHILOSOPHICAL BASES 58 GENERAL ENDS . 59 GENERAL MEANS 60 L a n g u a g e a r t s 60 M a t h e m a t i c s 61 S c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n 61 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 62 H e a l t h a nd P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n 63 E S S E N T I A L ENDS AND MEANS 63 SUMMARY 64 CHAPTER SEVEN: COMPARISONS 66 THE ESTABLISHMENT OF INQUIRY 66 PROCEDURES FOR INQUIRY 68 PHILOSOPHICAL BASES 70 GENERAL ENDS 72 GENERAL MEANS 78 E S S E N T I A L ENDS AND MEANS 82 CHAPTER EIGHT: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR NIGERIAN EDUCATION 84 THE FRAMEWORK AND ANALYSIS OF SOURCE DOCUMENTS 84 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS 89 E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f I n q u i r y 90 P r o c e d u r e s f o r I n q u i r y 90 P h i l o s o p h i c a l B a s i s 92 G e n e r a l Ends 93 G e n e r a l Means 95 E s s e n t i a l Ends and Means 98 IMPLICATIONS FOR NIGERIAN EDUCATION 100 A CONCLUDING CAVEAT 106 v m Page BIBLIOGRAPHY 109 APPENDIX I 116 APPENDIX I I 130 APPENDIX I I I 145 IX L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1. The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f G e n e r a l Ends i n t h e t h r e e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s 1 73 T h e C o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e G e n e r a l Ends I d e n t i f i e d i n t h e T h r e e S o u r c e Documents 76 3. The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f G e n e r a l Means i n t h e T h r e e S o u r c e Documents 79 X L I S T OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1. T h r e e C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f C u r r i c u l u m as Ends and Means f o r S c h o o l i n g 11 2. The C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S e c o n d - P h a s e I n d u s t r i a l a n d P e r s o n - c e n t r e d S o c i e t y 40 3. T h e I m p l i c a t i o n s o f S e c o n d - P h a s e I n d u s t r i a l a n d P e r s o n - c e n t r e d S o c i e t y 42 4. F o u r S p e c i f i c C a t e g o r i e s o f F u n c t i o n f o r t h e S c h o o l s 49 5. R e a c t i o n S h e e t t o t h e W o r k i n g P a p e r on C o r e C u r r i c u l u m 54 L I S T OF APPENDICES A p p e n d i x I An A n a l y s i s o f and P u b l i c R e s p o n s e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m . P a r t I - C o n t e n t A n a l y s i s o f R e a c t i o n S h e e t s , by J . B o t t o m l e y , 1977:1-13 I I An A n a l y s i s o f and P u b l i c R e s p o n s e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m . P a r t I I - A n a l y s i s o f U n c l a s s i f i e d C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , by P a t B a t e s , 1977:1-14 I I I G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m ( Y e a r s one t o s i x ) , G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1977 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e t h r e e members o f my T h e s i s C o m m i t t e e : Dr. Graham T. K e l s e y , a d v i s o r , who h e l p e d t o s h a p e my i d e a s and w r i t i n g , a n d b o r e s i l e n t l y w i t h my o c c a s i o n a l a n g e r a n d i m p a t i e n c e , Dr. Naomi L. Hersom, c o - a d v i s o r , whose e x p e r t i s e a n d k i n d n e s s i m m e n s e l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s , a n d Dr. I a n E. H o u s e g o , a l s o c o - a d v i s o r , whose g e n t l e a n d t e n d e r t r e a t m e n t was o f g r e a t m o r a l s u p p o r t . S p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n i s due t o t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t o f N i g e r i a a t whose f i n a n c i a l e x p e n s e t h e s t u d y was c a r r i e d o u t . I am a l s o t h a n k -f u l t o I r e n e H u l l who t y p e d t h e t h e s i s , a n d e s p e c i a l l y t o Ann M a r i e O ' N e i l l - B a k e r who was m o s t s u p p o r t i v e a t t h e t i m e s I was most f r u s t r a t e d a n d d i s c o u r a g e d , a n d who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e g r e a t j o y s r e s u l t i n g f r o m many l o n g h o u r s o f h a r d w o r k m a n s h i p . CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1969 t o 1977, t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s o f t h e t h r e e l a r g e s t E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c e s p r o d u c e d d o c u m e n t s w h i c h w e r e i n t e n d e d t o d e f i n e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a . A l t h o u g h t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s a l o n e b o r e t h e t i t l e o f " C o r e C u r r i c u l u m , " t h o s e o f O n t a r i o and A l b e r t a may a l s o be s e e n p a r t l y as a t t e m p t s t o d e f i n e t h e " c o r e " o f t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e y i n c l u d e d recommenda-t i o n s a b o u t w h at t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n O n t a r i o and A l b e r t a r e s p e c t i v e l y and t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f what t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d t e a c h i n e a c h o f t h e two p r o v i n c e s . T h i s s t u d y u n d e r t o o k t o e x a m i n e t h e d o c u m e n t s p r o -d u c e d by t h e t h r e e p r o v i n c e s . B e c a u s e o f t h e a u t h o r ' s p o s i t i o n as an o v e r s e a s [ N i g e r i a n ) s t u d e n t , t h e s t u d y i n c l u d e d an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e t h e s i s f o r t h e b e n e f i t s t h e y m i g h t y i e l d f o r t h e N i g e r i a n e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s . The s t u d y was d e s i g n e d e s p e c i a l l y t o f o c u s on t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l o f t h e s c h o o l f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , t h e s a m p l e d o c u m e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e t h r e e C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s l a i d e m p h a s i s on t h e c o n t e n t s o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m a n d t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f w h at s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s ( w h i c h may be d e s i g n a t e d a s C a n a d i a n G r a d e s 1 t o 7 ) . S e c o n d l y , one o f t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t d e v e l o p m e n t s i n N i g e r i a i n t h e 1980s w i l l be i n t h e a r e a s o f e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n . B a r e l y two y e a r s a g o , i n 1978, t h e N i g e r i a n F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l l y l a u n c h e d t h e U.P.E. ( U n i v e r s a l P r i m a r y E d u c a t i o n ) scheme a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y . 1 2 B a c k g r o u n d P e r s p e c t i v e s T h e r e a r e many p e r s p e c t i v e s i n t h e f i e l d o f c u r r i c u l u m i n q u i r y . Some a u t h o r s h a v e r a i s e d t h e q u e s t i o n i n i n s t r u m e n t a l t e r m s : What a r e s c h o o l s f o r ? ( E b e l , 1972, 1 9 7 7 ) . O t h e r s h a v e f o c u s e d on c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s s c h o o l s s h o u l d p r o v i d e ( I l l i c h , 1971; S t i t t , 1973; R o g e r s , 1969; V a l e t t , 1974; D e n n i s , 1977; C l u t e , 1 9 7 8 ) . Many o t h e r s h a v e b e e n i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e m e c h a n i s m s u s e d t o i d e n t i f y e d u c a t i o n a l e n d s and means ( T y l e r , 1957, 1975, 1978; Beauchamp, 1964; G o o d l a d , 1966; J o h n s o n , 1967; K l i e b a r d , 1975; H a s s , 1 9 7 7 ) . In t h e l a s t d e c a d e , h o w e v e r , t h e r e seemed t o be a g r o w i n g c o n c e r n f o r t h e c o n t e n t s o f s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a . F o r e x a m p l e , a c o n f e r e n c e h e l d a t S c a r b o r o u g h , O n t a r i o i n 1974 ( T h e S c a r b o r o u g h C o n f e r e n c e ) l e d t o a r e p o r t w h i c h a s k e d : Do we n o t h a v e s o many g e n e r a l c u r r i c u l a r q u e s t i o n s t o a n s w e r t h a t t h e r e o u g h t t o be a p r o j e c t on t h e c u r r i c u l u m a s a w h o l e ? A r e we r i g h t t o be j u g g l i n g w i t h p i e c e s i n o r d e r t o f i n d new ways o f p u t t i n g them t o g e t h e r ? ( F r o m t h e r e p o r t o f t h e W o r k i n g P a r t y , 1 9 7 4 : 1 ) . S c h m i e d e r ( 1 9 7 5 ) r e m a r k e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e 17,000 l o c a l s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . F r a s e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e r e w ere " a t l e a s t 200" a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f r e a d i n g a l o n e i n C a n a d a . M c C u t c h e o n (.1978) o b s e r v e d : In t h e s p r i n g o f 1978, t h r e e r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s , t w e l v e t e a c h e r s a n d I s t u d i e d t h e c u r r i c u l a o f 12 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m s , t h e d e c i s i o n s l e a d i n g t o t h o s e c u r r i c u l a , and v a r i o u s i n f l u e n c e s upon t h e d e c i s i o n . Our s t u d y r e v e a l e d f e a t u r e s o f . . . l a c k o f c l e a r l y c o o r d i n a t e d c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n ( M c C u t c h e o n , 1 9 7 8 : 1 1 4 ) . 3 E d u c a t o r s ' c u r r e n t p r e o c c u p a t i o n s i n t h e 1980s i n d i c a t e a c o n c e r n f o r t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a and t h e d e c i s i o n s t h a t l e a d t o them. F o r e x a m p l e , t h e C a n a d i a n E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n a t t h e 1980 C.E.A. C o n v e n t i o n d e b a t e d on t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a q u e s t i o n s s u c h a s : " I s t h e h i s t o r i c a l p a t t e r n o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n f r o m K t o 12 o u t o f d a t e ? Has t h e p u r s u i t o f e g a l i t a r i a n i s m r e a c h e d t h e p o i n t w here e x c e l l e n c e i s no l o n g e r v a l u e d ? S h o u l d t h e s c h o o l ' s r o l e i n a s o c i e t y be d e f i n e d more n a r r o w l y ? " ( C a n a d i a n E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 8 0 : 1 ) . E d u c a t i o n a l c o n c e r n s i n t h e 1980s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n c l u d e "a c o m p r e h e n s i v e and r e a l i s t i c d e f i n i t i o n o f w h at i s c e n t r a l t o e d u c a t i o n " ( A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S u p e r v i s i o n a n d C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 8 0 : 1 - 2 ) . E l e v e n p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h i n c l u d e d ASCD h a v e d e v e l o p e d a j o i n t s t a t e m e n t e n t i t l e d "The E s s e n t i a l s o f E d u c a t i o n " ( A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y f o r C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 8 0 : 1 - 2 ) . In d e a l i n g w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , some a u t h o r s h a v e s u g g e s t e d two i n t e r r e l a t e d s t a g e s : (1) The p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h l e a d t o t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m and ( 2 ) t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e c u r r i c -ulum ( G o o d l a d , 1966; H a s s , 1977; E g a n , 1 9 7 8 ) . The t a s k w h i c h w i l l be u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e d o c u m e n t s u s e d f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s t w o f o l d . The d o c u m e n t s w i l l be e x a m i n e d f o r e v i d e n c e a b o u t t h e p r o -c e d u r e s u s e d f o r t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n , and f o r e v i d e n c e a b o u t t h e c o n t e n t s o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g . T h e d o c u m e n t s u s e d f o r t h e s t u d y a r e as f o l l o w s : ( 1 ) L i v i n g and L e a r n i n g : "The R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i t t e e on Aims and O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o . " T h i s d ocument was p u b l i s h e d by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o i n 1969. ( 2 ) A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s : "The R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g , " p u b l i s h e d i n 1972 by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a . ( 3 ) F o u r d o c u m e n t s w h i c h were p u b l i s h e d by 4 t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : M i n i s t e r ' s P o l i c y S t a t e m e n t ( 1 9 7 6 ) ; What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? ( 1 9 7 6 ) ; A n a l y s i s o f and P u b l i c  R e s p o n s e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m ( 1 9 7 7 ) ; and G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m  ( 1 9 7 7 ) . T h e P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o e x a m i n e t h e m a j o r p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m d e f i n i n g d o c u m e n t s p r o d u c e d i n O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y : 1) Why t h e d o c u m e n t s w e r e p r e p a r e d , 2) How t h e d o c u m e n t s w e r e p r e p a r e d , 3) R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g p r i o r i t i e s f o r t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s c u r r i c u l u m , and 4) P o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e N i g e r i a n E d u c a t i o n a l S y s t e m s . The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y The s t u d y c o n t r i b u t e s t o k n o w l e d g e a b o u t c u r r i c u l u m i n s e v e r a l ways. F i r s t , t h e documents c h o s e n as t h e d a t a s o u r c e s r e p r e s e n t s t a t e -m ents o f e n d s and means f o r s c h o o l i n g i n t h e t h r e e C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c e s o f O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A t t h e t i m e e a c h d o c u m e n t was p u b l i s h e d , and i n t h e p l a c e o f o r i g i n o f e a c h d o c u m e n t , e a c h d ocument was g i v e n a g r e a t d e a l o f p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n . Moore ( 1 9 7 3 ) e x a m i n e d A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s i n v i e w o f a l o n g - t e r m e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n A l b e r t a . H e rsom (.1978) u s e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n - i n g as a c a s e s t u d y o f t h e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . O t h e r c u r r i c u l u m t h i n k e r s h a v e e x a m i n e d O n t a r i o ' s L i v i n g and L e a r n i n g as "ends and means o f e d u c a t i o n " ( C r i t t e n d e n , 1 9 6 9 ) . A c o l l e c t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e d o c u m e n t s i n t e r m s o f e n d s and means 5 f o r s c h o o l i n g may c o n t r i b u t e t o k n o w l e d g e a s t o how t h r e e o f C a n a d a ' s p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s h a v e s o l v e d a common e d u c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m . S e c o n d l y , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e s t u d y may have a p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e as i t may l e a d t o a d e e p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e s t r o n g p o s i t i o n t a k e n by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a G o v e r n m e n t a t t h e t i m e t h e d o c u m e n t s w e r e p u b l i s h e d . In 1976, when t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s t a r t e d t h e p r o c e s s o f r e s t r u c t u r i n g t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o r t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s a n d o f o u t l i n i n g t h e c o r e o f t h e c u r r i c -u l u m , some t e a c h e r s , t r u s t e e s , e d u c a t o r s , a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s r e a c t e d a g a i n s t t h e g o v e r n m e n t . Morgan and R o b i n s o n ( 1 9 7 6 ) a r g u e d t h a t t h e d o c u -ments were m e r e l y p o l i t i c a l . A m e e t i n g o f t e a c h e r s , t r u s t e e s , a n d a d m i n i s -t r a t o r s i n t h e B u r n a b y s c h o o l d i s t r i c t was r e p o r t e d t o be d i v i d e d o v e r w h e t h e r t h e c o r e c u r r i c u l u m was n e e d e d i n t h e s c h o o l s o r n o t ( H e r s o m , 1 9 7 8 : 5 ) . T h i r d l y , t h e s t u d y may y i e l d some f i n d i n g s o f v a l u e f o r t h e N i g e r i a n s y s t e m s o f e d u c a t i o n as t o how t h r e e C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c e s h a v e e n g a g e d w i t h an e d u c a t i o n a l i s s u e w h i c h w i l l be i m p o r t a n t i n t h e 1980s and b e y o n d , t h a t i s , t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m a n d i t s e s s e n t i a l s ( c f . W o r l d C o u n c i l f o r C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , 1980:2:3; A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S u p e r v i s i o n a n d C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 8 0 : 1 : 2 ) . F i n a l l y , t h e f r a m e w o r k d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e d o c u m e n t s has p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c u r r i c u l u m b o t h as a p r o c e s s a n d a p r o d u c t o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p -ment. O v e r v i e w o f t h e T h e s i s I n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e p r o b l e m a r e a s o f t h e s t u d y have been d i s -c u s s e d . The p u r p o s e s a n d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s t u d y were p r e s e n t e d . 6 The d a t a s o u r c e s were a l s o o u t l i n e d . T o g e t h e r w i t h t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e t h e s i s c o m p r i s e s e i g h t c h a p t e r s . C h a p t e r two d e a l s w i t h t h e r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d y . I n c h a p t e r t h r e e , t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k o f t h e s t u d y i s p r e s e n t e d and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n e x p l a i n e d . A l s o i n c h a p t e r t h r e e , t h e i m p o r t a n t t e r m s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e g i v e n o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s . In c h a p t e r s f o u r , f i v e , a n d s i x , t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k i s a p p l i e d t o e x a m i n e t h e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s . C o m p a r i s o n s a r e made among and bet w e e n t h e f i n d i n g s i n c h a p t e r s e v e n . C h a p t e r e i g h t r e p r e s e n t s a summary o f t h e s t u d y , t h e c o n c l u s i o n s d r a w n , a n d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f some f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s f o r N i g e r i a n E d u c a t i o n . CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The t e r m c u r r i c u l u m i s u s e d i n a v a r i e t y o f ways. C h r i s t i n e a n d C h r i s t i n e w r o t e : The t e r m c u r r i c u l u m i s p r e s e n t l y u s e d t o r e f e r t o s o m e t h i n g as e p h e m e r a l as an u n b o u n d a b l e , i n f i n i t e l y e x p a n d i n g h a p p e n i n g . The t e r m c u r r i c u l u m i s p r e s e n t l y u s e d t o d e s c r i b e a s i n g l e e x e r c i s e f o r a s i n g l e c h i l d . T he t e r m c u r r i c u l u m has been as p r a c t i c a l l y u s e f u l as t h e m e d i e v a l a l c h e m y , as s t i m u l a t i n g t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l as o u r law c o u r t s , and as d e s t r u c t i v e as B e r n h a r d R u s t ' s d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f C h a m b e r l i n ' s n o t i o n ( C h r i s t i n e a n d C h r i s t i n e , 1 9 7 1 : 3 1 ) . K l i e b a r d ( 1 9 7 5 ) a r g u e d t h a t c u r r i c u l u m i n q u i r i e s a r e " p r a c t i c a l l y c o n t i n g e n t t o h o l d i n g c e r t a i n c o n v i c t i o n s " ( K l i e b a r d , 1 9 7 5 : 4 2 ) . In t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s some v i e w p o i n t s on t h e t e r m c u r r i c u l u m a r e e x a m i n e d . THE NATURE OF CURRICULUM V a r i e t y o f D e f i n i t i o n s A c c o r d i n g t o L e w i s a nd M i e l ( 1 9 7 5 ) , c u r r i c u l u m means " t h e i n t e n d e d l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e n g a g e m e n t w i t h v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e e n v i r -onment." G r e s s ( 1 9 7 8 ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t c u r r i c u l u m i n v o l v e s s t a t e m e n t s o f p h i l o s o p h y f o r s c h o o l i n g a n d t h e p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p h i l o s o p h y i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . C a s w e l l ( 1 9 7 8 ) a r g u e d t h a t c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d be v i e w e d as "a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n g e n e r a l g o a l s , on t h e one h a n d , and s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s t h a t g u i d e t e a c h i n g on t h e o t h e r . " W i l l i s ( 1 9 7 5 ) t h o u g h t c u r r i c u l u m t o be a body o f d e s i r a b l e v a l u e s a n d n e e d s o f t h e s o c i e t y . T h e s e v a l u e s a n d n e e d s a r e t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f w h a t s u b j e c t s o u g h t t o be t a u g h t i n t h e s c h o o l s . In S t r a t e m a y e r ' s v i e w ( 1 9 7 3 ) , a 7 8 c u r r i c u l u m p r o v i d e s f o r t h e l e a r n e r ' s e v e r y d a y p e r s i s t e n t l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . Hyman ( 1 9 7 3 ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t c u r r i c u l u m e s s e n t i a l l y d e a l s w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n "What s h a l l I t e a c h ? " A c c o r d i n g t o Beauchamp ( 1 9 6 8 ) , " c u r r i c u l u m i s a d o c u m e n t c o n t a i n i n g an o r g a n i z e d s e t o f d e c i s i o n s a b o u t what s h a l l be t a u g h t i n a s c h o o l o r a g r o u p o f s c h o o l s . " G o o d l a d ( 1 9 6 6 ) p r e f e r r e d t o t h i n k o f c u r r i c u l u m as c o n s i s t i n g o f " a l l t h o s e l e a r n i n g s i n t e n d e d f o r a s t u d e n t o r a g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s . " From t h e s e v a r i o u s d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e t e r m c u r r i c u l u m , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t c u r r i c u l u m c a n be v i e w e d a s : 1) M a k i n g d e c i s i o n s a b o u t t h e e n d s and means f o r s c h o o l i n g and s t a t i n g t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e e n d s and means. 2) O r g a n i z i n g d e s i r a b l e l e a r n i n g s and l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s f o r a l l t h e s c h o o l s u b j e c t s t h a t a s c h o o l o r a g r o u p o f s c h o o l s s h o u l d o r may t e a c h . 3) O r g a n i z i n g d e s i r a b l e l e a r n i n g s and l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s f o r a l e a r n e r o r a g r o u p o f l e a r n e r s . In The D e v e l o p m e n t o f a C o n c e p t u a l S y s t e m f o r D e a l i n g w i t h P r o b l e m s  o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , G o o d l a d ( 1 9 6 6 ) e x a m i n e d t h e s e t h r e e v i e w s o f c u r r i c u l u m a s t h r e e ways o f m a k i n g e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . In t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n G o o d l a d ' s work i s r e v i e w e d . C u r r i c u l u m as an E d u c a t i o n a l D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g P r o c e s s S o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s p r o c e s s i s c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e s o c i e t a l l e v e l o f an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m by " t h e t o t a l g r o u p o f p e r s o n s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b r i n g i n g i n t o e x i s t e n c e and m a i n t a i n i n g one o r more e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s " ( G o o d l a d , 1 9 6 6 : 3 5 ) . The p r o c e s s 9 i s g e n e r a l l y m o n i t o r e d by "an e l e c t e d body" whose t a s k i s t o p r o p o s e what e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d s e e k t o a t t a i n ( G o o d l a d , 1 9 6 6 : 2 6 ) . I n s t i t u t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s p r o c e s s t a k e s p l a c e a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l ( s c h o o l ) l e v e l o f an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . T h i s l e v e l o f an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m i s t h e d o m a i n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t o r s . T h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s d e a l s w i t h t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s i n t o s c h o o l i n s t i t u -t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . I n s t i t u t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s a r e t h e f o r m u l a -t i o n s o f " e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s and t h e s e l e c t i o n o f i l l u s t r a t i v e l e a r n -i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s " ( G o o d l a d , 1 9 6 6 : 3 2 ) . E d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s r e f e r t o "what s t u d e n t s a r e t o know, be a b l e t o d o , p r e f e r o r b e l i e v e a s a c o n s e -q u e n c e o f b e i n g i n t h e p r o g r a m " ( G o o d l a d , 1 9 6 6 : 1 7 ) . L e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i -t i e s a r e ' s i t u a t i o n s ' " c r e a t e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f an e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m o r i n s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e p u r p o s e - o f a c h i e v i n g c e r t a i n e d u c a t i o n a l e n d s " ( G o o d l a d , 1 9 6 6 : 1 8 ) . A ' s i t u a t i o n ' may be a b o o k , a f i e l d t r i p , a q u e s t i o n o r a p r o b l e m t h a t s e r v e s as "a c a t c h - h o l d p o i n t " t h r o u g h w h i c h some e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s may be a t t a i n e d ( c f . G o o d l a d , 1 9 6 6 : 1 8 ) . I n s t r u c t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s i s a p r o c e s s c a r r i e d o u t by a t e a c h e r i n h i s o r h e r p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r c l a s s -room i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e l e a r n e r s . I t i s a p r o c e s s w h e r e b y t h e t e a c h e r d e l i n e a t e s i n s t r u c t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s i n t o " v e r y p r e c i s e e d u c a -t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s " ( G o o d l a d , 1 9 6 6 : 3 0 ) . S t a t e m e n t s o f p r e c i s e e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s i n d i c a t e s p e c i f i c e d u c a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r i n t e n d s t h e l e a r n e r w i l l a t t a i n . T h e s e s p e c i f i c , b e h a v i o u r s may be c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e , o r p s y c h o m o t o r b e h a v i o u r s o r any c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e . T h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i s a l s o a 10 p r o c e s s by w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r s e l e c t s " o r g a n i z i n g c e n t e r s f o r l e a r n i n g " ( G o o d l a d , 1 9 6 6 : 3 0 ) . An o r g a n i z i n g c e n t e r f o r l e a r n i n g i s a s e t o f s e l e c t e d l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s " t h r o u g h w h i c h a s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r i s t o be d e l i v e r e d " ( G o o d l a d , 1 9 6 6 : 1 8 ) . C u r r i c u l u m as a P r o c e s s o f F o r m u l a t i n g E d u c a t i o n a l Ends and Means In f i g u r e 2, page 11, t h r e e l e v e l s i n a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m as e n d s a n d means f o r s c h o o l i n g a r e i n d i c a t e d . A c c o r d i n g t o G o o d l a d ( 1 9 6 6 ) , e a c h o f t h e s e t h r e e v i e w s i s a p r o c e s s o f f o r m u l a t i n g e n d s a nd means f o r s c h o o l i n g . T h e y a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m one a n o t h e r as t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o b l e m e a c h p r o c e s s d e a l s w i t h . C u r r i c u l u m as a s o c i e t a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s d e a l s w i t h " o u g h t " p r o b l e m s . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s a d d r e s s e s i t s e l f t o " i s " q u e s t i o n s . T h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s d e a l s w i t h " i s " c a s e s a t " t h e l e v e l c l o s e s t t o t h e l e a r n e r " i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m ( c f . G o o d l a d , 1 9 6 6 : 2 4 - 3 0 ) . Of t h e t h r e e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s , t h e c u r r i c u l u m v i e w e d as a s o c i e t a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i s t h e m o s t r e l e v a n t f o r t h e u n d e r t a k i n g s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y b e c a u s e t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y d e a l s w i t h t h e p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i n g a n d s o r t i n g o f e n d s a n d means f o r s c h o o l i n g a nd t h e c o n t e n t o f s c h o o l i n g . T h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m i s f u r t h e r e x a m i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . The S o c i e t a l E d u c a t i o n a l D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g P r o c e s s T y l e r ( 1 9 7 5 , 1978) a r g u e d t h a t t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e en d s f o r s c h o o l i n g r e q u i r e s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t . An e d u c a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t e n c o m p a s s e s " t h e home, t h e p e e r g r o u p , t h e l a r g e r c o mmunity a n d t h e s c h o o l " ( T y l e r , 1 9 7 5 : 2 1 ) . Schwab ( 1 9 7 3 ) i n c l u d e d i n CURRICULUM ENDS MEANS S o c i e t a l E d u c a t i o n a l F o r m u l a t i o n o f g u i d e l i n e S e l e c t i o n o f s o c i e t a l D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g P r o c e s s s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t w h at t h e v a l u e s t h a t t h e s c h o o l s s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g s h o u l d t e a c h I n s t i t u t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l F o r m u l a t i o n o f s c h o o l i n g S e l e c t i o n o f i l l u s t r a t i v e D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g P r o c e s s o b j e c t i v e s l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s I n s t r u c t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l V e r y p r e c i s e d e l i n e a t i o n S e l e c t i o n o f o r g a n i z i n g D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g P r o c e s s o f s c h o o l i n g o b j e c t i v e s c e n t e r s f o r l e a r n i n g F i g u r e 1: T h r e e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f c u r r i c u l u m as e n d s s c h o o l i n q . A d a p t e d f r o m The D e v e l o p m e n t o f a S y s t e m f o r D e a l i n g w i t h P r o b l e m s o f C u r r i c u l u m a n d means f o r C o n c e p t u a l a n d I n s t r u c t i o n , G o o d l a d ( 1 9 6 6 ) . 12 t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t " t h e f a m i l y , t h e c o m m u n i t y , t h e p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p s o f r e l i g i o u s , c l a s s o r e t h n i c g e n u s " and t h e r o l e s o f p a r e n t ( S c h w a b , 1 9 7 3 : 5 0 3 ) . T h e s e f a c t o r s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t must be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f e n d s and means f o r s c h o o l i n g i n a s o c i e t y ( c f . T a b a , 1 9 6 2 : 4 7 ) . S t a k e ( 1 9 6 9 ) o b s e r v e d , " P r e s i d e n t J o h n s o n , P r e s i d e n t C o n a n t , M r s . H u l l ( S a r a ' s t e a c h e r ) , a n d Mr. T y k o c i n e r ( t h e man n e x t d o o r ) a r e q u i t e a l i k e i n t h e f a i t h t h e y h a v e i n e d u c a t i o n . B u t t h e y h a v e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i d e a s o f w h at e d u c a t i o n i s " ( S t a k e , 1 9 6 9 : 3 3 6 ) . The s o c i e t a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s u n d e r t a k e s t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f v a r i o u s e n d s and means f o r s c h o o l i n g t h a t a r e v i e w e d d e s i r a b l e by d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s and p e o p l e i n t h e s o c i e t y . A c c o r d i n g t o Hass ( 1 9 7 7 ) , t h e p r o c e s s u n d e r -t a k e s t h e " g a t h e r i n g , s o r t i n g , b a l a n c i n g , and s y n t h e s i z i n g o f r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m many s o u r c e s " i n o r d e r t o d e s i g n t h o s e e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t w i l l a s s i s t t h e l e a r n e r i n a t t a i n i n g t h e d e s i r a b l e p u r p o s e s o f s c h o o l i n g ( H a s s , 1 9 7 7 : 6 ) . G r e s s ( 1 9 7 8 ) , K o h l b e r g a n d M a y e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) , and W i l l i s ( 1 9 7 5 ) a r g u e d t h a t t h e p r o c e s s s e e k s t o p r o v i d e p h i l o s o p h i e s f o r s c h o o l i n g and a p p l y t h e p h i l o s o p h i e s t o c o n c r e t e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o c o l l e c t m a t e r i a l s t h a t w i l l make r e a l i z a b l e t h e g o a l s i n h e r e n t i n t h e p h i l o s o p h i e s . T y l e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) and Schwab ( 1 9 7 8 , 1971, 1969) s t r e s s e d t h e p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t o f t h e p r o c e s s . T y l e r a r g u e d t h a t t h e p r o c e s s " i s a p r a c t i c a l e n t e r p r i s e . . . I t e n d e a v o u r s t o d e s i g n a s y s t e m t o a c h i e v e e d u c a t i o n a l e n d s , i t i s n o t p r i m a r i l y a t t e m p t i n g t o e x p l a i n an e x i s t e n t i a l phenomenon" ( T y l e r , 1 9 7 8 : 2 4 0 ) . Schwab c a l l e d t h e p r o c e s s a p r a c t i c a l a r t . The p r o c e s s "must t r y t o i d e n t i f y . . . what f a c t s may be r e l e v a n t . I t m u s t t r y t o a s c e r t a i n t h e r e l e v a n t f a c t s i n c o n c r e t e c a s e s " ( S c h w a b , 1 9 6 9 : 2 0 ) . 13 To sum u p , t h e s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s u n d e r t a k e s t h e p r o v i s i o n o f g u i d e l i n e s f o r s c h o o l i n g , t h a t i s , t h e s e l e c t i o n o f e n d s and means f o r s c h o o l i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o L u n d g r e n ( 1 9 7 9 ) , h o w e v e r , t h e s e l e c t i o n o f e n d s and means f o r s c h o o l i n g i s " c o n t e x t -b o u n d . " T y l e r ( 1 9 5 7 ) , S m i t h , S t a n l e y and S h o r e s ( 1 9 7 2 ) , B u r d i n a n d M c A u l a y ( 1 9 7 1 ) r e f e r r e d t o t h e c o n t e x t s i n w h i c h t h e e n d s a n d means f o r s c h o o l i n g a r e s e l e c t e d as t h e s o u r c e s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s a s p e c t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m i s r e v i e w e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . SOME SOURCES OF CURRICULUM AND THE ENDS AND MEANS FOR SCHOOLING The C u l t u r e Many s o c i o l o g i s t s have p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e l e a r n e r ' s c u l t u r e be v i e w e d a s t h e s o u r c e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . The w r i t i n g s o f s u c h a u t h o r s a s J o h n s o n (.1943), M e a n ( 1 9 5 3 , 1 9 7 7 ) , M a l i n o w s k i ( 1 9 4 4 ) , O p l e r ( 1 9 4 7 ) , a n d B r a m e l d ( 1 9 5 0 , 1955, 1956) s u g g e s t e d t h a t " s c h o o l s a r e t o o l s o f s o c i e t y and t o o l s f o r s o c i e t y " ( R e g a n a n d S h e p h e r d , 1 9 7 7 : 4 3 ) . The e n d f o r s c h o o l -i n g f r o m t h i s s t a n d p o i n t " i s t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f c u l t u r e " ( G o s l i n , 1 9 6 5 : 2 ) . S c h o o l s a r e i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r b r i n g i n g t h e l e a r n e r s " t o t h e p o i n t w here t h e y l o o k s u f f i c i e n t l y l i k e e x i s t i n g a d u l t s t o j o i n t h e i r company" (OECD, 1 9 7 4 : 3 ) . S c h o o l i n g i s a means t o awaken i n t h e l e a r n e r s "a c r i t i c a l a w a r e n e s s o f t h e s t a t u s o f t h e i r p e o p l e . . . and t h e c u l t u r a l v a l u e s o f t h e i r c i v i l i z a t i o n " (OECD, 1 9 6 6 : 2 ) . When t h e c u l t u r e i s v i e w e d a s t h e s o u r c e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m , t h e e n d s f o r s c h o o l i n g t e n d t o be t h o s e " t h a t r e f l e c t t h e c o n t r o l l i n g i d e a s a n d s e n t i m e n t s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e u n i v e r s e " ( S m i t h , S t a n l e y , and S h o r e s , 1 9 7 2 : 1 6 ) . D e s i r a b l e means f o r s c h o o l i n g t e n d t o be s u c h s o c i a l v a l u e s as s e e k t o s e c u r e t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f s o c i a l o r d e r ( K i n g , 1970; F a u r e , 1 9 7 2 ) , 14 and t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n and t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f " p r e v i o u s l y a g r e e d upon c h a n g e s w i t h i n t h e s o c i e t y " ( R e g a n a n d S h e p h e r d , 1 9 7 7 : 4 3 ) . C u l t u r a l P l u r a l i s m M o d ern s o c i e t i e s a r e p l u r a l i s t i c . " T h e r e i s no l o n g e r a b r o a d a g r e e d upon b l u e p r i n t o f v a l u e s as a g u i d e " (OECD, 1 9 7 4 : 1 1 ) . T h u s v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m h a v e b e e n s u g g e s t e d t o be t h e s o u r c e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e p l u r a l i s t i c n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i e t y as t h e s o u r c e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m , s c h o o l i n g s h o u l d be c o n c e r n e d a b o u t e t h n i c i t y and e t h n i c and r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s (Banks, 1 9 7 7 : 4 5 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o F e r s h ( 1 9 7 7 ) , t h e s c h o o l s h o u l d d e v e l o p t h e l o c a l c u l t u r e s o f t h e l e a r n e r and a s s i s t t h e l e a r n e r t o a c q u i r e k n o w l e d g e a b o u t " t h e ways i n w h i c h o t h e r g r o u p s o f human b e i n g s h a v e o r g a n i z e d t h e i r l i v e s t o a n s w e r t h e p e r e n n i a l q u e s t i o n s o f s u r v i v a l and f u l f i l l m e n t " ( F e r s h , 1 9 7 7 : 3 9 ) . Bahannan ( 1 9 7 7 ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be u s e d t o d e v e l o p t h e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f t h e l e a r n e r f o r upward e c o n o m i c m o b i l i t y . T h e L e a r n e r Some a u t h o r s p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s h o u l d be t h e s o u r c e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . B a s e d on t h i s v i e w , t h e s c h o o l s h o u l d a s s i s t t h e l e a r n e r t o a t t a i n t h e a b i l i t i e s o f s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n a nd s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n ( c f . J u n e l l , 1 9 7 4 : 1 0 6 - 1 1 5 ) . I n l i k e m a nner, P h e n i x ( 1 9 7 4 ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s c h o o l s h o u l d be u s e d t o i l l u m i n a t e t h e i n n e r c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e l e a r n e r . N i b l e t t ( 1 9 6 3 ) , B e c k ( 1 9 7 1 ) , Dean ( 1 9 7 1 ) , H i r s t a n d P e t e r s ( 1 9 7 0 ) a r g u e d t h a t b e c a u s e t h e l e a r n e r i s a r a t i o n a l b e i n g , t h e s c h o o l s h o u l d d e v e l o p t h e r a t i o n a l f a c u l t i e s o f t h e l e a r n e r s o t h a t t h e y become c a p a b l e o f m a k i n g r a t i o n a l and m o r a l j u d g e m e n t s . 15 C o n s i d e r i n g t h e l e a r n e r as t h e s o u r c e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m , W i l s o n e t a l . ( 1 9 6 7 ) , Kay ( 1 9 6 8 ) , B e c k ( 1 9 7 1 ) , K o h l b e r g and Mayer ( 1 9 7 8 ) e m p h a s i z e d e t h i c a l a n d m o r a l d e v e l o p m e n t as t h e en d s f o r s c h o o l i n g . In c o n c l u s i o n , v a r i o u s s o u r c e s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m a n d t h e i r i m p l i e d e n d s and means f o r s c h o o l i n g may be u s e f u l ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , "no s i n g l e s o u r c e i s a d e q u a t e t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r w i s e a n d c o m p r e h e n s i v e d e c i s i o n s a b o u t t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s c h o o l " ( T y l e r , 1 9 5 7 : 4 ) . SUMMARY In t h e r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d y i t has be e n shown t h a t e n d e a v o u r s t o d e f i n e a s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m may be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d a s a d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s a b o u t what s h o u l d be t h e en d s and means f o r s c h o o l i n g . T h e p r o c e s s may be c a r r i e d o u t f o l l o w i n g c e r t a i n p r o -c e d u r e s w h i c h may l e a d t o m a k i n g u s e f u l d e c i s i o n s w i t h i n a g i v e n e d u c a -t i o n a l l o c a l e . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , t h e e l e m e n t s t h a t e m e r g e d f r o m t h e r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y f r o m t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e work o f G o o d l a d ( 1 9 6 6 ) , The D e v e l o p m e n t o f a C o n c e p t u a l S y s t e m f o r D e a l i n g w i t h  P r o b l e m s o f C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n , a r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e a n a l y s i s u s e d f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . A l s o i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , t h e key t e r m s t h a t f e a t u r e i n t h e f r a m e w o r k a r e g i v e n o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s a n d t h e s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s a d d r e s s e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e s t a t e d . CHAPTER THREE CURRICULUM CONCEPTUALIZATIONS AND METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS In c h a p t e r two, i t was n o t e d t h a t t h e t e r m , c u r r i c u l u m , means d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t o d i f f e r e n t t h i n k e r s . A l s o i n c h a p t e r two, t h r e e c u r r i c u l u m c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o G o o d l a d ( 1 9 6 6) w e r e e x a m i n e d . I t was a r g u e d t h a t t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m as a s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e u n d e r t a k i n g s i n t h i s s t u d y as i n d i c a t e d i n t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f i t s p u r p o s e i n c h a p t e r o n e. In t h i s c h a p t e r , G o o d l a d ' s i d e a s a b o u t c u r r i c u l u m as a s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , and o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e s a b o u t c u r r i c -ulum t h a t e m e r g e d i n t h e r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e a r e p u t t o g e t h e r i n t o a c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k . O t h e r s e c t i o n s i n t h i s c h a p t e r d e a l w i t h t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k t o t h e d a t a - s o u r c e s , t h e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e key t e r m s i n t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k and i n t h e s t u d y . The l a s t s e c t i o n o f t h e c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s p o s e d i n t h e s t u d y . A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK C u r r i c u l u m as a P r o c e s s A c c o r d i n g t o G o o d l a d ( 1 9 6 6 ) , c u r r i c u l u m c a n be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a t t h e s o c i e t a l l e v e l o f an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . As shown i n f i g u r e 2, p. 11, t h e p r o c e s s s e e k s ( 1 ) t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f g u i d e -l i n e s a b o u t what t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , 16 17 and ( 2 ) t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s o c i e t a l v a l u e s t h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d t e a c h i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . A c c o r d i n g t o G o o d l a d t h i s p r o c e s s i s m o n i t o r e d by a body o f p e o p l e e l e c t e d o r s e l e c t e d by t h e " t o t a l g r o u p o f p e r s o n s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b r i n g i n g i n t o e x i s t e n c e and m a i n t a i n i n g one o r more e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s " ( G o o d l a d , 1 9 6 6 : 3 5 ) . He a l s o p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i n c a r r y i n g o u t i t s t a s k s , t h e e l e c t e d o r s e l e c t e d body must work i n c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p e o p l e who d e l e g a t e d i t t o f o r m u l a t e "what e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d s e e k t o a t t a i n " ( G o o d l a d , 1 9 6 6 : 2 6 ) . C u r r i c u l u m a s P r o d u c t I t was n o t e d i n c h a p t e r two t h a t c u r r i c u l u m c a n be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as a p r o d u c t o f t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s a b o u t what t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g . The f a c t o r s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s u c h a p r o d u c t a r e e n d s and means f o r s c h o o l i n g . The e n d s f o r s c h o o l i n g a r e g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s o f d e s i r e a s t o what p u r p o s e s a s c h o o l o r a g r o u p o f s c h o o l s s h o u l d s e e k i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . T h e y may be s e l e c t e d f r o m among what v a r i o u s p e o p l e i n an e d u c a -t i o n a l s y s t e m s e e as d e s i r a b l e p u r p o s e s t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d a t t a i n . T h e y a r e s t a t e m e n t s t h a t i n d i c a t e t h e commitment o f an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m t o a c e r t a i n p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n . P h i l o s o p h i e s o f e d u c a t i o n a r e b a s e d on a v i e w o f t h e ' w o r l d ' i n w h i c h s c h o o l i n g i s t a k i n g p l a c e , o r on a v i e w o f t h e ' w o r l d ' o f t h e c h i l d , o r on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c h i l d as a human b e i n g . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n a d o p t e d i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m may c o m b i n e two o f t h e s e v i e w s o r a l l o f them. A l t h o u g h many e n d s may be d e s i r a b l e i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , some e n d s a r e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n o t h e r s . H e nce t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e g e n e r a l e n d s a n d t h e e s s e n t i a l e n d s . 18 The means f o r s c h o o l i n g emerged as b r o a d s t a t e m e n t s o f what m i g h t be u s e d f o r a c h i e v i n g t h e e n d s f o r s c h o o l i n g . T h e y a r e e d u c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , w h i c h when f u r t h e r r e d u c e d t o some s p e c i f i c s w h i c h t e a c h e r s c a n t e a c h i n t h e s c h o o l s , p e r m i t t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e e n d s . A l t h o u g h many means may be r e c o m m e n d a b l e f o r t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f a s e t o f e n d s , some a r e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n o t h e r s , h e n c e t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e g e n e r a l means a n d t h e e s s e n t i a l means. T h u s , t h e p r o d u c t o f an e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s a b o u t what t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i s a s e t o f s e l e c t e d e n d s and a s e t o f recommended means f o r s c h o o l i n g i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . The s e l e c t e d e n d s and t h e recommended means do n o t c o m p l e t e l y r e p r e s e n t w h at a c t u a l l y g o e s on i n t h e s c h o o l s . T h e y d o , h o w e v e r , c o n s t i t u t e g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e p r a c t i c e o f e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l i n s t i t u t i o n s . To r e c a p i t u l a t e , t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n b o r r o w s f r o m t h e i d e a s i n G o o d l a d ' s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m as a s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s and f r o m some o t h e r c u r r i c u l u m v i e w s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e . The c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k r e p r e s e n t s a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m as b o t h a p r o c e s s and a p r o d u c t o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a b o u t t h e e n d s t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d s e e k and t h e l e a r n i n g s t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d f o s t e r . THE A P P L I C A T I O N OF THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK T h i s s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e -work t o t h e d a t a s o u r c e s f o r t h e s t u d y . T h e d a t a u s e d f o r t h e s t u d y w e r e m a j o r s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t e d u c a t i o n p r o d u c e d i n t h e C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c e s o f O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1969 t o 1977. T h e s e s t a t e m e n t s were p r o d u c e d t o d e f i n e t h e r o l e s o f t h e s c h o o l s 19 i n c l u d i n g t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h i n g t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g . The d o c u m e n t s a r e : 0) L i v i n g and L e a r n i n g : "The R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i t t e e on A i m s and O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o . " T h i s d ocument was p u b l i s h e d by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o i n 1969. ( 2 ) A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s : "The R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g , " p u b l i s h e d i n 1972 by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a . ( 3 ) F o u r d o c u m e n t s w h i c h w ere p u b l i s h e d by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : M i n i s t e r ' s P o l i c y  S t a t e m e n t 0 9 7 6 ) ; What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? ( 1 9 7 6 ) ; A n a l y s i s  o f and P u b l i c R e s p o n s e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m ( 1 9 7 7 ) ; a n d G u i d e t o t h e C o r e  C u r r i c u l u m ( 1 9 7 7 ) . T h e s e d o c u m e n t s c a n be s e e n b o t h i n t h e l i g h t o f c u r r i c u l u m as p r o c e s s and o f c u r r i c u l u m as p r o d u c t . C u r r i c u l u m as P r o c e s s As i n d i c a t e d i n t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k , an e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n -m a k i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h d e a l s w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f w h at t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i s c a r r i e d o u t by t h o s e who a r e e l e c t e d by t h e p e o p l e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s c h o o l s i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . T h i s a s p e c t o f t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k l e a d s t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e d o c u m e n t s u s e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . The d o c u m e n t s w e r e p r o d u c e d e i t h e r by t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t s o r by a C o m m i t t e e o r a C o m m i s s i o n s e t up by t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s . The M i n i s t e r s o f E d u c a t i o n who s a n c t i o n e d t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e d o c u m e n t s were e l e c t e d p e r s o n s . By t h e v i r t u e o f t h e a u t h o r i t y a t t a c h e d t o t h e i r p o s i t i o n s , t h e y were c h a r g e d w i t h s a f e g u a r d i n g t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p u b l i c i n m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s . 20 The e l e c t e d body who may make s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s must do s o i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e e l e c t o r a t e s whose i n t e r e s t s t h e y r e p r e s e n t . H e n c e , i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o e x a m i n e t h e d o c u m e n t s f o r e v i d e n c e a b o u t how t h e d o c u m e n t s were p r o d u c e d and a l s o f o r e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n . C u r r i c u l u m as a P r o d u c t The c u r r i c u l u m as a p r o d u c t i s a s t a t e m e n t o f b o t h e n d s and means. The c o n t e n t s o f c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t s may i n c l u d e e x p l i c i t o r i m p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e p u r p o s e s t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d s e e k i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m and t h e l e a r n i n g s t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d f o s t e r s o t h a t t h e p u r p o s e s m i g h t be a t t a i n e d . The c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m as a p r o d u c t o f a s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s makes i t a p p r o p r i a t e t o e x a m i n e t h e d o c u m e n t s u s e d f o r t h i s s t u d y f o r e v i d e n c e o f i n d i c a t i o n s a b o u t w h at t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d t e a c h . The r e c e n t e m e r g e n c e i n Canada o f d i s c u s s i o n s a b o u t t h e s o c a l l e d " C o r e C u r r i c u l u m " s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c u r r i c u l u m as p r o d u c t may be e x a m i n e d f o r i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t some p u r p o s e s ( a n d t h e means f o r a c h i e v i n g them) a r e s e e n as more e s s e n t i a l t h a n o t h e r s . Hence i t w i l l be u s e f u l t o a s s e s s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e d o c u m e n t s o f t h e t h r e e p r o v i n c e s do d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n g e n e r a l a n d e s s e n t i a l e n d s and means f o r s c h o o l i n g . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s p r e s e n t t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f key t e r m s and t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d o c u m e n t s . 21 DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMS CURRICULUM AS A PROCESS: A method f o r t h e g a t h e r i n g , f o r t h e s o r t i n g , a nd f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f e n d s and means f o r s c h o o l i n g . CURRICULUM AS A PRODUCT: S e l e c t e d e n d s and means d e s i g n e d f o r s c h o o l i n g , o r g a n i z e d a n d p r e s e n t e d i n p r i n t f o r m . ENDS FOR SCHOOLING: B r o a d s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t h e p u r p o s e s t o be a c h i e v e d i n t h e s c h o o l s i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . MEANS FOR SCHOOLING: B r o a d s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t h e c o n t e n t o f s c h o o l i n g . The c o n t e n t e n c o m p a s s e s a l l t h e l e a r n i n g s t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d f o s t e r f o r a c h i e v i n g t h e e n d s f o r s c h o o l i n g . PROCEDURE: A s t e p w i t h i n a p r o c e s s f o r a c h i e v i n g a p u r p o s e . I t i s a s t e p w i t h i n ' c u r r i c u l u m as a p r o c e s s . ' SCHOOLING: A p e r i o d o f t i m e s p e n t by a c h i l d o r an a d o l e s c e n t on a t t e n -d a n c e a t an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS S i n c e t h e d o c u m e n t s a r e e x a m i n e d i n s e q u e n c e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s , t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a r e numbered a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d o c u m e n t s t o w h i c h t h e y a r e a d d r e s s e d . T h u s q u e s t i o n s p r e f i x e d by '1' r e f e r t o t h e O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t , t h o s e numbered '2' r e f e r t o t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t a n d t h o s e numbered '3' t o t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s . Q u e s t i o n s P e r t a i n i n g t o C u r r i c u l u m as P r o c e s s 1.1 Why d i d t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o e s t a b l i s h t h e P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i t t e e on Aims a n d O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o w h i c h l e d t o t h e r e p o r t , L i v i n g a n d L e a r n i n g , i n 1969? 22 1.2 What p r o c e d u r e s were e m p l o y e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i t t e e on Aims and O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o t o a r r i v e a t t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f e n d s a nd means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l -i n g r e p o r t e d i n t h e d o c u m e n t ? 2.1 Why d i d t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a e s t a b l i s h t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g w h i c h l e d t o t h e r e p o r t , A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s , i n 1972? 2.2 What p r o c e d u r e s were t a k e n by t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g t o a r r i v e a t t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f e n d s and means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g r e p o r t e d i n t h e d o c u m e n t ? 3.1 Why d i d t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a make a S t a t e m e n t i n 1976 w h i c h l e d t o t h e p u b l i c a t i o n s o f What S h o u l d  Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? a nd A n a l y s i s o f and P u b l i c R e s p o n s e t o  t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m i n 1976, and G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m i n 1977? 3.2 What p r o c e d u r e s w e r e e m p l o y e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o a r r i v e a t t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f e n d s a nd means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n t h e s e G o v e r n m e n t p a p e r s ? Q u e s t i o n s P e r t a i n i n g t o C u r r i c u l u m as a P r o d u c t 1.3 What a r e t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e e n d s and means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g r e p o r t e d i n L i v i n g and L e a r n i n g ? 1.4 What a r e t h e s e l e c t e d e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n t h e r e p o r t ? 1.5 What a r e t h e s e l e c t e d means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g o b s e r v a b l e i n t h e r e p o r t ? 1.6 What a r e t h e recommended e s s e n t i a l e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n t h e r e p o r t ? 23 1.7 What a r e t h e recommended e s s e n t i a l means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n t h e r e p o r t ? 2.3 What a r e t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e e n d s and means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g r e p o r t e d i n A C h o i c e o f  F u t u r e s ? 2.4 What a r e t h e s e l e c t e d g e n e r a l e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g t h a t c a n be i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e r e p o r t ? 2.5 What a r e t h e s e l e c t e d e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g t h a t c a n be i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e r e p o r t ? 2.6 What a r e t h e recommended e s s e n t i a l e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g t h a t c a n be i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e r e p o r t ? 2.7 What a r e t h e recommended e s s e n t i a l means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g t h a t c a n be i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e r e p o r t ? 3.3 What a r e t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e end s and means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a G o v e r n -ment p a p e r s ? 3.4 What a r e t h e s e l e c t e d g e n e r a l e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a G o v e r n m e n t p a p e r s ? 3.5 What a r e t h e e l e c t e d g e n e r a l means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n t h e p a p e r s ? 3.6 What a r e t h e recommended e s s e n t i a l e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n t h e p a p e r s ? 3.7 What a r e t h e recommended e s s e n t i a l means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n t h e p a p e r s ? CHAPTER FOUR ONTARIO T h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f L i v i n g and L e a r n i n g :  The R e p o r t o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i t t e e on Aims a nd O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n  i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o . Mr. J u s t i c e E.H. H a l l a n d Mr. L.A. D e n n i s w ere t h e c o - c h a i r m e n o f t h e c o m m i t t e e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e p o r t i s o t h e r -w i s e known as "The H a l l - D e n n i s R e p o r t . " In v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s o f t h e r e p o r t , t h e c o m m i t t e e d i s c u s s e d t h e c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f O n t a r i o , e x a m i n e d v a r i o u s p h i l o s o p h i e s o f e d u c a t i o n , a n d o u t l i n e d a l e a r n i n g programme. The f i n a l s e c t i o n s o f t h e r e p o r t made r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a b o u t t h e r o l e s o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , t h e s c h o o l b o a r d s , t h e t e a c h e r s , a n d h i g h e r i n s t i t u t e s o f e d u c a t i o n i n O n t a r i o ' s s y s t e m o f e d u c a t i o n . In t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e s e c t i o n s o f t h e r e p o r t w h i c h d e a l w i t h t h e l e v e l o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g w i l l be e x a m i n e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g L i v i n g a n d L e a r n i n g . ESTABLISHMENT OF INQUIRY The M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o i n 1965 recommended "... t h a t t h e r e be e s t a b l i s h e d a P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i t t e e on Aims and O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o " ( G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o , 1 9 6 9 : 4 ) . 1 The M i n i s t e r ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n was ". . . a p p r o v e d 1. In c h a p t e r s f o u r , f i v e , and s i x , t h e f i r s t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e d a t a s o u r c e i s g i v e n i n f u l l . T h e r e a f t e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t u s e o n l y p a ge numbers. 24 25 by H i s H o n o u r , t h e L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r " ( p . 4 ) . The C o m m i t t e e was c h a r g e d w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g t a s k s : t o i d e n t i f y t h e n e e d s o f t h e c h i l d as a p e r s o n a n d as a member o f t h e s o c i e t y . t o s e t f o r t h t h e aims o f e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m o f t h e P r o v i n c e . t o o u t l i n e t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o r c h i l d r e n i n t h e age g r o u p s p r e s e n t l y d e s i g n e d as K i n d e r g a r t e n , P r i m a r y and J u n i o r D i v i s i o n s . t o p r o p o s e means by w h i c h t h e s e aims and o b j e c t i v e s may be a c h i e v e d . t o s u b m i t a r e p o r t f o r t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n ( p . 4 ) . The M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n recommended t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a C o m m i t t e e on t h e a i m s and o b j e c t i v e s o f e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o b e c a u s e he t h o u g h t i t " e x p e d i e n t t o r e v i s e t h e c o u r s e o f s t u d y f o r t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e age g r o u p s . . . " o f t h e K i n d e r g a r t e n , P r i m a r y and J u n i o r D i v i s i o n l e v e l s o f s c h o o l i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o ( p . 4 ) . T h e r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e v i s i o n was n e e d e d b e c a u s e T h e O n t a r i o  Programme o f S t u d i e s f o r G r a d e s 1 t o 6, f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1937 was t o t h i s p o i n t t h e o n l y o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n w h i c h d e a l t w i t h a i m s d e l i b e r a t e l y a n d f u l l y , a l t h o u g h t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l  C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n i n O n t a r i o , 1950, had i n c l u d e d g e n e r a l l y , a i m s f o r s c h o o l i n g ( p . 7 0 ) . 26 PROCEDURES FOR INQUIRY P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n T h e H a l l - D e n n i s C o m m i s s i o n s o u g h t e x t e n s i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c i n t h e p r o c e s s o f p r o d u c i n g t h e r e p o r t on Aims a n d O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o . V a r i o u s l e v e l s o f t h e p u b l i c w e r e i n v o l v e d - - e d u c a t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s a l i k e . S c h o o l i n s t i t u t i o n s w e r e c o n t a c t e d . T h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d by means o f t h e s u b m i s s i o n o f b r i e f s a n d t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p a p e r s . The C o m m i s s i o n h e l d p u b l i c m e e t i n g s i n f o u r c e n t r e s ( O t t a w a , S u d b u r y , London and T o r o n t o ) . The p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o o k p l a c e p r i o r t o s e l e c t i n g e n d s and means f o r s c h o o l i n g and o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e . The i n q u i r y s t a r t e d i n 1965 and t h e C o m m i s s i o n d i d n o t r e p o r t u n t i l 1969 ( c f . p. 4 ) . P u b l i c I n v o l v e m e n t a n d R e s u l t i n g Themes The C o m m i s s i o n r e p o r t e d t h a t v a r i o u s c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e p u b l i c w ere a n a l y z e d . The a n a l y s i s was r e p o r t e d i n t h e s e c t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t e n t i t l e d " C u l t u r a l E n v i r o n m e n t . " The f o l l o w i n g w e r e t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n . N a t i o n a l i s m a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e . The r e p o r t showed t h a t C a n a d a was p o p u l a t e d p r i n c i p a l l y by i m m i g r a n t s f r o m a r o u n d t h e w o r l d . I t was i n d i -c a t e d i n t h e r e p o r t t h a t p u b l i c o p i n i o n showed t h a t C a n a d i a n s w e r e l a c k i n g i n a h e a r t - f e l t s p i r i t o f n a t i o n a l i s m . A l t h o u g h s u c h i m m i g r a n t s were n o t s t i l l a t t a c h e d t o t h e i r p l a c e s o f o r i g i n , t h e y d i d n o t seem t o show a n y p r o f o u n d f e e l i n g o f n a t i o n a l i s m f o r C a n a d a ( p . 2 3 ) . I t was a l s o o b s e r v e d i n t h e r e p o r t t h a t "a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f C a n a d i a n s " f e l t t h a t C anada had s u r r e n d e r e d h e r i n d e p e n d e n c e t o f o r e i g n s o v e r e i g n t i e s , " p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . " C o n s e q u e n t l y , C a n a d a ' s 27 economy and c u l t u r e w e r e b e i n g c o n t r o l l e d by f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s ( p . 2 3 ) . M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . The r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d t h a t C anada had f o s t e r e d a p o l i c y o f m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m as a r e s u l t o f t h e m u l t i - e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s p o p u l a t i o n . P u b l i c o p i n i o n , h o w e v e r , showed t h a t t h e E n g l i s h and t h e F r e n c h c u l t u r e s had d o m i n a t e d . I t was i n d i c a t e d i n t h e r e p o r t t h a t t h e c u l t u r e s o f t h e i m m i g r a n t s who w e r e n o t o f E n g l i s h and F r e n c h o r i g i n s n e e d e d t o be c o n s i d e r e d p a r t s o f " e m e r g i n g C a n a d i a n c u l -t u r e . " I n t h e p r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o , t h e E n g l i s h and t h e F r e n c h s t o c k s d e m o n s t r a t e d an a t t i t u d e t h a t s u g g e s t e d t h a t O n t a r i o ' s " m a j o r c u l t u r a l g o a l s were t o p r e s e r v e i t s E n g l i s h h e r i t a g e . " The r e p o r t on p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was n e ed f o r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and e x c h a n g e o f c u l t u r a l v a l u e s among and b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s e t h n i c g r o u p s o f t h e p r o v i n c e ( p p . 2 4 - 2 5 ) . R e l i g i o u s and m o r a l v a l u e s . I t was r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c f e l t t h a t s e c u l a r i z a t i o n had become a n o t i c e a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f O n t a r i o ' s s o c i e t y . Many p a r e n t s e x p r e s s e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e l a c k o f r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e a t t i t u d e o f c h i l d r e n and y o u n g p e o p l e . I t was a f a c t o r o f s o c i a l a n x i e t y f o r some p e o p l e o f t h e p r o v i n c e t h a t t h e a d o l e s c e n t s i n d u l g e d i n t h e u s e o f d r u g s and i n " e a r l i e r and more g r e g a r i o u s s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e " CP- 2 7 ) . The C o m m i s s i o n ' s F i n d i n g s B a s e d on t h e a n a l y s e s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e H a l l - D e n n i s C o m m i s s i o n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s c h o o l s i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o s h o u l d a i m a t : ( a ) t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f C a n a d a ' s m u l t i -c u l t u r a l i s m , ( b ) t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f C a n a d a ' s i n d e p e n d e n c e , ( c ) t h e 28 p r e s e r v a t i o n and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e n o n - E n g l i s h and n o n - F r e n c h c u l t u r e s and t h e s h a r i n g o f c u l t u r a l v a l u e s among and b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups' o f O n t a r i o , a n d ( d ) t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f m o r a l and r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s i n t h e c h i l d r e n a n d t h e y o u n g p e o p l e ( p p . 2 3 - 2 8 ) . On t h e w h o l e , t h e C o m m i s s i o n o b s e r v e d t h a t s u c h c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n -m e n t a l f a c t o r s as w e r e i n d i c a t e d by t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a -t i o n and s u c h c o n c l u s i o n s as t h e C o m m i s s i o n drew f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s " s e t t h e t o n e o f e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y and i n d i c a t e i t s p r a c t i c e " ( p . 2 3 ) . PHILOSOPHICAL BASES The Whole C h i l d A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n on t h e a i m s and o b j e c t i v e s o f e d u c a t i o n i n O n t a r i o , t h e s c h o o l s h o u l d e d u c a t e t h e w h o l e c h i l d ( p . 2 3 ) . R e f e r e n c e s w e r e made t o C o m e n i u s , F r o e b e l , P e s t a l o z z i , and Dewey as p i o n e e r s o f s u c h a p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n ( p . 6 8 ) . I n p a r t i c u l a r , two s c h o o l s o f p h i l o -s o p h i c a l t h o u g h t - - N e w R e a l i s m and P r a g m a t i s m - - w e r e d i s c u s s e d and c r i t i c a l l y a s s e s s e d i n t h e r e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n ( p . 6 8 ) . T h e e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e v i e w s o f t h e New R e a l i s t s and t h e P r a g m a t i s t s was p o i n t e d o u t . The R e a l i s t s h e l d t h a t t h e s c h o o l s h o u l d e d u c a t e o n l y t h e m i n d o f t h e c h i l d . The P r a g m a t i s t s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e s c h o o l s h o u l d d e v e l o p e v e r y a s p e c t o f t h e c h i l d . The C o m m i s s i o n p r e f e r r e d t h e v i e w o f t h e P r a g m a t i s t s and a l s o p o i n t e d o u t t h a t " . . . k i n d e r g a r t e n a n d e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s p r e d o m i n a n t l y b e l i e v e o r assume t h a t t h e s c h o o l must e d u c a t e t h e w h o l e c h i l d " ( p . 6 8 ) . 29 L i f e i n a S o c i e t y T h e c h i l d , h o w e v e r , was n o t t o be t r e a t e d "as an i s o l a t e d e n t i t y . " The c h i l d s h o u l d be " e d u c a t e d f o r l i f e i n a s o c i e t y . " A s p e c t s o f l i f e i n a s o c i e t y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e o v e r a l l r a t i o n a l e f o r s c h o o l i n g i n c l u d e d s o c i a l f a c t o r s , e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s , p r e s s u r e - g r o u p i d e o l o g i e s , t h e c h i l d ' s p a r e n t s ' d e s i r e s , and t h e p e r s o n a l n e e d s o f t h e c h i l d . T h e s e e l e m e n t s p r o v i d e s t r a t e g i e s f o r t h e p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f a p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n ( p . 2 3 ) . GENERAL ENDS Th e C o m m i s s i o n i n d i c a t e d i n t h e r e p o r t t h a t t h e g e n e r a l e n d s f o r s c h o o l i n g o u t l i n e d i n t h e r e p o r t w ere a s e l e c t i o n f r o m among many e d u c a -t i o n a l a ims e x p r e s s e d by " a l l c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r o c e s s o f e d u c a t i o n . " The C o m m i s s i o n f u r t h e r a r g u e d t h a t b e c a u s e t h e s e e n d s were a s e l e c t i o n t h e y w e r e more r e a l i s t i c a l l y e x p r e s s e d i n what t h e y d i d t h a n i n a n y o n e ' s s t a t e m e n t ( p . 7 3 ) . The C o m m i s s i o n t h e r e f o r e s t a t e d t h e g e n e r a l e n d s f o r s c h o o l i n g i n t e r m s o f what t h e c u r r i c u l u m was d e s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e ( p . 7 3 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i t t e e on Aims and O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o , t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o r s c h o o l i n g s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e f o u r m a i n e n d s : (1) E n s u r i n g t h a t t h e c h i l d a c q u i r e t h e b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s f o r e d u c a t i o n . B a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s i n c l u d e d t h e p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l h e a l t h o f t h e c h i l d a n d t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e s k i l l s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . ( 2 ) H e l p i n g t h e c h i l d t o a c q u i r e d e s i r a b l e s k i l l s , a b i l i t i e s , a n d a t t i t u d e s s o t h a t t h e c h i l d f e e l s s e c u r e a n d a d e q u a t e " w i t h i n h i m s e l f " and " w i t h i n h i s w o r l d . " ( 3 ) P r o v i d i n g t h e c h i l d w i t h e t h i c a l a n d m o r a l l e a r n i n g . ( 4 ) M e e t i n g t h e n e e d s a n d e x p r e s s e d d e s i r e s o f t h e c h i l d ( p . 7 5 ) . 30 GENERAL MEANS In t h e s e c t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t e n t i t l e d "The L e a r n i n g Programme," t h e C o m m i s s i o n o u t l i n e d t h r e e a r e a s o f l e a r n i n g s - g e n e r a l means f o r s c h o o l i n g . The t h r e e a r e a s o f means a r e d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . Man and t h e I n t e r c h a n g e o f h i s T h o u g h t s The f i r s t a r e a o f means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g o b s e r v e d i n t h e r e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i t t e e on Aims and O b j e c t i v e s f o r s c h o o l i n g i n O n t a r i o i s r e l a t e d t o t h e a b i l i t y t o c o m m u n i c a t e t h o u g h t s a n d i d e a s ( p . 7 7 ) . S u c h l e a r n i n g s s e l e c t e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n f o r t h i s a r e a o f means s u g g e s t two modes o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n and two s e t s o f l e a r n i n g s . S y l l a b i c mode. T h i s mode o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n r e f e r s t o v a r i o u s ways o f c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h t h e l a n g u a g e . The l e a r n i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s mode o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e r e p o r t w ere t h e r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , l i s t e n i n g , s p e a k i n g , d e b a t i n g , a s p e c t s o f E n g l i s h a n d F r e n c h l a n g u a g e s . S o c i o - c u l t u r a l s y m b o l i c mode. T h i s mode o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e ways t h e s o c i a l a n d c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t a r e e x p r e s s e d . R e l a t e d l e a r n i n g s t o t h i s mode o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e r e p o r t w e r e p a i n t i n g , d a n c i n g , a n d l e a r n i n g s t h a t r e l a t e t o t h e g e o g r a p h y  and t h e m u l t i - e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e o f O n t a r i o . Man and t h e E n v i r o n m e n t A s e c o n d a r e a o f g e n e r a l means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e r e p o r t was r e l a t e d t o t h e s c i e n c e s a n d t h e i r e f f e c t s on t h e s o c i e t y ( p . 7 7 ) . The l e a r n i n g s s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s a r e a o f g e n e r a l means w e r e s u c h as t h e s e : 31 ( 1 ) L e a r n i n g s t h a t were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e " g e o g r a p h i c a l e l e m e n t s o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s " ( p . 7 7 ) . T h e s e l e a r n i n g s w i l l i n c l u d e t h e p o l i t i c a l g o v e r n a n c e o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t ( t h a t i s , t h e p r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o ) , and p e r h a p s o f o t h e r p r o v i n c e s i n Canada and a l s o o f p l a c e s o u t s i d e t h e c o u n t r y , s u c h as t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The l e a r n i n g s w i l l a l s o i n c l u d e t h e c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e l e a r n e r t o w a r d t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t . (2) L e a r n i n g s t h a t r e l a t e t o t h e p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s o f a g r i c u l t u r e . T h e s e l e a r n i n g s e m b r a c e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e c a s h c r o p s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t and t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f a g r i c u l t u r e t o s o c i a l s u r v i v a l a n d t h e e c o n o m i c g r o w t h o f t h e n a t i o n ( c f . p. 7 7 ) . ( 3 ) L e a r n i n g s t h a t r e l a t e t o t h e l i f e s t y l e s i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y ( p . 7 7 ) . T h i s l i s t i s n o t i n t e n d e d as e x h a u s t i v e . The i t e m s a r e e x a m p l e s o f what was o b s e r v e d i n t h e r e p o r t a s t h e a s p e c t s o f t h e s e c o n d a r e a o f g e n e r a l means - t h e s c i e n c e s and t h e i r e f f e c t s on t h e s o c i e t y - f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g . Man and I d e a s A b o u t V a l u e s A t h i r d a r e a o f means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g r e l a t i n g t o man and v a l u e s was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e r e p o r t . L i f e v a l u e s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h s u c h i d e a s as t h e " i d e a l , " t h e " t r u t h , " and t h e "Unknown." T h e s e i d e a s were s u g g e s t e d t o be i n s t i n c t i v e a s p i r a t i o n s o f human m i n d s . S c h o o l i n g s h o u l d f a c i l i t a t e t h e " s e a r c h f o r t h e i d e a l , t h e c o n s t a n t p r o b i n g o f t h e unknown, t h e s e e k i n g o f t r u t h . . . ( p . 7 7 ) . F o r t h i s a r e a o f means i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t s u c h l e a r n i n g s as p h i l o s o p h y , r e l i g i o n , a n d a e s t h e t i c s w e r e a p p r o p r i a t e ( p . 7 7 ) . 32 E S S E N T I A L ENDS AND MEANS A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n on Aims and O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o , t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n g u a g e s k i l l s i s t h e " m a j o r e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f a n y c u r r i c u l a r p u r p o s e " ( p . 9 1 ) . The C o m m i s s i o n a r g u e d t h a t l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n s s h o u l d i n c l u d e b o t h t h e E n g l i s h and t h e F r e n c h l a n g u a g e s b e c a u s e b o t h Canada a nd t h e p r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o a r e o f f i c i a l l y b i l i n g u a l . T o g e t h e r w i t h t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f l e a r n i n g s i n t h e s e two l a n g u a g e s , " s i m p l e m a t h e m a t i c s " s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h e e s s e n t i a l e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o ( p . 9 1 ) . S a m p l e s o f l e a r n i n g s recommended f o r t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e e s s e n t i a l e n d s w e r e : ( 1 ) L e a r n i n g s t h a t w i l l d e v e l o p i n t h e c h i l d an i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g a n d a d e s i r e t o want t o r e a d . ( 2 ) L e a r n i n g s t h a t w i l l a s s i s t t h e c h i l d t o e x p r e s s h i m s e l f i n t e l l i -g e n t l y a n d c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y . ( 3 ) S i m p l e k n o w l e d g e o f m a t h e m a t i c s . I t was recommended t h a t s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o q u a l i t a t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f b o t h r e a d i n g a n d s p e a k i n g s k i l l s . In t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g , more t i m e was e x p e c t e d t o be d e v o t e d t o q u a l i t a t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f r e a d i n g s k i l l s ( p . 8 1 ) . SUMMARY T h i s c h a p t e r has e x a m i n e d L i v i n g and L e a r n i n g , an e d u c a t i o n a l d o c u m e n t p r o d u c e d by t h e C o m m i t t e e on Aims a nd O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n 33 i n t h e s c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o . E s t a b l i s h e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t i n 1965, t h e c o m m i t t e e w r o t e t h e r e p o r t i n 1969. The c o m m i t t e e was e s t a b -l i s h e d t o o u t l i n e t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m f o r a l l t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n t h e p r o v i n c e and t o p r o p o s e means by w h i c h t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s m i g h t be a c h i e v e d i n t h e s c h o o l s . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e C o m m i t t e e ' s e n d o r s e m e n t o f t h e P r a g m a t i s t s 1 p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e , t h e doc u m e n t a d v o c a t e d t h a t t h e s c h o o l s i n O n t a r i o s h o u l d e d u c a t e " t h e w h o l e c h i l d " f o r l i f e i n t h e s o c i e t y . U s i n g s u c h m e t h o d s as p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , s u b m i s s i o n o f b r i e f s a n d p a p e r s , t h e c o m m i s s i o n s o u g h t f o r p u b l i c o p i n i o n s as t o how t h e w h o l e c h i l d m i g h t be e d u c a t e d i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o . B a s e d on t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e p u b l i c o p i n i o n s , t h e c o m m i s s i o n o u t l i n e d a s e t o f e d u c a t i o n a l e n d s and recommended a s e t o f means f o r t h e s c h o o l i n g o f t h e l e a r n e r i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o . Ends and means r e l a t i n g t o L a n g u a g e A r t s a n d s i m p l e M a t h e m a t i c s were recommended as t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g . CHAPTER F I V E ALBERTA T h i s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s , t h e document p r e p a r e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n A l b e r t a . W a l t e r H. W o r t h as a one-man C o m m i s s i o n p r e p a r e d t h e d o c u m e n t w h i c h came t o be known as "The W o r t h R e p o r t . " U s i n g F u t u r i s t i c S t u d i e s , t h e W o r t h C o m m i s s i o n c o n c l u d e d t h a t s o c i a l t r e n d s i n A l b e r t a c o u l d l e a d e i t h e r t o a P o l i c e - g a r r i s o n S t a t e o r t o a S e c o n d - p h a s e I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y . I f A l b e r t a n s were p r e p a r e d t o a l t e r t h e i r s o c i a l a n d v a l u e p e r s p e c t i v e s , h o w e v e r , t h e r e was a l i k e l i -h ood t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e c o u l d come t o e n j o y a p e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y . T h e C o m m i s s i o n b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s c h o o l s h o u l d be u s e d t o t h i s e n d . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e C o m m i s s i o n recommended v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s f o r d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f s c h o o l i n g w h i c h t h e C o m m i s s i o n b e l i e v e d c o u l d make t h e s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e f o r t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f a p e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y i n A l b e r t a . T h i s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s t h e way i n w h i c h t h e r e p o r t was p r e p a r e d , t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g , a nd t h e e n d s and means. A l t h o u g h t h e t e x t o f t h e r e p o r t p r o v i d e s l i t t l e d a t a f o r some o f t h e s e u n d e r t a k i n g s , i t s a p p e n d i c e s c o n t a i n many o f t h e d e t a i l s r e q u i r e d . ESTABLISHMENT OF INQUIRY The C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n P l a n n i n g "was e s t a b l i s h e d by O r d e r i n C o u n c i l i n 1969. . ." ( G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a , 1 9 6 9 : 3 0 4 ) . The m o s t 34 35 f u n d a m e n t a l t e r m o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e C o m m i s s i o n was i n d i c a t e d as an e n q u i r y " i n t o c u r r e n t s o c i a l a nd e c o n o m i c t r e n d s w i t h i n t h e P r o v i n c e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n a t u r e o f A l b e r t a s o c i e t y d u r i n g t h e n e x t two d e c a d e s " ( p . 3 0 4 ) . O t h e r t a s k s s u c h as t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , t h e s t u d y o f a l l l e v e l s o f s c h o o l i n g a n d t h e i r n e c e s s a r y a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e f u t u r e o f t h e p r o v i n c e , t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f b a s e s f o r p r i o r i t y j u d g e m e n t by t h e g o v e r n m e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c o u r s e o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e , were e x p e c t e d t o be c a r r i e d o u t by t h e c o m m i s s i o n ( p . 3 0 4 ) . PROCEDURES FOR INQUIRY The C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g was a one-man c o m m i s s i o n . Dr. W a l t e r W o r t h who was a V i c e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a i n 1969 was a p p o i n t e d c o m m i s s i o n e r . He o r g a n i z e d an e i g h t - m a n C o m m i s s i o n B o a r d f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t . The B o a r d was a s s i s t e d by 70 r e s e a r c h c o n s u l t a n t s drawn f r o m o t h e r C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c e s and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The c o n s u l t a n t s i n c l u d e d p e r s o n n e l f r o m t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n F o r E c o n o m i c C o - o p e r a t i o n and D e v e l o p m e n t (OECD) and UNESCO ( p p . 3 0 4 - 3 0 5 ) . Th e C o m m i s s i o n w o r k e d f r o m 1969-1972 and e n g a g e d i n " t h r e e i n t e r - r e l a t e d t y p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s " ( p . 3 0 4 ) . The t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d o u t by t h e C o m m i s s i o n were r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s , p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t , a n d c o r r e l a t i v e s t u d i e s . R e s e a r c h S t u d i e s T h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g e x a m i n e d numerous r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s p r o d u c e d by i n d i v i d u a l a u t h o r s , c o r p o r a t i o n s and C o m m i s s i o n s . A p p e n d i x C o f t h e r e p o r t ( p . 309) i n d i c a t e d f o r t y - f i v e s t u d i e s f r o m f o r t y -one s o u r c e s . A l a r g e number o f t h e s t u d i e s d e a l t w i t h f u t u r e - f o r e c a s t s . O t h e r s were s t u d i e s on t h e economy. I n p a r t i c u l a r , h o w e v e r , a l m o s t a l l 36 t h e s t u d i e s w e r e r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a . P u b l i c I n v o l v e m e n t P u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t was e x t e n s i v e . The C o m m i s s i o n r e c e i v e d s u b -m i s s i o n s f r o m 300 i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s and h e l d t h i r t y - s i x p u b l i c m e e t i n g s i n v o l v i n g more t h a n 5,000 p e r s o n s . The p u b l i c h e a r i n g s t o o k p l a c e i n e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f v a r i o u s l e v e l s i n t h e r u r a l and t h e u r b a n c e n t r e s o f t h e p r o v i n c e and i n I n d i a n r e s e r v a t i o n s . A " C o n g r e s s on t h e F u t u r e " i n E d u c a t i o n drew o v e r 1,500 p e o p l e ( p . 3 0 4 ) . C o r r e l a t i v e P r o j e c t s The C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g s p e n t e l e v e n o n e - d a y c o n f e r e n c e s t o d e l i b e r a t e on t h e s u b m i s s i o n s r e c e i v e d . An o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s o f t h e p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t was made. The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s were r e p o r t e d i n t h e s e c t i o n o f t h e d ocument e n t i t l e d "Tomorrow: F u t u r e -F o r e c a s t s . " The a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a w i l l be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n t h e d e c a d e s a h e a d i n v a r i o u s ways ( p p . I f f ) . The c h a n g e s f o r e s e e n t h a t w e r e i n d i c a t e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s a r e d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . Themes I d e n t i f i e d R e l i g i o u s v a l u e s . T h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n t h e d e c a d e s a h e a d , r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s and commitment t o t h e s e v a l u e s i n A l b e r t a w o u l d d e c l i n e . The d e c l i n e w o u l d be c a u s e d by c o n f l i c t -i n g i d e o l o g i e s a t " b o t h t h e p e r s o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l s . " I n d i v i d -u a l s w o u l d s e e k t o e x p r e s s t h e i r r e l i g i o u s i n c l i n a t i o n s " t h r o u g h s u c h m e d i a as m e d i t a t i o n , d r u g s and y o g a " ( p . 3 ) . M a r r i a g e and c h i l d - c a r e . T h e C o m m i s s i o n o b s e r v e d t h a t m a r r i a g e c o n t r a c t s w o u l d c e a s e t o be " b i n d i n g f o r c e s . " C h i l d - c a r e and p a r e n t a l 37 c o n c e r n f o r c h i l d r e n w o u l d "become t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a g e n t s o u t s i d e t h e home." R e l i g i o u s v a l u e s and a commitment t o m a r i t a l l i f e w o u l d d e c l i n e as a r e s u l t o f c o n f l i c t i n g i d e o l o g i e s a t b o t h t h e p e r s o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l s ( c f . p. 3 ) . W o r k - e t h i c s . Work e t h i c s w o u l d u n d e r g o c h a n g e s . I n d i v i d u a l s w o u l d s e e k p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t , s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , and l e i s u r e t h r o u g h h i g h l y p e r s o n a l w o r k - p a t t e r n s and i n t e r e s t s . Some p e o p l e w o u l d l o o k on work as a n o r m a l a s p e c t o f e x i s t e n c e and n o t as a n e c e s s i t y f o r s u r v i v a l ( c f . p. 3 ) . I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h i s a s p e c t o f l i f e " w o u l d become l e s s s t r u c t u r e d , w i t h l e s s i m p o r t a n c e a t t a c h e d t o t h e s u p e r i o r - s u b o r d i n a t e i n t e r a c t i o n . " The i m p o r t a n c e o f p e r s o n a l a p p e a r a n c e and s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r s w o u l d be " d o w n g r a d e d a s p e o p l e become more a t t u n e d t o d i v e r s i t y " ( c f . p. 4 ) . I n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S o c i a l u n r e s t w o u l d be n o t i c e a b l e among and b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s . " O p p o s i n g g r o u p s ( r i c h - p o o r , y o u n g - o l d , F r e n c h - E n g l i s h , r e d - w h i t e , m a n a g e m e n t - l a b o u r ) w i l l draw f u r t h e r a p a r t as t h e y a t t e m p t t o p r o m o t e t h e i r s p e c i a l and o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s " ( p . 4 ) . The G o v e r n m e n t . The G o v e r n m e n t w o u l d s e e k ways and means t o c o n t r o l t h e b e h a v i o u r s o f i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e powers o f i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p s i n o r d e r t o assume t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h o s e o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f m a r r i a g e w h i c h " h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n p r e s c r i b i n g and r e g u l a t i n g b e h a v i o u r s " ( p . 4 ) . 38 A l c o h o l and d r u g s . Some o f A l b e r t a ' s y o u n g p e o p l e w o u l d be i n c a p a c i t a t e d a n d e s t r a n g e d as a r e s u l t o f n o t b e i n g a b l e t o a c h i e v e t h e g o a l s t h e y w o u l d c o n s i d e r w o r t h w h i l e and t o c o p e w i t h t h e c h a n g e s t h e p r o v i n c e w o u l d u n d e r g o . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a number o f t h e y o u n g p e o p l e i n t h e p r o v i n c e w o u l d i n d u l g e i n t h e u s e o f a l c o h o l a n d d r u g s as m e a s u r e s f o r s o l v i n g t h e i r p r o b l e m s ( p . 4 ) . C o m m i s s i o n ' s F i n d i n g s C o n s i d e r i n g t h e s o c i a l t r e n d s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g a r g u e d t h a t t h e r e were t h r e e p o s s i b l e f u t u r e s f o r t h e p r o v i n c e . " I f t h e l e v e l o f d i s s i d e n c e a n d r e b e l l i o u s a c t i v i t y r i s e s , a n d w i t h i t t h e l e v e l o f c o u n t e r a c t i v e r e p r e s -s i o n , i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t we m i g h t move t o w a r d a P o l i c e o r G a r r i s o n S t a t e b y t h e l a s t d e c a d e o f t h e c e n t u r y " ( p . 2 6 ) . The C o m m i s s i o n a r g u e d t h a t A l b e r t a n s w o u l d n o t k n o w i n g l y s u p p o r t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a g a r r i s o n s t a t e . The o t h e r two a l t e r n a t i v e s w e r e t h e s e c o n d - p h a s e i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y a n d t h e p e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y . I n b o t h f o r e c a s t s i t i s assumed t h a t c e r t a i n m a j o r t r e n d s and d e v e l o p m e n t s a r e h e r e t o s t a y a t l e a s t f o r t h e n e a r f u t u r e . F o r e x a m p l e , a h i g h a n d a d v a n c i n g l e v e l o f t e c h n o l o g y , a h i g h l e v e l o f e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , a nd t h e c o n t i n u i n g c o n d u c t o f m o s t a c t i v i t i e s by l a r g e - s c a l e c e n t r a l i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s s e e n f o r b o t h t y p e s o f s o c i e t y ( p . 2 7 ) . T h e s e s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e two a l t e r n a t i v e f u t u r e s n o t w i t h -s t a n d i n g , t h e e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n them w e r e c r u c i a l as t h e y w ere t h e b a s i s f o r t h e p h i l o s o p h y f o r t h e s c h o o l i n g o f t h e c h i l d ( a s a d v a n c e d by t h e W o r t h C o m m i s s i o n ) . F i g u r e s 3 and 4, p a g e s 40 and 4 1 , show t h e e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s . 39 As shown i n t h e s e f i g u r e s , t h e s e c o n d - p h a s e i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y w o u l d be p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n s t i t u t i o n - c e n t r e d . " T h i s i s l i k e l y t o g i v e r i s e t o t h e g r o w t h and c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f power i n a b u r e a u c r a t i c a nd k n o w l e d g e -b a s e d e l i t e " ( p . 2 8 ) . As n o t i c e a b l e i n f i g u r e 3, t h e w e l f a r e o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n w o u l d be o f g r e a t c o n c e r n . The p e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y assumed a s i g n i f i c a n t b r e a k w i t h p a s t t r e n d . " I t v i e w s o u r p r e s e n t t i m e as a t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d t o a s o c i e t y d r a s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e p r e s e n t " ( p . 2 8 ) . W h i l e t h e e c o n o m i c g r o w t h o f t h e s o c i e t y w o u l d s t i l l d e p e n d on t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n s , a p e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y a ssumed t h a t p e o p l e i n p o s i t i o n s o f power and a u t h o r i t y w o u l d be more c o n c e r n e d a b o u t human r e q u i r e m e n t s . H a v i n g i n d i c a t e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two p l a u s i b l e a l t e r -n a t i v e s , t h e C o m m i s s i o n a r g u e d t h a t t h e c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n i n v o l v e d was a c h o i c e b e t w e e n t h e two. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n , " . . . i t c a n be a r g u e d t h a t t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f a s e c o n d - p h a s e i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y i s u n d e s i r a b l e " ( p . 3 3 ) . To make s u c h a c h o i c e was " s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e . " A s e c o n d - p h a s e i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y " . . . d o e s n o t s e r v e human n e e d s and w a n t s . " In s u c h a s o c i e t y , i n d i v i d u a l s " s p e n d t h e i r l i v e s f u r t h e r i n g t h e g o a l s o f c o n t i n u i n g e x p a n s i o n o f g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s , i n c r e a s e d l e v e l o f c o n s u m p t i o n a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e " ( p . 3 3 ) . The p e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y a l s o r e q u i r e s e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , a h i g h s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g o r a d v a n c e s i n t e c h n o l o g y . Much more s o , i t "does r e q u i r e t h a t t e c h n o l o g y and i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t be t u r n e d t o t h e s e r v i c e o f human n e e d s and w a n t s " ( p . 3 4 ) . In o r d e r t o a c h i e v e s u c h a s o c i e t y i n A l b e r t a , t h e f u t u r e s y s t e m o f e d u c a t i o n must be d e s i g n e d t o h e l p A l b e r t a n s make t h e c h o i c e ( p . 3 4 ) . FEATURES CHARACTERISTICS S e c o n d - P h a s e I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y P e r s o n - C e n t r e d S o c i e t y C e n t r a l V a l u e s and G o a l s E c o n o m i c A c t i v i t y T e c h n o l o g y D e c i s i o n -M a k i n g S t r u c t u r e s Work and L e i s u r e Dominance o f e c o n o m i c v a l u e s w h i c h l e a d t o g o a l s s u c h as c o n t i n u i n g e x p a n s i o n o f g o o d s , i n c r e a s e d c o n s u m p t i o n , w h i c h s u b o r d i n a t e s i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f i n d u s t r y and t e c h n o l o g y H i g h l e v e l o f e c o n o m i c g r o w t h - d i s t r i b u t i o n o f goods and s e r v i c e s b a s e d on p r i c e s y s t e m H i g h l e v e l o f t e c h n o l o g y w h i c h i s u s e d t o f u r t h e r r e q u i r e m e n t s o f i n d u s t r y C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f power, i n a h i g h l y p r o f e s s i o n a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e , w h i c h f o r m a n e t w o r k l i n k i n g a l l m a j o r . a g e n c i e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n s o c i e t y M a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between work and l e i s u r e w i t h more l e i s u r e f o r a l l e x c e p t t h o s e i n i m p o r t a n t t e c h n i c a l and m a n a g e r i a l p o s i t i o n s D o m i n a n c e o f p e r s o n - c e n t r e d v a l u e s w h i c h e m p h a s i z e t h e g o a l s o f i n d i v i d u a l f u l f i l l -ment and s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l s y s -tem t o human n e e d s H i g h l e v e l o f e c o n o m i c g r o w t h - d i s t r i b u t i o n b a s e d on human n e e d s and p r o v i s i o n o f e c o n o m i c s e c u r i t y H i g h l e v e l o f t e c h n o l o g y w h i c h i s i n f l u -e n c e d and d i r e c t e d by human and g l o b a l n e e d s E m p h a s i s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h more s h a r i n g o f power and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g among d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s i n s o c i e t y More l e i s u r e t i m e a nd a b l u r r i n g o f d i s t i n c t i o n s b etween w o r k , l e i s u r e , and e d u c a t i o n E d u c a t i o n S o c i a l P r o b l e m s Law E n f o r c e m e n t C o n t i n u e d s e g r e g a t i o n o f t h e e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m f r o m t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f s o c i e t y S t r o n g r e l i a n c e on b e h a v i o r c o n t r o l and b e h a v i o r - s h a p i n g a p p r o a c h e s t o e d u c a t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n o f s p e c i f i c v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s , c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f g r a d i n g and p r o v i s i o n o f c r e d e n t i a l s C o n t i n u a t i o n o f c u r r e n t p r o b l e m s o f a l i e n a t i o n , s o c i a l u n r e s t and c o n f l i c t b e tween g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y I n c r e a s e d c o n t r o l o v e r o v e r t e x p r e s s i o n s o f s o c i a l u n r e s t and c o n f l i c t a c c o m p a n i e d by w i d e - s p r e a d r e s i s t a n c e t o law e n f o r c e -ment i n s o c i e t y C e n t r a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n i n s o c i e t y as i t becomes a l i f e l o n g p r o c e s s and as t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t becomes a v a l i d one U t i l i z a t i o n o f new a p p r o a c h e s t o e d u c a -t i o n w h i c h e m p h a s i z e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s e l f - l e a r n i n g s k i l l s i n t h e p e r s o n and c r e a t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h f o s t e r s p o n t a n e o u s l e a r n i n g More d i v e r s i t y i n e d u c a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s t o g e t h e r w i t h l e s s e m p h a s i s on g r a d i n g , c r e d e n t i a l s I n c r e a s e d e f f o r t s t o s o l v e s o c i a l p r o b l e m s and g r e a t e r r e s p o n s e t o human n e e d s w i l l l e a d t o a d e c r e a s e i n s o c i a l p r o b l e m s More e q u a l a n d humane t r e a t m e n t o f c i t i -z e n s by law e n f o r c e m e n t a g e n c i e s w i l l h e l p d e c r e a s e s o c i a l t e n s i o n s F i g u r e 2: T h e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S e c o n d - P h a s e I n d u s t r i a l a n d P e r s o n - c e n t r e d S o c i e t i e s ( F r o m A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s , G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a , 1 9 7 2 : 3 1 ) . FOUNDATIONS S e c o n d - P h a s e I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y P e r s o n - C e n t r e d S o c i e t y The I n d i v i d u a l G o v e r n i n g v a l u e s L i f e g o a l s S o c i e t y V a l u e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y V a l u e s g o v e r n i n g t h e c o n d u c t o f a c t i v i t y V a l u e s g o v e r n i n g t h e e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s o f s o c i e t y D o m i n a n t g o a l s S e l f - c o n t r o l and s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e S e l f - a d v a n c e m e n t C o n f o r m i t y P u r i t a n i s m E m p h a s i s on n a r r o w i n t e r e s t s E n d u r a n c e o f s t r e s s A c q u i r e m e n t H i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e and a u t h o r i -t a r i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p s Work o r i e n t a t i o n I n d e p e n d e n c e C o m p e t i t i o n E d u c a t i o n f o r work A u t h o r i t a r i a n d e c i s i o n - m a k i ng P a r o c h i a l i s m E c o n o m i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e S e l f - d i s c o v e r y a n d s e l f -e x p r e s s i o n S e r v i c e t o o t h e r s I n d i v i d u a l i s m S e n s u a l i s m E m p h a s i s on w i d e i n t e r e s t s C a p a c i t y f o r j o y S e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t F l e x i b l e s t r u c t u r e s t h a t p r o m o t e e q u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s L e i s u r e o r i e n t a t i o n I n t e r d e p e n d e n c e C o o p e r a t i o n E d u c a t i o n f o r l i v i n g P a r t i c i p a t i o n - i n v o l v e m e n t G l o b a l v i l l a g e c o n c e p t Humanism, f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l T i m e p e r s p e c t i v e T r a d i t i o n o r i e n t e d F u t u r e - o r i e n t e d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n F o r m a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s G o a l s V a l u e s u n d e r l y i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e V a l u e s g o v e r n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s O r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s V a l u e s r e g a r d i n g r e s o u r c e s S e p a r a t e B u r e a u c r a t i c f o r m s C o m p e t i t i v e r e l a t i o n s R e s p o n s i v e t o c r i s i s S p e c i f i c m e a s u r e s R e q u i r i n g c o n s e n t S h o r t p l a n n i n g h o r i z o n S t a n d a r d i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n S e p a r a t e s e r v i c e s R e s o u r c e s r e g a r d e d as owned e x c l u s i v e l y L i n k e d F l e x i b l e f o r m s C o l l a b o r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s A n t i c i p a t i v e o f c r i s i s C o m p r e h e n s i v e m e a s u r e s R e q u i r i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n Long p l a n n i n g h o r i z o n I n n o v a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n C o o r d i n a t e d s e r v i c e s R e s o u r c e s r e g a r d e d a l s o as b e l o n g i n g t o s o c i e t y F i g u r e 3: T h e I m p l i c a t i o n s o f S e c o n d - P h a s e I n d u s t r i a l and P e r s o n - C e n t r e d S o c i e t i e s ( F r o m A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s , G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a , 1972:32 44 PHILOSOPHICAL BASES H a v i n g c o m p a r e d a s p e c t s o f t h e s e c o n d - p h a s e i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y w i t h t h o s e o f t h e p e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y , and h a v i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e f u t u r e s y s t e m o f e d u c a t i o n i n A l b e r t a must be d e s i g n e d t o h e l p A l b e r t a n s make t h e c h o i c e o f a p e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y , t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g o b s e r v e d : The v i s i o n o f t h i s new s o c i e t y c a n be r e a l i z e d . W h e t h e r o r n o t i t i s r e a l i z e d d e p e n d s upon t h e t r a n s f o r -m a t i o n o f v a l u e s . B u t a s e t o f v a l u e s i s b a s e d , i n t u r n , on a c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f man, h i s r e a l p o t e n t i a l s and t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e i r r e a l i z a t i o n . T h u s t h e c h o i c e b e t w e e n t h e two a l t e r n a t i v e f u t u r e s d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y i s a l s o a c h o i c e b e t w e e n two i m a g e s o f man ( p . 3 4 ) . T h i s e x c e r p t s u g g e s t s t h a t ' t h e n a t u r e o f man' was t h e p h i l o s o p h i -c a l b a s i s o f what t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g . To u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e n a t u r e o f man, t h e q u o t a t i o n must be r e l a t e d t o t h e a l t e r n a t i v e f u t u r e s o c i e t y - - a p e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y . The p a r a l l e l s u g g e s t s t h r e e e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g : ( 1 ) Man by n a t u r e has " p o t e n t i a l s , " w h i c h by n a t u r a l d e s i g n a r e t o be u s e d f o r t h e f o s t e r i n g o f human " v a l u e s . " The o v e r a r c h i n g g o a l o f t h e p e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y i s t h e c u l t i v a t i o n and e n r i c h m e n t o f human b e i n g s ( p . 2 8 ) . (2 ) The p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g human p o t e n t i a l s f o r t h e f o s t e r i n g o f human v a l u e s w o u l d be e n h a n c e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h e s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w o u l d p r o v i d e . (3) S o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s s u c h as t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be u s e d i n a s o c i e t y t o a s s i s t man t o l i v e a n d e x i s t n a t u r a l l y , a n d t o p r o v i d e man w i t h t h e 45 means o f u s i n g human p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r t h e f o s t e r i n g o f human v a l u e s . T h u s " t h e c h o i c e b e t w e e n two a l t e r n a t i v e f u t u r e s . " GENERAL ENDS In a m a j o r s e c t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t d e v o t e d t o " G e n e r a l G o a l s , " t h e W o r t h C o m m i s s i o n o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e new d i r e c t i o n s i n w h i c h m a n k i n d must move a r e n o t y e t f u l l y d e f i n e d . The c o m m i s s i o n a r g u e d t h a t t h e r e i s a common theme e v i d e n t i n t h e new d i r e c t i o n s , t h a t i s , a s e a r c h f o r more s a t i s f y i n g human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n t h i s r e g a r d t h e c o m m i s s i o n s t a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g : P e r s o n a l autonomy t o n u r t u r e g r o w t h t o w a r d s e l f h o o d and i n d i v i d u a l f r e e d o m . . . S o c i a l c o m p e t e n c e t o n u r t u r e t h e c a p a c i t y f o r s a t i s f y i n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s . . . E t h i c a l c o m p e t e n c e t o n u r t u r e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p e r s o n a l v a l u e s a n d s o c i a l c o n s c i e n c e . . . C r e a t i v e c a p a c i t y t o n u r t u r e t h e g r o w t h o f l e i s u r e a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and s k i l l s . . . C a r e e r p r o f i c i e n c y t o n u r t u r e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f and m a i n t e n a n c e o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c o m p e t e n c e . . . I n t e l l e c t u a l power t o n u r t u r e t h e u s e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d a e s t h e t i c a b i l i t i e s . . . ( p p . 4 6 - 4 8 ) . T h e s e g e n e r a l e n d s were i n t e n d e d as g u i d e s s o t h a t t h e s c h o o l s i n A l b e r t a may d e v e l o p i n t h e l e a r n e r t h e f a c t o r s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . Human P o t e n t i a l s A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g , t h e e l e m e n -t a r y s c h o o l s i n A l b e r t a s h o u l d a s s i s t t h e l e a r n e r t o a c q u i r e " p e r s o n a l autonomy" and " s e l f h o o d " ( p . 4 7 ) . In t h e a r e a o f p e r s o n a l autonomy, t h e 46 l e a r n e r was e x p e c t e d t o a c q u i r e t h e " c a p a c i t y o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g " w i t h r e g a r d t o " p e r s o n a l v a l u e s " and " s o c i a l c o n s c i e n c e . " The l e a r n e r s h o u l d d e v e l o p b o t h " e v a l u a t i v e " and " p r a c t i c a l " p e r s p e c t i v e s t o w a r d work: In t h e e v a l u a t i v e s e n s e e a c h i n d i v i d u a l s h o u l d be g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f r e s o l v i n g f o r h i m s e l f s u c h q u e s t i o n s as what work i s , i t s p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r him, i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e s o c i e t y and i t s r e l a t i o n t o l e i s u r e a n d t o r e c r e a t i o n ( p . 4 8 ) . In t h e a r e a o f s e l f h o o d t h e l e a r n e r w o u l d a c q u i r e c a p a c i t i e s f o r p e r s o n a l s t a b i l i t y s o as t o a v o i d e m o t i o n a l and p h y s i c a l d i s o r d e r s ( c f . p. 4 7 ) . Human C o m m u n i c a t i o n In t h e a r e a o f human c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s s h o u l d d e v e l o p t h e l e a r n e r ' s " i n t e l l e c t u a l power t o n u r t u r e t h e u s e and e x t e n s i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d a e s t h e t i c a b i l i t i e s " ( p . 4 8 ) . The s k i l l s o f i n q u i r y must be a c q u i r e d by t h e l e a r n e r . The a b i l i t y t o u s e t h e s k i l l s o f i n q u i r y i n t h i n k i n g and f o r a c q u i r i n g k n o w l e d g e s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d i n t h e l e a r n e r . The I n d i v i d u a l On t h e w h o l e , t h e a n a l y s i s o f A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s as t o t h e g e n -e r a l e n d s f o r s c h o o l i n g s e l e c t e d by t h e W o r t h C o m m i s s i o n showed t h a t t h e e n d s w e r e i n t e n d e d t o a s s i s t t h e c h i l d a s an i n d i v i d u a ! a c q u i r e s k i j l s , c o m p e t e n c i e s , a n d a t t i t u d e s i n t h e a r e a o f m o r a l s , e t h i c s , and l a n g u a g e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o p o i n t o u t t h e p r o b l e m p o s e d by t h e word ' i n d i v i d u a l . ' L e g i t i m a t e c a s e s c a n be made t h a t modern s o c i e t i e s h a v e c o n c e d e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l a l o t o f f r e e d o m and p e r s o n a l autonomy. I t 47 c o u l d a l s o be a r g u e d t h a t many o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f some modern d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t i e s h a v e t h e i r o r i g i n i n t h e f r e e d o m a nd t h e autonomy t h e i n d i v i d -u a l e n j o y s i n t h e s e s o c i e t i e s . One p o s s i b l e and r e a s o n a b l e c o n c l u s i o n f r o m t h i s a r g u m e n t w o u l d be t h a t , i n o r d e r t o s o l v e some o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f modern s o c i e t i e s ( s u c h as were r e f e r r e d t o by t h e Worth C o m m i s s i o n , c f . pp. 4 - 5 ) , t h e f r e e d o m a nd t h e autonomy o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l e n j o y e d i n m o s t modern d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t i e s s h o u l d be c u r t a i l e d . The i m p l i c i t m e a n i n g o f t h e ' i n d i v i d u a l ' i n t h i s a r g u m e n t i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e i m p l i c i t m e a n i n g o f t h e ' i n d i v i d u a l ' i n t h e Worth r e p o r t . The i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e a r g u m e n t i s an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c p e r s o n . T h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e Worth R e p o r t i s a human p e r s o n . The i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e a r g u m e n t i s e g o i s t i c , s e l f i s h , a n d o n l y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t h i s own w e l f a r e , e v e n a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e c o m f o r t and w e l f a r e o f o t h e r s . The i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e r e p o r t i s a m o r a l , e t h i c a l , a n d k n o w l e d g e a b l e p e r s o n . B u t t h e s c h o o l had f o r a l o n g t i m e been c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e i d e a l s i n h e r e n t i n t h e e n d s o u t l i n e d i n t h e W o r t h r e p o r t . The q u e s t i o n now i s , why had t h e s c h o o l f a i l e d ( o r why i s t h e s c h o o l f a i l i n g ) i n t h i s e n d e a v o u r ? The s c h o o l , a r g u e d t h e W o r t h C o m m i s s i o n , i s one o f many s o c i a l i n s t i t u -t i o n s o f a s o c i e t y . A c h i e v e m e n t i n b r i n g i n g a b o u t t h e s e i d e a l s i n a s o c i e t y r e q u i r e s t h a t o t h e r s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s be p o s i t i v e l y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e i d e a l s , and be m o r a l l y a nd e t h i c a l l y w i l l i n g t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r p e r p e t u a t i o n i n t h e s o c i e t y . GENERAL MEANS To e a c h l e v e l o f s c h o o l i n g t h e W o r t h C o m m i s s i o n a s s i g n e d s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s . F i g u r e 4, page 4 9 , i n d i c a t e s t h e s e a s s i g n m e n t s . W h i l e t h e f i g u r e d o e s n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y i n c l u d e t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l o f s c h o o l i n g , 48 i t i s l o g i c a l t o t h i n k t h a t t h i s l e v e l i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e l e v e l o f b a s i c e d u c a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e W o r t h C o m m i s s i o n , "The s t a g e o f b a s i c e d u c a -t i o n i s t h e one t h a t s e r v e s a l l c h i l d r e n and y o u t h s . In t h e m i n d o f m o s t A l b e r t a n s i t i s synonymous w i t h G r a d e s I t o X I I " ( p . 5 1 ) . In v i e w o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n , t h e s e c t i o n on t h e f u n c t i o n s o f b a s i c s c h o o l i n g was s e l e c t e d f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e g e n e r a l means f o r t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l o f s c h o o l i n g . A l t h o u g h t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t was e n t i t l e d " S p e c i f i c F u n c t i o n s , " t h e C o m m i s s i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e c o n t e n t s i n t h e s e c t i o n w e r e i n t e n d e d " t o a c h i e v e t h e s i x g e n e r a l g o a l s s e t o u t " i n t h e r e p o r t ( p . 5 0 ) . A c l o s e r e a d i n g o f t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t p e r m i t s t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s o f means. F u l l f l o w e r i n g o f e a c h p e r s o n . As shown i n F i g u r e 4, t h e f i r s t a r e a o f means f o r b a s i c e d u c a t i o n r e l a t e s t o l e a r n i n g s t h a t were e x p e c t e d t o a s s i s t t h e c h i l d t o d e v e l o p as an i n d i v i d u a l . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e W o r t h C o m m i s s i o n , i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n " i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e f u l l f l o w e r i n g o f e a c h p e r s o n " ( p . 5 2 ) . The C o m m i s s i o n d i d n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y i t e m i z e l e a r n i n g s f o r t h i s a r e a o f g e n e r a l means. However, a c e n t r e f o r t h e k i n d o f l e a r n i n g s t h a t t h e C o m m i s s i o n c o n s i d e r e d as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e r e a l i z a -t i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d p h i l o s o p h y f o r s c h o o l i n g - t h e human p e r s o n s -was e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n ( c f . p. 5 2 ) . Commitment t o m o r a l i t y . The e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e l e a r n i n g s t h a t w i l l a s s i s t t h e c h i l d t o be c o m m i t t e d t o m o r a l i t y ( p . 5 2 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n , m o r a l i t y i s g a i n e d when " m o r a l i d e a l s become a p a r t o f u s " and " a f f e c t and i m p r o v e o u r c o n d u c t " ( p . 4 0 ) . The l e a r n i n g s i n t e n d e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n f o r t h i s a r e a o f means were t h o s e t h a t w o u l d a s s i s t t h e c h i l d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n s o c i a l l i f e w i t h c o n c e r n f o r " p r o v i d i n g s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n w h i c h s u b s e q u e n t g e n e r a t i o n s c a n l i v e " ( p . 5 2 ) . LEVELS OF SCHOOLING EARLY BASIC HIGHER FURTHER S t i m u l a t i o n I d e n t i f i c a t i o n S o c i a l i z a t i o n I n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n P r e s e r v a t i o n A n t i c i p a t i on M o t i v a t i o n C a r e e r I n t e g r a t i o n D i s c o v e r y D e v e l o p m e n t C r i t i c i s m M o t i v a t i o n ^ E m a n c i p a t i o n C a r e e r I n t e g r a t i o n FUNCTIONS FUNCTIONS FUNCTIONS FUNCTIONS F i g u r e 4: F o u r S p e c i f i c C a t e g o r i e s o f F u n c t i o n f o r t h e S c h o o l s ( A d a p t e d f r o m A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s , G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a , 1972:49T 50 M e a n i n g t o p a t t e r n o f l i f e . As t o t h i s a r e a o f g e n e r a l means, t h e C o m m i s s i o n e x p e c t e d t h a t t h o s e t h i n g s t h a t w o u l d a s s i s t t h e l e a r n e r i n i m p r o v i n g h i s o r h e r a b i l i t y t o a d a p t t o c o n t i n u a l c h a n g e w o u l d be t a u g h t . The l i n k b e t w e e n " c o n t i n u a l c h a n g e i n t h e s o c i e t y " a nd "a t a r g e t t o w a r d w h i c h e a c h y o u n g p e r s o n moves" i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e . In r e a l i t y , i t i s n o t t h e s o c i e t y as s u c h t h a t c h a n g e s . The p a t t e r n o f l i f e w h i c h e a c h p e r s o n i s c o m m i t t e d t o i n t h e s o c i e t y c o n t r i b u t e s t o make t h e s o c i e t y w h a t e v e r i t becomes. The k i n d s o f l e a r n i n g s i n t e n d e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n f o r t h i s a r e a o f means were s u c h as w o u l d a f f e c t t h e l i f e o f t h e l e a r n e r s o a s t o h e l p him o r h e r t o c o n t r i b u t e m e a n i n g f u l l y t o l i f e i n t h e s o c i e t y ( p . 5 4 ) . E S S E N T I A L ENDS AND MEANS In t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t f o r t h e g e n e r a l e n d s f o r e l e m e n -t a r y s c h o o l i n g , i t e m e r g e d t h a t one o f t h e ends was i n t e n d e d f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f ' c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s ' ( p . 4 8 ) . In s e a r c h i n g t h e r e p o r t f o r t h e g e n e r a l means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g , i t a l s o e m e r g e d t h a t one o f t h e means w h i c h c o m p r i s e d l a n g u a g e s k i l l s and t h e s t r a t e g i e s f o r u s i n g t h e s k i l l s was recommended as e s s e n t i a l ( p . 5 5 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n A l b e r t a , "a c o r e " f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g s h o u l d be t h e m a s t e r y o f b a s i c s k i l l s a n d s t r a t e g i e s . T h e s e a r e t h e s k i l l s " . . . e s s e n t i a l f o r a l i f e o f l e a r n i n g " ( p . 5 5 ) . W h i l e i t was n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d i n t h e r e p o r t t h a t t h e a r e a o f ' c o m m u n i c a t i o n ' s h o u l d be an e s s e n t i a l e n d , t h e p a r a l l e l b e t w e e n t h i s a r e a o f e n d s and ' l a n g u a g e s k i l l s ' ( w h i c h were i n d i c a t e d by t h e c o m m i s s i o n as e s s e n t i a l means) p e r m i t s c o n s i d e r i n g t h e e n d s r e l a t i n g t o c o m m u n i c a t i o n as e s s e n t i a l e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g . 51 SUMMARY T h i s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e d A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s , a document on e d u c a -t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a . In 1969, t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a r e q u e s t e d t h e s e r v i c e s o f Dr. W a l t e r H. W o r t h t o i n q u i r e i n t o s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c t r e n d s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e t r e n d s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e . The r e p o r t a p p e a r e d i n 1972. Worth drew t o g e t h e r e x p e r t s and s p e c i a l i s t s (more t h a n o n e - h u n d r e d o f them) i n f u t u r e f o r e c a s t s , who h e l d p u b l i c w o r k s h o p s u s i n g t h e i r e x p e r t i s e among t h e p e o p l e who a t t e n d e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a w h i c h m i g h t h e l p them t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f u t u r e o f A l b e r t a . A n a l y z i n g t h e d a t a , t h e c o m m i s s i o n p r o p o s e d a s e t o f en d s a n d r e c o m -mended a s e t o f means f o r s c h o o l i n g i n A l b e r t a . Ends and means r e l a t i n g t o human c o m m u n i c a t i o n were recommended as e s s e n t i a l s . CHAPTER S I X B R I T I S H COLUMBIA T h i s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s f o u r p r i n c i p a l d a t a - s o u r c e s and c e r t a i n o t h e r c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t s p u b l i s h e d by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The p r i n c i p a l d a t a - s o u r c e s a r e as f o l l o w s : M i n i s t e r ' s P o l i c y S t a t e m e n t , What  S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? , A n a l y s i s o f and P u b l i c R e s p o n s e t o t h e  C o r e C u r r i c u l u m , and G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m . O t h e r s o u r c e s a r e i n d i c a t e d i n t h e t e x t o f t h e c h a p t e r . The p r i n c i p a l d a t a - s o u r c e s a r e b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d b e l o w . In e a r l y November, 1976, t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , t h e H o n o u r a b l e P a t r i c k L. M c G e e r , made a p u b l i c s t a t e m e n t i n w h i c h he a r g u e d t h a t t h e programme o f s t u d i e s i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s h o u l d f a l l i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : t h a t w h i c h must be l e a r n e d , t h a t w h i c h s h o u l d be l e a r n e d , and t h a t w h i c h may be l e a r n e d . The M i n i s t e r f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d i n t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h a t w h i c h must and s h o u l d be l e a r n e d w e r e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . What may be l e a r n e d was i n d i c a t e d t o be t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e t e a c h e r s and l o c a l t r u s t e e s . T h e M i n i s t e r a l s o a n n o u n c e d i n t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n was p r e p a r i n g o f f i c i a l s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t w h at t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s must a n d s h o u l d t e a c h i n t h e p r o v i n c e . In l a t e November, 1976, t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e l e a s e d What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? The d ocument c o n t a i n e d t h i r t e e n a r e a s o f e d u c a t i o n a l c o n c e r n s . I t was p r e s e n t e d t o 52 53 t h e p u b l i c a s a w o r k i n g p a p e r t o w a r d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f what t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e . By means o f r e a c t i o n s h e e t s a t t a c h e d t o e a c h c o p y o f t h e d o c u m e n t , t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n i n v i t e d comments and s u g g e s t i o n s a c r o s s t h e p r o v i n c e a b o u t t h e document. A s a m p l e o f t h e r e a c t i o n s h e e t i s shown b e l o w as F i g u r e 5 ( p a g e 5 4 ) . B o t t o m l e y and B a t e s ( 1 9 7 7) i n An A n a l y s i s d f and P u b l i c R e s p o n s e s  t o , t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m a n a l y s e d t h e p u b l i c r e s p o n s e s t o What S h o u l d Our  C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? T h i s d ocument was s u b t i t l e d "The R e p o r t t o t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , on t h e R e s p o n s e s t o t h e G o a l B o o k l e t . " B o t t o m l e y a n a l y s e d 13,584 r e s p o n s e s , u s i n g t h e t h i r t e e n g o a l s o u t l i n e d i n What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? t o d e c o d e t h e r e s p o n s e s B a t e s a n a l y s e d some two t h o u s a n d o t h e r r e s p o n s e s t h a t c o u l d n o t be d e c o d e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e g o a l s ( c f . A p p e n d i c e s I , I I and I I I ) . By S e p t e m b e r , 1977, t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a had r e l e a s e d t h e G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m as a f i n a l d o cument on what t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e . The M i n i s t r y o b s e r v e d i n t h e d o c u m e n t t h a t some a d j u s t m e n t has been made as a r e s u l t o f p u b l i c r e s p o n s e t o t h e p r o p o s e d g o a l s and l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s o u t l i n e d i n What  S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? ESTABLISHMENT OF INQUIRY In t h e p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t and a l s o i n t h e b o o k l e t e n t i t l e d What  S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? , t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t " T h e r e i s one p o i n t o f c o m p l e t e a g r e e m e n t w i t h i n t h e numerous d i v e r s e s u g g e s t i o n s I h a v e r e c e i v e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The c i t i z e n s o f t h i s p r o v -i n c e e x p e c t t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o t a k e a more p o s i t i v e r o l e i n d e f i n i n g what s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n o u r s c h o o l s . . . " ( p . 1 ) . 54 Check One PARENT 01 Please return to STUDENT 02 - t h e l o c a l D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s OR TEACHER 03 - C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t B r a n c h - M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n TRUSTEE 04 Room 213, 835 H u m b o l d t S t r e e t V i c t o r i a , B.C. OTHER 05 V8V 2Z6 1. I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g i n t h e b o o k l e t w h i c h y o u f e e l t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d r e c o n s i d e r ? 2. A r e t h e r e any a d d i t i o n s y o u w o u l d l i k e t o s e e t h e M i n i s t r y c o n s i d e r ? 3. Comments. F i g u r e 5: R e a c t i o n S h e e t t o t h e W o r k i n g P a p e r on C o r e C u r r i c u l u m ( F r o m What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n  Be L e a r n i n g ? , G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 6 : 3 1 ) . 55 Two r e a s o n a b l e i n f e r e n c e s c a n be made f r o m t h i s s t a t e m e n t . F i r s t , t h i s " E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f I n q u i r y " was r e a l l y a p o l i t i c a l p l a t f o r m i n s t a l l e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f p l a c a t i n g some s t r o n g e l e m e n t s i n t h e p r o v i n c e who p r o b a b l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o v o t i n g i n t o power t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t y t h e g o v e r n m e n t r e p r e s e n t e d . S e c o n d , i f t h e r o l e o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t had t o be "more p o s i -t i v e " t h e p r e v i o u s g o v e r n m e n t must have b e e n t h o u g h t t o h a v e a l l o w e d t o o much l a t i t u d e i n c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . PROCEDURES FOR INQUIRY W o r k i n g P a p e r The b o o k l e t , What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? , was p r e p a r e d as a w o r k i n g p a p e r by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n t o s t i m u l a t e p u b l i c r e s -p o n s e s t o i d e a s as t o what t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : T h i s b o o k l e t s u g g e s t s . t h e g o a l s o f t h e c o r e c u r r i c u l u m and t h e b a s i c s k i l l s and k n o w l e d g e a l l c h i l d r e n s h o u l d a c q u i r e . . . . A c c o r d i n g l y , I f e e l t h a t b e f o r e t h e g o a l s a r e f i n a l l y d e t e r m i n e d , t r u s t e e s , t e a c h e r s , and o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s s h o u l d have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s t h e p r o -p o s a l s o f t h e M i n i s t e r ( G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , . 1 9 7 6 : 1 ) . The r e l e a s e o f t h e w o r k i n g p a p e r g e n e r a t e d a l o t o f c o n t r o v e r s y . O p i n i o n s were d i v i d e d as t o t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n and t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e s u g g e s t e d g o a l s ( V a n c o u v e r S u n , A u g u s t 4, 1977 and A u g u s t 31, 1 9 7 7 ) . M organ and R o b i n s o n ( 1 9 7 6 ) v i e w e d t h e w o r k i n g p a p e r a s a move on t h e p a r t o f t h e M i n i s t e r t o keep a p r o m i s e made by t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y t o t h e e l e c t o r a t e d u r i n g t h e p r o v i n c i a l c a m p a i g n o f 1975. 56 A n a l y s e s o f R e s p o n s e s The a n a l y s e s o f t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e w o r k i n g p a p e r showed t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s i n c l u d e d p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , and o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s . The a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f t h e p u b l i c a c c e p t e d t h e t h i r t e e n g o a l s f o r s c h o o l i n g o u t l i n e d i n What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? Of t h e 13,584 r e s p o n d e n t s (who u s e d t h e r e a c t i o n s h e e t s ) , 9,372 o f them i n d i c a t e d t h a t none o f t h e t h i r t e e n g o a l s n e e d e d t o be r e c o n s i d e r e d ( c f . A p p e n d i x I , p . 1 1 5 ) . T h e r e were p e o p l e who r e s p o n d e d by o t h e r means o t h e r t h a n u s i n g t h e r e a c t i o n s h e e t s . R e g a r d i n g t h e c o r e o f t h e c u r r i c u -lum, a g r e a t number o f t h e s e p e o p l e f e l t t h a t a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e was a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e c o r e c u r r i c u l u m . M o s t o f them w e r e o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t F r e n c h was t h e o b v i o u s c h o i c e , as C a n a d a i s o f f i c i a l l y a b i l i n g u a l c o u n t r y . Among t h e same g r o u p o f r e s p o n d e n t s , some f e l t t h a t m u s i c s h o u l d be a p a r t o f t h e c o r e c u r r i c u l u m ; o t h e r s w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n . F i n a l D e c i s i o n s The f i n a l d e c i s i o n s on what t h e s c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s h o u l d be t e a c h i n g were p u b l i s h e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e i n 1 9 7 7 . i n t h e d o c u m e n t e n t i t l e d G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m . In t h e p u b l i c a t i o n , t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t " t h e g o a l s and t h e l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s " c o n t a i n e d i n t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n s "were r e v i s e d on t h e b a s i s o f p u b l i c a nd p r o f e s s i o n a l r e a c t i o n r e c e i v e d . " The r e v i s i o n d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e number o f g o a l s p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d i n What S h o u l d Our  C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? I t d i d , h o w e v e r , i n f l u e n c e w h at g o a l s were t o be c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l a nd how t h e t e a c h e r s m i g h t o r g a n i z e t h e v a r i o u s l e a r n i n g s i n t h e G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m . 57 In summary, t h e w h o l e p r o c e d u r e e n a b l e d t h e M i n i s t e r t o a c h i e v e h i s p u r p o s e i n a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e . M o r e o v e r , t h e H o n o u r a b l e P a t r i c k M c G e e r , t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , and h i s a s s o c i a t e s d e m o n s t r a t e d a q u a l i t y o f s t r o n g commitment t o a u t o c r a t i c l e a d e r s h i p . T h i s i s b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d when one r e v i e w s t h e s t a t e m e n t s e x p r e s s i n g s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n made by the' T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n and some e d u c a t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s a t t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e o f t h e w h o l e p r o c e d u r e . In a p u b l i c a t i o n by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n , A r e C o r e and PLAP Bad f o r C h i l d r e n ? , 1 A p r i l 27, 1977, t h e F e d e r a t i o n e x p r e s s e d an o p p o s i t i o n t o a c e n t r a l l y d e f i n e d c u r r i c u l u m w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e F e d e r a t i o n , f o r c e s t h e t e a c h e r s " t o become t e c h n i c i a n s . " B e s i d e t h i s t y p e o f r e a c t i o n f r o m t h e T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n , some e d u c a t i o n a l s c h o l a r s a l s o r e a c t e d i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e M i n i s t e r ' s p r o -p o s a l s . L a z e r s o n a n d G a s k e l l v i e w e d t h e M i n i s t e r ' s p r o p o s a l s as c o m i n g f r o m " . . . a f o x y g o v e r n m e n t t r y i n g t o h o o d w i n k p a r e n t s and r e i n i n t h e t e a c h e r s . . . " ( V a n c o u v e r S u n , M a r c h 6, 1 9 7 7 ) . T h e c o - a u t h o r s o f t h e a r t i c l e , T h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m : E x p e d i e n t P o l i t i c s ? o p i n e d t h a t "To a g r e a t e x t e n t t h e c o r e c u r r i c u l u m . . . i s a r e f o r m t h a t i s c h e a p and s o u n d s l i k e a m a j o r c h a n g e and i s a t t r a c t i v e p o l i t i c a l l y " ( V a n c o u v e r S u n , M a r c h 6, 1 9 7 7 ) . T h e D e p u t y M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , W a l t e r H a r d w i c k , r e s p o n d e d t o L a z e r s o n and G a s k e l l . He w r o t e : I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t some o f t h e c o m m e n t a t o r s l i k e U.B.C. e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s o r s M a r v i n L a z e r s o n a n d J a n e G a s k e l l h a v e n o t t a k e n t h e t r o u b l e , a s m i g h t be e x p e c t e d o f g o o d a c a d e m i c s , t o d e t e r m i n e e x a c t l y what i s g o i n g on b e f o r e b l o s s o m i n g i n t o p r i n t . Had t h e y d one s o , t h e y w o u l d have f o u n d o u t t h e 1. PLAP: P r o v i n c i a l L e a r n i n g A s s i s t i n g Programme. T h i s programme, i n s t i t u t e d s e p a r a t e l y f r o m t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m was s e e n by o p p o n e n t s as c l e a r l y l i n k e d t o i t and f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f c e n t r a l i z e d d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . 58 M i n i s t r y has s e v e r a l o f t h e i s s u e s t h e y r a i s e d w e l l i n • h a n d ( V a n c o u v e r S u n , M a r c h 19, 1 9 7 7 ) . Th e M i n i s t e r t o o k a f i r m s t a n d on what c o n s t i t u t e d t h e d o m a i n o f t h e M i n i s t r y ' s a u t h o r i t y a n d t h e e x p e c t e d c o n t r i b u t i o n s f r o m t h e l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s . W a l t e r H a r d w i c k p o i n t e d o u t : C o n t r o l o v e r e d u c a t i o n d o e s n o t r e s t w i t h t e a c h e r s o r p r o f e s s o r s o f e d u c a t i o n . T h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t o a d v o c a t e , t o recommend, t o d e v e l o p l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l and s t r a t e g i e s f o r l e a r n i n g - n o t t o d e c i d e what w i l l be t a u g h t . T h a t i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e p u b l i c ( W a l t e r H a r d w i c k , V a n c o u v e r S u n , M a r c h 19, 1 9 7 7 ) . PHILOSOPHICAL BASES In a l l t h e d o c u m e n t s s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r t h i s s t u d y , no s p e c i f i c s t a t e m e n t c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d r e l a t i n g t o t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e . The f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t f r o m What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be  L e a r n i n g ? h o w e v e r , p e r m i t s some i n f e r e n c e s : " I t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has a l e g a l r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y . . . t o p r o v i d e s c h o o l a c c o m m o d a t i o n t o a l l p u p i l s p r e s e n t e d who a r e o f s c h o o l a g e " ( p . 6 ) . The s t a t e m e n t s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e l e g a l r i g h t s o f t h e c h i l d who i s o f s c h o o l a g e i s a p r i n c i p l e t h a t e a c h c i t i z e n i n t h e p r o v i n c e w i l l h ave i n c l u d e d i n h i s o r h e r l i f e s t y l e . When a p r i n c i p l e becomes a p a r t o f l i f e s t y l e , i t m i g h t be s a i d t o amount t o a ' p h i l o s o p h y . ' T h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g t h a t c a n be d e d u c e d f r o m t h e s t a t e m e n t i s t h e l e g a l r i g h t o f t h e c h i l d t o p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 59 GENERAL ENDS Two s t a g e s o f s c h o o l i n g c o n s t i t u t e d t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l i n b o t h What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? and G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m 1 -t h e p r i m a r y s'tage f o r t h e l e a r n e r s a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e t o n i n e y e a r s a nd t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a g e f o r t h e l e a r n e r s a p p r o x i m a t e l y n i n e t o 13 y e a r s o f age. In b o t h o f t h e s e d o c u m e n t s , s i x a r e a s o f g e n e r a l e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g were i n d i c a t e d : (1) D e v e l o p m e n t o f l a n g u a g e c a p a b i l i t i e s . T h i s a r e a o f g e n e r a l e n d s i n c l u d e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , l i s t e n i n g and s p e a k i n g s k i l l s i n t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . ( 2 ) D e v e l o p m e n t o f m e a s u r e m e n t and c o m p u t i n g a b i l i t i e s . A s p e c t s o f t h i s a r e a o f g e n e r a l e n d s e n c o m p a s s e d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g and t h e p r a c t i c a l u s e f u l n e s s o f number s y s t e m s . (3) D e v e l o p m e n t o f a s c i e n t i f i c a p p r o a c h . T h i s i n c l u d e d t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e i n v a r i o u s s c i e n c e s "as r e l a t e d t o e v e r y d a y l i f e . " ( 4 ) K n o w l e d g e o f c u l t u r a l a n d p h y s i c a l h e r i t a g e . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h i s a r e a o f g e n e r a l e n d s , t h e l e a r n e r i s e x p e c t e d t o a c q u i r e k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e r i g h t s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e s o c i e t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e l e a r n e r was e x p e c t e d t o a c q u i r e some k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c u l t u r a l a n d g e o g r a p h i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a nd o f C a n a d a . C5) A n a l y t i c a l , r e s e a r c h , and p r o b l e m s o l v i n g s k i l l s . In t h i s a r e a o f g e n e r a l e n d s t h e l e a r n e r i s e x p e c t e d t o d e v e l o p s t u d y s k i l l s and s t r a t e g i e s f o r p r o b l e m s o l v i n g . 1. In t h e G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m , t h e g o v e r n m e n t e x p e c t e d t h e t e a c h e r s t o s e e k f o r more d e t a i l s a b o u t t h e en d s and means i n t h e " T e a c h e r s ' G u i d e s . " F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e d a t a b a s e f o r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e en d s and means i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s e x t e n d e d t o t h e s e s o u r c e s . 60 ( 6 ) H e a l t h f u l l i v i n g . T h i s a r e a o f g e n e r a l e n d s was i n t e n d e d f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f " l a r g e m u s c l e s w i t h p r o p o r t i o n a t e g a i n s i n h e i g h t a n d w e i g h t , " f o r t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f " e y e - h a n d c o - o r d i n a t i o n n o t f u l l y d e v e l o p e d " a n d f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s k i l l s " i n p l a y - l i f e a c t i v i t i e s " ( E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 5 : 1 5 ) . GENERAL MEANS In t h e G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m , t h e g e n e r a l means were s t a t e d i n t e r m s o f t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t s . Some g u i d e l i n e s were p r o v i d e d a s t o t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e s u b j e c t s t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e x p e c t e d s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s . R e f e r e n c e s w e r e made t o t h e T e a c h i n g S u b j e c t s G u i d e s f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t s . U s i n g t h e G u i d e t o t h e C o r e  C u r r i c u l u m , and some o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' g u i d e s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e d o c u m e n t , t h e f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s and l e a r n i n g s may be i d e n t i f i e d as g e n e r a l means: (1) L a n g u a g e a r t s . In t h e t e a c h i n g o f l a n g u a g e a r t s t o t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e a r n e r s , t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d e n a b l e t h e l e a r n e r t o a c q u i r e s k i l l s s u c h a s : ( i ) r e c e i v i n g t h e s p e a k e r ' s i d e a s a n d f e e l i n g s ; ( i i ) n o t i n g t h e i m p o r t a n t d e t a i l s a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; ( i i i ) a p p l y i n g t h e s p e a k e r ' s i d e a s t o h i s own e x p e r i e n c e s ; ( i v ) s h a r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ; ( v ) i n f l u e n c i n g o t h e r s t h r o u g h o r a l e x p r e s s i o n ; ( v i ) e n j o y m e n t by means o f o r a l e x p r e s s i o n ; 61 ( v i i ) a p p r e c i a t i o n by means o f o r a l e x p r e s s i o n ; ( v i i i ) b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f r e a d i n g , c o m p r e h e n s i o n , and w r i t i n g . ( C f . E l e m e n t a r y L a n g u a g e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e , G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 6 : 2 5 f f ) . (2) M a t h e m a t i c s . In t h e a r e a o f t h e t e a c h i n g o f m a t h e m a t i c s , t h e t e a c h e r s a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l o f s c h o o l i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e e x p e c t e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n t o a s s i s t t h e l e a r n e r t o a c q u i r e : ( i ) t h e c o n c e p t o f number t h r o u g h r e l a t i n g number s y m b o l s t o r e a l o b j e c t s ; ( i i ) a r e a d i n g a b i l i t y o f p l a c e v a l u e , and w r i t i n g a b i l i t y o f n u m e r a l s t o 999; ( i i i ) t h e r e c o g n i t i o n and t h e u s e o f s u c h s y m b o l s as t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d d i t i o n , s u b t r a c t i o n , m u l t i p l i c a t i o n , d i v i s i o n and money s y s t e m ; ( i v ) t h e a b i l i t y t o s o l v e a d d i t i o n and s u b t r a c t i o n e x a m p l e s o f two and t h r e e d i g i t n u mbers; ( v ) t h e a b i l i t y t o s o l v e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n and d i v i s i o n e x a m p l e s f o r p r o d u c t up t o 50. ( C f . G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m , G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 6 : 1 6 ) . (3) S c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n . T h e r e a r e t h r e e a r e a s o f l e a r n i n g s f o r s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n as i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c i e n c e : T e a c h e r s C u r r i c u l u m  I n t e r i m G u i d e , 1977: ( i ) L e a r n i n g s w h i c h a r e i n t e n d e d f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e l e a r n e r and a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e r o l e o f s c i e n c e i n human l i f e . ( i i ) L e a r n i n g s w h i c h a r e i n t e n d e d t o a s s i s t t h e l e a r n e r a c q u i r e s k i l l s f o r o b s e r v i n g , c l a s s i f y i n g a nd q u a n t i f y i n g p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s , l i q u i d s a nd f l u i d s . 62 ( i i i ) L e a r n i n g s i n t h e a r e a o f c o n c e p t s o f s c i e n t i f i c v o c a b u l a r y , t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n a n d o t h e r s u b j e c t s , some h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l -e d g e . ( C f . E l e m e n t a r y S c i e n c e : T e a c h e r s C u r r i c u l u m I n t e r i m , G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 7 : 4 - 9 ) . ( 3 ) S o c i a l S t u d i e s . The M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n e x p e c t e d t h e t e a c h e r s i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t o have p u p i l s l e a r n a b o u t : ( i ) F a m i l i e s : In t h e s t u d y o f f a m i l i e s , t h e l e a r n e r i s e x p e c t e d t o l e a r n a b o u t t h e r o l e s o f p a r e n t s , t h e d i f f e r e n t b e l i e f s among and b e t w e e n e t h n i c f a m i l i e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e , a n d a b o u t t h e r o l e s o f t h e c h i l d as a member o f a f a m i l y . ( i i ) ( a ) C o m m u n i t i e s : The c h i l d i s e x p e c t e d t o h a v e a c o n c e p t o f community s e t - u p s a n d some k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e v a r i o u s c o m m u n i t i e s o f t h e p r o v i n c e , (b) L e a r n i n g s t h a t w i l l draw t o g e t h e r t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e f a m i l y u n i t a n d t h e c o n c e p t o f a community. ( i i i ) E a r l y c u l t u r e s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a : T h e l e a r n i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s a r e a o f k n o w l e d g e s h o u l d a i d t h e l e a r n e r t o a c q u i r e t h e n o t i o n o f c u l t u r e and a s s i s t t h e l e a r n e r t o a c q u i r e a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r s o f t h e p e o p l e b e l o n g i n g t o t h e s e c u l t u r e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d p r o v i d e t h e l e a r n e r w i t h some o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o e x p l o r e s t u d i e s o f p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n t h i s a r e a o f l e a r n i n g s . ( i v ) The g r o w t h o f C a n a d a as a N a t i o n : In t h i s a r e a o f means, t h e l e a r n -e r i s e x p e c t e d t o a c q u i r e some k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e e a r l y s e t t l e r s on C a n a d i a n s o i l a n d a b o u t t h e h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e 63 c o u n t r y i n t o a n a t i o n . The c h i l d i s a l s o e x p e c t e d t o l e a r n a b o u t t h e m u l t i - c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f C a n a d a ( E l e m e n t a r y S o c i a l S t u d i e s : Y e a r s 1-7, G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 4 : l l f f ) . ( 5) H e a l t h and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . D r i l l s a n d t r a i n i n g w h i c h t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n e x p e c t e d t h e t e a c h e r t o t e a c h i n h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l e d u c a -t i o n s h o u l d d e v e l o p i n t h e c h i l d : ( i ) L a r g e m u s c l e s w i t h p r o p o r t i o n a t e g a i n s i n h e i g h t and w e i g h t . ( i i ) E y e - h a n d c o o r d i n a t i o n n o t f u l l y d e v e l o p e d . ( i i i ) Hand r h y t h m s , e x t r e m e l y c r e a t i v e and u n i n h i b i t e d . ( C f . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 5 : 1 5 ) . L e a r n i n g s , s u c h as a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n a r e s a m p l e s o f t h e g e n e r a l means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g o b s e r v e d i n t h e G u i d e t o t h e  C o r e C u r r i c u l u m and some o f t h e T e a c h e r s ' G u i d e s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e d o c u -ment. I t was n o t e d t h a t t h e r e were no l e a r n i n g s i n d i c a t e d f o r t h e g e n e r a l e n d s o f ' A n a l y t i c , R e s e a r c h , a n d P r o b l e m s o l v i n g s k i l l s . ' T he M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n i n d i c a t e d i n t h e G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m t h a t t h e r e q u i r e d l e a r n i n g s f o r a c h i e v i n g t h e s e e n d s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n l e a r n i n g s a n d i n t h o s e o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s . E S S E N T I A L ENDS AND MEANS In t h e b o o k l e t , What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? , L a n g u a g e A r t s a n d M a t h e m a t i c s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d l e a r n i n g s were i n d i c a t e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as t h e e s s e n -t i a l e n d s a nd means f o r e l e m e n t a r y p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n t h e p r o v i n c e s . H owever, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e o u t l i n e o f e n d s and means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n t h e G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m , i t i s n o t c l e a r t h a t o n l y 64 L a n g u a g e A r t s and M a t h e m a t i c s a r e t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f what t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . E a c h o f t h e t h i r t e e n s c h o o l s u b j e c t s i n t h e b o o k l e t was t r e a t e d i n t h r e e c o l u m n s e n t i t l e d : L e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s , M a j o r a r e a s o f L e a r n i n g s and O t h e r a r e a s o f D e v e l o p m e n t and M a i n t e n a n c e ( A p p e n d i x I I I , pp. 144-156 ) . I f t h e l e a r n i n g s d e a l t w i t h i n t h e s e c t i o n o f ' M a j o r a r e a s o f l e a r n i n g s ' a r e u n d e r s t o o d t o be t h e e s s e n t i a l l e a r n i n g s , by t h e t e a c h e r s o r by any r e a d e r o f t h e d o c u m e n t , and i f e a c h o f t h e t h i r t e e n s u b j e c t s has some o f i t s e l e m e n t s c l a s s i f i e d as m a j o r a r e a s o f l e a r n i n g s , i t f o l l o w s t h a t some a s p e c t s o f e a c h o f t h e s u b j e c t s a r e e s s e n t i a l . SUMMARY T h i s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e d f o u r d o c u m e n t s p u b l i s h e d by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1976 t o 1977. T h e s e d o c u m e n t s c o n -s t i t u t e d t h e p r e p a r a t o r y a n d t h e f i n a l s t a g e s on t h e p a r t o f t h e g o v e r n -ment t o d e f i n e what the^ s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e . T h e s e d a t a were e x t e n d e d t o t h e T e a c h e r s ' G u i d e s t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e s u b j e c t s s t i p u l a t e d i n them. F i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a t a p e r i o d i n t i m e when t h e p u b l i c e x p e c t e d a l i b e r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n a d o p t e d an a u t o -c r a t i c m e thod i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a b o u t what t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s s h o u l d t e a c h i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A l t h o u g h some g r o u p s o f p e o p l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y f r o m among t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s , p u b l i c l y d e n o u n c e d t h e M i n i s t e r ' s d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e d u r e s , t h e M i n i s t e r i n s i s t e d on what c o n s t i t u t e d h i s a u t h o r i t y a n d t h e e x p e c t e d r o l e s o f t h e p r o -f e s s i o n a l s . T h e d o c u m e n t s showed e v i d e n c e o f s p e c i f i c e n d s a n d means f o r s c h o o l i n g . The s p e c i f i c i t y o f t h e e n d s and means ( d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e 65 g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s o b s e r v e d i n t h e O n t a r i o and A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t s ) , may be a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e d u r e s u s e d by t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e i n What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be  L e a r n i n g ? t h a t t h e M i n i s t e r i n t e n d e d L a n g u a g e A r t s and M a t h e m a t i c s t o be t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f t h e c o n t e n t s o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g , t h e f i n a l r e p o r t , G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m d i d n o t c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h i s i n t e n t i o n . CHAPTER SEVEN COMPARISONS T h i s c h a p t e r r e v i e w s t h e f i n d i n g s p r e s e n t e d i n c h a p t e r s f o u r , f i v e , a nd s i x and makes c o m p a r i s o n s among them. The c o m p a r i s o n s a r e made and d i s c u s s e d u n d e r h e a d i n g s w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d t o t h o s e u s e d i n c h a p t e r s f o u r , f i v e , a nd s i x . THE ESTABLISHMENT OF INQUIRY From t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s , i t a p p e a r s t h a t i n q u i r i e s a b o u t what t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g may be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r two r e a s o n s : ( 1 ) e d u c a t i o n a l and (2) p o l i t i c a l . E d u c a t i o n a l R e a s o n s An e x a m i n a t i o n o f a l l t h r e e d o c u m e n t s r e v e a l s a common a s p e c t as t o why t h e y were p u b l i s h e d . E a c h p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t t h o u g h t i t was a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l s be d e f i n e d i n t e r m s o f t h e p u r p o s e s t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d s e e k and t h e c o n t e n t t h e y s h o u l d t e a c h . T h u s t h e P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i t t e e on Aims and O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o was e s t a b l i s h e d " t o o u t l i n e t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o r c h i l d r e n " a t t h e " K i n d e r g a r t e n , P r i m a r y , and J u n i o r D i v i s i o n s " and " t o p r o p o s e means by w h i c h t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s may be a c h i e v e d " ( p . 4 ) . 1 T h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n A l b e r t a 1. The p a ge numbers u s e d as r e f e r e n c e s i n t h i s c h a p t e r r e f e r t o t h e s a m p l e d o c u m e n t s e x a m i n e d i n c h a p t e r s f o u r , f i v e , a nd s i x . In t h e c a s e o f O n t a r i o , t h e d o c u m e n t i s " L i v i n g and L e a r n i n g . " In t h e c a s e o f A l b e r t a , t h e numbers r e f e r t o "A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s . " B e c a u s e more t h a n one d o c u m e n t was e x a m i n e d i n c h a p t e r s i x , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s r e f e r r e d t o w i l l be named. 66 67 was e s t a b l i s h e d t o " s t u d y a l l l e v e l s o f s c h o o l i n g and t h e i r n e c e s s a r y a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e f u t u r e o f t h e p r o v i n c e " and t o p r o v i d e " b a s e s f o r P r i o r i t y by t h e g o v e r n m e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c o u r s e o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e " ( p . 3 0 4 ) . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s d i d n o t i n d i -c a t e c l e a r - c u t e d u c a t i o n a l r e a s o n s . T h e d o c u m e n t s somehow i m p l i e d a p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n w h i c h i s d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . However, t h e n e e d t o r e d e f i n e t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l s i n e a c h s o c i e t y a p p e a r e d d i f f e r e n t l y i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e p r o v i n c e s . In O n t a r i o , r e f o r m i n g t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m was a p p a r e n t l y i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e t h e e x i s t i n g c u r r i c u l u m , a t t h e t i m e t h e C o m m i t t e e on Aims and O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o was e s t a b l i s h e d , d i d n o t seem t o be o f t h e t y p e t h a t w o u l d p e r m i t t h e s c h o o l s t o r e s p o n d t o t h e i r r o l e i n t h e s o c i e t y ( p . 4 ) . S i m i l a r r e a s o n f o r d e f i n i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l s was i n d i c a t e d by t h e r e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g . The r e p o r t showed t h a t s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f s c h o o l i n g w h i c h w o u l d m e e t t h e " s o c i a l a nd e c o n o m i c t r e n d s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e d u r i n g t h e n e x t two d e c a d e s " was n e e d e d ( p . 3 0 4 ) . The e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d t o d e f i n e t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e n e e d s o f O n t a r i o and A l b e r t a . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , on what c o n s t i t u t e d t h e d o m a i n o f M i n i s t e r ' s a u t h o r i t y a b o u t what t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e , i t i s t h e p r e r o g a -t i v e o f t h e M i n i s t e r t o d e f i n e t h e r o l e o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . In t h e " M i n i s t e r ' s S t a t e m e n t , " 1976, t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n d i c a t e d t h a t he was e x e r c i s i n g t h i s a u t h o r i t y t o d e f i n e t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l s i n t h e p r o v i n c e ( p . 1 ) . 68 P o l i t i c a l R e a s o n s The M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p o i n t e d o u t i n What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? ( 1 9 7 6 ) t h a t t h e r e was one p o i n t o f c o m p l e t e a g r e e m e n t w i t h i n t h e numerous and d i v e r s e s u g g e s t i o n s he had r e c e i v e d . T h e p o i n t o f a g r e e m e n t was t h a t t h e c i t i z e n s o f t h e p r o v i n c e e x p e c t e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o t a k e a more p o s i t i v e r o l e i n d e f i n i n g what s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s ( p . 1 ) . By i n f e r -e n c e , t h i s s t a t e m e n t has a p o l i t i c a l o v e r t o n e b e c a u s e i t p r o m p t s s u c h q u e s t i o n s a s : ( 1 ) Who were t h e p e o p l e who made t h e s u g g e s t i o n s ? ( 2 ) Were t h e y t h e t y p e o f p e o p l e t o whom p r o m i s e s had been made by t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t y t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d ? (3) Were t h e p e o p l e t h e t y p e who w e r e d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y o f a p r e v i o u s g o v e r n m e n t and were t r y i n g t o l a y p r e s s u r e on a new g o v e r n m e n t t o a c h i e v e t h e i r own p e r s o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l i d e o l o g i e s ? ( 4 ) Were t h e p e o p l e g e n u i n e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l s as i t may be b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e s o c i e t y a t l a r g e ? P o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s a r e n o t e v i d e n t i n t h e O n t a r i o and A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t s . PROCEDURES FOR INQUIRY The p r o c e d u r e s u s e d f o r i n q u i r i e s by t h e t h r e e p r o v i n c e s o f O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were s t r u c t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t . A l t h o u g h t h e s e e k i n g o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n s o c c u r r e d i n e a c h c a s e , t h i s c o m m o n a l i t y i s p e r h a p s l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e way e a c h o f t h e i n q u i r i e s s e t o u t a b o u t i n v o l v i n g t h e p u b l i c . 69 The i n q u i r y was c o n d u c t e d i n O n t a r i o by a t w e n t y - f o u r man Commis-s i o n , c o - c h a i r e d by Mr. J u s t i c e E.H. H a l l a nd Mr. L.A. D e n n i s . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t a good number o f t h e members o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n were p e o p l e who were i n v o l v e d i n v a r i o u s ways w i t h e d u c a t i o n ( p . 6 ) . In A l b e r t a , t h e i n q u i r y was h a n d l e d by one-man C o m m i s s i o n e r , i n t h e p e r s o n o f Dr. W a l t e r W o r t h . The C o m m i s s i o n e r o r g a n i z e d an e i g h t - m a n C o m m i s s i o n B o a r d . The B o a r d drew more t h a n one h u n d r e d e x p e r t c o n s u l t a n t s f r o m s e v e r a l p r o v i n c e s o f C a n a d a and f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( p p . 3 0 5 - 3 0 8 ) . T h e s e c o n s u l t a n t s were m o s t l y a c a d e m i c p e o p l e who s p e c i a l i z e d i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s o f f u t u r i s t i c s t u d i e s ( p p . 3 0 5 - 3 0 8 ) . In t h e c a s e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e g o v e r n m e n t i n i t i a t e d a n d m o n i t o r e d t h e i n q u i r y i t s e l f , w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e o u t s i d e a s s i s t a n c e a c k n o w l e d g e d i n t h e d o c u m e n t s . The s e r v i c e s o f two a n a l y s t s , J . B o t t o m l e y and P a t B a t e s , were u s e d t o d e c o d e a work-i n g p a p e r ( c f . A p p e n d i c e s I and I I ) . A l t h o u g h t h e a g e n t t h a t c o n d u c t e d t h e i n q u i r y i n e a c h o f t h e p r o v i n c e s s o u g h t p u b l i c o p i n i o n as t o what t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g , t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e p u b l i c was i n v o l v e d was d i f f e r e n t . The key d i f f e r e n c e s seem t o be b e t w e e n O n t a r i o and A l b e r t a , on t h e one h a n d , and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , on t h e o t h e r hand. The i n q u i r i e s i n O n t a r i o and A l b e r t a s o u g h t p u b l i c o p i n i o n b e f o r e m a k i n g a s e l e c t i o n o f what s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n t h e s c h o o l s o f t h e p r o v i n c e s . B o t h t h e s e i n q u i r i e s u s e d s i m i l a r a p p r o a c h e s t o r e a c h and i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c . S u c h m ethods a s p u b l i c meet-i n g s , p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , p u b l i c c o n f e r e n c e s , s u b m i s s i o n o f b r i e f s and p a p e r s were u s e d . A s e t o f m a t e r i a l s was t h e n o u t l i n e d as a g u i d e l i n e f o r what t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e s ( G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o , 1969, pp. 2 3 , 75; G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a , 1972, pp. 3 0 4 - 3 0 5 ) . In t h e B r i t i s h 70 C o l u m b i a c a s e , p u b l i c o p i n i o n was s o u g h t f o l l o w i n g an i n i t i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f what t h e G o v e r n m e n t saw as a p p r o p r i a t e : What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be  L e a r n i n g ? C a l l i n g t h e p r o p o s a l a w o r k i n g p a p e r , t h e g o v e r n m e n t s o u g h t t h e comments o f t h e p u b l i c by means o f r e a c t i o n s h e e t s . The p u b l i c r e a c t i o n s t o t h e w o r k i n g p a p e r were a n a l y z e d ( c f . A p p e n d i c e s I and I I ) . The a n a l y s i s was f o l l o w e d by a f i n a l s e t o f m a t e r i a l s as what s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . ' A c c o r d i n g t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t , t h e f i n a l d o c u m e n t , G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m , was w r i t t e n i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p u b l i c ' s d e s i r e as i n d i c a t e d by t h e a n a l y s i s . PHILOSOPHICAL BASES E a c h o f t h e r e p o r t s f r o m O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n d i c a t e d t h a t s c h o o l i n g s h o u l d be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h i l d . What may be i n f e r r e d as t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s f o r t h i s i n e a c h r e p o r t i s d i f f e r e n t . T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e s , i n t u r n , seem t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t v i e w s o f t h e c h i l d w h i c h may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e r e p o r t s . In t h e c a s e o f O n t a r i o , p r e s u m a b l y , b e f o r e t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f i n v o l v i n g t h e p u b l i c i n t h e i n q u i r y , t h e C o m m i s s i o n on Aims and O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o e x a m i n e d v a r i o u s v i e w s on p h i l o s -o p h i e s o f e d u c a t i o n ( p . 6 8 ) . The P r a g m a t i s t s ' v i e w w h i c h e n c o u r a g e s t h a t t h e c h i l d s h o u l d be e d u c a t e d f o r l i f e i n t h e s o c i e t y was c o n s i d e r e d f o r a d o p t i o n i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m o f O n t a r i o ( p . 6 8 ) . E v i d e n t l y , t h e C o m m i s s i o n recommended t h a t s c h o o l i n g i n O n t a r i o s h o u l d be b a s e d on t h i s v i e w ( p . 2 3 ) . T h u s , t h e O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t seems t o have s e e n t h e c h i l d as an i n d i v i d u a l whose d e v e l o p m e n t i s c o n t i n u a l l y b e i n g a f f e c t e d by t h e o n g o i n g c h a n g e s i n t h e s o c i e t y ( p . 2 3 ) . 71 In t h e c a s e o f A l b e r t a , a p p a r e n t l y , t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f t h e i n q u i r y were d e v o t e d t o e l a b o r a t e r e s e a r c h on t h e e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l f u t u r e o f A l b e r t a i n t h e n e x t t w e n t y y e a r s ( p p . 3 0 9 - 3 1 0 ) . From t h e v i e w -p o i n t o f t h e r e s e a r c h , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e C o m m i t t e e on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n A l b e r t a , t h e p r o v i n c e i n 1972 was u n d e r g o i n g t h e f i r s t p h a s e o f an i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s u c h s o c i a l p r o b l e m s as p o v e r t y , t e n s i o n b e t w e e n v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , and s o c i a l u n r e s t . Two a l t e r n a t i v e f u t u r e s were p r e d i c t e d - - t h e s e c o n d - p h a s e i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y and t h e p e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y ( p p . 2 6 - 2 7 ) . I f A l b e r t a n s c o n t i n u e d t o l i v e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e i r v a l u e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f 1972, t h i s m i g h t l e a d t o a s e c o n d - p h a s e i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . In a s e c o n d - p h a s e i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , h o w e v e r , t h e s o c i a l p r o b l e m s o f t h e f i r s t p h a s e w o u l d c o n t i n u e . I f A l b e r t a n s were p r e p a r e d t o c h a n g e t h e i r v a l u e p e r s p e c t i v e s , t h e p r o v i n c e m i g h t become a p e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y i n w h i c h human r e l a t i o n s h i p s m i g h t i m p r o v e ( p p . 2 8 - 2 9 ) . In t h i s r e g a r d , t h e C o m m i t t e e r a t i o n a l i z e d and recommended t h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be u s e d t o b r i n g a b o u t a p e r s o n -c e n t r e d s o c i e t y i n A l b e r t a ( p p . 3 3 - 3 6 ) . In t h i s r e g a r d , t h e v i e w o f t h e s c h o o l i n t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t , may be s e e n as t h a t o f t h e S o c i a l R e c o n -s t r u c t ! ' o n i s t s . The u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c h i l d i n t h e r e p o r t a p p e a r s b a s e d on t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e c h i l d as an i n d i v i d u a l whose d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d l e a d t o r e s p o n s i b l e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g w h i c h w i l l a f f e c t h i m s e l f and o t h e r s . T h e r e i s no s u b s t a n t i v e e v i d e n c e i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s w h i c h may p e r m i t any i n f e r e n c e o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e s f o r what t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e . The d o c u m e n t s , h o w e v e r , m i g h t be s a i d t o v i e w t h e c h i l d as one whose e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s s h o u l d be a s s e s s e d by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s c h a r g e d w i t h t h e g o v e r n a n c e o f t h e p r o c e s s o f e d u c a t i o n . 72 In h i s P o l i c y S t a t e m e n t , t h e H o n o u r a b l e P a t r i c k L. M c G e e r , t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i n 1976 a n n o u n c e d t h a t w h at t h e c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be l e a r n i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e f e l l u n d e r t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : " t h a t w h i c h must be l e a r n e d , t h a t w h i c h s h o u l d be l e a r n e d , and t h a t w h i c h may be l e a r n e d . " A c c o r d i n g t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , t h e "must" and t h e " s h o u l d " o f t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m was t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . What may be l e a r n e d was i n d i c a t e d t o be t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e l o c a l s c h o o l b o a r d s a nd t h e t e a c h e r s . The v i e w o f t h e c h i l d d e p i c t e d by e a c h o f t h e t h r e e r e p o r t s , d i f f e r e n t as t h e y a r e f r o m one a n o t h e r , m i g h t g e n e r a t e d i f f e r e n t emphases w i t h i n t h e e n d s and means f o r s c h o o l i n g i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e p r o v i n c e s . H o w ever, i m p l i c i t i n a l l t h r e e d o c u m e n t s i s t h e n e e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m has t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r e p a r i n g t h e y o u n g t o become c o n t r i b u t i n g a d u l t s i n t h e s o c i e t y . The b e s t way o f d o i n g so v a r i e s i n p a r t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o c u s p l a c e d on who has t h e r i g h t t o d e c i d e . The d i f f e r e n c e a l r e a d y s e e n i n t h e n a t u r e a nd t i m i n g o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i n q u i r y i s p r o b a b l y one r e f l e c t i o n o f t h i s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e b e s t way t o f u l f i l t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a l s o v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r i n c i p l e u s e d t o f o r m u l a t e a p h i l o s o p h y o f s c h o o l i n g and t h e v i e w o f t h e c h i l d i m p l i e d by t h i s p h i l o s o p h y . GENERAL ENDS The g e n e r a l e n d s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s numbered f o u r f o r O n t a r i o , s i x f o r A l b e r t a , and s i x f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . In o r d e r t o s e e how much o v e r l a p e x i s t s between t h e t h r e e d a t a s o u r c e s , t h e s e s i x t e e n g e n e r a l e n d s a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 1, page 72. 73 TABLE 1: THE I D E N T I F I C A T I O N OF GENERAL ENDS IN THE THREE SOURCE DOCUMENTS GENERAL ENDS ONT. ALTA. B.C. 1. E n s u r i n g t h a t t h e c h i l d a c q u i r e s t h e b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s f o r e d u c a t i o n . T h i s i n c l u d e s t h e m e n t a l a nd p h y s i c a l h e a l t h o f t h e c h i l d and t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e e s s e n t i a l s k i l l s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . X 2. H e l p i n g t h e c h i l d t o d e v e l o p d e s i r a b l e s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s , a n d a c q u i r e d e s i r a b l e a b i l i t i e s s o t h a t t h e c h i l d f e e l s s e c u r e a n d a d e q u a t e " w i t h i n h i m s e l f " and " w i t h i n h i s w o r l d . " X 3. E d u c a t i n g t h e c h i l d i n e t h i c a l v a l u e s a n d e n s u r i n g h i s m o r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . X 4. M e e t i n g t h e n e e d s and t h e e x p r e s s e d d e s i r e s o f t h e c h i l d . X 5. P e r s o n a l autonomy t o n u r t u r e g r o w t h t o w a r d s e l f h o o d and i n d i v i d u a l f r e e d o m . X 6. S o c i a l c o m p e t e n c e t o n u r t u r e t h e c a p a c i t y f o r s a t i s f y i n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s . X 7. E t h i c a l c o m p e t e n c e t o n u r t u r e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p e r s o n a l v a l u e s a n d s o c i a l c o n s c i e n c e . X 8. C r e a t i v e c a p a c i t y t o n u r t u r e t h e g r o w t h o f l e i s u r e a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and s k i l l s . X 9. C a r e e r p r o f i c i e n c y t o n u r t u r e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f and t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c o m p e t e n c e . X 10. I n t e l l e c t u a l power t o n u r t u r e t h e u s e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l and a e s t h e t i c a b i l i t i e s . X 11. D e v e l o p m e n t o f l a n g u a g e c a p a b i l i t i e s . X 12. D e v e l o p m e n t o f m e a s u r e m e n t a n d c o m p u t i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s . X 13. D e v e l o p m e n t o f a s c i e n t i f i c a p p r o a c h . X 14. A c q u i s i t i o n o f c u l t u r a l and p h y s i c a l h e r i t a g e . X 15. A c q u i s i t i o n o f a n a l y t i c a l , r e s e a r c h , a n d p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s . X 16. A c q u i s i t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e and h e a l t h f u l l i v i n g . X 74 The t a b l e l i s t s t h e g e n e r a l e n d s i d e n t i f i e d i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s . F o r c a s e o f r e f e r e n c e , e a c h g e n e r a l end i s a s s i g n e d a s e r i a l number f r o m 1 t o 16. E a c h i s a l s o m a r k e d 'x' i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p r o v i n c i a l c o l u m n t o i n d i c a t e i n w h i c h o f t h e t h r e e d o c u m e n t s i t i s t o be f o u n d . The w o r d i n g o f t h e f i r s t g r o u p o f e n d s i s e d i t e d f o r b r e v i t y f r o m t h e way t h e e n d s were s t a t e d i n t h e O n t a r i o d o c u m ent. E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e e d i t e d s t a t e m e n t s r e p r e s e n t t h e o r i g i n a l s ( p . 2 7 ) . A l l t h e A l b e r t a e n d s r e t a i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l f o r m ( p p . 4 6 - 4 8 ) , and s o do t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e n d s (What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ) . T h e s t a t e m e n t s o f e n d s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1 v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o two a s p e c t s : t h e b r o a d n e s s o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s and t h e c l a r i t y o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s f o r w h i c h t h e y a r e i n t e n d e d . Items 1, 2, and 3 ( O n t a r i o i t e m s ) may be s e e n as s a m p l e s o f v e r y b r o a d s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e s e n s e t h a t e a c h o f t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s c o n t a i n s a t l e a s t two o r more d e s i r a b l e p u r p o s e s t h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d s e e k . The d e s i r a b l e p u r p o s e s f o r w h i c h t h e s e i t e m s a r e i n t e n d e d seem t o be c l e a r e n o u g h i n t h e s e n s e t h a t an e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i t i o n e r may w i t h o u t much p r o b l e m u n d e r s t a n d them. It e m 4 ( a n O n t a r i o i t e m ) and i t e m s 5 t o 10 ( A l b e r t a i t e m s ) may be s e e n as s a m p l e s o f b r o a d s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s do n o t c o m b i n e as many e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s as t e n d s t o be t h e c a s e w i t h t h e v e r y b r o a d s t a t e m e n t s . The e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s f o r w h i c h some o f t h e b r o a d s t a t e m e n t s a r e i n t e n d e d seem t o be c l e a r e n o u g h ( A l b e r t a , i t e m s 7, 8, and 9 ) . In t h e c a s e s o f O n t a r i o i t e m 4 a n d A l b e r t a i t e m s 5, 6, and 10, i t seems d i f f i c u l t t o c l e a r l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s f o r w h i c h t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s a r e i n t e n d e d . I t e m 4 ( a n O n t a r i o i t e m ) may e v e n be c o n s i d e r e d a s an e x t e n s i o n o f i t e m 1 ( w h i c h i s a l s o an O n t a r i o i t e m ) i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s w h i c h i t seems t o e x p r e s s may be s e e n "as e n s u r i n g 75 t h a t t h e c h i l d a c q u i r e s t h e b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s f o r e d u c a t i o n " ( T a b l e ] s i t e m 1; c f . a l s o G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o , 1 9 6 9 : 7 5 ) . Items 11 t o 16 ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i t e m s ) may be s e e n as s a m p l e s o f s p e c i f i c s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e s e n s e t h a t e a c h o f them seems t o be i n t e n d e d f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f one s u b j e c t i n t h e s c h o o l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s f o r w h i c h t h e s t a t e m e n t s a r e i n t e n d e d a r e c l e a r e n o u g h , e x c e p t f o r i t e m 15 w h i c h t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n d i c a t e d s h o u l d be r e l a t e d t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f L a n g u a g e A r t s , S c i e n c e , and S o c i a l S t u d i e s ( c f . A p p e n d i x I I I ) . Some s i m i l a r i t i e s a r e n o t i c e a b l e among t h e t h r e e g r o u p s o f i t e m s . F o r e x a m p l e , i t e m s 1 ( a n O n t a r i o i t e m ) , 10 ( a n A l b e r t a i t e m ) , and 11 ( a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i t e m ) may be s e e n as s i m i l a r . In p a r t t h e s e s t a t e m e n t a r e i n t e n d e d f o r L a n g u a g e A r t s E d u c a t i o n , e x c e p t t h a t t h e O n t a r i o i t e m i n c l u d e s some o t h e r b a s i c s and o n l y by i n f e r e n c e may t h e A l b e r t a i t e m be s e e n as b e l o n g i n g t o t h i s p a r a l l e l . In o r d e r t o c r e a t e a f o c u s f o r a more c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e n d s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e t h r e e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s , t o h a n d l e t h e c a s e s o f o v e r l a p s among t h e en d s w i t h i n e a c h g r o u p o f e n d s , and among t h e i t e m s o f t h e t h r e e g r o u p s o f e n d s , t h e s i x t e e n i t e m s l i s t e d i n T a b l e 1 a r e c o m b i n e d i n t o s i x c a t e g o r i e s o f e n d s w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 2, page 76. The c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h o s e s i x t e e n i t e m s i n t o t h e s e s i x c a t e g o r i e s i s b a s e d on t h e a p p a r e n t s i m i l a r i t i e s t h a t may be a t t r i b u t e d t o more t h a n one s t a t e m e n t o f e n d s among t h e s i x t e e n i t e m s . T a b l e 2 l i s t s t h e s e s i x c a t e g o r i e s o f e n d s and i n d i c a t e s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s i x t e e n i t e m s among them. The s i x c a t e g o r i e s a r e numbered I-VI f o r e a s e o f r e f e r e n c e . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f i t e m s i n d i c a t e s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h c e r t a i n e n d s d e s c r i b e d i n one document may be s e e n as t h e ^ e q u i v a l e n t s o f a n o t h e r i n t h e o t h e r d o c u m e n t s . T h u s , t h e d e s i g n a t i o n 3 76 TABLE 2: THE COMBINATION OF GENERAL ENDS SOURCE DOCUMENTS I D E N T I F I E D IN THE THREE ONT. ALTA. B.C. I A c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s 1, 4 5, 10 11, 13, 12 15 I I A c q u i s i t i o n o f s e c u r e s e l f image t h r o u g h d e s i r a b l e s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s 2 6 I I I E n s u r i n g E t h i c a l and M o r a l d e v e l o p m e n t 3 7 IV D e v e l o p m e n t o f l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s 8 16 V C a r e e r a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n 9 VI A c q u i s i t i o n o f C u l t u r a l a n d P h y s i c a l H e r i t a g e 14, 15 77 i n t h e O n t a r i o c o l u m n b e s i d e i t e m 7 ( a n A l b e r t a i t e m ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t e m 7 may be r e g a r d e d as i n c l u d e d i n t h e O n t a r i o document a t i t e m 3. A l l t h e t h r e e d o c u m e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s h o u l d a s s i s t t h e c h i l d t o a c q u i r e " b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s " ( T a b l e 2, c a t e g o r y I ) . T h e r e a r e some d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s among and b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e d o c u m e n t s , a s t o t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s c h o o l i s e x p e c t e d t o s e e k t h i s e n d . B o t h t h e O n t a r i o and t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s s u b s c r i b e t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a n g u a g e s k i l l s ( T a b l e 1, i t e m 1; G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o , 1972:75; T a b l e 1, i t e m 11; G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 6 : 3 ) . O n t a r i o i n c l u d e s t h e c a r e f o r t h e m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h o f t h e c h i l d ( T a b l e 1, i t e m 1 ) . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t i n c l u d e s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s k i l l s and c o m p e t e n c i e s i n m e a s u r e m e n t , c o m p u t i n g , s c i e n t i f i c a p p r o a c h and p r o b l e m s o l v i n g ( T a b l e 1, i t e m s 11, 12, 13, and 15; G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 6 : 3 ) . By i n f e r e n c e ( b e c a u s e o f l a c k o f c l a r i t y o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s ; T a b l e 1, i t e m s 4 and 10; G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a , 1972:47 and 4 8 ) , i t may be s a i d t h a t t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t e x p e c t s t h e c h i l d t o a c q u i r e b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s i n a c o m p a r a b l e manner t o t h a t i n d i c a t e d i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t , i n t h e s e n s e t h a t " P e r s o n a l autonomy t o n u r t u r e g r o w t h t o w a r d s e l f h o o d a n d i n d i v i d u a l f r e e d o m " ( i t e m 5 ) , and " I n t e l l e c t u a l power t o n u r t u r e t h e u s e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a nd a e s t h e t i c a b i l i t i e s " ( i t e m 10) may be s e e n b o t h t o g e t h e r , as c o v e r i n g s u c h b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s o b s e r v e d i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t . The s e c o n d c a t e g o r y o f e n d s , A c q u i s i t i o n o f s e c u r e s e l f image t h r o u g h d e s i r a b l e s k i l l s a n d a t i t t u d e s ( T a b l e 2, c a t e g o r y I ) , w h i c h i n c l u d e s i t e m 2 ( a n O n t a r i o i t e m ) and i t e m 6 ( a n A l b e r t a i t e m ) i n T a b l e 1 i s a d i f f i c u l t c a t e g o r y o f end t o d i s c u s s w i t h p r e c i s i o n . " D e s i r a b l e s k i l l s a n d a t t i t u d e s " may be h e l d t o " b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s , " and a c c o r d i n g l y has b e e n i n c l u d e d i n t h e c a t e g o r y . 7 8 B o t h t h e O n t a r i o and t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t s i n d i c a t e e n d s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e t h i c s and m o r a l s ( T a b l e 2, c a t e g o r y I I I ) . In t h e A l b e r t a and t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s , e n d s a r e s t a t e d f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l c a p a c i t i e s ( T a b l e 2, c a t e g o r y I V ) . T h i s end may a l s o be s e e n as o c c u r r i n g i n t h e O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t , b u t as a p a r t o f t h e c a t e g o r y I ( t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s ) . Among t h e t h r e e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s , o n l y t h a t o f A l b e r t a shows t h a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d i n c l u d e c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n ( T a b l e 2, c a t e g o r y V ) . And o n l y t h a t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s p e c i f i c a l l y i n d i c a t e s e n d s f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f c u l t u r a l and p h y s i c a l h e r i t a g e ( T a b l e 2, c a t e g o r y V I ) , w h i c h may be s e e n as i m p l i c i t l y c o n t a i n e d i n c a t e g o r y I , s i n c e i t e m 1 ( a n O n t a r i o i t e m ) , i t e m s 5 and 10 ( A l b e r t a i t e m s ) , and i t e m 15 ( a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i t e m ) w h i c h a r e c a t a l o g u e d u n d e r c a t e g o r y I may be r e g a r d e d as e n d s i n t e n d e d f o r s i m i l a r e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s f o r w h i c h c a t e g o r y VI i s i n t e n d e d . GENERAL MEANS In b o t h t h e O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s , g e n e r a l means were recommended i n t e r m s o f t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e t y p e o f s u b j e c t s a s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m may i n c o r p o r a t e . A l t h o u g h t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t d i d n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y recommend s c h o o l s u b j e c t c o n t e n t s , some o f t h e g e n e r a l means w h i c h may be i n f e r r e d i n i t may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one s u b j e c t o r a n o t h e r . T a b l e 3, page 79, l i s t s t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f a l l t h e s u b j e c t s t h a t one may s a y w i t h some amount o f c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n a r e e v i d e n t i n t h e t h r e e d o c u m e n t s . The d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e numbered f r o m I t o VI f o r c a s e o f r e f e r e n c e . F o r e a c h d e s c r i p t i o n , t h e 'X', 'XT, o r 'A', a r e shown i n t h e t h r e e p r o v i n c e 79 TABLE 3: THE I D E N T I F I C A T I O N OF GENERAL MEANS IN DOCUMENTS THE THREE SOURCE RECOMMENDED GENERAL MEANS IN THE THREE SOURCE DOCUMENTS ONTARIO ALBERTA B. C. I B a s i c E d u c a t i o n X X? X I I S o c i a l S t u d i e s X X? X I I I E t h i c a l a n d M o r a l E d u c a t i o n X X? A IV H e a l t h a n d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A A X V S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n A A X VI C a r e e r E d u c a t i o n A A A N o t e : X i n d i c a t e s t h e p r e s e n c e o f a t y p e o f means i n t h e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t X? i n d i c a t e s t h e p r e s e n c e o f a t y p e o f means, by  i n f e r e n c e A i n d i c a t e s t h e a b s e n c e o f a t y p e o f means 80 c o l u m n s o f t h e t a b l e . An 'X' shows t h e p r e s e n c e o f c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f c o n t e n t s f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n . An 'X?' shows t h a t an i n d i c a t i o n f o r c o n -t e n t s may be i n f e r r e d . An 'A' i n d i c a t e s t h e a b s e n c e o f a n y s u c h i n d i -c a t i o n . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t h r e e d o c u m e n t s showed t h a t l e a r n i n g s i n t h e a r e a o f b a s i c e d u c a t i o n a r e t h e e s s e n t i a l means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l -i n g ( T a b l e 3, i t e m I ) . A l t h o u g h one d o c u m e n t i n c l u d e s more m a t e r i a l s t h a n t h e o t h e r , what c o n s t i t u t e s t h e c o n t e n t s o f b a s i c e d u c a t i o n a r e s i m i l a r i n a l l t h e t h r e e d o c u m e n t s . A l l t h r e e i n d i c a t e t h a t l e a r n i n g s w h i c h w i l l a s s i s t t h e c h i l d t o a c q u i r e t h e s k i l l s o f ' c o m m u n i c a t i o n ' a r e t h e e s s e n t i a l means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g ( G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o , 1969:77; G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a , 1972:48; G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 6 : 7 ) . I n s p e c i f i c t e r m s , t h e O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s r e f e r t o r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , a n d s p e a k i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e ( G o v e r n m e n t s o f O n t a r i o , 1969:76; B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1 9 7 7 : 7 ) . The O n t a r i o d o cument i n c l u d e s F r e n c h l a n g u a g e i n b a s i c e d u c a t i o n ( G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o , 1 9 6 9 : 9 1 ) . W h i l e t h e O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s p r o v i d e some s p e c i f i c s f o r t h i s a s p e c t o f g e n e r a l means, t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t d o e s n o t i n d i c a t e a n y e v i d e n c e f o r s p e c i f i c s . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e c o n t e n t s o f L a n g u a g e A r t s , b o t h t h e O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s i n c l u d e i n b a s i c e d u c a t i o n M a t h e m a t i c a l c o n t e n t s ( G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o , 1969:71; G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 6 : 1 ) . The O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t i n c l u d e s i n b a s i c e d u c a t i o n m a t e r i a l s i n t e n d e d t o a s s i s t t h e c h i l d t o a c q u i r e k n o w l e d g e and a t t i t u d e s o f p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l h e a l t h ( G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o , 1 9 6 9 : 2 7 ) . 81 W i t h r e g a r d t o S o c i a l S t u d i e s ( T a b l e 3, i t e m I I ) , b o t h t h e O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n d i c a t e e v i d e n c e o f what t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d t e a c h . The O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t recommends s u c h m a t e r i a l s as w i l l a s s i s t t h e c h i l d t o a c q u i r e some k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e g e o g r a p h y o f t h e p r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o , a b o u t t h e p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s o f a g r i c u l t u r e , and a b o u t t h e l i f e s t y l e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e ( G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o , 1 9 6 9 : 7 7 ) . S i m i l a r m a t e r i a l s a r e i n d i c a t e d i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t , w i t h e m a p h s i s on f a m i l y l i f e a n d l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s ( G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 7 : 2 2 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e c o n t e n t s o f S o c i a l S t u d i e s a r e n o t v e r y e v i d e n t i n t h e A l b e r t a d o c u -ment, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o i n f e r f r o m s e c t i o n s o f t h e d o c u m e n t t h e W o r t h C o m m i s s i o n recommends m a t e r i a l s w h i c h w i l l a s s i s t t h e c h i l d t o a d a p t t o s o c i a l c h a n g e , t o r e c o g n i z e t h e t r e n d s o f s o c i a l c h a n g e , and t o be a b l e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o s o c i a l c h a n g e i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a ( G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a , 1 9 7 2 : 5 4 ) . In t h e c a s e o f E t h i c a l a n d M o r a l E d u c a t i o n ( T a b l e 3, i t e m I I I ) , t h e O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t recommends t h a t t h e c h i l d s h o u l d be t a u g h t a b o u t t h e "Unknown," " t h e t r u t h , " and " t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f human m i n d " ( G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o , 1 9 6 9 : 7 7 ) . By i n f e r e n c e , t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t i n d i c a t e s t h e t e a c h i n g o f m a t e r i a l s w h i c h w i l l h e l p t h e c h i l d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n s o c i a l l i f e w i t h c o n c e r n f o r p r o v i d i n g s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s i n w h i c h s u b s e q u e n t g e n e r a t i o n s c a n l i v e ( G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a , 1 9 7 2 : 5 2 ) . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t d o e s n o t p r o v i d e f o r t h e c o n t e n t s o f E t h i c a l a nd M o r a l E d u c a t i o n . O f t h e t h r e e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s , o n l y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s p e c i f i c a l l y i n d i c a t e s c o n t e n t s f o r P h y s i c a l and H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n ( T a b l e 3, i t e m I V ) . The M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e x p e c t s t h e c h i l d t o be t a u g h t s u c h t h i n g s a s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c a r i n g f o r t h e human 82 body a nd t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f "m o t o r a c t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h e x e r c i s e s i n h a n d - e y e c o o r d i n a t i o n , b a l a n c e , s t r e n g t h a n d f l e x i b i l i t y " ( G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 7 : 3 2 ) . A l s o , o n l y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d ocument s t a t e s c o n t e n t s f o r S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n ( T a b l e 3, i t e m V ) . The c h i l d w i l l be t a u g h t a b o u t s u c h t h i n g s as t h e c o n t e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e f o o d he o r s h e e a t s , " t h e b a s i c c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f m a t t e r , s u c h as h e a v y and l i g h t . . ." ( G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 7 : 2 0 ) . I t may n o t be a s u r p r i s e t h a t t h e O n t a r i o a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s do n o t i n d i c a t e means f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f C a r e e r E d u c a t i o n ( T a b l e 3, i t e m V I ) , s i n c e C a r e e r E d u c a t i o n was n o t i n d i c a t e d a s one o f t h e e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n e a c h o f t h e s e p r o v i n c i a l d o c u m e n t s . I t i s s u r p r i s i n g , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t w h i c h s t a t e d C a r e e r E d u c a t i o n a s an e n d ( T a b l e 1, i t e m 9 ) , d o e s n o t i n d i c a t e means f o r t h i s e n d . E SSENTIAL ENDS AND MEANS The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e d o c u m e n t s showed t h a t e a c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t what m i g h t be c a l l e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f " s k i l l s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n " a r e t h e e s s e n t i a l e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g ( G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o , 1969:91; G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a , 1972:48; G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 6 : 7 ) . I n s p e c i f i c t e r m s , b o t h t h e O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s r e f e r t o l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n o f Aims a n d O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o , t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n g u a g e s k i l l s i s t h e " m a j o r e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f any c u r r i c u l u m p u r p o s e . . . i t i s t h e s i n e qua non o f e d u c a t i o n i n a c i v i l i z e d s o c i e t y " ( G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o , 1 9 6 9 : 9 1 ) . T h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o n s i d e r s 8 3 t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n g u a g e s k i l l s "as f u n d a m e n t a l o r b a s i c t o t h e e d u c a -t i o n " o f t h e c h i l d , a n d as one a s p e c t o f t h e c o r e o f s c h o o l i n g d u r i n g t h e f i r s t few y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g ( G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 7 : 4 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n A l b e r t a , t h e s k i l l s o f ' C o m m u n i c a t i o n ' a r e "a c o r e " f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g . The m a s t e r y o f t h e s e s k i l l s a r e " e s s e n t i a l f o r a l i f e o f l e a r n i n g " ( G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a , 1 9 7 2 : 5 5 ) . B o t h t h e O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s i n c l u d e i n t h e means f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s k i l l s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , a n d s p e a k i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e ( G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o , 1969:91; G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 7 : 8 ) . The O n t a r i o document i n c l u d e s o r a l and c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e F r e n c h l a n g u a g e ( G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o , 1 9 6 9 : 9 1 ) . B o t h d o c u m e n t s a l s o recommend t h e t e a c h i n g o f m a t h e m a t i c s as an a s p e c t o f t h e e s s e n t i a l means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g . O n l y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e c o n t e n t s f o r M a t h e m a t i c s ( G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 7 : 1 0 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t d o e s n o t show e v i d e n c e o f s p e c i f i c i t y , s i m i l a r c o n t e n t s t o t h o s e s p e c i f i e d i n t h e o t h e r two d o c u m e n t s a r e i m p l i e d ( c f . G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a , pp. 48 and 5 5 ) . CHAPTER EIGHT SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR NIGERIAN EDUCATION T h i s c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e m a j o r s e c t i o n s d e a l i n g r e s p e c -t i v e l y w i t h t h e f r a m e w o r k and a n a l y s i s o f t h e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s , t h e f i n d -i n g s a n d c o n c l u s i o n s a n d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r N i g e r i a n e d u c a t i o n . THE FRAMEWORK AND ANALYSIS OF SOURCE DOCUMENTS The f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y was t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d d o c u m e n t s a u t h o r i z e d by t h e G o v e r n m e n t s o f t h r e e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g p r o v i n c e s ( O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) , s t a t i n g t h e i r i n t e n t s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p r o v i n c e s . T he d o c u m e n t s a nd r e p o r t s w e r e p r o d u c e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1969 t o 1977, t o d e f i n e t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a a n d t o i d e n t i f y t h e c o r e o f t h e c u r r i c u l a . T he d o c u m e n t s s e l e c t e d f o r e x a m i n a t i o n w e r e : ( 1 ) L i v i n g a n d L e a r n i n g , "The R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i t t e e on Aims and O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o . " T h i s d o c u m e n t was p u b l i s h e d by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o i n 1969. ( 2 ) A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s , "The R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n o f E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g , " p u b l i s h e d i n 1972 by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a . ( 3 ) F o u r d o c u m e n t s w h i c h were p u b l i s h e d by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : M i n i s t e r ' s P o l i c y S t a t e m e n t ( 1 9 7 6 ) ; What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g (.1976); A n a l y s i s o f and P u b l i c R e s p o n s e  t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m ( 1 9 7 7 ) ; a n d G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m ( 1 9 7 7 ) . E a c h o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l d o c u m e n t s was e x a m i n e d t o d i s c o v e r ( 1 ) t h e r e a s o n s why i t was p u b l i s h e d , ( 2 ) t h e p r o c e d u r e s u s e d t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a n d 84 85 make s e l e c t i o n s , ( 3 ) t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e ways c h o i c e s w ere made, (4) t h e e n d s i d e n t i f i e d as d e s i r a b l e f o r s c h o o l i n g , (5) t h e means f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h e s e e n d s , and ( 6 ) t h e e s s e n t i a l e n d s and means f o r s c h o o l i n g . A f u r t h e r p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e f i n d i n g s r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n f o r i m p l i c a t i o n s o f v a l u e t o t h o s e a t t e m p t i n g t o d e f i n e c u r r i c u l u m i n an o v e r s e a s ( N i g e r i a n ) s e t t i n g . The f r a m e w o r k f o r a n a l y s i s was d e r i v e d f r o m t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m a c c o r d i n g t o G o o d l a d ( 1 9 6 6 ) as a S o c i e t a l E d u c a t i o n a l D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g P r o c e s s ( C f . C h a p t e r two, pp. 1 2 - 1 5 ) . C u r r i c u l u m c o u l d a l s o be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as a ' p r o d u c t ' o f t h a t p r o c e s s . Hence e a c h o f t h e t h r e e c u r r i c u l u m d e f i n i n g d o c u m e n t s was e x a m i n e d f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p r o c e s s e m p l o y e d l e a d i n g t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t a s t h e p r o d u c t o f t h a t p r o c e s s . C h a p t e r s f o u r , f i v e , a nd s i x d e a l t w i t h t h e a n a l y s e s o f t h e d o c u -m e n t s ) s e l e c t e d f r o m e a c h o f t h e p r o v i n c e s o f O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and c h a p t e r s e v e n p r e s e n t e d c o m p a r i s o n s and r e c a p i t u l a t e d m a j o r f i n d i n g s . T h e A n a l y s i s o f L i v i n g and L e a r n i n g ( C h a p t e r f o u r , pp. 25-34) showed t h a t t h e C o m m i s s i o n o f t h e Aims and O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o was e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t t o o u t l i n e t h e g o a l s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o r t h e K i n d e r g a r t e n , P r i m a r y , and J u n i o r d i v i s i o n s o f s c h o o l i n g i n O n t a r i o and t o recommend means by w h i c h t h e s e g o a l s w i l l be a c h i e v e d ( p . 4 ) J The C o m m i t t e e i n v o l v e d t h e p u b l i c by s u c h 1. R e f e r e n c e s t o page numbers i n t h i s p a r a g r a p h r e f e r t o L i v i n g and  L e a r n i n g , G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o , 1969. 86 means as s u b m i s s i o n o f p a p e r s , p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , and c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h e s c h o o l i n s t i t u t i o n s ( p . 4). T h e C o m m i t t e e i d e n t i f i e d as i t s p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e t h e p r a g m a t i s t s 1 s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t , w h i c h f a v o u r s t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e w h o l e c h i l d f o r l i f e i n a s o c i e t y ( p . 23). The g e n e r a l e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e r e p o r t f a l l u n d e r f o u r d e s c r i p t i o n s : ( 1 ) E n s u r i n g t h a t t h e c h i l d a c q u i r e s t h e b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s f o r e d u c a t i o n ; (2) H e l p i n g t h e c h i l d t o a c q u i r e d e s i r a b l e s k i l l s , a b i l i t i e s , a n d a t t i t u d e s ; (3) P r o v i d i n g t h e c h i l d w i t h e t h i c a l a n d m o r a l l e a r n i n g s ; and (4) M e e t i n g t h e n e e d s a n d e x p r e s s e d d e s i r e s o f t h e c h i l d ( c f . p. 27). The g e n e r a l means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g a r e e x p r e s s e d i n t e r m s o f c u r r i c u l u m s u b j e c t s s u c h as L a n g u a g e A r t s , G e o g r a p h y and S o c i a l S t u d i e s , E t h i c a l a nd M o r a l E d u c a t i o n ( p . 77). The a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n g u a g e s k i l l s i s " t h e e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f a n y c u r r i c u l a r p u r p o s e " , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s i m p l e m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t i e s . The P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a e s t a b l i s h e d t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n 1969. The C o m m i s s i o n was c h a r g e d w i t h t h e r e s -p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f i n q u i r i n g i n t o t h e s o c i a l t r e n d s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o v i n c e t w e n t y y e a r s a h e a d and t o recommend b a s e s f o r p r i o r i t y j u d g e m e n t by t h e g o v e r n m e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c o u r s e o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n a l l l e v e l s o f s c h o o l i n g i n A l b e r t a ( p . 304)J D r . W a l t e r W o r t h was t h e s o l e c o m m i s s i o n e r . He, h o w e v e r , o r g a n i z e d an e i g h t - m a n C o m m i s s i o n B o a r d w h i c h i n t u r n e m p l o y e d t h e s e r v i c e s 1. R e f e r e n c e s t o p a ge numbers i n t h i s p a r a g r a p h r e f e r t o A C h o i c e o f  F u t u r e s , G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a , 1969. 87 o f more t h a n one h u n d r e d p e o p l e i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f p r o d u c i n g a r e p o r t . The p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e s o f t h e i n q u i r y were s p e n t i n r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s on t h e f u t u r e o f t h e p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a , i n h o l d i n g p u b l i c m e e t i n g s a c r o s s t h e p r o v i n c e . A l l f i n d i n g s were a n a l y z e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n ( p p . 3 0 4 - 2 0 5 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o m m i s s i o n , A l b e r t a was h e a d i n g f o r a " S e c o n d -p h a s e I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y , " a s o c i e t y i n w h i c h t h e A l b e r t a n s w o u l d " s p e n d t h e i r l i v e s f u r t h e r i n g t h e g o a l s o f c o n t i n u i n g t h e e x p a n s i o n o f g o o d s and s e r v i c e , i n c r e a s e d l e v e l o f " c o n s u m p t i o n and t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e " ( p . 3 3 ) , and i n w h i c h t h e r e i s l i k e l y t o be " g r o w t h and c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f power i n a b u r e a u c r a t i c a nd k n o w l e d g e - b a s e d e l i t e " ( p . 2 8 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Commis-s i o n , i f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m i n A l b e r t a a d o p t s a p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h a i m s a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f human n a t u r e t h e p r o v i n c e may, a s an a l t e r n a t i v e , become a P e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y : T he v i s i o n o f t h i s new s o c i e t y c a n be r e a l i z e d . W h e t h e r o r n o t i t i s r e a l i z e d d e p e n d s upon t h e t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n o f v a l u e s . B u t a s e t o f v a l u e s i s b a s e d , i n t u r n , on a c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f man, h i s r e a l p o t e n t i a l s a n d t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e i r r e a l i z a t i o n s . T h u s t h e c h o i c e b e t w e e n t h e two a l t e r n a t i v e f u t u r e s . . . i s a l s o a c h o i c e b e t w e e n two i m a g e s o f man ( p . 3 4 ) . In a P e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y , i t i s assumed t h a t w h i l e t h e e c o n o m i c g r o w t h o f t h e s o c i e t y w i l l s t i l l d e p e n d on t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n s , p e o p l e i n p o s i t i o n s o f power and a u t h o r i t y w o u l d be more c o n c e r n e d a b o u t human n e e d s a n d human i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( p . 2 8 ) . B a s e d on t h i s v i e w o f s c h o o l i n g , t h e C o m m i s s i o n p r o p o s e d f o r s c h o o l i n g i n A l b e r t a s i x g e n e r a l e n d s , w h i c h w e r e i n t e n d e d f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s " p e r s o n a l a u t o n o m y , s o c i a l c o m p e t e n c i e s e t h i c a l c o m p e t e n c i e s , c a r e e r p r o f i c i e n c y , a nd i n t e l l e c t u a l p o w e r s ( p p . 4 6 - 4 8 ) . The g e n e r a l means i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e d o c u m e n t w e r e s u c h , when t r a n s l a t e d i n t o c u r r i c u l u m 88 c o n t e n t s w i l l a s s i s t t h e c h i l d t o a c q u i r e some k n o w l e d g e and c a p a b i l i t i e s t o a d a p t t o s o c i a l c h a n g e , t o r e c o g n i z e t h e t r e n d o f s o c i a l c h a n g e , a n d t o be a b l e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o s o c i a l c h a n g e i n s u c h a manner t h a t w i l l i m p r o v e i n t e r h u m a n r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a ( p p . 5 1 - 5 4 ) . T h e C o m m i s s i o n i n t e n d e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f " t h e s k i l l s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n " , l a n g u a g e s k i l l s , t o be c o n s i d e r e d t h e e s s e n t i a l e n d f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n A l b e r t a . T h e means by w h i c h t h i s end w i l l be a c h i e v e d was t h e t e a c h i n g o f l a n g u a g e c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s ( c f . p p . 4 8 - 5 5 ) . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s w e r e (1) M i n i s t e r ' s P o l i c y S t a t e m e n t ; ( 2 ) What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? ( 1 9 7 6 ) ; ( 3 ) A n a l y s i s o f and  P u b l i c R e s p o n s e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m ( 1 9 7 7 ) ; and ( 4 ) G u i d e t o t h e C o r e  C u r r i c u l u m ( 1 9 7 7 ) . T h e y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e i n i t i a t e d an i n q u i r y i n t o what t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n o r d e r t o d e f i n e t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m a n d i t s c o r e ( e s s e n t i a l s ) (What S h o u l d  Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g , 1 9 7 6 ) . The two s e c t i o n s o f d o c u m e n t #3, and t h e s e c t i o n o f d o c u m e n t #4 t h a t d e a l s w i t h t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l a r e p r e s e n t e d i n a p p e n d i c e s I , I I , I I I . What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? r e p r e s e n t e d t h e p r o p o s e d g o a l s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s , and t h e c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t s t h e s c h o o l s w e r e e x p e c t e d t o t e a c h . T h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e c a l l e d t h e w h o l e p a c k a g e a " w o r k i n g p a p e r " , a n d r e q u e s t e d p u b l i c comment a b o u t t h e w o r k i n g p a p e r by means o f r e a c t i o n s h e e t s a t t a c h e d t o e a c h c o p y o f t h e w o r k i n g p a p e r . The p u b l i c r e s p o n s e was a n a l y z e d a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e p r o p o s e d scheme was f a v o u r a b l e ( C f . A p p e n d i c e s I a n d I I ) . The a n a l y s i s o f p u b l i c r e s p o n s e was f o l l o w e d by a f i n a l g o v e r n -ment p u b l i c a t i o n ( G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m ) w h i c h o u t l i n e d t h e g o a l s t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s s h o u l d s e e k , a n d t h e c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t s t h e y s h o u l d t e a c h . 8 9 The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s d i d n o t i n d i c a t e what may be d e s c r i b e d as a p h i l o s o p h y f o r s c h o o l i n g . The g e n e r a l e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m com-p r i s e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a n g u a g e c a p a b i l i t i e s , o f m e a s u r e m e n t and c o m p u t i n g a b i l i t i e s , o f a s c i e n t i f i c a p p r o a c h , o f a n a l y t i c a l , r e s e a r c h , and p r o b -l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , and t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e o f c u l t u r a l and p h y s i c a l h e r i t a g e a n d t h a t o f h e a l t h f u l l i v i n g . T he g e n e r a l means i n c l u d e d c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t s o f L a n g u a g e A r t s , M a t h e m a t i c s , S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , S o c i a l S t u d i e s , and H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . The M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e x p e c t e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a n g u a g e c a p a b i l i t i e s t o be s e e n a s t h e c o r e o f t h e e n d s f o r s c h o o l i n g a n d t h e t e a c h i n g o f l a n g u a g e c o n t e n t s as t h e means f o r a c h i e v i n g t h i s e s s e n t i a l e n d . T h e r e s u l t o f a c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e p r o v i n c i a l d o c u m e n t s a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w h i c h a l s o p r e s e n t s t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e s t u d y . FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS C h a p t e r s f o u r , f i v e , a n d s i x r e p r e s e n t e d t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t e a c h o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l d o c u m e n t s . T h o s e o b s e r v a t i o n s have b e e n s u m m a r i z e d a b o v e . A c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s was c a r r i e d o u t i n c h a p t e r s e v e n , u s i n g t h e h e a d i n g s common t o a l l t h e d a t a c h a p t e r s ( E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f i n q u i r y , P r o c e d u r e s f o r i n q u i r y , P h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e s , G e n e r a l e n d s , G e n e r a l means, a n d E s s e n t i a l e n d s and m e a n s ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h e c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s a n d t h e c o n c l u s i o n s t h e y s u g g e s t a r e p r e s e n t e d b e l o w , a l s o i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e h e a d i n g s common t o t h e d a t a c h a p t e r s . 90 E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f I n q u i r y T h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e t h r e e d o c u m e n t s showed t h a t t h e p u r p o s e f o r w h i c h i n q u i r y was i n i t i a t e d i n e a c h o f t h e p r o v i n c e s o f O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was an e d u c a t i o n a l one: t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f s c h o o l i n g i n t e r m s o f what t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g and t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g ( C h a p t e r s e v e n , p a g e 6 6 ) . In t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t , h o w e v e r , a p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n ( C h a p t e r s e v e n , page 68) w h i c h was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n t r o v e r s y and o p p o s i t i o n ( c h a p t e r s i x , pp. 57-58) may a l s o be a l l e g e d . From t h i s e v i d e n c e , i t m i g h t be c o n c l u d e d t h a t a l t h o u g h i n q u i r i e s a b o u t what t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g may be i n i t i a t e d f o r e d u c a t i o n a l r e a s o n s , t h e y may a l s o be u s e d f o r p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s , b u t n o t a l w a y s . T h r e e c a s e s a r e t o o few f r o m w h i c h t o g e n e r a l i z e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s p l a u s i b l e t o s u g g e s t on t h e e v i d e n c e o f t h i s s t u d y t h a t a f a i r l y e a s i l y d i s c e r n i b l e p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n may be a c c o m p a n i e d by o p p o s i t i o n and c o n t r o -v e r s y . P r o c e d u r e s f o r I n q u i r y A l t h o u g h t h e p r o c e d u r e s u s e d f o r i n q u i r i e s i n t h e t h r e e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s i n v o l v e d p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h i s c o m m o n a l i t y i s p e r h a p s l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e way e a c h o f t h e i n q u i r i e s s e t a b o u t i n v o l v i n g t h e p u b l i c . B o t h O n t a r i o and A l b e r t a i n v o l v e d t h e p u b l i c by s u c h means as p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n s , s u b m i s s i o n o f p a p e r s , and p u b l i c c o n f e r e n c e s . E a c h o f t h e s e p r o v i n c e s e n g a g e d w i t h t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s f o r more t h a n two y e a r s b e f o r e t h e document was d r a f t e d ( C h a p t e r s f o u r , page 2 6 ; f i v e , p a g e 3 5 ) . I n t h e c a s e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a w o r k i n g p a p e r i n w h i c h t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l s h a d been v i r t u a l l y f o r m a l -i z e d ( a s s e e n a p p r o p r i a t e by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e ) 91 was d i s t r i b u t e d a c r o s s t h e p r o v i n c e . To t h i s w o r k i n g p a p e r , t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n v i t e d comments by means o f a r e a c t i o n s h e e t a t t a c h e d t o e a c h c o p y o f t h e w o r k i n g p a p e r ( C h a p t e r s i x , p a ge 5 4 ) . In d r a w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p r o c e d u r e s e a c h o f t h e p r o v i n c e s o f O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a u s e d t o i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d o c u m e n t , i t i s u s e f u l t o n o t e t h e p h a s e s w h i c h t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s has u n d e r g o n e i n C a n a d a d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d b e f o r e 1960 and up t o 1980. A c c o r d -i n g t o H o u s e g o ( 1 9 8 0 ) : The f i r s t p h a s e p r i o r t o t h e 1 9 6 0 s , c a n be c h a r a c -t e r i z e d as t h e e m p i r i c a l - a u t o c r a t i c p h a s e . The s e c o n d p h a s e , d u r i n g t h e 1 9 6 0 s , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as t h e r a t i o n a l -p a r t i c i p a t o r y p h a s e . T h e t h i r d p h a s e , t h e 1 9 7 0 s , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as t h e r e a c t i v e - a d v e r s a r i a l p h a s e ( H o u s e g o , 1 9 8 0 : 3 8 2 ) . Th e p r o c e d u r e s u s e d by t h e p r o v i n c e s o f b o t h O n t a r i o and A l b e r t a seem t o b e l o n g t o t h e r a t i o n a l - p a r t i c i p a t o r y m o d e l . T h e u s e o f t h i s model t e n d s t o make d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s l o w and c o m p l i c a t e d . The f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . I t t o o k t h e H a l l - D e n n i s C o m m i s s i o n f o u r y e a r s t o p r o d u c e L i v i n g and L e a r n i n g , and t h e W o r t h C o m m i s s i o n s p e n t t h r e e y e a r s p r e p a r i n g A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s . The t y p e o f p r o c e d u r e s u s e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a may be s e e n as r e a c t i v e - a d v e r s a r i a l . As i m p l i e d by H o u s e g o ( 1 9 8 0 ) , u s i n g t h i s a p p r o a c h i n p o l i c y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g may c r e a t e some p r o b l e m s . H o u s e g o p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e p e o p l e who w i l l be a f f e c t e d by t h e d e c i s i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y r e a c t i o n a r y and c r i t i c a l . I t may e v e n be d i f f i c u l t t o make some o f t h e s e p e o p l e a b i d e by t h e d e c i s i o n s ( c f . H o u s e g o , 1 9 8 0 : 3 8 4 ) . The f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a t t r i b u t e d t o H o u s e g o ' s work. A t t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e 92 o f t h e i n q u i r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e G o v e r n m e n t had t o f a c e up t o some n e g a t i v e c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e p r o p o s e d r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l s i n What S h o u l d  Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n d e n o u n c e d t h e p r o p o s a l . Some e d u c a t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s w r o t e a g a i n s t i t i n t h e d a i l y p r e s s ( c f . C h a p t e r s i x , p a ge 5 7 ) . The o p p o s i t i o n n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n d i d n o t r e l e n t ( c f . C h a p t e r s i x , p a g e s 5 7 - 5 8 ) . P h i l o s o p h i c a l B a s i s A c t u a l l y , o n l y t h e O n t a r i o a n d A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t s i n d i c a t e d a s p e c i f i c p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s . In b o t h i n q u i r i e s i t seems e v i d e n t t h a t t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s f o r s c h o o l i n g had been e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t o c c u r r e d . T h u s t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s may be s e e n as t h e ' f o c u s ' o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e a c h o f t h e two p r o v i n c e s . I t i s e v i d e n t i n t h e c a s e o f O n t a r i o t h a t t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s - t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f t h e w h o l e c h i l d f o r l i f e i n t h e s o c i e t y - emerged f r o m r e a d i n g s on t h e p a r t o f t h e members o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n i n t h e p h i l o s o p h i e s o f e d u c a -t i o n ( p p . 6 7 - 7 1 ) . The p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t - - t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d s o t h a t he o r s h e may be a b l e t o make r e s p o n s i b l e d e c i s i o n s w h i c h w i l l a f f e c t s e l f and o t h e r s - -e m e r g e d f r o m r e s e a r c h by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e i n q u i r y on t h e f u t u r e o f A l b e r t a , as e v i d e n t i n f u t u r i s t i c s t u d i e s ( p p . 3 0 9 - 3 1 0 ) . 0 C o n s i d e r i n g t h i s e v i d e n c e , one may c o n c l u d e t h a t a c u r r i c u l u m c a n be d e v e l o p e d w i t h o r w i t h o u t an e x p l i c i t p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e . In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an e x p l i c i t p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e was s e e n i n t h e two d o c u m e n t s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e as u s i n g r a t i o n a l - p a r t i c i p a t i o n a p p r o a c h . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t w h i c h g a v e l i t t l e e v i d e n c e o f a p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e was a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d ( a b o v e , p. 91) a s r e a c t i v e - a d v e r s a r i a l a n d q u i c k l y p r o d u c e d . One m i g h t s p e c u l a t e w h e t h e r i n s u c h an a p p r o a c h i t i s a 93 p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y w h i c h s t a n d s i n p l a c e o f an e d u c a t i o n - p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e . I t i s , o f c o u r s e , p r o b a b l e t h a t a p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y m u s t r e s t on some k i n d o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e w h i c h f r e q u e n t l y may be no more e x p l i c i t t h a n t h a t i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s . The t h r e e d o c u m e n t s s t u d i e d h e r e do seem t o s u g g e s t t h a t r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e a r e more f u l l y d e v e l o p e d , b e t t e r j u s t i f i e d a n d p r o p o s e d w i t h a more l o g i c a l s e q u e n c e i f t h e y a r e g r o u n d e d i n an e x p l i c i t p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e . G e n e r a l Ends The g e n e r a l e n d s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e t h r e e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s f a l l u n d e r t h r e e d e s c r i p t i o n s - v e r y b r o a d , b r o a d , and s p e c i f i c . The v e r y b r o a d s t a t e m e n t s o f e n d s w h i c h f e a t u r e m a i n l y i n t h e O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t do seem c l e a r l y t o e x p r e s s t h e d e s i r a b l e p u r p o s e s f o r w h i c h t h e y a r e i n t e n d e d . T h e s e s t a t e m e n t s seem t o c o m b i n e s e v e r a l d e s i r a b l e p u r p o s e s i n one s t a t e -ment as s e e n i n T a b l e I , page 73. ( F o r e x a m p l e , i t e m 1 r e a d s : E n s u r i n g t h a t t h e c h i l d a c q u i r e s t h e b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s f o r e d u c a t i o n . T h i s i n c l u d e s t h e m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h o f t h e c h i l d a nd t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e e s s e n t i a l s k i l l s . ) The b r o a d s t a t e m e n t s o f e n d s w h i c h a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t do n o t seem c l e a r l y t o e x p r e s s i n t e n d e d d e s i r a b l e p u r p o s e s , and t h e y c o m b i n e f e w e r p u r p o s e s t h a n t e n d s t o be t h e c a s e w i t h t h e v e r y b r o a d s t a t e m e n t s ( s e e , f o r e x a m p l e , T a b l e 1, i t e m s 5, 6, 8, and 10; T a b l e 2, c a t e g o r y 1 ) . T h e s p e c i f i c s t a t e m e n t s o f e n d s w h i c h c h a r a c -t e r i z e t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s , on t h e w h o l e , v e r y c l e a r l y e x p r e s s i n t e n d e d e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s and e a c h s t a t e m e n t f a i r l y c o n s t a n t l y r e t a i n s one s u b j e c t a r e a ( c f . T a b l e 1, i t e m s 1 1 - 1 6 ) . Of t h e s i x c a t e g o r i e s o f g e n e r a l e n d s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e t h r e e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s ( T a b l e 2 ) , a l l t h e t h r e e d o c u m e n t s v i r t u a l l y s u b s c r i b e t o t h e " a c q u i s i t i o n o f b a s i c n e c e s -94 s i t i e s . " The O n t a r i o and t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t s s u b s c r i b e t o " a c q u i s i t i o n o f s e c u r e s e l f image t h r o u g h d e s i r a b l e s k i l l s a n d a t t i t u d e s , " a nd " e n s u r -i n g e t h i c a l and m o r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . " The A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s s u b s c r i b e t o t h e " d e v e l o p m e n t o f l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l c a p a b i l -i t i e s . " O n l y t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t i s c o m m i t t e d t o " c a r e e r and o c c u p a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . " And o n l y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a document i s c o m m i t t e d t o t h e " a c q u i s i t i o n o f c u l t u r a l a nd p h y s i c a l h e r i t a g e , a l t h o u g h t h e o t h e r two d o c u m e n t s seem t o i n c l u d e t h i s e n d i n t h a t o f " b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s . " In t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e f i n d i n g s i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e d i f f e r e n t modes o f e x p r e s s i n g s t a t e m e n t s o f g e n e r a l e n d s f o r s c h o o l i n g , may have t h e e f f e c t o f m a k i n g a d i f f e r e n c e t o what becomes o f t h e i r c o n t e n t s . The d i s t i n c t i o n was made a b o v e b e t w e e n t h e v e r y b r o a d s t a t e m e n t s ( O n t a r i o ) , t h e b r o a d s t a t e m e n t s ( A l b e r t a ) , and t h e s p e c i f i c s t a t e m e n t s ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) . E a c h was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d e g r e e o f e x p l i c i t n e s s and c l a r i t y as shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i a g r a m . ONTARIO ALBERTA BRITISH COLUMBIA VERY BROAD BROAD S P E C I F I C E X P L I C I T NOT E X P L I C I T E X P L I C I T CLEAR LESS CLEAR VERY CLEAR Th e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t s o f e a c h s e t o f s t a t e m e n t s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e v e r y b r o a d and b r o a d s t a t e m e n t s a r e more l i k e l y t o p e r m i t f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o r m o d i f i c a t i o n o f e n d s t h a n a r e t h e s p e c i f i c s t a t e m e n t s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e y may do s o i n d i f f e r e n t w ays. The e x p l i c i t n e s s and c l a r i t y o f t h e v e r y b r o a d O n t a r i o s t a t e m e n t s m i g h t w e l l l e a d t o e x p a n s i o n f r o m t h e e x p l i c i t b a s e . The A l b e r t a s t a t e m e n t s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , n o t e x p l i c i t a nd n o t c l e a r , may f a c i l i t a t e f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t 95 o f c u r r i c u l a r i d e a s b e c a u s e o f t h e many p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i m p l i e d w i t h i n e a c h s t a t e m e n t . In b o t h c a s e s , s u c h d e v e l o p m e n t i s p r o b a b l y much more f a c i l i t a t e d t h a n i s t h e c a s e i n t h e e x p l i c i t and v e r y c l e a r and s u b j e c t - s p e c i f i c B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s t a t e m e n t s o f e n d s . I f t h i s i s t r u e , i t c a r r i e s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p r o c e s s o f c o n t i n u i n g c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t . I t m i g h t be t h a t t h e more s p e c i f i c a l l y a c u r r i c u l u m i s s t a t e d , t h e more n e e d f u l i t i s t o r e - e x a m i n e a n d r e a s s e s s i t a t s h o r t t e r m i n t e r v a l s . I f t h i s i s n o t d o n e , t h e r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y o f d e v e l o p i n g f u r t h e r f r o m a s p e c i f i c b a s e may l e a d t o t h e n e e d f o r f u r t h e r " a d v e r s a r i a l - r e a c t i o n a r y " d e c i s i o n s . G e n e r a l Means The g e n e r a l means i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e O n t a r i o d ocument a r e s t a t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o s c h o o l s u b j e c t s ( C h a p t e r f o u r , p a g e s 3 0 - 3 1 ) . By i n f e r e n c e , t h e g e n e r a l means o b s e r v e d i n t h e A l b e r t a d ocument may be s e e n as r e l a t i n g t o some o f t h e s u b j e c t s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t and t h o s e s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d ocument ( c f . C h a p t e r f i v e , p a g e s 4 7 - 5 0 ) . T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s v e r y c l e a r l y s t a t e d g e n e r a l means i n t e r m s o f s c h o o l s u b j e c t s ( C h a p t e r s i x , p a g e s 6 0 - 6 3 ) . A c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e g e n e r a l means o b s e r v e d i n t h e t h r e e d o c u m e n t s i n d i c a t e s i x c a t e g o r i e s o f s c h o o l s u b j e c t s - B a s i c E d u c a t i o n , S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n , E t h i c a l a n d M o r a l E d u c a t i o n , H e a l t h a n d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , a n d C a r e e r E d u c a t i o n . A l l o f t h e t h r e e .documents i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s h o u l d t e a c h c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s o f b a s i c e d u c a t i o n a n d s o c i a l s t u d i e s . The c o n t e n t o f b a s i c e d u c a t i o n i n t h e O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s i n c l u d e s t h e t e a c h i n g o f r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , a n d s p o k e n a s p e c t s o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . The O n t a r i o 96 d o c u m e n t i n a d d i t i o n i n c l u d e s s i m i l a r a s p e c t s o f t h e F r e n c h l a n g u a g e . Th e d o c u m e n t a l s o i n c l u d e s t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e c o n t e n t s o f h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e b a s i c s . The A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t d o e s n o t s p e c i f y c o n t e n t s ( C h a p t e r s e v e n , p a g e s 7 8 - 8 2 ) . R e g a r d i n g t h e t e a c h i n g o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s , b o t h t h e O n t a r i o and t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s h o u l d t e a c h t h e c h i l d t o be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e g e o g r a p h y and t h e s o c i a l l i f e p a t t e r n s and s i t u a t i o n s o f e a c h p r o v i n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e A l b e r t a d ocument d o e s n o t s p e c i f y t h e c o n t e n t o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s , i t may be i n f e r r e d t h a t a d o c u m e n t , w r i t t e n i n t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f s o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f A l b e r t a , s u g g e s t s s o c i a l s t u d i e s m a t e r i a l s w h i c h w i l l a s s i s t t h e c h i l d b o t h t o a d a p t and c o n t r i b u t e t o s o c i a l c h a n g e . Th e O n t a r i o and A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t e t h i c a l and m o r a l e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s a l m o s t i n l i k e manner. The O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t r e f e r s t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f m a t e r i a l s s u c h t h a t w i l l a s s i s t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f " t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f human m i n d " so t h a t t h e m i n d becomes i n d u e d t o " t h e t r u t h " and t h e "unknown." By i n f e r e n c e t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c h i l d s h o u l d be t a u g h t t h e m a t e r i a l s w h i c h w i l l h e l p him o r h e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n s o c i a l l i f e w i t h c o n c e r n f o r p r o v i d i n g s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s i n w h i c h t h e s u b s e q u e n t g e n e r a t i o n s c a n l i v e . O n l y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s i n d i c a t e s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t s f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f p h y s i c a l and h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n , and s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c u r -r i c u l u m s h o u l d i n c l u d e c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n , none o f t h e t h r e e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s s t a t e s means f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h i s s u b j e c t . 97 The p a r a l l e l w h i c h ca n be drawn b e t w e e n t h e O n t a r i o e x p l i c i t , and t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e x p l i c i t and v e r y c l e a r e n d s on t h e one h a n d , and t h e A l b e r t a n o t - e x p l i c i t and l e s s c l e a r on t h e o t h e r ( c f . page 94) may l e a d t o some i n t e r e s t i n g c o n c l u s i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e means i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e t h r e e d o c u m e n t s . T a b l e 3, page 79, shows t h a t e v i d e n c e f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g e n e r a l means i n t h e O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t i s r e a s o n a b l y  c l e a r . The e v i d e n c e f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f means i s n o t c l e a r i n t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t . The t a b l e a l s o shows t h a t i n t h e c a s e o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s , t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f means i s v e r y c l e a r . C o n s i d e r i n g t h i s p a r a l l e l b etween t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f e n d s and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e t y p e o f means, one m i g h t c o n c l u d e t h a t s t a t i n g t h e e n d s f o r s c h o o l i n g w i t h e x p l i c i t n e s s and c l a r i t y ( O n t a r i o a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) may f a c i l i t a t e r e c o m m e n d i n g c l e a r means. S t a t i n g t h e e n d s i n t e r m s n o t - e x p l i c i t and l e s s c l e a r ( A l b e r t a ) d o e s n o t seem t o f a c i l i t a t e r e c o m m e n d i n g c l e a r means. A f u r t h e r c o n c l u s i o n s t e m s f r o m t h e d i f f e r e n c e o b s e r v e d i n t h e c l a r i t y o f t h e two c l e a r e s t s t a t e m e n t s o f means: T h o s e i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s a r e v e r y c l e a r , c l e a r e r t h a n t h o s e i n t h e O n t a r i o d o c u m e nt. I t may be t h a t t h i s e x t r a c l a r i t y i s f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e s p e c i f i c i t y o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e n d s s t a t e m e n t s I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t i t may be wrong t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e n o t - e x p l i c i t and l e s s c l e a r A l b e r t a e n d s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r n o t - c l e a r means a r e n o t v a l u a b l e f o r s c h o o l i n g . T h e i r p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s , p e r h a p s , l i e s i n t r y i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e d o c u m e n t . The f u n d a m e n t a l theme o f A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s - t h e f u t u r e o f A l b e r t a ( C h a p t e r f i v e , p a g e s 3 8 - 3 9 ) , and t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e f o r s c h o o l i n g - a v i s i o n o f an A l b e r t a n c h i l d who w i l l be a b l e t o make m o r a l and s o c i a l d e c i s i o n s ( c f . C h a p t e r f i v e , p a ge 44) a r e e v i d e n t l y p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l 98 f o r a n e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , b u t t h e y a r e v e r y a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s . T h e d i f f i c u l t i e s p r e s e n t e d by t h e e n d s and means i n t h e document may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e a b s t r a c t n a t u r e o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e d o c u m e n t . In o r d e r t o c a p i t a l i z e on t h e t y p e o f e n d s and means o b s e r v e d i n t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t , i t may have t o be a c c e p t e d t h a t c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t o n l y a d d r e s s e s i t s e l f t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f one a s p e c t o f an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . Thus t h e p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s o f t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t may c a l l f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f some o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e s y s t e m , s u c h as a r e a s s e s s -ment o r a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n i n t h e s y s t e m , and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f i n d u c t i o n c o u r s e s f o r t h e t e a c h e r s who a r e a l r e a d y i n t h e s c h o o l i n s t i t u t i o n s . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n may be f u r t h e r e x t e n d e d t o t h e t y p e o f m e n t a l a t t i t u d e w h i c h may be r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o c a p i t a l i z e on t h e p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e s o - c a l l e d u n c l e a r c o n t e n t s o f A F u t u r e o f C h o i c e s . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t one most e m p h a s i z e d comment a b o u t t h e d o c u m e n t i s t h a t t h e e n d s and means e v i d e n t i n i t a r e n o t c l e a r l y s t a t e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e p o t e n t i a l i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e d o c u m e n t seems t o have been m i n i m i z e d ( c f . P a r r o w , 1 9 7 9 ) . The p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s o f s t a t e m e n t s o f e n d s and means t h a t may be r e g a r d e d " n o t c l e a r " may r e q u i r e a m e n t a l a t t i t u d e t h a t d o e s n o t t e n d t o r e g a r d as u n r e a s o n a b l e t h a t w h i c h seems t o be d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t by r e a s o n o f t h e g e n e r a l i t y o f i t s e x p r e s s i o n . E s s e n t i a l Ends and Means In t h e t h r e e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s k i l l s o f ' c o m m u n i c a t i o n ' ( l a n g u a g e s k i l l s ) was i n d i c a t e d as one e s s e n t i a l end o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g . The O n t a r i o d ocument i n c l u d e s t h e F r e n c h l a n g u a g e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a n g u a g e s k i l l s , t h e O n t a r i o and t h e 99 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s i n c l u d e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m a t h e m a t i c a l s k i l l s i n t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g . The means f o r a t t a i n i n g t h e s e e s s e n t i a l s a r e t h e t e a c h i n g o f r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , and s p e a k i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e E n g l i s h a n d t h e F r e n c h l a n g u a g e s , a n d t h e t e a c h i n g o f m a t h e m a t i c a l m a t e r i a l s ( c f . C h a p t e r s f o u r , page 32; f i v e , page 50; and s i x , page 6 3 ) . The c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a n g u a g e s k i l l s a n d t h e t e a c h i n g o f L a n g u a g e A r t s m a t e r i a l s as e s s e n t i a l e n d s and means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o n o t e . One s i g n i f i c a n t i m p o r t a n c e o f l a n g u a g e c a p a b i l i t y l i e s i n i t s u n a v o i d a b l e l i n k w i t h a l l o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e c h i l d i n t h e s c h o o l . L a n g u a g e c a p a b i l i t y i s a means by w h i c h t h e c h i l d has t o e x p r e s s h i m s e l f o r h e r s e l f , u n d e r s t a n d and i n t e r n a l i z e e v e r y o t h e r t h i n g t a u g h t i n t h e s c h o o l . N e c e s s a r i l y , h o w e v e r , t h e l a n g u a g e may n o t be t h e E n g l i s h o r F r e n c h l a n g u a g e . The c h o i c e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a n g u a g e s k i l l s and t h e t e a c h i n g o f l a n g u a g e a r t m a t e r i a l s as e s s e n t i a l e n d s and means f o r e l e m e n -t a r y s c h o o l i n g may have t o d e p e n d on t h e o f f i c i a l and s o c i a l i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e l a n g u a g e u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I t s h o u l d , h o w e v e r , be n o t e d t h a t on t h e w h o l e i t i s n o t as e a s y as one m i g h t h a v e s u p p o s e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e " c o r e " c u r r i c u l u m - t h e e s s e n -t i a l s o f what t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g - d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e o v e r a l l d e s i g n o f e n d s and means s u g g e s t e d by e a c h d o c u m e n t . G r a n t e d , t h e c o r e c u r r i c u l u m may be s e e n as a p a r t o f t h e o v e r a l l d e s i g n f o r e d u c a t i o n . T h u s , i t i s n o t p e r h a p s t h e p r o b l e m o f n o t b e i n g a b l e t o s e e a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e e s s e n t i a l s and t h e o v e r a l l d e s i g n t h a t may be r e g a r d e d an i m p o r t a n t i s s u e as t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e en d s a n d means s u g g e s t e d by e a c h d o c u m e n t a r e b e i n g a c c o r d e d i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e s c h o o l s . I t may r e q u i r e f u r t h e r s t u d i e s t o e x a m i n e t h i s i s s u e . 100 IMPLICATIONS FOR NIGERIAN EDUCATION C u r r i c u l u m was c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y as a p r o c e s s o f a s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and as a p r o d u c e o f t h a t p r o c e s s . The f i n d i n g s and t h e c o n c l u s i o n s drawn f r o m t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r i n q u i r y i n t h e t h r e e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s a r e r e l a t e d t o c u r r i c u l u m as a p r o c e s s ( c f . p a g e s 9 0 - 9 2 ) . The r e s t o f t h e f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s a r e r e l a t e d t o c u r r i c u l u m as a p r o d u c t . In any e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m t h e s c h o o l s a r e e x p e c t e d t o s e r v e c e r t a i n p u r p o s e s w h i c h i n c u r r i c u l u m l a n g u a g e a r e e n d s and means f o r s c h o o l i n g ( t h e p r o d u c t o f a s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s ) . T h a t t h e s e p u r p o s e s a r e t o some e x t e n t d i f f e r e n t f r o m one s y s t e m t o a n o t h e r i s e v i d e n t i n t h e f i n d i n g s on t h e e n d s and means i n t h e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s and t h e c o n c l u s i o n s drawn f r o m them. A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e c o m m o n a l i t i e s , t h e d i f -f e r e n c e s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n q u i r y was e s t a b l i s h e d i n e a c h o f t h e p r o v i n c e s o f O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s ( c f . p a g e s 90 and 9 1 - 9 2 ) . T h e s e t h r e e p r o v i n c e s , h o w e v e r , a l l b e l o n g t o a d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r y . To draw i m p l i c a t i o n s f r o m t h e s t u d y o f t h e i r d o c u m e n t s f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s o f a d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y ( N i g e r i a ) may seem u n r e a l i s t i c a n d , y e t , t h e r e a r e g o o d r e a s o n s f o r d o i n g s o i n a g e n e r a l way. F i r s t , t h e r e a r e s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e C a n a d i a n a n d N i g e r i a n e d u c a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e s i n t h a t j u s t as C a n a d a has p r o v i n c i a l s y s t e m s o f e d u c a t i o n , N i g e r i a has S t a t e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s . Some e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s must be n o t e d . U n l i k e C a n a d a , N i g e r i a has a v a r i e t y o f i n d i g e n o u s l a n g u a g e s ( a b o u t 200 o f t h e m ) , some o f w h i c h a r e r e c o g n i z e d i n e a c h S t a t e o f t h e C o u n t r y as w o r k i n g l a n g u a g e s , b u t s u p e r i m p o s e d on a l l o f them i s t h e o f f i c i a l l a n g u a g e — E n g l i s h . The e f f e c t o f t h i s i s t h a t a f a r s m a l l e r 101 p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t h a n i n C a n a d a i s l i t e r a t e i n t h e o f f i c i a l l a n g u a g e . S e c o n d , any e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , d e v e l o p e d o r d e v e l o p i n g , r e q u i r e s ways o f i d e n t i f y i n g t h e n e e d s w h i c h i t i s t o s e r v e . T h i r d , and m o s t i m p o r -t a n t l y , t h e r e i s good e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t d e v e l o p i n g s y s t e m s a r e p r o n e , anyway, t o b o r r o w f r o m s y s t e m s w h i c h t h e y p e r c e i v e as more d e v e l o p e d ( L u n d g r e n , 1979; U k e j e , 1980; W e i l e r , 1 9 8 0 ) . C u r r i c u l u m as a p r o c e s s o f s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g e s s e n t i a l l y r e q u i r e s a s y s t e m f o r s e l e c t i n g among a v a r i e t y o f o p i n i o n s , s t a n c e s , and i d e o l o g i e s a b o u t t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l s . B e c a u s e t h e d e c i s i o n -m a k i n g i s s o c i e t a l , i t has t o i n c l u d e a l l t h e p e o p l e who a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e m a i n t e n a n c e and t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s c h o o l s . In o r d e r t o i n c l u d e a l l t h e s e p e o p l e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , t h e m e t h o d s u s e d s h o u l d be a b l e t o i n v o l v e t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f a m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e p e o p l e . In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t i n d i -c a t e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c was i n v o l v e d t h r o u g h s u c h m e thods as t h e s u b m i s s i o n o f p a p e r s , o f b r i e f s and p u b l i c m e e t i n g s ( G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o , 1 9 6 9 : 4 ) . The A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t showed e v i d e n c e o f s i m i l a r k i n d s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i -p a t i o n ( G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a , 1 9 7 2 : 3 0 4 ) . I n t h e c a s e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e p u b l i c was i n v o l v e d m a i n l y by means o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a l t h o u g h r e s p o n d e n t s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l u d e d v a r i o u s g r o u p s o f p e o p l e who h e l d m e e t i n g s b e f o r e t u r n i n g i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s e m e t h o d s a r e f u n c t i o n a l i n a N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g , t h e y may be c l a s s i f i e d as shown i n t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n . METHODS OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION O r a l W r i t t e n P u b l i c d e b a t e s P r e s e n t a t i o n o f P u b l i c m e e t i n g s P u b l i c h e a r i n g s b r i e f s and p a p e r s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 102 P u b l i c d e b a t e s , m e e t i n g s , and h e a r i n g s u s e o r a l e x c h a n g e as t h e medium o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p u b l i c and t h e b o dy r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r o c e s s o f s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . T h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f b r i e f s and p a p e r s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s as w r i t t e n a s s umes t h a t b o t h g r o u p s o f p e o p l e h a v e a c q u i r e d t h e s k i l l s o f w r i t i n g and r e a d i n g . No s u c h a s s u m p t i o n i s s t r i c t l y n e c e s s a r y f o r d e b a t e s , m e e t i n g s and h e a r i n g s . In a N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g , i n w h i c h t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p u b l i c c a n n o t w r i t e o r r e a d , i t s h o u l d be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e w r i t t e n m e thods c a n o n l y i n c l u d e a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e p u b l i c i n a s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n -m a k i n g p r o c e s s . The p r o c e s s o f e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g has o f t e n e m p l o y e d t h e w r i t t e n m e t h o d s i n N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g s . E x a m p l e s o f Commis-s i o n s and C o m m i t t e e s w h i c h h a v e m o n i t o r e d i n q u i r i e s a b o u t t h e r o l e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g s a b o u n d . The D i k e C o m m i s s i o n ( 1 959) was c h a r g e d w i t h i m p r o v i n g t h e p r i m a r y s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a . The A s h b y C o m m i s s i o n ( 1 9 6 0 ) e x a m i n e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f o b l i g a t o r y manual s u b j e c t s i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . The B a n j o r e p o r t ( 1 9 6 1 ) c o n s i d e r e d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f r u r a l s c i e n c e i n t o t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . The A l v a n I k o k u C o m m i t t e e ( 1 9 6 4 ) s o u g h t t o i m p r o v e t h e t e x t b o o k s . T h e T a i w o C o m m i t t e e ( 1 9 6 8 ) was c o m m i s s i o n e d t o r e v i e w e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n . The N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e on C u r r i c u l u m ( 1 9 6 9 ) a i m e d t o d e f i n e n a t i o n a l g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n a t a l l l e v e l s o f s c h o o l i n g ( c f . F a f u n w a , 1 9 7 4 : 2 1 2 - 2 4 4 ) . T h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t any o f t h e s e C o m m i s s i o n s , C o m m i t t e e s and C o n f e r e n c e s h a v e a d e q u a t e l y i n v o l v e d t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e i l l i t e r a t e p u b l i c i n t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s a n d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , p r e s u m a b l y b e c a u s e t h e m e t h o d s e m p l o y e d were o n l y c a p a b l e o f r e a c h i n g t h e l i t e r a t e . T h i s l a c k o f an o v e r a l l s o c i e t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n g i v e s f u r t h e r p o i n t t o P r o f e s s o r F a f u n w a ' s comment i n 1974 when he w r o t e , "The f u t u r e o f e d u c a t i o n i n 103 N i g e r i a w i l l i n t h e l o n g r u n h i n g e on w h e t h e r t h e s c h o o l s b e l o n g t o t h e p e o p l e ' . . . and N i g e r i a n e d u c a t i o n r e f l e c t s t h e c u l t u r e o f t h e N i g e r i a n p e o p l e " ( F a f u n w a , 1 9 7 4 : 2 1 1 ) . The u s e o f m e t h o d s t h a t c a n o n l y i n c l u d e t h e l i t e r a t e i n t h e p r o -c e s s o f a s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g as t o w h at t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d t e a c h i n N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g s may be c o n s i d e r e d d e f i c i e n t . I n o r d e r t o i n c l u d e t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p u b l i c i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , t h e t y p e o f m e t h o d s h e r e c l a s s i f i e d as o r a l may be r e q u i r e d . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e two m e t h o d s ( o r a l a nd w r i t t e n ) has t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r m a k i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n t h e N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g s u f f i c i e n t l y s o c i e t a l . The v e r n a c u l a r s w i l l be t h e m o s t r e a s o n a b l e medium f o r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e o r a l m e t h o d s , a l t h o u g h r e p o r t s o f t h e i r f i n d i n g s w i l l h a v e t o be w r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h ( t h i s l a n g u a g e b e i n g t h e o f f i c i a l l a n g u a g e o f t h e c o u n t r y ) . I n t h e t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o E n g l i s h , o f t h e o r a l l y e x p r e s s e d e d u c a t i o n a l d e s i r e s i n t h e v e r n a c u l a r , c a r e s h o u l d be t a k e n t h a t t h e t r a n s l a t i o n a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t s t h e o r a l l y s t a t e d d e s i r e s . F u r t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n N i g e r i a may be drawn f r o m an a s s e s s m e n t o f H o u s e g o ' s p o l i c y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g m o d e l s w h i c h were u s e d a b o v e t o d e s c r i b e t h e p a t t e r n s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e t h r e e C a n a d i a n s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s ( c f . p a g e s 9 1 - 9 2 ) . The two m o d e l s ( r a t i o n a l - p a r t i c i p a t o r y a nd r e a c t i v e - a d v e r s a r i a l ) seem t o h a v e one f a c t o r i n common. B o t h m o d e l s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s a d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g body and a n o n - d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g g r o u p . T h e y a l s o i m p l y t h a t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , a t y p e o f i n t e r a c t i o n o r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s . One m i g h t make some a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n . 104 The r a t i o n a l - p a r t i c i p a t o r y model s u g g e s t s t h a t t r u s t a nd c o n f i d e n c e a r e i n v e s t e d i n t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g b o dy t o make u s e f u l d e c i -s i o n s , h e n c e t h e p a r t i c i p a t o r y r o l e o f t h e n o n - d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g g r o u p . The r e a c t i v e - a d v e r s a r i a l model s u g g e s t s a l a c k o f t r u s t and c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g body on t h e p a r t o f a t l e a s t some o f t h e n o n - d e c i s i o n -m a k i n g g r o u p , h e n c e t h e r e a c t i o n a r y a s p e c t o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n . I f t h e l a c k o f t r u s t and c o n f i d e n c e i n t e n s i f i e s , t h e r e a c t i o n may become a d v e r -s a r i a l . One m i g h t a r g u e t h a t r e a c t i v e - a d v e r s a r i a l i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n two g r o u p s t h a t s h o u l d be c o m m i t t e d t o a common go o d ( t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l s i n t h e s y s t e m ) i s u n h e a l t h y . T h i s t y p e o f i n t e r a c t i o n may c o n s t i t u t e a h i n d r a n c e t o t h o r o u g h s e l e c t i o n and s o r t i n g o f t h e a s p e c t s o f t h e s c h o o l ' s r o l e . A c o m p r o m i s e m i g h t be r e a c h e d by t h e two g r o u p s , b u t t h e c o m p r o m i s e may n o t a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t what s h o u l d be t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l s i n t h e s y s t e m . A u t h o r i t y i n power may r e v e r t t o u s i n g v e t o , b u t t h e r e b y s i l e n c e s w h at may be i m p o r t a n t o p i n i o n s . In t h i s r e g a r d , i t i s t o be recommended t h a t t h e N i g e r i a n e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s s h o u l d a v o i d a model w h i c h i s l i k e l y t o b r e e d u n h e a l t h y i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g b o d y and t h e n o n - d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g g r o u p . F u r t h e r m o r e , s e e n i n t h e l i g h t o f o r a l a nd w r i t t e n methods d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , a l t h o u g h a r e a c t i v e - a d v e r -s a r i a l model may i n c l u d e t h e l i t e r a t e , i t s l i k e l i h o o d o f i n c l u d i n g t h e i l l i t e r a t e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s v e r y r e m o t e . In a N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g , a p r o c e s s o f s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g n e e d s t o i n c l u d e b o t h t h e l i t e r a t e a nd i l l i t e r a t e , and a model w h i c h may be l i k e l y t o e x c l u d e a m a j o r i t y o f t h e p u b l i c f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i n g may be c o n s i d e r e d l e s s t h a n a d e q u a t e . 105 The r a t i o n a l - p a r t i c i p a t o r y m o d e l may be s e e n as p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n a N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g . C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m i n a N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g w i l l be l e s s i n f o r m e d a b o u t t h e s c h o o l as an i n s t i t u t i o n , and a b o u t how t o t r a n s l a t e t h e i r d e s i r e s i n t o t h e r o l e t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d f u l f i l , i t may be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h o s e p l a c e d i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g g r o u p i n e d u c a t i o n w i l l r e c e i v e t h e c o n -f i d e n c e o f t h e p u b l i c . I t m i g h t a l s o be a r g u e d , b e c a u s e o f t h e t y p e o f g o v e r n a n c e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i c h t h e c o u n t r y i n h e r i t e d f r o m t h e B r i t i s h , i t i s e a s i l y assumed t h a t t h e p e r s o n i n a u t h o r i t y a l s o p o s s e s s e s t h e e x p e r t i s e r e q u i r e d o f t h e p o s i t i o n . W h i l e t h i s may n o t a l w a y s be t r u e , i t seems t h a t m o s t N i g e r i a n e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s r e t a i n t h i s a s s u m p t i o n . A l t h o u g h i t t e n d s t o e q u a t e e x p e r t i s e w i t h a u t h o r i t y , i t a l s o means t h a t p e o p l e p l a c e d i n t h e p o s i t i o n t o m o n i t o r t h e p r o c e s s o f a s o c i e t a l e d u c a -t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w i l l r e a d i l y r e c e i v e t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f t h e p u b l i c . H e n c e , a t l e a s t , a h e a l t h y i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n two g r o u p s ( t h e d e c i s i o n -m a k i n g body and t h e n o n - d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g g r o u p ) , i s e s t a b l i s h e d . More i m p o r t a n t l y , a r a t i o n a l - p a r t i c i p a t o r y model may be s e e n as u s e f u l i n a N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g , i f t h e u s e o f t h e model a d o p t s as a medium o f r e a c h i n g t h e p u b l i c b o t h t h e o r a l and w r i t t e n m e t h o d s . T h u s , n o t o n l y t h e l i t e r a t e , b u t a l s o t h e i l l i t e r a t e w i l l be i n v o l v e d i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o w a r d t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a b o u t t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l s . The f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w h i c h f o c u s s e d on c u r r i c u l u m as p r o d u c t a r e n o t g e n e r a l i z a b l e i n any p a r t i c u l a r s e n s e t o N i g e r i a n e d u c a t i o n b e c a u s e o f v e r y d i f f e r e n t n e e d s o f d e v e l o p e d and d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . I t i s w o r t h r e c a l l i n g , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e t h r e e C a n a d i a n d o c u m e n t s showed i n t h e i r s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t h e e n d s a n d means o f s c h o o l i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e 106 v a r i e t y i n b r e a d t h , s p e c i f i c i t y and c l a r i t y . I t was s u g g e s t e d i n c h a p t e r s e v e n t h a t t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f s p e c i f i c i t y may be o f f s e t t o some e x t e n t by t h e way i n w h i c h b r o a d e r s t a t e m e n t s may f a c i l i t a t e d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k w h i c h t h e y p r o v i d e . N i g e r i a n e d u c a t o r s may w e l l w i s h t o c o n s i d e r w h ere c u r r i c u l u m n e e d s t o be s p e c i f i c and where i t may be s t a t e d b r o a d l y e n ough t o p e r m i t f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n l o c a l and s t a t e s y s t e m s . A CONCLUDING CAVEAT I n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s o f t h i s f i n a l c h a p t e r , two t a s k s w e r e a t t e m p t e d , t h a t o f d r a w i n g some c o n c l u s i o n s f r o m t h e c o m p a r a t i v e e x a m i n a -t i o n o f t h e d a t a o b s e r v e d i n t h e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s , and t h a t o f d i s c u s s i n g some p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s f o r t h e N i g e r i a n E d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s . A l t h o u g h , b o t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n s a n d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s r e a c h e d a p p e a r p l a u s i b l e , s u g g e s t i v e , and u s e f u l , i t must be a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t t h e y a r e s u b j e c t t o l i m i t a t i o n s . T h r e e e x a m p l e s w i l l s e r v e t o i n d i c a t e some o f t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s a n d i l l u s t r a t e t h e c a v e a t . F i r s t , e a c h s o u r c e d ocument was p r e p a r e d a t a p e r i o d o f t i m e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e o t h e r s . T h e O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t was p r e p a r e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f 1965 t o 1969, a p e r i o d c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e C a n a d i a n c e n t e n n i a l and a r e c o g n i t i o n o f b o t h n a t i o n a l i s m and m u l t i - c u l t u r a l i s m . The A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t was p r e p a r e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1969 t o 1972, a t i m e i n t h e h i s -t o r y o f t h e p r o v i n c e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d r a s t i c s o c i a l c h a n g e s as i n d i c a t e d i n t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e y o u n g t o t r a d i t i o n a l m o r a l i t y and t o s o c i a l o r d e r -l i n e s s . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s were r e l e a s e d i n 1976 and 1977, a p e r i o d w h i c h m i g h t be s e e n as t h e e m e r g e n c e o f r i g h t w i n g r e a c t i o n t o t h e f r e e t h i n k i n g o f e d u c a t o r s w h i c h had been n o t i c e a b l e i n t h e l a t e s i x t i e s a n d e a r l y s e v e n t i e s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some d i f f e r e n c e s n o t i c e d 107 i n t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r i n q u i r y among and b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e d a t a s o u r c e s c a n be e x p l a i n e d o r e l a b o r a t e d by c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t s i n w h i c h t h e y were w r i t t e n . However, t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s u s e d t o compare and a s s e s s t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p a t t e r n s o f t h e t h r e e d a t a s o u r c e s a r e p r i m a r i l y t h e b a s i s o f r e c o m m e n d i n g t h e r a t i o n a l - p a r t i c i p a t o r y p o l i c y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g model f o r t h e N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g . F o r t h e same r e a s o n , t h e p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e model d o e s n o t seem t o be c o n f i n e d t o a h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . S e c o n d l y , a n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s drawn i n t h i s t h e s i s l i e s i n t h e somewhat d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e o f e a c h s o u r c e d o c u m e nt. A l t h o u g h t h e c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a o b s e r v e d i n t h e t h r e e d o c u m e n t s i n d i -c a t e d t h a t i n q u i r y was i n i t i a t e d a n d c o n d u c t e d i n e a c h o f t h e p r o v i n c e s o f O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , a nd B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d e f i n i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l s , one may a r g u e t h a t t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s a r e d i r e c t a t t e m p t s a t p o l i c y - m a k i n g , i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e p r o c e d u r e s were i n i t i a t e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . H e n c e , p r o b a b l y , t h e i n d i c a t i o n o f o p p o s i -t i o n t o t h e i n q u i r y , t h e a u t o c r a t i c s t a n c e o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , t h e s p e c i f i c i t y o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f e n d s , t h e c l a r i t y o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f means o b s e r v e d i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s . The O n t a r i o a nd t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t s were on t h e o t h e r hand p r e p a r e d by a C o m m i t t e e o r a C o m m i s s i o n . The r e p o r t s o f t h e s e two p r o v i n c e s may be s e e n as p r o v i d i n g g u i d e l i n e s f o r p o l i c y - m a k i n g . H e n c e , p e r h a p s , no o p p o s i t i o n was a c c o u n t e d f o r i n t h e r e p o r t s . The same r e a s o n may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e b r o a d n e s s o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f e n d s , a n d t h e l e s s s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f means o b s e r v e d i n t h e r e p o r t s . F i n a l l y , i t s h o u l d a l s o be o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e r o l e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n t h i s t h e s i s i n t e r m s o f e n d s and means t o o k no 108 a c c o u n t o f t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h any o f t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i n t h e d o c u m e n t s w e r e i m p l e m e n t e d . H a v i n g n o t e d t h a t t h e r e p o r t s m i g h t be s e e n as p r o v i d i n g g u i d e l i n e s f o r p o l i c y - m a k i n g , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t o n l y p a r t s o f t h e r e c o m -m e n d a t i o n s o f f e r e d i n t h e r e p o r t s were i m p l e m e n t e d i n t h e r e s p e c t i v e p r o v i n c e s . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t some r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s were n e v e r i m p l e m e n t e d . E v e n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , whose doc u m e n t s may be s e e n as d i r e c t p o l i c y - m a k i n g , i t r e m a i n s t o be v e r i f i e d t h a t t h e s c h o o l s a r e i n d e e d d o i n g what t h e y s h o u l d be d o i n g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d o c u m e n t s . T h e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k o f t h i s s t u d y e x c l u d e d a n y c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i n t h e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s . In d o i n g s o , i t p e r m i t t e d a s h a r p e r f o c u s on t h o s e d o c u m e n t s and t h e b l u e - p r i n t s t h e y p r o v i d e d . BIBLIOGRAPHY A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S u p e r v i s i o n and C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t 1980 " E s s e n t i a l s o f E d u c a t i o n d e f i n e d by A s s o c i a t i o n s . " ASCD, News E x c h a n g e , 22:1:2. A n d r e w s , J.H.M. 1977 " L o o k i n g b a c k and a h e a d i n E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " L e a d e r s h i p i n E d u c a t i o n . T o r o n t o : C a n a d i a n E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a -t i o n , 23-33. B a h a n n a n , J.A. 1977 "Our Two S t o r y C u l t u r e . " I n C u r r i c u l u m P l a n n i n g . G l e n Hass ( e d . ) . B o s t o n : A l l y n and S a c o n , 4 2-47. B a n k s , J.A. 1977 " C u l t u r a l P l u r a l i s m and t h e S c h o o l s . " I n C u r r i c u l u m P l a n n i n g . G l e n Hass ( e d . ) . B o s t o n : A l l y n and B a c o n , 24-47. B a r r o w , R. 1979 The C a n a d i a n C u r r i c u l u m : A P e r s o n a l View. U n i v e r s i t y o f W e s t e r n O n t a r i o . Beauchamp, G.A. 1 9 6 8 ( a ) C u r r i c u l u m T h e o r y . I l l i n o i s : Kegg P r e s s . 1 9 6 8 ( b ) T h e C u r r i c u l u m . I l l i n o i s : Kegg P r e s s . B e c k , C M . , B.S. C r i t t e n d e n , and E.V. S u l l i v a n 1971 M o r a l E d u c a t i o n : I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y A p p r o a c h e s . New Y o r k : Newman P r e s s . B r a m e l d , T. 1950 P a t t e r n s o f E d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y . 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" C o r e C u r r i c u l u m Rapped as P o l i t i c a l l y M o t i v a t e d . " W e i l e r , H.H. 1980 "The F u t u r e o f E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g : Some S k e p t i c a l N o t e s . In C a n a d i a n a n d C o m p a r a t i v e E d u c a t i o n . R. F a r q u h a r and I . H o u s e g o ( e d s . ) . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . W i l l i s , G. 1975 " C u r r i c u l u m T h e o r y a n d t h e C o n t e x t o f C u r r i c u l u m . " I n C u r r i c u l u m T h e o r i z i n g : The R e c o n s t r u c t ! ' o n i s t s . W i l l i a m P i n a r ( e d . ) . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : M c C u t c h a n P u b l i s h i n g . W i l s o n , J . , N. W i l l i a m and B. Sugarman 1967 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o M o r a l E d u c a t i o n . P e n g u i n B o o k s . W o r l d C o u n c i l F o r C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n 1980 N e w s l e t t e r , 11:2:1-4. APPENDIX I AN ANALYSIS OF AND PUBLIC RESPONSE TO THE CORE CURRICULUM PART I : CONTENT ANALYSIS OF REACTION SHEETS BY J . BOTTOMLEY (1977) 117 METHODOLOGY Pub l i c response to the "Goals Booklet" was heavy. In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s the M i n i s t r y received c l o s e to 15,000 responses i n the form of the r e a c t i o n sheet contained i n the booklet. Some of these responses d i d not use the ac t u a l sheet but were i n a form that p a r a l l e l e d the sheet. In a l l i t was p o s s i b l e to code some 13,584 complete responses i n t h i s manner. Several hundred more p a r t i a l responses were coded i n the same way but these were not included i n the a n a l y s i s . M a t e r i a l that could not be coded i n a s i m i l a r manner were dealt with by Pat Bates and reported on i n the report contained i n Appendix A. This report d e a l t with some o f the complexities o f response that were not d e a l t with i n the' a n a l y s i s of the r e a c t i o n sheets. The methodology used i n the a n a l y s i s of the r e a c t i o n sheets was that of content a n a l y s i s . A s e r i e s of codes were devised that allowed an i n d i v i d u a l response sheet to be represented by a s e r i e s of numerical codes. (See Appendix B f o r the coding schedule f o r questions one and two and Appendix C f o r the coding schedule f o r question t h r e e ) . Thus coded responses were amenable to machine a n a l y s i s . The coding was performed by f i v e people h i r e d e s p e c i a l l y f o r the purpose. They were given a one day t r a i n i n g session by the author and then worked under the s u p e r v i s i o n of Mr. P h i l K i t l e y . The coding was completed i n 20. days and the material on the coding sheets punched onto computer tape by the B.C. Systems Corporation. The a n a l y s i s of the information on the tapes was performed by the author and Mr. W . G i l l . This a n a l y s i s comprised t a b u l a t i n g and cross t a b u l a t i n g the various response c a t e g o r i e s . Much of t h i s a n a l y s i s i s not reported as i t i s of a d e t a i l that cannot r e a d i l y be presented i n a report. The complete a n a l y s i s i s a v a i l a b l e i n computer p r i n t o u t form from the author should i t be of i n t e r e s t . RESPONSES BY SCHOOL DISTRICT In a l l 13,584 usable responses were received. (This excludes the masses of m a t e r i a l that was not codable i n the manner of the r e a c t i o n sheet included as page 31 of the core booklet.) Of these 2,979 were not i d e n t i f i e d by school d i s t r i c t . Three were from out of Province. With the exception of school d i s t r i c t 92 (Nisgha) a l l school d i s t r i c t s were represented. Burnaby, T r a i l , Langley, Coquitlam, Prince George and Greater V i c t o r i a school d i s t r i c t s provided a p a r t i c u l a r l y heavy response. NATURE Or THE RESPONDENTS breakdown of respondents was as follo w s : Tvpe of Respondent £ 0 Parent 8,490 62. .5% Teacher 3,689 27. .2% Parent and Teacher 440 3. ,2% Trustee 60 , 4% Student 299 2. .2% Other and Unknown 606 4. .4% Parents and teachers comprised the greatest proportion of respondents. The teachers represent roughly 14% of the p r o v i n c i a l teaching f o r c e . THE NUMBER OF GOALS THAT NEED RECONSIDERING Respondents were asked to i n d i c a t e which of the goals needed reco n s i d e r i n g . Many i n d i c a t e d no goals while others mentioned a great many. The breakdown by number of recommendations was as foll o w s . I t should be noted that a recommendation does not imply a r e j e c t i o n of the goal. In many cases the respondent was suggesting a strengthening of the goal, not i t s r e j e c t i o n . of Coals to be Reconsidered p >l None 9,372 69.0% One 2,294 16.9% Two 811 6.0% Three 479 3.5% Four 487 3.6% F i v e o r More 141 1.0% Nearly 70% o f respondents i n d i c a t e d that no goals needed reconsidering. Only 14.1% i n d i c a t e d more than one goal needed reconsidering. Thus. 85.9% of respondents i n d i c a t e d that none or only  one goal needed r e c o n s i d e r i n g . 119 E. RECOMMENDATIONS TO MODIFY THE GOALS Each respondent was allowed to i n d i c a t e up to four goals to which he or she objected. There was thus a p o s s i b l e 54.336 objections. Some 46,443 of these were not expressed as so few respondents had more than one o b j e c t i o n . The breakdown of responses i s as below. The f i g u r e s i n the t h i r d column are the percentage of r a i s e d objections that f a l l i n t o the various categories. Thus, the 1,413 objections to Goal A (Reading S k i l l s ) represent only 2.6% of the responses to t h i s item but 17.9% of the objections a c t u a l l y r a i s e d . A recommendation does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean that the item i s inappropriate. I t may mean that i t needs greater emphasis (see se c t i o n on nature of o b j e c t i o n ) . Recommendations to Change Goals Goal * % Rest No Recommendations 46,443 85 . S'/j Goal A Reading S k i l l s 1,415 2 .6% Goal B W r i t i n g S k i l l s 1,445 2 . 7% Goal C L i s t e n i n g S k i l l s 424 0 .8% Goal D Speaking S k i l l s 598 1 .1% Goal E Number System 717 1 .3% Goal F Measurement 184 0 .3% Goal G Science 224 0 .4% Goal H Roles and Rights 701 1. . 3 % Goal I Local Heritage 533 1, . 0% Goal J World Heritage 389 0, . 7% Goal K Research S k i l l s 292 0. . 5% Goal L Enquiry and Analysis 101 0. .2% Goal M Healthy L i v i n g 723 1. . 3% % Raised Objection 6.2% 1.6% 0.7% (17.9%) (18.3%) ( S.4%) ( 7.6%) ( 9.1%) (2.4%) ( 2.8%) ( 8.9%) ( 6.8%) ( 4.9%) ( 3.7%) ( 1.3%) ( 9.2%) (49.2%) (11.5%) (20.4%) ( 5.0%) The l a r g e s t number of recommendations f o r additions f e l l i n areas of reading and  w r i t i n g s k i l l s (Goal A and B), the number system (Goal E) and healthy l i v i n g  (Goal M) . Suggestions f o r additions are discussed i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . 120 r. LEVEL OF GOAL RECOMMENDED OK The recommendations f o r changes to goals ranged from the s p e c i f i c to the very general. The l e v e l i n the school system to which the recommendations r e f e r r e d i s o u t l i n e d below. The f i g u r e s i n column three r e f e r to the percentage of recommendations f a l l i n g i n the various l e v e l s . Again the t o t a l number i s 54,330 as i n the l a s t s e c t i o n (see l a s t s e c t i o n ) . Level of Recommendations # % Responses % Recommeni No Recommendation 46,440 8 5.5% _ Primary 643 1.2% 8.1% Intermediate 553 1.0% 7.0% Junior Secondary 709 1.4% 9.7% Senior Secondary 334 0.6% 4.2% K - 12 5,182 9.5% 65.6:. K - 7 251 0.5% 3.2% 8 - 1 2 104 0.3% 2.1% Thus, nearly two t h i r d s of a l l recommendations were of a general  nature and were not l e v e l s p e c i f i c . The most frequent l e v e l s p e c i f i c recommendations were concerned with the Junior High School l e v e l . G. NATURE OP THE RECOMMENDATION As was noted e a r l i e r the f a c t that a recommendation to modify a goal had been made d i d not imply that the goal had been r e j e c t e d . In f a c t i n the majority of cases the recommendation was f o r the ad d i t i o n of material to strenghten the goal. This i s shown below. The t o t a l number of responses i s again 54,336 as each respondent had the option of making up to four recommendations. Nature of Recommendation # % Responses % Recommendations No Recommendation 46,479 85.5% More Emphasis Needed In Goal 6,247 11.5% 79.5% Goal Needs Less Emphasis 326 0.6% 4.1% Goal Should Appear at Higher Level 261 0.5% 3.3% Goal Should Appear at Lower Level 1,023 1.9% 13.0% Thus, nearly 80% of the recommendations were for the strengthening of a goal. I t i s not p o s s i b l e to a s c e r t a i n the reasons f o r the recommendations or what aspect o f a goal i s regarded as being inadequate. Thus, although a goal may be i n d i c a t e d as being i n need of strengthening i t i s not p o s s i b l e to i s o l a t e i n which areas i t i s seen as being inadequate. 121 H. THE NUMBER OF GOALS NEEDING ADDITIONS Respondents were asked to i n d i c a t e any additions they would l i k e to see to the core. These suggested additions could i n most cases be assigned to an e x i s t i n g goal, e.g. the c a l l f o r a second language r e l a t e d to Goal A, the a d d i t i o n of a consumer education course to Goal H, etc. In some cases the additions did not f i t i n t o any e x i s t i n g goals and  so two new goals were created for the purposes of a n a l y s i s . These are  r e f e r r e d to as Goal N - L i f e Preparation and Goal 0 - Creative Arts  respective!y. These goals appear i n the f o l l o w i n g tables but not i n the Core Booklet. The number of additions suggested by the respondents were noted with the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d below. Suggested Additions None One Two Three Four Five or more # 8,85b 3,096 1,196 322 72 43 Respondents 65. 2:>: 22.89; 8.8% 2.4% 0.5%. 0.3% Thus, 8B of the respondents suggested at most one a d d i t i o n . 122 I. GOALS NEEDING ADDITION As noted above suggested additions were assigned to a goal. A suggestion to i n s t i t u t e second language teaching was assigned to Goal A and not to the Goals A-D f o r s i m p l i c i t y ' s sake. This accounts f o r the lar g e number of suggested additions to Goal A and the i n s i g n i f i c a n t number suggested f o r Goals B-D. I t does not imply a massive d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the goals o u t l i n e d f o r Goal A i n the core booklet. Goal Needing Add i t i o n # % Responses % Additions No Addi t i o n 47,397 87.2% Goal A Reading S k i l l s 2,062 3.8% 29.7% Goal B Wri t i n g S k i l l s '• 9 .0% .1% Goal D Speaking S k i l l s 2 .0%. .0% Goal E Number System 16 .0% .2% Goal F Measurement 7 .0% .1% Goal G Science 212 .4% 3.1% Goal H Roles and Rights 38 .1% .5% Goal I Local Heritage 13 .0% .2% Goal J World Heritage 12 .0% .2% Goal K Research & Study S k i l l s 6 .0% .1% Goal L Ana l y s i s & Problem S o l v i n g 2 .0%. .0% Goal M Healthy L i v i n g 1,289 2.4% 18.6% Goal N L i f e Preparation 1,551 2.9% 22.4% Goal 0 Creative Arts 1,720 3.2% 24.8% Thus, additions to Goal A (Writing S k i l l s ) (see note above)  Goal M (Healthy L i v i n g ) . Goal N ( L i f e Preparation) and Goal 0 (Creative  Arts) accounted f o r 95.4% of a l l suggested additions. 123 J . LEVEL OF SUGGESTED ADDITIONS As was the case with the recommendations already discussed the suggested additions were sometimes very s p e c i f i c with regard to the l e v e l i n the school system to which they applied while i n other cases they were of a general nature. The r e s u l t s are as below. Level of Suggested Additions No Additions Primary Intermediate Junior Secondary Senior Secondary K - 12 K - 7 8 - 1 2 As was the case with the additions were overwhelmingly a additions that were to apply th £. % Responses % Additions 47,432 87.3% 690 1.3% 10.1% 92 0.2% 1.3% •U 0.1% 0.6% 58 0.1% 0.8% 5,749 10.6% 83.3% 104 0.2;.- 1.5% 170 0.3% 2.5% recommended changes the recommended the K-12 l e v e l , i . e . they were f o r oughout the school system. K. NATURE OF SUGGESTED ADDITIONS In the l a s t s e c t i o n but one the d i s t r i b u t i o n of additions by goals was reported. In t h i s s e c t i o n the actual suggested additions are reported The range of suggestions was s u r p r i s i n g l y small given the number which was roughly 7,000. Ten categories accounted f o r a l l but 93 of these suggestioi Nature of Suggested Addition None Add a Second Language Add French Add on Physical Education Program Add on Outdoor Education Program Ensure the use of F i e l d T r i p s I n s t i t u t e Career Counselling Add Drug & Alcohol Education Add Sex Education I n s t i t u t e Social/Personal Relations Counselling Add Music & Creative A r t s Other The additions appear to f a l l i n t o four broad categories: i i a c a l l  f o r a second language u s u a l l y French, i i ) a c a l l f o r a c t i v i t y outside the  classroom, i i i ) a c a l l f o r a c o u n s e l l i n g program and iv) a c a l l f o r the a d d i t i o n of c r e a t i v e a r t s programs. % Responses % Additions 47.421 87 . 3% 759 1 . 4% (11.0%) 30.2% 1,320 2 .4% (19.1%) 1,266 2 .3% (18.3%) 203 ) 22.7% 0, .4% ( 2.9%) 108 0. .2% ( 1.6%,) 277 0. .5% ( 4.0%) 127 0. .2% ( 1.8%) 21.1% 303 0. .6% ( 4.4%) 746 1. 4% (10.8%) 1,713 3. 2% (24.6%) 93 0. 2% ( 1.3%) 124 NON-RELATED COMMENTS A s e r i e s of comments unrelated to the implementation of core were also coded as they occurred frequently. Nature of Comment £ % Respondents % Comments Need more D i s c i p l i n e 1,302 3.2 62.2 Should teach C h r i s t i a n Ethics 120 0.3 5.7 Should teach Comparative Ethics 134 0.3 6.4 Should be no r e l i g i o u s A c t i v i t y i n Schools 7 0.0 0.3 Should I n s t i t u t e Province -wide Exams 529 1.3 25.3 No Comments 38,660 94.9 The overwhelming proportion of respondents made no comments. Of those that d i d by f a r the most frequent comment concerned the need f o r more d i s c i p l i n e i n the schools. The nature of these comments i s discussed i n some d e t a i l i n the report by Pat Bates. Her d i s c u s s i o n provides more i n s i g h t than i s p o s s i b l e here. THE TWO WAY ANALYSIS As mentioned i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n a s e r i e s of b i v a r i a t e tabulations were produced. Many of these are not reported here. What follows i s a s e l e c t i o n of t h i s material that was judged to be of the greatest i n t e r e s t . 125 N. RESPONSES CATEGORIZED BY THE NATURE OF THE RESPONDENT In order to determine whether response to the core booklet d i f f e r e d between the d i f f e r e n t categories of respondent an a n a l y s i s was conducted that looked at the response pattern to a number of va r i a b l e s w i t h i n the groups of respondents. These are reported below. Type of Respondent V % of Goals Needing Reconsidering Number of Goals Type of Respondent 0 1 2 3 4 >4 Parent 5,798 1,490 498 349 318 37 68.3% 17.6% 5.9% 4.1% 3.7% 0.4% Student 192 63 28 7 6 3 64.2% 21.1% 9.4% 2.3% 2.0% 1.0% Teacher 2,679 584 200 85 117 24 72.6% 15.8% 5.4% 2.3% 3.2% 0.7% Trustee 37 11 3 4 3 2 61.7% 18.3% 5.0% 6.7% 5.0% 3.3% Parent & Teacher 220 64 44 12 28 72 50% 14.5% 10%. 2.7% 6.4% 16.4% Other and 446 82 38 22 15 3 Unknown 73.5% 13.5% 6.3% 3.6% 2.5% 0.0% TOTAL 9,372 2,294 811 479 487 141 69% 16.9% 6% 3.5% 3.6% 1.0% Thus the category with the highest percentage of respondents who i n d i c a t e d that no recon s i d e r a t i o n was necessary was teachers (with the exception of other and unknown) and the category with the lowest percentage i n d i c a t i n g no change was the group who were both parents and teachers followed by t r u s t e e s . A s i m i l a r t a b u l a t i o n d e a l i n g with the number of goals that needed additions i s presented as follows. 126 Type of Respondent V Number of Goals Needing Addit ions Number of Goals Type of Respondent 0 1 2 3 4 =»4 Parent 5,434 2,048 771 196 37 4 64% 24.1% 9.1% 2.3% 0.4% 0.0% Student 179 81 34 3 2 0 59.9% 27.1% 11.4% 1.0% 0.7% 0.0% Teacher 2,591 749 280 55 11 3 70.2% 20.3% 7.6% 1.5% 0.3% 0.1% Trustee 42 11 3 2 2 0 70% 18.3% 5.0% 3.3% 3.3% 0.0% Parent & Teacher 171 92 71 55 16 35 38.9% 20.9% 16.1% 12.5% 3.6% 8.0% Other & Unknown 438 115 37 11 4 1 72.3% 18.9% 6.1% 1.8% 0.6% 0.0% TOTAL 8,855 3,096 1,196 322 72 43 65.2% 22.8% 8.8% 2.4% 0.5% 0.3% The category of respondent with the highest percentage i n d i c a t i n g that nothing needed adding were the teachers followed by the tru s t e e s , (excluding other and unknown) The category with the lowest percentage i n d i c a t i n g no additions was the parents and teachers group followed by the student group. These r e s u l t s e s s e n t i a l l y p a r a l l e l those found f o r the recommendations. Neither of these patterns reveals anything o f great i n t e r e s t . In an attempt to assess the area of concern i n the d i f f e r e n t respondent category, a s i m i l a r a n a l y s i s was made of the goals objected to and goals needing a d d i t i o n . In t h i s a n a l y s i s the numbers r e f e r to responses and not respondents as each respondent was allowed to suggest changes i n , or a d d i t i o n s to, up to four goals. As we have already seen few respondents took advantage of the opportunity with only 15% o f a l l respondents suggesting more than one change or a d d i t i o n . Some caution i s needed i n i n t e r p r e t i n g these tables therefore. For example, the 998 l i s t e d f o r parents under w r i t i n g s k i l l s i n d i c a t e s that the 998 recommendations concerning w r i t i n g s k i l l s that were made by parents c o n s t i t u t e d 20% of the t o t a l number of recommendations made by parents. I t says nothing about the number of parents who made such recommendations. I t could be 333 parents each making three suggestions or 998 each making one. 127 0. NATURE OF RESPONDENT V GOALS RECOMMENDED FOR MODIFICATION + J c c DC Cu e C D C E T ; DC DO •<-( C CJ 01 c C K C Oi c tr • H tr t. E rj o C v ^ .*-< 01 cv 3 c D. •pw 10-H ID o> tr. tn 01 t tn to •H c £•* 3 >. OJ O ore/: S 1 0 Jcr. a; t o 2 CO cn id tn n +J OJ £ - I DC O - i or o: o cu OJ DC u u o tn >>-rt t. tn • H >> 3 — tr re c c i - i < to > CC —i Parent 938 18.8% 998 20.0% 239 4.8% 368 7.4% 514 10.3% 113 2.3% 80 1.6% 441 8.8%' 317 6.4% 226 4.5% 158 3.2% 54 1.1% 454 9.1% Student 29 16.2% 32 17.9% 6 3.4% 13 7.3% 12 6.7% 8 4.5% 5 2.8% 11 18 6.1% 10.1% 20 11.2% 5 2.8% 0 0.0% 18 7.3% Teacher 291 16.2% 232 13.0% 91 5.1% 119 6.6% 132 7.4% 50 2.8% 107 177 6.0% 9.9% 140 7.8% 106 5.9% 95 5.3% 39 2.2% 177 9.9% Trustee 8 16.3% 11 22.4% 5 10.2% 2 4.1% 5 10.2% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 9 18.4% 1 2.0% 3 6.1% 2 4.1% 0 0.0% 3 6.1% Parent & Teacher 110 IB. 7% 115 19.6% 69 11.8% 73 12.4% 29 4.9% 14 2.4% 23 3.9% 33 5.6% 40 6.8% 17 2.9% 18 3.1% 3 0.5% 42 7.2% Other and Unknown 39 13.5% 57 19.9% 14 4.8% 23 7.9% 25 8.6% 4 1.3% 9 3.1% 30 10.4% 17 5.9% 17 5.9% 14 4.8% 5 1.7% 34 11.8% • TOTAL 1415 17.9% 1445 18.3% 424 5.4% 598 7.6% 717 9.1% 189 2.4% 224 2.8% 701 8.9% 533 6.8% 389 4.9% 292 3.7% 101 1.3% 723 9.2% Parents thus had above average recommendations on reading s k i l l s , w r iting s k i l l s and the number system - a l l basic s k i l l s . Teachers had above average recommendations on measurement, 6cience, roles and righ t s , l o c a l heritage, world heritage, research s k i l l s , inquiry and analysis and healthy l i v i n g - a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t cluster than those of the parents. Students had above average recommendations on measurement, l o c a l heritage and world heritage. The group who were both parents and teachers had above average recommendations on reading s k i l l s , writing s k i l l s , l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s , speaking s k i l l s and science. p- NATURE OF RESPONDENT V GOALS NEEDING ADDITIONS Respondent Reading Skills Writing Skills Listening Skills Speaking Skills Number System Measurement Science Roles & Rights Local Heritage World Heritage Research Skills Inquiry & Analysis Healthy Living Life Preparation Creative Arts Parent 1520 35% 6 0.1% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 11 0.3% 4 0.1% 115 2.6% 26 0.6% 8 0.2% 7 0.2% 3 0.1% 0 0.0% 782 17.9% 905 20.7% 972 22.3% Student 48 29.3% 2 1.2% 0 0.0% 1 0.6% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 6 3.7% 0 0.0% 1 0.6% 2 1.2% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 22 13.4% 64 39% 18 11% Teachers 261 17.0% 1 0.1% 0 0.0% 1 0.1% 4 0.3% 3 0.2% 60 3.9% 9 0.6% 3 0.2% 3 0.2% 3 0.2% 2 0.1% 315 2.5% 333 21.7% 536 34.9% Trustee 10 32.3% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 9 29.0% 8 25.8% 4 12.9% Parent & Teacher 144 24.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 1 0.2% 0 0.0% 22 3.7% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 117 19.5% 179 29.8% 137 22.8% Other & Unknown 73 29.7% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 9 3.6% 3 1.2% 1 0.4% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 44 17.9% 62 25.6% 53 21.6% TOTAL 2062 29.7% 9 0.1% 0 0.0% 2 0.0% 16 0.2% 7 0.1% 212 3.1% 38 0.5% 13 0.2% 12 0.2% 6 0.1% 2 0.0% 1289 18.6% 1551 22.4% 1720 24.8% It should be noted again that the dominance of Goal A over Goals B-D i s due lan r e l v . ... , - - l rge. The student group was above average In writing s k i l l s , speaking s k i l l s , science, l o c a l heritage, world heritage and l i f e preparation. It i s only i n this l a s t category that the number of respondents i s s u f f i c i e n t l y large to make the percentage worthy of note. Teachers suggested more than average additions to science, healthy l i v i n g and creative arts with the parent and teacher group being above average on science, healthy l i v i n g and l i f e preparation. There would seem to be s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the response patterns of the respondent categories. ro CO ADDITIONS BY SCHOOL DISTRICTS An attempt was made to analyze the nature of the recommendations and additions that came from each of the school d i s t r i c t s . No coherent patterns emerged except that the school d i s t r i c t s with a strong demand f o r French or a second language were not the same school d i s t r i c t s with a strong demand f o r p h y s i c a l education or, f o r c r e a t i v e a r t s or f o r increased l i f e preparation education. Of the 59 school d i s t r i c t s above average i n suggesting additions to French or p h y s i c a l education only 8 were above average i n c a l l i n g f o r both. Only 4 of these were also above average i n c a l l i n g f o r the a d d i t i o n of c r e a t i v e a r t s and none were also above average i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n as w e l l . I t would seem that there are s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s across the province i n what people want to see added but i t i s a l s o apparent that no r e g i o n a l patterns of any coherence e x i s t i n these requests. APPENDIX I I AN ANALYSIS OF AND PUBLIC RESPONSE TO THE CORE CURRICULUM PART I I : ANALYSIS OF UNCLASSIFIED CORRESPONDENCE BY PAT BATES (1977) 131 A. INTRODUCTION This paper seeks to c h a r a c t e r i z e those responses to the Core Curriculum which could not be analysed wi t h i n a s t a t i s t i c a l framework. I t s content r e f l e c t s the p o l i t i c a l tone of public response, and o f f e r s a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of curriculum suggestions than i s possible with computerized r e s u l t s . 132 B . l . P o s i t i v e Responses The u n c l a s s i f i e d correspondence i n d i c a t e d a l a r g e r number of respondents were strongly i n favour of the implementation of CORE. About h a l f of the members of t h i s group f e l t that a c e n t r a l l y administered, standardized curriculum was long overdue, and they welcomed CORE unreservedly. A few of these people f e l t that CORE had not gone f a r enough i n s t r i p p i n g the present curriculum of i t s f r i l l s , and in removing opportunities f o r teachers to impose t h e i r values on students or use therr; as guinea pigs i n educational experiments. They expressed the view that i t i s high time that c h i l d r e n were forced to l e a r n , as c h i l d r e n lack s u f f i c i e n t s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e to learn without coercion. Other members of t h i s general group of p o s i t i v e respondents had minor re s e r v a t i o n s about CORE. They would have preferred that the goals be outlined i n a more s p e c i f i c manner, that the reasons f o r i n t r o d u c t i o n of CORE be d i s c l o s e d , and that the methods by which the government w i l l ensure that these goals are achieved, be described more f u l l y . S t i l l others wanted to know what proportion of school time would be spent on CORE, as they feared that other curriculum areas, l e s s c r u c i a l but necessary, would receive too l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n . There was some concern expressed that the i n d i v i d u a l needs of c h i l d r e n would be ignored, but i n general, the members of t h i s group seem f a i r l y confident that these needs can be met under the proposed CORE. A small number of respondents i n t h i s group expressed considerable resentment about the $ 6 5 , 0 0 0 B.C.T.F. advertisement campaign, and hoped that the M i n i s t r y would continue i t s plans despite the B.C.T.F. P o s i t i v e respondents praised the M i n i s t r y f o r c e n t r a l i z i n g and s t a n d a r d i z i n g curriculum, as moving should become much l e s s traumatic f o r those c h i l d r e n whose parents' jobs mean that the f a m i l i e s would have to change school d i s t r i c t s f r e q u e n t l y . The M i n i s t r y was also praised f o r t r y i n g to equalize educational opportunities f o r a l l B.C. c h i l d r e n by standardizing the curriculum. Many of these people a l s o expect that increased education w i l l reduce unemployment, as graduating students w i l l have more and b e t t e r employable s k i l l s . Members of t h i s p o s i t i v e group of respondents tend to favour a r e t u r n to s t r i c t e r school d i s c i p l i n e , upheld by the strap i f necessary, and a return to standardized t e s t i n g complete with f a i l u r e f o r those c h i l d r e n who do not meet the required standards. Competition i s often viewed as healthy, and appropriate as a preparation f o r l a t e r l i f e . Many p o s i t i v e respondents to CORE wished to convey t h e i r thanks to the M i n i s t r y f o r the opportunity to communicate t h e i r opinions, and to have some input i n t o educational decision-making i n the province. 133 B.2. Ambivalent Responses C o n f l i c t i n g opinions about d i f f e r e n t aspects of CORE were r e f l e c t e d i n "ambivalent'' responses. In most of these cases, the respondent supported a r e t u r n t o greater emphasis on b a s i c s k i l l s , but r e j e c t e d other parts of CORE f o r such reasons as: - CORE'S lack of pro v i s i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s r a t e s of l e a r n i n g and c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s . - f e a r that a c e n t r a l i z e d , standardized curriculum cannot po s s i b l y allow f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . - f e e l i n g that CORE goals are "motherhood" goals, impossible to argue with, and th e r e f o r e , meaningless. - f e e l i n g that CORE i s merely a p o l i t i c a l manoeuvre, designed to appease those who have complaints about the p u b l i c school system while t r y i n g not t o offend those who are s a t i s f i e d , with the r e s u l t that nothing s i g n i f i c a n t w i l l be done. - c o n v i c t i o n that the schools and teachers are already a t t a i n i n g CORE goals and more, completely to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of many parents. - b e l i e f that a l o c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d school and curriculum can provide f o r c h i l d r e n ' s educational needs more e f f e c t i v e l y than a c e n t r a l l y administered CORE. - CORE'S f a i l u r e to include the Fine A r t s , French (or any other second language), or any c u r r i c u l a r focus on the mental, emotional and s o c i a l growth of c h i l d r e n . - f e a r of a ret u r n to standardized t e s t i n g , which many parents and teachers considered r e g r e s s i v e , d i s c r i m i n a t o r y , and e l i t i s t . - concern that teachers are being i n s u l t e d by CORE i n s i n u a t i o n s that the b a s i c s are not being taught, and that many f i n e teachers w i l l be l o s t as a r e s u l t of CORE. - the vagueness and/or r i g i d i t y o f CORE i s seen as an unacceptable "cop-out" by many. In general, "ambivalent" respondents seemed anxious f o r reassurance i n CORE such that t h e i r needs might be met. The only request that seems t o t a l l y incompatible with CORE i s the one f o r re t e n t i o n of l o c a l c o n t r o l of curriculum. However, t h i s group's responses were not p a r t i c u l a r l y h o s t i l e i n tone, and did not i n d i c a t e that there was any great degree of threat f e l t . 134 B.3. Negative Responses In the negative responses, people were strongly opposed to the CORE proposals, and they e x h i b i t e d a rather h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e toward the M i n i s t r y . Many of the reasons f o r which "negative" respondents opposed CORE are the same as those o u t l i n e d i n sect i o n B.3. The d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n the f a c t that the negative respondents f e l t that c e r t a i n aspects of CORE, (e.g. i t s vagueness, i t s f a i l u r e to deal with c o n t r o v e r s i a l t o p i c s such as French or Fine Arts'), were i n t e n t i o n a l -designed to avoid p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t and to achieve a f a l s e consensus about the need f o r a c e n t r a l l y administered, standardized curriculum. Among the complaints were many suggestions that the CORE booklet and parent p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n discussions about CORE were a sharr> - intended to make parents think that they were r e a l l y having some input, and that CORE de c i s i o n s would be made by a majority of c i t i z e n s . Many of these parents, and some teachers, f e l t t hat CORE was designed to serve the e l i t e . They predicted that standardized t e s t i n g would be re-introduced with the r e s u l t that lower income groups would be barred from higher education as they tend to do more poorly on examinations. As a fur t h e r r e s u l t , the best jobs, and the best s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s would be reserved f o r the c h i l d r e n of those parents who already occupy these p o s i t i o n s . Another group of negative respondents made no such p r e d i c t i o n s as to the e f f e c t s of CORE, but i t s members deplored government in t e r f e r e n c e i n curriculum planning to the extent that i t i s proposed i n CORE. They d e f i n i t e l y want l o c a l c o n t r o l of school programmes ret a i n e d , no matter what kinds of assurances the Mi n i s t r y makes that c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l can achieve a higher educational standard. C. SPECIFIC CONCERNS ABOUT CORE In t h i s s e c t i o n , s p e c i f i c concerns not r e l a t e d to any p a r t i c u l a r CORE goals w i l l be o u t l i n e d . These concerns are of two types subject areas that many people want included i n CORE, and issues r e l a t e d to CORE by i m p l i c a t i o n . Suggestions f o r f u r t h e r research i n these areas are contained i n the b r i e f sent to Mr. J . Lowther on May 17, 1977. C . l . Second Language (French) A great many CORE respondents f e l t that a second language was a necessary part of a basic education and should therefore be included i n CORE. Most of these people agreed that French was the obvious choice as Canada i s a b i l i n g u a l country. 135 A second language, i t was argued, provides greater insight into the morphology and syntax of our own language, broadens our cultural experience, and fosters alternative ways of thinking. With more and more people t r a v e l l i n g more and more frequently on business and for pleasure, a second language would be a definite asset to communication with citizens of other countries. It was pointed out tnat the learning of a second language Is considered absolutely essential in almost every European education system - why should Canada or B.C. be w i l l i n g to set t l e for less? In light of the recent p o l i t i c a l unrest regarding the separation of Quebec, many citizens committed to a united Canada feel that learning French i s v i t a l to showing that commitment, even in B.C. where the proportion of French speakers i s low. In addition, many people desiring French, or at least one other language to be included as part of CORE believe that knowledge of another language i s basic to a "cultured" existence. This aspect of the second language issue was of less concern, and less frequently mentioned than the others. C.2. Fine Arts An overwhelming number of respondents to CORE deplored the lack of curricular goals in the Fine Arts. They fear that the creative side of children w i l l be s t i f l e d by a return to emphasis on the basics. Some respondents expressed their concern by c i t i n g research which indicates that western countries educate their children almost exclusively in cognitive or "l e f t - b r a i n " a c t i v i t i e s so that the creative, divergent-thinking "right brain" i s stunted. Back to basics would only exacerbate t h i s condition. Differences of opinion on the issue of inclusion of Fine Arts subjects in the CORE indicate differences in values, and differences in conceptions of "what i s education?" Those who feel that education should be preparation for the job market and/or for higher education often express a desire for removal of f r i l l s such as fine arts subjects. On the other hand, those who feel that education should be a preparation for a l l aspects of l i f e abhor the neglect of subjects which would help children to appreciate and employ the f u l l range of their capacities. Can the interests of both kinds of people be served by CORE? Specific suggestions for curricular goals in the fine arts were sent in by many people. In music, several of the programmes currently offered in the public schools were recommended. These recommendations were often accompanied by a statement that "research shows that in Hungary, those children involved in a regular, intense music programme do better in a l l their other subjects as well". 136 has copies of t ' e . e ^ L ^ s c ^ b T ^ "* ^ suggestions as t o the development „? . \ t h e m here. F u r t h e r the b r i e f sent to Mr. lather g 0 3 l S a r e c°"tained i n • 3 . V o c a t i o n a l and Career Education Many parents wish to see courses more s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o job and c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n CORE. They f e e l t h a t a l a c k of such courses i s a f a c t o r i n the high unemployment r a t e i n our p r o v i n c e . A study o f c a r e e r s , how to present y o u r s e l f i n a j o b i n t e r v i e w , how to w r i t e a resume, and how t o f u r t h e r a c a r e e r are a s p e c t s o f v o c a t i o n a l education t h a t many parents and t e a c h e r s wish t o see i n c l u d e d i n CORE. Some respondents expressed a d e s i r e f o r a r e t u r n t o streaming or t r a c k i n g i n the s c h o o l s . T h i s , they b e l i e v e , w i l l reduce the number o f overeducated, underemployed people. However, t h i s d e s i r e was expressed by only a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of those wanting more comprehensive c a r e e r education as a major p a r t of l i f e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . C.<4. D i s c i p l i n e A s i g n i f i c a n t number of parents and t e a c h e r s want a r e t u r n t o s t r i c t e r d i s c i p l i n e i n the s c h o o l s . Lax school d i s c i p l i n e i s viewed by many of these people as a major cause of j u v e n i l e delinquency, school vandalism, and s o c i e t a l breakdown. Amont; t h i s group, f e e l i n g s are mixed as t o whether s t r i c t e r d i s c i p l i n e should be accompanied by a r e t u r n t o use of the s t r a p . Some b e l i e v e t h a t achievement o f CORE go a l s w i l l be i m p o s s i b l e unless the teacher has the s t r a p with which to t h r e a t e n p u p i l s . In the case o f school d i s c i p l i n e , the geographic l o c a t i o n o f respondents may be r e l a t e d to t h e i r d e s i r e f o r a r e t u r n t o s t r i c t e r methods of classroom management. I t seems t h a t Surrey, Langley and P r i n c e George are among the areas t h a t have had problems with, j u v e n i l e delinquency. Perhaps the r e c o r d s of s c h o o l vandalism and youth problems i n these areas c o u l d be examined i n order that the M i n i s t r y might b e t t e r understand the pleas o f these people f o r s t r i c t e r c o n t r o l of s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . C .5. Values Teaching Among the r e p l i e s t o the Working Paper on CORE, a l a r g e number r e v e a l e d concern about values t e a c h i n g i n the s c h o o l s - something which many parents b e l i e v e i s none of the s c h o o l s ' b u s i n e s s . A d i s t i n c t i o n must be made here between two d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s o f v a l u e s which appear i n the CORE l e t t e r s . Most o f the parents concerned about values supported a r e t u r n t o s t r i c t e r d i s c i p l i n e i n the s c h o o l s , and wanted t h e i r c h i l d r e n 137 to learn r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (which they seemed to equate with obedience). What they objected to was the Values C l a r i f i c a t i o n techniques that are being used i n many curriculum areas i n the public schools. Parents are alarmed that Values Education t r i e s to replace t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n values with Humanist Values. For instance, parents f e e l that t h i s type of curriculum attempts to change nationalism to world view, i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to group dependence, absolutes to s i t u a t i o n e t h i c s , authority to i n d i v i d u a l autonomy, and eventually, order to chaos. Several c i t i z e n s mentioned a number of books, k i t s and teaching techniques used i n the schools which they f e l t were e s p e c i a l l y damaging. Their t i t l e s are mentioned i n the May 17th b r i e f sent to Mr. Lowther. Suggestions f o r research i n t o t h i s issue are outlined i n t h i s b r i e f , together with some ideas f o r the ways i n which the research f i n d i n g s might be presented to the p u b l i c . Not a l l c i t i z e n s mentioning values education opposed i t . Some welcomed values education as a good method of s e n s i t i z i n g c h i l d r e n to other people's values, and of helping them to be t o l e r a n t of d i f f e r e n c e s . Again, f u r t h e r research i n t o t h i s issue would provide greater knowledge of how opinion i s d i v i d e d . There appears to be a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the d i s c i p l i n e issue and values education i n terms of breakdown of public opinion. C.6. T e s t i n g Questions about t e s t i n g were extremely frequent i n the CORE responses. Opinion was divided as to whether standardized t e s t i n g should be reintroduced to the p u b l i c schools, although many predicted that i t would be, regardless of t h e i r opinions. Many respondents did not understand the meaning or i m p l i c a t i o n s of Dr. McGeer's statement that the M i n i s t r y of Education would be "assessing the r e s u l t s of that teaching" which appears on page one of the green CORE pamphlet. Concern seemed to a r i s e from the f a i l u r e to explain the d i f f e r e n c e between programme evaluation, and i n d i v i d u a l student and teacher e v a l u a t i o n . Among those people who advocated a return to standardized t e s t i n g were those who f e l t that a c h i l d should f a i l a grade i f he/she f a i l s to meet the requirements as t h i s would a) enforce the standards by impressing t h e i r seriousness on c h i l d r e n , and b) give c h i l d r e n experience i n f a i l i n g as preparation f o r the f a i l u r e s that they are bound to experience i n the adult world. Most of those who were i n favour of standardized t e s t i n g , however, were mainly concerned with only the f i r s t r e s u l t . These people were anxious that educational standards should be r a i s e d so that c h i l d r e n would be b e t t e r equipped f o r the labour f o r c e , and (they concluded), more l i k e l y to get a good job. 138 On the other hand, many people s t r o n g l y opposed a re t u r n to standardized t e s t i n g : they f e l t t h a t i t would be a reg r e s s i v e step. A l o t of parents are pleased with the progress that t h e i r c h i l d r e n are making i n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d programmes, designed to s u i t i n d i v i d u a l needs and geared t o i n d i v i d u a l r a t e s of learning. A standardized t e s t i n g programme would make t h i s kind of l e a r n i n g impossible, and many parents r e j e c t t e s t i n g f o r t h i s reason. In a d d i t i o n , some parents feared that t e s t i n g would be used to "weed out'' students - to place them i n general or vo c a t i o n a l programmes and thus bar them from u n i v e r s i t y , and many good jobs. Because students from higher SES f a m i l i e s tend to do better on standardized t e s t s , s e v e r a l parents saw a ret u r n t o t e s t i n g as d i s c r i m i n a t i o n - a way of ensuring that only a few low SES students could make i t in t o higher education. This method of reducing the number of over-educated unemployed was deplored. Suggestions f o r fur t h e r research i n t o t e s t i n g : a) a review of research on t e s t i n g , b) a more c a r e f u l and systematic sampling of pu b l i c opinion and c) a report on these two to p i c s together with a statement of the M i n i s t r y ' s p o s i t i o n , are included i n the May 17th b r i e f to Mr. Jack Lowther. C.7. Teacher Evaluation and P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Many parents are s a t i s f i e d with the job that teachers are doing i n educating t h e i r c h i l d r e n . They f e e l that under l o c a l c o n t r o l , the teacher may exercise enough p r o f e s s i o n a l autonomy to design programmes appropriate f o r his/her students, and to make allowances f o r students' i n d i v i d u a l needs. These parents fear that many good teachers w i l l q u i t i f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l autonomy i s threatened under the CORE curriculum. There are, however, many parents who are not s a t i s f i e d with the job that teachers are doing. These parents tend to be the same ones who wholeheartedly support a return to b a s i c s , complete with standardized t e s t i n g and r i g i d d i s c i p l i n e . Poor student performance, both academic and s o c i a l , i s often blamed on poor teaching by these parents. They want to see more rigorous evaluation of teachers, and be t t e r teacher education programmes as a means of c o r r e c t i n g these problems. Research i n t o both of these areas i s suggested and out l i n e d i n the May 17th b r i e f . To c l a r i f y p u b l i c opinion, and to evaluate teacher education and teacher evaluation techniques are i t s aims. C.8. Consideration f o r the Disadvantaged Within the group of respondents who expressed concern about the lack of p r o v i s i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n CORE were s e v e r a l people who wanted assurance from the M i n i s t r y that p r o v i s i o n f o r the disadvantaged would be made. 139 Spokesmen f o r the handicapped, the b l i n d , the deaf, immigrants, and victims of sexism and other forms of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n wrote to implore the M i n i s t r y not to neglect these people. Although many of these people were convinced that the M i n i s t r y would make allowances for t h e i r needs, they wanted a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the methods by which CORE would be a l t e r e d f o r them, and of how they would be evaluated. Perhaps representatives from the M i n i s t r y have already met with the executive of i n s t i t u t i o n s such as Je r i c h o . However, members of other i n s t i t u t i o n s and the general public seem in t e r e s t e d i n knowing that those with s p e c i a l needs w i l l be provided f o r . D. REACTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS ABOUT SPECIFIC CORE GOALS D.l . Goals i n Language S k i l l s By f a r the greatest number of responses which included suggestions about s p e c i f i c curriculum goals were concerned with Language S k i l l s . Of those people who mentioned language s k i l l s , most wanted an even greater eniphais placed on these throughout a l l l e v e l s of schooling. Among the t o p i c s that they wanted included i n t h i s greater emphasis were grammar, s p e l l i n g and penmanship. These requests came most often from the people who strongly support CORE. Ambivalent respondents' requests were i n areas not quite so t r a d i t i o n a l . A r t , music and drama were seen by many of these respondents as communications media; s k i l l s i n these areas are also necessary and should be made part of CORE. V i s u a l and audio l i t e r a c y were considered j u s t as important as the more t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a c y by many. S k i l l s of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n were regarded by many as v i t a l to a basic education and to mental and emotional h e a l t h . They f e l t that communication with peers should be included as part of language s k i l l s ; not a l l of the dialogue should take place between the teacher and pu p i l s . More emphasis on l i s t e n i n g and speaking s k i l l s would be d e s i r a b l e . One parent commented- " I f speaking and l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s are so important, then why have speech t h e r a p i s t s been cut?" A few parents requested that t e s t s f o r hearing impairment be made i n grade one. As indicated i n the preliminary a n a l y s i s of CORE s t a t i s t i c s , most of the recommendations i n the Language Goals and i n other goals were not g r a d e - s p e c i f i c . The additions requested by parents and teachers were to be applied to every grade. The additions o u t l i n e d above were the ones most frequently suggested i n the CORE l e t t e r s . Following i s a l i s t o f l e s s f r e q u e n t l y made, but s t i l l common, suggestions. D.2. Measurement and Computation There was not nearly the concern expressed about arithmetic s k i l l s that there was about language s k i l l s . Those who d i d mention measurement and computation goals most often wanted greater emphasis placed on them. The most common suggestion was that the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n t a b l e s should be memorized and d r i l l e d r e g u l a r l y . Other suggestions r e l a t e d to measurement and computation s k i l l s included: - throw out the "new math" and b r i n g back "arithmetic facts.'' Some consider that understanding of mathematical p r i n c i p l e s has been emphasized to the point where simple computation s k i l l s have been s a c r i f i c e d . - make sure that the metric system i s taught at a l l l e v e l s . - students should learn basic business mathematics, consumer mathematics, how t o budget and how t o balance a chequebook. - i n teaching mathematics to young c h i l d r e n , concrete manipulatory experiences should precede a b s t r a c t computation. (According to Piaget and others, small c h i l d r e n are incapable of operating i n completely abstract terms). - more emphasis should be placed on understanding and i n t e r p r e t i n g m a t e r i a l s from the mass media. - rote memorization exercises should be included as part of CORE. - essay w r i t i n g c l a s s e s should teach s k i l l s of synthesis as w e l l as those of a n a l y s i s , so that divergent as w e l l as convergent t h i n k i n g might be f o s t e r e d . - speed reading should be taught ( i n l i g h t of the enormous masses of p r i n t e d materials with which students should be f a m i l i a r . ) - sexism should be wiped out from the reading materials presented to school c h i l d r e n . - teachers should always c o r r e c t the students' work. - language goals should be c o r r e l a t e d and i n t e g r a t e d . - grammar, s p e l l i n g and punctuation should be marked i n the w r i t t e n work of a l l courses. - the phonetic approach to reading should be employed i n the pu b l i c schools, combined with memorization of a basic s i g h t vocabulary. 14.1 - reading f o r pleasure should be encouraged as there i s too much dependence on t e l e v i s i o n f o r entertainment. In several l e t t e r s , there were objections to the CORE lea r n i n g outcomes which mentioned propaganda. Most respondents mentioning t h i s issue agreed that students should l e a r n to recognize i n t e n t or bias i n a piece of w r i t i n g or a speech, however the word ''propaganda'' causes some concern, i . e . who i s to say what i s propaganda and what i s not? D.3. Science Goals There was considerable response from science teachers and concerned parents about the u n a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the CORE science goals. Most respondents mentioning science f e l t that the CORE goals were inappropriate f o r our t e c h n o l o g i c a l and ecology-minded age. The most common suggestion regarding science was that ecology -r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the environment - should be emphasized from kindergarten to grade twelve, and should be the basis f o r most science s t u d i e s . Course o u t l i n e s f o r a l l grade l e v e l s were sent i n by se v e r a l science teachers and some u n i v e r s i t y professors. I b e l i e v e that the Curriculum Department has copies of these so I w i l l not describe them here. Again, the main complaints were that the science curriculum o u t l i n e d i n CORE was much too narrow and had an inappropriate ''factual knowledge" focus. Hundreds of responses to the CORE booklet contained demands that Creation Theory be given equal time and emphasis to the Theory of E v o l u t i o n . Several l e t t e r s contained a l i s t of f i f t e e n f a c t s which stat e the inadequacy of the theory of ev o l u t i o n to explain c e r t a i n phenomena. The c r e a t i o n i s t s i n s i s t that school c h i l d r e n should be presented with both t h e o r i e s and allowed to draw t h e i r own conclusions. This i s obviously an organized group of people. Their l e t t e r s contained many references to c e r t a i n books published by s c i e n t i f i c c r e a t i o n i s t s , and many pamphlets were sent along to the M i n i s t r y . D.H. C u l t u r a l and Physical Heritage A wide range of suggestions f o r additions or changes of emphasis i n the CORE S o c i a l Studies Goals was submitted to the M i n i s t r y . The most common point of debate centered around the amount of emphasis that Canadian Studies should r e c e i v e . The majority of these responses were i n favour of more emphasis. Many respondents believed that a study of the United States should be a necessary component of a S o c i a l Studies Core, since the United States has so much infl u e n c e on Canadian h i s t o r y and development. An e a r l i e r grade l e v e l f o r these subjects was recommended. The second most common a d d i t i o n suggested f o r the CORE S o c i a l Studies Goals was more emphasis on current events/world a f f a i r s . Much 142 concern was expressed that students d i d not have s u f f i c i e n t knowledge and understanding i n these areas with which to become resp o n s i b l e v oters. C i v i c s , or the study of government, law, and the r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of c i t i z e n s was an area that a great many respondents f e l t 6hould receive more emphasis. (Suggestions f o r a Canadian and/or B r i t i s h Columbian Know Your Government course f o r students are included i n the May 17th b r i e f to Mr. Jack Lowther). In a d d i t i o n , a few parents wanted "the workings of the c a p i t a l i s t system" taught i n the p u b l i c schools. Much concern about the p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n of the S o c i a l Studies curriculum was expressed. Some parents f e e l that teachers should have no opportunities to put forward t h e i r p o l i t i c a l biases i n c l a s s . They want p o l i t i c s removed from the S o c i a l Studies curriculum. Other parents i n s i s t that "there i s no such t h i n g " as a n o n - p o l i t i c a l framework i n which to discuss h i s t o r y or current events. The important t h i n g i n t h e i r eyes i s to discuss a l t e r n a t i v e frameworks. The l a t t e r group also suggests that the "great man" p o r t r a y a l of h i s t o r y i s misleading and i n c o r r e c t . D.5. Goal i n Research, Study S k i l l s , Inquiry, A n a l y s i s and Problem Solving Most respondents were very strongly i n favour of emphasis being placed on these goals, as these are "l e a r n i n g to l e a r n " components. These s k i l l s are invaluable t o o l 6 , and should be constantly reinforced.. Many parents and teachers wanted to see more a t t e n t i o n paid to the various information r e t r i e v a l s k i l l s at a l l l e v e l s . Several l e t t e r s were submitted requesting that f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n be paid to r i g h t b r a i n a c t i v i t i e s i n goals K and L. Not j u s t convergent t h i n k i n g or a n a l y t i c a l s k i l l s should be stressed; divergent th i n k i n g or synthesis must recei v e emphasis as w e l l . Some of the l e t t e r s contained copies of a r t i c l e s which c i t e research i n Right Brain A c t i v i t i e s and Powers. The M i n i s t r y might wish that review of such research be done before curriculum goals are a l t e r e d . Some respondents pointed out c e r t a i n shortcomings of the le a r n i n g outcomes on problem s o l v i n g . Goals L4-6 r e v e a l a philosophy of problem s o l v i n g which includes assumptions such as "problems are so l u b l e " , and ignores such f a c t s as " s o l v i n g one group's problem often creates problems f o r another group". These respondents suggest that the philosophy behind problem s o l v i n g goals be re-examined before the goals are f i n a l i z e d . Other suggestions f o r the C u l t u r a l and Ph y s i c a l Heritage Goals are as fol l o w s : - do not g l o r i f y war i n p o r t r a y a l of h i s t o r y - help prepare c r i t i c a l consumers, responsible c i t i z e n s through 143 t r a i n i n g i n budgeting, consumer r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , b asic economics and law. (These do not r e a l l y " f i t " c u l t u r a l and p h y s i c a l heritage goals, but might be more appropriately included as " l i f e preparation" goals suggested i n the preliminary a n a l y s i s of CORE.) - add more f i e l d t r i p s to the S o c i a l Studies curriculum, as c h i l d r e n learn b e t t e r by concrete experience than they do by abstract methods. - remove sexism from the S.S. curriculum; discuss the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of s i g n i f i c a n t women to Canadian development. - members of the S.P.C.A. want t h e i r s o c i e t y mentioned as one of the l o c a l s e r v i c e s to be studied under l e a r n i n g outcome H.8. This was an organized group. D.6. H e a l t h f u l L i v i n g Goals A s i g n i f i c a n t number of respondents to CORE, i n c l u d i n g many physicians, wish to see a greater emphasis placed on p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i n B.C. schools. As Canada's population i s one of the l e a s t f i t i n the western world (according to research c i t e d by respondents), p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i n our schools should be a top p r i o r i t y . Physical education should be a required subject i n every grade, i n every semester. Supporters of a comprehensive p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s programme i n schools recommend that c a l i s t h e n i c s , personalized f i t n e s s , and single-person sports r e c e i v e more emphasis than organized or team spor t s . This w i l l help to develop a h a b i t of concern f o r physical health i n students. P a r t i c i p a t i o n rather than competition should be stressed, as p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s should not be only f o r the a t h l e t i c . I n s t r u c t i o n i n the productive use of l e i s u r e time was a l s o recommended very frequently i n CORE l e t t e r s . The absence of goals r e l a t e d to the mental and emotional health of students was deplored by many c i t i z e n s . These people b e l i e v e that developing a p o s i t i v e s e l f concept i n c h i l d r e n i s a b s o l u t e l y c r u c i a l both to t h e i r education, and to t h e i r a b i l i t y to cope i n adult l i f e . Parents, teachers and c i t i z e n s ' groups a l l had suggestions f o r l e a r n i n g outcomes r e l a t e d to f o s t e r i n g mental and emotional health goals. The best of these are contained as appendices i n the May 17th b r i e f . They contain such suggestions as: - include sex education from K-12. - c h i l d r e n should be able to i d e n t i f y p o s i t i v e aspects of s e l f . - develop awareness of choices of how to express emotion. - i d e n t i f y and take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r own thoughts, f e e l i n g s and a c t i o n s . and many more 144 E. SUMMARY In most aspects, the content of t h i s report agrees with The Preliminary A n a l y s i s of Public Response to the Core Curriculum. The areas of concern r e f l e c t e d i n CORE l e t t e r s are generally the same i n degree and proportion as those i d e n t i f i e d by s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . APPENDIX I I I GUIDE TO THE CORE CURRICULUM YEAR ONE TO SIX BY PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA ( 1 9 7 7 ) 146 Goal A — T o Develop the Skills of Reading L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S S U B J E C T S Major A r e a * of Learning Other Areas of Development and Maintenance During the Primary Years students should learn A . 1 a basic sight vocabulary; A . 2 basic word attack skills such as phonics and syllabication; A . 3 to read a short passage and iden-tify the main idea; A . 4 to read and understand material written for children; A . 5 to follow simple written direc-tions; A . 6 and in addition students should have a wide variety of reading experiences. Language Arts, Yean 1-3 Reference—Language Arts, Primary Levels ( 1 9 6 8 ) . N O T E S — 1 . P a r t i c u l a r a t t en t i on is directed to prescribed sections in the guide on (a) basic instructional r e a d i n g — word attack skills (configura-tion, content clues, structural analysis and phonetic analysis and synthesis); (b) extension and recreational read-i n g — appreciation of literature; appreciation of poetry; (c) reading in the content fields. 2 . Language arts program is under revision. Particular references will be made to core goals and learning out-comes in the new guide. Social Studies, Year* 1-3 Reference—Elementary Social Studies, Years 1-7 ( 1 9 7 4 ) . Science, Yean 1—3 Reference—Elementary Science, Interim Guide ( 1 9 7 7 ) . Mathematics, Yean 1—3 Reference—Mathematics, Years 1-12 (1977). N O T E S — 1 . Each of the content fields has a specialized vocabulary which teachers should ensure that students acquire— see mathematics guide, pp, 1 0 - 1 2 ; teacher guides for prescribed materials in social studies and science suggest vo-cabulary suitable for primary students. 2 . The student activities outlined in pre-scribed materials for mathematics and science require that students are taught how to follow simple written directions. 3 . Reading materials prescribed for Year 3 science and social studies should be used for reading skill development and maintenance. During the Intermediate Years students should learn A . 7 to use context clues to expand their basic sight vocabulary; A . 8 a reading vocabulary specific to the subject areas being studied; A . 9 to read a short passage and iden-tify the main idea and support-ing details; A . to to read at the level of material written for the newspaper; A . 1 1 to read independently for infor-mation and pleasure; A . 1 2 to follow a scries of simple writ-ten directions. Language A r t i , Yeen 4-7 Reference—A Guide to Teaching the English Language Arts in the Intermedi-ate Years ( 1 9 6 8 ) . N O T E S — 1 . Particular attention is di-rected to prescribed sections in the guide on (a) basic instructional reading— word attack skills (configura-tion, content clues, structural analysis and phonetic analysts and synthesis); (b) extension and recreational read-i n g — appreciation of literature; appreciation of poetry; (c) reading in the content Melds. 2 . Language arts program is under re-vision. Particular references will be made to core goals and learning out comes in the new guide. Social Studies, Yean 4—7 Reference—Elementary Social Studies, Years 1-7 ( 1 9 7 4 ) . Science, Yean 4—7 Reference—Elementary Science, Interim Guide ( 1 9 7 7 ) . Mathematics, Yean 4-7 Reference—Mathematics, Years 1-12 ( 1 9 7 7 ) . N O T E S — E a c h of the content fields has a specialized vocabulary which teachers should ensure that students acquire— see mathematics guide, pp. 1 4 - 1 9 . (years 4 - 6 ) ; pp. 2 2 - 2 6 (year 7 ) ; see science guide, pp. 5 - 9 ; see student materials prescribed for inter-mediate science and social studies. 2 . Teachers must ensure that students ac-quire the reading skills appropriate to content field activities— solving word problems in mathematics; following activity instructions in science; doing research projects in social studies and science. 147 Go»l B—To Develop Hie Skills of Writ ing SUBJECTS LEARNING OUTCOMES Ma>or A i m of Learning j Other Area* of Development and Mauiimancc Dunne the Primary Years students should learn B J to prin: and write neatly and legibi\. B. 2 a writing vocabulary'; B. 3 io write simple sentences. B. 4 basic skills in the mechanics of writing such as letter formation, spelling, capitalization, punctu-ation . . B. 5 and in addition students should have a variety of experiences such as writing stories, reports, letters. . . . 1 Language Arts, Yean 1-3 I Reference—Language A rts, Primary \ Levels (1968). N O T E S — 1 . Particular attention is di-rected to prescribed sections in the guide on (a) handwriting. (b) written composition: ic) spelling. 2. Language ans program is under revision. Panicular references will be made to core goals and teaming outcomes in the new puide. Social Studies. Years 1-3 I Reference—Elementary Socio! Studies Years ' 1-7 ( 1 9 7 4 ) . Science. Years 1-3 Reference—Elementary Science huerirr. Guide (1977) During the Intermediate Years students should learn B. 6 to write quickly while retaining neatness, accuracy, and legi-bility: B 7 a writing vocabulary specific to the subjects being studied. B. 8 to generate ideas from experience and information: B. 9 to express thoughts in written form. B. 10 to write well-organized and logical paragraphs Language Arts. Years 4—7 Reference—A Guide to Teaching the English Language Arti in the Intermedi-ate Years (196Sj N O T E S — 1 . Particular attention is di-rected to prescribed sections in the guide on (a) the composition process, (bi grammar: ic) spelling. id) handwriting 2. Language arts program is under re-vision. Particular references will be made to core goals and learning outcomes in the new guide. Mathematics, Years 1—3 Reference—Moirirrrmiicj. Yean i — f 1977 . N O T E * — 1 . Teachers should encourage nea-and legible written work in all subject areas 2. Teacher guides for prescribed materials m mathematics, social studies, and science supers; t vocabulary suitable for primary students 3. To meet the requirements for written w-ori. in social studies and science— social studies guide, pp. 4 - 9 science guide. Goal B. Learning Outcome 2 (p. 8); it is necessary students be taught the correct | techniques of report writing. | Social Studies. Years 4—7 ' Reference—Elementary Social Studies. Years 1-7 (1974). Science. Years A—7 Reference—Elementary Science. Interirr. Guide i 1977). Mathematics. Years 4—7 Reference—Mathematics, Years J-J2 <1977i N O T E S — 1 . Teachers should encourage neat and legible written work in all subjeci areas. 2. Each of the content fields has a specialized vocabulary- Teacher judgment is required in deciding upon what technical vocabulary stu-dents need to be able to write a: each grade level. 3. To meet the requirements for written work in social studies and science— social studies guide, pp. 4-9. science guide. Goal B. Learning Outcome (p. 8): it is necessary students be taught toe correc: techniques of report writing. 148 Goal C—To Develop Hie Skills of Listening L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S S U B J E C T S Major Areas of Learn int Other Areas of Development and Maintenance During the Primary Years students should learn C. 1 to listen to a short presentation and recognize the main idea; C. 2 to follow simple oral directions; C. 3 to distinguish between the sounds of the letters; C. 4 and in addition students should have a variety of experiences such as listening to stories, choral speech, live plays, choral music, instrumental music. . . . Language Arts, Yean 1-3 Reference—Language Arts, Primary Levels ( 1 9 6 8 ) . N O T E S — 1 . Particular attention is di-rected to prescribed sections in the guide (a) where the need to teach the skill of listening is emphasized (pp. 1 5 - 1 7 ) ; (b) where the appreciation of litera-ture and appreciation of poetry is outlined (pp. 3 9 - 4 8 ) . 2 . Language arts program is under re-vision. Particular references will be made to core goals and learning out-comes in the new guide. Music, Years 1-3 References—Elementary Music Guide, 1 9 7 1 . Skill Development and Related Activities In Music Chart. N O T E S — 1 . See music guide section on listening. 2. The chart indicates listening activi-ties in music suitable for primary students. Mathematics, Yean 1-3 Reference—Mathematics, Years 1-12 ( 1 9 7 7 ) . Physical Education, Yean 1-3 Reference—Elementary Physical Education Years 1-7 ( 1 9 7 5 ) . Science, Yean 1—3 Reference—Elementary Science, Interim Guide ( 1 9 7 7 ) . Social Studies, Yean 1-3 Reference—Elementary Social Studies Years 1-7 ( 1 9 7 4 ) . N O T E — T h e teacher should use opportunities that exist in the content fields for developing and reinforcing the skills of listening. The fol-lowing are illustrations on l y— oral drill in number facts in mathematics; following oral directions in physical edu-cation and science activities; listening for the main ideas in media pre-sentations in social studies. During the Intermediate Years stu-dents should learn C. 5 to listen to a short presentation, recognizing the main idea and supporting details; C. 6 to follow a series of oral direc-tions. Language Arts, Yean 4—7 Reference—A Guide to Teaching the English Language Arts in the Intermedi-ate Years ( 1 9 6 8 ) . N O T E S — I . Particular attention is di-rected to prescribed sections in the guide on (a) listening; ( 6 ) appreciation of literature and appreciation of poetry. 2 . Language arts program is under re-vision. Particular references will be made to core goals and learning out-comes in the new guide. Art, Yean 4-7 Reference—Elementary School Art ( 1 9 7 2 reprint). Mathematics, Yean 4—7 Reference—Mathematics. Years 1-12 ( 1 9 7 7 ) . Physical Education, Yean 4-7 Reference—Elementary Physical Education, Years 1-7 ( 1 9 7 5 ) . Social Studies, Yeen 4-7 Reference—Elementary Social Studies, Years 1-7 ( 1 9 7 4 ) . N O T E — T h e teacher should use opportunities that exist in the content fields for developing and reinforcing the skills of listening. The fol-lowing are illustrations on l y— oral drill in number facts in mathematics; following oral directions in art, physical education, and science activities; listening for the main ideas in media pres-entations in social studies. 149 Goal D—To Develop the Skills of Speaking L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S S U B J E C T S Major Areas of Learning Other Areas of Development and Maintenance During the Primary Years students should learn D. 1 to express comp le te thoughts orally; D. 2 to speak clearly, with expression; D. 3 a larger speaking vocabulary: D. 4 and in addition students should have a variety of speaking ex-periences such as storytelling, choral s peak ing , r o l e play-ing . . . Language A m 1-3 Reference—Language Arts. Primary Lei els ( 1 9 6 8 ) . N O T E — S e e guide, p p . 2 5 - 3 0 . Some suggestions f o r speech development may be found i n the appendix to the guide. In particular, see examples suitable for choral speaking o n p p . 2 0 5 - 2 0 7 . N O T E S ! . Students at the primary level should be given opportunities to practise effective speaking skills in all subject areas. 2. The content fields at the primary level provide ample opportunity f o r the development o f speaking skills. Teachers should encourage students lo use effective speaking techniques in oral reporting in such subjects as health, science, and social studies. During the Intermediate Years students should learn D. 5 to participate effectively in group discussions; D. 6 to develop appropriate qualities of voice i n terms o f inflection. volume, enunciation, and p r o -nounciation; D. 7 a speaking vocabulary specific t o the subject areas being studied. Language Artt 4-7 Reference—A Guide to Teaching the English Language Arts in ihe Inter-mediate Years ( 1 9 6 8 ) . N O T E S — 1 . Teachers are referred spe-cifically to the sec t i on o f the guide headed "Oral Expression" ( p p . 1 0 - 1 2 ) . 2. The section. "Speaking and Listen-ing Skills and Experiences" ( p p . 1 3 - 4 3 ) provides the teacher with detailed sug-gestions. 3. Language arts program is under re-vision. Particular references w i l l be made t o core goals and learning o u t -comes in Ihe new guide. Health 4-7 Reference—Human Life Sciences. Years 1-7 ( 1 9 7 1 ) . Music 4-7 ' Reference—Elementary Music ( 1 9 7 1 ) Science: 4-7 Reference—Elementary Science. Interim Guide ( 1 9 7 7 ) . Social Studies 4-7 Reference—Elementary Social Studies Years / - 7 < 1 9 7 4 ) . N O T E S — 1 . T h e content fields at the inter-mediate level provide ample opportunity f o r the development o f s peak ing s k i l l s , teachers should encourage students to use effective speaking techniques in oral reporting in such subject areas as health, science, and social studies. 2. The music program should be used to develop appropriate qualities o f diction, intona-t i o n , volume. . . . 150 Goaf E—To Understand Our Number System and Use It in Practical Situations L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S Major Arem* of l u n u n i Other Area* of Development and Marnierum Dunnp tbe should lean. E 1 Primary Yean students I Mathematics 1—3 j Reference—Mathematics, Yean 1-12 I (19-7,. j N o T t — I n the guide, pp. 10-12, the expectations are clear,> outlined Core ! karninp for the priman mathematics | program are indicated specifically (see j note, p. 9 of the guide). the concept of numbers through relating number* symbols to real object!: E. 2 to read, understand place value, and write numerals to 999. E. 3 to recognize and use such symbols as those associated with addi-tion, subtraction, multiplication, division, our tnoncj system, the concepts of equality and inequality . . .; E 4 to solve addition and subtraction examples of two and three digit numbers. E 5 to solve multiplication and divi-sion example: for products up to 50. E- 6 to make change accurately using coins and small bilis. Science 1-3 Reference—Elemenia ry Science, interim Guide ( 1977j. Social Studies 1-3 Reference—Elementary Social Siudiey Yean 1-7 (1974). N O T E — T h e content of the science program and. to a lesser degTec. the social uudm pro-gram, require an understand in; and, abilu> to use the number system Teachers, therefore, should develop and reinforce appropriate num ber skills in teaching the processes of classify-ing, quantifying, communicating, and interpre-ting dau During tbe Intermediate Years stu-dents should ica-T. E. 7 the value represented by each digit in a multi-digit numeral: E. 8 to identify multiples and factors of a number. E 9 to perform, with accuracy and a reasonable degree of speed, the operations of addition, subtrac-tion, multiplication, and divi-sion with rational Dumbers: E 10 to perform, in the correct order. a calculation involving more than one operation (addition, subtraction, multiplication, divi-sion) ; E. 11 to write equivalent rational num-bers in decimal, fraction, and per cent numeral form; E, 12 to check the accuracy of tbeir result*. I Mathematics 4-7 Reference—Mathematics. Years 1-12 (1977). N O T E — I n the guide, pp. 14-19 (for years 4-4) and pp. 22-26 (for year 7), the expectations are clearly outlined. Core learnings for the intermediate , mathematics program are indicated spe-cifically {see note, p. 9 of the guide). Science 4-7 Reference—Elementary Science. Interim Guide (1977). Social Studies 4-7 Reference—Eiementan Social Studies, Years 1-7 ( 1974). N O T I — T h e content of the science program and. to a lesser degree, the social studies pro-gram, require an understanding and ability to use the number system. Teachers, therefore, should develop and reinforce appropriate num-ber skills in teaching the processes of classify-ing, quantifying, communicating, and interpret-ing data. 151 Goal F—To Develop Knowledge of the Basic Principles and Skills of Measurement and of Relationships Involving Space and Shape L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S S U B J E C T S Major Areas of Learning Other Areas of Development and Maintenance During the Primary Years students should learn F. I to use the common units of mea-surement f o r length (cm. m, km), capacity (ml, L), mass (g, kg), temperature (C), and time; ,F. 2 to recognize plane and solid geo-metric shapes such as the r ec -tangle, triangle, cube, sphere, cylinder, cone, pyramid. Mathematics 1—3 Reference—Mathematics, Years 1-12 ( 1977). N O T E — I n the guide, pp. 10-12, the expectations are clearly outlined. Core learnings are indicated specifically (see note. p. 9 of the guide). Science 1—3 Reference—Elementary Science, Interim Guide (1977). Social Studies 1-3 Reference—Elementary Social Studies, Years 1-7 (1974). NOTE—Students are required to apply their knowledge of measurement in the primary science and social studies programs— student activities in the science program; map skills in the social studies program. During the Intermediate Years students should learn F. 3 to use the common units of area, volume, and angular measure; F. 4 to estimate length, area, capacity, mass, temperature, and time; F. 5 t o describe accurately parallel and perpendicular lines, triangles, quadrilaterals, circles . . .; F. 6 the concept of congruency for seg-ments and angles. Mathematics 4-7 Reference—Mathematics, Years 1-12 (1977). N O T E — I n the guide, pp. 14-19 (for years 4-6) and pp. 22-26 (for year 7), the expectations are clearly indicated. Core learnings are indicated specifically (see note p. 9 of the guide). Science 4—7 Reference—Elementary Science, Interim Guide (1977). Social Studies 4-7 Reference—Elementary Social Studies, Years 1-7 (1974). NOTE—Students are required t o apply their knowledge o f measurement in the intermediate science and social studies programs— student activities in the science program; map skills in the social studies program. 152 Goal G—To Develop Knowledge of Science ai Related to Everyday Life LEARNING OUTCOMES SUBJECTS Major Areat or Learning Other Areas of Development and Maintenance During the Primary Years students should learn G. I about the changes which occur during the seasonal cycle; G. 2 that living things require care, in-cluding food, water, and an appropriate environment; G. 3 to identify common animals and plants. Sciance 1-3 Reference—Elementary Science, In-terim Guide ( 1977). NOTE—Recommended teaching pro-grams are found in the guide, pp. 11-21. Social Srudias 1-3 Reference—Elementary Social Studies. Years 1-7 (1974). Languaoa Arts 1-3 Reference—Language Arts, Primary Levels (1968). HaaMi 1-3 Reference—Human Life Sciences, Years 1-7 (1971). Art 1-3 Reference—Elementary School Art (1972 Reprint). N O T E S — 1 . Integration of subject areas at the primary level is a general practice. Therefore, teachers should capitalize on opportunities as they arise in language arts, social studies, art, and health to teach the content outlined in these learning outcomes. 2. Outdoor activities can be particularly use-ful in reinforcing these outcomes. During the Intermediate Years students should learn G. 4 the basic physical and chemical properties of matter, such as heavy and light, hot and cold, smell, taste, solid, liquid, or gas; G. 5 to use simple machines such as the Ie\er. wheel and axle, the in-clined plane . . .; G. 6 the basic principles of such cycles as the life cycles of plants and animals, water cycle, food chain G. 7 simple classifications of animals such as mammals, fish, and rep-tiles. Sciatica 4—7 Reference—Elementary Science, In-terim Guide ( 1977). NOTE—Recommended teaching pro-grams are found in the guide, pp. 11-21. The major responsibility for the development of knowledge of science as relate to everyday life falls into the realm of the science program. Teachers are encouraged to use opportunities as they arise in other content fields to reinforce this knowledge. 153 Goal H—To Develop Knowledge and Understanding of the Roles, Responsibilities, and Rights of the Individual in Society LEARNING O U T C O M E S S U B J E C T S Major Areas of Learning Other Areas of Development and Maintenance During the Primary Years students should learn H. I to co-operate with others; H 2 the basic characteristics of fami-lies in various cultures, includ-ing similarities and differences in functions, relationships, and size; H. 3 about the characteristics of the local community, such as its size, services, industries . . .; H. 4 a sense of responsibility for their immediate environment; H. 5 basic safety rules for pedestrians and cyclists. Social Studies 1-3 Reference—Elementary Social Studies, Years 1-7 (1974). NOTE—Teachers are referred to the curriculum guide, pp. 11-21, for appro-priate topics at each grade level. Language Arts 1—3 Reference—Language Arts, Primary Levels (1968). Science 1—3 Reference—Elementary Science, Interim Guide (1977). Healtk 1-3 Reference—Human Life Sciences. Years 1-7 (1971). Physical Education 1—3 Reference—Elementary Physical Education. Years 1-7 (1975). Art 1-3 Reference—Elementary School Art (1972 reprint). Music 1-3 Reference—Elementary Music (1971). NOTE—Teachers should use opportunities as they arise in the content fields for developing and maintaining these learning outcomes— co-operation in group work in all subject areas; an understanding of and appreciation for one's environment in outdoor activi-ties; the practising of safety rules in daily life. During the Intermediate Years stu-dents should learn H. 6 to work independently as well as with others; H. 7 how the natural environment affects the development of dif-ferent types of communities and how these communities affect the environment; H. 8 about such local services as pub-lic transportation, banking, pub-lic libraries, telephones. . . . Social Studies 4-7 Reference—Elementary Social Studies, Years 1-7 (1974). NOTE—Teachers are referred to the curriculum guide, pp. 23-37, for appro-priate topics at each grade level. N O T E for H. 6—This outcome is funda-mental to teaching in all subject areas. N O T E S for H. 7, H. 8—1. Teachers should use appropriate stories in language arts to re-inforce these outcomes. 2. The science program provides opportuni-ties for teachers to develop outcome H.7. See science guide, pp. 5, 18, 20, and 21. 154 I—Te Develop Knowledge and Understanding of Our Cultural and Physical Heritage L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S S U B J E C T S Major A real of LeamirtB Other Areas of Development and Maintenance During the Primary Years students should learn I. I about the local community, includ-ing its major physical features and weather; 1. 2 The National Anthem, Canada's flag and emblems, and British Columbia's flag and emblem. Socill Studiei 1-3 Reference—Elementary Social Studies, Years 1-7 ( 1974). N O T E S — 1 . For outcome I. 1 teachers are referred to the social studies guide, pp. 11-21. 2. It is expected that teachers of pri-mary music will ensure that students learn the National Anthem. 3. At the present time current guides do not make specific reference to flags and emblems of Canada and British Co-lumbia. However, it is expected that teachers will make students familiar with these symbols of our country and Prov-ince. N O T E for I. 1—The science and language arts programs offer opportunities to develop this outcome. During the Intermediate Years stu-dents should learn I. 3 the major physical and political geographic features of Canada with particular reference to Brit-ish Columbia; I. 4 how their present communities have been influenced by the past; 1. 5 about the discovery and exploration of Canada; I. 6 about the native peoples of Canada, their culture and their contribu-tion to Canadian development; I. 7 and in addition students should have experiences in reading the works of Canadian authors. Sacral Studiei 4-7 Reference—Elementary Social Studies Years 1-7 (1974). NOTE—Teachers are referred specifi-cally to the prescribed content in the guide, pp. 23-29. Language Arts 4—7 Reference—A Guide to Teaching the English Language Arts in the Intermediate Years (19681. NOTE—Teachers should use opportunities to reinforce these outcomes as they arise through readings in the language arts program. 155 Goal J — T o Develop Knowledge and Understanding of the Cultural and Physical Heritage of the World L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S Major A r e * * of Lcanuns Other Areas of Development and Mi ainienancv During the Primary Years students should learn J. ) about the major physical feature* of the world, its oceans ana con-tinents. J. 2 about the traditional festivals ap-propriate to the communit). During the Intermediate Years students should learn J. 3 the location of major geographic features and countries of the work J. 4 about prehistoric beginnings and early civilizations such as the Egyptian, Sumenar,. Greek, komar. . . J. 5 about the similarities and differ-ences among countries in areas such as transportation, agricul-ture, industry,, recreation . . J. 6 the ways in which different cul-tures meet basic needs such as the need for food, clothing shelter, human relations . . . Social Sew diet 1-3 Reference—Elementary Socio I Studies, Yean 1-7 < 1974 j. NOTE—Learning outcome J. 1 is not intended to infer thai social studies at the primary level should become "capes and ba>s geograph)." Rather, it is the inten-tion that students should be taught those physical features which the teacher per-ceives are appropriate for the primary child The prescribed Primary Mop Ku provides some assistance in this regard. NOTI—Integration of subject areas at the primar) level is a general practice. Teachers ma> sec learning outcome J. 2 as an cprxv-tunii) to integrate content from such subje-ts as social studies, music, art. and language ans Social Studiet 4—7 Reference—Elementary Social Studies, Yean 1-7 (1974). NOTE—Teachers are directed to the prescribed content in the social studies guide, pp. 23-37. Laneuapt Am 4-7 Reference—A Guide to Teaching the Engi--Language Am in the Intermediate Years U96is-NOTE—Teachers should use opportunities tc reinforce these outcomes as the) arise through readings in the language arts program. 156 Goal K—To Develop Research and Study Skills L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S S U B J E C T S Major Areas of Learning Other Areas of Development and Maintenance During the Primary Years students should learn K. 1 to place in alphabetical order, using the first letter, words within their sight vocabulary; K. 2 to recall information based on print, or non-print materials such as pictures, films, audio tapes. . . . Language Arts 1—3 Reference—Language Arts, Primary Levels (1968). Health 1-3 Reference—Human Life Science Years 1-7 (1971). Social Studies 1-3 Reference—Elementary Social Studies, Years 1-7 (1974). Science 1—3 Reference—Elementary Science, In-terim Guide (1977). N O T E S — 1 . The language arts program is the major learning area for K. 1. 2. With reference to K. 2. the subject areas listed above provide opportunities for learning. Teachers should ensure that a range of media is used in develop-ing this outcome. During the Intermediate Years students should learn K. 3 to summarize longer passages, selecting important elements and omitting unnecessary de-tail; K. 4 to locate and use information from sources such as the en-cyclopedia, atlas, dictionary, textbook. . . . Language Arts 4-7 Reference—A Guide to Teaching the English Language Arts in the Intermedi-ate Years (1968 ). NOTE—Teachers are referred to the prescribed content in the guide, pp. 76-87. Social Studies 4-7 Reference—Elementary Social Studies, Years 1-7 (1974). Science 4-7 Reference—Elementary Science, Interim Guide (1977). Health 4-7 Reference—Human Life Sciences. Years 1-7 (1971). Mathematics 4-7 Reference—Mathematics Years 1-12 (1977). N O T E S — 1 . Student activities normally asso-ciated with social studies and, to a lesser extent, science and health provide opportunities for the development and reinforcement of these research and study skills. 2. Instruction in the skills suggested by learning outcome K. 3 should assist students in solving word problems in mathematics. 157 Goal L To Develop the Skills of Inquiry, Analysis, and Problem-solving LEARNING OUTCOMES SUBJECTS Major Areas of Learning Other Area! ol Development and Maintenance During the Primary Years students should learn L . 1 to make observations for use in classifying items according to size, colour, shape . . .; L . 2 to select relevant information in order to answer simple prob-lems: L . 3 and in addition students should have experience in finding al-ternative ways to solve non-mathematical problems. N O T E — T h e skills of inquiry, analysis, and problem-solving are required in all subject areas. Teachers should use op-portunities as they arise to teach these skills. The following are illustrations only (references are from current curri-culum guides)— science, see Goal B . p. 6 ; social studies—see 'Development of Skills." pp. 4 -6 ; mathematics—see "classification" outcomes, pp. 1 0 - 1 2 . During the Intermediate Years students should learn L . 4 to gather, classify, and interpret relevant data in order to solve problems; L . 5 to identify a series of causes lead-ing to an event; L . 6 and in addition students should have experience in using imagi-native approaches to problem situations. N O T E — T h e skills of inquiry, analysis, and problem-solving are required in all subject areas. Teachers should use op-portunities as they arise to teach these skills. The following are illustrations onl> (references are from current curri-culum guides) — language arts—see "Study Skills for the Intermediate Years," pp 7 6 - 8 1 ; science—see Goal B , p. 6 ; social studies—see "Development of Skills," pp. 4—6. 158 Goal M — T o Develop Skills and Knowledge for Healthful Living L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S Major Areas of Learning Other Areas of Development and Maintenance During the Primary Years students should learn M. 1 the importance of caring for the body through proper rest, exer-cise, nutrition, and cleanliness: M. 2 to improve motor activities through exercises in hand-eye co-ordination, balance, strength, flexibility . . .; M. 3 to identify positive aspects of themselves and relate to others positively. Health 1-3 Reference—Human Life Science, Years 1-7 ( 1 9 7 1 ) . N O T E — S e e prescribed content in guide, pp. 4 - 1 5 . Physical Education 1-3 Reference—Elementary School Physi-cal Education ( 1975). N O T E S — 1 . See, in particular, p. 15, "Characteristics and Needs of Children," and pp. 19-21. "Principles of Motor Learning." 2. The Resource Supplement for the Elementary School Physical Education Guide (1971) provides additional sugges-tions and guidance for teachers. NOTE—Teachers should use opportunities as they arise in all subject areas to develop and reinforce these learning outcomes. The follow-ing are illustrations only— the importance of good health in the units on "The Family" and "The Commu-nity" in social studies; the "Biological Sciences" units for Years 1 and 2 on p. 20 of the science guide. During the Intermediate Years students should learn M. 4 the fundamentals of good nutri-tion from the Canadian Food Rules: M. 5 to improve motor skills by partici-pating in a variety of activities such as games, creative move-ments, gymnastics, and outdoor pursuits: M. 6 and in addition students should have experiences in art. music, and drama such as painting, modelling. singing. playing music, improvising plays . . .; M. 7 have an awareness of a variety of art forms: M. 8 have empathy for people. H.ahrti 4 - 7 Reference—Human Life Science. Years 1-7 (1971). Physical Education 4—7 Reference—Elementary School Physi-cal Education ( 1975). Art 4 - 7 Reference—Elementary School Art, Years 1-7 ( 1972 reprint). Music 4 - 7 Reference—Elementary Music Guide (1971 ). N O T E — T h e above guides provide sug-gested content to develop the skills and knowledge indicated in these outcomes. NOTE—Teachers should use opportunities as they arise in all subject areas to develop and reinforce these learning outcomes. 

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