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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Occupational socialization of women during postsecondary preparation for nontraditional and traditional… Brook, Paula Ann 1986

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O c c u p a t i o n a l S o c i a l i z a t i o n of Women During Postsecondary P r e p a r a t i o n f o r N o n t r a d i t i o n a l and T r a d i t i o n a l Jobs by Paula Ann Brook B.S., U n i v e r s i t y of Texas at E l Paso, 1973 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Texas at E l Paso, 1978 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , Adult and Higher Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1986 © P a u l a Ann Brook, 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of lAj&MM>uyWl(U*J^ U<U*J±~ Y 7^*SXAJ2SL> ^^^u^c.^h_ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date AM- 3 . /j2b DE-6 (.3/81) i i ABSTRACT Women i n Canadian s o c i e t y continue to be segregated i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l l y female occupations, o f t e n of lower pay and s t a t u s than male dominated occu p a t i o n s . To improve the e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y of women, the governments of Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia support a v a r i e t y of programs and i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . The focus of these e f f o r t s i s c o g n i t i v e , psychomotor, or a f f e c t i v e or some combination t h e r e o f . There has been l i t t l e r e s e a r c h to date on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of these s t r a t e g i e s and programs; recruitment and enrollment remain e s s e n t i a l l y s e l f - s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s e s . T h i s study examined the i s s u e of women's o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y by f o c u s s i n g on the o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n process as f a c i l i t a t e d by postsecondary e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s . Sixty-one s u b j e c t s i n four c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs were p r e -and p o s t t e s t e d i n 1984. The programs represented t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n ; w i t h i n the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group there were three d i s t i n c t types of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n . Three instruments were used to c o l l e c t data r e l a t i n g to demographic c h a r c t e r i s t i c s , p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s , and type of career commitment. In a d d i t i o n , i n t e r v i e w s were conducted to supplement the e m p i r i c a l d a t a . The f i n d i n g s demonstrated that the programs were s e r v i n g a heterogeneous group of women with regard to demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s but who at program enrollment r e f l e c t e d s i m i l a r gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the number of p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . Any success of the i i i programs i n a l t e r i n g p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations c o u l d not be due s o l e l y to s e l e c t i o n . At program completion g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n i n the p e r c e p t i o n of impediments to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations was found, but t h i s v a r i a t i o n r e f l e c t e d no apparent p a t t e r n . The treatments e v i d e n t l y had v a r y i n g e f f e c t s on the groups. The change scores i n d i c a t e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups re g a r d i n g p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s . But w i t h i n the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups, the c a r e e r e x p l o r a t o r y program (which addressed c o g n i t i v e , psychomotor, and a f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g ) , e x h i b i t e d the most change i n overcoming p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s . Consequently, t h i s program was found to be p o t e n t i a l l y more e f f e c t i v e than e i t h e r the t r a d i t i o n a l or other n o n t r a d i t i o n a l ones i n f a c i l i t a t i n g women's o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y . On the career commitment measure, at program enrollment students i n a t r a d i t i o n a l program saw the fewest expected b e n e f i t s and fewest o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r exp r e s s i v e n e s s from career i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; those i n the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r e x p l o r a t o r y program saw the g r e a t e s t a n t i c i p a t e d b e n e f i t s and the most o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e x p r e s s i v e n e s s . Change scores i n d i c a t e that the t r a d i t i o n a l program e n r o l l e e s a l t e r e d t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s m i n i m a l l y ; career e x p l o r a t o r y e n r o l l e e s showed the g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . The d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s had v a r y i n g i n f l u e n c e s on ca r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n s of women. O v e r a l l , modest evidence was found f o r su p p o r t i n g a career p r e p a r a t i o n program which addresses the a f f e c t i v e aspect of i v o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n a d d i t i o n to the theory and s k i l l components. I f , in the i n t e r e s t of f o s t e r i n g e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y , women are to be a t t r a c t e d t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations and a s s i s t e d i n p r e p a r i n g themselves to succeed i n these jobs, then h e l p i n g them to understand the p s y c h o s o c i a l aspects of r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and to overcome p e r c e i v e d impediments must be addressed by those who fund, design and conduct postsecondary c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs. V TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES ix LIST OF FIGURES x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1 Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n In Postsecondary Education 1 Occu p a t i o n a l P a t t e r n s 3 Career P r e p a r a t i o n And Oc c u p a t i o n a l I d e n t i t y 6 B a r r i e r s To E d u c a t i o n a l And Oc c u p a t i o n a l E q u i t y 8 I n t e r v e n t i o n S t r a t e g i e s 10 The Problem 14 O r g a n i z a t i o n Of The D i s s e r t a t i o n 17 CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 19 Career Development 20 Career Choice 20 Career M a t u r i t y 22 Achievement M o t i v a t i o n 24 Theories Of Career Development For Women 26 Career I n t e r v e n t i o n s 28 B a r r i e r s To N o n t r a d i t i o n a l Career Development 32 In f l u e n c e Of Family And F r i e n d s 34 Low O c c u p a t i o n a l S e l f - c o n c e p t 35 Lack Of E d u c a t i o n a l P r e p a r a t i o n 36 Role C o n f l i c t 37 Lack Of Information About N o n t r a d i t i o n a l Careers 38 v i Lack Of A v a i l a b l e Role Models 39 Lack Of Money To Finance T r a i n i n g 39 Other F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g O c c u p a t i o n a l S o c i a l i z a t i o n .... 41 Programs Which Promote O c c u p a t i o n a l E q u i t y 43 Summary 46 CHAPTER 3: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND HYPOTHESES 48 The Role I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Process 49 Symbolic I n t e r a c t i o n 56 Conceptual Model And D e f i n i t i o n s 62 Hypotheses 64 At The Beginning Of The Programs 66 At The Completion Of The Programs 70 P r e t e s t To P o s t t e s t D i f f e r e n c e s 74 Summary 78 CHAPTER 4: METHODOLOGY 80 Design 80 The E d u c a t i o n a l Programs 80 Instrumentation 88 Instruments 88 P i l o t - t e s t i n g 91 Interviews 92 Procedures 95 Subjects In The Study 95 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 97 Data P r e p a r a t i o n And Sco r i n g 100 Data Analyses 100 Summary 101 v i i CHAPTER 5: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF QUANTITATIVE DATA 102 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Of P a r t i c i p a n t s By Programs 102 P r o f i l e Of A N o n t r a d i t i o n a l And A T r a d i t i o n a l Student .107 R e l i a b i l i t y Of Instruments 112 D i s c u s s i o n Of Hypotheses 118 P r e t e s t Hypotheses 120 P o s t t e s t Hypotheses 125 P r e t e s t To P o s t t e s t D i f f e r e n c e s 130 A n a l y s i s Of Career Commitment 136 P r e t e s t R e s u l t s 142 P o s t t e s t R e s u l t s 144 P r e t e s t To P o s t t e s t D i f f e r e n c e s 146 Summary 151 CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION OF INTERVIEWS 153 The Interview Process 154 Comparison Between T r a d i t i o n a l & N o n t r a d i t i o n a l 156 Steps In Career Development .156 B a r r i e r s To Career Development 158 Oc c u p a t i o n a l S o c i a l i z a t i o n 160 Comparison Of Women In Three N o n t r a d i t i o n a l Programs ....161 General Interview F i n d i n g s 164 Steps In Career Development 164 B a r r i e r s To Career Development 170 Oc c u p a t i o n a l S o c i a l i z a t i o n 175 Summary 177 CHAPTER 7: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS 180 Summary And Methodology Of The Study 180 v i i i F i n d i n g s Of The Study 183 P r e t e s t Hypotheses 185 P o s t t e s t Hypotheses 185 D i f f e r e n c e s Between P r e t e s t And P o s t t e s t Scores 187 Fac t o r A n a l y s i s 190 Interview F i n d i n g s 191 Con c l u s i o n s And G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s 194 L i m i t a t i o n s 201 I m p l i c a t i o n s 204 For P r a c t i c e 205 For Research 206 For P o l i c y 208 Epi l o g u e 209 REFERENCES 211 APPENDICES 224 ix LIST OF TABLES Table 1 P a r t i c i p a n t s In The Study 96 Table 2 P a r t i c i p a n t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s By Program 104 Table 3 P r o f i l e Of N o n t r a d i t i o n a l & T r a d i t i o n a l E n r o l l e e s .109 Table 4 Instrument R e l i a b i l i t i e s 113 Table 5 Fa c t o r Loadings Of Career Commitment F a c t o r s 116 Table 6 Pre- And P o s t t e s t Mean Scores For Thomas Survey ...120 Table 7 Mean Score D i f f e r e n c e s On Thomas Survey 130 Table 8 Mean Scores On Career Commitment 142 Table 9 Mean D i f f e r e n c e s On Career Commitment F a c t o r s 147 X LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1 Model Of The V a r i a b l e s 63 F i g u r e 2 F a c t o r 1 Pre- And P o s t t e s t Mean Scores 140 F i g u r e 3 F a c t o r 2 Pre- And P o s t t e s t Mean Scores 141 x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank the members of my committee f o r t h e i r guidance and a s s i s t a n c e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n and w r i t i n g of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . My chairman, W i l l i a m G r i f f i t h , and members Sharon Kahn and D a n i e l Brown, have o f f e r e d i n v a l u a b l e advice and a s s i s t a n c e . A s p e c i a l word of a p p r e c i a t i o n goes to Gordon Selman for h i s co n t i n u e d support and encouragement throughout my tenure at UBC and e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the undertaking of t h i s p r o j e c t . An acknowledgement i s o f f e r e d to the women who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study and to the i n s t r u c t o r s who g r a c i o u s l y cooperated. A l s o , thanks to S h e i l a McFadzean and Raelene Rowe of P a c i f i c V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t and a s s i s t a n c e . No d i s s e r t a t i o n would be completed without the care and concern of many r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s and c o l l e a g u e s . In my case t h e r e are f a r too many such wonderful people to enumerate i n t h i s p l a c e . To them I express humble and s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e . There a r e , however, those few who merit s p e c i a l mention. Without the f r i e n d s h i p and he l p of Howard Day and John C o l l i n s n e i t h e r the beginning nor the ending of t h i s p r o j e c t would have o c c u r r e d . Nand Kisho r has become a very s p e c i a l t u t o r , mentor, and f r i e n d who has pr o v i d e d emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l support and a s s i s t a n c e . And l a s t l y , two e x c e p t i o n a l people deserve r e c o g n i t i o n . To Joy Slean and Gerry Lee I express my love and a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r f a i t h i n me and the value s I hold dear. T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n and my p e r s o n a l development are dedic a t e d to them! 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The r o l e of women i n Canadian s o c i e t y i s changing r a p i d l y . S o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l changes i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y have made i t p o s s i b l e f o r women to expand t h e i r p e r s o n a l and car e e r o p t i o n s . An i n c r e a s i n g percentage of women of a l l ages are p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the labor f o r c e , some i n f i e l d s that had been s t a f f e d e x c l u s i v e l y by men. But whether women's i n c r e a s e d employment r e f l e c t s p r i m a r i l y emancipation from the home, the a t t r a c t i o n of i n t e r e s t i n g c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s , or simple economic n e c e s s i t y , b a r r i e r s s t i l l p e r s i s t to hinder women's c a r e e r development. For women pursuing n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s , g a i n i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e knowledge and s k i l l s , p l u s undergoing a process of s o c i a l i z a t i o n are c r u c i a l f a c t o r s i n determining t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l success. Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n in Postsecondary Edu c a t i o n Education i s an important v e h i c l e by which i n d i v i d u a l s enhance t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s f o r t h e i r p e r s o n a l development as w e l l as f o r that of t h e i r community and f o r the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . The e d u c a t i o n a l system f a c i l i t a t e s the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge, a t t i t u d e s , and s k i l l s . I t equips people with the t o o l s to e s t a b l i s h i d e n t i t y , c l a r i f y purpose, develop i n t e g r i t y , achieve competence, manage emotions, and become autonomous ( C h i c k e r i n g , 1969). 2 The expansion of Canadian postsecondary e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ( s p e c i f i c a l l y community c o l l e g e s and other two year i n s t i t u t i o n s ) i n the 1960s and 1970s brought a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n enrollment i n postsecondary education f o r both sexes. Increased e d u c a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n by women i s r e f l e c t e d i n community c o l l e g e s (where they comprise more than 50 percent of the student body), i n u n i v e r s i t y p a rt-time study (where they c o n s t i t u t e approximately t w o - t h i r d s the t o t a l p a r t -time e n r o l l m e n t ) , and i n c o n t i n u i n g education (where they comprise the m a j o r i t y ) ( G a s k e l l , 1982; Robb & Spencer, 1976). Although higher education l e v e l s i n c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d that women w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n the labor f o r c e and improve t h e i r incomes, n e i t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y nor economic e q u i t y occurs. Females continue to be co n c e n t r a t e d i n those e d u c a t i o n a l f i e l d s of a t r a d i t i o n a l female nature: a r t s , e d u c a t i o n , n u r s i n g , and c l e r i c a l . The economic p o s i t i o n of women r e l a t i v e to men cont i n u e s to r e f l e c t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s — f r o m 1961 when women's annual earnings averaged 54.2 percent of men's earnings to 1981 when women's earnings had r i s e n to 59.9 percent ( O r n s t e i n , 1983, p.1). While the above e a r n i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l s and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s suggest that e d u c a t i o n a l enrollment and economic e x p l a n a t i o n are important i n f l u e n c e s in career o p p o r t u n i t i e s , a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s must be co n s i d e r e d to understand women's behavior i n the labor f o r c e . 3 O c c u p a t i o n a l P a t t e r n s The i n c r e a s e of women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n postsecondary education i s p a r a l l e l e d by the in c r e a s e d movement of women to pa i d employment. T h i s i n c r e a s e i n women's employment o u t s i d e the home i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to a combination of s o c i a l , demographic, and economic developments ( T r o l l , 1982). For example, the o v e r a l l r a t i o of women to men has i n c r e a s e d and an i n c r e a s i n g l y service-dominated urban economy makes p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h no longer a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n job performance i n an i n c r e a s i n g number of occ u p a t i o n s . Homemaking has become e a s i e r , couples have fewer c h i l d r e n , s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s f a v o r i n g working women are r e l a x i n g , p e r s o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s concerning work are changing, and government p o l i c i e s encourage i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The d e c i s i o n to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the la b o r f o r c e i s i n f l u e n c e d by myriad f a c t o r s : f i n a n c i a l need, a v a i l a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s , household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n p a t t e r n s vary with s o c i a l c l a s s , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , presence and ages of c h i l d r e n , type of community, education and t r a i n i n g , and age. Between 1962 and 1973 the average r a t e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r women working i n the pai d l a b o r f o r c e f o r at l e a s t p a r t of the year was estimated at 58.4 percent (Armstrong & Armstrong, 1978, p. 18). A United S t a t e s study estimated that s i n g l e women would spend 45 years working o u t s i d e the home, married women without c h i l d r e n would work 35 yea r s , and married women with one c h i l d c o u l d expect to 4 p a r t i c i p a t e i n the labor market 25 years ( G a r f i n k l e , 1967, pp. 4-5) . The presence of c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , i s an apparent i n h i b i t i n g f a c t o r to female ca r e e r development. T h i s f a c t o r , coupled with the d i f f i c u l t y of f i n d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e day c a r e , has an important e f f e c t on a l l a s p e c t s of female labor market behavior. For many women, working l i f e has two phases: the f i r s t before marriage and c h i l d b e a r i n g and the second a f t e r c h i l d b e a r i n g (Gunderson, 1976). These p a r t i c i p a t i o n p a t t e r n s i n f l u e n c e a woman's commitment to the lab o r f o r c e , which i n turn a f f e c t s labor market behavior. I n t e r m i t t e n t p e r i o d s i n the labor f o r c e and par t - t i m e employment o f t e n r e s t r i c t o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e to jobs where commitment to the labor f o r c e may not be so important. T h i s l i m i t a t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s may reduce earnings which i n turn reduces attachment to the labor f o r c e . O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the labor market are o b v i o u s l y a f f e c t e d by education or t r a i n i n g . Education p r o v i d e s females with a d d i t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and i n c r e a s e d earnings which i n turn encourages t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the lab o r f o r c e . T h i s i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n , however, may have a d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t upon the labor market. The economic f a c t o r s of supply and demand r e s u l t i n o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n . The se g r e g a t i o n of women i n s p e c i f i c i n d u s t r i e s and occupations c h a r a c t e r i z e d by low pay, low s k i l l requirements, low p r o d u c t i v i t y , and low pros p e c t s f o r advancement has shown remarkable s t a b i l i t y throughout t h i s century (Armstrong & Armstrong, 1979, p. 20). 5 Although the in c r e a s e i n women's employment has been accompanied by an expansion of t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s , the h i g h - s t a t u s , h i g h l y s k i l l e d jobs continued to be dominated by men. In every census year from 1900 to 1970 most working women in the U n i t e d S t a t e s were i n predominantly "female" occupations (Kanter, 1977). In the U n i t e d States i n 1970, men were c l a s s i f i e d i n 63 occupations; women in only 17 (Kanter, 1977). The p i c t u r e i s not much d i f f e r e n t i n Canada. Canada Employment and Immigration s t a t i s t i c s show both the u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of women i n t r a i n i n g programs ( s p e c i f i c a l l y i n those considered n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f o r women), and the segr e g a t i o n of women i n t o "female" occupations (Gunderson, 1976; Women in the Labor Force, 1 981 ) . An occupation i s c o n s i d e r e d n o n t r a d i t i o n a l i f women account f o r only a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l number of employees i n that o c c u p a t i o n a l category (Women's Bureau, 1983). In Canada, 10 percent i s used as the determining p r o p o r t i o n f o r i d e n t i f y i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations ( i . e . , i f fewer than 10 percent of employees i n that occupation are female i t i s con s i d e r e d n o n t r a d i t i o n a l ) . N o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations i n c l u d e most of the trade s such as p i p e f i t t i n g , t o o l and d i e making, the t e c h n o l o g i e s , and management. In s p i t e of governmental emphasis on women's entry i n t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs, the response remains low. During 1978-79 women accounted f o r l e s s than 10 percent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs in Canada f o r those occupations predominately s t a f f e d by men (Women's 6 Bureau, 1983). In B r i t i s h Columbia the Goard Commission took the p o s i t i o n t h a t women ought to be i n c l u d e d i n more t e c h n i c a l and trades t r a i n i n g programs because c u r r e n t l y they "are channeled and segregated i n t o a narrow range of occupations that o f f e r below-standard wages" (Goard Commission, 1977, p. 17). As of May 1982, 7.6 percent of the r e g i s t e r e d a p p r e n t i c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia were female. T h i s percentage i s reduced to 2.6 i f the l a r g e numbers of female h a i r d r e s s i n g , b a r b e r i n g and f l o r i s t r y a p p r e n t i c e s are removed from t h i s t o t a l (Women's  Programs, 1983). O v e r a l l , i n 1978-79, 28.2 percent of those p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n Canada Manpower I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g Programs were women. Women c o n s t i t u t e d over 50 percent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n programs for a r t i s t i c and r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , medical and h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , t e a c h i n g , s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s , and stenographic and c l e r i c a l t r a d e s . However, women accounted f o r l e s s than 10 percent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n programs f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n , f o r e s t r y and l o g g i n g , mining and q u a r r y i n g , and t r a n s p o r t equipment o p e r a t i n g . In 1983, 77 percent of a l l female employees worked i n j u s t f i v e o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s - - c l e r i c a l , s e r v i c e , s a l e s , medicine and h e a l t h , and t e a c h i n g ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1985), i n d i c a t i n g t h a t women continue to be channeled i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l l y female o c c u p a t i o n s . Career P r e p a r a t i o n and Oc c u p a t i o n a l I d e n t i t y Education and t r a i n i n g of women a f f e c t t h e i r l abor f o r c e 7 behavior i n complex ways. I t has been argued that the way women are educated and s o c i a l i z e d i n t e r a c t s with the op p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e s they face both at school and at work to produce outcomes that channel women i n t r a d i t i o n a l d i r e c t i o n s and preclude the p o s s i b i l i t y of e q u i t y ( G a s k e l l , 1982; Hansen & Rapoza, 1978; Thomas, C h r i s t i e , C o l v i n , & Denbroeder, 1979). The number of years of education and t r a i n i n g and the types of education and t r a i n i n g can inc r e a s e employment o p t i o n s . Yet other f a c t o r s p r e v a i l to l i m i t a woman's choice i n the job market. There i s a great d e a l of evidence concerning c h i l d -r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s i n d i c a t i n g that s o c i e t y as a whole appears to d e f i n e women's primary r o l e as i n the famil y ( T r o l l , 1982). Boys and g i r l s are encouraged to pursue d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s and to value d i f f e r e n t achievements. C h i l d r e n themselves know about gender d i f f e r e n c e s by age three and continue to be i n f l u e n c e d through the media, education system, and s o c i a l system about g e n d e r - r e l a t e d r o l e s and norms. Gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n education course enrollment p a t t e r n s occur because of d i f f e r e n c e s i n students' a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , and career g o a l s . Concomitantly, o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s are i n f l u e n c e d by i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s . Recent r e s e a r c h shows very l i t t l e c l o s i n g of the gap between high school males and females with r e s p e c t to t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s (Herzog, 1982; Lueptow, 1981). A c c e p t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p i n g which r e s t r i c t s o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s i s termed " o c c u p a t i o n a l f o r e c l o s u r e " by Lo o f t (1971) and "homogenization" by Bern and Bern (1973) . 8 E d u c a t i o n a l and care e r c h o i c e s are a l s o shaped by a t t i t u d e s — p e r s o n a l , peer, f a m i l y , and s o c i e t a l . Even when ch o i c e s are f o r m a l l y open, a t t i t u d i n a l c o n s t r a i n t s may p r e v a i l to segregate women i n t o c e r t a i n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs. T h i s streaming i n turn i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n shaping the i n t e r e s t s , competencies, and i n t e r a c t i o n s of women as students. Women as employees continue to be underrepresented i n areas of i n d u s t r y , mathematics, and s c i e n c e s . Women tend to enter jobs that do not reward education w e l l — in monetary terms--and that do not o f f e r many p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r advancement. A c q u i r i n g the knowledge and s k i l l s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s which would expand ca r e e r o p t i o n s f o r women i s p o s s i b l e through c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs. But a c q u i r i n g a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y i n v o l v e s more than g a i n i n g knowledge and s k i l l s ; i t a l s o i n v o l v e s the a c q u i s i t i o n of those v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , and a t t i t u d e s of the o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e . T h i s r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n occurs through a process known as s o c i a l i z a t i o n . B a r r i e r s to E d u c a t i o n a l and Occupat i o n a l E q u i t y There are many b a r r i e r s w i t h i n governmental, e d u c a t i o n a l , and commercial i n s t i t u t i o n s to male and female workers e n t e r i n g occupations that have been c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e o n l y f o r the opposite sex. Many of these b a r r i e r s can be and have been addressed by l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n s to e q u a l i z e o c c u p a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r men and women (e.g., T i t l e IX of the 9 Ed u c a t i o n a l Amendments of 1972 i n the Uni t e d S t a t e s and i n Canada the Unemployment Insurance Act, F a i r Wages and Hours of Labour Act, and the P u b l i c S e r v i c e Employment A c t ) . Equal o p p o r t u n i t y l e g i s l a t i o n i s designed to combat d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n h i r i n g , promotion, and c o n d i t i o n s of employment. I t c o u l d be regarded as both an a l t e r n a t i v e and a complement to equal pay l e g i s l a t i o n . D e s p i t e l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n s to e l i m i n a t e i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a r r i e r s to women's e n t e r i n g jobs dominated by males, only a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of female workers are employed i n these o c c u p a t i o n s (Thomas et a l . , 1979). The vast m a j o r i t y of women i n the la b o r f o r c e remain i n the lower p a i d and/or l e s s s k i l l e d areas such as s e r v i c e , h e a l t h , education and c l e r i c a l o c c u p ations, i n d i c a t i n g that f a c t o r s i n a d d i t i o n to i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a r r i e r s exclude women from n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations ( E l i a s o n , 1977; McCune, 1974). These f a c t o r s , i . e . , p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l or a t t i t u d i n a l b a r r i e r s , tend t o be more c o v e r t and s u b t l e and consequently are more d i f f i c u l t to overcome than i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a r r i e r s (Koontz, 1972; Lehmann, 1977). As w e l l , other e x c u l s i o n a r y f a c t o r s i n c l u d e both i n t e n t i o n a l and u n i n t e n t i o n a l a c t s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . P e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s i d e n t i f i e d in the l i t e r a t u r e i n c l u d e such i s s u e s as r o l e s t r u c t u r e ( B u r l i n , 1976; Smith, 1976), the a t t i t u d e of f r i e n d s and fa m i l y (O'Leary, 1977), and s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s (Korman, 1970; Wertheimer & Nelson, 1977). S p e c i f i c a l l y , p e r s o n a l b a r r i e r s r e l a t e to p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , time management, p h y s i c a l energy, f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , a p t i t u d e s 10 and a b i l i t i e s , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t i t u d e s . S o c i e t a l b a r r i e r s are a s s o c i a t e d with f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , employment a c c e s s i b i l i t y , f i n a n c i a l support, e t h n i c and gender d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s . The process by which these p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s are perpetuated i s known as gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and p e r s i s t s throughout l i f e . An acceptance of t r a d i t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e s about women's caree r development i s a r e s t r i c t i o n to the number and kinds of occupations women choose. When women rep e a t e d l y encounter b a r r i e r s i n t h e i r attempts to enter n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c upations, most come to b e l i e v e they are not capable of performing the r e q u i r e d t a s k s . T h i s idea has been d e s c r i b e d as the " i l l u s i o n of incompetence" (Langer, 1978). Another concept r e l a t e d to entry i n t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l jobs i s the "le a r n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s " paradigm d e s c r i b e d by Cohen, Rothbart, and P h i l l i p s (1976). T h i s a t t i t u d e a r i s e s when women re p e a t e d l y f i n d t h e i r attempts to achieve a goal are not being rewarded, and i s experienced as the p e r c e p t i o n that rewards occur independent of one's a c t i o n s . Thus, many women might come to f e e l h e l p l e s s i n a c q u i r i n g the knowledge and s k i l l s r e q u i r e d f o r occupations other than those t r a d i t i o n a l l y h e l d by women. I n t e r v e n t i o n S t r a t e g i e s There are s e v e r a l s t r a t e g i e s f o r addre s s i n g the o c c u p a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n of women. Most focus on access or outcome i n t e r v e n t i o n s and are designed to f a c i l i t a t e female employment. Included i n these are 11 postsecondary e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s — b o t h of a care e r p r e p a r a t o r y nature and a self-awareness nature. Kanter (1976) i d e n t i f i e s three types of i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s to change the o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of women. The f i r s t type assumes that men and women d i f f e r i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , temperament, esteem, and modes of i n t e r a c t i o n ; t h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n attempts to compensate f o r d i f f e r e n c e s . T y p i c a l programs to a s s i s t women i n these areas are a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g , career p l a n n i n g , and esteem b u i l d i n g . The second type s t r e s s e s expanding o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r women by reducing or removing some of the b a r r i e r s or handicaps they experience as a r e s u l t of gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and c h i l d care c o n s t r a i n t s . T y p i c a l s t r a t e g i e s i n c l u d e a l t e r i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l system so the women r e c e i v e more and d i f f e r e n t t r a i n i n g which w i l l make them co m p e t i t i v e with men i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l and higher p a i d o c c u p a t i o n s . Such s t r a t e g i e s i n c l u d e pre-employment programs and a p p r e n t i c e s h i p programs. These two s t r a t e g i e s r e l a t e to p s y c h o s o c i a l impediments to o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y ; the i n t e r v e n t i o n s address r o l e r e l a t e d i s s u e s . But these two c a t e g o r i e s alone do not address the t o t a l problem. As such, they a f f e c t the supply s i d e f a c t o r s of o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . I t i s a l s o the s t r u c t u r e of the labor market which perpetuates o c c u p a t i o n a l i n e q u i t y . S t r u c t u r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s , the t h i r d type of s t r a t e g y , address the demand s i d e of the labor f o r c e . In t h i s category, emphasis i s p l a c e d on f o r m u l a t i n g and implementing new p o l i c i e s w i t h i n work o r g a n i z a t i o n s to r e c r u i t , a s s i g n , t r a i n , and promote female 12 employees (Boyd, 1982). The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of these three i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s i s yet to be e s t a b l i s h e d . Many of the s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g i e s are synonymous with a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n measures (Ratner, 1980) and assume that by making i t p o s s i b l e f o r women to perform i n the labor market, o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y w i l l r e s u l t . The governments of Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia espouse a commitment to enhancing women's s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t , achievement, and c o n t r i b u t i o n to s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and ecomonic l i f e . General goals r e l a t e t o : i n c r e a s i n g t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s broadening the range of e d u c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s improving the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of care e r c o u n s e l l i n g resources implementing s t r a t e g i e s to encourage economic s e l f -suf f i c iency f a c i l i t a t i n g employment i n a wider range of occupations (Women i n B r i t i s h Columbia: A Plan for Progress , 1986, pp~. 6-7 ) . S p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s to improve e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y i n c l u d e : (1) the appointment of m i n i s t e r i a l o f f i c i a l s at both the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s with r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r women's i s s u e s ; (2) the r e s e r v a t i o n of two spaces i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs to encourage t r a i n i n g e nrollment; (3) the establishment of a Women's Access Program (and a Women's Advocate as program c o o r d i n a t o r ) i n postsecondary i n s t i t u t i o n s to provide i n f o r m a t i o n about car e e r o p t i o n s ; and (4) the i n i t i a t i o n of a Women's N o n t r a d i t i o n a l Employment 13 Program (WNTEP) to p r o v i d e wage s u b s i d i e s f o r employers h i r i n g women in n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations. As i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s aimed at ad d r e s s i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l i n e q u i t i e s , these s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s have not been c o n s i s t e n t l y implemented, monitored, or e n f o r c e d . Even when the B r i t i s h Columbia government o f f e r e d a matching grant to postsecondary i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the Women's Access Program, most i n s t i t u t i o n s d i d not match the grant monies. And, as budgets have t i g h t e n e d , women's programs are some of the f i r s t c u t . In the 1970s there were twenty-two programs emphasizing women's n o n t r a d i t i o n a l employment and e d u c a t i o n a l i s s u e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia; at the time data were c o l l e c t e d f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t in 1984 only four programs remained i n the P r o v i n c e . Student recruitment i s another i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y emphasized by governmental agencies and i n s t i t u t i o n a l o f f i c i a l s to encourage more women to take advantage of n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programming. E f f o r t s employed f o r t h i s purpose i n c l u d e news r e l e a s e s , p u b l i c s e r v i c e announcements, p o s t e r s , newspaper a d v e r t i s i n g , i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a i r s and d i s p l a y s , brochures, pamphlets, l e a f l e t s , f a c u l t y speakers' bureau, and t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o a d v e r t i s i n g . No assessment of t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s , s i n g l y or i n combination, has been p u b l i s h e d . I n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s vary c o n s i d e r a b l y i n time r e q u i r e d to have an impact on o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . S t r a t e g i e s which f a c i l i t a t e female employment (e.g., day care, n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r p r e p a r a t o r y programs) r e q u i r e s e v e r a l years to have an impact. S t r u c t u r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s appear to 14 have the most immediate impact, p a r t i c u l a r l y those d i r e c t e d at s p e c i f i c h i r i n g , t r a i n i n g , and promotion p r a c t i c e s (Boyd, 1982). The problem of e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y must be seen i n the broad context of p s y c h o s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the per s o n a l s i t u a t i o n of a d u l t women. One way of add r e s s i n g t h i s problem i s to examine how e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s f a c i l i t a t e female o c c u p a t i o n a l development by expanding c a r e e r o p t i o n s , improving s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s , and ad d r e s s i n g b a r r i e r s to o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y . The Problem One of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s which d i s t i n g u i s h e s them from other s o c i a l i z i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s i s the extent to which t h e i r s o c i a l i z a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s are i n t e n t i o n a l and d e l i b e r a t e . E d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are seen to be responsive not only to the p e r c e i v e d needs of i n d i v i d u a l students but a l s o to the p r e f e r e n c e s expressed by business and i n d u s t r y ( i n c l u d i n g the s t a t e i t s e l f ) which w i l l employ the m a j o r i t y of the e d u c a t i o n a l "output." I t i s important that graduates of e d u c a t i o n a l programs possess s k i l l s and knowledge p l u s a set of a t t i t u d e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , and a c t u a l behavior and/or experience a p p r o p r i a t e to the jobs they are seeking (Lockhart, 1975; O'Toole, 1977) i f they are to q u a l i f y f o r employment i n such occupations. E d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are s e r v i n g a c l i e n t e l e i n t r a n s i t i o n . Changes o c c u r r i n g i n the l i v e s of women and i n the 15 l a b o r market are c r e a t i n g the n e c e s s i t y f o r a d d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs f o r women. To meet the emerging e d u c a t i o n a l needs and i n t e r e s t s of these women, more l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s with n o n t r a d i t i o n a l content are r e q u i r e d from postsecondary i n s t i t u t i o n s than are c u r r e n t l y o f f e r e d (Zimmerman & Trew, 1979). These are l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s which provide women with o p p o r t u n i t i e s to gain i n f o r m a t i o n and s k i l l s r e q u i r e d f o r l i f e - p l a n n i n g , employment, independence and a v a r i e t y of ca r e e r o p t i o n s . The examination of f a c t o r s which encourage or impede o c c u p a t i o n a l development, i n c l u d i n g p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l or a t t i t u d i n a l b a r r i e r s , i s a necessary component of the e d u c a t i o n a l program. Research s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e that such b a r r i e r s can be lowered by reducing e x t e r n a l or s t r u c t u r a l o b s t a c l e s , by p r o v i d i n g a sup p o r t i v e atmosphere f o r l e a r n i n g , by p r e s e n t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e role-models ( i . e . , p r a c t i c i n g tradeswomen), by o f f e r i n g a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g , and by o f f e r i n g competent c o u n s e l i n g (knowledgeable and s e n s i t i v e to women i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l v o c a t i o n s ) ( F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , 1980; Lipman-Blumen & Tickamyer, 1975; Stake, 1981). H e l p i n g women to i d e n t i f y , understand, and overcome a t t i t u d i n a l b a r r i e r s i s one means of f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e i r entry i n t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . In B r i t i s h Columbia there are three components of the o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g system: .Pre-Employment and Pre-A p p r e n t i c e s h i p T r a i n i n g ( c u r r e n t l y being r e p l a c e d by the T r a i n i n g Access Program--TRAC); the A p p r e n t i c e s h i p Program; and the Upgrading Programs. Women i n t e r e s t e d i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l 16 occupations u s u a l l y enter the e d u c a t i o n a l system at the pre-employment or p r e - a p p r e n t i c e s h i p program l e v e l where they gain o c c u p a t i o n a l knowledge and s k i l l s . But o c c u p a t i o n a l knowledge and s k i l l s may not be enough to f a c i l i t a t e female e n t r y i n t o male dominated o c c u p a t i o n s . Kanter (1976) advocates a l t e r i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l system so that women r e c e i v e more and d i f f e r e n t t r a i n i n g which w i l l enable them t o pursue n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . Such i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s would address r o l e r e l a t e d p s y c h o s o c i a l impediments to o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y . S e v e r a l programs a d d r e s s i n g the s p e c i f i c p s y c h o s o c i a l i s s u e s f o r women i n t e r e s t e d i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l jobs are c u r r e n t l y o f f e r e d . These programs o f f e r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n through p r a c t i c a l on-the-job t r a i n i n g and classroom theory at the pre-employment t r a i n i n g l e v e l . They are designed to prepare the student f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g or f o r immediate e n t r y i n t o the la b o r f o r c e . Included i n the programs are a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g , communication s k i l l s , weight t r a i n i n g , p r a c t i c i n g tradeswomen, women-in-trade f i l m s , shop t o u r s , s k i l l workshops, and job-hunting s k i l l s (Chernove, n.d.). E v a l u a t i v e measures of e d u c a t i o n a l programs often c o n s i s t of general course d e s c r i p t i o n s and p a r t i c i p a n t s ' r e a c t i o n s . There has been l i t t l e or no re s e a r c h on n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programming f o r women i n postsecondary i n s t i t u t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( e i t h e r s p e c i f i c programs f o r women i n t e r e s t e d i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations--which address theory and s k i l l p l u s a f f e c t i v e s o c i a l i z a t i o n — o r r e g u l a r o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t o r y programs—which o f f e r only theory and s k i l l s o c i a l i z a t i o n ) . 17 Information that i s a v a i l a b l e i s of a g e n e r a l , d e s c r i p t i v e nature, i . e . , program e v a l u a t i o n s , student f o l l o w - u p s , or p o l i c y recommendat i o n s . I f women are to be encouraged and expected to pursue n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n which i n c r e a s e s t h e i r employment o p t i o n s , then programs and components of programs which f a c i l i t a t e t h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l development should be expanded. The c e n t r a l goal of t h i s study was to examine the process by which women are s o c i a l i z e d i n t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l , n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l occupations as i t occurs i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g . Two res e a r c h q u e s t i o n s guided t h i s i n q u i r y : (1) how are the e f f e c t s of s p e c i a l programs which prepare women f o r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l employment d i f f e r e n t from the e f f e c t s of other o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs; and (2) how i s care e r commitment f o r women i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs d i f f e r e n t from c a r e e r commitment of women i n a t r a d i t i o n a l program. O r g a n i z a t i o n of the D i s s e r t a t i o n Some of the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g female o c c u p a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l e q u i t y have been o u t l i n e d . I n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s f o r improving o c c u p a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s were d i s c u s s e d , i n c l u d i n g governmental goals and i n s t i t u t i o n a l programs which f a c i l i t a t e female entry i n t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . These f a c t o r s are presented in g r e a t e r depth i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s . Chapter 2 i s a review of r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h and l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g to women i n c a r e e r s . The p s y c h o s o c i a l aspects of 18 women's ca r e e r development are presented. A d i s c u s s i o n of the b a r r i e r s to e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y concludes the chapter. Chapter 3 p r e s e n t s the t h e o r e t i c a l framework and hypotheses. Symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n p r o v i d e s a c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g framework f o r the r o l e i d e n t i t y a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e s s . D e f i n i t i o n s which guide the r e s e a r c h are presented as w e l l as the conceptual model for a n a l y z i n g the v a r i a b l e s . P r e s e n t a t i o n of the hypotheses completes t h i s chapter. The f o u r t h chapter i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the methodological design of the r e s e a r c h , i n c l u d i n g the data a n a l y s i s . In chapters f i v e and s i x r e s p e c t i v e l y , the r e s u l t s of the q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e analyses are presented. A t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s i s d i s c u s s e d . The c o n c l u d i n g chapter, seven, i s a review of the study. F i n d i n g s , c o n c l u s i o n s , l i m i t a t i o n s , and i m p l i c a t i o n s are presented. 19 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE T h i s chapter begins with a review of care e r development l i t e r a t u r e , and then i t examines s e v e r a l attempts which have been made to formulate a theory of ca r e e r development f o r women. E d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s which f a c i l i t a t e female entry i n t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l areas are d i s c u s s e d . The b a r r i e r s to women's n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l development are examined, i n c l u d i n g other f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The l a s t s e c t i o n focuses on programs which have been developed and implemented to promote o c c u p a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l e q u i t y . In s p i t e of an abundance of s t a t i s t i c a l data r e g a r d i n g women and t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the labor f o r c e and the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of s t u d i e s on women, l i t t l e i s known about t h e i r c a r e e r development. Most r e s e a r c h r e l a t i n g to care e r development has been on males. I t has been suggested by some w r i t e r s (Osipow, 1973; Psathas, 1968; Zytowski, 1969) that c o n c l u s i o n s based on male data may not apply to females because of the focus on male work behavior. There has been some r e s e a r c h on problems and i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n p r e p a r i n g women f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l areas but there has been comparatively l i t t l e a n a l y s i s of the problems and i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n p r e p a r i n g women for employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l , n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations (Kane, 1977). The ca r e e r development of women, although not fundamentally d i f f e r e n t from that of men, i s a great d e a l more complex due to the combination of a t t i t u d e s , 20 r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s , b e h a v i o r s , and s a n c t i o n s which occur during s o c i a l i z a t i o n ( F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , 1980). Career Development The process by which women become a s s o c i a t e d with a s p e c i f i c occupation i n v o l v e s two components: c a r e e r c h o i c e and c a r e e r commitment (Nieva & Gutek, 1982). The f i r s t i n v o l v e s g a i n i n g the knowledge and s k i l l s that w i l l make them employable and the second i n v o l v e s the d e c i s i o n to take a job. Both career c h o i c e and c a r e e r commitment i n v o l v e making d e c i s i o n s about the p r o b a b i l i t y of g e t t i n g married and having a f a m i l y ; the areas of work and f a m i l y l i f e are not independent of each o t h e r . An a n a l y s i s of t h e o r i e s r e l a t i n g to c a r e e r development i n c l u d e s t h e o r i e s of c a r e e r c h o i c e or c a r e e r p r e f e r e n c e s , t h e o r i e s of c a r e e r m a t u r i t y , and t h e o r i e s of achievement m o t i v a t i o n ( F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , 1980). Career Choice Much of the c a r e e r c h o i c e l i t e r a t u r e r e l i e s h e a v i l y on t h e o r i e s which are predominatly concerned with matching some aspect of the person to some aspect of the job. Roe (1956) hypo t h e s i z e d that there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d i v i d u a l s ' e a r l y experience and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , and other p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s which a f f e c t t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l s e l e c t i o n . In her book, The Psychology of Occupations, she developed a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of occupations which allows f o r 21 p r e d i c t i o n s of those occupations p e r s o n - o r i e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l s would p r e f e r and those that might be p r e f e r r e d by i n d i v i d u a l s not o r i e n t e d toward persons. Although Roe acknowledged the e x i s t e n c e of l a r g e gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e r e s t s and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these d i f f e r e n c e s f o r women's o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , she never e x p l i c i t l y d e l i n e a t e d the obvious i m p l i c a t i o n of her theory with regard to gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s p s y c h o a n a l y t i c approach r e p r e s e n t s an i n i t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n f o r understanding and e x p l a i n i n g c a r e e r development. However, i t s lack of e m p i r i c a l support and i t s emphasis on o n l y e a r l y experiences render i t inadequate f o r b u i l d i n g a theory. Holland's (1966) theory of v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e i s e s s e n t i a l l y a typology which c h a r a c t e r i z e d aspects of v o c a t i o n a l behavior. I t p o s t u l a t e s that people can be c a t e g o r i z e d by t h e i r resemblance to each of s i x p e r s o n a l i t y types: r e a l i s t i c , i n v e s t i g a t i v e , a r t i s t i c , s o c i a l , e n t e r p r i s i n g , and c o n v e n t i o n a l . The environments i n which people l i v e and work can be s i m i l a r l y c a t e g o r i z e d . Career c h o i c e r e f l e c t s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y i n i n t e r a c t i o n with the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the environment. Of p a r t i c u l a r importance, a c c o r d i n g to H o l l a n d , are the environmental f a c t o r s of s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s i n e a r l y adolescence and c h i l d h o o d experiences with p a r e n t s , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on one's o r g a n i z a t i o n of a t t i t u d e s , p e r c e p t i o n s , and knowledge about the v o c a t i o n a l world. His theory i s d e s c r i p t i v e , s i m p l i s t i c , and f a i l s to d e s c r i b e adequately the developmental f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with c a r e e r development. 22 Career M a t u r i t y The theory of Ginzberg and a s s o c i a t e s (1951) rep r e s e n t s an attempt to i d e n t i f y the major f a c t o r s i n v o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n -making d u r i n g s u c c e s s i v e p e r i o d s i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s maturation. T h e i r b a s i c assumption i s that i n d i v i d u a l s reach u l t i m a t e v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s through a s e r i e s of d e c i s i o n s over a p e r i o d of many y e a r s . There are three main elements i n the theory: the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e as a pr o c e s s ; the view that the process i s l a r g e l y i r r e v e r s i b l e ; and the view that compromise i s an e s s e n t i a l aspect of every c h o i c e . A c c o r d i n g to the theory, there are three stages of o c c u p a t i o n a l development: the fantas y stage (to age 11); the stage of t e n t a t i v e c h o i c e (between 11 and 17); and the stage of r e a l i s t i c c h o i ce (between 17 and young adulthood when one reaches a f i n a l c h o i c e ) . Gender d i f f e r e n c e s occur i n every one of the key dimensions of Ginzberg and a s s o c i a t e s ' t h e o r y — f r o m the i n t e r e s t s and valu e s of the t e n t a t i v e stage to the o p p o r t u n i t i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s of the r e a l i s t i c stage to the idea of an i r r e v e r s i b l e p r o c e s s . One of the most h i g h l y developed c a r e e r development t h e o r i e s i s p o s i t e d by Super (1955). His theory i s e s s e n t i a l l y one of developing and implementing a s e l f concept. A second main p o i n t i s the view that work i s a way of l i f e . Thus the assumption i s made that c a r e e r maturity and v o c a t i o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n (and s a t i s f a c t i o n in l i f e ) i s a f u n c t i o n of the congruence between one's work and one's s e l f concept of a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , and v a l u e s . 23 Super's theory c o n s i s t s of ten p r o p o s i t i o n s , ranging from d e s c r i p t i v e statements about the nature of i n d i v i d u a l s and occupations, to the developmental aspects of v o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s and competencies, to the developmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l s themselves. Both i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s (mental a b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) and e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s ( p a r e n t a l socioeconomic l e v e l , exposure to o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and a v a i l a b l e r o l e models) are seen as c r u c i a l f a c t o r s i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y . S e v e r a l instruments have been developed to measure t h i s c o n s t r u c t , the most widely used being the Career M a t u r i t y Inventory (CMI). And although the c o n s t r u c t has s t i m u l a t e d a p r o d i g i o u s amount of re s e a r c h and e m p i r i c a l c o n f i r m a t i o n , l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been given t o p o s s i b l e gender d i f f e r e n c e s which account f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l development ( F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , 1980; V e t t e r , 1979). S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have noted that although female a t t i t u d e s toward o c c u p a t i o n a l development mature more r a p i d l y than those of t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s , i t i s evident that many females c o n s i s t e n t l y s e l e c t o c c u p a t i o n s that are low i n terms of the females' a p t i t u d e s and i n t e r e s t s (Lunneborg, 1978; Pa t t e r s o n , 1973; Richardson, 1974). A p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n may be that c a r e e r m a t u r i t y instruments ignore v a r i a b l e s important to women (e.g., a t t i t u d e s toward m a r r i a g e ) . A l s o , the instruments measure the process of ca r e e r m a t u r i t y whereas the ch o i c e of a s o c i a l r o l e a c t u a l l y i n v o l v e s the content (housewife, c a r e e r woman, or some combination of the two). 24 Theories of career m a t u r i t y are "necessary but not s u f f i c i e n t " to e x p l a i n the career development of women ( F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , 1980). Achievement M o t i v a t i o n B u i l d i n g on the work of C r a n d a l l (1965), Hoffman (1972) t h e o r i z e d t hat g i r l s are motivated by a d e s i r e f o r lov e , a p p r o v a l , and s o c i a l approbation whereas boys are motivated by a d e s i r e f o r e x c e l l e n c e and mastery. S t e i n and B a i l e y (1975) argued that women do not seek s o c i a l approval per se but that the s o c i a l arena i s where they s t r i v e f o r e x c e l l e n c e , which i s a d i f f e r e n t s k i l l and p a t t e r n . Another e x p l a n a t i o n i s o f f e r e d by Tan g r i ' s (1974) study of t r a d i t i o n a l s and in n o v a t o r s , i n which she r e p o r t e d that t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s appeared to p r o j e c t t h e i r achievement needs onto t h e i r f u t u r e husbands. Horner's (1972) re s e a r c h concerning " f e a r of success" confirms m o t i v a t i o n as a mediating i n f l u e n c e on achievement behavior i n women of high a b i l i t y . The most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e about women and care e r m o t i v a t i o n concerns t h e i r commitment to an oc c u p a t i o n . Often the p e r c e p t i o n i s that women have n e i t h e r commitment nor ambition. The l i t e r a t u r e c l a s s i f i e s women as t r a d i t i o n a l s (those who conform to t r a d i t i o n a l female c a r e e r s and values) and pi o n e e r s , i n n o v a t o r s , or n o n t r a d i t i o n a l s (those who place a high value on a career r o l e and are h i g h l y motivated and who o f t e n have " n o n t r a d i t i o n a l " c a r e e r s ) . Research documents that pioneers have high academic achievement and hig h achievement goals ( S t e i n & B a i l e y , 1975), are l e s s concerned with economic 25 motives than with the s a t i s f a c t i o n s of mastery and independence (Eyde, 1968; Wolkon, 1972), have s u p p o r t i v e s i g n i f i c a n t others (Hawley, 1972; R o s s i , 1965), and have more s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d the r o l e s of homemaker and worker (Nagely, 1971). Career commitment corresponds to career c o n t i n u i t y (Nieva & Gutek, 1982). Women's jobs are o f t e n those that permit r e l a t i v e l y easy e n t r y and r e e n t r y . Teaching, n u r s i n g , and c l e r i c a l work are i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . Conversely, women choose these jobs because they do permit short or i n t e r m i t t e n t p e r i o d s i n the l a b o r market to accommodate f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . As a r e s u l t , the work p a t t e r n s of females are r e l a t e d to both the demands of the home and the nature of the labor f o r c e work (Armstrong & Armstrong, 1978). Because of t h i s type of commitment to the lab o r f o r c e , women i n general do not ac q u i r e as much o c c u p a t i o n a l experience as men. But A r c h i b a l d (1970) found that these d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s were n e i t h e r long enough nor d e t r i m e n t a l enough to p r o d u c t i v i t y to e x p l a i n much of the s a l a r y gap between female and male e a r n i n g s . As w e l l , the f i n d i n g s of both Marchak (1973) and A r c h i b a l d (1970) show that the e x i s t e n c e of housekeeping demands does not prove that women lack commitment to t h e i r jobs or that they r e j e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t seems apparent that women are a f f e c t e d and even i n h i b i t e d by the v a r i a b l e s mentioned above, but to s t a t e that women's achievement o r i e n t a t i o n i s fundamentally d i f f e r e n t from that of men would be a m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I t does, however, appear c o n s i s t e n t with the e f f e c t s of gender-role s o c i a l i z a t i o n , as w e l l as c o n s i s t e n t with the value of women's equity 26 ( F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , 1980; Laws, 1976). A p o i n t to c o n s i d e r i s that l a b e l l i n g the achievement m o t i v a t i o n of women as i n h e r e n t l y d i f f e r e n t from that of men does not allow f o r the behavior of those women who d i s p l a y the modal masculine p a t t e r n . Understanding female achievement m o t i v a t i o n becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y important as more women move i n t o occupations p r e v i o u s l y dominated by women. The o r i e s of Career Development f o r Women Two attempts have been made to develop a theory of the caree r development of women. In 1968 Psathas enumerated some of the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g women's entry i n t o o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s and proposed that gender r o l e i s the most s a l i e n t of these. He c i t e d i n t e n t i o n to marry, time of marriage, reasons f o r marriage, and husband's a t t i t u d e toward h i s w i f e ' s working as the most i n f l u e n t i a l v a r i a b l e s . H i s theory views the gender r o l e and o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e as i n e x t r i c a b l y i n t e r t w i n e d . Psathas d e s c r i b e d the " t r a d i t i o n a l " feminine r o l e as one c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e a r l y marriage, e a r l y a r r i v a l of c h i l d r e n , and a homemaking " c a r e e r . " For these women, work i s seen as a temporary stage and ins t r u m e n t a l i n i t s fundamental nature. The kinds of o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s performed, t h e r e f o r e , r e q u i r e l i t t l e commitment and pro v i d e l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f f u l f i l l m e n t . For those women who were l i k e l y to pursue both marriage and c a r e e r , Psathas i d e n t i f i e d s i x i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r s : the husband's p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward h i s wife's working; the husband's s h a r i n g of household and c h i l d - c a r e t a s k s ; the 27 c h i l d r e n being of school age or o l d e r ; the woman c o n t i n u i n g to work a f t e r marriage; and having an advanced degree, s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g , or a high l e v e l of competence on a job. Despite the theory's t r a d i t i o n a l and m i d d l e - c l a s s p e r s p e c t i v e , i t does o f f e r an important c o n t r i b u t i o n to an understanding of female career development. Although i t n e g l e c t s to analyze the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e and gender r o l e , i t i s a f i r s t attempt to l o c a t e o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e w i t h i n the l a r g e r context of gender r o l e s . Zytowski's (1969) theory focuses on the d u a l i t y of women's r o l e s as homemaker and care e r woman. These two r o l e s are co n s i d e r e d t o be mutually e x c l u s i v e with the homemaker r o l e as the primary one. T h i s seems untenable, because more than 40 percent of women who are married and l i v i n g with t h e i r husbands (and presumably homemakers) are employed ( V e t t e r , 1979). The theory does not attempt to d e s c r i b e the care e r development of women but r a t h e r focuses on the s e q u e n t i a l nature of women's a d u l t r o l e s ; i t o f f e r s nine p o s t u l a t e s that c h a r a c t e r i z e female p a t t e r n s of o c c u p a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A c e n t r a l p r o p o s i t i o n of the theory i s that although the b a s i c l i f e r o l e f o r women i s that of homemaker, t h i s r o l e i s n o n s t a t i c and w i l l u l t i m a t e l y be no d i f f e r e n t from that of men. The d i f f i c u l t y i n c o n s t r u c t i n g a separate theory of career development f o r women i s captured i n Zytowski's remarks about the n o n s t a t i c q u a l i t y of the r o l e of women. Osipow (1973) a l s o focused on t h i s n o t i o n , a s s e r t i n g that "so much s o c i a l change i s 28 now o c c u r r i n g i n the area of sex and v o c a t i o n that any t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s a l made now i s l i k e l y to be premature, as i s any g e n e r a l i z a t i o n about women's ca r e e r development" (p. 265). Apparently t h i s a s s e r t i o n served as a caveat as no new t h e o r i e s or attempts at t h e o r i e s have been proposed s i n c e t h a t time. But r e s e a r c h continues to focus on the s p e c i a l s i t u a t i o n of women and t h e i r c a r e e r development. One burgeoning area of re s e a r c h and l i t e r a t u r e i s that of women i n the n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l , n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a r e a — t h o s e jobs i n i n d u s t r y , t r a d e s , or t e c h n i c a l f i e l d s p r e v i o u s l y dominated by men-- and the b a r r i e r s they encounter i n seeking e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g , and s k i l l s incumbent to those o c c u p a t i o n s . Career I n t e r v e n t i o n s The study of c a r e e r s has expanded i n the l a s t twenty years from c o u n s e l i n g , s o c i o l o g y , and i n d u s t r i a l psychology to i n c l u d e a d d i t i o n a l s o c i a l s c i e n c e s : economics, e d u c a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , and psychology (Holland, Magoon & Spokane, 1981). Career i n t e r v e n t i o n s are the most sought a f t e r s e r v i c e s by c o l l e g e students (Carney, S a v i t z , & Weiskott, 1979) and in c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g forms: v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g , s e l f - h e l p d e v i c e s , c a r e e r courses, o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , i n t e r e s t i n v e n t o r i e s and v o c a t i o n a l c a r d s o r t s . The p r o l i f e r a t i o n of i n t e r e s t i n ca r e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n s spawned the development and d e l i v e r y of a mul t i t u d e of m a t e r i a l s and techniques to provide c a r e e r a s s i s t a n c e . Experimental e v a l u a t i o n s of i n t e r v e n t i o n treatments imply t h a t b e n e f i c i a l 29 e f f e c t s are due to common elements in the treatments: (a) exposure to o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n ; (b) c o g n i t i v e r e h e a r s a l of v o c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s ; (c) a c q u i s i t i o n of some c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e f o r o r g a n i z i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about s e l f , occupations, and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s ; and (d) s o c i a l support or reinforcement from c o u n s e l o r s or workshop members (Brenner & Garzda-Grace, 1979; Snodgrass & Healy, 1979). As w e l l , there i s r e s e a r c h about the e f f e c t s of c a r e e r development i n t e r v e n t i o n s which suggests that c l i e n t s have d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r i n t e r e s t i n v e n t o r i e s , that c l i e n t s with a c l e a r sense of i d e n t i t y b e n e f i t more than those with a d i f f u s e sense of i d e n t i t y , and that c l i e n t s with w e l l - d e f i n e d i n t e r e s t s b e n e f i t more than those with p o o r l y d e f i n e d i n t e r e s t s (Power, H o l l a n d , Daiger, & T a k a i , 1979; Schenk, Johnston, & Jacobsen, 1979). Documentation of how s o c i e t y c r e a t e s and perpetuates gender d i f f e r e n c e s that l e a d i n t u r n to d i v e r g e n t v o c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s and achievement f o r females and males i s now e x t e n s i v e . But u n f o r t u n a t e l y , few i n t e r v e n t i o n s which address t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n have undergone r i g o r o u s e v a l u a t i o n to a s c e r t a i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s or to propose remedies. As Krumboltz (1966, p. 22) argues, "What we need to know i s which procedures and techniques, when used to accomplish what kinds of behavior change, are most e f f e c t i v e with what kinds of c l i e n t s when a p p l i e d by what kind of c o u n s e l o r . " Rather, i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i s l i m i t e d to some of the v a l u e s and problems e n t a i l e d i n c o u n s e l i n g and e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s . F r e t z (1981), i n a l i t e r a t u r e review of the e v a l u a t i o n of 30 c a r e e r development i n t e r v e n t i o n s , i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e dimensions to i n t e r v e n t i o n a c t i v i t i e s or programs: (1) c l i e n t a t t r i b u t e s — demographic, p s y c h o l o g i c a l , c a r e e r r e l a t e d ; (2) treatment p a r a m e t e r s — c o n t e n t domain, i n t e r p e r s o n a l content, degree of s t r u c t u r e ; and (3) o u t c o m e s — c a r e e r knowledge and s k i l l s , c a r e e r behavior, sentiments, and e f f e c t i v e r o l e f u n c t i o n i n g . He p o s i t s t h a t most car e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n s have both i n s t r u c t i o n a l and t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e n t s . S e v e r a l s t u d i e s o f f e r i n s i g h t i n t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c a r e e r development i n t e r v e n t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . Fox and her c o l l e a g u e s (1979) found that females who r e c e i v e d c a r e e r awareness treatment and exposure to female r o l e models expressed higher l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s than d i d females r e c e i v i n g no treatment. In a s p e c i a l summer program to s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t i n m i n o r i t y e n g i n e e r i n g , Richards and c o l l e a g u e s (1978) found a twofold e f f e c t . Students who had the most p o t e n t i a l f o r e n g i n e e r i n g were those whose i n t e r e s t i n e n g i n e e r i n g was strengthened by the i n t r o d u c t i o n to e n g i n e e r i n g programs; students with the l e a s t p o t e n t i a l were a f f e c t e d i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n — t h e y became more c e r t a i n t h a t e n g i n e e r i n g was not f o r them. A study by O ' N e i l , Ohlde, and Barke (1979) of a workshop to reduce sexism i n c a r e e r p l a n n i n g for females c o r r o b o r a t e d the above f i n d i n g s . The females i n h i s experimental group spent more time t a l k i n g about c a r e e r s , d e s c r i b e d themselves as more masculine, and r e p o r t e d more s c i e n t i f i c , s o c i a l , and e n t e r p r i s i n g c a r e e r s as a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e s than d i d females in the c o n t r o l group. P a r e n t h e t i c a l l y , 31 t h i s program i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations as wel l as n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . The i n f e r e n c e i s that s e l f -e x p l o r a t i o n treatment p r o v i d e s c o n f i r m a t i o n or c e r t a i n t y f o r some s t u d e n t s - - i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n . In examining the l i t e r a t u r e , F r e t z (1981) found that when only a s i n g l e treatment was o f f e r e d no c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be drawn about the e f f e c t p a r t i c i p a n t v a r i a b l e s (e.g., age, gender, socioeconomic s t a t u s , i n t e l l i g e n c e , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , career maturity) had on outcomes (e.g., c a r e e r knowledge and s k i l l s , c a r e e r behavior, c a r e e r a t t i t u d e s or r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ) . Conversely, when i n t e r a c t i v e v a r i a b l e s were i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s ( i . e . , demographic, i n t e l l e c t i v e , p s y c h o l o g i c a l ) , the s i n g l e best p r e d i c t o r was c l i e n t m o t i v a t i o n . Comparisons of group with i n d i v i d u a l career i n t e r v e n t i o n s have shown group approaches equal to or b e t t e r than i n d i v i d u a l career i n t e r v e n t i o n s (Hewer, 1959). G i v i n g students both accuracy of self-knowledge feedback as well as t r a i n i n g i n an o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was s u p e r i o r to e i t h e r used s e p a r a t e l y ( P i l a t o & Myers, 1975). In summary, i t appears that e f f e c t i v e c a r e e r development i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n v o l v e more than mere p r e s e n t a t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n or o c c u p a t i o n a l s k i l l e x p e r i e n c e . The d i s t i n c t i v e parameters i n c a r e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n s may l i e in the a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s of content f a c t o r s such as o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , s e l f - i n f o r m a t i o n , and d e c i s i o n making pr o c e s s e s . 32 Barriers to Nontraditional Career Development If effective career intervention strategies involve the additive effects of content domains of occupational information, self-information, and decision making, part of such content may relate to expectations and attitudes. These attitudes and expectations, acquired through gender role socialization, are characterized by psychosocial and institutional barriers to occupational and educational equity. Women attempting to enter careers and training programs traditionally dominated by men have generally encountered institutional and personal-social barriers which have effectively kept most of them in "women's jobs." The former include the hiring, promotion, and benefit policies and practices in government, industry, or education. The latter include attitudes communicated by family, friends, and associates indicating the impropriety of the inclusion of women into certain occupations. Institutional barriers are those which can be and have been addressed by legislative actions to equalize occupational opportunities for men and women. Issues dealt with by legislation include training, hiring, and promotion practices which may have been used in the past to exclude women from many jobs. Such barriers are generally overt, and as such, can be effectively remedied by legislative policy. Although there is legislation which calls for the reduction of legal and institutional barriers, there are other factors which continue to influence the occupational equity of women. 33 These f a c t o r s i n c l u d e i n t e n t i o n a l and u n i n t e n t i o n a l a c t s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as w e l l as a t t i t u d i n a l or p s y c h o s o c i a l b a r r i e r s . These p s y c h o s o c i a l b a r r i e r s tend to be more c o v e r t and s u b t l e than the former, and consequently, more d i f f i c u l t to overcome. Some common p s y c h o s o c i a l b a r r i e r s center around the i s s u e s of r o l e s , a t t i t u d e s of s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , and s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s . A review of the l i t e r a t u r e on b a r r i e r s to women's e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y r e v e a l s c e r t a i n commonalities (Thomas et a l . , 1979). They can be grouped under the f o l l o w i n g headings: 1 . low l e v e l of support from f a m i l y / f r i e n d s 2. low o c c u p a t i o n a l s e l f - c o n c e p t 3. l a c k of e d u c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s 4. low l e v e l of r o l e c o m p a t i b i l i t y 5. lack of i n f o r m a t i o n about n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s 6. l a c k of a v a i l a b l e r o l e models 7. la c k of money to fi n a n c e t r a i n i n g . I t should be noted that the b a r r i e r s examined in t h i s study (those a s s o c i a t e d with g o a l - s e t t i n g , p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s , r o l e c o n f l i c t , and r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n ) are not presented as d e t e r r e n t s e x c l u s i v e l y to entry i n t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . They i n c l u d e d e t e r r e n t s to women's r e e n t r y and e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y as w e l l . Many of the f a c t o r s o p e r a t i n g to keep women out of the work f o r c e and higher e d u c a t i o n are the same ones which deter them from e n t e r i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . 34 I n f l u e n c e of f a m i l y and f r i e n d s The f a c t o r i d e n t i f i e d most o f t e n i n the l i t e r a t u r e as a b a r r i e r to female entry i n t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations i s the negative i n f l u e n c e exerted by t h e i r f a m i l y members and f r i e n d s . P a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and p r e s s u r e s seem t o be of primary importance i n f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e over a woman's ca r e e r d e c i s i o n . A study of women i n new c a r e e r s concluded that p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s that t h e i r daughters would marry and have a famil y were important b a r r i e r s to women's care e r involvement. S i m i l a r l y , Cobb (1977) i n d i c a t e d that a major b a r r i e r or " f i l t e r " to women's e n t e r i n g s c i e n c e c a r e e r s i s the gender b i a s passed on t o them by t h e i r p a r e n t s . In a study of the c a r e e r s women c o n s i d e r e d to be " i d e a l " and c a r e e r s they a c t u a l l y chose, B u r l i n (1976) repo r t e d the i n f l u e n c e of parents' a t t i t u d e s toward t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s as one of the reasons c i t e d f o r women not choosing t h e i r i d e a l c a r e e r . The l i t e r a t u r e a l s o suggests that the a v a i l a b i l i t y of support from a " s i g n i f i c a n t " male may play a r o l e i n determining both the o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s and performance of women (Hawley, 1972). I t seems that f a m i l y and f r i e n d s e x e r c i s e a great d e a l of i n f l u e n c e over the kind of c a r e e r s women choose. In a 1977 study, Smith surveyed women re g a r d i n g b a r r i e r s to t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n c e - r e l a t e d c a r e e r s and noted the impact of o p p o s i t i o n from f a m i l y and f r i e n d s on a woman's c h o i c e of such a c a r e e r . N e a r l y h a l f (48.8 percent) of the respondents i n d i c a t e d that they f e l t the people important i n t h e i r l i v e s , i . e . , f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , b e l i e v e d that a woman's 35 p l a c e i s i n the home, and that t h i s f a c t o r was a s i g n i f i c a n t b a r r i e r to them i n t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r . Low o c c u p a t i o n a l s e l f - c o n c e p t The second most f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d b a r r i e r i n the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed was that women appear to have a lower s e l f -concept than men i n the realm of o c c u p a t i o n a l performance. Such e x p e c t a t i o n s may have the e f f e c t o f : (1) l i m i t i n g the range of occupations women f e e l f r e e to choose (Bern & Bern, 1973; L o o f t , 1971) and (2) l e a d i n g to a c t u a l f a i l u r e i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l endeavors (Jones, 1977; Korman, 1970). T h i s l a c k of success due to low s e l f - c o n c e p t i s widely addressed i n the l i t e r a t u r e , and seems to be c l o s e l y t i e d to the fear of competing with men (MacDonald & C u r r i e r , 1977; Woods, 1975). Korman (1970) hypothesized t h a t , c e t e r i s p a r i b u s , i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l engage i n and f i n d s a t i s f y i n g those b e h a v i o r a l r o l e s which w i l l maximize t h e i r sense of c o g n i t i v e c o n s i s t e n c y . To the extent that t h e i r s e l f - c o n c e p t concerning the job or task s i t u a t i o n r e q u i r e s e f f e c t i v e performance i n order to r e s u l t i n c o n s i s t e n t c o g n i t i o n , they w i l l be motivated to engage i n e f f e c t i v e performance. F u r t h e r , to the extent that an i n d i v i d u a l has a s e l f - c o g n i t i o n of h e r s e l f as a competent, need-s a t i s f y i n g i n d i v i d u a l , she w i l l choose and f i n d most s a t i s f y i n g those s i t u a t i o n s which are in balance with these s e l f -p e r c e p t i o n s . The r e l a t i v e impact of s o c i e t a l gender r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s on women's s e l f - c o n c e p t i o n s i s d i f f i c u l t to e v a l u a t e . However, i f , 36 a s B a r d w i c k ( 1 9 7 1 ) s u g g e s t e d , t h e v a l u e o n e p l a c e s o n t h e s e l f d e t e r m i n e s t h e l e v e l o f s e l f - e s t e e m ( a n d t h e l o w e r a p e r s o n ' s s e l f - e s t e e m t h e g r e a t e r t h e a n x i e t y a n d t h e g r e a t e r t h e t e n d e n c y t o a s s u m e a s o c i e t a l l y p r e s c r i b e d r o l e ) , t h e n i t i s p l a u s i b l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t women w h o s e s e l f - e s t e e m i s l o w e r t h a n t h e i r m a l e c o u n t e r p a r t s may b e h e s i t a n t t o e n g a g e i n b e h a v i o r s r e q u i r i n g t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f h i g h l y v a l u e d m a l e g e n d e r r o l e t r a i t s . R e g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r t h i s n e g a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n o f f e m i n i n e v a l u e i s i n t e r n a l i z e d i n t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t o f a g i v e n woman o r s i m p l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f w h a t s h e c o n s i d e r s t o b e t h e f e m a l e s ' g e n d e r r o l e a p p r o p r i a t e s t a n c e a s r e f l e c t e d b y s o c i e t a l s t e r e o t y p e s , i t may b e a n t i c i p a t e d t o a f f e c t t h e a c h i e v e m e n t - d i r e c t e d b e h a v i o r o f t h a t w o m a n . L a c k o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s One v e r y p r a c t i c a l b a r r i e r i s t h e f a c t t h a t women s i m p l y a r e n o t e d u c a t e d t o t h e s a m e e x t e n t a s men i n t h e a r e a s w h i c h w o u l d q u a l i f y t h e m f o r e n t r y i n t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . W h i l e g i r l s m a k e b e t t e r g r a d e s t h a n b o y s t h r o u g h h i g h s c h o o l t h e y d i f f e r g r e a t l y i n t h e i m p o r t a n c e t h e y a t t a c h t o s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l ( R a p o z a & B l o c h e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , f e m a l e s h a v e n o t p r e p a r e d f o r t h e t e c h n i c a l a r e a s t o t h e same d e g r e e a s m a l e s . Women i n g e n e r a l h a v e f e l t a f r a i d o f b e i n g u n f e m i n i n e a n d a f r a i d o f j e o p a r d i z i n g t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men ( P f i f f n e r , 1 9 7 2 ) . T h u s , i t s e e m s t h a t g i r l s i n s c h o o l c h o o s e t r a d i t i o n a l l y " f e m a l e " c o u r s e s o f s t u d y ( C o b b , 1 9 7 7 ) a n d a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o d o s o b y t e a c h e r s a n d c o u n s e l o r s who t e n d t o " t r a c k " g i r l s i n t o c o u r s e s t h a t a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e 37 " a p p r o p r i a t e " f o r women (Boundy, 1977; Kane, 1977; Smith, 1976). I t seems th a t the c r u c i a l element which would prepare women f o r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s would be an adequate background i n mathematics and s c i e n c e , but through the process of gender s t e r e o t y p i n g , these areas have become thought of as e x c l u s i v e l y male domains (Boundy, 1977; E r n e s t , 1976). Role c o n f l i c t A f a c t o r which would seem to operate i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the b a r r i e r of low l e v e l of support from f a m i l y / f r i e n d s i s that of r o l e c o n f l i c t . In order to perform a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l job (or perhaps any j o b ) , women f i r s t may f e e l the need to r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s between the r o l e s of worker and parent, worker and spouse, and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l worker and woman ( B u r l i n , 1976; H a l l , 1972; Smith, 1978; Wertheimer & Nelson, 1977). H a l l (1972) sees the major r o l e problem a woman faces as the r e s u l t of c o n f l i c t s a r i s i n g from m u l t i p l e r o l e s , r a t h e r than from c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r r o l e . F u r t h e r , the c o n f l i c t s between r o l e s are o f t e n a f u n c t i o n of r o l e o v e r l o a d and time c o n f l i c t s , r a t h e r than a f u n c t i o n of i n t r i n s i c r o l e i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y . Women, because they o f t e n must bear primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the home and c h i l d r e n , are more l i k e l y than men to face the competing demands of t h e i r r o l e i d e n t i t i e s . An added element of c o n f l i c t i s suggested by Smith (1977) who notes that women are s o c i a l i z e d to d i r e c t t h e i r a t t e n t i o n away from themselves as workers and toward g e t t i n g t h e i r i d e n t i t y from spouses or p o t e n t i a l spouses. More than h a l f (55 38 percent) of the women i n Smith's survey on b a r r i e r s to women's e n t e r i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s i n d i c a t e d the b e l i e f that a wife's c a r e e r should not i n t e r f e r e with her husband's car e e r success. Lack of in f o r m a t i o n about n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s Another very p r a c t i c a l b a r r i e r to women's entry i n t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations i s the f a c t that women f r e q u e n t l y do not have access to i n f o r m a t i o n concerning such occupations (U.S. Department of Labor, 1977; Wertheimer & Nelson, 1977). In Smith's (1976) survey of the b a r r i e r s to women e n t e r i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n c e c a r e e r s , 40 percent of the respondents i n d i c a t e d t h a t they f e l t women to be l e s s aware than men of both the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s c i e n c e c a r e e r s and inf o r m a t i o n about job openings. Lack of inf o r m a t i o n about a v a i l a b l e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s , i t would seem, may be a c r i t i c a l b a r r i e r to women, si n c e i t c o u l d prevent them from g e t t i n g adequate background to q u a l i f y them f o r these jobs. Kane (1977) observed that s i n c e i n f o r m a t i o n on n o n t r a d i t i o n a l jobs f o r women i s l a c k i n g , they do not, t h e r e f o r e , take courses that would prepare them f o r a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s . It appears then, that the f a c t t h a t women are not informed about the a v a i l a b i l i t y of n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s may l e a d t o a lack of e d u c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r such jobs, as d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y . Consequently, as women compete with men f o r a v a i l a b l e male-dominated jobs, they s t a r t out at a disadvantage and have to t r y that much harder to achieve success. 39 Lack of a v a i l a b l e r o l e models I t f o l l o w s that i f there are r e l a t i v e l y few women i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s , the women who might a s p i r e to such c a r e e r s would have few female r o l e models a f t e r which to p a t t e r n themselves. T h i s seems, i n f a c t , to be the case, and t h i s lack of r o l e models has been widely a l l u d e d to as a f a c t o r d e t e r r i n g women from e n t e r i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations ( A s t i n , 1976; E l d e r , 1975; Smith, 1977; Wertheimer & Nelson, 1977). At the same time, i t might be s p e c u l a t e d that the e n t r y of more women i n t o male-dominated ca r e e r f i e l d s w i l l have a snowballing e f f e c t of inducing more women to enter such c a r e e r s , c r e a t i n g s t i l l more r o l e models. The e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t y of r o l e models i s that they possess s k i l l s and d i s p l a y techniques which the neophyte l a c k s (or p e r c e i v e s she l a c k s ) and from which, by o b s e r v a t i o n and comparison with her own performance, the neophyte can l e a r n . To defy s o c i e t a l r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s r e q u i r e s a st r o n g p e r s o n a l i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e few females have the o p p o r t u n i t y to observe models of women who are i n t e l l i g e n t , a t t r a c t i v e , and respected in t h e i r c a r e e r s . The absence of female r o l e models f u n c t i o n i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y i n a masculine gender r o l e a p p r o p r i a t e p o s i t i o n may be c o n s i d e r e d a b a r r i e r to the o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s and achievement d i r e c t e d behaviors of women i n the lab o r f o r c e . Lack of money to financ e t r a i n i n g A f i n a l category of b a r r i e r s to women's e n t e r i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations i s the problem of f i n a n c i n g t r a i n i n g in order to get a p a r t i c u l a r job. I t must be noted that the 40 element of t r a i n i n g i s more c r i t i c a l f o r women than f o r men, sin c e women's o v e r a l l experience and t r a i n i n g do not g e n e r a l l y provide the s k i l l s necessary i n a care e r that i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y occupied by men. The issue of f i n a n c i n g t r a i n i n g may be f u r t h e r complicated by the awareness that i t may be d i f f i c u l t f o r a woman to get a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l job of her cho i c e even a f t e r she has f i n i s h e d and p a i d f o r a t r a i n i n g program. Even f i n d i n g part-time work ( t r a d i t i o n a l or n o n t r a d i t i o n a l ) to support h e r s e l f d u r i n g t r a i n i n g programs o f t e n proves d i f f i c u l t f o r many women. In any case, the lack of money to pay f o r t r a i n i n g has been seen as a b a r r i e r (Indiana State Board, 1977; T i t t l e & Benker, 1977). A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t has been suggested that many women, due to home and fa m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s need to at t e n d t r a i n i n g programs p a r t - t i m e , and so the need e x i s t s f o r f i n a n c i a l a i d f o r part-time students (Wertheimer & Nelson, 1977). A f i n a l d e t e r r e n t noted i n t h i s area i s the f a c t that i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r women to get loans ( A s t i n , 1976). O v e r a l l then, women lack i n f o r m a t i o n on how to get money f o r t r a i n i n g and f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to secure f i n a n c i a l a i d due to t h e i r s p e c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . These seven p s y c h o s o c i a l b a r r i e r s were i d e n t i f i e d as p e r s i s t e n t d e t e r r e n t s to women's o c c u p a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l e q u i t y , s p e c i f i c a l l y e q u i t y i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l areas. Based upon t h i s review i t would seem that these i d e n t i f i e d b a r r i e r s would be the i s s u e s to be addressed by any e d u c a t i o n a l program p u r p o r t i n g to a s s i s t women to enter n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations 41 and t r a i n i n g programs. Other F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g O c c u p a t i o n a l S o c i a l i z a t i o n Other s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l i z e r s which e x e r t i n f l u e n c e on female c a r e e r development should be r e c o g n i z e d . The media, i n c l u d i n g t e l e v i s i o n , r a d i o , magazines, newspapers and other p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s share r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h a n n e l l i n g women's oc c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . The i n f l u e n c e of f a m i l y and f r i e n d s and the a s s o c i a t e d r o l e c o n f l i c t has been d i s c u s s e d . P a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e begins at an e a r l y age and i s both s u b t l e and b l a t a n t , conscious and unconscious. The most prominent v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e a r e : (1) a t t i t u d e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s and gender-role s o c i a l i z a t i o n ; (2) maternal employment; (3) socio-economic s t a t u s ; and (4) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the f a m i l y background and p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p (Wittenberg, 1978). Wittenberg (1978) found that g i r l s are more independent than boys of the socio-economic background of t h e i r parents i n f o r m u l a t i n g t h e i r c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s , and that t h e i r c a r e e r plans may be more dependent upon t h e i r own g o a l s and ambitions than on those of t h e i r p a r e n t s . The same study found that daughters of working mothers h e l d more f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s toward work than d i d daughters of non-working mothers. The e f f e c t s are l i k e l y to be that working mothers who are s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r c a r e e r s and both comfortable and competent with the dual r o l e aspects transmit those p o s i t i v e normative messages. Socio-economic s t a t u s i s another important f a m i l y 42 background v a r i a b l e . S t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d that g i r l s from lower socio-economic l e v e l s tend to have more gender-stereotyped o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s than middle or u p p e r - c l a s s g i r l s ( V e t t e r , 1979). One e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s i s that females from lower socio-economic s t a t u s backgrounds tend to have mothers who are e i t h e r not working or i f they do work, are employed i n t r a d i t i o n a l female jobs of lower pay and lower s t a t u s . There i s no theory which q u e s t i o n s the importance of s o c i a l i z a t i o n f a c t o r s on the care e r development of women. There i s , however, a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of l i t e r a t u r e on the i n f l u e n c e of v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s , such as gender-b i a s e d c o u n s e l i n g m a t e r i a l s and t e s t s and v o c a t i o n a l education programs. Only a small amount of a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d to the more s u b t l e and i n s i d i o u s a s p e c t s of the "hidden c u r r i c u l u m " such as te a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s 1 a n d behavior. The evidence suggests l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s i n teacher a t t i t u d e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , p e r c e p t i o n s and behaviors with r e s p e c t to g i r l s and boys ( G a s k e l l , 1982; V e t t e r , 1979). Kane (1979) a s s e r t s that women i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs f e l t t h a t men students had more d i f f i c u l t y i n a d j u s t i n g to women i n the c l a s s than d i d men i n s t r u c t o r s . These women f e l t that the men students were b e t t e r prepared f o r t h e i r postsecondary t r a i n i n g mainly because they had taken more t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s i n high s c h o o l . Women in c l a s s e s with few other women students had the most problems; the extent of the problems and d i f f i c u l t i e s decreased with the presence of more women in the c l a s s e s (Kane, 1979). 43 C o u n s e l i n g a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s represent another important s o c i a l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e on women pursuing n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . Counselors tend to ra t e women c l i e n t s with a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r goal as having made a l e s s a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e than c l i e n t s with t r a d i t i o n a l g o a l s . More recent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s suggest that counselor a t t i t u d e s have changed onl y m i n i m a l l y ( F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , 1980). R e a l i z i n g that v a l u e - f r e e c o u n s e l i n g i s both e m p i r i c a l l y and p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y untenable, many w r i t e r s take a more a c t i v i s t p o s i t i o n ( V e t t e r , 1973). "Counselors must not continue to perpetuate such a s i t u a t i o n . . . I t seems time f o r c o u n s e l i n g psychology to p i c k up the c h a l l e n g e . . . to become i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l a c t i o n ; to make i t a d e f i n i t e p a r t of our p r o f e s s i o n a l task to set out to a f f e c t the s t a t u s quo" ( V e t t e r , 1973, p. 64). T h i s i s a f i r s t s tep toward meeting the ch a l l e n g e of e s t a b l i s h i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y for women pursuing n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . Programs Which Promote Oc c u p a t i o n a l E q u i t y A number of care e r i n t e r v e n t i o n programs have been developed and implemented to address the e f f e c t s of gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n which preclude e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y . T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l review such programs, s p e c i f i c a l l y those which focus on the b a r r i e r s which deter women from e n t e r i n g predominately male oc c u p a t i o n s . E x i s t i n g programs which address gender b i a s and gender d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n encompass the f o l l o w i n g p r o c e s s e s : (1) recrui t m e n t , (2) 44 c o u n s e l i n g , (3) t r a i n i n g , (4) placement, and (5) follow-up (Thomas et a l . , 1979). Program goals range from g l o b a l statements such as "to reduce gender b i a s " t o s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s of o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . The major emphasis has been to make i t e a s i e r f o r women to s e l e c t a wider range of higher paying jobs than has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a v a i l a b l e . The recruitment phase of programming i n v o l v e s i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c and i n d i v i d u a l awareness of e x i s t i n g programs and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r o p t i o n s f o r women. Th i s awareness serves the purposes of r e c r u i t i n g students and communicating the acceptance of new o c c u p a t i o n a l o p t i o n s f o r women (Brandstrom, 1978; Caughman, 1978). Postsecondary i n s t i t u t i o n s and government agencies are a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n recruitment of women to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s . C r e a t i v e recruitment s t r a t e g i e s i n c l u d e f a v o r a b l e exposure of n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e models, outreach techniques, awareness campaigns, and s e l e c t i v i t y i n choosing program p a r t i c i p a n t s . Counseling i n programs designed to he l p women enter male dominated occupations i n v o l v e s three a s p e c t s . The f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n r e l a t e s to c o u n s e l i n g which helps women understand t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , v a l u e s , and a p t i t u d e s . The importance of t h i s l i e s i n the placement of the r i g h t person i n the r i g h t job; consequently knowledge of s e l f f a c i l i t a t e s t h i s matching. The second area of c o u n s e l i n g s e r v i c e s i s to help women understand and overcome the b a r r i e r s to male dominated occupations as found in s o c i e t y , i n sc h o o l s , and i n the minds of women themselves. T h i s process r e q u i r e s time, extending beyond that of an 45 e d u c a t i o n a l program. The t h i r d purpose of the c o u n s e l i n g component addresses the s p e c i f i c needs of p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r r e c e i v i n g support, b u i l d i n g s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , and developing a s s e r t i v e n e s s (Caughman, 1978; Thomas et a l . , 1979). The job p r e p a r a t i o n or t r a i n i n g phase of i n t e r v e n t i o n programs addresses both g e n e r a l employment needs ( i . e . , knowledge, s k i l l s , and e x p e r i e n c e ) , and s p e c i f i c needs ( i . e . , math remediation, a s s e r t i v e n e s s , p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s ) . Although some programs designed to f a c i l i t a t e female e n t r y i n t o male i n t e n s i v e f i e l d s focus on s p e c i a l i z e d a spects of job t r a i n i n g , most tend to o f f e r a combination of classroom theory, p r a c t i c a l e xperience, p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , j o b - f i n d i n g s k i l l s , and c o u n s e l i n g s e r v i c e s (Brandstrom, 1978; Caughman, 1978; Chernove, n.d.). A review of placement and follow-up aspects of care e r i n t e r v e n t i o n programs focuses on an a n a l y s i s of matching employers and employees ( i . e . , female employees i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s ) . The placement e f f o r t r e q u i r e s p l a c i n g q u a l i f i e d women i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations and changing the a t t i t u d e s of employers regarding the acceptance of women workers i n jobs t r a d i t i o n a l l y performed by men (Brandstrom, 1978; U.S. Dept. of Labor, 1977). E f f e c t i v e placement p r a c t i c e s r e q u i r e program d i r e c t o r s and s t a f f to stay in c l o s e c o n t a c t with the community and l o c a l employers. The f o l l o w - u p phase of programming i n v o l v e s e v a l u a t i n g the job placement matching d e s c r i b e d above. Two purposes are served by t h i s e v a l u a t i o n : (1) to provide feedback on how w e l l the t r a i n i n g program i s f u n c t i o n i n g and any changes r e q u i r e d , and 46 (2) to give program d i r e c t o r and student (employee) an op p o r t u n i t y to de a l with j o b - r e l a t e d problems that may a r i s e (U.S. Dept. of Labor, 1978). S e v e r a l programs in the U n i t e d S t a t e s conduct r e g u l a r e v a l u a t i o n s of t h e i r programs and p u b l i s h n e w s l e t t e r s f o r t h e i r graduates (U.S. Dept. of Labor, 1978). Program follow-up i n Canada appears to be somewhat ad hoc. As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 1 and examined above, most of the inf o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g to programs designed to f a c i l i t a t e female entry i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l l y male dominated occupations p r o v i d e s q u a l i t a t i v e data. Most of the programs merely o f f e r suggestions f o r h e l p i n g females enter n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s . Few programs or program e v a l u a t i o n s o f f e r q u a n t i t a t i v e data r e l a t i n g to changed a t t i t u d e s or program e f f e c t i v e n e s s r e l a t i n g to o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n f o r women pursuing n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . A l s o , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a i n how many women are being served by o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t o r y programs i n male i n t e n s i v e areas as the database in both Canada and the Uni t e d S t a t e s i s e i t h e r n o n e x i s t e n t or d i s g u i s e d i n general e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s . The need f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h in t h i s area i s obvious. Summary Th e o r i e s of c a r e e r development can be d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : the s t r u c t u r a l or t r a i t - f a c t o r view, which analyzes how v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l s f i t i n t o some conceptual framework; and the developmental view, which emphasizes stages i n v o l v e d i n o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e as a d e c i s i o n -47 making p r o c e s s . The two views are not mutually e x c l u s i v e ; t h e i r u t i l i t y l i e s i n a p s y c h o s o c i a l approach to the process of career development. Gender d i f f e r e n c e s account f o r important c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n developing a ca r e e r i d e n t i t y . Research and l i t e r a t u r e on s e l f -concept, competence, m o t i v a t i o n , a s p i r a t i o n s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , knowledge, t r a i n i n g , and s k i l l s p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n i n understanding the career development of women as i t d i f f e r s from that of men. Gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n for women may preclude t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l e q u i t y . B a r r i e r s a s s o c i a t e d with the above ca r e e r development f a c t o r s are l a b e l e d p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s . These b a r r i e r s c o n s i s t of a t t i t u d e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , and a c t u a l behaviors which act as d e t e r r e n t s to e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y . H e l p i n g women to i d e n t i f y , understand, and overcome these a t t i t u d i n a l b a r r i e r s i s one means of f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e i r entry i n t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s and career p r e p a r a t i o n programs. The f o l l o w i n g chapter w i l l examine the t h e o r e t i c a l framework for c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g the process by which women a c q u i r e an o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . 48 CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND HYPOTHESES The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to examine the r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e s s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n p r o f f e r s the t h e o r e t i c a l underpinnings of the r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s . Secondly, t h i s process i s e x p l o r e d as i t occurs w i t h i n the conceptual framework of symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n i s m — t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s with t h e i r s o c i e t y . Presented l a s t l y i s the model which was used to represent the i n t e r a c t i n g v a r i a b l e s as they were hypothesized to i n f l u e n c e c a r e e r development. Work i s the dominant a c t i v i t y and s e t t i n g f o r most a d u l t s i n our s o c i e t y , o u t s i d e the f a m i l y . S o c i a l i z a t i o n to work r o l e s i s viewed as a l i f e l o n g a c t i v i t y — i n v o l v i n g both l e a r n i n g processes (Bandura & Walters, 1963; B i j o u & Baer, 1961) and developmental processes (Kohlberg, 1966; Z i g l e r , 1963). Most of the o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a c a r e e r takes p l a c e i n s p e c i a l i z e d schools and/or e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programs. I n d i v i d u a l a t t i t u d e s and behaviors in o r g a n i z a t i o n s are based on the s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s of the world of work and the degree of p e r s o n a l a d a p t a t i o n to the experiences of the work s i t u a t i o n . These a t t i t u d e s and behaviors are u s u a l l y a c q u i r e d and performed i n i n t e r a c t i v e s o c i a l environments as one takes on an o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i t y . 49 The Role I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Process An occupation i s a s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t and i t s performance a s o c i a l r o l e or set of r o l e s . E d u c a t i o n a l systems designed to prepare people f o r work r o l e s convey with v a r y i n g degrees of accuracy the formal requirements and formal r u l e s of conduct a p p r o p r i a t e to p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n s . V e r b a l acknowledgments and p r e s c r i p t i o n s are r a r e l y adequate to s o c i a l i z e one to an o c c u p a t i o n ; some form of on-the-job t r a i n i n g or a p p r e n t i c e s h i p i s a normal p a r t of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . A theory h e l p f u l in e x p l a i n i n g the dynamics of o c c u p a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y i s r o l e theory, a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l i z a t i o n theory (Burke & T u l l y , 1977; Bush & Simmons, 1981; Deutsch & Krauss, 1965; Thornton & N a r d i , 1975). A r o l e can be d e f i n e d as a set of e x p e c t a t i o n s about the r i g h t s and d u t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with a p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n i n a s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . The content of e x p e c t a t i o n s may be b e h a v i o r a l , a t t i t u d i n a l , or c o g n i t i v e ; the form that e x p e c t a t i o n s take may be e i t h e r overt or c o v e r t (Thornton & N a r d i , 1975). O c c u p a t i o n a l norms or e x p e c t a t i o n s r e l a t e to competence (having the r e q u i s i t e knowledge or s k i l l s of the o c c u p a t i o n ) , performance (the a c t u a l use of the knowledge or s k i l l s i n a p p r o p r i a t e t a s k s ) , and values ( a d a p t a t i v e a t t i t u d e s to work p r a c t i c e s ) . A c q u i s i t i o n of r o l e s i s c r u c i a l t o the continuance of the s o c i a l order i n modern s o c i e t y ; i t occurs through a process of s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Rosow (1965, p. 31) d e f i n e s a d u l t s o c i a l i z a t i o n as: 50 the process of i n c u l c a t i n g new v a l u e s and behaviors a p p r o p r i a t e to a d u l t p o s i t i o n s and group memberships. These changes are normally i n t e r n a l i z e d i n the course of i n d u c t i o n or t r a i n i n g procedures, whether formal or i n f o r m a l . They r e s u l t i n new images, e x p e c t a t i o n s , s k i l l s and norms as the person d e f i n e s h i m s e l f and as others view him. Thus there are both i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l changes; w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l , i n h i s r o l e set and i n the i n t e r a c t i o n between them... The concept of r o l e can be seen as a t h e o r e t i c a l p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n between psychology and s o c i o l o g y . S e v e r a l c o nceptions of how i n d i v i d u a l s a c q u i r e r o l e s can be found in the l i t e r a t u r e of both d i s c i p l i n e s . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomena are important e x p l a n a t i o n s of how one develops a " p e r s o n a l i t y , " d e f i n e d by A l l p o r t (1937, p. 48) as "the dynamic o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l of those p s y c h o p h y s i c a l systems that determine h i s unique adjustments to h i s environment." The r e l a t i o n s h i p between r o l e and p e r s o n a l i t y i s r e c i p r o c a l . I n d i v i d u a l s may be p r e d i s p o s e d by v i r t u e of t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y to occupy c e r t a i n s t a t u s e s . Conversely, the values and a t t i t u d e s a s s o c i a t e d with p a r t i c u l a r s t a t u s e s may themselves be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the s t r u c t u r e of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y and thus e x e r t a p e r v a s i v e i n f l u e n c e a c r o s s the t o t a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . The s o c i o l o g i c a l aspect becomes an important element as one i n t e r a c t s with the s o c i a l environment. In the process of such i n t e r a c t i o n a person not only takes on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as a consequence of the r o l e s enacted but a l s o begins to experience a sense of s e l f (Deutsch & Krauss, 1965). T h i s sense of s e l f g i v e s r i s e to b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s about one's s e l f — a " s e l f -concept." Role t h e o r i s t s have a r t i c u l a t e d the concept of s e l f 51 as a c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e which emerges from the i n t e r a c t i o n of the human organism and i t s s o c i a l environment. An i n d i v i d u a l ' s i d e n t i t y i s the meaning one a t t r i b u t e s to the s e l f as an o b j e c t i n a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n or r o l e (Coombs, 1969). These meanings come to be known and understood through i n t e r a c t i o n with others i n s i t u a t i o n s i n which o t h e r s respond to the person as a performer i n a p a r t i c u l a r r o l e . The r o l e i d e n t i t i e s are i n i t i a l l y s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c . But over time they become organized i n t o a h i e r a r c h y of i d e n t i t i e s (McCall & Simmons, 1966; S t r y k e r , 1968). At the top of t h i s h i e r a r c h y are the most c e n t r a l , i n f l u e n t i a l , and s a l i e n t r o l e i d e n t i t i e s . These i d e n t i t i e s such as gender . r o l e i d e n t i t y or age r o l e i d e n t i t y h e l p to organize and order other r o l e i d e n t i t i e s lower i n the h i e r a r c h y . A v i t a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the i n t e g r a t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n of r o l e theory i s that i d e n t i t y i s the i n t e r n a l component of r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and r o l e i s the e x t e r n a l component (Burke & T u l l y , 1977). The measurement of these r o l e i d e n t i t i e s then occurs through the meaning of s e l f - i n - r o l e as an o b j e c t to the s e l f , and t h i s measure must r e l a t e one r o l e i d e n t i t y to counter r o l e i d e n t i t i e s . Because i n d i v i d u a l s cannot be prepared i n c h i l d h o o d f o r a l l the tasks and r o l e s they w i l l encounter as a d u l t s , s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s a c o n t i n u i n g , l i f e l o n g p r o c e s s . Contemporary work on a d u l t s o c i a l i z a t i o n has r e v o l v e d around the process of r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n (Becker, 1964; Brim, 1968; Brim & Wheeler, 1966; Rosow, 1974), r o l e c o n f l i c t (Gross, Mason & McEachern, 1958), 52 and r o l e t r a n s i t i o n s (Gordon, 1972; R i l e y et a l . , 1972; Rosow, 1974) . Thornton and Nardi (1975) have i d e n t i f i e d four stages i n t h i s process of l i f e l o n g s o c i a l i z a t i o n : a n t i c i p a t o r y , formal, i n f o r m a l , and p e r s o n a l . Each of the four stages of s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the type of e x p e c t a t i o n s which predominate and each stage i n v o l v e s i n t e r a c t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l s and e x t e r n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . A r o l e i s not f u l l y a c q u i r e d u n t i l an i n d i v i d u a l has a n t i c i p a t e d i t , learned formal and i n f o r m a l e x p e c t a t i o n s inherent to i t , formulated p e r s o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , r e a c t e d to and r e c o n c i l e d those v a r i o u s e x p e c t a t i o n s , and accepted the f i n a l outcome. The a n t i c i p a t o r y stage of r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n i s the p e r i o d p r i o r to incumbency i n a s o c i a l p o s i t i o n or when s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment begins. Role c o n c e p t i o n s at t h i s time tend to be g e n e r a l i z e d and s t e r e o t y p e d due to p r i o r l e a r n i n g and s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Neophytes are exposed to b e h a v i o r a l , a t t i t u d i n a l and c o g n i t i v e f e a t u r e s of r o l e s but because r o l e i d e n t i t i e s tend to be i d e a l i z e d , a n t i c i p a t i o n may not be congruent with what w i l l a c t u a l l y be experienced. And although the a n t i c i p a t o r y stage of s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d f u n c t i o n a l , r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s that adjustment i s i n f a c t dependent on the degree of accuracy of what i s conveyed and p e r c e i v e d (Olesen & Whittaker, 1968; Thompson, 1958). Thus the degree of c o n g r u i t y between what i n d i v i d u a l s l e a r n to a n t i c i p a t e and what they subsequently experience w i l l determine how e f f e c t i v e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y the adjustment process w i l l be. 53 In the second phase of r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n the i n d i v i d u a l e x periences the r o l e as an incumbent. E x p e c t a t i o n s tend to be f o r m a l i z e d (e.g., job d e s c r i p t i o n s ) and a r i s e from members of the r o l e set and from the incumbent. Though these f o r m a l i z e d e x p e c t a t i o n s tend to r e f e r to expected behavior, knowledge and s k i l l s r a t h e r .than a t t i t u d e s or o r i e n t a t i o n s toward r o l e enactment, a t t i t u d i n a l elements may be present (e.g., a l l e g i a n c e ) . There tends to be a f a i r l y h i g h degree of consensus dur i n g t h i s stage. S o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment-adaptation occurs through postponement of r e a c t i o n s to r o l e s and s i t u a t i o n s . The t h i r d stage of a c q u i r i n g a r o l e i d e n t i t y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by u n o f f i c i a l or in f o r m a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . The in f o r m a l f e a t u r e s u s u a l l y a r i s e and are t r a n s m i t t e d through i n t e r a c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s . P e r s o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s u s u a l l y h e l d i n abeyance duri n g e a r l i e r stages now become more important. Informal e x p e c t a t i o n s may be e i t h e r e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t and although they r e f e r to behavior, a t t i t u d e s , knowledge and s k i l l s , the emphasis tends t o be on a t t i t u d i n a l and c o g n i t i v e r o l e performance. Because i n f o r m a l e x p e c t a t i o n s r e l a t e to "mays" r a t h e r than "musts," an i n d i v i d u a l begins to f i n a l i z e p s y c h o s o c i a l adjustment to r o l e performance, i n t e g r a t i n g past experiences and f u t u r e o b j e c t i v e s . The f i n a l s t a g e — p e r s o n a l - - i s the c u l m i n a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n of the three p r e v i o u s stages. As a n t i c i p a t o r y , formal, and i n f o r m a l e x p e c t a t i o n s are encountered, p e r s o n a l r o l e i d e n t i t y e x p e c t a t i o n s develop and are communicated to others 54 with whom one i s i n c o n t a c t . Role a c q u i s i t i o n thus comes to in v o l v e i n d i v i d u a l s imposing t h e i r own e x p e c t a t i o n s and conceptions on r o l e s and modifying r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r unique p e r s o n a l i t i e s . T h i s i s important f o r s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment as w e l l as f o r a d a p t a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g to Thornton & Nardi (1975), three r e a c t i o n s to r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s are p o s s i b l e . The f i r s t i s s o c i a l adjustment--the adequate meeting of r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and performance i n accordance with them. The second i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d j u s t m e n t — t h e achievement of c o n g r u i t y between i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs and d e s i r e s and the r o l e . S t r i c t c o nformity i s not a n e c e s s i t y . That i n d i v i d u a l s may modify r o l e s to f i t themselves and/or develop p r i v a t e meanings f o r r o l e enactment i s construed as adjustment. A t h i r d r e a c t i o n , a d a p t a t i o n , occurs i f the r o l e i s i n t e r n a l i z e d and a s s i m i l a t e d so that i n a sense the person and r o l e become i n s e p a r a b l e . The emphasis on r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s suggests that the major c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a c q u i s i t i o n are the s a l i e n c e of r o l e s to i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e i r commitment to r o l e s (and subsequent access to resources and f l e x i b i l i t y f o r n e g o t i a t i o n ) , and the i n t e g r a t i o n of p a t t e r n s they p e r c e i v e as c h o i c e s f o r themselves ( S t r y k e r & Serpe, 1982; T i t t l e , 1983). Ad u l t r o l e a n a l y s i s a l s o i n v o l v e s the types of r o l e s and r o l e a c t i v i t i e s , r o l e p a t t e r n s , r o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and tim i n g and sequencing of r o l e s , ( T i t t l e , 1983). T r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s have emphasized the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of women i n marriage, motherhood, and homemaking r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 55 Less emphasis has been given to education and occ u p a t i o n s . The work r o l e i s seen as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l commitment undertaken i n a d d i t i o n to the h i g h l y v i s i b l e and demanding m a r i t a l and p a r e n t a l r o l e s . T h i s a d d i t i v e nature of the female r o l e i d e n t i t y poses many problems. Women who seek t r a i n i n g and employment i n t r a d i t i o n a l l y masculine occupations are faced with many dilemmas. To the extent that a female p e r c e i v e s h e r s e l f both as po s s e s s i n g a t t r i b u t e s a s s o c i a t e d with s u c c e s s f u l c a r e e r achievement and as having i n t e r e s t s i n marriage and f a m i l y , she may experience r o l e c o n f l i c t ( H a l l , 1975; O'Leary, 1974). But the major problem a woman faces may be the r e s u l t of c o n f l i c t s a r i s i n g from m u l t i p l e r o l e s , r a t h e r than from c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r r o l e . As w e l l , the tim i n g and sequence of e n t e r i n g r o l e s a f f e c t s other r o l e p a t t e r n s . Many, but not a l l , females have g r e a t e r e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l disadvantages due to e a r l y marriage and e a r l y p a r e n t i n g than do males (Kerckhoff & Parrow, 1978; M a r i n i , 1980). The commitment one possesses toward a r o l e i d e n t i t y p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l way of c o n c e i v i n g the relevance of a p a r t i c u l a r r o l e behavior ( S t r y k e r & Serpe, 1982). Becker (1956) p o s i t s a theory of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n l i n k i n g commitment to r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . In s e v e r a l s t u d i e s of p r o f e s s i o n a l males he shows that commitment occurs through a process of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the o c c u p a t i o n a l ideology a f t e r a person has been r e c r u i t e d to the occupation (Becker, 1964; Becker & Carper, 1956). I d e a l l y , r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n and r o l e commitment would be 56 f o s t e r e d through adequate p r e p a r a t i o n before t a k i n g on a r o l e ( R i l e y , 1979). The assumption u n d e r l y i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s that i f one i s prepared ahead of time for the new r o l e , i n the sense of understanding the norms a s s o c i a t e d with the r o l e , has the necessary s k i l l s to c a r r y out the r o l e , and becomes aware of e x p e c t a t i o n s and rewards a t t a c h e d to the r o l e , one w i l l then move i n t o the new r o l e e a s i l y and e f f e c t i v e l y . For women p r e p a r i n g f o r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s , t h i s s o c i a l i z a t i o n has important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c a r e e r c h o i c e , c a r e e r m a t u r i t y , and c a r e e r success. Symbolic I n t e r a c t i o n W i t hin s o c i a l systems, s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s c a r r i e d out both i n f o r m a l l y , i n the context of normal sequences of i n t e r a c t i o n and f o r m a l l y , through e x p l i c i t s o c i a l i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s . S o c i a l i z a t i o n i n v o l v e s two n o t i o n s : that of l e a r n i n g new r o l e s and that of accommodating to new i d e n t i t i e s . For s o c i o l o g i s t s , s o c i a l i z a t i o n processes such as i m i t a t i o n , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n are viewed as s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . In the p rocess of i n t e r a c t i o n with the s o c i a l environment a person not only takes on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as a consequence of the r o l e s , but a l s o begins to experience a sense of s e l f (Deutsch & Krauss, 1965). That aspect of the s o c i a l person termed the " s e l f " d i r e c t s a t t e n t i o n to symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n i s m . I d e n t i t y theory grows out of symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n i s m . T h i s approach views i d e n t i t y as a major component of the s e l f , 57 s p e c i f i c a l l y the r o l e i d e n t i t i e s one a t t r i b u t e s to the s e l f as an o b j e c t i n a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n or s o c i a l r o l e (Burke & T u l l y , 1977; S t r y k e r & Serpe, 1982). The use of symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n as a c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g framework f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e s a systematic understanding of the r e c i p r o c i t y between s e l f and s o c i e t y — t h a t t h e o r e t i c a l a r t i c u l a t i o n between psychology and s o c i o l o g y . I t assumes that the human being i s an a c t i v e agent of behavior r a t h e r than simply a p a s s i v e respondent to e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i . Symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n i s m r e p r e s e n t s an e v o l v i n g development which can be t r a c e d back to the S c o t t i s h moral p h i l o s o p h e r s , i n c l u d i n g Adam Smith, David Hume, Adam Ferguson and F r a n c i s Hutchinson. T h e i r work i n the e i g h t e e n t h century e s t a b l i s h e d a b a s i s f o r the e m p i r i c a l study of i n d i v i d u a l s and s o c i e t y (Bryson, 1945). Viewing s o c i e t y as a network of i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication, they saw human nature as the outgrowth of that communication. They argued that human behavior c o u l d be understood as the consequence of communication, i m i t a t i o n , sympathy, h a b i t , and custom. These p h i l o s o p h e r s presaged the contemporary symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n i s t v i s i o n of the b a s i c nature of s o c i e t y (as a system of i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication and i n t e r a c t i o n ) and of the b a s i c nature of the i n d i v i d u a l (as the product of s o c i e t y ) . The l i n k from the S c o t t i s h moral p h i l o s o p h e r s to contemporary symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n i s m proceeds through the American pragmatic p h i l o s o p h e r s — C S . P i e r c e , J o s i a h Royce, W i l l i a m James, John Dewey, and George Herbert Mead ( S t r y k e r , 58 1981). The pragmatic i n f l u e n c e e l a b o r a t e d themes a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d : i t viewed mind as an instrument f o r a d a p t a t i o n ; t r e a t e d mental a c t i v i t i e s as n a t u r a l o b j e c t s open to s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; r e a l i z e d the i n t e r n a l l y dynamic c h a r a c t e r of the human mind; and emphasized the r e l e v a n c e of the n a t u r a l and s o c i a l world f o r the development of the i n d i v i d u a l . S p e c i f i c t h i n k e r s and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n c l u d e James (1890) who argued the importance of s o c i e t y as a source of c o n s t r a i n t s on behavior. He developed a conception of " s e l f " as both m u l t i f a c e t e d and the product of r e l a t i o n s with o t h e r s . Dewey (1938) wrote o f t e n of the i n t i m a t e e x p e r i e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of the person and s o c i e t y . He p o s i t e d that p e r s o n a l i t y i s a matter of h a b i t , i n s i s t i n g t h a t custom and h a b i t are the necessary bases f o r r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g — t h e process of a d j u s t i n g to one's environment. Mead (1934) i s perhaps one of the most important c o n t r i b u t o r s to development of the symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n i s t framework. He argued that what d i s t i n g u i s h e s man from other animals i s the enormous number of symbolic or c o n v e n t i o n a l meanings which are l e a r n e d through the process of symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n ( i . e . , seeing y o u r s e l f as you are seen by o t h e r s ) , which i s a necessary c o n d i t i o n of p l a y i n g r o l e s . According to Mead, i t i s from the s o c i a l process that mind, s e l f , and s o c i e t y d e r i v e . Mind emerges when persons i n i t i a t e a c t i v i t i e s that r e l a t e them to t h e i r p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l environment. The s e l f emerges through i n t e r a c t i o n with o t h e r s . S o c i a l i z a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l i s , above a l l , a process of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . 59 Although Mead himself was not concerned with a d u l t s o c i a l i z a t i o n , contemporary symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n i s t s have b u i l t on h i s conception of r o l e i n t e r a c t i o n s (Bush & Simmons, 1 9 8 1 ) . The meanings that Mead emphasized—the symbols that a t t a c h to o b j e c t s i n the p h y s i c a l environment, to other persons, to o u r s e l v e s — a r e emergent from behavior, but they f u n c t i o n i n c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . One cannot understand or e x p l a i n human behavior without comprehendng both the f a c t s of o b j e c t i v e and of s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s . Since humans are members of s o c i e t y , t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with others t y p i c a l l y occur i n the context of s o c i a l l y organized systems of a c t i v i t i e s . As s o c i e t y shapes the s e l f , so the s e l f shapes s o c i e t y ; s o c i e t y i s c o n t i n u o u s l y being c r e a t e d and r e c r e a t e d . To t h i s a n a l y s i s by Mead i s wedded the t h i n k i n g of s o c i o l o g i s t s C h a rles Cooley, W i l l i a m Thomas, and Robert Park. For Cooley ( 1 9 0 2 ) , the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y are simply two si d e s of the same c o i n . He saw no i n d i v i d u a l i t y o u t s i d e of s o c i a l order and the p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p i n g from extant s o c i a l l i f e . I n t e r p e r s o n a l communications and e x p e c t a t i o n s are c e n t r a l to t h i s development. He agreed with Mead that the s e l f was composed of two components—the " I " and the "me" and that t h i s emerging s e l f was the b a s i c process of s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Thomas pro v i d e d a r a t i o n a l e f o r arguing the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the s u b j e c t i v e i n s o c i a l l i f e which became symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n ' s main meth o d o l o g i c a l r u l e when he s t a t e d "... i f men d e f i n e s i t u a t i o n s as r e a l , they are r e a l i n t h e i r consequences" (Thomas & Thomas, 1928, p. 5 6 7 ) . Park (1955) saw 60 the s e l f as emerging from the m u l t i p l e r o l e s played by the person i n v a r i o u s communities and groups to which they belonged. He i s perhaps the p r o g e n i t o r of the s o c i o l o g i c a l view which c o n c e p t u a l i z e d p e r s o n a l i t y as r e f l e c t i n g (or even being c o n s t i t u t e d by) the r o l e s people play (Stryker & Serpe, 1982). Symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n i s m assumes that the most f r u i t f u l study of human s o c i a l behavior i s through an a n a l y s i s of s o c i e t y . I t a l s o assumes that the human being i s an a c t i v e agent of behavior r a t h e r than simply a p a s s i v e responder to e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i . A summary of the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n i s t framework, out of which r o l e i d e n t i t y theory e v o l v e s , i s o f f e r e d by S t r y k e r : 1. Behavior depends on a named or c l a s s i f i e d world. The names or c l a s s terms a t t a c h e d to a s p e c t s of the environment, both p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l , c a r r y meaning in the form of shared b e h a v i o r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s that grow out of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . From i n t e r a c t i o n with o t h e r s , one l e a r n s how to c l a s s i f y o b j e c t s one comes i n t o c o n t a c t with and i n that process a l s o l e a r n s how one i s expected to behave with r e f e r e n c e to those o b j e c t s . 2. Among the c l a s s terms l e a r n e d i n i n t e r a c t i o n are the symbols that are used to desi g n a t e " p o s i t i o n s , " the r e l a t i v e s t a b l e , m orphological components of s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . It i s these p o s i t i o n s which c a r r y the shared b e h a v i o r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s that are c o n v e n t i o n a l l y l a b e l e d " r o l e s . " 3. Persons who act i n the context of organized p a t t e r n s of behavior, i . e . , in the context of s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , name one another in the sense of r e c o g n i z i n g one another as occupants of p o s i t i o n s . When they name one another they invoke e x p e c t a t i o n s with regard to each other's behavior. 4. Persons a c t i n g i n the context of organized behavior 61 apply names to themselves as w e l l . These r e f l e x i v e l y a p p l i e d p o s i t i o n a l d e s i g n a t i o n s , which become p a r t of the " s e l f , " c r e a t e i n persons e x p e c t a t i o n s with re s p e c t to t h e i r own behavior. 5. When e n t e r i n g i n t e r a c t i v e s i t u a t i o n s , persons d e f i n e the s i t u a t i o n by a p p l y i n g names to i t , to the other p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the i n t e r a c t i o n , to themselves, and to p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e s of the s i t u a t i o n , and use the r e s u l t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s to organize t h e i r own behavior i n the s i t u a t i o n . 6. S o c i a l behavior i s not, however, given by these d e f i n i t i o n s , though e a r l y d e f i n i t i o n s may c o n s t r a i n the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a l t e r n a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n s to emerge from i n t e r a c t i o n . Behavior i s the product of a role-making process, i n i t i a t e d by e x p e c t a t i o n s invoked i n the process of d e f i n i n g s i t u a t i o n s but deve l o p i n g through a t e n t a t i v e , sometives extremely s u b t l e , probing interchange among a c t o r s that can reshape the form and content of the i n t e r a c t i o n . 7. The degree to which r o l e s are "made" ra t h e r than simply "played," as w e l l as the c o n s t i t u e n t elements e n t e r i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of r o l e s , w i l l depend on the l a r g e r s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s i n which i n t e r a c t i v e s i t u a t i o n s are embedded. Some s t r u c t u r e s are "open," others r e l a t i v e l y " c l o s e d " with re s p e c t to n o v e l t y i n r o l e s and i n r o l e enactments or performances. A l l s t r u c t u r e s impose some l i m i t s on the kinds of d e f i n i t i o n s which may be c a l l e d i n t o p l a y and thus the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r i n t e r a c t i o n . 8. To the degree that r o l e s are made r a t h e r than only played as given,, changes can occur i n the c h a r a c t e r of d e f i n i t i o n s , i n the names and the c l a s s terms u t i l i z e d i n those d e f i n i t i o n s , and in the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r i n t e r a c t i o n . Such changes can i n turn l e a d to 1 - changes i n the l a r g e r s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n which i n t e r a c t i o n s take p l a c e (1980, pp. 53-55). Symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n thus pr o v i d e s a framework f o r examining the process by which and through which women pursuing n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s a c q u i r e a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . Women are s o c i a l i z e d by i n t e r a c t i v e s o c i a l 62 exchanges, but s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e shapes the i n t e r a c t i o n . Consequently, the r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n process i s one of dynamic inte r c h a n g e . Conceptual Model and D e f i n i t i o n s f o r An a l y z i n g the V a r i a b l e s Using a symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n i s m framework and r o l e i d e n t i t y theory, the o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n of women i n t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations as i t occurs i n postsecondary career p r e p a r a t o r y programs i s the focus of t h i s study. The s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s impinging on a woman's n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l development a r e : 1. type of commitment to a c a r e e r ; 2. g o a l - s e t t i n g ; 3. p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupat i o n s ; 4. r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n ; 5 r o l e c o n f l i c t ; 6. s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s of the v a r i a b l e s were used to pro v i d e d i r e c t i o n f o r the study. Type of career commitment - i n v o l v e s b e h a v i o r a l and a t t i t u d i n a l a s p e c t s of work m o t i v a t i o n and work values i n occupying a p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n i n an organized s t r u c t u r e of r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Goal s e t t i n g - i s a process by which a person assesses o c c u p a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l o p t i o n s as a means to pe r s o n a l and c a r e e r development; i n v o l v e s g a i n i n g awareness and knowledge about s e l f and c a r e e r s . P e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations - are a t t i t u d i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n s i n v o l v i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s , p e r c e p t i o n s , knowledge, and a b i l i t i e s ; a c q u i r e d through s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Role a c q u i s i t i o n - i s assuming the b e h a v i o r a l , a t t i t u d i n a l , and c o g n i t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s of a s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . Role c o n f l i c t - r e s u l t s from c o n f l i c t i n g b e h a v i o r a l , a t t i t u d i n a l , or c o g n i t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s a r i s i n g from m u l t i p l e r o l e s a s s o c i a t e d with c a r e e r achievement and marriage and f a m i l y i n t e r e s t s . S e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s - are b e h a v i o r a l , a t t i t u d i n a l , and c o g n i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s of one's a b i l i t y to f u l f i l l a p a r t i c u l a r r o l e i d e n t i t y ; i n v o l v e s the competence and p e r s i s t e n c e of a c q u i r i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g that r o l e . A conceptual model of the i n t e r a c t i n g v a r i a b l e s was diagrammed as f o l l o w s : F i g u r e 1 Model of the V a r i a b l e s in the Studv P e r s o n a l - S o c i a l B a r r i e r s Career Commitment Role A c q u i s i t i o n Role C o n f l i c t S e l f - e f f i c a c y Expectations G o a l - s e t t i n g E D . P U R C 0 A G T R I A 0 M N -> -> -> Personal-Social B a r r i e r s Career Cor.--nitr.ent Role A c q u i s i t i o n Role C o n f l i c t S e l f - e f f i c a c y Expectations Goal-setting 64 I t should be noted that the diagram and hypotheses have a somewhat unusual independent-dependent r e l a t i o n s h i p . At the p r e t e s t stage the v a r i a b l e s impinging on a female's n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r development were regarded as independent while enrollment i n a s p e c i f i c type of program was l i s t e d as the dependent v a r i a b l e . In other words, the type of person one was a t the outset (before the program) determined which type of c a r e e r program one chose. At the p o s t t e s t stage the program v a r i a b l e was c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as the independent v a r i a b l e and the other v a r i a b l e s impinging on c a r e e r development as dependent. As a r e s u l t of being e n r o l l e d in a s p e c i f i c type of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n program, a female was expected to a c q u i r e a new sense of s e l f . The program was thus the i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e which determined the p o s t t e s t outcome ( o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n ) . Hypotheses Three s e t s of r e s e a r c h hypotheses were formulated i n which o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n was e x p l a i n e d i n terms of e d u c a t i o n a l and p s y c h o s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s . The use of three s e t s of hypotheses (pre, post, change) was important i n a d d r e s s i n g the q u e s t i o n of whether the programs r e c r u i t e d women who were already p r e d i s p o s e d to a s p e c i f i c occupation or whether the programs were ab l e to i n f l u e n c e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The f i r s t set i n v o l v e s the p r e t e s t hypotheses and measures the e f f e c t s of gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n on the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s as mediated by p s y c h o s o c i a l d i s p o s i t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s 65 and behaviors at program en r o l l m e n t . Because of the i n a b i l i t y to randomly a s s i g n s u b j e c t s to treatment groups, the p r e t e s t hypotheses were intended t o a s c e r t a i n whether the four programs were s e r v i n g a homogeneous group of women or merely s e l e c t i n g those who al r e a d y h e l d d e f i n i t e d i s p o s i t i o n s toward s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n s . The second set of hypotheses shows how women d i f f e r s y s t e m a t i c a l l y on the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s at the completion of approximately fourteen weeks of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n . These p o s t t e s t hypotheses r e f l e c t program experiences and e f f o r t s to s o c i a l i z e students i n t o o c c u p a t i o n s . They o f f e r an e m p i r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s across the groups in p s y c h o s o c i a l dimensions of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n as mediated by e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . They r e v e a l the d i f f e r e n c e s that program sponsors can a n t i c i p a t e among the graduates of the four kinds of programs. The f i n a l set of hypotheses d e a l s with the d i f f e r e n c e s between the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s . These d i f f e r e n c e s r e f l e c t the i n f l u e n c e s of e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s o f f e r i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n — i n c l u d i n g c o g n i t i v e , psychomotor, and a f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . These hypotheses d e a l with the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the four o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t o r y programs i n b r i n g i n g about change i n p e r c e i v e d p s y c h o s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . A d e l i n e a t i o n of the hypotheses and the accompanying r a t i o n a l e f o l l o w s . 66 At the beginning of the programs T h i s set of hypotheses a l l o w s the e f f e c t s of gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n on the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s to be examined at the i n i t i a l stages of program enr o l l m e n t . I t a l s o e s t a b l i s h e s a " b a s e l i n e " score with which to compare the p o s t t e s t scores and change scores ( d i f f e r e n c e between p r e - and p o s t t e s t measures). 1. Those women who p e r c e i v e fewer p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s (as measured by Thomas A t t i t u d e Scale) w i l l be e n r o l l e d i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs while women who p e r c e i v e more p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s w i l l be e n r o l l e d i n a t r a d i t i o n a l o r i e n t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n program. R a t i o n a l e . P e r c e p t i o n of p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations i s a c r u c i a l determinant of o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y . Because of gender r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g , women a c q u i r e the a t t i t u d e that c e r t a i n r o l e s and occupations are ap p r o p r i a t e f o r them and others are not. As women begin to b e l i e v e they can e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l over t h e i r own ca r e e r development, they assume g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c t i v e l y choosing an occupation based on t h e i r i n t e r e s t s r a t h e r than on s t e r e o t y p i c a l norms. Women i n the three n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs w i l l be i n v a r i o u s stages of assuming c o n t r o l of t h e i r c a r e e r development as evidenced by the number of p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s they p e r c e i v e to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . Those students i n a t r a d i t i o n a l o r i e n t e d c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n program have chosen an occupation based on t h e i r i n t e r e s t s ( h e a l t h care) and have r e c e i v e d norm s o c i a l i z a t i o n t h a t there are a great number of b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . 67 2. Women who v i e w w o r k c o m m i t m e n t i n m a s c u l i n e t e r m s ( p e r m a n e n t , n e c e s s a r y , m a s c u l i n e - - a s m e a s u r e d b y F a c t o r I , N a g e l y S c a l e ) w i l l b e t h o s e e n r o l l e d i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s w h i l e t h o s e women who v i e w w o r k c o m m i t m e n t a s f e m i n i n e a n d t h i n k o f i t a s s t o p - g a p ( s o c i a l l y o r i e n t e d , g l a m o r o u s , t e m p o r a r y — a s m e a s u r e d b y F a c t o r s I I I & I V o f t h e N a g e l y S c a l e ) w i l l b e e n r o l l e d i n a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n p r o g r a m . R a t i o n a l e . T h e r e a s o n i n g t h a t t h o s e s e e k i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s w o u l d h a v e a m a s c u l i n e w o r k c o m m i t m e n t a n d t h o s e s e e k i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r w o u l d h a v e a f e m i n i n e a n d s t o p - g a p o r i e n t a t i o n w a s b a s e d o n e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e . Women who p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s a s p o s s e s s i n g t h o s e p s y c h o s o c i a l t r a i t s o f f e m i n i n i t y , a l t r u i s m , n o n - c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s , i d e a l i s m , s u b m i s s i v e n e s s , a n d who t h i n k o f a c a r e e r a s t e m p o r a r y , g l a m o r o u s , a n d n o t i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e f e m a l e r o l e w i l l s e l f -s e l e c t t h e m s e l v e s i n t o a c a r e e r p r o g r a m o f a t r a d i t i o n a l n a t u r e — i n t h i s c a s e t h e h e a l t h c a r e f i e l d . T h e s e women s e e k t h e s e c a r e e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y b e c a u s e o f t h e e a s y e n t r y , e a s y e x i t , e a s y r e e n t r y t o a c c o m m o d a t e m a r i t a l a n d p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Women who s e l f - s e l e c t t h e m s e l v e s i n t o a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t o r y p r o g r a m a r e l i k e l y t o h a v e a m a s c u l i n e w o r k o r i e n t a t i o n e x h i b i t e d b y v i e w i n g c a r e e r s a s m a s c u l i n e , p e r m a n e n t , a n d a p p r o p r i a t e a n d t o h a v e t h e p s y c h o s o c i a l t r a i t s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e , m a s c u l i n i t y , m a s t e r y a n d i n n o v a t i o n . 3. Women who v i e w t h e i r w o r k c o m m i t m e n t i n m a s c u l i n e t e r m s w i l l p e r c e i v e f e w e r b a r r i e r s t o s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s ( a s m e a s u r e d b y I t e m s A , E , K i n t h e T h o m a s A t t i t u d e S u r v e y ) t h a n d o women who v i e w t h e i r w o r k c o m m i t m e n t a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y f e m i n i n e . R a t i o n a l e . T h o s e women who v i e w a c a r e e r i n t e r m s o f p e r m a n e n t , c h a l l e n g i n g , a n d m a s c u l i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l h a v e 68 a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d a s e l f c o n c e p t o f c o m p e t e n c e a n d p e r s i s t e n c e i n a d d r e s s i n g b e h a v i o r a l , a t t i t u d i n a l , a n d c o g n i t i v e b a r r i e r s t o o c c u p a t i o n s . T h e y w i l l p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s a s c a p a b l e o f c o m p e t i n g w i t h men i n m a l e d o m i n a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e h a d s u c c e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e s o r a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s i n t h o s e a r e a s a n d h a v e h a d p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t f r o m o t h e r s w i t h whom t h e y i n t e r a c t . Women who a r e p r e p a r i n g f o r a c a r e e r b e c a u s e i t r e p r e s e n t s t h e s t e r e o t y p e d f e m a l e c o m m i t m e n t o f g l a m o r o u s , t e m p o r a r y , a n d n o t i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e f e m a l e r o l e w i l l n o t s e e t h e m s e l v e s a s c o m p e t e n t a n d p e r s i s t e n t a n d w o r k i n g i n o c c u p a t i o n s d o m i n a t e d b y m a l e s . B e c a u s e women i n t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s w i l l p r o b a b l y n o t h a v e e x p r e s s e d a n y d e s i r e t o p u r s u e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s , t h e y l i k e l y h a v e n o t e x p e r i e n c e d a n y n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s , v e r b a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t , o r e m o t i o n a l a r o u s a l w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s . 4 . Women who p e r c e i v e l e s s r o l e c o n f l i c t ( m e a s u r e d b y I t e m s I , J , L o f t h e T h o m a s A t t i t u d e S u r v e y ) w i l l b e e n r o l l e d i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n p r o g r a m s w h i l e women who p e r c e i v e m o r e r o l e c o n f l i c t w i l l b e e n r o l l e d i n a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n p r o g r a m . R a t i o n a l e . Women s t u d e n t s who w a n t e d t o p r e p a r e f o r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e e x p e c t e d t o h a v e r e s o l v e d a n y c o n f l i c t i n g b e h a v i o r a l , a t t i t u d i n a l o r c o g n i t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c a r e e r a n d f a m i l y i n t e r e s t s o r e x p e c t a t i o n s . I t i s b e c a u s e o f r e s o l v i n g a n y c o n f l i c t t h e y w e r e a b l e t o p u r s u e a c t i v e l y n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s t h r o u g h e n r o l l m e n t . T h o s e s t u d e n t s i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r p r o g r a m w e r e m o t i v a t e d f o r c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n f o r p e r s o n a l , e c o n o m i c , o r p r a g m a t i c r e a s o n s 69 (not u n l i k e any other student i n a career program), yet s t i l l p e r c e i v e d some c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s or r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ( e i t h e r from p a r e n t s , spouses, or c h i l d r e n ) a s s o c i a t e d with c a r e e r s and c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . 5. Women who view t h e i r work commitment i n masculine terms w i l l p e r c e i v e l e s s r o l e c o n f l i c t (measured by Items I,J,L of the Thomas A t t i t u d e Survey) than do women who view t h e i r work commitment as t r a d i t i o n a l l y feminine. R a t i o n a l e . For women who have work m o t i v a t i o n and work values t y p i f i e d by terms of masculine, c h a l l e n g i n g , permanent and important, c o n f l i c t a s s o c i a t e d with c a r e e r achievement and fa m i l y i n t e r e s t s w i l l be l e s s severe than f o r women who think of t h e i r work commitment in feminine t e r m i n o l o g y — g l a m o r o u s , i d e a l i s t i c , not demanding. Students i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs w i l l have experienced pressure to pursue s t e r e o t y p i c a l c a r e e r s , and may have done so, but by time of program enrollment they are a n t i c i p a t e d to have d e a l t with p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l c o n f l i c t s so as to minimize them. 6. Women who p e r c e i v e fewer b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n (as measured by Items F,G,H of the Thomas A t t i t u d e Survey) w i l l be e n r o l l e d i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs while women who pe r c e i v e more b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n w i l l be those e n r o l l e d i n a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n program. R a t i o n a l e . Role a c q u i s i t i o n i n v o l v e s assuming the b e h a v i o r a l , a t t i t u d i n a l , and c o g n i t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s of a s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . These e x p e c t a t i o n s are both c o v e r t and overt and are imposed by both per s o n a l and s o c i e t a l norms. Women d e s i r i n g to enter n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations w i l l have s e l f - s e l e c t e d 70 themselves i n t o those programs a f t e r c o n s c i o u s l y a c q u i r i n g a s e n s e - o f - s e l f which i n t e g r a t e s the e x t e r n a l dimensions and i n t e r n a l p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s of a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i t y . They are thus expected to p e r c e i v e fewer b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n than women who have s e l f -s e l e c t e d themselves i n t o a t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r p r e p a r a t o r y program. Because women i n the t r a d i t i o n a l program e i t h e r have not a n t i c i p a t e d , experienced, or pursued n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r i n t e r e s t s , they w i l l p e r c e i v e more b a r r i e r s to a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i t y . These s i x hypothesized e x p l a n a t i o n s of d i f f e r e n c e s among four groups of women i n d i s t i n c t postsecondary o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t o r y programs r e f l e c t both s o c i a l i z e d (stereotyped) v a l u e s , d i s p o s i t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s p l u s p e r s o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , e x p e c t a t i o n s and m o t i v a t i o n s . I t was hypothesized that by the very nature of program s e l f - s e l e c t ion or by i n t e n t i o n a l s e l e c t i o n designed by program sponsors that the women would d i f f e r on the measures of c a r e e r commitment and pe r c e p t i o n of p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . An e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s a f t e r program experiences f o l l o w s . At the completion of the programs T h i s second set of hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p s - - t h e p o s t t e s t h y p o t h e s e s - - r e f l e c t the scores on the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s a f t e r the students have been e n r o l l e d approximately f o u r t e e n weeks i n four d i s t i n c t o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs. These scores r e f l e c t the extent to which program graduates e x h i b i t systematic 71 d i f f e r e n c e s , r e c o g n i z i n g that f i n a l scores are i n f l u e n c e d by the treatments. As such, they p r o v i d e an understanding of the i n t e r a c t i v e and r e c i p r o c a l e f f e c t s of p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l dimensions of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n as mediated by e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s . 7. Women who have completed n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs w i l l p e r c e i v e fewer p e r s o n a l -s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s (measured by Thomas A t t i t u d e Survey) than w i l l women who have completed a t r a d i t i o n a l o r i e n t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n program. R a t i o n a l e . At t h i s stage of ca r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t — n e a r i n g the completion of i n i t i a l p r e p a r a t i o n i n an e d u c a t i o n a l program--students are a n t i c i p a t e d t o have confirmed t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n r e f l e c t e d by t h e i r s e l f - s e l e c t i o n i n t o s p e c i f i c programs. Consequently, measurement on the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s was expected to vary a c c o r d i n g to program emphasis. Those women i n the three n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs were p r e d i c t e d to p e r c e i v e fewer p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s at completion than women i n a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n program because they (those i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs) had made the c o r r e c t program c h o i c e and the program had met t h e i r needs and i n t e r e s t by c o n f i r m i n g t h e i r a b i l i t y to address and overcome p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s which impede n o n t r a d i t i o n a l career development. 8. Women who have completed n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n w i l l view work commitment i n masculine terms (as measured by F a c t o r I, Nagely S c a l e ) while women who have completed a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n program w i l l view work commitment as feminine and think of i t as stop-gap (as measured by F a c t o r s III & IV, Nagely S c a l e ) . Rat i o n a l e . At program completion n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r 72 program p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l possess an o r i e n t a t i o n to work and to work values which r e f l e c t s masculine, permanent, and necessary c a r e e r commitment. T h i s commitment w i l l have been confirmed through program experiences and exposure to o c c u p a t i o n a l norms, e x p e c t a t i o n s , and be h a v i o r s . The t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r program w i l l have confirmed p a r t i c i p a n t work commitment o r i e n t a t i o n s of a c a r e e r being temporary, not i n c o n f l i c t with the female r o l e , and feminine. Thus, these women w i l l a n t i c i p a t e easy e n t r y , easy e x i t , and easy r e e n t r y to s u i t t h e i r p e r s o n a l and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s . 9. Women who view t h e i r work commitment i n masculine terms w i l l p e r c e i v e fewer b a r r i e r s to s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s (measured by Items A,E,K, Thomas A t t i t u d e Survey) than do women who view t h e i r work commitment as t r a d i t i o n a l l y feminine. Rat i o n a l e . A f t e r approximately 14 weeks i n a care e r p r e p a r a t i o n program women are expected to have begun developing a sense of t h e i r competence and the r e a l i t y of t h e i r p e r s i s t e n c e in a c q u i r i n g and ma i n t a i n i n g an o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i t y . Women who express work commitment i n masculine, permanent, and necessary terms w i l l have a c q u i r e d and experienced n o n t r a d i t i o n a l accomplishments and r e c e i v e d p o s i t i v e v e r b a l reinforcement about t h e i r a b i l i t i e s . Consequently, they w i l l p e r c e i v e fewer b a r r i e r s to s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s than w i l l women who view work commitment as t r a d i t i o n a l l y feminine. 10. Women who have completed n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs w i l l p e r c e i v e l e s s r o l e c o n f l i c t (measured by Items I,J,L, Thomas A t t i t u d e Survey) than w i l l women who have completed a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n program. 73 R a t i o n a l e . Female r o l e c o n f l i c t r e s u l t s from c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s a r i s i n g from m u l t i p l e r o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with career achievement and marriage and f a m i l y i n t e r e s t s . Women i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs were a n t i c i p a t e d to have i n i t i a l l y s e l f - s e l e c t e d themselves i n t o a program because they had r e s o l v e d any major c o n f l i c t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s . Program experiences w i l l have confirmed that r e s o l u t i o n or any concerns they had at program enrollment about competing and c o n f l i c t i n g f a m i l y and s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . 1 1 . Women who view work commitment i n masculine terms w i l l p e r c e i v e l e s s r o l e c o n f l i c t (measured by Items I,J,L of the Thomas A t t i t u d e Survey) than do women who view work commitment as t r a d i t i o n a l l y feminine. R a t i o n a l e . Women with a masculine work commitment, by v i r t u e of those t r a i t s and values a s s o c i a t e d with masculine work m o t i v a t i o n (permanent, masculine, c h a l l e n g i n g , necessary) w i l l have used program experiences and exposure to o c c u p a t i o n a l norms to c o n f i r m t h e i r a b i l i t y and p e r s i s t e n c e to pursue a care e r and to d e a l with r o l e c o n f l i c t p r e s s u r e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . Women i n the t r a d i t i o n a l career program are there presumably because they a n t i c i p a t e that r o l e pressures and ex p e c t a t i o n s w i l l r e q u i r e a ca r e e r c h a r a c t e r i z e d with i n t e r m i t t e n t employment. 12. Women who have completed n o n t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs w i l l p e r c e i v e fewer b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n (as measured by Items F,G,H of Thomas A t t i t u d e Survey) than w i l l women who have completed a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n program. R a t i o n a l e . Program experiences f o r women i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs w i l l have.allowed women to gain the r e q u i s i t e knowledge and s k i l l s p l u s gain exposure to b e h a v i o r a l , a t t i t u d i n a l , and 74 c o g n i t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s impinging on a female i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l employment. As a r e s u l t of the newly a c q u i r e d knowledge, s k i l l s , and a t t i t u d e s , women i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs w i l l p e r c e i v e fewer b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n . They w i l l see that p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l norms which l i m i t a woman's o c c u p a t i o n a l o p t i o n s in n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s are based on gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n r a t h e r than on knowledge and a b i l i t y . And because of improved ca r e e r m a t u r i t y based on in c r e a s e d knowledge, a t t i t u d e s , and s k i l l s , these women i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs w i l l be in a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to make career d e c i s i o n s based on r e a l i t y r a t h e r than i d e a l i s m . These s i x hypothesized e x p l a n a t i o n s of the systematic d i f f e r e n c e s among women in four d i s t i n c t o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs r e f l e c t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of graduates of each of the four kinds of programs. I t was reasoned that d i f f e r i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would occur as a r e s u l t of the i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s employed i n the program. The d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r i n g as a r e s u l t of e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s are o f f e r e d below. P r e t e s t to p o s t t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s T h i s t h i r d set of hypotheses d e a l s with the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the amount of change during four d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t o r y programs on the measures of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Because these changes r e f l e c t the d i f f e r e n c e between p r e t e s t scores and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s , they thus r e f l e c t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the e d u c a t i o n a l programs i n i n f l u e n c i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . These scores are important because 75 they demonstrate the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the four treatments. F u r t h e r , they show the r e l a t i v e importance of s e l e c t i o n and treatment i n producing any d i f f e r e n c e s among the groups i n the i d e n t i f i e d v a r i a b l e s under examination. 13. Women who have completed n o n t r a d i t i o n a l career p r e p a r a t i o n programs w i l l p e r c e i v e fewer b a r r i e r s a s s o c i a t e d with p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s , r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n , r o l e c o n f l i c t , s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s and g o a l - s e t t i n g between the pre- and p o s t t e s t measures than w i l l women who have completed a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n program. Women i n a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n program are not expected to change t h e i r scores from the p r e t e s t to p o s t t e s t measurements. R a t i o n a l e . N o n t r a d i t i o n a l program e n r o l l e e s were thought to have i n t e r n a l i z e d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a p p r o p r i a t e to that r o l e i d e n t i t y . They were expected to have a sense of competence and p e r s i s t e n c e i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l areas, a c q u i r e d through n o n t r a d i t i o n a l experience and accomplishments. P a r t l y because of t h i s p e r s i s t e n c e , i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t they would have pursued n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n and g o a l s , even i n the face of a d v e r s i t y . For them, a c q u i r i n g the r e q u i s i t e knowledge, s k i l l s , and a t t i t u d e s of a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i t y was worth the e x t r a e f f o r t . These women were more l i k e l y to have exp l o r e d the means of ad d r e s s i n g any c o n f l i c t a s s o c i a t e d with car e e r and f a m i l y i n t e r e s t s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . Students i n a t r a d i t i o n a l l y female o r i e n t e d program were not a n t i c i p a t e d to have any exposure or experience with n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l behaviors or e x p e c t a t i o n s and consequently would not a l t e r t h e i r scores on the measures of n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . 76 As a consequence of d e a l i n g with the above phenomena, i t was expected that women i n the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t o r y programs would p e r c e i v e fewer p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . They were more l i k e l y to b e l i e v e they c o u l d e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l over t h e i r own career development than t h a t they were compelled t o comply with gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . They probably assumed greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c t i v e l y choosing an occupation based on t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s r a t h e r than on s t e r e o t y p i c a l norms. Students i n the t r a d i t i o n a l female h e a l t h care program were a n t i c i p a t e d to comply with gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and to accept s o c i e t a l norms, e x p e c t a t i o n s , and values concerning the p r o p r i e t y of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s and employment. 14. Of the women i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs, those who have completed a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l career e x p l o r a t o r y program (EAW) w i l l experience the most change of the three n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups on the measures of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n ( p e r s o n a l -s o c i a l b a r r i e r s , r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n , r o l e c o n f l i c t , s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s , g o a l - s e t t i n g ) between the pre- and p o s t t e s t measurements. R a t i o n a l e . Although women pursuing n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s were a n t i c i p a t e d to have i n t e r n a l i z e d norms a s s o c i a t e d with n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s as a r e s u l t of program p a r t i c i p a t i o n , those e n r o l l e d i n the ca r e e r e x p l o r a t o r y program (EAW) and who t h e r e f o r e were i n v o l v e d i n the process of e x p l o r i n g v a r i o u s n o n t r a d i t i o n a l career o p t i o n s ( i n c l u d i n g the s k i l l s , b ehaviors, a t t i t u d e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , and b a r r i e r s ) , were more l i k e l y to have a c q u i r e d a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n than women who had completed a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs that d i d not in c l u d e these e x p l o r a t o r y elements. The n o n t r a d i t i o n a l career 77 e x p l o r a t i o n program p r o v i d e d on-the-job experiences i n four o c c u p a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s as w e l l as s k i l l t r a i n i n g . But i t a l s o o f f e r e d more f e a t u r e s than other n o n t r a d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programs: communication s k i l l s , weight t r a i n i n g , tradeswomen as guest speakers, women-in-trade f i l m s , shop t o u r s , s p e c i a l trade s k i l l workshops, and job hunting s k i l l s . These program components f a c i l i t a t e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r development and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . O v e r a l l then, three s e t s of hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p s were o f f e r e d to present the nature of women i n postsecondary career p r e p a r a t o r y programs, t h e i r gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and the impact of t h e i r program e x p e r i e n c e s . By examining the e f f e c t of gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n at program enrollment, a b a s e l i n e measure c o u l d be determined f o r comparing the i n f l u e n c e of gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n on women i n the four programs and f o r a n a l y z i n g the i n f l u e n c e of program ex p e r i e n c e s as measured at program completion. The set of p o s t t e s t hypotheses examined the systematic d i f f e r e n c e s a c r o s s the four programs. Thus, p o s t t e s t measures r e f l e c t e d the i n t e r a c t i v e dimensions of pe r s o n a l and s o c i a l d i s p o s i t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , and behaviors toward n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations as mediated by l e a r n i n g e xperiences. The t h i r d set of hypotheses measured changes i n career commitment and p e r c e p t i o n s of b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations between program enrollment and program completion. These hypotheses thus r e f l e c t e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of program c u r r i c u l a and the s p e c i f i c s o c i a l i z a t i o n e f f o r t s of h e l p i n g women understand and overcome p s y c h o s o c i a l d e t e r r e n t s to 76 n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . Gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n were hypothesized to r e f l e c t p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s and e d u c a t i o n a l dimensions of career i n t e r v e n t i o n s — t h e formal and i n f o r m a l symbolic interchanges of r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n . Summary Role i d e n t i t y theory b u i l d s on the assumptions, d e f i n i t i o n s , and p r o p o s i t i o n s of symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n i s m . The e m p i r i c a l i s s u e s with which r o l e theory i s concerned revolve around c h o i c e s made i n s i t u a t i o n s in which i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r a c t and the r o l e i d e n t i t i e s they a c q u i r e through that i n t e r a c t i o n . The s e l f and s o c i e t y are r e c i p r o c a l ; s o c i e t y has an impact on s e l f , and through s e l f on s o c i a l b e havior. Symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l approach f o r an a n a l y s i s of n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s o c i a l i z a t i o n f o r women. Three s e t s of hypotheses were proposed t o examine the o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . The f i r s t set of p r e t e s t hypotheses represented i n i t i a l measurement on the i d e n t i f i e d v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d with career commitment and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n . These hypotheses provided an e n t r y - l e v e l b a s e l i n e f o r comparision and a n a l y s i s with p o s t t e s t scores and change s c o r e s . The p r e t e s t hypotheses a l s o f a c i l i t a t e d an examination of the s i m i l a r i t y of the programs i n t h e i r r ecruitment of women students. The second set of hypotheses ( p o s t t e s t ) allowed the d i f f e r e n c e s among the graduates of the four types of programs to 79 be measured. This measurement provided a basis for understanding the occupational role acquisition process (as influencing career commitment and perceived personal-social barriers to nontraditional occupations) as mediated by learning experiences. The third set of hypotheses represented changes on the criterion variables between pretest and posttest measures. These scores reflected the effectiveness of the four programs in influencing nontraditional occupational role socialization. The design of three sets of hypotheses (pre, post, change) was useful in addressing the question of whether the programs recruited women who were already predisposed to a specific occupation or whether the programs were able to influence nontraditional role socialization. Although self-selection plays an important part in nontraditional career choice, it was argued that special programs can facilitate nontraditional occupational socialization. 8 0 CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY Thi s chapter d e s c r i b e s the de s i g n , procedures, and analyses used t o t e s t the hypotheses. Steps taken to s e l e c t a p o p u l a t i o n and sample are o u t l i n e d and in f o r m a t i o n about the p a r t i c i p a n t s i s i n c l u d e d . The r e s e a r c h e r ' s involvement with the program data i s d e s c r i b e d , f o l l o w e d by the d e t a i l s of data a n a l y s i s used i n t h i s study. Design The d i s c u s s i o n of the design w i l l focus on a d e s c r i p t i o n of the e d u c a t i o n a l programs i n t h i s study and the instruments used to measure o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The E d u c a t i o n a l Programs The design of t h i s study f o l l o w e d the nonequivalent c o n t r o l group design (Campbell & St a n l e y , 1963). Four c l a s s e s (groups) were t e s t e d , using pre- and p o s t t e s t instruments. Women i n these programs experienced e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s to improve t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . One group was e n r o l l e d i n a pr e p a r a t i o n program of a t r a d i t i o n a l l y female o p p u p a t i o n — t h e h e a l t h care f i e l d . The remaining three groups each r e c e i v e d e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n that emphasized o c c u p a t i o n a l knowledge, s k i l l s , and a t t i t u d e s f o r occupations t r a d i t i o n a l l y dominated by men. Each of these three programs used a d i f f e r e n t approach i n o f f e r i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . The emphasis, then, i s not on whether the program i s c o n s i d e r e d " t r a d i t i o n a l " or 81 " n o n t r a d i t i o n a l " but whether the program o f f e r s s k i l l t r a i n i n g fo r o c c upations which are c o n s i d e r e d t r a d i t i o n a l f o r women or n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f o r women. The groups are d e s c r i b e d below. Group 1, "Employment A l t e r n a t i v e s f o r Women" (EAW), i s a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l career e x p l o r a t o r y program o f f e r e d at Rwantlen Community C o l l e g e , Surrey campus. I t i s designed to pr o v i d e women with the p e r s o n a l , p h y s i c a l , and mental development c o n s i d e r e d by the c u r r i c u l u m developers to be necessary f o r success i n e i t h e r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs or n o n t r a d i t i o n a l employment. Four areas of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n are addressed: c a r e e r decision-making and g o a l -s e t t i n g ; p e r s o n a l improvement ( a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g , communication s k i l l s , p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s ) ; t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge and p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s ; and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l expectat i o n s . The program i s a 16-week course of f u l l time study, i . e . , f i v e days a week, 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Attendance i s r e q u i r e d and c l o s e l y monitored. The r a t i o n a l e of attendance and time s c h e d u l i n g i s to simu l a t e , as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e , a f u l l time n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n . A f t e r an e x p l o r a t i o n p e r i o d i n c l u d i n g business and i n d u s t r i a l t o u r s , i n t e r e s t and a p t i t u d e assessments, and f i t n e s s assessments, women spend e i g h t weeks (four d i f f e r e n t two-week placements of t h e i r c h o i c e ) of on-the-job e x p e r i e n c e . Students must meet c o l l e g e admission requirements ( i . e . , s p e c i f i c academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ) or enter as a " s p e c i a l student" (one who does not meet c o l l e g e academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s but who has the permissi o n of the i n s t r u c t o r 82 and/or a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to enter the program). See Appendix A f o r c o l l e g e admission requirements. Because of the s p e c i a l i z e d nature of the program ( i . e . , n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n ) p r o s p e c t i v e students are in t e r v i e w e d by the i n s t r u c t o r to determine whether the program meets t h e i r needs and i n t e r e s t s . I f the i n s t r u c t o r deems the student w i l l b e n e f i t from the program she may r e g i s t e r . P r o s p e c t i v e students can be r e f e r r e d t o other programs or to the c o l l e g e c o u n s e l i n g o f f i c e i f i t seems a p p r o p r i a t e . T h i s program was chosen because i t was one of four i n the pr o v i n c e s p e c i f i c a l l y a d d r e s s i n g the a f f e c t i v e component of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n (the b e h a v i o r a l , a t t i t u d i n a l , and c o g n i t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n ) . The EAW program was the only one o f f e r e d i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia; the other three were l o c a t e d at postsecondary i n s t i t u t i o n s o u t s i d e of Vancouver. Knowledge and s k i l l s c oncerning n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations are provided i n the program. N o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n experiences are shared by p r a c t i c i n g tradeswomen guest speakers who serve as r o l e models and d i s c u s s the r e a l i t i e s of being a woman i n male-dominated work s e t t i n g s . Other ways t h i s program addresses n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n c l u d e shop t o u r s , women-in-trade f i l m s , r o l e -p l a y a c t i v i t i e s and group d i s c u s s i o n . Career c o u n s e l i n g i s a v a i l a b l e through the C o l l e g e or Canada Employment and Immigration Commission (CEIC), which p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l s p o n s o r s h i p for many of the women in the program. 83 As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , i f women are to take advantage of f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l emphasis and sponsorship of n o n t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l programming and o c c u p a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , then c o l l e g e programs which s p e c i f i c a l l y address the a f f e c t i v e o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n process (as w e l l as the knowledge and s k i l l components) would appear to be a p p r o p r i a t e means of accomplishing t h i s . Group 2 i s P r o f e s s i o n a l Cook T r a i n i n g , L e v e l I (CkTrng), o f f e r e d at P a c i f i c V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e (PVI), Burnaby campus. It i s a twenty-week classroom approach to o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n as a short order cook. I n s t r u c t i o n covers theory and p r a c t i c e of menu pl a n n i n g , food p r e p a r a t i o n , and kitc h e n management. Females and males are approximately e q u a l l y represented at t h i s l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n . T h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d i s c l a s s i f i e d as n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f o r women because men are represented i n g r e a t e r frequency at the higher education l e v e l s — L e v e l I I , I n s t i t u t i o n a l Cook, and L e v e l 1 1 1--A-La-Carte and Banquet Cook—and i n the higher s t a t u s p o s i t i o n of chef i n i n d u s t r y . Yet some women and men in L e v e l I regard t h i s program as " t r a d i t i o n a l , " i n other words, " f o r women." Course content i s arranged i n three segments: f i v e weeks of classroom and l a b o r a t o r y theory and s k i l l ; ten weeks of p r a c t i c a l l a b o r a t o r y experience i n the PVI short order k i t c h e n ; and f i v e weeks of i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g i n the community. Students may have from two to f i v e i n s t r u c t o r s d u r i n g the program. L i t t l e , i f any, d i s c u s s i o n i s given to the a f f e c t i v e 84 component of cook t r a i n i n g . Few, i f any, a d d i t i o n a l resources are u t i l i z e d , i . e . , guest speakers, shop t o u r s , a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g , communication s k i l l s , or career e x p l o r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n to s a t i s f y i n g c o l l e g e academic admission requirements, students must have good h e a l t h , a high standard of pe r s o n a l hygiene and the a b i l i t y to stand f o r long p e r i o d s of time. Students apply f o r the program a f t e r meeting with an i n s t r u c t o r or a d m i n i s t r a t o r of the program or a f t e r meeting with a counselor i n the Career Advisory and Student S e r v i c e s Department. T h i s program was chosen because of i t s " t r a d i t i o n a l " approach to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n — c l a s s r o o m s t r u c t u r e combined with l a b o r a t o r y experience. The content component i s a l s o of the customary n a t u r e — t h e o r y and s k i l l , i g n o r i n g the a f f e c t i v e aspect ( b e h a v i o r a l , a t t i t u d i n a l , and c o g n i t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s ) of the occupation. If women do encounter p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l b a r r i e r s d u r i n g t h e i r program, these may or may not be addressed. Career c o u n s e l i n g i s a v a i l a b l e through the Career Advisory and Student S e r v i c e s Department, although i t tends to be i n the nature of academic a d v i s i n g . Group 3 i s the T r a i n i n g Access (TRAC) program at P a c i f i c V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e , Burnaby campus. The TRAC program o f f e r s t r a i n i n g f o r access to jobs not u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d f o r women and i s thus " n o n t r a d i t i o n a l . " T h i s s e l f - p a c e d , open entry, competency-based t e c h n i c a l and trades t r a i n i n g program was i n i t i a t e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia government to r e p l a c e the pre-85 employment and p r e - a p p r e n t i c e s h i p programs o f f e r e d at community c o l l e g e s and i n s t i t u t e s throughout the p r o v i n c e . I t was s t a r t e d i n January 1983 and at the present time i s i n v a r i o u s stages of implementation, depending on the content area and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l l o c a t i o n . The use of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d modules e l i m i n a t e s classroom i n s t r u c t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n . Some p r a c t i c a l s k i l l workshops are r e q u i r e d . I n s t r u c t o r s are a v a i l a b l e as resource personnel f o r both the theory and s k i l l components of i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e , although students are not guaranteed that i n s t r u c t o r s w i l l be knowledgeable i n the students' s p e c i f i c area of study. Some group work does o c c u r — e i t h e r as l a b o r a t o r y i n s t r u c t i o n before s k i l l p r a c t i c e or as students become acquainted and begin to meet i n s p e c i f i c areas. There are no study rooms, c a r r e l s , or f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to these TRAC students; they meet and study wherever they c a n — i n the l i b r a r y (which i s de s i g n a t e d as the resource room), the c a f e t e r i a , or elsewhere. Although t h i s program i s designed t o f a c i l i t a t e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d l e a r n i n g , attendance i s mandatory f o r students sponsored by CEIC. They must s i g n in d a i l y in the resource room. The TRAC program c o n s i s t s of three elements: "Common Core" (knowledge and a c t i v i t i e s common to o c c u p a t i o n a l f a m i l i e s ) which i n c l u d e s s a f e t y , s c i e n c e , mathematics and which p r o v i d e s an i n t r o d u c t i o n to a number of s p e c i f i c occupations or f a m i l i e s of occup a t i o n s ; "Occupational (Family) Core" i n which occupations are grouped i n t o o c c u p a t i o n a l f a m i l i e s such as mechanical, e l e c t r i c a l , or other t r a d e s ; and " S p e c i a l i z a t i o n s " which are 86 r e l a t e d to the s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n a l c o r e . Students must demonstrate competency i n the common core before moving i n t o the o c c u p a t i o n a l f a m i l i e s category. Some l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e i s a v a i l a b l e f o r those having d i f f i c u l t y with program m a t e r i a l . Students are s e l e c t e d f o r most programs on a f i r s t - c o m e , f i r s t - s e r v e b a s i s , u s u a l l y a f t e r seeing a counsel o r i n Career A d v i s o r y and Student S e r v i c e s Department. There i s no s p e c i f i c e d u c a t i o n a l requirement f o r the TRAC program although students are encouraged to have Grade 1 0 math and s c i e n c e . Anyone over age s i x t e e n with an "adequate l e v e l of f l u e n c y and competency i n spoken and w r i t t e n E n g i s h " may r e g i s t e r . T h i s program was chosen because i t re p r e s e n t s a replacement of the p r o v i n c i a l pre-employment and p r e - a p p r e n t i c e s h i p programs (which are the programs i n which women e n r o l l to improve t h e i r employment op t i o n s i n the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s ) . I t a l s o r e p r e s e n t s an a l t e r n a t i v e approach to tea c h i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l knowledge and s k i l l s - - t h a t of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n . At the time t h i s study was conducted, there was l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n given to the a f f e c t i v e component of women's n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Group 4 , the l a s t group, r e p r e s e n t s an o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n program of a t r a d i t i o n a l nature f o r women—the h e a l t h care f i e l d . The Long Term Care Aide (LTC) program i s f i f t e e n weeks of f u l l - t i m e study o f f e r e d at Kwantlen Community C o l l e g e , Richmond campus. It i n v o l v e s classroom l e c t u r e s , l a b o r a t o r y p r a c t i c e and i n s t i t u t i o n a l experience. T h i s program prepares women to care f o r r e s i d e n t s i n 87 extended c a r e , intermediate care and pe r s o n a l care s e t t i n g s under the d i r e c t i o n of a r e g i s t e r e d nurse. I n s t r u c t i o n focuses on theory and p r a c t i c e , l a r g e l y i g n o r i n g the a f f e c t i v e component of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . There i s , however, a communication c l a s s requirement as part of the program. Here women l e a r n communication s k i l l s i n the context of o c c u p a t i o n a l development. Students i n t e r a c t with two to three i n s t r u c t o r s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s d u r i n g t h e i r program, as w e l l as with each o t h e r . In a d d i t i o n to the re g u l a r c o l l e g e academic admission requirements (see Appendix A), the program has the f o l l o w i n g p r e r e q u i s i t e s as l i s t e d i n the c o l l e g e c a t a l o g u e : ( 1 ) a b i l i t y to speak and understand E n g l i s h at an acc e p t a b l e l e v e l ; ( 2 ) demonstration of reading and comprehension s k i l l s ; and ( 3 ) s a t i s f a c t o r y p h y s i c a l assessment by a physican. Students are s e l e c t e d f o r the program a f t e r an i n t e r v i e w with the i n s t r u c t o r , department c h a i r p e r s o n , or c o l l e g e c o u n s e l o r . T h i s program was chosen as a comparative program, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of those occupations t r a d i t i o n a l l y thought of as s u i t a b l e f o r women as c a r e g i v e r s . I t c l o s e l y resembles the cook t r a i n i n g program ( n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f o r women) i n that i t combines classroom l e c t u r e s , l a b o r a t o r y p r a c t i c e , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l e x p erience. Both programs are i n s t r u c t o r c e ntered and c o n t r o l l e d , with s e v e r a l persons i n the i n s t r u c t o r r o l e . In CkTrng, women, have male i n s t r u c t o r s but t h e i r f e l l o w students are both male and female. The LTC program employs only women i n s t r u c t o r s and a t t r a c t s women p a r t i c i p a n t s (although men are 88 not excluded from the program). TRAC i n s t r u c t o r s are e i t h e r male or female with a predominance of males; students are mostly male. And the EAW program has a female i n s t r u c t o r . The four groups j u s t d e s c r i b e d represent four d i f f e r e n t types of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n f o r women. EAW o f f e r s n o n t r a d i t i o n a l career e x p l o r a t i o n at the pre-employment l e v e l . Students r e c e i v e t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge, p r a c t i c a l s k i l l e x periences p l u s a f f e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n and experiences about n o n t r a d i t i o n a l employment. CkTrng i s a classroom approach to o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g ; students r e c e i v e theory and s k i l l i n classroom and l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i e n c e s . The TRAC program o f f e r s pre-employment or p r e - a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t r a i n i n g through i n d i v i d u a l i z e d l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . P r a c t i c a l s k i l l a c t i v i t i e s are r e q u i r e d ; the focus i s theory and s k i l l . The l a s t program, LTC, r e p r e s e n t s a classroom approach to a t r a d i t i o n a l l y female o c c u p a t i o n — h e a l t h c a r e . Students r e c e i v e c l a s s l e c t u r e s , l a b o r a t o r y p r a c t i c e , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . The focus i s theory and s k i l l . Instruments used to measure women's o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n are d e s c r i b e d below. Instrumentation Instruments Three instruments were used to gather data: a b i o g r a p h i c a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e , an a t t i t u d e about c a r e e r s survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and a commitment to a care e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e (see Appendix B). A d d i t i o n a l l y , i n t e r v i e w s were conducted with s e l e c t e d women from 89 each program a f t e r the completion of t h e i r course of study. In the b i o g r a p h i c a l s e c t i o n of the instruments, questions were asked to a s c e r t a i n the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , number of c h i l d r e n cared f o r , ages of c h i l d r e n cared f o r , h i g h e s t l e v e l of formal education completed, t o t a l years work experience, present employment s t a t u s , number of hours per week employed ( i f a p p l i c a b l e ) , r e l a t i o n of employment to c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l enrollment, and e d u c a t i o n a l or v o c a t i o n a l goals immediately f o l l o w i n g c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l e n r o l l m e n t . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d to provide data r e g a r d i n g the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s and s e l e c t i v i t y of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The inf o r m a t i o n was a l s o intended to c o n t r i b u t e to the data base of inf o r m a t i o n about women i n n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l , n o n t r a d i t i o n a l postsecondary p r e p a r a t o r y programs. A t t i t u d e s about c a r e e r s was measured using the Survey of Women's A t t i t u d e s About Careers (Thomas et a l . , 1979). T h i s instrument assessed the p e r c e i v e d p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l b a r r i e r s for women d e s i r i n g to enter n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . I t co n t a i n e d 53 statements using a L i k e r t s c a l e ranging from s t r o n g l y agree (5) to s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e ( 1 ) . I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ( r e l i a b i l i t y ) of the instrument was determined t o be .98 (Thomas & Denbroeder, 1979, p. 4). A Q-sort and a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s provided evidence of content and c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y (Thomas et a l . , 1979) . The instrument was designed and t e s t e d i n the T a l l a h a s s e e , F l o r i d a area. Items f o r the instrument were developed from d e t e r r e n t s i d e n t i f i e d from p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s with 50 women who 90 had, at one time, c o n s i d e r e d e n t e r i n g a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r . D e t e r r e n t s i d e n t i f i e d were grouped i n t o c a t e g o r i e s to f a c i l i t a t e the w r i t i n g of items. The item format r e p r e s e n t s a common stem with s e v e r a l d e t e r r e n t statements (items) f o l l o w i n g each stem. Due to the e x c e s s i v e l e n g t h of the o r i g i n a l instrument (123 statements), an a b b r e v i a t e d v e r s i o n was de v i s e d f o r use i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . The c r i t e r i a f o r item e x c l u s i o n i n c l u d e d : (1) low lo a d i n g s ( l e s s than 10) on the 17 orthogonal f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d by Thomas, et a l , (1979); (2) low f a c t o r l o a d i n g s ( l e s s than .400) on the c o r r e l a t i o n l o a d i n g s from the item a n a l y s i s ; and (3) redundancy of item statements and/or item stems. The r e v i s e d instrument r e t a i n e d both item stems and item statements which r e f l e c t e d the p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s i d e n t i f i e d as c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s study. The r e v i s e d instrument i n c l u d e d 53 items (See Appendix B). A woman's commitment to a care e r was measured using Nagely's (1970) Scale of A t t i t u d e s Toward Career and Career-R e l a t e d V a r i b l e s . T h i s instrument uses 46 seven-point b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s c a l e s to measure the meaning a woman's ca r e e r has f o r her. S c a l e s r e p r e s e n t : s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y , uniqueness, r o l e c o n f l i c t , a c t i v i t y , s o c i a l s e r v i c e , c r e a t i v i t y , power, comfort, excitement, importance, success, self-enhancement, and s t a b i l i t y . F i v e scores are obtained: masculine work o r i e n t a t i o n , c a r e e r b e n e f i t s , feminine s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n , stop-gap job o r i e n t a t i o n , and women's l i b e r a t i o n o r i e n t a t i o n . Because r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y data were not p r o v i d e d by the developer, the instrument was checked f o r i t s r e l i a b i l i t y and 91 v a l i d i t y . The career commitment instrument was designed using the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l technique. The purpose of t h i s design i s to a llow respondents two c h o i c e s per word p a i r : d i r e c t i o n of f e e l i n g s (meaning of concept) and i n t e n s i t y of those f e e l i n g s . The o r i g i n a l instrument c o n t a i n e d 70 b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s ; 24 of which were added by Nagely to d i f f u s e the i n t e n s i t y of a t t i t u d e response and to he l p a v o i d p o s i t i o n h a b i t s i n the response p a t t e r n . For t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n of n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n only those 46 items r e l e v a n t to the f i v e f a c t o r s y i e l d e d i n the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the o r i g i n a l instrument were i n c l u d e d i n the t e s t instrument to achieve parsimony. Nagely used the o r i g i n a l instrument with twenty women employed i n occupations t r a d i t i o n a l l y f i l l e d by men and with twenty women employed i n occupations t r a d i t i o n a l l y f i l l e d by women; a l l were p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . P i l o t - t e s t i n g As i n d i c a t e d above, both the Nagely A t t i t u d e s Toward Career S c a l e and the Thomas Survey of Women's A t t i t u d e s About Careers were r e v i s e d to reduce the l e n g t h of the instruments and hence the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n time. The r e v i s e d instruments were p i l o t t e s t e d with a sample of three women e n r o l l e d i n automotive mechanics and two women i n academic upgrading and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g at Vancouver Community C o l l e g e . These students were s e l e c t e d by i n s t r u c t o r s i n the two programs. A f t e r completion of the w r i t t e n p o r t i o n of the i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , the students were asked t o share with the i n v e s t i g a t o r any concerns, q u e s t i o n s , 92 c o m p l i c a t i o n s , or i s s u e s about the instruments. F u r t h e r refinement of the items to be i n c l u d e d i n the instruments and the wording of the items was made a f t e r the p i l o t t e s t i n g p e r i o d . T h i s refinement i n v o l v e d the judgments of three experienced a d u l t educators who were i n v o l v e d i n teachi n g , t u t o r i n g , or c o u n s e l i n g women i n postsecondary academic, t e c h n i c a l , v o c a t i o n a l , and upgrading c o u r s e s . R e v i s i o n s i n c l u d e d r e f i n i n g and expanding the w r i t t e n and o r a l i n t r o d u c t o r y comments to two instruments (e.g., the Thomas A t t i t u d e Survey and the Nagely Career Commitment S c a l e ) , and s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of s e v e r a l items on the Nagely S c a l e . Interviews In a d d i t i o n to the b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and a t t i t u d e responses obtained by the instruments d e s c r i b e d , personal i n t e r v i e w s were conducted with twelve women (three from each program) a f t e r they had completed t h e i r programs of study. The purpose of the i n t e r v i e w s was to provide q u a l i t a t i v e data to augment the f a c t o r s i n the conceptual framework which provided a b a s i s f o r the hypotheses of t h i s study. The s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d nature of the i n t e r v i e w s gave the s u b j e c t s an o p p o r t u n i t y to d i s c u s s t h e i r c a r e e r development and any o b s t a c l e s or b a r r i e r s they had encountered. They were asked to account f o r f a c t o r s in t h e i r c a r e e r development and i n t h e i r program which had s p e c i f i c a l l y f a c i l i t a t e d t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n , or the a c q u i s i t i o n of an o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i t y . The in t e r v i e w s were thus i n c l u d e d and or g a n i z e d to supplement and 93 complement the quantitative data analysis. The interviews were conducted immediately following program/course completion in order to obtain the participants' perceptions of the program while it was s t i l l fresh in their minds. Student selection was made prior to the completion of each program and after consultation with each instructor or contact person. Criteria for selection were a knowledge and awareness of the issues and barriers in career development and sufficient oral fluency to describe the occupational socialization process in which they were involved. In preparing the interview schedule, the investigator obtained the assistance of two professors (one in educational administration and one in counseling psychology), one doctoral student in adult education who was doing work on a similar topic, and two adult educators experienced in working with the population selected for this study. A draft of the introductory statement and questions was submitted to each of these people for comment and advice. After suggestions were received concerning the applicability and phrasing of the schedule, it was revised and resubmitted to the panel for final comments before the interviews were conducted. Changes in the final interview schedule included changing from 6-10 specific questions to three open ended questions. Also, a specific introductory statement was included indicating the purpose of the interview in light of government emphasis on nontraditional career preparation for women. After the interviews were conducted and transcribed, the transcription was submitted to 94 the two a d u l t educators mentioned above who checked for i n t e r v i e w e r b i a s and s u b j e c t i v i t y . No problems were dete c t e d . Interviews v a r i e d i n l e n g t h from 45-90 minutes and were recorded on a u d i o - c a s s e t t e tapes. Permission to r e c o r d the s e s s i o n s was sought from each p a r t i c i p a n t before the i n t e r v i e w began; there were no r e f u s a l s . The i n t e r v i e w s were conducted in p a r t i c i p a n t s ' homes, i n the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s home, or i n one i n s t a n c e , at the i n s t i t u t i o n . In conducting the i n t e r v i e w s , an i n t r o d u c t o r y statement was made about the emphasis on o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r women, i n c l u d i n g the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s . T h i s statement was r e l a t e d to the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' recent o c c u p a t i o n a l study and t h e i r career development. Open-ended qu e s t i o n s were then asked about t h e i r c a r e e r development, any b a r r i e r s they may have encountered, and about anything i n t h e i r program which may have f a c i l i t a t e d t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . When d i s c u s s i o n d r i f t e d away from the t o p i c or when p a r t i c i p a n t s sought f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n or d i r e c t i o n , the i n v e s t i g a t o r asked s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g to the immediate t o p i c of d i s c u s s i o n . For example, ques t i o n s i n c l u d e d : what t h e i r c a r e e r goals were; how they had a r r i v e d at t h i s d e c i s i o n ; what i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r c a r e e r and program c h o i c e ; i f goals had changed as a r e s u l t of being i n the program; how and why g o a l s may have changed; i f they had experienced any b a r r i e r s to t h e i r c a r e e r development; i f they had experienced any r o l e c o n f l i c t from f a m i l y or f r i e n d s ; what was the emphasis in the program as to o c c u p a t i o n a l knowledge, s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s ; d i d anything s p e c i f i c about the program help them l e a r n about 95 the o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e ; and what was the nature of the i n t e r a c t i o n among a l l program p a r t i c i p a n t s — i n c l u d i n g i n s t r u c t o r s and other resource p e r s o n n e l . The s t a t i s t i c a l f i n d i n g s are d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 5 and the in t e r v i e w f i n d i n g s are d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 6. Procedures F o l l o w i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n of the su b j e c t s i n t h i s study, the steps taken to administer the instrument are re p o r t e d . Subjects i n the Study Students e n r o l l e d i n four postsecondary o c c u p a t i o n a l programs comprised the s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s study. The programs were: the Employment A l t e r n a t i v e s f o r Women (Group 1) and the Long Term Care Aide (Group 4) programs at Kwantlen Community C o l l e g e and the P r o f e s s i o n a l Cook T r a i n i n g L e v e l I (Group 2) and the T r a i n i n g Access (Group 3) programs at P a c i f i c V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e . Table 1 shows the number of women who took p a r t i n the pre- and p o s t t e s t s e s s i o n s of t h i s study. 96 Table 1 P a r t i c i p a n t s in Study of O c c u p a t i o n a l S o c i a l i z a t i o n G r o u p T o t a l E n r o l 1ed or C o n t a c t e d P r e t e s t P a r t i c i p a n t s P o s t t e s t P a r t i c i p a n t s Employment A l t e r n a t i v e s f o r Women (EAW) 15 15 15 Cook T r a i n i n g (CkTrng) 20 14 13 T r a i n i n g A c c e s s (TRAC) 60 14 13 Long Term Care A i d e (LTC) 20 18 16 T o t a l 1 15 61 57 Three women from each program participated in the interview sessions following completion of their program. Initial contact with the participants for the pretest assessment varied due to the differing nature of the programs. LTC and EAW were intact groups and contact was made through the instructor. Because women in CkTrng and TRAC were not easily available as groups due to their program schedules, in i t ia l contact was made by letter. A covering letter by the Pacific Vocational Institute Women's Advocate (the coordinator of the Women's Access Program discussed in Chapter 1) and a letter from the investigator were used to explain the project and to invite their participation (see Appendix C). The Women's Advocate is a staff member in the Career Advisory and Student Services Department who provides support for women enrolled in trades training, liaises with community agencies to increase employment opportunities for women, and assists in recruiting women students. Potential participants were identified using the 97 i n s t i t u t i o n s ' January 1984 program enrollment l i s t s . S i x t y l e t t e r s were mailed to women i n the TRAC program and twenty l e t t e r s went to women i n CkTrng. Because TRAC e n r o l l e e s represented a wide v a r i e t y of t r a d e s and t e c h n o l o g i e s and due to the inherent m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t y of g e t t i n g a good response r a t e when r e c r u i t i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s who are not a s s o c i a t e d with a s p e c i f i c e n t i t y (e.g., a d e s i g n a t e d group or s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n program) the d e c i s i o n was made to seek v o l u n t e e r s from the l i s t of s i x t y m a i l o u t s d e s c r i b e d above. Contact f o r the p o s t t e s t assessment was s i m i l a r : the two i n t a c t groups were c o n t a c t e d through the i n s t r u c t o r ; the remaining p a r t i c i p a n t s were co n t a c t e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r through correspondence. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Assessments were taken d u r i n g the s p r i n g term, 1984. Because the B r i t i s h Columbia c o l l e g e and i n s t i t u t e system allows each i n s t i t u t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h i t s own program schedule, each of the four programs i n t h i s study had d i f f e r e n t s t a r t i n g and completion dates. Programs at Kwantlen Community C o l l e g e were approximately three weeks l a t e commencing in s p r i n g 1984 due to a s t r i k e i n the f a l l of 1983. In order to assess p a r t i c i p a n t s at the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e date near program commencement and to e q u a l i z e t e s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s among the groups and t e s t i n g s i t e s , the p r e t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d at P a c i f i c V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e the second week of February 1984 and at Kwantlen C o l l e g e the f o l l o w i n g week. P o s t t e s t assessment was approximately fourteen 98 weeks l a t e r , or at the completion of the programs. Women i n the EAW program were p r e t e s t e d d u r i n g the f i r s t week of t h e i r program. Students i n the LTC program and the CKTrng program were p r e t e s t e d i n the second week of t h e i r program. Because of the s e l f - p a c e d nature of the TRAC program and the lack of complete r e g i s t r a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g to program entry and gender, there was no way to i d e n t i f y women i n the e a r l y phases of that program. Consequently, a general m a i l i n g to women i n v i t i n g t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n responses from v o l u n t e e r s who had been i n the program from s i x months to one week, with the m a j o r i t y assumed by the i n v e s t i g a t o r to be recent e n r o l l e e s . Since the T r a i n i n g Access program rep r e s e n t s a career p r e p a r a t i o n program of from one to two y e a r s , depending on the occupation, i t i s reasonable to assume that students who may have been e n r o l l e d f o r s e v e r a l months, and worked independently, would have knowledge, s k i l l s , b e h a v i o r s and a t t i t u d e s approximately e q u i v a l e n t to those i n d i v i d u a l s who had been e n r o l l e d i n a re g u l a r 16 or 20 week, e i g h t hour per day program. Thus, a l l p r e t e s t scores were ana l y z e d and i n t e r p r e t e d by program. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were administered by the i n v e s t i g a t o r to the four groups over a four day p e r i o d f o r both the pre- and p o s t t e s t p e r i o d s . Four days were r e q u i r e d due to program s c h e d u l i n g and campus l o c a t i o n . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of pre- and p o s t t e s t instruments to each group followed the same procedure: a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n to the p r o j e c t and i n v e s t i g a t o r was made by the i n s t r u c t o r or contact person (with whom the students were 99 f a m i l i a r ) ; the i n v e s t i g a t o r e x p l a i n e d her involvement i n the study and the nature of the p r o j e c t ; a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t o r y statement was read at the beginning of each t e s t i n g p e r i o d ; instruments were e x p l a i n e d and any concerns expressed by the p a r t i c i p a n t s were addressed. P a r t i c i p a n t s were a d v i s e d of t h e i r r i g h t to p a r t i c i p a t e or not to p a r t i c i p a t e ; two i n the CkTrng program chose not to p a r t i c i p a t e . The instruments were arranged i n composite order with b i o g r a p h i c a l q u e s t i o n s f i r s t , the women's a t t i t u d e s about c a r e e r s q u e s t i o n n a i r e next, and the care e r commitment q u e s t i o n n a i r e l a s t . During the p o s t t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s the b i o g r a p h i c a l q u e s t i o n s were omitted to a v o i d redundancy; only the q u e s t i o n concerning v o c a t i o n a l or e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s was r e t a i n e d to measure pre- and p o s t t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s . The t o t a l time f o r assessment was approximately 50 minutes f o r the p r e t e s t , 35 minutes f o r the p o s t t e s t . In order f o r t e s t i n g p e r i o d s to be as s i m i l a r as p o s s i b l e f o r a l l four groups at both pre- and p o s t t e s t assessments, every e f f o r t was made to have e q u i v a l e n t c o n d i t i o n s . For example, assessment took plac e i n the middle of the day and i n the middle of the week (except f o r one F r i d a y s e s s i o n f o r the EAW group), p h y s i c a l environment i n c l u d e d a comfortable room with adequate l i g h t i n g and adequate space f o r s i t t i n g and w r i t i n g , each program was assessed as a group (TRAC women to g e t h e r , CkTrng women t o g e t h e r ) , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n procedures f o l l o w e d the p a t t e r n p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d . 100 Data P r e p a r a t i o n and S c o r i n g A l l the s c o r i n g and coding of the instruments was performed by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . V e r i f i c a t i o n of the coding was accomplished by randomly s e l e c t i n g a l l the scores of twelve s u b j e c t s (three from each group) and comparing the coded data with the o r i g i n a l data. Two e r r o r s were found and c o r r e c t e d . The data were keypunched by the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia data e n t r y s e r v i c e s and were v e r i f i e d by them. A d d i t i o n a l v e r i f i c a t i o n was obt a i n e d by randomly s e l e c t i n g twelve s u b j e c t s and matching the keypunched data t o the o r i g i n a l coded data. No e r r o r s were found. Data Analyses S t a t i s t i c a l a nalyses were undertaken using SPSSX (Norusis, 1983) for i t s "Frequencies," " R e l i a b i l i t y , " " S c a t t e r p l o t , " and "ANOVA" with Tukey c o n t r a s t procedures. Although i n the i n i t i a l p l a n n i n g the focus was to compare the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l and t r a d i t i o n a l programs by means of the "T-Test" procedure, t h i s emphasis was a l t e r e d and ANOVA a n a l y s i s was used. T h i s a l t e r a t i o n was deemed s u i t a b l e as the i n v e s t i g a t o r became b e t t e r a c q u a i n t e d with the programs and a f t e r a p r e l i m i n a r y data a n a l y s i s . There was an i n c r e a s i n g awareness of s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s between the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l and t r a d i t i o n a l groups and among the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p s - - d i f f e r e n c e s which c o u l d be more a p p r o p r i a t e l y analyzed with a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e . LERTAP (Nelson, 1974) was used f o r c o n f i r m a t i o n of instrument 101 r e l i a b i l i t y . When the Nagely instrument proved to be u n r e l i a b l e with the r e s e a r c h sample, a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was performed using the A l b e r t a General F a c t o r A n a l y s i s Program—AGFAP (Hakstian & Bay, 1972). In a d d i t i o n to an a n a l y s i s of demographic i n f o r m a t i o n , the SPSSX procedures p r o v i d e d an a n a l y s i s of the extent to which the dependent v a r i a b l e s d i f f e r e d as a f u n c t i o n of program membership. R e s u l t s of the data a n a l y s i s are r e p o r t e d in Chapter 5. Summary The design of t h i s study was presented and four d i s t i n c t groups were d e s c r i b e d . The d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s l i e s i n the program content and approach to o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . EAW o f f e r s theory, s k i l l , and a f f e c t i v e a s p e c t s of n o n t r a d i t i o n a l , n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . CkTrng o f f e r s n o n t r a d i t i o n a l theory and s k i l l i n a classroom and l a b o r a t o r y d e s i g n . TRAC o f f e r s theory and s k i l l f o r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s through i n d i v i d u a l i z e d l e a r n i n g . And LTC o f f e r s theory and s k i l l of a t r a d i t i o n a l l y female occupation i n a classroom and l a b o r a t o r y d e s i g n . Three instruments to measure b i o g r a p h i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a t t i t u d e s about n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s , and type of career commitment were d e s c r i b e d . The i n t e r v i e w procedure was then e x p l a i n e d along with the procedures f o r instrument and i n t e r v i e w a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A d i s c u s s i o n of the sample f o l l o w e d and a d e s c r i p t i o n of the data a n a l y s i s concluded the ch a p t e r . In the next chapter the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s are presented. 102 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF QUANTITATIVE DATA In p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s three s e t s of hypotheses were s t a t e d and a d e s c r i p t i o n of the da ta c o l l e c t e d and the a n a l y s e s performed were g i v e n . The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s e s are p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , b e g i n n i n g w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the women in each of the four g r o u p s . A p r o f i l e of a s tudent in n o n t r a d i t i o n a l , n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d and comparisons w i t h those in the t r a d i t i o n a l female program are o f f e r e d . The second s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s and the r e s u l t s of the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . A d e l i n e a t i o n and r e s u l t s of the h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s are p r e s e n t e d i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n . In the l a s t s e c t i o n , the r e s u l t s of a n a l y s i s of the Nagely c a r e e r commitment ins trument are d i s c u s s e d . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of P a r t i c i p a n t s by Programs As d e s c r i b e d in the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , s t u d e n t s in c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs were the focus of t h i s s t u d y . Three groups (Employment A l t e r n a t i v e s for Women—EAW, Cook T r a i n i n g — C k T r n g , T r a i n i n g Access—TRAC) o f f e r e d o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n in n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s ; the f o u r t h (Long Term Care A i d e — L T C ) o f f e r e d o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n i n a t r a d i t i o n a l area for women. D u r i n g the p r e t e s t s e s s i o n , d e s c r i p t i v e data d e a l i n g wi th p a r t i c i p a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were c o l l e c t e d . These 103 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are re p o r t e d as f r e q u e n c i e s , percentages, or means i n Table 2. In the case of incomplete c a t e g o r i e s on ret u r n e d forms, the c a t e g o r i e s were recoded as "missing" f o r s t a t i s t i c a l computations. During the p o s t t e s t s e s s i o n , only a response f o r the q u e s t i o n about immediate v o c a t i o n a l or e d u c a t i o n a l goal a f t e r completing t h e i r program was requested i n the b i o g r a p h i c a l s e c t i o n of the instruments. F i v e c h o i c e s were o f f e r e d : r e l a t e d employment, u n r e l a t e d employment, pre-a p p r e n t i c e s h i p or a p p r e n t i c e s h i p program, f u r t h e r academic or v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , and other. Goal 1 represents p r e t e s t responses; goal 2 r e p r e s e n t s responses from the p o s t t e s t s e s s i o n s . Because only two women r e p o r t e d having three or more c h i l d r e n , these two c a t e g o r i e s of "age of c h i l d 3" and "age of c h i l d 4" were omitted from any f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . Age was re p o r t e d i n exact years but was broken down i n t o decade c a t e g o r i e s with one exce p t i o n f o r a n a l y s i s . For t h i s study the t r a d i t i o n a l c o l l e g e ages (18-22 years) were separated to determine i f the m a j o r i t y of e n r o l l e e s were c o l l e g e age students or o l d e r than the " t y p i c a l " or t r a d i t i o n a l c o l l e g e age student. Table 2 r e p o r t s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by program membership. Using SPSSX FREQUENCIES and ANOVA procedures, an a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d that some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i f f e r e d by program type. Mean age d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y by program (p=.03). As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 2, the average age f o r each program was somewhat o l d e r than the t y p i c a l c o l l e g e age student; EAW students were o l d e r (32 years) than the other three group averages (CkTrng=23, TRAC & LTC=27 y e a r s ) . Table 2 Participant C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by Program 1 04 Group 1 EAW=15 Group 2 CkTrng=14 Group 3 TSAC=14 Group 4 LTC=18 Character i st i c N % N % H 3 / N % Age * X = 32 SD=9.4 X = 23 SD=4.5 X=27 SD=3.6 X = 27 SD=11.3 Med i an = 3 1 Med i an = 24 Med'f an = 27 Med i an = 2 1 Marital Status * never married 4 26 . 7 3 64 . 3 7 30 . 0 10 55.0 marr i ed/1i v i ng together 4 26 . 7 4 28 . 6 35 . 7 5 27 . 8 separated/d i vorced/w idowed 7 46 . 7 1 7 . 1 2: 14.2 3 16.7 Number of Children at Home none . 8 53 . 3 12 85.7 1 1 78.6 12 66 .7 one 5 33. 3 2 14.3 2 14 . 3 2 11.1 two or more 2 13.4 0 0.0 1 7 . 1 4 22 . 2 Age of Chi 1d 1 * < 6 years 3 20 .0 2 14 . 3 2 14 . 3 1 5 . 6 6-12 1 6 . 7 0 0 .0 1 7 .  1 3 16 . 7 13-18 3 20, .0 0 0. .0 0 0. .0 2 1 1 . . 1 i of Chi Id 2 < 6 years 0 0 .0 0 0. .0 1 7 , . 1 0 0 .0 S-12 2 13 . 3 0 0. .0 0 0 .0 2 1 1 . 1 13-18 0 0. .0 0 0. .0 0 0. ,o 2 1 1 . 1 Educat i on < grade 12 3 20. .0 3 21 . 4 3 21.4 4 22 . 2 grade 12 3 20 .0 6 42 . 9 4 28 . 6 9 50 .0 training/voc.educat ion 3 20. .0 0 0. 0 1 7 . 1 1 5 . 6 some col l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y 5 33 . 0 3 21 . 3 1 7 . 1 3 16 . 7 graduated un i v e r s i t y 0 0. .0 0 0. .0 4 28.6 0 0 .0 other 1 6 . 7 2 14 . 3 1 7 . 1 1 5 . 6 Years Work Experience X = 12 SD = 6 . 7 X = 6 SD = 4.0 X = 8 SD=3.1 X = 8 SD--= 7 Working Now * Yes 1 6.7 3 2 1.4 -.8 57.1 5 27.8 No 14 93.3 1 1 78.6 6' 42.9 13 72.2 If Working * Part-time 1 100.0 3 100.0 7 87.6 5 100.0 Full-time 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.4 0 0.0 Work Related to Trng./Ed. * Yes 1 6.7 1 7.1 2 1 4 . 3 1 5.6 no 0 0.0 2 14.3 6 42.9 4 22 . 2 Hours Work Per Week X=6 X=12 X=18 X=12 Goal 1 (pretest) related employment 2 . 13 . 3 6 42 .9 7 50 .0 15 83 . 3 pre-apprent i ce/apprent i ce 6 40 .0 6 42 .9 5 35 . 7 0 0 .0 more education/training 6 40 .0 2 14 . 3 1 7 . 1 2 1 1 . 1 other 1 6. 7 0 0. .0 1 7 . 1 1 5 . 6 il 2 (posttest) related employment 2 13 . 3 3 21 . 4 a 57 . 1 9 50. 0 unrelated employment 1 6 . 7 0 0. .0 0 0. .0 0 0. .0 pre-apprent i ce/apprent i ce 5 33. 3 9 64. .3 4 28 6 0 0. .0 more education/training 5 33 . 3 1 7 .  1 O 0. .0 5 27 . 8 other 2 13 , . 3 1 7. . 1 1 7 .  1 1 5 .6 * Indicates! s t a t i s t i c a l d ifference at the .05 level 105 For number of c h i l d r e n at home, more than 50 percent of the women i n each program rep o r t e d no c h i l d r e n at home. Of those with c h i l d r e n at home, more EAW e n r o l l e e s had t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the p o s s i b l e r o l e c o n f l i c t (47 p e r c e n t ) , than the other groups (CkTrng=14 percent, TRAC=21 percent, LTC=33 p e r c e n t ) . Of those having c h i l d r e n at home, EAW e n r o l l e e s r e p o r t e d a higher percentage of p r e - s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n (< 6 years o ld) than the other groups. More EAW e n r o l l e e s , then, had r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d care arrangements than d i d other e n r o l l e e s . The l e v e l of education (as shown i n s i x l e v e l s ) , i n d i c a t e d t h at there was a range of education among the women but that the d i f f e r e n c e among the group means was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p=.57). Of note i s that four women i n the TRAC program had been graduated from u n i v e r s i t y , as compared with no u n i v e r s i t y graduates from the other three programs. T h i s would i n d i c a t e a con s c i o u s choice to pursue a career i n tra d e s and to a c q u i r e that p r e p a r a t i o n through i n d i v i d u a l i z e d study. The i n f e r e n c e i s on career m a t u r i t y and v o c a t i o n a l decision-making r a t h e r than on care e r e x p l o r a t i o n or a t r a d i t i o n a l female c a r e e r . A l s o , i f t r a i n i n g / v o c a t i o n a l education i s combined with some c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y , then 53 percent of EAW women re p o r t e d some postsecondary education or t r a i n i n g , the highest l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a l attainment among the four groups. That some of these women i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s would have a high l e v e l of education has a l s o been r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e ( T a n g r i , 1972). Only 21 percent of CkTrng e n r o l l e e s and 22 106 percent of LTC e n r o l l e e s r e p o r t e d postsecondary education or t r a i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . The l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h a t career development i n v o l v e s some matching of job c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( H a l l , 1976; Holland, 1976; Super, 1955). Accor d i n g to Ginzberg and a s s o c i a t e s (1951), v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e i s f i n a l i z e d between age 17 and young adulthood. That c o n c l u s i o n presumes that o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n i s f i n a l i z e d by "young adulthood," however i d e n t i f i e d . There i s nothing i n the l i t e r a t u r e which e x p l i c i t l y l i n k s age, e d u c a t i o n , and work experience as i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r s f o r a woman's care e r development. If c a r e e r development i s seen as i n v l o v i n g c h o i c e , commitment, and maturity (Nivea & Gutek, 1982; F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , 1980), i s i t not p o s s i b l e to expect that d e c i s i o n s concerning c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n are g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by experience (both academic and o c c u p a t i o n a l ) and age ( o l d e r students being more mature)? Women students i n EAW and TRAC ( o l d e r , b e t t e r educated, more years of work experience than the other two groups), by v i r t u e of t h e i r s p e c i f i c p r o g r a m — n o n t r a d i t i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n or i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , s e l f - p a c e d n o n t r a d i t i o n a l - - w e r e making those d e c i s i o n s r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r p e r s o n a l c a r e e r m a t u r i t y , career c h o i c e , and c a r e e r commitment. T h i s i m p l i e s a matching of t h e i r p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s expected from n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . T h e i r program c h o i c e may a l s o r e f l e c t t h e i r p r e f e r r e d type of l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s - -e x p l o r a t o r y or i n d i v i d u a l i z e d . 1 07 P r o f i l e of a N o n t r a d i t i o n a l and a T r a d i t i o n a l Student Because the focus of t h i s study was women pursuing n o n t r a d i t i o n a l , n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l occupations, i t was decided to e x p l i c a t e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these s t u d e n t s . Table 3 pr o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n about students i n the three n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs (EAW, CkTrng, TRAC). For comparison, i n f o r m a t i o n about students i n the t r a d i t i o n a l h e a l t h care program (LTC) i s a l s o presented i n Table 3. A search of the l i t e r a t u r e y i e l d e d two s t u d i e s which pr o v i d e d p a r t i c i p a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p a r t i c u l a r l y demographic data on n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l , n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women ( F r a l i c k , 1983; McFadzean, 1981). But because the F r a l i c k study combined c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of students i n both t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs, no tr u e d i s t i n c t i o n of n o n t r a d i t i o n a l , n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l e n r o l l e e s was d i s c e r n i b l e . McFadzean presented a student p r o f i l e based on 22 women i n a p r e - t r a d e s t r a i n i n g program i n Regina, Saskatchewan. Ages ranged from 19-34 years; e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s v a r i e d from grade 5 to 2 years u n i v e r s i t y . There was a c r o s s s e c t i o n of e t h n i c o r i g i n s . Only four of the e n r o l l e e s had any work experience i n the trades but 3/4 of the students a n t i c i p a t e d t h e i r program would help them make a ch o i c e of trade o c c u p a t i o n s . Drawing from i n f o r m a t i o n presented i n Table 3, a p r o f i l e of a female student e n r o l l e d i n a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r e x p l o r a t o r y or c a r e e r p r e p a r a t o r y program i n a postsecondary e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n i s o f f e r e d . 108 She i s most l i k e l y t o : --be 28 years o l d , s i n g l e , c h i l d l e s s ; — h a v e e i t h e r a grade 12 edu c a t i o n or some postsecondary e d u c a t i o n / t r a i n i n g ; — h a v e 9 years work experience; — c u r r e n t l y not work; and -- p l a n n i n g to seek r e l a t e d employment a f t e r her program or a p r e - a p p r e n t i c e / a p p r e n t i c e s h i p program. Furt h e r s t u d i e s are needed to c o n f i r m t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c prof i l e . In c o n t r a s t , the modal student i n the t r a d i t i o n a l program had the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : — 2 7 years o l d , s i n g l e , c h i l d l e s s ; --grade 12 or l e s s e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l ; --8 years work experience; - - c u r r e n t l y not work; and — p l a n n i n g to work in h e a l t h care a f t e r the program. As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter, Table 3 presents i n f o r m a t i o n about students i n the t r a d i t i o n a l h e a l t h care program f o r comparison with the students i n the three n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs. T a b l e 3 Characteristics of Women in Nontraditional and Traditional Postsecondary Career Preparation Programs Character i st i c Nontradi t i ona1 Trad i t i ona1 N=43 % N= 18 % Age X = 28 SD=1 . 1 X=27 SD=11.3 Median = 26 Median = 21 Mar i tal Status never married 20 46. 5 10 55 .0 married/living together 13 30. 2 5 27 .8 separated/d i vorced/w i dowed 10 23. 2 3 16.7 Number of Children at Home none 31 72. 1 12 66 . 7 one 9 20. 9 2 11.1 two or more 3 7 . 0 4 22 . 2 Age of Child 1 < 6 years 7 58 . 2 1 5.6 6-12 2 16 . 8 3 16.7 13-18 3 25 . 0 2 11.1 Age of Child 2 < 6 years 1 32 . 9 0 0.0 6-12 2 67 . 1 2 11.1 13-18 0 0. 0 2 11.1 Educat i on < grade 12 9 20. 9 4 22 . 2 grade 12 13 30 2 9 50.0 tra i n i ng/voc.educat i on 4 9. 3 1 5.6 some college/university 9 20. 9 3 16.7 graduated university 4 9 3 0 0.0 other 4 9 3 1 5 . 6 Years Work Experience X=8 9 years X = 8 years 1-5 years 13 30 3 1 5.6 6-10 16 37 3 4 22 . 2 1 1-20 1 1 25 7 1 5.6 more than 20 2 4 6 12 66 . 7 Working Now Yes 12 27 9 5 27 . 8 No 31 72 1 13 72 . 2 If Working Part-time 1 1 91 8 5 100.0 Fu11 -1 i me 1 8 2 0 0.0 Work Related to Training/Education Related 4 33 3 1 5.6 Unrelated 8 66 7 4 22.2 Hours Work Per Week X = 15 5 hours X = 12 hours Goal 1 (pretest) related employment 15 34 9 15 83 . 3 pre-apprent i ce/apprent i cesh i p 17 39 5 0 0.0 more education/training 9 20 9 2 11.1 other 2 4 7 1 5.6 Goal 2 (posttest) related employment 13 30 2 9 50.0 unrelated employment 1 2 3 0 0.0 pre-apprent i ce/apprent i cesh i p 18 41 9 0 0.0 more education/training 6 14 0 5 27 . 8 other 3 7 0 1 5.6 110 Although the average age of both groups i s l a t e 20s, the median age r e v e a l s that students i n the t r a d i t i o n a l LTC program are about f i v e years younger than n o n t r a d i t i o n a l program e n r o l l e e s . Both groups r e f l e c t e d s i m i l a r m a r i t a l s t a t u s and number of c h i l d r e n at home--the two c a t e g o r i e s of p o t e n t i a l sources of r o l e c o n f l i c t . Seventy percent of those, i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs and 72 percent i n the t r a d i t i o n a l program were e i t h e r not married or separated, d i v o r c e d , or widowed. And 72 percent of n o n t r a d i t i o n a l e n r o l l e e s and 67 percent of t r a d i t i o n a l e n r o l l e e s r e p o r t e d no c h i l d r e n at home. Another category of d i s t i n c t i o n when comparing the two groups was l e v e l of edu c a t i o n . Seventy-two percent of students in the t r a d i t i o n a l program had grade 12 or l e s s compared to 51 percent of those in n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs with the same l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n . Twenty-two percent of t r a d i t i o n a l e n r o l l e e s had some postsecondary or u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n as compared to 40 percent of those i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs who had some postsecondary education or u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . E v i d e n t l y gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n prevents many women with t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s from p u r s u i n g higher e d u c a t i o n . Conversely, those with higher l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n - - i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs—were e n r o l l e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s seeking f u r t h e r l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s may be because t h e i r p r e v i o u s education d i d not give them marketable s k i l l s , because they were seeking a d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n which r e q u i r e d t r a i n i n g , or because they were r e t u r n i n g to the labor market a f t e r an absence and wanted to upgrade t h e i r l abor market 111 q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . A f i n a l area of d i s t i n c t comparison between the two groups r e l a t e s to t h e i r p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t g o a l s . At p r e t e s t assessment, 74 percent of those i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs and 83 percent of those i n the t r a d i t i o n a l program r e p o r t e d a goal of r e l a t e d employment or p r e - a p p r e n t i c e s h i p / a p p r e n t i c e s h i p . Yet at p o s t t e s t assessment, a f t e r approximately 14 weeks of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n , the percentage of those i n the t r a d i t i o n a l program who r e p o r t e d an employment goal decreased to 50 p e r c e n t . And 28 percent r e p o r t e d a goal of more e d u c a t i o n / t r a i n i n g (compared to 11 percent at p r e t e s t ) . Something d u r i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l program p r e c i p i t a t e d a change--e i t h e r f o r a d d i t i o n a l l e a r n i n g experiences i n t h e i r intended occupation or f o r f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n / t r a i n i n g i n another f i e l d . At the same time ( p r e t e s t to p o s t t e s t ) , there was a percentage decrease f o r those in n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs seeking e d u c a t i o n / t r a i n i n g from 21 percent ( p r e t e s t ) to 14 percent ( p o s t t e s t ) . No one goal category accounts f o r the e n t i r e change; there i s a percentage s h i f t i n each goal c h o i c e f o r these students. Because of the d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s of the three n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 4, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to a t t r i b u t e the v a r i a t i o n to any s p e c i f i c source with the programs combined i n t o a s i n g l e group. However, as students are e n r o l l e d in o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n because of c h o i c e or circumstance, any change between t h e i r p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t responses must be i n f e r r e d to be r e l a t e d to program enrollment and any concomitant l e a r n i n g , developmental, or t r a n s i t i o n a l 1 12 changes o c c u r r i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . In t h i s s e c t i o n , p a r t i c i p a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were presented by program, a p r o f i l e of a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l , n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l student was o f f e r e d , and comparisons were made between those i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs and those i n the t r a d i t i o n a l program. O v e r a l l , i t appears that d i s t i n c t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s between those i n the t r a d i t i o n a l program and those i n the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs r e l a t e to age, e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l and g o a l s . Those in the t r a d i t i o n a l program are younger and have l e s s education than those i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs. Yet a f t e r 14 weeks in postsecondary i n s t i t u t i o n s , those i n the t r a d i t i o n a l program re p o r t a goal of more education or t r a i n i n g , i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s or goals have i n c r e a s e d . N o n t r a d i t i o n a l program p a r t i c i p a n t s , although r e p o r t i n g a r e l a t i v e l y high l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n , were pu r s u i n g f u r t h e r l e a r n i n g experiences to enhance t h e i r employment o p t i o n s . In the next s e c t i o n the r e l i a b i l i t y of the two instruments measuring a t t i t u d e s toward n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s and career commitment w i l l be presented. The r e s u l t s of the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the Nagely instrument w i l l a l s o be d i s c u s s e d . R e l i a b i l i t y of Instruments To compare repo r t e d r e l i a b i l i t y estimates with those based upon the study's sample data, r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t s were conducted u s i n g the SPSSX RELIABILITY program. R e s u l t s are presented i n Table 4. As d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y i n Chapter 4, the Survey of Women's 1 13 A t t i t u d e s About Careers was re p o r t e d to have an i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of .98 (Thomas and Denbroeder, 1979, p.4). No r e l i a b i l i t y r e s u l t s were r e p o r t e d f o r the subte s t s of the instrument (the instrument had not been d i v i d e d and u t i l i z e d as su b t e s t s or subscales of the l a r g e r i n s t r u m e n t ) . For t h i s study, the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of the r e v i s e d instrument as broken down i n t o four s u b t e s t s are r e p o r t e d . Table 4 Calculated R e l i a b i l i t i e s for Thomas Survey of Women's Attitude About Careers and Nagely's Scale of Attitudes Toward Career & Career Related Variables Interna1 Test/Variable Consistency Survey of Women's Attitudes About Careers Se1f-Efficacy Expectations .73 Goal-Setting .83 Role Acquisition .84 Role Conf1ict .76 Scale of Attitudes Toward Career & Career Related Variables Masculine Work Orientation .79 Feminine Social Orientation .76 Stop Gap dob Orientation .51 Feminine-Stop Gap Job Orientation .75 (combined feminine social o r ientation & stop gap job orientation) Note: Internal consistency r e l i a b i l i t i e s estimated by Cronbach alpha. The c a l c u l a t e d r e l i a b i l i t i e s of the su b t e s t s f o r the Thomas Survey were c o n s i s t e n t with the o v e r a l l high r e l i a b i l i t i e s r e p o r t e d by Thomas. Because the author of the Nagely Scale of 1 14 A t t i t u d e s Toward Career and Career Related V a r i a b l e s d i d not p r o v i d e r e l i a b i l i t y data, an i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y a n a l y s i s was conducted on the s u b t e s t s i d e n t i f i e d f o r t h i s study. R e s u l t s are r e p o r t e d in Table 4. Due to the obtained r e l i a b i l i t i e s , p l u s the f a c t that no i n i t i a l r e l i a b i l i t y i n f o r m a t i o n had been r e p o r t e d , i t was decided to explore the u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e ( i . e . , v a r i a b l e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s ) of the s u b t e s t s f o r c o n f i r m a t i o n of Nagely's f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e . A p r i n c i p a l component f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the unrotated matrix generated 13 f a c t o r s with eigenvalues > 1 ( p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l v a r i a n c e accounted f o r by the f a c t o r s ) . The percentage of t o t a l v a r i a n c e f o r those f a c t o r s was 77.1 p e r c e n t . The Scree t e s t ( C a t t e l l , 1966), however, was somewhat ambiguous i n that i t suggested 6 to 9 f a c t o r s . T h i s t e s t p r o v i d e s an estimate of the number of f a c t o r s by p l o t t i n g a l l p o t e n t i a l f a c t o r s along an a b s c i s s a i n descending order of percent of v a r i a n c e accounted f o r by each of the f a c t o r s i n the s o l u t i o n . Due to the ambiguity concerning the number of f a c t o r s , an a n a l y s i s was undertaken t o determine an a p p r o p r i a t e number f o r s c i e n t i f i c u t i l i t y and i n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y . A f t e r having r o t a t e d the data o r t h o g o n a l l y with f i v e , t hree, and two f a c t o r dimensions, the d e c i s i o n was taken to r e t a i n two f a c t o r s . T h i s d e c i s i o n was made because dimensions of f i v e f a c t o r s were u n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e ; they d i d not "hang to g e t h e r . " In comparing the r e s u l t s of three and two f a c t o r dimensions, and since no s i g n i f i c a n t simple s t r u c t u r e advantage was apparent between three or two f a c t o r s (seven of e i g h t dimensions i n the t h i r d 1 15 f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e loaded on e i t h e r f a c t o r one or f a c t o r two of the two f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e ) , two f a c t o r s were r e t a i n e d f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . The s a l i e n t l o a d i n g s of these two f a c t o r s are presented i n Table 5; l o a d i n g s i n excess of .30 were i n c l u d e d f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (Tabachnick & F i d e l l , 1983). The t o t a l amount of v a r i a n c e accounted f o r was 36.3 p e r c e n t . Table 5 Factor Loadings of New Factors derived from Nagely Scale of Attitudes Toward Career & Career Related Variables Factor 1: Expectations' of Career Benefits Loadings productive - f r u i t l e s s .857 creative - unimaginative .810 successful - unsuccessful . 785 active - passive . 773 f u l f i l l i n g - u n f u l f i l l i n g . 770 p o s i t i v e - negative . 753 outgoing - subdued . 692 provides recognition - no recognition .657 p r a c t i c a l - impractical .656 important - unimportant .646 would recommend to others - would not recommend .644 i n t e r e s t i n g - uninteresting . 54 1 glamorous - dul1 . 498 permanent - temporary . 455 advantageous - handicapping . 450 strenuous - not demanding . 396 necessary - unnecessary . 340 dominant - subordinate . 332 Factor 2: Career as Vehicle for Self- Express i on u p l i f t i n g - degrading . 770 appropriate - inappropriate . 765 f l e x i b l e - i n f l e x i b l e . 75 1 expressive - unexpressive .710 comfortable - uncomfortable .676 strong - weak . 666 l i b e r a t i n g - confining .603 cha11eng i ng - uncha11eng i ng . 568 innovative - monotonous . 535 s a t i s f y i n g - unsatisfying . 534 integrates l i f e - fragments l i f e . 503 enhances home l i f e - disrupts home l i f e .494 variable - routine . 473 desirable - undesirable . 470 soc i a l - unsocial . 463 not in c o n f l i c t with female role - in conf1i ct .434 good - bad . 393 s e l f l e s s - s e l f i s h . 368 toward people - away from people . 357 independent - c o n t r o l l e d . 344 healthy - unhealthy . 342 unusual - ordinary . 325 1 17 Keeping i n mind that t h i s was a c o n f i r m a t o r y a n a l y s i s , the d e c i s i o n concerning the number of f a c t o r s was based not only upon simple s t r u c t u r e but a l s o on i d e n t i f i a b i l i t y of the proposed typology of what having a c a r e e r meant (career commitment). Using the c r i t e r i a and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e l e v a n t to a d e s c r i p t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of f a c t o r s (Rummel, 1970), i t was decided to t r y to encapsulate the s u b s t a n t i v e nature of the f a c t o r s to communicate t h e i r meaning f o r t h i s study. Reviewing the e x p l a n a t i o n of commitment to a c a r e e r as determined by one's knowledge and understanding of c a r e e r s and s e l f which i s d e r i v e d through experience and e x p l o r a t i o n , names were assig n e d to the new f a c t o r s which would r e f l e c t those c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . F a c t o r 1 was named "Expectations of Career B e n e f i t s " ; F a c t o r 2 was named "Career as V e h i c l e of S e l f E x p r e s s i o n . " F a c t o r 1 seemed to express the dimensions of a c a r e e r i t s e l f . The h i g h e s t l o a d i n g s ( p r o d u c t i v e , c r e a t i v e , s u c c e s s f u l , a c t i v e , f u l f i l l i n g ) r e l a t e d to e x t e r n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s one has about the b e n e f i t s of having a c a r e e r . The naming of the second f a c t o r proved more d i f f i c u l t as the h i g h e s t l o a d i n g s ( u p l i f t i n g , a p p r o p r i a t e , f l e x i b l e ) a l s o appeared to r e l a t e to what a student expected a c a r e e r to be or p r o v i d e . C o n s i d e r i n g the remaining items in t o t o (e.g., e x p r e s s i v e , s t r o n g , enhances home l i f e , not i n c o n f l i c t with the female r o l e , h e a l t h y ) , i t was concluded that t h i s dimension best d e s c r i b e d one's s e l f e x p r e s s i o n and i d e n t i t y as d e r i v e d from having a c a r e e r . To a s c e r t a i n i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of these two new f a c t o r s , 1 18 an a n a l y s i s of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y using SPSSX RELIABILITY was performed. F a c t o r 1 ( E x p e c t a t i o n s of Career B e n e f i t s ) y i e l d e d i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of .91; F a c t o r 2 (Career as V e h i c l e f o r S e l f Expression) had i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of .88. The magnitude of these f i g u r e s allowed the r e s e a r c h e r to proceed with analyses using these new f a c t o r s . C e r t a i n l y , f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s and c o n f i r m a t i o n of these s u b s c a l e s or su b t e s t s i s r e q u i r e d before the v a l i d i t y can be d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d . The next s e c t i o n w i l l focus on the hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p s and present the r e s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s . D i s c u s s i o n of Hypotheses Three s e t s of hypotheses were o r i g i n a l l y proposed f o r t h i s study as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 3. The use of three s e t s (pre, post, change) was important i n addre s s i n g the qu e s t i o n of whether the programs r e c r u i t e d women who were a l r e a d y p r e d i s p o s e d to a s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e or whether the programs were able to i n f l u e n c e o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The f i r s t set d e s c r i b e d women i n four d i s t i n c t c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs as they d i f f e r e d on the i d e n t i f i e d c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s at the i n i t i a l stages of t h e i r programs. For the second set of hypotheses, the systematic d i f f e r e n c e s of the women on the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s as measured near the completion of t h e i r programs were analyzed. The f i n a l set of hypotheses examined the d i f f e r e n c e s between the pre- and p o s t t e s t measurements on the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s to assess the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the 119 e d u c a t i o n a l I n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . Each hypothesis w i l l be presented with a n a l y t i c r e s u l t s . D i s c u s s i o n w i l l f o l l o w each set of hypotheses. R e s u l t s are based on the SPSSX Oneway ANOVA procedure and are presented i n Table 6 by means and standard d e v i a t i o n s (the s c a l e ranged from 1 " s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e " to 5 " s t r o n g l y a g r e e " ) . Due to the i n a b i l i t y to c o n f i r m the o r i g i n a l Nagely career commitment s c a l e s (Masculine Work O r i e n t a t i o n , Feminine S o c i a l O r i e n t a t i o n and Stop Gap Job O r i e n t a t i o n ) , only those hypotheses r e l a t i n g to the Thomas Survey of A t t i t u d e s w i l l be d e l i n e a t e d and d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . Each set w i l l be numbered s e p a r a t e l y , r a t h e r than f o l l o w i n g the s e q u e n t i a l numbering as presented in Chapter 3. An examination and a n a l y s i s of the two new f a c t o r s c a l e s w i l l be presented i n the next s e c t i o n . 1 20 Table 6 Pretest and Posttest Measurements of Perceived Personal-Social Barriers to Nontraditional Occupations Comparing Four Career Preparation Programs Var iable P R O G R A M .Employment Alterna- Cook Training tives for Women Training Access Long Term Care Aide SD SD SD SD S e l f - E f f icacy Expectat i ons pre(p=.002)a 3.16* .71 post(p=.465)b 2.69 .73 Goal Setting pre(p-.105) 3.04 .94 post(p=.184) 3.05 .72 Roi e Acqu i s i t i on pre(p=.036) 3.39 .76 post(p=.006) 2.75* .81 Roie Conf1ict pre(p=.005) 3.58* .42 post(p=.489) 3.18 .33 Total Barriers pre(p=.009) 3.29 .57 post(p=.294) 2.92 .57 2 . 35* 2.S0 3 .08 3 . 50 . 60 . 59 .61 . 57 3.37 .49 3.79* 1.31 3.05-1 3 .06 2 . 96* 3.29 . 44 . 48 . 29 . 49 2 . 79 2.58 3.64 3 . 36 3 . 56* 2.90 3 . 49* 3.17 . 76 . 88 . 77 . 59 3.98 .44 3.84* .50 . 47 . 77 . 43 . 59 2 . 34* 2. 39 3.15 3.43 3 . 53 3 . 46 3 . 33 3 . 10 3.09* 3 . 10 . 50 .67 . 48 . 46 .65 . 73 . 38 .31 . 36 . 42 a--Pretest scores were based on N of 61 b--Posttest scores were based on N of 57 •--Indicates groups s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the .05 level using Tukey contrast (which evaluates a l l pari wise comparisons of means) P r e t e s t hypotheses The p r e t e s t set of hypotheses was proposed to a s c e r t a i n the s i m i l a r i t y i n student s e l e c t i o n and recruitment among the four programs at program enrollment. These p r e t e s t hypotheses a l s o served as a b a s e l i n e measure to analyze the i n t e r a c t i o n between s e l e c t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s or s i m i l a r i t i e s and program c u r r i c u l a i n f l u e n c e s . The f o l l o w i n g three hypotheses represent the Thomas 121 A t t i t u d e About Careers Survey as measured at the beginning of the programs. D i s c u s s i o n of the set as a group w i l l f o l l o w the f i n d i n g s f o r hypothesis t h r e e . 1. Women who p e r c e i v e fewer p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s w i l l be e n r o l l e d i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs, while women who p e r c e i v e more p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s w i l l be e n r o l l e d i n a t r a d i t i o n a l o r i e n t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l program. T h i s hypothesis was not confirmed. As measured by mean s c o r e s , only one n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group (CkTrng) p e r c e i v e d fewer t o t a l p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s (2.96) t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations than those e n r o l l e d i n a t r a d i t i o n a l h e a l t h care program (LTC=3.09). The other two n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups p e r c e i v e d more b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations than the t r a d i t i o n a l program (EAW=3.29 and TRAC=3.49). T h i s f i n d i n g was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p=.009); TRAC was d i f f e r e n t from CkTrng and LTC but CkTrng and LTC d i d not d i f f e r . 2. Women who p e r c e i v e l e s s r o l e c o n f l i c t w i l l be e n r o l l e d i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs while women who p e r c e i v e more r o l e c o n f l i c t w i l l be e n r o l l e d i n a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n program. The f i n d i n g s d i d not support t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . Only one of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups (CkTrng=3.05) p e r c e i v e d l e s s r o l e c o n f l i c t as measured by mean scores than the t r a d i t i o n a l group (LTC=3.33). P e r c e i v e d r o l e c o n f l i c t was not a major d e t e r r e n t to females pursuing t r a d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and employment. Although no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between the t r a d i t i o n a l group and the three n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups, s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n was found among the three 1 2 2 n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups (p=.05). CkTrng was d i f f e r e n t from both the TRAC and EAW groups, ( p e r c e i v i n g fewer b a r r i e r s ) while the d i f f e r e n c e between the TRAC and EAW groups was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t — t h e y both p e r c e i v e d an approximate number of r o l e c o n f l i c t b a r r i e r s . 3. Women who p e r c e i v e fewer b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n w i l l be e n r o l l e d i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs while women who p e r c e i v e more b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n w i l l be those e n r o l l e d i n a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n program. The r e s u l t s do not support t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . On t h i s c r i t e r i o n measurement the groups were s i m i l a r i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n (EAW=3.39, CkTrng=3.37, TRAC=3.98, LTC=3.53). A c c o r d i n g l y , both those i n the t r a d i t i o n a l program and those i n the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs expressed a s i m i l a r s o c i a l i z e d p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s , knowledge, p e r c e p t i o n s , and a b i l i t i e s r e l a t i n g to the world of work f o r women i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations and o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n . D i s c u s s i o n . P e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s were shown to have been p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n t l y by groups, although the range of scores was somewhat narrow. There were no c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s of the number or degree of p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s between the t r a d i t i o n a l program and the three n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs. P e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s — i n c l u d i n g those a s s o c i a t e d with r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n and r o l e c o n f l i c t - - i n v o l v e c o g n i t i v e , a t t i t u d i n a l , and b e h a v i o r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . These e x p e c t a t i o n s are environmental f a c t o r s (and as c o n s t r a i n t s are p e r c e i v e d as 123 b a r r i e r s ) which when i n t e r n a l i z e d become a t t i t u d e s . Gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n appears to exert a s i m i l a r i n f l u e n c e on women pursuing e i t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l or n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations as r e f l e c t e d by the moderate number of b a r r i e r s p e r c e i v e d on the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s . Taking a l l the p r e t e s t scores together g i v e s an approximate understanding of how women pl a n n i n g to enter' t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations d i f f e r e d at the beginning of t h e i r programs on t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of a t t i t u d i n a l , c o g n i t i v e , and b e h a v i o r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g r o l e c o n f l i c t , r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n , and p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . Although program enrollment was almost e n t i r e l y a s e l f - s e l e c t i o n process, the e m p i r i c a l r e s u l t s from the p r e t e s t s c ores i n d i c a t e that a l l groups of students were approximately i d e n t i c a l on the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s . Both t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups p e r c e i v e d a moderate number of b a r r i e r s to r o l e c o n f l i c t (3.05 to 3.58), r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n (3.37 to 3.98), and p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s (2.96 to 3.49) a s s o c i a t e d with n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o ccupations. These p r e t e s t data demonstrate that the t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs were s e r v i n g a homogeneous group of women; program p a r t i c i p a n t s ' scores r e f l e c t e d s i m i l a r gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n experiences and a t t i t u d e s . Although the s i m i l a r i t y of the moderation of scores among the programs i n d i c a t e s the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l and t r a d i t i o n a l program p a r t i c i p a n t s were a homogeneous group, some v a r i a t i o n e x i s t s among the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs. Women e n t e r i n g a 124 n o n t r a d i t i o n a l career e x p l o r a t o r y program (EAW) and an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s e l f - p a c e d trades t r a i n i n g program (TRAC) had already a c q u i r e d a view of a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupation as having a moderate amount of both p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l b a r r i e r s p r i o r to e n t e r i n g t h e i r programs. T h i s a c q u i s i t i o n may have occ u r r e d through developmental and/or l e a r n i n g processes of s o c i a l i z a t i o n to work r o l e s (Bandura & Walters, 1963b; Kohlberg, 1966) i n fa m i l y s e t t i n g s , e d u c a t i o n a l systems, or o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . These women on average were o l d e r , b e t t e r educated, and had more work experience than the other n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group (CkTrng). Yet by s e l f - s e l e c t i o n they entered a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n program, overcoming (or hoping to) some of the very b a r r i e r s they p e r c e i v e d to r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n , r o l e c o n f l i c t , and the more g l o b a l p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . Those females in CkTrng p e r c e i v e d fewer p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s and to r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n and expressed l e s s r o l e c o n f l i c t concerning n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations than any other group d u r i n g the p r e t e s t s e s s i o n s . Even t h e i r mean scores on the other v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n ( s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s and g o a l - s e t t i n g ) were e i t h e r the lowest or next to l o w e s t - - i n d i c a t i n g fewer p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s than most other groups. E v i d e n t l y these students had not experienced p e r s o n a l or s o c i a l impediments to a c h i e v i n g t h e i r intended o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e , or d i d not p e r c e i v e b a r r i e r s to be as important as d i d the other groups. Because cooking i s a s s o c i a t e d with t r a d i t i o n a l 1 25 female experiences and norm s o c i a l i z a t i o n , these women may not have i n t e r n a l i z e d as many c o n s t r a i n i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s or p e r c e p t i o n s as the other n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups. T h e i r mean scores at the i n i t i a l stages of t h e i r program i n d i c a t e they d i d not a n t i c i p a t e major problems a s s o c i a t e d with r o l e c o n f l i c t , r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n , or n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . P r e t e s t scores thus represent s o c i a l i z e d v a l u e s , norms, and e x p e c t a t i o n s concerning the c h o i c e , p r o p r i e t y and a b i l i t y of women to ac q u i r e and maintain a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i t y . The programs do not n e c e s s a r i l y a t t r a c t students with d e f i n i t e o c c u p a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s nor do students appear to s e l e c t a program based on d e f i n i t e p r e c o n c e i v e d o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g l y , any success enjoyed by the planners of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs in ad d r e s s i n g and reducing the p e r c e p t i o n of p s y c h o s o c i a l b a r r i e r s was not due to the process they employed in r e c r u i t i n g or s e l e c t i n g s t u d e n t s . P o s t t e s t hypotheses The p o s t t e s t set of hypotheses was formulated to a s c e r t a i n the success of program c u r r i c u l a i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s i n s o c i a l i z i n g students f o r entry i n t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . These three hypotheses o f f e r an e m p i r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the system a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s at program completion in p s y c h o s o c i a l dimensions of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n . D i s c u s s i o n of the set as a group w i l l f o l l o w the f i n d i n g s of the t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s . 1. Women who have completed n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs w i l l p e r c e i v e fewer p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l 126 b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s than w i l l women who have completed a t r a d i t i o n a l o r i e n t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l program. T h i s hypothesis was not confirmed. A c c o r d i n g to mean scores approximately 14 weeks a f t e r e n r o l l i n g in an o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n program, only one of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups (EAW) pe r c e i v e d fewer t o t a l p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s (2.92) than the group e n r o l l e d i n a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t o r y program (LTC 3.10). The other two groups of students i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs (CkTrng and TRAC) p e r c e i v e d more p s y c h o s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations (3.29 and 3.17 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) than d i d the LTC group. There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . Because mean scores represent the fewest p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations, the f i n d i n g s at program outcome thus r e f l e c t the e f f e c t of e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s to i n f l u e n c e o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Not a l l n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs then are able to i n f l u e n c e student p e r c e p t i o n s about b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . 2. Women who have completed o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs w i l l p e r c e i v e l e s s r o l e c o n f l i c t than w i l l women who have completed a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n program. T h i s hypothesis was not confirmed. On t h i s measure of n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n , TRAC (2.90) and CkTrng (3.06) were the two groups of n o n t r a d i t i o n a l students to p e r c e i v e fewer r o l e . c o n f l i c t b a r r i e r s (or to express l e s s r o l e c o n f l i c t ) than those i n the t r a d i t i o n a l program (LTC 3.10). EAW, the other n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group, p e r c e i v e d more r o l e c o n f l i c t (3.18) a s s o c i a t e d with n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l 127 i d e n t i f i c a t i o n than d i d the LTC group. There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . 3. Women who have completed n o n t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs w i l l p e r c e i v e fewer b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n than w i l l women who have completed a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n program. E m p i r i c a l data on t h i s c r i t e r i o n measurement do not support the h y p o t h e s i s . Only one of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs (EAW) pe r c e i v e d fewer (2.75) b e h a v i o r a l , a t t i t u d i n a l , or c o g n i t i v e c o n s t r a i n t s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n than d i d students in the t r a d i t i o n a l program (3.46). The two remaining groups of n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n students, CkTrng and TRAC, both p e r c e i v e d more b a r r i e r s than d i d the t r a d i t i o n a l LTC group. No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups and the t r a d i t i o n a l group, but among the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups, Tukey c o n t r a s t r e v e a l e d that s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n was found (p=.05). A n a l y s i s shows t h a t EAW i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from CkTrng and TRAC, but that TRAC and CkTrng are not s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from each other. The score for EAW i s the lowest of the four groups; r e l a t i v e to t h e i r p r e t e s t score, t h e i r p o s t t e s t score i s l o w e r -r e f l e c t i n g fewer p e r c e i v e d impediments to r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n than o r i g i n a l l y a n t i c i p a t e d . T h i s f i n d i n g i s important because a mean score of 2.75 i n d i c a t e s that students do not b e l i e v e the items represent impenetrable b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . Di s c u s s i o n . Again t a k i n g a l l scores combined, r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that women d i f f e r on p o s t t e s t measures of o c c u p a t i o n a l 128 s o c i a l i z a t i o n but not as hypothesized. Scores are i n d i c a t i v e of many complex l e a r n i n g and developmental f a c t o r s . Measurement at program completion i s assumed to r e f l e c t the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the products of four treatments r e g a r d l e s s of the sources of the v a r i a t i o n . Those in a t r a d i t i o n a l h e a l t h care program were not expected to be exposed to any n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , e x p e c t a t i o n s , b e h a v i o r s , a t t i t u d e s or norms and thus not expected to a l t e r t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s about b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l career development. T h i s proved to be only p a r t i a l l y t r u e a c c o r d i n g to e m p i r i c a l r e s u l t s . On two measures of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n at the p o s t t e s t ( r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n and t o t a l b a r r i e r s ) , these LTC students were second lowest i n the number of b a r r i e r s they p e r c e i v e d . On r o l e c o n f l i c t measurement, LTC scores were second h i g h e s t i n the number of p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s . Measurement at or near program completion i n d i c a t e d a d i f f e r e n c e i n students' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r a b i l i t i e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s concerning n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . But because no c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s were found between the t r a d i t i o n a l group and the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups concerning changes i n p s y c h o s o c i a l dimensions of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n , i t can be i n f e r r e d that any d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n f l u e n c i n g the p e r c e p t i o n of b a r r i e r s were not due s o l e l y to i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s employed in p r e p a r i n g students f o r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l employment. D i f f e r e n c e s between and among the t r a d i t i o n a l and 129 n o n t r a d i t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s may r e f l e c t p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . On the average, n o n t r a d i t i o n a l e n r o l l e e s were o l d e r , b e t t e r educated, and had more years of work experience than the t r a d i t i o n a l group. Within the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group, EAW women were the o l d e s t and had more work experience. A l s o , more EAW students had c h i l d r e n at home ( s p e c i f i c a l l y p r e - s c h o o l age), and were married or had been married as compared to the other n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups. While age and work experience may mediate b a r r i e r s a s s o c i a t e d with r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n and r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ( i n d i c a t e d by the lowest s c o r e s ) , m a r i t a l and p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s accentuate r o l e c o n f l i c t b a r r i e r s (as i n d i c a t e d by the h i g h e s t s c o r e s ) . T r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l program graduates, then, e x h i b i t d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p e r c e p t i o n of b a r r i e r s a s s o c i a t e d with n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations. Program c u r r i c u l a and l e a r n i n g experiences do l i t t l e to address or reduce the p e r c e p t i o n of b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , e i t h e r f o r those pursuing t r a d i t i o n a l or n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . Table 7 p r e s e n t s changes between the pre- and p o s t t e s t scores on these measures of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n which are d i s c u s s e d i n the next s e c t i o n . These changes assess the d i f f e r e n c e s in scores a t t r i b u t e d to program enrollment and the concomitant l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the four programs i n b r i n g i n g about change i s thus demonstrated e m p i r i c a l l y . Table 7 P r o g r e s s Toward N o n t r a d i t i o n a l O c c u p a t i o n a l Employment f o r Women in T r a d i t i o n a l and N o n t r a d i t i o n a l C a r e e r P r e p a r a t i o n Programs 1 3 0 Program S e l f E f f i c y . E x p e c t a t i on (f=2.493) (p=.070) R I B Goal S e t t i ng (f=1.620) (p=.190) Roi e Acqust i on (f = 2.736 ) (p=.053) Roi e C o n f 1 i c t (f=4.536) (p=.006) B a r r i e r T o t a l (f=4.574 ) (p=.006) X1-X2 SD X1-X2 SD X1-X2 SD X1-X2 SD X1-X2 SD Emp1oyment A 1 t e r n a t i ves .47 f o r Women (n=15) .70 .01 1.14 . 64 .60 .40 . 4 6 .37* .56 Cook T r a i n i n g (n=13) •.45 .87 • .42 .62 -.42 1.63 -.01* .43 - . 33 s . 53 T r a i n i n g A c c e s s (n=13) .16 1.09 . 28 .60 14 .59 .66* .64 . 32" . 56 Long Term Care A i de (n=16 ) - .05 . 84 - . 23 . 77 .07 .91 . 23 . 44 .01 .52 Mean T o t a l .06 .92 - . 12 .84 12 1.04 .30 . 54 .09 . 60 Note: A l l e n t r i e s denote change i n p e r c e p t i o n of b a r r i e r s toward women's n o n t r a d i t i o n a l e m p 1 o y a b i 1 i t y . P o s i t i v e e n t r i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t women see fewer b a r r i e r s or reduced s e v e r i t y , hence e a s i e r a c c e s s to jobs as a r e s u l t of the program. N e g a t i v e e n t r i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t b a r r i e r s a r e deemed more s e v e r e a f t e r the program than b e f o r e . T h e a l p h a p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t the programs d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y appears at the head of each column. * Denotes groups s i g n i f i -c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the .05 l e v e l u s i n g Tukey c o n t r a s t (which e v a l u a t e s a l l p a i r w i s e comparisons among means). Pretest to posttest differences The final set of hypotheses were proposed to ascertain the extent of differences between the pretest measures (at in i t ia l stages of occupational preparation) and the posttest measures (near the termination of occupation preparation). These hypotheses deal with the effectiveness of the four programs in bringing about change in perceived personal-social barriers to 131 n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . E m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s w i l l be presented f o r each h y p o t h e s i s , f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s as a s e t . (The two hypotheses below were numbered 13 and 14 when d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 3.) 1. Women who have completed n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs w i l l e x h i b i t g r e a t e r change a s s o c i a t e d with p e r s o n a l -s o c i a l b a r r i e r s , r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n , r o l e c o n f l i c t , s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s and g o a l - s e t t i n g between the p r e - and p o s t t e s t measures than w i l l women who have completed a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n program. Women e n r o l l e d i n a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n program are not expected to change t h e i r scores from the pre- to the p o s t t e s t measurements. T h i s hypothesis was not confirmed. Two of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups (EAW and TRAC) d i d p e r c e i v e fewer b a r r i e r s than d i d the t r a d i t i o n a l (LTC) group to s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s , g o a l - s e t t i n g , r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n , and r o l e c o n f l i c t from the beginning of t h e i r programs to the end as measured by mean d i f f e r e n c e s . But the other n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group, CkTrng, p e r c e i v e d more b a r r i e r s at the completion than at the i n i t i a t i o n of t h e i r program on each of the f i v e o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n measures. LTC e n r o l l e e s d i d change t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of the number or degree of b a r r i e r s but the change was not c o n s i s t e n t and i t was minimal. E m p i r i c a l r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d that there were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups and the t r a d i t i o n a l group. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n was found, however, among the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups. Consequently, the c u r r i c u l u m of care e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs may be able to i n f l u e n c e students' p e r c e p t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . about o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s but not as a n t i c i p a t e d . 132 The t r a d i t i o n a l h e a l t h care program c u r r i c u l a and l e a r n i n g experiences have l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on the balance between gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Change scores f o r t h i s LTC group were a l t e r e d m i n i m a l l y on the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s . The three n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs, however, had d i f f e r i n g i n f l u e n c e s upon the o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the stud e n t s . E v i d e n t l y the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the programs in b r i n g i n g about change was r e l a t e d t o the type of i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s they employed. The data c o l l e c t e d were i n s u f f i c i e n t to r e v e a l the s p e c i f i c sources of the v a r i a t i o n . 2. Of the women who have completed n o n t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs, those who have completed a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r e x p l o r a t o r y program (EAW) w i l l experience the most change of the three n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups on the measures of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n ( p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s , r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n , r o l e c o n f l i c t , s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s , g o a l -s e t t i n g ) between the pre- and p o s t t e s t measurements. The f i n d i n g s do not t o t a l l y support t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . As measured by mean sc o r e s , the EAW group had g r e a t e r change i n t h e i r scores on three of the f i v e measures: s e l f e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s (.47), r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n (.64), and t o t a l b a r r i e r s (.37) than d i d the other n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups. They p e r c e i v e d fewer b a r r i e r s to these c r i t e r i o n measures at program completion than at enrollment. TRAC women had g r e a t e r change scores ( p e r c e p t i o n s of fewer b a r r i e r s ) on g o a l - s e t t i n g (.28) and r o l e c o n f l i c t (.66). And change scores f o r CkTrng were c o n s i s t e n t l y n e g a t i v e , i n d i c a t i n g they p e r c e i v e d more b a r r i e r s a f t e r r e c e i v i n g c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n than at the o u t s e t . T h i s may be a r e s u l t of i n f o r m a t i o n and experiences a c q u i r e d d u r i n g t h e i r 133 program, reflecting the reality of the world of work for women in nontraditional occupations. Discussion. Table 7 summarizes the results of the pre- to posttest changes by program and variable. It shows that the programs assisted women in understanding and addressing the personal and social barriers to occupations, but not a l l programs had the same results. Women in LTC programs effectively did not change their perspectives about barriers to nontraditional career development; there were mixed patterns in the nontraditional groups. EAW enrollees made the most change in perception of total barriers (fewer barriers perceived) as measured by mean scores, followed by TRAC women. But curiously, women in CkTrng perceived more barriers from the beginning of their program than they did at the completion. Women in the LTC program exhibited less change on measures of self-efficacy, occupational role acquisition, and total barrier count than the nontraditional groups. They detected more problems in addressing factors affecting goal-setting at the completion of the course than at the beginning. On a l l variables except goal-setting their occupational role orientation remained the same; their program made l i t t l e difference in their occupational orientation as reflected in l i t t l e change on measures of barriers to nontraditional occupations. On self-efficacy expectations and role acquisition the EAW group also showed the greatest gain in occupational 134 s o c i a l i z a t i o n . T h i s means they p e r c e i v e d fewer b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s and saw themselves as competent and p e r s i s t e n t i n a c q u i r i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i t y . EAW p a r t i c i p a n t s were o l d e r and had more years work experience than the other groups. The EAW program o f f e r s i n f o r m a t i o n , e x e r c i s e s , and experiences a s s o c i a t e d with the c o g n i t i v e , b e h a v i o r a l and a t t i t u d i n a l p e r c e p t i o n s of n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , they take i n t e r e s t and a p t i t u d e assessments; v i s i t n o n t r a d i t i o n a l b u s i n e s s e s and i n d u s t r i e s ; p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to f i t n e s s , decision-making, a s s e r t i v e n e s s and communication s k i l l s . They a l s o meet female tradeswomen and work in four d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . A l l t h i s experience and exposure, combined with p e r s o n a l maturity and work experience, e v i d e n t l y i n f l u e n c e s t h e i r e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s and r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n e x p e c t a t i o n s . TRAC women were second o n l y to EAW in understanding and ad d r e s s i n g b a r r i e r s to o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y , r o l e c o n f l i c t problems ( + . 6 6 ) . Students in t h i s program were second to EAW students in age and year of work experience, and had more education than the other groups. Although t h i s program d i d not s p e c i f i c a l l y address a f f e c t i v e a s p e c t s of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n , peer i n t e r a c t i o n and support were important s o c i a l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e s . These women had made conscious c h o i c e s about s p e c i f i c n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c cupations; i n t h i s process they had r e s o l v e d (or were in the 135 process of doing s o ) , any p r e s s u r e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , or c o n f l i c t s about the c o m p a t i b i l i t y of ca r e e r i n t e r e s t s and f a m i l y i n t e r e s t s . Women i n CkTrng r e p o r t e d an i n c r e a s e i n o b s t a c l e s on every one of the v a r i a b l e s , with a minimal i n c r e a s e i n r o l e c o n f l i c t (-.01). CkTrng students were younger and had l e s s work experience than the other groups. And although cooking i s a s s o c i a t e d with t r a d i t i o n a l female s o c i a l i z a t i o n , women students i n t h i s program had male i n s t r u c t o r s , male peers and male coworkers i n work placements. A l s o , the t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge and psychomotor s k i l l behaviors and e x p e c t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with p r o f e s s i o n a l cook t r a i n i n g may have been d i f f e r e n t than a n t i c i p a t e d . Taking a l l scores combined, EAW women showed the g r e a t e s t advances i n understanding, a d d r e s s i n g , and overcoming o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n b a r r i e r s . They were f o l l o w e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l l e d i n the TRAC program. I t appears that although women pursuing n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s (EAW, CkTrng, TRAC), had i n t e r n a l i z e d norms a s s o c i a t e d with n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s , those who had exp l o r e d v a r i o u s n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r o p t i o n s ( i n c l u d i n g s k i l l s , b e h a v i o r s , a t t i t u d e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , and b a r r i e r s ) , were more l i k e l y to have a c q u i r e d an o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i t y based on exposure and experience r a t h e r than simply on c o g n i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n and pe r s o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . The EAW program s p e c i f i c a l l y presented knowledge and s k i l l e xperiences of a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l nature and i t a l s o o f f e r e d i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s to f a c i l i t a t e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l 136 o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n : a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g , g o a l -s e t t i n g , decision-making, r o l e modeling, communication s k i l l s , weight t r a i n i n g , shop t o u r s , job hunting, and women-in-trade f i l m s . Women i n t h i s program were able to c o a l e s c e the major a s p e c t s of c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t — c a r e e r knowledge, work s k i l l s , work v a l u e s , and p e r s o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . O v e r a l l then, i t was evident that although the r e s u l t s d i d not support the h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s on a l l the v a r i a b l e s f o r a l l the groups as a n t i c i p a t e d , the EAW group c o n s i s t e n t l y showed an a c q u i s i t i o n of a f f e c t i v e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n on almost a l l the i d e n t i f i e d v a r i a b l e s at p r e t e s t , p o s t t e s t , and i n a comparison of change scores between the pre-and the p o s t t e s t . A c c o r d i n g l y , i t i s c l e a r t h at the changes a s s o c i a t e d with the EAW program c o u l d not be e x p l a i n e d on the b a s i s of the d i f f e r e n c e s which e x i s t e d among the four groups of women at the beginning of the programs. The EAW program was more e f f e c t i v e i n changing the number or degree of p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s than other n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs and i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s c o u l d not be e x p l a i n e d on the b a s i s of any d i f f e r e n c e s among the groups p r i o r to the e d u c a t i o n a l programs. A n a l y s i s of Career Commitment As d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y i n t h i s chapter, the Nagely Scale of A t t i t u d e s Toward Career and Career Related V a r i a b l e s (which had been i d e n t i f i e d as a c a r e e r commitment measurement) proved u n r e l i a b l e i n i n i t i a l a n a l y s e s . A post hoc f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was undertaken i n order to salvage a measurement of c a r e e r 1 37 commitment. To that end, two new f a c t o r s were i d e n t i f i e d and named to represent the major c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of having a c a r e e r -e x t e r n a l b e n e f i t s one would a n t i c i p a t e or hope to expect from having a c a r e e r and p s y c h o s o c i a l s e l f e x p r e s s i o n s of a r o l e i d e n t i t y r e s u l t i n g from having a c a r e e r . Because i t was impossible to analyze the o r i g i n a l h ypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the four programs using Nagely's f a c t o r s c a l e s (Masculine Work O r i e n t a t i o n , Feminine S o c i a l O r i e n t a t i o n , and Stop Gap Job O r i e n t a t i o n ) , i t was decided to proceed with an a n a l y s i s using the SPSSX ANOVA procedure and to present r e s u l t s using the two new i d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r s — E x p e c t a t i o n s of Career B e n e f i t s and Career as V e h i c l e f o r S e l f E x p r e s s i o n as l i s t e d i n Table 5. I t was not the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t of t h i s study to measure p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r a i t s or p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s of women i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l career p r e p a r a t i o n programs. Only those dimensions of p s y c h o s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n as l a b e l l e d by the Nagely f a c t o r s c a l e s (Masculine Work O r i e n t a t i o n , Feminine S o c i a l O r i e n t a t i o n , and Stop Gap Job O r i e n t a t i o n ) which were b e l i e v e d to i n f l u e n c e c a r e e r commitment were c o n s i d e r e d . The a n a l y s i s of the two new f a c t o r s r e p r e s e n t s a s h i f t of emphasis from a focus on the type of commitment the women have to a c a r e e r to a focus on those p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s and ex p e c t a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from having a c a r e e r . As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 3, r o l e theory i s a theory of s o c i a l i z a t i o n which i s u s e f u l i n understanding the dynamics of oc c u p a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y . Roles are seen as the a r t i c u l a t i o n 138 between psychology and s o c i o l o g y and the i n t e g r a t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n of the e x t e r n a l components ( r o l e s ) and i n t e r n a l components ( i d e n t i t i e s ) which d e f i n e personhood (Burke & T u l l y , 1977). Fac t o r one, l a b e l l e d e x p e c t a t i o n s of ca r e e r b e n e f i t s , can be viewed as composed of elements i n f l u e n c i n g one's e x t e r n a l r o l e i d e n t i t y . Factor two, c a r e e r as v e h i c l e f o r s e l f e x p r e s s i o n , can be i n t e r p r e t e d as composed of elements c o n t r i b u t i n g to one's i n t e r n a l i d e n t i t y . In t h i s study, both f a c t o r s - - a n d the i n t e g r a t i o n - i n t e r a c t i o n of them--comprise the ba s i c components of occupations and o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s through which women take on o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and begin to experience a sense of s e l f . In a review of the l i t e r a t u r e of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r e d i c t i v e dimensions of women who make n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c h o i c e s , Chusmir (1983) i d e n t i f i e d p e r s o n a l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n t r a i t s of these women. They are c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a c t i v e , autonomous, dominant, e x p r e s s i v e , i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , i n t e l l e c t u a l , n o n t r a d i t i o n a l i n gender r o l e (or p r o f e m i n i s t ) , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y masculine, r e s p o n s i b l e , r i s k t a k i n g , s e l f a c t u a l i z e d , s e l f c o n f i d e n t , and s o c i a b l e . T h e i r m o t i v a t i o n needs i n c l u d e achievement, f e m i n i n i t y and romance, r e c o g n i t i o n , s e l f - i d e n t i t y , and s t a t u s . Other tendencies are that they: enjoy outdoor a c t i v i t i e s , are i n t e r n a l l y motivated, have c o n f l i c t with ca r e e r and marriage, rank s k i l l t r a d e s high i n p r e s t i g e , p r e f e r c h a l l e n g e and pay over job s e c u r i t y , expect to work hard to get ahead, and are r e c e p t i v e to working f o r women. 139 In order to p o r t r a y a p i c t o r i a l compar i son of the four programs, F i g u r e s 2 and 3 show mean s c o r e s p l o t t e d by .25 i n t e r v a l s f or each group on the f a c t o r s . When d e a l i n g wi th a s m a l l group such as 61 ( p r e t e s t ) or 57 ( p o s t t e s t ) , r e p o r t e d s t a t i s t i c s o f t e n seem i n s i g n i f i c a n t or m e a n i n g l e s s . F i g u r e s 2 and 3 show the d i f f e r e n c e s among the programs g r a p h i c a l l y by p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t mean s c o r e s . These f i g u r e s g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e t h a t on the p r e t e s t assessments there was not a great d e a l of v a r i a t i o n among the programs. A c c o r d i n g l y , i t i s c l e a r tha t i n d i v i d u a l s were not s e l e c t e d or r e c r u i t e d f o r p a r t i c u l a r programs on the b a s i s of d i f f e r e n c e s on these v a r i a b l e s . A f t e r program e x p e r i e n c e s , the v a r i a t i o n on both E x p e c t a t i o n s of C a r e e r B e n e f i t s and Career as V e h i c l e for S e l f E x p r e s s i o n became more pronounced . O v e r a l l , a t p o s t t e s t assessment EAW s tudent s expressed or a t t r i b u t e d g r e a t e r i n t e n s i t y of p o s i t i v e s o c i a l meanings and s e l f meanings to c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n and c a r e e r commitment. 1 40 F i g u r e 2 Mean Scores of 3 Nontraditional and 1 Traditional Career Preparation Programs on Factor 1: Expectations of Career Benefits FACTOR 1: EXPECTATIONS OF CAREER BENEFITS (PRETEST SCORES) PRODUCTIVE CREATIVE SUCCESSFUL ACTIVE FULFILLING POSITIVE OUTGOING PROVIDES RECOGNITION PRACTICAL IMPORTANT RECOMMEND TO OTHERS INTERESTING GLAMOROUS PERMANENT ADVANTAGEOUS STRENUOUS NECESSARY DOMINANT 4 3 2 1 FRUITLESS UNIMAGINATIVE UNSUCCESSFUL PASSIVE UNFULFILLING NEGATIVE SUBDUED NO RECOGNITION IMPRACTICAL UNIMPORTANT WOULD NOT RECOMMEND UNINTERESTING DULL TEMPORARY HANDICAPPING NOT DEMANDING UNNECESSARY SUBORDINATE 4 3 2 FACTOR 1: EXPECTATIONS OF CAREER BENEFITS (POSTTEST SCORES) PRODUCTIVE CREATIVE SUCCESSFUL ACTIVE FULFILLING POSITIVE OUTGOING PROVIDES RECOGNITION PRACTICAL IMPORTANT RECOMMEND TO OTHERS INTERESTING GLAMOROUS PERMANENT ADVANTAGEOUS STRENUOUS NECESSARY DOMINANT 4 3 2 FRUITLESS UNIMAGINATIVE UNSUCCESSFUL PASSIVE UNFULFILLING NEGATIVE SUBDUED NO RECOGNITION IMPRACTICAL UNIMPORTANT WOULD NOT RECOMMEND UNINTERESTING DULL TEMPORARY HANDICAPPING NOT DEMANDING UNNECESSARY SUBORDINATE 4 3 2 1 • EAW •••••« CkTrng — — TRAC «M**" LTC 141 F i g u r e 3 Mean S c o r e s o f 3 N o n t r a d i t i o n a l a n d 1 T r a d i t i o n a l C a r e e r P r e p a r a t i o n P r o g r a m s o n F a c t o r 2: C a r e e r a s V e h i c l e f o r S e 1 f - E x p r e s s i o n FACTOR 2: CAREER AS V E H I C L E FOR S E L F - E X P R E S S I O N ( P R E T E S T SCORES) U P L I F T I N G A P P R O P R I A T E F L E X I B L E E X P R E S S I V E COMFORTABLE STRONG L I B E R A T I N G C H ALLENGING INNOVATIVE S A T I S F Y I N G I N T E G R A T E S L I F E ENHANCES HOME L I F E V A R I A B L E D E S I R A B L E S O C I A L NO C O N F L I C T WITH F.ROLE GOOD S E L F L E S S TOWARD PEOPLE INDEPENDENT HEALTHY UNUSUAL 3 2 1 DEGRADING INAPPROPRIATE I N F L E X I B L E UNEXPRESSIVE UNCOMFORTABLE WEAK CONFINING UNCHALLENGING MONOTONOUS U N S A T I S F Y I N G FRAGMENTS L I F E D I S R U P T S HOME L I F E ROUTINE UNDESIRABLE UNSOCIAL C O N F L I C T WITH FEMALE ROLE BAD S E L F I S H AWAY FROM PEOPLE CONTROLLED UNHEALTHY ORDINARY 3 2 1 FACTOR 2: CAREER AS V E H I C L E FOR S E L F - E X P R E S S I O N ( P O S T T E S T SCORES) U P L I F T I N G A P P R O P R I A T E F L E X I B L E E X P R E S S I V E COMFORTABLE STRONG L I B E R A T I N G C H ALLENGING INNOVATIVE S A T I S F Y I N G I N T E G R A T E S L I F E ENHANCES HOME L I F E VARIA8LE D E S I R A B L E S O C I A L NO C O N F L I C T WITH F.ROLE GOOD S E L F L E S S TOWARD P E O P L E INDEPENDENT HEALTHY UNUSUAL 3 2 1 DEGRADING INAPPROPRIATE I N F L E X I B L E U N E X P R E S S I V E UNCOMFORTABLE W E A K CONFINING UNCHALLENGING MONOTONOUS U N S A T I S F Y I N G FRAGMENTS L I F E D I SRUPTS HOME L I F E ROUTINE UNDESIRABLE UNSOCIAL C O N F L I C T WITH FEMALE ROLE BAD S E L F I S H AWAY FROM P E O P L E CONTROLLED UNHEALTHY ORDINARY 3 2 1 EAW C k T r n g — — T R A C L T C 1 42 Table 8 i s a d i s p l a y of the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t measurements on these v a r i a b l e s . The r e s u l t s are r e p o r t e d as means and standard d e v i a t i o n s , based on the 7-point semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e (7=positive p o l a r i t y ; 1=negative p o l a r i t y ) . The s c a l e s represent not only d i r e c t i o n ( p o l a r i t y ) but a l s o i n t e n s i t y of response. The instrument was composed of q u e s t i o n s a s k i n g respondents what having a car e e r meant to them. Table 8 Pretest and Posttest Measurements of Career Commitment for Four Career Preparation Programs P R O G R A M Emp1oyment Alternatives Cook Training Long Term Variable for Women Training Access Care Aide X1-X2 SD X1-X2 SD X1-X2 SD X1-X2 SD Expectations of Career Benefits pre(p=.118)a S.32 .31 5.98 .76 5.90 .75 5.67 1.00 post(p=.002)b 6.51* .38 5.63* 1.03 5.32* 1.18 5.80 .48 Career Se1f Express i on pre(p=.070)a 6.11 .51 6.05 .77 5.71 .79 5.53 .71 post(p=.001)b 6.40* .42 5.36* .89 5.17* 1.25 5.50* .42 a--Pretest scores were based on N of 61 b--Posttest scores were based on N of 57 *--Indicates groups s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the .05 level using Tukey contrasts (which evaluates a l l pairwise comparisons among means) P r e t e s t R e s u l t s As can be seen in Table 8, those students i n EAW had the h i g h e s t mean score on ex p e c t a t i o n s of car e e r b e n e f i t s on the p r e t e s t (6.32), followed by CkTrng (5.98), TRAC (5.90), and LTC (5.67). Thus, n o n t r a d i t i o n a l e n r o l l e e s expected more b e n e f i t s 143 as a r e s u l t of having a ca r e e r than d i d the t r a d i t i o n a l group. In p a r t i c u l a r , those i n the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs scored higher than d i d the t r a d i t i o n a l group on p r o d u c t i v e , p o s i t i v e , important, advantageous, and necessary as a d j e c t i v e s which r e f l e c t e d t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s of what a care e r p r o v i d e s in terms of rewards or b e n e f i t s . And because they were o l d e r and had more work experience, they had probably thought c a r e f u l l y about what they wanted from a c a r e e r . E v i d e n t l y t h e i r p r e v i o u s work experiences had not been t o t a l l y f u l f i l l i n g because they were now e x p l o r i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r o p t i o n s i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of f i n d i n g an occu p a t i o n to match t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . Women in the LTC program, c o n v e r s e l y , had the lowest p r e t e s t means s c o r e s . They had the fewest e x p e c t a t i o n s of b e n e f i t s which accrue from having a c a r e e r . They scored lowest on these items: p r o v i d e s r e c o g n i t i o n , would recommend to o t h e r s , glamorous, and permanent. That i s , they saw c a r e e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and commitment as being more temporary than permanent, d u l l r a ther than glamorous, p r o v i d i n g l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n , and something they would not recommend t o ot h e r s . On F a c t o r 2, Career as V e h i c l e f o r S e l f - E x p r e s s i o n , a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n emerged. EAW students had the h i g h e s t p r e t e s t mean scores (6.11) f o l l o w e d by CkTrng students (6.05), TRAC students (5.71), and LTC students (5.53). High s c o r i n g items f o r those women e x p l o r i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s were that as a measure of p s y c h o s o c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , a ca r e e r was i n n o v a t i v e , v a r i a b l e , and i n t e g r a t e s l i f e . Women in the LTC program, having the lowest p r e t e s t . mean scores, saw ca r e e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as 1 44 implying something l e s s than f l e x i b l e , l i b e r a t i n g , and v a r i a b l e . As w e l l , they were u n c e r t a i n whether a care e r (a) d i s r u p t e d home l i f e or enhanced home l i f e and (b) fragmented home l i f e or i n t e g r a t e d home l i f e . There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups. Taking a l l the p r e t e s t scores combined on the two f a c t o r s , i t appears that students i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs saw career commitment as p r o v i d i n g g r e a t e r e x p e c t a t i o n s of p s y c h o s o c i a l b e n e f i t s and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n s than d i d the t r a d i t i o n a l group. LTC students saw the l e a s t degree of expected b e n e f i t s and s e l f -e x p r e s s i v e n e s s as a r e s u l t of having a c a r e e r . Of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups, EAW students saw career i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as a l l o w i n g more s o c i a l b e n e f i t s and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n s than the other two groups. T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n of scores suggests that program r e c r u i t m e n t / s e l e c t i o n , which was v i r t u a l l y a s e l f -s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s , i s i n f l u e n c e d by the a n t i c i p a t e d congruency of c a r e e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . P o s t t e s t R e s u l t s The r e s u l t s of the p o s t t e s t data r e v e a l that program graduates d i f f e r on the measures of s o c i a l and s e l f e x p r e s s i o n s , but with no c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s . Compared to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l e n r o l l e e s , the LTC group expressed g r e a t e r s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and s l i g h t l y more self-meanings than two n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups. The v a r i a t i o n among the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l students was that the EAW group expressed g r e a t e r s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and s e l f e x p r e s s i o n s , but both TRAC and CkTrng saw ca r e e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n 145 as providing fewer social expectations and self expressions. LTC women at the posttest session (as on the pretest) saw a career commitment as more disruptive than enhancing. As well, they saw career orientation as more confining, routine, and selfish. Evidently, psychosocial expressiveness from career identification as measured by their moderately high mean scores on expressive, challenging, satisfying, good, and toward people was tempered by role socialization which continued to cause conflict in their resolution of career interests verses lhome responsibilities. The nontraditional group as a whole, exhibited inconsistent variation on both factors. Those in the EAW program, specifically exploring nontraditional options, expressed the highest degree of expected benefits and self expressiveness from career identification. They had more years work experience, were older and had more young children at home than the other groups. Consequently, they were seeking an occupation which would allow them to express themselves and at the same time which would provide some external, social benefits. Evidently their previous l i fe patterns or work experiences had not provided a l l they anticipated from career identification. The other two nontraditional groups, TRAC and CkTrng, expressed a moderate degree of anticipated expectations and expressiveness. Statistical significance was found on the posttest measures. On Factor 1 ( p = . 0 0 2 ) , the statistically significant variation was among the nontraditional groups: EAW was different from CkTrng and TRAC but CkTrng and TRAC were not different from 1 4 6 each o t h e r . On Fac t o r 2 (p=.00l), the s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n was across a l l groups. Using Tukey comparison, the EAW group was d i f f e r e n t from any other group, but the other three groups were s i m i l a r . Taking a l l the p o s t t e s t scores combined, i t appears that EAW students o s t e n s i b l y p e r c e i v e c a r e e r s as more s o c i a l l y b e n e f i c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y e x p r e s s i v e than do the other three groups. Women students i n the TRAC program e x h i b i t the l e a s t expected b e n e f i t s and expr e s s i v e n e s s of the four groups as measured by mean scores on i n d i v i d u a l items; t h e i r scores r e f l e c t o n l y a f a i r degree of p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l e x p e c t a t i o n s from having a c a r e e r . E v i d e n t l y economic n e c e s s i t y and p e r s o n a l and fa m i l y i n t e r e s t s , more than p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l f u l f i l l m e n t , lead some women to pursue c a r e e r s — e i t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l or n o n t r a d i t i o n a l . P r e t e s t to P o s t t e s t D i f f e r e n c e s Table 9 sumarizes the mean d i f f e r e n c e s between the pr e - and p o s t t e s t measures on the two f a c t o r s of care e r commitment. As can be seen, EAW students and LTC students p e r c e i v e d a ca r e e r as p r o v i d i n g a grea t e r degree of expected b e n e f i t s and expre s s i v e n e s s than d i d those i n CkTrng or TRAC programs. Both CkTrng and TRAC e n r o l l e e s p e r c e i v e d fewer b e n e f i t s and l e s s e x p r e s s i v e n e s s as a r e s u l t of care e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found among the programs on Fac t o r 2 (p=.05l), Career as S e l f - E x p r e s s i o n . 1 4 7 T a b l e 9 Change Between P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t Measures of C a r e e r Commitment f o r N o n t r a d i t i o n a l and T r a d i t i o n a l C a r e e r P r e p a r a t i o n Programs Program V A R I A B L E E x p e c t a t i o n s of C a r e e r Benef i t s (f= 1 .860) (p=.148) C a r e e r as S e l f E x p r e s s i on ( f = 2 .758 ) (p=.051) X 1 -X2 SD X 1 -X2 SD Employment A l t e r n a t i v e s f o r Women (n=15) Cook T r a i n i n g (n=13) T r a i n i n g A c c e s s (n=13) Long Term C a r e A i d e (n=16) . 19 . 35 . 58 . 13 . 34 1 . 22 1 . 36 . 93 . 29 .69 . 54 .03 . 46 1 . 29 1 . 38 . 7 1 N o t e : E n t r i e s r e f l e c t changes i n e x p e c t a t i o n s of c a r e e r b e n e f i t s and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n s as i n f l u e n c i n g c a r e e r commitment. P o s i t i v e e n t r i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t women see a g r e a t e r degree of e x p e c t a t i o n s o r e x p r e s s i o n s from h a v i n g a c a r e e r . N e g a t i v e e n t r i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t c a r e e r b e n e f i t e x p e c t a t i o n s o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n s a r e r e d u c e d as a r e s u l t of h a v i n g a c a r e e r . The p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t the programs d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y a p p e a r s at the top of each c o l u m n . EAW s t u d e n t s , b ecause t h e i r p r o g r a m a d d r e s s e d p s y c h o s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s of c a r e e r s ( a p t i t u d e t e s t i n g , p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s , d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s , and g o a l -s e t t i n g ) , were r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e c a r e e r commitment measure f r o m e x p e r i e n c e and e x p l o r a t i o n . T h e i r p r o g r a m s p e c i f i c a l l y o f f e r e d c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e i n a d d i t i o n t o f o s t e r i n g p e r s o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a w a r e n e s s . A l s o t h e y were o l d e r a nd had had more work e x p e r i e n c e t h a n t h e women i n t h e o t h e r t h r e e g r o u p s . The LTC prog r a m , c o n v e r s e l y , f o c u s s e d m a i n l y on knowledge and s k i l l s o f an o c c u p a t i o n . The change s c o r e s f o r t h e s e women 1 48 on measures of expected c a r e e r b e n e f i t s and s e l f - e x p r e s s i v e n e s s were small (.13 and .03 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Although the temptation e x i s t s to a t t r i b u t e the change to e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n , the r e s u l t s must be i n t e r p r e t e d c a r e f u l l y (as f o r a l l groups but e s p e c i a l l y those with such low s c o r e s ) . Career commitment and caree r c h o i c e are complex pr o c e s s e s . LTC students r e c e i v e d l i t t l e o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n of an a f f e c t i v e nature concerning b e h a v i o r a l , a t t i t u d i n a l , or c o g n i t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with t h e i r r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . T h e i r program e v i d e n t l y made l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n with regard to b e n e f i t e x p e c t a t i o n s and s e l f -e x p r e s s i v e n e s s . Students i n both CkTrng and TRAC were exposed to e x p l i c i t o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n with l i t t l e , i f any, emphasis on r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Yet t h e i r change scores are f a i r l y l a r g e (compared to EAW and LTC), i n d i c a t i n g that something dur i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g a f f e c t e d t h e i r c a r e e r commitment scores on both f a c t o r s . In both programs women students i n t e r a c t e d with male students and i n s t r u c t o r s . (The EAW and LTC programs had only female students and i n s t r u c t o r s although in job t r a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n s males were present.) A l s o , the CkTrng program may have been an i n i t i a l c a r e e r c h o i c e f o r women because of i t s s i m i l a r i t y to female norm s o c i a l i z a t i o n of cooking and meal p r e p a r a t i o n . Once e n r o l l e d , women became aware of the r o u t i n e , mundane, and o f t e n strenuous aspects of cook t r a i n i n g occupat i o n s . In the TRAC program ( i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , competency-based) 149 women students had l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r classroom i n t e r a c t i o n and s t i m u l a t i o n or on the job experience. Because the program was s t i l l i n developmental stages (having been i n i t i a t e d only 12 months p r e v i o u s l y ) many aspects were s t i l l u n s e t t l e d (e.g., some course m a t e r i a l s were not a v a i l a b l e , i n s t r u c t o r s were not always a v a i l a b l e f o r shop p r a c t i c e and were sometimes assig n e d to shops other than t h e i r trade e x p e r t i s e ) . TRAC women may have been d i s i l l u s i o n e d about t h e i r a b i l i t y to f i n d s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n i n a c a r e e r choice they had a n t i c i p a t e d would provide p s y c h o s o c i a l b e n e f i t s and e x p r e s s i o n s . Career a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s are the r e s u l t s of a combination of environmental s t i m u l i , e d u c a t i o n a l experiences, r e f e r e n c e groups, and p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Fox & Renas, 1977). Students i n a t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r program f o r women saw a c a r e e r as p r o v i d i n g few b e n e f i t s and even fewer o p p o r t u n i t i e s fo r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . And t h e i r change scores i n d i c a t e d t h e i r program d i d l i t t l e to a l t e r t h e i r s o c i a l and s e l f e x p e c t a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from c a r e e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . They p a r t i c u l a r l y saw a c a r e e r commitment as somewhat d u l l , r o u t i n e , c o n f i n i n g , and d i s r u p t i v e to home l i f e . • Of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups, women i n the EAW program o s t e n s i b l y were a b l e to i n t e g r a t e a l l four of the above f a c t o r s to e n v i s i o n a c a r e e r as p r o v i d i n g a f a i r l y high degree of p r o d u c t i v e , c r e a t i v e , s u c c e s s f u l , and f u l f i l l i n g b e n e f i t s as a means of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . T h e i r change scores i n d i c a t e d that they saw t h e i r career r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as a l l o w i n g them to match per s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c a r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n s . Females 1 50 i n CkTrng and TRAC saw fewer o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and had fewer e x p e c t a t i o n s of those p s y c h o s o c i a l b e n e f i t s c a r e e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n would or c o u l d a f f o r d than d i d students i n e i t h e r LTC or EAW. O v e r a l l then, p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l matching of p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s appears to be a r e s u l t of l e a r n i n g and developmental experiences a s s o c i a t e d with e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s , s o c i e t a l norms, and c a r e e r m a t u r i t y . An understanding of the complexity of i n t e r a c t i n g f a c t o r s i s important in f o s t e r i n g female ca r e e r development. Those women in the process of e x p l o r i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s had g r e a t e r e x p e c t a t i o n s of both the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l congruency of c a r e e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . T h e i r age m a t u r i t y and work experience m a t u r i t y (both g r e a t e r than the other groups) c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e i r e x p l o r a t i o n f o r c a r e e r and p e r s o n a l congruency. Those i n a t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r p r e p a r a t o r y program p e r c e i v e d fewer changes in c a r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n s and i n o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e x p r e s s i v e n e s s f o r themselves as a r e s u l t of t h e i r program enrollment. T h e i r p e r s o n a l and c a r e e r congruency changed l i t t l e . Those i n the t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t o r y program remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e i n t h e i r c a r e e r s o c i a l i z a t i o n and t r a d i t i o n a l gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the n o n t r a d t i o n a l programs i n enhancing c a r e e r commitment was u n s t a b l e — t w o groups saw reduced p s y c h o s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and e x p r e s s i v e n e s s . Only the program a d d r e s s i n g a f f e c t i v e o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y improved c a r e e r commitment e x p e c t a t i o n s and a n t i c i p a t e d e x p r e s s i v e n e s s . 151 A c c o r d i n g l y , any d i f f e r e n c e s i n f o s t e r i n g c a r e e r commitment were not due s o l e l y to i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s employed by programmers. Summary Th i s chapter presented a d e s c r i p t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of women i n o c c u p a t i o n a l programs. P r o f i l e s of these students were presented. I t was suggested that a combination of age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , and absence of young c h i l d r e n at home may be important f a c t o r s not p r e v i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d as major f a c t o r s i n female c a r e e r development. R e l i a b i l i t y of the instruments used i n the study was rep o r t e d . The process of e x t r a c t i n g two new f a c t o r s from the Nagely c a r e e r commitment s c a l e was d i s c u s s e d . The f i n d i n g s from the three sets of hypotheses were presented. P r e t e s t s c o r e s r e v e a l e d that the two types of programs were s e r v i n g a homogeneous group of women who had approximately s i m i l a r gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n e x p e c t a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s . P o s t t e s t s c o r e s i n d i c a t e d that program p a r t i c i p a t i o n made a d i f f e r e n c e i n students' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r a b i l i t i e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s concerning n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , but that there was not a c o n s i s t e n t • p a t t e r n between the t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups. An a n a l y s i s of c a r e e r commitment re v e a l e d that program enrollment i s i n f l u e n c e d by pers o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e f l e c t i n g self-meanings and s o c i a l meanings. At both p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t the t r a d i t i o n a l group expressed a moderate number or degree of 1 52 a n t i c i p a t e d s o c i a l b e n e f i t s and s e l f e x p r e s s i o n s from c a r e e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . But they a l t e r e d t h e i r a n t i c i p a t e d s o c i a l b e n e f i t s and s e l f e x p r e s s i o n s only minimally as a r e s u l t of program enrollment. The n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups e x h i b i t e d no systematic d i f f e r e n c e s when compared to the t r a d i t i o n a l group at pre- and p o s t t e s t assessments. And change scores i n d i c a t e d that only one group—EAW--saw more b e n e f i t s and ex p r e s s i v e n e s s than d i d the t r a d i t i o n a l group. The lack of c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s between and among the programs on the v a r i a b l e s of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n and ca r e e r commitment i n d i c a t e that o c c u p a t i o n a l development i s a complex process i n v o l v i n g more than j u s t theory and s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n . The a f f e c t i v e component of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n , i n concert with other p s y c h o s o c i a l f a c t o r s and expe r i e n c e s , i s a v a l u a b l e component of p r e p a r a t i o n programs--h e l p i n g women understand more about themselves and t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e . 153 CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION OF INTERVIEWS As was d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 4 , i n t e r v i e w s were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study as a means of data c o l l e c t i o n to augment the q u e s t i o n n a i r e data and the f a c t o r s i n the conceptual framework. In the f i r s t s e c t i o n a comparison between student responses i n the t r a d i t i o n a l program and responses of students i n the three n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs w i l l be presented. The next s e c t i o n w i l l o f f e r a comparison of f i n d i n g s and responses among inter v i e w e e s i n the three n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs. The f i n a l s e c t i o n w i l l present general responses to the in t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s . The f i r s t o b j e c t i v e of the i n t e r v i e w was to seek i n f o r m a t i o n about c a r e e r development. Questions and d i s c u s s i o n r e l a t e d to steps i n ca r e e r maturation, o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l s , and the process of g o a l - s e t t i n g were pursued. The second o b j e c t i v e of the i n t e r v i e w was to i d e n t i f y any problems or o b s t a c l e s these women may have encountered i n t h e i r c a r e e r development. The que s t i o n s and d i s c u s s i o n concerned p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l b a r r i e r s , r o l e c o n f l i c t , and s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s . The t h i r d purpose of the i n t e r v i e w was to seek c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the process by which the women a c q u i r e d an o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i t y and the ways that process was f a c i l i t a t e d by a care e r p r e p a r a t i o n program. A copy of the i n t e r v i e w schedule i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix D. 1 54 The Interview Process As has been noted p r e v i o u s l y , t h i s study i n v o l v e s four groups of women e n r o l l e d in c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n p r o g r a m s — t h r e e of a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l nature and one of a t r a d i t i o n a l nature. For c l a r i t y and b r e v i t y i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , the groups are ab b r e v i a t e d as f o l l o w s : Employment A l t e r n a t i v e s f o r Women (EAW), P r o f e s s i o n a l Cook T r a i n i n g L e v e l I (CkTrng), T r a i n i n g Access (TRAC), and Long Term Care Aide (LTC). Three women from each program (12 t o t a l ) were interv i e w e d a f t e r the completion of t h e i r program, or f o r those in the TRAC program which i s of v a r i a b l e d u r a t i o n , approximately 16 weeks a f t e r the p r e t e s t i n g s e s s i o n . Student s e l e c t i o n was made p r i o r to the completion of each program and a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n with the i n s t r u c t o r or c o n t a c t person. C r i t e r i a used i n s e l e c t i n g the i n t e r v i e w e e s i n c l u d e d t h e i r knowledge and awareness of the is s u e s and b a r r i e r s i n ca r e e r development without r e f l e c t i n g a b i a s and s u f f i c i e n t o r a l f l u e n c y to d e s c r i b e the o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n process i n which they were i n v o l v e d . Because of t h i s method of s e l e c t i o n , the f i n d i n g s may not be c o n s i s t e n t with the data i n Table 2 (the women in t e r v i e w e d were not e n t i r e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the groups from which they came). P a r t i c i p a n t s ranged i n age from e a r l y 20s to e a r l y 50s, with most women i n t h e i r e a r l y 30s. Interviews v a r i e d i n l e n g t h from 45-90 minutes and were recorded on a u d i o - c a s s e t t e tapes. Permission to rec o r d the s e s s i o n s was sought from each p a r t i c i p a n t before the in t e r v i e w began; there were no r e f u s a l s . The i n t e r v i e w s were conducted i n 155 p a r t i c i p a n t s ' homes, i n the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s home, or i n one i n s t a n c e , at the e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . The s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d nature of the i n t e r v i e w s gave the p a r t i c i p a n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y to d i s c u s s t h e i r c a r e e r development as i t r e l a t e d to o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Any remarks which were r e l e v a n t to the in t e r v i e w o b j e c t i v e s were pursued w i t h i n a framework of i n f o r m a l d i a l o g u e . In conducting the i n t e r v i e w s an i n t r o d u c t o r y statement was made about the emphasis on o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r women, i n c l u d i n g p r e p a r a t i o n f o r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s . T h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n was r e l a t e d to the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' recent o c c u p a t i o n a l study and t h e i r c a r e e r development. Open-ended qu e s t i o n s were then asked about t h e i r c a r e e r development, any b a r r i e r s they may have encountered, and about anything i n t h e i r program which may have f a c i l i t a t e d t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . When d i s c u s s i o n d r i f t e d away from the t o p i c or when p a r t i c i p a n t s sought f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n or d i r e c t i o n , the i n v e s t i g a t o r asked s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g to the immediate t o p i c of d i s c u s s i o n or to the i n t e g r a t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n . For example, q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d e d : what t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l goals were; what type work experience they had; what i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r career and program c h o i c e ; i f goals had changed as a r e s u l t of being i n the program; how and why goals may have changed; what b a r r i e r s they had experienced i n t h e i r c a r e e r development; i f they had experienced any r o l e c o n f l i c t from f a m i l y or f r i e n d s ; how t h e i r program had addressed o c c u p a t i o n a l knowledge, s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s ; d i d anything s p e c i f i c about the program h e l p them l e a r n about 156 the o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e ; and what was the i n t e r a c t i o n l i k e among a l l program p a r t i c i p a n t s — i n c l u d i n g i n s t r u c t o r s and other resource p e r s o n n e l . The i n t e r v i e w f i n d i n g s are d i s c u s s e d i n three s e c t i o n s : (1) comparisons between t r a d i t i o n a l program e n r o l l e e s and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l program e n r o l l e e s , (2) comparison among students i n three n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs, and (3) gene r a l i n t e r v i e w f i n d i n g s . Comparison Between T r a d i t i o n a l and N o n t r a d i t i o n a l Programs T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l focus on the e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the women e n r o l l e d i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs (EAW, CkTrng, TRAC) and those i n a program of a t r a d i t i o n a l emphasis (LTC). The f i n d i n g s are presented by i s s u e s addressed i n the i n t e r v i e w : steps i n career development, b a r r i e r s to c a r e e r development, and o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n as i t occurred i n the program. Steps in Career Development A fundamental d i f f e r e n c e between the t r a d i t i o n a l e n r o l l e e s and the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l e n r o l l e e s concerns t h e i r e a r l y career i n t e r e s t s . Of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l e n r o l l e e s , s i x of nine i d e n t i f i e d an e a r l y i n t e r e s t in n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s -c a r p e n t r y , metal work, e l e c t r o n i c s , automechanics. Women i n the t r a d i t i o n a l program had pursued t r a d i t i o n a l courses f o r women-tea c h i n g and n u r s i n g , never c o n s i d e r i n g or ex p r e s s i n g an i n t e r e s t i n anything n o n t r a d i t i o n a l . Again with women i n the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs, s i x had endeavored to maintain 157 employment i n jobs or c a r e e r s s t e r e o t y p e d f o r women ( s e c r e t a r i a l , t e a c h i n g , r e t a i l i n g ) but f i n a l l y r e a l i z e d i n t e r e s t , which would f a c i l i t a t e c a r e e r m o t i v a t i o n and c o n t i n u i t y , was l a c k i n g . None of the LTC p a r t i c i p a n t s had ever been employed i n a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l job. Career development f o r LTC program p a r t i c i p a n t s who were in t e r v i e w e d had been i n t e r r u p t e d by having c h i l d r e n and the ensuing p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Only a f t e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n were in school or they had experienced a m a r i t a l breakdown d i d these women re c o n s i d e r employment and ca r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n . Only three of the nine women intervi e w e d i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs were married or l i v i n g with someone at the time of the i n t e r v i e w s ; two others had p r e v i o u s l y been married. Only one rep o r t e d that she had a l t e r e d or i n t e r r u p t e d her career development because of c h i l d r e n and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Most interviewees saw l i t t l e p r o s pect of o b t a i n i n g a secure job i n the c u r r e n t economic c o n d i t i o n s without improving t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Two LTC inter v i e w e e s s t r e s s e d the importance and urgency of a c q u i r i n g c r e d e n t i a l s to o b t a i n a job in the immediate f u t u r e . An immediate job was not a concern expressed by any of the women i n the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs, although many of them were i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s (unemployed or d i v o r c e d ) . The women i n the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs saw t h i s stage of t h e i r career development (enrollment i n care e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs) as an o p p o r t u n i t y to pursue career i n t e r e s t s and acq u i r e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s which would f a c i l i t a t e f u r t h e r education or t r a i n i n g ( e i t h e r in c o n j u n c t i o n with 1 58 employment or a f t e r work e x p e r i e n c e ) . Because of t h i s d i f f e r i n g focus and d i r e c t i o n (job versus c a r e e r ) i n t e r v i e w e e s r e p o r t e d d i f f e r e n t g o a l - s e t t i n g p a t t e r n s . G o a l - s e t t i n g was not a pa r t of the LTC program c u r r i c u l u m and app a r e n t l y these women had not given much a t t e n t i o n to i t as pa r t of t h e i r c a r e e r development. They were e i t h e r u n c e r t a i n about t h e i r f u t u r e c a r e e r plans (except f o r needing a j o b ) , or i n d e c i s i v e about pursuing other c a r e e r o p t i o n s , as evidenced by these statements: "I might pursue another two-year program," and "I'm not t h i n k i n g of i t as a l i f e t i m e g o a l . " Interviewees i n the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs e i t h e r addressed g o a l - s e t t i n g as pa r t of the c u r r i c u l u m ( i n EAW and as a b r i e f c l a s s a c t i v i t y i n CkTrng) or as part of t h e i r p e r s o n a l l i f e assessment (women i n TRAC who had gone through a p e r s o n a l decision-making process i n t h e i r c a r e e r development). These women i n the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs e x p l i c i t l y named long-term c a r e e r goals or were i n the process of i d e n t i f y i n g such goals f o r themselves. "I want to be a Chef." "I want to be a landscape a r t i s t . " "My vague and long-term g o a l s are f i n i s h (the program), a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , experience, then f u r n i t u r e with o r i e n t a l s t y l e , then s p e c i a l i z e i n some area of woodwork." B a r r i e r s to Career Development Another area of e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the two types of c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs ( t r a d i t i o n a l vs. n o n t r a d i t i o n a l ) concerned the b a r r i e r s they experienced. Interviewees i n the t r a d i t i o n a l program d i d not enumerate any impinging b a r r i e r s e i t h e r from s o c i e t y or from p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n s or 159 e x p e c t a t i o n s . The m a j o r i t y of int e r v i e w e e s i n the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs named s e v e r a l p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s - -from s t e r e o t y p i c a l norms about the impr o p r i e t y of c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s f o r women to pe r s o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with c a r e e r i n t e r e s t s . When asked about r o l e c o n f l i c t , the women gave a mixed p a t t e r n of responses. A concomitant i n f l u e n c e to b a r r i e r s and r o l e c o n f l i c t i s the support and encouragement of i n d i v i d u a l s whose op i n i o n s were valued as important. Those i n the t r a d i t i o n a l LTC program never mentioned support groups per se. There was some c a r - p o o l i n g and coffee-room s h a r i n g but i t was not d i s c u s s e d i n the i n t e r v i e w as a su p p o r t i v e i n f l u e n c e . Seven of the nine women i n the three n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs o f f e r e d u n s o l i c i t e d comments r e l a t i n g to support and support groups. R e f l e c t i v e comments i n c l u d e d : "get a support group," "you have to have support w i t h i n the system," and "surround y o u r s e l f with people who l i k e you." The area which maximized the d i s t i n c t i o n s between the two groups centered around s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s . P e r c e p t i o n s about competence and p e r s i s t e n c e of a c q u i r i n g and ma i n t a i n i n g a r o l e i n v o l v i n g c a r i n g f o r oth e r s ' h e a l t h needs d i d not pose a b a r r i e r or problem f o r LTC i n t e r v i e w e e s . " T h i s i s heavy work ... (but) not much c h a l l e n g e . " Yet, to a woman, those in the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs expressed some apprehension, h e s i t a n c y , u n c e r t a i n t y , or uneasiness about t h e i r competence and mo t i v a t i o n throughout v a r i o u s stages of t h e i r c a r e e r development. As a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , they were, at the time of the i n t e r v i e w s , q u i t e 160 c o n f i d e n t about t h e i r s e l f - e f f i c a c y (competence and p e r s i s t e n c e ) to c a r r y through t h e i r c a r e e r goals and commitments. Occ u p a t i o n a l S o c i a l i z a t i o n The d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups r e l a t i n g to o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n d e a l t more with methodological and p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s than with content d i f f e r e n c e s . Knowledge and s k i l l s a p p r o p r i a t e to r e s p e c t i v e occupations were s t r e s s e d ; a t t i t u d e s were s t r e s s e d i n v a r i o u s ways. Accor d i n g to i n t e r v i e w e e s , LTC was very i n s t r u c t o r c entered. S e v e r a l women s a i d the program was too s t r u c t u r e d , r e q u i r i n g too much memorization and r e c a l l of i n f o r m a t i o n . There was l i t t l e time f o r q u e s t i o n s and i n t e r a c t i o n with i n s t r u c t o r s . The focus was content and s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n and e v i d e n t l y i n s t r u c t o r s d i d not encourage student i n t e r a c t i o n or s t r e s s a f f e c t i v e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The o p posite r e a c t i o n was expressed by many n o n t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w e e s . One program (EAW) i n v o l v e d almost constant i n t e r a c t i o n . The course format in CkTrng allowed f o r i n t e r a c t i o n among students even in classroom s e t t i n g s . And much of t h i s program was l a b or practicum o r i e n t e d . Students o f t e n d i s c u s s e d among themselves how to handle c e r t a i n work s i t u a t i o n s . The TRAC program was organized as an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , s e l f - p a c e d program i n which students see i n s t r u c t o r s only as resource personnel or as shop c o o r d i n a t o r s . Consequently, students r e l y h e a v i l y on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e or on peer i n t e r a c t i o n . When responding to how t h e i r program f a c i l i t a t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i t y a c q u i s i t i o n , i n t e r v i e w e e s in 161 n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs saw f r i e n d s and other students as primary s o c i a l i z i n g agents. T h i s may be a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t that peer i n t e r a c t i o n was g r e a t e r i n the three n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs than i n the t r a d i t i o n a l program. I n s t r u c t o r s i n the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs entered the p i c t u r e as s o c i a l i z i n g agents only i n d i r e c t l y a c c o r d i n g to the i n t e r v i e w data. Interviewees from the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs thus experienced a v a r i e t y of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e s i n t h e i r l i v e s while e n r o l l e d i n c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs. In summary, the d i f f e r e n c e s between the t r a d i t i o n a l program and the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs appear to r e l a t e more to the a f f e c t i v e aspects of care e r development—how one a c q u i r e s the a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , and b e l i e f s of an o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i t y — t h a n to the theory and s k i l l a s pects of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n . The e x p l o r a t o r y program pr o v i d e d more c o n f i r m a t i o n and c e r t a i n t y f o r those s t i l l e x p l o r i n g ; TRAC and CkTrng p r o v i d e d l e a r n i n g experiences l e a d i n g to marketable s k i l l s ; LTC resembled TRAC and CkTrng i n program content and care e r development emphasis. Comparison of Women i n Three N o n t r a d i t i o n a l Programs The previous s e c t i o n compared and c o n t r a s t e d i n t e r v i e w f i n d i n g s between women i n an o c c u p a t i o n a l program of a t r a d i t i o n a l nature and those i n three d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l programs c o n s i d e r e d n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f o r women. In t h i s s e c t i o n the d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s r e p o r t e d by women in the three n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs (EAW, CkTrng, and TRAC) w i l l be 162 presented. The most s a l i e n t d i f f e r e n c e s among in t e r v i e w e e s i n the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs appear between the EAW program and the CkTrng and TRAC programs combined. The very nature of the EAW pr o g r a m — c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n — s e t s i t apart from other c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs (which o f f e r pre-employment and pre-apprent i c e s h i p t r a i n i n g ) . The o b j e c t i v e s of the EAW course were r e f l e c t e d i n the themes of e x p l o r a t i o n , c o n f i r m a t i o n , and c e r t a i n t y . As pa r t of an e x p l o r a t o r y process, these women wanted more n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n and c o u n s e l i n g and wished to t r y themselves out i n a short program duri n g which they counted on g e t t i n g more support and encouragement. Although women i n the EAW program were o l d e r than those i n the other two n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs, they were s t i l l e x p l o r i n g c a r e e r o p t i o n s and g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and experience to help them make b e t t e r career d e c i s i o n s . R e f l e c t i v e of these ideas are the f o l l o w i n g comments. "EAW gave me more o p t i o n s — c a r e e r and p e r s o n a l . " "This course helps women face u n c e r t a i n t y and ex p e c t a t i o n s about t r a d e s . " "Women need that support and encouragement and c o n f i r m a t i o n that i t i s okay to be d i f f e r e n t . " " I t helped me c o n f i r m the person that I am." As c a r e e r p r e p a r a t o r y programs, CkTrng and TRAC conc e n t r a t e d on i s s u e s germane to employment: theory and s k i l l s . The women i n these programs were past the c a r e e r e x p l o r a t o r y stage of ca r e e r development and i n t o the p r e p a r a t i o n stage of o c c u p a t i o n a l development. They most l i k e l y had r e s o l v e d any u n c e r t a i n t y about c a r e e r o p t i o n s and a b i l i t i e s and were 163 d i r e c t i n g t h e i r e f f o r t s toward i n s t r u m e n t a l and i n t r i n s i c means of matching p e r s o n a l and ca r e e r i n t e r e s t s to labor market p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Most of them r e p o r t e d long-term c a r e e r goals r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r program experiences and pers o n a l i n t e r e s t s . Each of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs addressed o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n v a r y i n g degrees of e x p l i c i t n e s s and thoroughness. Whereas EAW exposed women to o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n f o r the general trades through p r a c t i c i n g r o l e models, women-in-trade f i l m s , guest speakers, shop t o u r s , and work exp e r i e n c e s , CkTrng and TRAC exposed p a r t i c i p a n t s t o o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n through work experiences only ( d i s c o u n t i n g theory and s k i l l c o n t e n t ) . When int e r v i e w e d , women i n the EAW program were able to p i n p o i n t s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z i n g f a c t o r s ; most CkTrng and TRAC inter v i e w e e s c o u l d not i d e n t i f y o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z i n g f a c t o r s i n anything but general terms. In summarizing the experiences which s o c i a l i z e women i n t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s as expressed by inte r v i e w e e s i n three d i f f e r e n t types of programs, i t would seem that e x p l i c i t o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s not an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r those c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs that o f f e r s p e c i f i c career p r e p a r a t i o n . A l l three programs o f f e r e d exposure and experiences i n the c o g n i t i v e and psychomotor aspects of occu p a t i o n s . Only one program addressed the development of a f f e c t i v e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Career development i n v o l v e s a l l three l e a r n i n g domains; the EAW program thus o f f e r e d more e f f e c t i v e o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . 1 6 4 General Interview F i n d i n g s R e l a t i n g to Career Development and Occ u p a t i o n a l S o c i a l i z a t i o n The general i n t e r v i e w f i n d i n g s are d i s c u s s e d by is s u e s f o c u s s i n g on steps i n respondents' o c c u p a t i o n a l development, b a r r i e r s to t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l development, and how the programs f a c i l i t a t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Steps i n Career Development Career development, as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 2, i s viewed as a process i n v o l v i n g c a r e e r c h o i c e , c a r e e r maturity, and care e r commitment. The f i r s t q u e s t i o n asked women to e x p l a i n the steps in t h e i r c a r e e r development. T h i s q u e s t i o n was posed f o r s e v e r a l reasons: to encourage women to focus on t h e i r career maturation; to allow women to c o n s i d e r a d i s t i n c t i o n between ca r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n and job p r e p a r a t i o n ; and to pro v i d e a b a s i s f o r understanding t h e i r g o a l - s e t t i n g behavior and a c t i v i t i e s . Career Choice. Career c h o i c e i n v o l v e s g a i n i n g the knowledge and s k i l l s r e q u i r e d to q u a l i f y f o r employment. A l l the interviewees viewed ca r e e r development i n terms of pre v i o u s education and work experience. Only two p e r c e i v e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between car e e r development and t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y development. The aspect of choosing a ca r e e r , which i n v o l v e s o c c u p a t i o n a l s e l e c t i o n and behaviors, evolved e i t h e r from elementary or high school i n t e r e s t s and experiences or from recent s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s and o c c u p a t i o n a l or vo l u n t e e r experience. 1 65 Some women had begun to develop hobbies or i n t e r e s t s i n adolescent or e a r l y teenage years that ranged from r e p a i r i n g broken r e c o r d p l a y e r s at school to d e s i g n i n g and b u i l d i n g animal houses f o r pets to cooking at home to candy s t r i p i n g in a h o s p i t a l . Interviewees v o i c e d a wide v a r i e t y of involvement: "I got i n t o i t by f l u k e , " "I got i n t e r e s t e d because of my own p h y s i c a l handicap," "In school I had an i n q u i r i n g mind about e l e c t r o n i c t h i n g s , " "I used t o enjoy making c r e a t i v e t h i n g s . " One woman i d e n t i f i e d her f i r s t r e c o l l e c t i o n of c a r e e r i n t e r e s t as o c c u r r i n g when she asked f o r a hammer and c a r p e n t e r ' s pouch for Christmas at the time she was seven years o l d . Although her v o c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s have spanned many areas, she turned to a t r a i n i n g program which i s intended to help r e a l i z e her o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l of those e a r l y y e a r s : b u i l d i n g f u r n i t u r e . S i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s which caused women to co n s i d e r (or re c o n s i d e r ) a care e r or care e r p r e p a r a t i o n i n c l u d e d marriage breakdown, g e o g r a p h i c a l r e l o c a t i o n , or l i f e assessment. One woman echoed the sentiments of s e v e r a l by s t a t i n g , "I've never thought of my l i f e i n terms of a c a r e e r and I s t a r t e d t h i n k i n g I should get s e r i o u s about p r e p a r i n g f o r one." A l s o important to s e v e r a l women was the idea of " g e t t i n g o f f w e l f a r e by g e t t i n g t r a i n i n g and a job." Another woman, with a background of advanced education and experience i n s o c i a l work, used a move to Vancouver to reexamine her ca r e e r i n t e r e s t s and v o c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n . For some women who had been out of the l a b o r market f o r awhile, recent v o l u n t e e r i n g or p e r s o n a l experience p r o v i d e d the 166 impetus t o pursue c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n of a nature d i f f e r e n t from e a r l i e r i n t e r e s t s and p r e p a r a t i o n . "I wanted to get back i n t o the workforce but not in the areas of previous t r a i n i n g and I enjoyed r e f i n i s h i n g c a b i n e t s while we were having renovations on our home r e c e n t l y . " From another, "I r e a l i z e d they ( p a t i e n t s ) weren't g e t t i n g enough i n d i v i d u a l c a r e so I v o l u n t e e r e d s e v e r a l days a week. During that experience I r e a l i z e d I was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r academic a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as the r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . I would l i k e to be an a c t i v i t y d i r e c t o r . " For these women, ca r e e r c h o i c e was a matter of s i t u a t i o n a l or environmental f a c t o r s , not n e c e s s a r i l y a s e q u e n t i a l , developmental process. Many had been i n v o l v e d i n an occupation u n r e l a t e d to t h e i r c u r r e n t p r e p a r a t i o n program, choosing to r e t u r n to sch o o l to pursue new or d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r i n t e r e s t s or to f i n a l l y a c q u i r e the knowledge and s k i l l s f o r an e a r l i e r v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . Career M a t u r i t y . Career m a t u r i t y i n v o l v e s the f a c t o r s i n v o c a t i o n a l decision-making d u r i n g s u c c e s s i v e p e r i o d s i n one's development. For some in t e r v i e w e e s , t h i s decision-making process i n v o l v e d e a r l y e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . One woman took metal work, woodworking, auto mechanics, and cooking i n high s c h o o l ; another b u i l t e l e c t r o n i c k i t s ; while yet another took a l l the math and s c i e n c e she c o u l d . But f o r most of these women, v o c a t i o n a l decision-making d i d not become a conscious p a r t of t h e i r development u n t i l a f t e r h i g h s c h o o l . Some pursued other c a r e e r c h o i c e s because of fa m i l y p r e s s u r e s or career i n d e c i s i o n . "I went to u n i v e r s i t y f o r three years to be a 167 teacher but dropped out because i t wasn't meeting my needs. A f t e r working at odd jobs f o r about f i v e years I am now e x p l o r i n g my e a r l y n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r i n t e r e s t s . I have made some recent d e c i s i o n s based on my p h y s i c a l a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s . " One interviewee undertook a decision-making process l a s t i n g s e v e r a l months. During that p e r i o d she r e c a l l e d past jobs and experiences she had enjoyed, f o c u s i n g on what provided f u l f i l l m e n t . She worked through a book on c a r e e r d e c i s i o n -making, took a p t i t u d e t e s t s through an employment c o u n s e l o r , and, a f t e r r e a l i z i n g her i n t e r e s t s i n woodworking, v i s i t e d shops and t a l k e d with woodworkers. At one s p e c i a l i t y shop she showed up every day at 8:00 a.m. f o r s e v e r a l weeks to observe and v i s i t . Her decision-making process has taken her i n t o a t r a i n i n g program where she i s a c q u i r i n g p r e - a p p r e n t i c e s h i p q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Other women have been i n v o l v e d i n a process of ca r e e r maturation without i d e n t i f y i n g i t as such. A c t i v i t i e s i n which they were engaged while c o n s i d e r i n g numerous v o c a t i o n a l i s s u e s i n c l u d e d c o n t i n u i n g education courses, part or f u l l - t i m e jobs, and v o l u n t e e r a c t i v i t i e s . M a t u r a t i o n p e r i o d s f o r those women whose c a r e e r experiences have not d e v i a t e d from o r i g i n a l i n t e r e s t s incuded c a r e e r development gained d u r i n g summer jobs, f u l l - t i m e employment, i n s t i t u t i o n a l courses, and correspondence coursework. S e v e r a l women s t r e s s e d that "experience i s the key to c a r e e r m a t u r i t y , not only age." In summarizing the career m a t u r i t y process f o r these women, 1 68 i t would seem that the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of that aspect of career development r e l a t e s to s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . For some, v o c a t i o n a l decision-making had been an ongoing process from an e a r l y age. For o t h e r s , choosing a c a r e e r and a c t i v e l y pursuing i t had occurred only p r i o r to program e n r o l l m e n t . Yet f o r o t h e r s , v o c a t i o n a l decision-making was a s e r e n d i p i t o u s exper i e n c e . Career Commitment. Career commitment r e l a t e s to the d e c i s i o n to take a job. Once a c a r e e r d e c i s i o n had been made or an o c c u p a t i o n a l choice i d e n t i f i e d , most women i n t h i s study a c t i v e l y sought i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g to o c c u p a t i o n s , the p r e p a r a t i o n r e q u i r e d , and the p o s s i b i l i t y of t r a i n i n g . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n seeking can be viewed as part of c a r e e r m o t i v a t i o n or c a r e e r commitment. How motivated were these women to c o n s c i o u s l y commit themselves to a c q u i r i n g the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s r e q u i s i t e to the occupation? By the time these i n t e r v i e w s were conducted, most in t e r v i e w e e s had completed t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n program. When questioned about c a r e e r goals and m o t i v a t i o n , most were able to d i s c u s s s p e c i f i c p l a n s . In some programs g o a l - s e t t i n g had been e i t h e r a p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m or a classroom a c t i v i t y . The interviewees g e n e r a l l y r e p o r t e d that they f e l t a need f o r c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n and c o u n s e l i n g to make reasonably good c h o i c e s and commitments. In seeking i n f o r m a t i o n about c a r e e r s and c a r e e r programs, many women were not s a t i s f i e d with the a s s i s t a n c e they had r e c e i v e d . They expressed concern about t a l k i n g to c o u n s e l l o r s who were "too busy" or "not encouraging." 169 Interviewees i n the program which addressed g o a l - s e t t i n g as part of the c u r r i c u l u m f e l t that i t was one of the most v a l u a b l e components of t h e i r program. "Women o f t e n need d i r e c t i o n and lac k s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s . They want someone to he l p them. This program helped me to focus my energy i n a care e r d i r e c t i o n . " G o a l - s e t t i n g i s seen as one means of expressing c a r e e r commitment. Examples of s p e c i f i c comments concerning career commitment are r e f l e c t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g passages. "I'm i n school because I want job t r a i n i n g and my fo u r - y e a r a p p r e n t i c e s h i p which would g i v e me some s e c u r i t y . " "I'm accepted at Kwantlen — i t i s a pre-a p p r e n t i c e s h i p program," echoes the goal commitment that others had made to seek f u r t h e r education and t r a i n i n g as a r e s u l t of being in programs. One woman who was r e a l i z i n g her long time car e e r i n t e r e s t s by going back to school was so e x c i t e d at t h i s stage of her c a r e e r development, "I j u s t love going to s c h o o l . " She mentioned three times i n d i f f e r e n t c ontexts her goal of being a r e g i s t e r e d nurse. Another women decided to pursue academic s t u d i e s at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . "I don't mind the idea of long-term t r a i n i n g or eduction f o r a c a r e e r . S k i l l s and knowledge are a c q u i r e d through t r a i n i n g and len g t h of study; l e n g t h i n d i c a t e s complexity and s p e c i f i c i t y of e x p e r t i s e . " In summary, some women i d e n t i f i e d short-term c a r e e r g o a l s ; other women s p e c i f i e d long-term g o a l s . For those with s h o r t -term g o a l s , a c e r t i f i c a t e a c q u i r e d through t h e i r program would enable them to o b t a i n a d e s i r e d job. Women i d e n t i f y i n g long-term goals r e a l i z e d that a p r e p a r a t i o n program was but one step 170 toward t h e i r c a r e e r g o a l s . Experience i n the l a b o r market would pro v i d e other c r e d e n t i a l s before they would r e t u r n to school f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g or educ a t i o n . B a r r i e r s to Career Development The second o b j e c t i v e of the i n t e r v i e w was to i d e n t i f y any problems or o b s t a c l e s which int e r v i e w e e s may have encountered i n t h e i r career development. The d i s c u s s i o n c e n t e r e d on p e r s o n a l -s o c i a l b a r r i e r s , r o l e - c o n f l i c t , and s e l f - e f f i c a c y . These three sources of p o t e n t i a l b a r r i e r s i n v o l v e b e h a v i o r a l , a t t i t u d i n a l , or c o g n i t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s . P e r s o n a l - S o c i a l B a r r i e r s . Personal b a r r i e r s to career development i n c l u d e a t t i t u d e s , p r e j u d i c e s , a p t i t u d e s , p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h s , time management, energy and money. S o c i e t a l b a r r i e r s are those d e a l i n g with f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , education and t r a i n i n g , a t t i t u d e s , f i n a n c e s , and e t h n i c and gender d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Many of the women who were i n t e r v i e w e d had experienced p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to t h e i r c a r e e r i n t e r e s t s e a r l y i n t h e i r l i v e s . Comments to t h i s q u e s t i o n evoked such responses as, "parents somewhat concerned about my being d i f f e r e n t , " "guys gave me a h a s s l e because I was the only female ( i n shop c l a s s e s ) - - t h e y sabotaged my p r o j e c t s , " " i n h i g h school I t r i e d to take shop but i t was only f o r guys. I p u r p o s e f u l l y got k i c k e d out of home ec so they would have to put me i n shop, but i t d i d n ' t work." The i m p r o p r i e t y of c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s as expressed by 1 7 1 others continued throughout the l i v e s of most of these women. Examples of t h i s i n c l u d e d : (concerning sexual harrassment i n a m i l l ) "I got no sympathy from men i n union or magagement and when the problem was addressed I r e c e i v e d punishment of s i x weeks of night s h i f t , " "As a working woman I cou l d n ' t get c e r t a i n jobs because they were only f o r men. When I met the requirements ( f o r the male jobs) another b a r r i e r was put i n the way," "Guys g i v e you f l a k f o r being too weak; you can't handle i t , or f o r being too strong that 'you're j u s t too butch f o r me.'" Some women met p r e t t y s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n i n t h e i r programs: "You're not going to be abl e to do t h i s " and "You don't belong here." Among the women i n t e r e s t e d i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s , almost one-half r e p o r t e d wanting to e n r o l l i n s p e c i f i c n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s e s d u r i n g high school but had been denied that o p p o r t u n i t y . Some school o f f i c i a l ( s ) had determined which c l a s s e s were " a p p r o p r i a t e " f o r women and which ones were not. To the p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r of impropriety i s added the b a r r i e r of a g e - r e l a t e d a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s f o r care e r development p u r s u i t s . Because of the s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r which may postpone ca r e e r decision-making ( d i v o r c e , widowhood, d i s i n t e r e s t ) , some women do not a c t i v e l y c o n s i d e r or pursue a caree r u n t i l l a t e r i n l i f e . One woman was t o l d by four d i f f e r e n t c o u n s e l i n g o f f i c e s that she was too o l d to update her 25-year o l d o u t - o f - p r o v i n c e t e a c h i n g c e r t i f i c a t e . Another woman expressed a self-im p o s e d age b a r r i e r , "because I'm 53 I don't want to spend too much time s t u d y i n g " ( f o r a c a r e e r ) . 172 Perhaps the a t t i t u d i n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s about women's r o l e s can be t y p i f i e d i n the statement one young woman r e c e i v e d from a male duri n g a program f i e l d placement, "Have you thought about sewing?" Although r e c o g n i z i n g that b a r r i e r s do e x i s t does not d i m i n i s h t h e i r e x i s t e n c e , the respon s i v e a t t i t u d e by the m a j o r i t y of interviewees was t h a t b a r r i e r s were simply a lac k of "awareness and s e n s i t i v i t y to women's i s s u e s . " They s a i d that when they were c o n f r o n t e d with sexism, they t r e a t e d i t as a joke because when you take i t s e r i o u s l y " i t puts wind i n t h e i r s a i l . " Role C o n f i c t . Concomitant with p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s women face i n care e r development are c o n f l i c t i n g b e h a v i o r a l , a t t i t u d i n a l , or c o g n i t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s a r i s i n g from m u l t i p l e r o l e s a s s o c i a t e d with c a r e e r achievement and marriage and f a m i l y i n t e r e s t s . Men are faced with many of the same i s s u e s i n ca r e e r development as women: c h o i c e s , maturation, commitment, b a r r i e r s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , p e r c e p t i o n s , and s o c i a l i z a t i o n . But the r o l e of women i n North American s o c i e t y which a s c r i b e s to them the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of home and f a m i l y bestows upon them an added r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Even f o r women who are s i n g l e (by c h o i c e , d i v o r c e or widowhood) and c h i l d l e s s , c o n f l i c t a r i s e s i n the daughter, s i s t e r , or f r i e n d r o l e s . As a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , the iss u e of r o l e c o n f l i c t y i e l d e d the st r o n g e s t sentiments expressed d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w — e i t h e r h o s t i l e , begrudged, re s i g n e d , or p o s i t i v e . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e were: "My mother says how messed up I am and th a t my bro t h e r s don't do t h i s to her." They (parents) "always ask when I w i l l get 173 married." My parents "would perhaps have been happier i f I had pursued a more academic o p t i o n . " "My mother i s not s u p p o r t i v e but my f r i e n d s are g r e a t . " One interviewee was q u i t e emphatic on t h i s s u b j e c t . "My f a m i l y gave me no support. Both s i s t e r s s a i d I c o u l d n ' t do i t . " And although her daughters o f f e r e d encouragement, "Having a daughter who i s having t r o u b l e i n school i s a r e a l concern at t h i s time." From another, " I t was d i f f i c u l t cause kids want that a t t e n t i o n when they come home from s c h o o l . I t r e q u i r e d someone to come i n t o my home e a r l y i n the morning to get the k i d s o f f to s c h o o l . The time with my k i d s became more s t r u c t u r e d . " A l s o i n c l u d e d were comments l i k e , "I had more r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s than some younger g i r l s . They were going to c l u b s , movies, e t c . I was c l e a n i n g house, cooking, e t c . " And l a s t l y , remarks concerning husbands ranged from "my husband was very s u p p o r t i v e " to " l i t t l e support from husband." S e l f - E f f i c a c y E x p e c t a t i o n s . A s s o c i a t e d with r o l e - c o n f l i c t and p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s encountered i n c a r e e r development are p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n s of one's a b i l i t y t o f u l f i l l a p a r t i c u l a r r o l e i d e n t i t y . These s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s are the b e h a v i o r a l , a t t i t u d i n a l , and c o g n i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s i n v o l v i n g the competence and p e r s i s t e n c e of a c q u i r i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a r o l e . Women i n t h i s study expressed a wide range of thoughts about t h i s i s s u e . One t h i r d saw e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s i n t i m a t e l y l i n k e d to a s s e r t i v e n e s s . "My c o n f i d e n c e comes from 1 74 my a s s e r t i v e n e s s and o c c u p a t i o n a l experience." "I am more e f f e c t i v e d e a l i n g with ... because of pe r s o n a l development, a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g , and an improved s e l f - c o n c e p t . " The u n c e r t a i n t y about c a r e e r s , e s p e c i a l l y n o n t r a d i t i o n a l ones with which women have had l i t t l e exposure or experience, can c r e a t e u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s . "Thinking that trades i s [ s i c ] f o r men i s a r e a l b a r r i e r . " From another, "A l o t of women have t a l e n t , c r e a t i v i t y , and a b i l i t y but they never r e c e i v e the encouragement to co n s i d e r anything f o r a career — i t i s assumed they w i l l get married. Women are not s o c i a l i z e d to do those t h i n g s . " One poignant example of s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s comes from a woman who had been graduated from h i g h s c h o o l , but e f f e c t i v e l y f a i l e d grades 7 to 11. F r a c t i o n s are important i n c a r p e n t r y . I l e a r n e d a l o t about math and how to use i t . I never l e a r n e d to read. I had le a r n e d to recognize what words looked l i k e . I almost q u i t when I saw what I had to read. I LEARNED TO READ! F r i e n d s helped me. I read a l o t of l e a r n i n g guides. I was r e a l l y embarrassed. But I can t a l k about i t now. One a r t i c u l a t e woman e l a b o r a t e d on ex p e c t a t i o n s and percept i o n s . The t r a n s f e r of knowledge and s k i l l s i s important. Working with people and d i f f e r e n t jobs has helped me work through a s i t u a t i o n I don't f e e l c o n f i d e n t i n . Knowing what i s expected of me in shop i s good to r e l i e v e worry. A l s o I've attended a number of workshops on how to express y o u r s e l f . I'm not a f r a i d to admit I don't know something. And then I hear an i n s t r u c t o r say we aren't supposed to know e v e r y t h i n g . Some of these are self-imposed e x p e c t a t i o n s because of my age, sex, r a c i a l background. My g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y was my pe r s o n a l apprehension. These women had v a r i o u s p e r c e p t i o n s about t h e i r a b i l i t i e s 175 and competence from p r i o r s o c i a l i z a t i o n . At the time of the i n t e r v i e w s (nearing the end of t h e i r program), most expressed s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of co n f i d e n c e , m o t i v a t i o n , and a s s e r t i o n which had been gained as a r e s u l t of experience in the program. Occ u p a t i o n a l S o c i a l i z a t i o n The f i n a l o b j e c t i v e of the i n t e r v i e w was to o b t a i n the p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a n t s r e g a r d i n g how t h e i r programs had f a c i l i t a t e d t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n of an o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i t y . T h i s q u e s t i o n was posed to i n v i t e t h e i r r e a c t i o n s about f e a t u r e s or a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r course which r e l a t e d to o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study were at some stage of g a i n i n g the r e q u i s i t e knowledge and s k i l l s of chosen occupations by v i r t u e of being e n r o l l e d in c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs. In each program the a c t u a l use of the knowledge or s k i l l s f o r a p p r o p r i a t e tasks was p r a c t i c e d . In a d d i t i o n , work v a l u e s were addressed ( i n v a r y i n g degrees of thoroughness) and a p p l i e d . The importance of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s apparent when one c o n s i d e r s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the e d u c a t i o n a l system and the l a b o r market as long-term f o r many, i f not most, of these women. For example, as a r e s u l t of t h e i r present or previous enrollment, nine interviewees i d e n t i f i e d f u r t h e r academic educat i o n , a p p r e n t i c e s h i p or p r e - a p p r e n t i c e s h i p programs as t h e i r immediate g o a l . O c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n , then, becomes an important component i n the school-to-work t r a n s i t i o n . Women in the care e r e x p l o r a t o r y program i d e n t i f i e d 176 e x p l o r a t i o n as a key s o c i a l i z i n g f a c t o r . They f e l t t h a t by e x p l o r i n g d i f f e r e n t occupations they would be c e r t a i n of t h e i r c h o i c e . Some of the general knowledge, s k i l l s , and a t t i t u d e s they a c q u i r e d from t h e i r program r e l a t e d to g o a l - s e t t i n g , decision-making, e f f e c t i v e communication, and c o n f i d e n c e -b u i l d i n g . The program was e f f e c t i v e i n t h a t i t gave them three to four p r a c t i c a l work experiences, job-hunting and i n t e r v i e w i n g s k i l l s , a sense of perserverance and completion (a diploma), and m o t i v a t i o n to take f u r t h e r a c t i o n . Concerning o c c u p a t i o n a l s k i l l s , students r e l a t e d that i n s t r u c t o r s i n the LTC program s t r e s s e d they were teaching to an i d e a l s i t u a t i o n , which seldom o c c u r r e d . While doing practicums, s u p e r v i s o r s showed these women s h o r t c u t s and r e a l i t i e s of working under time c o n s t r a i n t s — o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z i n g f a c t o r s . The idea of being exposed to o c c u p a t i o n a l t o o l s and equipment while in a " s a f e " environment of a sch o o l l a b or shop was b e n e f i c i a l to a l l i n t e r v i e w e e s . "In l a b we have more time to ask q u e s t i o n s and think about t h i n g s . In the r e a l world you have to re a c t because of time d e a d l i n e s . " Before being sent out on a f i e l d e x perience, one group of students was t o l d by t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r about the importance of t h e i r a t t i t u d e . Yet many b e h a v i o r a l , a t t i t u d i n a l , or c o g n i t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s which s o c i a l i z e one i n t o an occupation are not lear n e d from l a b s , l e s s o n s , or practicums. They are gleaned from other students, from o b s e r v a t i o n s , from other people. For example, one interviewee s t a t e d : 177 You may get i t [ o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i n f o r m a t i o n ] i n d i r e c t l y . T h i s may be due to the trades h i e r a r c h y . I'm g e t t i n g i t from other p e o p l e — how i n s t r u c t o r s t a l k about and look at o t h e r s . There i s an image of a ste r e o t y p e ... There are e x p e c t a t i o n s and p e r s o n a l i t y types that go along with these trades ... I've gotten i t from o l d e r students and people working and from people who have t r a i n e d . I t i s a l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s — a developmental growth. T r a i n i n g i s a p a r t , a p p r e n t i c e s h i p a p a r t , employment another. O c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s an inherent p a r t of career development as re p o r t e d by these women. Summary T h i s chapter compared and c o n t r a s t e d e x p e r i e n c e s between and among four groups of women from d i s t i n c t o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs. The purpose of the i n t e r v i e w s was to complement the q u a n t i t a t i v e data by f o c u s i n g the d i s c u s s i o n around steps i n o c c u p a t i o n a l development, concomitant b a r r i e r s , and o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n as i t occurred i n postsecondary i n s t i t u t i o n s . The i n t e r v i e w data comparing three n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs with one t r a d i t i o n a l program i n d i c a t e d that most students in n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs had expressed an e a r l y and continued i n t e r e s t i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l areas (although they may have worked in areas of t r a d i t i o n a l employment), but that students in the t r a d i t i o n a l program had no d e s i r e or experience of a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l nature. B a r r i e r s were more in t e n s e f o r women pursu i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations than f o r those seeking t r a d i t i o n a l female employment. Occupa t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s between the t r a d i t i o n a l program and the three 178 n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs r e l a t e d to the type of s o c i a l i z a t i o n the c u r r i c u l a addressed. The t r a d i t i o n a l program and two n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs (CkTrng and TRAC) s t r e s s e d content and pyschomotor s o c i a l i z a t i o n , only EAW s t r e s s e d a f f e c t i v e o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . A comparison among the three n o n t r a d i t i o n a l program interviewees (EAW, CkTrng, TRAC) i n d i c a t e d that the c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n r e l a t e d to e x p l i c i t n e s s and thoroughness with which s o c i a l i z a t i o n was presented. Two programs (CkTrng and TRAC) addressed only t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge and psychomotor s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n as s o c i a l i z i n g concerns. The EAW program o f f e r e d knowledge and s k i l l s o c i a l i z a t i o n as w e l l as a f f e c t i v e s o c i a l i z a t i o n r e l a t i n g to o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e ident i f i c a t i o n . General f i n d i n g s concerning o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n as f a c i l i t a t e d by c a r e e r p r e p a r a t o r y programs were presented with quoted or a n e c d o t a l statements. Career development f o r these twelve interviewees was seen in the context of t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l — e i t h e r i d e n t i f i e d as long or short term. B a r r i e r s to o c c u p a t i o n a l development were i d e n t i f i e d by most of those i n t e r v i e w e d as an inherent aspect of gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . And o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n as a part of program c u r r i c u l a f o l l o wed no set p a t t e r n — e a c h of the four programs addressed o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n v a r y i n g forms and with v a r y i n g success. Although no c l a i m of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s has been made f o r the four groups of women, i t seems reasonable to assume that the 179 i n f o r m a t i o n o btained has face v a l i d i t y and i s u s e f u l i n e l a b o r a t i n g some of the d i f f e r e n c e s found, both between the t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups and among the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups. The next chapter w i l l summarize the major f i n d i n g s of t h i s r e s e a r c h and d i s c u s s the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the f i n d i n g s . 180 CHAPTER 7 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS The purposes of t h i s chapter are to summarize and d i s c u s s the major f i n d i n g s of the study. The t h e o r e t i c a l and met h o d o l o g i c a l foundations of the study w i l l be reviewed. Major f i n d i n g s from the hypotheses, f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , and i n t e r v i e w s w i l l be summarized and l i m i t a t i o n s of the study w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . The chapter concludes with a d i s c u s s i o n of i m p l i c a t i o n s of these f i n d i n g s f o r p r a c t i c e , r e s e a r c h and p o l i c y . Summary and Methodology of the Study The process by which women a c q u i r e an o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n as f a c i l i t a t e d by n o n t r a d i t i o n a l and t r a d i t i t i o n a l c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs was the focus of t h i s study. T h i s focus was chosen to examine the iss u e of women's e q u i t y i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . In c o n s i d e r i n g the impact of d i s t i n c t e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s on o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n t h i s study d i r e c t e d p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to the v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s women encountered and at the same time examined the nature of t h e i r c a r e e r commitment. Symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n i s m was used as the conceptual framework w i t h i n which to e x p l a i n the i n t e r a c t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and career commitment. The s u b j e c t s of the study were 61 women e n r o l l e d i n four postsecondary career p r e p a r a t i o n programs in Vancouver, B r i t i s h 181 Columbia. Three programs emphasized entry i n t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s , the f o u r t h o f f e r e d c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n of a t r a d i t i o n a l emphasis f o r women. P r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t data were c o l l e c t e d by q u e s t i o n n a i r e between February, 1984 and May, 1984. There were 61 p a r t i c i p a n t s at the p r e t e s t s e s s i o n s ; 57 women p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the p o s t t e s t s e s s i o n s . A f t e r the programs had been completed, i n t e r v i e w s were conducted with twelve women, three from each program. The data were analyzed by summary s t a t i s t i c s , f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , and a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e . The l i t e r a t u r e on care e r development i n d i c a t e s that c a r e e r c h o i c e i n v o l v e s some matching of i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with some aspects of the occu p a t i o n . Research on a d u l t c a r e e r development focuses mainly on male a p t i t u d e s , a t t i t u d e s , and developmental stages. Attempts to e x p l a i n female c a r e e r development continue to look at those f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with marriage and fa m i l y i n t e r e s t s : female r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n by fa m i l y , peers and s o c i e t y , and work p a t t e r n s r e l a t e d both to home demands and labor f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The former i n v o l v e s s o c i a l i z a t i o n to occupations that have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e and a c c e p t a b l e f o r women (t e a c h i n g , h e a l t h c a r e , c l e r i c a l ) ; the l a t t e r i n v o l v e s i n t e r m i t t e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l involvement due to the o v e r l a p p i n g r o l e s of mothering and working. T h i s study attempted to address these f a c t o r s by f o c u s i n g on those programs i n which women were e n r o l l e d who had overcome t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n , or were attempting to do so. By measuring m a r i t a l s t a t u s and number of c h i l d r e n at home, the 182 demands of homemaking and fa m i l y i n t e r e s t s were estimated. The rep o r t e d f a c t o r a n a l y s i s a l s o represented an attempt to go beyond pr e v i o u s r e s e a r c h by examining the s e l f e xpressions ( r e f l e c t i n g p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) and e x p e c t a t i o n s of ca r e e r s ( r e f l e c t i n g job aspects) which i n f l u e n c e a woman's career commitment. In other words, i t attempted to i d e n t i f y the s a l i e n t f a c t o r s in female n o n t r a d i t i o n a l , n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l career i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as f a c i l i t a t e d by e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s . Role theory i s a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l i z a t i o n theory which a r t i c u l a t e s the e x p e c t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with p o s i t i o n s in a s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . I t was used as the conceptual framework to guide the a n a l y s i s of female o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n because i t a l l o w s f o r a p s y c h o l o g i c a l understanding of r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a s o c i o l o g i c a l understanding of r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . These p s y c h o s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t s were examined as symbolic, s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n processes by which one takes on o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as a consequence of r o l e s and a l s o begins to experience a sense of s e l f (Deutsch & Krauss, 1965). This sense of s e l f engenders p e r s o n a l b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s which t r a n s l a t e i n t o a s e l f - c o n c e p t . The use of symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n i s m f o r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l , n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e d the development of a systematic understanding of the r e c i p r o c i t y between the women and s o c i e t y - -the p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l aspects of car e e r development. Role i d e n t i t y , as expressed s o c i a l meanings and s e l f meanings, channels people i n t o i n t e r a c t i v e s i t u a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g career p r e p a r a t i o n programs. Women i n t h i s study, e i t h e r 183 through recruitment or s e l f - s e l e c t i o n , were e n r o l l e d i n d i s t i n c t o c c u p a t i o n a l programs which they b e l i e v e d would h e l p c r y s t a l l i z e o c c u p a t i o n a l and pers o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s i n t o employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s , i n co n c e r t with other l e a r n i n g and developmental f a c t o r s , r e s u l t e d i n changes in t h e i r r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . Career i n t e r v e n t i o n s and program enrollment are a f f e c t e d by recruitment and s e l e c t i o n p r a c t i c e s . Changes i n female career o r i e n t a t i o n as a r e s u l t of c a r e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s w i l l be a f f e c t e d by the e f f i c i e n c y of the s e l e c t i o n or the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the t r a i n i n g program. As governmental and i n s t i t u t i o n a l budgets are reduced, i t becomes important to understand which programs and i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s are most e f f e c t i v e i n f a c i l i t a t i n g the goals of e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y f o r women, e s p e c i a l l y i f program enrollment remains e s s e n t i a l l y a s e l f - s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . The type of e d u c a t i o n a l experience and the concomitant o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n produced d i f f e r e n t changes a c r o s s the four programs f o r women i n t h i s study. F i n d i n g s of the Study Major f i n d i n g s from the hypotheses, f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , and i n t e r v i e w s are presented in t h i s s e c t i o n . I t was assumed that s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l , n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o a c q u i s i t i o n of c o g n i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n , experience with p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s , and exposure to a f f e c t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s . Such exposure i n v o l v e s both 184 c o v e r t and overt b e h a v i o r a l , a t t i t u d i n a l , or c o g n i t i v e content. For women pursuing n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s , the a f f e c t i v e component of care e r development concerns p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l f a c t o r s . Three sets of r e s e a r c h hypotheses c e n t e r i n g around the p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l aspects of career development were t e s t e d . The f i r s t set represented the p r e t e s t v a r i a t i o n between the t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r programs on i d e n t i f i e d n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n f a c t o r s : p e r s o n a l -s o c i a l b a r r i e r s , r o l e a c q u i s i t o n , and r o l e c o n f l i c t . I t measured the homogeneity of the groups. The second set showed how women d i f f e r e d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y on the v a r i a b l e s a f t e r approximately 14 weeks of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n . These hypotheses o f f e r an e m p i r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the systematic d i f f e r e n c e s between the graduates of t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs i n p s y c h o s o c i a l dimensions. The concern of the l a s t set was the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the four programs i n b r i n g i n g about change on the i d e n t i f i e d v a r i a b l e s . The r a t i o n a l e f o r the hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p s was as f o l l o w s . Gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n , which s t e r e o t y p e s women i n t o s p e c i f i c occupations and p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s , engenders p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . The v a r i a t i o n among women concerning the number and i n t e n s i t y of b a r r i e r s they p e r c e i v e i s a s s o c i a t e d with v o c a t i o n a l e x p e r iences, o r a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t s , work m o t i v a t i o n s , and a t t i t u d i n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . Gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n , as i t i n f l u e n c e s o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n , can be a l t e r e d by 185 s p e c i f i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . P r e t e s t Hypotheses The f i r s t set of hypotheses d e a l t with the number of p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s women p e r c e i v e d at the i n i t i a l stages of program enrollment to see whether programs were s e r v i n g a homogeneous c l i e n t e l e . Mean r e s u l t s showed that there were no c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s when comparing the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs with the t r a d i t i o n a l program. P e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s were p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n t l y a c r o s s the programs, although the range was narrow. When women i n t e r n a l i z e s o c i a l i z e d norms about the impropriety of c e r t a i n occupations, that s o c i a l i z a t i o n t r a n s l a t e s i n t o p e r c e i v e d p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to those o c c u p a t i o n s . According to p r e t e s t scores, n e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l e x p e c t a t i o n s nor a c t u a l experiences had mediated these b a r r i e r s or d e t e r r e n t s a t program en r o l l m e n t . Thus, although the four groups of women d i f f e r e d i n age and experience they were homogeneous with respect to the degree of impediments they p e r c e i v e d to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . The programs d i d not a t t r a c t or s e l e c t those who al r e a d y h e l d d e f i n i t e career o r i e n t a t i o n s , e i t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l or n o n t r a d i t i o n a l . P o s t t e s t Hypotheses The p o s t t e s t hypotheses a l s o d e a l t with the p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s women p e r c e i v e d to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , but t h i s time a f t e r having p a r t i c i p a t e d i n o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs. More v a r i a b i l i t y i n the women's pe r c e p t i o n of impediments to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations was found at the end of the programs than was found at the 186 beginning, i n d i c a t i n g that f a c t o r s other than e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n f l u e n c e d the p e r c e p t i o n of p s y c h o s o c i a l b a r r i e r s . Women i n the CkTrng and TRAC programs p e r c e i v e d more b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n than d i d women i n LTC, the t r a d i t i o n a l female career program. On two measures of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n ( r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n and t o t a l b a r r i e r s ) , students i n the t r a d i t i o n a l program (LTC) p e r c e i v e d the second lowest number of b a r r i e r s at program end. Conversely, on the v a r i a b l e of r o l e c o n f l i c t they p e r c e i v e d the second highest number of b a r r i e r s . Role a c q u i s i t i o n was the only v a r i a b l e on which there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a c r o s s the programs at p o s t t e s t assessment. EAW was d i f f e r e n t from CkTrng or TRAC but CkTrng and TRAC were not d i f f e r e n t from each other. Because no c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s were d i s c e r n i b l e when comparing the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs to the t r a d i t i o n a l program, i t was concluded that d i f f e r e n c e s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n were not a s s o c i a t e d e x c l u s i v e l y with program c u r r i c u l a . E v i d e n t l y women i n d i s t i n c t programs experience more than j u s t knowledge and s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n . O c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n v o l v e s theory and s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n as w e l l as s o c i a l i z a t i o n of an a f f e c t i v e nature ( e x p e c t a t i o n s , p e r c e p t i o n s , and b e h a v i o r s ) . P o s t t e s t scores r e f l e c t development and l e a r n i n g f a c t o r s . These c o u l d be a c q u i r e d through peer i n t e r a c t i o n , work experiences, and p e r s o n a l r e f l e c t i o n , c a using v a r i a t i o n i n p e r c e i v e d p s y c h o s o c i a l b a r r i e r s . 187 D i f f e r e n c e s Between P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t Scores Two hypotheses were proposed to a s c e r t a i n the d i f f e r e n c e s between the p r e t e s t measurement ( i n t i t a l program enrollment) and the p o s t t e s t measurement (near program t e r m i n a t i o n ) i n order to determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the treatment (the program). The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s measuring the change s t a t e d that women i n the three n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs would express g r e a t e r change i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of the number or degree of b a r r i e r s to o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n ( g o a l - s e t t i n g , r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n , r o l e c o n f l i c t , s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s , and t o t a l b a r r i e r s ) between pre- and p o s t t e s t measurement than would women i n a t r a d i t i o n a l program. In other words, students i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs would p e r c e i v e fewer b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations than would students i n the t r a d i t i o n a l program. Th i s h y p othesis was not confirmed. The r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n was that students who had s e l f - s e l e c t e d themselves i n t o a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l program would r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n and experiences which r e i n f o r c e d t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e and gave them g r e a t e r c o n f i d e n c e i n a l t e r i n g p s y c h o s o c i a l b a r r i e r s t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . Two of the groups (EAW and TRAC) d i d show g r e a t e r change as r e f l e c t e d i n a p e r c e p t i o n of fewer p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s as measured by mean d i f f e r e n c e s , but the other n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group (CkTrng) p e r c e i v e d more b a r r i e r s at the completion of t h e i r program than at the beginning. The changes for women in the LTC program were not c o n s i s t e n t . T h e i r change score on s e l f -e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s was minimal; they p e r c e i v e d more b a r r i e r s 188 to g o a l - s e t t i n g at program end; and on r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n and r o l e c o n f l i c t t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of the number or i n t e n s i t y of b a r r i e r s decreased. On the average they changed t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n e x p e c t a t i o n s about n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s very l i t t l e . The treatment they r e c e i v e d d i d l i t t l e to a l t e r t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of p s y c h o s o c i a l impediments to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n . T h e i r c a r e e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n remained s t a t i c . Thus, comparing the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups to the t r a d i t i o n a l group does not allow any d e f i n i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s about the c o n s i s t e n t change p a t t e r n s which o c c u r r e d as a r e s u l t of program c u r r i c u l a . Each n o n t r a d i t i o n a l program o f f e r e d a d i s t i n c t type of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . T h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and any concomitant development or l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , i n f l u e n c e d the number or degree of b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the program then, in b r i n g i n g about change, was r e l a t e d to the type of i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s they d i d (or d i d not) employ in h e l p i n g women understand and overcome p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . A second hypothesis examining pre- to p o s t t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s s t a t e d that of the three n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs, the EAW students would p e r c e i v e the g r e a t e s t change i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of the number or degree of b a r r i e r s or c o n s t r a i n i n g a t t i t u d e s on the measures of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n from the pre- to the p o s t t e s t measurement. These change scores would r e f l e c t the treatment r e c e i v e d : e x p l i c i t s o c i a l i z a t i o n a d d r e s s i n g b a r r i e r s 189 to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . The f i n d i n g s d i d not t o t a l l y support t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . EAW students d i d express g r e a t e r change between the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t measurements on s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s , r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n , and t o t a l b a r r i e r s ; but TRAC women had great e r change scores ( p e r c e p t i o n of fewer b a r r i e r s ) on g o a l - s e t t i n g and r o l e c o n f l i c t . A c c o r d i n g l y , changes i n the women's p e r c e p t i o n of p s y c h o s o c i a l d e t e r r e n t s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s c o u l d not be e x p l a i n e d s o l e l y by the v a r i a t i o n which e x i s t e d among the groups of women at the beginning of the programs. Women i n the career e x p l o r a t o r y program (EAW) expressed the most change in oc c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n , f o l l o w e d by women i n the i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , competency-based t r a d e s t r a i n i n g program (TRAC). Women i n CkTrng reported an in c r e a s e i n the number or degree of pe r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s f o r each of the f i v e v a r i a b l e s ; something in t h e i r program experiences i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n , causing an i n c r e a s e i n p e r c e i v e d impediments. In summary, the EAW program s p e c i f i c a l l y presented knowledge and s k i l l experiences of a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l nature. But i t a l s o o f f e r e d i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s to f a c i l i t a t e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n : a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g , g o a l - s e t t i n g e x e r c i s e s , d e c i s i o n making a c t i v i t i e s , r o l e modeling, communication s k i l l s , weight t r a i n i n g , shop tours and job-hunting s k i l l s . Women i n t h i s program were able to coa l e s c e the major p s y c h o s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to ca r e e r development and understand or overcome them, as evidenced by the s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of 190 b a r r i e r s to s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s , r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n , and t o t a l b a r r i e r s . T h i s type of treatment (career e x p l o r a t o r y ) was more e f f e c t i v e i n a l t e r i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n than e i t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l or n o n t r a d i t i o n a l career programs o f f e r i n g only theory and s k i l l . F a c t o r A n a l y s i s Due to the i n a b i l i t y to c o n f i r m the o r i g i n a l career commitment s c a l e s of the Nagely S c a l e of A t t i t u d e s Toward Career and Career Related V a r i a b l e s , a post hoc f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was undertaken. Two new f a c t o r s were i d e n t i f i e d : F a c t o r 1, E x p e c t a t i o n s of Career B e n e f i t s , represented the s o c i a l meanings of c a r e e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; and F a c t o r 2, named Career as V e h i c l e f o r S e l f - E x p r e s s i o n , r e p r e s e n t e d the self-meanings of o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . At p r e t e s t assessment, students i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs saw c a r e e r commitment as p r o v i d i n g g r e a t e r e x p e c t a t i o n s of s o c i a l b e n e f i t s and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n s than d i d the t r a d i t i o n a l LTC group. LTC students saw the l e a s t degree of expected b e n e f i t s and e x p r e s s i v e n e s s from c a r e e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups, EAW expressed the g r e a t e s t degree of a n t i c i p a t e d s o c i a l meanings and s e l f e x p r e s s i o n s from c a r e e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The other n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups, TRAC and CkTrng, at p o s t t e s t expressed fewer e x p e c t a t i o n s of career b e n e f i t s and s e l f e x p r e s s i v e n e s s than d i d the t r a d i t i o n a l LTC s t u d e n t s . Those who s t r o v e to take more c o n t r o l over t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l development by matching p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and job o p p o r t u n i t i e s achieved a g r e a t e r degree of 191 e x p r e s s i v e n e s s and e x p e c t a t i o n from o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Change scores i n d i c a t e d that LTC students only minimally a l t e r e d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of ca r e e r commitment as p r o v i d i n g s o c i a l b e n e f i t s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p r e s s i v e n e s s . The other n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups' change scores i n d i c a t e d t h a t CkTrng and TRAC students p e r c e i v e d fewer b e n e f i t s and l e s s e x p r e s s i v e n e s s and that EAW p e r c e i v e d more b e n e f i t s and gr e a t e r e x p r e s s i v e n e s s as a r e s u l t of c a r e e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . E v i d e n t l y the program c u r r i c u l a and i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s employed i n o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n have v a r y i n g i n f l u e n c e s on women. O v e r a l l then, p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l matching of per s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s appear to be a r e s u l t of l e a r n i n g and developmental experiences a s s o c i a t e d with e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s , s o c i e t a l norms, and career m a t u r i t y . Career e x p l o r a t i o n may pro v i d e a b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r women to understand the complexity of s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n s which are important i n f o s t e r i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Interview F i n d i n g s A d d i t i o n a l l y , i n t e r v i e w s were conducted with three women from each of the four programs to provide indepth i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e i r c a r e e r development, any incumbent p s y c h o s o c i a l impediments, and o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n as i t had occurred d u r i n g t h e i r p r e p a r a t o r y program. The f i n d i n g s of the in t e r v i e w s r e v e a l e d that c a r e e r c h o i c e , c a r e e r m a t u r i t y , and caree r commitment are i n f l u e n c e d by s i t u a t i o n a l and 1 9 2 environmental f a c t o r s ; no c l e a r p a t t e r n s were d i s c e r n i b l e between the t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs or among the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups. When b a r r i e r s to ca r e e r development were d i s c u s s e d , the r e a l i t y of both p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l d e t e r r e n t s was e s t a b l i s h e d . Students i n the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l program d i s c u s s e d the importance of support groups i n overcoming r o l e c o n f l i c t b a r r i e r s . Those in the t r a d i t i o n a l program, although acknowledging some r o l e c o n f l i c t , d i d not appear to have formed or b e n e f i t t e d from support groups. The v a r i a b l e of g r e a t e s t d i s t i n c t i o n between the t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w s was s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s . LTC inte r v i e w e e s expressed no concern about t h e i r competence and p e r s i s t e n c e i n a c q u i r i n g and ma i n t a i n i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e . But a l l i n t e r v i e w e e s i n the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs expressed u n c e r t a i n t y or h e s i t a n c y about t h e i r s e l f -e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . E v i d e n t l y , overcoming gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n which s t e r e o t y p e s women i n t o c e r t a i n c a r e e r paths and p a t t e r n s i s d i f f i c u l t to overcome. The expressed i n f o r m a t i o n about p s y c h o s o c i a l d e t e r r e n t s to ca r e e r development l e n t credence to the data analyses showing a moderate number of b a r r i e r s p e r c e i v e d by women i n a l l four programs at both p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t . A v a r i e t y of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e s were expressed by these students. Because a l l the programs o f f e r e d theory and s k i l l s , the d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n among the four programs r e l a t e d to how students a c q u i r e the a f f e c t i v e a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , and behaviors of occ u p a t i o n s . Interviewees 193 in the EAW program i d e n t i f i e d s p e c i f i c s o c i a l i z i n g f a c t o r s which p r o v i d e d c o n f i r m a t i o n of and c e r t a i n t y about t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n . Students i n the other two n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs and in the t r a d i t i o n a l program a c q u i r e d a f f e c t i v e o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n only i m p l i c i t l y - - t h e y r e c e i v e d o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n r e l a t i n g only to s k i l l t r a i n i n g . In summary, the a n a l y s i s of the in t e r v i e w responses and the e m p i r i c a l data demonstrated the r e l a t i v e importance of e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s which s t r e s s the a f f e c t i v e aspects of o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . C o n s i d e r i n g the d e t e r r i n g i n f l u e n c e s of p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s f o r women i n e i t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l or n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs at program enrollment as i n d i c a t e d by p r e t e s t s c o r e s , changes o c c u r r i n g in the ex p e c t a t i o n s , p e r c e p t i o n s , and behaviors of these women must be a t t r i b u t e d to program c u r r i c u l a and i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . Since some of these changes are r e l a t e d to s e l f - c o n c e p t s and le a r n e d behaviors as f o s t e r e d and a c q u i r e d d u r i n g e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s , support was found f o r Thornton and Nardi ' s (1975) e x p l a n a t i o n that r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n v o l v e s a n t i c i p a t o r y , formal, i n f o r m a l , and pers o n a l stages and Burke and T u l l y ' s (1977) and St r y k e r and Serpe's (1982) emphasis on the i n t e r a c t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r environments. S o c i a l i z a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the type of expe c t a t i o n s which predominate at each stage; each stage i n v o l v e s i n t e r a c t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and e x t e r n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . I t t h e r e f o r e does not seem reasonable to study o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n as only t h e o r e t i c a l and psychomotor a c q u i s i t i o n - -194 p s y c h o s o c i a l f a c t o r s are an important component of o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . C o n c l u s i o n s and G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s Nine c o n c l u s i o n s and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s were formulated based on the data a n a l y s e s and i n t e r v i e w f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d above. F i r s t , based on p r e t e s t data, i t was concluded that gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n had had s i m i l a r i n f l u e n c e s on women who were s e l f - s e l e c t e d i n t o programs. At program enrollment n e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l e x p e c t a t i o n s nor a c t u a l experiences had mediated a l l p s y c h o s o c i a l d e t e r r e n t s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . The range of scores across the four programs was narrow and tended to c l u s t e r aroung 3.0, i n d i c a t i n g women had i n t e r n a l i z e d s o c i a l i z e d norms about the imp r o p r i e t y of c e r t a i n r o l e s . Second, i t was concluded from p o s t t e s t scores that d i f f e r e n c e s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n as measured by the i d e n t i f i e d v a r i a b l e s c o u l d not be a t t r i b u t e d s o l e l y to program c u r r i c u l a . Because no c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s were d i s c e r n i b l e when comparing the t r a d i t i o n a l program with the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l programs, i t was i n f e r r e d that d i f f e r e n c e s were r e l a t e d to program c u r r i c u l a and developmental and l e a r n i n g experiences a c q u i r e d from other sources. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s supported by the l i t e r a t u r e review which i n d i c a t e s that c a r e e r development of women i s complex and i n v o l v e s the i n t e r a c t i v e r o l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s of s e l f , s o c i e t y , and occupations (Psathas, 1968; Zytowski, 1969). A t h i r d c o n c l u s i o n was based on change scores between the 195 p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t assessments. I t was concluded that a caree r e x p l o r a t o r y program a d d r e s s i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r exposure and work experience, c a r e e r decision-making, and o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s was more e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g women understand n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n s and any concomitant d e t e r r e n t s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l jobs than ca r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n o f f e r i n g only theory and s k i l l s , e i t h e r of a t r a d i t i o n a l or n o n t r a d i t i o n a l nature. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n was confirmed by the p o s t t e s t f i n d i n g s t h a t women i n the EAW program p e r c e i v e d fewer b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n and to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ( t o t a l b a r r i e r s ) than d i d women i n the other three programs. A l s o , a f t e r undergoing an e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n a d d r e s s i n g c o g n i t i v e , b e h a v i o r a l , and a t t i t u d i n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u pations, EAW students' change scores r e f l e c t e d fewer o v e r a l l d e t e r r i n g b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n than d i d other students' change s c o r e s . These f i n d i n g s are congruent with those of F r e t z (1981) and Thomas et a l . (1979) who a s s e r t that both p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l domains of o c c u p a t i o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n are c r u c i a l i n p r o v i d i n g e f f e c t i v e c a r e e r development i n t e r v e n t i o n s . A f o u r t h major c o n c l u s i o n , d e r i v e d from the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t a n a l y s i s , i s that women i n some n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs may have i d e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s about the world of work and a s s o c i a t e d p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s . The evidence from the p r e t e s t i n d i c a t e d that women i n CkTrng p e r c e i v e d few d e t e r r e n t s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n 196 a s s o c i a t e d with a c q u i r i n g a r o l e , c o n f l i c t i n g r o l e s , or p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l b a r r i e r s . Yet, a f t e r program p a r t i c i p a t i o n , students i n CkTrng p e r c e i v e d more b a r r i e r s to r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n and o v e r a l l they p e r c e i v e d more b a r r i e r s to the f i v e i d e n t i f i e d v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d with o c c u p a t i o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . T h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s about t h e i r chosen ca r e e r and the concomitant b a r r i e r s became l e s s i d e a l i s t i c d u r i n g t h e i r program l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n r e l a t e s to the f i n d i n g s of P i l a t o and Myers (1975) that c a r e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s which o f f e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g to both gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n provide g r e a t e r accuracy about car e e r and s e l f congruency when t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s presented t o g e t h e r . F i f t h l y , based on pre, post, and change data r e s u l t s , those women i n the t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n program e x h i b i t e d the l e a s t amount of change i n measures of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . T h e i r r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n was app a r e n t l y s t a t i c . By measuring p r e t e s t p e r c e p t i o n s , p o s t t e s t p e r c e p t i o n s , and d i f f e r e n c e s between the two measures, i t was a s c e r t a i n e d that women i n the t r a d i t i o n a l h e a l t h care program a l t e r e d t h e i r understanding or e x p e c t a t i o n s about n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n very l i t t l e . T h e i r scores on a l l three i n d i c e s remained about the same. Consequently, t h e i r own r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a t r a d i t i o n a l focus f o r women remained i n t a c t . Perhaps t h i s s t a b i l i t y i s f u n c t i o n a l f o r these women. They may av o i d some unpleasantness by m a i n t a i n i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . I t was noted by Thomas and 1 97 c o l l e a g u e s (1979) i n t h e i r study of n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations f o r women that many of the same p s y c h o s o c i a l b a r r i e r s which d e t e r r e d entry i n t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations a l s o acted as d e t e r r e n t s to women's e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y as w e l l . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n thus r e l a t e s to the i n t e n s i t y of gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and the inherent impediments i t c r e a t e s . A s i x t h c o n c l u s i o n was d e r i v e d from the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s : work m o t i v a t i o n f o r females c o u l d not be l a b e l e d as "masculine" or "feminine" (as i n d i c a t e d i n the o r i g i n a l Nagely c a r e e r commitment instrument). A more a p p r o p r i a t e understanding of mo t i v a t i n g f o r c e s and career e x p e c t a t i o n s which i n f l u e n c e c a r e e r commitment would r e l a t e to the androgyny of both occupations (those s t e r e o t y p e d as e i t h e r male or female) and o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The l a t t e r s t e r e o t y p e s females as having p s y c h o s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i s t i n c t from males; t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i s e v o l v i n g i n t o more gen d e r - n e u t r a l p e r s o n a l i t y r o l e s and s o c i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Such a g e n e r a l i z e d c o n c l u s i o n warrants c l o s e r s c r u t i n y . Two major i s s u e s a r i s e i n a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of female ca r e e r commitment. The f i r s t concerns career development t h e o r i e s which have f a i l e d to adequately e x p l a i n gender r o l e d i f f e r e n c e s (Ginzberg et a l . , 1951; H o l l a n d , 1966; Super, 1955). The second concerns the car e e r development t h e o r i e s f o r females which have e x c l u s i v e l y e l i m i n a t e d any c o n s i d e r a t i o n of common gender needs and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t i n g to c a r e e r m o t i v a t i o n s and commitment (Psathas, 1968; Zytowski, 1969). The two approaches to theory b u i l d i n g need • not be mutually e x c l u s i v e ; r e s e a r c h has not kept 198 up with s o c i a l changes advocating g e n d e r - n e u t r a l p s y c h o s o c i a l development. Seventh, c a r e e r i n t e r e s t s a r i s e at v a r i o u s ages and f o r v a r i o u s reasons. Based on responses t o the i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n which asked women about steps i n t h e i r c a r e e r development, i t was not p o s s i b l e to d i s c e r n a modal p a t t e r n e i t h e r between the t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups or among the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups. Career development was an i n d i v i d u a l p r o g r e s s i o n based on many f a c t o r s which were unique to each i n t e r v i e w e e : economic concerns, p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t , or p r o f e s s i o n a l a l t r u i s m . Career development and care e r p r e p a r a t i o n are d e f i n i t e l y l i f e l o n g concerns f o r some women. T h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n q u e s t i o n s the s e q u e n t i a l and s t a t i c c a r e e r decision-making process proposed by s e v e r a l t h e o r i s t s (Ginzberg et a l . , 1951; H o l l a n d , 1966; Roe, 1956) and lends credence to the idea of c a r e e r development f o r women as complex and undergoing many s o c i a l changes (Osipow, 1973). An e i g h t h c o n c l u s i o n i s that b e t t e r c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n and caree r c o u n s e l i n g i s needed f o r women i n t e r e s t e d in both t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . The m a j o r i t y of women in t e r v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d that career i n f o r m a t i o n and care e r c o u n s e l i n g they had r e c e i v e d were l e s s than adequate. G e n e r a l l y t h i s c r i t i c i s m of p r o v i d e r s of such i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e d government, s o c i a l s e r v i c e , and academic c o u n s e l i n g and in f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s . C o n s i d e r i n g that there i s c u r r e n t l y an emphasis on r e c r u i t i n g and t r a i n i n g women f o r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations and on improving the o v e r a l l e d u c a t i o n a l and 199 o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y of women, there appears to be a gap i n a v a i l a b l e and a p p r o p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , program a c c e s s i b i l i t y , support s e r v i c e s , and career o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t with the f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e on e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l e q u i t y (Thomas et a l . , 1979) and on care e r i n t e r v e n t i o n s ( F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , 1980). A n i n t h c o n c l u s i o n i s that e x p l o r a t i o n , c o n f i r m a t i o n , and c e r t a i n t y are key s o c i a l i z i n g f a c t o r s for n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . The f i n d i n g s from the in t e r v i e w s and from the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s suggested that women had e n r o l l e d i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r p r e p a r a t o r y programs because they were seeking g r e a t e r congruence between t h e i r expressed and i d e n t i f i e d c a r e e r i n t e r e s t s and t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Most had had l i m i t e d exposure or experience to occupations of a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l nature and were u n c e r t a i n about t h e i r competence and p e r s i s t e n c e i n a c q u i r i n g and ma i n t a i n i n g that r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . I t seems reasonable to them to expect that e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s would provide that o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n ; c o n f i r m a t i o n of and c e r t a i n t y about the ap p r o p r i a t e n e s s of t h e i r d e c i s i o n and t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s c o u l d be a complementary component of career e x p l o r a t i o n . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s congruent with the f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d by O'Neil (1979), Fox et a l . (1979), and Richards et a l . (1978) that c a r e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n s which s t r e s s o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n and self-awareness are ins t r u m e n t a l in student p e r c e p t i o n s of career competence and c e r t a i n t y . 200 The expanding emphasis on l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and the growing need f o r r e t r a i n i n g and upgrading of the labor f o r c e may have p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on expanding ca r e e r o p t i o n s to those areas p r e v i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r females. Once a career d e c i s i o n has been made (or i s being c o n s i d e r e d through career e x p l o r a t i o n ) i t would seem reasonable that e f f o r t s to f o s t e r and f a c i l i t a t e c a r e e r development would focus on the s p e c i f i c a s pects of o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n : decision-making, g o a l - s e t t i n g , e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s , and knowledge and s k i l l s . Both the data a n a l y s i s and i n t e r v i e w f i n d i n g s support the hypotheses that students i n a career e x p l o r a t o r y program a c q u i r e a f f e c t i v e o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n to a s s i s t them i n add r e s s i n g and overcoming any d e t e r r i n g environmental f a c t o r s and p e r s o n a l d i s p o s i t i o n s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . In summary, the c o n c l u s i o n s and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s r e p o r t e d i n d i c a t e that p s y c h o s o c i a l b a r r i e r s can have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t upon o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n and career commitment of those pursuing both t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations, but that these b a r r i e r s can be e f f e c t i v e l y d e a l t with by e x p l i c i t e f f o r t s to understand and overcome them. Gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n has s i m i l a r i n f l u e n c e s on women. I t may not be p o s s i b l e , given the c u r r e n t p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s of program recruitment and s e l e c t i o n , and the impact of gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n , to s e l e c t a group of women who a l r e a d y have a f i r m n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . Program treatments, then, which o f f e r s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n and experiences a d d r e s s i n g 201 c o g n i t i v e , b e h a v i o r a l , and a t t i t u d i n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s are more e f f e c t i v e i n a l t e r i n g female c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n than recruitment and s e l e c t i o n processes used to e n r o l l s tudents. L i m i t a t ions Two l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study were: (1) the l i m i t e d number of s u b j e c t s and treatment groups; and (2) the number of v a r i a b l e s as i n d i c e s of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The former methodological l i m i t a t i o n was encountered because o c c u p a t i o n a l programs vary between and among i n s t i t u t i o n s ; l o c a t i n g programs of s i m i l a r enrollment, d u r a t i o n , and commencement proved troublesome. A l a r g e r group of s u b j e c t s and treatment programs would have i n c r e a s e d the r e l i a b i l i t y of the f i n d i n g s . A l s o , an equal number of both t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs would have i n c r e a s e d the r e l i a b i l i t y and g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the f i n d i n g s . The i n c l u s i o n of a g r e a t e r number of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n v a r i a b l e s was v i r t u a l l y i m possible without expanding the focus of the study. T h i s would have lengthened measurement time beyond one c l a s s s e s s i o n which would have been d i f f i c u l t to arrange with i n s t r u c t o r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and students. O c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s u s u a l l y s t u d i e d as i t occurs i n the workplace. The task of l o c a t i n g instruments that would be adequate and a p p r o p r i a t e to measure r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n as i t occurs i n postsecondary formal l e a r n i n g environments met with 202 d i f f i c u l t y . The two instruments used i n t h i s study represent those a c c e s s i b l e and a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s p o p u l a t i o n of students i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l , n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l postsecondary c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs. As a r e s u l t of the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s and the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of two s c a l e s to measure s o c i a l meanings and s e l f meanings of r o l e involvement, the care e r commitment f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e appears to be complementary to understanding o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The a v a i l a b i l i t y and use of instruments measuring o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n at the ca r e e r p r e p a r a t o r y stage would have i n c r e a s e d the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y i n t h i s study. The instrument used to measure d i s p o s i t i o n s to p e r s o n a l -s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations c r e a t e d a problem by i t s grammatical c o n s t r u c t i o n which was not uncovered d u r i n g the p i l o t t e s t i n g . When both the stem and the items to which they r e f e r r e d were a l s o worded n e g a t i v e l y the c r e a t i o n of "double n e g a t i v e s " appeared to present a problem of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r the respondents in both the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t . For example, A. A woman may decide not to enter c a r e e r s t h a t are u s u a l l y h e l d by men because: 1. She doesn't want to compete presented i n t e r p r e t a t i o n problems f o r the respondents. P a r t i c i p a n t s i n q u i r e d whether they were a g r e e i n g - d i s a g r e e i n g with the statement or a g r e e i n g - d i s a g r e e i n g as to i t s d e s c r i p t i o n of an o b s t a c l e and/or impact on a woman's career development (as d i r e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e d ) . And although t h i s was d i s c o v e r e d d u r i n g the p r e t e s t s e s s i o n s , the wording of the instrument was not 203 altered in order to retain exact instrumentation and to preserve content validity. In an attempt to prevent any misunderstanding on either the pre- or posttest, the investigator carefully explained the instructions on the covering sheet and worked through two examples. Also, any questions which students had during the testing sessions were answered individually. Directions to the survey questionnaire also asked respondents to reply to the statements based on personal feelings but for women in general, not for themselves. Thus, the questionnaire was probing social attitudes rather than actually directing the statements to personal experiences or expectations. The investigator interpreted a l l responses according to the instrument scale and directions: whether the statements represented obstacles that would be (or are) encountered by women who choose to seek jobs in fields usually dominated by men. Finally, it should be emphasized that conclusions of this study must be viewed in terms of the limitations regarding its external validity. This study consisted of sixty-one students in four career preparation programs in two postsecondary institutions whose populations were made available by institutional administration. Because of this lack of randomization and the choice of instrumentation, generalizations and conclusions must be approached with caution. Nevertheless, the findings and conclusions offer some insight into intervention strategies which may facilitate greater occupational and educational equity for women. 2 0 4 I m p l i c a t i o n s I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o c o n s i d e r t h e m e a n i n g s o f t h e f i n d i n g s i n a l a r g e r p e r s p e c t i v e . W h a t d o t h e s e r e s u l t s , c o n c l u s i o n s , a n d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s m e a n f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a n d t o a d u l t e d u c a t o r s ? W h a t c h a n g e s i n r e s e a r c h a n d p r a c t i c e s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n l i g h t o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s ? T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o i d e n t i f y t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y a s t h e y r e l a t e t o p r a c t i c e , r e s e a r c h , a n d p o l i c y . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e t y p e s o f f e m a l e s i n t e r e s t e d i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s f o r w h i c h i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e r e l e v a n t . T h e f i r s t t y p e a r e t h o s e women who h a v e a l r e a d y made a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r c h o i c e a n d a r e e n r o l l e d i n a p r e p a r a t o r y p r o g r a m . T h e s e women may n e e d a n d w a n t c o n f i r m a t i o n a n d c e r t a i n t y o f t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e t h r o u g h i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s : s t u d e n t s , r o l e m o d e l s , i n s t r u c t o r s , c o u n s e l l o r s . T h e s e c o n d t y p e a r e t h e women who a r e s t i l l e x p l o r i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r o p t i o n s . T h e s e women may b e i n c a r e e r e x p l o r a t o r y p r o g r a m s o r may n o t h a v e r e g i s t e r e d , b u t who may b e s e e k i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g o p t i o n s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , a n d b a r r i e r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e t h i r d t y p e a r e t h o s e women who a r e y e t t o b e r e c r u i t e d o r a l e r t e d t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l , n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r s . T h i s r e c r u i t m e n t c o u l d o c c u r t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , w o m e n ' s o f f i c e s ( r e s o u r c e c e n t r e s , c o u n s e l i n g o f f i c e s , g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s ) o r t h r o u g h e m p l o y m e n t a n d s o c i a l s e r v i c e o f f i c e s . Women i n t h i s c a t e g o r y a r e u s u a l l y i n v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f c a r e e r a n d p e r s o n a l a w a r e n e s s a n d h a v e v e n t u r e d b e y o n d t h e home o r c u r r e n t w o r k e n v i r o n m e n t t o 205 examine t h e i r l i v e s i n a broader or d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . For P r a c t i c e Keeping i n mind l i m i t a t i o n s r egarding g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the f i n d i n g s , the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l attempt to e x t r a p o l a t e them to e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and other s o c i a l i z i n g a g e n c i e s . Before a d u l t educators can begin to make s i g n i f i c a n t progress in f a c i l i t a t i n g a d u l t c a r e e r development, the t r u e complexity of o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n must be addressed. The i n t r i c a c i e s of both p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g female ca r e e r development must be approached from both c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e s i n order to a p p r e c i a t e the complexity of the l e a r n e r s ' p s y c h o s o c i a l m i l i e u . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s p o s i t i o n s , environmental e x p e c t a t i o n s , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c t o r s which impinge on ca r e e r development need to be understood more c l e a r l y . Because of the p a u c i t y of l i t e r a t u r e and research r e l e v a n t to female c a r e e r development i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l , n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l occupations, i t seems apparent that attempts to f o s t e r and f a c i l i t a t e c a r e e r development f o r these women w i l l merely r e l y on previous p r a c t i c e s which may have been inadequate or i n e f f e c t i v e . The i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e are that the p r o v i s i o n of caree r e x p l o r a t i o n was more s u c c e s s f u l than only c o g n i t i v e and psychomotor o c c u p a t i o n a l experiences in h e l p i n g women understand and overcome d e t e r r e n t s to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . P e r s o n a l i t y d i s p o s i t i o n s and environmental b a r r i e r s can be a f f e c t e d by l e a r n i n g experiences which i n v o l v e awareness, 206 support, confirmation, and certainty. Perhaps greater emphasis could be placed on the affective aspects of occupational socialization during formal learning experiences. This affective emphasis would involve the provision of considerable counseling opportunities before, during, and after career preparation programs--during formative stages of career development—and could include academic, personal, and career counseling. For Research The paucity of research reported in the literature review of female nontraditional, nonprofessional career development occurring in postsecondary environments represents a neglected area of study. The transition from school-to-work is not immutable and linear as some theorists would suggest. There is also a dynamic perspective in that "the course of any career — from its progression through in i t ia l development during adolescence and on to almost the peak of its curve and retirement—is continually being influenced by the actual circumstances encountered by the individual during this time" (Breton, 1972, p. 5). Postsecondary career preparation programs then, represent a locus of major intervention in the career development process. Although much work on career development exists, the research suffers from a gender bias; the emphasis remains on men (Fitzgerald & Crites, 1980; Gaskell, 1892; Thomas et a l . , 1979). Career decision-making and development for women are more complex than they are for most men due to a variety of learning 207 and developmental f a c t o r s , i . e . , gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . To be of value, e m p i r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l work on career development must be s e n s i t i v e to the complexity of women's l i v e s : from e a r l y ages (preschool) of ca r e e r i n t e r e s t s to mature years (40s to 50s) of c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n ; from personal f u l f i l l m e n t to economic n e c e s s i t y ; whether s i n g l e , married, widowed—with or without c h i l d r e n . C o n s i d e r i n g the embryonic s t a t e of knowledge concerning women i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l , n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l programs, the most a p p r o p r i a t e suggestion f o r the researcher i s to develop and t e s t a theory which would e x p l a i n o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n f o r women. Those t h e o r i e s which are a v a i l a b l e are incomplete or inadequate. T h e o r e t i c a l research should b u i l d upon the i d e n t i f i e d p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l c o r r e l a t e s of care e r development w i t h i n formal l e a r n i n g environments. More q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h c o u l d be one means of g a t h e r i n g data r e g a r d i n g women's care e r development. E m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h should a l s o focus on instrument p r e c i s i o n i n order to e s t a b l i s h c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y f o r use i n understanding o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , instruments measuring c a r e e r development as o c c u r r i n g in formal l e a r n i n g environments should be developed and v a l i d a t e d . F i n a l l y , f u t u r e r e s e a r c h should continue to b u i l d on the data bank of demographic, p e r s o n a l i t y , and environmental f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l , n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and career commitment as e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s study and o t h e r s . It i s not unreasonable to a n t i c i p a t e g r e a t e r numbers of females p u r s u i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l , n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l 208 c a r e e r s i n t h e f u t u r e , g i v e n c u r r e n t government emphasis and c h a n g i n g s o c i e t a l v a l u e s e n c o u r a g i n g a n d r o g e n y o f j o b s and more p e r s o n a l autonomy i n c a r e e r c h o i c e . As w e l l , t h e emphasis on l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g w i l l r e s u l t i n g r e a t e r numbers o f mature women s t u d e n t s s e e k i n g c a r e e r t r a i n i n g o r r e t r a i n i n g . R e s e a r c h on t h i s p o p u l a t i o n o f women s e e k i n g employment p r e p a r a t i o n i n c a r e e r s of a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l , n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l n a t u r e s t a n d s a t a t h r e s h o l d . F o r P o l i c y One i m p l i c a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g g o v e r n m e n t a l a n d i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o l i c i e s r e g a r d s t h e p o l i c y w h i c h a l l o c a t e s a s p e c i f i c number o f s p a c e s f o r women i n c e r t a i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r p r e p a r a t o r y p r o g r a m s . A l t h o u g h t h e e x i s t i n g p o l i c y o f b o t h Canada Employment and I m m i g r a t i o n C o m m i s s i o n and t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r r e s e r v e s two p l a c e s f o r women p e r c l a s s i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l p r o g r a m s , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r n o t e d t h a t t h e p o l i c y i s not c o n s i s t e n t l y i m p l e m e n t e d o r e n f o r c e d . The p o l i c y n e e d s t o be examined w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e low number o f women who a r e r e c r u i t e d o r s e l e c t e d t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e of t h e s e s p a c e s . The r e c r u i t m e n t and s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s e s f o r s t u d e n t s i n p o s t s e c o n d a r y c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n p r o g r a m s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p l a c e s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p r o g r a m s e l e c t i o n and e n r o l l m e n t w i t h t h e s t u d e n t . T h e r e i s l i t t l e a p t i t u d e t e s t i n g o r c a r e e r c o u n s e l i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o c e s s o f v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . As a c o n s e q u e n c e , p rogram e x p e r i e n c e s , i n c l u d i n g c o n t a c t w i t h i n s t r u c t o r s , r e p r e s e n t a major i n f l u e n c e i n o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . P o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w h i c h 209 facilitates and fosters occupational socialization for women interested in nontraditional, nonprofessional careers could be examined more closely for effectiveness. In addition, the curricula of nontraditional, nonprofessional programs could be examined with respect to the focus on theoretical and psychomotor domains of occupational preparation and the apparent inadequate attention being given to the affective aspects of occupational socialization. This additional curricular focus has implications for instructional and support staff development for those who may need and/or want information regarding female career development of an affective nature. These concerns go beyond the simple provision of educational interventions aimed at preparing women for entry into nontraditional occupations. What remains to be seen are the types or approaches and levels of intensity of socialization efforts which can effectively and efficiently respond to the special needs of women to improve and expand their occupational options. Epilogue There is no doubt that the acquisition of occupational role identification for females is a complex phenomenon. An adequate understanding of the process wil l require a great deal of systematic research involving the numerous psychological and sociological correlates. Research of adult learning as facilitated in postsecondary educational interventions provides 210 an a p p r o p r i a t e environment i n which to study the p s y c h o s o c i a l dimensions of care e r development. Through r e p l i c a t i o n and new methodologies, a theory of female ca r e e r development can become more p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d . Women i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs are a s s e r t i n g themselves and ex p r e s s i n g t h e i r p e r s o n a l thoughts, f e e l i n g s , p e r c e p t i o n s , and b e l i e f s r a t h e r than a l l o w i n g themselves to be i n h i b i t e d by gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n which p r e c l u d e s c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , these women are a s s e r t i n g that n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s are p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y and s o c i o l o g i c a l l y b e n e f i c i a l and i n turn they b e l i e v e that they can be p r o d u c t i v e , e x p r e s s i v e , s t r o n g i n d i v i d u a l s and members of s o c i e t y . Current economic c o n d i t i o n s a l s o p l a y an important p a r t i n causing women to ex p l o r e d i f f e r e n t employment op t i o n s and to c o n s i d e r a f r e s h p r e v i o u s d e t e r r e n t s to e n t e r i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . If women are to be a t t r a c t e d to and maintained i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l , n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r s i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers, then c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis i s needed concerning the p s y c h o s o c i a l f a c t o r s of ca r e e r development. 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The c h i l d i n America. Pre-retirement a n t i c i p a t i o n and Jo u r n a l of Soc i a l Issues, 14(2) , Thornton, R. & Na r d i , P.M. (1975). The dynamics of r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n . American J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y , 80, 870-85. T i e d t , S.M. (1972). R e a l i s t i c c o u n s e l i n g f o r high school g i r l s . The School Counselor, 19, 354-56. T i t t l e , C.K. (1983, A p r i l ) . Role a n a l y s i s : I m p l i c a t i o n s from  r e s e a r c h on women f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of sex eq u i t y  i n t e r v e n t i o n s . Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American E d u c a t i o n a l Research A s s o c i a t i o n , Montreal, Canada. 2 2 2 T i t t l e , C.K. & Denker, E.R., ( 1 9 7 7 ) . Re-entry women: A s e l e c t i v e review of the e d u c a t i o n a l process, c a r e e r c h o i c e , and i n t e r e s t measurement. Review of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 4 7 ( 4 ) , 5 3 1 - 8 4 . T r o l l , L. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . C o n t i n u a t i o n s : Adult development and aging. Monterey: Brooks/Cole. U n i t e d St a t e s Department of Labor, Employment and T r a i n i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . Women and work. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . U n i t e d States Department of Labor, Women's Bureau. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . Women i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l jobs: A program model. Boston:  N o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations program f o r women. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . V e t t e r , L. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . Career c o u n s e l i n g f o r women. The  Counseling P s y c h o l o g i s t , 4 , 5 4 - 6 6 . V e t t e r , L. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c ing n o n t r a d i t i o n a l  v o c a t i o n a l education e n r o l l m e n t s : A l i t e r a t u r e review (Research and Development S e r i e s No. 1507"! (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 1 8 1 3 2 6 ) Wertheimer, B. & Nelson, A. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . Into the mainstream: Equal e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r working women. J o u r n a l  of Research and Development i n Education, J _ 0 ( 4 ) , 6 1 - 7 6 . Wittenberg, J . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . Improving g i r l s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l  p o t e n t i a l : A review of the l i t e r a t u r e . (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 1 7 7 3 6 9 ) Wolkon, K.A. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . Pioneer vs. t r a d i t i o n a l : Two d i s t i n c t v o c a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s of c o l l e g e alumnae. J o u r n a l of  V o c a t i o n a l Behavior, 2 ( 3 ) , 2 7 5 - 8 2 . Women i n B r i t i s h Columbia a plan f o r progres. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r . Women's Bureau, Labour Canada. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . Women i n the labour  f o r c e . (Part II earnings of women and menT. Ottawa: M i n i s t e r of Supply and S e r v i c e s . Women's Bureau, Labour Canada. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . 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Personnel and Guidance J o u r n a l , 47, 660-64. 224 APPENDICES 225 APPENDIX A 226 APPENDIX A — KWANTLEN COMMUNITY COLLEGE ADMISSIONS QUALIFICATIONS A c a d e m i c Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s Y o u a r e e l i g i b l e f o r a d m i s s i o n if y o u m e e t o n e of t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : B) YOU h a v e c o m p l e t e d B . C . s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l g r o d u a l i o n o n a n y p r o g r a m m o or t h e e q u i v a l e n t f r o m a n o t h e r s c h o o l s y s t e m , or b) Y o u l a c k not m o r e t h a n o n e c o u r s e for B . C . s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n , o r t h e e q u i v a l e n t f r o m a n o t h e r . s c h o o l s y s t e m , or c) Y o u a r e 19 y e a r s o f a g e or o l d e r o n t h e f i r s t d a y o f t h e c u r r e n t s e m e s t e r , o r * d) Y o u a r e at l e a s t 17 y e a r s of a g e o p t h e f i r s t d a y of t h e c u r r e n t s e m e s t e r a n d y o u h a v e n o t b e e n i n r e g u l a r a t t e n d a n c e at s c h o o l f o r a m i n i m u m of o n e y e a r . e) S t u d e n t s a p p l y i n g f o r a d m i s s i o n to a c a r e e r p r o g r a m m e m u s t m e e t t h e a d m i s s i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s s p e c i f i c t o t h a t p r o g r a m m e . N O T E : If y o u d o n o t m e a t o n e of t h e a b o v e r e q u i r e m e n t s , y o u m a y apf>ly f o r a d m i s s i o n a s a " s p e c i a l s t u d e n t " . Y o u . a r e u r g e d t o d i s c u s s y o u r s i t u a t i o n w i t h a C o l l e g e C o u n s e l l o r . M a t u r e S t u d e n t s A d m i s s i o n J C w a n t l e n C o l l e g e h a s a c o m m i t m e n t t o t h e a d u l t s t u d e n t , w h e t h e r f u l l - t i m e o r p a r t - t i m e . I f . you a r e 19 y e a r s of a g e o r o l d e r o n t h e f i r s t d a y of t h e c u r r e n t Eemester o r if y o u h a v e b e e n o u t of s c h o o l f o r at l e a s t o n e y e a r a n d h a v e not c o m p l e t e d B . C . s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n (or i t s e q u i v a l e n t f r o m a n o t h e r s c h o o l s y s t e m ) , y o u m a y s t i l l q u a l i f y f o r a d m i s s i o n t o K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e . E x p e r i e n c e a n d t r a i n i n g r e l a t e d t o t h e c o u r s e s y o u w i s h t o t a k e w i l l b e e v a l u a t e d i n a s s e s s i n g y o u r a p p l i c a t i o n . T h e C o l l e g e w i l l e n d e a v o u r t o p r o v i d e c o u r s e s a p p r o p r i a t e , t o y o u r i n t e r e s t s , b a c k g r o u n d , a n d g o a l s . D e p e n d i n g o n y o u r e d u c a t i o n a n d e x p e r i e n c e , y o u m a y b e a d v i s e d t o t a k e c o u r s e s o f f e r e d by a n a d u l t - e d u c a t i o n d i v i s i o n i n o u r c o n s t i t u e n t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s b e f o r e b e i n g a d m i t t e d . 227 APPENDIX B n • { ! SOCIALIZATION OF WOMEN INTO NONTRADITIONAL OCCUPATIONS The purpose of t h i s research p r o j e c t i s to gather Information about: women i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l v o c a t i o n a l education t r a i n i n g i n post-secondary i n $ t i t u t i o n s i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. As a female student you are asked to complete the attached q u e s t i o n n a i r e s by s e l e c t i n g and r e c o r d i n g your responses. Do not s i g n your name a n y w h e r e — i t i s important chat; anonymity be maintained. Please choose an I d e n t i f i c a t i o n number and record i t i n the a p p r o p r i a t e • l o c a t i o n (the l a s t 3 d i g i t s of your S o c i a l Insurance Number are recommended). The numbers of each response box r e f e r to the computer question number. I t i s impor-tant that each answer be recorded i n the box to the r i g h t of each statement: (unless i n d i c a t e d otherwise) . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i l l take approximately 30 minutes of your time.' You may refuse to answer any questions but i t w i l l be assumed that you have consented to p a r t i c i p a t e when the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are completed and returned to the i n v e s t i g a t o r . Your r i g h t to refuse to p a r t i c i p a t e w i l l not i n any way a r f e c t your s t a t u s or p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n your v o c a t i o n a l program. Thank you f o r your a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h i s p r o j e c t . I 2 3 228 Put your i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number i n the 3 spaces i o the r i g h t . ~ ! 6 DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION Place the number of the a p p r o p r i a t e response or the a c t u a l answer i n the box(es) t o the r i g h t , ' Put each number i n a separate box. A, What i s your age? ? g What i s your m a r i t a l s t a t u s ? T__ E 1, never married. 2, married, or l i v i n g wi i h s ome one 3, separated l*. d i v o r c e d 5. widowed C. How many c h i l d r e n do you have l i v i n g with you? 0. no c h i l d r e n 1. one c h i l d 2. two c h i l d r e n 3. t h r e e or more c h i l d r e n D, I f you have children l i v i n g with you, what are t h e i r ages? 229 Child one Child .two Child three CliHtf .four 11 12 13 I'l-15 16 •Tf n r E. What i s the highest grade l e v e l of education you have completed prior to your present college enrollment? 1. l e s s than grade 12 2. completed grade 12 3. technical t r a i n i n g or vocational education beyond high school 4. some college or university 5. graduated, from university 6 . other (please specify) 19 F. How many years t o t a l work experience do you have, including part-time and voluntary work? G. Are you currently working? (If no, skip to Question K.) 1. Yes 2. No 20 21 22 H. I f yes, are you working part-time or f u l l - t i m e ? 1, part-time 2. f u l l - t i m e Is your work related to your current t r a i n i n g or education? 1. related to t r a i n i n g or education 2. unrelated to t r a i n i n g or education 2k How many hours per week do you work? K. After completing your present program what are your immediate vocational or educational goals? 1. to seek part- or f u l l - t i m e employment i n an area related to current t r a i n i n g 2. t o seek employment i n an area unrelated to t r a i n i n g 3. to enter a pre-apprenticeship or apprenticeship program k. to pursue other academic or vocational education 5. other (please specify) _ 25 26 2? 230 SURVEY OF WOMEN'S ATTITUDES ABOUT CAREERS This survey provides you with an opportunity to express your opinions about the obstacles that would be (or are) encountered by women who choose to seek jobs in f i e l d s usually dominated by men. On the following pages you w i l l f i n d a series of statements that may or may not keep women from seeking a job i n an area that i s usually dominated, by men. You are asked to express your feelings about how much or how l i t t l e you agree with each statement. There are no ri g h t or wrong answers, so do not hesitate to respond to each statement exactly the way you f e e l . Directions f o r Marking Your Responses: A. In making your responses choose 5, ^, 3, 2, or 1 as described below: (5) Strongly Agreo— - i f the statement cloocrlhoo an ohntaclo that alwayo has ah impact on a woman's career development. (4) A g r e e — i f the statement describes an obstacle that occasionally has an impact on a woman's career development. (3) Undecided—if you are not sure whether or not the statement describes an obstacle that would have an impact on the career development of women. (2) D i s a g r e e — i f the statement describes an obstacle that r a r e l y has an impact on career development. ( l ) Strongly D i s a g r e e — i f the statement describes an obstacle that never has an impact on career development. B. When sele c t i n g your responses, consider the response words as i f they were points on the same l i n e . 5 4 . 3 2 1 / / / / /__ Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree C. Place your response i n the box to the l e f t of each statement. D. Below are sample statements with responses shown (using the sca l e ) . People have trouble getting into business. (You strongly agree) Career f i e l d s are. hard to get in t o . (You are undecided) 41 E. PLEASE DO NOT OMIT ANY ITEMS 231 i 2 3 4 5 6 + 4 .L. V-Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree A. A woman may decide not to enter careers that are usually held by men because: 1. She doesn't want to compete 2. She doesn't f e e l that she i s as competent as the man i n the f i e l d 3. She would offend men by being successful 4. She f e e l s that women have to be better (work harder, etc.) than men to be successful i n the same job B. Information about careers usually held by men: 1 . May never be sought by a woman 2. May never be reviewed, seriously by a woman C. I f a woman seeks information about nontraditional occupations (those usually held by men) she may f i n d that: 12 1. She has d i f f i c u l t y overcoming negative feedback from the sources of occupational information 2. She has d i f f i c u l t y getting people to t a l k to her about these occupations 3. She may have d i f f i c u l t y knowing where to star t looking f o r information needed T T 15 I - 4 -232 5 ^ 3 2 1