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What the elementary schools should be doing : blueprints from three Canadian provinces - Ontario, Alberta,… Alapini, H. Olukayode 1981

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WHAT THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS SHOULD BE DOING: B l u e p r i n t s from Three Canadian Provinces O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , and B r i t i s h Columbia  B . P h i l . , U r b a n V I I I U n i v e r s i t y , Rome, 1966 L . P h i l . , U r b a n V I I I U n i v e r s i t y , Rome, 1967 M.Ed., T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1977 A T H E S I S SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S Department o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t , and Higher (Educational  Administration)  /  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l 1981 ©  H. O l u k a y o d e A l a p i n i  Education  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e I further agree that permission f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  for extensive  be g r a n t e d  copying  and  of this  t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d  or p u b l i c a t i o n  w i t h o u t my  permission.  H. O l u k a y o d e A l a p i n i  Date  thesis  by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r  It i s understood that copying  C e n t r e F o r The S t u d y o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  study.  in  Education  written  of  ii  ABSTRACT  T h i s study examined  major p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m - d e f i n i n g documents  p r o d u c e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1969 t o 1977 i n O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , and Columbia, Canada, i n order t o i d e n t i f y : t i o n of the documents, prepared,  (3)  (2)  (1)  British  the reasons f o r the prepara-  t h e p r o c e s s e s by w h i c h t h e d o c u m e n t s w e r e  t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s made c o n c e r n i n g p r i o r i t i e s f o r t h e  e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s c u r r i c u l u m , and the Nigerian educational  (4)  any p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r  systems.  The c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n u s e d i n t h e s t u d y r e p r e s e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m a s a p r o c e s s o f s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and a p r o d u c t o f that process.  T h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n was u s e d as an a n a l y t i c a l t o o l t o  examine the source documents.  The s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s used i n the s t u d y  a r e o f two t y p e s - p r o c e s s and p r o d u c t .  The q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o  p r o c e s s were i n t e n d e d t o i d e n t i f y i n the s o u r c e documents the used f o r t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n .  procedures  The q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o p r o d u c t s o u g h t t o  i d e n t i f y i n the documents the c u r r i c u l a f o r the elementary s c h o o l s . A comparative a n a l y s i s of the f i n d i n g s about the  procedures  showed e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e O n t a r i o a n d t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t s on t h e one h a n d and t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t on t h e o t h e r .  Two  p o l i c y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g m o d e l s ( r a t i o n a l - p a r t i c i p a t o r y and r e a c t i v e a d v e r s a r i a l ) were used to examine the p r o c e d u r e s .  The  rational-participa-  t o r y m o d e l was r e c o m m e n d e d f o r t h e N i g e r i a n e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s . assessment  o f the p r o c e d u r a l methods observed i n the t h r e e Canadian  An docu-  ments i n d i c a t e d t h a t the methods c o u l d a p p l y t o N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g s i n a p a r t i c u l a r way w h i c h c o u l d f a c i l i t a t e t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f b o t h t h e l i t e r a t e and t h e i l l i t e r a t e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f a s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g .  i ii  A comparative the elementary  a n a l y s i s o f the f i n d i n g s about the c u r r i c u l u m f o r  s c h o o l s showed t h a t t h e t h r e e C a n a d i a n  in t h e i r statements  documents d i s p l a y  o f e n d s a n d means o f s c h o o l i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i e t y  i n breadth, s p e c i f i c i t y , and c l a r i t y .  T h e a d v a n t a g e s o f s p e c i f i c i t y may  be o f f s e t t o some e x t e n t b y t h e way i n w h i c h b r o a d e r s t a t e m e n t s  may  f a c i l i t a t e c u r r i c u l u m development w i t h i n t h e framework which they  provide.  iv T A B L E OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i  L I S T OF T A B L E S  ix  L I S T OF FIGURES  x  L I S T OF A P P E N D I C E S  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT CHAPTER ONE:  CHAPTER TWO:  xii INTRODUCTION  1  Background Perspectives The P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y  2 4  The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y  4  Overview of the Thesis  5  REVIEW OF RELATED L I T E R A T U R E THE NATURE OF CURRICULUM Variety of Definitions C u r r i c u l u m as an E d u c a t i o n a l Decision-making Process Societal educational decisionmaking process Institutional educational decision-making process Instructional educational decision-making process C u r r i c u l u m as a P r o c e s s o f F o r m u l a t i n g E d u c a t i o n a l E n d s a n d Means The S o c i e t a l E d u c a t i o n a l D e c i s i o n making process  7 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10  SOME SOURCES OF CURRICULUM AND THE ENDS AND MEANS FOR SCHOOLING The C u l t u r e Cultural Pluralism The L e a r n e r  13 13 14 14  SUMMARY  15  V  Page CHAPTER THREE:  CURRICULUM CONCEPTUALIZATIONS AND METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK C u r r i c u l u m as Process C u r r i c u l u m as Product  CHAPTER FOUR:  16 16 16 17  THE A P P L I C A T I O N OF THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK C u r r i c u l u m as Process C u r r i c u l u m as P r o d u c t  18 19 20  D E F I N I T I O N S OF KEY TERMS  21  THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS Questions Pertaining to Curriculum as P r o c e s s Questions Pertaining to Curriculum as P r o d u c t  21  ONTARIO  21 22 24  ESTABLISHMENT OF INQUIRY  24  PROCEDURES FOR INQUIRY Public Participation P u b l i c I n v o l v e m e n t a n d R e s u l t i n g Themes N a t i o n a l i s m and independence M u l t i c u l t u r a l ism  26 26 26 26 27  R e l i g i o u s and moral v a l u e s The Commission's F i n d i n g s  27 27  P H I L O S O P H I C A L BASES The Whole C h i l d Life in a Society  28 28 29  GENERAL ENDS  29  GENERAL MEANS Man a n d t h e I n t e r c h a n g e o f h i s T h o u g h t s S y l l a b i c mode  30 30 30  S o c i o - c u l t u r a l s y m b o l i c mode  30  Man a n d t h e E n v i r o n m e n t  30  Man a n d I d e a s a b o u t V a l u e s  31  vi Page ESSENTIAL  ENDS AND MEANS  SUMMARY CHAPTER F I V E :  32  ALBERTA  34  ESTABLISHMENT OF INQUIRY  34  PROCEDURES FOR INQUIRY Research Studies  35 35  Public Involvement Correlative Projects  36 36  Themes I d e n t i f i e d  36  Religious values M a r r i a g e and c h i l d - c a r e Work-ethics Interpersonal relationships Intergroup relationships The Government A l c o h o l and Drugs Commission's Findings  36 36 37 37 37 37 38 38  P H I L O S O P H I C A L BASES  44  GENERAL ENDS Human P o t e n t i a l s Human C o m m u n i c a t i o n The I n d i v i d u a l  45 45 46 46  GENERAL MEANS F u l l flowering o f each person Commitment t o m o r a l i t y Meaning t o p a t t e r n o f l i f e  47 48 48 50  ESSENTIAL  50  ENDS AND MEANS  SUMMARY CHAPTER S I X :  32  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  51 52  ESTABLISHMENT OF INQUIRY  53  PROCEDURES FOR INQUIRY Working Paper  55 55  vii  Analyses o f Responses Final Decisions  CHAPTER S E V E N :  CHAPTER E I G H T :  56 56  P H I L O S O P H I C A L BASES  58  GENERAL ENDS .  59  GENERAL MEANS Language a r t s  60 60  Mathematics  61  Science education  61  Social Studies  62  H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n  63  E S S E N T I A L ENDS AND MEANS  63  SUMMARY  64  COMPARISONS  66  THE ESTABLISHMENT OF INQUIRY  66  PROCEDURES FOR INQUIRY  68  P H I L O S O P H I C A L BASES  70  GENERAL ENDS  72  GENERAL MEANS  78  E S S E N T I A L ENDS AND MEANS  82  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND I M P L I C A T I O N S FOR NIGERIAN EDUCATION  84  THE FRAMEWORK AND A N A L Y S I S OF SOURCE DOCUMENTS  84  FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS  89  Establishment of Inquiry  90  Procedures f o r Inquiry Philosophical Basis  90 92  G e n e r a l Ends  93  G e n e r a l Means E s s e n t i a l E n d s a n d Means  95 98  I M P L I C A T I O N S FOR NIGERIAN EDUCATION  100  A CONCLUDING CAVEAT  106  vm Page BIBLIOGRAPHY  109  APPENDIX I  116  APPENDIX I I  130  APPENDIX I I I  145  IX  L I S T OF T A B L E S  Table 1.  Page The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f G e n e r a l Ends i n the t h r e e source documents  1  73  The C o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e G e n e r a l Ends I d e n t i f i e d i n t h e T h r e e S o u r c e Documents  3.  76  T h e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f G e n e r a l Means in the Three Source  Documents  79  X  L I S T OF FIGURES  Figure  1.  Page  Three C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f Curriculum as E n d s a n d Means f o r S c h o o l i n g  2.  The C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Second-Phase I n d u s t r i a l and P e r s o n - c e n t r e d S o c i e t y  3.  42  Four S p e c i f i c C a t e g o r i e s o f F u n c t i o n f o r the Schools  5.  40  The I m p l i c a t i o n s o f Second-Phase I n d u s t r i a l and Person-centred S o c i e t y  4.  11  49  R e a c t i o n S h e e t t o t h e W o r k i n g P a p e r on Core C u r r i c u l u m  54  L I S T OF A P P E N D I C E S  Appendix  I  An A n a l y s i s o f a n d P u b l i c R e s p o n s e t o the Core C u r r i c u l u m . P a r t I - Content A n a l y s i s o f R e a c t i o n S h e e t s , by J . B o t t o m l e y , 1977:1-13  II  An A n a l y s i s o f a n d P u b l i c R e s p o n s e t o the Core C u r r i c u l u m . P a r t II - A n a l y s i s o f U n c l a s s i f i e d C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , by P a t B a t e s , 1977:1-14  III  Guide to the Core C u r r i c u l u m (Years one t o s i x ) , G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  1977  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e t h r e e members o f my T h e s i s Committee: Dr. Graham T. K e l s e y , a d v i s o r , who h e l p e d t o s h a p e my i d e a s and w r i t i n g , a n d b o r e s i l e n t l y w i t h my o c c a s i o n a l a n g e r a n d i m p a t i e n c e , Dr. Naomi L. H e r s o m , c o - a d v i s o r , whose e x p e r t i s e a n d k i n d n e s s immensely c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e development and t h e completion o f t h e t h e s i s , and Dr. I a n E . H o u s e g o , a l s o c o - a d v i s o r , whose g e n t l e a n d t e n d e r t r e a t m e n t was o f g r e a t m o r a l  support.  S p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n i s due t o t h e F e d e r a l Government o f N i g e r i a a t whose f i n a n c i a l e x p e n s e t h e s t u d y was c a r r i e d o u t .  I am a l s o  thank-  f u l t o I r e n e H u l l who t y p e d t h e t h e s i s , a n d e s p e c i a l l y t o A n n M a r i e O ' N e i l l - B a k e r who was m o s t s u p p o r t i v e a t t h e t i m e s I was m o s t f r u s t r a t e d a n d d i s c o u r a g e d , a n d who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e g r e a t j o y s r e s u l t i n g f r o m many l o n g h o u r s o f h a r d w o r k m a n s h i p .  CHAPTER  ONE  INTRODUCTION D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1969 t o 1977, t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s o f t h e three l a r g e s t E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Canadian  provinces produced  which were i n t e n d e d t o d e f i n e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a . Columbia  documents  Although the B r i t i s h  documents alone bore the t i t l e o f "Core C u r r i c u l u m , " those o f  O n t a r i o and A l b e r t a may  a l s o be s e e n p a r t l y as a t t e m p t s  to d e f i n e the  " c o r e " o f t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e y i n c l u d e d recommendat i o n s a b o u t w h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n O n t a r i o and A l b e r t a r e s p e c t i v e l y and t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f w h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d t e a c h i n e a c h o f t h e two p r o v i n c e s .  This study undertook  to examine the documents pro-  d u c e d by t h e t h r e e p r o v i n c e s . B e c a u s e o f t h e a u t h o r ' s p o s i t i o n as an o v e r s e a s [ N i g e r i a n ) s t u d e n t , t h e s t u d y i n c l u d e d an a s s e s s m e n t  of the f i n d i n g s of the t h e s i s f o r the  b e n e f i t s they might y i e l d f o r the N i g e r i a n e d u c a t i o n a l systems. s t u d y was d e s i g n e d e s p e c i a l l y t o f o c u s on t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l f o r two r e a s o n s .  The  l e v e l of the  F i r s t , the sample documents i n d i c a t e d t h a t the  t h r e e C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s l a i d e m p h a s i s on t h e c o n t e n t s o f elementary  s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m a n d t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f w h a t s h o u l d be  i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s ( w h i c h may be d e s i g n a t e d a s C a n a d i a n 1 to 7).  S e c o n d l y , one o f t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t d e v e l o p m e n t s  i n t h e 1980s w i l l be i n t h e a r e a s o f e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n . y e a r s a g o , i n 1978,  taught  Grades in Nigeria  Barely  the N i g e r i a n F e d e r a l Government o f f i c i a l l y  launched  t h e U.P.E. ( U n i v e r s a l P r i m a r y E d u c a t i o n ) scheme a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y .  1  two  2  Background Perspectives T h e r e a r e many p e r s p e c t i v e s i n t h e f i e l d o f c u r r i c u l u m i n q u i r y . Some a u t h o r s h a v e r a i s e d t h e q u e s t i o n i n i n s t r u m e n t a l t e r m s : s c h o o l s f o r ? ( E b e l , 1972,  1977).  What a r e  O t h e r s h a v e f o c u s e d on c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  o f t h e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s s c h o o l s s h o u l d p r o v i d e ( I l l i c h , 1971; 1973;  Rogers,  1969;  V a l e t t , 1974;  Dennis,  1977;  C l u t e , 1978).  Stitt,  Many o t h e r s  have been i n t e r e s t e d i n the mechanisms used to i d e n t i f y e d u c a t i o n a l ends and means ( T y l e r , 1957, J o h n s o n , 1967;  1975,  1978;  K l i e b a r d , 1975;  B e a u c h a m p , 1964;  Goodlad,  1966;  Hass, 1977).  In t h e l a s t d e c a d e , h o w e v e r , t h e r e seemed t o be a g r o w i n g for the contents o f school c u r r i c u l a . Scarborough, which  O n t a r i o i n 1974  concern  For example, a conference held a t  (The S c a r b o r o u g h  Conference)  led to a report  asked: Do we n o t h a v e so many g e n e r a l c u r r i c u l a r q u e s t i o n s t o a n s w e r t h a t t h e r e o u g h t t o be a p r o j e c t on t h e c u r r i c u l u m a s a w h o l e ? A r e we r i g h t t o be j u g g l i n g w i t h p i e c e s i n o r d e r t o f i n d new ways o f p u t t i n g them t o g e t h e r ? ( F r o m t h e r e p o r t of the Working P a r t y , 1974:1). S c h m i e d e r ( 1 9 7 5 ) r e m a r k e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e 17,000 l o c a l  c u r r i c u l a i n the United States. w e r e " a t l e a s t 200" a p p r o a c h e s  school  F r a s e r (1974) p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e r e t o the t e a c h i n g of r e a d i n g alone i n Canada.  M c C u t c h e o n (.1978) o b s e r v e d : In t h e s p r i n g o f 1978, t h r e e r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s , t w e l v e t e a c h e r s a n d I s t u d i e d t h e c u r r i c u l a o f 12 elementary school classrooms, the d e c i s i o n s l e a d i n g to t h o s e c u r r i c u l a , and v a r i o u s i n f l u e n c e s u p o n t h e d e c i s i o n . Our s t u d y r e v e a l e d f e a t u r e s o f . . . l a c k o f c l e a r l y c o o r d i n a t e d c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n (McCutcheon, 1978:114).  3  E d u c a t o r s ' c u r r e n t p r e o c c u p a t i o n s i n t h e 1980s i n d i c a t e a c o n c e r n f o r t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a and t h e d e c i s i o n s t h a t l e a d t o them.  For example, the Canadian  Education A s s o c i a t i o n at the  1980  C.E.A. C o n v e n t i o n d e b a t e d on t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a q u e s t i o n s s u c h a s :  "Is  t h e h i s t o r i c a l p a t t e r n o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n f r o m K t o 12 o u t o f d a t e ? Has t h e p u r s u i t o f e g a l i t a r i a n i s m r e a c h e d t h e p o i n t w h e r e e x c e l l e n c e i s no l o n g e r v a l u e d ? narrowly?"  S h o u l d t h e s c h o o l ' s r o l e i n a s o c i e t y be d e f i n e d m o r e  (Canadian E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1980:1).  E d u c a t i o n a l c o n c e r n s i n t h e 1980s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n c l u d e "a c o m p r e h e n s i v e  and r e a l i s t i c d e f i n i t i o n o f w h a t i s c e n t r a l t o e d u c a t i o n "  ( A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S u p e r v i s i o n and C u r r i c u l u m Development, 1980:1-2). Eleven p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n s which  i n c l u d e d ASCD h a v e  d e v e l o p e d a j o i n t s t a t e m e n t e n t i t l e d "The E s s e n t i a l s o f E d u c a t i o n " (American S o c i e t y f o r C u r r i c u l u m Development, 1980:1-2). In d e a l i n g w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , some a u t h o r s h a v e s u g g e s t e d two i n t e r r e l a t e d s t a g e s : which  l e a d t o t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m and  (2)  is twofold.  i n the examination  The  procedures  the contents of the c u r r i c -  u l u m ( G o o d l a d , 1966; H a s s , 1977; E g a n , 1 9 7 8 ) . undertaken  (1)  The t a s k w h i c h w i l l  be  o f the documents used f o r the p r e s e n t  study  The d o c u m e n t s w i l l be e x a m i n e d f o r e v i d e n c e a b o u t t h e p r o -  c e d u r e s u s e d f o r t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n , and f o r e v i d e n c e a b o u t t h e c o n t e n t s elementary (1)  schooling.  of  The d o c u m e n t s u s e d f o r t h e s t u d y a r e as f o l l o w s :  L i v i n g and L e a r n i n g :  "The R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i t t e e on Aims and  Objectives of Education i n the Schools of Ontario." p u b l i s h e d by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o i n 1969.  (2)  T h i s document  was  A Choice of Futures:  "The R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g , " p u b l i s h e d i n by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a .  (3)  1972  F o u r d o c u m e n t s w h i c h w e r e p u b l i s h e d by  4  the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia:  M i n i s t e r ' s P o l i c y Statement  (1976);  What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? ( 1 9 7 6 ) ; A n a l y s i s o f and P u b l i c R e s p o n s e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m ( 1 9 7 7 ) ; and G u i d e t o t h e C o r e  Curriculum  (1977). The P u r p o s e o f t h e The p u r p o s e  Study o f t h e s t u d y was  to examine the major p r o v i n c i a l  c u r r i c u l u m d e f i n i n g documents produced Columbia  i n O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , and  British  in order to identify: 1)  Why  the documents were  prepared,  2)  How  the documents were  prepared,  3)  Recommendations c o n c e r n i n g p r i o r i t i e s f o r the schools curriculum,  4)  elementary  and  P o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r the N i g e r i a n Educational  The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e  Systems.  Study  The s t u d y c o n t r i b u t e s t o k n o w l e d g e a b o u t c u r r i c u l u m i n s e v e r a l ways.  F i r s t , t h e documents c h o s e n  as t h e d a t a s o u r c e s r e p r e s e n t s t a t e -  m e n t s o f e n d s and means f o r s c h o o l i n g i n t h e t h r e e C a n a d i a n O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , and B r i t i s h Columbia.  provinces  At the time each document  p u b l i s h e d , and i n t h e p l a c e o f o r i g i n o f e a c h d o c u m e n t , e a c h was g i v e n a g r e a t d e a l o f p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n .  of  was  document  Moore (1973) examined  A Choice of Futures i n view of a long-term educational planning i n A l b e r t a . H e r s o m (.1978) u s e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be  Learn-  i n g as a c a s e s t u d y o f t h e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Other c u r r i c u l u m t h i n k e r s have examined  Ontario's  L i v i n g and L e a r n i n g as " e n d s and means o f e d u c a t i o n " ( C r i t t e n d e n , 1 9 6 9 ) . A c o l l e c t i v e examination  o f t h e s e d o c u m e n t s i n t e r m s o f e n d s and means  5  f o r s c h o o l i n g may c o n t r i b u t e t o k n o w l e d g e a s t o how t h r e e o f C a n a d a ' s p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s h a v e s o l v e d a common e d u c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m . Secondly, with p a r t i c u l a r reference t o B r i t i s h Columbia, may h a v e a p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e a s i t may l e a d t o a d e e p e r and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e s t r o n g p o s i t i o n t a k e n by t h e B r i t i s h Government a t t h e time t h e documents were p u b l i s h e d . Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia  the study understanding  Columbia  I n 1 9 7 6 , when t h e  s t a r t e d the process of r e s t r u c t u r i n g the  c u r r i c u l u m f o r the p u b l i c schools and o f o u t l i n i n g the core o f the c u r r i c u l u m , some t e a c h e r s , t r u s t e e s , e d u c a t o r s , a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a g a i n s t the government.  Morgan and Robinson  ments were m e r e l y p o l i t i c a l .  A meeting  reacted  (1976) argued t h a t t h e docu-  o f t e a c h e r s , t r u s t e e s , and adminis-  t r a t o r s i n t h e B u r n a b y s c h o o l d i s t r i c t was r e p o r t e d t o be d i v i d e d o v e r w h e t h e r t h e c o r e c u r r i c u l u m was n e e d e d i n t h e s c h o o l s o r n o t ( H e r s o m , 1978:5). T h i r d l y , t h e s t u d y may y i e l d some f i n d i n g s o f v a l u e f o r t h e N i g e r i a n s y s t e m s o f e d u c a t i o n a s t o how t h r e e C a n a d i a n  p r o v i n c e s have  e n g a g e d w i t h an e d u c a t i o n a l i s s u e w h i c h w i l l be i m p o r t a n t i n t h e 1980s and b e y o n d , t h a t i s , t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m a n d i t s e s s e n t i a l s ( c f . World C o u n c i l f o r C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , 1980:2:3; A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S u p e r v i s i o n and C u r r i c u l u m Development, 1980:1:2). F i n a l l y , t h e framework developed  f o r the examination  documents has p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g both as a process and a product o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  of the of curriculum  i n curriculum  develop-  ment. Overview o f the Thesis In t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e p r o b l e m cussed.  The purposes  areas o f t h e s t u d y have been d i s -  and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s t u d y were  presented.  6  The d a t a s o u r c e s were a l s o o u t l i n e d . Together with this chapter, the t h e s i s comprises e i g h t chapters. C h a p t e r two d e a l s w i t h t h e r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d y . In c h a p t e r t h r e e , t h e c o n c e p t u a l framework o f t h e s t u d y i s p r e s e n t e d and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n e x p l a i n e d .  Also i n chapter three, the important  terms used i n t h e study a r e given o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s .  In c h a p t e r s  f o u r , f i v e , and s i x , t h e conceptual framework i s a p p l i e d t o examine t h e source documents.  C o m p a r i s o n s a r e made among a n d b e t w e e n t h e f i n d i n g s  in chapter seven.  C h a p t e r e i g h t r e p r e s e n t s a summary o f t h e s t u d y , t h e  c o n c l u s i o n s d r a w n , a n d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f some f i n d i n g s a n d c o n c l u s i o n s for Nigerian Education.  CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED L I T E R A T U R E The t e r m c u r r i c u l u m i s u s e d i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s .  C h r i s t i n e and  C h r i s t i n e wrote: The t e r m c u r r i c u l u m i s p r e s e n t l y u s e d t o r e f e r t o s o m e t h i n g as e p h e m e r a l a s an u n b o u n d a b l e , i n f i n i t e l y e x p a n d i n g happening. The t e r m c u r r i c u l u m i s p r e s e n t l y u s e d t o d e s c r i b e a s i n g l e e x e r c i s e f o r a s i n g l e c h i l d . The term c u r r i c u l u m has been as p r a c t i c a l l y u s e f u l as t h e medieval alchemy, as s t i m u l a t i n g t o the p r o d u c t i o n o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l as o u r law c o u r t s , and as d e s t r u c t i v e as Bernhard Rust's d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f Chamberlin's n o t i o n ( C h r i s t i n e and C h r i s t i n e , 1971:31). K l i e b a r d (1975) argued t h a t c u r r i c u l u m i n q u i r i e s a r e " p r a c t i c a l l y contingent t o h o l d i n g c e r t a i n c o n v i c t i o n s " ( K l i e b a r d , 1975:42).  In t h e  f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s some v i e w p o i n t s o n t h e t e r m c u r r i c u l u m a r e e x a m i n e d . THE NATURE OF CURRICULUM Variety of Definitions A c c o r d i n g t o L e w i s a n d M i e l ( 1 9 7 5 ) , c u r r i c u l u m means " t h e i n t e n d e d l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r engagement w i t h v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e e n v i r onment."  Gress (1978) suggested  that curriculum involves statements  of  p h i l o s o p h y f o r s c h o o l i n g and t h e p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p h i l o s o p h y i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . be v i e w e d  Caswell (1978) argued t h a t c u r r i c u l u m  should  as "a r e l a t i o n s h i p between g e n e r a l g o a l s , on t h e one hand, and  s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s t h a t g u i d e t e a c h i n g on t h e o t h e r . "  Willis  (1975)  t h o u g h t c u r r i c u l u m t o be a b o d y o f d e s i r a b l e v a l u e s a n d n e e d s o f t h e society.  These values and needs a r e t h e determinants  o u g h t t o be t a u g h t i n t h e s c h o o l s .  In S t r a t e m a y e r ' s 7  o f what s u b j e c t s view (1973), a  8  c u r r i c u l u m provides f o r the l e a r n e r ' s everyday Hyman ( 1 9 7 3 ) s u g g e s t e d  persistent life  situations.  t h a t c u r r i c u l u m e s s e n t i a l l y deals with the q u e s t i o n  "What s h a l l I t e a c h ? " A c c o r d i n g t o Beauchamp ( 1 9 6 8 ) , " c u r r i c u l u m i s a document c o n t a i n i n g an o r g a n i z e d s e t o f d e c i s i o n s a b o u t w h a t s h a l l be t a u g h t i n a s c h o o l o r a group of s c h o o l s . "  Goodlad  ( 1 9 6 6 ) p r e f e r r e d t o t h i n k o f c u r r i c u l u m as  c o n s i s t i n g of " a l l those l e a r n i n g s intended f o r a student or a group o f students." From t h e s e v a r i o u s d e f i n i t i o n s o f the term c u r r i c u l u m , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t c u r r i c u l u m c a n be v i e w e d 1)  as:  M a k i n g d e c i s i o n s a b o u t t h e e n d s and means f o r s c h o o l i n g and s t a t i n g t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e e n d s and means.  2)  O r g a n i z i n g d e s i r a b l e l e a r n i n g s and l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s f o r a l l the school s u b j e c t s that a school or a group o f schools s h o u l d o r may  3)  teach.  O r g a n i z i n g d e s i r a b l e l e a r n i n g s and l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s f o r a l e a r n e r or a group of l e a r n e r s .  In The D e v e l o p m e n t o f a C o n c e p t u a l o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , G o o d l a d  System f o r Dealing with Problems  (1966) examined these t h r e e views  o f c u r r i c u l u m a s t h r e e ways o f m a k i n g e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n G o o d l a d ' s work i s  In t h e  reviewed.  C u r r i c u l u m as an E d u c a t i o n a l D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  Process  Societal educational decision-making  process.  This process i s  c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e s o c i e t a l l e v e l o f an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m by " t h e t o t a l g r o u p o f p e r s o n s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b r i n g i n g i n t o e x i s t e n c e and one o r m o r e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s " ( G o o d l a d ,  1966:35).  The  maintaining process  9  is generally monitored educational purposes  by "an e l e c t e d b o d y " whose t a s k i s t o p r o p o s e the s c h o o l s should seek to a t t a i n (Goodlad,  Institutional educational decision-making  process.  1966:26).  This  process  t a k e s p l a c e a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l ( s c h o o l ) l e v e l o f an e d u c a t i o n a l T h i s l e v e l o f an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m educators.  system.  i s the domain o f p r o f e s s i o n a l  The i n s t i t u t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  process  deals  with the t r a n s l a t i o n of s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s i n t o school tional decisions.  what  I n s t i t u t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s are the  institu-  formula-  t i o n s o f " e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s and t h e s e l e c t i o n o f i l l u s t r a t i v e l e a r n ing o p p o r t u n i t i e s " (Goodlad,  1966:32).  Educational o b j e c t i v e s r e f e r to  "what s t u d e n t s a r e t o know, be a b l e t o d o , p r e f e r o r b e l i e v e a s a quence of being i n the program" (Goodlad,  1966:17).  Learning  conse-  opportuni-  t i e s a r e ' s i t u a t i o n s ' " c r e a t e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f an e d u c a t i o n a l program or i n s t i t u t i o n f o r the purpose-of ends" (Goodlad,  1966:18).  q u e s t i o n or a problem  achieving certain educational  A ' s i t u a t i o n ' may  be a b o o k , a f i e l d t r i p , a  t h a t s e r v e s as "a c a t c h - h o l d p o i n t " t h r o u g h  some e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s may  be a t t a i n e d ( c f . G o o d l a d ,  Instructional educational decision-making  which  1966:18).  process.  This i s a  p r o c e s s c a r r i e d o u t by a t e a c h e r i n h i s o r h e r p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r c l a s s room i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e l e a r n e r s .  I t i s a process whereby the  teacher  delineates i n s t r u c t i o n a l educational o b j e c t i v e s i n t o "very p r e c i s e educat i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s " (Goodlad,  1966:30).  Statements  of precise educational  objectives i n d i c a t e s p e c i f i c educational behaviours intends the l e a r n e r w i l l a t t a i n .  teacher  T h e s e s p e c i f i c , b e h a v i o u r s may  c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e , or psychomotor behaviours these.  t h a t the  be  o r any c o m b i n a t i o n  The i n s t r u c t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  of  process i s also a  10  p r o c e s s by which t h e t e a c h e r s e l e c t s " o r g a n i z i n g c e n t e r s f o r l e a r n i n g " (Goodlad, 1966:30).  An o r g a n i z i n g c e n t e r f o r l e a r n i n g i s a s e t o f  s e l e c t e d l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s "through which a s p e c i f i c behaviour i s t o be d e l i v e r e d " ( G o o d l a d ,  1966:18).  C u r r i c u l u m a s a P r o c e s s o f F o r m u l a t i n g E d u c a t i o n a l E n d s a n d Means I n f i g u r e 2, p a g e 1 1 , t h r e e l e v e l s i n a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m a s e n d s a n d means f o r s c h o o l i n g a r e i n d i c a t e d . A c c o r d i n g t o Goodlad  (1966), each o f these t h r e e views i s a process o f f o r m u l a t i n g  e n d s a n d means f o r s c h o o l i n g .  They a r e d i f f e r e n t from one a n o t h e r as t o  the nature o f t h e problem each p r o c e s s d e a l s w i t h .  C u r r i c u l u m as a  s o c i e t a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g process d e a l s with "ought" problems.  The  i n s t i t u t i o n a l decision-making process addresses i t s e l f to " i s " questions. The i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s d e a l s w i t h " i s " c a s e s a t " t h e l e v e l c l o s e s t t o the l e a r n e r " i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system ( c f . Goodlad, 1966:24-30). Of t h e t h r e e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s , t h e c u r r i c u l u m v i e w e d a s a s o c i e t a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g process i s t h e most r e l e v a n t f o r t h e undertakings in t h e p r e s e n t study because t h e p r e s e n t study d e a l s with t h e process o f s e l e c t i n g a n d s o r t i n g o f e n d s a n d means f o r s c h o o l i n g a n d t h e c o n t e n t o f schooling.  T h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m i s f u r t h e r examined i n  the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . The S o c i e t a l E d u c a t i o n a l D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  Process  T y l e r ( 1 9 7 5 , 1978) a r g u e d t h a t t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e e n d s f o r s c h o o l i n g r e q u i r e s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t . educational environment  An  e n c o m p a s s e s " t h e home, t h e p e e r g r o u p , t h e l a r g e r  community and t h e s c h o o l " ( T y l e r , 1975:21).  Schwab (1973) i n c l u d e d i n  Societal  Educational  Decision-making  Institutional Decision-making Instructional Decision-making  MEANS  ENDS  CURRICULUM  Process  Formulation of guideline  Selection of societal  statements  values that the schools  about what t h e  s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g  should  Formulation of schooling  Selection of i l l u s t r a t i v e  objectives  learning opportunities  Educational  Very p r e c i s e d e l i n e a t i o n  Selection of organizing  Process  of schooling objectives  centers f o r learning  Educational Process  F i g u r e 1:  teach  T h r e e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f c u r r i c u l u m a s e n d s a n d means f o r s c h o o l i n q . Adapted from The Development o f a Conceptual System f o r D e a l i n g w i t h Problems o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , Goodlad (1966).  12  the e d u c a t i o n a l environment  "the f a m i l y , the community, the p a r t i c u l a r  g r o u p s o f r e l i g i o u s , c l a s s o r e t h n i c g e n u s " and t h e r o l e s o f p a r e n t (Schwab, 1973:503).  These f a c t o r s o f the e d u c a t i o n a l environment  must  be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f e n d s and means f o r s c h o o l i n g i n a s o c i e t y ( c f . Taba, 1962:47). Stake (1969) o b s e r v e d , " P r e s i d e n t Johnson,  P r e s i d e n t Conant,  M r s . H u l l ( S a r a ' s t e a c h e r ) , a n d Mr. T y k o c i n e r ( t h e man q u i t e a l i k e i n the f a i t h they have i n e d u c a t i o n .  next door)  But they have q u i t e  d i f f e r e n t i d e a s o f what e d u c a t i o n i s " ( S t a k e , 1969:336). decision-making  process undertakes  are  The  societal  t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f v a r i o u s e n d s and  m e a n s f o r s c h o o l i n g t h a t a r e v i e w e d d e s i r a b l e by d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s people i n the s o c i e t y .  According to  Hass (1977), the p r o c e s s  and  under-  t a k e s t h e " g a t h e r i n g , s o r t i n g , b a l a n c i n g , and s y n t h e s i z i n g o f r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m many s o u r c e s " i n o r d e r t o d e s i g n t h o s e  experiences  that w i l l a s s i s t the l e a r n e r i n a t t a i n i n g the d e s i r a b l e purposes schooling (Hass,  of  1977:6).  G r e s s ( 1 9 7 8 ) , K o h l b e r g a n d M a y e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) , and W i l l i s  (1975)  a r g u e d t h a t t h e p r o c e s s s e e k s t o p r o v i d e p h i l o s o p h i e s f o r s c h o o l i n g and apply the p h i l o s o p h i e s to concrete s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s i n order to c o l l e c t m a t e r i a l s t h a t w i l l make r e a l i z a b l e t h e g o a l s i n h e r e n t i n t h e p h i l o s o p h i e s . T y l e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) and Schwab ( 1 9 7 8 , 1971, 1969) aspect of the process. e n t e r p r i s e ...  s t r e s s e d the p r a c t i c a l  T y l e r argued t h a t the process " i s a p r a c t i c a l  I t endeavours  to design a system to achieve e d u c a t i o n a l  e n d s , i t i s n o t p r i m a r i l y a t t e m p t i n g t o e x p l a i n an e x i s t e n t i a l ( T y l e r , 1978:240).  Schwab c a l l e d the p r o c e s s a p r a c t i c a l a r t .  p r o c e s s "must t r y t o i d e n t i f y . . . w h a t f a c t s may be r e l e v a n t .  phenomenon" The I t must  t r y to a s c e r t a i n the r e l e v a n t f a c t s i n c o n c r e t e c a s e s " (Schwab, 1969:20).  13  To sum u p , t h e s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g undertakes  process  the provision of guidelines f o r schooling, that i s , the  s e l e c t i o n o f e n d s a n d means f o r s c h o o l i n g .  According t o Lundgren  (1979),  h o w e v e r , t h e s e l e c t i o n o f e n d s a n d means f o r s c h o o l i n g i s " c o n t e x t bound."  T y l e r (1957), Smith, S t a n l e y and Shores  (1972), Burdin and McAulay  ( 1 9 7 1 ) r e f e r r e d t o t h e c o n t e x t s i n w h i c h t h e e n d s a n d means f o r s c h o o l i n g are s e l e c t e d as t h e sources o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . curriculum i s reviewed  This aspect of the  i n the following section.  SOME SOURCES OF CURRICULUM AND THE ENDS AND MEANS FOR SCHOOLING The  Culture Many s o c i o l o g i s t s h a v e p r o p o s e d  viewed as t h e source o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m .  t h a t t h e l e a r n e r ' s c u l t u r e be The w r i t i n g s o f such  a s J o h n s o n (.1943), M e a n ( 1 9 5 3 , 1 9 7 7 ) , M a l i n o w s k i B r a m e l d ( 1 9 5 0 , 1 9 5 5 , 1956) s u g g e s t e d  authors  (1944), Opler (1947), and  that "schools are tools of society  and t o o l s f o r s o c i e t y " ( R e g a n a n d S h e p h e r d , 1 9 7 7 : 4 3 ) .  The end f o r s c h o o l -  ing from t h i s s t a n d p o i n t " i s t h e maintenance o f c u l t u r e " ( G o s l i n , 1965:2). Schools a r e i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r b r i n g i n g t h e l e a r n e r s " t o the p o i n t where t h e y l o o k s u f f i c i e n t l y l i k e e x i s t i n g a d u l t s t o j o i n t h e i r company" (OECD, 1 9 7 4 : 3 ) .  S c h o o l i n g i s a means t o awaken i n t h e l e a r n e r s "a  c r i t i c a l awareness o f the status o f t h e i r people  . . . and t h e c u l t u r a l  v a l u e s o f t h e i r c i v i l i z a t i o n " (OECD, 1 9 6 6 : 2 ) . When t h e c u l t u r e i s v i e w e d a s t h e s o u r c e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m , t h e e n d s f o r s c h o o l i n g t e n d t o be t h o s e " t h a t r e f l e c t t h e c o n t r o l l i n g i d e a s and s e n t i m e n t s 1972:16).  c o n t a i n e d i n t h e u n i v e r s e " (Smith, S t a n l e y , and Shores,  D e s i r a b l e means f o r s c h o o l i n g t e n d t o be s u c h s o c i a l  values  as s e e k t o s e c u r e t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f s o c i a l o r d e r ( K i n g , 1 9 7 0 ; F a u r e , 1 9 7 2 ) ,  14  and  t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n and t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f " p r e v i o u s l y a g r e e d u p o n  changes w i t h i n the s o c i e t y " (Regan and Shepherd,  1977:43).  Cultural Pluralism Modern s o c i e t i e s are p l u r a l i s t i c .  " T h e r e i s no l o n g e r a b r o a d  a g r e e d u p o n b l u e p r i n t o f v a l u e s as a g u i d e " (OECD, 1 9 7 4 : 1 1 ) .  Thus  v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m h a v e b e e n s u g g e s t e d t o be t h e source of the curriculum. C o n s i d e r i n g t h e p l u r a l i s t i c n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i e t y as t h e  source  o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m , s c h o o l i n g s h o u l d be c o n c e r n e d a b o u t e t h n i c i t y and e t h n i c and r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s (Banks, 1 9 7 7 : 4 5 ) .  According to Fersh  ( 1 9 7 7 ) , t h e s c h o o l s h o u l d d e v e l o p t h e l o c a l c u l t u r e s o f t h e l e a r n e r and a s s i s t t h e l e a r n e r t o a c q u i r e k n o w l e d g e a b o u t " t h e ways i n w h i c h  other  g r o u p s o f human b e i n g s h a v e o r g a n i z e d t h e i r l i v e s t o a n s w e r t h e p e r e n n i a l q u e s t i o n s o f s u r v i v a l and f u l f i l l m e n t " ( F e r s h , 1 9 7 7 : 3 9 ) .  Bahannan (1977)  s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be u s e d t o d e v e l o p t h e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f the l e a r n e r f o r upward economic m o b i l i t y . The  Learner Some a u t h o r s p r o p o s e d  the curriculum.  t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s h o u l d be t h e s o u r c e o f  B a s e d on t h i s v i e w , t h e s c h o o l s h o u l d a s s i s t t h e l e a r n e r  t o a t t a i n t h e a b i l i t i e s o f s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n and s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n ( c f . J u n e l l , 1974:106-115).  In l i k e manner, Phenix (1974) s u g g e s t e d t h a t the s c h o o l  s h o u l d be u s e d t o i l l u m i n a t e t h e i n n e r c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e l e a r n e r . N i b l e t t ( 1 9 6 3 ) , B e c k ( 1 9 7 1 ) , Dean ( 1 9 7 1 ) , H i r s t a n d P e t e r s ( 1 9 7 0 ) a r g u e d t h a t because  the l e a r n e r i s a r a t i o n a l being, the school should  develop  t h e r a t i o n a l f a c u l t i e s o f t h e l e a r n e r s o t h a t t h e y become c a p a b l e o f m a k i n g r a t i o n a l and m o r a l  judgements.  15  C o n s i d e r i n g t h e l e a r n e r as t h e source o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m ,  Wilson  e t a l . ( 1 9 6 7 ) , Kay ( 1 9 6 8 ) , B e c k ( 1 9 7 1 ) , K o h l b e r g a n d M a y e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) emphasized e t h i c a l and moral development as t h e ends f o r s c h o o l i n g . In c o n c l u s i o n , v a r i o u s s o u r c e s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m a n d t h e i r i m p l i e d e n d s a n d means f o r s c h o o l i n g may be u s e f u l ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , "no s i n g l e source i s adequate t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r wise and comprehensive d e c i s i o n s about t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s c h o o l " ( T y l e r , 1957:4). SUMMARY In t h e r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d y i t h a s b e e n shown t h a t e n d e a v o u r s t o d e f i n e a s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m may be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as a d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g for schooling.  p r o c e s s a b o u t w h a t s h o u l d be t h e e n d s a n d means  T h e p r o c e s s may be c a r r i e d o u t f o l l o w i n g c e r t a i n p r o -  c e d u r e s w h i c h may l e a d t o m a k i n g u s e f u l d e c i s i o n s w i t h i n a g i v e n e d u c a tional locale. In t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , t h e e l e m e n t s  t h a t emerged from t h e  review o f l i t e r a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y from the examination Goodlad  (1966), The Development o f a Conceptual  o f t h e work o f  System f o r Dealing  with  Problems o f Curriculum and I n s t r u c t i o n , a r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a conceptual framework f o r t h e a n a l y s i s used f o r t h e p r e s e n t study.  Also i n the  f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , t h e key terms t h a t f e a t u r e i n t h e framework a r e g i v e n o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s and the s p e c i f i c questions addressed are stated.  i n the study  CHAPTER THREE CURRICULUM CONCEPTUALIZATIONS AND METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS I n c h a p t e r t w o , i t was n o t e d t h a t t h e t e r m , c u r r i c u l u m , means different things to different thinkers.  A l s o i n c h a p t e r two, t h r e e  c u r r i c u l u m c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o Goodlad  (1966) were examined.  I t was a r g u e d t h a t t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m a s a s o c i e t a l educational decision-making  process i s relevant to the undertakings i n  t h i s s t u d y as i n d i c a t e d i n t h e s t a t e m e n t s In t h i s c h a p t e r , G o o d l a d ' s  o f i t s purpose i n chapter one.  ideas about c u r r i c u l u m as a s o c i e t a l  e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , and o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e s about ulum t h a t emerged i n t h e r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d i n t o a conceptual framework.  curric-  literature are put together  Other s e c t i o n s i n t h i s chapter deal with  the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e conceptual framework t o t h e d a t a - s o u r c e s , the operational definitions in the study.  o f t h e key terms i n t h e c o n c e p t u a l framework and  The l a s t s e c t i o n o f t h e c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e s p e c i f i c  q u e s t i o n s posed i n the study. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK C u r r i c u l u m as a P r o c e s s According t o Goodlad as d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  ( 1 9 6 6 ) , c u r r i c u l u m c a n be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  a t t h e s o c i e t a l l e v e l o f an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m .  As  shown i n f i g u r e 2, p. 1 1 , t h e p r o c e s s s e e k s ( 1 ) t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f g u i d e l i n e s a b o u t w h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n an e d u c a t i o n a l  16  system,  17  and ( 2 ) t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s o c i e t a l v a l u e s t h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d t e a c h i n order t o achieve the educational purposes.  According t o Goodlad  this  p r o c e s s i s m o n i t o r e d by a b o d y o f p e o p l e e l e c t e d o r s e l e c t e d by t h e " t o t a l group o f persons r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b r i n g i n g i n t o e x i s t e n c e and m a i n t a i n i n g one o r m o r e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s " ( G o o d l a d , 1 9 6 6 : 3 5 ) .  He a l s o p o i n t e d  out t h a t i n c a r r y i n g o u t i t s t a s k s , t h e e l e c t e d o r s e l e c t e d body must work i n c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p e o p l e who d e l e g a t e d i t t o f o r m u l a t e "what e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s  t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d seek t o a t t a i n "  (Goodlad,  1966:26). Curriculum as Product I t was n o t e d i n c h a p t e r two t h a t c u r r i c u l u m c a n be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as a p r o d u c t o f t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s a b o u t w h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g .  T h e f a c t o r s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s u c h a p r o d u c t a r e e n d s a n d means  for schooling. The e n d s f o r s c h o o l i n g a r e g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s  o f d e s i r e as t o  w h a t p u r p o s e s a s c h o o l o r a g r o u p o f s c h o o l s s h o u l d s e e k i n an e d u c a t i o n a l system.  T h e y may be s e l e c t e d f r o m among w h a t v a r i o u s p e o p l e i n an e d u c a -  t i o n a l system s e e as d e s i r a b l e purposes are statements  the schools should attain.  They  t h a t i n d i c a t e t h e c o m m i t m e n t o f an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m t o a  certain philosophy of education.  P h i l o s o p h i e s o f e d u c a t i o n a r e based  on a v i e w o f t h e ' w o r l d ' i n w h i c h s c h o o l i n g i s t a k i n g p l a c e , o r on a view o f t h e 'world' o f t h e c h i l d , o r on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c h i l d as a human b e i n g .  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a philosophy o f education adopted  e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m may c o m b i n e t w o o f t h e s e v i e w s o r a l l o f them.  i n an Although  many e n d s may be d e s i r a b l e i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , some e n d s a r e m o r e important than o t h e r s . the e s s e n t i a l ends.  Hence t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e g e n e r a l ends and  18  The means f o r s c h o o l i n g e m e r g e d as b r o a d s t a t e m e n t s be u s e d f o r a c h i e v i n g t h e e n d s f o r s c h o o l i n g .  o f what might  They are e d u c a t i o n a l  f a c t o r s , w h i c h when f u r t h e r r e d u c e d t o some s p e c i f i c s w h i c h t e a c h e r s teach i n the s c h o o l s , permit the attainment o f the ends.  Although  can  many  means may be r e c o m m e n d a b l e f o r t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f a s e t o f e n d s , some a r e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n o t h e r s , h e n c e t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e g e n e r a l means a n d t h e e s s e n t i a l means. T h u s , t h e p r o d u c t o f an e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  process  about  w h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i s a s e t o f s e l e c t e d e n d s and a s e t o f r e c o m m e n d e d means f o r s c h o o l i n g i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m .  The s e l e c t e d  e n d s and t h e recommended means do n o t c o m p l e t e l y r e p r e s e n t w h a t a c t u a l l y g o e s on i n t h e s c h o o l s .  They do, however, c o n s t i t u t e g u i d e l i n e s f o r the  p r a c t i c e of education i n the school  institutions.  To r e c a p i t u l a t e , t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n b o r r o w s f r o m t h e i d e a s i n G o o d l a d ' s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m as a societal educational decision-making  p r o c e s s and f r o m some o t h e r c u r r i c u l u m  views i n d i c a t e d i n the review of r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e .  The  conceptual  f r a m e w o r k r e p r e s e n t s a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m as b o t h a p r o c e s s and a p r o d u c t o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  about the ends the s c h o o l s s h o u l d seek  and t h e l e a r n i n g s t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d f o s t e r . THE A P P L I C A T I O N OF THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK T h i s s e c t i o n deals with the a p p l i c a t i o n of the conceptual work t o t h e d a t a s o u r c e s f o r the s t u d y . major statements  These statements  The d a t a u s e d f o r t h e s t u d y w e r e  about e d u c a t i o n produced  O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , and B r i t i s h Columbia were produced  frame-  i n the Canadian  provinces  d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1969 t o  to d e f i n e the r o l e s of the schools  of  1977.  19  i n c l u d i n g the d e f i n i t i o n s o f the most important t h i n g the s c h o o l s should doing.  The d o c u m e n t s a r e :  0)  L i v i n g and L e a r n i n g :  be  "The R e p o r t o f t h e  C o m m i t t e e on A i m s and O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o . " T h i s d o c u m e n t was p u b l i s h e d by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o i n 1969. Choice of Futures:  (3)  w e r e p u b l i s h e d by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : 0976);  Four documents which Minister's Policy  What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? ( 1 9 7 6 ) ; A n a l y s i s  o f and P u b l i c R e s p o n s e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m ( 1 9 7 7 ) ; a n d G u i d e t o t h e Curriculum  A  "The R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g , "  p u b l i s h e d i n 1972 by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a .  Statement  (2)  Core  (1977).  T h e s e d o c u m e n t s c a n be s e e n b o t h i n t h e l i g h t o f c u r r i c u l u m as p r o c e s s and o f c u r r i c u l u m as C u r r i c u l u m as  product.  Process  As i n d i c a t e d i n t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k , an e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s which d e a l s w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f what the s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i s c a r r i e d o u t by t h o s e who a r e e l e c t e d by t h e  people  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s c h o o l s i n an e d u c a t i o n a l  system.  T h i s aspect of the conceptual framework leads to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the o r i g i n s o f the documents used f o r t h i s study. produced  The d o c u m e n t s w e r e  e i t h e r by t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t s o r by a C o m m i t t e e o r a  C o m m i s s i o n s e t up by t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s .  The M i n i s t e r s o f  E d u c a t i o n who s a n c t i o n e d t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e d o c u m e n t s w e r e elected persons.  By t h e v i r t u e o f t h e a u t h o r i t y a t t a c h e d t o t h e i r  p o s i t i o n s , they were charged w i t h s a f e g u a r d i n g the i n t e r e s t s o f the p u b l i c i n matters r e l a t i n g to the p u b l i c schools.  20  T h e e l e c t e d b o d y who may make s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s m u s t do s o i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e e l e c t o r a t e s whose i n t e r e s t s t h e y  represent.  Hence, i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o examine the documents f o r evidence about the documents were produced  how  and a l s o f o r e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c  participated i n their production. C u r r i c u l u m as a P r o d u c t T h e c u r r i c u l u m as a p r o d u c t i s a s t a t e m e n t  o f b o t h e n d s a n d means.  The c o n t e n t s o f c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t s may i n c l u d e e x p l i c i t o r i m p l i c i t statements  o f the purposes  t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d s e e k i n an e d u c a t i o n a l  s y s t e m and t h e l e a r n i n g s t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d f o s t e r s o t h a t t h e  purposes  m i g h t be a t t a i n e d . The c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m a s a p r o d u c t o f a s o c i e t a l educational decision-making  p r o c e s s makes i t a p p r o p r i a t e t o e x a m i n e t h e  documents used f o r t h i s study f o r evidence o f i n d i c a t i o n s about what the schools should  teach.  The r e c e n t e m e r g e n c e i n C a n a d a o f d i s c u s s i o n s a b o u t t h e s o c a l l e d "Core C u r r i c u l u m " suggests  t h a t t h e c u r r i c u l u m a s p r o d u c t may be e x a m i n e d  f o r i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t some p u r p o s e s  ( a n d t h e means f o r a c h i e v i n g them)  a r e s e e n as m o r e e s s e n t i a l t h a n o t h e r s .  H e n c e i t w i l l be u s e f u l t o a s s e s s  t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e d o c u m e n t s o f t h e t h r e e p r o v i n c e s do d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n g e n e r a l a n d e s s e n t i a l e n d s a n d means f o r s c h o o l i n g . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s p r e s e n t t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f k e y t e r m s a n d the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s used i n the study t o f a c i l i t a t e the a n a l y s i s o f the documents.  21  D E F I N I T I O N S OF KEY TERMS CURRICULUM AS A PROCESS:  A method f o r t h e g a t h e r i n g , f o r t h e s o r t i n g ,  and f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f e n d s a n d means f o r s c h o o l i n g . CURRICULUM AS A PRODUCT:  S e l e c t e d e n d s a n d means d e s i g n e d f o r s c h o o l i n g ,  organized and presented i n p r i n t ENDS FOR SCHOOLING:  Broad statements  i n t h e s c h o o l s i n an e d u c a t i o n a l MEANS FOR SCHOOLING:  form. about the purposes  t o be a c h i e v e d  system.  Broad statements  about the content o f s c h o o l i n g .  The c o n t e n t e n c o m p a s s e s a l l t h e l e a r n i n g s t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d f o s t e r f o r a c h i e v i n g t h e ends f o r s c h o o l i n g . PROCEDURE:  A step w i t h i n a process f o r achieving a purpose.  It is a  step w i t h i n ' c u r r i c u l u m as a p r o c e s s . ' SCHOOLING:  A p e r i o d o f t i m e s p e n t b y a c h i l d o r an a d o l e s c e n t on a t t e n -  d a n c e a t an e d u c a t i o n a l  institution. THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS  S i n c e t h e documents a r e examined i n sequence i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s , t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a r e numbered a c c o r d i n g t o t h e documents to which they a r e addressed.  T h u s q u e s t i o n s p r e f i x e d b y '1' r e f e r t o t h e  O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t , t h o s e n u m b e r e d '2' r e f e r t o t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t a n d t h o s e n u m b e r e d '3' t o t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Questions 1.1  documents.  P e r t a i n i n g t o C u r r i c u l u m as P r o c e s s  Why d i d t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o e s t a b l i s h  the  P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i t t e e on A i m s a n d O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n the Schools o f O n t a r i o which l e d t o t h e r e p o r t , L i v i n g and L e a r n i n g , i n 1969?  22  1.2  What p r o c e d u r e s w e r e e m p l o y e d  by t h e P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i t t e e on  Aims and O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o t o a r r i v e a t t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f e n d s a n d means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l ing r e p o r t e d i n t h e document? 2.1  Why d i d t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a e s t a b l i s h t h e Commission  on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g w h i c h l e d t o t h e r e p o r t ,  A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s , i n 1972? 2.2  What p r o c e d u r e s w e r e t a k e n by t h e C o m m i s s i o n  on E d u c a t i o n a l  P l a n n i n g t o a r r i v e a t t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f e n d s a n d means f o r elementary s c h o o l i n g r e p o r t e d i n t h e document? 3.1  Why d i d t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a make a S t a t e m e n t i n 1976 w h i c h l e d t o t h e p u b l i c a t i o n s o f What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? a n d A n a l y s i s o f a n d P u b l i c R e s p o n s e t o the Core C u r r i c u l u m i n 1976, and Guide t o t h e Core C u r r i c u l u m i n 1977?  3.2  What p r o c e d u r e s w e r e e m p l o y e d  by t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t o f  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o a r r i v e a t t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f e n d s a n d means f o r elementary s c h o o l i n g i n these Government papers? Q u e s t i o n s P e r t a i n i n g t o C u r r i c u l u m as a Product 1.3  What a r e t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e e n d s and means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g r e p o r t e d i n L i v i n g a n d L e a r n i n g ?  1.4  What a r e t h e s e l e c t e d e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n t h e r e p o r t ?  1.5  What a r e t h e s e l e c t e d means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g o b s e r v a b l e in the report?  1.6  What a r e t h e r e c o m m e n d e d e s s e n t i a l e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g in the report?  23  1.7  What a r e t h e r e c o m m e n d e d e s s e n t i a l means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g in the report?  2.3  What a r e t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e e n d s a n d means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g r e p o r t e d i n A C h o i c e o f Futures?  2.4  What a r e t h e s e l e c t e d g e n e r a l e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g  that  c a n be i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e r e p o r t ? 2.5  What a r e t h e s e l e c t e d e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g t h a t c a n be i d e n t i f i e d i n the report?  2.6  What a r e t h e r e c o m m e n d e d e s s e n t i a l e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g t h a t c a n be i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e r e p o r t ?  2.7  What a r e t h e r e c o m m e n d e d e s s e n t i a l means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g t h a t c a n be i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e r e p o r t ?  3.3  What a r e t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e e n d s a n d means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  Govern-  ment p a p e r s ? 3.4  What a r e t h e s e l e c t e d g e n e r a l e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia Government papers?  3.5  What a r e t h e e l e c t e d g e n e r a l means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n the papers?  3.6  What a r e t h e r e c o m m e n d e d e s s e n t i a l e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g in the papers?  3.7  What a r e t h e r e c o m m e n d e d e s s e n t i a l means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g in the papers?  CHAPTER FOUR ONTARIO This chapter deals with the examination  o f L i v i n g and L e a r n i n g :  The R e p o r t o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i t t e e on A i m s a n d O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n in the Province of Ontario. were t h e co-chairmen  Mr. J u s t i c e E.H. H a l l a n d Mr. L.A. D e n n i s  o f the committee.  w i s e known a s " T h e H a l l - D e n n i s  Consequently,  the report i s other-  Report."  In v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s o f t h e r e p o r t , t h e c o m m i t t e e d i s c u s s e d t h e c u l t u r a l environment  o f O n t a r i o , examined v a r i o u s p h i l o s o p h i e s o f e d u c a t i o n ,  and o u t l i n e d a l e a r n i n g programme.  T h e f i n a l s e c t i o n s o f t h e r e p o r t made  recommendations about t h e r o l e s o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , t h e school boards, the teachers, and higher i n s t i t u t e s o f education i n Ontario's system o f e d u c a t i o n . In t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e s e c t i o n s o f t h e r e p o r t w h i c h d e a l w i t h t h e level o f elementary  s c h o o l i n g w i l l be e x a m i n e d i n a c c o r d a n c e  with the  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s regarding L i v i n g and Learning. ESTABLISHMENT OF INQUIRY The M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o i n 1965 recommended "...  t h a t t h e r e be e s t a b l i s h e d a P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i t t e e on  Aims and O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o " of Ontario, 1969:4).  1  (Government  T h e M i n i s t e r ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n was ". . . a p p r o v e d  1. I n c h a p t e r s f o u r , f i v e , a n d s i x , t h e f i r s t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e d a t a source i s g i v e n i n f u l l . T h e r e a f t e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e source document use o n l y page numbers. 24  25  by H i s H o n o u r , t h e L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r "  (p. 4).  The C o m m i t t e e was  charged  with the f o l l o w i n g tasks: t o i d e n t i f y t h e n e e d s o f t h e c h i l d as a p e r s o n a n d as a member of the s o c i e t y . t o s e t f o r t h the aims o f e d u c a t i o n f o r the e d u c a t i o n a l  system  o f the P r o v i n c e . to o u t l i n e the o b j e c t i v e s of the c u r r i c u l u m f o r c h i l d r e n i n t h e age g r o u p s p r e s e n t l y d e s i g n e d as K i n d e r g a r t e n , P r i m a r y  and  Junior Divisions. t o p r o p o s e means by w h i c h t h e s e a i m s and o b j e c t i v e s may  be  achieved. to submit a r e p o r t f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the M i n i s t e r of Education (p. 4). The M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n recommended t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a C o m m i t t e e on t h e a i m s and o b j e c t i v e s o f e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o because  he t h o u g h t i t " e x p e d i e n t t o r e v i s e t h e c o u r s e o f s t u d y  f o r t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e age g r o u p s  . . . " o f the K i n d e r g a r t e n ,  Primary  and J u n i o r D i v i s i o n l e v e l s o f s c h o o l i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o ( p . 4 ) . The r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e v i s i o n was n e e d e d b e c a u s e The  Ontario  Programme o f S t u d i e s f o r G r a d e s 1 t o 6, f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1937 was t o t h i s p o i n t the only o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n of the Department o f Education  which  d e a l t w i t h aims d e l i b e r a t e l y and f u l l y , a l t h o u g h the Report o f the Royal C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n i n O n t a r i o , 1950, had i n c l u d e d g e n e r a l l y , a i m s f o r s c h o o l i n g (p. 70).  26  PROCEDURES FOR  INQUIRY  Public Participation The H a l l - D e n n i s  Commission sought e x t e n s i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the  p u b l i c i n the process of producing of Education  i n the Schools of Ontario.  were i n v o l v e d - - e d u c a t i o n a l School  t h e r e p o r t on Aims and  Various l e v e l s of the p u b l i c  p r o f e s s i o n a l s and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s  i n s t i t u t i o n s were c o n t a c t e d .  submission  Objectives  alike.  T h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d by means o f t h e  o f b r i e f s and t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p a p e r s .  The C o m m i s s i o n h e l d  p u b l i c m e e t i n g s i n f o u r c e n t r e s ( O t t a w a , S u d b u r y , L o n d o n and  Toronto).  The p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o o k p l a c e p r i o r t o s e l e c t i n g e n d s and means f o r s c h o o l i n g and o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e .  The i n q u i r y s t a r t e d i n  1965 and t h e C o m m i s s i o n d i d n o t r e p o r t u n t i l 1969  ( c f . p. 4 ) .  P u b l i c I n v o l v e m e n t and R e s u l t i n g Themes The C o m m i s s i o n r e p o r t e d t h a t v a r i o u s c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e p u b l i c were a n a l y z e d .  The a n a l y s i s was  e n t i t l e d " C u l t u r a l Environment."  reported i n the s e c t i o n of the r e p o r t The f o l l o w i n g w e r e t h e f i n d i n g s o f  the Commission. N a t i o n a l i s m and i n d e p e n d e n c e . populated  The r e p o r t showed t h a t C a n a d a  p r i n c i p a l l y by i m m i g r a n t s f r o m a r o u n d t h e w o r l d .  I t was  was  indi-  c a t e d i n t h e r e p o r t t h a t p u b l i c o p i n i o n showed t h a t C a n a d i a n s w e r e l a c k i n g in a h e a r t - f e l t s p i r i t of nationalism.  Although  such immigrants were  n o t s t i l l a t t a c h e d t o t h e i r p l a c e s o f o r i g i n , t h e y d i d n o t seem t o show any p r o f o u n d  f e e l i n g o f n a t i o n a l i s m f o r Canada (p.  I t was Canadians"  a l s o observed  23).  i n t h e r e p o r t t h a t "a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f  f e l t t h a t C a n a d a had s u r r e n d e r e d  her independence to f o r e i g n  s o v e r e i g n t i e s , " p a r t i c u l a r l y the United S t a t e s . "  Consequently,  Canada's  27  e c o n o m y and c u l t u r e w e r e b e i n g c o n t r o l l e d by f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s ( p . Multiculturalism.  The r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d t h a t C a n a d a had  a p o l i c y o f m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m as a r e s u l t o f t h e m u l t i - e t h n i c o f the c o u n t r y ' s  population.  E n g l i s h and t h e F r e n c h  fostered composition  P u b l i c o p i n i o n , h o w e v e r , showed t h a t  c u l t u r e s had d o m i n a t e d .  I t was  o r i g i n s n e e d e d t o be c o n s i d e r e d  ture."  d e m o n s t r a t e d an a t t i t u d e t h a t s u g g e s t e d  that Ontario's  i t s English heritage."  o p i n i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was  and  parts of "emerging Canadian c u l -  In t h e p r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o , t h e E n g l i s h and t h e F r e n c h  g o a l s were t o p r e s e r v e  the  i n d i c a t e d i n the  r e p o r t t h a t t h e c u l t u r e s o f t h e i m m i g r a n t s who w e r e n o t o f E n g l i s h French  23).  stocks  "major c u l t u r a l  The r e p o r t on p u b l i c  n e e d f o r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and  exchange  o f c u l t u r a l v a l u e s among and b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s e t h n i c g r o u p s o f t h e province  (pp.  24-25).  R e l i g i o u s and m o r a l v a l u e s .  I t was  r e p o r t e d t h a t the p u b l i c  t h a t s e c u l a r i z a t i o n had become a n o t i c e a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f society.  Many p a r e n t s e x p r e s s e d  felt  Ontario's  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n because of the lack of  r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e a t t i t u d e o f c h i l d r e n and y o u n g people.  I t was  a f a c t o r o f s o c i a l a n x i e t y f o r some p e o p l e  t h a t the a d o l e s c e n t s gregarious  Commission suggested (a)  culturalism,  CP-  27).  Findings  B a s e d on t h e a n a l y s e s  aim a t :  province  i n d u l g e d i n t h e use o f d r u g s and i n " e a r l i e r and more  sexual experience"  The C o m m i s s i o n ' s  of the  of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the  Hall-Dennis  that the schools i n the province of Ontario  should  t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f C a n a d a ' s m u l t i (b)  the p r o t e c t i o n of Canada's independence,  (c)  the  28  p r e s e r v a t i o n and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e n o n - E n g l i s h and n o n - F r e n c h c u l t u r e s and t h e s h a r i n g o f c u l t u r a l v a l u e s among and b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups' o f O n t a r i o , a n d  (d)  the development of moral  and r e l i g i o u s  p r i n c i p l e s i n the c h i l d r e n and the young p e o p l e (pp. 23-28). On t h e w h o l e , t h e C o m m i s s i o n o b s e r v e d mental  t h a t such c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n -  f a c t o r s as w e r e i n d i c a t e d by t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a -  t i o n and s u c h c o n c l u s i o n s as t h e C o m m i s s i o n drew f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s " s e t t h e t o n e o f e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y and i n d i c a t e i t s p r a c t i c e " ( p . 2 3 ) . P H I L O S O P H I C A L BASES The W h o l e C h i l d A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n on t h e a i m s and o b j e c t i v e s o f in Ontario, the school should educate  the whole c h i l d (p. 23).  education References  w e r e made t o C o m e n i u s , F r o e b e l , P e s t a l o z z i , and Dewey as p i o n e e r s o f s u c h a p h i l o s o p h y of e d u c a t i o n (p. 68).  In p a r t i c u l a r , two s c h o o l s o f p h i l o -  s o p h i c a l t h o u g h t - - N e w R e a l i s m and P r a g m a t i s m - - w e r e d i s c u s s e d and  critically  assessed i n the r e p o r t of the Commission (p. 68). The e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e v i e w s o f t h e New t h e P r a g m a t i s t s was p o i n t e d o u t .  R e a l i s t s and  The R e a l i s t s h e l d t h a t t h e s c h o o l  educate o n l y the mind o f the c h i l d .  should  The P r a g m a t i s t s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e  school should develop every aspect of the c h i l d . The C o m m i s s i o n p r e f e r r e d t h e v i e w o f t h e P r a g m a t i s t s and a l s o pointed out that "... predominantly  k i n d e r g a r t e n and e l e m e n t a r y  school  b e l i e v e o r assume t h a t the s c h o o l must e d u c a t e  c h i l d " (p. 68).  teachers the whole  29  Life i n a Society The c h i l d , h o w e v e r , was n o t t o be t r e a t e d " a s an i s o l a t e d e n t i t y . " The c h i l d s h o u l d  be " e d u c a t e d f o r l i f e i n a s o c i e t y . "  Aspects of l i f e i n  a society i n r e l a t i o n to the overall rationale f o r schooling  included  s o c i a l f a c t o r s , economic f a c t o r s , pressure-group i d e o l o g i e s , the c h i l d ' s parents' provide  d e s i r e s , and t h e personal  needs o f t h e c h i l d .  These elements  strategies f o r the p r a c t i c a l application o f a philosophy  education  of  (p. 23). GENERAL ENDS The C o m m i s s i o n i n d i c a t e d i n t h e r e p o r t t h a t t h e g e n e r a l  ends f o r  s c h o o l i n g o u t l i n e d i n t h e r e p o r t w e r e a s e l e c t i o n f r o m among many e d u c a t i o n a l a i m s e x p r e s s e d by " a l l c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r o c e s s  of  education."  The C o m m i s s i o n f u r t h e r a r g u e d t h a t b e c a u s e t h e s e e n d s w e r e a s e l e c t i o n they were more r e a l i s t i c a l l y e x p r e s s e d i n what they d i d than i n anyone's statement ( p . 7 3 ) . The Commission t h e r e f o r e s t a t e d t h e general schooling  i n terms o f what t h e c u r r i c u l u m  According Education  ends f o r  was d e s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e  (p. 73).  t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i t t e e on A i m s a n d O b j e c t i v e s  i n the Schools of Ontario,  be d e s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e  the curriculum  f o u r main ends:  f o r schooling  (1) Ensuring  acquire the basic necessities f o r education.  of  should  that the c h i l d  Basic necessities  included  the p h y s i c a l and mental h e a l t h o f t h e c h i l d and t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e s k i l l s o f communication.  (2) Helping  the c h i l d to acquire  desirable  s k i l l s , a b i l i t i e s , and a t t i t u d e s so t h a t the c h i l d f e e l s secure and adequate "within himself"  and " w i t h i n h i s w o r l d . "  c h i l d with e t h i c a l and moral l e a r n i n g . expressed desires of the c h i l d (p. 75).  (3) Providing the  (4) Meeting t h e needs and  30  GENERAL MEANS In t h e s e c t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t e n t i t l e d "The L e a r n i n g P r o g r a m m e , " t h e C o m m i s s i o n o u t l i n e d t h r e e a r e a s o f l e a r n i n g s - g e n e r a l means f o r schooling.  T h e t h r e e a r e a s o f means a r e d i s c u s s e d  Man a n d t h e I n t e r c h a n g e  below.  o f h i s Thoughts  The f i r s t a r e a o f means f o r e l e m e n t a r y  schooling observed  i n the  r e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i t t e e on A i m s a n d O b j e c t i v e s f o r s c h o o l i n g i n O n t a r i o i s r e l a t e d t o the a b i l i t y t o communicate thoughts  and ideas (p. 7 7 ) .  S u c h l e a r n i n g s s e l e c t e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n f o r t h i s a r e a o f means  suggest  two modes o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d two s e t s o f l e a r n i n g s . S y l l a b i c mode.  T h i s mode o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n r e f e r s t o v a r i o u s ways  of communicating with the language.  The l e a r n i n g s a s s o c i a t e d with t h i s  mode o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e r e p o r t w e r e t h e r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , l i s t e n i n g , speaking,  d e b a t i n g , aspects o f E n g l i s h and French S o c i o - c u l t u r a l s y m b o l i c mode.  languages.  T h i s mode o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n r e f e r s  t o t h e ways t h e s o c i a l a n d c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l are expressed.  environment  R e l a t e d l e a r n i n g s t o t h i s mode o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e  r e p o r t were p a i n t i n g , dancing, and l e a r n i n g s t h a t r e l a t e t o t h e geography and t h e m u l t i - e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n  of the people o f Ontario.  Man a n d t h e E n v i r o n m e n t A second  a r e a o f g e n e r a l means f o r e l e m e n t a r y  schooling i d e n t i f i e d  i n t h e r e p o r t was r e l a t e d t o t h e s c i e n c e s a n d t h e i r e f f e c t s on t h e s o c i e t y ( p . 7 7 ) . T h e l e a r n i n g s s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s a r e a o f g e n e r a l means w e r e such as these:  31  (1)  L e a r n i n g s t h a t were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the " g e o g r a p h i c a l elements  s o c i a l s t u d i e s " (p. 77). governance  These l e a r n i n g s w i l l i n c l u d e the p o l i t i c a l  of the e d u c a t i o n a l environment  O n t a r i o ) , and p e r h a p s  of  ( t h a t i s , the province of  o f o t h e r p r o v i n c e s i n C a n a d a and a l s o o f p l a c e s  o u t s i d e t h e c o u n t r y , s u c h as t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .  The l e a r n i n g s w i l l a l s o  i n c l u d e the c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the l e a r n e r toward the e d u c a t i o n a l environment. (2)  Learnings t h a t r e l a t e to the p r a c t i c a l aspects of a g r i c u l t u r e . These  l e a r n i n g s embrace the a c q u i s i t i o n o f knowledge about the cash crops of the educational environment  and t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f a g r i c u l t u r e t o s o c i a l  s u r v i v a l a n d t h e e c o n o m i c g r o w t h o f t h e n a t i o n ( c f . p. 7 7 ) . (3) (p.  Learnings t h a t r e l a t e to the l i f e s t y l e s i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y 77). T h i s l i s t i s n o t i n t e n d e d as e x h a u s t i v e .  The i t e m s a r e e x a m p l e s  o f w h a t was o b s e r v e d i n t h e r e p o r t a s t h e a s p e c t s o f t h e s e c o n d a r e a o f g e n e r a l means - t h e s c i e n c e s and t h e i r e f f e c t s on t h e s o c i e t y - f o r elementary  schooling.  Man and I d e a s A b o u t V a l u e s A t h i r d a r e a o f means f o r e l e m e n t a r y and v a l u e s was  i d e n t i f i e d i n the r e p o r t .  schooling r e l a t i n g to  man  L i f e v a l u e s were i d e n t i f i e d  w i t h s u c h i d e a s as t h e " i d e a l , " t h e " t r u t h , " and t h e "Unknown."  These  i d e a s w e r e s u g g e s t e d t o be i n s t i n c t i v e a s p i r a t i o n s o f human m i n d s . S c h o o l i n g should f a c i l i t a t e the "search f o r the i d e a l , the constant p r o b i n g o f t h e unknown, t h e s e e k i n g o f t r u t h . . . ( p . 7 7 ) .  For t h i s  a r e a o f means i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t s u c h l e a r n i n g s as p h i l o s o p h y , and a e s t h e t i c s were a p p r o p r i a t e (p. 77).  religion,  32  E S S E N T I A L ENDS AND MEANS A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Commission  on A i m s a n d O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n  in t h e Schools o f O n t a r i o , t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f language s k i l l s i s the "major e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e achievement o f any c u r r i c u l a r purpose" ( p . 9 1 ) . The C o m m i s s i o n  argued t h a t language a c q u i s i t i o n s should i n c l u d e both t h e  E n g l i s h and t h e French languages because both Canada and t h e p r o v i n c e o f Ontario are o f f i c i a l l y bilingual.  Together with the acquisition o f  l e a r n i n g s i n t h e s e two l a n g u a g e s , " s i m p l e mathematics"  s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d  i n t h e e s s e n t i a l ends f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o (p. 9 1 ) . Samples  o f l e a r n i n g s recommended f o r t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e  e s s e n t i a l ends were: (1)  L e a r n i n g s t h a t w i l l d e v e l o p i n t h e c h i l d an i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g  and a d e s i r e t o want t o r e a d . (2)  Learnings that w i l l a s s i s t the c h i l d t o express himself i n t e l l i -  g e n t l y and comprehensively. (3)  Simple knowledge  o f mathematics.  I t was recommended t h a t s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d b e g i v e n t o q u a l i t a t i v e achievement i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f elementary s c h o o l i n g i n the a c q u i s i t i o n o f both reading and speaking s k i l l s .  In t h e second h a l f o f  e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g , m o r e t i m e was e x p e c t e d t o be d e v o t e d t o q u a l i t a t i v e achievement  i n the acquisition of reading s k i l l s (p. 81). SUMMARY  T h i s c h a p t e r has examined  L i v i n g a n d L e a r n i n g , an e d u c a t i o n a l  document p r o d u c e d by t h e Committee on Aims and O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n  33  in the schools of Ontario. 1965,  E s t a b l i s h e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government i n  t h e committee wrote t h e r e p o r t i n 1969.  T h e c o m m i t t e e was e s t a b -  lished t o o u t l i n e the o b j e c t i v e s o f the school curriculum f o r a l l the p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n t h e p r o v i n c e a n d t o p r o p o s e means by w h i c h o b j e c t i v e s m i g h t be a c h i e v e d i n t h e s c h o o l s . Committee's endorsement o f the P r a g m a t i s t s document advocated  Consistent with the p h i l o s o p h i c a l base, the  that the schools i n Ontario should educate  child" f o r l i f e i n the society. submission  1  these  Using such methods as p u b l i c  " t h e whole meetings,  o f b r i e f s and papers, t h e commission sought f o r p u b l i c opinions  as t o how t h e w h o l e c h i l d m i g h t be e d u c a t e d  i n the province of Ontario.  B a s e d on t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e p u b l i c o p i n i o n s , t h e c o m m i s s i o n o u t l i n e d a s e t o f e d u c a t i o n a l e n d s a n d recommended a s e t o f means f o r t h e s c h o o l i n g of the learner i n the province o f Ontario.  E n d s a n d means r e l a t i n g t o  L a n g u a g e A r t s a n d s i m p l e M a t h e m a t i c s w e r e recommended a s t h e e s s e n t i a l s of the school curriculum f o r elementary  schooling.  CHAPTER F I V E ALBERTA T h i s c h a p t e r examines A Choice o f F u t u r e s , the document  prepared  by t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l  Planning i n Alberta.  as a one-man C o m m i s s i o n p r e p a r e d  t h e d o c u m e n t w h i c h came t o be known a s  "The W o r t h  W a l t e r H. W o r t h  Report."  Using F u t u r i s t i c S t u d i e s , the Worth Commission concluded  that  social trends i n Alberta could lead e i t h e r to a P o l i c e - g a r r i s o n State or to a Second-phase I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y .  I f A l b e r t a n s were p r e p a r e d  to  a l t e r t h e i r s o c i a l a n d v a l u e p e r s p e c t i v e s , h o w e v e r , t h e r e was a l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e c o u l d come t o e n j o y a p e r s o n - c e n t r e d  society.  T h e C o m m i s s i o n b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s c h o o l s h o u l d be u s e d t o t h i s e n d . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e C o m m i s s i o n recommended  various functions f o r  d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f s c h o o l i n g w h i c h t h e C o m m i s s i o n b e l i e v e d c o u l d make the school e f f e c t i v e f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n o f a person-centred  society in  Alberta. T h i s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s t h e way i n w h i c h t h e r e p o r t was the p h i l o s o p h i c a l bases f o r elementary Although  prepared,  s c h o o l i n g , and t h e ends and means.  t h e t e x t o f t h e r e p o r t p r o v i d e s l i t t l e d a t a f o r some o f t h e s e  undertakings,  i t s appendices  c o n t a i n many o f t h e d e t a i l s  required.  ESTABLISHMENT OF INQUIRY T h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n  P l a n n i n g "was e s t a b l i s h e d by O r d e r  i n C o u n c i l i n 1969. . ." ( G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a , 1 9 6 9 : 3 0 4 ) .  34  The most  35  fundamental  t e r m o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e C o m m i s s i o n was  i n d i c a t e d as an  e n q u i r y " i n t o c u r r e n t s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c t r e n d s w i t h i n t h e P r o v i n c e determine  t h e n a t u r e o f A l b e r t a s o c i e t y d u r i n g t h e n e x t two  (p. 304).  O t h e r t a s k s s u c h as t h e e x a m i n a t i o n  to  decades"  of the i n d i v i d u a l , the  s t u d y o f a l l l e v e l s o f s c h o o l i n g and t h e i r n e c e s s a r y a d a p t a t i o n t o the f u t u r e o f the p r o v i n c e , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of bases f o r p r i o r i t y judgement by t h e g o v e r n m e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c o u r s e o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e , were expected  t o be c a r r i e d o u t by t h e c o m m i s s i o n ( p . PROCEDURES FOR  304).  INQUIRY  The C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g was a one-man c o m m i s s i o n . Dr. W a l t e r W o r t h who was a V i c e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a i n 1969 was  appointed commissioner.  He o r g a n i z e d an e i g h t - m a n C o m m i s s i o n  Board f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of the r e p o r t .  The B o a r d was a s s i s t e d by  r e s e a r c h c o n s u l t a n t s drawn f r o m o t h e r C a n a d i a n States.  The c o n s u l t a n t s i n c l u d e d p e r s o n n e l  Economic Co-operation  70  p r o v i n c e s and t h e U n i t e d  from the O r g a n i z a t i o n  For  and D e v e l o p m e n t (OECD) and UNESCO ( p p . 3 0 4 - 3 0 5 ) .  The C o m m i s s i o n w o r k e d f r o m 1 9 6 9 - 1 9 7 2 and e n g a g e d i n " t h r e e i n t e r - r e l a t e d types of a c t i v i t i e s " (p. 304).  The t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s  c a r r i e d o u t by t h e C o m m i s s i o n w e r e r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s , p u b l i c  involvement,  and c o r r e l a t i v e s t u d i e s . Research  Studies The C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g e x a m i n e d n u m e r o u s r e s e a r c h  s t u d i e s produced  by i n d i v i d u a l a u t h o r s , c o r p o r a t i o n s and  Commissions.  A p p e n d i x C o f t h e r e p o r t ( p . 309) i n d i c a t e d f o r t y - f i v e s t u d i e s f r o m f o r t y one s o u r c e s .  A l a r g e number o f t h e s t u d i e s d e a l t w i t h f u t u r e - f o r e c a s t s .  O t h e r s w e r e s t u d i e s on t h e e c o n o m y .  In p a r t i c u l a r , h o w e v e r , a l m o s t a l l  36  the s t u d i e s were r e l a t e d to the p r o v i n c e of A l b e r t a . P u b l i c Involvement P u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t was missions  extensive.  The C o m m i s s i o n r e c e i v e d  sub-  f r o m 300 i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s and h e l d t h i r t y - s i x p u b l i c  m e e t i n g s i n v o l v i n g more t h a n 5,000 p e r s o n s . place in educational  The p u b l i c h e a r i n g s  i n s t i t u t i o n s o f v a r i o u s l e v e l s i n t h e r u r a l and  u r b a n c e n t r e s o f t h e p r o v i n c e and i n I n d i a n r e s e r v a t i o n s . the Future"  took  in Education  d r e w o v e r 1,500  people  (p.  the  A " C o n g r e s s on  304).  Correlative Projects The C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l conferences  Planning  t o d e l i b e r a t e on t h e s u b m i s s i o n s  o f t h e p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t was made.  spent eleven received.  one-day  An o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s  The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s w e r e  r e p o r t e d i n the s e c t i o n o f the document e n t i t l e d "Tomorrow: Forecasts."  Future-  The a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a w i l l  q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n t h e d e c a d e s a h e a d i n v a r i o u s ways ( p p . I f f ) . changes foreseen  be  The  t h a t were i n d i c a t e d i n the a n a l y s i s are d i s c u s s e d  below.  Themes I d e n t i f i e d Religious values.  The C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l  Planning  t h a t i n t h e d e c a d e s a h e a d , r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s and c o m m i t m e n t t o values i n A l b e r t a would d e c l i n e .  uals would seek to express m e d i a as m e d i t a t i o n , Marriage  these  The d e c l i n e w o u l d be c a u s e d by  ing i d e o l o g i e s at "both the personal  indicated  and i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l s . "  conflictIndivid-  t h e i r r e l i g i o u s i n c l i n a t i o n s "through such  d r u g s and y o g a " ( p . 3 ) .  and c h i l d - c a r e .  The C o m m i s s i o n o b s e r v e d  c o n t r a c t s w o u l d c e a s e t o be " b i n d i n g f o r c e s . "  that marriage  C h i l d - c a r e and  parental  37  c o n c e r n f o r c h i l d r e n w o u l d "become t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a g e n t s t h e home."  Religious  v a l u e s and a c o m m i t m e n t t o m a r i t a l  d e c l i n e as a r e s u l t o f c o n f l i c t i n g i d e o l o g i e s i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l s ( c f . p. Work-ethics.  and  3).  Work e t h i c s w o u l d u n d e r g o c h a n g e s .  h i g h l y p e r s o n a l w o r k - p a t t e r n s and  interests.  w o r k as a n o r m a l a s p e c t o f e x i s t e n c e p.  l i f e would  at both the p e r s o n a l  w o u l d s e e k p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t , s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , and  (cf.  outside  Individuals l e i s u r e through  Some p e o p l e w o u l d l o o k on  and n o t as a n e c e s s i t y  for  survival  3). Interpersonal  less structured, interaction."  relationships.  T h i s a s p e c t o f l i f e " w o u l d become  w i t h l e s s importance a t t a c h e d to the The  superior-subordinate  i m p o r t a n c e o f p e r s o n a l a p p e a r a n c e and s o c i a l  behaviours  w o u l d be " d o w n g r a d e d as p e o p l e become m o r e a t t u n e d t o d i v e r s i t y " ( c f . p. Intergroup relationships. and b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s .  S o c i a l u n r e s t w o u l d be n o t i c e a b l e  "Opposing groups (rich-poor,  among  young-old,  F r e n c h - E n g l i s h , r e d - w h i t e , m a n a g e m e n t - l a b o u r ) w i l l draw f u r t h e r a p a r t as t h e y a t t e m p t t o p r o m o t e t h e i r s p e c i a l and o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g (p.  interests"  4). The  control  Government.  The G o v e r n m e n t w o u l d s e e k ways and means t o  the b e h a v i o u r s of i n d i v i d u a l s  and t h e p o w e r s o f i n d i v i d u a l  i n o r d e r t o assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s  groups and  t h o s e of the i n s t i t u t i o n of m a r r i a g e which "have t r a d i t i o n a l l y p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n p r e s c r i b i n g  and r e g u l a t i n g  b e h a v i o u r s " (p.  4).  4).  38  A l c o h o l and drugs.  Some o f A l b e r t a ' s y o u n g p e o p l e w o u l d be  i n c a p a c i t a t e d and estranged as a r e s u l t o f n o t being a b l e t o achieve t h e goals they would c o n s i d e r worthwhile province would undergo.  and t o cope w i t h t h e changes t h e  Consequently,  a number o f t h e y o u n g p e o p l e i n  the p r o v i n c e would i n d u l g e i n t h e use o f a l c o h o l and drugs as measures f o r s o l v i n g t h e i r problems (p. 4 ) . Commission's  Findings  Considering the social trends discussed i n the previous section, t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g a r g u e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e t h r e e possible futures f o r the province.  " I f the l e v e l o f d i s s i d e n c e and  r e b e l l i o u s a c t i v i t y r i s e s , and with i t the l e v e l o f c o u n t e r a c t i v e repress i o n , i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t we m i g h t move t o w a r d  a Police or Garrison  S t a t e by t h e l a s t decade o f t h e c e n t u r y " ( p . 2 6 ) . The Commission that Albertans would not knowingly state.  argued  support the development o f a g a r r i s o n  T h e o t h e r two a l t e r n a t i v e s w e r e t h e s e c o n d - p h a s e i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y  and t h e p e r s o n - c e n t r e d  society.  In b o t h f o r e c a s t s i t i s a s s u m e d t h a t c e r t a i n m a j o r t r e n d s and d e v e l o p m e n t s a r e h e r e t o s t a y a t l e a s t f o r t h e n e a r f u t u r e . For example, a high and advancing l e v e l o f technology, a high l e v e l o f economic growth, and t h e c o n t i n u i n g conduct o f most a c t i v i t i e s by l a r g e - s c a l e c e n t r a l i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s s e e n f o r both types o f s o c i e t y ( p . 2 7 ) . T h e s e s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e two a l t e r n a t i v e f u t u r e s  notwith-  s t a n d i n g , t h e e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n them w e r e c r u c i a l a s t h e y were t h e b a s i s f o r t h e p h i l o s o p h y f o r t h e s c h o o l i n g o f t h e c h i l d ( a s a d v a n c e d by t h e W o r t h C o m m i s s i o n ) . show t h e e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s .  F i g u r e s 3 a n d 4, p a g e s 40 a n d 4 1 ,  39  As shown i n t h e s e f i g u r e s , t h e s e c o n d - p h a s e i n d u s t r i a l w o u l d be p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n s t i t u t i o n - c e n t r e d .  "This i s l i k e l y to give rise  t o t h e g r o w t h and c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o w e r i n a b u r e a u c r a t i c a n d based e l i t e " (p. 28).  society  knowledge-  As n o t i c e a b l e i n f i g u r e 3, t h e w e l f a r e o f e a c h  i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n w o u l d be o f g r e a t c o n c e r n .  The p e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y  assumed a s i g n i f i c a n t break w i t h p a s t t r e n d .  " I t views our p r e s e n t time  as a t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d t o a s o c i e t y d r a s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e present" (p. 28).  While the economic growth o f the s o c i e t y would  still  d e p e n d on t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n s , a p e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y assumed t h a t p e o p l e i n p o s i t i o n s o f power and a u t h o r i t y would be more c o n c e r n e d a b o u t human r e q u i r e m e n t s . H a v i n g i n d i c a t e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two p l a u s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s , t h e C o m m i s s i o n a r g u e d t h a t t h e c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n i n v o l v e d was a c h o i c e b e t w e e n t h e two. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n , " . . . i t c a n be a r g u e d t h a t t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f a second-phase i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y i s undesirable" (p. 33). T o make s u c h a c h o i c e was " s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e . " society "...  A second-phase i n d u s t r i a l  d o e s n o t s e r v e human n e e d s a n d w a n t s . "  In s u c h a s o c i e t y ,  i n d i v i d u a l s "spend t h e i r l i v e s f u r t h e r i n g the g o a l s o f c o n t i n u i n g e x p a n s i o n o f goods and s e r v i c e s , i n c r e a s e d l e v e l o f consumption and t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance" (p. 33). The p e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y a l s o r e q u i r e s economic g r o w t h , a h i g h s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g o r a d v a n c e s i n t e c h n o l o g y . Much m o r e s o , i t " d o e s r e q u i r e t h a t t e c h n o l o g y and i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t be t u r n e d t o t h e s e r v i c e o f human n e e d s a n d w a n t s " ( p . 3 4 ) .  In o r d e r t o a c h i e v e s u c h a s o c i e t y i n  A l b e r t a , t h e f u t u r e s y s t e m o f e d u c a t i o n m u s t be d e s i g n e d t o h e l p A l b e r t a n s make t h e c h o i c e ( p . 3 4 ) .  CHARACTERISTICS  FEATURES Second-Phase  Person-Centred Society  Industrial Society  Central Values and G o a l s  Dominance o f economic v a l u e s which l e a d t o g o a l s such as c o n t i n u i n g e x p a n s i o n o f goods, increased consumption, which subordinates i n d i v i d u a l needs t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f i n d u s t r y and t e c h n o l o g y  Dominance o f p e r s o n - c e n t r e d v a l u e s which emphasize the goals o f i n d i v i d u a l f u l f i l l ment a n d s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l s y s tem t o human n e e d s  Economic Activity  High l e v e l o f economic g r o w t h - d i s t r i b u t i o n o f goods and s e r v i c e s b a s e d on p r i c e system  High l e v e l o f economic g r o w t h - d i s t r i b u t i o n  Technology  High l e v e l o f t e c h n o l o g y which i s used to f u r t h e r requirements o f i n d u s t r y  b a s e d on human n e e d s a n d p r o v i s i o n o f economic  security  High l e v e l o f technology which i s i n f l u e n c e d a n d d i r e c t e d by human a n d g l o b a l needs  DecisionMaking Structures  C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f power, i n a h i g h l y p r o f e s s i o n a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e , which form a network l i n k i n g a l l major . a g e n c i e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n s o c i e t y  E m p h a s i s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h m o r e s h a r i n g o f power and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g among d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s i n s o c i e t y  Work a n d Leisure  Maintenance o f t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between work a n d l e i s u r e w i t h m o r e l e i s u r e f o r a l l e x c e p t t h o s e i n i m p o r t a n t t e c h n i c a l and managerial p o s i t i o n s  More l e i s u r e time and a b l u r r i n g o f d i s t i n c t i o n s between work, l e i s u r e , and e d u c a t i o n  Continued segregation o f the education  Education  system from t h e mainstream  of society  S t r o n g r e l i a n c e on b e h a v i o r c o n t r o l a n d  acquisition of specific vocational s k i l l s , continuation o f the importance o f g r a d i n g and p r o v i s i o n o f c r e d e n t i a l s  U t i l i z a t i o n o f new a p p r o a c h e s t o e d u c a t i o n which emphasize the development o f s e l f - l e a r n i n g s k i l l s i n t h e p e r s o n and c r e a t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n s which f o s t e r spontaneous l e a r n i n g More d i v e r s i t y i n e d u c a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s t o g e t h e r w i t h l e s s e m p h a s i s on g r a d i n g , credentials  C o n t i n u a t i o n o f c u r r e n t problems o f a l i e n a t i o n , s o c i a l u n r e s t and c o n f l i c t between groups i n s o c i e t y  Increased e f f o r t s t o s o l v e s o c i a l problems and g r e a t e r r e s p o n s e t o human n e e d s w i l l lead t o a decrease i n s o c i a l problems  Increased c o n t r o l over o v e r t expressions o f s o c i a l u n r e s t and c o n f l i c t accompanied by w i d e - s p r e a d r e s i s t a n c e t o l a w e n f o r c e ment i n s o c i e t y  More e q u a l a n d humane t r e a t m e n t o f c i t i z e n s by l a w e n f o r c e m e n t a g e n c i e s w i l l help decrease social tensions  behavior-shaping approaches  Social  Law  Problems  Enforcement  C e n t r a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n i n s o c i e t y as i t becomes a l i f e l o n g p r o c e s s and as t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t becomes a v a l i d one  F i g u r e 2:  to education  The C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Second-Phase I n d u s t r i a l and Person-centred S o c i e t i e s (From A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s , G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a , 1972:31).  FOUNDATIONS Second-Phase I n d u s t r i a l The  Individual Governing values  Life  goals  Society Values underlying the structure of society  Values governing the conduct o f a c t i v i t y  Society  S e l f - d i s c o v e r y and s e l f expression  Self-advancement Conformity Puritanism  Service t o others Individualism Sensualism  E m p h a s i s on n a r r o w i n t e r e s t s Endurance o f stress Acquirement  Emphasis on w i d e i n t e r e s t s Capacity f o r j o y Self-fulfillment  H i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e and a u t h o r i tarian relationships Work o r i e n t a t i o n Independence Competition E d u c a t i o n f o r work A u t h o r i t a r i a n d e c i s i o n - m a k i ng  Flexible structures that promote equal r e l a t i o n s h i p s Leisure orientation  Parochialism  Dominant  E c o n o m i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l  Time  perspective  Society  S e l f - c o n t r o l and s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e  Values governing the external relations of society goals  Person-Centred  Tradition  oriented  advance  Interdependence Cooperation Education f o r l i v i n g Parti c i pati on-i nvolvement Global v i l l a g e concept Humanism, f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e individual Future-oriented  experimentation  Formal O r g a n i z a t i o n s Goals  Separate  Values underlying organizational structure Values governing organizational relations Organizational strategies  Values regarding resources  F i g u r e 3:  B u r e a u c r a t i c forms Competitive r e l a t i o n s Responsive to c r i s i s S p e c i f i c measures Requiring consent Short planning horizon Standardized administration Separate services R e s o u r c e s r e g a r d e d as owned e x c l u s i v e l y  Linked F l e x i b l e forms Collaborative relations Anticipative of crisis Comprehensive measures Requiring p a r t i c i p a t i o n Long p l a n n i n g h o r i z o n Innovative administration Coordinated services R e s o u r c e s r e g a r d e d a l s o as belonging to society  T h e I m p l i c a t i o n s o f S e c o n d - P h a s e I n d u s t r i a l and P e r s o n - C e n t r e d S o c i e t i e s (From A Choice o f F u t u r e s , Government o f A l b e r t a , 1972:32  44  P H I L O S O P H I C A L BASES Having compared a s p e c t s o f t h e second-phase i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y w i t h those o f t h e p e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y , and having i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e f u t u r e s y s t e m o f e d u c a t i o n i n A l b e r t a m u s t be d e s i g n e d t o h e l p A l b e r t a n s make t h e c h o i c e o f a p e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y , t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l Planning  observed: The v i s i o n o f t h i s new s o c i e t y c a n be r e a l i z e d . W h e t h e r o r n o t i t i s r e a l i z e d d e p e n d s upon t h e t r a n s f o r mation o f values. But a s e t o f values i s based, i n turn, on a c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f man, h i s r e a l p o t e n t i a l s and t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e i r r e a l i z a t i o n . T h u s t h e c h o i c e b e t w e e n t h e two a l t e r n a t i v e f u t u r e s d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y i s a l s o a c h o i c e b e t w e e n two i m a g e s o f man (p. 3 4 ) . T h i s e x c e r p t s u g g e s t s t h a t ' t h e n a t u r e o f man' was t h e p h i l o s o p h i -  c a l b a s i s o f w h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g .  T o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e n a t u r e o f man,  t h e q u o t a t i o n m u s t be r e l a t e d t o t h e a l t e r n a t i v e f u t u r e s o c i e t y - - a person-centred society.  The p a r a l l e l suggests t h r e e e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f  the p h i l o s o p h i c a l bases f o r elementary (1)  schooling:  Man by n a t u r e h a s " p o t e n t i a l s , " w h i c h by n a t u r a l d e s i g n a r e t o be  u s e d f o r t h e f o s t e r i n g o f human " v a l u e s . "  The o v e r a r c h i n g goal o f t h e  p e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y i s t h e c u l t i v a t i o n and enrichment  o f human b e i n g s  (p. 2 8 ) . (2)  T h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g human p o t e n t i a l s f o r t h e f o s t e r i n g o f  human v a l u e s w o u l d be e n h a n c e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h e s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s would provide. (3)  S o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s s u c h a s t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be u s e d i n a s o c i e t y  t o a s s i s t man t o l i v e a n d e x i s t n a t u r a l l y , a n d t o p r o v i d e man w i t h t h e  45  means o f u s i n g human p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r t h e f o s t e r i n g o f human v a l u e s . T h u s " t h e c h o i c e b e t w e e n two a l t e r n a t i v e f u t u r e s . " GENERAL ENDS In a m a j o r s e c t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t d e v o t e d t o " G e n e r a l  Goals,"  t h e W o r t h C o m m i s s i o n o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e new d i r e c t i o n s i n w h i c h m a n k i n d move a r e n o t y e t f u l l y d e f i n e d .  must  The commission argued t h a t there i s a  common theme e v i d e n t i n t h e new d i r e c t i o n s , t h a t i s , a s e a r c h f o r m o r e s a t i s f y i n g human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n t h i s r e g a r d t h e c o m m i s s i o n s t a t e d the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l ends f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g : P e r s o n a l autonomy t o n u r t u r e g r o w t h t o w a r d s e l f h o o d a n d i n d i v i d u a l freedom . . . S o c i a l competence t o n u r t u r e t h e c a p a c i t y f o r s a t i s f y i n g relations with others ... E t h i c a l competence t o n u r t u r e t h e development o f p e r s o n a l values and s o c i a l conscience . . . C r e a t i v e c a p a c i t y t o nurture the growth o f l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and s k i l l s . . . Career p r o f i c i e n c y t o n u r t u r e t h e development o f and maintenance o f o c c u p a t i o n a l competence . . . I n t e l l e c t u a l power t o n u r t u r e t h e u s e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l and a e s t h e t i c a b i l i t i e s . . . (pp. 46-48). These g e n e r a l ends were i n t e n d e d as g u i d e s so t h a t t h e s c h o o l s i n A l b e r t a may d e v e l o p i n t h e l e a r n e r t h e f a c t o r s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g sections. Human P o t e n t i a l s A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g , t h e e l e m e n tary schools i n Alberta should assist the learner to acquire "personal autonomy"  and " s e l f h o o d " ( p . 4 7 ) . In t h e a r e a o f p e r s o n a l autonomy, t h e  46  l e a r n e r was e x p e c t e d  to acquire the "capacity of decision-making"  r e g a r d t o " p e r s o n a l v a l u e s " and " s o c i a l c o n s c i e n c e . "  with  The l e a r n e r should  develop both " e v a l u a t i v e " and " p r a c t i c a l " p e r s p e c t i v e s toward  work:  In t h e e v a l u a t i v e s e n s e e a c h i n d i v i d u a l s h o u l d be g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f r e s o l v i n g f o r h i m s e l f such q u e s t i o n s as what work i s , i t s p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r him, i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e s o c i e t y and i t s r e l a t i o n t o l e i s u r e and to recreation (p. 48). In t h e a r e a o f s e l f h o o d t h e l e a r n e r w o u l d a c q u i r e c a p a c i t i e s f o r p e r s o n a l s t a b i l i t y s o as t o a v o i d e m o t i o n a l  and p h y s i c a l d i s o r d e r s  ( c f . p. 4 7 ) . Human C o m m u n i c a t i o n In t h e a r e a o f human c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l Planning proposed  that the elementary  schools should develop the learner's  " i n t e l l e c t u a l power t o n u r t u r e t h e u s e and e x t e n s i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l and a e s t h e t i c a b i l i t i e s " ( p . 4 8 ) . T h e s k i l l s o f i n q u i r y m u s t be a c q u i r e d b y the l e a r n e r .  The a b i l i t y t o use t h e s k i l l s o f i n q u i r y i n t h i n k i n g and  f o r a c q u i r i n g k n o w l e d g e s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d  i n the learner.  The I n d i v i d u a l On t h e w h o l e , t h e a n a l y s i s o f A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s a s t o t h e g e n e r a l e n d s f o r s c h o o l i n g s e l e c t e d by t h e W o r t h C o m m i s s i o n showed t h a t t h e ends were i n t e n d e d t o a s s i s t t h e c h i l d as an i n d i v i d u a ! a c q u i r e  skijls,  competencies,  language.  and a t t i t u d e s i n t h e area o f morals, e t h i c s , and  It i s important t o p o i n t out t h e problem 'individual.' conceded  posed by t h e word  L e g i t i m a t e c a s e s c a n be made t h a t m o d e r n s o c i e t i e s h a v e  t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l a l o t o f freedom and p e r s o n a l autonomy.  It  47  c o u l d a l s o be a r g u e d t h a t many o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f some m o d e r n d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t i e s have t h e i r o r i g i n i n t h e freedom and t h e autonomy t h e i n d i v i d ual enjoys i n these s o c i e t i e s .  One p o s s i b l e a n d r e a s o n a b l e c o n c l u s i o n  f r o m t h i s a r g u m e n t w o u l d be t h a t , i n o r d e r t o s o l v e some o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f m o d e r n s o c i e t i e s ( s u c h a s w e r e r e f e r r e d t o by t h e W o r t h  Commission,  c f . pp. 4 - 5 ) , t h e f r e e d o m a n d t h e a u t o n o m y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l  enjoyed  i n m o s t m o d e r n d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t i e s s h o u l d be c u r t a i l e d . The i m p l i c i t m e a n i n g  o f t h e ' i n d i v i d u a l ' i n t h i s argument i s  d i f f e r e n t from t h e i m p l i c i t meaning report.  o f t h e ' i n d i v i d u a l ' i n t h e Worth  The i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e argument  i s an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c p e r s o n .  T h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e W o r t h R e p o r t i s a human p e r s o n . i n t h e argument  The i n d i v i d u a l  i s e g o i s t i c , s e l f i s h , a n d o n l y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t h i s own  w e l f a r e , even a t t h e expense o f t h e c o m f o r t and w e l f a r e o f o t h e r s . i n d i v i d u a l i n the r e p o r t i s a moral, e t h i c a l , and knowledgeable  The  person.  B u t t h e s c h o o l had f o r a l o n g t i m e been c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e i d e a l s i n h e r e n t i n t h e ends o u t l i n e d i n t h e Worth r e p o r t .  T h e q u e s t i o n now i s ,  why h a d t h e s c h o o l f a i l e d ( o r why i s t h e s c h o o l f a i l i n g ) i n t h i s The s c h o o l , a r g u e d t h e W o r t h C o m m i s s i o n , tions o f a s o c i e t y . Achievement  i s o n e o f many s o c i a l  endeavour? institu-  i n b r i n g i n g about these i d e a l s i n a  s o c i e t y r e q u i r e s t h a t o t h e r s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s be p o s i t i v e l y  concerned  a b o u t t h e i d e a l s , a n d be m o r a l l y a n d e t h i c a l l y w i l l i n g t o c o n t r i b u t e t o their perpetuation i n the society. GENERAL MEANS To e a c h l e v e l o f s c h o o l i n g t h e W o r t h C o m m i s s i o n functions.  assigned specific  F i g u r e 4, p a g e 4 9 , i n d i c a t e s t h e s e a s s i g n m e n t s .  While the  f i g u r e does n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y i n c l u d e t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l o f s c h o o l i n g ,  48  i t i s l o g i c a l t o t h i n k t h a t t h i s l e v e l i s contained i n the l e v e l of b a s i c education.  According  t o t h e W o r t h C o m m i s s i o n , "The  stage of basic educa-  t i o n i s t h e one t h a t s e r v e s a l l c h i l d r e n and y o u t h s .  In t h e m i n d o f m o s t  A l b e r t a n s i t i s synonymous w i t h Grades I to X I I " (p.  51).  In v i e w o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n , t h e s e c t i o n on t h e f u n c t i o n s o f b a s i c s c h o o l i n g was elementary  s e l e c t e d f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e g e n e r a l means f o r t h e  level of schooling.  entitled "Specific  Although  t h i s s e c t i o n of the r e p o r t  F u n c t i o n s , " the Commission i n d i c a t e d t h a t the  in the s e c t i o n were i n t e n d e d in the r e p o r t (p. 50).  was  contents  "to achieve the s i x general goals set out"  A c l o s e reading of t h i s s e c t i o n of the  report  p e r m i t s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s o f means. F u l l f l o w e r i n g of each person.  As shown i n F i g u r e 4, t h e  a r e a o f means f o r b a s i c e d u c a t i o n r e l a t e s t o l e a r n i n g s t h a t w e r e to a s s i s t the c h i l d to develop Commission, i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n each person"  (p. 52).  as an i n d i v i d u a l . " i s concerned  According  first expected  to the Worth  with the f u l l f l o w e r i n g  of  The C o m m i s s i o n d i d n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y i t e m i z e  l e a r n i n g s f o r t h i s a r e a o f g e n e r a l means.  However, a c e n t r e f o r the k i n d  o f l e a r n i n g s t h a t t h e C o m m i s s i o n c o n s i d e r e d as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e  realiza-  t i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d p h i l o s o p h y f o r s c h o o l i n g - t h e human p e r s o n s was e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n ( c f . p. Commitment t o m o r a l i t y .  52).  The e l e m e n t a r y  school should  encourage  l e a r n i n g s t h a t w i l l a s s i s t t h e c h i l d t o be c o m m i t t e d t o m o r a l i t y ( p . According  -  52).  t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n , m o r a l i t y i s g a i n e d when " m o r a l i d e a l s become  a p a r t o f u s " and " a f f e c t and i m p r o v e o u r c o n d u c t "  (p. 40).  The  learnings  i n t e n d e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n f o r t h i s a r e a o f means w e r e t h o s e t h a t w o u l d a s s i s t the c h i l d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n s o c i a l l i f e with concern s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n which subsequent generations  for "providing  can l i v e " (p.  52).  LEVELS OF SCHOOLING  EARLY  BASIC  HIGHER  FURTHER  Stimulation  Individualization  Career  Motivation^  Identification  Preservation  Integration  Emancipation  Socialization  A n t i c i p a t i on  Discovery  Career  Development  Integration  Motivation  Criticism  FUNCTIONS  F i g u r e 4:  FUNCTIONS  FUNCTIONS  FUNCTIONS  Four S p e c i f i c C a t e g o r i e s o f F u n c t i o n f o r the Schools (Adapted from A Choice o f F u t u r e s , Government o f A l b e r t a , 1972:49T  50  Meaning to p a t t e r n o f l i f e . the  As t o t h i s a r e a o f g e n e r a l m e a n s ,  Commission e x p e c t e d t h a t those t h i n g s t h a t would a s s i s t the l e a r n e r  i n i m p r o v i n g h i s o r h e r a b i l i t y t o a d a p t t o c o n t i n u a l c h a n g e w o u l d be taught.  The l i n k b e t w e e n " c o n t i n u a l c h a n g e i n t h e s o c i e t y " a n d "a  t a r g e t t o w a r d w h i c h e a c h y o u n g p e r s o n moves" i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e . r e a l i t y , i t i s n o t t h e s o c i e t y as s u c h t h a t c h a n g e s .  In  The p a t t e r n o f l i f e  w h i c h e a c h p e r s o n i s c o m m i t t e d t o i n t h e s o c i e t y c o n t r i b u t e s t o make t h e s o c i e t y whatever i t becomes.  T h e k i n d s o f l e a r n i n g s i n t e n d e d by t h e  C o m m i s s i o n f o r t h i s a r e a o f means w e r e s u c h a s w o u l d a f f e c t t h e l i f e o f the  l e a r n e r s o a s t o h e l p him o r h e r t o c o n t r i b u t e m e a n i n g f u l l y t o l i f e  in the s o c i e t y (p. 54). E S S E N T I A L ENDS AND MEANS In t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t f o r t h e g e n e r a l e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g , i t e m e r g e d t h a t one o f t h e e n d s was i n t e n d e d f o r t h e development o f 'communication s k i l l s ' (p. 48).  In s e a r c h i n g t h e r e p o r t  f o r t h e g e n e r a l means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g , i t a l s o e m e r g e d t h a t one o f t h e means w h i c h c o m p r i s e d l a n g u a g e s k i l l s and t h e s t r a t e g i e s f o r u s i n g t h e s k i l l s was r e c o m m e n d e d a s e s s e n t i a l ( p . 5 5 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n A l b e r t a , "a c o r e " f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g s h o u l d be t h e m a s t e r y o f b a s i c and s t r a t e g i e s .  These are the s k i l l s "...  l e a r n i n g " (p. 55).  skills  essential f o r a l i f e of  W h i l e i t was n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d i n t h e r e p o r t  t h a t t h e a r e a o f ' c o m m u n i c a t i o n ' s h o u l d be an e s s e n t i a l e n d , t h e p a r a l l e l b e t w e e n t h i s a r e a o f e n d s a n d ' l a n g u a g e s k i l l s ' ( w h i c h w e r e i n d i c a t e d by the  commission as e s s e n t i a l means) p e r m i t s c o n s i d e r i n g t h e ends r e l a t i n g  to c o m m u n i c a t i o n as e s s e n t i a l ends f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g .  51  SUMMARY T h i s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e d A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s , a d o c u m e n t on e d u c a tional planning i n the province of Alberta.  In 1969, t h e p r o v i n c i a l  g o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a r e q u e s t e d t h e s e r v i c e s o f D r . W a l t e r H. W o r t h t o i n q u i r e i n t o s o c i a l and economic t r e n d s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e t r e n d s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n t h e province.  The r e p o r t appeared  i n 1972.  W o r t h drew t o g e t h e r e x p e r t s a n d  s p e c i a l i s t s (more t h a n o n e - h u n d r e d o f them) i n f u t u r e f o r e c a s t s , who h e l d p u b l i c w o r k s h o p s u s i n g t h e i r e x p e r t i s e among t h e p e o p l e who a t t e n d e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a w h i c h m i g h t h e l p them t o d e t e r m i n e A n a l y z i n g t h e d a t a , the commission  proposed a s e t o f ends and recom-  mended a s e t o f means f o r s c h o o l i n g i n A l b e r t a . t o human c o m m u n i c a t i o n  the future of Alberta.  Ends a n d means r e l a t i n g  w e r e recommended a s e s s e n t i a l s .  CHAPTER S I X B R I T I S H COLUMBIA T h i s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s f o u r p r i n c i p a l d a t a - s o u r c e s and c e r t a i n o t h e r c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t s p u b l i s h e d by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . p r i n c i p a l d a t a - s o u r c e s a r e as f o l l o w s :  M i n i s t e r ' s P o l i c y Statement,  The What  S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? , A n a l y s i s o f and P u b l i c R e s p o n s e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m , and G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m . i n d i c a t e d i n the t e x t of the chapter.  Other sources are  The p r i n c i p a l d a t a - s o u r c e s  are  b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d below. In e a r l y N o v e m b e r , 1976, t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , t h e P a t r i c k L. M c G e e r , made a p u b l i c s t a t e m e n t  i n w h i c h he a r g u e d t h a t t h e  programme o f s t u d i e s i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f a l l into three categories:  Honourable  should  t h a t w h i c h m u s t be l e a r n e d , t h a t w h i c h  s h o u l d be l e a r n e d , and t h a t w h i c h may  be l e a r n e d .  The M i n i s t e r f u r t h e r  i n d i c a t e d i n t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h a t w h i c h m u s t and s h o u l d be l e a r n e d were the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n .  What may  be l e a r n e d  was i n d i c a t e d t o be t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e t e a c h e r s and l o c a l t r u s t e e s . The M i n i s t e r a l s o a n n o u n c e d i n t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n was p r e p a r i n g o f f i c i a l s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t w h a t t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s m u s t and s h o u l d t e a c h i n t h e p r o v i n c e . In l a t e N o v e m b e r , 1976, Columbia  the M i n i s t e r of Education of B r i t i s h  r e l e a s e d What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ?  contained t h i r t e e n areas of educational concerns.  52  The d o c u m e n t  I t was p r e s e n t e d t o  53  the p u b l i c as a working paper toward the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f what the s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e .  By means o f r e a c t i o n s h e e t s a t t a c h e d t o  e a c h c o p y o f t h e d o c u m e n t , t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n i n v i t e d comments and s u g g e s t i o n s a c r o s s the p r o v i n c e about the document. r e a c t i o n s h e e t i s shown b e l o w as F i g u r e 5 ( p a g e Bottomley  A sample of the  54).  and B a t e s ( 1 9 7 7 ) i n An A n a l y s i s d f and P u b l i c R e s p o n s e s  t o , t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m a n a l y s e d t h e p u b l i c r e s p o n s e s t o What S h o u l d C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ?  T h i s d o c u m e n t was s u b t i t l e d "The R e p o r t t o t h e  M i n i s t r y of Education, B r i t i s h Columbia, Booklet."  Bottomley  Our  on t h e R e s p o n s e s t o t h e G o a l  a n a l y s e d 13,584 r e s p o n s e s , u s i n g t h e t h i r t e e n g o a l s  o u t l i n e d i n What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? t o d e c o d e t h e  responses  B a t e s a n a l y s e d some two t h o u s a n d o t h e r r e s p o n s e s t h a t c o u l d n o t be in accordance with the goals ( c f . Appendices By S e p t e m b e r , 1977,  decoded  I , I I and I I I ) .  the M i n i s t e r o f Education o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  had r e l e a s e d t h e G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m as a f i n a l d o c u m e n t on w h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e . t h e d o c u m e n t t h a t some a d j u s t m e n t  The M i n i s t r y o b s e r v e d i n  has b e e n made as a r e s u l t o f p u b l i c  r e s p o n s e t o t h e p r o p o s e d g o a l s and l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s o u t l i n e d i n What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be  Learning? ESTABLISHMENT OF INQUIRY  In t h e p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t and a l s o i n t h e b o o k l e t e n t i t l e d What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? , t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t " T h e r e i s one p o i n t o f c o m p l e t e  agreement w i t h i n the numerous d i v e r s e  s u g g e s t i o n s I have r e c e i v e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  The c i t i z e n s o f t h i s  prov-  i n c e e x p e c t the government t o take a more p o s i t i v e r o l e i n d e f i n i n g what s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n o u r s c h o o l s . . . " ( p . 1 ) .  54  Check One  PARENT  01  Please return  STUDENT  02  TEACHER  03  TRUSTEE  04  OTHER  05  - the local D i s t r i c t Superintendent o f S c h o o l s OR - Curriculum Development Branch - Ministry of Education Room 2 1 3 , 835 H u m b o l d t S t r e e t V i c t o r i a , B.C. V8V 2Z6  to  1. I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g i n t h e b o o k l e t w h i c h y o u f e e l t h e Ministry of Education should reconsider?  2. A r e t h e r e a n y a d d i t i o n s y o u w o u l d l i k e t o s e e t h e Ministry consider?  3.  Comments.  F i g u r e 5:  R e a c t i o n S h e e t t o t h e W o r k i n g P a p e r on C o r e C u r r i c u l u m ( F r o m What S h o u l d O u r C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? , G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1976:31).  55  Two r e a s o n a b l e i n f e r e n c e s c a n be made f r o m t h i s s t a t e m e n t .  First,  t h i s " E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f I n q u i r y " was r e a l l y a p o l i t i c a l p l a t f o r m i n s t a l l e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f p l a c a t i n g some s t r o n g e l e m e n t s  i n the province  who  p r o b a b l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o v o t i n g i n t o power t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t y t h e g o v e r n m e n t represented.  S e c o n d , i f t h e r o l e o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t had t o be "more p o s i -  t i v e " the p r e v i o u s government must have been thought t o have a l l o w e d  too  much l a t i t u d e i n c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f t h e province. PROCEDURES FOR Working  INQUIRY  Paper The b o o k l e t , What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? , was  as a w o r k i n g  prepared  p a p e r by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n t o s t i m u l a t e p u b l i c r e s -  p o n s e s t o i d e a s as t o w h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h  Columbia:  This booklet suggests.the goals of the core c u r r i c u l u m and t h e b a s i c s k i l l s and k n o w l e d g e a l l c h i l d r e n s h o u l d acquire .... A c c o r d i n g l y , I feel t h a t before the goals are f i n a l l y d e t e r m i n e d , t r u s t e e s , t e a c h e r s , and o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s s h o u l d h a v e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s t h e p r o p o s a l s of the M i n i s t e r (Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, . 1976:1). The r e l e a s e o f t h e w o r k i n g  paper generated a l o t of controversy.  O p i n i o n s w e r e d i v i d e d as t o t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n and t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e s u g g e s t e d g o a l s ( V a n c o u v e r and A u g u s t 31, 1 9 7 7 ) .  M o r g a n and R o b i n s o n  S u n , A u g u s t 4,  (1976) viewed the  1977  working  p a p e r a s a move on t h e p a r t o f t h e M i n i s t e r t o k e e p a p r o m i s e made by the S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y to the e l e c t o r a t e d u r i n g the p r o v i n c i a l campaign of  1975.  56  Analyses o f Responses The a n a l y s e s o f t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e w o r k i n g p a p e r showed t h a t respondents  i n c l u d e d p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , and o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s .  The a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f t h e p u b l i c a c c e p t e d t h e t h i r t e e n g o a l s f o r s c h o o l i n g o u t l i n e d i n What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be Of t h e 13,584 r e s p o n d e n t s  Learning?  (who u s e d t h e r e a c t i o n s h e e t s ) , 9,372 o f them  i n d i c a t e d t h a t none o f t h e t h i r t e e n g o a l s n e e d e d t o be r e c o n s i d e r e d (cf. Appendix  I, p.115).  T h e r e w e r e p e o p l e who r e s p o n d e d  other than using the r e a c t i o n sheets.  by o t h e r means  Regarding the core o f the c u r r i c u -  lum, a g r e a t number o f t h e s e p e o p l e f e l t t h a t a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e was a necessary part of the core curriculum.  M o s t o f them w e r e o f t h e o p i n i o n  t h a t F r e n c h was t h e o b v i o u s c h o i c e , a s C a n a d a i s o f f i c i a l l y a b i l i n g u a l country.  Among t h e same g r o u p o f r e s p o n d e n t s , some f e l t t h a t m u s i c  should  be a p a r t o f t h e c o r e c u r r i c u l u m ; o t h e r s w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n c a r e e r education. Final  Decisions The f i n a l  d e c i s i o n s on w h a t t h e s c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  s h o u l d be t e a c h i n g w e r e p u b l i s h e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e i n 1977.in the document e n t i t l e d Guide t o t h e Core  Curriculum.  In t h e p u b l i c a t i o n , t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t " t h e g o a l s and t h e l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s " c o n t a i n e d i n t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n s "were r e v i s e d on t h e b a s i s o f p u b l i c a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l r e a c t i o n r e c e i v e d . "  The r e v i s i o n  d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e number o f g o a l s p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d i n What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ?  I t d i d , h o w e v e r , i n f l u e n c e w h a t g o a l s w e r e t o be  c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l a n d how t h e t e a c h e r s m i g h t o r g a n i z e t h e v a r i o u s l e a r n i n g s i n the Guide t o the Core  Curriculum.  57  In summary, t h e w h o l e p r o c e d u r e  enabled  h i s purpose i n a s h o r t p e r i o d o f time.  the M i n i s t e r to  achieve  Moreover, the Honourable P a t r i c k  M c G e e r , t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , and h i s a s s o c i a t e s d e m o n s t r a t e d a q u a l i t y o f s t r o n g commitment to a u t o c r a t i c l e a d e r s h i p . understood  when one r e v i e w s  made by the' T e a c h e r s '  the statements  This is better  expressing strong  F e d e r a t i o n and some e d u c a t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s a t  the i n i t i a l stage of the whole  procedure.  In a p u b l i c a t i o n by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T e a c h e r s ' A r e C o r e and PLAP Bad f o r C h i l d r e n ? , expressed  opposition  1  A p r i l 27, 1977,  the  Federation, Federation  an o p p o s i t i o n t o a c e n t r a l l y d e f i n e d c u r r i c u l u m w h i c h ,  according  t o t h e F e d e r a t i o n , f o r c e s t h e t e a c h e r s " t o become t e c h n i c i a n s . " Beside t h i s type of r e a c t i o n from the Teachers'  F e d e r a t i o n , some  e d u c a t i o n a l s c h o l a r s a l s o reacted i n o p p o s i t i o n to the M i n i s t e r ' s proposals.  Lazerson  from "... teachers  and G a s k e l l v i e w e d t h e M i n i s t e r ' s p r o p o s a l s as c o m i n g  a f o x y g o v e r n m e n t t r y i n g t o h o o d w i n k p a r e n t s and r e i n i n t h e ..."  ( V a n c o u v e r S u n , M a r c h 6, 1 9 7 7 ) .  a r t i c l e , The C o r e C u r r i c u l u m :  Expedient  g r e a t e x t e n t t h e c o r e c u r r i c u l u m ...  The c o - a u t h o r s  of the  P o l i t i c s ? o p i n e d t h a t "To a i s a r e f o r m t h a t i s c h e a p and  s o u n d s l i k e a m a j o r c h a n g e and i s a t t r a c t i v e p o l i t i c a l l y " ( V a n c o u v e r M a r c h 6, 1 9 7 7 ) .  The D e p u t y M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , W a l t e r  r e s p o n d e d t o L a z e r s o n and G a s k e l l .  Sun,  Hardwick,  He w r o t e :  I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t some o f t h e c o m m e n t a t o r s l i k e U.B.C. e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s o r s M a r v i n L a z e r s o n and J a n e G a s k e l l h a v e n o t t a k e n t h e t r o u b l e , as m i g h t be e x p e c t e d o f g o o d a c a d e m i c s , t o d e t e r m i n e e x a c t l y w h a t i s g o i n g on b e f o r e b l o s s o m i n g i n t o p r i n t . Had t h e y d o n e s o , t h e y w o u l d h a v e f o u n d o u t t h e  1. PLAP: P r o v i n c i a l L e a r n i n g A s s i s t i n g Programme. T h i s p r o g r a m m e , i n s t i t u t e d s e p a r a t e l y f r o m t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m was s e e n by o p p o n e n t s as c l e a r l y l i n k e d t o i t and f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f c e n t r a l i z e d d e c i s i o n m a k i n g .  58  M i n i s t r y has s e v e r a l o f t h e i s s u e s t h e y r a i s e d w e l l i n • h a n d ( V a n c o u v e r Sun, M a r c h 19, 1 9 7 7 ) . The M i n i s t e r t o o k a f i r m s t a n d on w h a t c o n s t i t u t e d t h e d o m a i n o f the M i n i s t r y ' s a u t h o r i t y and the e x p e c t e d  c o n t r i b u t i o n s from the  l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s . Walter Hardwick pointed  out:  C o n t r o l over e d u c a t i o n does not r e s t with t e a c h e r s or professors of education. Their r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s to advocate, t o recommend, t o d e v e l o p l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l and s t r a t e g i e s f o r l e a r n i n g - n o t t o d e c i d e w h a t w i l l be t a u g h t . That i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the p u b l i c ( W a l t e r H a r d w i c k , V a n c o u v e r Sun, M a r c h 19, 1 9 7 7 ) . P H I L O S O P H I C A L BASES In a l l t h e d o c u m e n t s s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r t h i s s t u d y , no s p e c i f i c s t a t e m e n t c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d r e l a t i n g to the p h i l o s o p h i c a l bases f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n the province. Learning?  The f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t f r o m What S h o u l d however, permits  some i n f e r e n c e s :  Our C h i l d r e n  "It is generally  t h a t t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has a l e g a l  Be accepted responsi-  b i l i t y . . . to provide school accommodation to a l l p u p i l s presented a r e o f s c h o o l age"  (p. 6).  The s t a t e m e n t s u g g e s t s o f t h e c h i l d who  who  t h a t the a c c e p t a n c e of the l e g a l r i g h t s  i s o f s c h o o l age i s a p r i n c i p l e t h a t e a c h c i t i z e n i n  the p r o v i n c e w i l l have i n c l u d e d i n h i s or her l i f e s t y l e .  When a p r i n c i p l e  b e c o m e s a p a r t o f l i f e s t y l e , i t m i g h t be s a i d t o a m o u n t t o a  'philosophy.'  The p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g t h a t c a n be d e d u c e d f r o m the s t a t e m e n t i s the l e g a l r i g h t o f the c h i l d t o p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n province of B r i t i s h Columbia.  i n the  59  GENERAL ENDS Two s t a g e s o f s c h o o l i n g c o n s t i t u t e d t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l i n b o t h What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? a n d G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m  1  -  t h e p r i m a r y s'tage f o r t h e l e a r n e r s a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e t o n i n e y e a r s a n d t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a g e f o r t h e l e a r n e r s a p p r o x i m a t e l y n i n e t o 13 y e a r s o f age.  In both o f these documents, s i x areas o f g e n e r a l ends f o r elementary  s c h o o l i n g were i n d i c a t e d : (1)  Development o f language c a p a b i l i t i e s .  i n c l u d e d the development  T h i s a r e a o f g e n e r a l ends  o f t h e r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , l i s t e n i n g and speaking  s k i l l s i n the E n g l i s h language. (2)  Development o f measurement and computing  abilities.  Aspects of this  a r e a o f g e n e r a l e n d s e n c o m p a s s e d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d t h e p r a c t i c a l u s e f u l n e s s o f number s y s t e m s . (3)  Development o f a s c i e n t i f i c approach.  This included the acquisition  of knowledge i n v a r i o u s s c i e n c e s "as r e l a t e d t o everyday (4)  Knowledge o f c u l t u r a l and p h y s i c a l h e r i t a g e .  life."  With regard t o t h i s  area o f general ends, t h e l e a r n e r i s expected t o a c q u i r e knowledge about the r i g h t s o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n the s o c i e t y .  Furthermore, the l e a r n e r  was e x p e c t e d t o a c q u i r e some k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c u l t u r a l a n d g e o g r a p h i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia and o f Canada. C5)  A n a l y t i c a l , r e s e a r c h , and problem s o l v i n g s k i l l s .  In t h i s area o f  g e n e r a l ends t h e l e a r n e r i s expected t o develop study s k i l l s and s t r a t e g i e s for problem s o l v i n g .  1. I n t h e G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m , t h e g o v e r n m e n t e x p e c t e d t h e t e a c h e r s t o s e e k f o r m o r e d e t a i l s a b o u t t h e e n d s a n d means i n t h e " T e a c h e r s ' G u i d e s . " F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e d a t a b a s e f o r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e e n d s a n d means in t h i s chapter i s extended t o these sources.  60  (6)  Healthful living.  T h i s a r e a o f g e n e r a l e n d s was i n t e n d e d f o r t h e  development o f " l a r g e muscles with p r o p o r t i o n a t e gains i n h e i g h t and weight,"  f o r the improvement o f "eye-hand c o - o r d i n a t i o n not f u l l y  developed"  and f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n o f s k i l l s " i n p l a y - l i f e  (Elementary  activities"  School P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , Government o f B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1975:15). GENERAL MEANS In t h e G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m , t h e g e n e r a l means w e r e s t a t e d i n terms o f teaching s u b j e c t s .  Some g u i d e l i n e s w e r e p r o v i d e d  as t o t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e s u b j e c t s t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia  expected  s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s .  References  w e r e made t o t h e T e a c h i n g S u b j e c t s G u i d e s f o r m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n the contents o f the teaching s u b j e c t s .  about  Using the Guide t o the Core  C u r r i c u l u m , a n d some o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' g u i d e s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e d o c u m e n t , t h e f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s a n d l e a r n i n g s may be i d e n t i f i e d a s g e n e r a l means: (1)  Language a r t s .  In t h e t e a c h i n g o f language  a r t s to the elementary  l e a r n e r s , the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia teacher should enable the learner to acquire  expected  s k i l l s such a s :  (i)  r e c e i v i n g the speaker's  ideas and f e e l i n g s ;  (ii)  n o t i n g t h e important d e t a i l s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s ;  (iii)  applying the speaker's  (iv)  sharing information;  (v)  i n f l u e n c i n g others through oral  (vi)  e n j o y m e n t by means o f o r a l  i d e a s t o h i s own  experiences;  expression;  expression;  that the  61  (vii)  a p p r e c i a t i o n by means o f o r a l e x p r e s s i o n ;  (viii)  b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of r e a d i n g , comprehension,  (Cf. Elementary Columbia, (2)  and w r i t i n g .  Language A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide, Government of B r i t i s h  1976:25ff).  Mathematics.  at the elementary  In t h e a r e a o f t h e t e a c h i n g o f m a t h e m a t i c s ,  the teachers  level of s c h o o l i n g i n the province of B r i t i s h  Columbia  a r e e x p e c t e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n t o a s s i s t t h e l e a r n e r t o acquire: (i)  t h e c o n c e p t o f number t h r o u g h r e l a t i n g number s y m b o l s t o r e a l objects;  (ii)  a r e a d i n g a b i l i t y o f p l a c e v a l u e , and w r i t i n g a b i l i t y o f to  (iii)  numerals  999;  t h e r e c o g n i t i o n and t h e use o f s u c h s y m b o l s as t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d d i t i o n , s u b t r a c t i o n , m u l t i p l i c a t i o n , d i v i s i o n and money system;  (iv)  t h e a b i l i t y t o s o l v e a d d i t i o n and s u b t r a c t i o n e x a m p l e s o f  two  and t h r e e d i g i t n u m b e r s ; (v)  t h e a b i l i t y t o s o l v e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n and d i v i s i o n e x a m p l e s f o r p r o d u c t up t o 50.  (Cf. Guide to the Core C u r r i c u l u m , Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, (3)  Science education.  There are three areas of l e a r n i n g s f o r science  e d u c a t i o n as i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y Interim Guide, (i)  1976:16).  Science:  Teachers  Curriculum  1977:  Learnings which are intended f o r the development i n the l e a r n e r and a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e r o l e o f s c i e n c e i n human l i f e .  (ii)  Learnings which are intended to a s s i s t the l e a r n e r a c q u i r e s k i l l s f o r o b s e r v i n g , c l a s s i f y i n g and q u a n t i f y i n g p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s , l i q u i d s and  fluids.  62  (iii)  Learnings i n the area o f concepts o f s c i e n t i f i c vocabulary, the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n and o t h e r s u b j e c t s , some h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l edge.  (Cf. Elementary  Science:  B r i t i s h Columbia, (3)  Teachers C u r r i c u l u m I n t e r i m , Government o f  1977:4-9).  Social Studies.  The M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n expected t h e t e a c h e r s i n  s o c i a l s t u d i e s t o have p u p i l s l e a r n about: (i)  Families:  In t h e s t u d y o f f a m i l i e s , t h e l e a r n e r i s e x p e c t e d t o  l e a r n a b o u t t h e r o l e s o f p a r e n t s , t h e d i f f e r e n t b e l i e f s among and b e t w e e n e t h n i c f a m i l i e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e , a n d a b o u t t h e r o l e s o f t h e c h i l d a s a member o f a f a m i l y . ( i i ) (a) Communities:  The c h i l d i s e x p e c t e d t o have a c o n c e p t o f community  s e t - u p s a n d some k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e v a r i o u s communities  of the province,  (b) L e a r n i n g s t h a t w i l l d r a w t o g e t h e r t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n the c o n c e p t o f t h e f a m i l y u n i t and t h e concept o f a community. (iii)  E a r l y c u l t u r e s o f North America:  The l e a r n i n g s a s s o c i a t e d with  t h i s area o f knowledge should a i d t h e l e a r n e r t o a c q u i r e t h e n o t i o n o f c u l t u r e and a s s i s t t h e l e a r n e r t o a c q u i r e a knowledge of the s o c i a l behaviours o f the people belonging t o these c u l t u r e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d p r o v i d e t h e l e a r n e r w i t h some opportunities to explore studies of personal i n t e r e s t i n this area of l e a r n i n g s . (iv)  The growth o f Canada as a N a t i o n :  In t h i s a r e a o f means, t h e l e a r n -  e r i s e x p e c t e d t o a c q u i r e some k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e e a r l y s e t t l e r s on C a n a d i a n  s o i l and about the h i s t o r i c a l development o f the  63  country into a nation.  The c h i l d i s a l s o e x p e c t e d t o l e a r n about  the m u l t i - c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f Canada (Elementary S o c i a l S t u d i e s : Y e a r s 1-7, G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , (5)  H e a l t h and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n .  1974:llff).  D r i l l s and t r a i n i n g which the M i n i s t r y  o f E d u c a t i o n expected t h e t e a c h e r t o teach i n h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l education should develop i n the c h i l d : (i)  Large muscles w i t h p r o p o r t i o n a t e g a i n s i n h e i g h t and weight.  (ii)  Eye-hand c o o r d i n a t i o n not f u l l y  (iii)  Hand r h y t h m s ,  developed.  e x t r e m e l y c r e a t i v e and u n i n h i b i t e d .  (Cf. Elementary School P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , Government o f B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1975:15). L e a r n i n g s , such as a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n a r e samples o f t h e g e n e r a l means f o r e l e m e n t a r y  s c h o o l i n g observed i n t h e Guide t o the  C o r e C u r r i c u l u m a n d some o f t h e T e a c h e r s ' G u i d e s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e d o c u ment.  I t was n o t e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e no l e a r n i n g s i n d i c a t e d f o r t h e g e n e r a l  ends o f ' A n a l y t i c , Research, and Problem  solving skills.'  The M i n i s t e r  of E d u c a t i o n i n d i c a t e d i n t h e Guide t o t h e Core C u r r i c u l u m t h a t t h e r e q u i r e d l e a r n i n g s f o r a c h i e v i n g these ends a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e s c i e n c e education l e a r n i n g s and i n those o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s . E S S E N T I A L ENDS AND MEANS In t h e b o o k l e t , What S h o u l d O u r C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? , L a n g u a g e A r t s and Mathematics  t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d l e a r n i n g s were  i n d i c a t e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  as t h e essen-  t i a l e n d s a n d means f o r e l e m e n t a r y p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n t h e p r o v i n c e s . H o w e v e r , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e o u t l i n e o f e n d s a n d means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n t h e Guide t o t h e Core C u r r i c u l u m , i t i s n o t c l e a r t h a t o n l y  64  Language A r t s and Mathematics  a r e t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f what t h e e l e m e n t a r y  s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  Each o f  t h e t h i r t e e n s c h o o l s u b j e c t s i n t h e b o o k l e t was t r e a t e d i n t h r e e c o l u m n s entitled:  L e a r n i n g outcomes, Major a r e a s o f L e a r n i n g s and Other  o f Development and Maintenance  (Appendix  I I I , p p . 144-156 ) .  areas  I f the  l e a r n i n g s d e a l t w i t h i n t h e s e c t i o n o f 'Major a r e a s o f l e a r n i n g s ' a r e understood  t o be t h e e s s e n t i a l l e a r n i n g s , by t h e t e a c h e r s o r by a n y  r e a d e r o f t h e d o c u m e n t , a n d i f e a c h o f t h e t h i r t e e n s u b j e c t s h a s some of i t s elements  c l a s s i f i e d as major areas o f l e a r n i n g s , i t f o l l o w s t h a t  some a s p e c t s o f e a c h o f t h e s u b j e c t s a r e e s s e n t i a l . SUMMARY T h i s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e d f o u r d o c u m e n t s p u b l i s h e d by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h Columbia  d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1976 t o 1 9 7 7 . T h e s e d o c u m e n t s c o n -  s t i t u t e d t h e p r e p a r a t o r y a n d t h e f i n a l s t a g e s on t h e p a r t o f t h e g o v e r n ment t o d e f i n e w h a t the^ s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e . data were extended s t i p u l a t e d i n them.  These  t o the Teachers' Guides to the teaching o f the s u b j e c t s F i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a t a p e r i o d i n t i m e when t h e  public expected a l i b e r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n matters p e r t a i n i n g to p u b l i c education the B r i t i s h Columbia  M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n a d o p t e d an a u t o -  c r a t i c method i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  about what t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s s h o u l d  teach i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  A l t h o u g h some g r o u p s o f  p e o p l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y f r o m among t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s , p u b l i c l y denounced the M i n i s t e r ' s decision-making procedures, the M i n i s t e r i n s i s t e d on w h a t c o n s t i t u t e d h i s a u t h o r i t y a n d t h e e x p e c t e d r o l e s o f t h e p r o fessionals.  T h e d o c u m e n t s s h o w e d e v i d e n c e o f s p e c i f i c e n d s a n d means  for schooling.  T h e s p e c i f i c i t y o f t h e e n d s a n d means ( d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e  65  g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s o b s e r v e d i n t h e O n t a r i o and A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t s ) ,  may  be a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e d u r e s u s e d by t h e M i n i s t e r of Education.  A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e i n What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be  L e a r n i n g ? t h a t t h e M i n i s t e r i n t e n d e d L a n g u a g e A r t s and M a t h e m a t i c s  t o be  the e s s e n t i a l s of the contents of elementary s c h o o l i n g , the f i n a l r e p o r t , Guide to the Core C u r r i c u l u m d i d not c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h i s i n t e n t i o n .  CHAPTER SEVEN COMPARISONS This chapter reviews the f i n d i n g s presented i n chapters f o u r , f i v e , and s i x and makes c o m p a r i s o n s  among them.  The c o m p a r i s o n s  are  made and d i s c u s s e d u n d e r h e a d i n g s w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d t o t h o s e u s e d i n c h a p t e r s f o u r , f i v e , and s i x . THE ESTABLISHMENT OF INQUIRY From t h e e x a m i n a t i o n  of the source documents, i t appears  i n q u i r i e s a b o u t w h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g may two r e a s o n s :  (1)  e d u c a t i o n a l and  (2)  that  be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r  political.  E d u c a t i o n a l Reasons An e x a m i n a t i o n  o f a l l t h r e e d o c u m e n t s r e v e a l s a common a s p e c t as  t o why t h e y w e r e p u b l i s h e d .  E a c h p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t t h o u g h t i t was  a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l s be d e f i n e d i n t e r m s o f t h e p u r p o s e s t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d s e e k and t h e c o n t e n t t h e y s h o u l d t e a c h .  Thus  t h e P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i t t e e on A i m s and O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o was e s t a b l i s h e d " t o o u t l i n e t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o r c h i l d r e n " a t t h e " K i n d e r g a r t e n , P r i m a r y , and J u n i o r D i v i s i o n s " and " t o p r o p o s e means by w h i c h t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s may a c h i e v e d " (p. 4 ) .  1  be  The C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n A l b e r t a  1. The p a g e n u m b e r s u s e d as r e f e r e n c e s i n t h i s c h a p t e r r e f e r t o t h e s a m p l e d o c u m e n t s e x a m i n e d i n c h a p t e r s f o u r , f i v e , and s i x . In t h e c a s e o f O n t a r i o , t h e d o c u m e n t i s " L i v i n g and L e a r n i n g . " In t h e c a s e o f A l b e r t a , t h e numbers r e f e r t o "A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s . " B e c a u s e m o r e t h a n one d o c u m e n t was e x a m i n e d i n c h a p t e r s i x , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s r e f e r r e d t o w i l l be named. 66  67  was e s t a b l i s h e d t o " s t u d y a l l l e v e l s o f s c h o o l i n g and t h e i r n e c e s s a r y a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e f u t u r e o f t h e p r o v i n c e " and t o p r o v i d e " b a s e s  for  P r i o r i t y by t h e g o v e r n m e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c o u r s e o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e " (p. 304).  The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  cate c l e a r - c u t educational reasons.  documents d i d not  indi-  The d o c u m e n t s somehow i m p l i e d a  p o l i t i c a l reason which i s d i s c u s s e d below. However, the need to r e d e f i n e the r o l e o f the s c h o o l s i n each s o c i e t y appeared  d i f f e r e n t l y i n each of the t h r e e p r o v i n c e s .  In O n t a r i o ,  r e f o r m i n g t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m was a p p a r e n t l y i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e t h e e x i s t i n g c u r r i c u l u m , a t t h e t i m e t h e C o m m i t t e e on A i m s and O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o was e s t a b l i s h e d , d i d n o t seem t o be o f the type t h a t would permit the schools to respond to t h e i r r o l e i n the s o c i e t y (p. 4). was  S i m i l a r reason f o r d e f i n i n g the r o l e of the  i n d i c a t e d by t h e r e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l  schools  Planning.  The r e p o r t showed t h a t s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f s c h o o l i n g w h i c h w o u l d m e e t t h e " s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c t r e n d s w i t h i n t h e d u r i n g t h e n e x t two d e c a d e s "  was n e e d e d ( p . 3 0 4 ) .  The e d u c a t i o n a l  to d e f i n e the r o l e of the s c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h e n e e d s o f O n t a r i o and A l b e r t a .  province need  was d i f f e r e n t f r o m  According to the M i n i s t e r of  Education  i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , on w h a t c o n s t i t u t e d t h e d o m a i n o f M i n i s t e r ' s a u t h o r i t y a b o u t w h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e , i t i s t h e  preroga-  t i v e o f the M i n i s t e r to d e f i n e the r o l e of the p u b l i c schools i n the province.  In t h e " M i n i s t e r ' s S t a t e m e n t , "  of B r i t i s h Columbia  1976,  the M i n i s t e r of  Education  i n d i c a t e d t h a t he was e x e r c i s i n g t h i s a u t h o r i t y t o  d e f i n e the r o l e o f the s c h o o l s i n the p r o v i n c e (p. 1).  68  Political  Reasons  The M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  p o i n t e d o u t i n What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? ( 1 9 7 6 ) t h a t t h e r e was one p o i n t o f c o m p l e t e  a g r e e m e n t w i t h i n t h e n u m e r o u s and d i v e r s e  s u g g e s t i o n s he had r e c e i v e d .  The p o i n t o f a g r e e m e n t was t h a t t h e c i t i z e n s  o f t h e p r o v i n c e e x p e c t e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o t a k e a more p o s i t i v e r o l e i n d e f i n i n g w h a t s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s ( p . 1 ) . e n c e , t h i s s t a t e m e n t has a p o l i t i c a l o v e r t o n e b e c a u s e  By  infer-  i t prompts such  questions as: (1)  Who w e r e t h e p e o p l e who made t h e  suggestions?  (2)  Were t h e y t h e t y p e o f p e o p l e t o whom p r o m i s e s had b e e n made by t h e  p o l i t i c a l party the M i n i s t e r of Education (3)  represented?  Were t h e p e o p l e t h e t y p e who w e r e d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e e d u c a t i o n a l  p o l i c y o f a p r e v i o u s g o v e r n m e n t and w e r e t r y i n g t o l a y p r e s s u r e on a new g o v e r n m e n t t o a c h i e v e t h e i r own p e r s o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l i d e o l o g i e s ? (4)  Were t h e p e o p l e g e n u i n e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l s as  i t may be b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e s o c i e t y a t l a r g e ? P o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s a r e n o t e v i d e n t i n t h e O n t a r i o and A l b e r t a documents. PROCEDURES FOR  INQUIRY  The p r o c e d u r e s u s e d f o r i n q u i r i e s by t h e t h r e e p r o v i n c e s o f O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w e r e s t r u c t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t . A l t h o u g h s e e k i n g o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n s o c c u r r e d i n each case, t h i s commonality perhaps  is  l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e way e a c h o f t h e  i n q u i r i e s s e t out about i n v o l v i n g the p u b l i c .  the  69  The i n q u i r y was c o n d u c t e d i n O n t a r i o by a t w e n t y - f o u r man s i o n , c o - c h a i r e d by Mr. J u s t i c e E.H. H a l l a n d Mr. L.A. D e n n i s . e v i d e n t t h a t a g o o d number o f t h e members o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n who w e r e i n v o l v e d i n v a r i o u s ways w i t h e d u c a t i o n ( p . 6 ) . t h e i n q u i r y was h a n d l e d by one-man C o m m i s s i o n e r , W a l t e r Worth.  The C o m m i s s i o n e r  CommisIt is  were p e o p l e In A l b e r t a ,  i n t h e p e r s o n o f Dr.  o r g a n i z e d an e i g h t - m a n C o m m i s s i o n  Board.  The B o a r d d r e w more t h a n one h u n d r e d e x p e r t c o n s u l t a n t s f r o m s e v e r a l p r o v i n c e s o f C a n a d a and f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( p p . 3 0 5 - 3 0 8 ) .  These  c o n s u l t a n t s w e r e m o s t l y a c a d e m i c p e o p l e who s p e c i a l i z e d i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s of f u t u r i s t i c s t u d i e s (pp. 305-308). the government  In t h e c a s e o f B r i t i s h  Columbia,  i n i t i a t e d and m o n i t o r e d t h e i n q u i r y i t s e l f , w i t h r e l a t i v e l y  l i t t l e o u t s i d e a s s i s t a n c e acknowledged  i n the documents.  The  services  o f two a n a l y s t s , J . B o t t o m l e y a n d P a t B a t e s , w e r e u s e d t o d e c o d e a w o r k i n g p a p e r ( c f . A p p e n d i c e s I and I I ) . Although the agent t h a t conducted the i n q u i r y i n each of the p r o v i n c e s s o u g h t p u b l i c o p i n i o n as t o w h a t t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g , t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e p u b l i c was i n v o l v e d was d i f f e r e n t .  The  k e y d i f f e r e n c e s seem t o be b e t w e e n O n t a r i o and A l b e r t a , on t h e one h a n d , a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , on t h e o t h e r h a n d .  The i n q u i r i e s i n O n t a r i o a n d A l b e r t a  s o u g h t p u b l i c o p i n i o n b e f o r e m a k i n g a s e l e c t i o n o f w h a t s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n the s c h o o l s o f the p r o v i n c e s . Both these i n q u i r i e s used s i m i l a r a p p r o a c h e s t o r e a c h and i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c .  Such methods as p u b l i c meet-  i n g s , p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , p u b l i c c o n f e r e n c e s , s u b m i s s i o n o f b r i e f s and p a p e r s were used.  A s e t o f m a t e r i a l s was t h e n o u t l i n e d as a g u i d e l i n e f o r w h a t  t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e s ( G o v e r n m e n t pp. 2 3 , 75; G o v e r n m e n t  o f A l b e r t a , 1972, pp. 3 0 4 - 3 0 5 ) .  o f O n t a r i o , 1969, In t h e B r i t i s h  70  Columbia  c a s e , p u b l i c o p i n i o n was s o u g h t f o l l o w i n g an i n i t i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n  o f w h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t saw as a p p r o p r i a t e : Learning?  What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be  C a l l i n g the proposal a working paper, the government  t h e comments o f t h e p u b l i c by means o f r e a c t i o n s h e e t s . to the working  paper were a n a l y z e d ( c f . Appendices  sought  The p u b l i c r e a c t i o n s  I and I I ) .  The a n a l y s i s  was f o l l o w e d by a f i n a l s e t o f m a t e r i a l s as w h a t s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n t h e p u b l i c schools of the p r o v i n c e . ' According to the Government, the f i n a l d o c u m e n t , G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m , was w r i t t e n i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p u b l i c ' s d e s i r e as i n d i c a t e d by t h e a n a l y s i s . P H I L O S O P H I C A L BASES E a c h o f t h e r e p o r t s f r o m O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , and B r i t i s h  Columbia  i n d i c a t e d t h a t s c h o o l i n g s h o u l d be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e child.  What may  be i n f e r r e d as t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s f o r t h i s i n e a c h  report i s d i f f e r e n t . These d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l bases, i n t u r n , seem t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t v i e w s o f t h e c h i l d w h i c h may  be  a t t r i b u t e d to the r e p o r t s . In t h e c a s e o f O n t a r i o , p r e s u m a b l y ,  before the a c t i v i t i e s of  i n v o l v i n g t h e p u b l i c i n t h e i n q u i r y , t h e C o m m i s s i o n on A i m s and O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o e x a m i n e d v a r i o u s v i e w s on p h i l o s ophies o f e d u c a t i o n (p. 68).  The P r a g m a t i s t s ' v i e w w h i c h  encourages  t h a t t h e c h i l d s h o u l d be e d u c a t e d f o r l i f e i n t h e s o c i e t y was for adoption i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system o f O n t a r i o (p. 68).  considered  E v i d e n t l y , the  C o m m i s s i o n recommended t h a t s c h o o l i n g i n O n t a r i o s h o u l d be b a s e d on t h i s view (p. 23).  T h u s , t h e O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t seems t o h a v e s e e n t h e c h i l d as  an i n d i v i d u a l whose d e v e l o p m e n t i s c o n t i n u a l l y b e i n g a f f e c t e d by t h e ongoing changes i n the s o c i e t y (p. 23).  71  In t h e c a s e o f A l b e r t a , a p p a r e n t l y , t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f t h e i n q u i r y w e r e d e v o t e d t o e l a b o r a t e r e s e a r c h on t h e e c o n o m i c and f u t u r e o f A l b e r t a i n the next twenty y e a r s (pp. 309-310).  social  From t h e  p o i n t o f t h e r e s e a r c h , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e C o m m i t t e e on E d u c a t i o n a l i n A l b e r t a , t h e p r o v i n c e i n 1972 was u n d e r g o i n g  as p o v e r t y ,  t e n s i o n b e t w e e n v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , and s o c i a l Two a l t e r n a t i v e f u t u r e s w e r e p r e d i c t e d - - t h e s e c o n d - p h a s e s o c i e t y and t h e p e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y ( p p . 2 6 - 2 7 ) .  s o c i e t y , however, the s o c i a l problems  unrest.  industrial  If Albertans  t o l i v e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e i r v a l u e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f 1972, t h i s industrial society.  Planning  t h e f i r s t p h a s e o f an  i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s u c h s o c i a l p r o b l e m s  lead to a second-phase  view-  In a s e c o n d - p h a s e  continued might  industrial  o f the f i r s t phase would c o n t i n u e .  I f A l b e r t a n s were p r e p a r e d t o change t h e i r v a l u e p e r s p e c t i v e s , the p r o v i n c e m i g h t become a p e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y i n w h i c h human r e l a t i o n s h i p s m i g h t improve  (pp. 28-29).  In t h i s r e g a r d , t h e C o m m i t t e e r a t i o n a l i z e d and  recommended t h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be u s e d t o b r i n g a b o u t a p e r s o n c e n t r e d s o c i e t y i n A l b e r t a (pp. 33-36). s c h o o l i n t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t , may struct!' o n i s t s .  In t h i s r e g a r d , t h e v i e w o f t h e  be s e e n as t h a t o f t h e S o c i a l R e c o n -  The u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c h i l d i n t h e r e p o r t  appears  b a s e d on t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e c h i l d as an i n d i v i d u a l w h o s e d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d l e a d t o r e s p o n s i b l e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g w h i c h w i l l a f f e c t h i m s e l f and others. T h e r e i s no s u b s t a n t i v e e v i d e n c e i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w h i c h may  documents  p e r m i t any i n f e r e n c e o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e s f o r w h a t t h e  s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e .  The d o c u m e n t s , h o w e v e r , m i g h t  be  s a i d t o v i e w t h e c h i l d as one w h o s e e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s s h o u l d be a s s e s s e d by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s c h a r g e d w i t h t h e g o v e r n a n c e  of the process of e d u c a t i o n .  72  In h i s P o l i c y S t a t e m e n t , t h e H o n o u r a b l e P a t r i c k L. M c G e e r , t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i n 1976 a n n o u n c e d t h a t w h a t t h e c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be l e a r n i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e f e l l u n d e r t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s :  "that  w h i c h m u s t be l e a r n e d , t h a t w h i c h s h o u l d be l e a r n e d , a n d t h a t w h i c h may be l e a r n e d . "  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , t h e "must" a n d t h e  " s h o u l d " o f t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m was t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e M i n i s t r y of Education.  What may be l e a r n e d was i n d i c a t e d t o be t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  of the l o c a l school boards and the t e a c h e r s . The v i e w o f t h e c h i l d d e p i c t e d by e a c h o f t h e t h r e e r e p o r t s , d i f f e r e n t as t h e y a r e f r o m one a n o t h e r , m i g h t g e n e r a t e d i f f e r e n t emphases w i t h i n t h e e n d s a n d means f o r s c h o o l i n g i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e p r o v i n c e s . However, i m p l i c i t i n a l l t h r e e documents i s t h e need t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t the e d u c a t i o n a l system has t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r e p a r i n g t h e young t o become c o n t r i b u t i n g a d u l t s i n t h e s o c i e t y .  T h e b e s t way o f d o i n g s o  v a r i e s i n p a r t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o c u s p l a c e d on who h a s t h e r i g h t t o decide.  The d i f f e r e n c e a l r e a d y seen i n t h e n a t u r e and t i m i n g o f p u b l i c  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i n q u i r y i s p r o b a b l y one r e f l e c t i o n o f t h i s .  On  t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e b e s t way t o f u l f i l t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a l s o v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r i n c i p l e used t o formulate a p h i l o s o p h y o f s c h o o l i n g and t h e v i e w o f t h e c h i l d i m p l i e d b y t h i s  philosophy.  GENERAL ENDS The g e n e r a l e n d s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s  numbered  f o u r f o r O n t a r i o , s i x f o r A l b e r t a , and s i x f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. o r d e r t o s e e how much o v e r l a p e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e d a t a t h e s e s i x t e e n g e n e r a l e n d s a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 1, p a g e 7 2 .  In  sources,  73 T A B L E 1:  THE I D E N T I F I C A T I O N  OF GENERAL ENDS IN THE THREE SOURCE DOCUMENTS  GENERAL ENDS 1.  2.  3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  Ensuring that the child acquires the basic necessities f o r education. This includes the mental and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h o f t h e c h i l d and t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e e s s e n t i a l s k i l l s of communication. Helping the child to develop desirable s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s , and a c q u i r e d e s i r a b l e a b i l i t i e s so that the c h i l d f e e l s secure and adequate " w i t h i n h i m s e l f " and " w i t h i n h i s w o r l d . " Educating t h e c h i l d i n e t h i c a l values and ensuring h i s moral development. Meeting t h e needs and t h e e x p r e s s e d desires o f the child. P e r s o n a l autonomy t o n u r t u r e g r o w t h t o w a r d s e l f h o o d and i n d i v i d u a l freedom. S o c i a l competence t o n u r t u r e t h e c a p a c i t y for satisfying relations with others. E t h i c a l competence t o n u r t u r e t h e development of personal values and s o c i a l conscience. C r e a t i v e c a p a c i t y t o n u r t u r e t h e growth o f l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and s k i l l s . Career p r o f i c i e n c y to nurture the development of and t h e maintenance o f o c c u p a t i o n a l competence.  ONT.  ALTA.  B.C.  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  10.  I n t e l l e c t u a l power t o n u r t u r e t h e u s e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l and a e s t h e t i c a b i l i t i e s .  11. 12.  Development o f language c a p a b i l i t i e s . Development o f measurement and computing capabilities.  X  13. 14. 15.  Development o f a s c i e n t i f i c approach. A c q u i s i t i o n o f c u l t u r a l and p h y s i c a l h e r i t a g e . A c q u i s i t i o n o f a n a l y t i c a l , research, and problem-solving s k i l l s .  X  16.  A c q u i s i t i o n o f knowledge and h e a l t h f u l l i v i n g .  X  X  X  X X  74  The t a b l e l i s t s t h e g e n e r a l e n d s i d e n t i f i e d i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e source documents.  For c a s e o f r e f e r e n c e , each g e n e r a l end i s a s s i g n e d  a s e r i a l number f r o m 1 t o 16.  E a c h i s a l s o m a r k e d 'x' i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  p r o v i n c i a l column t o i n d i c a t e i n which of the t h r e e documents i t i s to be f o u n d .  The w o r d i n g o f t h e f i r s t g r o u p o f e n d s i s e d i t e d f o r b r e v i t y  f r o m t h e way t h e e n d s w e r e s t a t e d i n t h e O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t . the e d i t e d statements r e p r e s e n t the o r i g i n a l s (p. 27).  Essentially,  A l l the A l b e r t a  e n d s r e t a i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l f o r m ( p p . 4 6 - 4 8 ) , and s o do t h e B r i t i s h  Columbia  e n d s (What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ) . T h e s t a t e m e n t s o f e n d s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1 v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o two aspects:  the b r o a d n e s s o f the s t a t e m e n t s and t h e c l a r i t y o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l  purposes f o r which they are intended.  I t e m s 1, 2, a n d 3 ( O n t a r i o i t e m s )  may be s e e n as s a m p l e s o f v e r y b r o a d s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e s e n s e t h a t e a c h o f t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s c o n t a i n s a t l e a s t two o r more d e s i r a b l e p u r p o s e s t h a t the s c h o o l s should seek.  The d e s i r a b l e p u r p o s e s f o r w h i c h t h e s e  i t e m s a r e i n t e n d e d seem t o be c l e a r e n o u g h i n t h e s e n s e t h a t an e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i t i o n e r may w i t h o u t much p r o b l e m u n d e r s t a n d them.  Item 4 (an O n t a r i o  i t e m ) a n d i t e m s 5 t o 10 ( A l b e r t a i t e m s ) may be s e e n as s a m p l e s o f b r o a d s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s do n o t c o m b i n e as many e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s as t e n d s t o be t h e c a s e w i t h t h e v e r y b r o a d s t a t e m e n t s . The e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s f o r w h i c h some o f t h e b r o a d s t a t e m e n t s a r e i n t e n d e d seem t o be c l e a r e n o u g h ( A l b e r t a , i t e m s 7, 8, and 9 ) .  In t h e  c a s e s o f O n t a r i o i t e m 4 a n d A l b e r t a i t e m s 5, 6, and 10, i t seems d i f f i c u l t to c l e a r l y understand the e d u c a t i o n a l purposes f o r which these statements are intended.  I t e m 4 ( a n O n t a r i o i t e m ) may e v e n be c o n s i d e r e d a s an  e x t e n s i o n o f i t e m 1 ( w h i c h i s a l s o an O n t a r i o i t e m ) i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s w h i c h i t seems t o e x p r e s s may be s e e n "as e n s u r i n g  75  that the child acquires the basic n e c e s s i t i e s f o r education" (Table ] i t e m 1; c f . a l s o G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o , 1 9 6 9 : 7 5 ) . ( B r i t i s h Columbia  i t e m s ) may be s e e n a s s a m p l e s  s  I t e m s 11 t o 16  of s p e c i f i c statements i n  t h e s e n s e t h a t e a c h o f t h e m seems t o be i n t e n d e d f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f o n e subject i n the school i n s t i t u t i o n s . the statements  The e d u c a t i o n a l purposes  f o r which  a r e i n t e n d e d a r e c l e a r e n o u g h , e x c e p t f o r i t e m 15 w h i c h t h e  M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n d i c a t e d s h o u l d be r e l a t e d t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f Language A r t s , S c i e n c e , and S o c i a l S t u d i e s ( c f . Appendix I I I ) . Some s i m i l a r i t i e s a r e n o t i c e a b l e among t h e t h r e e g r o u p s o f i t e m s . F o r e x a m p l e , i t e m s 1 ( a n O n t a r i o i t e m ) , 10 ( a n A l b e r t a i t e m ) , a n d 11 (a B r i t i s h Columbia  i t e m ) may be s e e n a s s i m i l a r . I n p a r t t h e s e  statement  are intended f o r Language A r t s E d u c a t i o n , except t h a t t h e O n t a r i o item i n c l u d e s some o t h e r b a s i c s a n d o n l y by i n f e r e n c e may t h e A l b e r t a i t e m be seen as b e l o n g i n g t o t h i s  parallel.  In o r d e r t o c r e a t e a f o c u s f o r a m o r e c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n  of the  ends i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e t h r e e source documents, t o handle t h e cases o f o v e r l a p s among t h e e n d s w i t h i n e a c h g r o u p o f e n d s , a n d among t h e i t e m s of t h e t h r e e groups o f ends, the s i x t e e n items l i s t e d i n Table 1 a r e c o m b i n e d i n t o s i x c a t e g o r i e s o f e n d s w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 2, p a g e 76.  The combination  o f those s i x t e e n items i n t o these s i x c a t e g o r i e s  i s b a s e d on t h e a p p a r e n t s i m i l a r i t i e s t h a t may be a t t r i b u t e d t o m o r e t h a n o n e s t a t e m e n t o f e n d s among t h e s i x t e e n i t e m s . T a b l e 2 l i s t s these s i x c a t e g o r i e s o f ends and i n d i c a t e s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s i x t e e n i t e m s among t h e m . numbered I-VI f o r ease o f r e f e r e n c e .  The s i x c a t e g o r i e s a r e  The c o m b i n a t i o n  o f items i n d i c a t e s  t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h c e r t a i n e n d s d e s c r i b e d i n o n e d o c u m e n t may be s e e n a s t h e ^ e q u i v a l e n t s o f another i n t h e other documents.  Thus, the d e s i g n a t i o n 3  76  TABLE 2:  THE COMBINATION OF GENERAL ENDS I D E N T I F I E D IN THE THREE SOURCE DOCUMENTS  I  Acquisition of the basic necessities  II  Acquisition of secure s e l f image t h r o u g h d e s i r a b l e s k i l l s and attitudes  ONT.  ALTA.  B.C.  1, 4  5, 10  11, 12 13, 15  2  6  3  7  III  E n s u r i n g E t h i c a l and Moral development  IV  Development o f l e i s u r e and recreational capabilities  8  V  Career and o c c u p a t i o n a l Education  9  VI  Acquisition of Cultural and P h y s i c a l H e r i t a g e  16  14, 15  77  i n the O n t a r i o column b e s i d e i t e m 7 (an A l b e r t a item) i n d i c a t e s t h a t item 7 may  be r e g a r d e d as i n c l u d e d i n t h e O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t a t i t e m 3. A l l the t h r e e documents i n d i c a t e t h a t the elementary  School  should  a s s i s t t h e c h i l d t o a c q u i r e " b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s " ( T a b l e 2, c a t e g o r y I ) . T h e r e a r e some d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s among and b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e documents, as t o the e x t e n t t o which the s c h o o l i s e x p e c t e d t o seek end.  B o t h t h e O n t a r i o and t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  the development of language  this  documents s u b s c r i b e to  s k i l l s ( T a b l e 1, i t e m 1; G o v e r n m e n t o f  O n t a r i o , 1 9 7 2 : 7 5 ; T a b l e 1, i t e m 11; G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  1976:3).  O n t a r i o i n c l u d e s t h e c a r e f o r t h e m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h o f t h e c h i l d ( T a b l e 1, i t e m 1 ) .  The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  o f s k i l l s and c o m p e t e n c i e s  document i n c l u d e s the a c q u i s i t i o n  i n measurement, computing,  scientific  approach  and p r o b l e m s o l v i n g ( T a b l e 1, i t e m s 11, 12, 13, and 15; G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  1976:3).  By i n f e r e n c e ( b e c a u s e o f l a c k o f c l a r i t y o f  t h e s t a t e m e n t s ; T a b l e 1, i t e m s 4 and 10; G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a , 1972:47 and 4 8 ) , i t may  be s a i d t h a t t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t e x p e c t s t h e c h i l d t o  a c q u i r e b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s i n a comparable the B r i t i s h Columbia  manner t o t h a t i n d i c a t e d i n  document, i n the sense t h a t " P e r s o n a l autonomy t o  n u r t u r e growth toward s e l f h o o d and i n d i v i d u a l freedom"  ( i t e m 5 ) , and  " I n t e l l e c t u a l p o w e r t o n u r t u r e t h e u s e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l and a e s t h e t i c a b i l i t i e s " ( i t e m 10) may  be s e e n b o t h t o g e t h e r , as c o v e r i n g s u c h b a s i c  n e c e s s i t i e s observed i n the B r i t i s h Columbia The s e c o n d c a t e g o r y o f e n d s ,  document.  A c q u i s i t i o n o f s e c u r e s e l f image  t h r o u g h d e s i r a b l e s k i l l s and a t i t t u d e s ( T a b l e 2, c a t e g o r y I ) , w h i c h i n c l u d e s i t e m 2 ( a n O n t a r i o i t e m ) and i t e m 6 ( a n A l b e r t a i t e m ) i n T a b l e 1 i s a d i f f i c u l t c a t e g o r y o f end t o d i s c u s s w i t h p r e c i s i o n . s k i l l s a n d a t t i t u d e s " may  "Desirable  be h e l d t o " b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s , " and a c c o r d i n g l y  has b e e n i n c l u d e d i n t h e c a t e g o r y .  78  B o t h t h e O n t a r i o and t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t s i n d i c a t e e n d s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e t h i c s and m o r a l s  ( T a b l e 2, c a t e g o r y I I I ) .  In t h e A l b e r t a and t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  documents, ends are  s t a t e d f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l c a p a c i t i e s ( T a b l e 2, c a t e g o r y I V ) .  T h i s end may  a l s o be s e e n as o c c u r r i n g i n t h e  O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t , b u t as a p a r t o f t h e c a t e g o r y I ( t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f basic necessities). Among t h e t h r e e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s , o n l y t h a t o f A l b e r t a shows t h a t the elementary category V).  s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d i n c l u d e c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n ( T a b l e 2, And o n l y t h a t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  specifically indicates  e n d s f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f c u l t u r a l and p h y s i c a l h e r i t a g e ( T a b l e c a t e g o r y V I ) , w h i c h may  2,  be s e e n as i m p l i c i t l y c o n t a i n e d i n c a t e g o r y  I,  s i n c e i t e m 1 ( a n O n t a r i o i t e m ) , i t e m s 5 and 10 ( A l b e r t a i t e m s ) , and i t e m 15 (a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a may  item) which are catalogued under category I  be r e g a r d e d as e n d s i n t e n d e d f o r s i m i l a r e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s  for  w h i c h c a t e g o r y VI i s i n t e n d e d . GENERAL MEANS In b o t h t h e O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  d o c u m e n t s , g e n e r a l means  w e r e recommended i n t e r m s o f t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e t y p e o f s u b j e c t s a s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m may  incorporate.  Although  the A l b e r t a document d i d not  s p e c i f i c a l l y recommend s c h o o l s u b j e c t c o n t e n t s , some o f t h e g e n e r a l means w h i c h may  be i n f e r r e d i n i t may  be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one s u b j e c t o r  another.  T a b l e 3, p a g e 79, l i s t s t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f a l l t h e s u b j e c t s t h a t one  may  s a y w i t h some a m o u n t o f c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n a r e e v i d e n t i n t h e t h r e e d o c u m e n t s . The d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e n u m b e r e d f r o m I t o VI f o r c a s e o f r e f e r e n c e . e a c h d e s c r i p t i o n , t h e 'X',  'XT,  o r 'A', a r e shown i n t h e t h r e e  For province  79  T A B L E 3:  THE I D E N T I F I C A T I O N OF GENERAL MEANS IN THE THREE SOURCE DOCUMENTS RECOMMENDED GENERAL MEANS IN THE THREE SOURCE DOCUMENTS ONTARIO  ALBERTA  B. C.  I  Basic Education  X  X?  X  II  Social Studies  X  X?  X  III  E t h i c a l and Moral Education  X  X?  A  IV  Health and P h y s i c a l Education  A  A  X  V  Science Education  A  A  X  VI  Career Education  A  A  A  Note:  X  i n d i c a t e s t h e p r e s e n c e o f a t y p e o f means i n t h e source document  X?  i n d i c a t e s t h e p r e s e n c e o f a type o f means, by inference  A  i n d i c a t e s t h e a b s e n c e o f a t y p e o f means  80  columns o f the t a b l e .  An 'X' shows t h e p r e s e n c e o f c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f  c o n t e n t s f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n . An 'X?' shows t h a t an i n d i c a t i o n f o r c o n t e n t s may be i n f e r r e d . An 'A' i n d i c a t e s t h e a b s e n c e o f any s u c h  indi-  cation. An e x a m i n a t i o n  o f t h e t h r e e d o c u m e n t s showed t h a t l e a r n i n g s i n  t h e a r e a o f b a s i c e d u c a t i o n a r e t h e e s s e n t i a l means f o r e l e m e n t a r y i n g ( T a b l e 3, i t e m I ) .  school-  A l t h o u g h one d o c u m e n t i n c l u d e s more m a t e r i a l s  than the o t h e r , what c o n s t i t u t e s the c o n t e n t s o f b a s i c e d u c a t i o n a r e s i m i l a r i n a l l the three documents.  A l l three indicate that learnings  which w i l l a s s i s t the c h i l d t o a c q u i r e the s k i l l s o f 'communication' t h e e s s e n t i a l means f o r e l e m e n t a r y  s c h o o l i n g (Government of O n t a r i o ,  1969:77; Government o f A l b e r t a , 1972:48; Government o f B r i t i s h 1976:7).  I n s p e c i f i c t e r m s , t h e O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  Columbia, documents  r e f e r t o r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , and s p e a k i n g a s p e c t s o f the E n g l i s h (Governments o f O n t a r i o , 1969:76; B r i t i s h Columbia document i n c l u d e s French language O n t a r i o , 1969:91).  are  1977:7).  The  language Ontario  i n b a s i c e d u c a t i o n (Government of  W h i l e t h e O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  documents  p r o v i d e some s p e c i f i c s f o r t h i s a s p e c t o f g e n e r a l m e a n s , t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t d o e s n o t i n d i c a t e any e v i d e n c e f o r s p e c i f i c s . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e c o n t e n t s o f L a n g u a g e A r t s , b o t h t h e O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  documents i n c l u d e i n b a s i c e d u c a t i o n  Mathematical  c o n t e n t s (Government o f O n t a r i o , 1969:71; Government o f B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1976:1). The O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t i n c l u d e s i n b a s i c e d u c a t i o n m a t e r i a l s i n t e n d e d t o a s s i s t t h e c h i l d t o a c q u i r e k n o w l e d g e and a t t i t u d e s o f p h y s i c a l and mental  h e a l t h (Government o f O n t a r i o , 1969:27).  81  W i t h r e g a r d t o S o c i a l S t u d i e s ( T a b l e 3, i t e m I I ) , b o t h t h e O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  i n d i c a t e e v i d e n c e o f what the s c h o o l s s h o u l d t e a c h .  The O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t recommends s u c h m a t e r i a l s as w i l l a s s i s t t h e c h i l d t o a c q u i r e some k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e g e o g r a p h y  of the province of O n t a r i o ,  a b o u t t h e p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s o f a g r i c u l t u r e , and a b o u t t h e l i f e s t y l e s in the p r o v i n c e (Government of O n t a r i o , 1969:77). i n d i c a t e d i n the B r i t i s h Columbia and l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s  S i m i l a r materials are  d o c u m e n t , w i t h e m a p h s i s on f a m i l y l i f e  (Government of B r i t i s h Columbia,  1977:22).  Although  the contents o f S o c i a l S t u d i e s are not very e v i d e n t i n the A l b e r t a document, i t i s p o s s i b l e to i n f e r from s e c t i o n s o f the document the Worth C o m m i s s i o n recommends m a t e r i a l s w h i c h w i l l a s s i s t t h e c h i l d t o a d a p t  to  s o c i a l c h a n g e , t o r e c o g n i z e t h e t r e n d s o f s o c i a l c h a n g e , and t o be a b l e to c o n t r i b u t e to s o c i a l change i n the p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a (Government of A l b e r t a , 1972:54). In t h e c a s e o f E t h i c a l a n d M o r a l E d u c a t i o n ( T a b l e 3, i t e m I I I ) , t h e O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t recommends t h a t t h e c h i l d s h o u l d be t a u g h t a b o u t  the  "Unknown," " t h e t r u t h , " and " t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f human m i n d " ( G o v e r n m e n t of O n t a r i o , 1969:77).  By i n f e r e n c e , t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t i n d i c a t e s t h e  t e a c h i n g o f m a t e r i a l s which w i l l help the c h i l d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n s o c i a l l i f e with concern f o r p r o v i d i n g s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s i n which  subsequent  g e n e r a t i o n s can l i v e (Government o f A l b e r t a , 1972:52).  British  Columbia  The  d o c u m e n t d o e s n o t p r o v i d e f o r t h e c o n t e n t s o f E t h i c a l and  Moral  Education. Of the t h r e e s o u r c e documents, o n l y the B r i t i s h Columbia  document  s p e c i f i c a l l y i n d i c a t e s c o n t e n t s f o r P h y s i c a l and H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n 3, i t e m I V ) .  The M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  expects  (Table the  c h i l d t o be t a u g h t s u c h t h i n g s a s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c a r i n g f o r t h e human  82  body and t h e improvement o f "motor a c t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h e x e r c i s e s i n hand-eye c o o r d i n a t i o n , b a l a n c e , s t r e n g t h and f l e x i b i l i t y " (Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  1977:32).  A l s o , o n l y t h e B r i t i s h Columbia  document s t a t e s c o n t e n t s f o r  S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n ( T a b l e 3, i t e m V ) . T h e c h i l d w i l l be t a u g h t a b o u t  such  t h i n g s a s t h e c o n t e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e f o o d he o r s h e e a t s , " t h e b a s i c c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f m a t t e r , s u c h a s h e a v y a n d l i g h t . . ." ( G o v e r n m e n t of B r i t i s h Columbia,  1977:20).  I t may n o t be a s u r p r i s e t h a t t h e O n t a r i o a n d B r i t i s h d o c u m e n t s do n o t i n d i c a t e means f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f C a r e e r  Columbia  Education  ( T a b l e 3, i t e m V I ) , s i n c e C a r e e r E d u c a t i o n was n o t i n d i c a t e d a s o n e o f the ends f o r elementary  s c h o o l i n g i n each o f these p r o v i n c i a l documents.  I t i s s u r p r i s i n g , however, t h a t t h e A l b e r t a document which s t a t e d C a r e e r E d u c a t i o n a s a n e n d ( T a b l e 1, i t e m 9 ) , d o e s n o t i n d i c a t e means f o r t h i s end. E S S E N T I A L ENDS AND MEANS The e x a m i n a t i o n  o f t h e d o c u m e n t s showed t h a t e a c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t  w h a t m i g h t be c a l l e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f " s k i l l s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n " e s s e n t i a l ends f o r elementary  s c h o o l i n g (Government o f O n t a r i o , 1969:91;  Government o f A l b e r t a , 1972:48; Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia, In s p e c i f i c terms, both t h e O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h Columbia to language development.  are the  1976:7).  documents r e f e r  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Commission o f Aims and O b j e c t i v e s  of Education i n t h e Schools o f O n t a r i o , t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f language i s t h e "major e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e achievement  skills  o f any c u r r i c u l u m purpose  . . .  i t i s t h e s i n e qua non o f e d u c a t i o n i n a c i v i l i z e d s o c i e t y " (Government o f O n t a r i o , 1969:91).  The M i n i s t r y o f Education o f B r i t i s h Columbia  considers  83  t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n g u a g e s k i l l s "as f u n d a m e n t a l o r b a s i c t o t h e e d u c a t i o n " o f t h e c h i l d , a n d a s one a s p e c t o f t h e c o r e o f s c h o o l i n g d u r i n g t h e f i r s t few y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g ( G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 7 : 4 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n A l b e r t a , t h e s k i l l s o f ' C o m m u n i c a t i o n ' a r e "a c o r e " f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g .  The m a s t e r y o f  these s k i l l s a r e " e s s e n t i a l f o r a l i f e o f l e a r n i n g " (Government o f A l b e r t a , 1972:55). Both the O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h Columbia documents i n c l u d e i n t h e means f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s k i l l s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , and s p e a k i n g a s p e c t s o f the E n g l i s h language (Government o f O n t a r i o , 1969:91; Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977:8).  The O n t a r i o document  i n c l u d e s o r a l and c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e F r e n c h l a n g u a g e ( G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o , 1969:91). B o t h d o c u m e n t s a l s o recommend t h e t e a c h i n g o f m a t h e m a t i c s a s an a s p e c t o f t h e e s s e n t i a l means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g .  Only the B r i t i s h  Columbia documents s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e c o n t e n t s f o r Mathematics  (Government  of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977:10). A l t h o u g h t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t d o e s n o t show e v i d e n c e o f s p e c i f i c i t y , s i m i l a r c o n t e n t s t o t h o s e s p e c i f i e d i n t h e o t h e r two d o c u m e n t s a r e i m p l i e d ( c f . G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a , pp. 48 a n d 5 5 ) .  CHAPTER EIGHT SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS  FOR NIGERIAN  EDUCATION  This chapter i s d i v i d e d i n t o three major sections dealing  respec-  t i v e l y with t h e framework and a n a l y s i s o f t h e source documents, t h e f i n d ings and conclusions and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Nigerian  education.  THE FRAMEWORK AND ANALYSIS OF SOURCE DOCUMENTS T h e f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y was t h e e x a m i n a t i o n  o f s e l e c t e d documents  a u t h o r i z e d by t h e Governments o f t h r e e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g p r o v i n c e s  (Ontario,  A l b e r t a , and B r i t i s h Columbia),  s t a t i n g t h e i r i n t e n t s f o r elementary  in their respective provinces.  The documents and r e p o r t s were  schools  produced  d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1969 t o 1977, t o d e f i n e t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a and t o i d e n t i f y t h e core o f t h e c u r r i c u l a . The documents s e l e c t e d f o r examination were:  ( 1 ) L i v i n g a n d L e a r n i n g , " T h e R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i t t e e on A i m s a n d  Objectives o f Education i n the Schools o f Ontario."  T h i s d o c u m e n t was  p u b l i s h e d by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o i n 1 9 6 9 . ( 2 ) A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s , "The R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n o f E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g , " p u b l i s h e d i n 1972 by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a .  (3) Four documents which were p u b l i s h e d by  the Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia:  M i n i s t e r ' s P o l i c y Statement (1976);  What S h o u l d O u r C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g (.1976); A n a l y s i s o f a n d P u b l i c R e s p o n s e to t h e Core C u r r i c u l u m (1977); and Guide t o t h e Core C u r r i c u l u m E a c h o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l d o c u m e n t s was e x a m i n e d t o d i s c o v e r why i t was p u b l i s h e d ,  (2) t h e procedures  84  (1977).  (1) the reasons  used t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n and  85  make s e l e c t i o n s , w e r e made,  (4)  (3)  t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e ways c h o i c e s  t h e e n d s i d e n t i f i e d as d e s i r a b l e f o r s c h o o l i n g ,  means f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s means f o r s c h o o l i n g .  o f t h e s e e n d s , and  A f u r t h e r purpose  (6)  to those attempting  the  t h e e s s e n t i a l e n d s and  o f t h e s t u d y was  of the f i n d i n g s r e s u l t i n g from t h i s examination  (5)  the assessment  f o r implications of value  t o d e f i n e c u r r i c u l u m i n an o v e r s e a s  (Nigerian) setting.  The f r a m e w o r k f o r a n a l y s i s was d e r i v e d f r o m t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m according to Goodlad Decision-making  ( 1 9 6 6 ) as a S o c i e t a l E d u c a t i o n a l  P r o c e s s ( C f . C h a p t e r two, pp. 1 2 - 1 5 ) .  Curriculum  a l s o be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as a ' p r o d u c t ' o f t h a t p r o c e s s .  could  Hence each o f the  t h r e e c u r r i c u l u m d e f i n i n g d o c u m e n t s was e x a m i n e d f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p r o c e s s employed l e a d i n g t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m document as the  product  of that process. Chapters  f o u r , f i v e , and s i x d e a l t w i t h t h e a n a l y s e s o f t h e d o c u -  m e n t s ) s e l e c t e d f r o m e a c h o f t h e p r o v i n c e s o f O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , and Columbia,  and c h a p t e r s e v e n p r e s e n t e d c o m p a r i s o n s  British  and r e c a p i t u l a t e d m a j o r  findings. The A n a l y s i s o f L i v i n g and L e a r n i n g ( C h a p t e r f o u r , pp. 2 5 - 3 4 ) showed t h a t t h e C o m m i s s i o n o f t h e A i m s and O b j e c t i v e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o was e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t t o o u t l i n e t h e g o a l s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o r t h e K i n d e r g a r t e n , P r i m a r y , and  Junior  d i v i s i o n s o f s c h o o l i n g i n O n t a r i o and t o recommend means by w h i c h g o a l s w i l l be a c h i e v e d ( p . 4 ) J  these  The C o m m i t t e e i n v o l v e d t h e p u b l i c by  1. R e f e r e n c e s t o p a g e n u m b e r s i n t h i s p a r a g r a p h L e a r n i n g , G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o , 1969.  such  r e f e r t o L i v i n g and  86  means as s u b m i s s i o n o f p a p e r s , p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , and c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h e s c h o o l i n s t i t u t i o n s ( p . 4). i d e n t i f i e d as i t s p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e t h e p r a g m a t i s t s  1  The  school of  Committee thought,  which f a v o u r s the e d u c a t i o n of the whole c h i l d f o r l i f e i n a s o c i e t y (p. 23).  The g e n e r a l e n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y  s c h o o l i n g i d e n t i f i e d i n the  r e p o r t f a l l under f o u r d e s c r i p t i o n s : (1)  Ensuring that the c h i l d acquires  the b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s f o r education;  Helping the c h i l d to a c q u i r e  (2)  d e s i r a b l e s k i l l s , a b i l i t i e s , and a t t i t u d e s ; e t h i c a l and moral  l e a r n i n g s ; and  d e s i r e s o f t h e c h i l d ( c f . p. 27).  (4)  (3)  P r o v i d i n g the c h i l d with  M e e t i n g the needs and  The g e n e r a l means f o r  expressed  elementary  s c h o o l i n g a r e e x p r e s s e d i n t e r m s o f c u r r i c u l u m s u b j e c t s s u c h as L a n g u a g e A r t s , G e o g r a p h y and S o c i a l S t u d i e s , E t h i c a l and M o r a l E d u c a t i o n ( p . The a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n g u a g e  s k i l l s i s "the e s s e n t i a l f o r the  o f any c u r r i c u l a r p u r p o s e " ,  together with the development of simple  mathematical  77).  achievement  abilities.  The P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a e s t a b l i s h e d t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n 1969.  The C o m m i s s i o n was c h a r g e d w i t h t h e r e s -  p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f i n q u i r i n g i n t o the s o c i a l trends w i t h i n the province i n order to determine  t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o v i n c e t w e n t y y e a r s a h e a d and t o  recommend b a s e s f o r p r i o r i t y j u d g e m e n t by t h e g o v e r n m e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o the course of p u b l i c education i n a l l l e v e l s of s c h o o l i n g i n A l b e r t a (p. 304)J  Dr. W a l t e r W o r t h was t h e s o l e c o m m i s s i o n e r .  o r g a n i z e d an e i g h t - m a n  He,  however,  Commission Board which i n t u r n employed the s e r v i c e s  1. R e f e r e n c e s t o p a g e n u m b e r s i n t h i s p a r a g r a p h r e f e r t o A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s , G o v e r n m e n t o f A l b e r t a , 1969.  87  o f more t h a n one h u n d r e d p e o p l e i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f p r o d u c i n g a r e p o r t . The p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e s o f t h e i n q u i r y w e r e s p e n t i n r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s on t h e f u t u r e o f t h e p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a , i n h o l d i n g p u b l i c m e e t i n g s a c r o s s t h e p r o v i n c e . A l l f i n d i n g s w e r e a n a l y z e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n ( p p . 304-205).  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o m m i s s i o n , A l b e r t a was h e a d i n g f o r a " S e c o n d -  phase I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y , " a s o c i e t y i n which the A l b e r t a n s would "spend t h e i r l i v e s f u r t h e r i n g t h e g o a l s o f c o n t i n u i n g t h e e x p a n s i o n o f g o o d s and s e r v i c e , i n c r e a s e d l e v e l o f "consumption and t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance" (p. 3 3 ) , and i n w h i c h t h e r e i s l i k e l y t o be " g r o w t h a n d c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o w e r i n a b u r e a u c r a t i c and knowledge-based e l i t e " (p. 2 8 ) .  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Commis-  s i o n , i f the e d u c a t i o n a l system i n A l b e r t a adopts a p h i l o s o p h y which aims a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f human n a t u r e t h e p r o v i n c e may, a s an a l t e r n a t i v e , become a P e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y : T h e v i s i o n o f t h i s new s o c i e t y c a n be r e a l i z e d . W h e t h e r o r n o t i t i s r e a l i z e d d e p e n d s upon t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f v a l u e s . But a s e t o f v a l u e s i s based, i n t u r n , on a c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f man, h i s r e a l p o t e n t i a l s and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e i r r e a l i z a t i o n s . Thus the c h o i c e b e t w e e n t h e two a l t e r n a t i v e f u t u r e s . . . i s a l s o a c h o i c e b e t w e e n two i m a g e s o f man ( p . 3 4 ) . In a P e r s o n - c e n t r e d s o c i e t y , i t i s a s s u m e d t h a t w h i l e t h e e c o n o m i c g r o w t h o f t h e s o c i e t y w i l l s t i l l d e p e n d on t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n s , p e o p l e i n p o s i t i o n s o f p o w e r and a u t h o r i t y w o u l d be m o r e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t human n e e d s a n d human i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( p . 2 8 ) .  Based  on t h i s v i e w o f s c h o o l i n g , t h e C o m m i s s i o n p r o p o s e d f o r s c h o o l i n g i n A l b e r t a s i x g e n e r a l ends, which were i n t e n d e d f o r the development o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s " p e r s o n a l autonomy, s o c i a l c o m p e t e n c i e s e t h i c a l c o m p e t e n c i e s , c a r e e r p r o f i c i e n c y , and i n t e l l e c t u a l powers (pp. 46-48).  The g e n e r a l  means i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e d o c u m e n t w e r e s u c h , when t r a n s l a t e d i n t o c u r r i c u l u m  88  c o n t e n t s w i l l a s s i s t t h e c h i l d t o a c q u i r e some k n o w l e d g e a n d c a p a b i l i t i e s to adapt t o s o c i a l change, t o recognize the trend o f s o c i a l change, and t o be a b l e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o s o c i a l c h a n g e i n s u c h a m a n n e r t h a t w i l l improve  interhuman  r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a (pp. 51-54).  The Commission i n t e n d e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f " t h e s k i l l s o f language  communication",  s k i l l s , t o be c o n s i d e r e d t h e e s s e n t i a l e n d f o r e l e m e n t a r y  in Alberta.  schooling  T h e means by w h i c h t h i s e n d w i l l be a c h i e v e d was t h e t e a c h i n g  o f language c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s ( c f . pp. 48-55). The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (2)  documents were  (1) M i n i s t e r ' s P o l i c y  What S h o u l d O u r C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? ( 1 9 7 6 ) ;  P u b l i c Response t o t h e Core C u r r i c u l u m (1977); and Curriculum (1977).  Statement;  (3) A n a l y s i s o f and (4) Guide t o t h e Core  They i n d i c a t e d t h a t the M i n i s t r y o f Education o f the  p r o v i n c e i n i t i a t e d an i n q u i r y i n t o w h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n o r d e r t o d e f i n e t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m a n d i t s c o r e ( e s s e n t i a l s ) (What S h o u l d Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g , 1 9 7 6 ) .  T h e two s e c t i o n s o f d o c u m e n t #3, a n d t h e  s e c t i o n o f d o c u m e n t #4 t h a t d e a l s w i t h t h e e l e m e n t a r y in appendices  school are presented  I , I I , I I I . What S h o u l d O u r C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ?  the proposed goals f o r elementary  represented  s c h o o l i n g i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s , and  the c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t s t h e s c h o o l s were expected t o t e a c h .  The M i n i s t r y  of Education o f t h e p r o v i n c e c a l l e d t h e whole package a "working r e q u e s t e d p u b l i c comment a b o u t t h e w o r k i n g a t t a c h e d t o each copy o f t h e working paper.  paper", and  p a p e r by means o f r e a c t i o n s h e e t s T h e p u b l i c r e s p o n s e was a n a l y z e d  a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e p r o p o s e d s c h e m e was f a v o u r a b l e ( C f . A p p e n d i c e s I a n d I I ) . T h e a n a l y s i s o f p u b l i c r e s p o n s e was f o l l o w e d by a f i n a l  govern-  ment p u b l i c a t i o n ( G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m ) w h i c h o u t l i n e d t h e g o a l s t h e elementary teach.  s c h o o l s should seek, and t h e c u r r i c u l u m contents they should  89  The e x a m i n a t i o n  o f the B r i t i s h Columbia  documents d i d n o t i n d i c a t e  w h a t may be d e s c r i b e d a s a p h i l o s o p h y f o r s c h o o l i n g . elementary  s c h o o l i n g i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e G u i d e t o t h e C o r e C u r r i c u l u m com-  p r i s e d t h e development o f language abilities,  The general ends f o r  c a p a b i l i t i e s , o f measurement and  computing  o f a s c i e n t i f i c approach, o f a n a l y t i c a l , r e s e a r c h , and prob-  l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , and t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f knowledge o f c u l t u r a l and p h y s i c a l h e r i t a g e and t h a t o f h e a l t h f u l l i v i n g .  T h e g e n e r a l means  i n c l u d e d c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t s o f Language A r t s , Mathematics,  Science  E d u c a t i o n , S o c i a l S t u d i e s , and H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . of Education o f B r i t i s h Columbia  The M i n i s t r y  expected the development o f language  c a p a b i l i t i e s t o be s e e n a s t h e c o r e o f t h e e n d s f o r s c h o o l i n g a n d t h e t e a c h i n g o f l a n g u a g e c o n t e n t s a s t h e means f o r a c h i e v i n g t h i s e s s e n t i a l end. The r e s u l t o f a c o m p a r a t i v e  a n a l y s i s of the examination  of these  t h r e e p r o v i n c i a l documents a r e summarized i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n which also presents the conclusions of the study. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS Chapters f o u r , f i v e , and s i x r e p r e s e n t e d t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s each o f the p r o v i n c i a l documents. above.  A comparative  about  Those o b s e r v a t i o n s have been summarized  a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s was c a r r i e d o u t  i n c h a p t e r s e v e n , u s i n g t h e h e a d i n g s common t o a l l t h e d a t a  chapters  (Establishment of i n q u i r y , Procedures f o r i n q u i r y , P h i l o s o p h i c a l bases, G e n e r a l ends, General means, and E s s e n t i a l ends and means). of the comparative  The r e s u l t s  a n a l y s i s and t h e c o n c l u s i o n s they suggest a r e presented  b e l o w , a l s o i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e h e a d i n g s common t o t h e d a t a c h a p t e r s .  90  Establishment of Inquiry T h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e t h r e e d o c u m e n t s showed t h a t t h e p u r p o s e f o r w h i c h i n q u i r y was i n i t i a t e d i n e a c h o f t h e p r o v i n c e s o f O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was an e d u c a t i o n a l one:  the d e f i n i t i o n of the r o l e  o f s c h o o l i n g i n t e r m s o f w h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g and t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g ( C h a p t e r s e v e n , p a g e 6 6 ) . In t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t , h o w e v e r , a p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n  (Chapter  s e v e n , p a g e 68) w h i c h was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n t r o v e r s y and o p p o s i t i o n ( c h a p t e r s i x , pp. 5 7 - 5 8 ) may a l s o be a l l e g e d . From t h i s e v i d e n c e , i t m i g h t be c o n c l u d e d t h a t a l t h o u g h  inquiries  a b o u t w h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g may be i n i t i a t e d f o r e d u c a t i o n a l r e a s o n s , t h e y may a l s o be u s e d f o r p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s , b u t n o t T h r e e c a s e s a r e t o o few f r o m w h i c h t o g e n e r a l i z e .  always.  Nevertheless, i t i s  p l a u s i b l e t o s u g g e s t on t h e e v i d e n c e o f t h i s s t u d y t h a t a f a i r l y d i s c e r n i b l e p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n may be a c c o m p a n i e d  easily  by o p p o s i t i o n and c o n t r o -  versy. Procedures f o r Inquiry A l t h o u g h the procedures used f o r i n q u i r i e s i n the t h r e e s o u r c e documents i n v o l v e d p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h i s commonality  i s perhaps  less  s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e way e a c h o f t h e i n q u i r i e s s e t about i n v o l v i n g the p u b l i c .  B o t h O n t a r i o and A l b e r t a i n v o l v e d t h e p u b l i c  by s u c h means as p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n s , s u b m i s s i o n o f p a p e r s , and p u b l i c c o n f e r e n c e s .  Each o f t h e s e p r o v i n c e s engaged w i t h t h e s e  a c t i v i t i e s f o r more t h a n two y e a r s b e f o r e t h e d o c u m e n t was d r a f t e d ( C h a p t e r s f o u r , page 26; f i v e , page 3 5 ) .  In the c a s e o f B r i t i s h  Columbia,  a w o r k i n g paper i n which t h e r o l e o f the s c h o o l s had been v i r t u a l l y f o r m a l i z e d ( a s s e e n a p p r o p r i a t e by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e )  91  was d i s t r i b u t e d a c r o s s t h e p r o v i n c e .  To t h i s w o r k i n g p a p e r , t h e M i n i s t r y  o f E d u c a t i o n i n v i t e d comments by means o f a r e a c t i o n s h e e t a t t a c h e d t o each copy o f the working paper (Chapter s i x , page 54). In d r a w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p r o c e d u r e s o f the p r o v i n c e s o f O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , and B r i t i s h Columbia  each  used to i n v o l v e  the p u b l i c i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e document, i t i s u s e f u l to note the phases which the e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g process u n d e r g o n e i n C a n a d a d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d b e f o r e 1960 and up t o 1980. ing to Housego  has  Accord-  (1980):  The f i r s t p h a s e p r i o r t o t h e 1 9 6 0 s , c a n be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as t h e e m p i r i c a l - a u t o c r a t i c p h a s e . The s e c o n d p h a s e , d u r i n g t h e 1 9 6 0 s , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as t h e r a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t o r y p h a s e . The t h i r d p h a s e , t h e 1 9 7 0 s , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as t h e r e a c t i v e - a d v e r s a r i a l p h a s e ( H o u s e g o , 1980:382). The p r o c e d u r e s u s e d by t h e p r o v i n c e s o f b o t h O n t a r i o and A l b e r t a seem t o b e l o n g t o t h e r a t i o n a l - p a r t i c i p a t o r y m o d e l .  The u s e o f t h i s  m o d e l t e n d s t o make d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s l o w and c o m p l i c a t e d .  The f i n d i n g s  of the present study are c o n s i s t e n t with t h i s hypothesis.  I t took the  H a l l - D e n n i s Commission f o u r y e a r s t o produce  L i v i n g and L e a r n i n g , and  the Worth Commission spent t h r e e y e a r s p r e p a r i n g A Choice of F u t u r e s . The t y p e o f p r o c e d u r e s u s e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia  may be s e e n as r e a c t i v e - a d v e r s a r i a l .  Housego (1980), using t h i s approach some p r o b l e m s .  As i m p l i e d by  i n p o l i c y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g may  create  H o u s e g o p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e p e o p l e who w i l l be a f f e c t e d  by t h e d e c i s i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y r e a c t i o n a r y and c r i t i c a l .  I t may  even  be d i f f i c u l t t o make some o f t h e s e p e o p l e a b i d e by t h e d e c i s i o n s ( c f . Housego, 1980:384).  The f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a r e c o n s i s t e n t  w i t h the o b s e r v a t i o n a t t r i b u t e d t o Housego's work.  At the i n i t i a l  stage  92  o f t h e i n q u i r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e G o v e r n m e n t h a d t o f a c e up t o some negative  c r i t i c i s m s o f the proposed role of the schools  Our C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? the p r o p o s a l . press  i n What S h o u l d  The B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation  Some e d u c a t i o n a l  p r o f e s s i o n a l s wrote against i t i n the d a i l y  ( c f . C h a p t e r s i x , page 5 7 ) . The o p p o s i t i o n n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g ,  Ministry o f Education Philosophical  denounced  the  d i d n o t r e l e n t ( c f . Chapter s i x , pages 57-58).  Basis  A c t u a l l y , only t h e Ontario and A l b e r t a documents i n d i c a t e d a specific philosophical basis.  I n b o t h i n q u i r i e s i t seems e v i d e n t t h a t t h e  philosophical basis f o r schooling involvement occurred.  had been e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e  public  T h u s t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s may be s e e n a s t h e  ' f o c u s ' o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e a c h o f t h e two p r o v i n c e s . evident  Itis  i n the case o f Ontario that the philosophical basis - the develop-  ment o f t h e w h o l e c h i l d f o r l i f e i n t h e s o c i e t y - e m e r g e d f r o m on t h e p a r t o f t h e members o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n i n t h e p h i l o s o p h i e s t i o n (pp. 67-71).  readings o f educa-  The p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s i d e n t i f i e d i n the A l b e r t a  d o c u m e n t - - t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d s o t h a t he o r s h e may be a b l e t o make r e s p o n s i b l e emerged from r e s e a r c h A l b e r t a , as e v i d e n t  d e c i s i o n s which w i l l a f f e c t s e l f and o t h e r s - -  by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e i n q u i r y on t h e f u t u r e o f i n f u t u r i s t i c studies  (pp. 309-310). 0  Considering  t h i s evidence,  o n e may c o n c l u d e t h a t a  c a n be d e v e l o p e d w i t h o r w i t h o u t an e x p l i c i t p h i l o s o p h i c a l present  study, the existence  t h e two d o c u m e n t s d e s c r i b e d  curriculum base.  In t h e  o f an e x p l i c i t p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e was s e e n i n above as using r a t i o n a l - p a r t i c i p a t i o n approach.  The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t w h i c h g a v e l i t t l e e v i d e n c e o f a p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e was a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d quickly produced.  ( a b o v e , p. 9 1 ) a s r e a c t i v e - a d v e r s a r i a l a n d  One m i g h t s p e c u l a t e w h e t h e r i n s u c h an a p p r o a c h i t i s a  93  p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y w h i c h s t a n d s i n p l a c e o f an e d u c a t i o n - p h i l o s o p h i c a l base.  I t i s , o f c o u r s e , p r o b a b l e t h a t a p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y m u s t r e s t on  some k i n d o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e w h i c h f r e q u e n t l y may be no more e x p l i c i t than t h a t i n the B r i t i s h Columbia documents.  The t h r e e d o c u m e n t s s t u d i e d  h e r e do seem t o s u g g e s t t h a t r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e a r e more f u l l y d e v e l o p e d , b e t t e r j u s t i f i e d a n d p r o p o s e d w i t h a m o r e l o g i c a l sequence  i f they are grounded  i n an e x p l i c i t p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e .  G e n e r a l Ends The g e n e r a l e n d s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e t h r e e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s f a l l u n d e r t h r e e d e s c r i p t i o n s - v e r y b r o a d , b r o a d , and s p e c i f i c .  The v e r y  b r o a d s t a t e m e n t s o f e n d s w h i c h f e a t u r e m a i n l y i n t h e O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t do seem c l e a r l y t o e x p r e s s t h e d e s i r a b l e p u r p o s e s f o r w h i c h t h e y a r e i n t e n d e d . T h e s e s t a t e m e n t s seem t o c o m b i n e s e v e r a l d e s i r a b l e p u r p o s e s i n one s t a t e ment as s e e n i n T a b l e I , p a g e 73.  (For example, item 1 reads:  that the c h i l d acquires the b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s f o r education.  Ensuring This includes  t h e m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h o f t h e c h i l d and t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e essential skills.)  The b r o a d s t a t e m e n t s o f e n d s w h i c h a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  o f t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t do n o t seem c l e a r l y t o e x p r e s s i n t e n d e d d e s i r a b l e p u r p o s e s , and t h e y c o m b i n e f e w e r p u r p o s e s t h a n t e n d s t o be t h e c a s e w i t h the very broad statements 10; T a b l e 2, c a t e g o r y 1 ) .  ( s e e , f o r e x a m p l e , T a b l e 1, i t e m s 5, 6, 8, and The s p e c i f i c s t a t e m e n t s o f ends which  t e r i z e t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s , on t h e w h o l e , v e r y c l e a r l y  characexpress  i n t e n d e d e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s and e a c h s t a t e m e n t f a i r l y c o n s t a n t l y r e t a i n s one s u b j e c t a r e a ( c f . T a b l e 1, i t e m s 1 1 - 1 6 ) .  Of t h e s i x c a t e g o r i e s o f  general ends i d e n t i f i e d i n the t h r e e source documents ( T a b l e 2 ) , a l l the t h r e e documents v i r t u a l l y s u b s c r i b e t o the " a c q u i s i t i o n o f b a s i c neces-  94  si ties."  The O n t a r i o and t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t s s u b s c r i b e t o " a c q u i s i t i o n  o f s e c u r e s e l f i m a g e t h r o u g h d e s i r a b l e s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s , " and i n g e t h i c a l and m o r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . "  The A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h  documents s u b s c r i b e t o the "development ities."  Columbia  o f l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l  Only the A l b e r t a document i s committed  education."  "ensur-  capabil-  t o " c a r e e r and o c c u p a t i o n a l  And o n l y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t i s c o m m i t t e d  to the  " a c q u i s i t i o n o f c u l t u r a l and p h y s i c a l h e r i t a g e , a l t h o u g h t h e o t h e r two d o c u m e n t s seem t o i n c l u d e t h i s e n d i n t h a t o f " b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s . " In t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e f i n d i n g s i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e d i f f e r e n t modes o f e x p r e s s i n g s t a t e m e n t s o f g e n e r a l e n d s f o r s c h o o l i n g , may have t h e e f f e c t o f m a k i n g a d i f f e r e n c e t o w h a t becomes o f t h e i r c o n t e n t s .  The  d i s t i n c t i o n was made a b o v e b e t w e e n t h e v e r y b r o a d s t a t e m e n t s ( O n t a r i o ) , t h e b r o a d s t a t e m e n t s ( A l b e r t a ) , and t h e s p e c i f i c s t a t e m e n t s Columbia).  (British  E a c h was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d e g r e e o f e x p l i c i t n e s s and  c l a r i t y as shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i a g r a m . ONTARIO  ALBERTA  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  VERY BROAD  BROAD  SPECIFIC  EXPLICIT  NOT E X P L I C I T  EXPLICIT  CLEAR  LESS CLEAR  VERY CLEAR  The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t s o f each s e t o f s t a t e m e n t s  suggests  t h a t t h e v e r y b r o a d and b r o a d s t a t e m e n t s a r e m o r e l i k e l y t o p e r m i t f u r t h e r development  o r m o d i f i c a t i o n o f ends than a r e the s p e c i f i c s t a t e m e n t s .  i s i n t e r e s t i n g , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e y may do s o i n d i f f e r e n t w a y s . explicitness  and  It  The  c l a r i t y of the very broad Ontario statements might well  lead to expansion from the e x p l i c i t base.  The A l b e r t a s t a t e m e n t s , on t h e  o t h e r h a n d , n o t e x p l i c i t and n o t c l e a r , may f a c i l i t a t e f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t  95  o f c u r r i c u l a r i d e a s b e c a u s e o f t h e many p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i m p l i e d w i t h i n each statement.  I n b o t h c a s e s , s u c h d e v e l o p m e n t i s p r o b a b l y much  more f a c i l i t a t e d t h a n i s t h e c a s e i n t h e e x p l i c i t a n d v e r y c l e a r a n d s u b j e c t - s p e c i f i c B r i t i s h Columbia  statements  o f ends.  If this i s true, i t carries implications f o r the process of c o n t i n u i n g c u r r i c u l u m development.  I t m i g h t be t h a t t h e m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y  a c u r r i c u l u m i s s t a t e d , t h e more n e e d f u l i t i s t o re-examine i t a t s h o r t term i n t e r v a l s .  and r e a s s e s s  I f t h i s i s not done, t h e r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y  o f d e v e l o p i n g f u r t h e r f r o m a s p e c i f i c b a s e may l e a d t o t h e n e e d f o r further "adversarial-reactionary" decisions. G e n e r a l Means The g e n e r a l means i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t a r e s t a t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o school s u b j e c t s (Chapter f o u r , pages 30-31).  By i n f e r e n c e ,  t h e g e n e r a l means o b s e r v e d i n t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t may be s e e n a s r e l a t i n g t o some o f t h e s u b j e c t s m e n t i o n e d  i n the O n t a r i o document and those  s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d i n the B r i t i s h Columbia pages 47-50).  The B r i t i s h Columbia  document ( c f . Chapter  documents very c l e a r l y s t a t e d general  means i n t e r m s o f s c h o o l s u b j e c t s ( C h a p t e r s i x , p a g e s A comparative  five,  60-63).  a n a l y s i s o f t h e g e n e r a l means o b s e r v e d i n t h e t h r e e  documents i n d i c a t e s i x c a t e g o r i e s o f school s u b j e c t s - B a s i c E d u c a t i o n , S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n , E t h i c a l and Moral E d u c a t i o n , H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , and Career E d u c a t i o n . indicate that the elementary  A l l o f t h e t h r e e .documents  school should teach curriculum materials  o f b a s i c e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l s t u d i e s . the O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h Columbia  The c o n t e n t o f b a s i c e d u c a t i o n i n  documents i n c l u d e s t h e t e a c h i n g o f  r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , and spoken a s p e c t s o f t h e E n g l i s h language.  The O n t a r i o  96  document i n a d d i t i o n i n c l u d e s s i m i l a r aspects of the French The d o c u m e n t a l s o i n c l u d e s t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e c o n t e n t s physical education contents  (Chapter  i n the b a s i c s .  language.  of health  and  The A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t d o e s n o t s p e c i f y  seven, pages 78-82).  Regarding the t e a c h i n g of s o c i a l  s t u d i e s , b o t h t h e O n t a r i o and t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s h o u l d t e a c h t h e c h i l d t o be f a m i l i a r w i t h g e o g r a p h y and t h e s o c i a l l i f e p a t t e r n s and s i t u a t i o n s o f e a c h  the  province.  A l t h o u g h the A l b e r t a document does not s p e c i f y the content o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s , i t may  be i n f e r r e d t h a t a d o c u m e n t , w r i t t e n i n t h e  of s o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of A l b e r t a , suggests  perspectives  social studies  materials  w h i c h w i l l a s s i s t t h e c h i l d b o t h t o a d a p t and c o n t r i b u t e t o s o c i a l c h a n g e . The O n t a r i o and A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t e t h i c a l and m o r a l e d u c a t i o n l i k e manner.  s h o u l d be t a u g h t  i n the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s a l m o s t i n  The O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t r e f e r s t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f  materials  s u c h t h a t w i l l a s s i s t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f " t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f human m i n d " so t h a t t h e m i n d b e c o m e s i n d u e d  t o " t h e t r u t h " and t h e "unknown."  i n f e r e n c e t h e A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c h i l d s h o u l d be  By taught  t h e m a t e r i a l s w h i c h w i l l h e l p him o r h e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n s o c i a l l i f e with concern generations  f o r p r o v i d i n g s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s i n which the subsequent can  live.  Only the B r i t i s h Columbia documents i n d i c a t e s p e c i f i c contents for  t h e t e a c h i n g o f p h y s i c a l and h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n ,  and s c i e n c e  education.  A l t h o u g h the A l b e r t a document mentioned t h a t the e l e m e n t a r y school riculum should include career education,  none o f t h e t h r e e s o u r c e  s t a t e s means f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h i s s u b j e c t .  curdocuments  97  The p a r a l l e l w h i c h can be d r a w n b e t w e e n t h e O n t a r i o  e x p l i c i t , and  t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e x p l i c i t and v e r y c l e a r e n d s on t h e one h a n d ,  and  t h e A l b e r t a n o t - e x p l i c i t and  may  l e s s c l e a r on t h e o t h e r ( c f . p a g e 94)  l e a d t o some i n t e r e s t i n g c o n c l u s i o n i n the three documents.  t o t h e means i d e n t i f i e d  T a b l e 3, p a g e 79, shows t h a t e v i d e n c e f o r  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of general clear.  with regard  means i n t h e O n t a r i o  the  document i s r e a s o n a b l y  The e v i d e n c e f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f means i s n o t c l e a r i n  A l b e r t a document.  the  The t a b l e a l s o shows t h a t i n t h e c a s e o f t h e B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s , t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f means i s v e r y c l e a r . Considering  t h i s p a r a l l e l between the n a t u r e o f the s t a t e m e n t s of  e n d s and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e t y p e o f m e a n s , one m i g h t c o n c l u d e t h a t s t a t i n g the ends f o r s c h o o l i n g and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) may  w i t h e x p l i c i t n e s s and c l a r i t y  f a c i l i t a t e r e c o m m e n d i n g c l e a r means.  t h e e n d s i n t e r m s n o t - e x p l i c i t and  less clear (Alberta)  f a c i l i t a t e recommending c l e a r means.  (Ontario  Stating  d o e s n o t seem t o  A further conclusion  stems from  t h e d i f f e r e n c e o b s e r v e d i n t h e c l a r i t y o f t h e two c l e a r e s t s t a t e m e n t s o f means:  Those i n the B r i t i s h Columbia documents are v e r y c l e a r ,  than those i n the O n t a r i o  document.  I t may  clearer  be t h a t t h i s e x t r a c l a r i t y  i s f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e s p e c i f i c i t y o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e n d s s t a t e m e n t s It should n o t - e x p l i c i t and  be n o t e d t h a t i t may  be w r o n g t o c o n c l u d e t h a t  l e s s c l e a r A l b e r t a ends t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r  means a r e n o t v a l u a b l e  for schooling.  not-clear  Their potential usefulness,  l i e s i n t r y i n g to understand the p r i n c i p l e s underlying  f i v e , p a g e s 3 8 - 3 9 ) , and t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e f o r s c h o o l i n g  decisions  c h i l d who  perhaps,  the document.  f u n d a m e n t a l theme o f A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s - t h e f u t u r e o f A l b e r t a  v i s i o n o f an A l b e r t a n  the  w i l l be a b l e t o make m o r a l and  ( c f . C h a p t e r f i v e , p a g e 44) a r e e v i d e n t l y p o t e n t i a l l y  The  (Chapter - a social useful  98  f o r an e d u c a t i o n a l system,  but they are very a b s t r a c t concepts.  The  d i f f i c u l t i e s p r e s e n t e d by t h e e n d s and means i n t h e d o c u m e n t may  be  a t t r i b u t e d t o the a b s t r a c t nature of the p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g the document. In o r d e r t o c a p i t a l i z e on t h e t y p e o f e n d s and means o b s e r v e d A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t , i t may only addresses system.  h a v e t o be a c c e p t e d t h a t c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t  i t s e l f t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f one a s p e c t o f an e d u c a t i o n a l  T h u s t h e p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s o f t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t may  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f some o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e s y s t e m ,  p r o v i s i o n o f i n d u c t i o n c o u r s e s f o r t h e t e a c h e r s who  call for  s u c h as a r e a s s e s s -  ment o r a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n i n t h e s y s t e m ,  school  i n the  and  the  are already i n the  institutions. T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n may  a t t i t u d e w h i c h may  be f u r t h e r e x t e n d e d  to the type of  mental  be r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o c a p i t a l i z e on t h e p o t e n t i a l  usefulness of the s o - c a l l e d unclear contents of A Future of  Choices.  I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t one m o s t e m p h a s i z e d comment a b o u t t h e d o c u m e n t i s t h a t t h e e n d s and means e v i d e n t i n i t a r e n o t c l e a r l y s t a t e d . the p o t e n t i a l importance ( c f . Parrow, 1979). means t h a t may  o f t h e d o c u m e n t seems t o h a v e b e e n  The p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s o f s t a t e m e n t s  be r e g a r d e d  " n o t c l e a r " may r e q u i r e a m e n t a l  t h a t d o e s n o t t e n d t o r e g a r d as u n r e a s o n a b l e  Consequently, minimized o f e n d s and attitude  t h a t w h i c h seems t o be  d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t by r e a s o n o f t h e g e n e r a l i t y o f i t s e x p r e s s i o n . E s s e n t i a l E n d s and Means In t h e t h r e e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s k i l l s 'communication' (language elementary  schooling.  s k i l l s ) was  i n d i c a t e d as one e s s e n t i a l end  The O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t i n c l u d e s t h e F r e n c h  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a n g u a g e  of of  language.  s k i l l s , t h e O n t a r i o and  the  99  B r i t i s h Columbia documents i n c l u d e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f mathematical in the e s s e n t i a l s o f elementary  schooling.  T h e means f o r a t t a i n i n g t h e s e  e s s e n t i a l s a r e t h e t e a c h i n g o f r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , and speaking the E n g l i s h and the French materials ( c f . Chapters  languages,  skills  and the teaching o f  aspects of  mathematical  f o u r , page 32; f i v e , page 50; and s i x , page 6 3 ) .  The c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a n g u a g e s k i l l s a n d t h e t e a c h i n g o f L a n g u a g e A r t s m a t e r i a l s a s e s s e n t i a l e n d s a n d means f o r elementary  s c h o o l i n g i n each o f t h e three source documents i s s i g n i f i c a n t  to note.  One s i g n i f i c a n t i m p o r t a n c e  unavoidable  o f language c a p a b i l i t y l i e s i n i t s  l i n k with a l l other experiences  of the child i n the school.  L a n g u a g e c a p a b i l i t y i s a means b y w h i c h t h e c h i l d h a s t o e x p r e s s or h e r s e l f , understand school. French  himself  and i n t e r n a l i z e every other t h i n g taught i n t h e  N e c e s s a r i l y , h o w e v e r , t h e l a n g u a g e may n o t be t h e E n g l i s h o r language.  The c h o i c e o f t h e development o f language s k i l l s and t h e  t e a c h i n g o f l a n g u a g e a r t m a t e r i a l s a s e s s e n t i a l e n d s a n d means f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g may h a v e t o d e p e n d on t h e o f f i c i a l a n d s o c i a l  importance  of the language under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I t s h o u l d , h o w e v e r , be n o t e d t h a t on t h e w h o l e i t i s n o t a s e a s y as o n e m i g h t h a v e s u p p o s e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e " c o r e " c u r r i c u l u m - t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f w h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be d o i n g - d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e o v e r a l l d e s i g n o f e n d s a n d means s u g g e s t e d  by e a c h d o c u m e n t .  Granted,  the core  c u r r i c u l u m may be s e e n a s a p a r t o f t h e o v e r a l l d e s i g n f o r e d u c a t i o n . Thus, i t i s not perhaps the problem o f not being able t o see a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e e s s e n t i a l s a n d t h e o v e r a l l d e s i g n t h a t may be regarded suggested  an i m p o r t a n t  i s s u e a s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e e n d s a n d means  by e a c h d o c u m e n t a r e b e i n g a c c o r d e d  importance  I t may r e q u i r e f u r t h e r s t u d i e s t o e x a m i n e t h i s i s s u e .  i n the schools.  100  I M P L I C A T I O N S FOR NIGERIAN EDUCATION C u r r i c u l u m was c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y as a p r o c e s s o f a societal educational decision-making  and as a p r o d u c e  of that process.  The f i n d i n g s and t h e c o n c l u s i o n s drawn f r o m t h e p r o c e d u r e s  for inquiry  i n t h e t h r e e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s a r e r e l a t e d t o c u r r i c u l u m as a p r o c e s s ( c f . pages 90-92).  The r e s t o f t h e f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s a r e r e l a t e d  t o c u r r i c u l u m as a  product.  In any e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m t h e s c h o o l s a r e e x p e c t e d purposes  which i n c u r r i c u l u m language  a r e e n d s and means f o r s c h o o l i n g  (the product of a s o c i e t a l educational decision-making purposes  to serve c e r t a i n  process).  That  these  a r e t o some e x t e n t d i f f e r e n t f r o m one s y s t e m t o a n o t h e r i s e v i d e n t  i n t h e f i n d i n g s on t h e e n d s and means i n t h e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s and c o n c l u s i o n s d r a w n f r o m them.  Although  there are commonalities,  f e r e n c e s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n q u i r y was e s t a b l i s h e d i n e a c h o f t h e o f O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  the  the d i f provinces  for different educational  purposes  ( c f . p a g e s 90 and 9 1 - 9 2 ) . These t h r e e p r o v i n c e s , however, a l l belong to a developed  country.  To d r a w i m p l i c a t i o n s f r o m t h e s t u d y o f t h e i r d o c u m e n t s f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s o f a d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y ( N i g e r i a ) may  seem u n r e a l i s t i c a n d ,  t h e r e a r e g o o d r e a s o n s f o r d o i n g s o i n a g e n e r a l way. s i m i l a r i t i e s between the Canadian  yet,  F i r s t , there are  and N i g e r i a n e d u c a t i o n a l  governmental  s t r u c t u r e s i n t h a t j u s t as C a n a d a has p r o v i n c i a l s y s t e m s o f e d u c a t i o n , N i g e r i a has S t a t e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s . noted.  Some e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s m u s t be  U n l i k e C a n a d a , N i g e r i a has a v a r i e t y o f i n d i g e n o u s  languages  ( a b o u t 200 o f t h e m ) , some o f w h i c h a r e r e c o g n i z e d i n e a c h S t a t e o f t h e C o u n t r y as w o r k i n g  languages,  official language—English.  but superimposed  on a l l o f them i s t h e  The e f f e c t o f t h i s i s t h a t a f a r s m a l l e r  101  percentage  of the p o p u l a t i o n than i n Canada i s l i t e r a t e i n the  language.  S e c o n d , any e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m ,  developed  ways o f i d e n t i f y i n g t h e n e e d s w h i c h i t i s t o s e r v e .  official  or developing,  requires  T h i r d , and m o s t i m p o r -  t a n t l y , t h e r e i s good e v i d e n c e t o suggest t h a t d e v e l o p i n g systems are a n y w a y , t o b o r r o w f r o m s y s t e m s w h i c h t h e y p e r c e i v e as more (Lundgren,  1979;  Ukeje,  1980; W e i l e r ,  prone,  developed  1980).  C u r r i c u l u m as a p r o c e s s o f s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l  decision-making  e s s e n t i a l l y r e q u i r e s a s y s t e m f o r s e l e c t i n g among a v a r i e t y o f o p i n i o n s , s t a n c e s , and i d e o l o g i e s a b o u t t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l s .  Because the d e c i s i o n -  m a k i n g i s s o c i e t a l , i t has t o i n c l u d e a l l t h e p e o p l e who a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e m a i n t e n a n c e and t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s c h o o l s . a l l these people i n the process of the decision-making,  In o r d e r t o i n c l u d e the methods used  s h o u l d be a b l e t o i n v o l v e t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f a m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i t was c a t e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c was  people.  found t h a t the O n t a r i o document i n d i -  i n v o l v e d through  s u c h m e t h o d s as t h e  submission  o f p a p e r s , o f b r i e f s and p u b l i c m e e t i n g s ( G o v e r n m e n t o f O n t a r i o , 1 9 6 9 : 4 ) . The A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t showed e v i d e n c e o f s i m i l a r k i n d s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n (Government of A l b e r t a , 1972:304). t h e p u b l i c was respondents  In t h e c a s e o f B r i t i s h  i n v o l v e d m a i n l y by means o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  Columbia,  although  to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e included various groups of people  who  held meetings before turning i n the questionnaire. In o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s e m e t h o d s a r e f u n c t i o n a l i n a N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g , t h e y may  be c l a s s i f i e d as shown i n t h i s  METHODS OF P U B L I C P A R T I C I P A T I O N Oral  Written  P u b l i c debates Public meetings  Presentation of  Public  Questionnaire  hearings  b r i e f s and  papers  illustration.  102  Public debates, meetings,  and h e a r i n g s u s e o r a l e x c h a n g e as t h e  medium o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p u b l i c and t h e b o d y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the process of s o c i e t a l educational decision-making.  The  classification  o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f b r i e f s and p a p e r s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s as w r i t t e n a s s u m e s t h a t b o t h g r o u p s o f p e o p l e h a v e a c q u i r e d t h e s k i l l s o f w r i t i n g and  reading.  No s u c h a s s u m p t i o n  hearings.  i s s t r i c t l y n e c e s s a r y f o r d e b a t e s , m e e t i n g s and  In a N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g , i n w h i c h t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p u b l i c  cannot  w r i t e o r r e a d , i t s h o u l d be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e w r i t t e n m e t h o d s c a n o n l y include a small percentage making process.  of the p u b l i c i n a s o c i e t a l educational d e c i s i o n -  The p r o c e s s o f e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  employed the w r i t t e n methods i n N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g s . s i o n s and C o m m i t t e e s w h i c h h a v e m o n i t o r e d elementary  has o f t e n  E x a m p l e s o f Commis-  i n q u i r i e s about the r o l e of the  s c h o o l s i n N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g s abound.  The D i k e C o m m i s s i o n  ( 1 9 5 9 ) was c h a r g e d w i t h i m p r o v i n g t h e p r i m a r y s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a .  The  Ashby Commission (1960) examined the p o s s i b i l i t y o f o b l i g a t o r y manual s u b j e c t s i n the elementary  schools.  The B a n j o r e p o r t ( 1 9 6 1 ) c o n s i d e r e d  the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f r u r a l s c i e n c e i n t o the elementary  schools.  Ikoku Committee (1964) sought t o improve the t e x t books. C o m m i t t e e ( 1 9 6 8 ) was c o m m i s s i o n e d t o r e v i e w e l e m e n t a r y National Conference  The  Alvan  The T a i w o  education.  The  on C u r r i c u l u m ( 1 9 6 9 ) a i m e d t o d e f i n e n a t i o n a l g o a l s  of e d u c a t i o n at a l l l e v e l s o f s c h o o l i n g ( c f . Fafunwa, 1974:212-244). T h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t any o f t h e s e C o m m i s s i o n s , C o m m i t t e e s and Conferences  have a d e q u a t e l y  i n v o l v e d the m a j o r i t y of the  p u b l i c i n t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ,  illiterate  presumably because  the methods employed were o n l y c a p a b l e of r e a c h i n g the l i t e r a t e .  This  l a c k o f an o v e r a l l s o c i e t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n g i v e s f u r t h e r p o i n t t o P r o f e s s o r F a f u n w a ' s comment i n 1974 when he w r o t e , "The f u t u r e o f e d u c a t i o n i n  103  N i g e r i a w i l l i n t h e l o n g r u n h i n g e on w h e t h e r t h e s c h o o l s b e l o n g t o t h e p e o p l e ' . . . and N i g e r i a n e d u c a t i o n r e f l e c t s t h e c u l t u r e o f t h e N i g e r i a n people" (Fafunwa,  1974:211).  The u s e o f m e t h o d s t h a t c a n o n l y i n c l u d e t h e l i t e r a t e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f a s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g as t o w h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d t e a c h i n N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g s may be c o n s i d e r e d d e f i c i e n t .  In o r d e r t o  i n c l u d e the m a j o r i t y of the p u b l i c i n the decision-making p r o c e s s , the type o f m e t h o d s h e r e c l a s s i f i e d as o r a l may be r e q u i r e d .  The c o m b i n a t i o n  of  t h e two m e t h o d s ( o r a l and w r i t t e n ) has t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r m a k i n g t h e process of educational decision-making i n the N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g societal.  sufficiently  The v e r n a c u l a r s w i l l be t h e m o s t r e a s o n a b l e medium f o r t h e  a p p l i c a t i o n of the oral methods, although r e p o r t s of t h e i r f i n d i n g s w i l l h a v e t o be w r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h ( t h i s l a n g u a g e b e i n g t h e o f f i c i a l language of the c o u n t r y ) .  In t h e t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o E n g l i s h , o f the o r a l l y  e x p r e s s e d e d u c a t i o n a l d e s i r e s i n t h e v e r n a c u l a r , c a r e s h o u l d be t a k e n t h a t the t r a n s l a t i o n adequately r e p r e s e n t s the o r a l l y s t a t e d d e s i r e s . Further implications for participation in societal educational d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n N i g e r i a may be d r a w n f r o m an a s s e s s m e n t  o f Housego's  p o l i c y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g models which were used above t o d e s c r i b e the p a t t e r n s of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d i n the three Canadian documents ( c f . pages 91-92).  The two m o d e l s ( r a t i o n a l - p a r t i c i p a t o r y  r e a c t i v e - a d v e r s a r i a l ) seem t o h a v e one f a c t o r i n common. s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s a d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g b o d y and a group.  source and  Both models  non-decision-making  They a l s o imply t h a t i n the process o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , a type  o f i n t e r a c t i o n o r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s . m i g h t make some a s s u m p t i o n s  One  about the d i f f e r e n t types of i n t e r a c t i o n .  104  The r a t i o n a l - p a r t i c i p a t o r y m o d e l s u g g e s t s t h a t t r u s t and c o n f i d e n c e a r e i n v e s t e d i n t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g b o d y t o make u s e f u l d e c i s i o n s , hence the p a r t i c i p a t o r y r o l e o f the n o n - d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  group.  The  r e a c t i v e - a d v e r s a r i a l m o d e l s u g g e s t s a l a c k o f t r u s t and c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g b o d y on t h e p a r t o f a t l e a s t some o f t h e n o n - d e c i s i o n making group, hence the r e a c t i o n a r y a s p e c t o f the i n t e r a c t i o n .  I f the  l a c k o f t r u s t and c o n f i d e n c e i n t e n s i f i e s , t h e r e a c t i o n may become a d v e r sarial . One m i g h t a r g u e t h a t r e a c t i v e - a d v e r s a r i a l i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n g r o u p s t h a t s h o u l d be c o m m i t t e d i n the system)  i s unhealthy.  two  t o a common g o o d ( t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l s T h i s t y p e o f i n t e r a c t i o n may c o n s t i t u t e a  h i n d r a n c e t o t h o r o u g h s e l e c t i o n and s o r t i n g o f t h e a s p e c t s o f t h e s c h o o l ' s role.  A c o m p r o m i s e m i g h t be r e a c h e d by t h e two g r o u p s , b u t t h e c o m p r o m i s e  may n o t a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t w h a t s h o u l d be t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l s i n the system.  A u t h o r i t y i n p o w e r may r e v e r t t o u s i n g v e t o , b u t t h e r e b y  s i l e n c e s w h a t may be i m p o r t a n t o p i n i o n s .  In t h i s r e g a r d , i t i s t o be  recommended t h a t the N i g e r i a n e d u c a t i o n a l systems s h o u l d a v o i d a model which i s l i k e l y t o breed u n h e a l t h y i n t e r a c t i o n between the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g b o d y and t h e n o n - d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  group.  Furthermore, seen i n the l i g h t  o f o r a l and w r i t t e n m e t h o d s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , a l t h o u g h a r e a c t i v e - a d v e r s a r i a l m o d e l may  i n c l u d e the l i t e r a t e , i t s l i k e l i h o o d of i n c l u d i n g the  i l l i t e r a t e i n the p r o c e s s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s v e r y remote.  In a  N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g , a process o f s o c i e t a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g needs t o i n c l u d e b o t h t h e l i t e r a t e and i l l i t e r a t e , and a m o d e l w h i c h may  be  l i k e l y t o e x c l u d e a m a j o r i t y o f t h e p u b l i c f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i n g may  be  considered less than  adequate.  105  The r a t i o n a l - p a r t i c i p a t o r y m o d e l may in a Nigerian setting.  be s e e n as p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l  C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n  an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m i n a N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g w i l l be l e s s i n f o r m e d  of  about the  s c h o o l as an i n s t i t u t i o n , and a b o u t how t o t r a n s l a t e t h e i r d e s i r e s i n t o t h e r o l e t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d f u l f i l , i t may p o s i t i o n of the decision-making f i d e n c e of the p u b l i c .  be e x p e c t e d  that those placed i n the  group i n education w i l l r e c e i v e the  con-  I t m i g h t a l s o be a r g u e d , b e c a u s e o f t h e t y p e o f  g o v e r n a n c e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i c h t h e c o u n t r y i n h e r i t e d f r o m t h e B r i t i s h , i t i s e a s i l y assumed t h a t the person  in authority also possesses  e x p e r t i s e r e q u i r e d of the p o s i t i o n .  W h i l e t h i s may  the  n o t a l w a y s be t r u e , i t  seems t h a t m o s t N i g e r i a n e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s r e t a i n t h i s a s s u m p t i o n . Although  i t t e n d s t o e q u a t e e x p e r t i s e w i t h a u t h o r i t y , i t a l s o means t h a t  people placed i n the p o s i t i o n to monitor tional decision-making  the process of a s o c i e t a l educa-  w i l l r e a d i l y r e c e i v e the confidence of the p u b l i c .  H e n c e , a t l e a s t , a h e a l t h y i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n two g r o u p s ( t h e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g b o d y and t h e n o n - d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  group), i s established.  i m p o r t a n t l y , a r a t i o n a l - p a r t i c i p a t o r y m o d e l may  More  be s e e n as u s e f u l i n a  N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g , i f t h e u s e o f t h e m o d e l a d o p t s as a medium o f t h e p u b l i c b o t h t h e o r a l and w r i t t e n m e t h o d s .  Thus, not only  reaching  the  l i t e r a t e , b u t a l s o t h e i l l i t e r a t e w i l l be i n v o l v e d i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o w a r d the decision-making  about the r o l e of the  schools.  The f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w h i c h f o c u s s e d on c u r r i c u l u m p r o d u c t a r e n o t g e n e r a l i z a b l e i n any p a r t i c u l a r s e n s e t o N i g e r i a n because o f very d i f f e r e n t needs of developed  and d e v e l o p i n g  as  education  countries.  I t i s worth r e c a l l i n g , however, t h a t the t h r e e C a n a d i a n documents showed in t h e i r statements  a b o u t t h e e n d s and means o f s c h o o l i n g  considerable  106  variety i n breadth,  s p e c i f i c i t y and c l a r i t y .  I t was s u g g e s t e d  i n chapter  s e v e n t h a t t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f s p e c i f i c i t y may be o f f s e t t o some e x t e n t by t h e way i n w h i c h b r o a d e r s t a t e m e n t s may f a c i l i t a t e d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n t h e framework which they p r o v i d e .  Nigerian educators  may w e l l w i s h t o c o n s i d e r  w h e r e c u r r i c u l u m n e e d s t o be s p e c i f i c a n d w h e r e i t may be s t a t e d  broadly  enough t o permit f u r t h e r development i n l o c a l and s t a t e systems. A CONCLUDING CAVEAT In t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s o f t h i s f i n a l c h a p t e r , a t t e m p t e d , t h a t o f d r a w i n g some c o n c l u s i o n s t i o n o f the data observed  Although,  from the comparative examina-  i n t h e s o u r c e documents, and t h a t o f d i s c u s s i n g  some p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s systems.  two t a s k s were  both the conclusions  appear p l a u s i b l e , suggestive,  f o r the Nigerian  and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s  Educational reached  a n d u s e f u l , i t m u s t be a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t  are subject t o l i m i t a t i o n s .  they  T h r e e e x a m p l e s w i l l s e r v e t o i n d i c a t e some o f  these l i m i t a t i o n s a n d i l l u s t r a t e the caveat. F i r s t , e a c h s o u r c e d o c u m e n t was p r e p a r e d d i f f e r e n t from the others.  a t a p e r i o d o f time  T h e O n t a r i o d o c u m e n t was p r e p a r e d  p e r i o d o f 1965 t o 1 9 6 9 , a p e r i o d c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e C a n a d i a n and a r e c o g n i t i o n o f b o t h n a t i o n a l i s m a n d m u l t i - c u l t u r a l i s m . d o c u m e n t was p r e p a r e d  during the centennial The A l b e r t a  d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1969 t o 1972, a t i m e i n t h e h i s -  t o r y o f t h e p r o v i n c e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d r a s t i c s o c i a l c h a n g e s a s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e young t o t r a d i t i o n a l m o r a l i t y and t o s o c i a l liness.  order-  T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s w e r e r e l e a s e d i n 1976 a n d 1 9 7 7 ,  a p e r i o d w h i c h m i g h t be s e e n a s t h e e m e r g e n c e o f r i g h t w i n g r e a c t i o n t o the f r e e t h i n k i n g o f educators s i x t i e s and e a r l y s e v e n t i e s .  which had been n o t i c e a b l e i n t h e l a t e I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some d i f f e r e n c e s  noticed  107  i n t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r i n q u i r y among a n d b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e d a t a s o u r c e s c a n be e x p l a i n e d o r e l a b o r a t e d by c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t s i n which they were w r i t t e n .  However, t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s used  t o compare and a s s e s s t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p a t t e r n s o f t h e t h r e e d a t a s o u r c e s a r e p r i m a r i l y t h e b a s i s o f recommending the r a t i o n a l - p a r t i c i p a t o r y p o l i c y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g model f o r t h e N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g .  F o r t h e same r e a s o n ,  t h e p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e model d o e s n o t seem t o be c o n f i n e d t o a historical  context.  S e c o n d l y , a n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s drawn i n t h i s t h e s i s l i e s i n t h e somewhat d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e o f each s o u r c e document.  Although  the comparative a n a l y s i s o f t h e data observed i n t h e t h r e e documents i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n q u i r y was i n i t i a t e d a n d c o n d u c t e d i n e a c h o f t h e p r o v i n c e s o f O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a , and B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r t h e purpose o f d e f i n i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l s , o n e may a r g u e t h a t t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s a r e d i r e c t attempts a t p o l i c y - m a k i n g , i n t h e sense t h a t t h e p r o c e d u r e s were i n i t i a t e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n .  Hence, probably, the i n d i c a t i o n o f o p p o s i -  tion to the i n q u i r y , the a u t o c r a t i c stance o f the Minister of Education, the s p e c i f i c i t y o f the statements o f ends, t h e c l a r i t y o f the statements o f means o b s e r v e d i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o c u m e n t s .  The O n t a r i o and the  A l b e r t a d o c u m e n t s w e r e on t h e o t h e r hand p r e p a r e d by a C o m m i t t e e o r a Commission.  T h e r e p o r t s o f t h e s e two p r o v i n c e s may be s e e n a s p r o v i d i n g  guidelines f o r policy-making. for i n the reports.  H e n c e , p e r h a p s , no o p p o s i t i o n was  accounted  T h e same r e a s o n may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e b r o a d n e s s  of the statements o f ends, and the less s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the s t a t e m e n t s o f means o b s e r v e d i n t h e r e p o r t s . F i n a l l y , i t s h o u l d a l s o be o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e a s s e s s m e n t  of the role  o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n t h i s t h e s i s i n t e r m s o f e n d s a n d means t o o k no  108  a c c o u n t o f t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h any o f t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i n t h e d o c u m e n t s were implemented.  H a v i n g n o t e d t h a t t h e r e p o r t s m i g h t be s e e n as p r o v i d i n g  g u i d e l i n e s f o r p o l i c y - m a k i n g , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t o n l y p a r t s of the recommendations provinces. implemented.  o f f e r e d i n the r e p o r t s were implemented  i n the r e s p e c t i v e  I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t some r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e n e v e r E v e n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , whose d o c u m e n t s may be s e e n as  d i r e c t p o l i c y - m a k i n g , i t r e m a i n s t o be v e r i f i e d t h a t t h e s c h o o l s a r e i n d e e d d o i n g w h a t t h e y s h o u l d be d o i n g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d o c u m e n t s . f r a m e w o r k o f t h i s s t u d y e x c l u d e d any c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e of the recommendations i n the source documents.  The c o n c e p t u a l implementation  In d o i n g s o , i t p e r m i t t e d  a s h a r p e r f o c u s on t h o s e d o c u m e n t s and t h e b l u e - p r i n t s t h e y p r o v i d e d .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S u p e r v i s i o n and C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t 1980 " E s s e n t i a l s o f E d u c a t i o n d e f i n e d by A s s o c i a t i o n s . " ASCD, News Exchange, 22:1:2. A n d r e w s , J.H.M. 1977 " L o o k i n g b a c k and a h e a d i n E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " Leadership i n Education. Toronto: Canadian Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 23-33. B a h a n n a n , J.A. 1977 "Our Two S t o r y C u l t u r e . " I n C u r r i c u l u m P l a n n i n g . ( e d . ) . B o s t o n : A l l y n and S a c o n , 4 2 - 4 7 .  Glen Hass  B a n k s , J.A. 1977 " C u l t u r a l P l u r a l i s m and t h e S c h o o l s . " I n C u r r i c u l u m P l a n n i n g . G l e n H a s s ( e d . ) . B o s t o n : A l l y n and B a c o n , 2 4 - 4 7 . B a r r o w , R. 1979 The C a n a d i a n Ontario. Beauchamp, 1968(a) 1968(b)  Curriculum:  G.A. Curriculum Theory. The C u r r i c u l u m .  A P e r s o n a l View.  Illinois: Illinois:  U n i v e r s i t y of Western  Kegg P r e s s .  Kegg P r e s s .  B e c k , C M . , B.S. C r i t t e n d e n , and E.V. S u l l i v a n 1971 Moral Education: I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Approaches. Newman P r e s s . Brameld, 1950  T. Patterns of Educational philosophy.  New Y o r k :  New  York:  W o r l d Book Company.  1955  Philosophy of Education in Cultural Perspective.  New Y o r k :  1956  Toward a R e c o n s t r u c t o f P h i l o s o p h y o f E d u c a t i o n . The B y d e n P r e s s .  New  York:  B u r d i n , J . T . and J.D. M c A u l a y 1971 E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n . New Y o r k : R o n a l P r e s s Company. Canadian 1980  Education Association " L e a r n i n g I m p e r a t i v e s " - the t r e n d o f the 80s." J u n e , 1.  109  CEA:  Holt.  The  Newsletter,  no Caswell, 1978  H.L. " E m e r g e n c e o f t h e C u r r i c u l u m as a f i e l d o f p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k and s t u d y . " In C u r r i c u l u m : An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e f i e l d . James R. G r e s s ( e d . ) . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : M c C u t c h a n P u b l i s h i n g , 27-37.  C h r i s t i n e , C.T. and D.V. C h r i s t i n e 1971 P r a c t i c a l G u i d e t o C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n . New Myack P a r k e r P u b l i s h i n g Company.  York:  C l u t e , M.J. 1978 H u m a n i s t i c E d u c a t i o n : G o a l and O b j e c t i v e s . W a s h i n g t o n , A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S u p e r v i s i o n and C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t .  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F e r s h , S. 1977 " T h r o u g h t h e C u l t u r a l L o o k i n g G l a s s . " In C u r r i c u l u m P l a n n i n g . G l e n H a s s ( e d . ) . B o s t o n : A l l y n and B a c o n , 3 8 - 4 1 . Fraser, J. 1974 "The T h r e e R's: 14:4:22-29. Goodlad, 1966  Are they being neglected?"  Education Canada,  J.I. The D e v e l o p m e n t o f a C o n c e p t u a l S y s t e m f o r D e a l i n g w i t h P r o b l e m s o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n . Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f California.  Ill Goslin, 1965  D.A. The S c h o o l i n C o m p a r a t i v e  Society.  Atlanta:  S c o t t Forman.  Government o f A l b e r t a 1972 A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s , R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g . The C a b i n e t C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n , A l b e r t a . Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1974 Elementary S o c i a l Studies: Victoria.  Y e a r s 1-7.  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Canadian  F a b e r and  O r g a n i z a t i o n F o r E c o n o m i c C o - o p e r a t i o n and D e v e l o p m e n t 1966 " C u r r i c u l u m I m p r o v e m e n t and E d u c a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t . " 1974  Leader-  A.L. Kroeber  M o r g a n , M.T. and H. R o b i n s o n 1976 "The 'Back t o t h e B a s i c ' Movement i n E d u c a t i o n . " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n , 1:2:1-10. Nibet, 1963  North C a r o l i n a  Faber  Paris:  Paris:  OECD  Harvard  H o l t , R i n e h a r t and  Phenix, 1974  P.H. " T r a n s c e n d a n c e i n C u r r i c u l u m , " In C o n f l i c t i n g C o n c e p t i o n s o f C u r r i c u l u m . E.W. E i s n e r and E. V a l l a n c e ( e d s . ) . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g , 117-132.  Rogers, 1969  C. Freedom to l e a r n .  Columbus, Ohio:  C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l l .  114  Schmieder, A.A. 1975 "Ten C r i t i c a l I s s u e s i n E d u c a t i o n a l R e f o r m . " E d u c a t i o n , XXVI:1:18-23.  Journal of  Schwab, J . J . 1969 "The P r a c t i c a l : 78:1:1-24.  School  A language f o r c u r r i c u l u m . "  Teacher  Review,  1973  "The P r a c t i c a l / 3 : T r a n s l a t e d i n t o C u r r i c u l u m . " 81:4:501-522.  School  Review,  1978  "The P r a c t i c a l : A l a n g u a g e f o r C u r r i c u l u m . " In C u r r i c u l u m : An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e F i e l d . James R. G r e s s ( e d . ) . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g , 486-509.  S m i t h , B.O., W.O. S t a n l e y and J.H. S h o r e s 1972 " C u l t u r a l R o o t o f t h e C u r r i c u l u m . " I n The C u r r i c u l u m : Context, D e s i g n and D e v e l o p m e n t . R i c h a r d H o o p e r ( e d . ) . Edinburgh: O l i v e r and Boyd. S t a k e , R. 1969 "The C o u n t e n a n c e o f E d u c a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n . " In C o n t e m p o r a r y T h o u g h t s on P u b l i c S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m . - E.C. S h o r t and G.D. M a r c o n n i t ( e d s . ) . Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company. S t r a t e m a y e r , P. 1973 " D e v e l o p i n g a C u r r i c u l u m f o r M o d e r n L i v i n g . " In A p p r o a c h e s t o C u r r i c u l u m . R. Hyman ( e d . ) . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 53-72. T a b a , H. 1962 1978  Tyler, 1957  Curriculum Development: Theory Into P r a c t i c e . H a r c o u r t B r a c e and W o r l d .  New  York:  "A C o n c e p t u a l F r a m e w o r k f o r C u r r i c u l u m D e s i g n . " I n C u r r i c u l u m An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e F i e l d . James R. G r e s s ( e d . ) . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g . R.W. B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago.  Chicago:  1975  " S p e c i f i c A p p r o a c h e s t o C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t . " In S t r a t e g i e s f o r C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t . J o n S c h a f f a r z i c k and D.H. Hampson ( e d s . ) . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g .  1978  " S p e c i f i c A p p r o a c h e s t o C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t . " In C u r r i c u l u m : An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e F i e l d . James R. G r e s s ( e d . ) . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g .  The S c a r b o r o u g h Conference 1974 . The R e p o r t o f t h e W o r k i n g P a r t y . Scarborough.  Scarborough  Conference:  115  U k e j e , B.O. 1980 U n i v e r s i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : The Case o f N i g e r i a . C o u n c i l f o r E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , #20.  Commonwealth  V a l l e t , R.E. 1974 A f f e c t i v e Human E d u c a t i o n : G o a l s , Programme a n d L e a r n i n g Activities. Belmont: Lear S i e g l e / F e a r o n . Vancouver  Sun  1977  M a r c h 6.  "The C o r e C u r r i c u l u m :  Expedient  Politics."  1977  M a r c h 19.  " W a l t e r H a r d w i c k on t h e C o r e  1977  A u g u s t 4.  "Core C u r r i c u l u m Rapped as P o l i t i c a l l y  Curriculum." Motivated."  W e i l e r , H.H. 1980 "The F u t u r e o f E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g : Some S k e p t i c a l N o t e s . In C a n a d i a n a n d C o m p a r a t i v e E d u c a t i o n . R. F a r q u h a r a n d I . Housego ( e d s . ) . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. W i l l i s , G. 1975 "Curriculum Theory and t h e Context o f Curriculum." In C u r r i c u l u m T h e o r i z i n g : The R e c o n s t r u c t ! ' o n i s t s . W i l l i a m P i n a r ( e d . ) . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g . W i l s o n , J . , N. W i l l i a m a n d B. S u g a r m a n 1967 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Moral Education. World C o u n c i l For C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n 1980 N e w s l e t t e r , 11:2:1-4.  Penguin  Books.  APPENDIX I AN A N A L Y S I S OF AND P U B L I C RESPONSE TO THE CORE CURRICULUM PART I : CONTENT A N A L Y S I S OF REACTION SHEETS BY J . BOTTOMLEY ( 1 9 7 7 )  117  METHODOLOGY P u b l i c response t o t h e " G o a l s B o o k l e t " was heavy. In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s the M i n i s t r y r e c e i v e d c l o s e t o 15,000 r e s p o n s e s i n t h e form o f the r e a c t i o n sheet contained i n the b o o k l e t . Some o f t h e s e r e s p o n s e s d i d not use t h e a c t u a l s h e e t but were i n a form t h a t p a r a l l e l e d the sheet. I n a l l i t was p o s s i b l e t o code some 13,584 complete r e s p o n s e s i n t h i s manner. S e v e r a l hundred more p a r t i a l r e s p o n s e s were coded i n the same way but t h e s e were not i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s . Material that c o u l d not be coded i n a s i m i l a r manner were d e a l t w i t h by Pat Bates and r e p o r t e d on i n t h e r e p o r t c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix A. This report d e a l t with some o f the c o m p l e x i t i e s o f r e s p o n s e t h a t were not d e a l t w i t h i n the' a n a l y s i s o f the r e a c t i o n sheets. The methodology used i n the a n a l y s i s o f the r e a c t i o n s h e e t s was that of content a n a l y s i s . A s e r i e s o f codes were d e v i s e d t h a t a l l o w e d an i n d i v i d u a l response s h e e t t o be r e p r e s e n t e d by a s e r i e s o f n u m e r i c a l codes. (See Appendix B f o r the c o d i n g s c h e d u l e f o r q u e s t i o n s one and two and Appendix C f o r t h e c o d i n g s c h e d u l e f o r q u e s t i o n t h r e e ) . Thus coded r e s p o n s e s were amenable t o machine a n a l y s i s . The c o d i n g was p e r f o r m e d by f i v e p e o p l e h i r e d e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e purpose. They were g i v e n a one day t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n by t h e a u t h o r and then worked under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f Mr. P h i l K i t l e y . The c o d i n g was completed i n 20. days and t h e m a t e r i a l on t h e c o d i n g s h e e t s punched onto computer tape by the B.C. Systems C o r p o r a t i o n . The a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on the t a p e s was performed by t h e a u t h o r and Mr. W . G i l l . T h i s a n a l y s i s comprised t a b u l a t i n g and c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g t h e v a r i o u s r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r i e s . Much o f t h i s a n a l y s i s i s not r e p o r t e d as i t i s o f a d e t a i l t h a t cannot r e a d i l y be p r e s e n t e d i n a r e p o r t . The complete a n a l y s i s i s a v a i l a b l e i n computer p r i n t o u t form from the a u t h o r s h o u l d i t be o f i n t e r e s t . RESPONSES BY  SCHOOL DISTRICT  I n a l l 13,584 u s a b l e r e s p o n s e s were r e c e i v e d . ( T h i s e x c l u d e s the masses o f m a t e r i a l t h a t was not c o d a b l e i n t h e manner o f t h e r e a c t i o n sheet i n c l u d e d as page 31 o f the c o r e b o o k l e t . ) Of t h e s e 2,979 were not i d e n t i f i e d by s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . Three were from out o f P r o v i n c e . With the e x c e p t i o n o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t 92 (Nisgha) a l l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s were represented. Burnaby, T r a i l , L a n g l e y , C o q u i t l a m , P r i n c e George and G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s p r o v i d e d a p a r t i c u l a r l y heavy r e s p o n s e .  NATURE Or THE RESPONDENTS breakdown o f r e s p o n d e n t s was as f o l l o w s :  £  0  8,490  62..5%  3,689  27..2%  440  3.,2%  Trustee  60  , 4%  Student  299  2..2%  Other  606  4..4%  Tvpe o f Respondent Parent Teacher Parent  and  Teacher  and Unknown  P a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s comprised t h e g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f respondents. The t e a c h e r s r e p r e s e n t r o u g h l y 14% o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l teaching force. THE  NUMBER OF GOALS THAT NEED RECONSIDERING  Respondents were asked t o i n d i c a t e w h i c h o f t h e g o a l s needed reconsidering. Many i n d i c a t e d no g o a l s w h i l e o t h e r s mentioned a g r e a t many. The breakdown by number o f recommendations was as f o l l o w s . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t a recommendation does n o t i m p l y a r e j e c t i o n o f the g o a l . I n many c a s e s t h e r e s p o n d e n t was s u g g e s t i n g a s t r e n g t h e n i n g of the g o a l , not i t s r e j e c t i o n . o f C o a l s t o be R e c o n s i d e r e d  p  >l  None  9,372  69.0%  One  2,294  16.9%  Two  811  6.0%  Three  479  3.5%  Four  487  3.6%  F i v e o r More  141  1.0%  N e a r l y 70% o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t no g o a l s needed reconsidering. O n l y 1 4 . 1 % i n d i c a t e d more t h a n one g o a l needed reconsidering. Thus. 8 5 . 9 % o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t none o r o n l y one g o a l needed r e c o n s i d e r i n g .  119  E.  RECOMMENDATIONS TO MODIFY THE  GOALS  Each respondent was a l l o w e d to i n d i c a t e up t o f o u r g o a l s t o which he or she o b j e c t e d . There was thus a p o s s i b l e 54.336 o b j e c t i o n s . Some 46,443 o f these were not e x p r e s s e d as so few r e s p o n d e n t s had more t h a n one o b j e c t i o n . The breakdown o f responses i s as below. The f i g u r e s i n the t h i r d column a r e the p e r c e n t a g e o f r a i s e d o b j e c t i o n s t h a t f a l l i n t o the v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s . Thus, the 1,413 o b j e c t i o n s t o Goal A (Reading S k i l l s ) r e p r e s e n t o n l y 2.6% o f the r e s p o n s e s to t h i s i t e m but 17.9% o f the o b j e c t i o n s a c t u a l l y r a i s e d . A recommendation does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t the i t e m i s inappropriate. I t may mean t h a t i t needs g r e a t e r emphasis (see s e c t i o n on n a t u r e o f o b j e c t i o n ) . Recommendations to Change Goals  *  Goal No  Recommendations  Goal Goal Goal Goal  A B C D  Reading S k i l l s Writing Skills Listening Skills Speaking S k i l l s  46,443  % Rest  % Raised Objection  85 . S'/j  1,415 1,445 424 598  2 .6% 2 . 7% 0 .8% 1 .1%  6.2%  (17.9%) (18.3%) ( S.4%) ( 7.6%)  (49.2%)  Goal E Number System G o a l F Measurement  717 184  1 .3% 0 .3%  1.6%  ( 9.1%) (2.4%)  (11.5%)  Goal G Science  224  0 .4%  (  2.8%)  G o a l H R o l e s and R i g h t s Goal I L o c a l H e r i t a g e G o a l J World H e r i t a g e  701 533 389  1..3% 1,. 0% 0,. 7%  ( ( (  8.9%) 6.8%) 4.9%)  (20.4%)  Goal K Research S k i l l s G o a l L E n q u i r y and A n a l y s i s  292 101  0.. 5% 0..2%  ( (  3.7%) 1.3%)  (  Goal M Healthy  723  1.. 3%  (  9.2%)  Living  0.7%  5.0%)  The l a r g e s t number o f recommendations f o r a d d i t i o n s f e l l i n a r e a s o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g s k i l l s (Goal A and B), the number system (Goal E) and h e a l t h y l i v i n g (Goal M) . Suggestions  f o r a d d i t i o n s are discussed i n a l a t e r  section.  120  r.  LEVEL OF GOAL RECOMMENDED OK The recommendations f o r changes t o g o a l s ranged from t h e s p e c i f i c t o t h e v e r y g e n e r a l . The l e v e l i n t h e s c h o o l system t o which t h e recommendations r e f e r r e d i s o u t l i n e d below. The f i g u r e s i n column t h r e e r e f e r t o t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f recommendations f a l l i n g i n t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s . A g a i n t h e t o t a l number i s 54,330 as i n t h e l a s t s e c t i o n (see l a s t s e c t i o n ) . Level  o f Recommendations  No Recommendation Primary Intermediate J u n i o r Secondary S e n i o r Secondary K - 12 K - 7 8-12  # 46,440 643 553 709 334 5,182 251 104  % Responses  % Recommeni _  8 5.5% 1.2% 1.0%  8.1% 7.0% 9.7% 4.2% 65.6:. 3.2% 2.1%  1.4% 0.6% 9.5% 0.5% 0.3%  Thus, n e a r l y two t h i r d s o f a l l recommendations were o f a g e n e r a l n a t u r e and were not l e v e l s p e c i f i c . The most f r e q u e n t l e v e l s p e c i f i c recommendations were concerned w i t h the J u n i o r High S c h o o l l e v e l . G.  NATURE OP THE RECOMMENDATION As was noted e a r l i e r t h e f a c t t h a t a recommendation t o modify a g o a l had been made d i d not imply t h a t t h e g o a l had been r e j e c t e d . In fact i n the m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s t h e recommendation was f o r the a d d i t i o n o f m a t e r i a l to s t r e n g h t e n the g o a l . T h i s i s shown below. The t o t a l number o f r e s p o n s e s i s a g a i n 54,336 as each respondent had t h e o p t i o n o f making up t o f o u r recommendations.  Nature  o f Recommendation  No Recommendation More Emphasis Needed I n G o a l Goal Needs Less Emphasis Goal S h o u l d Appear a t H i g h e r Level Goal S h o u l d Appear a t Lower Level  of  #  % Responses  %  Recommendations  46,479 6,247 326  85.5% 11.5% 0.6%  79.5% 4.1%  261  0.5%  3.3%  1,023  1.9%  13.0%  Thus, n e a r l y 8 0 % o f t h e recommendations were f o r t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g a goal.  I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n t h e reasons f o r t h e recommendations or what a s p e c t o f a g o a l i s r e g a r d e d as b e i n g i n a d e q u a t e . Thus, a l t h o u g h a g o a l may be i n d i c a t e d as b e i n g i n need o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e to i s o l a t e i n which a r e a s i t i s seen as b e i n g i n a d e q u a t e .  121  H.  THE  NUMBER OF GOALS NEEDING ADDITIONS  Respondents were asked to i n d i c a t e any a d d i t i o n s t h e y would l i k e to see t o the c o r e . These s u g g e s t e d a d d i t i o n s c o u l d i n most c a s e s be a s s i g n e d t o an e x i s t i n g g o a l , e.g. the c a l l f o r a second language r e l a t e d to Goal A, t h e a d d i t i o n o f a consumer e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e t o G o a l H, etc. I n some c a s e s the a d d i t i o n s d i d not f i t i n t o any e x i s t i n g g o a l s and so two new g o a l s were c r e a t e d f o r the purposes o f a n a l y s i s . These a r e r e f e r r e d t o as Goal N - L i f e P r e p a r a t i o n and Goal 0 - C r e a t i v e A r t s respective!y. These g o a l s appear i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s but not i n the Core B o o k l e t . The number o f a d d i t i o n s suggested by the r e s p o n d e n t s were noted w i t h the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d below.  Suggested A d d i t i o n s None One Two Three Four F i v e o r more Thus,  8B  of  the r e s p o n d e n t s  #  Respondents  8,85b 3,096 1,196 322 72 43  65. 2:>: 22.89; 8.8% 2.4% 0.5%. 0.3%  suggested  a t most one  addition.  122  I.  GOALS NEEDING ADDITION As noted above suggested a d d i t i o n s were a s s i g n e d t o a g o a l . A s u g g e s t i o n t o i n s t i t u t e second language t e a c h i n g was a s s i g n e d t o G o a l A and not t o t h e G o a l s A-D f o r s i m p l i c i t y ' s sake. T h i s accounts f o r the l a r g e number o f suggested a d d i t i o n s t o Goal A and the i n s i g n i f i c a n t number suggested f o r G o a l s B-D. I t does not imply a massive d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the g o a l s o u t l i n e d f o r Goal A i n the c o r e b o o k l e t .  Goal Needing A d d i t i o n No A d d i t i o n G o a l A Reading S k i l l s G o a l B W r i t i n g S k i l l s '• Goal D Speaking S k i l l s Goal E Number System G o a l F Measurement Goal G Science G o a l H R o l e s and R i g h t s Goal I L o c a l H e r i t a g e Goal J World H e r i t a g e & Study Skills G o a l L A n a l y s i s & Problem Solving  #  % Responses  % Additions  47,397  87.2%  2,062 9 2  3.8% .0% .0%.  29.7% .1% .0%  16 7  .0% .0%  .2% .1%  212  .4%  3.1%  38 13 12  .1% .0% .0%  .5% .2% .2%  6  .0%  .1%  Goal K Research  Goal M Healthy L i v i n g  2 1,289  .0%. 2.4%  .0% 18.6%  Goal N L i f e P r e p a r a t i o n  1,551  2.9%  22.4%  Goal 0 C r e a t i v e A r t s  1,720  3.2%  24.8%  Thus, a d d i t i o n s t o G o a l A ( W r i t i n g S k i l l s ) (see note above) Goal M ( H e a l t h y L i v i n g ) . Goal N ( L i f e P r e p a r a t i o n ) and Goal 0 (Creative A r t s ) accounted f o r 95.4% o f a l l s u g g e s t e d a d d i t i o n s .  123  J.  LEVEL OF SUGGESTED ADDITIONS As was t h e case w i t h t h e recommendations a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d t h e suggested a d d i t i o n s were sometimes v e r y s p e c i f i c w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e l e v e l i n t h e s c h o o l system t o which they a p p l i e d w h i l e i n o t h e r c a s e s they were o f a g e n e r a l n a t u r e . The r e s u l t s a r e as below. Level  o f Suggested  Additions  No A d d i t i o n s Primary Intermediate J u n i o r Secondary S e n i o r Secondary K - 12 K - 7 8-12  £. 47,432 690 92  •U  58 5,749 104 170  % Responses  %  87.3% 1.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 10.6% 0.2;.0.3%  Additions  10.1% 1.3% 0.6% 0.8% 83.3% 1.5% 2.5%  As was the case w i t h the recommended changes t h e recommended a d d i t i o n s were o v e r w h e l m i n g l y a the K-12 l e v e l , i . e . t h e y were f o r a d d i t i o n s t h a t were t o a p p l y t h oughout the s c h o o l system. K.  NATURE OF SUGGESTED ADDITIONS In t h e l a s t s e c t i o n b u t one the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a d d i t i o n s by g o a l s was r e p o r t e d . In t h i s s e c t i o n t h e a c t u a l suggested a d d i t i o n s a r e r e p o r t e d The range o f s u g g e s t i o n s was s u r p r i s i n g l y s m a l l g i v e n the number which was r o u g h l y 7,000. Ten c a t e g o r i e s a c c o u n t e d f o r a l l but 93 o f t h e s e s u g g e s t i o i  Nature o f Suggested  Addition  None Add a Second Language Add French on P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Program Add on Outdoor E d u c a t i o n Program Ensure t h e use o f F i e l d T r i p s I n s t i t u t e Career Counselling Add Drug & A l c o h o l E d u c a t i o n Add Sex E d u c a t i o n Institute Social/Personal Relations Counselling Add Music & C r e a t i v e A r t s Other  % Responses  % Additions  47.421 759 1,320  87 . 3% 1 . 4% 2 .4%  (11.0%) (19.1%)  1,266  2 .3%  203 108  0,.4% 0..2%  (18.3%) ) ( 2.9%) ( 1.6%,)  277 127 303  0..5% 0..2% 0..6%  ( ( (  746  1. 4%  (10.8%)  1,713 93  3. 2% 0. 2%  (24.6%) ( 1.3%)  30.2%  Add  4.0%) 1.8%) 4.4%)  22.7%  21.1%  The a d d i t i o n s appear t o f a l l i n t o f o u r broad c a t e g o r i e s : i ia call f o r a second language u s u a l l y F r e n c h , i i ) a c a l l f o r a c t i v i t y o u t s i d e the c l a s s r o o m , i i i ) a c a l l f o r a c o u n s e l l i n g program and i v ) a c a l l f o r t h e a d d i t i o n o f c r e a t i v e a r t s programs.  124  NON-RELATED COMMENTS A s e r i e s o f comments u n r e l a t e d t o the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f c o r e were a l s o coded as they o c c u r r e d f r e q u e n t l y . Nature  o f Comment  Need more D i s c i p l i n e Should t e a c h C h r i s t i a n Ethics Should t e a c h Comparative Ethics S h o u l d be no r e l i g i o u s A c t i v i t y i n Schools Should I n s t i t u t e P r o v i n c e -wide Exams No Comments  £  % Respondents  % Comments  1,302  3.2  62.2  120  0.3  5.7  134  0.3  6.4  7  0.0  0.3  529 38,660  1.3 94.9  25.3  The overwhelming p r o p o r t i o n o f respondents made no comments. Of those t h a t d i d by f a r t h e most f r e q u e n t comment c o n c e r n e d t h e need f o r more d i s c i p l i n e i n t h e s c h o o l s . The n a t u r e o f t h e s e comments i s d i s c u s s e d i n some d e t a i l i n the r e p o r t by P a t Bates. Her d i s c u s s i o n p r o v i d e s more i n s i g h t t h a n i s p o s s i b l e h e r e .  THE  TWO WAY ANALYSIS  As mentioned i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n a s e r i e s o f b i v a r i a t e t a b u l a t i o n s were produced. Many o f these a r e not r e p o r t e d h e r e . What f o l l o w s i s a s e l e c t i o n o f t h i s m a t e r i a l t h a t was j u d g e d t o be o f t h e g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t .  125  N.  RESPONSES CATEGORIZED BY THE NATURE OF THE  RESPONDENT  I n o r d e r t o determine whether response t o t h e c o r e b o o k l e t d i f f e r e d between t h e d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f respondent an a n a l y s i s was c o n d u c t e d t h a t l o o k e d a t t h e response p a t t e r n t o a number o f v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n t h e groups o f r e s p o n d e n t s . These a r e r e p o r t e d below. Type o f Respondent  V  % o f G o a l s Needing R e c o n s i d e r i n g  Number o f G o a l s Type o f Respondent  0  1  2  3  4  Parent  5,798 68.3%  1,490 17.6%  498 5.9%  349 4.1%  318 3.7%  37 0.4%  Student  192 64.2%  63 21.1%  28 9.4%  7 2.3%  6 2.0%  3 1.0%  Teacher  2,679 72.6%  584 15.8%  200 5.4%  85 2.3%  117 3.2%  24 0.7%  Trustee  37 61.7%  11 18.3%  3 5.0%  4 6.7%  3 5.0%  2 3.3%  220 50%  64 14.5%  44 10%.  12 2.7%  28 6.4%  Other and Unknown  446 73.5%  82 13.5%  38 6.3%  22 3.6%  15 2.5%  3 0.0%  TOTAL  9,372 69%  2,294 16.9%  811 6%  479 3.5%  487 3.6%  141 1.0%  Parent  &  Teacher  >4  72 16.4%  Thus t h e c a t e g o r y w i t h t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f respondents who i n d i c a t e d t h a t no r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n was n e c e s s a r y was t e a c h e r s (with t h e e x c e p t i o n o f o t h e r and unknown) and t h e c a t e g o r y w i t h t h e l o w e s t p e r c e n t a g e i n d i c a t i n g no change was t h e group who were b o t h p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s f o l l o w e d by t r u s t e e s . A s i m i l a r t a b u l a t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e number o f g o a l s t h a t needed a d d i t i o n s i s p r e s e n t e d as f o l l o w s .  126  Type o f Respondent  V  Number o f  Goals Needing A d d i t ions  Number o f Goals 0  1  Parent  5,434 64%  2,048 24.1%  Student  179 59.9%  81 27.1%  Teacher  2,591 70.2%  749 20.3%  42  Type o f Respondent  Other  Teacher  & Unknown  TOTAL  4  =»4  37 0.4%  4 0.0%  3 1.0%  2 0.7%  0 0.0%  280 7.6%  55 1.5%  11 0.3%  0.1%  11 18.3%  3 5.0%  2 3.3%  2 3.3%  0 0.0%  171 38.9%  92 20.9%  71 16.1%  55 12.5%  16 3.6%  35 8.0%  438 72.3%  115 18.9%  37 6.1%  11 1.8%  4 0.6%  1 0.0%  3,096 22.8%  1,196 8.8%  322 2.4%  72 0.5%  43 0.3%  70%  8,855 65.2%  771 9.1%  3 196 2.3%  Trustee  Parent &  2  34 11.4%  3  The c a t e g o r y o f respondent w i t h t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e i n d i c a t i n g t h a t n o t h i n g needed a d d i n g were t h e t e a c h e r s f o l l o w e d by t h e t r u s t e e s , ( e x c l u d i n g o t h e r and unknown) The c a t e g o r y w i t h t h e l o w e s t p e r c e n t a g e i n d i c a t i n g no a d d i t i o n s was t h e p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s group f o l l o w e d by t h e s t u d e n t group. These r e s u l t s e s s e n t i a l l y p a r a l l e l t h o s e found f o r t h e recommendations. N e i t h e r o f these p a t t e r n s r e v e a l s anything o f great interest. In an attempt t o a s s e s s t h e a r e a o f c o n c e r n i n t h e d i f f e r e n t respondent c a t e g o r y , a s i m i l a r a n a l y s i s was made o f t h e g o a l s o b j e c t e d t o and g o a l s n e e d i n g a d d i t i o n . I n t h i s a n a l y s i s t h e numbers r e f e r t o r e s p o n s e s and not r e s p o n d e n t s as each respondent was a l l o w e d t o suggest changes i n , o r a d d i t i o n s t o , up t o f o u r g o a l s . As we have a l r e a d y seen few r e s p o n d e n t s took advantage o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y w i t h o n l y 1 5 % o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s s u g g e s t i n g more t h a n one change o r a d d i t i o n . Some c a u t i o n i s needed i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e s e t a b l e s t h e r e f o r e . F o r example, t h e 998 l i s t e d f o r p a r e n t s under w r i t i n g s k i l l s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e 998 recommendations c o n c e r n i n g w r i t i n g s k i l l s t h a t were made by p a r e n t s c o n s t i t u t e d 20% o f t h e t o t a l number o f recommendations made by p a r e n t s . I t says n o t h i n g about t h e number o f p a r e n t s who made such recommendations. I t c o u l d be 333 p a r e n t s each making t h r e e s u g g e s t i o n s o r 998 each making one.  127  0.  NATURE OF RESPONDENT V GOALS RECOMMENDED FOR MODIFICATION  +J  c e T; c o D. tr. c  DC C DC  C  K  DO C  Oi  tn  ore/:  £•* S 10  •<(c tr •pw Cv^  Jcr.  DC C •H  c Cu E  tr  .10-H *-< 01  a; t o  CJ  t. 01  cv  3  t  tn  ID to  E  3 CO >. 2  OJ  01  rj c o> •H O cn  id  OJ  n +J  OJ £ - I DC O - i  or o:  Parent  938 18.8%  998 20.0%  239 4.8%  368 7.4%  514 113 10.3% 2.3%  Student  29 16.2%  32 17.9%  6 3.4%  13 7.3%  12 8 6.7% 4.5%  Teacher  291 16.2%  232 13.0%  91 5.1%  119 6.6%  132 50 7.4% 2.8%  107 177 6.0% 9.9%  Trustee  8 16.3%  11 5 22.4% 10.2%  2 4.1%  5 0 10.2% 0.0%  Parent & Teacher  110 IB. 7%  115 69 19.6% 11.8%  73 12.4%  Other and 39 Unknown 13.5% •  TOTAL  DC  tn  o cu  u u  o  tn  >>-rt  t.  tn  •H 3  >> —  i-i  <  tr re c c  to  >  —i  317 6.4%  226 4.5%  158 54 3.2% 1.1%  CC  5 11 18 2.8% 6.1% 10.1%  20 11.2%  5 0 2.8% 0.0%  18 7.3%  140 7.8%  106 5.9%  95 39 5.3% 2.2%  177 9.9%  0 9 1 0.0% 18.4% 2.0%  3 6.1%  2 0 4.1% 0.0%  3 6.1%  29 14 4.9% 2.4%  23 3.9%  33 40 5.6% 6.8%  17 2.9%  18 3 3.1% 0.5%  42 7.2%  80 441 1.6% 8.8%'  454 9.1%  57 19.9%  14 4.8%  23 7.9%  25 4 8.6% 1.3%  9 30 17 3.1% 10.4% 5.9%  17 5.9%  14 5 34 4.8% 1.7% 11.8%  1415 1445 17.9% 18.3%  424 5.4%  598 7.6%  717 189 9.1% 2.4%  224 701 533 2.8% 8.9% 6.8%  389 4.9%  292 101 3.7% 1.3%  Parents thus had above average recommendations on r e a d i n g s k i l l s , w r i t i n g s k i l l s and the number system - a l l b a s i c s k i l l s . Teachers had above average recommendations on measurement, 6cience, r o l e s and r i g h t s , l o c a l h e r i t a g e , world h e r i t a g e , r e s e a r c h s k i l l s , i n q u i r y and a n a l y s i s and h e a l t h y l i v i n g - a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t c l u s t e r than those o f the parents. Students had above average recommendations on measurement, l o c a l h e r i t a g e and world h e r i t a g e . The group who were both parents and teachers had above average recommendations on r e a d i n g s k i l l s , w r i t i n g s k i l l s , l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s , speaking s k i l l s and s c i e n c e .  723 9.2%  Measurement  Science  Roles & Rights  Local Heritage  World Heritage  Research Skills  Inquiry & Analysis  Healthy Living  Life Preparation  Creative Arts  Parent  1520 35%  6 0.1%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  11 0.3%  4 0.1%  115 2.6%  26 0.6%  8 0.2%  7 0.2%  3 0.1%  0 0.0%  782 17.9%  905 20.7%  972 22.3%  Student  48 29.3%  2 1.2%  0 0.0%  1 0.6%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  6 3.7%  0 0.0%  1 0.6%  2 1.2%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  22 13.4%  64 39%  18 11%  Teachers  261 17.0%  1 0.1%  0 0.0%  1 0.1%  4 0.3%  3 0.2%  60 3.9%  9 0.6%  3 0.2%  3 0.2%  3 0.2%  2 0.1%  315 2.5%  333 21.7%  536 34.9%  Trustee  10 32.3%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  9 29.0%  8 25.8%  4 12.9%  Parent & Teacher  144 24.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  1 0.2%  0 0.0%  22 3.7%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  117 19.5%  179 29.8%  137 22.8%  Other & Unknown  73 29.7%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  9 3.6%  3 1.2%  1 0.4%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  44 17.9%  62 25.6%  53 21.6%  TOTAL  2062 29.7%  9 0.1%  0 0.0%  2 0.0%  16 0.2%  7 0.1%  212 3.1%  38 0.5%  13 0.2%  12 0.2%  6 0.1%  2 0.0%  1289 18.6%  1551 22.4%  1720 24.8%  Respondent  Number System  GOALS NEEDING ADDITIONS  Speaking Skills  V  Listening Skills  NATURE OF RESPONDENT  Writing Skills  -  Reading Skills  p  I t should be noted again that the dominance o f Goal A over Goals B-D  i s due  lanrelv  . ... , - g e . The student group was above average In w r i t i n g s k i l l s , speaking s k i l l s , science, l o c a l h e r i t a g e , world h e r i t a g e and l i f e preparation. I t i s only i n t h i s l a s t category that the number o f respondents i s s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e to make the percentage worthy o f note. Teachers suggested more than average a d d i t i o n s to science, healthy l i v i n g and c r e a t i v e a r t s with the parent and teacher group being above average on science, healthy l i v i n g and l i f e p r e p a r a t i o n . There would seem to be s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the response p a t t e r n s o f the respondent c a t e g o r i e s . l r  ro CO  ADDITIONS BY SCHOOL DISTRICTS An attempt was made t o a n a l y z e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e recommendations and a d d i t i o n s t h a t came from each o f the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . No c o h e r e n t p a t t e r n s emerged e x c e p t t h a t t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w i t h a s t r o n g demand f o r F r e n c h or a second language were not t h e same s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w i t h a s t r o n g demand f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o r , f o r c r e a t i v e a r t s o r f o r increased l i f e preparation education. Of the 59 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s above average i n s u g g e s t i n g a d d i t i o n s t o F r e n c h o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o n l y 8 were above average i n c a l l i n g f o r b o t h . Only 4 o f t h e s e were a l s o above average i n c a l l i n g f o r t h e a d d i t i o n o f c r e a t i v e a r t s and none were a l s o above average i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n as w e l l . I t would seem t h a t t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a c r o s s t h e p r o v i n c e i n what p e o p l e want t o see added but i t i s a l s o apparent t h a t no r e g i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f any coherence e x i s t i n t h e s e r e q u e s t s .  APPENDIX I I AN ANALYSIS OF AND P U B L I C RESPONSE TO THE CORE  CURRICULUM  PART I I : ANALYSIS OF U N C L A S S I F I E D CORRESPONDENCE BY PAT BATES ( 1 9 7 7 )  131  A.  INTRODUCTION  T h i s paper seeks t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h o s e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e Core C u r r i c u l u m which c o u l d not be a n a l y s e d w i t h i n a s t a t i s t i c a l framework. I t s c o n t e n t r e f l e c t s t h e p o l i t i c a l tone o f p u b l i c r e s p o n s e , and o f f e r s a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m s u g g e s t i o n s t h a n i s p o s s i b l e with computerized r e s u l t s .  132  B.l.  P o s i t i v e Responses  The u n c l a s s i f i e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i n d i c a t e d a l a r g e r number o f r e s p o n d e n t s were s t r o n g l y i n f a v o u r of the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f CORE. About h a l f o f the members o f t h i s group f e l t t h a t a c e n t r a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d , s t a n d a r d i z e d c u r r i c u l u m was l o n g overdue, and they welcomed CORE u n r e s e r v e d l y . A few o f these p e o p l e f e l t t h a t CORE had not gone f a r enough i n s t r i p p i n g t h e p r e s e n t c u r r i c u l u m o f i t s f r i l l s , and i n removing o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t e a c h e r s t o impose t h e i r v a l u e s on s t u d e n t s or use therr as guinea p i g s i n e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i m e n t s . They e x p r e s s e d the view t h a t i t i s h i g h time t h a t c h i l d r e n were f o r c e d t o l e a r n , as c h i l d r e n lack s u f f i c i e n t s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e to learn without c o e r c i o n . ;  O t h e r members o f t h i s g e n e r a l group o f p o s i t i v e r e s p o n d e n t s had minor r e s e r v a t i o n s about CORE. They would have p r e f e r r e d t h a t the g o a l s be o u t l i n e d i n a more s p e c i f i c manner, t h a t the r e a s o n s f o r i n t r o d u c t i o n of CORE be d i s c l o s e d , and t h a t t h e methods by which the government w i l l ensure t h a t t h e s e g o a l s a r e a c h i e v e d , be d e s c r i b e d more fully. S t i l l o t h e r s wanted t o know what p r o p o r t i o n o f s c h o o l time would be spent on CORE, as they f e a r e d t h a t o t h e r c u r r i c u l u m a r e a s , l e s s c r u c i a l but n e c e s s a r y , would r e c e i v e too l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n . T h e r e was some c o n c e r n expressed t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l needs o f c h i l d r e n would be i g n o r e d , b u t i n g e n e r a l , the members o f t h i s g r o u p seem f a i r l y c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e s e needs can be met under the proposed CORE. A s m a l l number o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h i s group expressed considerable resentment about the $ 6 5 , 0 0 0 B.C.T.F. a d v e r t i s e m e n t campaign, and hoped t h a t the M i n i s t r y would c o n t i n u e i t s p l a n s d e s p i t e the B.C.T.F. P o s i t i v e r e s p o n d e n t s p r a i s e d the M i n i s t r y f o r c e n t r a l i z i n g and s t a n d a r d i z i n g c u r r i c u l u m , as moving s h o u l d become much l e s s t r a u m a t i c f o r t h o s e c h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t s ' j o b s mean t h a t the f a m i l i e s would have t o change s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s f r e q u e n t l y . The M i n i s t r y was a l s o p r a i s e d f o r t r y i n g t o e q u a l i z e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l B.C. c h i l d r e n by s t a n d a r d i z i n g the c u r r i c u l u m . Many of these p e o p l e a l s o e x p e c t t h a t i n c r e a s e d e d u c a t i o n w i l l r e d u c e unemployment, as g r a d u a t i n g s t u d e n t s w i l l have more and b e t t e r employable s k i l l s . Members o f t h i s p o s i t i v e group o f r e s p o n d e n t s tend t o f a v o u r a r e t u r n t o s t r i c t e r s c h o o l d i s c i p l i n e , upheld by the s t r a p i f n e c e s s a r y , and a r e t u r n t o s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g complete w i t h f a i l u r e f o r t h o s e c h i l d r e n who do not meet t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d s . Competition i s o f t e n viewed as h e a l t h y , and a p p r o p r i a t e as a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l a t e r l i f e .  to to  Many p o s i t i v e r e s p o n d e n t s t o CORE wished t o convey t h e i r thanks t h e M i n i s t r y f o r the o p p o r t u n i t y t o communicate t h e i r o p i n i o n s , and have some i n p u t i n t o e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e .  133  B.2.  Ambivalent  Responses  C o n f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n s about d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f CORE were r e f l e c t e d i n "ambivalent'' r e s p o n s e s . I n most o f t h e s e c a s e s , t h e respondent s u p p o r t e d a r e t u r n t o g r e a t e r emphasis on b a s i c s k i l l s , but r e j e c t e d o t h e r p a r t s o f CORE f o r such r e a s o n s a s : - CORE'S l a c k o f p r o v i s i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s r a t e s o f l e a r n i n g and c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s . - f e a r t h a t a c e n t r a l i z e d , s t a n d a r d i z e d c u r r i c u l u m cannot possibly allow f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . - f e e l i n g t h a t CORE g o a l s a r e "motherhood" g o a l s , t o argue w i t h , and t h e r e f o r e , m e a n i n g l e s s .  impossible  - f e e l i n g t h a t CORE i s m e r e l y a p o l i t i c a l manoeuvre, d e s i g n e d t o appease t h o s e who have c o m p l a i n t s about t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l system w h i l e t r y i n g n o t t o o f f e n d t h o s e who a r e s a t i s f i e d , with the r e s u l t that nothing s i g n i f i c a n t w i l l be done. - c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e s c h o o l s and t e a c h e r s a r e a l r e a d y a t t a i n i n g CORE g o a l s and more, c o m p l e t e l y t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f many p a r e n t s . - b e l i e f t h a t a l o c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d s c h o o l and c u r r i c u l u m can p r o v i d e f o r c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n a l needs more e f f e c t i v e l y than a c e n t r a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d CORE. - CORE'S f a i l u r e t o i n c l u d e t h e F i n e A r t s , F r e n c h (or any o t h e r second l a n g u a g e ) , o r any c u r r i c u l a r f o c u s on t h e m e n t a l , e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l growth o f c h i l d r e n . - f e a r o f a r e t u r n t o s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g , which many p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s c o n s i d e r e d r e g r e s s i v e , d i s c r i m i n a t o r y , and elitist. - c o n c e r n t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e b e i n g i n s u l t e d by CORE i n s i n u a t i o n s t h a t t h e b a s i c s a r e n o t b e i n g t a u g h t , and t h a t many f i n e t e a c h e r s w i l l be l o s t as a r e s u l t o f CORE. - t h e vagueness and/or r i g i d i t y " c o p - o u t " by many.  o f CORE i s seen as an  unacceptable  In g e n e r a l , " a m b i v a l e n t " r e s p o n d e n t s seemed a n x i o u s f o r r e a s s u r a n c e i n CORE such t h a t t h e i r needs might be met. The o n l y r e q u e s t t h a t seems t o t a l l y i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h CORE i s t h e one f o r r e t e n t i o n o f l o c a l c o n t r o l o f c u r r i c u l u m . However, t h i s group's r e s p o n s e s were n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y h o s t i l e i n tone, and d i d n o t i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was any g r e a t degree o f threat f e l t .  134  B.3.  Negative  Responses  In t h e n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e s , p e o p l e were s t r o n g l y opposed t o t h e CORE p r o p o s a l s , and t h e y e x h i b i t e d a r a t h e r h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e toward t h e M i n i s t r y . Many o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r which " n e g a t i v e " r e s p o n d e n t s opposed CORE a r e t h e same as t h o s e o u t l i n e d i n s e c t i o n B.3. The d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e n e g a t i v e respondents f e l t t h a t c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f CORE, (e.g. i t s vagueness, i t s f a i l u r e t o d e a l w i t h c o n t r o v e r s i a l t o p i c s such a s F r e n c h o r F i n e Arts'), were i n t e n t i o n a l d e s i g n e d t o a v o i d p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t and t o a c h i e v e a f a l s e consensus about t h e need f o r a c e n t r a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d , s t a n d a r d i z e d c u r r i c u l u m . Among t h e c o m p l a i n t s were many s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t t h e CORE b o o k l e t and parent p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d i s c u s s i o n s about CORE were a sharr> - i n t e n d e d t o make p a r e n t s t h i n k t h a t they were r e a l l y h a v i n g some i n p u t , and t h a t CORE d e c i s i o n s would be made by a m a j o r i t y o f citizens. Many o f t h e s e p a r e n t s , and some t e a c h e r s , f e l t t h a t CORE was d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e t h e e l i t e . They p r e d i c t e d t h a t s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g would be r e - i n t r o d u c e d w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t lower income groups would be b a r r e d from h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n as t h e y tend t o do more p o o r l y on e x a m i n a t i o n s . As a f u r t h e r r e s u l t , t h e b e s t j o b s , and t h e b e s t s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s would be r e s e r v e d f o r t h e c h i l d r e n o f those p a r e n t s who a l r e a d y occupy t h e s e p o s i t i o n s . A n o t h e r group o f n e g a t i v e r e s p o n d e n t s made no such p r e d i c t i o n s as t o t h e e f f e c t s o f CORE, but i t s members d e p l o r e d government i n t e r f e r e n c e i n c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t i s proposed i n CORE. They d e f i n i t e l y want l o c a l c o n t r o l o f s c h o o l programmes r e t a i n e d , no matter what k i n d s o f a s s u r a n c e s t h e M i n i s t r y makes t h a t c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l can a c h i e v e a h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d . C.  SPECIFIC CONCERNS ABOUT CORE  In t h i s s e c t i o n , s p e c i f i c c o n c e r n s n o t r e l a t e d t o any p a r t i c u l a r CORE g o a l s w i l l be o u t l i n e d . These c o n c e r n s a r e o f two t y p e s subject a r e a s t h a t many people want i n c l u d e d i n CORE, and i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o CORE by i m p l i c a t i o n . Suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n these areas are contained i n t h e b r i e f s e n t t o Mr. J . Lowther on May 17, 1977. C.l.  Second Language  (French)  A g r e a t many CORE r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t t h a t a second language was a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f a b a s i c e d u c a t i o n and should t h e r e f o r e be i n c l u d e d i n CORE. Most o f t h e s e people agreed t h a t F r e n c h was t h e o b v i o u s c h o i c e as Canada i s a b i l i n g u a l c o u n t r y .  135  A second language, i t was argued, provides greater i n s i g h t into the morphology and syntax o f our own language, broadens our c u l t u r a l experience, and f o s t e r s a l t e r n a t i v e ways of t h i n k i n g . With more and more people t r a v e l l i n g more and more frequently on business and f o r pleasure, a second language would be a d e f i n i t e asset t o communication with c i t i z e n s o f other c o u n t r i e s . I t was pointed out tnat the l e a r n i n g of a second language Is considered a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l i n almost every European education system - why should Canada or B.C. be w i l l i n g to s e t t l e f o r l e s s ? In l i g h t of the recent p o l i t i c a l unrest regarding the separation of Quebec, many c i t i z e n s committed to a united Canada f e e l that learning French i s v i t a l t o showing that commitment, even i n B.C. where the proportion of French speakers i s low. In a d d i t i o n , many people d e s i r i n g French, or at l e a s t one other language t o be included as part o f CORE b e l i e v e that knowledge o f another language i s basic to a " c u l t u r e d " existence. This aspect of the second language issue was of l e s s concern, and l e s s f r e q u e n t l y mentioned than the others. C.2.  Fine A r t s  An overwhelming number of respondents t o CORE deplored the lack of c u r r i c u l a r goals i n the Fine A r t s . They f e a r that the c r e a t i v e side o f c h i l d r e n w i l l be s t i f l e d by a return to emphasis on the b a s i c s . Some respondents expressed t h e i r concern by c i t i n g research which i n d i c a t e s that western countries educate t h e i r c h i l d r e n almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n c o g n i t i v e or " l e f t - b r a i n " a c t i v i t i e s so that the c r e a t i v e , d i v e r g e n t - t h i n k i n g " r i g h t b r a i n " i s stunted. Back to b a s i c s would only exacerbate t h i s c o n d i t i o n . D i f f e r e n c e s of opinion on the issue of i n c l u s i o n of Fine Arts subjects i n the CORE i n d i c a t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n values, and d i f f e r e n c e s i n conceptions of "what i s education?" Those who f e e l that education should be preparation f o r the job market and/or f o r higher education often express a d e s i r e f o r removal of f r i l l s such as f i n e a r t s subjects. On the other hand, those who f e e l that education should be a preparation for a l l aspects o f l i f e abhor the neglect of subjects which would help c h i l d r e n t o appreciate and employ the f u l l range of t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s . Can the i n t e r e s t s of both kinds o f people be served by CORE? S p e c i f i c suggestions f o r c u r r i c u l a r goals i n the f i n e a r t s were sent i n by many people. In music, s e v e r a l of the programmes c u r r e n t l y offered i n the public schools were recommended. These recommendations were often accompanied by a statement that "research shows that i n Hungary, those c h i l d r e n involved i n a r e g u l a r , intense music programme do b e t t e r i n a l l t h e i r other subjects as w e l l " .  136  "* ^  has c o p i e s o f t ' e . e ^ L ^ s c ^ b T ^ s u g g e s t i o n s as t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t „? . \ t h e m h e r e . Further t h e b r i e f s e n t t o Mr. °"tained i n  lather  •3.  V o c a t i o n a l and  Career  g  0  3  l  S  a  r  e  c  Education  Many p a r e n t s w i s h t o s e e c o u r s e s more s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o j o b and c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n CORE. They f e e l t h a t a l a c k o f s u c h c o u r s e s i s a f a c t o r i n t h e h i g h unemployment r a t e i n o u r province. A s t u d y o f c a r e e r s , how t o p r e s e n t y o u r s e l f i n a j o b i n t e r v i e w , how t o w r i t e a resume, and how t o f u r t h e r a c a r e e r a r e a s p e c t s o f v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t many p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s w i s h t o s e e i n c l u d e d i n CORE. Some r e s p o n d e n t s e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e f o r a r e t u r n t o s t r e a m i n g or t r a c k i n g i n the s c h o o l s . T h i s , they b e l i e v e , w i l l reduce the number o f o v e r e d u c a t e d , u n d e r e m p l o y e d p e o p l e . However, t h i s d e s i r e was e x p r e s s e d by o n l y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h o s e w a n t i n g more c o m p r e h e n s i v e c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n as a m a j o r p a r t o f l i f e p r e p a r a t i o n for their children. C.<4.  Discipline  A s i g n i f i c a n t number o f p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s want a r e t u r n t o s t r i c t e r d i s c i p l i n e i n the s c h o o l s . Lax s c h o o l d i s c i p l i n e i s viewed by many o f t h e s e p e o p l e as a major c a u s e o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y , s c h o o l v a n d a l i s m , and s o c i e t a l breakdown. Amont; t h i s g r o u p , f e e l i n g s a r e mixed as t o w h e t h e r s t r i c t e r d i s c i p l i n e s h o u l d be a c c o m p a n i e d by a r e t u r n t o u s e o f t h e s t r a p . Some b e l i e v e t h a t a c h i e v e m e n t o f CORE g o a l s w i l l be i m p o s s i b l e u n l e s s t h e t e a c h e r has t h e s t r a p w i t h w h i c h to threaten p u p i l s . In t h e c a s e o f s c h o o l d i s c i p l i n e , t h e g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n o f r e s p o n d e n t s may be r e l a t e d t o t h e i r d e s i r e f o r a r e t u r n t o s t r i c t e r methods o f c l a s s r o o m management. I t seems t h a t S u r r e y , L a n g l e y and P r i n c e G e o r g e a r e among t h e a r e a s t h a t h a v e had p r o b l e m s with, j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . P e r h a p s t h e r e c o r d s o f s c h o o l v a n d a l i s m and y o u t h p r o b l e m s i n t h e s e a r e a s c o u l d be e x a m i n e d i n o r d e r t h a t t h e M i n i s t r y m i g h t b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e pleas o f these people f o r s t r i c t e r c o n t r o l of s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . C.5. Values Teaching Among t h e r e p l i e s t o t h e W o r k i n g P a p e r on CORE, a l a r g e number r e v e a l e d concern about v a l u e s t e a c h i n g i n the s c h o o l s - something which many p a r e n t s b e l i e v e i s none o f t h e s c h o o l s ' b u s i n e s s . A distinction must be made h e r e between two d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s o f v a l u e s w h i c h a p p e a r i n t h e CORE l e t t e r s . Most o f t h e p a r e n t s c o n c e r n e d a b o u t v a l u e s s u p p o r t e d a r e t u r n t o s t r i c t e r d i s c i p l i n e i n t h e s c h o o l s , and wanted t h e i r c h i l d r e n  137  t o l e a r n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (which t h e y seemed t o equate w i t h obedience). What t h e y o b j e c t e d t o was the V a l u e s C l a r i f i c a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s t h a t a r e b e i n g used i n many c u r r i c u l u m a r e a s i n t h e public schools. P a r e n t s a r e alarmed t h a t V a l u e s E d u c a t i o n t r i e s t o r e p l a c e t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n v a l u e s w i t h Humanist V a l u e s . For instance, p a r e n t s f e e l t h a t t h i s t y p e o f c u r r i c u l u m attempts t o change n a t i o n a l i s m t o w o r l d view, i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o group dependence, a b s o l u t e s t o s i t u a t i o n e t h i c s , a u t h o r i t y t o i n d i v i d u a l autonomy, and e v e n t u a l l y , o r d e r t o chaos. S e v e r a l c i t i z e n s mentioned a number o f books, k i t s and t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s used i n t h e s c h o o l s which t h e y f e l t were e s p e c i a l l y damaging. T h e i r t i t l e s a r e mentioned i n the May 17th b r i e f s e n t t o Mr. Lowther. S u g g e s t i o n s f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h i s i s s u e are o u t l i n e d i n t h i s b r i e f , t o g e t h e r w i t h some i d e a s f o r t h e ways i n which the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s might be p r e s e n t e d t o t h e p u b l i c . Not a l l c i t i z e n s m e n t i o n i n g v a l u e s e d u c a t i o n opposed i t . Some welcomed v a l u e s e d u c a t i o n as a good method o f s e n s i t i z i n g c h i l d r e n t o o t h e r p e o p l e ' s v a l u e s , and o f h e l p i n g them t o be t o l e r a n t of d i f f e r e n c e s . A g a i n , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h i s i s s u e would p r o v i d e g r e a t e r knowledge o f how o p i n i o n i s d i v i d e d . There appears t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e d i s c i p l i n e i s s u e and v a l u e s e d u c a t i o n i n terms o f breakdown o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n . C.6.  Testing  Q u e s t i o n s about t e s t i n g were e x t r e m e l y f r e q u e n t i n the CORE responses. O p i n i o n was d i v i d e d as t o whether s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g s h o u l d be r e i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s , a l t h o u g h many p r e d i c t e d t h a t i t would be, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r o p i n i o n s . Many r e s p o n d e n t s d i d not u n d e r s t a n d t h e meaning o r i m p l i c a t i o n s o f Dr. McGeer's statement t h a t the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n would be " a s s e s s i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h a t t e a c h i n g " which appears on page one o f t h e green CORE pamphlet. Concern seemed t o a r i s e from the f a i l u r e t o e x p l a i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e between programme e v a l u a t i o n , and i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n . Among t h o s e people who advocated a r e t u r n t o s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g were t h o s e who f e l t t h a t a c h i l d s h o u l d f a i l a grade i f he/she f a i l s t o meet the r e q u i r e m e n t s as t h i s would a) e n f o r c e t h e s t a n d a r d s by i m p r e s s i n g t h e i r s e r i o u s n e s s on c h i l d r e n , and b) g i v e c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e i n f a i l i n g as p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the f a i l u r e s t h a t they a r e bound t o e x p e r i e n c e i n the a d u l t w o r l d . Most o f t h o s e who were i n f a v o u r o f s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g , however, were m a i n l y concerned w i t h o n l y t h e f i r s t r e s u l t . These people were a n x i o u s t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s s h o u l d be r a i s e d so t h a t c h i l d r e n would be b e t t e r equipped f o r the l a b o u r f o r c e , and (they c o n c l u d e d ) , more l i k e l y t o g e t a good j o b .  138  On t h e o t h e r hand, many p e o p l e s t r o n g l y opposed a r e t u r n t o s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g : t h e y f e l t t h a t i t would be a r e g r e s s i v e s t e p . A l o t o f parents a r e pleased with the progress t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n a r e making i n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d programmes, d e s i g n e d t o s u i t i n d i v i d u a l needs and geared t o i n d i v i d u a l r a t e s o f l e a r n i n g . A standardized t e s t i n g programme would make t h i s k i n d o f l e a r n i n g i m p o s s i b l e , and many r e j e c t t e s t i n g f o r t h i s reason. In a d d i t i o n , some p a r e n t s f e a r e d t h a t t e s t i n g would be used t o "weed out'' s t u d e n t s - t o p l a c e them i n g e n e r a l o r v o c a t i o n a l programmes and thus b a r them from u n i v e r s i t y , and many good j o b s . Because s t u d e n t s from h i g h e r SES f a m i l i e s tend t o do b e t t e r on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s , s e v e r a l p a r e n t s saw a r e t u r n t o t e s t i n g as d i s c r i m i n a t i o n - a way o f e n s u r i n g t h a t o n l y a few low SES s t u d e n t s c o u l d make i t i n t o h i g h e r education. T h i s method o f r e d u c i n g t h e number o f o v e r - e d u c a t e d unemployed was d e p l o r e d . Suggestions f o r f u r t h e r research i n t o t e s t i n g : a) a r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h on t e s t i n g , b) a more c a r e f u l and s y s t e m a t i c sampling o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n and c) a r e p o r t on t h e s e two t o p i c s t o g e t h e r w i t h a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e M i n i s t r y ' s p o s i t i o n , a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e May 1 7 t h b r i e f t o Mr. Jack Lowther. C.7.  Teacher  E v a l u a t i o n and P r o f e s s i o n a l Development  Many p a r e n t s a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e j o b t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e d o i n g in educating t h e i r c h i l d r e n . They f e e l t h a t under l o c a l c o n t r o l , t h e t e a c h e r may e x e r c i s e enough p r o f e s s i o n a l autonomy t o d e s i g n programmes a p p r o p r i a t e f o r h i s / h e r s t u d e n t s , and t o make a l l o w a n c e s f o r s t u d e n t s ' i n d i v i d u a l needs. These p a r e n t s f e a r t h a t many good t e a c h e r s w i l l q u i t i f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l autonomy i s t h r e a t e n e d under t h e CORE c u r r i c u l u m . T h e r e a r e , however, many p a r e n t s who a r e n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e job that teachers are doing. These p a r e n t s tend t o be t h e same ones who w h o l e h e a r t e d l y s u p p o r t a r e t u r n t o b a s i c s , complete w i t h s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g and r i g i d d i s c i p l i n e . Poor s t u d e n t performance, b o t h academic and s o c i a l , i s o f t e n blamed on poor t e a c h i n g by t h e s e p a r e n t s . They want t o see more r i g o r o u s e v a l u a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s , and b e t t e r t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n programmes a s a means o f c o r r e c t i n g t h e s e problems. R e s e a r c h i n t o b o t h o f t h e s e a r e a s i s suggested and o u t l i n e d i n the May 17th b r i e f . To c l a r i f y p u b l i c o p i n i o n , and t o e v a l u a t e t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n and t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a r e i t s aims. C.8.  C o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h e Disadvantaged  W i t h i n t h e g r o u p o f r e s p o n d e n t s who e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n about t h e l a c k o f p r o v i s i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n CORE were s e v e r a l people who wanted a s s u r a n c e from t h e M i n i s t r y t h a t p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d would be made.  parents  139  Spokesmen f o r t h e handicapped, t h e b l i n d , t h e d e a f , immigrants, and v i c t i m s o f sexism and o t h e r forms o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n wrote t o implore t h e M i n i s t r y n o t t o n e g l e c t t h e s e p e o p l e . A l t h o u g h many o f t h e s e people were c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e M i n i s t r y would make a l l o w a n c e s f o r t h e i r needs, they wanted a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e methods by which CORE would be a l t e r e d f o r them, and o f how they would be e v a l u a t e d . Perhaps r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the e x e c u t i v e o f i n s t i t u t i o n s such o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e g e n e r a l t h a t those w i t h s p e c i a l needs w i l l  D. D.l.  t h e M i n i s t r y have a l r e a d y met w i t h as J e r i c h o . However, members o f p u b l i c seem i n t e r e s t e d i n knowing be p r o v i d e d f o r .  REACTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS ABOUT SPECIFIC CORE GOALS Goals  i n Language  Skills  By f a r t h e g r e a t e s t number o f r e s p o n s e s which i n c l u d e d s u g g e s t i o n s about s p e c i f i c c u r r i c u l u m g o a l s were concerned w i t h Language S k i l l s . Of those p e o p l e who mentioned language s k i l l s , most wanted an even g r e a t e r eniphais p l a c e d on t h e s e t h r o u g h o u t a l l l e v e l s o f s c h o o l i n g . Among t h e t o p i c s t h a t t h e y wanted i n c l u d e d i n t h i s g r e a t e r emphasis were grammar, s p e l l i n g and penmanship. These r e q u e s t s came most o f t e n from t h e people who s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t CORE. A m b i v a l e n t r e s p o n d e n t s ' r e q u e s t s were i n a r e a s n o t q u i t e so traditional. A r t , music and drama were seen by many o f t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s as communications media; s k i l l s i n t h e s e areas a r e a l s o n e c e s s a r y and s h o u l d be made p a r t o f CORE. V i s u a l and a u d i o l i t e r a c y were c o n s i d e r e d j u s t as i m p o r t a n t as t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a c y by many. S k i l l s o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n were regarded by many as v i t a l t o a b a s i c e d u c a t i o n and t o mental and e m o t i o n a l h e a l t h . They f e l t t h a t communication w i t h peers s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f language s k i l l s ; not a l l o f t h e d i a l o g u e s h o u l d t a k e p l a c e between t h e t e a c h e r and pupils. More emphasis on l i s t e n i n g and s p e a k i n g s k i l l s would b e d e s i r a b l e . One p a r e n t commented" I f s p e a k i n g and l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s a r e so i m p o r t a n t , then why have speech t h e r a p i s t s been c u t ? " A few p a r e n t s r e q u e s t e d t h a t t e s t s f o r h e a r i n g impairment be made i n grade one. As i n d i c a t e d i n t h e p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s o f CORE s t a t i s t i c s , most o f t h e recommendations i n t h e Language G o a l s and i n o t h e r g o a l s were not g r a d e - s p e c i f i c . The a d d i t i o n s r e q u e s t e d by p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s were t o be a p p l i e d t o e v e r y g r a d e . The a d d i t i o n s o u t l i n e d above were t h e ones most f r e q u e n t l y suggested i n t h e CORE l e t t e r s . F o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f l e s s f r e q u e n t l y made, b u t s t i l l common, s u g g e s t i o n s .  D.2.  Measurement and  Computation  There was not n e a r l y t h e c o n c e r n e x p r e s s e d about a r i t h m e t i c s k i l l s t h a t t h e r e was about language s k i l l s . Those who d i d mention measurement and computation g o a l s most o f t e n wanted g r e a t e r emphasis p l a c e d on them. The most common s u g g e s t i o n was t h a t the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n t a b l e s s h o u l d be memorized and d r i l l e d regularly. Other included:  suggestions r e l a t e d  t o measurement and  computation  skills  - throw out t h e "new math" and b r i n g back " a r i t h m e t i c f a c t s . ' ' Some c o n s i d e r t h a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f mathematical principles has been emphasized t o t h e p o i n t where s i m p l e computation s k i l l s have been s a c r i f i c e d . - make s u r e t h a t t h e m e t r i c system i s t a u g h t  at a l l l e v e l s .  - s t u d e n t s s h o u l d l e a r n b a s i c b u s i n e s s mathematics, consumer mathematics, how t o budget and how t o b a l a n c e a chequebook. - i n t e a c h i n g mathematics t o young c h i l d r e n , c o n c r e t e m a n i p u l a t o r y e x p e r i e n c e s s h o u l d precede a b s t r a c t c o m p u t a t i o n . ( A c c o r d i n g t o P i a g e t and o t h e r s , s m a l l c h i l d r e n a r e i n c a p a b l e of o p e r a t i n g i n c o m p l e t e l y a b s t r a c t t e r m s ) . - more emphasis s h o u l d be p l a c e d on u n d e r s t a n d i n g m a t e r i a l s from t h e mass media. - r o t e memorization  and  interpreting  e x e r c i s e s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f CORE.  - e s s a y w r i t i n g c l a s s e s s h o u l d t e a c h s k i l l s o f s y n t h e s i s as w e l l as those o f a n a l y s i s , so t h a t d i v e r g e n t as w e l l as convergent t h i n k i n g might be f o s t e r e d . - speed r e a d i n g s h o u l d be t a u g h t ( i n l i g h t o f t h e enormous masses of p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s w i t h which s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be f a m i l i a r . ) - s e x i s m s h o u l d be wiped out f r o m t h e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s p r e s e n t e d to s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . - t e a c h e r s should always c o r r e c t t h e s t u d e n t s ' work. - language g o a l s s h o u l d be c o r r e l a t e d and i n t e g r a t e d . - grammar, s p e l l i n g and p u n c t u a t i o n s h o u l d be marked i n t h e w r i t t e n work o f a l l c o u r s e s . - t h e p h o n e t i c approach t o r e a d i n g s h o u l d be employed i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s , combined w i t h memorization o f a b a s i c s i g h t vocabulary.  14.1  - r e a d i n g f o r p l e a s u r e s h o u l d be encouraged as t h e r e i s t o o much dependence on t e l e v i s i o n f o r e n t e r t a i n m e n t . In s e v e r a l l e t t e r s , t h e r e were o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e CORE l e a r n i n g outcomes which mentioned propaganda. Most respondents mentioning t h i s i s s u e agreed t h a t s t u d e n t s should l e a r n t o r e c o g n i z e i n t e n t o r b i a s i n a p i e c e o f w r i t i n g or a speech, however t h e word ''propaganda'' c a u s e s some c o n c e r n , i . e . who i s t o say what i s propaganda and what i s not? D.3.  Science  Goals  T h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e response from s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s and concerned p a r e n t s about t h e u n a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h e CORE s c i e n c e g o a l s . Most r e s p o n d e n t s m e n t i o n i n g s c i e n c e f e l t t h a t t h e CORE g o a l s were i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r our t e c h n o l o g i c a l and ecology-minded age. The most common s u g g e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g s c i e n c e was t h a t e c o l o g y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e environment - s h o u l d be emphasized from k i n d e r g a r t e n t o grade t w e l v e , and s h o u l d be t h e b a s i s f o r most s c i e n c e studies. Course o u t l i n e s f o r a l l grade l e v e l s were s e n t i n by s e v e r a l s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s and some u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s . I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e C u r r i c u l u m Department has c o p i e s o f t h e s e so I w i l l n o t d e s c r i b e them here. A g a i n , t h e main c o m p l a i n t s were t h a t t h e s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m o u t l i n e d i n CORE was much t o o narrow and had an i n a p p r o p r i a t e ''factual knowledge" f o c u s . Hundreds o f r e s p o n s e s t o t h e CORE b o o k l e t c o n t a i n e d demands t h a t C r e a t i o n T h e o r y be g i v e n e q u a l time and emphasis t o t h e Theory o f E v o l u t i o n . S e v e r a l l e t t e r s c o n t a i n e d a l i s t o f f i f t e e n f a c t s which s t a t e t h e inadequacy o f t h e t h e o r y o f e v o l u t i o n t o e x p l a i n c e r t a i n phenomena. The c r e a t i o n i s t s i n s i s t t h a t s c h o o l c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d w i t h both t h e o r i e s and a l l o w e d t o draw t h e i r own c o n c l u s i o n s . T h i s i s o b v i o u s l y an o r g a n i z e d group o f p e o p l e . Their l e t t e r s contained many r e f e r e n c e s t o c e r t a i n books p u b l i s h e d by s c i e n t i f i c c r e a t i o n i s t s , and many pamphlets were s e n t a l o n g t o t h e M i n i s t r y . D.H.  Cultural  and P h y s i c a l H e r i t a g e  A wide range o f s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a d d i t i o n s o r changes o f emphasis i n t h e CORE S o c i a l S t u d i e s G o a l s was s u b m i t t e d t o t h e M i n i s t r y . The most common p o i n t o f debate c e n t e r e d around t h e amount o f emphasis t h a t Canadian S t u d i e s s h o u l d r e c e i v e . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e r e s p o n s e s were i n f a v o u r o f more emphasis. Many r e s p o n d e n t s b e l i e v e d t h a t a s t u d y o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s s h o u l d be a n e c e s s a r y component o f a S o c i a l S t u d i e s Core, s i n c e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s has so much i n f l u e n c e on Canadian h i s t o r y and development. An e a r l i e r grade l e v e l f o r t h e s e s u b j e c t s was recommended. The second most common a d d i t i o n suggested f o r t h e CORE S o c i a l S t u d i e s G o a l s was more emphasis on c u r r e n t e v e n t s / w o r l d a f f a i r s . Much  142  c o n c e r n was e x p r e s s e d t h a t s t u d e n t s d i d n o t have s u f f i c i e n t knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n t h e s e a r e a s w i t h which t o become responsible voters. C i v i c s , or t h e s t u d y o f government, law, and t h e r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f c i t i z e n s was an a r e a t h a t a g r e a t many r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t 6hould r e c e i v e more emphasis. ( S u g g e s t i o n s f o r a Canadian and/or B r i t i s h Columbian Know Your Government c o u r s e f o r s t u d e n t s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e May 1 7 t h b r i e f t o Mr. Jack L o w t h e r ) . In a d d i t i o n , a few p a r e n t s wanted "the w o r k i n g s o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t system" t a u g h t i n t h e p u b l i c schools. Much c o n c e r n about t h e p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m was e x p r e s s e d . Some p a r e n t s f e e l t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d have no o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o put f o r w a r d t h e i r p o l i t i c a l b i a s e s i n class. They want p o l i t i c s removed from t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m . O t h e r p a r e n t s i n s i s t t h a t " t h e r e i s no such t h i n g " a s a n o n - p o l i t i c a l framework i n which t o d i s c u s s h i s t o r y o r c u r r e n t e v e n t s . The i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i n t h e i r eyes i s t o d i s c u s s a l t e r n a t i v e frameworks. The l a t t e r group a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e " g r e a t man" p o r t r a y a l o f h i s t o r y i s m i s l e a d i n g and i n c o r r e c t . D.5.  Goal i n Research, Solving  Study  Skills,  I n q u i r y , A n a l y s i s and Problem  Most r e s p o n d e n t s were v e r y s t r o n g l y i n f a v o u r o f emphasis b e i n g p l a c e d on t h e s e g o a l s , as t h e s e a r e " l e a r n i n g t o l e a r n " components. These s k i l l s a r e i n v a l u a b l e t o o l 6 , and s h o u l d be c o n s t a n t l y r e i n f o r c e d . . Many p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s wanted t o see more a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o t h e various information r e t r i e v a l s k i l l s at a l l levels. S e v e r a l l e t t e r s were s u b m i t t e d r e q u e s t i n g t h a t f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n be p a i d t o r i g h t b r a i n a c t i v i t i e s i n g o a l s K and L . Not j u s t c o n v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g o r a n a l y t i c a l s k i l l s s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d ; d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g or s y n t h e s i s must r e c e i v e emphasis a s w e l l . Some o f t h e l e t t e r s c o n t a i n e d c o p i e s o f a r t i c l e s which c i t e r e s e a r c h i n R i g h t B r a i n A c t i v i t i e s and Powers. The M i n i s t r y might w i s h t h a t r e v i e w o f s u c h r e s e a r c h be done before curriculum goals are a l t e r e d . Some r e s p o n d e n t s p o i n t e d o u t c e r t a i n s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e l e a r n i n g outcomes on problem s o l v i n g . G o a l s L4-6 r e v e a l a p h i l o s o p h y o f problem s o l v i n g which i n c l u d e s assumptions such as "problems a r e s o l u b l e " , and i g n o r e s such f a c t s as " s o l v i n g one group's problem o f t e n c r e a t e s problems f o r a n o t h e r group". These r e s p o n d e n t s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p h i l o s o p h y b e h i n d problem s o l v i n g g o a l s be re-examined b e f o r e t h e g o a l s a r e f i n a l i z e d . O t h e r s u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e C u l t u r a l and P h y s i c a l H e r i t a g e G o a l s a r e as follows: - do n o t g l o r i f y war i n p o r t r a y a l o f h i s t o r y - h e l p prepare c r i t i c a l  consumers, r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n s  through  143  t r a i n i n g i n b u d g e t i n g , consumer r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , b a s i c economics and law. (These do n o t r e a l l y " f i t " c u l t u r a l and p h y s i c a l h e r i t a g e g o a l s , but might be more a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n c l u d e d as " l i f e p r e p a r a t i o n " g o a l s suggested i n t h e p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s o f CORE.) - add more f i e l d t r i p s t o t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m , as c h i l d r e n l e a r n b e t t e r by c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e than t h e y do by a b s t r a c t methods. - remove sexism from the S.S. c u r r i c u l u m ; d i s c u s s the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f s i g n i f i c a n t women t o Canadian development. - members o f the S.P.C.A. want t h e i r s o c i e t y mentioned as one o f the l o c a l s e r v i c e s t o be s t u d i e d under l e a r n i n g outcome H.8. T h i s was an o r g a n i z e d g r o u p . D.6.  Healthful Living  Goals  A s i g n i f i c a n t number o f r e s p o n d e n t s t o CORE, i n c l u d i n g many p h y s i c i a n s , wish t o see a g r e a t e r emphasis p l a c e d on p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i n B.C. s c h o o l s . As Canada's p o p u l a t i o n i s one of the l e a s t f i t i n the w e s t e r n w o r l d ( a c c o r d i n g t o r e s e a r c h c i t e d by r e s p o n d e n t s ) , p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i n our s c h o o l s s h o u l d be a t o p p r i o r i t y . Physical education s h o u l d be a r e q u i r e d s u b j e c t i n e v e r y grade, i n e v e r y s e m e s t e r . S u p p o r t e r s o f a comprehensive p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s programme i n s c h o o l s recommend t h a t c a l i s t h e n i c s , p e r s o n a l i z e d f i t n e s s , and s i n g l e - p e r s o n s p o r t s r e c e i v e more emphasis than o r g a n i z e d or team s p o r t s . This w i l l h e l p to develop a h a b i t of concern f o r p h y s i c a l h e a l t h i n students. P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t h e r than c o m p e t i t i o n s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d , as p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s s h o u l d n o t be o n l y f o r the a t h l e t i c . Instruction in the p r o d u c t i v e use o f l e i s u r e time was a l s o recommended v e r y f r e q u e n t l y i n CORE l e t t e r s . The absence o f g o a l s r e l a t e d t o t h e mental and e m o t i o n a l h e a l t h of s t u d e n t s was d e p l o r e d by many c i t i z e n s . These people b e l i e v e t h a t developing a p o s i t i v e s e l f concept i n c h i l d r e n i s a b s o l u t e l y c r u c i a l b o t h t o t h e i r e d u c a t i o n , and t o t h e i r a b i l i t y t o cope i n a d u l t l i f e . P a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s and c i t i z e n s ' groups a l l had s u g g e s t i o n s f o r l e a r n i n g outcomes r e l a t e d t o f o s t e r i n g mental and e m o t i o n a l h e a l t h g o a l s . The b e s t o f t h e s e a r e c o n t a i n e d as a p p e n d i c e s i n t h e May 17th b r i e f . They c o n t a i n such s u g g e s t i o n s as: -  i n c l u d e sex e d u c a t i o n from K-12. c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s o f s e l f . d e v e l o p awareness o f c h o i c e s o f how to e x p r e s s emotion. i d e n t i f y and t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r own t h o u g h t s , f e e l i n g s and a c t i o n s .  and  many more  144  E.  SUMMARY  In most a s p e c t s , t h e c o n t e n t o f t h i s r e p o r t a g r e e s w i t h The P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s o f P u b l i c Response t o t h e Core C u r r i c u l u m . The a r e a s o f c o n c e r n r e f l e c t e d i n CORE l e t t e r s a r e g e n e r a l l y t h e same i n degree and p r o p o r t i o n as t h o s e i d e n t i f i e d by s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s .  APPENDIX I I I GUIDE TO THE CORE CURRICULUM YEAR ONE TO S I X BY PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA (1977)  146  Goal LEARNING  A—To  Develop the Skills of Reading SUBJECTS  OUTCOMES M a j o r A r e a * of L e a r n i n g  During the Primary should learn A.  Years  1 a basic sight vocabulary;  students  Other A r e a s of Development and Maintenance  Language Arts, Y e a n 1-3 Reference—Language Arts, Levels ( 1 9 6 8 ) .  Social Studies, Year* 1-3 Primary  N O T E S — 1 . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n is A . 2 basic word attack skills such as directed to prescribed sections in the phonics and syllabication; guide on A . 3 to read a short passage and iden(a) basic instructional r e a d i n g — tify the main idea; word attack skills (configuraA . 4 to read and understand material tion, content clues, structural written for children; analysis and phonetic analysis and synthesis); A . 5 to follow simple written direc(b) extension and recreational readtions; ing— A . 6 and in addition students should appreciation of literature; have a wide variety of reading appreciation of poetry; experiences. (c) reading in the content fields. 2 . Language arts program is under revision. Particular references will be made to core goals and learning outcomes in the new guide.  Reference—Elementary Social Studies, Years 1-7  ( 1 9 7 4 ) .  Science, Yean 1—3 Reference—Elementary Science, Guide ( 1 9 7 7 ) .  Interim  Mathematics, Yean 1—3 Reference—Mathematics, Years 1-12 (1977). N O T E S — 1 . Each of the content fields has a specialized vocabulary which teachers should ensure that students acquire— see mathematics guide, pp, 1 0 - 1 2 ; teacher guides for prescribed materials in social studies and science suggest vocabulary suitable for primary students. 2 . The student activities outlined in prescribed materials for mathematics and science require that students are taught how to follow simple written directions. 3 . Reading materials prescribed for Year 3 science and social studies should be used for reading skill development and maintenance.  During the Intermediate Years students Language A r t i , Yeen 4 - 7 Social Studies, Yean 4—7 should learn Reference—A Guide to Teaching the Reference—Elementary Social Studies, Years A . 7 to use context clues to expand English Language Arts in the Intermedi- 1-7 ( 1 9 7 4 ) . ate Years ( 1 9 6 8 ) . their basic sight vocabulary; Science, Yean 4—7 N O T E S — 1 . Particular attention is d i A . 8 a reading vocabulary specific to R e f e r e n c e — E l e m e n t a r y Science, Interim the subject areas being studied; rected to prescribed sections in the guide Guide ( 1 9 7 7 ) . on A . 9 to read a short passage and iden(a) basic instructional reading— Mathematics, Yean 4 - 7 tify the main idea and supportword attack skills (configuraing details; Reference—Mathematics, Years 1-12 ( 1 9 7 7 ) . tion, content clues, structural N O T E S — E a c h of the content fields has a A . to to read at the level of material analysis and phonetic analysts specialized vocabulary which teachers should and synthesis); written for the newspaper; (b) extension and recreational read- ensure that students acquire— A . 1 1 to read independently for inforing— see mathematics guide, pp. 1 4 - 1 9 . (years mation and pleasure; appreciation of literature; 4 - 6 ) ; pp. 2 2 - 2 6 (year 7 ) ; A . 1 2 to follow a scries of simple writappreciation of poetry; see science guide, pp. 5 - 9 ; ten directions. (c) reading in the content Melds. see student materials prescribed for inter2 . Language arts program is under remediate science and social studies. vision. Particular references will be 2 . Teachers must ensure that students acmade to core goals and learning out quire the reading skills appropriate to content comes in the new guide. field activities— solving word problems in mathematics; following activity instructions in science; doing research projects in social studies and science.  147  Go»l B — T o Develop Hie Skills of Writing SUBJECTS  L E A R N I N G OUTCOMES Ma>or A i m of Learning  Dunne the Primary Years students 1 Language Arts, Yean 1-3 should learn B B. B. B.  B.  I  Reference— Language  j  Other Area* of Development and Mauiimancc  Social Studies. Years 1-3 A rts,  Primary I  Reference— Elementary  Socio!  Studies  Years  J to prin: and write neatly and\ Levels (1968). ' 1-7 ( 1 9 7 4 ) . legibi\. N O T E S — 1 . Particular attention is diScience. Years 1-3 rected to prescribed sections in the guide 2 a writing vocabulary'; on Reference— Elementary Science huerirr. 3 io write simple sentences. Guide (1977) (a) handwriting. 4 basic skills in the mechanics of (b) written composition: Mathematics, Years 1—3 writing such as letter formation, ic) spelling. spelling, capitalization, punctuReference—Moirirrrmiicj. Yean i — f 1977 . 2. Language ans program is under ation . . revision. Panicular references will be N O T E * — 1 . Teachers should encourage nea5 and in addition students should made to core goals and teaming outcomes and legible written work in all subject areas have a variety of experiences in the new puide. 2. Teacher guides for prescribed materials m such as writing stories, reports, mathematics, social studies, and science supers; letters. . . . t vocabulary suitable for primary students 3. To meet the requirements for written w-ori. in social studies and science— social studies guide, pp. 4 - 9 science guide. Goal B. Learning Outcome 2 (p. 8); it is necessary students be taught the correct | techniques of report writing.  During the Intermediate Years students Language Arts. Years 4—7 should learn B. 6 to write quickly while retaining neatness, accuracy, and legibility: B 7 a writing vocabulary specific to the subjects being studied. B. 8 to generate ideas from experience and information: B. 9 to express thoughts in written form. B. 10 to write well-organized and logical paragraphs  Reference— A Guide  English  ate Years  Language  (196Sj  Arti  | Social Studies. Years 4—7  to Teaching  in the  the '  Intermedi-  Reference— Elementary  1-7 (1974).  Social  Studies.  Years  Science. Years A—7 N O T E S — 1 . Particular attention is directed to prescribed sections in the guide Reference— Elementary Science. Interirr. on Guide i 1977). (a) the composition process, Mathematics. Years 4—7 (bi grammar: Reference— Mathematics, Years J-J2 <1977i ic) spelling. N O T E S — 1 . Teachers should encourage neat id) handwriting 2. Language arts program is under re- and legible written work in all subjeci areas. 2. Each of the content fields has a specialized vision. Particular references will be made to core goals and learning outcomes vocabulary- Teacher judgment is required in in the new guide. deciding upon what technical vocabulary students need to be able to write a: each grade level. 3. To meet the requirements for written work in social studies and science— social studies guide, pp. 4-9. science guide. Goal B. Learning Outcome (p. 8): it is necessary students be taught toe correc: techniques of report writing.  148  Goal C — T o Develop Hie Skills of Listening LEARNING  SUBJECTS  OUTCOMES M a j o r A r e a s of L e a r n i n t  During the Primary should learn  Years  Other A r e a s of Development and Maintenance  students Language Arts, Y e a n 1-3 Reference— Language  C. 1 to listen to a short presentation  Levels  Mathematics, Yean 1-3  Arts,  Primary  Reference— Mathematics,  (1968).  Years  1-12  N O T E S — 1 . Particular attention is di- Physical Education, Yean 1-3 and recognize the main idea; Reference— Elementary Physical rected to prescribed sections in the guide C. 2 to follow simple oral directions; (a) where the need to teach the skill Years 1-7 ( 1 9 7 5 ) . C. 3 to distinguish between the sounds of listening is emphasized (pp. of the letters; Science, Yean 1—3  (1977).  Education  1 5 - 1 7 ) ;  C. 4 and in addition students should Reference— Elementary Science, Interim (b) where the appreciation of literahave a variety of experiences (1977). ture and appreciation of poetry Guide such as listening to stories, is outlined (pp. 3 9 - 4 8 ) . Social Studies, Y e a n 1-3 choral speech, live plays, choral 2. Language arts program is under remusic, instrumental music. . . . vision. Reference— Elementary Social Studies Years Particular references will be made to core goals and learning out- 1-7 ( 1 9 7 4 ) . comes in the new guide. N O T E — T h e teacher should use opportunities that exist in the content fields for developing Music, Years 1-3 and reinforcing the skills of listening. The folReferences— Elementary Music Guide, lowing are illustrations o n l y — 1971. Skill Development and Related oral drill in number facts in mathematics; Activities In Music Chart. following oral directions in physical education and science activities; N O T E S — 1 . See music guide section on listening for the main ideas in media prelistening. sentations in social studies. 2. The chart indicates listening activities in music suitable for primary students. During the Intermediate dents should learn  Years  stu-  Language Arts, Y e a n 4—7  Reference— A Guide to Teaching the C. 5 to listen to a short presentation, English Language Arts in the Intermediate Years (1968). recognizing the main idea and supporting details; N O T E S — I . Particular attention is diC. 6 to follow a series of oral direc- rected to prescribed sections in the guide on tions. (a) listening; ( 6 ) appreciation of literature and appreciation of poetry. 2. Language arts program is under revision. Particular references will be made to core goals and learning outcomes in the new guide.  Art, Yean 4 - 7 Reference— Elementary reprint).  School  Art  (1972  Mathematics, Y e a n 4—7 Reference— Mathematics.  Years  1-12  Physical Education, Y e a n 4 - 7 Reference— Elementary Physical Years  1-7  (1977).  Education,  (1975).  Social Studies, Y e e n 4 - 7 Reference— Elementary 1-7  Social  Studies,  Years  ( 1 9 7 4 ) .  N O T E — T h e teacher should use opportunities that exist in the content fields for developing and reinforcing the skills of listening. The following are illustrations o n l y — oral drill in number facts in mathematics; following oral directions in art, physical education, and science activities; listening for the main ideas in media presentations in social studies.  149  Goal D — T o Develop the Skills of Speaking LEARNING  SUBJECTS  OUTCOMES M a j o r A r e a s of L e a r n i n g  During the Primary should learn  Years  D. 1 to express c o m p l e t e orally;  students  D. 2 t o speak clearly, with expression; D. 3 a larger speaking vocabulary: D. 4 and in addition students should have a variety of speaking e x periences such as storytelling, choral s p e a k i n g , r o l e playing . . . During the Intermediate Years students should learn D. 5 to participate effectively i n group discussions;  Language A m 1-3 Reference— Language  thoughts  Other Areas of Development and Maintenance  Lei els  Arts.  Primary  (1968).  guide, p p . 2 5 - 3 0 . Some suggestions f o r speech development may be found i n the appendix t o the guide. In particular, see examples suitable for choral speaking o n p p . 2 0 5 - 2 0 7 . NOTE—See  Language Artt 4 - 7 Reference— A Guide to Teaching the English Language Arts in ihe Intermediate  Years  (1968).  N O T E S ! . Students at the primary level should be given opportunities to practise effective speaking skills i n all subject areas. 2. The content fields at the primary level provide ample opportunity f o r the development o f speaking skills. Teachers should encourage students lo use effective speaking techniques in oral reporting i n such subjects as health, science, and social studies.  Health 4 - 7 Reference— Human Life  Sciences.  Years 1-7  (1971).  Music 4 - 7 ' N O T E S — 1 . Teachers are referred speD. 6 to develop appropriate qualities cifically t o the s e c t i o n o f the guide Reference— Elementary Music ( 1 9 7 1 ) of voice i n terms o f inflection. headed "Oral Expression" ( p p . 1 0 - 1 2 ) . volume, enunciation, and p r o Science: 4 - 7 2. The section. "Speaking and Listennounciation; ing Skills and Experiences" ( p p . 1 3 - 4 3 ) Reference— Elementary Science. Interim D. 7 a speaking vocabulary specific provides the teacher with detailed sug- Guide ( 1 9 7 7 ) . gestions. t o the subject areas being Social Studies 4 - 7 3. Language arts program is under restudied. Reference— Elementary Social Studies Years vision. Particular references w i l l be made t o core goals and learning o u t - / - 7 < 1 9 7 4 ) . comes i n Ihe new guide. N O T E S — 1 . T h e content fields at t h e intermediate level provide ample opportunity f o r the development o f s p e a k i n g s k i l l s , teachers should encourage students t o use effective speaking techniques i n oral reporting i n such subject areas as health, science, and social studies. 2. The music program should be used to develop appropriate qualities o f diction, intonat i o n , volume. . . .  150  Goaf E — T o Understand Our Number System and Use It in Practical Situations  L E A R N I N G  O U T C O M E S  Other Area* of Development and Marnierum  Major Arem* of l u n u n i  Dunnp tbe Primary should lean.  Yean students I Mathematics 1—3  E 1 the concept of numbers through relating number* symbols to real object!: E. 2 to read, understand place value, and write numerals to 999. E. 3 to recognize and use such symbols as those associated with addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, our tnoncj system, the concepts of equality and inequality . . .; E 4 to solve addition and subtraction examples of two and three digit numbers. E 5 to solve multiplication and division example: for products up to 50. E- 6 to make change accurately using coins and small bilis.  ica-T.  j  Reference— Mathematics,  Science 1-3 Yean  1-12  Reference—Elemenia  ry  Science,  interim  I (19-7,. Guide ( 1977j. j N o T t — I n the guide, pp. 10-12, the Social Studies 1-3 expectations are clear,> outlined Core Reference— Elementary Social Siudiey Yean ! karninp for the priman mathematics | program are indicated specifically (see 1-7 (1974). j note, p. 9 of the guide). N O T E — T h e content of the science program and. to a lesser degTec. the social uudm program, require an understand in; and, abilu> to use the number system Teachers, therefore, should develop and reinforce appropriate num ber skills in teaching the processes of classifying, quantifying, communicating, and interpreting dau  During tbe Intermediate Years stu- I Mathematics 4-7 dents should Reference— Mathematics. Years 1-12 E. 7 the value represented by each digit (1977). N O T E — I n the guide, pp. 14-19 (for in a multi-digit numeral: E. 8 to identify multiples and factors years 4-4) and pp. 22-26 (for year 7), the expectations are clearly outlined. of a number. Core learnings for the intermediate E 9 to perform, with accuracy and a , mathematics program are indicated spereasonable degree of speed, the cifically {see note, p. 9 of the guide). operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division with rational Dumbers: E 10 to perform, in the correct order. a calculation involving more than one operation (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) ; E. 11 to write equivalent rational numbers in decimal, fraction, and per cent numeral form; E, 12 to check the accuracy of tbeir result*.  Science 4-7 Reference—Elementary  Guide  Science.  Interim  (1977).  Social Studies 4-7 Reference— Eiementan  Social  Studies,  Years  1-7 ( 1974). N O T I — T h e content of the science program and. to a lesser degree, the social studies program, require an understanding and ability to use the number system. Teachers, therefore, should develop and reinforce appropriate number skills in teaching the processes of classifying, quantifying, communicating, and interpreting data.  151  Goal F — T o Develop Knowledge of the Basic Principles and Skills of Measurement and of Relationships Involving Space and Shape LEARNING  SUBJECTS  OUTCOMES M a j o r A r e a s of L e a r n i n g  Other Areas of Development and Maintenance  During the Primary Years students Mathematics 1—3 Science 1—3 should learn Reference— Mathematics, Years 1-12 Reference— Elementary Science, Interim Guide (1977). F. I to use the common units of mea- ( 1977). surement f o r length (cm. m, N O T E — I n the guide, pp. 10-12, the km), capacity (ml, L), mass expectations are clearly outlined. Core Social Studies 1-3 (g, kg), temperature (C), and learnings are indicated specifically (see Reference— Elementary Social Studies, Years 1-7 (1974). time; note. p. 9 of the guide). ,F. 2 to recognize plane and solid geoNOTE—Students are required to apply their metric shapes such as the r e c knowledge of measurement in the primary tangle, triangle, cube, sphere, science and social studies programs— cylinder, cone, pyramid. student activities in the science program; map skills in the social studies program. During the Intermediate Years students Mathematics 4 - 7 should learn Reference— Mathematics, Years 1-12 F. 3 to use the common units of area, (1977). volume, and angular measure; N O T E — I n the guide, pp. 14-19 (for F. 4 to estimate length, area, capacity, years 4-6) and pp. 22-26 (for year 7), the expectations are clearly indicated. mass, temperature, and time; Core learnings are indicated specifically F. 5 to describe accurately parallel and (see note p. 9 of the guide). perpendicular lines, triangles, quadrilaterals, circles . . .; F. 6 the concept of congruency for segments and angles.  Science 4—7 Reference— Elementary Guide (1977).  Science,  Interim  Social Studies 4 - 7 Reference— Elementary  Social  Studies,  Years  1-7 (1974). NOTE—Students are required t o apply their knowledge o f measurement in the intermediate science and social studies programs— student activities in the science program; map skills in the social studies program.  152  Goal G—To Develop Knowledge of Science ai Related to Everyday Life SUBJECTS  LEARNING OUTCOMES Major Areat or  Learning  During the Primary Years students Sciance 1-3 should learn Reference—Elementary Science, InG. I about the changes which occur terim Guide ( 1977). during the seasonal cycle; NOTE—Recommended teaching proG. 2 that living things require care, in- grams are found in the guide, pp. 11-21. cluding food, water, and an appropriate environment; G. 3 to identify common animals and plants.  Other Areas  of  Development and Maintenance  Social Srudias 1-3 Reference—Elementary 1-7 (1974). Languaoa Arts 1-3 Reference—Language Levels (1968).  Social Studies. Years  Arts,  Primary  HaaMi 1-3 Reference—Human (1971).  Life Sciences, Years 1-7  Art 1-3 Reference—Elementary School Art (1972 Reprint). N O T E S — 1 . Integration of subject areas at the primary level is a general practice. Therefore, teachers should capitalize on opportunities as they arise in language arts, social studies, art, and health to teach the content outlined in these learning outcomes. 2. Outdoor activities can be particularly useful in reinforcing these outcomes. During the Intermediate Years students Sciatica 4—7 should learn Reference—Elementary Science, InG. 4 the basic physical and chemical terim Guide ( 1977). properties of matter, such as NOTE—Recommended teaching proheavy and light, hot and cold, grams are found in the guide, pp. 11-21. smell, taste, solid, liquid, or gas; G. 5 to use simple machines such as the Ie\er. wheel and axle, the inclined plane . . .; G. 6 the basic principles of such cycles as the life cycles of plants and animals, water cycle, food chain G. 7 simple classifications of animals such as mammals, fish, and reptiles.  The major responsibility for the development of knowledge of science as relate to everyday life falls into the realm of the science program. Teachers are encouraged to use opportunities as they arise in other content fields to reinforce this knowledge.  153  Goal H—To Develop Knowledge and Understanding of the Roles, Responsibilities, and Rights of the Individual in Society S U B J E C T S  LEARNING  O U T C O M E S  Major Areas of Learning During the Primary should learn  Years students Social Studies 1-3  H. I to co-operate with others; H  Other Areas of Development and Maintenance  Reference— Elementary Years 1-7 (1974).  Language Arts 1—3  Social  Studies,  Reference— Language (1968).  Arts,  NOTE—Teachers are referred to the Science 1—3 2 the basic characteristics of families in various cultures, includ- curriculum guide, pp. 11-21, for approReference—Elementary priate topics at each grade level. ing similarities and differences Guide (1977). in functions, relationships, and size; Healtk 1-3 Reference— Human (1971).  H. 3 about the characteristics of the local community, such as its size, services, industries . . .;  Life  Primary  Levels  Science,  Sciences.  Interim  Years  1-7  Physical Education 1—3  H. 4 a sense of responsibility for their immediate environment;  Reference— Elementary Years 1-7 (1975).  H. 5 basic safety rules for pedestrians and cyclists.  Art  Physical  Education.  1-3  Reference— Elementary reprint). Music  School  Art  (1972  1-3  Reference— Elementary  Music  (1971).  NOTE—Teachers should use opportunities as they arise in the content fields for developing and maintaining these learning outcomes— co-operation in group work in all subject areas; an understanding of and appreciation for one's environment in outdoor activities; the practising of safety rules in daily life. During the Intermediate dents should learn  Years stu-  H. 6 to work independently as well as with others;  Social Studies 4-7 Reference— Elementary Years 1-7 (1974).  Social  Studies,  NOTE—Teachers are referred to the H. 7 how the natural environment curriculum guide, pp. 23-37, for appropriate topics at each grade level. affects the development of different types of communities and how these communities affect the environment; H. 8 about such local services as public transportation, banking, public libraries, telephones. . . .  NOTE for H. 6—This outcome is fundamental to teaching in all subject areas. N O T E S for H. 7, H. 8—1. Teachers should use appropriate stories in language arts to reinforce these outcomes. 2. The science program provides opportunities for teachers to develop outcome H.7. See science guide, pp. 5, 18, 20, and 21.  154  I—Te Develop Knowledge and Understanding of Our Cultural and Physical Heritage SUBJECTS  LEARNING OUTCOMES  Major  A real  of LeamirtB  During the Primary Years students Socill Studiei 1-3 should learn  Reference— Elementary Years 1-7 ( 1974).  Other Areas of  Social  Studies,  Social  Studies  I. I about the local community, including its major physical features N O T E S — 1 . For outcome I. 1 teachers and weather; are referred to the social studies guide, 1. 2 The National Anthem, Canada's pp. 11-21. 2. It is expected that teachers of priflag and emblems, and British mary music will ensure that students learn Columbia's flag and emblem. the National Anthem. 3. At the present time current guides do not make specific reference to flags and emblems of Canada and British Columbia. However, it is expected that teachers will make students familiar with these symbols of our country and Province. During the Intermediate Years stu- Sacral Studiei 4 - 7 dents should learn  Reference— Elementary Years 1-7 (1974).  Development  and  Maintenance  N O T E for I. 1—The science and language arts programs offer opportunities to develop this outcome.  Language Arts 4—7 Reference—A Guide  to Teaching  the  English  I. 3 the major physical and political Language Arts in the Intermediate Years (19681. geographic features of Canada NOTE—Teachers are referred specifiNOTE—Teachers should use opportunities to with particular reference to Brit- cally to the prescribed content in the reinforce these outcomes as they arise through ish Columbia; guide, pp. 23-29. readings in the language arts program. I. 4 how their present communities have been influenced by the past; 1. 5 about the discovery and exploration of Canada; I. 6 about the native peoples of Canada, their culture and their contribution to Canadian development; I. 7 and in addition students should have experiences in reading the works of Canadian authors.  155  Goal  J—To  LEARNING  Develop Knowledge and Understanding of the Cultural and Physical Heritage of the World  OUTCOMES  Major A r e * * of Lcanuns  During the Primary Years students Social Sew diet 1-3 should learn Reference— Elementary  Other Areas of Development and M i  ainienancv  NOTI—Integration of subject areas at the primar) level is a general practice. Teachers ma> sec learning outcome J. 2 as an cprxvJ. ) about the major physical feature* Yean 1-7 < 1974 j. of the world, its oceans ana con- NOTE—Learning outcome J. 1 is not tunii) to integrate content from such subje-ts as social studies, music, art. and language ans tinents. intended to infer thai social studies at the primary level should become "capes and J. 2 about the traditional festivals apba>s geograph)." Rather, it is the intenpropriate to the communit). tion that students should be taught those physical features which the teacher perceives are appropriate for the primary child The prescribed Primary Mop Ku provides some assistance in this regard.  During the Intermediate Years students Social Studiet 4—7 should learn  Reference— Elementary  Yean  1-7 (1974).  Socio I  Studies,  Social  Studies,  Laneuapt Am 4-7 Reference—A Guide  to Teaching  the  Engi--  J. 3 the location of major geographic Language Am in the Intermediate Years U 9 6 i s features and countries of the NOTE—Teachers are directed to the NOTE—Teachers should use opportunities tc work prescribed content in the social studies reinforce these outcomes as the) arise through J. 4 about prehistoric beginnings and guide, pp. 23-37. readings in the language arts program. early civilizations such as the Egyptian, Sumenar,. Greek, komar. . . J. 5 about the similarities and differences among countries in areas such as transportation, agriculture, industry,, recreation . . J. 6 the ways in which different cultures meet basic needs such as the need for food, clothing shelter, human relations . . .  156  Goal K — T o Develop Research and Study Skills SUBJECTS LEARNING  O U T C O M E S  Major Areas of Learning  Other Areas of  Development and  Maintenance  During the Primary Years students Language Arts 1—3 should learn Reference—Language Arts, Primary K. 1 to place in alphabetical order, Levels (1968). using the first letter, words Health 1-3 within their sight vocabulary; Reference—Human Life Science Years K. 2 to recall information based on 1-7 (1971). print, or non-print materials such as pictures, films, audio Social Studies 1-3 tapes. . . . Reference—Elementary Social Studies, Years 1-7 (1974). Science 1—3 Reference—Elementary Science, Interim Guide (1977). N O T E S — 1 . The language arts program is the major learning area for K. 1. 2. With reference to K. 2. the subject areas listed above provide opportunities for learning. Teachers should ensure that a range of media is used in developing this outcome. Social Studies 4 - 7 During the Intermediate Years students Language Arts 4 - 7 should learn Reference—Elementary Social Studies, Years Reference—A Guide to Teaching the K. 3 to summarize longer passages, English Language Arts in the Intermedi- 1-7 (1974). ate Years (1968 ). selecting important elements Science 4 - 7 and omitting unnecessary deNOTE—Teachers are referred to the Reference—Elementary Science, Interim tail; prescribed content in the guide, pp. Guide (1977). K. 4 to locate and use information 76-87. Health 4 - 7 from sources such as the encyclopedia, atlas, dictionary, Reference—Human Life Sciences. Years 1-7 textbook. . . . (1971). Mathematics 4 - 7 Reference—Mathematics Years 1-12 (1977). N O T E S — 1 . Student activities normally associated with social studies and, to a lesser extent, science and health provide opportunities for the development and reinforcement of these research and study skills. 2. Instruction in the skills suggested by learning outcome K. 3 should assist students in solving word problems in mathematics.  157  Goal L  To Develop the Skills of Inquiry, Analysis, and Problem-solving SUBJECTS  LEARNING OUTCOMES Major Areas of Learning  During the Primary Years students N O T E — T h e skills of inquiry, analysis, should learn and problem-solving are required in all subject areas. Teachers should use opL . 1 to make observations for use in classifying items according to portunities as they arise to teach these skills. The following are illustrations size, colour, shape . . .; only (references are from current curriL . 2 to select relevant information in culum guides)— order to answer simple probscience, see Goal B . p. 6 ; lems: social studies—see 'Development of Skills." pp. 4 - 6 ; L . 3 and in addition students should have experience infindingal- mathematics—see "classification" outcomes, pp. 1 0 - 1 2 . ternative ways to solve nonmathematical problems. During the Intermediate Years students N O T E — T h e skills of inquiry, analysis, should learn and problem-solving are required in all subject areas. Teachers should use opL . 4 to gather, classify, and interpret relevant data in order to solve portunities as they arise to teach these skills. The following are illustrations problems; onl> (references are from current curriL . 5 to identify a series of causes lead- culum guides) — ing to an event; language arts—see "Study Skills for L . 6 and in addition students should the Intermediate Years," pp have experience in using imagi7 6 - 8 1 ; native approaches to problem science—see Goal B , p. 6 ; social studies—see "Development of situations. Skills," pp. 4—6.  Other Area! ol Development and Maintenance  158  Goal M — T o Develop Skills and Knowledge for Healthful Living LEARNING  OUTCOMES Major Areas of Learning  Other Areas  of Development and Maintenance  During the Primary Years students Health 1-3 NOTE—Teachers should use opportunities as should learn Reference—Human Life Science, Years they arise in all subject areas to develop and (1971). reinforce these learning outcomes. The followM. 1 the importance of caring for the 1-7 body through proper rest, exer- N O T E — S e e prescribed content in guide, ing are illustrations only— the importance of good health in the units cise, nutrition, and cleanliness: pp. 4 - 1 5 . on "The Family" and "The CommuM. 2 to improve motor activities Physical Education 1-3 nity" in social studies; through exercises in hand-eye the "Biological Sciences" units for Years co-ordination, balance, strength, Reference—Elementary School Physi1 and 2 on p. 20 of the science guide. cal Education ( 1975). flexibility . . .; N O T E S — 1 . See, in particular, p. 15, M. 3 to identify positive aspects of themselves and relate to others "Characteristics and Needs of Children," and pp. 19-21. "Principles of Motor positively. Learning." 2. The Resource Supplement for the Elementary School Physical Education Guide (1971) provides additional suggestions and guidance for teachers. During the Intermediate Years students H.ahrti 4 - 7 NOTE—Teachers should use opportunities as should learn Reference—Human Life Science. Years they arise in all subject areas to develop and reinforce these learning outcomes. 1-7 (1971). M. 4 the fundamentals of good nutrition from the Canadian Food Physical Education 4—7 Rules: Reference—Elementary School PhysiM. 5 to improve motor skills by partici- cal Education ( 1975). pating in a variety of activities such as games, creative move- Art 4 - 7 ments, gymnastics, and outdoor Reference—Elementary School Art, pursuits: Years 1-7 ( 1972 reprint). M. 6 and in addition students should have experiences in art. music, Music 4 - 7 and drama such as painting, Reference—Elementary Music Guide modelling. singing. playing (1971 ). music, improvising plays . . .; N O T E — T h e above guides provide sugM. 7 have an awareness of a variety of gested content to develop the skills and art forms: knowledge indicated in these outcomes. M. 8 have empathy for people.  

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