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The use of small groups for identifying problems in a formal organization Hyde, William Paul 1977

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c . ( THE USE OF SMALL GROUPS FOR IDENTIFYING PROBLEMS IN A FORMAL ORGANIZATION by WILLIAM PAUL HYDE B. S. U n i v e r s i t y of Utah, 1961 M. S. U n i v e r s i t y of Utah, 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES EDUCATION ADMINISTRATION We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL 1977 (_) William Paul Hyde, 1977 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study . I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department o r by his representat ives. It is understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f th i s thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department of C M •  The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 ^ ?y my ABSTRACT This study was addressed to two problems. The f i r s t was to gather and analyze information intended to identify conditions regarded as problematic and conditions regarded as favorable by members of a formal organization, the Mormon Church. The means employed for gather-ing the basic information consisted of a set of operations designed to guide small groups i n the process of joint problem-identification and produced as an outcome statements indicating preferred and non-preferred conditions. The second problem was to ascertain i f this set operations^ presumably tending toward a more democratic orientation, would be an appropriate method of gathering information, given the theocratic nature of the organization i n which they were employed. The information was obtained during the academic year 1972-73 smd u t i l i z e d a dense sample through three levels of personnel associated with a particular program of the organization. The participants were students, full-time professionals, and ecclesiastical leaders directly involved i n the part-time institutes of religion. Collectively these groups generated 756 statements. The statements were then thematically cl a s s i f i e d and rank ordered to identify conditions most frequently cited as problematic and preferred. Once identified, these conditions were analyzed for possible interrelationships. This was followed by an analy-sis concerning the dependability of the basic information. A report was prepared for the senior administrator within the organization and, subsequently, information was sought concerning his views of the useful-ness of that report. The total data gathering procedure was also c r i t i c a l l y evaluated. i i I t was concluded that despite the basic differences i n the authority orientations of the organization and the procedures used to obtain the information, (1) the operations appeared to produce informa-tion that was reasonably dependable and administratively useful (with certain limitations), (2) the conditions regarded as problematic reflected a considerable degree of interrelatedness, and (3) there seemed to be no evidence that the operations were an inimical or inappropriate method for gathering information, given the conditions under whey they were employed. Several procedural changes are also recommended. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Statement o f Problem 6 I I . PHASE I AND THE THEOCRATIC NATURE OF THE MORMON CHURCH . . 7 Phase 1 7 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l problem 10 The T h e o c r a t i c Nature o f the Mormon Church 12 The S e l e c t i o n o f Phase I . . 14 I I I . PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGY 16 P r e p a r a t i o n s t o Employ Phase I 16 Employment o f Phase I Among Workgroups 18 P r e l i m i n a r y i n s t r u c t i o n and a c t i v i t i e s 18 Problem survey 23 Unders tanding 25 Acceptance 26 Relevance 27 C l u s t e r i n g and permanent r e c o r d cards 28 An i n t e r v i e w w i t h the d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r . . . . 32 I V . RESULTS 33 Student R-D-A Statements 39 Mismatch statements 39 Match statements 48 i v CHAPTER PAGE Full-Time Professional R-D-A Statements 50 Mismatch statements 50 Match statements 55 Ecclesiastical Leader R-D-A Statements 56 Mismatch statements 56 Match statements 61 V. AN ANALYSIS OF RELATIONS: PROBLEMS AND GROUPS 66 Problems 66 Staff relationships between ecclesiastical leaders and full-time professionals 67 An unknown program 79 Recruitment 81 Physical f a c i l i t i e s 84 Social a c t i v i t i e s . . . . . 84 Preferred Conditions 85 Approbation of the institute program 86 Lack of unrest 88 VI. A CRITIQUE OF METHODOLOGY 90 R e l i a b i l i t y of Data 90 Objectivity • • 92 Reactive effects • 95 Critique of operations 98 Summary 105 v CHAPTER PAGE V I I . THE RESPONSE FROM MANAGEMENT AND AN ASSESSMENT OF PROCESS . . 106 Report o f Outcomes and the View of Management 106 Outcomes A p p l i c a b l e t o I n s t i t u t e A s s o c i a t e d P e r s o n n e l •'. . 112 Students 112 F u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l s 114 E c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s 114 Group C r i t i q u e and the P a r t - T i m e I n s t i t u t e s o f R e l i g i o n . 115 V I I I . SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 119 Summary 119 C o n c l u s i o n s 121 Recommendations 122 BIBLIOGRAPHY 126 APPENDIX A 130 APPENDIX B 134 APPENDIX C 137 APPENDIX D 138 APPENDIX E 248 APPENDIX F 25:9 v i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Workgroups and Part-Time Institutes Within the Pacific Northwest Division During the Academic Year 1972-73 From Which Phase I Data were Obtained II. Problem (Mismatch) and Preferred (Match) R-D-A Statements Produced by the Students, Professionals, and Ecclesiastical Leaders Workgroups . 37 III. Student Produced Problem (Mismatch) R-D Statements Rank Ordered According to Frequency of Citation 4-1 IV. Student Produced Preferred (Match) R-D Statements Rank Ordered According to Frequency of Citation 49 V. Full-Time Professional Produced Problem (Mismatch) R-D Statements Rank Ordered According to Frequency of Citation. 52 VI. Full-Time Professional Produced Preferred iMatch) R-D Statements Rank Ordered According to Frequency of Citation. 57 VII. Ecclesiastical Leader Produced Problem (Mismatch) R-D Statements Rank Ordered According to Frequency of Citation. 59 VIII. Ecclesiastical Leader Produced Preferred (Match) R-D Statements Rank Ordered According to Frequency of Citation. 63 v i i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Some A u t h o r i t y R e l a t i o n s h i p s W i t h i n the Church o f Jesus C h r i s t o f L a t t e r - d a y S a i n t s Showing the E c c l e s i a s t i c a l and P r o f e s s i o n a l L i n e s o f A u t h o r i t y 3 2 . A Chronology o f Phase One Implementat ion W i t h i n S m a l l Groups W i t h i n the Par t -T ime I n s t i t u t e s of R e l i g i o n . . . . 24 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT Sincere thanks and appreciation are extended to a l l those whose assistance and participation made this dissertation a reality. Special appreciation i s extended to Dr. F. Lee Brissey for his example of dedicated scholarship and patience, to the committee members for their help and suggestions, and to Mrs. Annadele King for typing the manu-script. Special acknowledgment i s also extended to my family who gave so l i b e r a l l y . i x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Introduction Man and his social institutions exist i n a medium of change. Change has brought and continues to bring a plethora of problems to those associated with contemporary formal organizations. Responses to change and change-wrought problems have given rise to numerous problem-solving approaches for helping managers and others more adequately cope with the problems encountered i n their formal organizations (see, f o r example, Odiorne, 1957; McGregor, I960; Beckhard, 1969; Bennis, 1969; Schein, 1969; Argyris, 1971; French, 1971; Burke, 1972; Argyris, 1974; Evans, 1974; House et. a l . , 1974; Goodlad, 1975). While the differences among these problem-solving approaches may be as extensive as their variety, many of these approaches share two common elements — (1) they have been "born" out of an ongoing need to search for new and effective methods for identifying, understanding, and effectively dealing with changing problems as those problems are en-countered i n organizations, and (2) they reflect an increasing awareness of, and emphasis on, organizational democracy or what has come to be known as the "democratization of work" (see, for example, van der Does de Willebois, 1972; Emery, 1974 a, b; Thorsrud, 1974). This l a t t e r element has developed, i n part, out of a countervailing need to lessen some of the undesirable effects of the bureaucratic orientations of many contemporary organizations (see, for example, Thompson, 1961; T r i s t , 1970; Argyris, 1971. Katz and Georgopoulos, 1971). l 2 This<dissertatiori?is an analysis of the use of one of these prob-lem identifying approaches as i t was used i n a particular non-democratic organization during the academic year 1972-73* The Organization The organization was a theocratically governed organization known as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon). The Mormon Church i s a world-wide Christian church headquartered i n Salt Lake City, Utah and has a membership of approximately 3f500,000. (Conference  Report.1976:26). The specific parts of that organization with which this disserta-tion i s concerned were the part-time institutes of religion i n the Pacific Northwest Division of the Church's Department of Seminaries and Institutes of religion. Figure 1 indicates the bureaus and authority relationships of the Department of Seminaries and Institutes of Religion. The Department of Seminaries and Institutes of Religion consists of professional (contractually employed) personnel and, as a department, i t functions i n a staff relationship to the lay ecclesiastical (Priest-hood) leaders throughout the church. The staff relationship i s general-l y maintained through the office of the stake-'- president and the d i s t r i c t chairman. Worldwide, the Department of Seminaries and Institutes of Religion i s divided into geographic regions called "divisions" (see Fig. 1) which i n turn are subdivided into d i s t r i c t s . During the academic year 1972-73. •A "stake" would be administratively equivalent to a diocese. THE FIRST PRESIDENCY OF THE CHURCH THE GENERAL AUTHORITIES OF THE CHURCH I DEPARTMENT OF SEMINARIES AND INSTITUTES OF RELIGION ( o f f i c e o f the a s s o c i a t e commissioner) DIVISION ( d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r ) STAKE PRESIDENCIES' DISTRICT ( d i s t r i c t chairman) BISHOPRICS I SEMINARIES ( t eacher ) INSTITUTES f u l l and p a r t - t i m e ( i n s t i t u t e d i r e c t o r ) INSTITUTE INSTRUCTOR ( i n s t r u c t o r ) ECCLESIASTICAL LINE OF AUTHORITY PROFESSIONAL LINE OF AUTHORITY F i g u r e 1 Some A u t h o r i t y R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n The Church o f Jesus C h r i s t o f L a t t e r - d a y S a i n t s Showing the E c c l e s i a s t i c a l and P r o f e s s i o n a l L i n e s o f A u t h o r i t y . ( o f f i c e t i t l e i n parentheses) 4 there were approximately thir t y divisions i n the world, one of which was the Pacific Northwest Division (PND). In 1972-73 there were six d i s t r i c t s within the PND. They were -the Alaska D i s t r i c t , which included Alaska and the western portion of the Yukon; the Vancouver D i s t r i c t , which encompassed a l l of Bri t i s h Columbia and the northern portion of the state of Washington; the Seattle, Tacoma, and Portland Districts, and the Salem Dis t r i c t , which included a l l of western Oregon, excepting the Portland Area. A request from the division coordinator. In September of 1971 the division coordinator of the Pacific Northwest Division asked this writer to make a study of the part-time institutes of religion within the PND because, from his perspective they were the "most problematic" area of his administrative concerns. The outcome of this request by the division coordinator was that he wanted (1) a diagnostic study identifying problems associated with the part-time institutes i n his division, (2) the study to be conducted by this writer, and (3) the findings of the study compiled i n a formal report and submitted to the division office at the conclusion of the study.^ The division coordinator's request provided an opportunity not only to ascertain what problems existed within the part-time institutes, but to also determine the usefulness for management of a then recently developed technique for identifying those problems. ^For a discussion of this kind of organizational research request see Helmsladter (1970:64ff) and Schein (1969:6f). 5 Phase I of the Brissey-Naele technology Early i n 1972, this writer was introduced to the Brissey-Nagle (1972) technology for use by small workgroups engaged i n joint problem-solving a c t i v i t i e s . 3 While a more detailed discussion of the technology w i l l follow i n Chapters II and III, the employment of Phase I appeared to be not only a means for obtaining the information desired by the division coordinator, but also provided an opportunity to analyze the appropriateness of Phase I as a problem identifying device within the Mormon Church. Briefly, the question of the appropriateness of this technique arose for the following reason. Phase I endeavors to maintain a democratic approach to problem identification. That i s , i t legitimizes and maintains (1) an open and public (i.e., group) approach to identifying conditions regarded as problematic, and (2) encourages individual and/or group criticism of any or a l l parts of the organization. The Mormon Church, on the other hand, i s theocratic (O'Dea, 1957:Chapter 7) i n i t s authority orientation and therefore maintains certain authority norms that generally do not invite open or group criticisms of i t s organiza-tion by i t s members. Currently there i s no mechanism within the Mormon Church that permits group criticism of the organization.^ ^The Brissey-Nagle set of operations i s discussed by the authors i n The Consultant's Manual For A Systematic Approach to Joint Problem- Solving (1972) (hereafter referred to as ManualTI At this writing (1976) the Manual remains unpublished. I f the reader i s unfamiliar with these sets of procedures, he i s referred to Appendix A for a very brief over-view, and Chapters II and III of this study which presents an operation-a l description of their modifications and use. theocratic nature of the Mormon Church and the democratic orientation of Phase I are discussed further i n Chapter I I . Statement of Problem 6 The problem to which this study attempted to address i t s e l f was to - -1) determine, through the use of Phase I, what problems existed within the part-time institutes of religion and analyze the substan-tive nature of those problems, 2) determine i f Phase I, with i t s democratic orientation, i s an appropriate method of gathering information i n a theocratic organiza-tion such as the Mormon Church, of which the part-time institutes are a part. CHAPTER II PHASE I AND THE THEOCRATIC NATURE OF THE MORMON CHURCH The purpose of this chapter i s to b r i e f l y acquaint the reader with the problem identifying aspects of Phase I, and the concept of the theo-cratic authority as currently embraced by the Mormon Church. Phase I As previously mentioned, the Brissey-Nagle (1972) set of operations called Phase I i s for use by small workgroups engaged i n joint problem-solving ac t i v i t i e s vis-a-vis their organizational setting. Brissey and Nagle have divided their sets of operations into three phases that they label "Phase I, II, and III . " They say of their procedures (1972:P-3): We set out to design some procedures and operations which members of a small group can employ to refine their problem-solving s k i l l s and bring them to bear on their ' r e a l - l i f e , day-to-day' problems . . . regardless of whether they are curricular, instructional, administrative, or interpersonal i n nature . . . We have developed some ideas and techniques that might help a group 'smoke out' some of i t s important problems, 'unpack' them to manageable size, and then collectively develop plans for their solution.1 To the consultant or person employing their technology, Brissey and Nagle (1972:P-7) indicate that his xBrissey and Nagle at no time claim or imply that there i s any s c i e n t i f i c a l l y derived empirical research to substantiate their claims. The authors have made i t clear that their operations are, i n the sc i e n t i f i c sense, more of a hypothesis to be tested. In the practical sense, however, they claim that their procedures are a set of operations that can be employed i n an attempt to lend some guidelines for dealing with some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n group problem-solving experiences. It i s i n this s p i r i t of tentativeness that any reference i n this study to any part of the Brissey-Nagle technology rests. 7 8 . . . primary objective . . . w i l l be to structure the ac t i v i t i e s by which an intact workgroup i n a school can identify i t s own problems, assign p r i o r i t i e s to them, design and implement plans for solving them, and assess the outcome of such action. Of the three phases, Phase I, according to the designers, i s the exercise designed to enable the intact workgroups to identify i t s important problems.^ That i s , Phase I purports to be the tool to provide for a "systematic use of combined /group/ intelligence" to enable a workgroup to accurately identify i t s role-related problems (Brissey and Nagle, 1972:P-7). Specifically, a workgroup, through the instrumentality of Phase I, i s enabled systematically to designate current states or conditions facing the group as i t functions i n i t s organization role, while at the same time indicating group preferences regarding those designated conditions. The technology enables groups to jointly describe condi-tions encountered vis-a-vis their organizational role (as the grouj>' members visualize these conditions) and then jointly indicate whether or not those conditions ought to be changed or maintained. In a word -i t provides information or data generated by the groups indicating how work-related conditions are (1) perceived, and (2) preferred by those who are most directly involved with or affected by them. The identification of conditions, both as they are perceived and preferred, i s accomplished, i n part, by the group members following a prescribed "r-d-a" format for encoding perceptions and preferences. 2phase II i s structured to enable groups to jointly design and implement plans of action for solving the problems identified by Phase I; Phase III permits the monitoring and assessments of outcomes of the implemented action plans of Phase I I . 9 (Brissey and Nagle, 1972;II-9ff). The "r" of the format stands for "referent," the "d" for "designative," and the "a" for "appraisive."3 Further, conditions or things cited by group members are called referents., and statements describing current properties or characteris-t i c s of those referents, as they are perceived by those members, are called designative statements. Statements indicating preferred properties or characteristics vis-a-vis those same referents are called appraisive statements. In other words, the r-d-a format provides for a <- set of statements that f i r s t identify some object, thing, or condition as i t i s seen or perceived by the group (this i s the r-d component of the set) and secondly, the r-a component, which identifies the group's preference concerning that referent, given i t s designated state. There-fore, one of the products or outcomes of the employment of Phase I i s a body of statements developed by the group i n accordance with the r-d-a format. Simply stated, a workgroup participating i n the exercise of Phase I would, among other things, develop a l i s t of statements that would indicate work conditions as those conditions are both perceived and preferred by the group. An example of a set of statements generated by a group, following the r-d-a encoding format might be: "Institute building" (this i s the referent or thing to which the d and a compo-nents refer); the designative statement might be "Currently there i s no church owned institute building i n which to meet, the appraisive state-ment might read, "We prefer there be a church owned building i n which to meet." This approach also provides for a definition of a group problem. 3The above terms "designative" and "appraisive" as used i n Phase I, are based on the work of Charles Morris (1964). 10 According to Brissey and Nagle (1972), a problem may be said to exist for a group when i t s members agree that there i s a discrepancy (or "mismatch") between the r-d portions of the statement and the r-a portions (assuming, of course, that the members also agree'in their perception and preferences.) But more w i l l be said about this later. Acting on the assumption that Phase I would serve as an instrument for problem identification by groups i n an organizational setting such as the part-time institutes of religion, Phase I was selected as the means of obtaining the data requested by the division coordinator. Organizational Problem To this point i n this discussion there has been some usage of the term "organizational problem". It may be well to now define what i s meant by the term. Optner (1965:73) has characterized a problem as a situation i n which there are two states: one i s characterized by the present state, the other by a proposed state. The present state i s exemplified by the existing system; the proposed state i s exemplified by the system that i s hypothesized (desired) or proposed. According to Optner, awareness of these two states indicates the recognition of a problem. Gross (1964: 76lff) suggests a problem exists for a person or organization "when, and only when, the person or organization perceives some blockage of purposeful a c t i v i t y . " ^ There can be personal, group, department, and ^ r o s s goes on to say that there are three essential elements to any problem - people, purposes, and blockage. He says a problem becomes clearer as the following three questions are considered -Who i s involved? What are their purposes? What i s the blockage? 11 organizational blockages or problems within organizations. Organization-a l problems then, are those conditions which interfere with or otherwise act to block the attainment of the organization's purposes or goals. Brissey and Nagle (19?2:P.III-27) say a problem exists for the group when there i s a shared (group) awareness (and agreement) of some discrepancy between a perceived state, and a preferred or desired state of their work environment. But such a discrepancy i s not necessarily a problem for another component of the organization. It i s conceivable that a condition perceived as problematic at one level of an organiza-tion could be viewed by those at another level as a preferred condition vis-a-vis the organization's goals or purposes.5 Therefore, for purposes of this study, a problem i s said to exist for an organization when (1) there i s an awareness of a discrepancy between some perceived and preferred condition, (2) that discrepancy i s perceived as being a blockage of purposeful activity, and (3) the perception i s generally shared at a l l organizational levels. Given the fact that problems may exist for an individual, a group, a department, or the organization, and assuming that the part-time institutes organizationally are a system or "collection of interrelated parts" (Sexton 1970:211), i t seems reasonable to assume that problems " f e l t " at the level of the division office may be related to problems or blockages experienced by groups throughout the lower levels of the organizational structure. % b r example, what could appear to a lower level of management as an excessively high inventory of materials i n one department, could, from a higher management level, be seen as a significant cost reducing factor given the overall purposes of the organization. Further, i t seems reasonable to expect that the implementation of Phase I might reveal problems experienced by institute workgroups, and therefore provide more detailed and specific information related to the more general concerns as expressed by top management. That i s , i f the use of operations Phase I produced a body of information indicating conditions as they were both perceived and preferred by those directly involved i n the part-time institutes, i t might be possible to discem conditions generally and commonly viewed as problematic throughout the PND. I t was assumed, at this point, that there was probably some relationship between the problems experienced at the l o c a l or lower levels, and the more generally expressed concerns of the top adminis-trator; and, as stated, i t was further assumed that the Phase I procedures could be used to identify those lower level problems. This then was basically a substantive problem — a problem of obtaining and analyzing information by means of the technique referred to herein as Phase I. The Theocratic Nature of the Mormon Church However, as mentioned earlier, selecting this approach to the substantive problem gave rise to a somewhat more fundamental question concerning the appropriateness of Phase I as an information gathering procedure given certain authority norms as held by the members of the Mormon Church. Basically, Mormons believe that their church i s "the only true and l i v i n g church upon the face of the whole earth" (Doctrine and Covenants. 1955, 1:30; hereafter referred to as P&C). That i s , they believe i t to be Christ's personal church and authoritatively the only one possessing 13 divine authority and approval (see The Pearl of Great Price 1974:48). Further, they believe that a l l priesthood leaders in the church are "called by revelation" (Widtsoe, 1954:106) to their administrative positions. O'Dea (19575HO) has characterized the Mormon Church as a charismatic organization in which its charismatic nature has "been successfully contained . . . and routinized"^ resulting in a theocratic form of government. This theocratic orientation towards the church's authority has giv-en rise to a strong anti-critical norm within the church. That i s , to openly or publicly criticize the church, itsileaders and/or their decisions could be tantamount to criticism of deity.'' As a result, there exists no mechanism or administrative device in the church that solicits, fosters, or permits open or public criticism of any part of the organiza-tion, its personnel, or its teachings. Phase I procedures on the other hand, are oriented toward more "Bertram M. Gross (1964:138,139) has summarized from Weber (1947) some characteristics of charismatic authority as i t is found in charismatic organizations. If the reader desires to know specifically where Mormon authority concepts match those outlined by Gross, he is referred to: Doctrine and Covenants (and printing since 1921) 135:1,3; 107:92,;21:5;65::5; 107:65; 1:30; 20; 28:2; History of the Church (1930) 2:447; Priesthood  and Church Government by John A Widtsoe, 1954:73-74; and Clark, 1938. ?Clark (1939:10,11) summarized this non-critical attitude toward the church and its leaders when he counselled church members" . . . not to make the mistake of thrusting aside /their/ leader's counsel, or of failing to carry out his wishes, or of refusing to follow his direction" (see also D&C 68:4; 108:7). 14 democratic forms of organizations. It provides for (and"encourages c r i t i c a l comment by legitimizing open group criticism 0 while present-ing, at the same time, any part of the organization as "open game" for criticism. Therefore, the question of the appropriateness or the use-fulness of Phase I as a data gathering instrument within the part-time institutes of religion became an additional concern of this study. This concern, of course, is actually logically prior to the substan-tive problem of identifying problems within the organization. The Selection of Phase I Given the operational characteristics of Phase I and the norma-tively prescribed absence of any mechanism for open democratic criticism within the Mormon Church, a word of explanation is needed as to why Phase I was used. Because "the world alters as we walk in i t " (0ppenheimer,1955jl0) and in principle at least, contemporary organizations are under varying degrees of challenge to maintain creative modification in order to cope with the increasing complexities of a constantly changing world, (see, for example, Katz and Georgopoulos,19?l) a new level of "management consciousness" (Drucker, 1973^) has been emerging among administrators °While criticism can refer to demeaning and fault-finding behavior or discourse for the purpose of weakening or destroying the referent of the criticism, the term, as used here, means being logically analytical or evaluative in a dispassionate manner for the purpose of building and strengthening. Given the "r-d-a" format of Phase I, a "r-d", "r-a" discrepancy could be construed as criticism in this latter sense. 15 and those associated with organizations. As mentioned i n the opening pages of this dissertation a substantial part of that new consciousness has been directed toward the democratization of work (see, for example, van der Does de Willebois,1972; Emery,1974a; Thorsrud,1974). Perhaps something Beckhard (1969:7) said eight years ago reflects the central elements of this new and emerging management concerns He said: Managers are continually working on problems of how to develop a flexible organization which can move with changing requirements which can be •proactive' (influencing the environment) rather than reactive. Managers are seeking ways to establish a work climate i n which increasingly complex decisions can be made by people with the information, regardless of their location i n the organization. Managers are looking f o r ways in which increasingly complex tech-nologies can be managed and i n which people who have an even higher sense of freedom and autonomy can be encouraged to want to stay and work i n their organization. The search for ways to concurrently increase collaboration among the members of organizations, and at the same time increasing the rationality of decisions occupies many hours of management time . . . (emphasis i n original). The division coordinator of the Pacific Northwest Division was needful of information about a problematic area of his administrative responsibility and he was not unwilling that i t be obtained through the instrumentality of Phase I. Therefore, his willingness as a chief administrator i n a theocratic organization to permit the use of a new and democratically oriented technology may be further evidence of the r e a l i t y of the trend cited above by Beckhard (1969:7). The basic authority orientations between Phase I and the Mormon Church may at present be incongruous, but the decision of the top manager to permit i t s use may not be inconsonant with modern management trends. CHAPTER III PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGY Preparations to Employ Phase I From January through March of 1972, this writer was introduced didactically to the use of Phase I by one of i t s co-authors, F. Lee Brissey. His practical training began i n the early f a l l of 1972 under the direction of the other co-author, John M. Nagle. After several meet-ings, wherein the conceptual foundations of the Phase I procedures were reviewed, several p i l o t situations were created that enabled the writer to gain some practical experience i n the use of the technology i n actual group settings. These pil o t experiences were conducted at two full-time institutes of religion of the Mormon Church, one i n Eugene, Oregon and the other i n Corvallis, Oregon. One pilo t experience was observed and critiqued by Nagle. During the year that the data were being gathered by this writer, he was hired by the Department of Seminaries and Institutes of Religion as the assistant division coordinator. This position was a staff position to the division coordinator of the PND. In accordance with the request of the division coordinator to "get as broad a coverage of the PND as possible," i t was decided that Phase I would be employed among three categories of participants associated with the part-time-institutes. The categories were determined by the major role of the participants i n connection with the part-time institute program. These categories were ( l ) the part-time institute students, (2) the professionals (i . e . , the d i s t r i c t chairman, the institute 16 d i r e c t o r s , and the i n s t i t u t e i n s t r u c t o r s who were f u l l - t i m e employees o f the Department o f Seminar ies and I n s t i t u t e s o f R e l i g i o n ) , and (3) the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s , ( i . e . , s take p r e s i d e n t s ) . The d e c i s i o n t o i n c l u d e these t h r e e groups was based on the f a c t t h a t these groups r e p r e s e n t e d the persons who had any d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d / o r involvement w i t h the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s . I t was a l s o d e c i d e d , i n o r d e r t o get as broad a coverage o f the PND as p o s s i b l e , t o c o n t a c t as many i n d i v i d u a l s i n these t h r e e groups as was p h y s i c a l l y p o s s i b l e , g i v e n the t ime l i m i t a t i o n s . P r i o r t o t h e A i n c e p t i o n o f any d a t a g a t h e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s , the d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r had i s s u e d a w r i t t e n request f rom h i s o f f i c e , (which was l a t e r f o l l o w e d up by an o f f i c i a l v e r b a l r e q u e s t ) f o r " f u l l c o o p e r a t i o n " by the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f w i t h the r e s e a r c h e r . F o l l o w i n g these o f f i c i a l r e q u e s t s , the p r o f e s s i o n a l s immedia te ly extended i n v i t a -t i o n s t o h i m , and schedules were made as t o when he would v i s i t each d i s t r i c t . I n an attempt t o employ Phase I i n as n a t u r a l a s e t t i n g as p o s s i b l e , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t , among the p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p s , the procedures o f Phase I would be employed d u r i n g a r e g u l a r l y scheduled d i s t r i c t s t a f f m e e t i n g , and among the s t u d e n t s , d u r i n g some r e g u l a r l y scheduled c l a s s p e r i o d . Among these two c a t e g o r i e s , t h e r e were no s p e c i a l l y convened meetings f o r the purposes o f g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . I n a l l but two c a s e s , the meetings w i t h the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s were s p e c i a l l y convened. 18 Employment o f Phase I Among Workgroups P r e l i m i n a r y I n s t r u c t i o n s and A c t i v i t i e s J u s t p r i o r t o the n a t u r a l convening t ime o f the workgroups , an overhead projector-* - was s e t up a t the f r o n t o f the room where the group n o r m a l l y met . A f t e r a few o f the group*,s e a r l y a r r i v a l s had assembled, the a s s i s t a n t c o o r d i n a t o r would e x p l a i n b r i e f l y the r o l e o f the r e c o r d e r and then s e l e c t a v o l u n t e e r f o r t h i s o p e r a t i o n . Then a few minutes would be spent i n e x p l a i n i n g t o and r e v i e w i n g w i t h the v o l u n t e e r the r o l e o f the r e c o r d e r as o u t l i n e d i n the Manual (1972 :111-4) , and i n demonst ra t ing the manner o f r e c o r d i n g r - d and r - a statements on the ace ta te f i l m o f the overhead p r o j e c t o r . As the group f o r m a l l y convened, the r e s e a r c h e r was u s u a l l y i n t r o -duced by the f o r m a l group l e a d e r as a person asked by the church t o make an i n - d e p t h survey o f the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s o f r e l i g i o n . U s u a l l y the c o o p e r a t i o n o f the group was v e r b a l l y s o l i c i t e d by the group l e a d e r , and the t ime then would be t u r n e d over t o the r e s e a r c h e r . He began h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the group by i n d i c a t i n g who he was — the a s s i s t a n t d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r f o r the PND,...what he was d o i n g — making a s t u d y o f the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s f o r the c h u r c h , and why he was here a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group m e e t i n g . The group was t o l d the church had expressed concern f o r the w i s e and e f f e c t i v e use o f the e x p e n d i t u r e •••Brissey and Nagle (1972:111-12) suggest an a l t e r n a t i v e t o an overhead p r o j e c t o r . They suggest t h a t the statements generated by the group be r e c o r d e d on " b l a n k n e w s p r i n t . . . t aped t o a f l a t w a l l i n f u l l and easy v i e w o f the g r o u p . " . 19 o f the t i t h e s ^ o f the c h u r c h . He reminded the group t h a t i t was from the t i t h e s o f the church t h a t the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s r e c e i v e d t h e i r t o t a l f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . The groups were t o l d t h a t the church f e l t t h a t each member o f the group shared the c h u r c h ' s concern f o r m a i n t a i n i n g and p r e s e r v i n g the d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e s , o f the i n s t i t u t e program, as w e l l as changing and i m p r o v i n g the l e s s d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e s . T h e r e f o r e , because o f the unique p o s i t i o n o f each group member (unique as t o b e i n g a s t u d e n t , o r f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l , o r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r ) the church was coming t o them f o r any d i r e c t i o n s o r sugges t ions they c o u l d o f f e r t o make the i n s t i t u t e program a b e t t e r program. The group was t h e n g i v e n s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s by the r e s e a r c h e r w h i c h were s i m i l a r t o the f o l l o w i n g . - ^ T h e r e f o r e , as j u s t ment ioned, the church i s concerned about m a i n t a i n i n g and p r o t e c t i n g the d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f the i n s t i t u t e program, the ones t h a t you f e e l are v a l u a b l e and w o r t h w h i l e . The church i s a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n changing and c o r r e c t i n g those t h i n g s t h a t might be ^The p r i n c i p l e o f t i t h i n g among members o f the Mormon Church i s a " s a c r e d p r i n c i p l e d e n o t i n g f a i t h , d e v o t i o n , and member s a c r i f i c e . " ( C l a r k , 1938'-10)• T h i s w r i t e r chose t h i s p r i n c i p l e as p a r t o f h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s : (1) he p e r s o n a l l y f e l t the church was a c t u a l l y concerned about the w i s e e x p e n d i t u r e o f t i t h e s v i s - a -v i s the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s , (2) most members o f the groups would themselves be t i t h e p a y e r s , and (3) t o i n d i c a t e t o the group the s e r i o u s n e s s and importance o f the d a t a g a t h e r i n g exper ience i n which t h e y were about t o p a r t i c i p a t e . ^ T h i s and the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s are c l o s e approximat ions t o the v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n t o each g r o u p . These i n s t r u c t i o n s were f o r m u l a t e d d u r i n g the p r e - a p p l i c a t i o n t r a i n i n g encounters w i t h the a u t h o r ' s o f Phase I . 20 c a l l e d ' p r o b l e m s . ' T h i s b r i n g s us t o the purpose o f our m e e t i n g . Because o f y o u r unique p o s i t i o n , you know as w e l l as anyone (a t l e a s t through y o u r eyes) what these d e s i r a b l e and not so d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e . A t t h i s meeting we want t o give. ; you an o p p o r t u n i t y t o do something s i g n i f -i c a n t and c o n s t r u c t i v e f o r the i n s t i t u t e program — i d e n t i f y those d e s i r a b l e and not so d e s i r a b l e a r e a s . I t was a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t ime was spent d i s c u s s i n g and d e f i n i n g what was meant by a " p r o b l e m . " The d i s c u s s i o n centered on the i d e a t h a t one way a problem c o u l d be known was f o r people t o make statements about i t . The groups were t o l d t h a t these statements c o u l d take a form s i m i l a r t o the f o l l o w i n g : An i n d i v i d u a l t h i n k s o f some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the i n s t i t u t e program and s a y s , 'The c u r r e n t c o n d i t i o n ( w e ' l l c a l l t h i s the i s s t a t e ) o f a p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c i s s u c h - a n d - s u c h ; but I would p r e f e r i t t o be s u c h - a n d - s u c h . ' ( w e ' l l c a l l t h i s s t a t e the p r e f e r r e d s t a t e . ) Now the t h i n g , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t w e ' r e t a l k i n g about w e ' l l c a l l the r e f e r e n t because i t i s the i t e m t o w h i c h our two statements r e f e r . A h y p o t h e t i c a l example, such as a c lass room w i t h a temperature prob lem, was g i v e n here t o h e l p i l l u s t r a t e a problem s i t u a t i o n . The groups were t o l d t o assume t h a t the temperature o f the room was n i n e t y degrees , and they p r e f e r r e d i t t o be a t seventy- two d e g r e e s . The r e f e r e n t became "room t e m p e r a t u r e , " the i s s t a t e became " n i n e t y degrees" and the p r e f e r r e d s t a t e became "seventy- two d e g r e e s . " T h i s example, as w e l l as the terms — " r e f e r e n t , " " i s s t a t e , " and " p r e f e r -r e d s t a t e " — were w r i t t e n on the ace ta te f i l m o f the overhead p r o j e c t o r and d i s p l a y e d i n easy v i e w o f each group member. The groups were then t o l d : We say we have a problem when t h e r e i s a d i s c r e p a n c y o r •mismatch' between the i s and the p r e f e r r e d s ta tements . A "non-problem" s i t u a t i o n was a l s o d i s c u s s e d w i t h the g r o u p s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n e x i s t e d when t h e r e was a match c o n d i t i o n e x i s t i n g between 21 the statements d e s c r i b i n g the a c t u a l and the p r e f e r r e d c o n d i t i o n . The groups were g i v e n an example o f what might be a "non-problem" s i t u a t i o n . The s tudent manual f o r R e l i g i o n 121 has an i n t r o d u c t o r y -l e s s o n g i v i n g a comprehensive overv iew o f the c o u r s e ; you may c i t e the r e f e r e n t as b e i n g the i n t r o d u c t o r y l e s s o n f o r R121, the _ s t a t e as g i v i n g a comprehensive o v e r v i e w , and y o u r p r e f e r r e d s t a t e as m a i n t a i n i n g o r not changing t h a t i n t r o d u c t o r y l e s s o n . The example was a l s o r e c o r d e d and d i s p l a y e d by means o f the o v e r -head p r o j e c t o r . The s p e c i f i c t a s k i n s t r u c t i o n s now g i v e n each group were as f o l l o w s : T h i s now b r i n g s us t o y o u r t a s k f o r the n e x t h a l f - h o u r o r s o . We want t o g i v e y o u an o p p o r t u n i t y t o make as many • i s - p r e f e r r e d * s tatements as you p o s s i b l y c a n , about any c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the t o t a l i n s t i t u t e program. We r e a l i z e t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o make statements about you i n d i v i d u a l l y , about y o u r r o l e , o r about the i n s t i t u t i o n g e n e r a l l y . W h i l e a l l these are v a l u a b l e , we would ask t h a t you concentra te m o s t l y on making statements about the i n s t i t u t e program i t s e l f . The groups were reminded t h a t they c o u l d make "match" and "mismatch" s ta tements , and were encouraged t o make b o t h . The r o l e o f the group r e c o r d e r was i n t r o d u c e d h e r e , and the group was t o l d t h a t the r e c o r d -e r ' s r o l e was s i m p l y t h a t o f r e c o r d i n g , on the overhead p r o j e c t o r , the statements generated by the group members. A t t h i s j u n c t u r e the group members were g i v e n a word o f c a u t i o n , and the importance o f the c a u t i o n was s t r e s s e d . They were t o l d not t o make any judgments o f , o r about , the w o r t h o r m e r i t on any o f the s t a t e -ments g e n e r a t e d . They were in formed t h a t the reason f o r t h i s nonjudg-v. m e n t a l p e r s p e c t i v e was t o permi t group members t o f e e l as open and f r e e as t h e y p o s s i b l y c o u l d i n i d e n t i f y i n g problem and non-problem s i t u a t i o n s . They were t o l d f u r t h e r t h a t i t was not a mat ter o f concern who made the 22 s ta tement , but r a t h e r a concern o f what was s a i d , and i t was not the i n t e n t o r even the concern o f t h i s s tudy t o determine "who s a i d w h a t . " They were then assured t h a t anonymity o f the i n d i v i d u a l would be p r e s e r v e d . The reason f o r the r e c o r d e r w r i t i n g the statements on ace ta te f i l m was e x p l a i n e d . The reason f o r a r e c o r d i n g o f the what o f the statements generated was t o enable the group t o f u r t h e r t a l k about them l a t e r i n the e x e r c i s e . By way o f r e v i e w , and t o h e l p group members f u r t h e r grasp the purpose and o p e r a t i o n s o f the immediate group e x p e r i e n c e , each group member was g i v e n a copy o f "A Survey o f the P a r t - T i m e I n s t i t u t e s o f R e l i g i o n , " a copy o f w h i c h i s found i n Appendix B . Each i t e m was g e n e r a l l y rev iewed w i t h the accompanying i n s t r u c t i o n s : We want y o u t o work as a g r o u p , but i n d i v i d u a l l y we want you t o i d e n t i f y problem and non-problem s i t u a t i o n s o r c o n d i t i o n s as you have e x p e r i e n c e d them i n the t o t a l i n s t i t u t e program. You can name a n y t h i n g you want t o m e n t i o n . Be as broad and as comprehensive i n y o u r t h i n k i n g as you c a n . Th ink o f the t o t a l i n s t i t u t e program. The l i s t o f " s t a r t e r s " was p r o v i d e d on the second page o f "A Survey o f the Par t -T ime I n s t i t u t e s o f R e l i g i o n " and was r e v i e w e d . The groups were a g a i n reminded not t o concern themselves w i t h whether the statements made by o t h e r group members were " r i g h t " o r "wrong" o r whether anyone agreed o r d i s a g r e e d w i t h them. A t t h i s p o i n t i n t ime,-t h e y were t o t r y t o remain nonjudgmental . The groups were a l s o asked t o keep t h e i r s tatements as c o n s i s e as p o s s i b l e , p a r t l y t o f a c i l i t a t e the work o f the g r o u p ' s r e c o r d e r . They were a g a i n reminded t h a t t h i s was a p r o d u c t i o n t a s k o n l y . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e r e was u s u a l l y a b r i e f " t r i a l r u n " by the group i n making " i s - p r e f e r r e d " s tatements and h a v i n g them r e c o r d e d . 23 T h i s w r i t e r would then excuse h i m s e l f f rom the f r o n t o f the group and " t u r n the t ime o v e r " t o the group and the r e c o r d e r t o generate s tatements| a f t e r i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i t may be necessary f o r him t o p e r i o d i c a l l y i n f l u e n c e the procedures o f the group w h i l e c o n s c i o u s l y a t t e m p t i n g t o a v o i d i n f l u e n c i n g t h e j c o n t e n t o f t h e i r s tatements ( o t h e r t h a n the f a c t t h a t t h e y be i n s t i t u t e r e l a t e d . ) The group would then b e g i n g e n e r a t i n g i t e m s . * F i g u r e 2 , "A Chronology o f Phase I I m p l e m e n t a t i o n , " r e p r e s e n t s a group process "map" w h i c h the groups f o l l o w e d i n implementing the p r o c e -dures o f Phase I . I t i n d i c a t e s the i n t e n d e d f l o w o f a c t i v i t i e s , w h i l e a t the same t ime n o t i n g the r o l e o f the group a n d / o r t h a t of the r e s e a r c h e r . I t a l s o i n d i c a t e s the approximate t ime spent on each o p e r a -t i o n . Problem s u r v e y . As t h i s o p e r a t i o n proceeded, the m o n i t o r endeavor-ed t o c o n f i n e h i s r o l e , i n a c o n s i s t e n t manner, t o those g u i d e l i n e s o u t l i n e d i n the Manual (19?2) — i . e . , encouraging the group t o keep ^As t o the s i z e o f these s m a l l i n t a c t workgroups , B r i s s e y and Nagle (1972:111-7) i n d i c a t e " i t i s w e l l t o h o l d the s i z e o f any one problem-survey group t o f rom f i v e t o seven p e r s o n s . " The average s i z e o f the groups i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s tudy was s i x p e r s o n s ; the l a r g e s t c o n s i s t e d o f e i g h t e e n . The reason groups l a r g e r than seven were not d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l s m a l l e r groups i s because o f t ime l i m i t a t i o n s and space r e s t r i c t i o n s . U s u a l l y the p a r t i c i p a n t s convened i n one c lassroom and u s u a l l y had l e s s than 60 minutes t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l l the a c t i v i t i e s o f Phase I . There was not s u f f i c i e n t t ime t o t r a i n o t h e r s t o l e a d a d d i t i o n a l groups through the a c t i v i t i e s o f Phase I . O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e r e would o n l y be one p a r t i c i p a n t . I n those c a s e s , t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t was exposed t o the same i n s t r u c t i o n and a c t i v i t i e s as were the groups w i t h m o d i f i c a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o the s i t u a t i o n . 24 A p p r o x -imate Time t o Complete • f l o PHASE ONE P a r t i c i p a n t R o l e : " x " i n d i c a t e s major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r achievement and c o m p l e t i o n Opera t ions Group Problem Survey T) G e n e r a t i o n o f statements X 2) Record ing o f statements i X 3 ) M o n i t o r Unders tanding 1) P r i v a t e r a t i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a l under -s t a n d i n g o f generated statements X 2) D i s p l a y o f unders t anding r a t i n g s X 3) Recording o f r a t i n g s 4) D i s c u s s i o n f o r h i g h e r unders t anding X 5) C o o r d i n a t i o n o f d i s c u s s i o n 6) Statement component r e v i s i o n s X 7) P u b l i c r a t i n g f o r unders t anding o f r e v i s e d statements X 8) Recording o f r e v i s e d r a t i n g s 9) M o n i t o r Employer o f Phase One Operat ions X X X X X X c •H s Acceptance 1) Untrue component p u b l i c l y i d e n t i f i e d 2) Untrue component m o d i f i c a t i o n 3) M o d i f i c a t i o n s r e c o r d e d 4) P u b l i c r a t i n g s f o r new u n d e r s t a n d i n g / acceptance 5) M o n i t o r X X R e l e l e v a n c e T) P r i v a t e r a t i n g f o r r e l e v a n c e o f accepted statements 2) D i s p l a y o f r e l e v a n c y r a t i n g s 3) Recording o f r e l e v a n c y r a t i n g s 4) M o n i t o r X X X X A ehronology o f Phase One Implementat ion W i t h i n S m a l l Groups W i t h i n the P a r t - T i m e I n s t i t u t e s o f R e l i g i o n F i g u r e 2 2 5 statements brief and within the r-d-a statement format, guiding the group and the recorder to preserve the integrity of each members state-ments, avoiding counter-productive sidetracks, and encouraging breath of production rather than depth. The generation of statements and the recording of them by the recorder usually consumed approximately thirty-five minutes. At the conclusion of this activity, the role of the volunteer recorder ended. Understanding. When the statements generated for the problem survey had been recorded, the group was exposed to a short "lecture" on the common experience of being misunderstood, and the problems that can result when the members of workgroups misunderstand what other group members are saying — e.g., false conclusions, confusion conflicts, wasted effort, etc. The group was told that the next task was to work toward interpersonal understanding, regarding the statements they had produced, and that this would require that they perform the following task: F i r s t , rate, on a seven point scale, your understanding of the to t a l statement. I f you f e e l that you understand the state-ment f a i r l y completely, rate i t a six or a seven (with seven being a high degree of understanding.) If you f a i l to under-stand i t completely, or are uncertain about the author's meaning, rate i t one or two, or anywhere in between a one and a six, depending upon your degree of uncertainty. If any part of the statement ( i . e . , the 'referent,' the ' i s ' , or the 'preferred') i s not clear, rate the whole set according to your understand-ing of the least clear part. The participants were again reminded that they were to refrain from judging the merits of the statements, and that they did not have to agree with them. Even i f the participant f e l t the statements were tot a l l y "untrue" a l l he was asked to do was to rate his understanding of i t . 26 A three column m a t r i x was then drawn on the ace ta te f i l m t o the r i g h t o f the r e c o r d e d s ta tements , and the columns were headed " 1 - 2 , 3-5t 6 - 7 « " Then, by c a l l i n g f o r a show o f hands, the r e c o r d e r would s a y , How many r a t e d statement " " one o r two , t h r e e t o f i v e , s i x o r s e v e n , r e c o r d i n g a f t e r each query the number o f responses i n the a p p r o p r i a t e columns. F o l l o w i n g the r e c o r d i n g o f the r a t i n g s f o r d i s p l a y t o the group on the ace ta te f i l m , the r e c o r d e r c o - o r d i n a t e d group d i s c u s s i o n s toward h i g h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g r a t i n g s o f r - d - a statements r a t e d low o r moderate. The group was i n s t r u c t e d t o work toward p e r s o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g such t h a t , The statements s h o u l d be so c l e a r i n what they are t a l k i n g a b o u t , t h a t someone s i x months f r o m now, and a thousand m i l e s away c o u l d r e a d them and unders tand what i t s author had i n m i n d . A f t e r any necessary r e v i s i o n s o f statement components, group d i s -p l a y o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g was a g a i n c a l l e d f o r r e g a r d i n g the r e v i s e d s t a t e -ments , and these new r a t i n g s were r e c o r d e d . Acceptance . F o l l o w i n g the c o n c l u s i o n o f the a c t i v i t i e s concerned w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g , the group was asked t o i n d i c a t e , (now t h a t t h e y had o b t a i n e d a s h a r e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s ta tements) i f t h e y accept the s tatements as a c t u a l l y b e i n g " t r u e " i n t h a t they r e p r e s e n t e d some e x t a n t c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t e program. The s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s f o l l o w e d these l i n e s : You w i l l now be asked t o i n d i c a t e whether o r n o t you t h i n k the statements are a c t u a l i n s t i t u t e c o n d i t i o n s . By t h i s we mean w i l l you i n d i c a t e the degree t o w h i c h you exper ience t h i s s i t u a t i o n , o r the degree t o w h i c h you f e e l i t i s exper ienced by o t h e r s i n the i n s t i t u t e . That i s , do you agree t h a t the s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s , do you concur t h a t i t i s an a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n ? P a r t i c i p a n t s were a g a i n asked t o i n d i c a t e , on the seven p o i n t s c a l e , by r a i s e d hands, t h e i r degree o f acceptance . R e c o r d i n g o f r a t i n g s was s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f e x e r c i s e two. Any " u n t r u e " statements were p u b l i c l y i d e n t i f i e d , m o d i f i e d , o r d e l e t e d as n e c e s s a r y . I f m o d i f i c a t i o n s , r a t h e r t h a n d e l e t i o n s were r e q u i r e d , new r a t i n g s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and acceptance were a g a i n d i s p l a y e d i n accordance w i t h the m o d i f i c a t i o n s . Re levance . T h i s o p e r a t i o n was des ig n ed t o a l l o w groups t o judge O 5 the importance o f r e l e v a n c e o f each o f the p r o b l e m a t i c o r p r e f e r r e d c o n d i t i o n s t h e y had i d e n t i f i e d . G i v e n the o v e r a l l na ture o f t h i s s t u d y ( i . e . a t t e m p t i n g t o a s c e r t a i n how the i n s t i t u t e a s s o c i a t e d groups b o t h viewed and p r e f e r r e d the i n s t i t u t e program), each group was asked t o r a t e the problem-statements i n response t o the q u e s t i o n , "How i m p o r t a n t i s i t t o the success o f the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e o f r e l i g i o n t h a t t h i s problem be s o l v e d ? " The r e l e v a n c e r a t i n g s f o r the matching statements were o b t a i n e d by a s k i n g the q u e s t i o n , "How i m p o r t a n t i s i t t o the success o f the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e o f r e l i g i o n t h a t t h i s p r e f e r -r e d c o n d i t i o n be m a i n t a i n e d , p r e s e r v e d , o r p r o t e c t e d ? " Group members were asked t o r a t e each s e t o f statements from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , and -'The r e a d e r w i l l note t h a t the terms " impor tan ce" and " r e l e v a n c e " are used synonymously throughout t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . B r i s s e y and Nagle (1972:111-35) i n d i c a t e t h a t " r e l e v a n c e " may i n c l u d e the meaning o f i m p o r t a n c e . They say they chose the term re levance t o head t h i s a c t i v i t y becuase " i t i m p l i e s the d u a l i d e a s o f r e l a t e d n e s s and i m p o r t a n c e . " (emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) . That i s , a problem i s always a problem f o r someone, some group o r some o r g a n i z a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , i t may be r e l a t i v e l y t r i v i a l o r c r i t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t . the r a t i n g s were d i s p l a y e d and recorded as p r e v i o u s l y ment ioned. I t was u s u a l l y a t t h i s j u n c t u r e t h a t the a v a i l a b l e t ime had e l a p s e d and the group was d i s m i s s e d , a f t e r an e x p r e s s i o n o f a p p r e c i a t i o n . Only i n about f o u r d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s w i t h f o u r d i f f e r e n t groups was the p r e s s o f e l a p s e d t ime not f e l t as s t r o n g l y . I n these f o u r i n s t a n c e s , the groups were asked t o r a t e , on the seven p o i n t s c a l e , how w e l l t h e y d i d as a g r o u p . That i s , the r e s e a r c h e r a s k e d , " G i v e n the problem-statements and t h e i r r e c o r d e d r a t i n g s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g , acceptance , and r e l e v a n c e , how r e p r e s e n t a t i v e are these statements o f r e a l problems f a c i n g thej p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s ? " A f t e r f u r t h e r e x p l a i n i n g t h a t he wanted the group t o r a t e "how c l o s e they came" t o the r e a l problems o f the i n s t i t u t e , and how " s a t i s f i e d the group was w i t h the products o f o u r exper ience t o g e t h e r , " the r a t i n g s , i n response t o the q u e r y , were n o t e d . The l o w e s t i n d i v i d u a l r a t i n g o b t a i n e d was one t h r e e , and t h i s came from one s t u d e n t . The o t h e r r a t i n g s were g e n e r a l l y f i v e s o r s i x e s . C l u s t e r i n g and permanent r e c o r d c a r d s . A t the c o n c l u s i o n o f the e n t i r e d a t a g a t h e r i n g e f f o r t w i t h i n the PND, the t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f groups had produced 756 i n d i v i d u a l r - d - a s t a t e m e n t s , ^ each o f w h i c h was r e c o r d e d on a f o u r - b y - s i x c a r d . Because t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e r e f e r e n t ( r ) redundancy, t h i s w r i t e r , a t the c o n c l u s i o n o f the d a t a g a t h e r i n g e x p e r i e n c e , c r e a t e d seventy-seven g e n e r a l re ferent " headings and c l a s s i -f i e d each o f the o r i g i n a l 756 c a r d s - u n d e r one o f these seventy-seven h e a d i n g s . T h i s o p e r a t i o n was conducted on a "common-sense" b a s i s t h a t ^ h e s tudent groups produced 475 r - d - a s ta tements , the p r o -f e s s i o n a l s produced 176, and the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s 105. These w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I V . 29 was i n f l u e n c e d by two f a c t o r s . F i r s t , each r - d - a statement was examin-ed f o r i t s s u b j e c t - p r e d i c a t e s t r u c t u r e . Then an attempt was made t o a s c e r t a i n the s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t o f each s ta tement . Second, t h i s examinat ion and f i n a l s e l e c t i o n o f the s u b j e c t (and i t s consequent placement under one o f the seventy-seven more g e n e r a l r e f e r e n t s ) was based on the w r i t e r ' s s i x y e a r s o f exper ience w i t h the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s w i t h i n the PND. He presumed t o have some " f e e l " as t o what the s u b j e c t had r e f e r e n c e t o , and he l e t those " f e e l i n g s " i n f l u e n c e the c l u s t e r i n g . ' ' To f u r t h e r f a c i l i t a t e the r e p o r t i n g o f the d a t a t o the d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r o f the PND, these seventy-seven r e f e r e n t s were subsumed under f i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s . These f i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s r e f l e c t e d the w r i t e r ' s unders tanding o f f i v e g e n e r a l areas o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e concern w i t h i n the PND o f f i c e . The c a t e g o r i e s were : I : Image and C o r r e l a t i o n o f Program (which i n c l u d e d such g e n e r a l r e f e r e n t s as r e c r u i t m e n t , p u b l i c i t y , e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s , g o a l s o f programs, image o f program, e t c . ) ; I I : P o l i c i e s and Procedures ( i n c l u d -i n g c o u n s e l i n g , c r e d i t , a d u l t s , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p o l i c i e s , e t c . ) ; I l l ; ? T h i s attempt a t c l u s t e r i n g l a t e r proved t o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e . W h i l e i n i t i a l l y the c l u s t e r i n g o f r e f e r e n t s under the seventy-seven more g e n e r a l headings d i d reduce redundancy t o some degree , i t a l s o reduced the s p e c i f i c i t y needed i n the l a t e r a n a l y s i s o f the s t a t e -ments . Because i t l a t e r became n e c e s s a r y t o r e t u r n t o the s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n t , t h i s w r i t e r was unable t o do s o , because each s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n t had been e rased from the f o u r - b y - s i x cards and r e p l a c e d by the more g e n e r a l r e f e r e n t . I n an attempt t o compensate f o r t h i s l o s s , the w r i t e r was f o r c e d t o r e t u r n t o the o r i g i n a l d e s i g n a t i v e statements and attempt t o a s c e r t a i n from them the needed s p e c i f i c i t y . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s e x p l a i n e d f u r t h e r i n Chapter I V . 30 I n s t r u c t i o n a l P e r s o n n e l ( i . e . , f u l l - t i m e , p a r t - t i m e i n s e r v i c e , e t c . ) ; IV C u r r i c u l u m (course o f f e r i n g s , course o u t l i n e s , s tudent manuals , e t c . ) ; and V : P h y s i c a l F a c i l i t i e s ( i n c l u d i n g b u i l d i n g s , l i b r a r i e s , s tudent l o u n g e s , s e a t i n g , e t c . ) . The seventy-seven g e n e r a l r e f e r e n t s , as they were subsumed under the f i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s , appear i n the d a t a d i s p l a y s i n Appendix D . A l l " D e s i g n a t i v e S t a t e m e n t s , " " A p p r a i s i v e S t a t e m e n t s , " and the "Agreement/Relevance R a t i n g s " on these d i s p l a y s appear as t h e y were c o p i e d f rom the o r i g i n a l f o u r - b y - s i x c a r d s . A f t e r the c l u s t e r i n g had been comple ted , the statements were ranked a c c o r d i n g t o the number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s c i t i n g each r e f e r e n t . That i s , s tatements were combined a c c o r d i n g t o the f requency w i t h w h i c h a p a r t i c -u l a r r e f e r e n t appeared. Those statements whose r e f e r e n t s were c i t e d by the g r e a t e s t number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s were ranked as the most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned r - d - a c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s was done f o r the statement produced by the s t u d e n t s , p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s . S i m i l a r l y , those r e f e r e n t s mentioned the next g r e a t e s t number o f t imes were ranked second i n f requency o f m e n t i o n , and so f o r t h . The a c t u a l mechanics o f the c l a s s i f y i n g and rank o r d e r i n g were accompl ished i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. A f t e r the r - d - a statements p r o d u c -ed by each group had been t r a n s f e r r e d f rom the a c e t a t e f i l m t o the f o u r -b y - s i x c a r d s , the name o f the group was added t o each c a r d , and the cards were then rank o r d e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o the f requency o f the r e l e v a n c y r a t i n g on each c a r d . From these d a t a d i s p l a y s (Appendix D) were c r e a t e d . A f t e r d a t a d i s p l a y s f o r each p a r t i c i p a t i n g group had been c r e a t e d , s e v e r a l photocopies o f each d i s p l a y were made. Then, i n a p r a c t i c a l " c u t and p a s t e " approach , s i m i l a r r - d - a statements ( i . e . , s tatements h a v i n g the same r e f e r e n t s ) as t h e y appeared on d i f f e r e n t d a t a d i s p l a y s , were c u t 31 i n d i v i d u a l l y f rem the photocopies and p a s t e d on what became l a r g e master sheets b e a r i n g s i m i l a r and redundant r - d - a statements as t h e y were made throughout the PND. The d e c i s i o n as t o where t o " p a s t e " a p a r t i c u l a r statement was made, as p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , on a s u b j e c t -p r e d i c a t e e v a l u a t i o n o f the s ta tement . T h i s procedure was f o l l o w e d f o r the 475 r - d - a statements generated by the s t u d e n t s , the 176 s tatements generated by the f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and the 105 generated by the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n t h r e e l a r g e master l i s t s show-i n g ( d i v i s i o n - w i d e ) the t h e m a t i c a l l y c l a s s i f i e d statements c o n t r i b u t e d by each o f the t h r e e major groups o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . The f requency w i t h w h i c h a p a r t i c u l a r r - d - a c o n d i t i o n was c i t e d as b e i n g a problem, was determined s i m p l y by c o u n t i n g the r - d - a statements t h a t appeared on the master sheets under a g e n e r a l r e f e r e n t . Those s tatements a p p e a r i n g on the master sheets the g r e a t e s t number o f t imes were g i v e n a rank o r d e r o f one, and those appear ing the next most o f t e n a t w o , and so o n . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s o r d e r i n g appear i n Tables I I I through V I I I i n Chapter F o u r . I n sum, the r a n k i n g o p e r a t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n t h r e e l i s t i n g s o f r - d - a s ta tements , i n d i c a t i n g how the t h r e e groups b o t h p e r c e i v e d and p r e f e r -r e d p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e ; f u r t h e r each l i s t i n d i c a t e d , i n descending o r d e r , the f requency w i t h w h i c h the statements about those c o n d i t i o n s were made throughout the PND. The r e a d e r may wonder why f r e q u e n c y , based upon r e f e r e n t common-a l i t y wo uld be i m p o r t a n t , when a p a r t i c u l a r r - d - a c o n d i t i o n c o u l d be v e r y i m p o r t a n t o r s e r i o u s t o o n l y one group ( i . e . , be unique o n l y t o t h a t group) and t h e r e f o r e appear o n l y once as a r - d - a statement t h r o u g h -out the PND. To account f o r t h i s , d a t a d i s p l a y s were made f o r each i n d i v i d u a l group t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a d a t a g e n e r a t i n g exper ience and the r - d - a s tatements were p r i o r i t i z e d , on these i n d i v i d u a l d i s p l a y s 32 An I n t e r v i e w w i t h the D i v i s i o n C o o r d i n a t o r One f i n a l procedure i n the d a t a g a t h e r i n g process o f t h i s s tudy o c c u r r e d t h a t was unexpected and i n i t i a l l y unplanned. I n June o f 1973» the planned d a t a g a t h e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s were completed , and the r e q u i r e d r e p o r t , was forwarded t o the d i v i s i o n o f f i c e . However, three y e a r s l a t e r , i n June o f 1976, the w r i t e r had an unexpected o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e t u r n t o the d i v i s i o n o f f i c e o f the PND and t o i n t e r v i e w the d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r r e g a r d i n g the outcome o f the s tudy and the r e p o r t . The c o o r d i n a t o r was the same person who i n i t i a l l y reques ted t h a t the s t u d y be made, and i t was t o him t h a t the r e p o r t was submit ted i n 1973* The purpose o f the i n t e r v i e w was t o f i n d out what had t r a n s p i r e d w i t h i n the d i v i s i o n as a r e s u l t o f the r e p o r t s u b m i t t e d t h r e e y e a r s e a r l i e r . The i n t e r v i e w was conducted i n h i s o f f i c e and t a p e - r e c o r d e d . He was asked t o respond t o e i g h t q u e s t i o n s t h a t had been p r e v i o u s l y prepared by the w r i t e r . F o l l o w i n g the i n t e r v i e w , a v e r b a t i m t r a n s c r i p t i o n was made y i e l d -i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t pages o f m a t e r i a l . That t r a n s c r i p t was reduced t o i n c l u d e the statements t h a t had a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on the e i g h t key q u e s t i o n s . A copy o f t h a t e f f o r t appears i n Appendix F . a c c o r d i n g t o the r e l e v a n c y r a t i n g s each group gave t h e i r r - d - a s t a t e -ments . These d i s p l a y s f o r each group were i n c l u d e d i n the r e p o r t g i v e n t o t h e PND d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r t o enable an e x a m i n a t i o n by him o f each l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . Rank o r d e r i n g the p r o b l e m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s on a d i v i s i o n -wide b a s i s , a c c o r d i n g t o commonal i ty , was done p r i m a r i l y because o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e concern f o r " u n i t y " ( C l a r k , 1938 :9 ) i n a l l t e a c h i n g d e p a r t -ments w i t h i n the Mormon C h u r c h . There i s s t r o n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e emphasis and e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c y i n the church t o r e p l i c a t e ( g i v e n age and l o c a l c o n d i t i o n ad justments) the seminary and i n s t i t u t e programs w o r l d - w i d e . G i v e n t h i s e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c y , an a d m i n i s t r a t o r w i t h i n the Department o f S e m i n a r i e s and I n s t i t u t e s o f R e l i g i o n would be i n t e r e s t e d i n problems and c o n d i t i o n s common a t a l l p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s , as w e l l as those un ique t o l o c a l programs. CHAPTER IV RESULTS W i t h i n the P a c i f i c Northwest D i v i s i o n d u r i n g the academic y e a r 1972-73» t h e r e were 38 p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e programs, e n r o l l i n g 594 s t u d e n t s . These i n s t i t u t e programs were under the p r o f e s s i o n a l d i r e c -t i o n o f 6 d i s t r i c t chairmen and 15 i n s t i t u t e d i r e c t o r s and i n s t r u c t o r s , f o r a t o t a l o f 21 f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l s . These 38 p a r t - t i m e i n s t i -t u t e s were a l s o p a r t o f the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f 22 s take p r e s i d e n t s . A t the c o n c l u s i o n o f the d a t a g a t h e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s , one s t u d e n t groups f rom JO o f the 38 p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the Phase I exper ience f o r a t o t a l i n s t i t u t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f 79 per c e n t . Of the 594 s tudents e n r o l l e d , 249, o r 42 per cent o f the t o t a l d i v i s i o n e n r o l l m e n t had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n g e n e r a t i n g r - d - a s ta tements . N i n e t y per c e n t , o r 19 o f the 21 p r o f e s s i o n a l s had s i m i l a r l y p a r t i c i p a t e d . E x a c t -l y o n e - h a l f (11) o f the s take p r e s i d e n t s were i n v o l v e d i n the s t u d y . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s summarized i n Tab le I . A t the i n c e p t i o n o f the s t u d y i n the f a l l o f 1972, i t was the d e s i r e o f the d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r t h a t d a t a be gathered from as many groups as p o s s i b l e . He i n d i c a t e d t h a t he wanted as broad a coverage o f the PND as t ime and o t h e r p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s would p e r m i t . W h i l e he and the a s s i s t a n t d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r knew t h a t a 100 per cent coverage o f the d i v i s i o n was not a r e a l i s t i c p o s s i b i l i t y , i t n e v e r t h e l e s s remained the g o a l t o achieve the broades t p o s s i b l e coverage , g i v e n the t ime and -••Some p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s had more t h a n one s tudent group, i . e . , c l a s s o f e n r o l l e d s t u d e n t s . 33 34 TABLE I WORKGROUPS AND PART-TIME INSTITUTES WITHIN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST DIVISION DURING THE ACADEMIC YEAR 1972-73 FROM WHICH PHASE I DATE WERE OBTAINED P a r t - t i m e I n s t i t u t e s / Workgroups Number (N) i n P a c i f i c Northwest D i v i s i o n Number f rom Which Phase I Data Were O b t a i n e d . P e r -centage o f N I n d i c a t e d i n P a r e n t h e s i s ($>) P a r t - t i m e I n s t i t u t e s 38 30 (79$) I n s t i t u t e Students 594 249 (42$) F u l l - t i m e P r o f e s s i o n a l s 21 19 (90$) E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Leaders 22 11 (50$) 35 s c h e d u l i n g l i m i t a t i o n s . There fore i t were these l i m i t a t i o n s — t ime and schedules — t h a t determined w h i c h groups d i d o r d i d not p a r t i c i -p a t e . The r e s e a r c h e r e n t e r e d each d i s t r i c t w i t h f u l l i n t e n t o f i n v o l v i n g as many groups as p o s s i b l e i n the Phase I a c t i v i t y , s u b j e c t t o the r e s t r i c t i o n s o f e s t a b l i s h i n s t i t u t e c l a s s s c h e d u l e s , d i s t r i c t s t a f f m e e t i n g s , s take p r e s i d e n c y meetings and the geographic d i s t a n c e s between the g r o u p s . T h e r e f o r e , the s e l e c t i o n o f which groups d i d o r d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e was determined s o l e l y by t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y . Because o f the geographic vas tness o f the PND (ex tending from the n o r t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a b o r d e r t o F a i r b a n k s , A l a s k a ) each d i s t r i c t c o u l d be v i s i t e d o n l y once ; t h e r e f o r e , the a s s i s t a n t c o o r d i n a t o r s i m p l y had t o work w i t h the groups t h a t were a v a i l a b l e . Hence Tab le I i n d i c a t e s the r e s u l t s o f an i n t e n d e d (but not ach ieved) s a t u r a t i o n coverage o f the P a c i f i c Northwest D i v i s i o n . 2 The most d i f f i c u l t groups t o meet w i t h were the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s , because i n a l l but two c a s e s , s p e c i a l meetings w i t h them had t o be a r r a n g e d . T h i s was not always p o s s i b l e because t h e y were i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r d a i l y o c c u p a t i o n s as w e l l as t h e i r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c a l l i n g s , and t h e y were not always a b l e t o arrange t h e i r schedules t o permit a meet ing w i t h the r e s e a r c h e r w h i l e he was i n t h e i r s take a r e a . ^ 2The type o f sampl ing a c t u a l l y a c h i e v e d i n t h i s s tudy was "dense s a m p l i n g . " Coleman (1969) s a y s dense sampl ing " i s a compromise between the u s u a l t h i n l y d i s p e r s e d random sample and the s a t u r a t i o n sample" o f 100 p e r cent coverage . 3This w r i t e r e x p e r i e n c e d a s i m i l a r c o r d i a l i t y among the e c c l e s i -a s t i c a l l e a d e r s as he d i d the p r o f e s s i o n a l s . Nine o f the e l e v e n s take p r e s i d e n t s extended themselves t o a s p e c i a l meet ing f o r the purposes o f t h i s s t u d y . I n the o t h e r two c a s e s , the w r i t e r happened t o be i n t h e i r s take a r e a a t the t ime t h e y h e l d t h e i r r e g u l a r l y scheduled s take 36 As t o the p a r t i c u l a r s o f the d a t a generated by each g r o u p , the 30 s tudent groups produced 475 r - d - a s ta tements . Of these 357 (75 p e r c e n t ) were statements r e f e r r i n g t o c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h were viewed as p r o b l e m a t i c , and 118 (25 p e r c e n t ) r e f e r r e d t o c o n d i t i o n s regarded as f a v o r a b l e . ^ The p r o f e s s i o n a l s produced 176 s tatements o f which 153 (87 p e r c e n t ) i d e n t i f i e d problems and 23 (13 per c e n t ) r e f l e c t e d p r e -f e r r e d o r f a v o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s . The e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s i d e n t i f i e d 80 (76 p e r c e n t ) p r o b l e m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s w h i l e i d e n t i f y i n g 25 (24 per c e n t ) c o n d i t i o n s t h e y viewed w i t h f a v o r . These f i g u r e s are summarized i n Table I I . On a d i v i s i o n - w i d e b a s i s , the t h r e e groups used i n t h i s s tudy produced 756 i n d i v i d u a l r - d - a s ta tements . Of t h e s e , 590 (78 per c e n t ) i d e n t i f i e d p r o b l e m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s , w h i l e 166 (22 per cent ) i n d i c a t e d c o n d i t i o n s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e f e r e n c e s . As mentioned i n Chapter I I I , a f t e r the r - d - a statements were c l a s s i f i e d under the 77 more g e n e r a l r e f e r e n t s , i t became apparent t h a t the more g e n e r a l i z e d r e f e r e n t d i d not c o n t a i n the s p e c i f i c i t y needed t o rand o r d e r the r - d - a statements s u c c e s s f u l l y . T h e r e f o r e , i n o r d e r t o rank the statements a c c o r d i n g t o the f requency i n w h i c h t h e y were m e n t i o n -ed among the workgroups , i t was n e c e s s a r y ; ' f o r t h i s w r i t e r t o r e t u r n t o the o r i g i n a l d e s i g n a t i v e statements ( a l l o f which appear on the d a t a p r e s i d e n c y m e e t i n g . These two s take p r e s i d e n t s extended i n v i t a t i o n s t o a t t e n d t h e i r s take p r e s i d e n c y m e e t i n g s . w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t an r - d - a statement i s s a i d t o r e f l e c t a "problem" when t h e r e i s a d i s c r e p a n c y between the r - d and r - a component. When a p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n ( r - d ) i s regarded as c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e f e r e n c e ( r - a ) the r - d - a statement s i g n i f i e s a f a v o r e d c o n d i t i o n . TABLE I I PROBLEM (MISMATCH) AND PREFERRED (MATCH) R-D-A STATEMENTS PRODUCED BY THE STUDENT, PROFESSIONAL, AND ECCLESIASTICAL LEADER WORKGROUPS Problem (mismatch) P r e f e r r e d C o n d i t i o n T o t a l r - d - a Statements . Per (Match) Statements Statements Cent o f T o t a l i n Per cent o f T o t a l Workgroups Generated Parentheses (*) i n Parentheses (*) I n s t i t u t e Students 475 357 (75*) 118 (25*) P r o f e s s i o n a l s 176 153 (87*) 23 (13*) E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Leaders 105 80 (76$) 25 (24*) TOTALS: 756 590 (78*) 166 (22*) 38 d i s p l a y s i n Appendix E) and c l u s t e r t o g e t h e r the d e s i g n a t i v e statements t h a t appeared t o be t a l k i n g about the same (how m i s s i n g ) r e f e r e n t . The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l i n d i c a t e t o the reader the d e s i g n a t i v e components t h a t were c l u s t e r e d t o g e t h e r t o form the rank o r d e r l i s t i n g s . The reader w i l l be l e f t t o h i s own judgment how c l o s e l y the grouped d e s i g n a t i v e s tatements r e f l e c t the same s p e c i f i c i t y o f r e f e r e n t s . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n now t u r n s t o the rank o r d e r e d r - d - a s ta tements . The statement produced by s tudents w i l l be presented f i r s t , f o l l o w e d i n o r d e r b y those produced by the p r o f e s s i o n a l s and the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s . Each d i s c u s s i o n w i l l f i r s t r ev iew the problem ( d i s c r e p a n t ) statements generated by the g r o u p , f o l l o w e d by a r e v i e w o f the s t a t e -ments r e f l e c t i n g f a v o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s . Tables I I I through V I I I present a summary o f the o r d e r e d statements f o r each group. Tables I I I , V , and V I I i n d i c a t e the p r o b l e m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned by the s t u d e n t s , the f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y . These p r o b l e m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s are rank o r d e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o f requency o f c i t a t i o n by each g r o u p . A l s o i n d i c a t e d i n these t a b l e s are the r e l e v a n c y r a t i n g g i v e n by each group as they r e f e r t o the l i s t e d c o n d i t i o n s . As mentioned i n Chapter I I I , the r e l e v a n c y r a t i n g s were made by the groups i n response t o the q u e s t i o n "How important i s i t t o the success o f the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program i n y o u r a r e a t h a t the d i s c r e p a n c y be reduced?" The percentages under the " l o w i m p o r t a n c e , " " i m p o r t a n t , " and " h i g h importance" columns i n d i c a t e the responses o f the r e s p e c t i v e groups t o t h a t q u e s t i o n . The percentages l i s t e d i n these columns are percentages o f N , t h a t i s , the number o f ^The r e a d e r i s a g a i n r e f e r r e d t o Chapter I I I f o r the d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f how t h i s c l u s t e r i n g and rank o r d e r i n g was a c c o m p l i s h e d . 39 respondents who accepted the r-d-a statements as representing actual and preferred conditions within the part-time institute program. Tables IV, VI, and VIII reveal the preferred conditions most frequently cited by the students, the full-time professionals, and the ecclesiastical leaders respectively. These preferred conditions are likewise rank ordered according to frequency of citation. Similarly, the relevancy ratings, as indicated by each group, are indicated. These ratings were obtained by the groups responding to the question "How important is i t to the success of the part-time institute program in your area that the preferred condition be maintained." The percentages under the "low importance," "important," and "high importance" columns indicate the respective responses by the three groups. Again, these percentages are of N - the number of respondents who accepted the match-ing r-d-a statements as representing a preference for some actual condi-tion within the part-time institute program. The appraisive statements corresponding to the r-d statements shown in Tables III through VIII appear in the data displays in Appendix D. Attention is now turned to examining the statements representing both problematic and preferred conditions as produced by the three participating groups. STUDENT R-D-A STATEMENTS Mismatch Statements As indicated in Table III, the most frequently mentioned mismatch or problematic condition, as cited by the students, was "Ecclesiastical leaders do not manifest concern for the part-time institute program." This statement was a "summary" created by the writer. It was meant to reflect, in a generalized way, the specific concerns that appeared in 40 the o r i g i n a l r - d statements t h a t were c l u s t e r e d t o g e t h e r as p r e v i o u s l y ment ioned. The s p e c i f i c and o r i g i n a l r - d statements each r e f e r r e d t o e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s (a c o n c l u s i o n drawn from the " d " component) and i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g " d " elements i n d i c a t i n g a d i s c r e p a n t c o n d i t i o n : E c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s — do not c o n s i d e r i n s t i t u t e as b e i n g an important program; they seem not t o be aware o f i t , they seem u n i n f o r m e d , u n i n v o l v e d ; b i shops and ward l e a d e r s are not aware o f the program, have no i n t e r e s t i n i t , are u n -i n f o r m e d , and d o n ' t s t r e s s i t ' s impor tance ; t h e y d o n ' t a d v e r -t i s e o r mention i t ; i t i s o n l y mentioned i n a c u r s o r y way i n c h u r c h m e e t i n g s . There i s no p r i e s t h o o d s u p p o r t , no d i r e c t i o n , no r e c r u i t i n g by p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s ; they do not r e c r u i t among the m i l i t a r y bases ; the h i g h c o u n c i l i s not f o r c e f u l i n r e c r u i t -i n g ; b i s h o p s w o n ' t commit LDS s tudents t o a t t e n d ; e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s do not educate o r i n f o r m the y o u t h , and they do not communicate w i t h c o l l e g e age y o u t h about the i n s t i t u t e programs; t h e y d o n ' t know who the i n s t i t u t e s tudents are o r where they are l i v i n g ; b i s h o p s , ward l e a d e r s , and p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s d o n ' t v i s i t i n s t i t u t e c l a s s e s ; i n s t i t u t e programs have a low p r i o r i t y on s take l e a d e r ' s l i s t s o f p r i o r i t i e s ; the young a d u l t s who go away t o s c h o o l are f o r g o t t e n by the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s . A g a i n , the above l i s t o f s p e c i f i c s are sample s tatements o f those t h a t appeared i n the o r i g i n a l " d " component o f the s tudent statements r e g a r d i n g e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s . I t was f rom t h i s l i s t t h a t the more g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n ( i . e . , E c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s do not m a n i f e s t concern f o r the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program." ) was d e v e l o p e d . T h i s c o n d i t i o n was accepted as b e i n g an a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n ( i . e . , " t r u e " ) by 1?0 i n s t i t u t e s tudents throughout the PND. That r e p r e s e n t e d 68 per cent o f the 249 s tudents who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . Of those 170 s t u d e n t s , 6? per cent i n d i c a t e d i t was o f h i g h importance t h a t the d i s c r e p a n c y be reduced , 30 per cent i n d i c a t e d i t was important and 3 per cent noted i t was o f low impor tance . The second most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned problem was "Among members o f the church g e n e r a l l y , the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program i s an unknown p r o g r a m . " T h i s g e n e r a l i z e d statement was meant t o summarize the f o l l o w -TABLE I I I STUDENT PRODUCED PROBLEM (MISMATCH) R-D STATEMENTS RANK ORDERED ACCORDING TO FREQUENCY OF CITATION X3 Problem (Mismatch) R-D Statement d i s c r e p a n t c o n d i t i o n t h a t the s tudents would p r e f e r t o have reduced 8 "3 s, i f f / S Relevancy ($ o f " N " ) ^1 4^ S I -w A . E c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s do not mani fes t concern f o r the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program. 170 68# 3$ 30$ 67$ Among members o f the church g e n e r a l l y , the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program i s an unknown program. 161 65$ k$ 16$ 80$ E f f o r t s and programs t o r e c r u i t i n s t i t u t e s tudents are d y s f u n c t i o n a l , n o n - f u n c t i o n a l , o r n o n - e x i s t a n t . 128 51$ 5$ 30$ 65$ 4 5 There i s l i t t l e o r no p u b l i c i t y about the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e . 107 The goals and purposes o f the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program are not known by the s t u d e n t s . 106 k3$ k3$ 4 # 32$ 6k$ 35$ 57$ The p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s do not have l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o s t u d e n t s . 1 0 4 4 2 $ 5$ 36$ 59$ The p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e i s o r i e n t e d toward young a d u l t s and does not extend i t s o r i e n t a t i o n t o i n c l u d e a d u l t s . Students do not have a permanent c h u r c h -owned i n s t i t u t e b u i l d i n g t o meet i n . There are not enough e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n s t i t u t e program. Grades and examinat ions are not g i v e n t o i n s t i t u t e s t u d e n t s . Student l e a d e r s h i p i s n o n - e x i s t e n t o r d y s f u n c t i o n a l among i n s t i t u t e s t u d e n t s . The p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e i n s t r u c t o r i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r c o u n s e l i n g w i t h s t u d e n t s . The depth o f s tudy i n g o s p e l s u b j e c t s i s not " i n - d e p t h " enough. Students do not have a v a i l a b l e t o them a s tudent l o u n g e , b a s k e t b a l l and o t h e r a t h l e t i c f a c i l i t i e s , p r i v a t e c o u n s e l i n g rooms, e t c . There i s l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s tudents i n c l a s s . P a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e courses are not o f f e r e d more than once a week. Communication between s tudents and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s i s d y s f u n c t i o n a l . 95 8? 76 69 63 61 60 38* 5 * 2 9 * 66 * 35 * 4 * 4 7 * 4 9 * 3 1 * 1 2 * 4 8 * 4 0 * 2 8 * 12 * 4 4 * 4 4 * 2 5 * 3 * 2 2 * 7 5 * 2 5 * 3 * 30 * 6 7 * 24 * 8 * 3 2 * 6 0 * 56 54 49 45 2 2 * 17 * 34 * 4 9 * 2 2 * 4 * 2 4 * 72* 20 * 2 6 * 50 * 2 4 * 18 * 2 * 18 * 8 0 * The r o l e o f , and communications b e -tween, M-Men and G l e a n e r s , LDSSA, Deseret C l u b s , Young A d u l t C o u n c i l s , and p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s i s c o n f u s i n g and not c l e a r . Students do not have a v o i c e i n d e t e r m i n i n g courses o r content o f courses i n the i n s t i t u t e program* There are not enough c l a s s handouts , and the ones handed out are not v e r y meaning f u l . The p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e does not have a f u n c t i o n i n g m i s s i o n a r y committee. P o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g c r e d i t f o r courses i s n o t understood by the s t u d e n t s . There are not enough v i s u a l a i d s used i n c l a s s . G e n e r a l l y members o f the church have an u n c l e a r image o f the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program. Grading and examinat ion p o l i c i e s are not unders tood by the s t u d e n t s . There i s not enough v a r i e t y i n the i n s t i t u t e courses b e i n g o f f e r e d . Schedules o f i n s t i t u t e c l a s s e s c o n f l i c t w i t h o t h e r s c h e d u l e s . 45 18* 2* 39 * 59 * 40 39 36 35 35 34 33 32 27 16* 16* 14* 14* 14* 14* 13 * 13 * 11* 10* 42* 48* 55* ^5* 2* 17* 81* 22* 69* 51 9* 49* 5* 30 * 65* 15* 3 1 * 54* 6* 9* 85* 28* 72 * 44 i n g sample comments as they appeared i n the o r i g i n a l " d " components o f the s tudent s ta tements : P e o p l e , members o f the c h u r c h , non-members, IDS y o u t h , young a d u l t s , do not know about the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program; s tudents (on and o f f campus) do not know about the i n s t i t u t e program; M-Men and G l e a n e r s , b i s h o p s , p r i e s t h o o d , w a r d , and a u x i l i a r y l e a d e r s are unaware o f the program; p o t e n t i a l s tudents do not know about the p a r t -t ime i n s t i t u t e s . T h i s c o n d i t i o n was c i t e d as e x i s t i n g by 65 per cent o f the s tudents throughout the PND. The r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o Table I I I f o r the p a r t i c u l a r d e t a i l s r e l a t i n g t o percentages , e t c . , as they a p p l y t o t h i s second ranked problem c o n d i t i o n . The t h i r d most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned c o n d i t i o n was — " E f f o r t s and programs t o r e c r u i t i n s t i t u t e s tudents are d y s f u n c t i o n a l , n o n - f u n c t i o n a l , o r n o n - e x i s t e n t . " I n c l u d e d i n t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n were the f o l l o w i n g o r i g i n a l " d " s ta tements : P o t e n t i a l c o l l e g e s tudents are not b e i n g r e c r u i t e d , nor are o t h e r c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , those not a l r e a d y e n r o l l e d , and those o f c o l l e g e age; t h e r e i s n o t an o r g a n i z e d r e c r u i t m e n t e f f o r t ; we are not r e c r u i t i n g ; r e c r u i t m e n t i s o n l y by word o f mouth; r e c r u i t -ment programs are t o o l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d ; LDS s tudents and "on campus" s tudents are. not i n v o l v e d ; more females than p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s and h o l d e r s are r e c r u i t e d ; t eachers i n church a u x i l i a r i e s are not e n r o l l i n g t h e i r s tudents i n i n s t i t u t e ; s tudents are not m o t i v a t e d t o e n r o l l o r a t t e n d ; non-members are not r e c r u i t e d , n o r are i n a c t i v e members, o r c o l l e g e - a g e n o n - s t u d e n t s . L e t t e r s o f r e c r u i t m e n t are not sent t o i n v i t e s tudents t o e n r o l l ; e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s d o n ' t " f o l l o w - u p " on r e c r u i t m e n t a c t i v i t i e s . The f o u r t h most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned p r o b l e m a t i c c o n d i t i o n was — "There i s l i t t l e o r no p u b l i c i t y about the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s . " T h i s statement i s i n t e n d e d t o summarize the f o l l o w i n g sample o f o r i g i n a l s ta tements : The i n s t i t u t e program i s not s t r e s s e d o r p u b l i c i z e d i n church meetings such as Sunday S c h o o l , sacrament meet ings , i n wards , and i n o t h e r l o c a l church r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a r e a s . The ^5 program i s not p u b l i c i z e d i n l o c a l w a r d s , on campuses, i n s tudent campus newspapers, i n l o c a l newspapers, i n the Church News, o r o t h e r r e l i g i o u s p u b l i c a t i o n s . There i s an absence o f brochures and o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n manuals c o n t a i n i n g and p u b l i c i z i n g i n f o r m a -t i o n about the i n s t i t u t e program. The s p e c i f i c " d " statements f o r r - d problem statements ranked f i v e through s i x t e e n ^ i n Table I I I are g i v e n be low, w i t h the rank o r d e r g i v e n i n p a r e n t h e s i s f o l l o w e d by the g e n e r a l i z e d " d " s ta tement . Samples o f the o r i g i n a l and s p e c i f i c " d " statements then f o l l o w . (5) The g o a l s and purposes o f the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e  program are not known by the s tudents — The g o a l s and purposes o f the i n s t i t u t e program are not c l e a r t o s t u d e n t s ; s tudents do not unders tand the g o a l s , t h e y are not c e r t a i n o f the g o a l s , they do not know what t h e y a r e . (6) The p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s do n o t have l i b r a r y  f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o s tudents — The i n s t i t u t e has no l i b r a r y , l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s are not a v a i l a b l e , there are no s tudy f a c i l i t i e s , t h e r e i s a l i m i t e d s e l e c t i o n o f books a v a i l a b l e , t h e r e are no books a v a i l a b l e f o r p e r s o n a l s t u d y , the l i b r a r y does n o t s u b s c r i b e t o church p u b l i -c a t i o n s . (7) The p a r t - t i m e - ' - i n s t i t u t e i s o r i e n t e d toward young  a d u l t s and does not extend i t s o r i e n t a t i o n t o  i n c l u d e a d u l t s — There i s a s t r o n g emphasis t o i n c l u d e and r e c r u i t young a d u l t s i n t o the i n s t i t u t e program, but a d u l t s are not encouraged t o a t t e n d . The i n s t i t u t e s h o u l d extend i t s o r i e n t a t i o n toward a d u l t s . (8) S tudents do n o t have a permanent church owned  i n s t i t u t e b u i l d i n g t o meet i n — We d o n ' t have an i n s t i t u t e b u i l d i n g o f our own; c u r r e n t l y we are u s i n g temporary , r e n t e d o r p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s . I t i s not the i n t e n t o f t h i s c h a p t e r t o present an " i t e m - b y -i t e m " d i s c u s s i o n o f e v e r y r - d statement appear ing i n the t a b l e s . The r e a d e r i n t e r e s t e d i n d e t a i l s not d i s c u s s e d i s r e f e r r e d t o the t a b l e s and/or Appendix D . 46 (9) There are not enough e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n s t i t u t e program — There are not enough s o c i a l , s p i r i t u a l , i n t e r -i n s t i t u t e , r e g i o n a l , and a r e a a c t i v i t i e s . (10) Grades and examinat ions are n o t g i v e n t o i n s t i t u t e  s t u d e n t s — Examinat ions are not f r e q u e n t enough, t h e y are not g i v e n o r not u s e d . I n s t i t u t e s tudents r e c e i v e no g r a d e s ; grades are not g i v e n . (11) S tudent l e a d e r s h i p i s n o n - e x i s t e n t o r d y s f u n c t i o n a l  among i n s t i t u t e s tudents — There are no s t u d e n t l e a d e r s ; s tudent l e a d e r s h i p i s n o n - e x i s t e n t ; s tudent l e a d e r s are not capable o f f u n c t i o n i n g i n the i n s t i t u t e program because t h e y have too many c h u r c h jobs o r c a l l i n g s . There i s no s tudent l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g program. (12) The p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e i n s t r u c t o r i s not a v a i l a b l e  f o r c o u n s e l i n g w i t h s tudents — The p a r t - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r does h i s b e s t , but h i s a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r c o u n s e l i n g i s l i m i t e d ; t h e r e i s no i n d i v i d u a l s tudent c o u n s e l i n g by the p a r t - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r ; the i n s t r u c t o r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are t o o wide g e o g r a p h i c a l l y ; he i s n o t a v a i l a b l e ; he has no a v a i l a b l e t ime f o r c o u n s e l i n g ; the i n s t r u c t o r i s o n l y a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g c l a s s t i m e ; the i n s t r u c t o r i s p e r s o n a l l y q u a l i f i e d t o c o u n s e l s t u d e n t s , but he i s not always a v a i l a b l e . (13) The depth o f s t u d y i n g o s p e l s u b j e c t s i s not " i n - d e p t h " enough — C l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s and course content are n o t deep enough; the i n c l a s s s t u d y o f m a t e r i a l i s g e n e r a l and b r o a d ; t h e r e are not enough advanced c l a s s e s . (14) S tudents do not have a v a i l a b l e t o them a s tudent l o u n g e . b a s k e t b a l l and o t h e r a t h l e t i c f a c i l i t i e s . P r i v a t e  c o u n s e l i n g rooms, e t c . . are not a v a i l a b l e — Students have no s tudent l o u n g e , no f a c i l i t i e s f o r p i n g pong, b a s k e t b a l l , and o t h e r o r g a n i z e d s p o r t s . There are no p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s f o r c o u n s e l i n g . (15) There i s l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n  w i t h o t h e r s tudents i n c l a s s — There i s l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r a c t i o n i n c l a s s w i t h o t h e r s t u d e n t s ; t h e r e i s not enough c l a s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; s tudents s h o u l d become more i n v o l v e d i n c l a s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 47 The remain ing 11 problems were mentioned o r c i t e d by 20 per cent o r l e s s o f the i n s t i t u t e s t u d e n t s . Because they were c i t e d l e s s f r e q u e n t l y t h a n the f i r s t 15 c o n d i t i o n s , there were fewer s p e c i f i c " d " s tatements f rom w h i c h the g e n e r a l i z e d " d " statement was formed. B r i e f -l y , those s p e c i f i c s were as f o l l o w s . The s p e c i f i c " d " statements f o r i t e m 16 were q u i t e s i m i l a r i n form w i t h the summarized statement t h a t appears i n Table I I I . I tem 17, "Communication between s tudents and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s " i n c l u d e d s p e c i f i c s such a s : There i s a l a c k o f communication between b i s h o p s and c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , as w e l l as between p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s and c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . Some even i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were s t r a i n e d between p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s and i n s t i t u t e p e r s o n n e l because the i n s t i t u t e had t o borrow the f a c i l i t i e s o f the l o c a l c h a p e l , such as the k i t c h e n , r e c r e a -t i o n h a l l , c h a p e l , e t c . The g e n e r a l i z e d statement o f the e i g h t e e n t h most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned problem was a c o m p i l a t i o n f rom the o r i g i n a l " d " s ta tements . The o r i g i n a l " d " statements f o r i t e m 19 r ead ~ the s tudents do not have a v o i c e i n d e t e r m i n i n g c u r r i c u l u m content o r what courses are t a u g h t ; a lmost a l l o f the course content i s pr«-determined by authors d i s t a n t o r f a r removed g e o g r a p h i c a l l y f rom l o c a l c lass room s i t u a t i o n s . The s p e c i f i c s o f the p r o b l e m a t i c c o n d i t i o n ranked 20 were — handouts are g i v e n o n l y once i n a w h i l e , handouts w i t h s c r i p t u r a l r e f e r e n c e s are needed; the church h i s t o r y chronology c h a r t i s c o n f u s i n g ; t h e r e are n o t enough maps, c h a r t s , and l e s s o n o v e r v i e w s ; b i b l i o g r a p h i e s and r e f e r e n c e s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y are needed. D i s c r e p a n t c o n d i t i o n s 21 through 26 are summary c o m p i l a t i o n s o f the few o r i g i n a l d e s i g n a t i v e statements a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them. I tem 27 i n c l u d e d the s p e c i f i c s o f — 48 the schedule o f i n s t i t u t e c l a s s e s c o n f l i c t s w i t h o t h e r church meetings o r o t h e r s c h o o l c l a s s s c h e d u l e s , i n d i v i d u a l s c h e d u l e s , and c h u r c h l e a d e r s h i p meeting s c h e d u l e s . Match Statements The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program t h a t the s tudents i d e n t i f i e d as p r e f e r r e d ( i . e . , c o n d i t i o n s t h a t the s tudents f e l t e x i s t e d w i t h i n the program t h a t they would p r e f e r t o have m a i n t a i n -e d , p r e s e r v e d , o r p r o t e c t e d ) are shown i n Table I V . The most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned p r e f e r r e d c o n d i t i o n d e a l t w i t h the f u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r s . F i f t y - t w o per cent o f the s tudents i n d i c a t e d t h e i r a p p r o b a t i o n o f the f u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r s . S p e c i f i c a l l y they s a i d ~ The f u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r s are o f h i g h q u a l i t y ; they are w e l l q u a l i f i e d ; t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n c l a s s are w e l l prepared and m e a n i n g f u l ; they have a good r a p p o r t w i t h t h e i r s t u d e n t s ; t h e y show concern f o r s t u d e n t s , they make c l a s s i n t e r e s t i n g ; t h e y ' r e v e r y p r o f e s s i o n a l , i n t e r e s t i n g , and get the p o i n t a c r o s s . The i n s t r u c t o r works h a r d and i s knowledgeable , e t c . The second most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned c o n d i t i o n d e a l t w i t h the broad ca tegory o f the i n s t i t u t e program i t s e l f . T h i r t y - f i v e per cent o f the s tudents v o l u n t e e r e d statements t h a t i n d i c a t e d t h e i r a p p r o v a l o f the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program. They made statements l i k e ~ The i n s t i t u t e p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n about the c h u r c h , t o f u r t h e r ones p e r s o n a l knowledge, and knowledge o f the g o s p e l . I t p r o v i d e s a ba lance between s p i r i t u a l and academic s t u d i e s ; i t p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o defend p e r s o n a l r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s ; i t i s a g r e a t way t o b e g i n the d a y ; i t p r o v i d e s f o r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h peers and o t h e r IDS s t u d e n t s , e t c . P a r t - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r s were mentioned by 30 per cent o f the s tudents as b e i n g a d e s i r a b l e c o n d i t i o n o f the i n s t i t u t e program. T h i s t h i r d most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d c o n d i t i o n was supported by statements such as ~ TABLE IV - • STUDENT PRODUCED PREFERRED (MATCH) R-D STATEMENTS RANK ORDERED ACCORDING TO FREQUENCY OF CITATION / A * ^ P r e f e r r e d (Match) R-D Statements n o n - d i s c r e p a n t c o n d i t i o n t h a t the s tudents would p r e f e r t o have m a i n t a i n e d o P tops of- *» -2> Relevancy (* o f " N " ) £ 1 4/ 3 4 5 6 7 8 F u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r s have s tudent a p p r o b a t i o n . 129 The p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program has s tudent a p p r o b a t i o n . 8 8 P a r t - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r s have s tudent a p p r o b a t i o n . 7 6 Current c u r r i c u l u m has s tudent a p p r o b a t i o n . 7 0 Fee schedules f o r s tudent r e g i s t r a t i o n s h o u l d remain as they a r e . " 3 2 Book o f Mormon s tudent manual has s tudent a p p r o b a t i o n . 2 9 There are no grades o r examinat ions g i v e n . 2 5 I n s t i t u t e c l a s s e s are h e l d i n d e c e n t r a l i z e d l o c a t i o n s . 24 5 2 * 6 * 9 4 * 3 5 * 1 * / 1 1 * 8 8 * 3 0 * 3 * 16* 8 1 * 2 8 * 6 * 3 2 * 6 2 * 1 3 * 1 2 * 1 0 * 1 0 * 2 2 * 7 8 * 2 * 4 * 1 0 * 6 0 * 8 8 * 3 6 * 5 7 * 4 3 * 50 The i n s t r u c t o r s are w e l l q u a l i f i e d , concerned f o r s t u d e n t s , and i n t e r e s t e d i n the s u b j e c t ; t h e y care f o r s tudents i n d i v i d u a l l y and show i n t e r e s t i n them. They are c h e e r f u l , u n ders tan din g o f s tudent needs. They can communicate w i t h s t u d e n t s , t h e y t e a c h by the s p i r i t ; they are m o t i v a t i n g , e t c . Seventy s tudents (21 per c e n t ) c i t e d the c u r r i c u l u m as b e i n g r e l e v a n t t o t h e i r needs . They s a i d : The c u r r i c u l u m i s r e l e v a n t t o s tudent needs; i t i s s p i r i t u a l l y u p l i f t i n g ; i t p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n about c h u r c h d o c t r i n e , the Book o f Mormon, e t c . The remain ing i tems i n Tab le IV (5 through 8) were mentioned by 13 per cent o r l e s s o f the s t u d e n t s . A g a i n , because o f the few " d " s t a t e -ments , the g e n e r a l i z e d " d " statement tends t o repeat the s p e c i f i c s ta te ' ments produced by s t u d e n t s . I tem 6 perhaps was an e x c e p t i o n . I n i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r a p p r o b a t i o n o f the Book o f Mormon s tudent manual , s tudents mentioned the f o l l o w i n g : I t serves as a good back-up r e a d i n g t o the Book o f Mormon; the manual i s a good source o f enrichment m a t e r i a l ; the two accompanying phonograph r e c o r d s s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d ; i t i s easy t o u n d e r s t a n d , and i s r e l a t e d t o s tudent s p i r i t u a l needs; the format o f the manual s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d ; the manual i s h e l p f u l i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the s c r i p t u r e s , e t c . F u l l - T i m e P r o f e s s i o n a l R-D-A Statements The r - d - a Statements i n d i c a t i n g p r o b l e m a t i c and p r e f e r r e d c o n d i -t i o n s as authored by the f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l s are g e n e r a l i z e d and rank o r d e r e d i n T a b l e s V and V I r e s p e c t i v e l y . Mismatch Statements As i n d i c a t e d i n Table V , the most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned problem, as c i t e d by the f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l s was " E c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s do not f u n c t i o n i n t h e i r proper c a p a c i t y r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r p o s t - s e c o n d a r y r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . " T h i s c o n d i t i o n was mentioned 51 by 100 p e r cent o f the f T i l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l s . (Among a l l c o n d i t i o n s c i t e d by the t h r e e g r o u p s , t h i s was the o n l y one t h a t was mentioned by 100 p e r cent o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s . ) Sample s p e c i f i c d e s i g n a t i v e s t a t e -ments f rom w h i c h t h i s more g e n e r a l i z e d " d " statement was c r e a t e d w e r e : E c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s d o n ' t l e n d t h e i r support i n r e c r u i t -i n g s tudents t o the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s ; s u p p o r t , i f i t i s m a n i f e s t , i s u s u a l l y i n the form o f j u s t an announcement o v e r t h e : p u l p i t o r a p o s t e r hung i n the h a l l w a y , none o f w h i c h r e q u i r e s any response from the s t u d e n t . P r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s are not making a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t t o d i r e c t s tudents t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the i n s t i t u t e program; b i s h o p s are not as i n v o l v e d , concerned , and i n t e r e s t e d i n e n r o l l i n g s tudents as they ought t o b e . The p r o f e s s i o n a l man d o e s n ' t count on any d e d i c a t e d support a t the l o c a l ward l e v e l . When the p r o f e s s i o n a l has t o i n i t i a t e p u b l i c -i t y f o r the programs i n the s take o r ward he f e e l s uncomfortable (emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) . P u b l i c i t y about the program i n a s take i s i n i t i a t e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l s and n o t the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s ; e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s do not know how t o f u n c t i o n i n t h e i r p r o p e r c a p a c i t y r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and t h e y are p o o r l y i n f o r m e d as t o these d u t i e s ; s take l e a d e r s do n o t know the r o l e o f the i n s t i t u t e program and t h e y g i v e i t a low p r i o r i t y ; e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s are not educated as t o the i n s t i t u t e program; t h e y do not unders tand the r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e -tween themselves and the p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l ; t h e r e i s no s e t t ime o r i n v i t a t i o n extended w h e r e i n the i n s t i t u t e p e r s o n n e l can meet on a r e g u l a r b a s i s t o communicate w i t h e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s ; l o c a l p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s see the i n s t i t u t e program as an " o u t s i d e " program; b i s h o p s and s take p r e s i d e n t s do not i n v o l v e themselves on a m e a n i n g f u l l e v e l w i t h c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s ; p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s are not aware o f who the p o t e n t i a l i n s t i t u t e s tudents a r e , who might be l i v i n g w i t h i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n , e t c . The second most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned p r o b l e m a t i c c o n d i t i o n as n o t e d by the p r o f e s s i o n a l s was , "There i s n o t an e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c y p r e s e r v i n g the r i g h t s o f the i n s t i t u t e s t o have s o c i a l s . " T h i s c o n d i t i o n , m e n t i o n -ed by 95 p e r cent o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l s , s a i d s p e c i f i c a l l y : There seems t o be a t r e n d t o remove s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s f rom the r o l e o f the i n s t i t u t e program; the i n s t i t u t e does not sponsor o r p r o v i d e f o r s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s t h a t are p r i m a r i l y s o c i a l i n n a t u r e ; t h e r e i s a need f o r some k i n d o f s o c i a l a c t i v i t y program t o g i v e the i n s t i t u t e program an i d e n t i t y w i t h s t u d e n t s ; the c u r r i c u l u m o f the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e must be more s o c i a l l y o r i e n t e d r a t h e r t h a n a c a d e m i c a l l y o r i e n t e d . TABLE V FULL-TIME PROFESSIONAL PRODUCED PROBLEM (MISMATCH) R-D STATEMENTS RANK ORDERED ACCORDING TO FREQUENCY OF CITATION Relevancy ($ o f »N") C? & g J? x, $ ! / § g £ Problem (Mismatch) R-D Statements ^ / j f i ^ «f ^ ^ -V £ ^ O tt <D cj ^ d i s c r e p a n t c o n d i t i o n t h a t the p r o f e s - feoZ? 6* .q? x? - ^ A ? s i o n a l s would p r e f e r t o have reduced ^'£ ^J? o " - ^ ^ 1 E c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s do not f u n c t i o n i n t h e i r proper c a p a c i t y r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r pos t - secondary r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 19 100$ — 10$ 90$ 2 There i s not an e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c y p r e s e r v i n g the r i g h t o f ^ i n s t i t u t e s t o have s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . 18 95$ ~ 11$ 89$ 3 P a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s do not have adequate p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o them. 17 89$ •— 35$ 65$ 4 Recrui tment by e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s i s d y s f u n c t i o n a l o r n o n - f u n c t i o n a l . 15 79$ — — 100$ 5 Church members are not b e i n g informed about the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program. 15 74$ — 23$ 77$ 6 I n s e r v i c e programs are n o n - e x i s t e n t o r inadequate . 13 68$ 7$ 29$ 64$ TABLE V (CONTINUED) 7 The p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e has a low o r i m p a i r e d image among church members. 8 P a r t - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r s are h i r e d i n l i e u o f f u l l - t i m e p e r s o n n e l . 9 The c u r r e n t p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g the minimum number o f s tudents t o h o l d an i n s t i t u t e c l a s s i s i n f l e x i b l e . 10 Student l e a d e r s h i p i s e i t h e r n o n - e x i s t e n t o r d y s f u n c t i o n a l . 11 P a r t - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r s are l i m i t e d i n what they can and do c o n t r i b u t e t o the program, 12 L i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s f o r s tudents are n o n -e x i s t e n t o r inadequate . 13 The i n s t i t u t e p o l i c y on s tudent c r e d i t c u r r e n t l y o f f e r s o n l y one type o f c r e d i t 12 9 9 8 7 6 4 6 3 * 4 7 * 4 2 * 37* 32* 2 1 * 4 * 32 * — 12 * - 13 * 4 * 54* 17 * 66* 64* 100* 8 8 * 8 7 * 4 2 * 17* 100* 54 (emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) The t h i r d most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned c o n d i t i o n i n d i c a t e d the inadequacy o f p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . The p r o f e s s i o n a l s n o t e d , "The p a r t -t ime i n s t i t u t e s do not have adequate p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o themV Sample s p e c i f i c " d " statements i n d i c a t i n g the e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s c o n d i t i o n were : There are no permanent f a c i l i t i e s t o meet i n ; c l a s s e s are h e l d i n r e n t e d o r temporary f a c i l i t i e s ; we l a c k p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s o f our own, and t h e r e f o r e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e v e l o p an a t t r a c t i v e atmosphere f o r s t u d e n t s ; p r o f e s s i o n a l s do not have any "on s i t e " permanency, a l l o w i n g f o r more o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s tudents t o c o n t a c t them; many i n s t i t u t e s l a c k c o u n s e l i n g f a c i l i t i e s , the "borrowed" b u i l d i n g s used f o r i n s t i t u t e purposes are a v a i l a b l e o n l y one n i g h t a week. The f o u r t h most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned problem i s r e f l e c t e d i n the statement t h a t " r e c r u i t m e n t by e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s i s d y s f u n c t i o n a l o r n o n - f u n c t i o n a l . " T h i s was g e n e r a l i z e d from the f o l l o w i n g sample o f s p e c i f i c " d " s ta tements : When r e c r u i t m e n t i s l e f t t o the l o c a l p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s , the r e c r u i t m e n t drops o f f ; the most e f f e c t i v e form o f r e c r u i t -ment i s done f i r s t by the p r o f e s s i o n a l s , second by the i n s t r u c t o r , t h i r d by the s t u d e n t , and f o u r t h by the p r i e s t -hood l e a d e r , i n t h a t o r d e r ; when p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s do any r e c r u i t i n g , i t i s n o t on a p e r s o n a l b a s i s w i t h the s t u d e n t ; r e c r u i t m e n t d o e s n ' t have the b a c k i n g o f the p r i e s t h o o d ; i t i s now an i n s t i t u t e f u n c t i o n and n o t a p r i e s t h o o d f u n c t i o n , the p r i e s t h o o d f e e l no o b l i g a t i o n t o r e c r u i t ; we have t o r e l y upon the M-Men and Gleaners f o r r e c r u i t m e n t r a t h e r than the p r i e s t -hood; t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l man d o e s n ' t count on any d e d i c a t e d support a t the l o c a l ward l e v e l f o r r e c r u i t m e n t o f s t u d e n t s . The summary statements ranked f i f t h through n i n t h were c r e a t e d f rom b a s i c a l l y s i m i l a r s p e c i f i c " d " s ta tements , and f o r t h a t reason w i l l no t be reproduced h e r e . As t o the l a c k o f f u n c t i o n a l s tudent l e a d e r s h i p , the t e n t h ranked p r o b l e m , the p r o f e s s i o n a l s s a i d s p e c i f i c a l l y : 55 There i s not now a v a i l a b l e a p r i n t e d b o o k l e t c o n t a i n i n g p r i n t e d i n s t r u c t i o n s , c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f d u t i e s , d i r e c t i o n s , e t c . , r e l a t i n g t o the o p e r a t i o n and f u n c t i o n i n g o f s tudent l e a d e r s h i p programs i n a s m a l l , p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program; the young a d u l t s c o u n c i l s t h a t have been o r g a n i z e d are too f a r removed from the needs o f the s t u d e n t s ; i n many cases t h r o u g h -out the a r e a , s tudent l e a d e r s h i p s t r u c t u r e i s n o n - e x i s t e n t , o r i f the s t r u c t u r e i s t h e r e , t h e r e i s no one f i l l i n g the p o s i t i o n s . The use o f p a r t - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r s were i d e n t i f i e d as the e l e v e n t h ranked p r o b l e m . S p e c i f i c a l l y the p r o f e s s i o n a l s s a i d : We have b e t t e r success a t the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s when we have a f u l l - t i m e man i n s t r u c t i n g ; a l l i n s t i t u t e c l a s s e s s h o u l d be taught by f u l l t i m e , r a t h e r t h a n p a r t - t i m e p e r s o n -n e l , e t c . The e l e v e n t h , t w e l f t h and t h i r t e e n t h ranked g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s were near r e p l i c a t i o n s o f the s p e c i f i c " d " s ta tements . Match Statements The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program t h a t the f u l l -t ime p r o f e s s i o n a l s i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g p r e f e r r e d ( i . e . , c o n d i t i o n s t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l s f e l t e x i s t e d w i t h i n the program t h a t they would p r e f e r t o have m a i n t a i n e d , p r e s e r v e d , o r p r o t e c t e d ) are shown i n Table V I . As n o t e d , 4 p r e f e r r e d c o n d i t i o n s were c i t e d . The f i r s t , as mentioned by 47 per cent o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s , s a i d "There i s a g e n e r a l l e v e l o f q u a l i -f i c a t i o n f o r h i r i n g p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e i n s t r u c t o r s . " The o r i g i n a l " d " statements were b a s i c a l l y r e p e t i t i o u s o f t h i s s ta tement . The second ranked statement i n d i c a t e d t h a t "Student manuals have the a p p r o b a t i o n o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l s . " S p e c i f i c a l l y one sample o r i g i n a l " d " statement r e a d , "The s tudent manuals have a much h i g h e r l e v e l o f q u a l i t y t h a n do the seminary manuals . They are more s t i m u l a t i n g 56 c o g n i t i v e l y , and they are much more r e s e a r c h o r i e n t e d . " The p r o f e s s i o n a l s f e l t " the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program was h e l p i n g s tudents meet c e r t a i n needs" by t h e i r t h i r d most mentioned c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c . S p e c i f i c a l l y they s a i d : The program i s meeting a need o f the s tudents through t e a c h i n g and c o u n s e l i n g ; s tudents who a t t e n d i n s t i t u t e g e n e r a l l y have an e s t a b l i s h e d f e e l i n g o f acceptance and l i k i n g f o r the program, e t c . The l a s t mentioned c o n d i t i o n was "The p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s t u d e n t c o u n s e l i n g has the a p p r o b a t i o n o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l s . " The s p e c i f i c s o f t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t the f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s -s i o n a l l i k e d h i s c o u n s e l i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and d e s i r e d t o m a i n t a i n them as p a r t o f h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l ass ignment . E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Leader R-D-A Statements The r - d - a statements r e p o r t i n g p r o b l e m a t i c and p r e f e r r e d c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s p r o v i d e d by the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s are g e n e r a l i z e d and rank o r d e r e d i n Tables V I I and V I I I r e s p e c t i v e l y . Mismatch Statements As i n d i c a t e d i n Table V I I , the most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned p r o b l e m a t i c c o n d i t i o n c i t e d by the p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s was "Recrui tment e f f o r t s by e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s i s i n a d e q u a t e . " Sample s p e c i f i c d e s i g n a t i v e s t a t e -ments from w h i c h t h i s f i r s t ranked c o n d i t i o n was g e n e r a l i z e d were : P r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s a t the l o c a l l e v e l are not r e c r u i t i n g as t h e y s h o u l d ; l t h e p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o r e c r u i t , g i v e encouragement, t r a i n i n g , and f o l l o w - t h r o u g h r e l a t i v e t o i n s t i t u t e r e c r u i t m e n t , but they are n o t d o i n g as good a job as they c o u l d be d o i n g ; p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s do not m a i n t a i n a " m i s s i o n a r y z e a l " i n r e c r u i t i n g s t u d e n t s ; not a l l b i s h o p s g i v e encouragement t o c o l l e g e age y o u t h t o a t t e n d i n s t i t u t e ; we do not f o l l o w through i n keeping the young people i n v o l v e d i n the i n s t i t u t e program; b i s h o p s are not TABLE V I FULL-TIME PROFESSIONAL PRODUCED PREFERRED (MATCH) R-D STATEMENTS RANK ORDERED ACCORDING TO FREQUENCY OF CITATION /// P r e f e r r e d (Match) R-D Statements n o n - d i s c r e p a n t c o n d i t i o n t h a t the p r o -f e s s i o n a l s would p r e f e r t o m a i n t a i n fli o -* J <V V V ^ e - P 0} Q) Hplmranny ($ nf "N" ) i There i s a g e n e r a l l e v e l o f q u a l i f i c a -t i o n f o r h i r i n g p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e : i n s t r u c t o r s . Student manuals have the approbat ion o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l s . The p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program i s i n s t r u -mental i n h e l p i n g s tudents meet c e r t a i n o f t h e i r needs. The p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s tudent c o u n s e l i n g has the approbat ion o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l s . 9 9 47$ 47$ 37$ 32$ 11$ 11$ 89$ 89$ 100$ 100$ i n v o l v e d i n the i n s t i t u t e program except perhaps a t the b e g i n -n i n g o f the s c h o o l y e a r , e t c . The second most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d problem was " e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s do not unders tand t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e g a r d i n g the p a r t -t ime i n s t i t u t e p r o g r a m . " I n s p e c i f i c terms t h e y s a i d : The s take p r e s i d e n c y and the h i g h c o u n c i l do not f u l l y unders tand t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the head o f f i c e o f the Department o f E d u c a t i o n ; the s take p r e s i d e n c y does not u n d e r -s t a n d the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e g a r d i n g i n s t i t u t e mat ters between the d i s t r i c t c o o r d i n a t o r and the i n s t i t u t e d i r e c t o r ; I f e e l some l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the t o t a l i n s t i t u t e program, such as what the g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s a r e , how they are e s t a b l i s h e d , how the program i s d i r e c t e d and d e v e l o p e d , the l i n e s o f communicat ion, and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework, my r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the program, how I , as a s take p r e s i d e n t , can h e l p , what my r o l e i s , how t o r e c r u i t and s e l l the program, e t c . The t h i r d most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d problem by the p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s s t a t e d " C u r r e n t l y the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program has a low p r i o r i t y on the p r i e s t h o o d ' l e a d e r ' s l i s t o f church p r i o r i t i e s . " The s p e c i f i c o r i g i n a l " d " statements n e a r l y matched the g e n e r a l i z e d s ta tement , and f o r t h a t reason i t would be redundant t o reproduce them h e r e . The f o u r t h most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d c o n d i t i o n was " C u r r e n t l y e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s encourage s tudents t o go t o BYU, R i c k s C o l l e g e , and o t h e r church owned s c h o o l s b e f o r e these l e a d e r s encourage s tudents t o t o l o c a l s c h o o l s . " Some sample s p e c i f i c s o f t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n r e a d : The church d o e s n ' t support the F i r s t P r e s i d e n c y ' s l e t t e r r e q u e s t i n g s t u d e n t s t o a t t e n d s c h o o l i n t h e i r home town a r e a f o r t h e i r f i r s t two y e a r s , because the church sends r e c r u i t e r s f rom BYU each s p r i n g t o r e c r u i t s tudents t o BYU; the F i r s t P r e s i d e n c y ' s l e t t e r b o t h e r s me because I want my c h i l d r e n t o go t o BYU o r R i c k s C o l l e g e ; as p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s we t a l k a l o t about s tudents a t t e n d i n g BYU and R i c k s C o l l e g e and we d o n ' t emphasize the l o c a l i n s t i t u t e program as we s h o u l d ; my c o u n s e l t o young a d u l t s g o i n g t o s c h o o l would be f i r s t go t o a c h u r c h s c h o o l , t h e n second go t o a s c h o o l where t h e r e i s a f u l l - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program, and t h i r d go t o a s c h o o l where t h e r e i s a p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e , and my c o u n s e l t o them would be i n t h i s TABLE VII ECCLESIASTICAL LEADER PRODUCED PROBLEM (MISMATCH) R-D STATEMENTS RANK ORDERED ACCORDING TO FREQUENCY OF CITATION Problem (Mismatch) R-D Statements discrepant condition that the ecclesi-a s t i c a l leaders would prefer to have reduced / © i u © 4 at , ' i f f * $4 « e? Relevancy (* of "N") is; © t^f © -V/ " / / 1 Recruitment efforts by ecclesiastical leaders i s inadequate. 6 5 5 * — — 1 0 0 * 2 Ecclesiastical leaders do not understand their responsibilities regarding the part-time institute program. 6 55$ 2 7 * 7 3 * 3 Currently the part-time institute program has a low priority on the priesthood leader's l i s t of church p r i o r i t i e s . 5 4 5 * 1 0 0 * 4 Currently ecclesiastical leaders encourage students to go to BYU, Ricks College, and other church schools before these leaders encourage students to go to local schools. 5 4 5 * 1 7 * 8 3 * 5 Ecclesiastical leaders receive very l i t t l e i n -formation about part-time institutes. 4 3 6 * 2 2 * 7 9 * 6 There i s confusion and lack of understanding relative to the roles and relationships between the young adult program. 4 3 6 * 1 0 0 * TABLE V I I (CONTINUED 7 E c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s tend t o f o r g e t young a d u l t s . 8 E c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s tend t o develop the seminary s i d e o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , but n e g l e c t the i n s t i t u t e s i d e . 9 Parents do not know about o r understand the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program. 10 A d u l t s are n o t encouraged t o a t t e n d i n s t i t u t e c l a s s e s . 11 The i n s t i t u t e program i s not emphasized t o seminary s t u d e n t s . 12 P r o f e s s i o n a l s tend t o develop the seminary s i d e o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s but n e g l e c t the i n s t i t u t e s i d e . 13 P r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s t e n d t o f o r g e t the young a d u l t s once they graduate from seminary o r h i g h s c h o o l . 14 C u r r e n t l y among e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s t h e r e i s a ._ fe l t d i s t i n c t i o n o f s u p e r i o r i t y between the c o l l e g e s tudent and the n o n - c o l l e g e s tudent o f cor responding age. 15 Not a l l i n s t i t u t e c l a s s e s are h e l d i n church owned b u i l d i n g s . 16 There i s not enough emphasis on s o c i a l involvement i n the i n s t i t u t e program. 17 The " p i n k membership" i s a d y s f u n c t i o n a l method of t r y i n g t o keep t r a c k o f s tudent members. 27$ 33$ 67$ 3 2 27$ 18$ 18$ 18$ 18$ 18$ 25$ 75$ 100$ 100$ 100$ 100$ 100$ 2 1 18$ 18$ 18$ 50$ 100$ 100$ 50$ 100$ ON o 6 1 o r d e r (emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) ; u n t i l the l o c a l i n s t i t u t e can meet the young a d u l t s needs l i k e BYU and R i c k s C o l l e g e , young a d u l t s are encouraged t o a t t e n d these church s c h o o l s r a t h e r than t h e i r l o c a l i n s t i t u t e . P r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they " r e c e i v e v e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n about the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s . " T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n was the f i f t h most common problem among these l e a d e r s . S p e c i f i c a l l y t h e y s a i d : A t the monthly meeting w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n a l s and the e x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r i e s , most o f the agenda t ime i s spent d e a l i n g w i t h seminary m a t t e r s , and l i t t l e t ime i s spent d e a l i n g w i t h i n s t i t u t e m a t t e r s ; the s take p r e s i d e n c y r e c e i v e s v e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n about the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s i n t h e i r a r e a . The d i s t r i c t chairman seems h e s i t a n t t o d e a l w i t h i n s t i t u t e m a t t e r s ; the s take p r e s i d e n c y l e a r n n o t h i n g o f what i s happening a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e l y from the commissioners o f f i c e on down i n the i n s t i t u t e program; the e x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y does not r e c e i v e b r o c h u r e s , c l a s s s c h e d u l e s , i n s t i t u t e i n f o r m a t i o n , e t c . , f rom the i n s t i t u t e s i n h i s a r e a , e t c . The s i x t h most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned problem i n d i c a t e d " there i s c o n f u s i o n and l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e l a t i v e t o the r o l e s and r e l a t i o n -s h i p s between t h e young a d u l t s p r o g r a m s , " w h i l e m e n t i o n i n g as seventh " e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s tend t o f o r g e t young a d u l t s . " The e i g h t h most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d problem was " e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s t e n d t o deve lop the seminary s i d e o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , b u t n e g l e c t t h e i n s t i t u t e s i d e . " The o r i g i n a l d e s i g n a t i v e statements by these p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s were f a i r l y s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f these g e n e r a l i z e d s t a t e -ments. The remain ing rank o r d e r e d statements ( 9 through 1 7 ) were m e n t i o n -ed by l e s s than 2 0 per cent o f the p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s . The reader i n t e r -e s t e d i n each o f these remain ing statements i s r e f e r r e d t o Table V I I . Match Statements The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program t h a t the e c c l e -s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s c i t e d as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t they would p r e f e r t o have 62 m a i n t a i n e d i n the program are shown i n Table V T I I . As n o t e d , 3 p r e f e r -r e d c o n d i t i o n s were c i t e d by these l e a d e r s . The most o f t e n mentioned c o n d i t i o n was "The p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e has the a p p r o b a t i o n o f the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s . " S p e c i f i c a l l y they s a i d : The i n s t i t u t e i s f i l l i n g a need by p r o v i d i n g i n - d e p t h d o c t r i n a l e d u c a t i o n f o r members o f the s t a k e ; the i n s t i t u t e program i s a b l e t o make people d e s i r o u s , o f r e c e i v i n g r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n who p r e v i o u s l y were not d e s i r o u s ; young a d u l t s who a t t e n d have a h i g h e r concept o f the v a l u e o f e d u c a t i o n ; more i n s t i t u t e s tudents are m a r r i e d i n the temple t h a n n o n - i n s t i t u t e s t u d e n t s ; the t o t a l i n s t i t u t e program g i v e s advanced t r a i n i n g i n g o s p e l s u b j e c t s and advanced e d u c a t i o n i n d o c t r i n e and what d o c t r i n e i s a l l about , a l l under c o n t r o l l e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s , e t c . The second most o f t e n mentioned p r e f e r r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was , "The i n s t i t u t e i n s t r u c t o r s have the approbat ion o f the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s . " T h i s statement was developed from the f o l l o w i n g sample and s p e c i f i c d e s i g n a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s : The present l e v e l o f p r o f e s s i o n a l competence among the p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l i s e x c e p t i o n a l and i t i s a major f a c t o r i n h a v i n g a s u c c e s s f u l program i n my a r e a , about s i x o r seven y e a r s ago the p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s i n the a r e a p r e f e r r e d not t o support the i n s t i t u t e program because o f poor q u a l i t y o f i n s t i t u t e p e r s o n n e l s t a f f i n g the i n s t i t u t e . That s i t u a t i o n has now r e v e r s e d i t s e l f because o f the q u a l i t y o f the p e r s o n -n e l now s t a f f i n g the program, (emphasis i n o r i g i n a l s ) e t c . F o r the p r e f e r r e d c o n d i t i o n ranked t h i r d , one p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t " the p r o f e s s i o n a l s keep the s take p r e s i d e n t adequate ly in formed r e g a r d i n g i n s t i t u t e m a t t e r s . " As i n d i c a t e d i n Chapter I , the d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r o f the P a c i f i c Northwest D i v i s i o n had reques ted a body o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t i n g what problems e x i s t e d w i t h i n the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program w i t h i n h i s d i v i s i o n . The d a t a , as presented i n t h i s c h a p t e r , and the d a t a d i s p l a y s TABLE VIII ECCLESIASTICAL LEADER PRODUCED PREFERRED (MATCH) R-D STATEMENTS RANK ORDERED ACCORDING TO FREQUENCY OF CITATION W * V p 4. A, vo vy *y Pt o jy if/ Q) co ~t Preferred (Match) R-D'Statements non-discrepant condition that the ecclesiastical leaders would prefer to have maintained •n 8 +-3*S © * <V Hit Relevancy („ of "N") © o # o s © o s i The part-time institute programlhas the approbation of the ecclesiastical leaders. ^ 5 * 100* The institute instructors have the approbation of the ecclesiastical leaders. 36* 100* The professionals keep the stake president informed regarding institute matters. 9 * 100* ON 6k i n Appendix D formed the nuc leus o f the r e p o r t submit ted t o the d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r a t the c o n c l u s i o n o f the d a t a g a t h e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h -out the PND. The f i n a l r e p o r t o f i n f o r m a t i o n s u b m i t t e d t o the d i v i s i o n o f f i c e was t r i p a r t i t e . The f i r s t p a r t , i n l e t t e r f o r m , c o n s i s t e d o f a g e n e r a l i z e d summary o f the p r o b l e m a t i c and p r e f e r r e d c o n d i t i o n s as seen by the workgroups . A copy o f the p e r t i n e n t p a r t s o f t h i s l e t t e r appear i n Appendix E . The second p a r t o f the r e p o r t c o n t a i n e d c o p i e s o f each d a t a d i s p l a y as o b t a i n e d from each i n d i v i d u a l group t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the d a t a g a t h e r i n g p r o c e d u r e s . These d i s p l a y s were grouped a c c o r d i n g t o d i s t r i c t s . The t h i r d p a r t o f the r e p o r t c o n t a i n e d the rank o r d e r e d problems s i m i l a r t o Tables I I through V I I I as f o u n d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . An a n a l y s i s o f the s u b s t a n t i v e content o f the r - d - a statements generated b y t h e groups w i t h i n the PND w i l l be presented as p a r t o f Chapter V o f t h i s s t u d y . The remainder o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s a b r i e f summary o u t l i n e o f a taped i n t e r v i e w between the D i v i s i o n C o o r d i n a t o r o f the P a c i f i c Northwest D i v i s i o n and the w r i t e r . The i n t e r v i e w o c c u r r e d d u r i n g June , 1976 i n the o f f i c e o f the d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r . The i n t e r v i e w d e a l t w i t h the s u b j e c t o f how m e a n i n g f u l and u s e f u l he had found the r e p o r t t h a t had been submit ted t o h i s o f f i c e t h r e e y e a r s p r i o r . The reader i s r e f e r r e d t o Appendix F f o r a more complete r e a d i n g o f the t r a n s c r i p t made from t h i s taped i n t e r v i e w . I n essence , the d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r s a i d : (1) He had f o u n d the s tudy o f i n t e r e s t and had r e f l e c t e d upon i t many t imes as he pondered p e r s o n n e l p lacements . (2) The r e p o r t r e s u l t e d i n a re-emphasis i n the d i v i s i o n o f p r i e s t h o o d - p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s . A d d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l were moved i n t o areas o f the d i v i s i o n where there was c o n s i d e r a b l e ignorance of the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program. The r e p o r t sharpened the edge o f h i s admin-i s t r a t i v e p h i l o s o p h y . Much o f the d a t a was shared w i t h f i e l d admin-i s t r a t o r s w i t h i n the d i v i s i o n . The d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r had taken s teps t o reduce the ignorance about the i n s t i t u t e program and the r e s u l t has been a tremendous advance i n s tudent e n r o l l m e n t s . The s tudy was w o r t h r e p l i c a t i n g and w o r t h the c o s t i n t ime and c a p i t a l i t took t o produce i t . CHAPTER V AN ANALYSIS OF RELATIONS: PROBLEMS AND GROUPS The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o examine the substance o f some o f the problems i d e n t i f i e d by the t h r e e groups o f p a r t i c i p a n t s ; i n p a r t i c u -l a r , r e l a t i o n s h i p s among b o t h the c o n d i t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d and the groups i n v o l v e d . The e s s e n t i a l reason f o r e x p l o r i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n i s t h a t the outcome may f a c i l i t a t e e f f o r t s t o r e s o l v e the problems e n t a i l e d . I t i s not u n l i k e l y t h a t one o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problem may be r e l a t e d i n one way o r another t o many o t h e r s . I t i s not the i n t e n t t o d i s c u s s a l l o f the problem c o n d i t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d by the t h r e e major groups i n t h i s c h a p t e r . The reader i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n s i d e r i n g a l l the p r o b l e m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s i s r e f e r r e d t o T a b l e s I I I through V I I I i n Chapter I V , the summary o f the d a t a sent t o the d i v i s i o n o f f i c e as c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix E , and the d a t a d i s -p l a y s as f o u n d i n Appendix D . Those i tems d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n are those c o n d i t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d by the groups as b e i n g ( o r a t l e a s t h a v i n g the p o t e n t i a l o f b e i n g ) problems d e s e r v i n g a t t e n t i o n a t the PND l e v e l o f management. Problems T u r n i n g now t o the purpose o f t h i s s u b s e c t i o n , the q u e s t i o n a t hand i s — what were some o f the problem c o n d i t i o n s c i t e d b y the g r o u p s , and are these c o n d i t i o n s r e l a t i o n a l l y connected i n any way? 66 67 S t a f f R e l a t i o n s h i p s between E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Leaders and F u l l - T i m e  P r o f e s s i o n a l s An examinat ion o f the d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t the f i r s t o r most o f t e n mentioned problem c i t e d by each group, ( i . e . , the s t u d e n t s , the f u l l -t ime p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s ) had the same r e f e r -ent ~ the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s . F u r t h e r , the d i s c r e p a n c y between what each group p e r c e i v e d and p r e f e r r e d r e l a t i v e t o t h a t common r e f e r e n t was a l s o b a s i c a l l y the same. They p e r c e i v e d the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s as not f u n c t i o n i n g i n accordance w i t h the requirements o r e x p e c t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r i n s t i t u t e - r e l a t e d r o l e s ; t h e i r pre ference was t h a t t h i s c o n d i t i o n be r e v e r s e d . The s t u d e n t s o b s e r v e d , ( t h e i r most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned problem) " E c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s do not m a n i f e s t concern f o r the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i -t u t e program."'*" The f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l s noted f i r s t t h a t " E c c l e s i a s -t i c a l l e a d e r s do not f u n c t i o n i n t h e i r proper c a p a c i t y r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r p o s t - s e c o n d a r y r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . " E c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s seemed g e n e r a l l y t o c o n c u r . They s a i d i n t h e i r f i r s t ranked problem " r e c r u i t m e n t e f f o r t s by e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s are i n a d e q u a t e . " The G e n e r a l Handbook o f I n s t r u c t i o n s (1968:12) f o r p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s w i t h i n the Mormon Church s p e c i f i e s t h a t e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s have f i r s t - l i n e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e programs w i t h -i n t h e i r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n ( s t a k e s ) . As i n d i c a t e d by each o f the t h r e e groups the most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned problem was t h a t the quotes i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n are taken from the m a t e r i a l presented i n Chapter I V , as w e l l as Appendices E and D u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d . 68 e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s were v iewed as b e i n g g e n e r a l l y i n a t t e n t i v e t o t h e i r i n s t i t u t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T h i s c o n c e p t i o n was n o t o n l y shared a c r o s s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l groups — the s t u d e n t s , p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and p r i e s t -hood l e a d e r s — b u t , a l s o w i t h i n each group g e o g r a p h i c a l l y throughout the d i v i s i o n . More t h a n two out o f every t h r e e s tudent groups mentioned i t ; every p r o f e s s i o n a l group (100$) mentioned i t , and more than one out o f e v e r y two e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s noted t h i s same problem. I f i t i s assumed, f o r purposes o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , t h a t p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s were a c t u a l l y not f u n c t i o n i n g i n t h e i r p r i e s t h o o d d u t i e s w i t h r e g a r d t o the-; p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e , what might t h e r e be i n the d a t a t o suggest why t h i s c o n d i t i o n e x i s t e d ? An examinat ion o f the statements generated by the s tudents and the p r o f e s s i o n a l s suggests t h e r e i s a problem, but o f f e r s l i t t l e i n s i g h t as t o i t s cause . F o r example, the s tudents saw the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s as b e i n g " u n i n v o l v e d , " "unaware" and h a v i n g " l i t t l e o r no i n t e r e s t " i n the program. A p p a r e n t l y t h e y saw " l i t t l e s u p p o r t , " "no d i r e c t i o n , " and " n o n - r e c r u i t -ment" as ev idence f o r t h i s l a c k o f c o n c e r n . S i m i l a r l y , the f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l s saw " l a c k o f support i n s tudent r e c r u i t m e n t , " " c a s u a l announcements over the p u l p i t , " a n " o c c a s i o n -a l p o s t e r hung i n a h a l l w a y , " and f a i l u r e t o " i n i t i a t e p u b l i c i t y programs" as evidence f o r the f a i l u r e o f p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s t o f u n c t i o n i n t h e i r proper c a p a c i t y r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The p r o f e s s i o n a l s n o t e d f u r t h e r t h a t the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s d i d not seem t o "unders tand t h e i r r o l e r e l a t i v e the i n s t i t u t e program" and they appear-ed " t o g i v e the program a low p r i o r i t y . " I t i s o f i n t e r e s t t o note t h a t one must t u r n t o an examinat ion o f the 69 statements as generated by the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s (who were seen by the o t h e r groups as b e i n g the "problem") t o d e t e c t some p o s s i b l e reasons f o r the c o n d i t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d by the s tudents and p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p s . That i s , w h i l e a l l the groups saw the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s as not f u n c t i o n i n g p r o p e r l y r e g a r d i n g t h e i r i n s t i t u t e d u t i e s , i t seems t o be the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s themselves t h a t p r o v i d e some sugges t ions as t o why t h i s c o n d i t i o n e x i s t s . These seem t o s u r f a c e through an apparent i n t e r -dependence among the f i r s t 8 problem statements as generated by these l e a d e r s (see Table V I I I ) . Each o f these w i l l be examined i n t u r n . I n t h e i r most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned problem, they viewed themselves as p u t t i n g f o r t h an " inadequate " e f f o r t i n the a r e a o f t h e i r r e c r u i t m e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Assuming t h a t they a c t u a l l y were inadequate (a l though t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n the d a t a t h a t ; s p e c i f i c a l l y i n d i c a t e s what they meant by inadequate) what f a c t o r s may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s c o n d i t i o n ? Perhaps one e x p l a n a t i o n c o u l d be t h a t , because e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d -e r s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r more than a d o z e n ; o t h e r church programs w i t h i n t h e i r s t a k e s , t h e y s i m p l y d i d not know t h a t the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e p r o -gram came w i t h i n t h e i r s t e w a r d s h i p ; o r , more p r o b a b l y , t h e y knew the program came w i t h i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n , but perhaps d i d n o t unders tand the program. T h i s might be why the s tudents and p r o f e s s i o n a l s v iewed them as b e i n g uninformed about the program, however, b e i n g uninformed c o u l d be a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a t l e a s t two c o n d i t i o n s . One can be u n i n f o r m e d , meaning t h a t he does not know about the program. That i s , he l a c k s i n f o r m a t i o n about what the program i s , what i t s tands f o r , o r what i t i s about . However, t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n the d a t a t o suggest t h a t these p r i e s t -70 hood l e a d e r s were not f a m i l i a r w i t h a t l e a s t the g e n e r a l aspects o f the i n s t i t u t e program. A t no t ime d u r i n g the d a t a g a t h e r i n g e x e r c i s e o f Phase I was i t necessary t o e x p l a i n t o any o f these l e a d e r s what program the survey was i n q u i r i n g about . F u r t h e r , i t w i l l be noted t h a t the f i r s t c o n c e r n , as mentioned by the s take p r e s i d e n t s , was t h a t they were not r e c r u i t i n g t o the program. T h i s s h o u l d be evidence enough t h a t they had f i r s t , some i d e a o f the program, and second, some f e e l f o r what t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were r e g a r d i n g i t . On the o t h e r hand, a f e e l f o r o r knowledge about a program does not mean a c l e a r and o p e r a t i o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f ones r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o t h a t program; n o r does i t i n d i c a t e t h a t one knows what the program i n -v o l v e s o r what o n e ' s r o l e might be r e g a r d i n g i t . One can know about a program and s t i l l not c l e a r l y unders tand o n e ' s r o l e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h a t program. A l o o k a t the second most mentioned problem, as c i t e d by these l e a d e r s , s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h i s p o i n t . They c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d i n t h e i r second ranked problem statement t h a t " they do not unders tand t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e g a r d i n g the p a r t -t ime i n s t i t u t e p r o g r a m . " A g a i n i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t , w h i l e i n d i c a t i n g they d i d n o t unders tand t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , these p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s seemed t o sense a r e c r u i t m e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T h i s sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c o u l d have come from the G e n e r a l Handbook o f I n s t r u c t i o n s (1968:12) t h a t , under the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d " D u t i e s o f the Stake P r e s i d e n c y , " l i s t s a some-what nebulous r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o " s u p e r v i s e . . . e d u c a t i o n programs" w i t h i n the s t a k e s . I f t h i s were a s i t u a t i o n o f p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s (1) knowing o f the i n s t i t u t e program, (2) s e n s i n g a s t e w a r d s h i p r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward i t , b u t 71 (3) f a i l i n g t o understand t h e i r r o l e , g i v e n (1) and ( 2 ) , then t h e i r t h i r d most mentioned problem seems a l o g i c a l s e q u e l . They s a i d , " C u r r e n t l y the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program has a low p r i o r i t y on t h e i r l i s t o f church p r i o r i t i e s . " The low p r i o r i t y may t h e r e f o r e be a d i r e c t r e s u l t , n o t o f a l a c k o r f a i l u r e i n s e n s i n g the need t o r e c r u i t , but a l a c k o f r o l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g . I t i s o f f u r t h e r i n t e r e s t t o note t h a t more evidence concern ing t h i s c o n d i t i o n o f p o s s i b l e r o l e u n c e r t a i n t y was p r o v i d e d by t h e i r f i f t h most mentioned problem. They s t a t e d t h a t t h e y " r e c e i v e v e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a -t i o n about the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program." A g a i n , r e c e i v i n g " v e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n " seems not o n l y a p l a u s i b l e cause f o r t h e i r l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r r o l e i n the program, but a l o g i c a l p r e - c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e i r s i x t h most mentioned problem. Here they s a i d t h a t , on t h e i r p a r t , " t h e r e i s c o n f u s i o n and l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e l a t i v e t o the r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f a l l the young a d u l t programs w i t h i n the c h u r c h . 1 1 W h i l e t h e r e might be a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p among most o f these problems, i t i s the f i f t h one upon w h i c h t h i s d i s c u s s i o n f o c u s e s . But t o sharpen t h a t f o c u s , a b r i e f r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f what has been s a i d t o t h i s p o i n t may be h e l p f u l . When the groups w i t h i n the PND were g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y ( v i a the o p -e r a t i o n s o f Phase I ) t o be e r i t i c a l o f any o r a l l aspects o f t h e i r o r g a n -i z a t i o n , each group was f i r s t c r i t i c a l o f the same t h i n g — t h e e c c l e s i -a s t i c a l l e a d e r ' s r o l e v i s - a - v i s the p a r t t ime i n s t i t u t e program. N e i t h e r the s tudents n o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l s i d e n t i f i e d c o n d i t i o n s t h a t might be used t o suggest why the problem may have e x i s t e d . I t appeared t o be the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s themselves who c i t e d a c e n t r a l reason f o r i t s 72 e x i s t e n c e — t h e y r e c e i v e d v e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the i n s t i -t u t e program a n d / o r t h e i r p r i e s t h o o d r o l e i n i t . The p r o f e s s i o n a l l i k e -w i s e made l i t t l e mention o f i t . T h i s p o i n t i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t , g i v e n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n the church e d u c a t i o n a l system. T h i s i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t when i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t w i t h i n the Department o f Seminar ies and I n s t i t u t e s o f R e l i g i o n t h e r e e x i s t e d a s t a f f r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o f f i c e , o f the d i s t r i c t chairman and t h a t o f the s t a k e p r e s i d e n t (see F i g u r e 1, Chapter I ) . Because o f t h e i r s t a f f re la - -t i o n s h i p , i t i s a major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the d i s t r i c t chairman t o keep the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r i n f o r m e d r e g a r d i n g a l l aspects o f church educa-2 t i o n and the i n s t i t u t e program. T h e r e f o r e , w h i l e the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s e x p l i c i t l y c i t e d them-s e l v e s as b e i n g a problem, i m p l i c i t l y they may have i d e n t i f i e d a more c e n t r a l reason f o r the problem — a f a i l u r e on the p a r t o f the p r o f e s -s i o n a l s t o f u n c t i o n i n t h e i r r o l e as s t a f f a d v i s o r s t o the p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s . I n a w o r d , and by t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the uninformed s t a t e o f the p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s r e s t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y w i t h the f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the o f f i c e o f the d i s t r i c t cha i rman. T h e . : i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s assumpt ion , i f i t i s c o r r e c t , changes the complexion o f the problem most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned by the t h r e e g r o u p s . Where the problem appeared t o be v iewed by a l l groups as d y s f u n c t i o n a l e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s , i n r e a l i t y the c o n d i t i o n may have been t r a c e a b l e t o the f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l s . T h i s i s o f i n t e r e s t because none o f the ^ I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t w i t h i n the PND, the p o s i t i o n o f d i s t r i c t chairman was r o t a t e d p e r i o d i c a l l y , so t h a t over a course o f a few y e a r s a lmost a l l f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l s would have s e r v e d i n t h a t c a p a c i t y . 73 d a t a d i r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d the f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l as b e i n g a p a r t o f the problem. A c c o r d i n g l y , i t would seem reasonable t o ask why the p r o f e s s i o n a l s f a i l e d t o c i t e t h i s c o n d i t i o n as b e i n g a problem. One p o s s i b i l i t y i s , d e s p i t e t h e i r awareness o f the problem, they i n t e n t i o n a l l y " f i l t e r e d i t o u t " d u r i n g e x e r c i s e one. T h i s , however, seems u n l i k e l y . I t would appear more p l a u s i b l e t o argue t h a t (1) they s i m p l y were not consc ious o f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f r o l e r e g a r d i n g the p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r , (2) they were n o t consc ious o f t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p r e g a r d i n g the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program, o r (3) they n e g l e c t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r some o t h e r r e a s o n s . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y (see F i g u r e 2 , Chapter I ) , the s t a f f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the d i s t r i c t chairman c o n s i s t e d o f two major areas o f emphasis — the seminary and the i n s t i t u t e programs. There does seem t o be some evidence i n the d a t a t o suggest the p r o f e s s i o n a l s were consc ious o f and were emphasiz ing the seminary s i d e o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l -i t y . Emphasis on the seminary program was noted by a l l t h r e e g r o u p s . T h i s t h e n , may be p a r t i a l evidence s u g g e s t i n g t h a t a t l e a s t i n one fundamental r e s p e c t the s t a f f r e l a t i o n s h i p r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was unders tood and emphasized — the seminary s i d e . Why t h e n was the i n s t i t u t e s i d e a p p a r e n t l y neg lec ted? P o s s i b l y the f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l s d i d not unders tand the i n s t i t u t e r o l e o f the p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r e i t h e r , and t h e r e f o r e d i d not know how t o a d v i s e him r e g a r d i n g i n s t i t u t e m a t t e r s . However, i t c o u l d be assumed t h a t b e i n g i n s t i t u t e d i r e c t o r s a n d / o r i n s t r u c t o r s by p r o f e s s i o n , they would F o r t h a t r e a s o n , the term " d i s t r i c t chairman" and " f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n -a l " would be used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . 74 have some p r a c t i c a l concepts o f what p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s s h o u l d be d o i n g i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the i n s t i t u t e program. For example, the p r o f e s s i o n a l s , i n t h e i r f o u r t h ranked problem statement s a i d " r e c r u i t m e n t by e c c l e s i a s -t i c a l l e a d e r s i s d y s f u n c t i o n a l o r n o n - e x i s t e n t . " They o b v i o u s l y knew t h a t t h e y had r e c r u i t m e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . F u r t h e r , by v i r t u e o f t h e i r s t a f f p o s i t i o n i n a t h e o c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n , they n o r m a l l y would expect the p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r t o have f i r s t - l i n e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o " s u p e r v i s e the e d u c a t i o n a l programs" (Genera l Handbook o f I n s t r u c t i o n . 1968:12) i n t h e i r s t a k e s . Moreover , t h e y were a p p a r e n t l y c o g n i z a n t o f the r o l e o f the p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r r e g a r d i n g the seminary program. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e does not seem t o be any e x p l i c i t evidence i n the d a t a t o suggest why the p r o f e s s i o n a l s seemed not t o emphasize the i n s t i t u t e p o r t i o n o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . However, the d a t a do p r o v i d e a few statements t h a t p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t s . These statements were somewhat s c a t t e r e d and i s o l a t e d , y e t they may be r e l e v a n t t o the present q u e s t i o n . F o r example, a s m a l l group o f t h r e e p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the P o r t l a n d D i s t r i c t no ted " t h e r e are n o , o r v e r y few, brochures a d v e r t i s i n g the i n s t i t u t e program a v a i l a b l e f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l u s e . " A p r o f e s s i o n a l i n the Tacoma D i s t r i c t s a i d t h a t the i n s t i t u t e program i s not " a d v e r t i s e d l i k e the seminary p r o g r a m . " Four p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the S e a t t l e D i s t r i c t n o t e d t h a t " the successes o f the i n s t i t u t e program are not known by the l o c a l p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s . " (emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) . I t may be t h a t one cause o f the l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the i n s t i t u t e program among the p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s was the p a u c i t y o f p r i n t e d p r o m o t i o n a l m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e f o r use by the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f . P e r -haps t h i s c o n d i t i o n was i m p l i e d when two o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s s a i d , "There 75 are n e i t h e r f u n d s , t i m e , o r d i s t r i c t o r l o c a l o f f i c e s t o p r o v i d e f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l l y prepared a d v e r t i s i n g m a t e r i a l . " I f these o b s e r v a t i o n s are c o r r e c t , then a f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n may prove t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l s are d e s i r o u s o f emphasiz ing the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program, and i n s t r u c t i n g p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s i n t h e i r i n s t i t u t e r e l a t e d r o l e , but they l a c k adequate p r i n t e d p r o m o t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s and i n f o r m a t i o n . 3 F u r t h e r , s e v e r a l e c c l e s i -a s t i c a l l e a d e r s d i d say t h e y do not r e c e i v e any p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s r e l a t i v e t o the i n s t i t u t e program. I f i t i s assumed t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l s are d e s i r o u s o f advancing the program, but are l i m i t e d by a l a c k o f p r o m o t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , then the c i t e d problem o f " d y s f u n c t i o n a l p r i e s t h o o d leaders"* may be an i n t e r d e p a r t -menta l p r o b l e m . That i s , e f f e c t i v e and adequate p r o m o t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s are n o t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the PND, b u t o f the program development d e p a r t -ment i n the depar tment ' s c e n t r a l o f f i c e . I f t h i s i s t r u e , then perhaps a p a r t i a l cause o f the problem l i e s beyond the PND. F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , however, c o u l d prove t h a t the i n s t i t u t e m a t e r i a l s t h a t are b e i n g p r o v i d e d by the program development department , though l i m i t e d , are f o r reasons y e t undetermined, n o t f i l t e r i n g down t o the f i e l d l e v e l o f f i c e o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l f o r t h e i r use and d i s t r i b u t i o n . Whatever the reason f o r the apparent l a c k o f p r o f e s s i o n a l l y produced adver t i sements i n the PND, t h i s may be a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o l a c k o f p r i e s t h o o d u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e g a r d i n g the i n s t i t u t e program, and the apparent f a i l u r e o f the s t a f f r e l a t i o n s h i p r e g a r d i n g i n s t i t u t e m a t t e r s . \ subsequent examinat ion o f p r o f e s s i o n a l l y produced m a t e r i a l s promoting the seminary and i n s t i t u t e programs r e v e a l e d c o n s i d e r a b l y more seminary o r i e n t e d m a t e r i a l s t h a n those p u b l i c i z i n g the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program. Some o f the m a t e r i a l s d i d emphasize the p r i e s t h o o d r e c r u i t m e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the seminary b u t n o t the i n s t i t u t e programs. 76 The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n has advanced the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t r a t h e r than the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d y s f u n c t i o n commonaly i d e n t i f i e d by the groups throughout the PND, i t may have been the f u l l - t i m e p e r s o n n e l who p a r t i a l l y f a i l e d t o adequate ly i n f o r m the p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the i n s t i t u t e s . However, t h e r e are one o r two o t h e r statements i n the t o t a l s e t t o s u g g e s t , a t l e a s t i n a case o r two , the p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n -n e l may n o t have been e n t i r e l y c u l p a b l e . F o r example, one group o f f u l l -t ime p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the Vancouver D i s t r i c t noted two s e p a r a t e , but c o n c e i v a b l y r e l a t e d problems. They s a i d , "The d i s t r i c t chairman does not have c l o s e o r p e r s o n a l communication w i t h the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s . " The i m p l i c a t i o n was t h a t t h i s was not a p r e f e r r e d s i t u a t i o n . The same group o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s may have p r o v i d e d a t l e a s t one reason f o r the l a c k o f communicat ion. "There i s not s e t t ime o r i n v i t a t i o n extended w h e r e i n the i n s t i t u t e p e r s o n n e l can meet on a r e g u l a r b a s i s t o communicate w i t h p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s . " A c c o r d i n g t o church p r o c e d u r e , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n i t i a t i n g and e x t e n d i n g such an i n v i t a t i o n l i e s w i t h the s take p r e s i d e n t , and they s h o u l d meet a t l e a s t once a month r e g a r d i n g e d u c a t i o n mat ters w i t h t h e i r s t a f f a d v i s o r s . W h i l e t h i s may be a i s o l a t e d i n s t a n c e , i t i s c e r t a i n l y c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t e l sewhere . I f these c o n d i t i o n s , o r ones s i m i l a r t o them, do e x i s t i n o t h e r a r e a s , then a d d i t i o n a l p r i n t e d p r o m o t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s may be o f l i t t l e v a l u e u n l e s s e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s a l s o are meeting w i t h t h e i r s t a f f a d v i s o r s c o n c e r n i n g i n s t i t u t e m a t t e r s . One a d d i t i o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n can be made. W h i l e i t was mentioned by o n l y 27 per cent o f the p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s , i t may be a c o n d i t i o n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the problem o f i n e f f e c t i v e p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s h i p . These 77 p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s v o l u n t e e r e d t h a t t h e y " t e n d t o f o r g e t the young a d u l t s o f the c h u r c h . " There i s n o t h i n g i n the d a t a t o i n d i c a t e c l e a r l y what t h e y meant by " f o r g e t " but the statement c o u l d suggest t h a t , due t o the p r e s s o f numerous o t h e r programs f o r w h i c h they are d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e , they may be l e s s a t t e n t i v e t o the young a d u l t s o f the c h u r c h . T h i s tendency t o n e g l e c t the young a d u l t may be a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f a l a c k o f r o l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e overburden , a n d / o r c o n f u s i o n r e g a r d i n g the r o l e o f the v a r i o u s young a d u l t programs o f the c h u r c h . G i v e n the f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n , the e i g h t h most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned concern may be v iewed as a consequence. They noted " e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s t e n d t o d e v e l o p the seminary s i d e o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , but n e g l e c t the i n s t i t u t e s i d e . " Summary. By way o f summary, the f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n has suggested t h a t g e n e r a l l y throughout the P a c i f i c Northwest D i v i s i o n t h e r e e x i s t s , as f a r as i n s t i t u t e mat ters are concerned , a l e s s t h a n e f f e c t i v e s t a f f r e l a t i o n -s h i p between e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l r e g a r d i n g i n s t i t u t e r e l a t e d m a t t e r s . S u p p o r t i v e o f t h i s c o n c l u s i o n are d a t a t h a t suggest (1) p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s do l i t t l e e f f e c t i v e r e c r u i t i n g , (2) they are n o t c l e a r about t h e i r i n s t i t u t e - r e l a t e d r o l e s , and (3) they r e c e i v e l i t t l e o r no i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g i n s t i t u t e m a t t e r s . W h i l e i t i s f a r f rom c e r t a i n , the d a t a may i n d i c a t e some o f the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g these c o n d i t i o n s : (1) l a c k o f p r i n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n o u t l i n i n g the r o l e o f p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s and promoting the i n s t i t u t e s , (2) a tendency f o r p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s t o n e g l e c t young a d u l t s , (3) s take p r e s i d e n t s not e s t a b l i s h i n g o r m a i n t a i n i n g r e g u l a r l y scheduled meetings w i t h t h e i r s t a f f a d v i s o r s , (k) a f a i l u r e o f d i s t r i c t chairmen t o keep 78 p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s i n f o r m e d , and (5) a tendency t o emphasize the seminary program by ( p o s s i b l y ) b o t h the s take p r e s i d e n t s and the f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l s . E x c e p t i o n . By way o f a c o n t r a s t t o t h i s e n t i r e d i s c u s s i o n , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e r e was one s take p r e s i d e n t who s a i d t h a t he f e l t he was k e p t adequate ly i n f o r m e d r e g a r d i n g i n s t i t u t e mat ters i n h i s s t a k e . That i s , he i m p l i e d the s t a f f r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i m s e l f and the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e was f u n c t i o n i n g as i t s h o u l d . I f t h i s was i n d e e d the c a s e , and f u r t h e r i n q u i r y a s c e r t a i n e d why t h i s was s o , the f i n d i n g s might p r o v i d e u s e f u l g u i d e l i n e s f o r examining o t h e r d i s t r i c t s and f o r d e t e r m i n i n g causes o f apparent f a i l u r e . T h i s a l s o would be o f v a l u e i n a s s e s s i n g the accuracy o f the sugges t ions made i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . One f i n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n — t h i s same s take p r e s i d e n t o f f e r e d what he c o n s i d e r e d the "key t o a s u c c e s s f u l i n s t i t u t e p r o g r a m . " He s a i d : The ' k e y t o s u c c e s s ' f o r a s u c c e s s f u l i n s t i t u t e program i s f o r the p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r t o i n s i s t on h a v i n g good p r o f e s -s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l s t a f f i n g the i n s t i t u t e program i n h i s a r e a . The l o c a l b i s h o p s can r e c r u i t s t u d e n t s t o e n r o l l i n the i n s t i -t u t e program, but i t i s the p r o f e s s i o n a l i n s t r u c t o r who keeps them t h e r e . Some s tudents w i l l a t t e n d out o f l o y a l t y t o t h e i r b i s h o p o r t h e i r p a r e n t s , but the q u a l i t y o f the t e a c h e r i s the most i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r i n keeping the s tudent e n r o l l e d . I n o t h e r w o r d s , when the p r i e s t h o o d gets them i n t o the program, i t i s the p r o f e s s i o n a l s who keep them t h e r e , (emphasis i s : i n o r i g i n a l ) I f , as t h i s d i s c u s s i o n has been i n t e n d e d t o s u g g e s t , a c e n t r a l problem i s an i n e f f e c t i v e s t a f f r e l a t i o n s h i p between the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s and the p r o f e s s i o n a l s , the f o r e g o i n g statement by a s take p r e s i d e n t i n d i c a t e s t h a t the s t a f f r e l a t i o n s h i p i s c e r t a i n l y not the o n l y f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a s u c c e s s f u l i n s t i t u t e program. 79 . An Unknown Program The g e n e r a l l a c k o f i n s t i t u t e - r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n n o t e d by the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s seems t o be r e l a t e d t o o t h e r problems i d e n t i f i e d by the t h r e e major groups o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . F o r example, the second most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned problem by the s tudent groups was t h a t the i n s t i t u t e program was unknown among the g e n e r a l church membership. T h i s problem was c i t e d by 65 per cent o f the s t u d e n t s . T h i s was the f i f t h most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned problem among the f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l s w i t h 75 per cent s e e i n g t h i s as an u n d e s i r a b l e c o n d i t i o n . Among the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s i t was the n i n t h most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned c o n c e r n . I f i t i s assumed t h a t t h i s c o n d i t i o n was a r e a l i t y i t i s o f some i n t e r e s t t o i n q u i r e about f a c t o r s t h a t may be r e l a t e d t o i t . The most obvious p o s s i b i l i t y would seem t o be the problem d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . As n o t e d , the s take p r e s i d e n t s are t o s u p e r v i s e the r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n programs w i t h i n the s t a k e . I f t h e y , as l e a d e r s , a r e uninformed r e g a r d i n g the program and t h e i r r o l e r e l a t i n g t o i t , i t seems a n a t u r a l consequence t h a t the f u r t h e r down the h i e r a r c h i c a l c h a i n one descends , the more d i f f u s e d and c l o u d e d i n s t i t u t e mat ters become, u n t i l f i n a l l y , a t the g e n e r a l l e v e l o f c h u r c h membership, knowledge o f the program may be so d i f f u s e d t h a t the program i s v i r t u a l l y unknown. However, t h e r e may be o t h e r c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h i s c o n d i t i o n . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d f rom the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n t h a t , among the t h r e e major g r o u p s , t h e r e appeared t o be some c o n f u s i o n c o n c e r n i n g the r o l e o f the v a r i o u s young a d u l t programs w i t h i n the c h u r c h . Lack o f c l a r i t y r e g a r d i n g these programs c o u l d impede the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program. That i s , u n t i l the 80 roles o f v a r i o u s young a d u l t groups are c l a r i f i e d and e s t a b l i s h e d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o each o t h e r , d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n s t i t u t e r e l a t e d i n f o r m a -t i o n des igned t o make the i n s t i t u t e program known c o u l d a c t u a l l y cause o r i n c r e a s e u n c e r t a i n t y i n the minds o f the g e n e r a l church membership. Such an e f f o r t c o u l d r e s u l t i n c o n f u s i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y r e p l a c i n g the absence o f knowledge about the i n s t i t u t e s . T h e r e f o r e , r o l e c l a r i f i c a t i o n between the v a r i o u s young a d u l t groups seems a p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r any m e a n i n g f u l e f f o r t t o p u b l i c i z e the i n s t i t u t e program.^ Other f a c t o r s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , the f a c t t h a t the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program i s r e l a t i v e l y new w i t h i n the P a c i f i c Northwest D i v i s i o n may alone account f o r some o f the g e n e r a l i g n o r a n c e . S i x y e a r s p r i o r t o t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e were a p p a r e n t l y o n l y a few s c a t t e r e d p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e programs w i t h i n the PND.^ T h i s would suggest a l a c k o f e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t e t r a d i t i o n s ; when combined w i t h the r e a l i t y o f a c o m p a r a t i v e l y new program, b o t h f a c t o r s c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o the g e n e r a l ignorance concern ing the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s . Another mat ter c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the r e l a t i v e o b s c u r i t y o f the program may be t h a t the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program i s j u s t t h a t — p a r t - t i m e . The f a c t t h a t i t i s p a r t - t i m e c o u l d cause i t t o be v iewed as a m a r g i n a l program not o n l y by the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s and f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l s , ^Subsequent t o d a t a g a t h e r i n g exper ience o f t h i s s t u d y , but p r i o r t o the w r i t i n g o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , the Mormon Church d i d take d e f i n i t e s teps t o c l a r i f y , by o f f i c i a l pronouncement from the p r e s i d e n t o f the c h u r c h , the r o l e s o f the young a d u l t programs o f the c h u r c h , i n c l u d i n g the i n s t i t u t e program. 5A search o f the f i l e s o f the d i v i s i o n o f f i c e r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e were no r e c o r d s k e p t on p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s p r i o r t o 1968, which was the y e a r the P a c i f i c Northwest D i v i s i o n was c r e a t e d . 81 but by the g e n e r a l church membership as w e l l . C l a r k (1956:327-326) ob -s e r v e d t h a t when programs are viewed as b e i n g p e r i p h e r a l o r "non-mandatory, " c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d and l e g i t i m i z e d programs f o r p o s i t i o n s , b u d g e t s , and support may r e s u l t i n t h e i r " b e i n g c u t the f i r s t and most s e v e r e l y " when i t comes t o the a l l o c a t i o n o f these r e s o u r c e s . The d a t a o b t a i n e d by t h i s s tudy does suggest a d e f i n i t e l y l i m i t e d a l l o c a t i o n o f t ime and o t h e r support by the p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s and f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program. The f a c t t h a t i t i s a p a r t - t i m e program may cause i t t o be viewed as m a r g i n a l by i t s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and s t a f f a d v i s o r s , and t h e r e f o r e , j u d g i n g by C l a r k ' s comments, i t woul d n o t be too s u r p r i s i n g t o l e a r n t h a t the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n knows l i t t l e about i t . Given C l a r k ' s o b s e r v a t i o n , i t seems reasonable t o suggest t h a t some o f the problems i d e n t i f i e d by the t h r e e major groups o f i n s t i t u t e a s s o c i a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f a c t t h a t the program i s p a r t - t i m e , and these problems may c o n t i n u e as l o n g as the i n s t i t u t e , by d e f i n i t i o n , remains a p a r t - t i m e , non-mandatory program. Recrui tment W h i l e the r e c r u i t m e n t problems, as mentioned by the t h r e e major groups o f i n s t i t u t e a s s o c i a t e d p e r s o n n e l , may a l s o be a n a t u r a l and e x p e c t -ed consequence o f the two f o r e g o i n g problems ( i . e . , d y s f u n c t i o n a l s t a f f r e l a t i o n s h i p s and g e n e r a l ignorance o f the program) the l a c k o f adequate r e c r u i t m e n t deserves s p e c i f i c a t t e n t i o n . The reader w i l l r e c a l l t h a t inadequate r e c r u i t m e n t was the f i r s t problem c i t e d by the p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s . F o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l s , 70 p e r cent expressed t h e i r concern about r e c r u i t m e n t , making i t t h e i r f o u r t h 82 ranked problem. Among the 27 problems noted by the students, this was their third most frequent concern. While specific reasons for the absence of effective recruitment efforts are not delineated i n the data, and the assumption here i s that they are, i n part, a consequence of the conditions discussed above, the correction of these problems may not necessarily result i n improved recruitment by priesthood leades. Given the fact that recruitment was the f i r s t concern of the ecclesiastical leaders (as well as being their responsibility,) informing them more precisely of their priesthood role regarding the institute program i s no assurance that effective recruit-ment w i l l follow; nor i s there any assurance that increasing the general memberships' knowledge of the program w i l l likewise result i n improved recruitment. The point here i s that as Schein ( 1 9 6 5 : 1 0 , l 8 f f) has observed, effec-tive recruitment can be an involved and complex process, requiring, as he says, the application of "scientific c r i t e r i a " to the whole recruitment process. What i s being suggested here i s that, according to the data, there seems to be broad agreement throughout the PND that there i s l i t t l e or no recruitment effort within the part-time institute program, and that this situation i s undesirable. Therefore, increasing communication between ecclesiastical leaders and their staff advisors, and among the general church membership may be a necessary but not a sufficient condition for developing effective recruitment programs. Thus, i n addition to the need to improve the information exchange between the ecclesiastical leaders and their staff advisors and the church generally, there may be an equal need to develop 8 3 s y s t e m a t i c and s c i e n t i f i c a l l y sound r e c r u i t m e n t programs w i t h i n the PND.° B u t , as p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , w h i l e i n i t i a l r e c r u i t m e n t i s a p r i e s t h o o d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n l i k e the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s , g e t t i n g s tudents t o e n r o l l i n the program may be one t h i n g , keeping them e n r o l l e d may be a n o t h e r . I n e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n i t was p o i n t e d out t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o one p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n keeping s tudents e n r o l l e d i n a t o t a l l y v o l u n t a r y program l i k e the i n s t i t u t e s may be the q u a l i t y o f the i n s t r u c t o r s . Perhaps the q u a l i t y o f the i n s t r u c t o r w i l l determine i n l a r g e p a r t whether o r not r e c r u i t e d i n s t i t u t e s t u d e n t s s t a y e n r o l l e d i n the program. I f t h i s i s t r u e , t h e n improved r e c r u i t m e n t e f f o r t s w i t h i n the PND may extend beyond the PND t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the Departments ' p e r s o n n e l d i v i s i o n . That i s , more adequate r e c r u i t m e n t w i t h i n the PND may depend not o n l y on improved r e c r u i t m e n t by p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s a t the l o c a l l e v e l , b u t on the q u a l i t y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the r e c r u i t m e n t programs o f the C h u r c h ' s p e r s o n n e l o f f i c e . A c c o r d i n g l y , any e f f o r t s t o improve s t u d e n t r e c r u i t m e n t w i t h i n the PND w i l l p r o b a b l y be o f o n l y l i m i t e d success i f t h e y are undertaken a p a r t f rom the h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s and s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a o f the c h u r c h ' s department o f p e r s o n n e l . ^ h e d e s i g n s o f such programs c o u l d i n c l u d e some o f S c h e i n ' s ( 1 9 6 5 : 1 0 , l 8 f f ) c r i t e r i a such as the development o f " p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s , " w h i l e a t the same t ime c o n s i d e r i n g some o f the h i g h e r l e v e l s o f p e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n as o u t l i n e d by Maslow ( 1 9 ^ 3 : 3 7 0 - 3 9 6 ) , p a r t i c u l a r l y as t h e y might a p p l y t o the young a d u l t s o f the Mormon C h u r c h . F u r t h e r , such programs c o u l d i n c l u d e some e v a l u a t i o n mechanism, perhaps as suggested by Drucker ( 1 9 7 3 * ^ 3 - 6 0 ) f o r p e r i o d -i c a l l y a u d i t i n g the o b j e c t i v e s and r e s u l t s o f r e c r u i t m e n t e f f o r t s and programs. 84 P h y s i c a l F a c i l i t i e s A commonly observed problem w i t h i n the PND was a concern f o r the l a c k o f "adequate" o r " c h u r c h owned" p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s i n w h i c h p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e c l a s s e s and a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d be h e l d . F o r the s t u d e n t s , t h i s was t h e i r e i g h t h ranked concern w i t h 38 per cent ment ion ing i t as a problem. E i g h t y - n i n e p e r c e n t o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l s c i t e d t h i s as a prob lem, making i t t h e i r t h i r d most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned problem, w h i l e 18 per c e n t o f the s take p r e s i d e n t s mentioned i t , making i t t h e i r f o u r t e e n -t h ranked problem s ta tement . I t i s church-wide p o l i c y t h a t , i n o r d e r f o r a l o c a l i n s t i t u t e b u i l d -i n g t o be b u i l t , t h e r e must be 100 m a t r i c u l a t i n g Mormon s tudents a t a p o s t -secondary p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . Where t h e r e were l e s s t h a n 100, c l a s s e s were t o be h e l d i n l o c a l Mormon c h a p e l s i f a v a i l a b l e , and i f n o t then t h e y were t o be h e l d i n r e n t e d o r p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s . W h i l e church p o l i c y , f o r the p r e s e n t , may prevent the r e s o l u t i o n o f t h i s problem (by p r o v i d i n g church owned f a c i l i t i e s f o r a l l p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s ) the commonality o f concern a c r o s s the PND f o r l a c k o f adequate p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s may i n d i c a t e a need f o r the c h u r c h t o i n v e s t i g a t e the adequacy o f the f a c i l i t i e s p r e s e n t l y used t o see i f t h e y c o u l d be improved and t h e r e b y made more s u i t a b l e t o l o c a l p a r t i c i p a n t ' - n e e d s and the g e n e r a l g o a l s f o r the i n s t i t u t e program. S o c i a l A c t i v i t i e s The f i n a l problem t h a t was i d e n t i f i e d s e p a r a t e l y by each o f the t h r e e groups c e n t e r e d on the p o l i c i e s o f the c h u r c h r e g a r d i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e i n s t i t u t e s t o conduct s o c i a l o r e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . The s t u d e n t s , i n t h e i r n i n t h ranked problem statement s a i d , "There are n o t 85 enough e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n s t i t u t e p r o -grams. " The p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the second ranked problem statement s a i d , "There i s not an e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g the r i g h t s o f the i n s t i t u t e s t o have s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , " and the s take p r e s i d e n t s s a i d , "There i s n o t enough emphasis on s o c i a l involvement i n the i n s t i t u t e p r o -gram. 11 T h i s statement was ranked s i x t e e n t h . About the t ime the d a t a g a t h e r i n g phase o f t h i s s t u d y c o n c l u d e d , and b e f o r e the r e p o r t was s u b m i t t e d t o the d i v i s i o n o f f i c e , the g e n e r a l a u t h o r -i t i e s o f the church i s s u e d a church-wide p o l i c y statement r e g a r d i n g t h i s c o n d i t i o n . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s were removed f rom the i n s t i t u t e and g i v e n t o a newly c r e a t e d young a d u l t agency. A p p a r e n t l y church a d m i n i s t r a t o r s had a l r e a d y observed t h i s t o be a problem, presumably one w h i c h e x i s t e d i n o t h e r a r e a s , and t h e y c o n s i d e r e d i t an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l prob lem. The d a t a o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s tudy would t e n d t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h a t p o s i t i o n . P r e f e r r e d C o n d i t i o n s As n o t e d e a r l i e r , the groups t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the Phase I o p e r a -t i o n s were a l s o encouraged t o i d e n t i f y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the i n s t i t u t e s t h a t t h e y would p r e f e r t o have m a i n t a i n e d o r c o n t i n u e d as p a r t o f the i n s t i t u t e program. As i n d i c a t e d i n Tab le I I o f Chapter I V , the t h r e e groups devoted o n l y 22 per cent o f t h e i r t o t a l r - d - a statements t o p r e f e r -r e d o r "match" c o n d i t i o n s . These statements were subsumed under more g e n e r a l i z e d headings (as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I I ) the r e s u l t s a p p e a r i n g i n T a b l e s I V , V I , and V I I I i n Chapter I V . 86 A p p r o b a t i o n o f the i n s t i t u t e program There was o n l y one p r e f e r r e d c o n d i t i o n t h a t was i d e n t i f i e d by a l l t h r e e g r o u p s . Each group seemed t o express t h e i r a p p r o b a t i o n o f the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program. Among the s t u d e n t s , t h i s was t h e i r second most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned p r e f e r r e d c o n d i t i o n . The same c o n d i t i o n seemed t o be i m p l i e d by the t h i r d ranked statement o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and among the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s i t was the most o f t e n mentioned f a v o r -a b l e c o n d i t i o n . A p p a r e n t l y , w h i l e the s take p r e s i d e n t s approved o f the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program, they n e v e r t h e l e s s tended t o n e g l e c t i t , p o s -s i b l y f o r the reasons mentioned e a r l i e r . There were no statements produced anywhere by any o f the t h r e e groups t h a t i n d i c a t e d t h a t the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program ought t o be t e r m i n a t e d , o r t h a t i t was o u t d a t e d o r a n o n - r e l e v a n t program. T h i s , o f c o u r s e , does n o t mean those f e e l i n g s may n o t have e x i s t e d . B u t , g i v e n t h a t 756 r - d - a s tatements were produced by v a r y i n g and d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s , o f t e n separa ted by s e v e r a l thousands o f m i l e s , t h a t they were encouraged t o be c r i t i c a l , and t h a t the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s were o f c o l l e g e age, the f a c t t h a t n o t one i n d i c a t e d t h a t the i n s t i t u t e program, as a program was i r r e l e v a n t , suggests g e n e r a l and s t r o n g s u p p o r t . T h i s seems a somewhat c u r i o u s c o n d i t i o n . Perhaps i t i s a r e s u l t o f the n o n - c r i t i c a l norm w i t h i n the c h u r c h , y e t the d a t a do suggest t h a t the groups seemed f a i r l y open i n t h e i r c r i t i c i s m s . One reason might be t h a t perhaps o n l y those who f i n d the program r e l e v a n t p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t . A survey o f the i n s t i t u t e " d r o p - o u t s " may p r o v i d e d a t a t h a t i n d i c a t e s the program i s v iewed as i r r e l e v a n t o r outmoded, a t l e a s t t o them. Y e t i t seems reasonable t o assume t h a t some o f the s tudents who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y c o u l d have then been i n the process o f d r o p p i n g o u t . I f they 87 w e r e , and i f i t was because o f program i r r e l e v a n c y , they a t l e a s t had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o say s o . On the o t h e r hand, perhaps the s tudents and o t h e r i n s t i t u t e a s s o c i a t -ed persons " l i k e d " the program and d i d f i n d i t r e l e v a n t . There are sugges t ions o f t h i s k i n d among the statements r e p o r t i n g p r e f e r r e d c o n d i -t i o n s . F o r example, s tatements l i k e "The i n s t i t u t e p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n -i t y t o l e a r n about the c h u r c h , " " I t p r o v i d e s a ba lance between s p i r i t u a l and academic s t u d i e s , " i'The i n s t i t u t e program p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o defend p e r s o n a l r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s , " and " i t ' s a g r e a t way t o b e g i n the d a y " are somewhat i n d i c a t i v e o f the s t u d e n t ' s assessment o f the program's d e s i r a b i l i t y . W h i l e these are n o t c o n c l u s i v e , the f a c t t h a t the s tudents were so w i l l i n g t o c r i t i c i z e those who were most r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r o -gram c o u l d be c o n s t r u e d as an a d d i t i o n a l i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r p o s i t i v e assessment o f the program's w o r t h . That i s , t h e y might have f e l t a p r o -gram t h a t they c o n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t was b e i n g n e g l e c t e d , and t h e y r e a c t e d by c r i t i c i z i n g those who have f i r s t l i n e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . There were two o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s where t h e r e was shared a p p r o b a t i o n . Those d e a l t w i t h the i n s t i t u t e i n s t r u c t o r s and the manuals used by the s t u d e n t s . The f i r s t ranked f a v o r e d c o n d i t i o n c i t e d by the s tudents i n d i c a t e d t h a t the f u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r s had t h e i r a p p r o b a t i o n . T h i s was i n d i c a t e d by 52 per cent o f the s t u d e n t s . T h i s c o n d i t i o n ranked t h i r d among the statements generated by the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s . I f , as p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , r e c r u i t m e n t e f f o r t s were a c t u a l l y i n -adequate w i t h i n the PND, t h e n t h i s m a t t e r o f i n s t r u c t o r ' s a p p r o b a t i o n by s t u d e n t s c o u l d r e i n f o r c e the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a s u g g e s t i o n made e a r l i e r — 88 the importance of having quality instructional staff i n the institute program. That i s , i t seems to propose that students i n the institute program tend to remain enrolled not because of priesthood recruitment, but because, i n part, they "like their instructor." This would seem to reemphasize the need for local recruitment programs to be integrated with the recruitment programs of the personnel office of the church. Lack of Unrest Before concluding this discussion concerning relations among problem-atic and preferred conditions, one additional comment seems appropriate. I t i s related to the above discussion dealing with the apparent lack of criticism about the program's relevance. This study was made during the academic year 1972-73. This was a time not far removed from the sometimes violent student protests and social unrest of the late sixties and early seventies. This was a time for challenging institutions and institutionalism, and of demanding great-er individual voice i n social processes. Institutionalized religion, along with most other forms of organizations came under the spate of c r i t i c a l attack (see for example, McClellan, 1962; Mead, 1964; Glock et. a l , I 967) . Yet, curiously, there seems to be no challenge directed against the institutional nature of the institute program and l i t t l e c a l l for any increased individual voice by the participants. The only explici t indication was a nineteenth ranked problem-statement where 16 per cent of the students desired to "have a voice i n determining courses or content of courses i n the institute program." There was no indication of requests for more democratic type of orientation by any of the three groups. There seemed an absence of social unrest and overall dissatisfaction. At least t h e r e seemed t o be l i t t l e i n the d a t a t o suggest any such s t a t u s . The o n l y i n d i c a t i o n came from 40 o f 249 s tudents who d e s i r e d a v o i c e i n c u r r i c u l u m m a t t e r s . A g a i n , w h i l e s i l e n c e may not mean an absence o f such f e e l i n g s , i t may be an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the Mormon C h u r c h , and the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s o f r e l i g i o n , t e n d t o s u b s c r i b e t o i t s c e n t r a l i z e d a u t h o r i t y s t r u c t u r e and accept i t s t h e o -c r a t i c o r i e n t a t i o n s as w e l l as the i n s t i t u t e program i t s e l f . CHAPTER VI A CRITIQUE OF METHODOLOGY As mentioned i n Chapter I, one of the purposes of this study was to identify and analyze problems associated with the program referred to as the part-time institutes of religion. This purpose arose out of a request from the PND division coordinator relative to his concern for the part-time institutes within his administrative jurisdiction. Chapter II provided a basic orientation to relevant organizational features of the Mormon Church and to Phase I, the technology selected to obtain the data. Chapter III described the procedures through which the data were obtained with the results presented i n Chapter IV. The preced-ing chapter (Chapter V) provided a substantive analysis of the problems identified and their relations to groups emphasized i n the study. The purpose of this chapter i s to critique the methodology f i r s t by examin-ing the question of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the data, and then by examining the operations through which they were obtained. Re l i a b i l i t y Of Data As has been noted, the three groups of institute associated person-nel generated 756 r-d-a statements. The question; of this section now becomes a question of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the statements. Re l i a b i l i t y , as used here, refers to the "trustworthiness" of the information provided by the participants ~ i.e. , can the statements be relied upon as providing accurate descriptions of actual conditions within the PND? Because any measure or description of anything i s usually a symbolic 90 91 r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the t h i n g measured o r d e s c r i b e d , ^ - the q u e s t i o n becomes — "How c l o s e l y do the r e c o r d e d r - d statements generated by the groups r e p r e s e n t a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the PND? How dependable are t h e y ? " That i s , t o what e x t e n t might management r e l y on the statements c o m p r i s -i n g the d a t a as t r u s t w o r t h y i n d i c a t i o n s o f what a c t u a l l y e x i s t e d i n the " r e a l w o r l d " o f the i n s t i t u t e program? M i g h t managers rely upon them t o the degree t h a t t h e y c o u l d c o n f i d e n t l y implement p o l i c i e s and procedures d e s i g n e d t o m o d i f y ( o r m a i n t a i n ) the c o n d i t i o n s i n q u e s t i o n ? The i n t e n t o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r o v i d e some t e n t a t i v e answers t o these q u e s t i o n s . G i v e n the absence o f any independent source o f c o n f i r m a t i o n , t h i s d i s c u s -s i o n must r e l y upon a l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a i n the attempt t o determine the degree o f d e p e n d a b i l i t y a c h i e v e d . F i r s t , i t seems reasonable t o assume t h a t the accuracy o f the groups i n i d e n t i f y i n g a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s would be i n f l u e n c e d by how they might have reacted t o the d a t a g a t h e r i n g p r o c e s s . Helrastadter (1970:273) no ted t h a t " r e a c t i v e e f f e c t s " were a "major source o f i n v a l i d i t y " i n many r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s . G i v e n the Phase I as a research t o o l , 2 what r e a c t i v e e f f e c t s might have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t ' s use t h a t c o u l d have i n f l u e n c -ed the d e p e n d a b i l i t y o f the data? A second c o n d i t i o n t h a t c o u l d i n f l u e n c e x F o r example, the r - d - a statements r e c o r d e d on the f o u r - b y - s i x cards werennot the a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t were p e r c e i v e d t o e x i s t i n the i n s t i -t u t e program. They were relatively s t a t i c - s y m b o l i c a b b r e v i a t i o n s i n -d i r e c t l y representing dynamic , complex, and real-life c o n d i t i o n s i n a " r e a l p e o p l e " o r g a n i z a t i o n . These r - d - a statements are j u s t the "nubs" o f the problem. 2 G i v e n the dimensions o f H e l m s t a d t e r ' s (1970:28) "taxonomy o f research," the m o d i f i e d Phase I would be d e s c r i b e d as a r e s e a r c h t o o l i n the f o l l o w i n g d i m e n s i o n s : (1) as t o b r e a d t h o f a p p l i c a t i o n ~ s e r v i c e r e s e a r c h (as opposed t o a c t i o n , a p p l i e d , o r p u r e ) ; (2) as t o the l e v e l o f outcome — d e s c r i p t i v e r e s e a r c h (as opposed t o p r e d i c t i v e o r d i a g n o s t i c ) ; (3) as t o degree o f c o n -t r o l — f i e l d r e s e a r c h (as opposed t o l i b r a r y o r l a b o r a t o r y ) . These , o f c o u r s e , are broad g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . 92 the trustworthiness of the data would be the degree to which objectivity was maintained throughout the entire data gathering experience. This section w i l l examine the questions of objectivity as well as that of possible reactive effects. Objectivity A matter related to the implementation of Phase I as a research tool having a direct bearing on the dependability of the data, was the objective with which i t was employed. Objectivity, as used here, refers to the degree to which the operations and i t s products were free from the personal bias and/or error of the employer of the operations. While objectivity must be considered a goal and not an accomplished state, what safeguards existed within the instrument i t s e l f (and i t s products) to prevent or minimize user bias from influencing the outcome? The generation of r-d-a statements. As reported i n Chapter III, during the actual applications of the exercises of Phase I, the research-er indicated to each group that he would not offer any contributions to the content of the r-d-a statements, other than to ensure that they per-tain to the institute and follow the r-d-a format. Operationally, this was easily achieved. A l l that i t required was to ensure that he offered no r-d-a statements. This condition was s t r i c t l y observed i n each group setting. The original r-d-a statements were then transferred from the acetate film to the four-by-six cards exactly as they appeared on the f i n a l 3 acetate. Then the cards were categorized and rank ordered, and from 3The only exceptions were where grammatical changes required to make the original r-d-a statements complete sentences. 9 3 these categorizations the individual group data displays (Appendix D) were created. It was possible to this point to keep the data relatively free from the bias of the researcher. Thematic categorization of statements. But what of interpreter's influence on classifying the statements once they were produced? It is at this point of identifying common themes among the statements, that the researcher's subjective influence would most likely occur. As soon as the researcher undertook this operation, he had to rely on his impressions as to which statements did and did not belong together, and at that point his influence had entered the procedures and, presumably, the outcome of interpretation. This point seems even more evident when i t is realized that another person attempting to classify the same state-ments may have grouped them differently, and this in turn could have altered the conclusions discussed in the previous chapter, as well as the conclusions of the report that was submitted to the division office. This possibility supports the need for a change in the manner in which the data were thematically arranged, and hence interpreted. It is recommended that in any future use of Phase I, the participating groups be given sufficient time at the conclusion of exercise four to categorize their own r-d-a statements (as a group) according to the group's deter-mination of what statements do or do not belong together.^ This change in procedure at least would have removed the researcher's influence on ^ h i s recommendation is provided for in Phase I. That i s , following exercise four, Phase I does provide the mechanism for group clustering. As mentioned previously, time limitations prevented use of this mechanism. 94 the classifications that were used.^ However, the readers of this study (or the readers of the report sent to the divisionooffice) are not entirely dependent upon the researcher's interpretation. The "designative" and "appraisive" state-ments as they appear on the data displays in Appendix D, with the exception of the "referents"^ could be considered "raw" data and thus relatively free from interpretation by the user of the technology. While the report (Appendix E) submitted to the division office was a reflection of the researcher's interpretation of what he thought the data revealed, the readers of the report (and this study) had before them the original data displays against which the conclusions of the rsport could be compared. In conclusion then, as a research tool Phase I seems to minimize the possibility of the researcher's influence, provided the clustering exercise is accomplished by the group rather than the employer of the technology. Check on interpreter bias. Given the fact that the clustered r-d-a statements, as discussed above, did reflect the impressions of the researcher, a further procedural recommendation seems appropriate. As a possible "check" on the accuracy of these impressions (and the conclurr sions contained in the division report) the administrators in the division office might have returned a summary of the report to the groups saying, in 5The issue i s , of course, what classifying (clustering) procedures prove useful for the purposes in view. This must remain an open question until steps are taken to solve the problems and the outcomes of such efforts are known. See Chapter III for an explanation of the error that modified the original referents. 95 e f f e c t , "We ( the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) r e c e i v e d t h i s summary o f the problems you i d e n t i f i e d . I s t h i s r e a l l y what y o u ' r e t r y i n g t o t e l l u s ? " T h i s p r o -cedure would be a r e l a t i v e l y s imple o p e r a t i o n and c o u l d serve as one means o f a s c e r t a i n i n g the accuracy o f the c o n c l u s i o n s reached by the r e s e a r c h e r . A procedure o f t h i s k i n d may have been b e n e f i c i a l i n o t h e r ways as w e l l , but these w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r under the s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h s tudent outcomes. R e a c t i v e e f f e c t s . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n now examines some p o s s i b l e group r e a c t i o n s t o the procedures o f Phase I t h a t a d d i t i o n a l l y may have i n f l u e n c e d the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the d a t a . A r g y r i s (1971:12-15) found t h a t when respondents p e r c e i v e a reques t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n ( o r the i n f o r m a t i o n i t s e l f ) as p o t e n t i a l l y t h r e a t e n i n g o r dangerous, they may a v o i d c e r t a i n i s s u e s , t e n d i n g , i n s t e a d , t o i d e n t i f y s u p e r f i c i a l and unimportant m a t t e r s . ' D i d the respondents t o Phase I p e r c e i v e t h e i r involvement i n the reques t t o i d e n t i f y problems w i t h i n the i p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous? I t seems reasonable t o assume t h a t w i t h i n most b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e s i n f o r m a t i o n c o n s t r u a b l e as d e r o g a t o r y o r o t h e r w i s e uncomplimentary t o one ' s immediate l i n e s u p e r v i s o r c o u l d be regarded as p o t e n t i a l l y h a r m f u l not o n l y t o the immediate l i n e s u p e r i o r s , but a l s o t o the person o r persons i m m e d i a t e l y s u b o r d i n a t e . An examinat ion o f the d a t a suggests t h a t no t o n l y were the respondents c r i t i c a l o f t h e i r f i r s t l i n e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s u p e r v i s o r s , t h e y were h i g h l y c r i t i c a l . As n o t e d , the most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned c r i t i c i s m s o f a l l t h r e e major groups were d i r e c t e d a t the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s . I f the respondents viewed the reques t f o r i n f o r -mat ion as t h r e a t e n i n g , o r the i n f o r m a t i o n as p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous, a t 96 l e a s t i n t h i s a r e a they seemed u n h e s i t a n t t o generate i n f o r m a t i o n o f an h i g h l y uncomplimentary f l a v o r . T h i s r e s u l t would seem t o speak i n f a v o r o f the d e p e n d a b i l i t y o f the i n f o r m a t i o n genera ted . C l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d i s a phenomenon r e f e r r e d t o by Thompson (1961: 138) as " i m p r e s s i o n management." Impress ion management o f i n f o r m a t i o n occurs when i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e n t i o n a l l y c o n t r o l o r f i l t e r " u p f l o w i n g " i n f o r m a t i o n i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t o r c r e a t e a f a v o r a b l e image o f themselves i n the eyes o f t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s . The degree t o w h i c h i m p r e s s i o n managed i n f o r m a t i o n was present i n the d a t a o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y , would be the degree t o w h i c h the d a t a would be o f q u e s t i o n a b l e r e l i a b i l i t y . As noted , i n Table I I , (Chapter IV) the h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f c r i t i c a l r - d - a statements t o n o n - c r i t i c a l statements ( i n a d d i t i o n t o the c r i t i c a l c o n t e n t ) seemed t o f u r t h e r support the d e p e n d a b i l i t y o f the d a t a — i . e . , i t appeared t o be r e l a t i v e l y f r e e f rom the e f f e c t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n managed f o r the p u r -pose o f c r e a t i n g a f a v o r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n . Another r e a c t i v e e f f e c t o f t e n encountered i n g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s k i n d i s respondent s u s p i c i o n . Respondents who are s u s p i c i o u s o f the r e s e a r c h e r a n d / o r h i s d a t a g a t h e r i n g procedures can be the source o f u n r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . Kelman (I967), i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f the use o f d e c e p t i o n by r e s e a r c h e r s , conc luded t h a t , among the more s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e s e a r c h s u b j e c t s , t h e r e was a growing m i s t r u s t o f the r e s e a r c h e r , a t -t r i b u t a b l e t o the d e c e p t i v e p r a c t i c e s o f t e n used by r e s e a r c h e r s i n o b t a i n -i n g t h e i r d a t a . A r g y r i s (1970:95), i n the same c o n n e c t i o n , has noted t h a t , a t t i m e s , r e s e a r c h s u b j e c t s "deve lop new games t o one-up the r e s e a r c h e r . " Because the r e s e a r c h e r was a s t r a n g e r t o most o f the g r o u p s , and b e -cause he was j u s t t h a t — a r e s e a r c h e r (and one w i t h " o f f i c i a l s t a t u s " as 9 7 a s s i s t a n t d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r r e p r e s e n t i n g the d i v i s i o n o f f i c e ) the respondents may have been somewhat s u s p i c i o u s o f h i s purposes . I f s o , the d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a may have been i n t e n t i o n a l l y d i s t o r t e d i n some measure. A technique employed as p a r t o f e x e r c i s e three o f the Phase I p r o -cedures may have s e r v e d t o reduce the tendency f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o produce i n t e n t i o n a l l y d i s t o r t e d s t a t e m e n t s . ' ' ' As d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I I , and as a p a r t o f e x e r c i s e t h r e e , the group members were asked t o determine i f t h e r e were any " u n t r u e " s ta tements . " U n t r u e " meant t h a t the r - d - a s t a t e -ment, o r , more p a r t i c u l a r l y , the r - d component, d i d not a c c u r a t e l y "map" e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t e program. Those statements t h a t the group f e l t were i n a c c u r a t e were e i t h e r r e j e c t e d o r m o d i f i e d so as t o more a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t " r e a l " s i t u a t i o n s d u r i n g t h i s e x e r c i s e . T h e r e f o r e , any i n t e n t i o n a l l y m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e statements would t e n d t o be c o r r e c t e d by the group d u r i n g t h i s e x e r c i s e . There i s one f u r t h e r mat ter t o be c o n s i d e r e d concern ing the q u e s t i o n o f the d e p e n d a b i l i t y o f the d a t a o b t a i n e d i n i n t h i s s t u d y . A r g y r i s ( 1 9 7 0 : 1 7 ) has proposed t h a t t h e r e are s e v e r a l t e s t s f o r check ing the . r e l i a b i l i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n , one o f w h i c h i s " p u b l i c v e r i f i a b i l i t y . " V a l i d a t i o n by p u b l i c v e r i f i a b i l i t y occurs when " s e v e r a l independent d iagnoses suggest the same p i c t u r e . " ( 1 9 7 0 : 1 7 ) . W h i l e there was o n l y one b a s i c procedure f o r o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ( i . e . , Phase I ) and o n l y 7 l f t h e r e had been a group c o n s p i r a c y t o f a l s i f y d a t a , then e x e r c i s e t h r e e would n o t have d e t e c t e d such group a c t i o n . A group c o n s p i r a c y however, would presuppose some knowledge o f e x e r c i s e t h r e e by the group b e f o r e the group processes began, and t h i s would have been h i g h l y i m p r o b a b l e . 98 one researcher using that procedure, many independent groups participated i n the process. These were groups of students, professionals, and ecclesiastical leaders. Further, there were many independent and geo-graphically divergent groups within these three categories. Phase I was used with 30 separate groups of students, 6 groups of professionals, and 11 groups of ecclesiastical leaders. An examination of the information produced by these 4-7 groups reveals that they identified the same problem in some cases, and similar problems i n many cases (see Chapter IV). When problems showing a marked degree of similarity are produced by otherwise divergent groups, the criterion of public v e r i f i a b i l i t y i n the sense discussed by Argyris appears to have been met. I f so, this outcome pro-vides additional support for the dependability of the data obtained through the instrumentality of Phase I.® Critique of Operations The intent of this section i s to examine the whole of the operational aspects of Phase I and i t s u t i l i z a t i o n within the PND. Some of the strengths of the operations, as well as manifest weaknesses or limitations w i l l be considered. Positive acceptance of Phase I. Fi r s t , by way of a general observa-tion, overall there seemed to be a positive acceptance of the exercises of sArgyris (1970:17) proposes public v e r i f i a b i l i t y as a "low power" type of verification. He says: "there are several tests for checking the val i d i t y of the information. In increasing degrees of power they are public v e r i f i a b i l i t y , v a l i d prediction, and control over the phenomena." 99 Phase I by the three major groups throughout the PND.9 For example, at the conclusion of the exercises, i t was not uncommon among the student groups for the students to express their feelings about the experience i n which they had just participated. Statements such as "That's a good way to get information," "We ought to do that more often," "I liked that approach to research, where did you get i t ? " were expressed. I f there Q were any negative feelings about the1 processes, they were never expressed i n the presence of this writer. < The same held true among the full-time professionals. About one-fourth of the professional staff held doctorates (the rest held at least a masters degree) and had had some experience with research. Several professionals were at that time actively engaged i n research projects of their own. On two different occasions two of these active researchers indicated that prior to their exposure to the exercises of Phase I they were curious as to the method of research they would be exposed to, and both, after the experience of Phase I, expressed satisfaction (from a research perspective) of having participated i n the exercise. As noted, the foregoing favorable participant response to the exercises was a generalized impression. This section now turns to an examination of more specific elements of the operational question. The Manual. The reader w i l l r e c a l l that Brissey and Nagle i n their ?There was nothing i n the r-d-a statements to overtly substantiate this observation. It was a cumulative observa-tion of this writer as he employed Phase I among the groups throughout the PND. 1 0 0 Consultant's Manual for a Systematic Approach to Joint Problem-Solving ( 1 9 7 2 ) , suggest that the set of related exercises w i l l enable work-groups to identify some of their role associated problems. This writer attempted to employ these exercises i n a consistent manner across the PND. However, as the exercises were employed among the groups (especial-l y among the ecclesiastical leaders), this writer frequently f e l t the need to "shorten" or combine segments of the exercises that i n the Manual were separated by sometimes lengthy and detailed discussions. That i s , his exposure to and training i n accordance with the Manual, l e f t him with an impression that the exercises ought to be followed quite closely. At times during the practical employment of the procedures, and when the mechanics of the exercises were adhered to somewhat ri g i d l y , an impatience was generated among some of the participants. I f the Manual i s published at some future date, i t might well include a more explicit emphasis on the flexible nature of the exercises.^ - 0 Exercise One. The Manual ( 1 9 7 2 ) i n introducing "Exercise One," sug-gested i n preparation for the group problem survey exercise, that a large blank sheet of newsprint be taped to a f l a t wall i n f u l l and easy view of the participants. This writer began his data gathering with an attempt to use the newsprint method, but soon changed to what he f e l t was a more operational method ~ an overhead projector. The reasons for this change were several: ( 1 ) not a l l groups associated with the part-time i n s t i -tutes met i n classrooms. Some met in chapels, rented f a c i l i t i e s , or The Manual ( 1 9 7 2 ) i s not entirely void of sUch emphasis (see "Exercise Three," P. 33 for example.) Nor do the author's imply a "cookbook" approach i n instructing consultants. The point here i s a 101 p r i v a t e homes. I t was q u i c k l y learned, t h a t , u n l e s s the newspr in t was d o u b l e d , the f e l t t i p pens used t o r e c o r d the r - d - a statements c o u l d mark the w a l l b e h i n d the n e w s p r i n t ; (2) i n some meeting p l a c e s , ( e . g . , some p r i v a t e homes) t h e r e s i m p l y was not an a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e t o mount the newsprint ; ; (3) s i n c e t h e r e was no t ime l e f t f o r the group t o c l u s t e r the r - d - a statements a f t e r e x e r c i s e f o u r ( o f t e n the room had t o be v a c a t e d f o l l o w i n g the g r o u p ' s meeting) the n e w s p r i n t became cumbersome when the attempt was l a t e r made t o t r a n s f e r the o r i g i n a l r - d - a statements from the n e w s p r i n t t o the f o u r - b y - s i x c a r d s . I t was f o r these reasons he p r e f e r -r e d the use o f the overhead p r o j e c t o r . The ace ta te f i l m s e r v e d as a convenient r e c o r d o f each g r o u p ' s work a t the c o n c l u s i o n o f each e x e r c i s e . The r e c o r d e r . The Manual (1972) suggests t h a t a " r e c o r d e r " be s e l e c t e d f rom among the group members t o r e c o r d the r - d - a statements d u r i n g e x e r c i s e one . T h i s procedure appeared t o be a key element i n the i n i t i a l d a t a g a t h e r i n g p r o c e s s e s . The r e s e a r c h e r was a s t r a n g e r t o most o f the groups he e n t e r e d . A c c o r d i n g l y , as was d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , he may have been regarded w i t h some degree o f s u s p i c i o n o r u n c e r t a i n t y . The use o f the r e c o r d e r , who was a known member o f the e s t a b l i s h e d group, enabled the r e s e a r c h e r t o wi thdraw f rom the group d u r i n g e x e r c i s e one , and perhaps l e s s e n such f e e l i n g s i f they e x i s t e d . As e x e r c i s e one proceeded, the workgroups had o p p o r t u n i t y t o become more f a m i l i a r w i t h some o f the elements o f Phase I and w i t h the r e s e a r c h e r s u g g e s t i o n t h a t perhaps the o p e r a t i o n a l f l e x i b i l i t y o f the " E x e r c i s e s " (as t h i s term i m p l i e s ) c o u l d be emphasized t o a g r e a t e r degree w i t h i n the M a n u a l . 102 i n h i s r o l e o f process m o n i t o r . I n many c a s e s , a f t e r the group was 5 o r 6 minutes i n t o e x e r c i s e one, i t was not necessary f o r the m o n i t o r t o make f u r t h e r comments t o the g r o u p , and he c o u l d withdraw f rom the group and thus a l l o w t h a t a c t i v i t y t o become s o l e l y t h e i r own. The survey i n s t r u c t i o n s . The m a t e r i a l e n t i t l e d "A Survey o f the P a r t - t i m e I n s t i t u t e s o f R e l i g i o n " (Appendix B) was d i s t r i b u t e d t o each o f the g r o u p ' s members. I t p r o v i d e d an o u t l i n e o f what the procedures were i n t e n d e d t o a c c o m p l i s h . I t seemed t o be an a p p r o p r i a t e and d i r e c t way t o i n s t r u c t group members and i t r e q u i r e d o n l y a few ininutes t o g i v e the needed i n s t r u c t i o n s . However, i f t h i s w r i t e r \ w e r e t o use i t a g a i n , he would i n c l u d e w i t h the l i s t o f g e n e r a l i z e d " s t a r t e r " c a t e g o r i e s , a l i s t o f s p e c i f i c s as w e l l — e s p e c i a l l y f o r the s tudent g r o u p s . I t was not uncommon f o r s t u d e n t groups ( e s p e c i a l l y the younger ones) t o l o o k a t the g e n e r a l i z e d c a t e g o r i e s and ask "What do you mean?" A l i s t o f s p e c i f i c s might have h e l p e d t o c l a r i f y what was i n t e n d e d . F o r example, a t y p i c a l g e n e r a l i z e d ca tegory read s i m p l y " c o u n s e l i n g . " A s p e c i f i c example might have been — | " I would c o u n s e l more w i t h my i n s t r u c t o r i f he had more t ime a v a i l a b l e t o h i m . " W h i l e the i n t e n t o f u s i n g the more a b s t r a c t c a t e g o r i e s was t o suggest as b r o a d l y as p o s s i b l e g e n e r a l areas o f p o t e n t i a l concern ( w h i l e a t the same t ime t o a v o i d s u g -g e s t i n g the s p e c i f i c content o f r - d - a s tatements) some s p e c i f i c examples may have h e l p e d t o c l a r i f y the i n s t r u c t i o n s . The compromise i s obvious b u t p r o b a b l y not too s e r i o u s . E x e r c i s e Two* E x e r c i s e two deserves some comment. T h i s e x e r c i s e was d e s i g n e d t o a l l o w p a r t i c i p a n t s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o assess t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d -i n g o f the v a r i o u s r - d - a ststeraents proposed by the members o f the g r o u p . 1 0 3 I t at tempted t o do t h i s by h a v i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i v i d u a l l y i n d i c a t e t h e i r l e v e l o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g on a s c a l e f rom 1 t o 7 , w i t h 7 i n d i c a t i n g " h i g h " u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Due t o r e s t r i c t i o n s o f t i m e , o n l y those statements r e c e i v i n g s e v e r a l r a t i n g s o f 5 o r lower were opened t o d i s c u s s i o n f o r f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . T h i s c o u l d have a f f e c t e d the accuracy o f the g r o u p ' s f i n a l product i n two ways . F i r s t , i t meant t h a t the r - d - a statements r e c e i v i n g l e s s than t h r e e " f i v e s " u s u a l l y went u n c l a r i f i e d . There was n o t s u f f i c i e n t t ime t o d i s c u s s e v e r y low r a t i n g . T h i s meant t h a t those i n d i v i d u a l s who gave a low r a t i n g t o t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f an i t e m l a t e r p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the a c c e p t -ance and r e l e v a n c e r a t i n g s f o r t h a t i t e m , w h i l e c o n c e i v a b l y t h e y d i d n o t f u l l y unders tand what t h e y were r a t i n g . To the degree t h a t t h i s o c c u r r e d , the f i n a l r e l e v a n c e r a t i n g s c o u l d have become somewhat d i s t o r t e d and , t h e r e -f o r e , l e s s than c l e a r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f group p e r c e p t i o n . The second problem a l s o arose f rom the press o f t i m e , but i t c o n c e r n -ed those p a r t i c i p a n t s who gave h i g h r a t i n g s , ( i . e . , s i x s o r sevens) t o t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the r - d - a s ta tements . A h i g h r a t i n g e x h i b i t e d by a p a r t i c i p a n t was no assurance t h a t h i g h unders tanding had i n f a c t been a c h i e v e d . I f t ime had p e r m i t t e d , the m o n i t o r might have " t e s t e d " such h i g h r a t i n g s . For example, p a r t i c i p a n t s might have been reques ted t o " p a r a -phrase" the r - d - a s tatements t h e y r a t e d h i g h . F o l l o w i n g the p a r a p h r a s i n g , the a u t h o r o f the statement might have been asked i f t h a t was what he meant, t h e r e b y p r o v i d i n g a "check" on whether the person who had i n d i c a t e d h i g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g had a c t u a l l y a c h i e v e d i t . A g a i n , the degree t o w h i c h h i g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g r a t i n g s m i s r e p r e s e n t e d a c t u a l unders tandings i s the " S e v e r a l " u s u a l l y meant 3 o r more. 104 degree t o which the g r o u p ' s product may have been f u r t h e r contaminated by i n a c c u r a c i e s . T h i s suggests a p r o c e d u r a l change f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n any f u t u r e u t i l i z a t i o n o f e x e r c i s e two. I f the employer of the e x e r c i s e i s c o n c e r n -ed about o b t a i n i n g d a t a as " c l e a n " as the e x e r c i s e w i l l p e r m i t , he may want t o schedule h i s a c t i v i t y w i t h the groups t o i n c l u d e s u f f i c i e n t t ime t o p e r m i t the c l a r i f i c a t i o n s o f a l l low r a t i n g s , and the t e s t i n g , through p a r a p h r a s i n g , o f the h i g h ones . Such a c o n s i d e r a t i o n may be w o r t h i m p l e -menting even i f i t meant i n v o l v i n g fewer g r o u p s . I f , a t some f u t u r e d a t e , a Phase I I a n d / o r Phase I I I (see Manual .1972) were u s e d , such an approach c o u l d be v iewed as e s s e n t i a l i f the workgroups were t o j o i n t l y generate s o l u t i o n p l a n s c a l c u l a t e d t o reduce o r e l i m i n a t e the d - a d i s c r e p a n c i e s d e t e c t e d through Phase I . C l u s t e r i n g . As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the p r o c e d u r a l e r r o r t h a t caused t h i s w r i t e r the most concern was h i s removal o f the o r i g i n a l " r " components f rom the f o u r - b y - s i x c a r d s i n h i s attempt t o c l a s s i f y the i n f o r m a t i o n under more g e n e r a l h e a d i n g s . I n o r d e r t o h e l p e l i m i n a t e t h i s e r r o r i n any f u t u r e uses o f Phase I , i t i s suggested t h a t the f o l l o w i n g be implemented as i t appears on the c a r d format i n Appendix C — " T h i s ITEM would be under the f o l l o w i n g G e n e r a l H e a d i n g . " T h i s a d d i t i o n t o the c a r d wo uld p r o v i d e f o r the r e c o r d i n g o f a g e n e r a l r e f e r e n t , i f one i s needed, w h i l e a t the same t ime p r e s e r v i n g the o r i g i n a l r e f e r e n t . As n o t e d , t ime l i m i t a t i o n s prevented the groups f rom c l a s s i f y i n g t h e i r own i t e m s . I t i s h i g h l y c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t i f the groups had been p e r m i t t e d t o undertake t h e i r own c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , the r e s u l t i n g c l u s t e r s may have been d i f f e r e n t a n d , i f s o , t h i s d i f f e r e n c e q u i t e c o n c e i v a b l y 1 0 5 would have i n f l u e n c e d the n a t u r e o f the problems r e p o r t e d t o the d i v i s i o n o f f i c e . As B r i s s e y and Nagle i n d i c a t e , ( M a n u a l , 1 9 7 2 : 1 1 1 - 3 8 ) a t a s k r e q u i r i n g the g r o u p ' s members t o achieve consensus as t o w h i c h r - d - a statements b e l o n g t o g e t h e r and w h i c h do n o t , can become a complex p r o c e s s , and no two groups may c l u s t e r the r - d - a statements i n the same manner. The p r o v i s i o n o f more o p e r a t i o n a l t ime w i t h each group would permi t the group t o undertake t h i s t a s k , and i t would h e l p e l i m i n a t e any s u b j e c t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f the s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l l a t e r a t t e m p t i n g t o c l u s t e r the i tems a c c o r d i n g t o h i s own judgments. Fur thermore , i f members o f the group had been p e r m i t t e d t o r e c o r d the f i n a l r - d - a statements on the f o u r - b y - s i x c a r d s , i t woul d have saved the r e s e a r c h e r the hours t h a t i t took t o t r a n s -f e r 7 5 6 r - d - a statements t o i n d i v i d u a l c a r d s . Summary The a n a l y s i s i n the f o r e p a r t o f t h i s chapter has suggested t h a t g e n e r a l l y the r - d - a statements deve loped by the p a r t i c i p a n t s appear t o be r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f c o n d i t i o n s a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d w i t h -i n the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s o f r e l i g i o n . I n a c c u r a c i e s , t o the degree t h e y e x i s t , woul d more than l i k e l y have r e s u l t e d from the r e s e a r c h e r ' s s u b j e c t i v e i n f l u e n c e d u r i n g the c l u s t e r i n g p r o c e s s e s , r a t h e r t h a n from any m e t h o d o l o g i c a l e r r o r o r l i m i t a t i o n . CHAPTER VII THE RESPONSE FROM MANAGEMENT AND AN ASSESSMENT OF PROCESS The reader w i l l r e c a l l that the two purposes of this dissertation were ( 1 ) to identify for the division coordinator of the PND problems within the part-time institute program, and ( 2 ) to assess the appro-priateness of the use of Phase I within those institutes as a part of the Mormon Church, The former purpose was the subject of the previous chapter. This chapter w i l l address i t s e l f to the later purpose. Report of Outcomes and the View of Management The basic information obtained from the three sets of participants, the analysis of this information, and the assessment of i t s dependability a l l appeared to warrant sufficient confidence i n the outcomes to proceed with the preparation of a report for the division coordinator of the PND. Accordingly, the information derived from Phase I of the Brissey-Nagle ( 1 9 7 2 ) operations was compiled and used as the basis of the requested report. The report consisted of ( 1 ) copies of the basic data produced by each individual group (Appendix D), ( 2 ) rank ordered summaries for each major group (similar to Tables III through VIII i n Chapter IV) and ( 3 ) a l e t t e r of explanation and summary, a portion of which i s found i n Appendix E.^ That report was submitted i n June, 1 9 7 3 to the division xThe portionsriof the report that are not present i n Appendix E were basically similar to the discussions of the data as found i n Chapter V, An Analysis of Relations: Problems and Groups. 1 0 6 10? coordinator. The submission of the report concluded the contractual role of the researcher as assistant division coordinator. It w i l l also be remembered that three years later, i n June of 1976, the researcher interviewed that same division coordinator, who s t i l l was serving i n that capacity. The purpose of the interview was to "find out what happened" once the report had been submitted to the division office. The interview was tape recorded, a transcript of that recording i s presented i n Appendix F. The purpose of this section i s to examine more closely some of the relevant content of that interview. The quota-tions used in the following discussion are taken from the transcript as found in Appendix F. The i n i t i a l question addressed to the division coordinator asked i f , after three years, the submitted report had been "helpful" to the division office. (While the report could have been "helpful" i n several ways — used to bring negative sanctions against personnel, or as a means to "weed out" trouble makers, or to help administrators respond in a positive and constructive manner to genuine requests, etc. — the terra l",helpful" was meant to imply the positive and constructive mode of managerial response. The division coordinator apparently interpreted the term as i t was meant, and so responded.) I t may be construed that he indicated the usefulness of the report to his office when (1) he said that he had reflected on the content of the report "many times" as. he "ponder-ed personnel placements around the division," (2) he used the report to "substantiate his thinking" as he considered "priesthood circumstances i n need of professional development," (3) he found i t "a good background document . . . to f a l l back on," and (4) " i t served to sharpen the edge 108 o f h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p h i l o s o p h y . " He noted t h a t a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s he s t i l l m a i n t a i n e d the r e p o r t i n h i s o f f i c e and c o u l d " p u l l i t o f f the s h e l f anytime he needed i t . " The second q u e s t i o n was i n t e n d e d t o move beyond the g e n e r a l i t i e s of the f i r s t q u e s t i o n by a s k i n g f o r s p e c i f i c examples o f how h e , as the c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t o r o f the PND, a c t u a l l y had used the i n f o r m a t i o n . He mentioned t h r e e s p e c i f i c u s e s . F i r s t , he s a i d t h a t s h o r t l y a f t e r he r e c e i v e d the i n f o r m a t i o n , " re-emphasis on p r i e s t h o o d - p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s " became agenda i tems i n d i v i s i o n f a c u l t y meet ings . I n a d d i t i o n t o these agenda i t e m s , the i n f o r m a t i o n was used d u r i n g "many i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n s w i t h f i e l d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , " and l a s t l y , the i n f o r m a t i o n was used i n d e c i s i o n s t o h i r e a d d i t i o n a l p e r s o n n e l t o h e l p "erase the i g n o r a n c e " t h a t e x i s t e d c o n c e r n i n g the i n s t i t u t e program. The f i r s t two q u e s t i o n s , as d i s c u s s e d above, were des igned t o i n q u i r e about the u s e f u l n e s s o f the i n f o r m a t i o n presented i n the r e p o r t . But t h e r e are many more f a c e t s o f u t i l i t y than those j u s t ment ioned. I n f o r m a t i o n t h a t might appear t o have a g r e a t v a l u e i n one o p e r a t i o n a l a rea can have a n e g a t i v e and even d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t e l s e w h e r e . ^ The next seven paragraphs b r i e f l y d i s c u s s a d d i t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n a t t e m p t i n g t o a s c e r t a i n the v a l u e o f i n f o r m a t i o n based on Phase I o p e r a t i o n s t o the management o f the P a c i f i c Northwest D i v i s i o n . z P e r h a p s a t r a g i c and somewhat f r i g h t e n i n g example o f t h i s appears i n S i n g e r and Wooton's (1976), p r o v o c a t i v e "The Triumph and F a i l u r e o f A l b e r t S p e e r ' s A d m i n i s t r a t i v e G e n i u s ; I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C u r r e n t Management Theory and P r a c t i c e , " J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d B e h a v o r a l S c i e n c e : 12(1):79-103. Speer was H i t l e r ' s M i n i s t e r o f Armaments and War d u r i n g the T h i r d R e i c h . 1 0 9 Managerial needs* Presumably, managers who i n i t i a t e surveys or other forms of information gathering activity, have some preliminary expectations as to what kind of information those activities w i l l produce and i t s relevance to their needs. Not that they can necessarily a n t i c i -pate the detailed substantive results of the ac t i v i t i e s , but they have a generalized view of their needs and, therefore, can judge how closely the information actually acquired matched those needs. In a word — and with respect to the present study, "Did the activity produce the type of information management wanted?" When the division coordinator was asked about this, he replied that "the report was adequate i n scope and i n depth." Dependability of information. Did the senior manager have confidence i n the data? Did he f e e l that he could depend upon the information sufficiently to accept i t as a description of real conditions? When asked about this point, the division coordinator responded by saying not; only did he "believe what the study bore out," but that i t had also "vindicat-ed the beliefs" of other f i e l d administrators. Costs i n time and capital. The expenditure of time to conduct this study was an entire academic year — from September 1 9 7 2 through June 1 9 7 3 • The financial investment was high. An assistant division coordinator, the researcher was salaried on a full-time basis, given a f u l l expense account, and given secretarial privileges during the course of that year. When the division coordinator was asked i f , given these cost factors, he would recommend the study be conducted again .-he replied, "yes." 110 Interorganization effects. While discussing ecological systems, Barry Commoner (1971:33) wrote that the " f i r s t law" of ecology was that "everything i s connected to everything else." While ecological systems may be considerably different from organizational "systems," an implica-tion of Commoner's view i s — an activity i n one part of an organization can, and usually does, effect other parts of the organization. A variant of this view i n the present context i s whether the employment of the Phase I activities within the PND had apparent effects, negative or positive, on any other operations within the PND or other parts of the organization with which i t istrelated? The division coordinator was asked i f the division office was aware of any adverse effects either during or after the data gathering ac t i v i t i e s that could be directly attributed to them. The division coordinator responded i n the negative and added that he had received positive feed-back from full-time professionals who had been involved. There i s , however, nothing i n his answer that indicates the views of the other two groups — the students and the ecclesiastical leaders. Were their impressions the same or different from those of the professionals? Although the interview yielded no information bearing on this question, such information would be worth having, particularly when i t i s considered that the professionals were interrelated operationally with both groups. Repetition. A common sense approach to determining the administra-tive value of an activity designed to acquire information, would be to ask the administrator i f he f e l t the information was of sufficient value that he would be inclined to repeat i t . As noted above, the division coordina-tor stated that he would repeat i t even though the time and financial investments were high. I l l T r a n s f e r a b i l i t y . Higher l e v e l s o f church a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , beyond the PND, a p p a r e n t l y were unaware o f the p r o j e c t d e s c r i b e d i n these pages. To d a t e , Phase I has not been o f f i c i a l l y used i n any o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t w i t h i n the Mormon C h u r c h . The o n l y s u b s t a n t i v e i n d i c a t i o n c o n c e r n -i n g i t s p o t e n t i a l t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y t o o t h e r areas o f the church i s the statement o f the d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r . When asked i f he would recommend t h i s type o f i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g process be used i n o t h e r church u n i t s he responded " I w o u l d . " H i s response must be taken c a u t i o u s l y ^ More than l i k e l y , the d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r saw the whole exper ience i n l i g h t of the outcomes r a t h e r than i n l i g h t o f the p r o c e s s . H i s a c t u a l knowledge o f the o p e r a t i o n s was p r o b a b l y c u r s o r y . T h e r e f o r e , any c o n c l u s i o n s as t o the t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y t o o t h e r church u n i t s must be q u a l i f i e d w i t h t h i s l i m i t a -t i o n . R e s u l t s . As used i n t h i s c o n t e x t , t h i s aspect o f u t i l i t y i s i n t e n d e d t o address the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s — " G i v e n the s u b s t a n t i v e outcomes o f the survey and the subsequent a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n , what have been the o v e r a l l r e s u l t s ? " More s p e c i f i c a l l y , "Have the d i s c r e p a n c i e s e n t a i l e d i n problems t h a t were i d e n t i f i e d been reduced o r e l i m i n a t e d ? " W h i l e i t i s obvious t h a t these q u e s t i o n s may r e f e r t o the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e a c t i o n as much as t o the c o r r e c t n e s s o f the b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n , n e v e r t h e l e s s these two p o s s i b i l i t i e s are c l e a r l y i n t e r r e l a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o o v e r a l l outcomes. I n any c a s e , as a r e s u l t o f the r e p o r t , the d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r i n t e r p r e t e d i t s " c e n t r a l theme as i n d i c a t i n g a need f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s . . . t o meet more f r e q u e n t l y and do a b e t t e r job o f i n d o c -t r i n a t i n g p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s concern ing the church e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m . " Three y e a r s a f t e r the implementa t ion o f c o r r e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n , the 112 coordinator said: I'm sure the 'chain' has been this way — the study prompted and sharpened the edge of my administrative philosophy; /we've moved more professional people in/ . . . and a l l of that has resulted i n a tremendous advance in enrollment. While i t may be the case that the division office has not objective-l y sought to ascertain i f the "ignorance" of the priesthood leaders has indeed been reduced, and while there very probably are other factors also affecting enrollment, the division coordinator saw the "tremendous advance in enrollments" as a valued outcome related to the study. Outcomes Applicable to Institute Associated Personnel Students. To date the students have remained uninformed regarding the substantive nature of the outcome of the data obtained i n this study. The individual student saw and was aware of only the r-d-a statements his group produced. This raises the question of the desirability of providing information to students concerning the r-d-a statements (or a summary of them) produced by other students and/or professional and ecclesiastical groups. Why should such information be made available to the student groups? There are several reasons for such a move. Fi r s t , to help dispel the phenomenon Hoopes (1969) suggests i s often associated with bureaucratic organizations. In speaking of the upward flow of information, that i s , from lower to higher levels of the organization, Hoopes observed that individuals i n a highly centralized bureaucratic structure often f a i l to communicate their true feelings upward because they fe e l i t would be f u t i l e . Factual information i s often not communicated upward because of the belief that i t w i l l not be heard. I f Hoopes' phenom-enon does exist within the PND (there i s nothing i n the data to suggest i t 113 does o r does n o t ) and i f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s are concerned w i t h i t , i t may have been o f b e n e f i t t o have a t l e a s t r e t u r n e d t o the s tudent groups a g e n e r a l summary o f responses f rom o t h e r groups t o i n d i c a t e t o the s tudent t h a t — " y o u , as a member o f an i n s t i t u t e c l a s s , can be heard i n t h i s g i g a n t i c s t r u c t u r e c a l l e d the Mormon C h u r c h . We have read what you s a i d , and what o t h e r s tudents have s a i d , and w e ' r e s h a r i n g t h e i r comments w i t h y o u . " Such an approach seems t o open up an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e i s s t i l l impor tant t o the c h u r c h . F u r t h e r , i f i n t h r e e o r f o u r y e a r s , the d i v i s i o n d e c i d e d t o repeat t h i s ( o r another ) method o f o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , some o f those same s tudents may s t i l l be e n r o l l e d i n the i n s t i t u t e program. These s tudents may be even more w i l l i n g t o communicate r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n upward i f t h e y knew t h a t t h e y c o u l d be heard a t " the c e n t r a l o f f i c e . " There may be o t h e r i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s i n t h i s p r o c e d u r e , such as s i m p l y p e r m i t t i n g groups t o examine c o m p a r a t i v e l y the responses o f o t h e r workgroups f a c e d w i t h s i m i l a r problems. I n t u r n , t h i s may c o n t r i b u t e t o i n c r e a s e d i n t e r g r o u p communication and i n t e r a c t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n ; a type o f " c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n " o f i d e a s about o t h e r problems and t h e i r p o s s i b l e c a u s e s . A c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r however, as t o whether such i n f o r m a t i o n i s t o be made a v a i l a b l e t o o t h e r groups may be the t ime a n d / o r c o s t e n t a i l e d i n p r o d u c i n g and d i s s e m i n a t i n g i t . Another outcome o f the a c t i o n s t h a t were taken on the b a s i s o f the r e p o r t , a c c o r d i n g t o the d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r , has been i n c r e a s e d s tudent e n r o l l m e n t s . T h i s outcome i s c l e a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e the g o a l o f the c h u r c h e d u c a t i o n system i s t o e n r o l l as many as p o s s i b l e o f the young people" : 114 o f the church i n the c h u r c h ' s r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l programs. F u l l - T i m e P r o f e s s i o n a l s . F o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n s t i t u t e program w i t h i n the PND, some a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n s , a c c o r d -i n g t o the d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r , w e r e : (1) the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f agenda i tems a t s t a f f meetings f o r the purpose o f " reemphas iz ing p r i e s t h o o d -p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . " ; (2) p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r i n w h i c h the p r o f e s s i o n a l s were shown the d a t a i n d i c a t i n g "how s take p r e s i d e n t s i n t h e i r a r e a f e l t about the i n s t i t u t e p r o g r a m , " and were asked "how o f t e n meetings werekhe ld between h i m s e l f and the r a n k -i n g p r i e s t h o o d a u t h o r i t y " ; (3) the a d d i t i o n o f more f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n -a l s t o the d i v i s i o n s t a f f . F u r t h e r , a c c o r d i n g t o the d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r , the p r o f e s s i o n a l s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s tudy "were a p p r e c i a t i v e o f i t " and the r e s u l t s " v i n d i c a t e d t h e i r b e l i e f s . " E c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s . As noted by the d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r , the outcomes j u s t d i s c u s s e d were t o "erase i g n o r a n c e " as i t e x i s t e d i n the minds o f the p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s r e g a r d i n g the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program. Three y e a r s have passed s i n c e t h a t " i g n o r a n c e " was d e t e c t e d . A d m i n i s t r a -t i v e a c t i o n has been implemented t o " e r a s e " i t . Perhaps now might be an a p p r o p r i a t e t ime t o reemploy, among the groups o f the PND, the b a s i c o p e r a t i o n s o f the present s t u d y . A comparison o f the d a t a o b t a i n e d from the second employment a g a i n s t t h a t o f the f i r s t might p r o v i d e the s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r o f the PND w i t h some i n d i c a t i o n o f the " success " o f h i s e f f o r t s , and the accuracy o f h i s c o n c l u s i o n s i n assuming t h a t p r i e s t h o o d l e a d e r s are now more in formed r e g a r d i n g the i n s t i t u t e program, as w e l l as r e v e a l new problem c o n d i t i o n s t h a t may p o s s i b l y e x i s t . 115 Group C r i t i q u e and the P a r t - T i m e I n s t i t u t e s o f R e l i g i o n One o f the problems t o w h i c h t h i s s t u d y was addressed was t o d e t e r -mine the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f the Phase I o p e r a t i o n s as a means o f o b t a i n -i n g i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s o f r e l i g i o n . I n t e r e s t i n t h i s q u e s t i o n d e r i v e s , i n p a r t , f rom the a p p a r e n t l y d i f f e r i n g nomative o r i e n t a t i o n s o f the procedures and o f the C h u r c h . By way o f a b r i e f r e v i e w , i t w i l l be remembered t h a t — 1 . The d e s i g n e r s o f Phase I c r e a t e d i t t o be the f i r s t o f a t h r e e -phase t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t y f o r use i n d e v e l o p i n g the p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a b i l i t y o f workgroups , as t h e y attempt t o d e a l w i t h t h e i r w o r k - r e l a t e d convening and emergent p r o b l e m s . ^ One o f the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t s o f Phase I was t o h e l p groups t o not o n l y j o i n t l y i d e n t i f y problems t h a t l a t e r they would attempt t o s o l v e , but a l s o t o a t tune group members t o some processes des ign e d t o h e l p l e s s e n some o f the c o n f l i c t s , m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , and c o n f u s i o n s t h a t o f t e n accompany group-problem . s o l v i n g e f f o r t s . 2 . Phase I was founded on an open, democrat i c o r i e n t a t i o n t o group p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . I t i s b a s e d , i n p a r t , on the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the work-groups w i l l have s u f f i c i e n t autonomy t o be a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y s e l f -d i r e c t e d , not o n l y i n i t s problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t a s k s , but a l s o i n j o i n t l y d e s i g n i n g , i m p l e m e n t i n g , and m o n i t o r i n g i t s p l a n s f o r r e s o l v i n g problems. 3. Phase I was des igned not o n l y t o i n v i t e , but a c t u a l l y encourage, open c r i t i c i s m s by group members o f any o r a l l aspects o f t h e i r o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l environment . 3convening and emergent problems, a c c o r d i n g t o B r i s s e y and Nagle (1972:11-24) are f i r s t the problems t h a t l e g i t i m i z e the group (or i t s r a i s o n d ' e t r a ) and second the problems t h a t emerge as the group seeks 116 On the o t h e r hand — 1. Groups w i t h i n the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s o f r e l i g i o n s u b s c r i b e t o a f i r m t h e o c r a t i c form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l government. P r o b l e m - s o l v i n g d e c i s i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s are g e n e r a l l y the p r e r o g a t i v e o f the c e n t r a l o r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l i n e o f a u t h o r i t y . 2. Because o f i t s t h e o c r a t i c mode o f government, members are taught not t o c r i t i c i z e the o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t s l e a d e r s a n d / o r t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . C r i t i c i s m s , i f they e x i s t , s h o u l d be handled p r i v a t e l y and on a " o n e - t o -one" b a s i s . Consequent ly , t h e r e does n o t e x i s t i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a mechanism o r means whereby open o r group c r i t i c i s m o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s f o s t e r e d o r even i n v i t e d . T h e r e f o r e , g i v e n these two somewhat d i v e r g e n t p o s i t i o n s a c o l l a t e r a l problem f o r t h i s s t u d y was t o assess the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and u t i l i t y o f the B r i s s e y - N a g l e o p e r a t i o n s as a method f o r o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n the C h u r c h . That i s , would the s t r o n g normative / ^ c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a g a i n s t open c r i t i c i s m s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n p r e c l u d e the a c q u i s i t i o n o f any dependable and u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n sought through the i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y o f Phase I ? The p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r have , t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t , suggested some t e n t a t i v e answers t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . Based on the d i s c u s s i o n as f o u n d i n t h i s and the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s , Chapter V — (the a n a l y s i s o f s u b s t a n t i v e c o n t e n t o f the da ta ) and Chapter VI — (the d e p e n d a b i l i t y o f the da ta ) as w e l l as management's subsequent use o f the i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e r e seems t o be t e n t a t i v e evidence t o support the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t , g i v e n t o s o l v e those convening problems o r t a s k s . 117 the t h e o c r a t i c and n o n - c r i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s , Phase I d i d p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was dependable and u s e f u l t o manage-ment. F u r t h e r , t h e r e appeared t o be n o t h i n g i n the d a t a t o suggest t h a t the t e c h n o l o g y , as used i n t h i s s t u d y , was p r e c l u d e d b y , d i s r u p t i v e o f , o r a n t i t h e t i c a l t o the norms o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t seems t h a t i f members o f the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s are g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o be c r i t i c a l o f t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n they w i l l do so almost u n h e s i t a t i n g l y , and they w i l l respond i n an open and d i r e c t manner. The p a r t i c i p a n t s may have r e s p o n d -ed as t h e y d i d because t h e y v a l u e t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and w i l l be o p e n l y c r i t i c a l o f i t , ( g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y ) i f t h e y p e r c e i v e i t as b e i n g n e g l e c t e d by those who have a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t . But t h i s does n o t c o m p l e t e l y answer the q u e s t i o n o f why t h e r e were no i n i m i c a l e f f e c t s because , more than l i k e l y , the p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d n o t v iew them-s e l v e s as p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a se t o f a c t i v i t i e s t h a t p e r m i t t e d them t o be c r i t i c a l o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n . That i s , t h e y d i d n o t see the a c t i v i t i e s o f Phase I as an o p p o r t u n i t y t o c r i t i c i z e the C h u r c h . They p r o b a b l y v i e w -ed them s i m p l y as meet ing a reques t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n f rom the d i v i s i o n o f f i c e . What then c o u l d account f o r the a p p a r e n t l y i n i m i c a l and u n d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t s o f u s i n g t h i s open , g r o u p - c r i t i c i s m approach i n a h i g h l y t h e o -c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n ? The answer may be found i n the p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h . That i s , f i r s t , the p a r t i c i p a n t s g e n e r a l l y d i d n o t v iew themselves as p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a c r i t i c i z e - t h e - o r g a n i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e , and second, the survey i t s e l f had been i n i t i a t e d and l e g i t i m i z e d by the c o o r d i n a t o r o f the PND. I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t the c o o r d i n a t o r had o f f i c i a l l y r e q u e s t -ed t h a t a l l i n s t i t u t e a s s o c i a t e d p e r s o n n e l cooperate w i t h the r e s e a r c h e r who, as a s s i s t a n t d i v i s i o n c o o r d i n a t o r , was a l s o an o f f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h a t same c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y . T h e r e f o r e , the members were responding 118 t o t h a t r e q u e s t and the a c t i v i t i e s o f Phase I s e r v e d as a v e h i c l e t o meet t h a t r e q u e s t . Before l e a v i n g t h i s d i s c u s s i o n one more q u e s t i o n seems necessary — " I f i t i s conc luded t h a t Phase I seems not t o be an i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o o l f o r r e s e a r c h w i t h i n the Mormon Church ( p r o v i d e d i t i s l e g i t i m i z e d ) , a s i d e f rom the f a c t t h a t i t s e r v e d as a means f o r o b t a i n i n g needed i n f o r m a t i o n , o f what s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t h i s c o n c l u s i o n g i v e n the d a y - t o -day o p e r a t i o n o f the Church?" Perhaps a p a r t i a l answer can be found i n r e f e r r i n g t o a s h o r t d i s c u s s i o n i n c l u d e d i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter o f t h i s s t u d y . I t w i l l be remembered t h a t r e f e r e n c e was made t o a new l e v e l o f management concern t h a t has been d e v e l o p i n g among contemporary managers c o n c e r n i n g the d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n o f w o r k . I f i t i s the case t h a t modern f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . , i n o r d e r t o more adequate ly cope w i t h the p l e t h o r a o f modern o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problems, may have t o move t o an i n c r e a s i n g l y democrat i c o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s then the c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y seem p e r t i n e n t . The s e l e c t i o n , and u s e f u l n e s s o f Phase I may have been a s l i g h t but s i g n i f i c a n t s t e p i n the d i r e c t i o n o f t h i s contemporary t r e n d . T h i s s t e p c o u l d i n d i c a t e t o a d m i n i s t r a t o r s e l s e -where i n the Mormon Church t h a t i f a l e g i t i m i z e d democrat ic method o f problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n proved h e l p f u l t o the Church ( a t l e a s t w i t h i n the PND), then perhaps a church s a n c t i o n e d method f o r d e m o c r a t i c a l l y propos -i n g and implementing s o l u t i o n s t o those problems may be e q u a l l y h e l p f u l ( i f not e v e n t u a l l y n e c e s s a r y ) . CHAPTER V I I I SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary The work r e p o r t e d i n t h i s s tudy was addressed t o two b a s i c and r e l a t e d c o n c e r n s . The f i r s t was o f immediate and p r a c t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the P a c i f i c Northwest D i v i s i o n (PND) o f the Mormon C h u r c h . Among o t h e r programs conducted by the c h u r c h , the " p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s o f r e l i g i o n " are i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e i n s t r u c t i o n f o r young a d u l t s i n the d o c t r i n e s o f the Mormon C h u r c h . I n 1972, the author was p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o conduct a d i v i s i o n - w i d e survey o f p a r t i c i -pants i n the d i v i s i o n ' s i n s t i t u t e program. The c e n t r a l purpose o f the survey was t o i d e n t i f y c o n d i t i o n s regarded by the p a r t i c i p a n t s as e i t h e r problems t o be s o l v e d o r f a v o r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o be p r e s e r v e d o r m a i n t a i n e d . A methodology f o r c o n d u c t i n g the survey was employed which i n v o l v -ed the use o f s m a l l t a s k groups and u t i l i z e d the f i r s t phase (Phase I ) o f a three-phase approach t o group p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g d e s c r i b e d by B r i s s e y and Nagle (1972) . Phase I was des igned s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the use o f s m a l l groups i n i d e n t i f y i n g problems. The second concern t o w h i c h the s t u d y was addressed stemmed d i r e c t -l y f rom the n a t u r e o f the survey p r o c e d u r e s . W h i l e the b a s i c p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f the Mormon Church has been d e s c r i b e d as theocratic t the procedure d e r i v e d from the work o f B r i s s e y and Nagle presupposes a more n e a r l y democrat i c o r i e n t a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , i t was o f some i n t e r e s t t o assess b o t h the process and outcomes o f the survey as a means o f j u d g i n g 119 120 the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f the survey method f o r use i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the k i n d r e p r e s e n t e d by the Mormon C h u r c h . I n an e f f o r t t o address b o t h concerns , the process f o r u s i n g groups t o i d e n t i f y problems was employed among t h r e e l e v e l s o f p e r s o n n e l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n s t i t u t e — s t u d e n t s , f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e a d e r s . The procedures f o r i d e n t i f y i n g problems were employed d u r i n g the academic y e a r 1972-73. and u t i l i z e d a dense sampl ing o f the P a c i f i c Northwest D i v i s i o n . Of the 637 persons a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n s t i t u t e program, 279 o r 44 per cent p a r t i c i p a t e d . As a r e s u l t o f t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the t h r e e major groups c o l l e c t i v e l y p r o v i d e d 756 i n d i v i d u a l statements d e s c r i b i n g p r o b l e m a t i c a n d / o r f a v o r e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . An a n a l y s i s o f these statements r e v e a l e d t h a t 590 o r 78 per cent were c r i t i c a l o f some aspect o f the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s . The remain ing 166 (22 per cent ) i d e n t i f i e d c o n d i t i o n s regarded as f a v o r a b l e . I n an attempt t o s a t i s f y the f i r s t problem o f t h i s s t u d y , the 590 c r i t i c a l problem statements were a n a l y z e d i n o r d e r t o determine the na ture o f problems r e p o r t e d t o e x i s t w i t h i n the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s o f the PND, and t o determine p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among them. The 166 statements i n d i c a t i n g f a v o r e d c o n d i t i o n s were s i m i l a r l y a n a l y z e d . The a n a l y s i s d f the s u b s t a n t i v e n a t u r e o f the d a t a was f o l l o w e d by an a d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s i s which d e a l t w i t h the d e p e n d a b i l i t y o f the i n f o r m a -t i o n o b t a i n e d . A r e p o r t was prepared f o r the s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r o f the PND, and i n f o r m a t i o n was sought c o n c e r n i n g h i s v iews o f the u s e f u l n e s s o f t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n . The a n a l y s i s a l s o i n c l u d e d a c r i t i q u e o f the t o t a l i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g p r o c e d u r e , and an assessment o f i t ' s a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s 121 for use in the organizational context of the church. Conclusions Following the use of the survey procedures among the personnel associated with the part-time institutes of religion within the Pacific Northwest Division of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and as a result of a subsequent analysis i f both procedures and out-comes, the following conclusions seem tenable — 1. It was possible, through the instrumentation of Phase I, to produce reasonably dependable and useful information (with certain limitations) concerning some significant organizational problems, as these problems were experienced or perceived by the three major groups of institute associated participants within the Mormon Church. Some limitations are — a. The recorded statements are highly abbreviated representa-tions of presumably dynamic, complex, and " r e a l - l i f e " conditions i n a "real people" organization. In other words, statements obtained by these processes are just the "nubs" of the conditions that they identify. They appear to provide useful "cues" but afford l i t t l e by way of detailed descriptions of the conditions i n question. b. The process required an interpretation of the basic, data by the researcher, particularly through his role i n identifying thematic relations among statements produced by the groups. The themes thus identified were not reviewed or otherwise confirmed by another observer or by the groups themselves. 2. The problematic conditions identified by the participating groups appeared to reflect a considerable degree of interrelatedness. 122 This allowed a tentative explanation of possible causes underlying the problems that were identified and suggestions for actions that might alleviate some of the conditions involved. 3. There seemed to be no evidence, explicit or implicit, to i n d i -cate that the operations employed were i n any way inimical or inappro-priate as a method of gathering information within the part-time institutes of the Mormon Church. On the contrary, there seemed to be evidence that these exercises produced data that was useful to the institute program and the groups associated with i t . The senior admin-istrator within the PND viewed the information as having significant and practical value. From his perspective, the information increased his awareness and understanding of problems experienced by the institute associated workgroups. More specifically, i t (a) met managerial needs, (b) vindicated managerial beliefs, (c) was worth the investments i n time and capital, (d) had no adverse interorganization outcomes or side effects, (e) was worthy of replication i n the PND, and (f) management's use of the data appears to have resulted i n increased student enroll-ments. A significant factor contributing to the appropriateness of the exercises may have been (1) the participants were unaware they were c r i t i c i z i n g the organization, and (2) the entire survey had been request-ed by the chief administrative of f i c e r within the PND. Recommendations Based upon this experience with a technique for using participant groups for identifying problems, i t i s recommended that i n the future — 1. Administrators within the Department of Seminaries and Institutes of Religion consider this, or some similar methodology, as a means for 123 obtaining information concerning problems experienced by groups within the institute program. I f , i n the future, procedures of this type were to be used as a method of obtaining information, i t i s recommended that the following changes be incorporated ~ a) In order to improve the effectiveness of the operations concern-ed with achieving interpersonal understanding among the members of the group, sufficient work time be provided to accomplish the following: (a) allow group discussion of a l l items receiving low ratings for understanding, (b) permit randomly selected persons, who indicated "high" understanding (e.g., ratings of 6 or 7) to paraphrase the state-ment i n question and then allow the statement's author to respond to the accuracy of the paraphrase. This would tend to provide more meaningful information i n terms of which to conduct the subsequent procedural steps. b) At the conclusion of exercise four, (scaling relevance) an additional procedure could be added. This procedure would permit the members of each group to determine their own thematic arrangements of the problem and preferred statements, rather than requiring the research-er to undertake this task. These arrangements might throw additional light on the groups perception of the part-time institutes and would also serve as a basis for any additional analysis of content. c) Any subsequent use of operations of this kind among the work-groups of the church education system be accompanied by some procedure for providing "feedback" to the participating workgroups. This might be, for example, a written response from the central office. This information would not only enable the groups to compare the problems they 124 p e r c e i v e d w i t h those i d e n t i f i e d by o t h e r groups , i t would a l s o h e l p t o a l l e v i a t e the " f u t i l i t y " phenomenon suggested by Hoopes (1969). T h i s s t e p would serve a d d i t i o n a l l y as a p o s s i b l e "check" on the accuracy o f management's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the d a t a , as w e l l as p r o v i d e f o r a " c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n " o f i d e a s . I n b r i e f , the i n f o r m a t i o n y i e l d e d by the procedures might be employed as the b a s i s of e f f e c t i v e communica-t i o n w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n b o t h v e r t i c a l l y and h o r i z o n t a l l y . I n a d d i t i o n t o the f o r e g o i n g p r o c e d u r a l changes, i t i s f u r t h e r recommended t h a t ~ 2 . Management employ these p r o c e d u r e s , o r some s i m i l a r type o f a c t i v i t y among those i n d i v i d u a l s who no l o n g e r p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p a r t -t ime i n s t i t u t e program. W h i l e i t may prove d i f f i c u l t t o c o n t a c t and/or assemble these p e r s o n s , such i n f o r m a t i o n may be h e l p f u l t o a d m i n i s t r a -t o r s i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g why former p a r t i c i p a n t s no l o n g e r w i s h t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 3. Management repeat the procedures t o determine i f , i n the eyes'"of the t h r e e major g r o u p s , the problems o r i g i n a l l y i d e n t i f i e d s t i l l e x i s t w i t h i n the PND. Such a r e p l i c a t i o n may be u s e f u l i n two ways . F i r s t , i t c o u l d be u s e f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g the degree t o w h i c h the problems c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t (andlihence serve as a "check" on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f manage-ments c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n ) and second, i t c o u l d b e - : u s e f u l i n d e t e c t i n g new problems t h a t may have emerged i n the i n t e r v a l between s u r v e y s . T h i s i s n o t t o suggest t h a t the r e p l i c a t i o n be as e x t e n s i v e o r seek as dense a sampl ing as the i n i t i a l s u r v e y . Q u i t e p o s s i b l y a more l i m i t e d sample would prove u s e f u l f o r these purposes . 4 . P r o v i d e d t h i s proved u s e f u l , management c o n s i d e r and e x p l o r e the 125 p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t r a i n i n g and s e n s i t i z i n g workgroups ( e . g . , e c c l e s i a s -t i c a l l e a d e r s , f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l s , s t u d e n t s ) i n the o p e r a t i o n s and concepts o f the k i n d d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s tudy ( o r some s i m i l a r type o f j o i n t p r o b l e m - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n procedures) and employ these procedures i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n and f o r the same purposes as t h e y were used by the r e s e a r c h e r i n t h i s s t u d y . 5. C o n s i d e r a t i o n be g i v e n t o the group t r a i n i n g and s e n s i t i z a -t i o n t o i n c l u d e not o n l y o p e r a t i o n s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g problems , but a l s o some form o f p l a n n i n g f o r s o l v i n g o r recommending s o l u t i o n s f o r problems once t h e y are i d e n t i f i e d . By t h i s means, groups c o u l d not o n l y become s k i l l e d i n j o i n t l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y employing the b a s i c dimensions and a c t i v i t i e s o f the problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , b u t c o u l d j o i n t l y p l a n a c t i o n s f o r p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a n d , e v e n t u a l l y , the implementing and m o n i t o r i n g t h e i r p l a n s . They might thereby a c q u i r e a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f " the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among problems, problem-s o l v i n g , and i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication . . . and a se t o f s k i l l s f o r p r a c t i c i n g e f f e c t i v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l communications and the managing o f the j o i n t p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s e s . " ( B r i s s e y and N a g l e ,1972:111-3,4) . G i v e n the t h e o c r a t i c na ture o f the Mormon C h u r c h , such t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c e s might i n i t i a l l y be l i m i t e d t o those d a y - t o - d a y problems encountered by the groups t h a t do not r e q u i r e s o l u t i o n s f rom the c e n t r a l d e c i s i o n makers . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , the Mormon Church may not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f rom o t h e r l a r g e , complex c e n t r a l l y managed o r g a n i z a t i o n s . BIBLIOGRAPHY A r g y r i s , C h r i s 1970 I n t e r v e n t i o n Theory and Method, A B e h a v i o r a l Sc ience V i e w , , R e a d i n g , M a s s . : A d d i s o n - W e s l e y . 1971 Management and O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Development — The" P a t h f rom XA t o YB. New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l . 1974 Beh ind the F r o n t Page. San F r a n c i s c o : J o s s e y - B a s s . B e c k h a r d , R i c h a r d I969 O r g a n i z a t i o n Development: S t r a t e g i e s and M o d e l s . R e a d i n g , M a s s . : A d d i s o n - W e s l e y . B e n n i s , Warren G . I969 O r g a n i z a t i o n Development: I t ' s N a t u r e , O r i g i n s and P r o s p e c t s . R e a d i n g , M a s s . : A d d i s o n - W e s l e y . B r i s s e y , F . Lee and John M . 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S a l t Lake C i t y , U t a h : The Church o f Jesus C h r i s t o f L a t t e r - d a y S a i n t s . C l a r k , Bur ton R. 1956 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l A d a p t a t i o n and P r e c a r i o u s V a l u e s . American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 21:327-336. 126 1 2 ? C l a r k , J . Reuben 1 9 3 8 The C h a r t e r e d Course o f the Church i n E d u c a t i o n . (Address g i v e n August 8 , 1 9 3 8 , Aspen G r o v e , Utah) S a l t Lake C i t y , U t a h : The Church o f Jesus C h r i s t o f L a t t e r - d a y S a i n t s . Coleman, James S . 1 9 6 9 " R e l a t i o n a l A n a l y s i s : The Study o f S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h Survey M e t h o d s . " P p . 517-528 i n A m i t a i E t z i o n i ( e d . ) , A S o c i o l o g i c a l Reader on Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n . Commoner, B a r r y 1 9 7 1 The C l o s i n g C i r c l e . New Y o r k : A l f r e d A . K n o p f . 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Bus iness H o r i z o n s . A p r i l : 18-22 . F r e n c h , W e n d e l l L . 1971 " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Development: What I t I s and I s N o t . " P e r s o n n e l A d m i n i s t r a t o r , l 6 ( l ) : 2 - 4 6 . G l o c k , C h a r l e s , Benjamin R i n g e r and E a r l Babbig 1967 To Comfort and C h a l l e n g e . B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a . Goodlad, . John I . 1 9 7 5 "A P e r s p e c t i v e on A c c o u n t a b i l i t y . " P h i D e l t a Kappan, O c t . : 108-112. G r o s s , Bertram M . 1 9 6 4 The Managing o f O r g a n i z a t i o n s , V o l . I and I I . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n . 128 H e l m s t a d t e r , G . C . 1970 Research Concepts i n Human B e h a v i o r . New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n -Century - C r o f t s . Hoopes, T . 1969 The L i m i t s o f I n t e r v e n t i o n . New Y o r k : D a v i d McKay. House, E r n e s t B . , W e n d e l l R i v e r s and D a n i e l L . S t u f f l e b e a m 1974 "An Assessment o f the M i c h i g a n A c c o u n t a b i l i t y S y s t e m . " P h i D e l t a Kappan, July:663-669. K a t z , D a n i e l and B a s i l S . Georgppoulos 1971 " O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n a Changing W o r l d . " The J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s , 7(3): 3 4 2 - 3 6 4 . Kelman, H e r b e r t C . 1967 "The Human Use o f Human S u b j e c t s — The Problem o f D e c e p t i o n i n S o c i a l - P s y c h o l o g i c a l E x p e r i m e n t s . " P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 67:1-11. Maslow, A . H . 1943 "A Theory o f Human M o t i v a t i o n . " P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review, J u l y : 370-396. M c C l e l l a n , Graydon E . 1962 "The M i n i s t r y . " New F r o n t i e r s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , New Y o r k : name o f p u b l i s h e r not g i v e n . McGregor, Douglas i960 The Human S ide o f E n t e r p r i s e . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l . 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Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l . 1 2 9 S c h e i n , Edgar H . 1 9 6 5 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l . 1 9 6 9 Process C o n s u l t a t i o n : I t s Role i n O r g a n i z a t i o n Development. R e a d i n g , Mass : A d d i s o n - W e s l e y . S e x t o n , W i l l i a m P . 1 9 7 0 O r g a n i z a t i o n T h e o r i e s . Columbus, O h i o : C h a r l e s E . M e r r i l l . S i n g e r , E than A . and L e l a n d M . Wooton 1 9 7 6 "The Triumph and F a i l u r e o f A l b e r t S p e e r ' s A d m i n i s t r a t i v e G e n i u s : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C u r r e n t Management Theory and P r a c t i c e . " J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e : 1 2 ( 1 ) 7 9 - 1 0 3 . Thompson, V i c t o r A . 1 9 6 1 Modern O r g a n i z a t i o n s . New Y o r k : A l f r e d 0 . Knopf . 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S a l t Lake C i t y , U t a h : Deseret Book Company. APPENDIX A THE THREE PHASES OF ACTIVITY IN THE JOINT PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS OF THE BRISSEY-NAGLE SET OF OPERATIONS B r i s s e y and Nagle ( M a n u a l . 1 9 7 2 : I I I - l . 2 . 4 6 . 4 7 ) have d i v i d e d t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s f o r j o i n t p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i n t o t h r e e major Phases o f a c t i v i t y , the f i r s t two o f w h i c h are f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o a number o f s e q u e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d e x e r c i s e s . They s a y , " I n a v e r y r e a l sense , each Phase and e x e r c i s e may be thought o f as p o s i n g a process * sub-prob lem' f o r a group t o s o l v e , a n d , when each o f the ' sub-problems* has been s o l v e d , the group w i l l have e v o l v e d a p l a n o r an a c t i o n p r o p o s a l w h i c h i s i n t e n d e d t o s o l v e the s u b s t a n t i v e problem o r problems they have s e l e c t e d as an outcome o f j o i n t i n q u i r y . Throughout , these sub-problems are p r i n c i p a l l y concerned w i t h d e v e l o p i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g the k i n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h are r e q u i r e d t o keep the g r o u p ' s 'nervous system' i n good w o r k i n g o r d e r . I t i s o f some i m p o r t a n c e , t h e r e f o r e , f o r the members o f a group t o know what p a r t i c u l a r (process ) sub-problem they are d e a l i n g w i t h , how i t r e l a t e s t o the o t h e r sub-problems i n the sequence, and how and when t o move f rom one sub-problem t o a n o t h e r . " "More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the e x e r c i s e s w h i c h comprise Phase One o f the process address themselves t o the fundamental q u e s t i o n , *What i s the problem?' By way o f answering t h i s q u e s t i o n , the e x e r c i s e s h e l p the members o f a group i d e n t i f y a se t o f p o s s i b l e problems, encode each one i n a r e l a t i v e l y s t a n d a r d form as 'prob lem-s ta tement ' examine these statements f o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l unders tanding and acceptance , assess the 130 131 importance of the problems they represent, and then select the particular problem or problems for which a solution w i l l be sought . . . " In other words, i n Phase One of the joint problem-solving process, the task for the group i s to select the problem(s) (or problem clusters) to be carried forward to the next phase. This requires conducting a prob-lem survey (Exercise One) by producing designative and appraisive state-ments, searching for consensus on understanding (Exercise Two) and accept-ance (Exercise Three) of these problem-statements and assessing problems and/or problem clusters for their importance for the group or for the organization (Exercise Four). Brissey and Nagle continue, "Among the prod-ucts of Phase One, therefore, are (<a) a general set of problem-statements; (b) a sub-set of problem-statements, based on acceptance, which identify common problems for group members, i t s items having been ordered i n terms of importance to the total group; and (c) a particular problem or problem cluster which has been selected for group attention i n Phases Two and Three. An equally important characteristic of Phase One i s that each member of the group has had an opportunity to participate i n the development of these problem-statements, contribute to the decisions made about them and therefore, can f e e l reasonably assured that his understanding of them i s shared by other members of the group. "In Phase Two of the joint problem-solving process, group members engage i n prescriptive inquiry — the search for some form of action that w i l l 'solve' the problem(s) or problem cluster(s) they have selected. Interpersonal communication i s just as essential i n this phase as i t was in the f i r s t , but this time the exercises i n the phase focus on the develop-ment of a plan for action. That i s , the f i n a l product of Phase Two w i l l be a statement of the general form, 'If we do . . ., 132 then the d i f f e r e n c e between ' d ' and ' a ' — our b a s i c d - a d i s c r e p a n c y — w i l l be reduced o r e l i m i n a t e d . * The p l a n f o r a c t i o n s i m p l y completes the ' d o ' p a r t o f the s ta tements , and the t o t a l statement becomes the g r o u p ' s p r e s c r i p t i o n . When the group ' o p e r a t i o n a l i z e s ' i t s p r e s -c r i p t i o n , i t w i l l have implemented i t s p l a n , and i t s major i n t e r e s t w i l l then be t o observe f o r the e f f e c t s o f the a c t i o n s they have taken upon the b a s i c d - a d i s c r e p a n c y . . . " "Phase Two o f the process i s concerned w i t h the j o i n t d e s i g n o f a p l a n ~ t h a t i s , a proposed s o l u t i o n — t o s o l v e the problem o r problems s e l e c t e d i n Phase One. Consequent ly , the e x e r c i s e s i n t h i s second phase o f a c t i v i t y encourage the members o f a group t o d e v e l o p a ' p o o l o f p o s s i b l e a c t i o n s ' , use the p o o l o f i d e a s t o d e v e l o p an o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n , and p r e d i c t the consequences of implement ing t h e i r p l a n , and f i n a l l y , d e c i d i n g whether t o conduct the o p e r a t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s c a l l e d f o r by the p l a n . " "Phase Three o f the p r o c e s s , the o p e r a t i o n a l phase o f problem-s o l v i n g i s concerned w i t h a c t u a l l y implementing the p l a n des igned i n Phase Two, and then m o n i t o r i n g b o t h * i t s implementa t ion and i t s e f f e c t s . That i s , the a c t i v i t y c a r r i e d out by a group i n Phase Three o f the j o i n t p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g process t y p i c a l l y p r o v i d e s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r o b t a i n i n g two k i n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , each o f w h i c h i s impor tant t o the group . One i f these i s i n f o r m a t i o n b e a r i n g on the accuracy w i t h w h i c h the p l a n i t s e l f i s b e i n g o r has been c a r r i e d o u t ; as used h e r e , accuracy r e f e r s t o the degree o f 'match ' o r 'mismatch ' h o l d i n g between the p l a n i t s e l f — a symbol i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n t e n d e d a c t i o n — and the a c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s of the persons involved, can be sought i n Phase Three i s , of well the actions taken achieved the and accordingly, solved the problem attention. . ." 133 The second kind of information that course, tha;t which indicates how outcomes intended by the planners or problems chosen for APPENDIX B A SURVEY OF THE PART-TIME INSTITUTES OF RELIGION OBJECTIVE: The purpose o f t h i s survey i s t o " d i s c o v e r " those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program t h a t you f e e l are wor thy o f : MAINTAINING PRESERVING PROTECTING w h i l e a t the same t ime d i s c o v e r i n g those c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o r c o n d i t i o n s t h a t : DO NOT COINCIDE WITH YOUR CONCEPTION o f a m e a n i n g f u l o r good p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program. SURVEY TERMS DEFINED: 1) I t e m : A word o f phrase t o i d e n t i f y what you are go ing t o t a l k a b o u t . 2) An " i s " A sentence o f two (be as b r i e f as you can) d e s c r i b i n g s ta tement : something you b e l i e v e t o be t r u e about the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program o r any f e a t u r e o f i t . 3) A " p r e f e r r e d : s ta tement : A g a i n , a b r i e f s ta tement . I f the p r e c e d i n g " i s " statement i s what you p r e f e r , s i m p l y say s o . I f i t i s n o t , i n d i c a t e what c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d have t o c o i n c i d e w i t h what you would p r e f e r about the " i s " s ta tement . 134 135 Examples: Item as ti preferred" (A set of matching statements) part-time instructors identify with , students and work hard to make class interesting OK maintain (A set of mismatch statements) physical f a c i l i t i e s no private o f f i c e space available for student counseling adequate office space for counseling Please f e e l free to identify any item you choose, and to contribute as many as you can. However, keep the part-time institute program i n mind as you express your views. Listed below are some generalized categories that may help you get started i n your thinking. Students Parents You Part-time institute instructors Social a c t i v i t i e s and programs Spiritual a c t i v i t i e s and programs Student association Attitudes of teachers toward students Attitudes of students toward teachers Instructional programs Curriculum: materials, content, relevancy Physical or building arrangements Inservice training programs Student Leadership programs Course offerings Counseling Grades and examinations Policies-procedures Goals of the institute program The local community Stake presidents Bidhops and other church programs Recruitment Libraries Finances Class scheduling Administrative Officers - Department, Division, D i s t r i c t , Local Centralization Decentralization Image o f the p a r t - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s Non-members R e l a t i o n s h i p s o f any o f a l l o f the above E t c . E t c . E t c . A WORD OF CAUTION I t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t h a t you do n o t e v a l u a t e the m e r i t o r l a c k o f m e r i t o f any statements generated by the i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the group . THIS SURVEY IS CONCERNED WITH WHAT IS SAID, AND NOT WITH WHO SAID I T . ANONYMITY WILL BE PRESERVED. APPENDIX C PLEASE WRITE OR PRINT LEGIBLY Date: Group: Location of Meeting: ITEM: "IS" STATEMENT: ; "PREFERRED STATEMENT: IMPORTANCE RATING: 0 (1-2) (3-4-5) (6-7) Please indicate the number of responses on the line under each above category. This ITEM would be under the following General Heading: 137 APPENDIX D DATA DISPLAYS — TABLES IX THROUGH LVII (Pages 139 through 247) 138 TABLE IX MISMATCH, HATCH STATEMENTS ANT) AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: ALASKA DISTRICT, STUDENTS, ANCHORAGE Referent IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements: 1. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leadera Designative Statement ("What i s " ) Anpraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 2. P u b l i c i t y 3. Goals of the program 4. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 5. Class scheduling Match Statements: 1. Goals of the program II< POLICIES ANT) PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Instructor pay Recruitment among adults by priesthood leaders i s i n -adequate i n that I t was done i n the form of l a s t mtnutc announcements with l i t t l e or no Information about the program, who i t In f o r , etc. L.D.S. people do not know anything about the i n s t i t u t e program. L.D.S. students enrolled i n the i n s t i t u t e program do not understand the goals of the program generally nor arc the goals of the clans understood• The rocruitmei.t among the m i l i t a r y i s Inadequate i n that the high council ndvinor wna not f o r c e f u l i n r e c r u i t i n g the m i l i t a r y personnel. This p a r t i c u l a r church h i s t o r y class i s offered on a once-a-week b a s i s , and t h i s i s inadequate. The program provides the student with the personal knowledge he needs to defend his own personal r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s i n h i s day-to-day l i v i n g . The i n s t r u c t o r i s paid and given no option to choose between pay or mart adequate t r a i n i n g at B.Y.U. . . . that there be a more adequate recruitment program among the adults. . . . that L.D.S. people know about the i n s t i t u t e program. • . . to know what these goals are. . . . that there be better recruitment 1 among the m i l i t a r y personnel under the d i r e c t i o n of the high councilman. . . . that t h i s i n s t i t u t e class of 2 offered on a d a i l y b a s i s . that i t continue to do so. . . . that i n s t r u c t o r s be given the option of choosing between being paid for the year or using that money to go to B.Y.U. f o r more extensive t r a i n -ing before he teaches the c l a s s . 5 9 4 9 6 5 6 5 7 1 3 11 Examinations 3. Credit 6. Examinations Match Statements • 1. Class scheduling I I I .INSTRUCTIONAL PF.HSONHEt Mismatch Statements 1. Tart-time i n s t r u c t o r 2. I n s t r u c t i o n methods Match Statements 1. P a r t - t i m e ' i n s t r u c t o r 2. Part-time i n s t r u c t o r 3. Part-time i n s t r u c t o r 4. I n s t r u c t o r iv. ctquacuunl . ..'' '•' Mismatch Statements r^'j' 1. V i s u a l a i d s ' : 2. Church H i s t o r y curriculum Examinations are designed to "teed back" the students understanding of and the student's advancement toward the goals of the course which goals are predetermined by someone other than the students. The difference between taking the c l a s s f o r c r e d i t and auditing the c l a s s is- not understood by the enrolled-students. Examinations are not frequent enough. This church h i s t o r y class i s offered once a week. There i s l i t t l e or no opportunity for i n t e r a c t i o n by student with other students i n c l a s s . The i n s t r u c t o r follows a l e c t u r e type classroom presentation v i t h l i t t l u or no student workgroup opportunities or. student I n t e r a c t i o n . Our i n s t r u c t o r teaches by the s p i r i t . He i s motivating, he helps' students reach per-• sonal goals, and he l e i n s p i r i n g . Our current i n s t r u c t o r i s the stake president, therefore, the students can get better acquainted with him and he with the students. He has a non-mandatory approach to encouraging students to memorize s c r i p t u r e s . There are no v i s u a l aids used i n c l a s s Our study of the •atexiiUi U general and broad.i that ts» w e j u . t fcittJit major points i n church history.' !'• •; »~.*.v # • • . . . that examinations be of che kind 2 that reveal progress toward student selected goals and not "feed back" type exercises. . • . that t h i s d i f f e r e n c e be under- 2 stood. . . . that they be held more f r e -i fluently. week. that i t be offered only once a 1 . . . that there be more opportunity for student i n t e r a c t i o n i n c l a s s . . . . that there be more student par-t i c i p a t i o n i n the form of work groups and student i n t e r a c t i o n . • . . that he continue to do so. . . . that he remain t h i s way. • . . that the stake president remain 1 as our i n s t r u c t o r . • . . that he maintain t h i s approach 1 . : . that there be some f i l m s , f i l m -s t r i p s , etc. used. . . . that there be a more l n . depth and d e t a i l e d study of the subject matter. 6 4 5 3 7 I 2 8 3 11 7 S 16 1 12 6 a 7 7 Class handouts 4. Course content Courses o f f e r e d Course content Hatch Statements 1. Church History curriculum TMIVSICAT, rACIUTtES Mismatch- Statements 1. Classroom seating arrangement There has only been one c l a s s handout and that was con-fusing and not c l e a r to student's understanding (the church h i s t o r y chronology chart) Almost the t o t a l content of the course Is (general and s p e c i f i c ) pre-delermlned by some author or group of authors who are not f a m i l i a r with l o c a l students and l o c a l needs and l o c a l students are" expected to f o l l o w the course content as determined by these 'distant' authors. There i s not a course offered that i s s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to help students memorize c e r t a i n or important s c r i p t u r e s . The course goalo are predetermined by someone other than the students. The current course Is geared adequately to the needs and backgrounds of the students. Students cannot see the blackboard because of the currant seating arrangement. . . . that there be more handouts and that they be better prepared and l e s s confusing. > . • that the course content be predetermined only i n a general way or l n a broad o u t l i n e and then l e t l o c a l students determine the s p e c i f i c contents ot the.course. • . . that there be such a course o f f e r e d . . . . that students, on an I n d i v i d u a l basis,, determine the goals of the course. . , . that t h i s course be maintained as i t l a . S 5 8 5 4 5 6 4 7 * board. that they could see the black-TABLE X MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: ALASKA DISTRICT, STUDENTS, ANCHORAGE Referent Deslgnative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. P u b l i c i t y 2. P u b l i c i t y 3. P u b l i c i t y 4. P u b l i c i t y 5. Recruitment 6. Recruitment I I . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Adults 2. Adults 3. Credit The i n s t i t u t e program i s not known among the members of the church. The importance of the i n s t i t u t e program i a not emphasis-ed enough among church members. There are no Sunday school or sacrament meetings set aside to emphasize the i n s t i t u t e program. Generally, most members are not aware of the need, benefits and blessings that can come to the i n d i v i d u a l as a r e s u l t of i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the t o t a l i n s t i t u t e program. There are not many college age youth involved i n the i n s t i t u t e program. Most teachers i n other a u x i l i a r i e s of the church do not e n r o l l i n i n s t i t u t e . There i s not a strong emphasis to r e c r u i t adults over 25 years of age to e n r o l l them i n the i n s t i t u t e program. The image of the program i s miainterpreted by church members. They think i t i s f o r college students only. Credit i a a v a i l a b l e only to students 25 years of age or under. . . . that the program be pub l i c i z e d and explained among the members. . . . that the program be emphasized more to develop more i n t e r e s t i n the program. . . . that such meetings be used to emphasize the program. . . . that members become aware of these things. . . . that there be more Involvement of these youth i n the program. . . . that church teachers e n r o l l l n the i n s t i t u t e program. . . . that there be a strong emphasis for adult enrollment. . . . that the i n s t i t u t e program be understood as an "adult education" program as w e l l as a program f o r college age youth. . . . that c r e d i t be offered f o r the course regardless of age. 4 1 3 I 3 1 3 1 2 Match Statements 1. Student fees. -HI.INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL. Mismatch Statements 1. Part-time Instructor 2. Part-time Instructor 3. Fart-time Instructor Match Statements 1. Full-time Instructor IV. {XRRICLLV/M Match SUiten-.er.ts 1. Book of Mormon student manua1 V. PHYSICAL FACILITIES Mismatch Statesiants l : Student desks 2. L i b r a r y The required r e g i s t r a t i o n fee for students i s reasons able. . . . that the current required amount of the fee be maintained. The previous part-time i n s t r u c t o r did not f u l l y under-stand the administrative aspects of the program. For example, he did not know whether students could audit the cl a s s or not. The previous part-time i n s t r u c t o r was not always a v a i l a b l e to teach the c l a s s . The previous part-time ins t r u c t o r did not present the introductory lessons i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y manner be-cause he was not well versed on h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , nor was he w e l l organized. . . . that the i n s t r u c t o r understand the administrative aspects of the program. . . . that the i n s t r u c t o r always be a v a i l a b l e to teach the c l a s s . . . . that the i n s t r u c t o r present i n t r o -ductory lessons that are w e l l versed and w e l l organized. He i s w e l l versed i n the subject matter, teaches on our l e v e l , i s s p i r i t u a l and humble, r e l a t e s lessons to the l i v e s of the students, easy to communicate with, and i s dedicated. that he maintain these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t i s a very h e l p f u l aid i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the s c r i p t u r e s ; . . . that i t be maintained as part of the i t answers questions that a r i s e from reading the Book of Book of Mormon course. Mormon, and i t serves as a meaningful reference for study. There are no student type desks with an arm to put . . . that there be such desks for etudeBR books on. use. There i s not an i n s t i t u t e l i b r a r y f a c i l i t y a v a i l a b l e f o r . . . that there be l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s students. a v a i l a b l e . 3. B u i l d i n g The i n s t i t u t * students do noc have a separate b u i l d i n g . . . that there be a separate f a c i l i t y of t h e i r own to meet i n . that belonged to the i n s t i t u t e . TABLE XI MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: ALASKA DISTRICT, STUDENTS, FAIRBANKS R e f e r e n t D e s l g n a t i v e Statement ("What i s " ) I . A p p r a i s i v e Statement ("I p r e f e r . . .") Agreement/Relevance R a t i n g 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch S t a t e m e n t s 1. P u b l i c i t y 2. P u b l i c i t y 3. P u b l i c i t y it. C o r r e l a t i o n 5. R e c r u i t m e n t I I . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch S t a t e m e n t s 1. A d u l t s 2. A d u l t s S c h e d u l i n g o f c l a s s e s on campus The i n s t i t u t e program i s not e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y s t r e s s e d i n c h u r c h m e e t i n g s . There a r e no p r i n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n manuals o r b r o c h u r e s a v a i l a b l e to b i s h o p s t h a t show i n s t i t u t e c o u r s e o f f e r -i n g s , a t t e n d a n c e , e l i g i b i l i t y , t h e impo r t a n c e o f the program, e t c . t h a t p r o v i d e an o v e r a l l p o s i t i v e s t r e s s of t h e i n s t i t u t e program. T h e r e a r e no sacrament e v e n i n g programs devoted t o t h e I n s t i t u t e , l i k e t h e r e a r e f o r the seminary programs. The i n s t i t u t e program was p u b l i c i z e d and i t s i m p o r t a n c e s t r e s s e d i n one ward i n F n I r h n n k s , but i n the o t h e r ward t h e r e was no s t r e s s i n g o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f the program nor was t h e r e any f o l l o w - u p . R e c r u i t m e n t programs a r e g e n e r a l l y d i r e c t e d toward c h u r c h members and n o t the A l a s k a n I n d i a n . A d u l t s t h i n k i n s t i t u t e i s j u s t f o r young a d u l t s ages 18-25 y e a r s o l d . A d u l t s over 25 y e a r s o f age do not know i f t h e y o r e a l l o w e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e and e n r o l l i n the I n s t i t u t e program. I t i a d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d a c o n v e n i e n t t i n e t o h o l d an i n s t i t u t e c l a s s t h a t f i t * e v e r y o n e ' s s c h o o l s c h e d u l e . . . . t h a t i t be e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y s t r e s s e d i n c h u r c h m e e t i n g s . . . . t h a t s u c h p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s be a v a i l a b l e f o r b i s h o p ' o u s e . . . . t h a t t h e r e be sacrament e v e n i n g programs de v o t e d t o t h e i n s t i t u t e . . . . t h a t t h e r e be a c o o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t between t h e two wards t o s t r e s s the i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e program and have some f o l l o w - u p . . . . t h a t r e c r u i t m e n t programs be 3 d i r e c t e d t o i n c l u d e t h e A l a s k a n I n d i a n . . . . t h a t a d u l t s t h i n k t h a t i n s t i t u t e i s f o r a d u l t s o v e r 25 as w e l l as f o r young a d u l t s . . . . t h a t a d u l t s know they can p a r t -i c i p a t e and e n r o l l i n the program. • . . t h a t a more c o n v e n i e n t t i m e be fo u n d t o s c h e d u l e I n s t i t u t e c l a s s e s . X 3 Required number of stu-dents f o r an i n s t i t u t e c l a s s Examinations III.INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Mismatch Statements 1. Part-time Instructor 2. Part-time Instructor IV. CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. Supplemental materials catalog Book of Mormon student manual 3. Instructor enrichment ma t c r i a l s 4. Student manuals Handouts There i s a minimum number of students required to have an i n s t i t u t e c l a s s . There are no non-graded quizzes and exams given. The i n s t r u c t o r does not have adequate time to prepare h i s lessons. He does not use i n hi s teaching methods, the concepts taught i n the teacher development program of the church. There i s not av a i l a b l e to students a catalog showing a l l the related reading materials that are available for purchase through LDS bookstore o u t l e t s — t h i n g s l i k e books, pamphlets, t a l k s , tapes etc. that are related to each course of study. In many cases the manual w i l l r a i s e a question i n the mind of the students, and then indicate a s c r i p t u r a l reference to answer the question, but when the scripture i s read, i t i s unrelated to the question or i t doesn't answer i t . Students dn not have access to the enrichment or sup-. . . that there be no minimum number or i f there i s , that the minimum required be f l e x i b l e . . . . that there be some non-graded quizzes and exams. . . . that an i n s t r u c t o r be chosen who i s not heavily involved i n out-side a c t i v i t i e s . . . . that the i n s t r u c t o r incorporate some of these concepts i n h i s teach-ing methods. . . . that such a catalog be made av a i l a b l e to students. . . . that these p a r t i c u l a r places i n the manual be corrected. that these materials be made plemental materials thai: are provided for the i n s t r u c t o r . a v a i l a b l e to students. There i s no student manual a v a i l a b l e for the studento i n the Pearl of Great P r i c e course. There are not enough handouts such as maps, charts, etc. and other <tema re l a t e d to the course of study. that there be one a v a i l a b l e . that there be more such handouts 1 3 1 2 1 3 1 3 3 2 2 Book of Mormon student manual Match Statements Book of Mormon student manual 2. Student manual The Introductions i n the manual to the assigned s c r i p -ture readings do not give any s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s to the student as to what he should look f o r as he reads the assigned s c r i p t u r e s . The supplementary reading material i n the student manual i s related to our s p i r i t u a l needs and pro-vides us with a supplemental understanding that i s not otherwise a v a i l a b l e to the students. The material i n the manual i s detached from the manual, thus providing f o r the f i l i n g of the materials by students. . . . that there be more e x p l i c i t i n -s t r u c t i o n s r e l a t i v e to looking for s p e c i f i c s i n the assigned readings. that t h i s s i t u a t i o n be maintained . . . that t h i s type of manual f o r e -mac be maintained. TABLE XII MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: PORTLAND DISTRICT, STUDENTS, CLACKAMAS C C . Referent Deslgnative Statement ("What Is") Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 I. IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders There are L.D.S. students on campus who have not been committed to attend i n s t i t u t e by th e i r bishop. IV. CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. Course o f f e r i n g s There i s a l i m i t e d s e l e c t i o n of courses offered. 2. Curriculum content Match Statements The students do not have a voice i n determining curriculum content. . . . that Bishops commit L.D.S. college students to attend i n s t i t u t e . . . . that there be a v a r i e t y of courses offered. . . . that students be able to have a voice i n determining curriculum content. 2 3 1. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s There are no I n s t i t u t e sponsored s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s that t h i s p o l i c y be maintained. 1 3 2. Curriculum A course i n the Book of Mormon i s av a i l a b l e to students. . . . that t h i s course be maintained as part of the curriculum. TABLE XIII MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENl'/RELEVANCE RATINGS: . PORTLAND DISTRICT, STUDENTS, CLARK C C . 1. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leader, S , . t l . f c not give U U . ^ meeting. that students give on the importance and value of I n s t i t u t e . 2. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders Priesthood leaders do not stress the importance of i n s t i t u t e i n t h e i r l o c a l areas of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 3. Recruitment U. P u b l i c i t y 5. P u b l i c i t y on campus 6. Student leadership Match Statements 1. Goals of program 2. Goals of program II.. POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements I. Counseling Non-members are not i n v i t e d to attend class by clas s members. The i n s t i t u t e program i s not publicized i n l o c a l varda l i k e seminary i s p u b l i c i z e d . There i s no or l i t t l e p u b l i c i t y about i n s t i t u t e ' o n campus. A student leadership program does not e x i s t . The i n s t i t u t e provides an opportunity to associate with other LDS students. I n s t i t u t e provides an opportunity for a student to maintain a balance i n t h e i r s p i r i t u a l and academic study. There i s no i n d i v i d u a l student counseling with the in s t r u c t o r . such t a l k s . . . . that priesthood leaders give greater emphasis to the importance of I n s t i t u t e i r . t h e i r l o c a l areas. . • . that non-members be i n v i t e d to attend. . . . that the i n s t i t u t e be p u b l i c -ized as much as seminary l n the l o c i l wards. . . . that i n s t i t u t e be p u b l i c i z e d on campus. - . . that student leadership programs be i n s t i t u t e d . . that t h i s be maintained. • . . that t h i s opportunity be maintained. . . . that there be i n d i v i d u a l counseling a v a i l a b l e . 7 5 5 3 7 6 2. Parents 3. Class scheduling Hatch Statements 1. R e g i s t r a t i o n fee 2. Credit I I I . INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Hatch Statements K Part-time i n s t r u c t o r 2. Part-time i n s t r u c t o r 3. Part-time i n s t r u c t o r IV. CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. V i s u a l aids 2 . Curriculum content 3. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s 4. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . V. PHYSICAL FACILITIES Mismatch Statements 1. E u i l d l n g Match Statements 1. B u i l d i n g The I n s t i t u t e does not have a parent's night to acquaint parents with the program. Cla3s Is held at one s p e c i f i c time only during the week. The current r e g i s t r a t i o n fee i s less than $2 per quarter. Credit i s transferable to other church schools. He i s concerned with the w e l l being of each i n d i v i d u a l student. The i n s t r u c t o r i s w e l l prepared i n c l a s s . The i n s t r u c t o r i s interested i n the subloct he teaches. • There currently are no v i s u a l aids and related reference materials to give enrichment to the course. Students have l i t t l e voice i n what courses are taught. Currently, there are no e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . There are no i n t e r - i n s t i t u t e a c t i v i t i e s on a r e g u l a r l y scheduled basis. There i s not a student lounge or l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to students. e " The present f a c i l i t i e s are adequate f o r our purposes. . . . that a parent's night be held. . . . that the scheduling of c l a s s e s , time wise, be more f l e x i b l e . . . . that t h i s amount be maintained. . . . that t h i s p o l i c y be maintained. . • that t h i s concern be maintained. . . that he continue to be. . . that t h i s be maintained. . . . that these be made a v a i l a b l e . . . . that students have more voice i n what courses are taught. . . . that e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s be held. . . . that there be r e g u l a r l y sched-uled i n t e r - i n s t i t u t e a c t i v i t i e s . . . . that such f a c i l i t i e s be made av a i l a b l e f o r student use. . that they be maintained. TABLE XIV MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: PORTLAND DISTRICT, STUDENTS, MT. HOOD C C . Referent Designative Statement ("What i s " )  Appraisive Statement ("I prefer • . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 I. IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. LDSSA 2. LDSSA 3. LDSSA 4. Campus involvement 5. P u b l i c i t y 6. P u b l i c i t y on campus 7. C o r r e l a t i o n 8. Goals of the i n s t i t u t e program 9. Local community II. POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Financing I n s t i t u t e students do not know about, or understand the function of the LDSSA. The LDSSA does not adequately p u b l i c i z e i t s e l f to students. The LDSSA does not f u l f i l l i t s coordinating function. There i s l i t t l e or no involvement of LDS students i n campus government or a c t i v i t i e s . The l o c a t i o n of and the existence of the i n s t i t u t e i s unknown to LDS students on campus. The i n s t i t u t e does not advertise i t s e l f i n the campus student newspaper. The i n s t i t u t e and M-Ken and Gleaners programs compete against each other over a c t i v i t i e s and a c t i v i t y schedules. The goals or purposes of the i n s t i t u t e program i t s e l f are not clear to the students. There are no community service projects enjoyed i n or sponsored by the i n s t i t u t e . Funds for purchasing equipment and furnishings seem to be limited. . . . that students know about and understand i t s function. . . . that the LDSSA more adequat-ely make i t s e l f known and under-stood. . . . that i t achieve I t s coordin-a t i n g function. . . . that there be more involve-ment by LDS students i n these things. . . . that the l o c a t i o n of and e x i s t -ence of the i n s t i t u t e be known. . . . that the i n s t i t u t e advertise i t -s e l f i n the campus student paper. . . . that t h i s competition between the two programs be eliminated. . . . that the goals of the i n s t i t u t e program be c l a r i f i e d to the students. . . . that community projects be sponsored or enjoyed i n by the i n -s t i t u t e . . . . that more money for the purchase of equipment and furnishings be.made available. 2. Counseling services Match Statements 1. P o l i c i e s and procedures 2 . Finances 3 . Registration fee. I I I . INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Mismatch Statements 1. F u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r Match Statements 1. Full-time Instructor IV. CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. Course o f f e r i n g s 2. Course offer i n g s 3 . Courr.e o f f e r i n g s 4. Course o f f e r i n g s 5. Course offerings There i s not an on campus counseling service offered s p e c i f i c a l l y for LDS students by LDS counselors. The i n s t i t u t e maintains an 'open door" p o l i c y towards a l l college age students. -Adequate funds are a v a i l a b l e for student a c t i v i t i e s . The r e g i s t r a t i o n fee i s $ 2 . 0 0 per quarter. The i n s t r u c t o r i s not a v a i l a b l e other than a t class time for student counseling. His presentations are i n t e r e s t i n g and meaningful, he i s prepared and has a good rapport with and shows concern for students. There are only two courses offered to students. There arc no classes or services offered that i n -s t r u c t or t r a i n senior c i t i z e n s . There i s not a c l a s s offered s t r i c t l y for non-members. There i s not n graduate type class offered that permits more advanced d o c t r i n a l study. There i s not a c l a s s that gives i n s t r u c t i o n or t r a i n i n g i n parenthood. . . . that such an on campus coun-s e l i n g service be offered. that t h i s be maintained. . . . that t h i s s i t u a t i o n be maintained. . . . that t h i s amount be maintained. . . . that the i n s t r u c t o r be more a v a i l a b l e for student counseling other than at c l a s s time. . . . that these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s be maintained. . . . that there be more v a r i e t y i n the courses offered. . . . that a c l a s s of t h i s type be i n s t i t u t e d i n the curriculum.. . . . that a c l a s s s p e c i f i c a l l y designed for non-membp.rs be offered. . . . that a graduate type c l a s s be offered to permit more advanced study. . . . that a c l a s s of t h i s type be offered. 8 1 7 1 6 4 4 1 7 8 1 6 2 S 3 4 5 2 H H PHYSICAL FACILITIES Mismatch Statements 1. L i b r a r y 2. L i b r a r y 3. Classroom l i g h t i n g 4 . Building' 5. Classroom and lounging space 6 . Lounging space The i n s t i t u t e l i b r a r y does not subscribe to the ava i l a b l e church publications. The i n s t i t u t e does not have a l i b r a r y ot" i t s own. The classroom i s poorly l i g h t e d . Currently, the i n s t i t u t e i s meeting i n temporary or rented f a c i l i t i e s . The lounging and classroom f a c i l i t i e s are too sma] and l i m i t e d . There are no lounging chairs or classroom chairs that belong to the institute. . . . that these p u b l i c a t i o n s be subscribed to by the l i b r a r y . . . . that the i n s t i t u t e have a l i b r a r y of i t s own. . . . that, the classroom be more adequately l i g h t e d . . . . that there be a permanent f a c i l i t y to meet i n . . . . that there be more lounging and classroom space. . . . that the i n s t i t u t e have some lounging c h a i r s and classroom c h a i r s of i t s own. TABLE XV MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: PORTLAND DISTRICT, STUDENTS, PACIFIC UNIVERSITY Referent Designative Statement ("What i s " )  Appraisive Statement ("I prefer • . •") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. P u b l i c i t y - o n campus 2. Recruitment-of non-members 3. Recruitment 4. Recruitment 5. Student leadership I I . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Scheduling 2. Class scheduling 3. Class meeting time I I I . INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Match Statements Ful l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r There i s no p u b l i c i z i n g of the i n s t i t u t e program on campus. Non-member recruitment i s not being done. There are LDS students i n the l o c a l wards and on campus who are not a c t i v e i n the i n s t i t u t e program. Currently there are few, I f any, a c t i v i t i e s design-ed to involve the inactives i n the i n s t i t u t e program. Currently, no organized student leadership program e x i s t s among the i n s t i t u t e students. Currently, there i s only one course offered during the week. Currently, class scheduling c o n f l i c t s with other church meetings. Currently, the scheduled meeting time of class i s from 7:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. He i s q u a l i f i e d to teach t h i s c l a s s ; he radiates a s p i r i t u a l conviction of the gospel, he possesses a knowledge of the subject he teaches, and he i s sincere about what he teaches. . . . that the i n s t i t u t e program be public i z e d on campus. . . . that non-members be r e c r u i t e d ; . . . that these students were a c t i v e i n the i n s t i t u t e program. . . . that a program of various a c t i v i t i e s to involve the i n a c t i v e s be designed and i n s t i t u t e d . . . . that some type of student leadership be established. . . . that a greater v a r i e t y of cotirses he offered during the week. . . . that c l a s s scheduling did not c o n f l i c t with other church meetings. . . . that the scheduled meeting time be from 7:30 p.m. to 9:00 p . B . that he maintain these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 4 3 2 1 VJ1 2. Curriculum IV. CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s 2. Classroom student requirements V. PHYSICAL FACILITIES Mismatch Statements 1. Privacy afforded by room l o c a t i o n 2. L i b r a r y 3. Room temperature 4 . B u i l d i n g 5. Table Ind' C PrL C m i C U l m °ffCrS 3 °0Ur8e ln the D°«rine • • '• t h i s course ought to be maintained i n the curriculum. i c i p a t e d i n and planned by the c l a s s . Tor S u ^ S L " 1 ^ " ' P r ° J e C t S a S S l 8 n " : • • > » - ' ™ u a l student pro-j e c t s be assigned during the term. The room currently used has external noises that are d i s t r a c t i n g . Currently there are no i n s t i t u t e l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to students. - . that students meet i n a room that affords more privacy and seclusion. . . that l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s be made a v a i l a b l e to students. The room i s always cold. Currently there are no physical f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e for private counseling of the student with the i n s t r u c t o r . S ^ ^ - i U ^ * t8ble "e • • • t h . . students s i t at a table ' * that i s not i n the condition the present one i s l n . . . that i t be warmer. . . that private counseling f a c i l i -ies be a v a i l a b l e . TABLE XVT MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: PORTLAND DISTRICT, STUDENTS, P O R ^ MED./DENT. Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 Too few students are attending c l a s s . 2. Recruitment 3. Recruitment 4. P u b l i c i t y 5. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 6. LDSSA 7. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 8. P u b l i c i t y 9. P u b l i c i t y 10. Recruitment 11. Recruitment Generally LDS students are not motivated to attend i n s t i t u t e . M n r e ^ } ^ t h " e L* n 0 t a v o i l a b l e ^ a a n t r a l o f f i c e addition to the l o c a l o f f i c e ) a l i s t of p o t e n t i a l Lub students. LDS students are not taught the value of the i n s t i t u t e program during t h e i r p r e - i n s t i t u t e years. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders do not provide for a fo l l o w -up program i n recruitment l i k e tlioy do for seminary. The LDSSA does not have a l i s t of p o t e n t i a l LDS students i n t h e i r area. Local e c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders do not educate or inform the youth i n t h e i r area about the i n s t i t u t e program. There i s not now, at the beginning of the i n s t i t u t e year, an "opening s o c i a l " type a c t i v i t y that r e a l l y shows students what the i n s t i t u t e program o f f e r s . LDS students arc uninformed about the part-time i n -s t i t u t e program i n general. Recruitment programs currently are loosely structured and informal i n organizational structure. No l e t t e r s on letterhead stationery are sent to i n -form and i n v i t e students to attend i n s t i t u t e . that more students attend c l a s s . . . that the non-attending LES student be motivated to attend. . . . that there be a l i s t of p o t e n t i a l students a v a i l a b l e ac a c e n t r a l o f f i c e . . . . that there be a program for the p r e - i n s t i t u t e years designed to inform students of the value of the i n s t i t u t e program. . . . that they organize n f o l l o w -up program l i k e they do for seminary. . . . that a l i s t of p o t e n t i a l students be a v a i l a b l e to the LDSSA. . . . that these leaders inform and educate the youth r e l a t i v e to the I n s t i t u t e program. . . . that there be such an a c t i v i t y . . . . that methods of p u b l i c i z i n g the a program be i n s t i t u t e d . • . . that recruitment programs be formally structured as to t h e i r organizational framework. 2 2 3 4 4 3 3 2 2 sens. that letters of this type be I I . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Match Statements 1. Decentralized l o c a t i o n I n s t i t u t e classes are held i n various l o c a l i t i e s on a of classes l o c a l basis and are not centralized into one area. 2. Grades and examinations Currently, there are no grades or mid-terms or academic pressures or requirements. Ill.INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Mismatch Statements 1. Part-time i n s t r u c t o r There are currently no reading assignments given to students i n preparation for up-coming discussions. Match Statements 1. Part-time Instructor He i s w e l l q u a l i f i e d and makes the clas s worthwhile. I V . C U R R I C U L U M Mismatch Statements 1. Class handouts 2. Class handouts. Match Statements 1. Guest l e c t u r e s Handouts on course material are given to students only once i n a while. At the beginning of the year there i s not now a handout given to sutdents that gives a course over-view, b i b l i o g r a p h i e s , and references for further personal student study. Guest lecturers who are p r a c t i c i n g dentists or doctors and who hold some church p o s i t i o n are brought i n from tine to time to speak to c l a s s . . . . that t h i s p r a c t i c e of de-c e n t r a l i z a t i o n be maintained. . . . that there be no grades, mid-terms or academic pressure or requirements. • . . that reading assignments be given so students can perpare for up-coming discussions. . . . that any future i n s t r u c t o r be of the same q u a l i t y as the present one. . . . that handouts be given out r e g u l a r l y . . . . that a handout containing these items be given students at the beginning of the year. . . . that t h i s p r a c t i c e be continued. TABLE XVII MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: SALEM DISTRICT, STUDENTS, ALBANY I. IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF Mismatch Statements 1. Recruitment 2. Recruitment 3. Publicity 4. LDSSA Match Statements i. Goals of the program-I I . FOLIC!ES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Class o f f e r i n g s Match Statements 1. Class l o c a t i o n HI. I STRUCT IONA h PERSONNEL Match S-tat«aent I. Full-time Instructor College age non-students are not r e c r u i t e d to attend i n s t i t u t e . I t i s not known who the LDS students are who attend Linn-Benton Community College. College age youth do not know about the i n s t i t u t e program. There i s not an LDSSA representative on campus. The i n s t i t u t e program i s a needed and necessary program and i t serves an important function i n meet-ing the needs of students. There i s only one i n s t i t u t e c l a s s offered per week and i t i s offered only at one s p e c i f i c tijne during the week. " The class Is located on campus. He has a knowledge of his subject, makes class i n-teresting and has a sense of humor. . . . that college age non-student6 be re c r u i t e d to attend i n s t i t u t e . . . that these students be known . . . that college age youth know about the program. . . . that there be an LDSSA rep-resentative oh campus. . . . that the i n s t i t u t e program be continued. . . . that the c l a s s be offered at various times during the week. • . . that the class location con-tinue to be held cn campus. he maintain these characteristics CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. Student study guides Match Statements 1. Curriculum There are not any student study guides or texts for students that are r e l a t i v e to the materials discussed i n c l a s s lectures. A student can learn about the church and i t s doctrine. 2. Extra c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s A l l s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s are held i n C o r v a l l l s and none are held on campus* . . . that the students have some type of guide or text materials to supplement cl a s s l e c t u r e s . . . . that the curriculum continue to provide for these opportunities. . . . that t h i s s i t u a t i o n continue to be maintained. TABLE XVTII MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: SALEM DISTRICT, STUDENTS, BEND Referent Deslgnative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement: Agreement/Relevance Rating ("I prefer . . .") 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 I. IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF.PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. Goals of the program Students do not know what s p e c i f i c and personal goals the i n s t i t u t e has for them personally. . . . that students know what these goals are. 8 1 2. Recruitment Match Statements There are not enough students enrolled and p a r t i c i p a t -ing i n the i n s t i t u t e program. . . . that there be more p a r t i c i p a -t i o n and enrollment on the part of students. 9 1. Recruitment The class in s t r u c t o r a c t i v e l y seeks to r e c r u i t students. . . that he continue to do so. 1 8 2. Goals of the program The I n s t i t u t e provides an opportunity f o r personal s p i r i t u a l growth. . . . that the program continue to do so. 9 3. Goals cf the program The I n s t i t u t e provides an opportunity of f u r t h e r i n g ones personal knowledge about the church. . . . that t h i s opportunity be maintained. i 8 4. Goals of the program The i n s t i t u t e provides an opportunity for fellowshipping, ,. . . that t h i s opportunity be maintained. 2 7 5. Goals of the program Currently the i n s t i t u t e program i s offered i n Bend. . . . that i t continue to be offered. 2 7 I I . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Grades Currently grades are required for transferable c r e d i t to BYU and Ricks. , . . that grades not be required. 7 2 2. Parents 3. Prayer Parents ere not involved In the i n s t i t u t e program. Students s i t ln chairs during the opening prayer. . . . that parents become more involved ft in the program. . . . that students kneel for class prayer. 5 5 3 4 III.INSTRUCTIONAL P E R S O N N E L Mismatch Statements 1. Part-time Instructor 2. Part-time Instructor Hatch Statements 1. Part-time Instructor 2. Part-time Instructor TV. ClTtRICULUM Match Statements 1. Curriculum There i s not enough class p a r t i c i p a t i o n by-attending students. Our i n ' c l a s s discussion of materials i s not an " i n depth" type of discussion. He i s c h e e r f u l , always smiling and he i n f r i e n d l y . The teacher can communicate to and underatand student needs and problems. The I n s t i t u t e curriculum provides a background i n Church H i s t c r y , doctrine etc. V. PHYSICAL FACILITIES Match Statements 1. Building He now meet l n a home . . . that there be more c l a s s p a r t i c i -pation by students i n c l a s s . . . . that there be more i n depth discussion of materials. < . , that he maintain t h i s a t t i t u d e . • . . that t h i s be maintained. . . . that the curriculum continue to do so. . . . that we continue to meet i n a home. TABLE XIX MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: SALEM DISTRICT, STUDENTS, MCMINNVILLE Referent Deslgnative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. Recruitment Some registered students pnly attend clas3 part of the time. Recruitment i s l i m i t e d to members of the ward and nearby branches. 2. Recruitment Match Statements 1. Goals of the program I I . POLICIES A>fD PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Grades and examinations There i s no system of personal evaluation required of the students r e l a t i v e to t h e i r progress or understand-ing of course content. . . . that registered students attend c l a s s a l l of 1 the time. . . . that recruitment be expand-ed to include the community and the general p u b l i c . The i n s t i t u t e program provides the students with an opportunity to further t h e i r knowledge about the gospel, do so. that the program continue to Match Statements 1. Grades I I I . INSTIiUCTIOMAL PERSONNEL Match Statements 1. Part-time Instructor 2. Part-time Instructor Currently no grades are required. The students f e e l that the i n s t r u c t o r cares about them i n d i v i d u a l l y and shows i n t e r e s t i n them i n d i v i d u a l l y . He e x h i b i t s an understanding of the material he presents. . . . that there be some system of personal evaluation. . . . that t h i s s i t u a t i o n be main-tained. . . . that he continue to do so. . . . that this characteristic be maintained. IV. CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. Book of Mormon Curriculum 2. Student manual Match Statements 1. Course o f f e r i n g s 2. Course Offerings V. PHYSICAL FACILITIES Mismatch Statements 1. L i b r a r i e s 2. B u i l d i n g Our study of the Book of Mormon i s general i n i t s approach and i s not an "in-depth" study of the content of each of i t s chapters. There are two phonograph records accompanying the Book of Mormon-student manual. A course on the Book of Mormon Is available and offered by the i n s t i t u t e . There i s a v a r i e t y of course offerings a v a i l a b l e for student s e l e c t i o n In the i n s t i t u t e program. There i s a very l i m i t e d s e l ection of maps, d o c t r i n a l books etc. a v a i l a b l e to students i n a l i b r a r y s e t t i n g . Noise from adjoining rooms and people p e r i o d i c a l l y entering the classroom sre d i s t r a c t i n g to the c l a s s . . . . that there be a l e s s general study and there be a more "in-depth" study of Book of Mormon. . . . that there be more such records i n the student manual. . . . that the I n s t i t u t e continue to o f f e r courses i n the Book of Mormon. . . . that t h i s s e l e c t i o n be main-tained. . . . there be more l i b r a r y materials a v a i l a b l e as w e l l as an established l i b r a r y . . . . that we meet i n a classroom with l e s s outside noise and i n t e r -ruptions. TABLE XX MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: SALEM DISTRICT, STUDENTS, MONMOUTH Referent Deslgnative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PKOCRAM Mismatch Statements 1. Recruitment 2. C o r r e l a t i o n 3. P u b l i c i t y 4 . C o r r e l a t i o n Match Statements I . Goals of the program I I . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements I . Class Scheduling I I I . INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Mismatch Statements 1. Part-time Instructor It i s not known who the LDS students are on campus. The communication between LDS active students to i n -a c t i v e students about the i n s t i t u t e program i s l i m i t e d . Information concerning i n s t i t u t e (e.g. l o c a t i o n of c l a s s , , times of c l a s s , existence of program on campus, etc.) did not get through to a i l LDS students on campus. Students do not know the re l a t i o n s h i p s between the i n s t i t u t e program and the M-Men and Gleaner program. . . . to know who they arc. » . . that a more comprehensive program for communicating informa-t i o n about the i n s t i t u t e program to in a c t i v e s be established. that i t d i d . . . . to know the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these two programs. I t i s possible to s i t as a clas s or group and discuss and get counsel concerning personal problems. The scheduled meeting times for i n s t i t u t e c l a s s are arranged a f t e r students r e g i s t e r for school classes. Too much class t i n e i s spent on items not re l a t e d to subject matter of course. . . . that t h i s s i t u a t i o n be maintained. . . . that meeting times of i n -s t i t u t e c l a s s be established p r i o r to school r e g i s t r a t i o n . . . . to spend more t i n e discussing course content matter and less time on non-related Items. 5 5 2 3 4 1 1 3 H ON Match Statements I. Part-time Instructor IV. CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. Texts 2. Course o f f e r i n g s There i s a close bond between Instructor and students . . . that t h i s bond be main-that encourages or f a c i l i t a t e s counseling. tained. There are no texts related to our course of av a i l a b l e to us. There Is no i n s t r u c t i o n about the church genealogical program given i n c l a s s . study . . . to have some a v a i l a b l e . . . to have Some i n s t r u c t i o n i n genealogy. TABLE XXI MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: SALEM DISTRICT, STUDENTS, KOSEBURG Referent uesignative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 I. IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. Student leadership I t i s non-existent 2. Image of Program 3. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 4. Recruitment 5. Campus involvement i • 6. Co r r e l a t i o n 7. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 8. P u b l i c i t y Match Stateaents 1. Goals of the program II. POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Class location Young adults who l i v e at home, and don't go away to school or on a mission, are forgotten by the church. Bishops are not aware of or informed about, nor i n -volved i n the i n s t i t u t e program. There i s not an organized and united recruitment e f f o r t r e l a t i v e to i n s t i t u t e recruitment. The i n s t i t u t e i s not involved i n any campus a d t i v i t i e s . • . . that there be some student leadership established. . . . that they not be forgotten. . . . that they be aware of, i n -formed and involved i n the program. . . . that there be a united and organized recruitment e f f o r t . There i s a lack of communication between college age students and Bishops. Bishops don't v i s i t an i n s t i t u t e c l a s s to see what i t i s l i k e . The members of the church do not know what the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are i n order to be e l i g i b l e to attend i n s t i t u t e . The program provides for opportunities f o r s o c i a l i z i n g with other L . D . S . students. The location of tha class is not centralized for the students. . . . that the i n s t i t u t e be i n -volved i n campus a c t i v i t i e s . . . . that there be more communica-t i o n between bishops and students. . . . that bishops attend or v i s i t a c l a s s at le a s t once. . . . that these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s be . made known to the church membership. . . . that the program continue to provide for t h i 9 opportunity. . . . that the class location be sentrally located. ON 2. Class l o c a t i o n 3. Credit I I I . INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL. Match Statement 1. Part-time i n s t r u c t o r IV. CURRICULUM • Mismatch Statements I. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s The class i s not located on or by a college cdmpus. Some students do not know i f i n s t i t u t e c r e d i t i s transferable. He shows he i s interested i n each i n d i v i d u a l student There are no e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r s p i r i t u a l a c t i v i t i e s . . . . that the c l a s s be located on or by a campus. . . . that students know i f c r e d i t i s transferable. . . . that he continue to show t h i s i n t e r e s t . . . . that there be some ex t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s held by the I n s t i t u t e . TABLE XXII MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: SALEM DISTRICT, STUDENTS, SALEM Referent I« IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements Deslgnative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . . " ) ' Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 1. Recruitment 2. Image of program 3. C o r r e l a t i o n Students do not attend class a f t e r they f i n d out about the program. The working college age person believes the i n s t i t u t e program i s for college students only. There i s a lack of communication between priesthood leaders and college age youth about the t o t a l i n s t i t u t e program. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders I f i n s t i t u t e i s mentioned by the Bishops i n sacrament meeting, i t i s done only with cursory notice. 5. P u b l i c i t y 6. P u b l i c i t y 7 . Image 8. Student leadership The i n s t i t u t e program i s unknown to church members generally. Young adults do not know the i n s t i t u t e program e x i s t s . The i n s t i t u t e c l a s s Is the only a c t i v i t y the M-Men and Gleaner program has. I n s t i t u t e student leadership i s non-existent. 9. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders Bishops do not-advertise the i n s t i t u t e program. 10. C o r r e l a t i o n Glass meeting time currently conflicts with MIA for those college age youth who have MIA positions. . . . that students attend c l a s s a f t e r they learn about the program. . . . they understand that the program i s for a l l college age youth. . . . that there not be a lack of communication between these two groups about the i n s t i t u t e program. . . . chat when bishops mention i n -s t i t u t e i n sacrament meetings, they do so with emphasis and i n t e r e s t . . . . that the program be made known to church members. . . . that young adults be made aware of the program. . . . that the i n s t i t u t e c l a s s be maintained as an M-Men and Gleaner a c t i v i t y , but that the M-Men and Gleaners have more a c t i v i t i e s . . . . that there be some i n s t i t u t e student leadership established. , . . that bishops advertise the i n s t i t u t e program. . . . that class meeting times not conflict with MIA. 1 «' 1 4 3 3 II. POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Class l o c a t i o n I I I . INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Mismatch Statements 1. Full-time Instructor Match Statement 1. Full-time Instructor IV. CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. Student reading guide Hatch Statements 1. Curriculum The class i s not meeting at Willamette University which . . . that the current cl a s s be i s more c e n t r a l , has the necessary f a c i l i t i e s and n high held at Willamette U n i v e r s i t y , p o t e n t i a l of LDS students. He i s talented and w e l l trained i n h i s subject, but members do not take advantage of h i s t r a i n i n g by en-r o l l i n g i n c l a s s . . . . that members take advantage of the t r a i n i n g of the i n s t r u c t o r and e n r o l l i n c l a s s . The i n s t r u c t o r supplementary background material to make h i s class i n t e r e s t i n g . . . . that he continue t h i s procedure. There i s not a course reading o u t l i n e for students i n d i c a t i n g related outside rending materials that are related to the course content. . . . that there be made av a i l a b l e to students an outside reading out-l i n e r e l a t i v e to the course being taught. The course offe r i n g s provide an opportunity for students to broaden t h e i r background and knowledge of the church and the gospel. . . . that the curriculum continue to provide f o r t h i s opportunity. TABLE XXIII MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: SEATTLE DISTRICT, STUDENTS, EDMONDS C C . Referent Designative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 I . IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1 . Recruitment 2. Recruitment of non-metr.bers 3. P u b l i c i t y .4. Goals of program Mntr.h Statements 1. Recruitment II. POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Counselling 2. Class scheduling 3. Class offerings 4. Adults Presently, recruitment i s done by word-of-mouth Non-members are not involved i n the recruitment programs. P u b l i c i t y about the i n s t i t u t e program i s dissemin-ated sometimes by way of public announcement by a bishop over a p u l p i t . The goals of the i n s t i t u t e are not known by students. Some wards have presented sacrament evening programs about the i n s t i t u t e that have created i n t e r e s t i n i n s t i t u t e . There i s not enough time, nor are there adequate f a c i l i t i e s for counseling. Class i s offered only once a week. There are no classes offered for non-members. The presence of adults ln the classroom i n h i b i t s the i n s t r u c t o r from making the lesson relevant to the students and they inhibit the student from making responses in class. . . . that there be a more ef f e c -t i v e recruitment program. . . . that they be r e c r u i t e d . . . . that there be a more complete p u b l i c i t y of the i n s t i t u t e program through a program that disseminates w r i t t e n and o r a l Information. . . i to know them. . . . that they continue to hold these sacrament meeting programs. . . . that there be time a v a i l a l b e as w e l l as f a c i l i t i e s . . . . to have class held more than once a week. . . . that there be classes offered 2 fo r non-members. . . . adults meet i n a separate 2 c l a s s from students. 1 8 3 6 2 6 9 4 4 5 3 4 2 IV. CURRICULUM Match Statements I. Curriculum The present curriculum presented i n the D. & C. c l a s s . . . that i t be maintained as part i s relevant to our needs. of the curriculum. TABLE XXIV MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: SEATTLE DISTRICT, STUDENTS, EVERETT CC. Referent Deslgnative Statement ("What Is") I. IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF. PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. P u b l i c i t y Appraisivo Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating . 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 2. P u b l i c i t y on campus 3. Recruitment it. Goals of program 5. Campus involvement Match Statements 1. Goals of program . I I . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Class scheduling 2. Grades and examina-tions I I I . INSTRUCT 10SA1. PERSONNEL Misoateh Statements 1. Course offerings People don't know about the i n s t i t u t e program. We do not use the campus p u b l i c i t y f a c i l i t i e s to p u b l i c i z e the i n s t i t u t e program. There i s no program to a t t r a c t non-members. Students are not c e r t a i n what the goals of the I n s t i t u t e program are. No one from i n s t i t u t e attends the campus student a c t i v i t y c o u n c i l . I n s t i t u t e provides an opportunity to report on and announce scheduled and calendared a c t i v i t i e s for young adults. The current scheduled time for holding i n s t i t u t e c l a s s c o n f l i c t s with my school c l a s s schedule. I don't understand the p o l i c y regarding grades and examinations. This i s my second year studying the Doctrine & Covenants. t h i s . . . . that there be more p u b l i c i t y about i t . . . . that wo use the campus r a d i o , b u l l e t i n s etc. to p u b l i c i z e the i n s t i t u t e program. that there be a program for .more information i n t h i s area. . that some one attend. . to maintain t h i s . . . . that t h i s c o n f l i c t somehow be resolved. . . . more information on t h i s subject. 1 4 2 3 2 3 1 3 to have a change 1 2 H -v3 Hatch Statements 1. Full-time instructor He adjusts the lesson to f i t non-members when they are . . . chat he continue to do so. 2 3 present. TABLE XXV MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: SEATTLE DISTRICT, STUDENTS, RENTON Referent Designative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3- 6-7 I. IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1 . E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders Ward leaders are uninformed about the I n s t i t u t e program, nnd i t i s d i f f i c u l t to get information from them about the program. 2. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 3. Married students 4 . Students Match Statc-mcnta 1. Goals of program" 2. 3. 4 . Combined program Goals of program Combined program 5. Student leadership Goals of program P u b l i c i t y Ward leaders have no interest i n the i n s t i t u t e program. For some reason ; married students f e e l that the i n s t i t u t e program i s not for them. Students In the part-time Inntitutes nro vory transient and t h i s creates some b u i l t i n i n s t a -b i l i t y into the program. I n s t i t u t e provides a program that i s s p i r i t u a l l y up-l i f t i n g , i t i s kind of."a great way to begin a day". Combining the M-Men and Gleaner program and the i n s t i t u t e c l a s s helps to f a c i l i t a t e the spread of communication about a c t i v i t i e s i n the area. • The i n s t i t u t e program provides an opportunity f o r students to associate with peers who share the same standards r e l i g i o u s l y and morally. The combining of the i n s t i t u t e class with M-Men and Gleaners strengthens the stake a c t i v i t y program of the M-Men and Gleaner program. I n s t i t u t e provides the opportunity to get some tra i n i n g and experience i n student leadership. The class a c t i v a t e s those i n d i v i d u a l s who are i n a c t i v e . Some students received information through the mail informing them of the i n s t i t u t e programs i n the area. . . . that ward lenders were better informed about i n s t i t u t e . . ; . chat they evidence more Interest. . . . that they f e e l the program i s I f o r them. . . . to e s t a b l i s h some system to provide f o r some co n t i n u i t y and u s a b i l i t y . . . . that i t continue to provide t h i s s p i r i t u a l u p l i f t . . . . that i t continue to provide t h i s point of communication between students. . . . that this continue. . . . to maintain t h i s combination. . . . that t h i s continue. . . . that t h i s continue. . . . that t h i s p o l i c y continue. 2 11 5 8 6 6 7 5 13 13 12 12 12 11 9 V_0 H . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Class schedule Match Statements 1. Finances III•INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Match Statements 1. Fu l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r 2. Full-time i n s t r u c t o r 3. Quality of i n s t i t u t e i n s t r u c t o r s 4 . Full-time i n s t r u c t o r V. PHYSICAL FACILITIES Class i s held only once a week. The current amount of the student fee i s very i n -expensive. I f e e l free to approach the inst r u c t o r for counseling matters. Who ever chose our i n s t r u c t o r f o r us did a great job. The church provides i n s t r u c t o r s that are very professional and who can teach to our l e v e l . He reinforces the curriculum by personal and h i s t o r i c a l anecdotes and t i d b i t s to make the lessons even more In t e r e s t i n g . Mismatch Statements1. L i b r a r y Ke are unable to acquire books from the main f u l l -time i n s t i t u t e l i b r a r y . . . . that i c be held more often. . . . that i t remain as i t i s . . . . that t h i s continue to be so. . . . that t h i s continue. . . . that the Church continue t h i s . . . . that t h i s continue.. . . . that the i n s t r u c t o r somehow make these books a v a i l a b l e to us. TABLE XXVI' MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: SEATTLE DISTRICT, STUDENTS, SHORELINE C C , Referent I . IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements Deslgnative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 1. Image of program 2. P u b l i c i t y 3. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 4. C o r r e l a t i o n 5. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 6. Coals of program 7. Student leaders 8. C o r r e l a t i o n 9. S o c i a l b a r r i e r s 10. S o c i a l b a r r i e r s The four year seminary program i s emphasized and adver-tis e d a l o t , but the i n s t i t u t e program i s not. The i n s t i t u t e program i s not advertised i n the wards. There i s no communication between the bishops and the part-time i n s t i t u t e s when i t come to getting l i s t s of names, phone numbers and addresses of p o t e n t i a l students. There i s no clear or directed communication between the M-Men and Gleaners, young adults, LDSSA, etc. nor i s the organizational or s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between them c l e a r l y understood. There i s no priesthood support or d i r e c t i o n i n r e c r u i t i n g i n s t i t u t e students. Students do u:-t understand the goals of the i n s t i t u t e program. The student leaders of the various young adult organ-i z a t i o n s l i k e LDSSA, etc. are not known by the students. There i s no inter-communications between the part-time i n s t i t u t e s i n the area. When a person reaches the age of about 23 they are ignored or snubbed s o c i a l l y by other i n s t i t u t e students. Student leaders are chosen more on t h e i r s t y l e of clothes or t h e i r pretty faces rather than on th e i r character. . . . that the i n s t i t u t e be ad-ve r t i s e d and emphasized as much as the seminary program. . . . that i t be advertised In the ward8. ,. . . that there be becter com-munication with ward leaders. . . . that communication and organizational r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these organizations be understood. . . . that there were more support or d i r e c t i o n . . . . to know what the goals are. . . . to know who the student leaders are. . . . to have some. . . . that they not be Ignored or 2 snubbed s o c i a l l y . . . . that they be chosen on t h e i r 3 character. 1 5 2 4 Match Statements 1. Recruitment The f u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r and the students have been doing the r e c r u i t i n g , i n that order. 2. S o c i a l b a r r i e r I I . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Counseling I I I . INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Match Statements 1. F u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r V. 'PHYSICAL FACILITIES Missatch Statements 1. Student lounge 2. B u i l d i n g 3. LibraTies There are no appreciable s o c i a l b a r r i e r s among i n s t i t u t e students. They are pretty acceptable. There i s no time a v a i l a b l e to counsel with the i n -s t r u c t o r , nor are there any counseling f a c i l i t i e s . He Is excellent i n that be i s s p i r i t u a l and can blend w e l l with the students and teaches them on a one-to-one basis. He has a good senso of humor, i s always w e l l prepared and teaches with the i n d i v i d u a l 3 t u d e n t i n mind. There i s no student lounge. The physical f a c i l i t i e s are too cramped. He don't have one. . . . that they continue to r e c r u i t i n that order, that i s , f o r s t by the i n s t r u c t o r , then by the students. . . . that t h i s condition con-tinue as i t i s . . . . that time and f a c i l i t i e s arranged to permit counseling. . . . that ho remain as he i s . . . . that there be one. . . . that we have more room. . . . that we bad one TABLE XXVII MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: TACOMA DISTRICT, STUDENTS, CENTRALIA Referent Deslgnative Statement ("What i s " ) IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. P u b l i c i t y Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 The importance of the seminary program i n understood much more by the church generally than i s the i n s t i t u t e program. 2. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders The p u b l i c i t y of the i n s t i t u t e program i s non-existent i n the wards and stakes. 3. P u b l i c i t y (on campus) There i s l i t t l e i f any, p u b l i c i t y on campus of the i n s t i t u t e program. 4. Goals of the program 5. Recruitment 6. Recruitment Match Statements 1. Goals of the program I n s t i t u t e students do noc know what the goals of the i n s t i t u t e program are. Class members are not r e c r u i t i n g other students to attend c l a s s . Most of the students attending i n s t i t u t e are females with few priesthood holders attending. The goals of the i n s t i t u t e program are w e l l defined and understood by students, , . . that the importance of the i n -s t i t u t e program be known as much as i s the seminary program. . . . that there be more p u b l i c i t y of the program by ward or stake leaders. . . . that there be more p u b l i c i t y on campus. . . . that i n s t i t u t e students know what the goals of the program are. . . . that class members r e c r u i t other students to attend c l a s s . . . . that there be more male, p r i e s t -hood holders attending c l a s s . that the s i t u a t i o n be continued 3 3 3 3 2 1 ^3 III.INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Mismatch Statements 1. Full-time Instructor Match Statements 1. Fu l l - t i m e Instructor V. PHYSICAL FACILITIES Mismatch Statements 1. Bu i l d i n g Match Statements 1. Bu i l d i n g There i s not as much reference to the scriptures to il- . . . that there be more reference l u s t r a t e the point the i n s t r u c t o r i s t a l k i n g about as I made by the i n s t r u c t o r to the s c r i p t -would l i k e to have. u r c s t 0 i l l u s t r a t e the point he i s making. He i s i n t e r e s t i n g , gets the point across, and i s thought provoking,. The f a c i l i t i e s are rented and a v a i l a b l e only part of the time. Currently, the physical f a c i l i t i e s are comfortable and e a s i l y accessible. . . . that he maintain these char-a c t e r i s t i c s . . . . that the i n s t i t u t e own i t s own f a c i l i t i e s and that they be a v a i l a b l e a l l the time. that they continue to be so. 2 1 H 00 TABLE XXVIII MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: TACOMA DISTRICT, STUDENTS, ELMA Referent I. IMAGE ACT CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements Designative Statement ("What i s " ) 1. P u b l i c i t y P u b l i c i t y generally about the i n s t i t u t e program i s l i m i t e d . 2. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders Ward priesthood leaders don't seem to care about the i n s t i t u t e program. 3. P u b l i c i t y 4. C o r r e l a t i o n 5. P u b l i c i t y Members and non-members do not know about the benefits of the i n s t i t u t e program. There i s a lack of cooperation between other church functions and the i n s t i t u t e i n the use of the physical l a c i l i t i e s (e.g. chapel, kitchen etc.) There i s no p u b l i c i t y about the i n s t i t u t e program given to the M-men & Gleaner representative. 6. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders are not attending i n s t i t u t e for t h e i r own d o c t r i n a l e d i f i c a t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n . I I . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Class scheduling 2. Adults 3. Class l o c a t i o n 4. Adults There i s not enough time a l l o t t e d to the cla s s period. I n s t i t u t e i s oriented toward the young adult age group of 18-25 years. r. r. , The distance for tr a v e l i n g co the cla s s Is c e n t r a l , but too f a r . College age students and adults meet together i n the same c l a s s . Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 . . .that there he more general p u b l i c i t y about the program. . . . that they e x h i b i t some care about the program. . . . that they know about the benefits of the program. . . . that there be more coopera-t i o n between functions and the use of f a c i l i t i e s . . . . that the M-Men & Gleaner r e -resentative be given p u b l i c i t y about the i n s t i t u t e program. . . . that e c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders attend i n s t i t u t e for t h e i r own doc-t r i n a l e d i f i c a t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n . . . .that the time a l l o t t e d f o r the class period be extended. . . . that I n s t i t u t e age or i e n t a t i o n be extended to include ' a dults. . . . that i n s t i t u t e classes be held 1 i n l o c a l wards, rather than a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n . . . . that the c l a s s be separated int02 a c l a s s for adults and a class for the colle g e age students. 4 14 4 14 4 13 5 12 4 12 5 10 2 8 10 16 8 UI.'INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Match Statements 1. Full-time Instructor IV. CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. Curriculum - c l a s s -room i n s t r u c t i o n Match Statements 1. Curriculum lie i s w e l l q u a l i f i e d and works hard to make' c l a s s i n t e r e s t i n g . I t i s geared to the understanding of the above average church member. The curriculum i s relevant to student needs and i s s p i r i t u a l l y u p l i f t i n g . . . . that these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s be maintained. . . . that there be means provided whereby class members with lower, or average or high understanding of the church, ho separated i n t o d i f f e r e n t classes. that i t be concinued as i t i s . I. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders Ward leaders do not even know where a l l t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i n s t i t u t e students are l i v i n g p o t e n t i a l I. P u h l i c i t y 3. P u b l i c i t y 4. Image of program 5. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 6. P u b l i c i t y on campus I I . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Administration I I I . INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Hatch Statements 1. Full-time Instructor 2; Full-time Instructor i n s t i t u t e - ° * * " ^ " ^ Non-members do not know about the i n s t i t u t e program. P o t e n t i a l students have a distorted image, or an un-clear image of the i n s t i t u t e program. a T t e n l i n ^ ^ r ^ lMde" W *• c a m p u s ? " ' " ' 6 P r ° 8 r a m 1 8 n 0 t k n ° W n ° r r e c°R«i"d on ^ „ n S u c ° r s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are so wide spread geographically that he i s not a v a i l a b l e for students to counsel with, only for b r i e f periods of time. He i s able to r e l a t e the messages of the Book of Mormon to student's l i v e s . He i s knowledgeable i n hio subject and interested i n students. . . . that ward leaders knew where a l l the p o t e n t i a l students are l i v i n g . . . . that p o t e n t i a l students were given an opportunity to know about the i n s t i t u t e program. . . . that there be some way of l e t t i n g non-members know about the program. . . . that p o t e n t i a l students have a c l e a r and accurate image of the program. . . . that ward leaders l e t i n s t i t u t e leaders know who i s attending c o l l e g e . . . . that i t be known and recognized on campus. • . . that he be more a v a i l a b l e f o r students to counsel with. . . . that he continue to do so. . . . that he continue to e x h i b i t these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 2 9 4 7 4 7 4 7 4 7 3 4 10 9 CURSICIXIM Match Statements 1. Student Manual PHYSICAL FACILITIES Mismatch Statements 1. B u i l d i n g 2. L i b r a r y V i s u a l Aids The Boo!, of Mormon student manual i s easy to understand . . . that the manual be maintained and i t c l e a r l y brings out new points of view. part of the course. The f a c i l i t i e s used are not owned by the church. • . . . that there be church owned f a c i l i t i e s for i n s t i t u t e use. There are too few v i s u a l a i d s , l i k e maps, f i l m s , tapes, . . . that more v i s u a l aids be used q u a l i t y 8 1 8 ""^ ^ * " ° f P ° ° r 3 n d th&t t h e y b e ° f b e t t e r q u a l i t y . TABLE XXX MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: TACOMA DISTRICT, STUDENTS, PUYALLUP Referent Deslgnative Statement ("What i s " ) IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. Student Leadership conferences 2. P u b l i c i t y 3. Goals of the program 4. Image of program 5. Image of program 6. Image of program Not everyone has a chance to go to student leader-ship conferences. P u b l i c i t y about the i n s t i t u t e program i s non-existent i n the wards. It i s unclear what the goals of the t o t a l i n s t i t u t e program are. The i n s t i t u t e program has a very low p r i o r i t y on the stake leader's l i s t of church p r i o r i t i e s . People think i n s t i t u t e i s only for college students People think i n s t i t u t e i s an extension of seminary 7. Publicity-Church News There i s very l i t t l e p u b l i c i t y of the i n s t i t u t e program i n the Church News. Match Statements 1. Recruitment 2. C o r r e l a t i o n IT- POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Counseling Non-members are i n v i t e d to attend i n s t i t u t e . There i s adequate coordination between the M-Men & Gleaner program and the i n s t i t u t e program. The i n s t r u c t o r does his best to be a v a i l a b l e for counseling, but h i s a v a i l a b i l i t y i s l i m i t e d ; Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 . . . that everyone have a chance to attend them. . . . that the program be p u b l i c i z e d i n the wards. . . . that these goals be c l a r i f i e d to students. . . . that i n s t i t u t e have a higher p r i o r i t y . . . . that people think i n s t i t u t e i s for anyone who wants to attend. . . . that t h i s image be changed. . . . that there be more p u b l i c i t y of program i n Church News. . . . that they continue to be i n v i t e d . . . . that t h i s condition be main-tained. . . . that he be more a v a i l a b l e f o r i n d i v i d u a l counseling. 2 4 6 6 5 5 14 13 11 9 8 8 7 15 7 12 2. Grades and Exam-inations Match Statements 1. Credit I I I . INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Mismatch Statements 1. F u l l - t i m e Instructor Match Statements 1. Full-time Instructor 2. Full-time Instructor 3. Full-time Instructor 4 . . Full-time Instructor 5. F u l l - t i m e Instructor IV. CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. E x t r a - s u r r l c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s 2. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s 3. Handouts Match Statements 1. Course content I t i s unclear to students i f grades and examinations are required or given. . . . that students receive some c l a r i f i c a t i o n on these items. Students can take the course for c r e d i t or audit the course. that t h i s option be maintained. Students are involved and p a r t i c i p a t e i n cla s s d i s -cussions. . . . chat students become more In-volved and p a r t i c i p a t e more i n c l a s s discussions. The current a t t i t u d e of students i s one of respect and acceptance for the i n s t r u c t o r . He i s w e l l prepared and s p i r i t u a l l y ntimulnttng. He shows personal i n t e r e s t and concern for each student. There i s a warm and f r i e n d l y f e e l i n g i n the classroom. Students have the services of a f u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r , as opposed to a part-time i n s t r u c t o r . . . . that t h i s current a t t i t u d e be maintained. . . . that he continue to remain 60. . . . that he continue to e x h i b i t these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . . that t h i s f e e l i n g be maintained . . . that students continue to have a f u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r . There are not enough a c t i v i t i e s on a regional or area basis. There are not enough e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r s p i r i t u a l act-i v i t i e s and programs outside of the classroom. The handouts given students contain many s c r i p t u r a l references and provide supplemental reading material fo r students. . . . that these be more area or regional a c t i v i t i e s . . . . that there be more extra-cur- 1 r i c u l a r s p i r i t u a l a c t i v i t i e s and programs. . . . that more such handouts be made av a i l a b l e to students. There i B leeway or f l e x i b i l i t y l n the course content to enable i n s t r u c t o r to vary presentations to meet student needs. . . . that t h i s leeway and f l e x i b i l i t y be maintained. PHYSICAL FACILITIES Mismatch Statements 1. Phy s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s The present f a c i l i t i e s , while being s a t i s f a c t o r y are . . . that the f a c i l i t i e s be i n s t i t u t e B uilding not i n s t i t u t e owned. owned. TABLE XXXI MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: TACOMA DISTRICT, STUDENTS, TACOMA Referent Deslgnative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement Agreement/Relevance Rating ("I prefer . . .") 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 I. IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. P u b l i c i t y Youth i n the stake are not aware of the I n s t i t u t e program.. . .that youth i n the stake be-come aware of the i n s t i t u t e program. 4 2. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders There i s no advertising of the i n s t i t u t e program i n the l o c a l chapels. . . .that the i n s t i t u t e program be advertised i n the l o c a l chapels. 4 3. Image of i n s t i t u t e program The i n s t i t u t e program has not established an i d e n t i t y with the re s t of the l o c a l church members. . . . that the i n s t i t u t e e s t a b l i s h a l o c a l i d e n t i t y . l 3 4. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders Bishops are not aware of the l o c a l i n s t i t u t e program and what i t can do for the young people of t h e i r wards. . . . Bishops become aware of che value of the i n s t i t u t e program. 1 3 5. Student leadership Student leadership i s not as strong or as representa-t i v e of the I n s t i t u t e students as i t ought to be. . . . that student leadership be stronger and more representative of i n s t i t u t e students. i 3 6. Recruitment We are not r e c r u i t i n g as many po t e n t i a l i n s t i t u t e students as are a v a i l a b l e . . . . that we r e c r u i t more of the av a i l a b l e p o t e n t i a l students. 1 3 7. Corr e l a t i o n There i s no organized system of transportation for students who want to attend i n s t i t u t e . . . . there be some organized system 1 of transportation for those students who want to attend i n s t i t u t e . 3 8. Local community The i n s t i t u t e i s not involved i n l o c a l community projects l i k e community welfare projects etc. . . . that the i n s t i t u t e become i n -volved i n community p r o j e c t s . 4 9. Goals of the program The i n s t i t u t e program i s not oriented toward helping M-Ken and Gleaners achieve t h e i r M-Ken and Gleaner awards. . . . that the I n s t i t u t e be oriented 1 1 toward helping them obtain t h e i r M-Men and Gleaner awards. 1 1 IV. CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. Course o f f e r i n g s There i s not a class offered to prepare missionaries for the mission f i e l d . Match Statements 1. Course Offerings V. PHYSICAL FACILITIES , Mismatch Statements 1. L i b r a r y 2. Physical f a c i l i t i e s The courses offered are varied enough to meet the needs of the i n s t i t u t e students. There are no l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s currently r e a d i l y available to students. There are no r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e private f a c i l i t i e s for counseling. . . . that there be a course offered to help prepare missionaries for the mission f i e l d . . . . that the v a r i e t y of course o f f e r -ings be maintained. . . . that there be l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to students. . . . that there be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e private counseling f a c i l i t i e s . TABLE XXXTI MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: VANCOUVER DISTRICT, STUDENTS, BELLINGHAM Referent IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1 Deslgnative. Statement ("What, i s " ) Appralsive Statement ("I prefer . . , " ) . Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 Recruitment of innctivca 2. Recruitment 3. P u b l i c i t y 4. Recruitment 5. Goals of program 6. C o r r e l a t i o n 7. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 8. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 9. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders Generally, i n a c t i v e members have not been contacted about coming to i n s t i t u t e . Very l i t t l e missionary work 1B done by students on campus. There i s too l i t t l t p u b l i c i t y of the i n s t i t u t e program i n the wards. B u l l e t i n s j u s t skip over i n s t i t u t e announcements. Students are constantly changing addresses, and i t i s d i f f i c u l t to f i n d or keep with them. Students do not understand the goals of the i n s t i t u t e program. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between LDSSA, Deseret Clubs, Young Adult councils, M-Men and Gleaners i s not clear or correlated. Students do not know what p r i o r i t y r a t i n g priesthood leaders give to the i n s t i t u t e program In r e l a t i o n to the other church programs l i k e M.I.A. There i s no personal i n t e r a c t i o n between priesthood leaders and the i n s t i t u t e program. For example, priesthood leaders do not v i s i t i n s t i t u t e classes. I f e e l that priesthood leaders are not aware of the i n s t i t u t e program. They don't know i t i s even here or even that i t i s part of the church. • . . that they be contacted. . . . that more missionary work be done by these students. . . . that there be e f f e c t i v e announcements i n ward b u l l e t i n s and that there be more p u b l i c i t y of the program. . . . that there be some system of keeping up with t h e i r changes of address. . . . to know and understand these goals. . . . that there be more c l a r i f i c a - 1 t i o n of these r e l a t i o n s h i p . . . . to know what p r i o r i t y r a t i n g 2 the i n s t i t u t e has among priesthood leaders. . . . that there be some i n t e r a c t i o n . 1 . . . that they f e e l we are part of the church. 12 10 7 CO I I . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Class s t a r t i n g time 2. Class ending time I I I . INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL -Mismatch Statements 1. Full-time i n s t r u c t o r Match Statements 1. F u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r IV. CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. Course o f f e r i n g s 2. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s 3. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s V. PHYSICAL FACILITIES Class does not s t a r t on time. . . . that i t d i d . 1 6 5 Class does not end on time. . . . that i t d i d . 1 2 5 4 Students do not try to enhance t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with the instr u c t o r outside of class time, as he does with them. . . . that they do more to enhance t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with him. He i s very s p i r i t u a l and knowledgeable. He humorizes the l e s s o n 3 and i d e n t i f i e s with them. He devotes aim-s e l f to h i s students and goes out of hi s way to help them. . . that t h i s be maintained. 12 There i s only one course offered i n the i n s t i t u t e program i n the stake. There are not enough a c t i v i t i e s sponsored by the i n s t i t u t e . M-Men and Gleaners dominate the a c t i v i t y program, and there i s no place for married students i n the M-Men and Gleaner program. . . . that there be one or two 1 1 10 a d d i t i o n a l s e l e c t i o n s offered. . . . that there be more a c t i v i t i e s . 1 2 9 . . . that the i n s t i t u t e sponsor 1 3 8 more of the a c t i v i t i e s so that married students could take part. Mismatch Statements 1. Libr a r y There i s no i n s t i t u t e l i b r a r y . that there be one. 1 9 2 TABLE XXXIII MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: VANCOUVER DISTRICT, STUDENTS, MOUNT VERNON Referent Designative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . , .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 I. I I . IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM' Mismatch Statements 1. P u b l i c i t y POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Exams 2. Class business 3. Grades and exams I I I . INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Mismatch Statements 1. Relationships between students Match Statements 1. Full-time i n s t r u c t o r IV. CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. Curriculum People don't know enough about i n s t i t u t e , l i k e where when i t i s , who can attend etc. We are not sure of the p o l i c y regarding t e s t s . Too much time i s spent on class business and an-nouncements at the beginning of the class period. Grades and exams are not used to i n s t i l l a sense of accomplishment or used as a mean3 of motivating and .-. . that there be more p u b l i c -i t y of the program In the wards. . . . that tests be optional and out-of-class type t e s t s . . . . that we get down to the lesson f a s t e r . . . . that they be used to I n s t i l l a sense of accomplishment and motivation. Students i n the class do not get to know each other, they don't get introduced, nor do they get to know the new people who come to class. He t r i e 3 to make class i n t e r e s t i n g , he does not Just s t i c k to the lesson o u t l i n e , he Involves students with s t o r i e s and examples. The discussion of clas s material i s at a beginning l e v e l or a basic l e v e l for those students that are not ready f o r more advanced study. . . . that these things be accomplished. . . that t h i s be maintained. . . . that there be more advanced classes for those who are ready for them. 13 9 • 4 11 13 12 2. Course o f f e r i n g s 3. Curriculum The courses that are offered are pretcy much what the i n s t r u c t o r wants to teach. There i s not mu?h motivation to study or search the scri p t u r e s . 4. Curriculum Students don't do the work assigned them, they j u s t come and s i t and l i s t e n . 5. Curriculum E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . The materials for i n d i v i d u a l study are too structured, they don't place enough stress on i n d i v i d u a l r e l e -vancy, that i s , they don't permit each student to study what i s relevant to him. There i s not much outside-of-class a p p l i c a t i o n , as a group, of what we learn i n c l a s s . Match Statements 1. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s are already under the auspices of another program of the church. PHYSICAL FACILITIES Mismatch Statements 1. L i b r a r i e s L i b r a r y materials pertinent to our coursa of study are li m i t e d and inaccessable, and most students don't even know what materials are a v a i l a b l e . 2 . "Classroom seating arrangement The chairs are arranged wrong, students can't see or communicate with each other. 3. Classroom seating arrangement The chairs and t h e i r arrangement i n the classroom promote a s o c i a l , rather than an academic atmosphere. . . . that students have more say i n what.courses are to be taught. . . . that ways be introduced to get people co want to read the s c r i p t u r e s . . . . that students show more academic involvement i n studying the m a t e r i a l . . . . they be more relevant to the wants of the i n d i v i d u a l student, so he can study what i s meaningful to him. . . . that, as a group, we become more involved i n group missionary work, or testimony meetings, or open houses, etc. to get more people involved. . . . that they remain under the d i r e c t i o n of t h i s other program. . . . that the l i b r a r y material be more pertinent, accessable, and students be better informed as to t h e i r content. . . . that they be arranged to f a c i l i t a t e communication. . . . that they be so arranged so as to promote a more academic atmosphere. TABLE XXXIV MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: VANCOUVER DISTRICT, STUDENT'S, SIMON FRASER U . Referent Designative Statement Appraisive Statement Agreement/Relevance Rating ("What i s " ) ("I prefer . . .") 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 I. IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. C o r r e l a t i o n There i s confusion between the roles of the M-Men and . . ."that t h e i r roles be 2 Gleaner program and the I n s t i t u t e . c l a r i f i e d . 2. Student leadership There i s not now a s p e c i a l program to develop p o t e n t i a l . . . that some type of program 2 student leaders. be devised to develop a greater number of student to be i n s t i -tute leaders, that i s , provide t r a i n i n g for them. 3. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leader s E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders do not consider the i n s t i t u t e . . . that the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l 1 1 as being nn Important program. I n s t i t u t e i s "separate lenders reverse t h i s a t t i t u d e . from the church", because i t i s not part of th e i r ward, they f e c i I t Is not t l i c i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , therefore, they l e t the professional men run or accept responsi-b i l i t y for the program. 4. Image of program Most people are not for the program nor are they . . . that they be for the 1 1 - against i t . They are j u s t i n d i f f e r e n t because the program. program doesn't e f f e c t them. 5. Image of program E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders and p o t e n t i a l students think . . . that they think of i t as 1 1 i n s t i t u t e i s j u s t for college 6 t u d c n t a . being f o r a l l young adults. 6. P u b l i c i t y The i n s t i t u t e does not advertise i t s existence i n the . . . i t so advertise i t s e l f . 2 campus or l o c a l newspaper. Match Statements 1. Goals of program The i n s t i t u t e program provides a program f o r both . . . that i t continue to pro- 2 college students and working young adults. vide a program f o r both groups. II. POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismacch Statements 1. Administration Tne i n s t i t u t e serves only those students where there i s . . . that i t serve the LDS' 2 a high concentration of LDS students. student l n the o u t l y i n g areas as w e l l . 5 2. Examinations 3. Counseling I I I . INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Match Statements 1. Full-time i n s t r u c t o r IV. CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. Depth of study 2. Curriculum Match Statements 1. Teaching aids 2. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s V. PHYSICAL FACILITIES There i s not much emphasis on note taking and the giv i n g of exams. . . . chat there be more aca-demic types of requirements i n c l a s s . The q u a l i t i e d i n s t i t u t e personnel arc not aiways . . . there be more q u a l i f i e d a v a i l a b l e i n order that students can counsel with them, people or that they be more a v a i l -able to students. The in s t r u c t o r s are of high q u a l i t y and are w e l l q u a l i f i e d and they are good teachers. The depth of study of the content of the course i s not deep enough. There i s very l i t t l e contact with prominent church and education leaders i n the Salt Lake C i t y area. There are a number of teaching aids l i k e f i l m s , tapes, etc. used. There seems to be a set schedule regulating the number of i n t e r - r e g i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . that they remain t h i s way. . . . that there be a deeper and more d e t a i l e d study of the course content. . . . that there be some type of contact with them through tapes or printed t a l k s , etc. • . . that the use of these be maintained. . . . that the number of i n t e r -r egional a c t i v i t i e s be neither i n -creased nor decreased, but remain as they are. Mismatch Statements 1, Building We don't have an i n s t i t u t e b u i l d i n g . that we had one. TABLE XXXV MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: VANCOUVER DISTRICT, STUDENTS, UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Referent Designative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 I I . IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. Image of program 2. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 3. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 4. C o r r e l a t i o n 5. Student leadership POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Credit III.INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Match Statements 1. Part-time i n s t r u c t o r s The i n s t i t u t e student i s often t o l d when they are c a l l e d to a church p o s i t i o n i n a ward, that the i n -s t i t u t e shouldn't be a p r i o r i t y over the p o s i t i o n they are ca l l e d to. Ward leaders never attend i n s t i t u t e to r e a l l y see what i t i s l i k e . Except for the Stake president, the ward and a u x i l i a r y leaders have a poor attitude toward the i n s t i t u t e . They don't understand the structure, functions or the importance, or the values of the i n s t i t u t e . There i s overlap and competition i n the a c t i v i t y area between i n s t i t u t e and M-Men and Gleaners. The function, structure and r o l e of the leaders of LDSSA, i n s t i t u t e , and young adults i s not under-stood. I am not c e r t a i n of the p o l i c y of c r e d i t and i t s transfer to other church i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t has been rumored that we might lose the part-time i n s t r u c t o r i n Vancouver. . . . that the question of p r i o r i t y be defined for i n s t i -tute members. . . . they attend once i n a while to see what i t r e a l l y I s . . . . that t h i s poor a t t i t u d e be changed. . . . that only one of these pro-grams be responsible cor the a c t i v -i t i e s for college age youth. . . . to know the set up of these and t h e i r l i n e s of communication. . to have some c l a r i f i c a t i o n . . . . that he be maintained as an i n s t r u c t o r . 12 11 10 10 11 CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. Service Projects PHYSICAL FACILITIES' Mismatch.Statements 1. Building 2. Building The i n s t i t u t e doesn't have any community service projects. There i s not nn i n s t i t u t e b u i l d i n g i n Vancouver. In order to hold an i n s t i t u t e function of any kind we have to arrange for the use of one of the chapels the stake center, or a f a c i l i t y on campus, and they are equally d i f f i c u l t to acquire. the i n s t i t u t e have some. . . . that there be a b u i l d i n g . . . . that the I n s t i t u t e students have a f a c i l i t y where we can have exclusive use of, or f i r s t p r i o r i t y over, and create our own atmosphere around. TABLE XXXVT MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTA AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: VANCOUVER DISTRICT, STUDENTS, WESTERN WASHINGTON STATE COLLEGE Referent IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Designative Statement ("What i s " ) Mismatch Statements 1. Recruitment 2. P u b l i c i t y Match Statements 1. P u b l i c i t y 2. P u b l i c i t y 3. P u b l i c i t y U. Goals of program 5. Goals of program I I . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Adults Match Statements 1.. Class schedules 2. Examinations There i s not an i n s t i t u t e missionary committee. The active college students know about the i n s t i t u t e but the inactives do not. The i n s t i t u t e i s advertised i n the wards adequately, Inasmuch as there are announcements about i t i n the ward b u l l e t i n s each week. The i n s t i t u t e program i s displayed and advertised as part of the Open House program on campus. The i n s t i t u t e i s advertised i n the campus newspaper. The i n s t i t u t e program provides an opportunity for young Latter-day Saints to s o c i a l i z e with people who share the same personal standards of l i v i n g . The i n s t i t u t e provides an opportunity to l e a r n about the doctrines of the church. Not a l l wards have an i n s t i t u t e class for adults. The schedule of c l a s s o f f e r i n g s i s f l e x i b l e enough that you can work one of the classes i n sometime during the week. Exams are not given i n t h i s course. Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") . . . that there be one. . . . that the i n - a c t i v e college students know about the i n s t i t u t e . . . . that i t continue to be advertised t h i s way. . . . that i t continue :o be so. . . . that i t continue to be so. that t h i s opportunity always remain. that t h i s remain unchanged. . . . that each ward have an i n -s t i t u t e c l a s s f o r adults. . . . that t h i s f l e x i b i l i t y be maintained. that they not be given. Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 « 3 3. Adults Adults are beginning to e n r o l l i n i n s t i t u t e . 4. Credit A student can take the class for c r e d i t or they can audit the c l a s s . I I I . INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Match Statements 1. Full-time i n s t r u c t o r He i s a wonderful teacher In that he puts across the to p i c , he i s enthusiastic and he creates an atmos-phere of f r i e n d l i n e s s , he teaches because he wants t o , not because be has to, and you can f e e l hio desire to teach, he i s very knowledgeable and he i 3 good for the missionaries to bring t h e i r contacts t o , because he can apply the lesson to them when they come to c l a s s . IV. CURRICULUM Match Statements 1. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r A l l s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s are. combined with the i n s t i t u t e a c t i v i t i e s and M-Men and Gleaner programs. A l l a c t i v i t i e s are on a J o i n t or a combined ba^io. 2. Student manual The Book of Mormon student manual serves as n good back-up f o r reading the Hook of Mormon i n that i t i s a good source of enrichment to the reading. 3. Student manual As f o r the academic l e v e l of the student manual, i t i s not too hard, nor i a i t too easy; i t i s Just about r i g h t . V. PHYSICAL FACILITIES Mismatch Stateaents 1. B u i l d i n g At present, we do not have a b u i l d i n g , although one w i l l soon be b u i l t . that they continue to do so. that t h i s option be maintained. that he continue to be t h i s way. . . , that they continue to be combined. . . . that the. student manual be con-tinued as part of the curriculum. . . . that the academic l e v e l of the Book of Mormon student manual remain as i t i s . to have a b u i l d i n g . TABLE XXXVII MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: VANCOUVER DISTRICT, STUDENTS, VANCOUVER Referent Designative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer • . •") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 I. IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. P u b l i c i t y 2. Student leaders 3. C o r r e l a t i o n 4. Goals of program I I . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch" Statements 1. Adults 2. Adults 3. Class l o c a t i o n 4. Attendance requirements 5. Exams Generally among the church membership, the i n s t i t u t e program i s not w-jj 1 known. Student leaders are unable to function i n t h e i r student leadership capacity e f f e c t i v e l y because they have too many other church Jobs and responsi-b i l i t i e s . Relationships with the bishops are strained because the i n s t i t u t e has to borrow the ward's chapel and other f a c i l i t i e s . The goals of the i n s t i t u t e program are not known nor are they understood by students. The i n s t i t u t e program seems to be oriented toward young adults only. Adults are not encouraged or a c t i v e l y r e c r u i t e d to attend i n s t i t u t e . Students must t r a v e l long distances to attend classes. There i s a requirement of 80% attendance i n order to receive c r e d i t . This requirement makes no provision for students on s h i f t work. There are no exams given. . . . that there be more awareness on the part of the general member-ship about the i n s t i t u t e program. . . . that student leaders be given a s s i s t a n t s to help them i n t h e i r i n s t i t u t e c a l l i n g s or they be given fewer c a l l i n g s . . . . that there be less c o n f l i c t when asking for and booking ward f a c i l i t i e s . . . . that students be mnde more aware of the goals of the i n s t i t u t e . . . . that the o r i e n t a t i o n be broad-ened to include adults as w e l l , at lea s t i n mission areas. . . . that they be a c t i v e l y encouraged. . . . that there be a more ce n t r a l meeting place. . . . to have an a l t e r n a t i v e method to make-up missed attendance due to s h i f t work. . . . to have non-compulsory exams given. 1 7 1 6 1 6 3 5 8 1 7 4 4 2 6 oo Hatch Statements 1. Grades III.INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Match Statements 1. Part-time i n s t r u c t o r IV. CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. Student: tnnruinl 2. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s 3. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s 4. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s V. PHYSICAL FACILITIES Mismatch Statements 1. Library 2. B u i l d i n g 3. Student lounge 4. Study h a l l Grades are determined by the i n s t r u c t o r on the . . . that t h i s system of grading, honour system, that I s , the i n s t r u c t o r gives the read- based on honour be maintained, ing assignments and then i t becomes the student's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to do the reading. There i s no f o l l o w -up by the i n s t r u c t o r . He i s an e s s e n t i a l feature of the program, that i a , . . . that he be maintained as an that he allows for d i f f e r e n t approaches to the sub- i n s t r u c t o r . jcctK, he e x h i b i t s cnihuoinsm and knowledge of the subject he teaches; he teaches 'by the s p i r i t ' and i s loved and respected by his students. The Book of Mormon student manual arrived too l a t e to he used e f f e c t i v e l y . Young adults and adults who are enrolled i n i n s t i t u t e do not have much opportunity to s o c i a l i z e with each other. R e s t r i c t i o n s are placed on the number of s o c i a l a c t -i v i t i e s the i n s t i t u t e can have. There are few i n t e r - r e g i o n a l i n s t i t u t e a c t i v i t i e s . . . . that these manuals a r r i v e i n time to have them by the beginning of the term. . . . that there be more s o c i a l s providing f o r t h i s opportunity. . . . that the i n s t i t u t e be f r e e r to sponsor as many s o c i a l a c t -i v i t i e s as i t wants to sponsor. . . . that there be more i n t e r -regional i n s t i t u t e a c t i v i t i e s . There i s no i n s t i t u t e l i b r a r y . There i s no i n s t i t u t e building i n Vancouver. There i s no student lounge. There are no study f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . that there be one. that there was a b u i l d i n g that there be a student' lounge. that there be some. 8 1 7 7 2 6 TABLE XXXVTII MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: VANCOUVER DISTRICT, STUDENTS, VANCOUVER Referent Designative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. P u b l i c i t y 2. Recruitment 3. Goals of program 4. Student leaders 5. Recruitment 6. Recruitment 7. Image There i s a d e f i n i t e lack of Information among the church members i n and out of the i n s t i t u t e , about the t o t a l i n -s t i t u t e program and the purpose and functioning of i t s curriculum. Missionaries are not aware of the i n s t i t u t e schedule and they do not t e l l t h e i r contacts about I n s t i t u t e . I don't know what goals are set for us i n the i n s t i -tute program. There i s a lack of support for the i n s t i t u t e commit-tee by the i n s t i t u t e students. Not many non-members come. Recruitment l e t t e r s are not sent to a l l those of i n -s t i t u t e age and to a l l adults. Sometimes other church events are scheduled at the expense of the i n s t i t u t e program, because i n s t i t u t e hks a lower importance than other church programs. 8. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders Bishops are not involved enough i n i n s t i t u t e . 9. Missionary program II. POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements I. Adults No information about the i n s t i t u t e program i s given to other r e l i g i o u s organizations and study groups. Adults are not aware that they are welcome at i n s t i t u t e . . . . that people be made more aware of i t s t o t a l program, c u r r i c u -lum, counseling s e r v i c e , grades, c r e d i t , etc. . . . that t h i s be done. . . . to know the goals. 1 . . . that the students follow 1 through on t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and commitmentn given chem by the committee. . • . that they be encouraged to come. . . . that t h i s be accomplished. . . . that more emphasis be given to the importance of i n s t i t u t e . . . . that they bo more involved. . . . to give i n s t i t u t e information to other church groups l i k e C h r i s t i a n Fellowship, and other campus r e l -i gious organizations. to make them aware. 1 16 4 12 2 12 6 10 13 13 O O Young adult d i r e c t o r y Class s i z e and discussions 4. Grades and examinations • 5. Transportation 111.INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Match Statements 1. Full-time i n s t r u c t o r iv. cwtRjrmuM Mismatch Statements 1. Curriculum relevance . 2. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s 3. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s 4. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s 5. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s The young adult d i r e c t o r y i s not complete or up to date that some system or com-and i t does not include the semi-active or tha i n a c t i v e mittce be assigned to keep i t up-members.. Class p a r t i c i p a t i o n and discussion i s l i m i t e d because of the c l a s s bein^ too large. Grades are based on attendance, reading and a f i n a l examination. There i s not enough coordination i n arranging transportation. He i s not only our teacher, but he i s also our f r i e n d . The emphasis i n the curriculum i s on increasing ones knowledge. Currently, the a c t i v i t i e s we have are a l l s o c i a l l y oriented. We only have dances and conferences for s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . There are no fund r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s or projects. We don't have s t r i c t l y s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s very often. to date. . . . that we break up i n t o smaller groups and permit more cl a s s discussion. . . . that they be based more on student projects and periodic quizzes. . . . that there be some organ-ized c orrdination i n t h i s area. that he continue to be so. . . . that the emphasis be or. the a p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge. . . . to have a c t i v i t i e s that are s o c i a l , hut also provide an oppor-tu n i t y to apply what we l e a r n . . . . that we have talent shows, plays and musical presentations, and we have them more often. . . . that there be some. . . . that we have them about once 1 a month. 5 10 7 7 6 7 13 4 2 IS 4 12 7 8 10 4 13 2 9 1 O H PHYSICAL FACILITIES Mismatch Statements 1. L i b r a r y l i s t i n g s There i s no l i s t i n g a v a i l a b l e to students of what i s av a i l a b l e i n the i n s t i t u t e l i b r a r y . 2. B u i l d i n g We don't have one. . . . to have a l i b r a r y l i s t i n g and a p e r i o d i c up-dating of addi-t i o n s to the l i b r a r y . . . . to have one. 3. Recreation f a c i l i t i e s We lack f a c i l i t i e s f o r playing ping pong, basketball . . . to have f a c i l i t i e s f or these and other organized sports. things. TABLE XXXIX MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: ALASKA DISTRICT, PROFESSIONALS, ANCHORAGE. Referent Designative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 I. IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements: 1. Image of Program 2. Image of Program 3. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders U, E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 5. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 6. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 7. Correlation Among the general church membership the i n s t i t u t e program i s not considered as a bonafide church program. The majority of po t e n t i a l college age youth have not yet f e l t a need for making a strong personal i d e n t i t y with the i n s t i t u t e program. When recruitment i s l e f t to the l o c a l priesthood leaders, the recruitment drops o f f . When priesthood lenders do any r e c r u i t i n g , i t i s not on a personal basis. I t i s usually dn the form of. jus t an announcement over the p u l p i t , or a poster hung i n the hallway, none of which require any response from the student. The most e f f e c t i v e form of r e c r u i t i n g i s done, f i r s t by the professionals, second by the i n s t r u c t o r , t h i r d by the student and fourth the priesthood leaders, i n that order. The priesthood leaders i n areas where there i s a. part-time i n s t i t u t e are not making a conscious e f f o r t to d i r e c t students to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the i n s t i t u t e program. There i s no c o r r e l a t i v e framework f o r coordinating a l l the college age church programs. . . . that i n s t i t u t e be considered as a bonafide church program. . . . they f e e l a need for making such an i d e n t i t y . that i t didn't drop o f f . . . . that priesthood leaders r e c r u i t on a personal b a s i s . . . . that the most e f f e c t i v e r e c r u i t -ment be done f i r s t by the priesthood leaders, then followed by the profes-s i o n a l , teacher and students i n that order. . . . that priesthood leaders make such a conscious e f f o r t . . . . that some kind of correlative framework be established. to O 6. C o r r e l a t i o n The i n s t i t u t e program i s not being correlated v i t h other church programs. 9. LDSSA The LDSSA program i s non-existent l n Alaska. 10. Student Leadership 11. Image of Program There i s not now available a printed booklet con-t a i n i n g printed i n s t r u c t i o n s , c l a r i f i c a t i o n of d u t i e s , d i r e c t i o n s , etc. r e l a t i n g to the operation and functioning of student leadership programs i n a small part-time i n s t i t u t e program. When i t comes to scheduling events w i t h i n the stake, the i n s t i t u t e i s "kicked around from room to room" and i s given low p r i o r i t y i n the scheduling of events. POLICIES AND PROCEDURES . Mismatch Statements: 1. H i r i n g P o l i c i e s Currently, part-time i n s t r u c t o r s are hired l o c a l l y to f i l l l o c a l i n s t i t u t e needs. 2. Administration 3. Credit There i s not the position of an i n s t i t u t e area supervisor existent within the D i v i s i o n . There i s only one type of c r e d i t a v a i l a b l e to i n s t i t u t e students—the type of c r e d i t that i s transferable to B.Y.U. 4. Adults The i n s t i t u t e program has not made provisions for adult classes as part of i t s t o t a l program. Match Statements: 1. Administration There seems to be a trend i n the D i v i s i o n toward making the d i s t r i c t s more autonomous. that i t be so correlated . . . that LDSSA be implemented i n the Alaska D i s t r i c t . . . . that such a booklet be made a v a i l a b l e . • . . that i n scheduling matters, the i n s t i t u t e be given a higher p r i o r i t y . . . . that f u l l - t i m e personnel be hired i n l i e u of part-time i n s t r u c t o r s . . . . that there be an i n s t i t u t e area supervisor p o s i t i o n created. . . . that there be two types of c r e d i t a v a i l a b l e — o n e type that i s transferable to B.Y.U. because i t meets a l l the trans-fe r requirements and a second type that i s not transferable to B.Y.U., but meets the requirements for i n s t i t u t e graduation. . . . that the I n s t i t u t e provide f o r a separate adult program and classes as part of i t s t o t a l program. . . . that the D i v i s i o n o f f i c e maintain t h i s trend. Ill.INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Mismatch Statements: 1. Part-time i n s t r u c t o r s 2. Inservice 1. Inservice IV. CURRICULUM Currently, part-time i n s t r u c t o r s are only functioning . . . that the part-time i n s t r u c t o r s ex-or serving on an "in-classroom" basis; that i s , because h i b i t a more than l i m i t e d commitment and of l i m i t e d time; they e x h i b i t limited motivation, l i m i t - involvement to t h e i r contractual respon-ed understanding of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and l i m i t e d s l b i l i t i e s . preparation for t h e i r classes. Inservice programs for part-time i n s t r u c t o r s are sporadic and cursory. There are no inservice t r a i n i n g materials for profes-sionals to inservice i n s t i t u t e i n s t r u c t o r s with. . . . that i n s e r v i c e be more d e f i n i t e , consistent and meaningful. . . . that there be some inser v i c e t r a i n i n g materials. Mismatch Statements: 1. Curriculum 2. Extra c u r r l c u l a r act-i v i t i e s Match Statements: 1. Student Manuals Currently, most of the i n s t i t u t e students are non-college working young adults and they are not general-l y academically oriented, nor are they interested i n academic study or subjects; therefore, the current i n -s t i t u t e curriculum, which i s generally academically oriented i s not as s u i t a b l e as i t could be for non-college young adults. The i n s t i t u t e does not sponsor or provide for student a c t i v i t i e s that are p r i m a r i l y s o c i a l i n nature. There i s a trend toward providing student manuals or workbooks for students i n academic subjects w i t h i n the I n s t i t u t e program. . . . that the i n s t i t u t e curriculum o f f e r a greater s e l e c t i o n of non-academic courses (e.g. more courses l i k e "Courtship and Marriage", "The Gospel i n P r i n c i p l e and P r a c t i c e " etc.) . . . that the i n s t i t u t e make provisions for s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . . . . that the curriculum department maintain t h i s trend. TABLE XL MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: PORTLAND DISTRICT, PROFESSIONALS, PORTLAND Referent Designative Statement ("What i s " ) I . IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. Image of Program Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 2. P u b l i c i t y 3. P u b l i c i t y 4. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 5. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 6. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 7. Image of program 8. Recruitment-of graduate students 9. Recruitment The part-time i n s t i t u t e student does not f e e l he i s part of a t o t a l i n s t i t u t e program. The seminary program i s pretty w e l l advertised, but any advertisment of the i n s t i t u t e program i s "second hand". There are no, or very few, brochures a d v e r t i s i n g the i n s t i t u t e program a v a i l a b l e for use. When an LDS person turns 18, everybody i n a church po s i t i o n turns loose of them; Bishops don't i n t e r -view them any more etc. Bishops are not as involved, concerned and interested i n e n r o l l i n g students i n the i n s t i t u t e program as they ought to be. Priesthood leaders are not aware of who the p o t e n t i a l i n s t i t u t e students are who might be l i v i n g w i t h i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n . The number of students that e n r o l l i n an i n s t i t u t e c l a s s seems to be influenced more by the reputation of the cla s s teacher rather than the reputation of the I n s t i t u t e program. I t i s e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t to r e c r u i t graduate students. Generally, returning BTO and Ricks college students are not recr u i t e d to attend a summer i n s t i t u t e program i n t h e i r l o c a l home area. . . . that he f e e l he i s part of a t o t a l program. . . . the p u b l i c i t y given the i n -s t i t u t e program be upgraded. . . . that there be some made av a i l a b l e . . . . that we don't turn loose of them when they turn 18. that they become more i n -volved. . . . that priesthood leaders become aware of these p o t e n t i a l students. . . . that enrollment be influenced by the reputation of the program. . . . that something be done to make the recruitment of graduate students more e f f e c t i v e and eas i e r . • . . that these returning students 1 be so r e c r u i t e d . O ON I I . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Credit 2. Name of I n s t i t u t e 3. P o l i c i e s and Procedures It. Class scheduling 5. Minimum enrollment requirements 6. Scheduling Match Statements 1. Adults 2. Class scheduling 111.INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Mismatch Statements I. Part-time personnel There i s only one kind of c r e d i t a v a i l a b l e to i n s t i -tute students, the kind that i s transferrable to BYU. Currently, a l l the l o c a l unit3 bear the name " I n s t i t u t e of R e l i g i o n " . I think an i n s t i t u t e i n s t r u c t o r ought to know what philosophies of the world h i s students are being ex-posed to i n their college classes and what problems they are having s p i r i t u a l l y as a r e s u l t of these classes. Therefore, as an i n s t r u c t o r , I v i s i t these college classes from time to time. Some i n s t i t u t e classes meet on campxis during the day and some meet during the evening In a chapel. The minimum number of students required for an i n s t i -tute class and the corresponding pay an inst r u c t o r of that class receives seem to be rather fixed and I n f l e x i b l e . The i n s t i t u t e o f f e r s courses generally on a 9 month program. Adults are not encouraged to e n r o l l i n the i n s t i t u t e program. The i n s t i t u t e schedules i t s classes to meet once or twice a week, as opposed to meeting f i v e days a week. Not a l l part-time i n s t i t u t e classes are taught by f u l l -time men. . . . that there be two kinds a v a i l -able—one tr a n s f e r r a b l e to BYU and one applicable toward i n s t i t u t e grad-uation. . . . that t h i s name be changed to some other type of designation, and that the t i t l e " I n s t i t u t e of R e l i g i o n " not be used. . . . that i n s t r u c t o r s do as I do and v i s i t some of t h e i r student's classes from time to time. . . . that classes be held during the day on a college campus. . . . that the minimum number of students required be made f l e x i b l e and the i n -s t r u c t o r ' s pay be scheduled according to the numbflr.of atudonta enrolled i n these k i n d 3 of s i t u a t i o n s . . . . that the i n s t i t u t e move as r a p i d l y as possible to a 12 month program. that t h i s p o l i c y be maintained. . . . that t h i s scheduling p o l i c y be maintained. . . . that a l l part-time i n s t i t u t e be taught by f u l l - t i m e men. 1 2 I 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 O •v3 2. Inservice 3. Part-time i n s t r u c t o r s 4. Part-time i n s t r u c t o r s 5. Part-time i n s t r u c t o r 6. Part-time i n s t r u c t o r CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. Course o u t l i n e s 2. Course ou t l i n e s 3. Extra- c u r r i c u l o r a c t i v i t i e s 4. Examinations 5. Course o u t l i n e s PHYSICAL FACILITIES There i s not an inservice t r a i n i n g program for part-time i n s t r u c t o r s . Part-time i n s t r u c t o r s are not involved i n the i n s t i -tute program as they should be. Their involvement i s b a s i c a l l y i i i the classroom only. Generally speaking, the q u a l i t y of teaching of a part-time i n s t r u c t o r i s poorer or lower than that of a f u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r . Generally, the part-time i n s t r u c t o r does not follow the lesson o u t l i n e s . Generally, the part-time i n s t r u c t o r does a poor job of counseling. Not a l l courses have an accompanying student o u t l i n e . I t appears that some lesson outlines are not " f i e l d tested" before they are sent out to i n s t r u c t o r s . There i s a need for some kind of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y program to give the I n s t i t u t e program an i d e n t i t y with the students. There ate no pre-printed student examinations that accompany the course o u t l i n e . Lesson outlines seem to be writ t e n with the f u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r i n mind; that I s , the references i n the outli n e s to outside or enrichment material are usually not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to the part-time man. Mismatch Statements 1. B u i l d i n g Many i n s t i t u t e s lack private counseling f a c i l i t i e s . . . . that there be such a program. . . . that they become more involved i n the t o t a l program (eg. counseling, s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , etc.) . . . that t h e i r q u a l i t y of teaching be Improved. . . . they f o l l o w these o u t l i n e s . . . . that they do a better job of counseling. . . . that a student o u t l i n e be made av a i l a b l e for a l l courses. . . . that the lesson outlines be " f i e l d tested" before they are used on a permanent basis. . . . that such a program be developed. . . . that there be some pre-printed exams a v a i l a b l e to the i n s t r u c t o r for i n c l a s s use. . . . that the enrichment or reference material be included i n the lesson o u t l i n e s or made more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to the part-time i n s t r u c t o r . . . . a l l i n s t i t u t e s have p r i v a t e counsel ing f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r use. 2. L i b r a r y 3. L i b r a r y 4. Building Not a l l college or u n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r i e s have the basic LDS i n s t i t u t e texts on t h e i r shelves. Some i n s t i t u t e s do not have l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l -able to them and therefore, they are at a d e f i n i t e disadvantage. Some type of mobile or movable, temporary structure i s not being used i n areas where there i s not an i n s t i t u t e b u i l d i n g a v a i l a b l e . . . . that the basic i n s t i t u t e texts be donated co the college or univer-s i t y l i b r a r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y where there i s not an i n s t i t u t e l i b r a r y r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to students. . . . that a l l i n s t i t u t e s have l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s of t h e i r own. . . . that some type of movable 1 t r a i l e r or structure be used to service those areas where there i s not a b u i l d -ing a v a i l a b l e . IN) O NO TABLE XLI MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: SALEM DISTRICT, PROFESSIONALS, SALEM Referent Deslgnative Statement ("Uhat i s " ) Appraisivc Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 I . IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements: 1. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders Bishops and Stake presidents do not involve them-selves on a meaningful l e v e l with college students. 2. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 3. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 4. P u b l i c i t y I I . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements; 1. Counseling by in s t r u c t o r 2. P o l i c i e s and procedures 3. Administration 4. Financing The e c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders don't lend t h e i r support i n r e c r u i t i n g ctudents to the part-time I n s t i t u t e program. The part-time men are not aware of the r e s p o n s i b i l -i t i e s of the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders r e l a t i v e to the part-time program. Currently, the members of the church are not being informed that the part-time i n s t i t u t e program i s available. Some ins t r u c t o r s do not take time to make themselves av a i l a b l e to counsel with students on a private or personal basis. Part-time i n s t r u c t o r s are not adequately introduced to t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s when they are hired. The administrative "distances" between the part-time i n s t i t u t e and the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e are too great and the " t i e s " between them are too loose. The part-time i n s t i t u t e s don't take advantage of or use the funds a v a i l a b l e to them from the ce n t r a l o f f i c e for student and l i b r a r y needs. . . . that these e c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders become more involved with L D S students. . . . that the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders show support of the program. . . . that part-time men know what r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders have to the program. . . . to Inform the sembe'rs of the church about the program. . . . that they take time to be a v a i l a b l e to students for counseling. . . • that i n s t r u c t o r s be adequately introduced to t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . . . . to shorten administrative "distance" and " t i e s " between p a r t -time i n s t i t u t e s and d i s t r i c t o f f i c e . . . . that they take advantage of and use these a v a i l a b l e funds. 1 2 1 2 2 1 M O 5. Adults 6. Administration The proportion of enrolled students over 26 and over i s too high i n comparison with the proportion of students under 26. There i s no consistency i n keeping of student records throughout the d i s t r i c t by the part-time men. 7. Administration Part-time i n s t r u c t o r s are asked to keep the records on their enrolled students. 8. Class scheduling 9. Administration 10. Counseling It. Finances 12. Instructor s a l a r i e s Usually only one class or subject i s scheduled or offered at a parc-time i n s t i t u t e at one time during .the day. The f u l l - t i m e professional who teaches at part-time i n s t i t u t e s has to t r a v e l i n t e r - c i t y . The part-time i n s t r u c t o r i s not trained i n counsel-ing techniques. Student funds are not subsidized. Part-time Instructors are paid too l i t t l e . III. INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Mismatch Statements 1. Part-time Instructors The part-time i n s t r u c t o r has l i t t l e opportunity to be exposed to, or be i n the presence of f u l l - t i m e pro-fe s s i o n a l s . 2. Inservice The current i n s e r v i c e program i n the d i s t r i c t i s inadequate. Match Statements 1. Part-time Instructors Generally, part-time instructors are currently qualified to teach part-tine institute classes. . . . that the proportion of students over 26 be decreased. 2 1 < . . that there be a more 1 consistent system of record keep-ing on a d i s t r i c t b asis. . . . that part-time i n s t r u c t o r s 1 be r e l i e v e d of the record keeping r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . . . . that more courses and sub-j e c t s be offered at various times during the day. . . . that h i s t r a v e l be l i m i t e d to i n t r a - c i t y . . . . that they receive t r a i n i n g i n counseling techniques. . . . that more money be made a v a i l - 1 able through a subsidy. . . . to increase t h e i r pay or pay them not at a l l , and have them c a l l e d to t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . . . . to provide an opportunity for more exposure to the f u l l - t i m e men. . . . to have an adequate Inservice t r a i n i n g program. . . . that this general level of qualification be maintained. 3 2 . P a r t - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r s ' The i n s t r u c t o r s e v i d e n c e a c o n c e r n f o r s t u d e n t needs. IV. CURRICULUM Mismatch S t a t e m e n t s 1. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s 2. I n s t r u c t i o n a l a i d s 3. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s 4. S t u d e n t s u p p l i e s V. PHYSICAL FACILITIES Mismatch S t a t e m e n t s 1. L i b r a r i e s 2 . L i b r a r i e s 3. B u i l d i n g T here i s l i m i t e d e x p o s u r e o f LOS i n s t i t u t e s t u d e n t s to o t h e r LDS s t u d e n t s because of t h e s m a l l n e s s o f the LDS s t u d e n t g r o u p s . C u r r e n t l y , t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l a i d s and s u p p l i e s made a v a i l a b l e t o the t e a c h e r a r e l i m i t e d and i n a d e q u a t e . There a r e o n l y a l i m i t e d number ( i f any) o f s p i r i t u a l a c t i v i t i e s o t h e r t h a n c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n f o r s t u d e n t s . The s u p p l i e s and m a t e r i a l s p r o v i d e d f o r s t u d e n t use f o r each c o u r s e o f s t u d y a r e l i m i t e d and i n a d e q u a t e . The l i b r a r i e s a r e not t a k i n g advantage o f the f r e e p e r i o d i c a l s u b s c r i p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o them p r o v i d e d by the department. There i s c u r r e n t l y i n a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g f o r l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s . There a r c no permanent f a c i l i t i e s t o meet in. Classes are h e l d in rented or temporary f a c i l i t i e s . . . . c h a t they c o n t i n u e t o e v i d e n c e t h i s c o n c e r n . . . . t h a t o p p o r t u n i t i e s be g i v e n f o r i n s t l c u t e s t u d e n t s t o have e x p o s u r e t o o t h e r o r l a r g e r groups o f LDS s t u d e n t s . . . . t h a t more i n s t r u c t i o n a l a i d s and s u p p l i e s be made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e t e a c h e r s . . . . t h a t more s p e c i a l s p i r i t u a l a c t i v i t i e s be h o l d by the i n s t i t u t e s f o r s t u d e n t s . . . . t h a t more s t u d e n t s u p p l i e s be made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e s t u d e n t f o r each c o u r s e of s t u d y . . . . t h a t they t a k e advantage o f t h e s e a v a i l a b l e s u b s c r i p t i o n s . . . . t h a t t h e r e be adequate h o u s i n g f o r l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s . . . . t h a t t h e r e be some s o r t o f J permanent s t r u c t u r e t o meet l n . TABLE XLII MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: SEATTLE DISTRICT, PROFESSIONALS, SEATTLE Referent Designative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . •") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. Recruitment 2. Recruitment 3. P u b l i c i t y ' i . Image of program 5. Image of program 6. Student leadership 7. Image of program 8. Combined programs student leadership 9. Combined programs c o r r e l a t i o n Recruitment doesn't have the backing of the P r i e s t -hood, i t i s now an i n s t i t u t e function and not a p r i e s t -hood function. The priesthood f e e l no o b l i g a t i o n to r e c r u i t . When the i n s t i t u t e class i s held i n conjunction with the M-Men and Gleaner program we have to r e l y on the M-Men and Gleaners for recruitment, and they don't have any priesthood backing either i n recruitment matters. The I n s t i t u t e program i s not w e l l known among the stake leaders and the general membership. Stake leaders do not know the r o l e of the i n s t i t u t e program or thoy give i t a low p r i o r i t y . The successes of the program are not known by tho l o c a l priesthood leaders. In many cases throughout the area, student leader-ship structure i s non-existent, or i f the structure i s there, there i s no one f i l l i n g the positions. You go to hold a class i n a l o c a l chapel and they s t i c k you i n an inadequate room. Student leadership does not fellowship new students who attend the combined cla s s e s . The Instructor has to be the c o r r e l a t i n g element i n the cotabined programs. . . . that i t become a p r i e s t -hood function. • . . that t h i s program receive some priesthood backing. . . . that the i n s t i t u t e become more known. . . . that they know of tho program, and they give i t a higher p r i o r i t y . . . . that the3e successes be known. . . . to e s t a b l i s h e f f e c t i v e , student leadership. . . . that we rate a higher p r i o r i t y than that. . . . that the student leaders f u l f i l l t h e i r fellowshipping r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . . . • that the M-Men and Gleaner leaders be the correlating elements 10. Combined programs The high councilman in charge of M-men and Gleaners ecclesiastical leaders does not attend the combined program. 11. Combined programs There is a feeling among the students of the combined programs that as soon as you get married you don't belong in institute or M-Men and Gleaners any more. Match Statements Combined M-Men & Gleaner-Institute Program The 'bright spot' in the part-time program is where we teach an institute class in conjunction with an M-Men and Gleaner program. In most cases i t has in-creased enrolIment by as much as 200 to 300 %. 2. Goals of program The night classes get the students who are not that well grounded in the gospel. These are students the full-time institutes f a i l to pick up. II. POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Class scheduling Classes are held only once a week, which causes problems of maintaining continuity of lessons, student contact etc. 2. Enrollment require- I don't know what the administrative guide lines are ments. as to when to terminate a class relative to enroll-ment requirements. I I I . INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Match Statements 1. Full-tlr.e instructors . The greatest strength of the program is the f u l l -time instructor. 2. Full-tine instructors We have better success at the part-time institute where we have a full-time man instructing. that he did attend. . . . that students not feel this way. . . . that these combined programs be maintained. . . . that the night programs continue so as to provide a place for these type of students to enroll. . . . to hold classes twice a week i f we had the personnel. . . . to have some guidelines to follow. . . . that this continue. . . . to continue to have full-time men instructing at a l l institutes. CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s Match Statements 1. Curriculum PHYSICAL FACILITIES Mismatch Statements 1. Buildings A c t i v i t i e s are held l n conjunction with the M-Men and Gleaner programs and the a c t i v i t i e s need co be up-graded i n qualicy. The curriculum of the part-time i n s t i t u t e must be more s o c i a l l y oriented rather than academically oriented. We lack private f a c i l i t i e s of our own and therefore i t i s d i f f i c u l t to develop an a t t r a c t i v e atmosphere for students. . ... to up-grade these a c t i v i t i e s . . . . that t h i s be maintained. . i . to have our own f a c i l i t i e s . TABLE XLIII MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: TACOMA DISTRICT, PROFESSIONALS, OLYMPIA Referent Designative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. P u b l i c i t y The i n s t i t u t e program i s not supported or advertised l i k e the seminary .program. 2. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders The e c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders do not i n i t i a t e the p u b l i c i -ty about the i n s t i t u t e program. 3. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders Local e c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders see the i n s t i t u t e program imposed on them from "the outside". 4. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders The professional man doesn't count on any dedicated support at the l o c a l ward l e v e l for recruitment of students* 5. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders There i s a r e a l problem i n getting names of p o t e n t i a l students through priesthood channels. 6 . E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders There i s good stake support of the program but i t doesn't f i l t e r down to the ward l e v e l . 7. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders When the professional has to I n i t i a t e p u b l i c i t y of the program i n a stake or ward, he f e e l s uncomfortable. 8. Publicity There seems to be a lack of professional publicity of the institute program. . . . that the i n s t i t u t e program be supported and advertised l i k e the seminary program. . . . that the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders i n i t i a t e the i n s t i t u t e p u b l i c i t y programs. . . that the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders not f e e l that the program i s imposed on them from "the outside". . . . that the professional could count on dedicated, l o c a l help i n recruitment. . . . that there be no problem i n getting these names through p r i e s t -hood channels. . . . that the stake support f i l t e r down to the ward l e v e l . . . . that the professional not have to i n i t i a t e any p u b l i c i t y programs i n the ward or stake. . . . that there be some pr o f e s s i o n a l p u b l i c i t y of the i n s t i t u t e program. Hatch Statements 1. Coal3 of Program 2. Goals of Program 3. Student leadership POLICIES A N D PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Central computer and grades 2. H i r i n g part-time i n s t r u c t o r s 3. Adults 4. Adults Match Statements 1. Administration 2. Administration The primary goal i s to teach that Jesus i s the Ch r i s t and the second goal i s to teach the students of th e i r p o t e n t i a l to become l i k e him; associated with these are the goals of getting the college age youth married l n the temple and getting the young men on missions. The program i s meeting a need of the students through teaching and counseling. Student leaders f e e l they have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to r e c r u i t students to the i n s t i t u t e program. . . . that these goals be main-tained i n t h i s stated order. t . . that i t continue to do so. . . . that they continue to f e e l the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The current p o l i c y of submitting grades to the c e n t r a l computer i s not working. The department hires both f u l l - t i m e and part-time i n s t r u c t o r s . Not every stake has an adult i n s t i t u t e c l a s s . The i n s t i t u t e program i s not involved i n a t o t a l pro-gram of r e l i g i o u s education for a d u l t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n outlying areas of the church. . . . that t h i s p o l i c y work. . . . that the department h i r e only f u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r s and phase out part-time i n s t r u c t o r s . . . . that there be at l e a s t one adult c l a s s i n every stake. . . . that the i n s t i t u t e program become involved i n a t o t a l program of r e l i g i o u s education for a d u l t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n o u t l y i n g areas. There i s evidenced 100% support of the i n s t i t u t e pro-gram from the general a u t h o r i t i e s , the Sal t Lake and the d i v i s i o n o f f i c e s . A f u l l - t i m e man i s being r e l i e v e d of much of the ad-m i n i s t r a t i v e "paper work" and i s becoming freer to concentrate on counseling and teaching. . . . that the present l e v e l of support be maintained. . . . that t h i s trend be continued. 3. Counseling A. S e c r e t a r i a l assistance 5. Monthly newsletter 6. H i r i n g of f u l l - t i m e personnel III.INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Mismatch Statements 1. In-service 2. In-service 3. In-service A. In-service Match Statements 1. F u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r 2. F u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r that t h i s advantage be An advantage of h i r i n g f u l l - t i m e men i s that i t makes . . . cn cr a v a i l a b l e to students someone who i s q u a l i f i e d to coun- maintained, s e l with students. S e c r e t a r i a l assistance i s a necessity f o r a l l f u l l - t i m e . . . that a l l f u l l - t i m e men con-men, tinue to have the services of £ secretary. A l l l o c a l p o t e n t i a l students who are attending BYU, Ricks, or on missions or i n the service receive a month-l y newsletter from the i n s t i t u t e d i r e c t o r . The Department i s h i r i n g men who are s e l f - s t a r t e r s , can work without much supervision, who are not discouraged e a s i l y and have the support of t h e i r wives. In-service programs are part of the monthly f a c u l t y meeting. In-service programs are not r e s t r i c t e d to the pre-school and year end d i v i s i o n meetings. There i s l i t t l e opportunity to associate with' the f u l l - t i m e personnel i n the area to discuss church doctrine etc. One reason an i n - s e r v i c e program i s not f u n c t i o n a l i s because there i s not enough time a l l o c a t e d for i t i n our professional meetings. The students f e e l that the i n s t r u c t o r i s w i l l i n g to go to any lengths to help the student or meet with c o l l e g e age youth. Students f e e l the i n s t r u c t o r i s sound and unwavering i n h i s testimony of the gospel. that t h i s p o l i c y continue. . • . that the Department maintain i t s current h i r i n g p o l i c i e s . . . . that In-service t r a i n i n g not be a part of the monthly f a c u l t y meeting. . . . that i n - s e r v i c e bo r e s t r i c t e d to the d i v i s i o n pro-school and year otid mnntlngM. . . . that opportunities be made more a v a i l a b l e for f u l l - t i m e men to a s s o c i -ate together more, to enable them to discuss d o c t r i n a l matters. . . . that more time be a l l o c a t e d f o r i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n our meetings. that t h i s rapport be maintained. . . . that students maintain t h i s f e e l i n g . t o 3. F u l l - t i n e i n s t r u c t o r The students f e e l the i n s t r u c t o r supports the l o c a l priesthood leadership without question. PHYSICAL FACILITIES Mismatch Statements 1. L i b r a r i e s Monies are currently being spent on audio-visual equipment and books. 2. L i b r a r y - Audio-visual The department i s buying r e e l type tape recorders, equipment . . . that students maintain t h i s f e e l i n g . . . . that more money be spent on books and l e s s money be spent on audio-visual equipment. . . . that the department buy cassette type tape recorders. TABLE XLIV MISMATCH. MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: TACOMA DISTRICT, PROFESSIONALS, TACOMA Referent Designative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. P u b l i c i t y 2. P u b l i c i t y 3. P u b l i c i t y 4. P u b l i c i t y 5. P u b l i c i t y 6. P u b l i c i t y 7. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 8. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 9. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders Generally, young adults do not know what Is a v a i l a b l e f o r them i n the I n s t i t u t e program. Parents can not give adequate counsel to t h e i r c h i l d r e n regarding attending BYU or Ricks or attending the l o c a l i n s t i t u t e because parents do not know about the l o c a l i n s t i t u t e programs. There are neither funds, time or d i s t r i c t or l o c a l o f f i c e s to provide for professional advertising m aterial. There are no meaningful advertising materials a v a i l a b l e to bishops i n d i c a t i n g what the i n s t i t u t e program i s a l l about. No meaningful, i n t e r e s t i n g , a t t r a c t i v e , and profession-a l l y done brochures p u b l i c i z i n g the i n s t i t u t e program come out cf the Salt Lake o f f i c e . To some people the r o l e of the i n s t i t u t e program i s unclear and they do not know where i t f i t s i n t o the church. A l l p u b l i c i t y and recruitment programs i n a stake are i n i t i a t e d by professionals and not by e c c l e s i a s t i c a l .leaders. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders are not educated as to the i n s t i t u t e program. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders do not understand the r e l a t i o n -ships between themselves and the professional personnel. . . . that young adults know what i s a v a i l a b l e f o r them i n the pro-gram. . . . that parents be more educated as to the nature of the l o c a l i n s t i -tute programs to enable them to give bet-er counsel to t h e i r c h i l d r e n . . . . that professional a d v e r t i s i n g m a terial be made a v a i l a b l e to d i s t r i c t and l o c a l o f f i c e s . . . . that there be some meaningful ad v e r t i s i n g materials a v a i l a b l e to bishops. . . . that meaningful, i n t e r e s t i n g , a t t r a c t i v e , and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y done brochures come out of the Salt Lake o f f i c e . . . . that the i n s t i t u t e r o l e be c l a r i f i e d and i t s p o s i t i o n i n the church indicated to them. . . . that a l l p u b l i c i t y and r e c r u i t -ment be i n i t i a t e d by e c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders. . . . that e c c e l s i a s t i c a l leaders be educated i n t h i s area. . . . that the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders understand that r e l a t i o n s h i p . 10. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 11. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 12. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 13. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 14. Young adult councils 15. Young adult councils 16. Young adult councils Match.Statements 1. Goals of program POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Administration Stake and vard leaders have to be reminded of the i n s t i -tute program through professional channels. The p o l i c i e s of the i n s t i t u t e program are not given to stake presidencies through proper priesthood channels. When new ward and stake leaders are c a l l e d to new p o s i -tions they are not trained, nor given any understanding of the i n s t i t u t e program. Professionals are unable to get decent l i s t s of poten-t i a l students from ward leaders. What young adult councils that have been organized i n the area are too far removed from the needs of the students; that i s , their structure has been such that they do not meet.student needs. Young adult councils have not been functioning as a coordinating body between M-Men and Gleaners and the i n s t i t u t e program. There i s a lack of d e f i n i t i o n of the structure and function of young adult councils. . . . that stake and ward leaders be reminded through priesthood channels. . . . that stake leaders receive i n s t i t u t e p o l i c i e s through proper priesthood channels. . . . that new leaders be trained and given an understanding of the i n s t i t u t e program. . . . that professionals could get decent l i s t s from ward leaders. . . . that the str u c t u r e of these councils more c l o s e l y meet and serve the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l students. . . . that young adult councils coordinate the a c t i v i t i e s of these two programs. . . . that there be some c l a r i f i c a -t i o n of the function and structure of these councils given. The students who attend i n s t i t u t e generally have an . . . that t h i s f e e l i n g of acceptance established f e e l i n g of accepting and l i k i n g for the be maintained. program. Professionals are "spread to t h i n " over too large a . . . that p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i -geographic area and, therefore, they are j u s t able to t i e s be more c e n t r a l l y confined per-meet the minimum of student needs, i f even that. m i t t i n g greater opportunity to meet student needs. Administration Match Statements 1. Administration 2. Counseling III.INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Mismatch Statements 1. F u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r s The geographic extensiveness of professional assignments . . . that professionals be l c -and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s encroaches upon t h e i r counseling cated permanently i n a more cen-time and t h e i r preparation time, as w e l l as making com- t r a l geographic l o c a t i o n , munication d i f f i c u l t . A major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the professional assignment i s to acquire l i s t s of p o t e n t i a l students. Counseling i s cu r r e n t l y a major professional responsi-b i l i t y . Professionals only have a l i m i t e d opportunity f o r interchange with students on a personal basi6. . . . that t h i s be maintained as a major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . . . . that t h i s be maintained as a major professional r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . . . . that professionals have opportunity for more personal i n t e r -change with students. IV. CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s Combined s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s on a regional basis are infrequently held. . . . that combined re g i o n a l s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s be held more frequently. PHYSICAL FACILITIES Mismatch Statements 1. B u i l d i n g 2. B u i l d i n g Professionals do not have any "on s i t e " permanency allowing for more opportunity f o r students to con-tact them. There i s not a v a i l a b l e adequate, permanent, and pri v a t e counseling f a c i l i t i e s . . . that professionals have more "on s i t e " permanency. . . . that there be permanent and a v a i l a b l e p r i v a t e counseling f a c i l i -t i e s . TABLE XLV MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: VANCOUVER DISTRICT, PROFESSIONALS, VANCOUVER Referent Deslgnative Statement ("What i s " )  Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . •") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 3. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 4. C o r r e l a t i o n E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 6. P u b l i c i t y 7. Image of program E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders do not know how to function i n t h e i r proper capacity r e l a t i v e to t h e i r educational r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and they are poorly informed as to these duties. The i n s t i t u t e d i r e c t o r does not have close or personal communication with the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders i n the There i s no set time or i n v i t a t i o n extended whore i n the i n s t i t u t e personnel can meet on a regular basis to communicate with the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders. In the stake there Is a f e e l i n g of competition between the M-Men and Gleaner program and the i n s t i t u t e pro-gram. The two programs have to compete f o r time and enrollments. Bishops do not have a personal interview with i n s t i t u t e students on a one-to-one basis. The f u l l - t i m e men do not have any p r o f e s s i o n a l l y pro-duced materials designed to p u b l i c i z e the i n s t i t u t e program. The part-time i n s t i t u t e has an impaired or poor image among church members, that i s , they l a c k understanding or knowledge of what the program I s . . . . that they know how to function i n these c a p a c i t i e s and be better informed. . . . that the d i r e c t o r have a close and personal communication with them. . . . that there be such a sec time. . . . that there be no f e e l i n g of competition between the two programs. . . . that these kinds of i n t e r -views be held. . . . that some type of a profes-s i o n a l l y done p u b l i c i t y k i t be prepared f o r use i n p u b l i c i z i n g the i n s t i t u t e program. . . . that this image be en-hanced. 3 2 3 2 4 1 I I . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Administration 2. Faculty meetings 3. Required enrollment 4. Student trees 5. Petty cash fund 6. Examinations I I I . INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Mismatch Statements 1. In-service IV. CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s 2. Curriculum The f u l l - t i m e i n s t i t u t e personnel i n the area are not able to meet together and i n t e r a c t by discussing and sharing i n s t i t u t e problems and common experiences. There i s not now scheduled Into the f a c u l t y meeting agendas, time to allow professional i n t e r a c t i o n with _„ „ other i n s t i t u t e personnel to share and discuss i n s t i t u t e to allow f o r t h i s interactionT problems.. . . . that the I n s t i t u t e per-sonnel be given t h i s opportunity from time to time. . . . that the f a c u l t y meeting agenda schedule i n such time as A minimum number of matriculating college students i s required i n order to begin an i n s t i t u t e c l a s s . Not every student pays the student fee, nor does every student understand what the fee i s f o r . The f i n a n c i a l allotment for petty cash funds i s too l i m i t e d . Students do not come to cla s s when examinations are given. There i s no in - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g provided f o r i n s t i t u t e personnel. There seems to be a trend to remove s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s from the role of the i n s t i t u t e program. The i n s t i t u t e seems to be a place where students come to absorb gospel i n s t r u c t i o n because the i n s t r u c t i o n i s not service oriented. There seems to be l i t t l e emphasis on implementing or i d e n t i f y i n g with a service type o r i e n t a t i o n or program. . . . that there be no minimum number of m a t r i c u l a t i n g students required before a cla s s can begin. . . . that they pay the fee as w e l l as understand i t s purposes. . . . that there be a larger a l l o t -ment for petty cash funds. . . . that students cone when exams are given. that there be some provided. . . . that the i n s t i t u t e preserve the r i g h t to have s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . . . . that the curriculum provide for the implementation of gospel i n s t r u c -t i o n rather than j u s t the absorption of I n s t r u c t i o n . 3. Teaching aids Match Statements 1. Student manuals PHYSICAL FACILITIES Mismatch Statements 1. Building 2. L i b r a r i e s ' I n s t i t u t e teachers do not use the teaching aids used by . . . that i n s t i t u t e teachers the seminary teachers; aids l i k e the s c r i p t u r e chase, use these aid s , educational games, b u l l e t i n boards, etc. The student manuals have a much higher l e v e l of q u a l i t y . . . that they continue to than do the seminary student manuals. They are more be so. stimulating, c o g n i t l v e l y , and they are much more r e -search oriented. o n l v b o n i d M 8 , r e d ^ i n a t l C u C B P«P°8«s i« a v a i l a b l e . . . that the b u i l d i n g be only one night a week. a v a i l a b l e three or f o j nights a week, and e s p e c i a l l y r i g h t a f t e r school. o t ° t W n \ w a l W a y " a v a U a b l V ° "udents, and many . . . that some system be set of those that are are getting l o s t . u p t 0 b e t t e r a n < J ^ a v a i l a b l e l i b r a r y books, TABLE XLVX MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: PORTLAND DISTRICT, ECCLESIASTICAL LEADERS, COLUMBIA RIVER NORTH STAKE Referent IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. Image of Program Designative Statement ("What i s " ) Image of Program Image of Program 4. Image of Progra Image of Program 6. Student leadership I I . 'POLICIES AND PROCEDimES Misaatch Statements 1. Administration Currently, there i s a f e l t d i s t i n c t i o n of s u p e r i o r i t y between the college age matriculating student and the college age non-student, that i s , the non-student i s considered as being'less superior to the matriculating student. When compared to the concern shown matriculating c o l -lege students, Bishops do not give the non-matriculat-ing working young adult a sense of worth. Currently, on the l i s t of p r i o r i t i e s for a Bishop, the part-time i n s t i t u t e program i s way down the l i s t . Bishops are often reluctant to l e t young adults attend i n s t i t u t e student branches because the bishops need these youth to s t a f f t h e i r l o c a l wards. The Church doesn't support the F i r s t Presidency's l e t t e r requesting college students to attend school in t h e i r home area for their f i r s t two years, because i t sends r e c r u i t e r s from BYU each spring to r e c r u i t students to BYU. Most young adults with leadership a b i l i t i e s leave the area. There i s not a s a l a r i e d i n s t i t u t e d i r e c t o r ( f u l l - t i m e or part-time) located a t , and associated with, each part time i n s t i t u t e . v Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 . . . that there be no d i s t i n c -t i o n of s u p e r i o r i t y between the matriculating and the non-students. . . . that bishops give the non-matriculating young adult a greater sense of worth. . . . that the part-time i n s t i t u t e have a higher p r i o r i t y on the bishop's l i s t of p r i o r i t i e s . . . . that t h i s s i t u a t i o n be le s s competitive. . . . that there be no inconsistency i n t h i s matter. . . . that there be more young adult leadership i n the area. . . . that there be a s a l a r i e d part-, or t u l l - t l m e i n s t i t u t e d i r e c t o r • located at and associated with each i n s t i t u t e . PHYSICAL FACILITIES Mismatch Statements 1. Buildings There are no permanent i n s t i t u t e owned f a c i l i t i e s f o r . . . that there be i n s t i t u t e owned the part-time i n s t i t u t e student adjacent to College f a c i l i t i e s adjacent to l o c a l c o l l e g e campuses. campuses. TABLE XLVTI MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELE\'ANCE RATINGS: PORTLAND DISTRICT, ECCLESIASTICAL LEADERS, OREGON CITY STAKE Referent Deslgnative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . • .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 I. IMAGE AND CORRELATION CF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. Image of Program 2. Image of Program Match Statements 1. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders I I . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Adults 2. Computer print-outs Bishops generally do no become involved i n r e c r u i t i n g the young adult l n the i n s t i t u t e program because the i n s t i t u t e program has a lower p r i o r i t y . We do not give the attention to young adults that they need, once they graduate from high school. Every graduating L.D.S. high school senior i s person-a l l y interviewed and committed by the scako presidency to attend i n s t i t u t e . The i n s t i t u t e program i s oriented more toward the 18-25 year age group and less toward the over 25 years of age group. The computer p r i n t outs are h e l p f u l but not as current as they could be. . . . that bishops become more i n -volved i n the recruitment of young adults for i n s t i t u t e . . . . that we give them the needed a t t e n t i o n . . that t h i s p o l i c y be maintained. . . . that the i n s t i t u t e extend i t s o r i e n t a t i o n to include the over 25 year age group. . . . that the computer print-out be made more current i n i t s content. TABLE XLVTII MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: PORTLAND DISTRICT, ECCLESIASTICAL LEADERS, PORTLAND WEST STAKE Referent Deslgnative Statement ("What i s " ) Apnraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. Image of Program 2. Image of Program 3. Image of Program 4. Image of Program 5. Image of Program 5. Image of Program The church tends to forget the college age youth once they leave seminary. " I f you can't go to BYU you are considered a second rate person." The stake presidencies and bishoprics develop the seminary side of their r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , but neglect the i n s t i t u t e side-Students attend the l o c a l i n s t i t u t e of r e l i g i o n because their applications to attend BYU were turned down. Currently, there i s not the same s p i r i t u a l contact a v a i l a b l e for students at the l o c a l part-time i n s t i t u t e as there i s at B.Y.U. "I don't have a desire to keep my L.D.S. kids from going to B.Y.U. 7. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders Currently, the stake presidency does not understand i t s recruitment r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s v i s - a - v i s the part-time i n s t i t u t e . 8. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders Currently, not a l l bishops give encouragement to college age youth to attend i n s t i t u t e . 9. Image of Program The executive secretary has a greater understanding of the seminary program than he does of the i n s t i t u t e program. . . . that these young adults not . be forgotten. . . . that the designation or con-s i d e r a t i o n of "second r a t e " not be attached to a non-BYU attender. . . . that the i n s t i t u t e side of the i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s be developed. . . . that students attend l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s because chey i n i t i a l l y wanted to do so. . . . that there be a s i m i l a r s p i r i t u a l contact a v a i l a b l e at l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s as there i s at B.Y.U. . . . that I don't change my a t t i t u d e . . . . that i t did understand i t s r e c r u i t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . . . . that a l l bishops give encourage-ment to college age youth to attend i n s t i t u t e . . . . that h i s understanding of the i n s t i t u t e program be on a par with h i s understanding of the seminary program. 10. Image o£ Program 11. C o r r e l a t i o n At the monthly meeting with the professionals and the executive secretaries, most of the agenda time i s spent dealing with seminary matters and l i t t l e time i s spent dealing with i n s t i t u t e matters. The stake presidency receives very l i t t l e information about the par t - t i n e I n s t i t u t e s i n t h e i r area. . . . that more agenda time be spent on i n s t i t u t e matters. . . . that they receive more i n -formation about these programs l n t h e i r area. 12. Image of Program The d i s t r i c t coordinator seems hesitant to deal with i n s t i t u t e matters. . . . that the d i s t r i c t coordinator deal l e s s h e s i t a n t l y with i n s t i t u t e matters. 13. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders The stake presidency does not understand the d i f f e r e n -t a t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s regarding i n s t i t u t e matters between the d i s t r i c t coordinator and the i n s t i t u t e d i r e c t o r . . . . that the d i f f e r e n t a t i o n of i n s t i t u t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s between these two p o s i t i o n s be known by the stake presidency. 14. C o r r e l a t i o n The executive secretary does not receive brochures, cl a s s schedules, i n s t i t u t e information, etc. for the i n s t i t u t e s i n h i s area. . . that he receive these items. TABLE XLIX MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: SALEM DISTRICT, ECCLESIASTICAL LEADERS, CORVALLIS STAKE Referent Designative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 2. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leader 3. Recruitment by professionals 4. Recruitment 5. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 6. Goals of Program I I . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Administration I n s t i t u t e reports The priesthood leader has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to r e c r u i t . . . that priesthood leaders give encouragement, t r a i n i n g and follow through r e l a t i v e should do a better job than they to i n s t i t u t e recruitment, but they are not doing as good are doing, a job as they could be doing. The priesthood leaders do not maintain a "mission-ary z e a l " i n r e c r u i t i n g students. Professionals are not given a d d i t i o n a l time, as part of their professional assignment to follow-up and augment the recruitment done by the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders. Returned missionaries are not ca l l e d (or paid or givort some kind of a reward) as assistants or aids to the i n s t i t u t e d i r e c t o r to a s s i s t him i n r e c r u i t -ing a c t i v i t i e s . There i s more concern for the q u a l i t y of the program exhibited by the professionals than exhibited by the priesthood leaders. There i s a need to make the part-time i n s t i t u t e program a v a i l a b l e to students who can't attend church schools (BYU, Ricks, etc.) Reports indicate how time i s spent and not how l i v e s are changed. . . • that priesthood leaders maintain a missionary zeal i n r e c r u i t i n g students. . . . that the professionals be given this a d d i t i o n a l time. . . . that returned missionaries be c a l l e d or given some type of reward to act as a s s i s t a n t s or aids i n recruitment. . . . that the priesthood leaders e x h i b i t more concern f o r the q u a l i t y of the program. . . . that the part-time i n s t i t u t e be made a v a i l a b l e to these students. . . . that I n s t i t u t e reports i n -dicate how l i v e s are changed as w e l l as how time i s spent, IV. CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r There i s more emphasis on academic a c t i v i t i e s than . . . that s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s a c t i v i t i e s . there i s on s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . be emphasized as much as academic a c t i v i t i e s . T A B L E L I MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE R A T I N G S : S E A T T L E D I S T R I C T , E C C L E S I A S T I C A L L E A D E R S , S E A T T L E NORTH S T A K E Referent Deslgnative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement Agreement/Relevance Rating ("I prefer . . .") 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 I . I M A G E AND C O R R E L A T I O N O F PROGRAM Mismatch Statements . 1. Recruitment Generally, we are e n r o l l i n g most of the r e a d i l y acces-i b l e students. Our problem now i s to concentrate more on 'digging out' the i n a c t i v e s . . . . that e c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders increase t h e i r e f f o r t s i n the area of t h i s problem. 1 2. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders The l o c a l bishops give the i n s t i t u t e program a low p r i o r i t y among the programs of the church. . . . that the stake leadership do more to help bishops r a i s e t h e i r p r i o r i t y of the program. I f e e l t h i s i s our greatest need i n my area when I think about the i n s t i t u t e program. 1 3. Recruitment As priesthood leaders we s t i l l t a l k a l o t about students attending BYU and Ricks college, and we don't emphasize the l o c a l I n s t i t u t e programs l i k e we should. . . . that we emphasize the l o c a l programs more. 1 4. RccrulImcnt The Church hno not developed a good movie designed to r e c r u i t high school seniors to the i n s t i t u t e program; one that could be shown them i n the spring of the year before they graduate from seminary. . . . that the Church provide such a movie. 1 5. Image of program When students graduate from seminary, too many of them f e e l they n^ve f i n i s h e d t h e i r church education. . . . that we b u i l d an image of the church education program that i s on an eight year image, as w e l l as b u i l d i n g an image of the i n s t i t u t e program that r e f l e c t s the I n s t i t u t e as a v i t a l and more academically advanced program. We don't want our seminary graduate to think of i n s t i t u t e as j u s t being an extension of seminary. 1 Match Statements 1. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders The 'key to success' for a successful i n s t i t u t e program i s for the priesthood leader to i n s i s t on having good professional personnel s t a f f i n g the i n s t i t u t e program i n h i s area. . . . that the priesthood leader continue to i n s i s t on q u a l i t y personnel. 1 ro 2. Recruitment 3. The program i n general I I . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Match Statements 1. Central program 2. Administration III.INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL Match Statements 1. Full-time personnel 2. Ful l - t i m e personnel 3. I n s t r u c t i o n a l personnel students to e n r o l l i n i s the professional e. Some students w i l l bishops or t h e i r e teacher i s the most the student enrolled, thood get them Into ionals who keep them The l o c a l bishops can r e c r u i t the i n s t i t u t e program, but i t in s t r u c t o r who keeps them ther attend out of l o y a l t y to th e i r parents, but the qu a l i t y of th I n f l u e n t i a l factor i n keepin; In other words, when the pries the program, i t i s the profess  there. I don't hear any complaints about the i n s t i t u t e program. In order to have a successful program among the s a t e l l i t e i n s t i t u t e s , you need to have a strong c e n t r a l f u l l - t i m e I n s t i t u t e program, of which we have. In other words, a strong central program makes the s a t e l l i t e programs go. I believe the professional men keep the stake pres-ident adequately informed about i n s t i t u t e matters. About s i x or seven years ago the priesthood leaders in the area preferred not to support the i n s t i t u t e program because of the poor q u a l i t y of i n s t i t u t e personnel s t a f f i n g the i n s t i t u t e . That s i t u a t i o n has now reversed I t s e l f because of the qu a l i t y of the personnel now s t a f f i n g the program. The present l e v e l of professional competence among the professional personnel i s exceptional and i t i s a maj or factor i n having a successful program i n my area. Because more and more of our young adults are staying home and not going to BYU or Ricks college, I am becoming more and more concerned that they e n r o l l i n the l o c a l i n s t i t u t e program. Therefore, I am very interested that we get good i n s t r u c t o r s . . . . that t h i s s i t u a t i o n be kept i n mind when r e c r u i t i n g i s being done. . . . that t h i s s i t u a t i o n be maintained. . . . that t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p be continued. . . . that they continue to keep him Informed. . . . that t h i s reversed trend continue. . . . that t h i s l e v e l of competence be maintained. . . . that my i n t e r e s t continue i n t h i s area. Because the success of the program depends so much on the caliber of the instructor, I want instructors (1) who have the ability to teach (2) who have a l°ve for young people and (3) who have a testimony of the gospel. . . . that the instructional personnel have these character-ist i c s , and we continue to have this caliber of personnel working in the institute. • , TABLE LII MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: SEATTLE DISTRICT, ECCLESIASTICAL LEADERS, SEATTLE STAKE Referent Deslgnative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 I. IMAGE AND CORRECTION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. P u b l i c i t y Recruitment 3. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders F i r s t Presidency'8 l e t t e r on church schools I would guess that 90" of the parents and 50X of the young adults i n my stake do not know what an i n s t i t u t e does. I f e e l the most Important people to convert to the i n -s t i t u t e program are the p a r e n t s . f i r s t and then the students second, and we are not doing t h i s . We do not follow through i n keeping the young people Involved l n the i n s t i t u t e program. I f e e l there i s a great need for l o c a l bishops to understand t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to the i n s t i t u t e program, as w e l l as being able to provide students i n t h e i r wards with sound information about the i n s t i t u t e program; a bishop needs to be able to help the student develop a mature a t t i t u d e toward the i n s t i t u t e program. I don't think bishops can do t h i s at the present time. .The F i r s t Presidency's l e t t e r bothers me because I want my c h i l d r e n to go to B.Y.U. or Ricks college. . . . that they did know what an I n s t i t u t e does. . . . that t h i s be accomplished by perhaps a l e t t e r being sent to each parent, preferably from the F i r s t Presidency or from someone as high up the priesthood l i n e of authority a3 possible explaining the i n s t i t u t e program, and then a s i m i l a r l e t t e r ought to be sent to the students. . . . that we f o l l o w through. . . . that t h i s great need be met. . . . that, hopefully, the p o l i c y w i l l be c l a r i f i e d by the F i r s t Presidency, but I hope i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , the f i n a l d ecision as to whether a student attends a church school, w i l l be l e f t open or up to the l o c a l priesthood leaders to decide, that i s , that the f i n a l d e cision can be made at the l o c a l l e v e l . 6. Image of program 7. Knowledge of program 8. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders Match Statements 1. Image of program 2. Goals of program 3 . Goal3 of program The part-time i n s t i t u t e does not enter into a person's decision when he i s deciding what school to attend. I f e e l some lack of understanding of the t o t a l i n s t i -tute program, such as what the goals and objectives are, how they are established, bow the program i s directed and developed, the l i n e s of communication, the administrative framework, my r e l a t i o n s h i p to the program, how I, as a stake president, can help, what my r o l e i s , how to r e c u i r t and s e l l the program, etc. Bishops are trained i n seminary recruitment, but they don't fe e l much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the i n s t i t u t e , e s p e c i a l l y when'the student goes aw.iy-to college. The bishop puts the student out of his mind, that i s , he simply forgets about that student. My counsel to young adults EOing to school would be f i r s t , go to a church school, then second, go to a school where there i s a f u l l - t i m e i n s t i t u t e program and t h i r d , go to a school where there i s a part-time i n s t i t u t e , and my counsel to them would be i n t h i s order. It i s a great value to the Church to endeavor to maintain a constructive and we l l organized part-time i n s t i t u t e program. Strong i n s t i t u t e s i n conjunction with the u n i v e r s i -t i e s are v i t a l . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Administration There i s no home study i n s t i t u t e program i n my area. . . . that i t be part of h i s dec i s i o n . . . . to receive some printed and outlined information i n these areas from the pr o f e s s i o n a l men and from the regional representative on a regular and scheduled b a s i s . . . . that bishops be trained i n i n s t i t u t e matters as they are i n seminary matters. . . . that I continue to counsel them t h i s way. . . . that the Church continue t h i s program. . . . that the i n s t i t u t e program continue to endeavor to provide strong programs at the u n i v e r s i t i e s . that i t be introduced. IV. CURRICULUM Mismatch Statements 1. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r The students i n the s a t e l l i t e i n s t i t u t e s are not . . . that t h i s opportunity for 1 a c t i v i t i e s brought into s i t u a t i o n s permitting f u l l s o c i a l ex- f u l l exposure be given the p a r t -posure to the students of the f u l l - t i m e i n s t i t u t e s . time i n s t i t u t e student. 00 \ TABLE L I I I MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT /RELEVANCE RATINGS: TACOMA DISTRICT, ECCLESIASTICAL LEADERS, OLYMPIA STAKE Referent Deslgnative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 I. IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. C o r r e l a t i o n 2. C o r r e l a t i o n The i n s t i t u t e program, M-Men and Gleaners, LDSSA are being confused and mixed up. The stake presidency learn nothing of what i s happening administratively from the commissioner' o f f i c e on down, i n the i n s t i t u t e program. . . . that these programs be kept separate and coordinated. . . . that the administrators of the i n s t i t u t e program, from the commissioners o f f i c e downward, make a v a i l a b l e to the stake pres-ident from time to time, what i s happening a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y i n the i n s t i t u t e program. Til.INSTRUCTIONAL PKRSONNF.L Match Statements 1. F u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r 2. F u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r The success and strengths of the program are d i r e c t l y proportional to the enthusiasm and drawing power of the i n s t r u c t o r . The i n s t r u c t o r makes himself available i n a l l " geographic areas where the i n s t i t u t e program i s needed. . . . that these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as evidenced i n our current i n s t i t u t e i n s t r u c t o r be maintained. . . . that he continue to do so. N> TABLE L1V MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: TACOMA DISTRICT, ECCLESIASTICAL LEADERS, PUGET SOUND STAKE Referent Deslgnative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 I. IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. Image of Program 2. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 3. Recruitment-ecclesias-t i c a l leaders. 'i. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders Matcli Statements 1. Goals of the program 2. Goals of the program 3. Image of the program I I . POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Mismatch Statements 1. Class enrollment requirements. The l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s do not meet a l l of the s o c i a l and s p i r i t u a l needs of young adults so they attend BYU and Ricks and other church schools. The stake presidency i s not as informed about the pro-gram as they f e e l they should be from the c e n t r a l and l o c a l o f f i c e s . Priesthood leaders at the l o c a l l e v e l are not r e c r u i t -ing as they should Bishops do not follow through on i n s t i t u t e recruitment and p u b l i c i t y . The i n s t i t u t e i s f i l l i n g a need by providing i n depth d o c t r i n a l education for members of the stake. The i n s t i t u t e program i s able to make people desirous of receiving r e l i g i o u s education who previously were not desirous of receiving r e l i g i o u s education. U n t i l the l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s can meet young adult needs l i k e BYU and Ricks c o l l e g e , young adults are encourag-ed to attend BYU and other church schools rather than attend t h e i r l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s . There i s a required minimum number of enrolled students needed before a c l a s s can be held. . . . that the l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s be able to meet the needs of young adults l i k e other church schools. . . . that they be better informed. . . . that l o c a l priesthood leaders improve t h e i r recruitment a c t i v i t i e s . . . . that bishops follow through i n these two areas. . that i t continue to do so. . . . that the i n s t i t u t e program continue to do so. . . . that young adults continue to be encouraged to attend these other schools u n t i l the l o c a l i n s t i t u t e programs can provide s i m i l a r experiences to students. . . . that there be no minimum e n r o l l -ment requirement because of great geo-graphic distances, small u n i t s , and lack of young adults a v a i l a b l e . r o O Because of the lack of young adults in the local units, . . . that adults continue to be adults are encouraged by the stake presidency to enroll encouraged to enroll in institute, in institute classes. TABLE LV MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: TACOMA DISTRICT, ECCLESIASTICAL LEADERS, TACOMA STAKE Referent Designative Statement Appraisive Statement Agreement/Relevance Rating ("What i s " ) ("I prefer . . . ") . 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 I. IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements I, Goals of the program Young adults who 'attend i n s t i t u t e and M-Men and . . . that a l l young adults attend 1 Gleaners have a higher concept of the value and i n s t i t u t e and M-Men and Gleaner purpose of education than those who attend only programs. M-Men and Gleaners. 2. Goals of Che program More i n s t i t u t e students get married i n the temple . . . that a l l young adults attend 1 than non-institute students. i n s t i t u t e . 3. Image of program It i s not clear i n the minds of students the . . . that there be some c l a r i f i c a - 1 difference i n rol e s of the I n s t i t u t e and the tio n of the r o l e s of the two M-Men and Gleaners. programs. 4. C o r r e l a t i o n Administrative communication to the i n s t i t u t e „ . . that communication to the i n - 1 has come from Salt Lake and gone d i r e c t l y to the s t i t u t e from S a l t Lake be channeled l o c a l i n s t i t u t e without going through the stake through the stake president's o f f i c e . presidents o f f i c e . 5. C o r r e l a t i o n There i s not an o f f i c i a l church proclamation . . . Chat there be some form of an 1 providing for or o u t l i n i n g a planned agenda for a o f f i c i a l proclamation from S a l t Lake monthly meeting between stake leaders and i n s t i t u t e i n i t i a t i n g a monthly meeting between leaders. these leaders with a planned agenda. Match Statements 1. Goals of the program The t o t a l i n s t i t u t e program gives advance t r a i n - . . . that the program continue to 1 ing i n gospel subjects and advanced education i n accomplish t h i 3 . doctrine and what doctrine i s a l l about, a l l under controlled circumstances. 2. Goals of the program The i n s t i t u t e program provides a p r a c t i c a l opportunity . . . that i t continue to do so. 1 to apply p r i n c i p l e s taught i n i n s t i t u t e curriculum. 3. Goals of the program An i n s t i t u t e program i n the stake acts as a leavening . . . that the i n s t i t u t e program con- 1 process on other stake programs by providing trained tinue to do so. leaders to f i l l other stake p o s i t i o n s . C o r r e l a t i o n The Church has indicated that the i n s t i t u t e i s to be . . . that t h i s d i v i s i o n of responsible for r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g and the K-Ken and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s be maintained. Gleaners are responsible f o r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . TABLE LVI MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: VANCOUVER DISTRICT, ECCLESIASTICAL LEADERS, CASCADE STAKE Referent Deslgnative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer . . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 2. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 3. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders A. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders C o r r e l a t i o n 6. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders Bishops of wards i n i n s t i t u t e areas do not get pink memberships from the home wards of students who move int o the area. The executive secretaries do not send them. Often, when bishops of the student's home ward do send the pink memberships to P.B.O., weeks l a t e r the bishop of the ward where tht student has moved into w i l l w r i t e and request the student's membership, which has already been sent In, or the P.B.O. w i l l write the. bishop of the home ward requesting that che student's pink membership be sent i n . Somewhere the pink membership gets l o s t . Often, even when the l o c a l bishop a c t u a l l y receives the student's pink membership record, the student i s s t i l l not contacted by the l o c a l bishop or h i s representative. Probably, with the exception of the bishops of wards where the i n s t i t u t e i s located, most bishops have a low to very low understanding of the goals, purposes, locations etc. of the i n s t i t u t e s i n t h e i r region, and they also have a low understanding of th e i r responsi-b i l i t y regarding the i n s t i t u t e program. The e c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders i n the stake do not under-stand the c o r r e l a t i o n or r e l a t i o n s h i p or make-up of a l l the young adult programs a v a i l a b l e to young adults. Currently, there i s no standardized procedure whereby the bishop of the ward wherein a student has moved can report hack to the student's home ward bishop r e l a t i v e to the student's progress, needs, etc. . . . these pink memberships be sent l i k e they should be. . . . that t h i s problem be resolved. . . . that the student be contacted. . . . to have t h i s s i t u a t i o n reversed. . . . that they had t h i s under-standing. . . . that some standardized ' procedure for accomplishing t h i s be established. FOUCIES AND PROCEDURES Katch Statements I. Administration Administration The d i s t r i c t coordinator and/or the i n s t i t u t e . d i r e c t o r report to the stake presidency, the higtt c o u n c i l and the bishoprics during t h e i r combined meeting on n monthly basis. Tho i n s t i t u t e d i r e c t o r i s . g r e a t l y appreciated by the priesthood leaders. . . . that these professional continue to meet with these priesthood leaders monthly. . . . that he remain i n the a TABLE LVII MISMATCH, MATCH STATEMENTS AND AGREEMENT/RELEVANCE RATINGS: VANCOUVER DISTRICT, ECCLESIASTICAL LEADERS, VANCOUVER Referent Designative Statement ("What i s " ) Appraisive Statement ("I prefer , . .") Agreement/Relevance Rating 0 1-2 3-5 6-7 IMAGE AND CORRELATION OF PROGRAM Mismatch Statements 1. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders 5. 6. 7. 8. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders E c c l e s i a s t i c a l leaders C o r r e l a t i o n P u b l i c i t y Recruitment While the understanding of the i n s t i t u t e program that i s had among members of the high council