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Integration and democratization of Zambian agricultural extension Machila, Margaret Mavis Chinyama 1986

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INTEGRATION AND DEMOCRATIZATION OF ZAMBIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION by MARGARET MAVIS CHINYAMA MACHILA (B.A with Ed., The Uni v e r s i t y of Zambia, 1982) A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the recju/ired standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1986 © Margaret Mavis Chinyama Machila In presenting t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his or hsr representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. (Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t and Higher Education) The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: May, 1986 i i ABSTRACT L i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n o c c u r s i n a combinat ion of formal and n o n - f o r m a l s e t t i n g s throughout an e n t i r e l i f e t i m e . E d u c a t o r s such as Dewey (1916), the a u t h o r s of the 1919 R e p o r t , and a u t h o r s of UNESCO p o s i t i o n papers d u r i n g the 1970's emphasized the need for democra t i c acces s to e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s which are i n t e g r a t e d h o r i z o n t a l l y a c r o s s a v a r i e t y of s e t t i n g s and v e r t i c a l l y over a range of ages . An example of the problems caused by the l a c k of such d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n i s found i n t h i s study of Zambian a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . I t a s ses ses programs of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Water Development i n Zambia i n terms of p r o c e d u r e s r e l a t i n g to s t a f f i n g , t r a i n i n g , p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , f i n a n c i n g , r e s e a r c h and t e c h n o l o g y . I t was found t h a t there i s l i m i t e d i n t e g r a t i o n and d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n of the p r o c e d u r e s s t u d i e d . A much more p a r t i c i p a t o r y and c o - o r d i n a t e d approach at s e v e r a l l e v e l s i s recommended. W e l l i n t e g r a t e d e f f o r t s of d i f f e r e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r o v i d e r s might b e t t e r serve a l l farmers i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e to r e v e r s e the d e c l i n e in a g r i c u l t u r a l i i i p r o d u c t i o n which has o c c u r r e d i n recent y e a r s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h would a s s i s t t h i s p r o c e s s and enhance an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT • i i TABLE OF CONTENTS . « i v LIST OF TABLES .' v i i LI ST OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS......... . i x LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS/ACRONYMS x CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM..... 1 Statement of the Problem i . • • • 4 L i f e l o n g Education • • • • • . .6 Scope and Rationa l e of the Study........ 12 Purpose of the Study... 13 Objectives of the Study ........14 D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms used i n the Study 14 Organization of the T h e s i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 CHAPTER TWO: ZAMBIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION ...... 23 C o l o n i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension.... 23 P o s t - c o l o n i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension... 27 S i g n i f i c a n t Procedures .40 Structure and Organization of Zambian A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension 43 CHAPTER THREE: LIFELONG EDUCATION: A CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS • • • •.• r 4 9 L i f e l o n g Education 50 The Conceptual V a r i a b l e s . . . . . . 50 V V e r t i c a l Integration •••• 51 Horizo n t a l Integration 52 Democratization 56 CHAPTER FOUR: NON-FORMAL IN THE CONTEXT OF LIFELONG EDUCATION 59 Non-formal Education ....59 Integrating Formal and Non-formal Education 61 The S i g n i f i c a n c e of L i f e l o n g Education 62 P a r t i c i p a n t s 63 A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension Procedures 65 CHAPTER FIVE: VARIABLES AND METHODOLOGY.. 70 Li f e l o n g Education Indicators 72 Procedures . 74 Study Procedure. 81 Analysis of Data 82 CHAPTER SIX: PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 84 V e r t i c a l Integration 86 Horizontal Integration 107 Democrat i z a t ion 122 CHAPTER SEVEN: SUMMARY 133 V e r t i c a l Integration 133 Horizontal Integration 134 Democratization 135 Implications 135 Lim i t a t i o n s of the Study 139 v i CHAPTER EIGHT: POLICY IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION 140 REFERENCES 150 v i i LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Growth in Developing Countries ( 1960-90) 3 Table 2. Percent Population D i s t r i b u t i o n in Provinces--l963, 1980 25 Table 3. T r a d i t i o n a l Farm Systems in Zambia 28 Table 4. Categories of Zambian Farmers by Farm Size. 29 Table 5. Contribution of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Sector to GNP. 32 Table 6. Marketed Maize Production, Zambia, 1 964-1981 . . 34 Table 7. Imports and Exports of Maize, 1964-1980 35 Table 8. Maize Imports into Zambia, 1978/79 39 Table 9. L i f e l o n g Education P r i n c i p l e Indicators 58 Table 10. P r o f e s s i o n a l and Technical S t a f f i n g , Summary Early 1984 90 Table 11. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farmer T r a i n i n g Centres by province 96 Table 12. C a p i t a l Budget Outlay for M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and water Development 1980/81 104 Table 13. Summary of the Findings 132 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Relationship between L i f e l o n g Education, A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension and Procedures 9 Figure 2. Map of Zambia 24 Figure 3. Relationship betweeen Government Investments in A g r i c u l t u r a and the Price of Copper between 1970 and 1979 .38 Figure 4. Structure of Ministry of A g r i c u l t u r e and Water Development 47 Figure 5. Structure of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e 48 Figure 6. Integration of Funding for Youth's L i t e r a c y Program 54 Figure 7. V e r t i c a l and Horizontal I n t e g r a t i o n 55 Figure 8. Re l a t i o n s h i p of Extension Organization to other Government E n t i t i e s 69 Figure 9. An A r b i t r a r y Measure of I n t e g r a t i o n and Democratization pertaining to s i x Zambian A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension Procedures 85 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS While t h i s work i s a r e s u l t of academic , m a t e r i a l and moral c o n t r i b u t i o n s of s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s , i t i s r e g r e t a b l y i m p o s s i b l e to acknowledge a l l . I t i s however, my s i n c e r e b e l i e f t h a t , those concerned w i l l accept t h i s g e n e r a l acknowledgement. In p a r t i c u l a r though, I am deep ly i n d e b t e d to D r . Roger B o s h i e r who served as Program S u p e r v i s o r and Chairman of my graduate committee for h i s c o u n s e l , g u i d a n c e , and b r i l l i a n t comments that shaped t h i s work. S p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n and thanks go to D r . Thomas J . S o r k , A c t i n g C o o r d i n a t o r of the Department of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Program, and D r . Bruce Owens of the Department of Animal S c i e n c e , members of the committee , for t h e i r encouragement and c o n t i n u o u s g u i d a n c e . My s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e and a p p r e c i a t i o n go to a l l my i n s t r u c t o r s i n the Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t and H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n . P a r t i c u l a r mention s h o u l d be made of D r . Graham K e l s e y and D r . W i l l i a m G r i f f i t h for t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e and c o n s t r u c t i v e a d v i c e . I am a l s o t h a n k f u l to f e l l o w graduate s tudent s e s p e c i a l l y Ms. Carmel Chambers, Karen Coull.ombe, Shauna B u t t e r w i c k , M r . Shen J i n - R o n g and James S c a r f e . I X a l s o wish to thank the s e c r e t a r y for A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Program, M r s . J e a n n i e Young for her a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement d u r i n g my s t u d y . Much c r e d i t and thanks go to Jane Munro for e d i t i n g t h i s work. I am most g r a t e f u l to the U n i v e r s i t y of Zambia for p r o v i d i n g a S c h o l a r s h i p and the V i c e - C h a n c e l l o r for g r a n t i n g study l e a v e . I a l s o wish to thank the D i r e c t o r of the Centre for C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n and the Head of the Department of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and the S t a f f Development O f f i c e for c o n s t a n t encouragement and h e l p rendered i n s e v e r a l ways. I am t h a n k f u l to M r . E . L . M a c h i l a , M r . F . M. H a a z e l e , D r . J . Moomba, M r . P . F . Siame, and M r . A . C . Banda for a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g da ta c o l l e c t i o n . I am i n d e b t e d to my f a m i l y the m a t e r i a l and moral support p r o v i d e d e s p e c i a l l y for l o o k i n g a f t e r my twins d u r i n g the s tudy p e r i o d . I am a l s o t h a n k f u l to M r s . Don H i l l s o n f o r a s s i s t i n g w i t h t y p i n g . Margare t M. C . M a c h i l a May, 1986. xi LI ST OF ABBREVIATIONS/ACRONYMS AA A g r i c u l t u r a l Assistant AFC A g r i c u l t u r a l Finance Company ARP Adaptive Research Planning CD Commodity Demonstrator CI DA Canadian International Development Agency CSO Central S t a t i s t i c s O f f i c e DA Dapartment of Agriculture DAO D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l O f f i c e r DDC D i s t r i c t Development Committee DG D i s t r i c t Governor DPB Dairy Produce Board of Zambia DS D i s t r i c t Secretary FAO Food and Agri c u l t u r e Organization FINNIDA F i n n i s h Development Agency FIS Farm I n s t i t u t e s FTCS Farm Tr a i n i n g Centres GDP Gross Domestic Product GNP Gross National Product I FAD Int e r n a t i o n a l Fund for A g r i c u l t u r a l Development ILO In t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O f f i c e LINTCO L i n t Seed Cotton Company of Zambia MA WD M i n i s t r y of Agr i c u l t u r e and Water Development MCC Member of the Central Committee Namboard National A g r i c u l t u r a l Marketing Board NORAD Norwegian Agency for Development NRDC National Resources Development College x i i PAO P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l O f f i c e r PDC P r o v i n c i a l Development Committee PS Permanent Secretary RDC Rural Development Corporation SAA Senior A g r i c u l t u r a l a s s i s t a n t SMS Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t SIDA Swedish International Development Agency TBZ Tobacco Board of Zambia TNDP T h i r d National Development Plan UNESCO United Nations Educational S c i e n t i f i c and C u l t u r a l Organization UNIP United National Independence Party UNZA U n i v e r s i t y of Zambia VPC V i l l a g e P r oductivity Committee YWCA Young Women C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n WDC Ward Development Committee 1 CHAPTER ONE BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM A g r i c u l t u r e in Zambia i s important because i t i s the major source of food for an ever i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n and p r o v i d e s one of the few methods f o r the c o u n t r y to a c q u i r e f o r e i g n exchange. S e v e r a l f a c t o r s have c o n t r i b u t e d to i n c r e a s e s in a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n in most deve loped c o u n t r i e s (Swanson, 1984; Maunder, 1972) but much c r e d i t f or improvements in Zambia has been a t t r i b u t e d to a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n , a n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n system which promotes the a d o p t i o n of new s c i e n t i f i c knowledge, s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s (Ke l sey & Hearne , 1955). Research has been conducted on f a c t o r s that i n h i b i t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . Some stem from the l i m i t e d q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of p e r s o n n e l who p l a n and implement p r o c e d u r e s , o t h e r s from a l a c k of p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y , and the l i m i t e d nature of r e s e a r c h (Coombs, 1974; C o n v e y e r s , 1982; L e l e , 1975). The Economist (1984) , p r e d i c t e d that economic growth would occur in most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s between 1980 and 1990. However, a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c l i n e was p r e d i c t e d for sub-Saharan A f r i c a of which Zambia i s a 2 p a r t (see T a b l e 1 ) . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 75 p e r c e n t of r u r a l Zambians earn t h e i r income from a g r i c u l t u r e , most of which i s e i t h e r s u b s i s t e n c e or t r a d i t i o n a l f a r m i n g . Most of t h i s farming n e i t h e r c o n t r i b u t e s to the G . N . P . nor earns p r o f i t s for f a r m e r s . Indeed, some i n d i v i d u a l households i n Zambia are unable to produce enough food to s u s t a i n t h e i r own f a m i l i e s ( E l l i n g , 1977). T h i s p r o j e c t e d decrease in a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y , c o u p l e d wi th the a s s o c i a t e d p o v e r t y , i l l i t e r a c y , d i s e a s e , and hunger makes i t e s s e n t i a l to have a framework for a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n which would a s s i s t p o l i c y makers and p l a n n e r s to e f f e c t i v e l y d e s i g n and implement programs to ensure tha t people a c q u i r e knowledge, s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s which w i l l enable them to improve the s i t u a t i o n . A g r i c u l t u r e in Zambia has changed a great d e a l s i n c e the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d and some growth has been w i t n e s s e d . There has a l s o been an i n c r e a s e i n the t r a i n i n g of p e r s o n n e l to improve t h i s s e c t o r . F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from l o c a l and f o r e i g n o r g a n i z a t i o n s has i n c r e a s e d and a g r i c u l t u r a l development has been g i v e n a h i g h p r i o r i t y i n N a t i o n a l Development P l a n s . The f u t u r e of the Zambian economy has , however, been a f f e c t e d by d e c l i n i n g maize y i e l d s . 3 Table 1. Growth in Developing Countries (1960-1990) Country group Pro^cUd QhP OOP 1900-70 OOP 1070-80 Pro^cudQDP 1980-40 pwetptti 1980-40 Low High Low 5.9 5.1 5.7 4.5 3.3 2.2 5.7 5.1 5.4 4.1 3.1 1.8 4.2 3.0 4.1 3.0 1.8 0.7 4.0 2.4 3.0 1.9 0.1 -1.0 4.3 3.2 4.4 3.2 2.1 1.0 6.2 5.6 5.6 4.3 3.4 2.1 6.5 5.2 6.5 5.4 4.0 2.9 All developing countries' OU importers Low-income Sub-Saharan Africa Asia Middle-income* Oil exporters Source: The Economist August 25, 1984, p. 10-11 1 Excludes China 2 Includes Spain Although the Five-Year National Development Plans focused on development in the r u r a l sector, there has been l i t t l e since independence. Faced with a li m i t e d number of f i n a n c i a l , human, and physical resources, and with an imbalance between the r u r a l and urban sectors, a g r i c u l t u r a l development now depends upon the integration of e f f o r t among organizations. A g r i c u l t u r a l extension p a r t i c i p a n t s are d i f f i c u l t to reach and retain and t h i s has been well documented in the Zambian context, (Mutava, 1983; Edstroem, 1966; Jansen-Dodge, 1977; Natesh, 1972; Papagiannis & Bock, 1983). Lack of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , l i k e other problems, i s 4 due to many f a c t o r s , some of which are beyond the scope of t h i s s t u d y . For presen t purposes the key v a r i a b l e s were deemed to be " s t a f f i n g " , " t r a i n i n g , " " p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s " , " r e s e a r c h " , " f i n a n c i n g " , and " t e c h n o l o g y . " C o l l e c t i v e l y , these w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as "procedures" p e r t a i n i n g to a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n o p e r a t i o n s . At present they are implemented in a v a r i e t y of ways sometimes e f f i c i e n t l y , sometimes i n e f f i c i e n t l y . In t h i s s tudy the extent to which they exempl i fy or f a i l to e x e m p l i f y p r i n c i p l e s of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d . Statement of the Problem A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n under the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Water Development (MAWD), a n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , was c r e a t e d to p l a n and d e l i v e r e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s to r u r a l communi t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y f a r m e r s . MAWD has been the main p r o v i d e r of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s to the community. Other p r o v i d e r s have been p r i v a t e , v o l u n t a r y and i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s but a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s are f r a g m e n t a r y . D i f f e r e n t departments have r a r e l y c o - o r d i n a t e d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w i th those of o t h e r s . P o t e n t i a l 5 p a r t i c i p a n t s are u s u a l l y not c o n s u l t e d or i n v o l v e d in d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and , as a r e s u l t , r a r e l y p a r t i c i p a t e in e x t e n s i o n programs. Three concepts embedded in the n o t i o n of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n appear to be very r e l e v a n t to a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n Zambia. A c c o r d i n g to proponents of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n systems ought to be v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d , h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d and d e m o c r a t i z e d . These concept s c o n s t i t u t e a frame of r e f e r e n c e w i t h i n which i t i s p o s s i b l e to c r i t i c a l l y a n a l y z e a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e s ( s t a f f i n g , t r a i n i n g , e t c ) . In some r e s p e c t s the n o t i o n of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i s a b l u e p r i n t or Utopian v i s i o n c o n c e r n i n g e d u c a t i o n as i t might be i n i d e a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . L i k e many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , Zambia cannot expend vas t r e s o u r c e s on e d u c a t i o n . Yet w i t h i n p r e s e n t c o n s t r a i n t s , and those expected in the f u t u r e , i t i s neces sary to examine the extent to which p r o c e d u r e s i n c o r p o r a t e , e x e m p l i f y or have r e g a r d t o , the v i s i o n embodied i n the n o t i o n of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . T h u s , in t h i s s t u d y , e x h o r t a t i o n s emanating from a u t h o r s d e v e l o p i n g the c o n c e p t u a l and o p e r a t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n s of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n are the framework a g a i n s t which a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e s are examined. Where the p r o c e d u r e s , as p r e s e n t l y 6 implemented, conform to the " i d e a l s " of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , t h i s i s n o t e d . L i k e w i s e , where p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e s (as a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s i x p r o c e d u r e s ) do not conform to the e x h o r t a t i o n s of those promot ing h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n , v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n and d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n , t h i s i s a l s o n o t e d . Thus , the q u e s t i o n i n v e s t i g a t e d concerned a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n in Zambia and asked: "To what extent are p r o c e d u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t a f f i n g , t r a i n i n g , p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , f i n a n c i n g , r e s e a r c h and t e c h n o l o g y : • V e r t i c a l l y integrated? • Horizontally integrated? • Democratized?" Lifelong Education The idea that development and l e a r n i n g sh ou ld c o n t i n u e throughout l i f e can be t r a c e d back to the 1890's (Dewey, 1916) and was repeated i n the 1919  Report ( F a u r e , 1972; UNESCO, 1976). S ince the U n i t e d N a t i o n s E d u c a t i o n a l S c i e n t i f i c and C u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n (UNESCO) adopted i t as a "master concept" 7 f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g , l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n has been debated and i s s u e s r a i s e d c o n c e r n i n g i t s d e f i n i t i o n , p r a c t i c a b i l i t y , r e l e v a n c e , and a d o p t i o n in v a r i o u s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t s . D e s p i t e c o n t i n u e d d e b a t e , there seems to be g e n e r a l agreement c o n c e r n i n g i t s u t i l i t y as a master concept for the o r g a n i z a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n systems ( C r o p l e y , 1977, 1980; Dave, 1976; F a u r e , 1972; G e l p i , 1979). The need for and importance of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n in s o c i e t i e s e x p e r i e n c i n g r a p i d change cannot be o v e r s t a t e d . C e n t r a l to t h i s idea i s the need to h o r i z o n t a l l y and v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e e d u c a t i o n systems and , at the same t ime , democra t i ze them. Proponents of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n c l a i m i t i s not p o s s i b l e to meet e v e r y o n e ' s e d u c a t i o n a l needs through e d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e d by " e d u c a t i o n a l " i n s t i t u t i o n s . I n s t e a d , a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s , a g e n c i e s and s o c i a l i n s t r u m e n t a l i t i e s ought to have an e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n . People can l e a r n i n a d i v e r s e a r r a y of f o r m a l , n o n - f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l s e t t i n g s and e d u c a t i o n must become the p r e o c c u p a t i o n of everyone , not j u s t " e d u c a t i o n a l " i n s t i t u t i o n s . Hence Dave (1983) saw l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n as i n c l u d i n g : 8 . . . a whole complex of g o a l s ; a s sumpt ions ; formal and n o n - f o r m a l p a t t e r n s of e d u c a t i o n i n the home, s c h o o l and community; e d u c a t i o n a l management i n c l u d i n g p l a n n i n g , s t r u c t u r e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n , f i n a n c e , e t c . ; and the e n t i r e t e c h n o l o g y of e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d i n g o b j e c t i v e s , c u r r i c u l u m , l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , means and media of l e a r n i n g , e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s and so on (p . 20) L i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n o c c u r s i n both formal and n o n - f o r m a l s e t t i n g s , and encompasses both p lanned and i n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , e d u c a t i o n ought to be a v a i l a b l e to a l l i n d i v i d u a l s , and a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s and s o c i a l s e t t i n g s ought to be c o n s i d e r e d as p r o v i d e r s of e d u c a t i o n . From an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h i s concept embraces e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s t a k i n g p l a c e i n a broad a r r a y of s e t t i n g s i n c l u d i n g those i n v o l v e d ~ w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n "procedures" ( s t a f f i n g , e t c ) , the dependent v a r i a b l e s in t h i s s t u d y , are thus embedded i n the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l , soc io - economic and s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l contex t of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n in Zambia w h i c h , f or p r e s e n t purposes was "nested" in the n o t i o n of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s p o r t r a y e d i n F i g . 1. L i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a framework which gu ides the r o l e s of i n d i v i d u a l s , g r o u p s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e i r e f f o r t to educate the r u r a l community, s p e c i f i c a l l y f a r m e r s . V e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n 9 refers to the fact that c h i l d r e n , adolescents and adults need to learn continuously throughout l i f e . At present, age-related b a r r i e r s impede access to education. For example, in many s o c i e t i e s i t i s d i f f i c u l t to pass from primary to secondary school. At each l e v e l there are b a r r i e r s that " f i l t e r " or deter people from continuing t h e i r education. Sometimes these b a r r i e r s have l i t t l e to do with the " r e a l " needs of the people but stem from outdated concepts, often formulated in another country. F i g . 1. R e l a t i o n s h i p between l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n and p r o c e d u r e s The Faure (1972) report suggested that education should be provided in many ways and outdated b a r r i e r s between d i f f e r e n t departments and l e v e l s of education 1 0 and between formal and n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n shou ld be e l i m i n a t e d . I n s t e a d , p r o v i d e r s of formal and n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n ought to combine t h e i r " t h e o r e t i c a l , " " t e c h n o l o g i c a l , " and p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s . S c h o o l s , c o l l e g e s , i n d u s t r i e s , homes, c h u r c h e s , banks and many o u t - o f - s c h o o l i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s should a l l p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n . In v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s l e a r n e r s would drop i n and out of e d u c a t i o n as t h e i r needs d i c t a t e . E d u c a t i o n would no l o n g e r be the near e x c l u s i v e p r e s e r v e of c h i l d r e n and y o u t h . H o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n stems from the f a c t t h a t e d u c a t i o n o c c u r s i n a d i v e r s e a r r a y of s e t t i n g s of which the s c h o o l i s on ly one. E d u c a t i o n occurs at home, at work, on the farm, i n r e c r e a t i o n c l u b s , c h u r c h e s , i n d u s t r i a l s e t t i n g s and so on . What Coombs (1985) c a l l s " i n f o r m a l " l e a r n i n g o c c u r s in response to the media and the ebb and flow of d a i l y l i f e . Tough (1971) observed tha t i n d i v i d u a l s engage i n v a r i e d s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s . These ought to be r e c o g n i z e d and r e i n f o r c e d through e d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e d in formal and n o n - f o r m a l s e t t i n g s . A u t h o r i t i e s sh ou ld r e c o g n i z e t h a t e d u c a t i o n can occur almost anywhere, in a v a r i e t y of formal ( s c h o o l ) and n o n - f o r m a l ( o u t - o f - s c h o o l ) s e t t i n g s , r e c o g n i z e the v a l i d i t y of e d u c a t i o n (wherever i t o c c u r s ) and t r y to i n t e g r a t e the 11 o f f e r i n g s of v a r i o u s p r o v i d e r s . P r o v i d e r s of formal and n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ought to c o - o p e r a t e ( G e l p i , 1979). In deve loped c o u n t r i e s , the " p a r t i c i p a t i o n problem" has been w e l l r e s e a r c h e d and i t appears t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , those who p a r t i c i p a t e are a l r e a d y w e l l educated ( C r o s s , 1981; B o s h i e r , 1973). I n d i v i d u a l s who a l r e a d y have had access to formal e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e most in e d u c a t i o n a l programs. I n d i v i d u a l s wi thout a b a s i c e d u c a t i o n e i t h e r cannot ga in a c c e s s to e d u c a t i o n a l programs or f a i l to u t i l i z e a v a i l a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s . D e m o c r a t i z a t i o n , the t h i r d l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n concept u t i l i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y , i s concerned wi th the e l i m i n a t i o n of b a r r i e r s tha t impede access to e d u c a t i o n and wi th the involvement of l e a r n e r s in the d e s i g n and management of t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . C e n t r a l to t h i s idea i s the need f o r equa l a c c e s s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n in e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s . The recommendations of the Faure (1972) r e p o r t r e l a t i n g to d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n suggest that p r o v i d e r s of e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d g ive e d u c a t i o n to people and i n v o l v e them in e d u c a t i o n a l management. The n o t i o n of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i s p r o f o u n d l y r e l e v a n t f o r Zambia but has not been e x t e n s i v e l y examined or used as a t o o l to a p p r a i s e a g r i c u l t u r a l 12 e x t e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e s . For p r e s e n t purposes i t was c o n s i d e r e d important to examine the extent to which s t a f f i n g , t r a i n i n g , p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , f i n a n c i n g , r e s e a r c h and techno logy were handled in a manner c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the e x h o r t a t i o n s of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n t h e o r i s t s . At the o u t s e t , i t was hoped t h i s a n a l y s i s of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e s would y i e l d recommendations that might narrow the gap between l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i d e a l s and the p r a c t i c e of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n (as r e v e a l e d through i t s key p r o c e d u r e s ) . S c o p e and R a t i o n a l e o f t h e S t u d y A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n Zambia c o v e r s s e v e r a l a s p e c t s . T h i s study was concerned wi th examining the degree to which some s e l e c t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e s e x e m p l i f i e d the n o t i o n of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . These c o n c e p t s , c o n s i d e r e d as s i g n i f i c a n t i n the development e f f o r t of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n Zambia, have not been examined in t h i s c o n t e x t . Among the p r o c e d u r e s s e l e c t e d for a t t e n t i o n were; s t a f f i n g , t r a i n i n g , p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , f i n a n c i n g , t echno logy and r e s e a r c h . 1 3 Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s s tudy was to a s se s s the extent to which a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e s ( s t a f f i n g , t r a i n i n g p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , f i n a n c i n g , t echno logy and r e s e a r c h ) were " v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d " " h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d " and " d e m o c r a t i z e d . " The s tudy was c o n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t in tha t i t might h e l p improve a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r a c t i c e . I t was hoped t h a t the study would p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the extent to which the s e l e c t e d p r o c e d u r e s e x e m p l i f i e d l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n and that i t s f i n d i n g s would be of v a l u e to r e l e v a n t p o l i c y makers and p l a n n e r s . I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t the study would make a modest c o n t r i b u t i o n to knowledge c o n c e r n i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . A l t h o u g h there a r e p e r i l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g e n e r a l i z i n g from one example to a n o t h e r , i t was hoped tha t the Zambian case might p e r t a i n to s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s e lsewhere and t h a t the f i n d i n g s might be the b a s i s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . 14 O b j e c t i v e s of the Study T h i s study was d e s i g n e d to examine s e l e c t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e s in Zambia i n the c o n t e x t of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , and had the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s : a) To review l i t e r a t u r e on l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n and d i s c u s s the u t i l i t y of i t s c o n c e p t u a l f o u n d a t i o n s . b) To determine the ex tent to which s t a f f i n g , t r a i n i n g , p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , r e s e a r c h and t echno logy a r e : • v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d . • h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d . • d e m o c r a t i z e d . c) To reach c o n c l u s i o n s and o f f e r recommendations ( for c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the p a r t i e s concerned) c o n c e r n i n g the i n t e g r a t i o n and d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e s . D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms Used i n the Study N o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n Coombs (1968) d e f i n e d n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a s : 1 5 . . . a n y o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t y , o u t s i d e the e s t a b l i s h e d framework of the s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y system which aims to communicate s p e c i f i c i d e a s , knowledge, s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s in response to a p r e d e t e r m i n e d need (p. 15) . In t h i s s t u d y , n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d as f u n c t i o n i n g o u t s i d e s c h o o l - b a s e d s e t t i n g s ( G r a n d s t a f f , 1978) and i n c l u d e s such a c t i v i t i e s as c o n f e r e n c e s , s h o r t c o u r s e s , i n s t i t u t e s , forums, independent s t u d y , workshops , s eminars , and s h o r t - c r e d i t c o u r s e s . Formal education Formal e d u c a t i o n encompasses to l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s in s c h o o l s , c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . A c c o r d i n g to C r o p l e y (1977), formal e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s p r e p a r e s i n d i v i d u a l s for f u t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n s of knowledge and s k i l l s and does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e to any p a r t i c u l a r age ' s problems or needs . I t i s are c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d . P e t e r s o n (1980) d e f i n e d formal e d u c a t i o n as o r g a n i z e d programs or a c t i v i t i e s o f f e r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n - b a s e d l e a r n i n g w i t h an emphasis on s t r u c t u r e , and u s u a l l y f o r c r e d i t . I t i n v o l v e s a d e f i n e d c o n t e n t , s y s t e m a t i c t e a c h i n g , p r e s c r i b e d s tandards of per formance , e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a ( u s u a l l y examinat ions ) and l e a d s to formal c e r t i f i c a t e s , d ip lomas or d e g r e e s . In 1975, UNESCO s t a t e d t h a t i n 1 6 formal e d u c a t i o n : . . . s t u d e n t s are e n r o l l e d or r e g i s t e r e d r e g a r d l e s s of the mode of t e a c h i n g ; i . e , i t i n c l u d e s an e d u c a t i o n a l s e r i e s t r a n s m i t t e d by r a d i o or t e l e v i s i o n i f l i s t e n e r s are r e g i s t e r e d (p. 39 ) . In a n a l y s i n g predominant modes through which e d u c a t i o n takes p l a c e , L a B e l l e (1982) c o n s i d e r e d the formal e d u c a t i o n a l mode to have a d m i s s i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s , h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r i n g , compulsory a t tendance and l eads to a t ta inment of c e r t i f i c a t e s or o ther formal c r e d e n t i a l s . In t h i s s tudy formal e d u c a t i o n meant any s t r u c t u r e d and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d e f f o r t i n which e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s , g r o u p s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s or communit ies are e n r o l l e d or r e g i s t e r e d to prepare a s p e c i f i c age -group of l e a r n e r s for f u t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge, s k i l l s , and a t t i t u d e s which l e a d to the a t ta inment of formal c r e d e n t i a l s . I t was deemed to be a s c h o o l - b a s e d or c r e d i t o r i e n t e d system and takes p l a c e w i t h i n i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r g a n i s a t i o n s . L i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n L i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n encompasses f o r m a l , n o n - f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n and o u t s i d e academic systems. T h i s i n c l u d e s both i n d i v i d u a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s of l e a r n i n g ( f o r m a l , n o n - f o r m a l , i n f o r m a l ; c r e d i t , n o n - c r e d i t ; s c h o o l or 1 7 of f -campus programs) (Dave, 1978). I t was deemed to be a framework for c o n c e i v i n g , p l a n n i n g , implement ing and c o - o r d i n a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s to f a c i l i t a t e the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge, s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s r e l a t e d to i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t a l growth and development ( F a u r e , 1972; C r o p l e y , 1977). Integration I n t e g r a t i o n i s a p r o c e s s of b r i n g i n g toge ther r e l a t e d p a r t s or a s p e c t s (such as i n d i v i d u a l s , groups , i n s t i t u t i o n s , problem areas or r e s o u r c e s ) i n t o a u n i f i e d o r d e r for a common cause or a c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g to Coombs (1980), i n t e g r a t i o n i n v o l v e s combining n a t u r a l l y r e l a t e d p a r t s i n t o a c o h e s i v e , u n i f i e d order to enhance c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t and cos t e f f e c t i v e n e s s . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n of i n t e g r a t i o n was used as a synonym for c o - o r d i n a t i o n . I n t e g r a t i o n takes p l a c e at i n d i v i d u a l and community l e v e l and i n v o l v e s v a r i o u s i s s u e s and prob lems . V e r t i c a l integration The idea beh ind v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n i s that l e a r n i n g goes on throughout l i f e and that people are c a p a b l e of l e a r n i n g at a l l age l e v e l s w i t h each age -group h a v i n g s p e c i f i c and s p e c i a l l e a r n i n g "needs." 18 A c c o r d i n g to the Faure Report (1972), v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n means that e d u c a t i o n systems shou ld c o n t a i n o u t - o f - s c h o o l as w e l l as s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n in c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h each o t h e r . S i m i l a r l y , UNESCO (1976) viewed v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n as e d u c a t i o n c o v e r i n g the span of l i f e and r e j e c t e d e d u c a t i o n c o n f i n e d to s p e c i f i c p e r i o d s of l i f e , t r a d i t i o n a l l y , c h i l d h o o d and a d o l e s c e n c e . Dave (1976) s t a t e d that a l l s tages of e d u c a t i o n — e a r l y f a m i l y e d u c a t i o n , p r e - s c h o o l , s c h o o l and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n - r e q u i r e i n t e g r a t i o n . A v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d system i s a c c e s s i b l e to and b e n e f i t s a l l i n d i v i d u a l s - c h i l d r e n , a d o l e s c e n t s , youth and a d u l t s - i r r e s p e c t i v e of age, sex, or economic s t a t u s . Horizontal integration E d u c a t i o n o c c u r s i n f o r m a l and n o n - f o r m a l s e t t i n g s . People a l s o l e a r n i n i n f o r m a l s e t t i n g s but t h i s does not c o n s t i t u t e e d u c a t i o n . P r o v i d e r s of e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s are v a r i e d and i n c l u d e peer g r o u p s , mass media , f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , c h u r c h e s , c o l l e g e s and s c h o o l s . A l l i n s t i t u t i o n s t r y to a s s i s t i n d i v i d u a l s , in one way or a n o t h e r , to improve t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , knowledge or s k i l l s . H o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n i m p l i e s i n t e g r a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , s e r v i c e s and programs among p r o v i d e r s . V a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , 19 i n s t i t u t i o n s , groups and i n d i v i d u a l s tha t p r o v i d e s i m i l a r s e r v i c e s and a c t i v i t i e s ought to i n t e g r a t e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . C r o p l e y (1977) c o n s i d e r e d l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n as be ing r e l a t e d to a l l economic , v o c a t i o n a l , and s o c i a l a s p i r a t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s . In t h i s s t u d y , h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n was used to mean the f o l l o w i n g : 1 . A l l i n s t i t u t i o n s and a g e n c i e s ought to p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n to i n d i v i d u a l s . 2. p r o v i d e r s of formal and n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n ought to i n t e g r a t e t h e i r s e r v i c e s and e f f o r t through c o - o r d i n a t i o n and c o - o p e r a t i o n i n the d e s i g n and implementat ion of e d u c a t i o n a l programs and a c t i v i t i e s . Rather than d e v e l o p i n g and implement ing s i m i l a r programs s e p a r a t e l y , the e s s e n t i a l components of programs are deve loped in a c o - o r d i n a t e d manner. Democratization Involvement of l e a r n e r s in the d es ign and implementat ion of t h e i r l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s and the idea tha t e d u c a t i o n ought to be a c c e s s i b l e to the v a r i o u s s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y has been an ongoing c o n c e r n among e d u c a t o r s . Such concerns were in ev idence at the 1960 UNESCO A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Conference i n M o n t r e a l ( F a u r e , 1972; Lowe, 1975) where d i s c u s s i o n focussed on 20 the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s in e d u c a t i o n a l programs, and the combining of c h i l d and youth e d u c a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g to Dewey (1916), democracy meant " p a r t i c i p a t i o n " , " c o - o p e r a t i o n " , "involvement" and " c o n s u l t a t i o n " at a l l l e v e l s of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s (program i n i t i a t i o n , deve lopment , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and e v a l u a t i o n ) . As used in the s t u d y , the term means e q u i t y (equal a c c e s s , o p p o r t u n i t y ) and p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( i n v o l v e m e n t , c o n s u l t a t i o n , c o - o p e r a t i o n ) ( F a u r e , 1972; Dave 1973) in e d u c a t i o n . A g r i c u l t u r a l e xtension A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i s a n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s aimed at p r o v i d i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l community w i t h knowledge, a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s . Swanson (1984) p r e s e n t e d a s i m i l a r d e f i n i t i o n of e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n . He saw i t a s : . . . a n o r g a n i z e d , n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y u s u a l l y supported a n d / o r o p e r a t e d by the government, to improve the p r o d u c t i v i t y and the w e l f a r e of r u r a l people who engage i n a l l types of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . The o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e i s to make i n d i v i d u a l s who engage i n d i f f e r e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n t o b e t t e r d e c i s i o n makers and managers of t h e i r own l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . Maunder (1972) d e f i n e d i t as a " s e r v i c e 21 or system" which h e l p s farmers through e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s t o : 1 . Improve farming methods and t e c h n i q u e s . 2. Increase p r o d u c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y and income. 3. B e t t e r t h e i r s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g . 4. Improve the s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s of r u r a l l i f e . O r g a n i z a t i o n of the T h e s i s The r e s t of the t h e s i s i s o r g a n i z e d as f o l l o w s . The next c h a p t e r , an examinat ion of Zambian a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n , d e s c r i b e s the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l context t h a t i n f l u e n c e d the development of a g r i c u l t u r e i n Zambia and the s t r u c t u r e of MAWD. Procedures are a l s o d i s c u s s e d . Chapter three p r e s e n t s the a n a l y s i s of a c o n c e p t u a l framework. Chapter four d e s c r i b e s n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n i n the c o n t e x t of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n and c h a p t e r f i v e p r o v i d e s the methodology used in the s t u d y . The p r i n c i p a l focus of the t h e s i s i s in chapter s i x , which a n a l y s e s the degree to which the s e l e c t e d p r o c e d u r e s exempl i fy the t h r e e e lements of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . Chapter seven o f f e r s a 22 summary, d i s c u s s i o n and c o n c l u s i o n s , c h a p t e r , recommendations are p r e s e n t e d . 23 CHAPTER TWO ZAMBIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION T h i s chapter d i s c u s s e s a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n Zambia and h i g h l i g h t s the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d , the p o s t - c o l o n i a l p e r i o d , the c u r r e n t s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n of MAWD, and procedures s e l e c t e d for examinat ion i n the s t u d y . Colonial A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension Zambia i s a former B r i t i s h c o l o n y c o v e r i n g an area of about 753,000 sq k i l o m e t r e s . I t has a p o p u l a t i o n of about s i x m i l l i o n p e o p l e , 60 p e r c e n t of whom are under 25 y e a r s of age , and an annua l growth r a t e of 3.2 p e r c e n t . Of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n , 75 percent i s r u r a l and most ly a g r i c u l t u r a l . F i g . 2 shows the g e o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n of Zambia and T a b l e 2 the p o p u l a t i o n between 1960 and 1980 (see a l s o T a b l e 3 for t r a d i t i o n a l farm systems in Zambia and T a b l e 4 f o r c a t e g o r i e s of farmers by farm s i z e ) . As shown in T a b l e 2, the p o p u l a t i o n i n most of the r u r a l p r o v i n c e s such as E a s t e r n , L u a p u l a , 24 F i g . 2 Map of Zambia S o u r c e : I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n (1977) . Narrowing the Gaps : P l a n n i n g f o r B a s i c Needs and  P r o d u c t i v e Employment- Zambia"! A d d i s A b a b a : I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O f f i c e ( J A S P A ) . 25 Northern, Southern and Western decreased between 1960 and 1980. For the same periods, the i n d u s t r i a l provinces had a remarkable increase in population. Lusaka province's population in 1980, for example, was more than double that for 1963. This indicates a population s h i f t from r u r a l to urban areas. Table 2. Percent Population D i s t r i b u t i o n in Provinces — 1963,1980 Province 1963 census 1980 census Central 8.9 9.0 CopperbeIt 15.6 22.0 Eastern 13.7 11.6 Luapula 10.2 7.3 Lusaka 5.6 12.2 Northern 16.2 11.9 North Western 6.0 5.3 Southern 13.4 12.1 Western 10.4 8.6 Total Zambia 100 100 Source: 1980 census of Population and Housing, Preliminary Report. Lusaka: Central S t a t i s t i c s O f f i c e . Extension education in Zambia can be traced as far back as the c o l o n i a l period. In t h i s period (1920's to 1964), a g r i c u l t u r a l extension had a l i m i t e d impact because i t favoured the whites who were only a small 26 s e c t o r of the farming community. Between 1890 and 1920, a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n Zambia (then N o r t h e r n Rhodes ia) was s t a b l e and communit ies were r e p o r t e d to be b a s i c a l l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t (Gann, 1964; H a l l , 1965; E l l i n g , 1977; Shaw, 1976). However, w i th the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the 1901 "Hut and P o l l Tax" , a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n s t a r t e d to d e c r e a s e . T h i s c o l o n i a l government p o l i c y was des igned to f o r c e A f r i c a n s to earn money by working in the i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r . Most males m i g r a t e d from r u r a l to urban areas to work in low p a y i n g j o b s . A f r i c a n s had few o p p o r t u n i t i e s to s e l l t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l o u t p u t . S e r v i c e s tha t e x i s t e d favoured commercia l f a r m e r s , most ly w h i t e s . Markets were r e s e r v e d for e x p a t r i a t e f a r m e r s . Between the 1920's and 1930's , the Government set a s i d e "Crown Land" for e x p a t r i a t e s . T h i s was the most f e r t i l e l a n d in the c o u n t r y . A f r i c a n s were e x c l u d e d from ownership and se t t l ement and i n s t e a d r e - s e t t l e d i n A f r i c a n Reserve L a n d s . At the end of 1930's , E l l i n g (1977) r e p o r t e d that about 60,000 people had been moved onto Reserve L a n d . The r e s e r v e s became o v e r p o p u l a t e d and "by the l a t e 1930's , s e r i o u s l o c a l food shor tages were r e p o r t e d " ( E l l i n g , 1977, p . 6 ) . M i g r a t i o n s from r e s e r v e s to i n d u s t r i a l areas c o n t i n u e d , c a u s i n g a 27 r e d u c t i o n in food s u p p l i e s and o ther d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e , a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s were not a v a i l a b l e to A f r i c a n f a r m e r s . Through the i m p o s i t i o n of m a r k e t i n g , and p r i c i n g p o l i c i e s , the growth of a g r i c u l t u r a l produce above s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l was i n h i b i t e d (Musambachime,1980). I t became c l e a r there was no room for the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of A f r i c a n farmers in d e s i g n i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n programs. L a t e r the A f r i c a n Improved Farmer Program and Peasant Farmer Schemes were formed a l t h o u g h these reached o n l y a s m a l l f r a c t i o n of the A f r i c a n farming community and u t i l i z e d a one-way flow of i n f o r m a t i o n . Post-colonial A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension On 24th October 1964, Zambia a t t a i n e d p o l i t i c a l independence and the new government was faced w i t h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l h a r d s h i p s among the p e o p l e , e s p e c i a l l y the economic imbalance between the r u r a l and urban s e c t o r . Compared to the p r e v i o u s c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the new government took a much broader approach to s o c i o - e c o n o m i c needs and such m i n i s t r i e s as Community Development and R u r a l Development were i n i t i a t e d . The government had to r e d r e s s the economy to respond to many needs. The 28 emphasis was on r u r a l development e s p e c i a l l y a g r i c u l t u r e . Zambia has f i v e systems ( T a b l e 3) and four types of farmers ( T a b l e 4). They c o u l d be c a t e g o r i z e d by farm sys tem, u s i n g the type of t e c h n o l o g y u t i l i z e d or by farm s i z e . Which ever system i s used to c l a s s i f y them, most of the f a r m i n g community i s t r a d i t i o n a l and o p e r a t e on a s m a l l s c a l e . The commerc ia l farmers who e i t h e r use s e m i - c o m m e r c i a l ox and t r a c t o r s f o r c u l t i v a t i o n , or own more than ten h a c t a r e s of l a n d , c o m p r i s e a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e . Table 3. T r a d i t i o n a l Farm Systems in Zambia Farm System Area % a) Shift ing axe and hoe cul t ivat ion as the different Chitemene systems. 80,100 km2 38 b) Semi-permanent hoe cul t ivat ion 2,160 km2 1 c) Fishing and semi-permanent hoe cul t ivat ion 5,877 km2 3 d) Hoe and plough cult ivat ion 24,355 km2 12 e) Semi-commercial ox and tractor cul t ivat ion 29,268 km2 13 Source: Land-use map of Zambia: Schultz 1974, Lusaka. 29 T a b l e 4. T y p e s of Z a m b i a n F a r m e r s b y F a r m S i z e Farm Type Approx. Number a) Large-scale commercial farmers (farm size +40 ha): approx. 600 b) Medium-scale commercial farmers (farm size 10-40 ha): approx. 10,000 c) Small-scale commercial farmers (farm size 2-10 ha): approx. 150,000 d) Tradit ional farmers (farm size less than 5 ha): approx. 450,000 Total : 610,600 Source: MAWD, 1977. N o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n was u t i l i z e d by e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n e r s a n d p o l i c y m a k e r s t o s o l v e p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r o s e a s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r i c i n g , m a r k e t i n g , e d u c a t i o n a n d t h e g e n e r a l e c o n o m y . P a p a g i a n n i s ( 1983 ) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a f t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e , t h e f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s i n Z a m b i a l e d t o an i n c r e a s e d number o f d r o p o u t s i n r u r a l a n d u r b a n s e c t o r s . B o t h g o v e r n m e n t a n d n o n - g o v e r n m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s were i n v o l v e d i n t h e a t t e m p t t o s o l v e t h e s e p r o b l e m s . A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n was among t h e n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s d e v e l o p e d t o p r o v i d e t h e f a r m i n g c o m m u n i t y w i t h s k i l l s , 30 knowledge, a t t i t u d e s , r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n and t e c h n o l o g y . A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n e f f o r t was aimed at a r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n tha t compri sed almost 75 percent of the c o u n t r y ' s p o p u l a t i o n (see T a b l e s 2 and 3 ) . T h i s farming community compri ses mos t ly unemployed youths and a d u l t s , dropouts from the formal e d u c a t i o n a l s e c t o r and "uneducated" p e o p l e . Those t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e in n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n , look to the e d u c a t i o n a l system as a p r o v i d e r of s k i l l s , knowledge and a t t i t u d e s they c o u l d not get from formal e d u c a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g to the Zambian M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n ( 1 9 7 6 ) , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 90,000 of the s c h o o l - leavers per year are d r o p o u t s and have to be s e r v e d by a few n o n - f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s which , as P a p a g i a n n i s e t . a l ( 1 9 8 3 ) o b s e r v e d , are most ly in urban areas and meet the needs of o n l y a few youths and a d u l t s . As Mutava ( 1 9 8 3 ) s t a t e d , p a r t i c i p a n t s in these programs want some form of c e r t i f i c a t e tha t would h e l p them get a white c o l l a r job i n an urban a r e a . In Zambia, A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n f a l l s under the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Water Development . Through t h i s m i n i s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n programs have been an important p a r t of development e f f o r t s i n Zambia. 31 There i s a c o n t i n u i n g imbalance between the urban and r u r a l s e c t o r , so the government t r i e d to t r a n s f o r m the whole economy. In 1965, the T r a n s i t i o n a l N a t i o n a l Development P lan (TNDP) was i n i t i a t e d and, amongst i t s a ims , was the development of c o o p e r a t i v e s o c i e t i e s to promote a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . The movement faced problems and , a c c o r d i n g to Musambachime (1980) , f a i l e d for a number of reasons among which were: 1. A l a c k of adequate assessment of the s t r e n g t h of p e r s o n n e l who were go ing to a d m i n i s t e r the p lanned programs. 2. A l a c k of p e r s o n n e l t r a i n i n g in a g r i c u l t u r e . 3. I n t e r n a l communicat ion d i f f i c u l t i e s due to the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g at the m i n i s t r y h e a d q u a r t e r s and "due to b u r e a u c r a t i c and p o l i t i c a l snags , the department was not g iven funds to f a c i l i t a t e the needs of the C o - o p e r a t i v e S o c i e t i e s " (p. 27 ) . By 1967, the C o - o p e r a t i v e movement was r e p o r t e d to have faced a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n s t r a i n t s , p l u s a l a c k of i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n in p l a n n i n g and implement ing of programs. P o l i c y makers and p l a n n e r s regrouped v i l l a g e s i n t o a c c e s s i b l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s so as to e f f e c t i v e l y p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s and programs (Kaye, 1967). These v i l l a g e u n i t s were c o n s i d e r e d to 32 be economically viable and s o c i a l l y desirable for program planning and implementation purposes. The reliance on expatriate farmers for food continued. Access to c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s and extension advice from research stations favoured commercial farmers. Small-scale and t r a d i t i o n a l farmers were at a disadvantage. Table 5. Contribution of the A g r i c u l t u r a l sector to GNP (000 Kwacha) 1971 1972- 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 Total GNP 1276 1394 1380 1473 1438 1858 1488 1496 1361 Contribution 139 145 144 150 157 167 168 169 153 of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing 10.9 10.4 10.4 10.2 10.9 10.7 11.3 11.3 11.2 Contribution 32 34 33 35 36 38 37 36 31 of Commercial sector ( X ) Contribution 68 66 67 65 64 62 63 64 69 of subsistence sector ( 2 ) Source: E l l i n g , M., MAWD (1977). Background to  A g r i c u l t u r a l Development in Central Province, p. 10. 33 As shown i n T a b l e 7, Zambia c o u l d not o n l y have been s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t in food p r o d u c t s but a l s o s t a r t e d e x p o r t i n g maize to o ther c o u n t r i e s such as T a n z a n i a . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s t r e n d was h a l t e d by c l i m a t i c prob lems , p o p u l a t i o n growth, and i n c r e a s e d u r b a n i z a t i o n . As shown i n T a b l e 5, the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r to the Gross N a t i o n a l Product (GNP) remained low. The c o u n t r y t h e r e f o r e s t a r t e d i m p o r t i n g food a g a i n . In the 1970's , copper p r i c e s at the London M e t a l Exchange were f l u c t u a t i n g and s i n c e copper s a l e s were a major f o r e i g n exchange e a r n e r , t h i s had d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e c t s on a g r i c u l t u r e as w e l l as on o ther s e c t o r s of the economy. V i l l a g e Development Committees were formed as a r e s u l t of the 1971 V i l l a g e A c t . The Act emphasized development of p r o d u c t i v i t y committees i n every v i l l a g e of 20 households or more. The Act was a l s o a government attempt to implement " p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy". T h e r e f o r e at v i l l a g e , ward, d i s t r i c t and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s , development committees were set up to i n v o l v e everyone i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . But as Musambachime (1980) o b s e r v e d , the committees became mere d e b a t i n g forums wi th no power to ac t or i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n s ; power was s t i l l v e s t e d in i n d i v i d u a l m i n i s t r i e s w i th t h e i r h e a d q u a r t e r s in L u s a k a . 34 Table 6. Marketed Maize Production , Zambia, 1964-1981. ( i n thousands of 90kg bags) Year Product ion Year Product ion 1964/65 2252 1972/73 4137 1965/66 2099 1973/74 6367 1966/67 4241 1974/75 4290 1967/68 4223 1975/76 6491 1968/69 2908 1976/77 8334 1969/70 3020 1977/78 7734 1970/71 2791 1978/79 6463 1971/72 1308 1979/80 3793 1980/81* 3629 * P r o v i s i o n a l Source: MAWD , Lusaka; E l l i n g , (1977), p.65. As noted, t h i s scheme f a i l e d because of a lack of co-ordination and communication between various committees and departments, an i n a b i l i t y to influence decisions and a lack of resources. By the end of 1977, extension education programs aimed at increasing r u r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l productivity and the general l i f e of the ru r a l community was constrained by decreased government 35 Table 7. Imports and Exports of Maize, 1964-1980. Year Imports Exports Tons Tons 1965 47,000 1966 35,000 1967 20,000 1968 64,000 1969 18,000 1970 31,000 1971 252,000 9,000 1972 2,000 1973 50,000 1974 111,000 1975 17,COO 1976 9,000 1977 26,COO 1978 61,COO 1979 • 56,093 1980 305.457 Source: MAWD, Lusaka; E l l i n g , (1977), p.64. investment occasioned by the f a l l in copper prices at the London Metal Exchange. Such constraints made i t d i f f i c u l t for extension to e f f e c t the plans. Figure 3 shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p between government investments in ag r i c u l t u r e and the price of copper 36 between 1970 and 1979. As shown, a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between the p r i c e s and inves tments in a g r i c u l t u r e between 1970 and 1979 e x i s t e d , s u g g e s t i n g a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on investment i n a g r i c u l t u r e wi th the decrease i n copper p r i c e s . In 1979-83, the t h i r d n a t i o n a l development p l a n came i n t o b e i n g . T h i s was d e s i g n e d to s o l v e v a r i o u s soc io - economic and p o l i t i c a l prob lems . Those not s o l v e d d u r i n g the f i r s t and second n a t i o n a l development p l a n s were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the new p l a n . The s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s were to i n c r e a s e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n in order to a t t a i n and s u s t a i n s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y in food p r o d u c t i o n , to p r o v i d e raw m a t e r i a l s . for a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s and e x p o r t , and to i n c r e a s e the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r to the GNP. T h i s , a c c o r d i n g to the p l a n , would a l s o promote the d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the economy, c r e a t e new employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n the r u r a l s e c t o r , and decrease r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n . Another o b j e c t i v e was to d e c e n t r a l i z e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g to encourage l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the r u r a l development p r o c e s s (TNDP, 1979-83, 1979). Problems r e l a t e d to e d u c a t i o n in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s can be a t t r i b u t e d to many f a c t o r s . As Coombs (1976) and Conveyers (1982) ment ioned , most d e v e l o p i n g 37 c o u n t r i e s have to d e a l w i t h : 1. An i n c r e a s i n g number of s c h o o l - l e a v e r s which r e q u i r e an i n t e g r a t i o n between f o r m a l and n o n - f o r m a l s e t t i n g s i n order to t r a i n and r e t r a i n the unemployed in s k i l l s and knowledge r e l a t e d to s e l f - e m p l o y m e n t . 2. A decrease in food p r o d u c t i o n to the p o i n t where most food has to be imported (see T a b l e 8 for d e t a i l s on Zambian imports of Maize by c o u n t r y of o r i g i n between 1978 and 1979). 3. A l a c k of r e s o u r c e s (which f o s t e r s an i n c r e a s e d concern for s h a r i n g l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s ) . 4. An i n c r e a s e in p o p u l a t i o n which evokes a need for expanded e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s . 5. Changes in job s t r u c t u r e s r e q u i r i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l r e t r a i n i n g . With the e s t i m a t e d decrease in a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , and r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e i n the number of s c h o o l d r o p o u t s ( P a p a g i a n n i s , K l e e s & D a l l , 1983), n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y in a g r i c u l t u r e , becomes r e l e v a n t to economic development . In examining and a n a l y s i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s e l e c t e d n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l schemes i n Zambia, P a p a g i a n n i s e t . a l , c o n c l u d e d t h a t : 38 . . . n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , at l e a s t i n Zambia , may be v e r y i m p e r f e c t and a temporary s o l u t i o n to the growing p o l i t i c a l c r i s e s t h a t the s t a t e f a c e s as a r e s u l t of i t s problems i n the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic rea lm (p. 100) . The f o l l o w i n g have been c o n s i d e r e d by most e d u c a t o r s as p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r an e f f e c t i v e e x t e n s i o n sys tem: 1. R e c o g n i t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n as an impor tant agent f o r i n c r e a s i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s t h a t would improve knowledge, s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s . Figure 3. Relationship between Government Investments in Agr i c u l t u r e and the Price of Copper between 1970 and 1979 Index 170 r 160 - Price Index of Copper LME 150 -140 130 120 110 100 9 0 8 0 70 Governmental Investment in Agriculture Index 60 50 1 9 7 0 71 7 2 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 Y e a r s S o u r c e : MAWD (1977) , C S . 0 . and Budgets 1970-79, E l l i n g (1977) 39 Table 8. Maize Imports into Zambia, 1979/80 Metric tons Country of origin 1978/79 1979/80 Landed cost 1979/80 K/metric ton RSA 22,863 191,136 240 USA 11,697 58,702 315.50 Malawi 13,636 - n.a. Kenya 3,823 472 n.a. Tanzania 14,073 8,108 n.a. E.E.C. - 34,546 n.a. U.K. — 12.491 n.a. Total 56,093 305,457 Source: MA WD, Lusaka; E l l i n g , 1977, p. 64 2. Continued research to ensure a constant flow of information between research i n s t i t u t i o n s , and p r a c t i t i o n e r s . 3. Ensuring the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension service to i n d i v i d u a l s in need and a two-way flow of information. 4. Basing programs on communities' f e l t needs and having f l e x i b l e objectives. 5. Use of l o c a l , organizational and any other extension agents in d e l i v e r i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l 40 e x t e n s i o n messages ( c o - o p e r a t i o n wi th o ther i n t e r e s t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) . 6. Use of w e l l t r a i n e d and competent s t a f f who are aware of t h e i r r o l e as e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s . 7. I n v o l v i n g a l l a g e n c i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s i n p l a n n i n g and implementing e x t e n s i o n p r o j e c t s . E d u c a t i o n a l systems are c a p a b l e of t r a n s f o r m i n g r u r a l Zambia through the p r o v i s i o n of programs, c o - o r d i n a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s among p r o v i d e r s , and by e n s u r i n g t h a t programs are e q u a l l y a c c e s s i b l e to v a r i o u s s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y who sh ou ld be i n v o l v e d i n the d e s i g n and implementat ion of t h e i r l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . Non- formal e d u c a t i o n c o u l d t r a n s f o r m r u r a l Zambia i f p r o p e r l y d e s i g n e d and implemented, e s p e c i a l l y i f formal and n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s complemented and c o - o r d i n a t e d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . S i g n i f i c a n t Procedures L i t e r a t u r e on economic development focuses on f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d c r u c i a l to economic development . The i s s u e of concern for most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s 4 1 r e l a t e s to the need to m o b i l i z e s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s to e f f e c t change . R e l a t e d to t h i s has been a problem of how to a l l o c a t e l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s . With an i n c r e a s e in p o p u l a t i o n in most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , investment i n a g r i c u l t u r e to i n c r e a s e food p r o d u c t i o n becomes a c r u c i a l f a c t o r . Resources are p h y s i c a l , human and f i n a n c i a l . In Zambia, p u b l i c budget ing i s done at the M i n i s t r y l e v e l . M i n i s t r i e s are a l l o c a t e d annual funds over a p e r i o d of f i v e y e a r s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h n a t i o n a l development p l a n o b j e c t i v e s . A g r i c u l t u r a l development p r o j e c t s have t h e r e f o r e been i n f l u e n c e d to a grea t ex tent by t h i s p o l i c y . The need to a c q u i r e and r e t a i n p e r s o n n e l to e f f e c t i v e l y implement a g r i c u l t u r e e x t e n s i o n procedures has been a major concern in most d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s (Chambers, 1983; L e l e , 1975). New techno logy and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and p s y c h o - s o c i a l p a t t e r n s have to be l e a r n e d i n order to i n c r e a s e food p r o d u c t i o n , income and the g e n e r a l s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g . The l a c k of t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l in most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s has l e d to d i f f i c u l t i e s . There i s a low l e v e l of involvement i n d e s i g n i n g and implementing p r o c e d u r e s , a l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g of p r o c e d u r e s tha t r e l a t e to a g r i c u l t u r a l deve lopment , a l a c k of agreement 42 c o n c e r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s and g o a l s to be p u r s u e d , and a l a c k of s k i l l i n c o l l e c t i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g data r e l a t i n g to l e a r n e r needs and a g r i c u l t u r a l deve lopment . A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l soc io - economic and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e to the advancement of a g r i c u l t u r e in most deve loped c o u n t r i e s , much of the c r e d i t has been a t t r i b u t e d to r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e d by a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n and r e l a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s . But i n Zambia, a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n r e s e a r c h has been fragmented by a l a c k of c o - o r d i n a t i o n between o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t i s o n l y through r e s e a r c h that t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to v a r i o u s c o n t e x t s can be g e n e r a t e d . Technology i s c r i t i c a l to the development p r o c e s s . I t s importance was demonstrated i n the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . However, there i s concern i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s about the a d o p t i o n of f o r e i g n t e c h n o l o g y . The World Bank (1979), amongst o t h e r s , has d i s c u s s e d on the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of f o r e i g n t echno logy to d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s and argued t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e s s h o u l d be used as much " f o r e i g n techno logy" i s i r r e l e v a n t to l o c a l needs . L o c a l t e c h n o l o g y , which has a c r i t i c a l r o l e i n economic development , has , in most c a s e s , been i g n o r e d . Even wi th r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g to a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n , r e s o u r c e s and a p p r o p r i a t e 43 t e c h n o l o g y , not much would be a c h i e v e d wi thout proper p l a n n i n g . P l a n n i n g models v a r y and there seems to be a l a c k of consensus as to what c o n s t i t u t e s an o p t i m a l mode l . Some p l a n n e r s have used a c o m b i n a t i o n of approaches or models i n v o l v i n g the d i a g n o s i s of needs and an ' i n t e r v e n t i o n ' to meet them. Structure and Organization of Zambian A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension A g r i c u l t u r e i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Water Development (MAWD). The M i n i s t r y channe l s i t s s e r v i c e s to farmers through the f o l l o w i n g : • N a t i o n a l A g r i c u l t u r a l M a r k e t i n g Board of Zambia (NAMBOARD) • D a i r y Board of Zambia (DBZ) • L i n t Seed Company of Zambia (LINTICO) and • Tobacco Board of Zambia (TBZ) These p a r a s t a t a l s p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s to the p u b l i c . R u r a l Development C o - o p e r a t i o n of Zambia L t d (RDC) a l s o p r o v i d e s s e r v i c e s to the farmers but i s a semi-autonomous o r g a n i z a t i o n . . The M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Water Development H e a d q u a r t e r s i s made up of four main departments : 44 • A g r i c u l t u r e • V e t e r i n a r y and T s e t s e C o n t r o l S e r v i c e s • Water A f f a i r s • F i s h e r i e s Of these t h r e e , A g r i c u l t u r e i s of p a r t i c u l a r importance s i n c e i t i s in charge of a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h , e x t e n s i o n and s e r v i c e s such as v e t e r i n a r y and t s e t s e c o n t r o l . I t a l s o p r o v i d e s t echno logy t r a n s f e r and a g r i c u l t u r a l r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n to the farming commun i t y . MAWD o f f i c e s are at n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and d i s t r i c t l e v e l s . The headquar ter s i s l o c a t e d in the c a p i t a l (Lusaka) and has the f o l l o w i n g d i v i s i o n s ; A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , C e n t r a l P l a n n i n g U n i t , ' F i n a n c i a l D i v i s i o n , S p e c i a l D u t i e s D i v i s i o n , S t a f f D i v i s i o n and T r a i n i n g D i v i s i o n . The p l a n n i n g u n i t i s the c e n t r a l s e c t i o n of MAWD and i n charge of p r o j e c t p r e p a r a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l and o ther r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . The e x t e n s i o n branch f a l l s under the deputy D i r e c t o r who i s a s s i s t e d by a group of s u b j e c t matter s p e c i a l i s t s (SMS) for the whole c o u n t r y ( F i g u r e 4 ) . These s u b j e c t matter s p e c i a l i s t s have an o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y at the n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and d i s t r i c t l e v e l s . MAWD p r o v i n c i a l a c t i v i t i e s are 45 d i r e c t l y s u p e r v i s e d at the H e a d q u a r t e r s . The P r o v i n c i a l Permanent S e c r e t a r y (PS) c o - o r d i n a t e s the p r o v i n c i a l a c t i v i t i e s through the Member of the C e n t r a l Committee ' s o f f i c e (MCC) which f a l l s under the U n i t e d Independence P a r t y (UNIP) . T h i s o f f i c e i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the Prime M i n i s t e r ' s o f f i c e (see F i g . 5 for s t r u c t u r e of department of A g r i c u l t u r e ) . V a r i o u s committees are e s t a b l i s h e d for p l a n n i n g purposes and the MCC c h a i r s the P r o v i n c i a l Development Committee (PDC). A s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r e i s repeated a t the d i s t r i c t l e v e l where the D i s t r i c t Governor (DG), who i s a p o l i t i c a l a p p o i n t e e , heads the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e . He c h a i r s the D i s t r i c t Development Committed (DDC) w h i l e the D i s t r i c t S e c r e t a r y (DS) , who i s s e n i o r d i s t r i c t c i v i l s e r v a n t , a c t s as the s e c r e t a r y . Below t h i s i s a b l o c k of s u p e r v i s o r s f o l l o w e d by the camp s t a f f . The d i f f e r e n t departments of MAWD per form d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s but a l l are i m p o r t a n t . In t h i s s t u d y , the focus was not on any one department but on p r o c e d u r e s s t a f f i n g , t r a i n i n g , a l l o c a t i o n of p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , f i n a n c i n g , r e s e a r c h and t e c h n o l o g y - employed throughout MAWD. The purpose was to examine the extent to which these p r o c e d u r e s are u t i l i z e d i n a v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d , h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d and d e m o c r a t i z e d manner. Before d i s c u s s i n g the procedures i n more 46 d e t a i l i t i s neces sary to d e s c r i b e the t h e o r e t i c a l o r i g i n s of a s s e r t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n and d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n . Figure 4 . Structure of Ministry of Agr i c u l t u r e and Water Development Hon.MliWttar Hen. Mmkran «f Slot* (2) I Undar Sacratory Doporfntont of Fltharioa Finance T Oaparrmanf ot Agriculture 'Train kt«. Ourtas D*portm V%f«rl/K T w f u Conn ert of r y and ret Service* CjOeneion Land Use * Plarwtlno, Vmlmrinarj Servicer T x t M Control Notional PuiniiBj Infer mutton Service •Cocn Keoded by an Assistant Secretary. The Planning Dree tor fin* In MM rel* of (hi Aselatanf Sacra fary In tna Planning DMsJon. 48 Figure 5. s t r u c t u r e of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e MAWD rlMAMOfT JICHCTAKT MAWD UMXa HCM1MT OtrMTMCKT Of ACMCUlTURt OmtCTOK ASiSTANT OI»CTO« LiKD USC ASISTANT 0<*[CTO« CXTCKS10N -(.ANO USC n.AMHINe fAKH UANACWCNT CU.TIMAI CNCMCZKWO UCTWMAt. MCA03 ASISTANT OmICTO* KtSCACM -CAnTocnArxr -soit. sunvrr •C COLOCT 4.AXO OCVtUTVCKT SCRVCU SCTONAL XADS I CMCf ACKCU.TUKAI. HCSCAKCH omctn A N M A L H U S I A N C f f T <»Ors KJSAMORY -MONTICUCTUNC -CXTCMSIOH T W I M M 9 HCAOS or C0MO0IT NCSEAKCH Tt AMS orric».iM.CMA»ec MCOIONAL MCSCARCM STATIONS V M O U C E C O N O M I C S rnoviHcuL A C K K U I T U R A L ornet* SUCT UATTt* SOCIALISTS. CXTCXSION AMO LAMB US* D I S T U C T A G R I C U L T U R A L orricxits T • LOCK SUrfXYISONSl T [ C A M P sTArr| Source: M A W D . Lusaka TOUTM ZXTCNUON | NtStANCH SU1-STATIONS | 49 CHAPTER THREE LIFELONG EDUCATION: A CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS Zambian a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n v o l v e s a v a r i e t y of l e a r n e r s - c h i l d r e n , y o u t h , a d o l e s c e n t s and a d u l t s -and there are many p r o v i d e r s each w i t h t h e i r own g o a l s , t a r g e t c l i e n t e l e and r e s o u r c e c o n s t r a i n t s . C e n t r a l to t h i s s tudy was the n o t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s are capab le of l e a r n i n g throughout l i f e . T h u s , c h i l d r e n , a d o l e s c e n t s , youth and a d u l t s are a l l p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n any e d u c a t i o n a l program ( C r o p l e y , 1977; Dave, 1983) and , t h e r e f o r e , s h o u l d have acces s which i s unencumbered by o u t - d a t e d , g e n d e r - r e l a t e d , a r t i f i c i a l or c u l t u r a l l y - d e t e r m i n e d b a r r i e r s . S i m i l a r l y , p r o v i d e r s of e d u c a t i o n ought to c o - o r d i n a t e t h e i r e f f o r t to meet the l e a r n e r s ' needs . Formal and n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s are thus complementary, and shou l d be of equa l worth as a way of a c h i e v i n g i n d i v i d u a l s ' g o a l s (UNESCO, 1976). These e x h o r t a t i o n s are c e n t r a l to l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . 50 L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n The u n d e r l y i n g assumpt ion of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i s that a l l i n d i v i d u a l s , not o n l y y o u t h , l e a r n throughout l i f e and tha t v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t e x i s t w i t h i n s o c i e t y - such as the home, s c h o o l , work and community-ought to c o - o p e r a t e and c o - o r d i n a t e the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s and programs aimed at s o l v i n g the problems b e s e t t i n g d i f f e r e n t communit ies (UNESCO, 1976). I n d i v i d u a l s s h o u l d have equa l acces s to and p a r t i c i p a t e in these programs ( C r o p l e y , 1977; 1980; F a u r e , 1972). L i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , as Faure i n d i c a t e d , was proposed: . . . as the master concept for e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s i n the y e a r s to come for both deve loped and d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ( p . 1 8 2 ) . As an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l framework f o r both deve loped and d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n has been s t i m u l a t e d by i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as UNESCO. Many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s have e s t a b l i s h e d n a t i o n a l programs and t r i e d to i n t e g r a t e both formal and n o n - f o r m a l s e c t o r s . The C o n c e p t u a l V a r i a b l e s The purpose of t h i s s tudy was to examine a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n in the c o n t e x t of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . The v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t f o r the 51 study were rev iewed . V e r t i c a l I n t e g r a t i o n V e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n assumes tha t l e a r n i n g goes on throughout l i f e and t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s of any age are capab le of l e a r n i n g . Many a d u l t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those wi th min imal or no f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g , s t i l l b e l i e v e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e "to t each an o l d dog new t r i c k s . " There i s now c o n s i d e r a b l e ev idence to r e f u t e t h i s a s s e r t i o n (see C r o p l e y , 1977). Indeed , in many r e s p e c t s , a d u l t s l e a r n b e t t e r than c h i l d r e n . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t tha t i n C h i n a , which has embarked on a de termined attempt to a c h i e v e "four m o d e r n i z a t i o n s , " n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n f o r a d u l t s i s one of the main i n s t r u m e n t s used . M o d e r n i z a t i o n cannot await the a r r i v a l of newly educated c h i l d r e n . In v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s , e d u c a t i o n would no l o n g e r be the near e x c l u s i v e p r e s e r v e of c h i l d h o o d and a d o l e s c e n c e . No st igma would be a t t a c h e d to engaging i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . On the c o n t r a r y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n would be regarded as normal or common p l a c e . People would drop i n t o and out of d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s as t h e i r c i r c u m s t a n c e s change. In many i n s t a n c e s , a d u l t s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n would be found working t o g e t h e r i n formal or n o n - f o r m a l (or both) s e t t i n g s . A r t i f i c i a l 52 b a r r i e r s tha t c u r r e n t l y segment a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n would be removed. A v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d e d u c a t i o n a l system i s t h e r e f o r e one a c c e s s i b l e to a l l age groups in s o c i e t y - c h i l d r e n , y o u t h , a d o l e s c e n t s and a d u l t s . H o r i z o n t a l I n t e g r a t i o n There are many p r o v i d e r s of e d u c a t i o n in s o c i e t y l o c a t e d i n the s c h o o l , home, peer group , mass media , or i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r to mention j u s t a few. Whether programs are at the n a t i o n a l , r e g i o n a l or l o c a l l e v e l , they per form f u n c t i o n s aimed at b e n e f i t t i n g v a r i o u s s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y . Coombs & Ahmed (1975) i d e n t i f i e d e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s as f o r m a l , n o n - f o r m a l or i n f o r m a l . E d u c a t i o n i n these s e t t i n g s i s de s igned to deve lop i n d i v i d u a l s ' s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s and knowledge. L a B e l l e (1982) c o n s i d e r e d f o r m a l , n o n - f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n to be complementary, acknowledged the c o n f l i c t s between them but saw a p r o v i d e r of a s p e c i f i c e d u c a t i o n (such as youth e d u c a t i o n ) as c a p a b l e of p r o v i d i n g p r e - a d u l t as w e l l as a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , many n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l p r o v i d e r s t r y to p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s to i n d i v i d u a l s who cannot take p a r t in e d u c a t i o n o c c u r i n g in formal s e t t i n g s . In h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s these i n s t i t u t i o n s would c o - o r p e r a t e w i t h each o t h e r and o ther formal 53 e d u c a t i o n a l p r o v i d e r s (UNESCO,1976). A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i s a complex n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l system h a v i n g many p r o v i d e r s and l e a r n e r s . As an o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t i s an i n t e r a c t i o n network whose a c t i v i t i e s are p a r t l y de termined by the a c t i v i t i e s of those i n v o l v e d . I f the f u n c t i o n s of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n are to be a c c o m p l i s h e d e f f e c t i v e l y , i t must be p o s s i b l e for the c l i e n t e l e i n v o l v e d , the government and non-government m i n i s t r i e s , departments , r e g i o n s , l o c a t i o n s , p r i v a t e and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , to c o - o r d i n a t e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and m a i n t a i n e f f e c t i v e communicat ion . In F i g . 6 for example, c o - o r d i n a t i o n of formal and n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n i s h y p o t h e t i c a l l y p o r t r a y e d . D i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h an i n t e r e s t in youth' l i t e r a c y programs can p o o l t h e i r r e s o u r c e s t o g e t h e r , c o - o p e r a t e i n and p r o v i d e o ther e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s to b e n e f i t o ther s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y , thus h o r i z o n t a l l y and v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t i n g the program as shown in F i g . 7. The need for h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n f lows from the immense amounts of l e a r n i n g that o c c u r s in p l a c e s o ther than formal e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h c r e d e n t i a l s or "educat ion" from formal s e t t i n g s have h i g h e r s t a t u s than those "educated" i n n o n - f o r m a l or i n f o r m a l s e t t i n g s . I t i s not p o s s i b l e to 55 Figure 7. V e r t i c a l and Horizontal Integration of Settings within the context of Life l o n g Education V e r t i c a l integration Adults Non-formal Horizontal integration Formal Children In h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s , p o l i c y makers , e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n e r s and implementers of p r o c e d u r e s would r e c o g n i z e i t i s the l e a r n i n g tha t m a t t e r s , r a t h e r than the p l a c e where i t was a c q u i r e d , and would a c c o r d the same p r i o r i t y to n o n - f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l as g iven formal e d u c a t i o n . T h i s would r e q u i r e them to r e l a x t h e i r a t t i t u d e s somewhat and p l a c e a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y on r e s e a r c h and t r a i n i n g i n n o n - f o r m a l 56 e d u c a t i o n because , at p r e s e n t , i t i s the "poor c o u s i n . " No c o u n t r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y Zambia, can a f f o r d to r e g a r d n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n as something a k i n to ' n i g h t s c h o o l ' or o ther f r i v o l i t i e s . In h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s p r o v i d e r s of f o r m a l , n o n - f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n would a l s o t r y to c o - o r d i n a t e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . In a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n , p r o v i d e r s would c o - o r d i n a t e f u n d i n g , the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n , g o a l s e t t i n g , r e s e a r c h , t r a i n i n g , s t a f f i n g , and the m o b i l i z a t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s (Coombs, 1974). D e m o c r a t i z a t i o n Proponents of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n a l s o assume that e d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e d by o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n s t i t u t i o n s and groups s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e and a c c e s s i b l e to a l l i n d i v i d u a l s i n s o c i e t y and tha t l e a r n e r s shou ld p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e c i s i o n s that r e l a t e to the d e s i g n and management of t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . A democrat i c e d u c a t i o n a l system, t h e r e f o r e , i s one tha t r e i n f o r c e s acces s and a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s ( C r o p l e y , 1977; Dave, 1976). In r e l a t i o n to a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n , a democrat i c a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e d i s t r i b u t e s a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s e v e n l y a c r o s s a l l s e c t o r s of the 57 farming community and f o s t e r s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . In t h i s s t u d y , v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n , h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n and d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t an " i d e a l " frame of r e f e r e n c e w i t h i n which a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e s were examined. Each e lement- v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n , h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n and d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n was a r r a n g e d in the f i r s t d imens ion of a m a t r i x where s i x "procedures"- s t a f f i n g , t r a i n i n g , p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , f i n a n c i n g , t echno logy and r e s e a r c h - were in the second d i m e n s i o n . T a b l e 9 has some " i n d i c a t o r s " of v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n , h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n , and d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and r e l a t e s them to the s i x p r o c e d u r e s . 58 Table 9. L i f e l o n g Education P r i n c i p l e Indicators PROCEDURES VERTICAL INTEGRATION HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION .JStMQCRAIILillON STAFFINC . youth and a d u l t * employed aa a d u l t a . u t i l i z a t i o n of form a l and non-formal education a t a f f ,. r o l a a assumed by both men and women t • c o - o r d i n a t i o n of formal and non-formal education a t a f f at a) s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l 1. Regional 2. D i s t r i c t 3. L o c a l 4. N a t i o n a l b) c l i e n t e l e l e v e l - Government M i n i s -t r i e s - non-government o r g a n i z a t i o n ! and departments 1. U n i v a r t l t l e a 2. A g r i c u l t u r a l College*. 3. A g r i c u l t u r a l I n d u s t r i e s . 4. F i n a n c i a l Agenta 5. Farmer* c) F u n c t i o n a l l e v e l 1. Planning 2. Research 3. T r a i n i n g 4. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 5. Finance 6. Personnel . Equal access t o le a d e r s h i p formal and non-formal 1. p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s 2. p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s 3. v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n * 4. Farmers • P a r t i c i p a t e * i n D r a f t i n g amending programs and p o l i c i e s • consulted I n d e c i s i o n making . c l i e n t e l e 1 U n i v e r s i t i e s 2. A g r i c u l t u r a l I n d u s t r i e * 3. F i n a n c i a l Agent* 4. A g r i c u l t u r a l College* 3.Farming Community Included In o f f e r i n g expertiae I n form of a t t i t u d e * , s k i l l s , knowledge. TRAIN INC . T r a i n i n g / r e t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e t o both youth and a d u l t a • Comprehensive Content b e n e f i t t i n g both nen and women. . l i a s o n of t r a i n i n g programmes among formal and non-formal t r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s at s t r u c -t u r a l , c l i e n t e l e and f u n c t i o n a l l e v e l s . a) s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l 1. N a t i o n a l 2. Regional 3. D i s t r i c t 4. L o c a l b) c l i e n t e l e l e v e l -Government M i n i s -t r i e s . -gov't, and non-government o r g n n l -i n t l u n a and deport-ments. • Equal access to t r a i n i n g among e x t e n s i o n personnel • Equal access t o t r a i n i n g among non-formal and formal a g r i c u l t u r a l c l i e n t e l e • Equal o p p o r t u n i t y t o t r a i n i n g among e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l « Equal o p p o r t u n i t y t o t r a i n i n g among non-formal and formal a g r i c u l t u r a l p e r sonnel . Equal p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n * r e l a t i n g t o t r a i n i n g and r e -t r a i n i n g among e x t e n s i o n personnel . farmers . government o r g a n i z a t i o n s . p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n * . v o l u n t a r y organiz.it i o n * PHYSICAL RESOURCES , A v a i l a b i l i t y of r e s o u r c e s i n a g r i c u l t u r a l ex-t e n s i o n to y o u t h a d u l t s . pooling of resources from forir.al and non-formal p r i v a t e v o l u n t a r y f a n n e r s s e c t o r s . p o o l i n g o f r e s o u r c e s a t r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t l o c a l . l e v e l s • E q u a l access to p h y s i c a l resources among target p o p u l a t i o n . E q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e s o u r c e s among target p o p u l a t i o n . p a r t i c i p a t e s i n g e n e r a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s - f a r m e r s - p r i v a t e - government - non-government o r g a n i z a t i o n s - v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . E q u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g u t i l i z a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s . - f a r m e r s - p r i v a t e - government - non-government - v o l u n t a r y F1NANCINC • F u n d i n g programs f o r y o u t h and o d u l t s In. r e l a t i o n t o a g r i -c u l t u r e y o u t h A d u l t a • J o i n t e f f o r t i n m o b i l -i z a t i o n and p r o v i s i o n o f f u n d i n g among and between f o r m a l and non-f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s - n a t i o n a l , r e g i o n a l , d i s t r i c t and local l e v e l s . - p r i v a t e , v o l u n t a r y , ' p u b l i c g o v ' t , and no n - g o v ' t . - p l a n n i n g , f i n a n c e , r e s e a r c h , t r a i n i n g . C o l l e c t i v e d e c i s i o n m a king c o n c e r n i n g f u n d i n g of a g r i -c u l t u r a l programs and a c t i v i t i e s . - n a t i o n a l , r e g i o n a l , d i s t r i c t and l o c a l l e v e l s - p r i v a t e , v o l u n t a r y , pub-l i c government ond non-government - p l a n n i n g , f i n a n c e , r e -s e a r c h , t r a i n i n g . E q u a l a c c e s s t o f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s among t a r g e t g r o u p s s m a l l s c a l e f a r m e r s c o m m e r c i a l f a r m e r s . p a r t i c i p a t e i n b u d g e t i n g o f a v a i l a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l r e l a t e d funds f a n n e r s p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ' government o r g a n i z a t i o n s v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . s p o n s o r s a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n r e l a t e d programs - f a r m e r s - p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s - government o r g a n i z a t i o n s - v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s RESEARCH . C o m p a r a t i v e r e s e a r c h between f o r m a l and n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . R e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o a l l age l e v e l s y o u t h A d u l t s • C o o r d i n a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s . a) - n a t i o n a l - r e g i o n a l - l o c a l b) - p r i v a t e - v o l u n t a r y - p u b l i c d e p a r t m e n t s c ) - p l a n n i n g - r e s c a r c l i - f i n a n c e - t r a i n i n g . M u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y r e s e a r c h . E q u a l emphasis between f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h • E q u a l a c c e s s t o r e s e a r c h i n f o r -m a t i o n TECHNOLOGY I 1 . J o i n t t e c h n o l o g i c a l e f f o r t between a g r i -c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s and o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . E q u a l a c c e s s t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l f i a d i n g s . p a r t i c i p a t e s i n d e c i s i o n s c o n -c e r n i n g u t i l i z a t i o n o f t e c h -n o l o g y . 59 CHAPTER FOUR NON-FORMAL IN THE CONTEXT OF LIFELONG EDUCATION In most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , i t i s r e a l i z e d that n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n a h i g h p r i o r i t y in the development p r o c e s s . N o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n i s a component of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n which Faure (1972) t o u t e d as a "master concept." f o r o r g a n i z i n g e d u c a t i o n systems. Lowe (1970) observed tha t many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s have i n c o r p o r a t e d i t i n s t r a t e g i e s f o r n a t i o n a l development . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n may not be s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e i n d i v i d u a l s r e q u i r e e d u c a t i o n to cope w i t h or i n i t i a t e economic , s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , as w e l l as t e c h n o l o g i c a l change and i t i s not p o s s i b l e to s a t i s f y a l l t h e i r needs i n formal s e t t i n g s (Dave, 1983). Non-formal Education N o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d e s a c t i v i t i e s such as a d u l t l i t e r a c y programs, youth programs, community h e a l t h , n u t r i t i o n or s e l f - d i r e c t e d f a m i l y p l a n n i n g programs, those i n i t i a t e d by government as w e l l as non-government i n s t i t u t i o n s and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as R o t a r y C l u b s , YWCA, Red Cross and the c h u r c h e s . 60 N o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l programs have a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on deve lopment . Programs are p r o v i d e d for i n d i v i d u a l s who cannot e n r o l i n or have dropped out of s c h o o l s , and , as a r e s u l t , t h e i r p o t e n t i a l to produce and the c a p a c i t y for se l f - employment are presumed to be enhanced. As S c h u l t z (1980) a r g u e d , there seems to be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the development of human r e s o u r c e s and p r o d u c t i v i t y . Through n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l s can a c q u i r e s k i l l s , knowledge, and a t t i t u d e s t h a t improve t h e i r s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and c a p a c i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the development p r o c e s s . L u l a t (1980) observed t h a t : . . . r e f o r m i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l system wi th emphasis on r u r a l based c u r r i c u l a and n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n t h e n , seems to be the new s o l u t i o n tha t e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n e r s have d i s c o v e r e d of l a t e to the problem of e l i t i s m , r u r a l urban m i g r a t i o n , unemployment among s c h o o l - l e a v e r s , s tagnant economy or a g r i c u l t u r a l development ( p . 7 7 ) . Coombs (1968), amongst o t h e r s , argued that n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n ought to be u t i l i z e d to reach p a r t s of the p o p u l a t i o n untouched by formal e d u c a t i o n . In most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , development e f f o r t s have emphasized n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . At present t h i s i s a concern i n deve loped and d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . But as 61 Rubenson (1982) a r g u e d , even n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n can reproduce the e x i s t i n g c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . Thus f o r m a l and n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be i n t e g r a t e d . Integrating Formal and Non-formal Education P a p a g i a n n i s e t . a l (1983) argued tha t n o n - f o r m a l and formal e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d not be viewed as s eparate but r a t h e r as systems s h a r i n g many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The on ly d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t formal and n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n serve a d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t e l e , a l t h o u g h t h e i r o v e r a l l f u n c t i o n s are c l o s e l y l i n k e d . T h i s i n t e r a c t i o n between formal and n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n i s t r e a t e d most ly as an i d e o l o g i c a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n . The concern of a l l e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s formal or n o n - f o r m a l - shou ld be to p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s to both young and o l d and f o s t e r the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge, a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s tha t l e a d to an e f f i c i e n t use of a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s and knowledge. 62 The S i g n i f i c a n c e of L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n The n o t i o n of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n emphasizes v i t a l e lements that c o u l d be u t i l i z e d to i n c r e a s e and m a i n t a i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and ensure that farming t e c h n i q u e s and r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n are made a v a i l a b l e to e x t e n s i o n as a whole . A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i s m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l and m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y (Maunder, 1972; Swanson, 1984). The l i n k between f o r m a l , n o n - f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n becomes c r u c i a l i n a s i t u a t i o n l i k e Zambia 's in which many r u r a l people drop out of the formal e d u c a t i o n a l system at an e a r l y age (about f o u r t e e n y e a r s ) . T h i s s i t u a t i o n r e q u i r e s e d u c a t i o n a l systems t h a t support o ther s e r v i c e s and c o - o r d i n a t e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . E l l i n g (1977) p o i n t e d out t h a t Zambian e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n does not p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e for u s e r s of t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s . Smal l farm h o l d e r s who are most i n need of these t e c h n i q u e s have had a l i m i t e d access to e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s and programs . The b i a s i s towards h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d farmers tha t respond to modern farming t e c h n i q u e s and cash c r o p product i o n . 63 As E l l i n g n o t e d : . . . the e x t e n s i o n message i s o f t en too s i m p l i s t i c . Emphasis i s on modern t e c h n i q u e s e s p e c i a l l y for M a i z e , C o t t o n and Sunflower and o ther cash c r o p s . (p . 18) P a r t i c i p a n t s P a r t i c i p a n t s in a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n Zambia are as v a r i e d as t h e i r l e a r n i n g needs . They range from t o t a l l y " i l l i t e r a t e " people to u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s . Mutava (1983) d i v i d e d a d u l t l e a r n e r s i n Zambia i n t o these groups : 1. Those wi thout formal s c h o o l i n g or w i th o n l y three y e a r s of e d u c a t i o n . These comprise a "Basic L e a r n e r G r o u p . " Mutava e s t i m a t e d tha t 61 percent of the p o p u l a t i o n are " i l l i t e r a t e " and argued that most of these have b a s i c e lementary e d u c a t i o n . The age-range was e s t i m a t e d i s e 15-60 years of age . T h i s group t o be c o n s e r v a t i v e i n that "they o n l y f i n d s e c u r i t y i n custom and t r a d i t i o n " and know l i t t l e about the wor ld o u t s i d e t h e i r home. 64 2. The I n t e r m e d i a t e L e a r n e r Group was e s t i m a t e d to comprise a t h i r d of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , most ly youngs ter s tha t are e i t h e r un- or under -employed . These were c o n s i d e r e d to be h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d and p a r t i c i p a t e in n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l programs to get formal c r e d e n t i a l s . 3 . The C e r t i f i e d L e a r n e r Group i s the t h i r d c a t e g o r y and compri sed of a d u l t s wi th twelve y e a r s of formal s c h o o l i n g and r e c o g n i z e d s t a t e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s such as '0 ' L e v e l s . A c c o r d i n g to Mutava , o n l y a s m a l l percentage p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . Top and middle n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p for both the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s appears to come from t h i s g r o u p . These engage i n e d u c a t i o n for p r o f e s s i o n a l advancement and s t a t u s . T h i s group was a l s o p e r c e i v e d to be the most i n f l u e n t i a l in p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n . 4. The Advanced L e a r n e r Group comprises a d u l t s w i th h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s such as those tha t have s t u d i e d at c o l l e g e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s and o ther i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g . The p r o d u c t i v i t y of these l e a r n e r s sh ou ld be i n c r e a s e d by p r o v i d i n g b e t t e r acces s to o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e d u c a t i o n for youth and a d u l t s . The Zambian s c h o o l 65 l e a v e r s , n e i t h e r employed i n the formal s e c t o r nor engaged i n s e l f - employment , have posed s e r i o u s problems a n d , u n l e s s i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s are made a v a i l a b l e to meet t h e i r needs, the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n w i l l remain d i s s a t i s f i e d and m i g r a t i o n s to urban areas w i l l c o n t i n u e . T h i s w i l l c r e a t e more s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Procedures A g r i c u l t u r a l development has been viewed as a m u l t i - f a c e t e d proces s (Coombs, 1976; Chambers 1983). The c h a l l e n g e f a c i n g Zambian and many o ther a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n program p l a n n e r s and p o l i c y makers i n deve loped and d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i s t o p l a n and implement programs r e l a t e d to the community's f e l t needs , t o c o - o r d i n a t e r e l a t e d a s p e c t s of the programs i n o r d e r to min imize c o s t s , t o i n v o l v e t a r g e t l e a r n e r s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , and to prepare l e a r n e r s to e f f e c t i v e l y p l a n t h e i r l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . Through i n t e g r a t i o n of a l l e f f o r t and a s p e c t s which r e f l e c t s i m i l a r needs , a s p i r a t i o n s and c o n d i t i o n s of the c l i e n t e l e be ing s e r v e d , a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r a c t i c e c o u l d be g r e a t l y improved . T h i s p r o c e s s would l e a d to an improvement in knowledge. However, knowledge improvement f o r i t s own 6 6 sake i s i r r e l e v a n t but shou ld l e a d to an improvement of the p e o p l e ' s w e l f a r e . S imply making r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e does not l e a d to deve lopment . Nor would farmers b e n e f i t much from programs i f there were no s u p p o r t i v e networks . The p h i l o s o p h y u n d e r l y i n g e x t e n s i o n program p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e f f o r t , t e c h n o l o g i c a l and i n n o v a t i v e a d o p t i o n s s h o u l d be f a v o u r a b l e and r e f l e c t l e a r n e r s ' f e l t needs . E d u c a t i o n a l problems have become complex and demand s y s t e m a t i c and m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h e s . E q u a l l y important i s the i n t e g r a t i o n of e f f o r t , knowledge and r e s o u r c e s . I t i s a l s o important to ensure tha t programs r e l a t e to l e a r n e r s ' needs and f a c i l i t a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n in o r g a n i z a t i o n s , communi t i e s , groups and among i n d i v i d u a l s . A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n has been c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z e d and s p e c i a l i z e d . R e s e a r c h , f o r example, has r a r e l y c o - o r d i n a t e d i t s a c t i v i t i e s w i t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s and each department works i n i s o l a t i o n (Swanson, 1984). A l l m i n i s t r i e s and departments i n Zambia f o s t e r a t development i n one way or another and need to p l a n programs in a manner tha t promotes c o - o r d i n a t i o n . Wi th l i m i t e d f u n d i n g , p h y s i c a l and o t h e r m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s , c o - o r d i n a t i o n would l e a d to maximum u t i l i z a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s . C o - o r d i n a t i o n becomes r e l e v a n t in cases 67 where formal and n o n - f o r m a l p r o v i d e r s have s i m i l a r g o a l s and t a r g e t l e a r n e r s . P r i v a t e donors r a r e l y g i v e funds to o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d to be a p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . With such an a t t i t u d e , each s t r u g g l e s to meet t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s , sometimes f o c u s i n g on the same c l i e n t e l e . In d i s c u s s i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of c o - o r d i n a t i o n between e x t e n s i o n and o ther government o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Swanson (1984) argued tha t these are r e l a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l t h o u g h each has i t ' s l i n e of a u t h o r i t y . F i g . 8 p o r t r a y s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n and o ther government e n t i t i e s . Whereas each Government department and m i n i s t r y o p e r a t e s as a s epara te e n t i t y w i t h f i r m l i n e s of a u t h o r i t y ( - ) , the f i g u r e shows p o s s i b i l i t i e s f or i n t e r a c t i o n and c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h o ther s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by Governments or the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . The F i g u r e a l s o shows both l i n e s of i n t e r a c t i o n , (-) and ( - - ) , as aimed at the same c l i e n t e l e , d i c t a t i n g the need for i n t e g r a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t between p r o v i d e r s . P e r s o n n e l from s c h o o l s , c o l l e g e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , homes, c h u r c h , and o ther p r o v i d e r s a l l ought to c o n t r i b u t e to d e v e l o p i n g , implement ing and e v a l u a t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l programs. L e a r n e r s , f o r example, may have knowledge c o n c e r n i n g 68 c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y "experts" may have knowledge c o n c e r n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s . A l l l e a r n e r s t h e r e f o r e , ought to p a r t i c i p a t e in d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s . T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e d a d e s c r i p t i o n of n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n w i t h i n the l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n to Zambian a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n was a l s o d i s c u s s e d . The next c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s the methodology used to pursue r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s e n u n c i a t e d e a r l i e r . 69 Figure 8. Relationship of Extension Organization to other Government E n t i t i e s Educational Institutions Governmental Departments or Ministries Provincial Governments and/or Governing Boards Extension Organizations (Feedback) Clientele Served Other Various Services Provided by Governments or the Private Sector Research Organizations KEY lines of authority • lines of interaction and cooperation S o u r c e : Swanson (1984) . A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n : A •Reference Manual (2nd e d i t i o n ) ! Rome: FAO, p . 164. 70 CHAPTER FIVE VARIABLES AND METHODOLOGY T h i s study was des igned to a s se s s the ex tent to which s i x p r o c e d u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n in Zambia e x e m p l i f y v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n , h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n and d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n in the contex t of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . No f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s was employed. T h i s was not a p i e c e of e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h as proposed by S t u f f l e b e a m (1985), or o t h e r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h N o r t h American t r a d i t i o n s i n t h i s a r e a . In most e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s , the program i s judged a g a i n s t a formal c r i t e r i o n , a g a i n s t which the program i s j u d g e d . In t h i s s tudy t h e r e was no attempt to judge the worth of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n programs . I n s t e a d , the s tudy was d e s i g n e d to examine s i t u a t i o n s where there seemed to be a l a r g e or s m a l l 'gap' between an i d e a l , as t o u t e d by the a r c h i t e c t s of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , and the " a c t u a l " p r a c t i c e of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n Zambia. From one p e r s p e c t i v e the s i x p r o c e d u r e s can be regarded as dependent and the three e lements of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n as independent v a r i a b l e s . B u t , to make the a n a l y s i s more p r e c i s e i t was neces sary to 71 d i s t i n g u i s h the " s t r u c t u r e s , " " c l i e n t s " and " f u n c t i o n s " served by a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n Zambia. There are d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s w i t h i n each . Structural Level • N a t i o n a l • R e g i o n a l • D i s t r i c t • L o c a l C l i e n t e l e Level • Government M i n i s t r i e s • Government and non-government O r g a n i z a t i o n s & Departments 1. U n i v e r s i t i e s 2. A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e s 3. A g r i c u l t u r a l R e l a t e d I n d u s t r i e s 4. F i n a n c i a l Agents 5. Farmers (producer groups) Functional Level • P l a n n i n g • P e r s o n n e l • T r a i n i n g • F i n a n c e 72 • Research • A d m i n i s t r a t i o n L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n I n d i c a t o r s L i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n has been proposed as a "master concept" but p l a n n e r s , p o l i c y makers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s q u i c k l y f i n d they have to " o p e r a t i o n a l i z e " i t . In o ther words , i t i s neces sary to t r a n s f o r m sometimes a b s t r a c t p r i n c i p l e s i n t o " o p e r a t i o n s " in the f i e l d of p r a c t i c e . In t h i s s tudy the term " i n d i c a t o r s " was used to d e s c r i b e "evidence" that e x e m p l i f i e s the presence or absence of v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n , h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n and d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n . V e r t i c a l I n t e g r a t i o n V e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s would i n v o l v e 1 . d e s i g n i n g and implement ing p r o c e d u r e s for a l l s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y - c h i l d r e n - youth - a d o l e s c e n t s 73 - a d u l t s i r r e s p e c t i v e of age , gender , economic s t a t u s or o ther forms of d i s t i n c t i o n Horizontal Integration H o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s ; 1 . Recognizes that l e a r n i n g o c c u r s in a broad a r r a y of s e t t i n g s ( i n c l u d i n g those a s s o c i a t e d wi th home, work and r e c r e a t i o n ) and that e d u c a t i o n shou ld occur everywhere , not j u s t in s c h o o l s , c o l l e g e s or u n i v e r s i t i e s . 2. P r o v i d e r s of a l l types ( f o r m a l , n o n - f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l ) ' c o - o p e r a t e and c o - o r d i n a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s to make i t easy f o r l e a r n e r s to move from one s e t t i n g to another as t h e i r needs and c i r c u m s t a n c e s change Democratization In d e m o c r a t i z e d s e t t i n g s , there i s : 1. E q u a l i t y which , i n t u r n , i n v o l v e s • equa l a c c e s s • equa l o p p o r t u n i t y to e d u c a t i o n a l programs and s e r v i c e s among i n d i v i d u a l s 2. P a r t i c i p a t i o n by p o t e n t i a l l e a r n e r s i n the 74 p r o c e s s of d e s i g n i n g and implement ing p r o c e d u r e s . T h i s i s a c h i e v e d through the use of " p a r t i c i p a t o r y " program p l a n n i n g methods i n v o l v i n g • c o - o p e r a t i o n • involvement • c o n s u l t a t i o n Procedures Procedures were d e f i n e d as those d e c i s i o n s and a l t e r n a t i v e s d e s i g n e d , adopted and conducted by an i n d i v i d u a l or o r g a n i z a t i o n to b r i n g about change i n v o l v i n g a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge, a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s . In r e v i e w i n g l i t e r a t u r e on the problems common to a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , the f o l l o w i n g have been emphas ized . There i s : 1. A l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g of and a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r e x t e n s i o n ' s r o l e in a g r i c u l t u r a l development . 2. A l a c k of c o n t i n u i t y in programs r e s u l t i n g from p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y , . a n d changes i n p r o c e d u r e s , p e r s o n n e l and p r i o r i t i e s . 75 A l a c k of c o - o p e r a t i o n between a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n and o ther government s e r v i c e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s A l a c k of r e s o u r c e s and a f a i l u r e to e f f e c t i v e l y ba lance t h e i r a l l o c a t i o n among o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t e r e s t e d in a g r i c u l t u r a l development A l a c k of knowledge (amongst p r o v i d e r s and implementers) c o n c e r n i n g l o c a l , r e g i o n a l and c u l t u r a l d i s p a r i t i e s and v a r i a b l e s tha t p e r t a i n to the d e s i g n and implementat ion of p r o c e d u r e s T e c h n i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l incompetence on the p a r t of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l supposed to conduct r e s e a r c h and implement p o l i c i e s . A l a c k of i n t e r - and i n t r a - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l communicat ion and the m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p r o c e d u r e s . A l a c k of a p p r o p r i a t e t echno logy and a f a i l u r e to c o - o r d i n a t e r e s e a r c h w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n and the farming community. A l a c k of c o n t i n u o u s e v a l u a t i o n , r e p o r t i n g , and u t i l i z a t i o n of f i n d i n g s to improve 76 p r a c t i c e . In d i s c u s s i n g s i m i l a r t r e n d s and c o n c e r n s , Maunder (1972) and Swanson (1984) argued that such i s s u e s as these ought to be c o n s i d e r e d when d e s i g n i n g e x t e n s i o n programs. In t h i s s tudy i t was not p o s s i b l e to examine a l l procedures employed by Zambian e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s . Such an a n a l y s i s would r e q u i r e a much l a r g e r s tudy than t h i s one. I n s t e a d , i t was d e c i d e d to focus on what appeared to be the most c r u c i a l p r o c e d u r e s . As a r e s u l t , s t a f f i n g , t r a i n i n g , p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , f i n a n c i n g , r e s e a r c h and t e c h n o l o g y were s e l e c t e d for s t u d y . A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of these i s p r o v i d e d below. S t a f f i n g A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n Zambia, as i n most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , i n v o l v e s many people (Chambers, 1983; H e l l e n , 1968; L e l e , 1975). S t a f f i n g , a ta sk of p e r s o n n e l management, , i n v o l v e s procurement , maintenance , compensat ion and deve lopment . In t h i s s t u d y , procurement and development were s p e c i f i c a l l y d e a l t w i t h . 77 1 . Procurement Procurement i n v o l v e s h i r i n g or f i n d i n g the r i g h t jobs for p e r s o n n e l . The e x t e n s i o n s t a f f has d i f f u s e f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n and t h e r e f o r e ought to be competent and committed to t h e i r j o b . L i m i t e d p e r s o n n e l has been one of the major problems f a c i n g d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ' a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . Due to i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the development of a g r i c u l t u r e , i t was i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y . 2. T r a i n i n g (Development) When h i r e d , most p e r s o n n e l may be p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d but r e q u i r e r e t r a i n i n g to r a i s e morale and a l s o upgrade t h e i r knowledge c o n c e r n i n g concepts and methods; they may a l s o need r e t r a i n i n g due to changes i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l and o ther s o c i a l f a c t o r s . S c h u l t z (1980) argued tha t new knowledge, s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s , and v a l u e s are p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t e s of p r o d u c t i v i t y . New a g r i c u l t u r a l t e c h n o l o g y , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and p s y c h o - s o c i a l p a t t e r n s have to be l e a r n t i n order to i n c r e a s e food p r o d u c t i o n , income, and the s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g i n a g r i c u l t u r a l and r u r a l communi t i e s . 78 The q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of p e r s o n n e l were c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development (and c o n t i n u e d r e - a p p r a i s a l of t r a i n i n g needs i n the l i g h t of the chang ing s i t u a t i o n s ) and were thus i n c l u d e d in the s t u d y . P h y s i c a l Resources I t i s e s s e n t i a l tha t seeds , f e r t i l i z e r s , a g r i c u l t u r a l c h e m i c a l s , mach inery , spare p a r t s and t r a n s p o r t are a v a i l a b l e as they p r o v i d e i n c e n t i v e s for p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n programmes. Many problems stem from l i m i t a t i o n s on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of q u a l i t y seeds , a g r i c u l t u r a l c h e m i c a l s , machinery such as t r a c t o r s and spare p a r t s ; these i n h i b i t the development of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n programs. Amongst o t h e r s , a l a c k of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has l i m i t e d implementat ion of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e s i n Zambia. E x t e n s i o n a g e n t s , s i t u a t e d mos t ly in e x t e n s i o n c e n t r e s , r e q u i r e t r a n s p o r t to reach farming communi t i e s . A l a c k of acces s to banking f a c i l i t i e s a l s o c r e a t e s h a r d s h i p s for f a r m e r s , e s p e c i a l l y s m a l l ones . I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of e x t e n s i o n to o r g a n i z e access to these s e r v i c e s . 79 F i n a n c i n g The c h i e f ins trument of f i n a n c i a l management i s budge t ing - a p r o c e s s of a l l o c a t i n g f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s a c c o r d i n g to needs and p r i o r i t i e s . In most m i n i s t r i e s in Zambia, budget management has been c e n t r a l i z e d . People at the l o c a l l e v e l merely g i v e e s t i m a t e s . Concerns form t h i s s i t u a t i o n l i m i t e d nature of funds for a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n programs i n f l u e n c e d the c h o i c e of f i n a n c i n g f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the s t u d y . Research A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n has been w i d e l y a c c e p t e d as b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e for d i s s e m i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about t e c h n o l o g y (Swanson, 1984, Maunder, 1972) and r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . A g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h c e n t r e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d at the n a t i o n a l , r e g i o n a l and l o c a l l e v e l s to generate and d i s s e m i n a t e f i n d i n g s to a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Most l i t e r a t u r e on a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n r e s e a r c h p o i n t s out tha t r e s e a r c h c e n t r e s i n s i d e and o u t s i d e a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n r a r e l y c o - o r d i n a t e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n implementers as w e l l as r e c i p i e n t s of the new i n f o r m a t i o n . Swanson (1984) argued t h a t r e s e a r c h t h a t d i d not t r a n s m i t f i n d i n g s to e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s and farmers has made l i t t l e 80 p r a c t i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to the development of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . Research p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n and was i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y . Technology The c h o i c e of t echno logy as a v a r i a b l e was i n f l u e n c e d by i t s r o l e in a g r i c u l t u r a l development . A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers are supposed to demonstrate new techno logy to the farming community. Technology can t r a n s f o r m and d e v e l o p a g r i c u l t u r e . However, f o r e i g n t echno logy i s not always r e l e v a n t to d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . I t s u t i l i z a t i o n g r e a t l y depends on l o c a l needs. Most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s have t r i e d to adopt f o r e i g n t e c h n o l o g i e s wi thout t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i t s r e l e v a n c e to l o c a l c o n t e x t s . B e s i d e s , few d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s have r e c o g n i z e d the s i g n i f i c a n c e of l o c a l t echno logy to the development of a g r i c u l t u r e . U n l e s s d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s e x p l o r e a l t e r n a t i v e s , the c h o i c e and u t i l i z a t i o n of t e c h n o l o g y a v a i l a b l e w i l l be i n c r e a s i n g l y i r r e l e v a n t to the l o c a l needs (World Bank, 1979). " L o c a l " t echno logy i s c r i t i c a l to the economic development of d e v e l o p i n g countr i e s . 81 Study Procedure Data were d e r i v e d from pr imary and secondary l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l . I n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g to the development of Zambian a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n and p r o c e d u r e s were o b t a i n e d most ly from o f f i c i a l government N a t i o n a l Development P l a n s , h i s t o r i c a l documents on the C o l o n i a l N o r t h e r n Rhodes ia A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e , MAWD annual r e p o r t s , Monze Farm T r a i n i n g C e n t r e , Magoye R e g i o n a l Research S t a t i o n , Zambia i n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s . Data on l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n were o b t a i n e d most ly from UNESCO documents and o ther a u t h o r s . Other sources were U n i t e d N a t i o n s Food and A g r i c u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n documents , World Bank, and d i s s e r t a t i o n s , t h e s e s , j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s , and magaz ines . These documents were i n both p u b l i s h e d and u n p u b l i s h e d forms . The data sources were: 1 . The M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Water Development h e a d q u a r t e r s 2. U n i v e r s i t y of Zambia L i b r a r y 3. C e n t r a l S t a t i s t i c s O f f i c e 4. N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s of Zambia 5. U n i t e d Independence P a r t y A r c h i v e s , Freedom House (Lusaka) 82 6. Zambia I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s 7. Magoye R e g i o n a l Research s t a t i o n 8. Monze D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i o n 9. U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y 10. Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y 11. B . C . M i n i s t r y Of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food documents on E x t e n s i o n program p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 12. Minnesota Documents on A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n . Analysis of Data I n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g to p r o c e d u r e s (the dependent v a r i a b l e s ) were as ses sed to determine the ex tent to which they m a n i f e s t e d q u a l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n , h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n and d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n . Data p e r t a i n i n g to each of the s i x p r o c e d u r e s were c r o s s t a b u l a t e d and summarized i n T a b l e 9. The r e s u l t s s e c t i o n i s o r g a n i z e d as f o l l o w s . F i r s t , there i s d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g the " i d e a l " s i t u a t i o n that would be p r e s e n t i f the system was o r g a n i z e d in a c c o r d w i t h the e x h o r t a t i o n s of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n t h e o r i s t s . Next , there i s d i s c u s s i o n 83 c o n c e r n i n g the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n i n Zambia. In some r e s p e c t s t h e r e i s some congruence between the " a c t u a l " and t h e o r e t i c a l " i d e a l . " B u t , in o t h e r s , t h e r e i s a major d i s c r e p a n c y (between the a c t u a l and i d e a l s i t u a t i o n ) . T a b l e 9 c o n s i s t s of e i g h t e e n c e l l s which c o n t a i n b r i e f summaries showing what would be the s i t u a t i o n i f each of the p r o c e d u r e s ( s t a f f i n g , e t c ) were v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d , h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d and d e m o c r a t i z e d . A g a i n s t each of the i d e a l s , the procedures are examined. T a b l e 10 c o n s i s t s of the r e s u l t s . Recommendations were couched in language and w i t h i n the framework of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i d e a l s d e s c r i b e d i n chapter t h r e e . The f i n d i n g s are p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d i n in c h a p t e r s i x , and a summary and c o n c l u s i o n s p r e s e n t e d in c h a p t e r seven . In the f i n a l c h a p t e r , recommendations are made. 84 CHAPTER SIX PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s i n v e s t i g a t e d were concerned w i t h the ex tent to which s e l e c t e d Zambian a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e s are i n t e g r a t e d and d e m o c r a t i z e d . V e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n , h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n and d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n , the major concept s of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , were used to examine s t a f f i n g , t r a i n i n g , p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , f i n a n c i n g , r e s e a r c h and t e c h n o l o g y . T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s the f i n d i n g s of the s t u d y . Each of the p r o c e d u r e s has been examined w i t h i n the contex t of v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n , h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n , and d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n . F i g . 9 shows the a u t h o r ' s e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g the extent to which the s i x p r o c e d u r e s are v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d , h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d and d e m o c r a t i z e d . The 100 - p o i n t s c a l e i s an a r b i t r a r y measure a g a i n s t which the "extent" (of d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n e t c ) i s a s s e s s e d . These are o n l y s u b j e c t i v e e s t i m a t e s made by the author a f t e r examining the " i d e a l " ( a s s o c i a t e d wi th i n t e g r a t i o n and d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n ) and " a c t u a l " s t a t e of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n in Zambia. 85 86 Thus t r a i n i n g i s deemed to be more v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d than " s t a f f i n g " which i s , in t u r n , more v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d than " p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , " " f i n a n c i n g , " "research" or " t e c h n o l o g y . " As w i l l be shown below, i t was c o n c l u d e d that a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e s were more d e m o c r a t i z e d and v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d than they were h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d . These d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l now be d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l . V e r t i c a l I n t e g r a t i o n There are v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s of l e a r n e r s i n s o c i e t y . People can be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to gender (male, female) and age ( c h i l d r e n , a d o l e s c e n t s , y o u t h , a d u l t s ) . Other c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n ( C a t h o l i c , P r o t e s t a n t , e t c . ) p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n (ANC, UNIP, L i b e r a l , e t c . ) , economic s t a t u s ( r i c h , p o o r , e t c . ) and e d u c a t i o n l e v e l s ( l i t e r a t e , i l l i t e r a t e ) . E d u c a t o r s o f t en d e f i n e l e a r n e r s a c c o r d i n g to some of these c a t e g o r i e s . For decades , the formal e d u c a t i o n a l system has focused a t t e n t i o n on c h i l d r e n , a d o l e s c e n t s , and youth and l a r g e l y i g n o r e d the needs of a d u l t s . Sex, economic s t a t u s , and r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n have i n f l u e n c e d the extent to which i n d i v i d u a l s have acces s to e d u c a t i o n . In v e r t i c a l l y 87 i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s , a l l s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y would have access to e d u c a t i o n i r r e s p e c t i v e of gender , age, economic s t a t u s or e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l . I n d i v i d u a l s l e a r n throughout l i f e . C o n t r a r y to the t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e in which formal s e t t i n g s are p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h a d o l e s c e n t s and y o u t h , s e t t i n g s ought to p r o v i d e access to t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l programs wi thout e r e c t i n g a g e - r e l a t e d b a r r i e r s . A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n , has a p o t e n t i a l to meet needs of c h i l d r e n , youth and a d u l t s . T h i s p a r t of the s tudy concerned the extent to which a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e s in Zambia were v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d ; tha t i s the extent to which the p r o c e d u r e s i n c o r p o r a t e d d i f f e r e n t s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y in the d e s i g n and implementat ion of e d u c a t i o n a l programs. The f i r s t procedure to be d i s c u s s e d concerns s t a f f i n g . T h i s set of r e s u l t s i s drawn from the upper l e f t - h a n d c e l l in T a b l e 9. A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g s t a f f i n g , the r e s u l t s w i l l focus on v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n and the s i t u a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t r a i n i n g , f o l l o w e d by f i n a n c i n g , and so on down each column of T a b l e 9. A f t e r the i m p l i c a t i o n s of v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n f o r each p roced u re have been a s s e s s e d , a t t e n t i o n t u r n s to h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n and then to d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n . 88 S t a f f i n g " S t a f f i n g " r e f e r s to i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n who f o s t e r l e a r n i n g . W i t h i n MAWD, such i n d i v i d u a l s exc lude people such as s e c r e t a r i e s and c l e r i c a l o f f i c e r s . In the contex t of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , a l l i n d i v i d u a l s i n s o c i e t y are agents of change. In v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s i t u a t i o n s , a l l i n d i v i d u a l s - y o u n g or o l d - p a r t i c i p a t e in a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . At p r e s e n t , a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i s l a r g e l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p e r s o n n e l w i t h formal academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Rather than b e i n g a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c h i l d r e n , y o u t h , a d o l e s c e n t s , and the o l d , p e r s o n n e l c o n s i s t s of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h formal academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , most ly young a d u l t s and y o u t h . These i n d i v i d u a l s working wi th MAWD have to meet the h i r i n g c r i t e r i a . MAWD employees are both youth and a d u l t s . They p e r f o r m a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n d u t i e s up to t h e i r 50's and are then r e t i r e d . In v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s , l e a r n e r s are i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n throughout t h e i r l i f e . People would be i n v o l v e d in e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as t h e i r needs d i c t a t e . T h i s has not been the case w i t h i n MAWD. I n d i v i d u a l s have to meet a p a r t i c u l a r c r i t e r i o n , most ly p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l background, and have to be of a p a r t i c u l a r age (depends 89 on the post a d v e r t i s e d ) to q u a l i f y as MAWD p e r s o n n e l . T h i s i s not unique to MAWD but t r u e of o ther government and non-government o r g a n i z a t i o n s . V e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s would f u l l y u t i l i z e the a v a i l a b l e r e s e r v o i r of e d u c a t o r s , the o l d and young. Grand p a r e n t s would , f or example, work w i t h t h e i r grand c h i l d r e n , r e i n f o r c i n g each o t h e r s e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t . S i m i l a r l y , youth who have j u s t j o i n e d a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n would work w i t h those i n v o l v e d for a l o n g time and combine theory w i t h p r a c t i c e . The M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Water Development (MAWD) i s compr i sed of the f o l l o w i n g s t a f f : 1 . The Permanent S e c r e t a r y , MAWD 2. The D i r e c t o r of A g r i c u l t u r e ( E x t e n s i o n ) who i s a s s i s t e d by S e n i o r S u b j e c t M a t t e r S p e c i a l i s t s (Sen ior P r o f e s s i o n a l O f f i c e r s ) . 3. The P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l O f f i c e r , who i s a s s i s t e d by Subjec t M a t t e r S p e c i a l i s t s ( T e c h n i c a l O f f i c e r s ) . 4. S e n i o r A g r i c u l t u r a l A s s i s t a n t s , some of whom are Block S u p e r v i s o r s , A g r i c u l t u r a l A s s i s t a n t s and commodity d e m o n s t r a t o r s . The S e n i o r A g r i c u l t u r a l A s s i s t a n t s can be c a t e g o r i z e d as f i e l d l e v e l s t a f f s i n c e they d e a l d i r e c t l y w i th f a r m e r s . 90 In 1984, e x t e n s i o n s t a f f t o t a l e d about 2,416 i n d i v i d u a l s ( e x c l u d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s e c r e t a r i a l p e r s o n n e l ) (MAWD, 1984) . These are few c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t they a r e s e r v i n g communi t ies t h a t c o m p r i s e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 75 per cen t of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . As shown i n T a b l e 10, t h e r e i s a l i m i t e d p e r s o n n e l to c a r r y out e x t e n s i o n d u t i e s . Table 10. Professional and Technical s t a f f i n g , Summary Ear l y 1984 LOCATION PROFESSIONAL PHD MSC BSC STAFF TOTAL TECHNICAL STAFF VACANT DIP CERT OTHER TOTL POS. GRAND TOTAL NATIONAL HO Z 2 4 ' 6 4 4 10 - 0 1 1 0 1 CENTRAL z 0 0 0 0 • 0 • COPPERBELT z • 5 5 29 98 28 155 160 0 1 3 2 6 2 2 8 EASTERN z 1 5 6 18 321 339 345 0 1 3 5 9 0 9 LUSAKA z 0 • 0 0 0 0 0 LUAPULA z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 NORTHERN z 1 2 3 2 257 259 262 0 1 1 0 1 NORTH UESTERN z 0 • 0 0 0 0 0 SOUTHERN z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 UESTERN z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SUBTOTAL z 4 16 20 53 98 606 757 777 0 3 6 8 17 2 2 19 GRAND TOTAL 3 10 24 37 0 53 100 606 759 0 0 796 Source: MAWD (1984). 91 The p r i m a r y c r i t e r i o n f o r h i r i n g p e r s o n n e l w i t h i n MAWD i s formal e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . T h i s has l i m i t e d the number of people employed from n o n - f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . As i n d i c a t e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , Zambia's r u r a l youth (14-24 y e a r s of a g e ) , form a m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n . Some of these have not had any formal e d u c a t i o n . Those t h a t dropped out of s c h o o l are e i t h e r i n v o l v e d in u n p a i d jobs around the f a m i l y farm or p e r i o d i c a l l y employed in low p a y i n g j o b s . N a t i o n a l and l o c a l e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s have not g i v e n much a t t e n t i o n to r u r a l youth or women. What focus i s g i v e n to r u r a l youth or women i s mos t ly on those wi th .at l e a s t a formal b a s i c e d u c a t i o n . In v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s , t h e r e would be enough s t a f f to c a r r y out e d u c a t i o n d u t i e s . These would be a v a i l a b l e from d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s c o v e r i n g a wide range of ages . In 1977, the number of s t a f f i n d i f f e r e n t p r o v i n c e s was s m a l l and v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . For example, i n L u a p u l a p r o v i n c e , some camps were u n s t a f f e d or s t a f f e d by commodity demonstra tors i n s t e a d of p e r s o n n e l s p e c i f i c a l l y t r a i n e d f o r the j o b . As a r e s u l t , a l i m i t e d number of farmers was r e a c h e d , u s u a l l y the e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e or h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d ones . 92 In 1983, few people had been t r a i n e d in the v a r i o u s a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n f i e l d s . For example, MAWD was compr i sed of 70 i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h a degree , 330 wi th a d i p l o m a , 970 an wi th a g r i c u l t u r a l c e r t i f i c a t e and 600 Commodity D e m o n s t r a t o r s . The r a t i o of f i e l d e x t e n s i o n workers to farm households was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 to 1,387 in 1983 (MAWD, 1984). The shortage of f o r m a l l y t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l to c a r r y out a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n d u t i e s emphasizes the need to u t i l i z e s t a f f from other o r g a n i z a t i o n s and those t r a i n e d in n o n - f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . At p r e s e n t , p r o f e s s i o n a l l y and f o r m a l l y t r a i n e d s t a f f dominate l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s a n d , i n most c a s e s , ac t as the main source of i n f o r m a t i o n . There are d i f f e r e n t types of l e a r n e r s from whom a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n l e a d e r s c o u l d o b t a i n r e l e v a n t l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . These i n c l u d e : 1. Large s c a l e farmers (farm s i z e > 40 ha) 2. Medium s c a l e commerc ia l farmers (farm s i z e 10 to 20 ha) 3. Smal l s c a l e commerc ia l farmers (farm s i z e 2 to 10 ha) 4. T r a d i t i o n a l farmers (farm s i z e l e s s than 3 ha) These d i f f e r e n t l e a r n e r s have e x p e r i e n c e s r e l a t i n g to 93 t h e i r type of farming that would b e n e f i t o ther l e a r n e r s . The farming community has not been r e c o g n i z e d as a v a l u a b l e re source in implement ing procedures but have been p e r c e i v e d as t a r g e t l e a r n e r s whose r o l e i s to r e c e i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n messages. I n d i v i d u a l s ought to p a r t i c i p a t e in p e r f o r m i n g e d u c a t i o n a l d u t i e s throughout t h e i r l i f e . V a r i o u s s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y , young and o l d , a l l ought to have access to and p a r t i c i p a t e in e d u c a t i o n a l programs s i n c e people l e a r n through out l i f e . A l t h o u g h both youth and a d u l t s have had a c c e s s to a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n , most ly young a d u l t s (14-50 y e a r s of age) p a r t i c i p a t e in these programs and those 5-13, and 60 y e a r s and above have had a l i m i t e d r o l e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . There are many f a c t o r s that i n h i b i t people from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n e d u c a t i o n . Some stem from a l a c k of r e s o u r c e s and i n f l e x i b l e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s e r e c t e d by p r o v i d e r s of e d u c a t i o n . Such b a r r i e r s as f i x e d en trance requirements ought to be r e l a x e d to f o s t e r involvement i n e d u c a t i o n . I t i s t h e r e f o r e reasonab le to s t a t e t h a t there i s minimal v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n of s t a f f i n g w i t h i n MAWD. A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e has not u t i l i z e d a l l l e a r n e r s i n d i s s e m i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . I t s s e r v i c e has 94 been b i a s e d towards y o u t h . Most c h i l d r e n and o l d e r a d u l t s have had a l i m i t e d r o l e in p e r f o r m i n g MAWD d u t i e s . Even young a d u l t s who are employed have to meet " d e s i r e d " q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . There are many i n d i v i d u a l s , both young and o l d , whose e x p e r t i s e has remained untapped . The need to v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e s t a f f i n g stems from the f a c t i n d i v i d u a l s l e a r n throughout l i f e and t h e r e f o r e both young and o l d e r l e a r n e r s are a u s e f u l r e s o u r c e . Zambian a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n has l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s to t r a i n i t s p e r s o n n e l and t h e r e f o r e cannot a f f o r d to i g n o r e o l d e r a d u l t s who have both knowledge and p r a c t i c e r e l e v a n t to t h i s f i e l d . T r a i n i n g I t i s e s s e n t i a l to t r a i n i n d i v i d u a l s r e s p o n s i b l e for d i s s e m i n a t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n f o r m a t i o n . A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n Zambia has many p o t e n t i a l l e a r n e r s , who, i n v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s , would c o n s i s t of young and o l d i n d i v i d u a l s . A l l s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y would have acces s to t r a i n i n g . Both young and o l d people have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n MAWD ( r e ) t r a i n i n g programs. T r a i n i n g has been . mos t ly dominated by youth and young a d u l t s w h i l e i n - s e r v i c e has been a c c e s s i b l e to a d u l t s and youth w i t h p r e v i o u s 95 t r a i n i n g . T r a i n i n g as seen from a l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e ought to be e q u a l l y extended to a d u l t s and p r e - a d u l t s who wish to beg in or resume t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l s shou ld t h e r e f o r e be a l l o w e d to en ter ' h i g h e r ' t r a i n i n g without p r e v i o u s t r a i n i n g or a complete formal e d u c a t i o n . C u r r e n t l y , t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s c l e a r l y d e f i n e t h e i r c l i e n t e l e as w e l l as s u b j e c t areas to be c o v e r e d i n t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m . Farm T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e s o f f e r t h r e e months r e s i d e n t i a l i n d u c t i o n c o u r s e s s p e c i f i c a l l y for commodity d e m o n s t r a t o r s . For those i n t e r e s t e d i n s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , the Zambia C e n t r e for H o r t i c u l t u r a l T r a i n i n g i s p r o v i d e d in the C o p p e r b e l t P r o v i n c e , Pa labana T r a i n i n g Schoo l for D a i r y Farmers i n Lusaka P r o v i n c e and the Popota Tobacco T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e f o r Tobacco E x t e n s i o n s t a f f in the Southern P r o v i n c e p r o v i d e t r a i n i n g . Farmer T r a i n i n g C e n t r e s (FTCs) p r o v i d e i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g to s t a f f , c o - o p e r a t i v e s s t a f f , l o c a l l e a d e r s and o ther community g r o u p s . There are a p p r o x i m a t e l y 32 FTCs f o r the whole c o u n t r y (Refer to T a b l e 11 f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n of FTCs by p r o v i n c e ) . Most p a r t i c i p a n t s i n FTC programs are between 18 and 25 years of age and dropped out of the f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s between grades e i g h t and e l e v e n . T h i s group i s compr i sed of 96 Table 11 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farmer Training Centres by Province Province Total No. of F T C * Location of F T C J Bed cap&crHy Central - 4 Chalimbana Mkuahi Mukulailcwa Serenje 30 24 54 30 Copperbelt 3 Mpongwe Mibenge Mutaba 48 20 20 Eaatam 5 Chadiza Katete Lundazi Petauke Chama 28 28 28 28 20 Lnapula 4 Mbereahi Samfya. Mwense Nchelenge 30 20 20 20 Northern 4 Isoka. Mpika Mporokoeo Cbinsali 20 30 20 20 North-Western 4 CbAfakuina> Kabompo Kasempa Mwinilunga 20 20 20 20 Southern 4 Kalomo Malima Monze NsmwaU 24 24 48 25 Western 4 Kaoma Nangweshi Seaheke Kalabo 40 30 30 30 S o u r c e : MAWD, A n n u a l Report of the E x t e n s i o n B r a n c h 1976-77, p . 25 . 97 most of the l e a r n e r s w i t h p r e v i o u s formal e d u c a t i o n a l background and a l s o den ie s p o t e n t i a l l e a r n e r s above the ages of 25 y e a r s a chance to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the t r a i n i n g programs. Zambia C o l l e g e s of A g r i c u l t u r e (ZCA) l o c a t e d i n Monze and Mpika o f f e r 1-2 year c e r t i f i c a t e p r e - and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s in g e n e r a l a g r i c u l t u r e . The c o l l e g e s p r o v i d e p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge to l e a r n e r s , who, at g r a d u a t i o n , are employed by the MAWD a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n branch as A g r i c u l t u r a l A s s i s t a n t s . The c o l l e g e s have a s p e c i f i c c l i e n t e l e c o n s i d e r e d as e l i g i b l e for t r a i n i n g , most ly those wi th a grade ten e d u c a t i o n . N a t u r a l Resources Development C o l l e g e (NRDC) a l s o p r o v i d e s three year d ip loma c o u r s e s to people w i t h p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l background . The s c h o o l of a g r i c u l t u r a l S c i e n c e s at the U n i v e r s i t y of Zambia o f f e r s both p r e - and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n A g r i c u l t u r e . Both men and women, youth and a d u l t s have access to t r a i n i n g as l ong as they meet the e n t r y requ irements which most ly r e f e r to t h e i r p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l background . Only those that meet these requirements have acces s and o n l y a l i m i t e d number of people g r a d u a t e . 98 As p o i n t e d o u t , these e x t e n s i o n t r a i n i n g programs have a s p e c i f i e d c l i e n t e l e that meets d e f i n e d c r i t e r i a . T h i s i s c o n t r a r y to v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n i d e a l s i n which a t r a i n i n g program ought to reach l e a r n e r s of a l l ages and at d i f f e r e n t phases in the l i f e c y c l e . L e a r n i n g takes p l a c e w i th d i f f e r e n t age -groups working t o g e t h e r . T r a i n i n g w i t h i n MAWD and o t h e r o u t s i d e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s d e s i g n e d and implemented a c c o r d i n g to l e a r n e r s ' e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s . T r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s have c o n t i n u e d to p e r p e t u a t e the s t a t u s quo by p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n most ly to young a d u l t s who a l r e a d y have some formal e d u c a t i o n and i g n o r i n g the i n t e r e s t s of o l d e r a d u l t s , commodity d e m o n s t r a t o r s , A g r i c u l t u r a l A s s i s t a n t s , S u b j e c t • M a t t e r S p e c i a l i s t s and top management are t r a i n e d s e p a r a t e l y a c c o r d i n g to e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s and s u b j e c t a r e a s . I t i s important t h a t a d u l t l e a r n e r s be g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t i e s l i k e younger l e a r n e r s . A d u l t l e a r n e r s too ought to change t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n as ending a f t e r y o u t h . E d u c a t i o n goes on throughout l i f e s i n c e e d u c a t i o n that takes p l a c e d u r i n g c h i l d - h o o d and youth cannot meet a l l o ther needs tha t emerge a f t e r those p h a s e s . A d u l t s r e q u i r e e d u c a t i o n throughout t h e i r l i v e s and s h o u l d be g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y to drop i n and out of e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s ( f o r m a l , n o n - f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l ) as t h e i r 99 needs d i c t a t e . L i k e w i s e , they s h o u l d not be d e n i e d the o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e in any e d u c a t i o n a l program due to age. A g e - r e l a t e d b a r r i e r s shou ld be d i s m a n t l e d in a l l e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . C h i l d r e n as w e l l as a d u l t s shou ld be a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d . P h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s In v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s , p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s would be e q u a l l y a c c e s s i b l e to v a r i o u s s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y , young and o l d . E d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s for both young and o l d would r e c e i v e s i m i l a r a t t e n t i o n . The government, through the F i v e Year N a t i o n a l Development P l a n s at tempted to even ly d i s t r i b u t e r e s o u r c e s among i n d i v i d u a l s . The o b j e c t i v e s of the T h i r d N a t i o n a l Development P l a n (1979-83) were to reduce soc io - economic d i s p a r i t i e s between r u r a l and urban a r e a s , between r e g i o n s and w i t h i n r e g i o n s , to d i s t r i b u t e r e s o u r c e s so as to i n v o l v e the l o c a l l e v e l in development and to ensure tha t a reasonab le number of people b e n e f i t t e d from the development p r o c e s s . However, t h i s e f f o r t was hampered by l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s . The uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s o u r c e s throughout the c o u n t r y as acknowledged in the T h i r d N a t i o n a l Development p l a n has c o n t i n u e d i n most areas of the economy. T h i s uneveness e x i s t s between y o u t h , a d u l t s 1 0 0 and c h i l d r e n , and between the formal and non- formal e d u c a t i o n a l s e c t o r s . C u r r e n t l y , the n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l system in Zambia has a b i a s toward young f o r m a l l y educated s choo l l e a v e r s . T h i s i s because of the i n c r e a s i n g pr imary and secondary s c h o o l dropout r a t e , a t t r i b u t e d to the l i m i t e d number of s c h o o l s to meet the i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n s of s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n . There are l i m i t e d f a c i l i t i e s at p r i m a r y and secondary s c h o o l l e v e l s ; c o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s . S i m i l a r l y , youth and a d u l t s i n urban areas have c o n t i n u e d to have b e t t e r access to n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s and most of these have formal b a s i c e d u c a t i o n . A d u l t s wi thout p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to p a r t i c i p a t e in any e d u c a t i o n programs. Most r e s o u r c e s p r o v i d e d by a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n have been b e n e f i c i a l to those i n d i v i d u a l s that p a r t i c i p a t e in e x t e n s i o n programs, mos t ly . y o u t h . Sometimes i n d i v i d u a l s , both young and o l d l a c k i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . I t i s the duty of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n agents and f e l l o w farmers to d i s s e m i n a t e such i n f o r m a t i o n . Resources l i k e l i b r a r i e s would be more a c c e s s i b l e to farmers through the use of mobi le l i b r a r i e s . 101 F i n a n c i n g There are many o r g a n i z a t i o n s that ought to p r o v i d e funds f o r e d u c a t i o n . In the l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n contex t a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s (home, c h u r c h , e t c ) sh ou ld set a s i d e funds for e d u c a t i o n . A v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d system would p r o v i d e fund ing to both o l d and young l e a r n e r s . In Zambia, e d u c a t i o n i s among the p r i o r i t i e s i n the N a t i o n a l Development P l a n s . However, most of the f u n d i n g goes towards meet ing the needs of the young. A d u l t e d u c a t i o n has not r e c e i v e d s i m i l a r a t t e n t i o n . A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n l e a r n e r s are both c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s . However, most p a r t i c i p a n t s have been youth w i t h some p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n . Most are drop outs wi thout formal c r e d e n t i a l s . These l eave s c h o o l as e a r l y as f o u r t e e n y e a r s . They do not have access to l oans because they are too young and l a c k c o l l a t e r a l . Yet these i n d i v i d u a l s need to p a r t i c i p a t e i n e d u c a t i o n . The need to v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e f u n d i n g and other r e s o u r c e s stems from such c o n c e r n s . There are many drop outs who need to take p a r t i n e d u c a t i o n to l e a r n new s k i l l s f or se l f -employment and yet l a c k f u n d i n g and r e s o u r c e s . V e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s would not l i m i t acces s to fund ing or o ther r e s o u r c e s due to age . Both a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n ought to be g i v e n equa l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . 102 A l t h o u g h l i m i t e d in i t ' s revenue s o u r c e s , the government has p r o v i d e d most of the f u n d i n g f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development . In the T h i r d N a t i o n a l Development P lan (1983), a g r i c u l t u r a l development has been one of the top p r i o r i t e s . Farmers have r e c e i v e d funds from the A g r i c u l t u r a l F i n a n c e Company (AFC) but the d i s t r i b u t i o n of AFC s e r v i c e has been uneven. A l t h o u g h the " l e n d i n g p r i n c i p l e s t a t e s " tha t l e n d i n g i s open to a l l c a t e g o r i e s of the farming community (MAWD, 1984), a c c e s s has been l i m i t e d to farmers w i t h enough c o l l a t e r a l to s a t i s f y l e n d i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h i s p o l i c y i s s i m i l a r to that of p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as banks . In most c a s e s , a l l l oans have been c o n c e n t r a t e d in the commerc ia l c a t e g o r y of f a r m e r s . Smal l medium farmers seldom meet r e q u i r e m e n t s . L e n d i n g s e r v i c e s are thus not a c c e s s i b l e f o r a l l s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y . At f u n c t i o n a l l e v e l s , t h e r e i s a v a r i a t i o n i n f u n d i n g . Most funds go to the h e a d q u a r t e r s to h e l p in a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s . As shown i n T a b l e 12, the amount of funds d i s t r i b u t e d to o ther departments amounts to the Headquarters a l l o c a t i o n i n t o t a l . The departments r e q u i r e funds s u f f i c i e n t to implement p r o c e d u r e s . The g e n e r a t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n of funds among p r o v i d e r s of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n shows a 1 0 3 l i m i t e d v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n . A few i n s t i t u t i o n s such as banks have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r funding the farming community but i t has been l i m i t e d to e s t a b l i s h e d f a r m e r s . Farmers have not c o n t r i b u t e d much towards funding a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n programs. Research In any of the e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s , r e s e a r c h ought to i n v o l v e a l l l e a r n e r s . V e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s would i n v o l v e both c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s in the des ign and implementat ion of r e s e a r c h . T r a d i t i o n a l l y there has been a b i a s towards e d u c a t i o n for the young and most r e s e a r c h focused on formal e d u c a t i o n . Research i n t o e d u c a t i o n a l g e r o n t o l o g y r e q u i r e s more a t t e n t i o n e s p e c i a l l y for those e d u c a t i o n a l systems such as Zambian a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . Most p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Zambian a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n have e i t h e r dropped out of or l a c k a formal e d u c a t i o n . As a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e , and s i n c e a l l i n d i v i d u a l s (young or o l d ) are i n v o l v e d in l e a r n i n g throughout l i f e , l e a r n e r s shou ld be i n v o l v e d in d e s i g n i n g and implement ing r e s e a r c h . A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n r e s e a r c h has been dominated by formal e d u c a t i o n a l "expert s" , o ther l e a r n e r s have not m e a n i n g f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n r e s e a r c h . In most c a s e s , both c h i l d r e n and o l d e r 1 0 4 Table 12. Ca p i t a l Budget Outlay for Mi n i s t r y of Agr i c u l t u r e and water Development (1980 and 1981) • " (K'OOO)  TNDP 1980 1981 Provision Allocation Allocation (i) Department Headquarters 60,396 9,596 16,572 Department of Agriculture 33,910 3,048 3,541 Department of Veterinary & Tse-Tse Control Service 52,360 1,9^5 1,^60 Training Institutes 6,872 2,73^ 2,^75 Department of Co-operatives and Marketing 8,647 1,375 3,09'* Department of Water Affairs 25,178 5,067 4,395 Agricultural Research 9,045 . .1,890 2,010 Total: 196,608 25,150 33,5*»7 S o u r c e : N a t i o n a l Commiss ion F o r Development P l a n n i n g ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Economic R e p o r t 1981, L u s a k a , p . 123. a d u l t s have p a r t i c i p a t e d as consumers but not p r o d u c e r s of r e s e a r c h . A c c e s s to r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n has been l i m i t e d to a few i n s t i t u t i o n s and farm g r o u p s . Non farming communi t i e s and those w i t h o u t r a d i o or t e l e v i s i o n and whose r e s i d e n t s are unable to r e a d or w r i t e have had a l i m i t e d a c c e s s to r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n . Sometimes, i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d in r e s e a r c h p u b l i s h t h e i r f i n d i n g s i n f o r e i g n j o u r n a l s which are not a c c e s s i b l e to l o c a l p e o p l e . Techno logy In v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s , hard and sof tware t echno logy would be a v a i l a b l e to both o l d and young. In the Zambian a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t , machinery such as t r a c t o r s and o ther farm implements would be a v a i l a b l e to both youth and a d u l t s . However t h i s has not been the c a s e . M o s t l y e s t a b l i s h e d farmers w i t h r e s o u r c e s have money to buy such m a c h i n e r y . When they drop out of s c h o o l , most youth s t i l l depend on t h e i r p a r e n t s and o ther r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d . T h i s r e i n f o r c e s the need for v e r t i c a l ' i n t e g r a t i o n . Resources b e l o n g i n g to o l d e r l e a r n e r s , such as extended r e l a t i o n s , c o u l d be used by c h i l d r e n and youth and v i c e v e r s a . Zambian a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s have been slow to adopt new t e c h n o l o g y . Hardware t e c h n o l o g y has not been a v a i l a b l e , nor has i t been e q u a l l y a c c e s s i b l e to a l l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and c u l t u r a l g r o u p s . T h i s has been caused by many f a c t o r s such as c o s t and a l a c k of knowledge c o n c e r n i n g hardware t echno logy and i t s proper use . Hard and software t e c h n o l o g y have not been e a s i l y 1 06 a c c e s s i b l e or a v a i l a b l e to the f i n a n c i a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d and " i l l i t e r a t e " groups . Technology would a l s o be a c c e s s i b l e to a l l s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y . Commercial and emerging farmers i n Zambia in most cases have had access and used most hard and sof tware t e c h n o l o g y . Sometimes, s m a l l s c a l e farmers have had l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the a v a i l a b i l i t y and a p p l i c a b i l i t y of a p a r t i c u l a r hard or s o f t w a r e . In o ther c a s e s , a l t h o u g h p r o v i d e d wi th so f tware , i t has not been p o s s i b l e to purchase them due to a l a c k of f u n d i n g . Some farmers that have had access to c e r t a i n machinery pay e x h o r b i t a n t p r i c e s f o r spare p a r t s and sometimes have had no access to them because they are not a v a i l a b l e i n the c o u n t r y . The axe , hoe and p lough c u l t i v a t o r s comprise a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of the farming community and are prominent among groups wi th l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s and l i t t l e access to loan f a c i l i t i e s . They have l i t t l e or n o t h i n g to o f f e r as c o l l a t e r a l . There i s a need to deve lop a t e c h n o l o g y a p p r o p r i a t e to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . 1 07 H o r i z o n t a l I n t e g r a t i o n E d u c a t i o n occurs in f o r m a l , n o n - f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l s e t t i n g s . W i t h i n these s e t t i n g s , there are v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n . They c o u l d be s c h o o l s , f a m i l i e s , c o l l e g e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , i n d u s t r i e s , churches and many o t h e r s . These i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s have r e s o u r c e s ( p e r s o n n e l , p h y s i c a l , f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l ) used to c a r r y out e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s such as t r a i n i n g and r e s e a r c h . In h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s , a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n s t i t u t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s are i n v o l v e d i n the p r o v i s i o n of e d u c a t i o n to v a r i o u s s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y . E d u c a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e not l e f t to any one i n d i v i d u a l or o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n s t e a d , r e s o u r c e s i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s are a v a i l a b l e to people want ing to use them. Moreover , e d u c a t i o n o c c u r i n g in v a r i o u s s e t t i n g s i s g i v e n equa l v a l u e and r e c o g n i t i o n . E d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t towards the community such as r e s e a r c h would be i n t e g r a t e d . T h i s p a r t of the s tudy concerned the ex tent to which Zambian a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e s of s t a f f i n g , t r a i n i n g , p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , f i n a n c i n g , r e s e a r c h and t echno logy were i n t e g r a t e d . S t a f f i n g There are d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n n e l w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s tha t p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n to f a r m e r s . 1 08 T r a d i t i o n a l l y , e d u c a t i o n i s the p r e r o g a t i v e of formal e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e i r p e r s o n n e l . In h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s , e d u c a t i o n would not be l e f t to any one o r g a n i z a t i o n or i n d i v i d u a l . S i m i l a r l y , p e r s o n n e l from d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s would a l l be v a l u e d . As i n the case of implementing a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e s , p e r s o n n e l from formal and n o n - f o r m a l s e t t i n g s ought to be i n v o l v e d . S t a f f has an important r o l e to p l a y i n a l abour i n t e n s i v e system such as a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n Zambia. However, f or the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n tha t comprise 75 per cent of the the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , the c u r r e n t has not reached many farming i n d i v i d u a l s . W i t h i n MAWD, s t a f f h i r i n g i s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l and d i s t r i c t l e v e l s . The s t r u c t u r e at each l e v e l i s not independent from o ther s t r u c t u r e s . However, s t a f f are o r g a n i z e d i n t o d i s c i p l i n e s and departments . I t i s r a r e to use s t a f f from other o r g a n i z a t i o n s to c a r r y out a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s . For example, secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s have not been i n t e g r a t e d i n t o MAWD a c t i v i t i e s . MAWD p e r s o n n e l have been p r e o c c u p i e d wi th a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n d u t i e s . O r g a n i z a t i o n s o ther than MAWD are 109 i n v o l v e d in a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work on a p a r t t ime b a s i s or p r o v i d e f u n d i n g to MAWD to d e s i g n and implement p r o c e d u r e s . In t h i s case on ly MAWD s t a f f would be i n v o l v e d . S t a f f from i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s as SIDA, CIDA, NORAD, World Bank and o t h e r s have worked w i t h MAWD s t a f f . However these s t a f f have , in most c a s e s , come from a g r i c u l t u r a l r e l a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s and r a r e l y from n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as YWCA, the c h u r c h , or p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s e s . Formal and n o n - f o r m a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o v i d e r s have not worked toge ther to m o b i l i z e and u t i l i z e s t a f f . Worse s t i l l , d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s such as Economics , L i t e r a t u r e , Languages , S o c i o l o g y and Geography as w e l l as churches and banks do not see a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n as something t h a t concerns them. There has been l i t t l e c o - o r d i n a t i o n of s t a f f between the v a r i o u s . d i s c i p l i n e s even when the g o a l s or c l i e n t e l e a r e the same. T r a i n i n g In a h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d system, t r a i n i n g would be a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of v a r i e d i n s t i t u t i o n s , not o n l y those in formal s e t t i n g s . Rather than f o c u s i n g on s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , t r a i n i n g would be m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y and a c h i e v e many p u r p o s e s . Many i n s t i t u t i o n s are 1 1 0 r e s p o n s i b l e for t r a i n i n g p e r s o n n e l . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , these have been opera ted a c c o r d i n g to d i s c i p l i n e s such as t e c h n o l o g y , a r t s , and s c i e n c e s and most of them have been f o r m a l . In a h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d system, d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the home, media , c h u r c h , c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s would a l l p a r t i c i p a t e in the e f f o r t to improve i n d i v i d u a l s ' competenc i e s , a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s . T r a i n i n g i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of o ther e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . I n d u s t r i e s , for example, would put a s i d e some time and r e s o u r c e s for t r a i n i n g s t a f f r a t h e r than l e a v i n g t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to formal e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , r e s o u r c e s from other s e t t i n g s would c o n t r i b u t e towards t r a i n i n g . In Zambia, a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s are found in a l l s e t t i n g s ( f o r m a l , i n f o r m a l and n o n - f o r m a l ) . Both w i t h i n and o u t s i d e MAWD, v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r t r a i n i n g . W i t h i n MAWD, Farm I n s t i t u t e s ( F I s ) , Farm T r a i n i n g C e n t r e s (FTCs) and C o l l e g e s p r o v i d e pre and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . The U n i v e r s i t y of Zambia, though not f a l l i n g d i r e c t l y under MAWD, p r o v i d e s t r a i n i n g to i n d i v i d u a l s w i th an i n t e r e s t in a g r i c u l t u r e . Most of these secure employment wi th MAWD upon g r a d u a t i o n . 1 1 1 T r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s most ly p r o v i d e t r a i n i n g that l eads to formal c e r t i f i c a t e s . Other i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the home, c h u r c h , i n d u s t r i e s , banks have not i n v o l v e d themselves in t r a i n i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l . On the job t r a i n i n g p r o v i d e d by d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s or immediate s u p e r v i s o r s or peers has , f or i n s t a n c e , r e c e i v e d l i m i t e d a t t e n t i o n . There has been a l i m i t e d combinat ion of work and e d u c a t i o n , w h i c h , i n the contex t of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , i s h i g h l y v a l u e d . The o v e r l o a d i n s t i t u t i o n s from formal s e t t i n g s have been f a c i n g i s p a r t l y a t t r i b u t e d to the unequal importance g iven to formal e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . Emphasis has been on c r e d e n t i a l s o b t a i n e d in formal s e t t i n g s . Other forms of t r a i n i n g are r a r e l y regarded as i m p o r t a n t . T h i s l a c k of r e c o g n i t i o n for n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n has been t o u t e d as one of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d i v i d u a l s face in s e c u r i n g j o b s . As Mutava (1983) n o t e d , i n d i v i d u a l s who p a r t i c i p a t e in n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n expect to get c e r t i f i c a t e s tha t would a s s i s t them i n s e c u r i n g j o b s . Most t r a i n i n g w i t h i n MAWD has l e d to s t a t e r e c o g n i z e d c r e d e n t i a l s . Too much emphasis i s p l a c e d on the l e a r n e r ' s s c h o o l c r e d i t s and c e r t i f i c a t e s as en trance c r i t e r i a and too l i t t l e on m o t i v a t i o n and needs . T h i s makes t r a i n i n g a c c e s s i b l e 1 1 2 to a l i m i t e d range of a l r e a d y "educated" p e o p l e . MAWD p e r s o n n e l have a l s o been t r a i n e d by i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as the F i n n i s h Development Agency (FINNIDA). An example i s a p r o j e c t i n L u a p u l a p r o v i n c e c o v e r i n g about f i v e d i s t r i c t s . D i f f e r e n t p r o v i n c e s have e x t e n s i o n programs o r g a n i z e d by i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . B e s i d e s t r a i n i n g programs w i t h i n Zambia, p e r s o n n e l from MAWD have been t r a i n e d i n c o u n t r i e s w i t h i n and o u t s i d e A f r i c a . For example, in 1976/77, s t a f f were sent to E g y p t , B r i t a i n , Canada, Cameroon, N i g e r i a , USA and S w a z i l a n d f o r both s h o r t and long term c o u r s e s . Most p e r s o n n e l i n v o l v e d i n implement ing a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e s w i t h i n MAWD are s p e c i f i c a l l y t r a i n e d i n t h e i r s u b j e c t r e l a t e d a r e a s . T h i s t r a i n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t p r o v i d e d to commodity demonstra tors i s i n s u f f i c i e n t and yet must put procedures i n t o p r a c t i c e . Most of the w e l l t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l are a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or p l a n n i n g o f f i c e r s at n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l or d i s t r i c t h e a d q u a r t e r s . T r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s ought to t r a i n i n d i v i d u a l s for s p e c i f i c jobs and equ ip l e a r n e r s to adapt to a v a r i e t y of o c c u p a t i o n s . T r a i n e e s sh ou ld u n d ers t an d the s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l and h i s t o - c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t s o c c u p i e d by l e a r n e r s . S i n c e these change, c o n s t a n t 1 1 3 t r a i n i n g and r e t r a i n i n g i s r e q u i r e d to update knowledge c o n c e r n i n g methods and o ther knowledge r e l a t e d to e x t e n s i o n . E f f o r t s to r e t r a i n MAWD g r a d u a t e s , d ip loma and c e r t i f i c a t e h o l d e r s to meet changing and complex needs has been l e s s than s u c c e s s f u l . There has been a l a c k of q u a l i f i e d s t a f f and u p - t o - d a t e knowledge (by s u b j e c t matter s p e c i a l i s t s ) and a l a c k of s y s t e m a t i c c o n t a c t between e x t e n s i o n workers and the farming community (MAWD, 1984). U n l e s s n o n - f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s are g iven equa l importance and they a s s i s t formal e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the t r a i n i n g of p e r s o n n e l , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t c o l l e g e s , s c h o o l s and u n i v e r s i t i e s w i l l r e l a x or reform t h e i r en trance c r i t e r i a . Formal p r o v i d e r s are o v e r l o a d e d and cannot meet a l l e d u c a t i o n a l needs of s o c i e t y . P e r s o n n e l r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t r a i n i n g in n o n - f o r m a l and formal s e t t i n g s shou ld c o - o r d i n a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s to ensure e f f i c i e n c y and to min imize d u p l i c a t i o n . There are many p r o v i d e r s of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n in Zambia but each d e s i g n s i t s own programs without r e f e r e n c e to o t h e r s . Programs are des igned to t r a i n p e r s o n n e l and o ther s u b j e c t r e l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s tha t meet en trance r e q u i r e m e n t s . There are d i f f e r e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s and c o l l e g e s but these do not meet a l l i n d i v i d u a l needs and are 114 i n d e p e n d e n t l y o p e r a t e d . There i s l i t t l e c o - o r d i n a t i o n between Farmer T r a i n i n g C e n t r e s , Farm I n s t i t u t e s , Zambia C o l l e g e s , NRDC and the U n i v e r s i t y . P h y s i c a l Resources Even when f a c i n g l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to share and b r i n g t o g e t h e r what i s a v a i l a b l e in h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s . T h i s c r e a t e s a support network. D i f f e r e n t p r o v i d e r s of e d u c a t i o n have v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e s such as space , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , seeds , f e r t i l i z e r s , machinery and t e a c h i n g a i d s (such as r a d i o s , t e l e v i s i o n s and v i d e o t a p e s ) . In a h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d system, there are f l e x i b l e arrangements c o n c e r n i n g the use of such r e s o u r c e s . C las sroom space b e l o n g i n g to pr imary e d u c a t i o n for c h i l d r e n would be a v a i l a b l e to programs f o r youth and a d u l t s . S i m i l a r l y , r e s o u r c e s such as e x t e n s i o n l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l , r a d i o s and t e l e v i s i o n s would be used by v a r i o u s s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y . I t i s not p o s s i b l e to c o n s t r u c t a new s c h o o l or buy new t e l e v i s i o n s e t s each time demand i n c r e a s e s . I n s t e a d , p r o v i d e r s of e d u c a t i o n shou ld be a b l e to share r e s o u r c e s . There i s an unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s o u r c e s such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , t e a c h i n g a i d s , l i b r a r i e s and even 1 1 5 accommodation for members of s t a f f , making i t d i f f i c u l t for e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l to do t h e i r work. The l a c k of adequate t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s an acute p r o b l e m . Some farming communit ies cannot be r e a c h e d . Formal and n o n - f o r m a l p r o v i d e r s s h o u l d share t h e i r v e h i c l e s . The government has been the main p r o v i d e r of r e s o u r c e s . S h a r i n g of r e s o u r c e s such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has been l i m i t e d to r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s and depar tments . W i t h i n MAWD, r e s o u r c e s such as t e a c h i n g a i d s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n have been r e s t r i c t e d to the department to which they were a l l o c a t e d . P r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s have r a r e l y c o - o p e r a t e d wi th MAWD s i n c e a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n has been c o n s i d e r e d to be a p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Resources are l i m i t e d , fragmentary i n nature and used o n l y by d e f i n e d departments and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . People i n v o l v e d in a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n programs e i t h e r have l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s to c o n t r i b u t e to the r u n n i n g of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n programs or r a r e l y c o n s i d e r i t neces sary to c o n t r i b u t e r e s o u r c e s for the common good. U n l e s s i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s change t h e i r a t t i t u d e and generate r e s o u r c e s , MAWD w i l l be the main and sometimes the on ly p r o v i d e r . O r g a n i z a t i o n s shou ld r e l a x t h e i r r u l e s and a l l o w i n d i v i d u a l s access to r e s o u r c e s . 1 1 6 Funding In a h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d system e d u c a t i o n a l p r o j e c t s would be funded by many o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n has many p o t e n t i a l s p o n s o r s . However not a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s have funded or p r o v i d e d c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s to farming communit ies i n Zambia. Government revenue through MAWD has been the main source of f u n d i n g . The major a g r i c u l t u r a l l e n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n in Zambia has been the A g r i c u l t u r a l F i n a n c e Company ( A F C ) , a p a r a s t a t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f a l l i n g under MAWD. T h i s company p r o v i d e s c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s to s m a l l and medium s c a l e farmers but there are inadequate funds to meet the needs of the farming community, and the loan r e c o v e r y r a t e has been p o o r . The C a t t l e F i n a n c e Company of Zambia has a l s o p r o v i d e d f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e to l i v e s t o c k f a r m e r s . Other i n s t i t u t i o n s tha t p r o v i d e a g r i c u l t u r a l r e l a t e d f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n c l u d e Zambia N a t i o n a l Commercial Bank, B a r c l a y s Bank of Zambia L t d . , S tandard Bank of Zambia L t d . and Development Bank of Zambia. These s e r v i c e s have been at n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l and d i s t r i c t l e v e l s . Many i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as Swedish I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency (SIDA) , Canadian 1 1 7 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency (CIDA) , Norwegian Agency for Development (NORAD), B r i t i s h Overseas Development A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , World Bank, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Fund for A g r i c u l t u r a l Development (IFAD) and the European Development Fund, p r o v i d e f u n d i n g , c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s , r e s e a r c h , e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s , and s u p p l i e s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t s . Sometimes i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as SIDA p r o v i d e f u n d i n g through AFC to f a r m e r s . D e s p i t e these v a r i o u s sources of f u n d i n g , not a l l p r o v i d e r s of e d u c a t i o n have funded a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r o j e c t s . A few have put a s i d e r e s o u r c e s f o r e x t e n s i o n work whi l e o t h e r s have c o n s i d e r e d i t a " p u b l i c " r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . MAWD has t h e r e f o r e remained the main source of f u n d i n g . Most o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t p r o v i d e funds de tach themselves from the d e s i g n and implementat ion of p r o j e c t s . Other p r o v i d e r s u t i l i z e t h e i r funds a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r d e f i n e d o b j e c t i v e s and t h i s l eads to a d u p l i c a t i o n of p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s and s a l a r i e s f o r s t a f f w i t h s i m i l a r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and f u n c t i o n s . O r g a n i z a t i o n s have o c c a s i o n a l l y funded s i m i l a r programs but not through d e l i b e r a t e l y d e s i g n e d e f f o r t to b r i n g t o g e t h e r r e l a t e d f u n d i n g . 118 Research Research i s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s and r e q u i r e s c o - o r d i n a t i o n . In a h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d system, "research" would not be the p r e r o g a t i v e or p r e o c c u p a t i o n of any one i n d i v i d u a l or o r g a n i z a t i o n . Formal and n o n - f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s would a l l p a r t i c i p a t e in the d e s i g n and conduct of r e s e a r c h . Research w i t h i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n in Zambia has been c a r r i e d out by s t a f f s p e c i a l i z e d in d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t matter a r e a s . D i f f e r e n t r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s at n a t i o n a l , r e g i o n a l , and l o c a l l e v e l s have been i n v o l v e d i n r e s e a r c h . Mount Makulu has been the C e n t r a l Research S t a t i o n for MAWD. R e g i o n a l Research S t a t i o n s e x i s t ' in d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the c o u n t r y . Each R e g i o n a l Research S t a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t e s on i s s u e s r e l a t e d to i t s r e g i o n . T h i s has been emphasized so tha t problems r e l a t i n g to s p e c i f i c r e g i o n s are d e a l t w i t h . At R e g i o n a l and C e n t r a l Research s t a t i o n s , teams have been formed on s u b j e c t b a s i s and c a r r y out r e s e a r c h a c c o r d i n g l y . The Research Branch w i t h i n MAWD has the o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to r e s e a r c h through i t s A d a p t i v e Research P l a n n i n g (ARP) u n i t and t h i s has been r e s p o n s i b l e for c o n d u c t i n g surveys and making 1 19 recommendat i o n s . C h u r c h e s , YWCA, banks and f a m i l i e s a l l need to be i n v o l v e d in r e s e a r c h . T e l e v i s i o n Zambia c o u l d f o r example conduct r e s e a r c h on the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d e l i v e r y mode for v a r i o u s segments of the farming community. Most o r g a n i z a t i o n s and groups have s imply been r e c i p i e n t s of a g r i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n . More o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s sh ou ld be i n v o l v e d o therwise r e s e a r c h s t a t i o n s a lone w i l l be o v e r l o a d e d . The R e s e a r c h / E x t e n s i o n L i a s o n o f f i c e r based at M t . Makulu ( C e n t r a l Research S t a t i o n ) f o s t e r s exchanges of i n f o r m a t i o n between A d a p t i v e Research P l a n n i n g (ARP), r e s e a r c h s t a t i o n s and e x t e n s i o n s t a f f . He a l s o d i s s e m i n a t e s r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n to a g r i c u l t u r a l s t a f f at p r o v i n c i a l and d i s t r i c t l e v e l s as w e l l as FTCs and F T I s t r a i n e r s . Research i n f o r m a t i o n i s a c c e s s i b l e to o ther m i n i s t r i e s and a g e n c i e s and p u b l i c upon r e q u e s t . A l t h o u g h a l i a i s o n o f f i c e r f a c i l i t a t e s the flow of i n f o r m a t i o n between v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h s t a t i o n s , a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n and o ther o r g a n i z a t i o n s , there i s l i t t l e c o - o r d i n a t i o n between n o n - f o r m a l , n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t i o n s in MAWD, or between r e s e a r c h s t a t i o n s and f a r m e r s . I t i s too much f o r one person to c o - o r d i n a t e r e s e a r c h between v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h c e n t r e s , 1 20 government m i n i s t r i e s , and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . B e s i d e s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e c o - o r d i n a t i o n of r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s between n o n - f o r m a l and formal s e t t i n g s ; government and non-government and p r i v a t e and v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . Any c o - o r d i n a t i o n has been l i n k e d to a g r i c u l t u r a l r e l a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s . They do not s y n t h e s i z e or r e c o n c i l e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s and concerns between formal and n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . There has been no attempt to s y n t h e s i z e or r e c o n c i l e r e s e a r c h conducted in formal s e t t i n g s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of r e s e a r c h to a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e has remained e l u s i v e . S i n c e r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s are supposed to be used to enhance p r a c t i c e , r e s e a r c h e r s s h o u l d secure feedback from p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Technology Techno logy c o u l d be c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o hardware and s o f t w a r e . Hardware r e l a t e s to machinery such as farm implements . Software i s knowledge or e x p e r t i s e r e l a t e d to the u t i l i z a t i o n of hardware and c o u l d be o b t a i n e d through t r a i n i n g and r e s e a r c h . In a h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d system, hardware and software are a c c e s s i b l e and a v a i l a b l e to v a r i o u s s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y . T r a d i t i o n a l and f o r e i g n t e c h n o l o g i e s have c o - e x i s t e d but the l a t t e r have r e c e i v e d more emphasis than the 121 f o r m e r . A h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d system would put an e q u a l emphasis on a l l t e c h n o l o g i e s . A s i g n i f i c a n t percent of farmers in Zambia u t i l i z e s h i f t i n g axe and hoe c u l t i v a t i o n . Others have used a c o m b i n a t i o n of hoe and p l o u g h . About a t h i r d of the t o t a l farming community use semi -commerc ia l ox and t r a c t o r c u l t i v a t i o n (Refer to T a b l e 3 and 4 i n c h a p t e r o n e ) . A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s have perhaps focused too much a t t e n t i o n on the m e c h a n i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e through the u t i l i z a t i o n of "western" t e c h n o l o g i e s which , in most c a s e s , have been " i n a p p r o p r i a t e " and e x p e n s i v e . O r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s have h a r d and sof tware for d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e s . Farmers r e q u i r e t e c h n o l o g y that i s u s e f u l f or t h e i r f a r m i n g . In a h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d sytem, d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e themselves i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s . The purpose i s to a r r i v e at t e chno logy t h a t c o s t s l e s s and i s e f f i c i e n t . The study q u e s t i o n concerned the extent to which t echno logy w i t h i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n Zambia was h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d . In a h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d system, hard and sof tware w i t h i n d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s would be a c c e s s i b l e to a l l s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y . Radio and t e l e v i s i o n have 1 2 2 both been used by MAWD to d e l i v e r e x t e n s i o n messages. L i k e most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , Zambia does not possess the t echno logy to t r a n s f o r m a g r i c u l t u r e to improve growth. M e c h a n i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e has been one of the major o b j e c t i v e s of economic development in the N a t i o n a l Development P l a n s . Among other f a c t o r s , m e c h a n i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e has been l i m i t e d due to a l i m i t e d acces s to so f t and hardware . In the contex t of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s ought to take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n h i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l and r e s o u r c e endowment a s p e c t s of a s e t t i n g . Wi th emphasis on the a d o p t i o n of most ly western t e c h n o l o g y in a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n , t h i s f a c t o r has been i g n o r e d in Zambia. D e m o c r a t i z a t i o n E d u c a t i o n a l programs and a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d e d by d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s have many p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s . In a d e m o c r a t i z e d system, a l l i n d i v i d u a l s ought to have e q u a l access to and p a r t i c i p a t e i n e d u c a t i o n . Q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the extent to which a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n procedures were e q u a l l y a c c e s s i b l e and a v a i l a b l e to v a r i o u s s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y were s t u d i e d . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s 1 23 in these procedures was a l s o examined. S t a f f i n g A l l i n d i v i d u a l s have the p o t e n t i a l to i n f l u e n c e change e i t h e r through spontaneous a c t i v i t i e s or d e l i b e r a t e l y d e s i g n e d e f f o r t . E d u c a t i o n has been c o n s i d e r e d to be a way to induce change a n d , through i t , i n d i v i d u a l s a c q u i r e knowledge, a t t i t u d e s , and s k i l l s to improve t h e i r p r a c t i c e . In d e m o c r a t i z e d s e t t i n g s , a l l i n d i v i d u a l s in s o c i e t y would have equa l acces s to and p a r t i c i p a t i o n in e d u c a t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l s would p a r t i c i p a t e i n a broad a r r a y of f o r m a l , n o n - f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . V o l u n t e e r s and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s would a l l be ' t e a c h e r s ' and ' l e a r n e r s . ' MAWD s t a f f are r e q u i r e d to have ^formal q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and an a g r i c u l t u r e background . MAWD t r a i n s and r e t r a i n s most s t a f f in s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t a r e a s . A person without formal c r e d e n t i a l s cannot u s u a l l y become a MAWD employee. P e r s o n n e l o u t s i d e MAWD had l i t t l e a c c e s s to s e r v i c e s such as t r a v e l a l l o w a n c e s . However, there i s no e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l w i t h i n MAWD s t r u c t u r e . There has been a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of q u a l i f i e d s t a f f at n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s and i n d i v i d u a l s 124 with l i m i t e d t r a i n i n g have been i n v o l v e d in implement ing p r o c e d u r e s . In d e m o c r a t i z e d s e t t i n g s , a l l i n d i v i d u a l s wi th e x p e r i e n c e , formal or n o n - f o r m a l shou ld be g i v e n equa l o p p o r t u n i t i e s to work as MAWD p e r s o n n e l . Requirements such as the need for formal e d u c a t i o n to be h i r e d as MAWD s t a f f sh ou ld be r e l a x e d to ensure invo lvement . T r a i n i n g In d e m o c r a t i z e d s e t t i n g s , a l l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and c u l t u r a l groups would have e q u a l acces s to and p a r t i c i p a t e in e d u c a t i o n . C o n c e r n i n g t r a i n i n g , a l l l e a r n e r s would have acces s to and p a r t i c i p a t e in d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r n e e d s , 1 i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s , and e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . T r a i n i n g of p e r s o n n e l at v a r i o u s Farm I n s t i t u t e s , Farmer T r a i n i n g C e n t r e s , C o l l e g e s and the U n i v e r s i t y , depends on each i n s t i t u t i o n ' s code of c o n d u c t . Under MAWD, most i n s t i t u t i o n s have o p e r a t e d semi-autonomously w i th a d e f i n e d c l i e n t e l e . U n l e s s these c r i t e r i a have been met, acces s to these t r a i n i n g and r e t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s has been l i m i t e d to a s p e c i f i c group of l e a r n e r s - most ly youth wi th p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l background . A d u l t s , e s p e c i a l l y those w i t h p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n , have had access to these f a c i l i t i e s . Not 1 25 a l l p e r s o n n e l have s p e c i a l i z e d in t h e i r areas of i n t e r e s t because , those w i t h c e r t i f i c a t e s have to be exemplary i n t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work to be e l i g i b l e for f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g . Students have r a r e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d in d e f i n i n g program c o n t e n t . A c u r r i c u l u m i s deve loped by the t r a i n e r s in c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n wi th MAWD. Some c o l l e g e s have t r a i n e d and r e t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l i n s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t matter a r e a s . Examples are Zambia Centre f o r H o r t i c u l t u r a l T r a i n i n g , Palabana T r a i n i n g School f or D a i r y Farmers and the Popota Tobacco T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e for tobacco e x t e n s i o n s t a f f . Acces s to and p a r t i c i p a t i o n in these a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n t r a i n i n g programs has been l i m i t e d to a c l i e n t e l e w i t h a p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l background. Most peop le p a r t i c i p a t e i n e d u c a t i o n l a r g e l y as l e a r n e r s w h i l e s u b j e c t matter s p e c i a l i s t s as " e x p e r t s . " P a r t i c i p a n t s s e l e c t c o u r s e s from prede termined programs. These courses are not a v a i l a b l e to members of a l l s t a t u s , income and e d u c a t i o n a l groups . Nor have l e a r n e r s been a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d in d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the na ture of the c o n t e n t , methodology and t imes to schedule t r a i n i n g programs. 1 26 P h y s i c a l Resources I n d i v i d u a l s ought to have acces s to an a r r a y of p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s . They shou ld m o b i l i z e t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s . Democrat i zed r e s o u r c e s would be a c c e s s i b l e and a v a i l a b l e to v a r i o u s soc io - economic and c u l t u r a l g r o u p s . A l a c k of r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s , hous ing and rewards has a f f e c t e d the o p e r a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n Zambia. A l a c k of machinery and t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s has l e d to an unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s o u r c e s among i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A l a c k of funds has a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on programs des igned and implemented at t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s and on the na ture of t e a c h i n g a i d s p u r c h a s e d . A l a c k of adequate t r a n s p o r t between departments has f r u s t r a t e d at tempts to serve areas most i n need. Resources ought to be e q u a l l y a c c e s s i b l e to d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s in s o c i e t y . O r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s shou ld c o n t r i b u t e to and m o b i l i z e r e s o u r c e s . The government has been the main source of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , f e r t i l i z e r s , c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s and seeds . L i m i t e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has been a major c o n s t r a i n t 1 27 Funding In Zambia, d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a i d donors have f r e q u e n t l y p r o v i d e d f u n d i n g for farmers w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y ten h e c t a r e s and i g n o r e d s m a l l s c a l e f a r m e r s . The p o l i c y has favoured deve loped farmers (mostly l a r g e - s c a l e ) and i g n o r e d the s m a l l - s c a l e farmers who comprise most of the farming community. As Honeybone and M a r t e r (1975) o b s e r v e d , t h i s c h a n n e l l i n g of s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s to the s m a l l group of b e t t e r - o f f farmers has i n h i b i t e d the spread of ' t r i c k l e - d o w n ' e f f e c t of development s p e n d i n g . Each o r g a n i z a t i o n funds i t s own programs wi thout c o o r d i n a t i n g i t ' s a c t i v i t i e s w i th o t h e r s . As s t a t e d e a r l i e r on , f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s have p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t in the f u n c t i o n i n g of the development programs. E x t e n s i o n programs depend on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of government f u n d i n g which i s l i m i t e d . T h i s l e a d s to too s m a l l numbers of farmers r e a c h e d . Most f u n d i n g from the government goes to s t a f f and farmer t r a i n i n g , t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and s t a t i o n e r y . Many p a r t i c i p a t i n g farmers are dependent on e x t e r n a l funds and few have been i n v o l v e d in e d u c a t i o n a l programs at t h e i r own expense . Most farmers in Zambia are " i l l i t e r a t e " a d u l t s . Of t h e s e , women form a p p r o x i m a t e l y one t h i r d of the 1 28 farming h o u s e h o l d s . Most farms are s m a l l and people l i v i n g there are not r e g i s t e r e d as f a r m e r s ; t h i s puts r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e i r access to c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s . They are poor and have l i t t l e or n o t h i n g to o f f e r c r e d i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s as c o l l a t e r a l . At the s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l , the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l o f f i c e r (DAO) p r e p a r e s e s t i m a t e s r e l a t e d to t h e i r needs for r e c u r r e n t expenses . These have n o r m a l l y been for the coming f i s c a l (Ca lendar ) y e a r . Each d i s t r i c t in the p r o v i n c e p r e p a r e s an e s t i m a t e submi t t ed to the p r o v i n c i a l . A g r i c u l t u r a l o f f i c e r (PAO). These e s t i m a t e s are submi t t ed to the n a t i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s . The h e a d q u a r t e r s p r e p a r e s a budget for the M i n i s t r y of F i n a n c e . When the budget i s .approved, a l l o c a t i o n s among p r o v i n c e s and the h e a d q u a r t e r s are made and s i m i l a r l y , the p r o v i n c i a l h e a d q u a r t e r s a l l o c a t e s funds between the p r o v i n c i a l h e a d q u a r t e r s and the d i s t r i c t s . Each p r o v i n c e i s a l l o c a t e d fund ing a c c o r d i n g to the e s t i m a t e s made. Research In d e m o c r a t i z e d s e t t i n g s , a l l i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i th an i n t e r e s t i n r e s e a r c h ought to take p a r t i n i t ' s d e s i g n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Research i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e to a l l s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y . 1 29 W i t h i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n , there i s a l a c k of involvement among the f a r m e r s , commodity d e m o n s t r a t o r s , t r a i n e r s and camp s t a f f in the r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s from d e l i n e a t i o n of r e s e a r c h needs to the conduct of r e s e a r c h . A c c o r d i n g to F r e i r e (1970) and UNESCO (1976), a l l i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s ought to p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n r e s e a r c h . S t a f f w i th p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s in v a r i o u s s u b j e c t matter areas have been i n v o l v e d in r e s e a r c h . The A d a p t i v e Research P l a n n i n g (ARP) team conducts r e s e a r c h " e x p l o r a t o r y s u r v e y s , " " in depth s u r v e y s , " " s t a t i o n - b a s e d r e s e a r c h " and "on-farm t e s t i n g . " Mount Makulu has been the c e n t r a l r e s e a r c h s t a t i o n . Other r e s e a r c h c e n t r e s e x i s t w i t h i n p r o v i n c e s . These r e s e a r c h c e n t r e s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g e n e r a t i o n , c o l l e c t i o n and d i s s e m i n a t i o n of r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s to e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l and farmers through l i t e r a t u r e , r a d i o , t e l e v i s i o n and o ther media . Research has been dominated by s u b j e c t matter s p e c i a l i s t s . There i s l i t t l e " p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h " i n v o l v i n g i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h an i n t e r e s t in the development of a g r i c u l t u r e such as government m i n i s t r i e s , departments , and v o l u n t a r y and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l for 1 3 0 S c i e n t i f i c R e s e a r c h , l i k e o ther o r g a n i z a t i o n s , o p e r a t e s as an autonomous o r g a n i z a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , R u r a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n C e n t r e s under the M i n i s t r y of Defence have o p e r a t e d t h e i r own e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s . I n f o r m a t i o n from r e s e a r c h c e n t r e s i s d i s s e m i n a t e d to the p u b l i c through p r i n t e d l i t e r a t u r e , r a d i o , t e l e v i s i o n , and t r a i n i n g o f f i c e r s . There has been a one-way flow of i n f o r m a t i o n from r e s e a r c h c e n t r e s to t a r g e t g r o u p s . Most d e l i v e r y modes have not been a c c e s s i b l e to a l l members of the farming community. A l t h o u g h r a d i o i s supposed to be "cheap", i t has not p r o p e r l y p e n e t r a t e d the farming community and has proved to be expens ive f o r r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s w i th a meagre income. B r o a d c a s t i n g t imes are o f t en i n c o n v e n i e n t for busy f a r m e r s . Other modes that c o u l d r e i n f o r c e r a d i o programs such as t e l ephones are not a v a i l a b l e . P r i n t e d m a t e r i a l has been l i m i t e d to l i t e r a t e members of the community. Research i n f o r m a t i o n shou ld be a v a i l a b l e to more p e o p l e . Technology Both t r a d i t i o n a l and f o r e i g n t e c h n o l o g y have c o - e x i s t e d for a long t i m e . However, l i m i t e d a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d to t r a d i t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s . 131 I n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s , co s t and a l a c k of t e c h n o l o g i c a l know-how have been among the major f a c t o r s i n h i b i t i n g the u t i l i z a t i o n of t echnology by a l l s e c t o r s of the farming community. T r a c t o r s are expens ive and there are few spare p a r t s . In d e m o c r a t i z e d s e t t i n g s , both s o f t and hardware would be a v a i l a b l e to a l l i n d i v i d u a l s who p a r t i c i p a t e . People a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e in the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s c o n c e r n i n g what so f t and hardware to use . The f i n d i n g s are p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 13 below. The symbol (+) r e p r e s e n t s the presence of i n t e g r a t i o n and d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n , (-) r e p r e s e n t s a l i m i t e d e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n and (X) r e p r e s e n t s no e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n . The symbol (*) i n d i c a t e s no da ta on the p r o c e d u r e . T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e d an a n a l y s i s of the extent to which a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e s of s t a f f i n g , t r a i n i n g , p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , f i n a n c i n g , r e s e a r c h and t echno logy were i n t e g r a t e d and d e m o c r a t i z e d . I t was found t h a t there i s a l i m i t e d i n t e g r a t i o n and d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n of these p r o c e d u r e s . To f i n d out f a c t o r s i n h i b i t i n g i n t e g r a t i o n and d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n r e q u i r e s more r e s e a r c h . In the next c h a p t e r , a summary and c o n c l u s i o n s of the s tudy are p r o v i d e d . 1 32 T a b l e 13. Summary of the F i n d i n g s PROCEDURES VERTICAL INTEGRATION HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION .JDEHQCR1IIZAII0N STAFF1NC + . youth and a d u l t * employed at a d u l t * _ . u t i l i z a t i o n of formal and non-formal education ataff -f- r o l e s assumed by both men and vomen X .co-ordination of formal and non-formal education a t a f f at a) s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l 1. Regional 2. D i s t r i c t 3. Local 4. National b) c l i e n t e l e l e v e l - Government m i n i s -t r i e s - non-government organizations and departments 1. U n i v e r s i t i e s 2. A g r i c u l t u r a l Colleges. 3. A g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s . 4. F i n a n c i a l Agents 5. Farmers X X X X + + . Equal access to leadership formal and non-formal 1. public organizations 2. private organizations 3. voluntary organizations 4. Farmers . Participates i n Dra f t i n g amending programs and p o l i c i e s . consulted i n decision making . c l i e n t e l e 1 U n i v e r s i t i e s 2. A g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s 3. F i n a n c i a l Agents 4. A g r i c u l t u r a l Colleges 5. Farming Community included In o f f e r i n g e x p e r t i s e i n form of a t t i t u d e s , s k i l l s , knowledge. -c) Functional l e v e l 1. Planning 2. Research 3. T r a i n i n g 4. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 5. Finance 6. Personnel • \ \ TRAINING " I'l l ^ iU.vi-RESOURCES i- . T r a i n i n g / r e t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to both youth and a d u l t s . Comprehensive Content b e n e f i t t i n g both men and women. . A v a i l a b i l i t y o l r e s o u r c e s i n a g r i c u l t u r a l ex-tension to youth adults X X X X X X X X . l i a s o n of t r a i n i n g programmes among formal and non-formal t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s at s t r u c -t u r a l , c l i e n t e l e and f u n c t i o n a l l e v e l s . a) s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l 1. N a t i o n a l 2. Regional 3. D i s t r i c t 4. Lo c a l b) c l i e n t e l e l e v e l -Government M i n i s -t r i e s . -gov't, and non-government organ l -z n l l u u s and depart-ments. p o o l i n g ol" resource:; l r o n i formal and n o n - f o r m a l p r i v a t e v o l u n t a r y farmers sectors p o o l i n g of resources ac r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t l o c a l l e v e l s X X X + + X X + X X X X . Equal access to t r a i n i n g among extension personnel • Equal access to t r a i n i n g among non-formal and formal a g r i c u l t u r a l c l i e n t e l e • Equal opportunity to t r a i n i n g among extension personnel . Equal opportunity to t r a i n i n g among non-formal and formal a g r i c u l t u r a l personnel . Equal p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n s r e l a t i n g to t r a i n i n g and r e -t r a i n i n g among extension personnel . farmers . government o r g a n i z a t i o n s , private o r g a n i z a t i o n s . voluntary o r g a n i z a t i o n s L q u a i accc-su Co p h y s i c a l resources among t a r g e t population Equal opportunity to resources among target population p a r t i c i p a t e s i n generation of resources - farmers - p r i v a t e - government - non-government organizations - voluntary organizations Equal p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n decisions concerning u t i l i z a t i o n of resources. - farmers - p r i v a t e - government - non-government - voluntary FIN.VNCINC + + • Funding programs for youth and adults in. r e l a t i o n to a g r i -c u l t u r e youth Adults X X J o i n t e f f o r t In mobil-i z a t i o n and provision of funding among and between formal and non-formal organizations - n a t i o n a l , r e g i o n a l , d i s t r i c t and l o c a l l e v e l s . - p r i v a t e , voluntary, p u b l i c gov't, and non-gov't. - planning, finance, research, t r a i n i n g . C o l l e c t i v e decision making concerning funding of a g r i -c u l t u r a l programs and a c t i v i t i e s . - n a t i o n a l , r e g i o n a l , d i s t r i c t and l o c a l l e v e l s - p r i v a t e , voluntary, pub-l i c government and non-government - planning, finance, r e -search, t r a i n i n g X + X + • Equal access to f i n a n c i a l resources among target groups small s c a l e farmers • commercial farmers p a r t i c i p a t e i n budgeting of a v a i l a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l r e l a t e d funds fanners p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s government o r g a n i z a t i o n s . VOluntai:y-Or.ganJ..ftlnc. sponsors a g r i c u l t u r a l extension r e l a t e d programs - farmers - p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s - government o r g a n i z a t i o n s - voluntary o r g a n i z a t i o n s RESEARCH x . Comparative research between formal and non-formal education . Research r e l a t e d to a l l age l e v e l s youth Adults X X X X X X . Coordination of research at various l e v e l s . a) - n a t i o n a l - regional - l o c a l b) - pr i v a t e - voluntary - public departments c) - planning - research - finance - t r a i n i n g . M u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y research X X . Equal emphasis between formal educational research . p a r t i c i p a t o r y research , Equal access to research i n f o r -mation TECHNOLOGY * . J o i n t technological e f f o r t between a g r i -c u l t u r a l extension organizations and other organizations X • Equal access to te c h n o l o g i c a l f» Bdlngs p a r t i c i p a t e s In decisions con-cerning u t i l i z a t i o n of tech-nology. KEY + E x e m p l i f i c a t i o n of i n t e g r a t i o n and democratization. Limited i n t e g r a t i o n and democratization, x Lack of i n t e g r a t i o n and democratization. 1 3 3 CHAPTER SEVEN SUMMARY The study examined the extent to which s e l e c t e d Zambian a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n procedures are i n t e g r a t e d and d e m o c r a t i z e d . The study focused on s t a f f i n g , t r a i n i n g , p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , f i n a n c i n g , r e s e a r c h and t e c h n o l o g y . V e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n , h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n and d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n , l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n c o n c e p t s , c o n s t i t u t e d a s t a n d a r d a g a i n s t which these procedures were examined. V e r t i c a l I n t e g r a t i o n The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n r e l a t i n g to v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n was concerned wi th the extent to which s e l e c t e d Zambian a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e s were v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d . Each of the p r o c e d u r e s : s t a f f i n g , t r a i n i n g , p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , f i n a n c i n g , r e s e a r c h and t echno logy were examined. A f t e r s t u d y i n g s t a f f i n g in t h i s c o n t e x t , i t was found t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e s s i b l e to youth and a d u l t s . However, t h i s e d u c a t i o n a l system focuses . more a t t e n t i o n on i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l background and 1 34 those wi th enough r e s o u r c e s to p a r t i c i p a t e than on those w i t h o u t . Few i n d i v i d u a l s have had acces s to r e s o u r c e s . T r a i n i n g programs have been a c c e s s i b l e to a few p e o p l e . Research has been dominated by MAWD and s u b j e c t matter s p e c i a l i s t s . P e r s o n n e l from other o r g a n i z a t i o n s have had a l i m i t e d involvement in a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h . I t i s apparent t h a t e x t e n s i o n i s not w e l l i n t e g r a t e d v e r t i c a l l y . In a d d i t i o n , a l a c k of m o t i v a t i o n and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a f f e c t the involvement of p a r t i c i p a n t s , a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n , e s p e c i a l l y s m a l l s c a l e f a r m e r s . I t would be of i n t e r e s t to f i n d out the major f a c t o r s i n h i b i t i n g v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n and how they can be m i n i m i z e d . H o r i z o n t a l I n t e g r a t i o n H o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n from the f a c t there are many p o t e n t i a l p r o v i d e r s of e d u c a t i o n i n s o c i e t y and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s ought to be c o - o r d i n a t e d . R e s u l t s r e l a t i n g to h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n have shown that few agenc ie s do e x t e n s i o n work. There has been l i t t l e c o - o r d i n a t i o n among p r o v i d e r s . S t a f f i s u t i l i z e d a c c o r d i n g to departments , f u n c t i o n s and s u b j e c t s . There has been l i t t l e i n t e g r a t i o n of s t a f f 1 35 in d i f f e r e n t departments w i t h i n MAWD or between o ther o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Those i n v o l v e d in a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r o v i d e d r e s o u r c e s but not p a r t i c i p a t e d in "design" and "implementat ion" p r o c e d u r e s . MAWD has conducted most of the programs and a c t i v i t i e s . D e m o c r a t i z a t i o n There has been a min imal d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e s . Those employed by MAWD l a r g e l y have formal e d u c a t i o n q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Farmers have p a r t i c i p a t e d most ly as l e a r n e r s and have not r e a l l y o c c u p i e d l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s . Resources have been l i m i t e d to few p e o p l e . Research has been dominated by " e x p e r t s . " Technology has not been a c c e s s i b l e to s m a l l farmers or has l o c a l t echno logy been regarded as important as f o r e i g n t e c h n o l o g y . I m p l i c a t i o n s • There has been l i m i t e d s t a f f w i t h i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n in Zambia to c a r r y out a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work. T h i s has been caused by a l a c k of funds . T h i s has had consequences such as a few t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s and 1 36 t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l and l i m i t e d i n c e n t i v e s for e x t e n s i o n s t a f f l e a v i n g s t a f f unmot ivated and r e a c h i n g a few h o u s e h o l d s . • There has been a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s t a f f at the n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s . As a r e s u l t those l e f t to implement procedures have lower l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n . • Most s t a f f t r a i n i n g in MAWD i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of MAWD. There has been a l i m i t e d i n t e g r a t i o n of s t a f f f u n c t i o n s between a g r i c u l t u r a l r e l a t e d departments w i t h i n MAWD, between m i n i s t r i e s , non-government o r g a n i z a t i o n s and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . • A c c o r d i n g to the T h i r d N a t i o n a l Development P l a n o b j e c t i v e s , use of the p u b l i c e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e was to be f r e e to a l l f a r m e r s . However, t h i s has not been the c a s e . A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s have focused on the advantaged members of the community - the commerc ia l f a r m e r s . • A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n programs have been a c c e s s i b l e to both men and women, youth and a d u l t s but b i a s e d towards m o t i v a t e d , more p r o g r e s s i v e and e c o n o m i c a l l y b e t t e r - o f f members of the farming community. C o n s e q u e n t l y , a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n , whose major o b j e c t i v e has been to reach most d i s a d v a n t a g e d members of the community, most ly s m a l l - s c a l e f a r m e r s , has had a l i m i t e d impac t . Q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y , t h i s b i a s has been 1 3 7 r e l a t e d to the nature of i n n o v a t i o n s o f f e r e d by e x t e n s i o n , the c o s t , the a s s o c i a t e d r i s k on the s i d e of the l e a r n e r s , the emphasis on cash as opposed to t r a d i t i o n a l food c r o p s , and the i n s i s t e n c e on formal e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s as the c r i t e r i o n f o r en trance to t r a i n i n g programs. • There has been a l a c k of f l e x i b i l i t y i n the use of r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a l a c k of c o - o r d i n a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l programs and a c t i v i t i e s , f u n d i n g , r e s o u r c e s and s t a f f . • The main o b j e c t i v e of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n Zambia has been to deve lop a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n agents who would e f f e c t i v e l y impart a g r i c u l t u r a l knowledge, a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s . There i s a l i m i t e d q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l - a f a c t o r l i m i t i n g the g e n e r a l improvement of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . • There has been a l i m i t e d two-way communicat ion between r e s e a r c h and e x t e n s i o n s t a f f , and between e x t e n s i o n s t a f f and the farming community. Research has been c a r r i e d out by MAWD p e r s o n n e l and o ther o r g a n i z a t i o n s have c a r r i e d out r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d to t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e s . A l t h o u g h the L i a s o n O f f i c e r at M t . Makulu c o - o r d i n a t e s r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n , i t i s not p o s s i b l e for one i n d i v i d u a l to c o - o r d i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n 138 from a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h c e n t e r s in the c o u n t r y l e t a lone other non-government or n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s . • There has been a l i m i t e d involvement of t r a i n e r s , f a r m e r s , and o ther n o n - e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s in d e l i n e a t i n g , d e s i g n i n g and c o n d u c t i n g of r e s e a r c h . S u b j e c t M a t t e r S p e c i a l i s t s have des igned and conducted a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h . • Comprehensive r e s e a r c h , t r a i n i n g f i n a n c i n g , s t a f f i n g programs i n v o l v i n g formal and n o n - f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s l a c k i n g . N e i t h e r fund ing nor p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s are i n t e g r a t e d . Each o r g a n i z a t i o n operates e i t h e r as c o m p l e t e l y autonomous or semi-autonomous as in the case of MAWD Departments . • The ex tent to which l o c a l and western t echno logy have been i n t e g r a t e d to s u i t the l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s i s not c l e a r . However, i t has been q u i t e e v i d e n t that there has been emphasis on m e c h a n i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e u s i n g western t e c h n o l o g y . I t has a l s o been c l e a r that l i t t l e has been done to improve l o c a l i n n o v a t i o n s in r e l a t i o n to a g r i c u l t u r a l development . 1 39 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study T h i s s tudy examined s e l e c t e d Zambian a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p o l i c i e s and procedures to f i n d out the extent to which they exempl i fy l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . The p r o c e d u r e s c o u l d not be c o m p l e t e l y i s o l a t e d from other f a c t o r s not c o v e r e d in the s tudy such as the r o l e of p o l i t i c a l power i n d e f i n i n g , d e s i g n i n g and implementing p o l i c i e s . The examinat ion and a n a l y s i s of the s e l e c t e d p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s l a c k s g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y to a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e t t i n g s except those s i m i l a r to the Zambian s i t u a t i o n . Even t h e n , c a u t i o n i s needed s i n c e a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n systems v a r y from contex t to c o n t e x t and too o f t e n , are s p e c i f i c to s o c i o - e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s . S i n c e documents were used as b a s i s of the s t u d y , c e r t a i n f a c t o r s that would have been u s e f u l i n the s tudy such as c l i e n t e l e p e r c e p t i o n of the p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s i s m i s s i n g i n the s t u d y . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data from documents was most d i f f i c u l t e s p e c i a l l y in cases of secondary m a t e r i a l s i n c e i n d i v i d u a l author i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d to a g r e a t e r ex tent by t h e i r p h i l o s o p h y . 1 40 CHAPTER EIGHT POLICY IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION The f i n d i n g s of the study have i m p l i c a t i o n s for the p r o v i s i o n , d e s i g n and implementat ion of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n in Zambia. Recommendations r e l a t e d to s t a f f i n g , t r a i n i n g , p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , f i n a n c i n g , r e s e a r c h and t echno logy are p r e s e n t e d and are congruent w i t h the n o t i o n s of v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n , h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n and d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n . A v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d system i s a v a i l a b l e to a l l age l e v e l s ; c h i l d r e n , youth and a d u l t s w h i l e h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g s would have a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n . R e l a t e d programs and a c t i v i t i e s would be i n t e g r a t e d . P r i n c i p l e s r e l a t i n g to d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n focus on a c c e s s , a v a i l a b i l i t y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the involvement of i n d i v i d u a l s i n d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g and the management of t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . I t i s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n procedures in Zambia have m a n i f e s t e d o n l y a l i m i t e d form of i n t e g r a t i o n and d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n . In r e l a t i o n to v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n , both men and women, youth and a d u l t s have access to e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n a l t h o u g h the focus has been on i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h a formal e d u c a t i o n . The d i s c r e p a n c y between the l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i d e a l s 141 and the p r o c e d u r e s i s q u i t e wide , g i v i n g MAWD and o ther p r o v i d e r s a c h a l l e n g e to narrow i t . L i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i d e a l s were not c o n s i d e r e d as an end but as means to an end . The f o l l o w i n g recommendations are for c o n s i d e r a t i o n by those i n v o l v e d i n Zambian a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . 1. The b a s i c assumption u n d e r l y i n g l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i s t h a t any i n d i v i d u a l s are capab le of be ing l e a r n e r s and e d u c a t o r s . T h i s means tha t s u b j e c t matter s p e c i a l i s t s , p e r s o n n e l not p r i n c i p a l l y concerned w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n such as e n g i n e e r s , s o c i a l . w o r k e r s , d o c t o r s , t e c h n i c i a n s , bank p e r s o n n e l , and t r a d e union p e r s o n n e l ought to be c o n s i d e r e d as l e a r n e r s and t e a c h e r s . Subjec t matter s p e c i a l i s t s have been p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g a monopoly on p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . Farmers have not been c o n s i d e r e d c a p a b l e of making s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the development of f a r m i n g . Too o f t e n , farmers have been p e r c e i v e d as r e c i p i e n t s but not c r e a t o r s of knowledge. Through such a c t i v i t i e s as p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h and peer t u t o r i n g , farmers would be a u s e f u l r e s o u r c e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . V a r i o u s p e r s o n n e l w i t h i n the formal and n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s 1 42 should p r o v i d e the e d u c a t i o n a l s k i l l s r e q u i r e d by the farming community. Through the c o - o p e r a t i o n of formal and n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n t s , p r a c t i t i o n e r s can make an important c o n t r i b u t i o n to the development of the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n ' s w e l f a r e . 2. To ensure m o t i v a t i o n among farmers and the s t a f f , there s h o u l d be more involvement of the c l i e n t e l e in the d e s i g n and management of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n programs. T h i s i s fundamental to d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n . P a r t i c i p a t i o n c o u l d be i n the form of p r o v i d i n g e x p e r t i s e , in r e s e a r c h , i n i d e n t i f y i n g t r a i n i n g needs , and many o ther ways. 3. There i s need for more p e r s o n n e l to be t r a i n e d and to use s t a f f from p r o v i d e r s in a f l e x i b l e way when c a r r y i n g out e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s . There are many p o t e n t i a l p r o v i d e r s of e x t e n s i o n . e d u c a t i o n i n Zambia such as p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , t r a d e u n i o n s , c o o p e r a t i v e s , l i b r a r i e s , and v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s such as the YWCA. S t a f f from these o r g a n i z a t i o n s ought to have e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s . 4. C e r t a i n c l i e n t e l e such as the farmers have had no access to e x t e n s i o n f a c i l i t i e s due to such b a r r i e r s 1 4 3 as p r i o r e d u c a t i o n as b a s i c e n t r y c r i t e r i a . These ought to be min imized to ensure acces s to these f a c i l i t i e s by the s m a l l - s c a l e farmers and o ther d i s a d v a n t a g e d g r o u p s . There i s a need to combine t r a i n i n g w i t h p r a c t i c e such as c r a f t w o r k . Most t r a i n i n g programs seem to focus on w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n , i g n o r i n g the important p a r t , p r a c t i c e . E x t e n s i o n a g e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y commodity demons tra tors tha t keep i n touch wi th farmers seem to be i n a d e q u a t e l y t r a i n e d to f u l f i l l the e f f e c t i v e e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n . S i n c e the success of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n depends to a l a r g e ex tent on the q u a l i t y and s k i l l s of i t s s t a f f and the extent to which t h i s i s e f f e c t i v e l y c a r r i e d over to farmers and a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n agent t r a i n i n g s h o u l d be improved. W e l l t r a i n e d s t a f f would have t e c h n i c a l knowledge, broad u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the r o l e of a g r i c u l t u r e i n the g e n e r a l economic development , and would comprehend the c o n d i t i o n s and problems f a c i n g farming communit ies l i k e content to be c o v e r e d in programs and the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n s t r a i n t s on the t a r g e t 1 4 4 p o p u l a t i o n . With such t r a i n i n g , agents would t r a n s m i t adequate knowledge to l e a r n e r s and l e a r n from them i n a r e c i p r o c a l way. 7. The camp s t a f f , b lock s t a f f , and s u b j e c t matter s p e c i a l i s t s , as w e l l as o ther graduates from c o l l e g e s and the U n i v e r s i t y r e q u i r e i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g due to changes in needs of f a r m e r s , methodolog ies and t e c h n o l o g y . The agents thus r e q u i r e an update in these a r e a s . T h i s c o u l d be done by combining g e n e r a l e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n w i t h v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d , f o r example, a l t e r n a t e work and t r a i n i n g or peer t u t o r i n g c o u l d be u t i l i z e d d u r i n g o n - t h e - j o b - t r a i n i n g . 8. Most s p e c i a l i s t s have been employed at the n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l h e a d q u a r t e r s d o i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e work. At the l o c a l l e v e l , more q u a l i f i e d s t a f f w i t h e x p e r t i s e ought to be employed s i n c e these a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r implementing p r o c e d u r e s . Commodity demonstra tors have d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h f a r m e r s . Rather than the a p t i t u d e t e s t they r e c e i v e and a three month i n d u c t i o n c o u r s e , they r e q u i r e m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y t r a i n i n g r e l a t e d to a g r i c u l t u r a l 145 e x t e n s i o n . To overcome c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n , e x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t i e s ought to be c o - o r d i n a t e d through l i a i s o n groups . Through the d es ign and implementat ion of comprehensive programs, many i n d i v i d u a l s would b e n e f i t . C o - o r d i n a t i o n c o u l d be i n form of p o o l i n g r e s o u r c e s such as f u n d i n g , or c o - o p e r a t i n g in i n i t i a t i n g , d e s i g n i n g and implementing s i m i l a r programs, such as t r a i n i n g . T h i s would min imise the d u p l i c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s and c r e a t e a support network. E x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s may a l l be l o c a t e d i n d i f f e r e n t m i n i s t r i e s or non-government i n s t i t u t i o n s , they a l l aim at r u r a l communi t i e s . The i n t e g r a t i o n of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e e d u c a t i o n a l funds would b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r s c a t t e r e d f u n d i n g . Farmers c o u l d form farm groups tha t i n c r e a s e t h e i r b a r g a i n i n g power and make them more e l i g i b l e for c r e d i t . E d u c a t o r s need to improve mechanisms that would make l e a r n e r s p a r t i c i p a t e i n e x t e n s i o n such as c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s by p r o v i d i n g b e t t e r means of l i n k i n g l e a r n e r s to r e s o u r c e s . C r o s s (1983) emphasized the idea of c o n n e c t i n g a d u l t l e a r n e r s to r e s o u r c e s . I m p l i c i t i n t h i s i s acces s to 1 46 e d u c a t i o n a l p r o j e c t s and s e r v i c e s , e s p e c i a l l y among l e a r n e r s w i t h a l i m i t e d access to r e s o u r c e s or have a l i m i t e d e d u c a t i o n a l background and income. 1 1 . To s o l v e the problem of i n s u f f i c i e n t m a t e r i a l s such as r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s , t r a i n e r s and o t h e r e x t e n s i o n s t a f f c o u l d engage in p r o d u c t i o n of l o c a l t e a c h i n g a i d s . A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i s a p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t r e q u i r i n g a l o t of r e s o u r c e s . As observed from the s t u d y , v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s have t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s such as l i b r a r i e s . These fragmented r e s o u r c e s , i f brought toge ther would be u s e f u l to a number of p e o p l e . S ince farmers sometimes l a c k i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , i t i s the r o l e of e x t e n s i o n agents to l i n k these to f a r m e r s . Such methods as mobi le e x t e n s i o n l i b r a r y and t r a i n i n g would i n c r e a s e the number of p e r s o n n e l h a v i n g access to r e s o u r c e s . 12. The f o r m a t i o n of r e g i o n a l r e s e a r c h teams t h a t would c o l l a b o r a t e w i t h n a t i o n a l committees would f a c i l i t a t e the flow of i n f o r m a t i o n among u s e r s . Such groups would support the p l a n n i n g and implementa t ion of f o r m a l and n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . C o n s i d e r i n g tha t o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n 1 47 v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s have t h e i r own weaknesses , none of the two systems sh ou ld r e p l a c e the o t h e r . I n s t e a d , the two sh ou ld be i n t e r a c t i v e , complementing and supplement ing each o t h e r . 13. The d i s s e m i n a t i o n and exchange of r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n between and among f a r m e r s , r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n ought to be improved through the involvement of a l l i n t e r e s t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s in r e s e a r c h . O r g a n i z a t i o n s c o u l d i n v o l v e themselves in m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y and comparat ive r e s e a r c h . In f o r m u l a t i n g programs such as r e s e a r c h and t r a i n i n g , c l i e n t e l e involvement i s not o n l y an important but " a l s o i n d i s p e n s a b l e e l ement . P a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h would a l l o w o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n d i v i d u a l s and groups to a p p r e c i a t e the problems r e s e a r c h e d . Involvement would a l s o l eave room for the p r a c t i t i o n e r (most ly farmers) to c o n s i d e r the a d o p t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r f i n d i n g . As a l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , i t would a l s o l e a d to commitment by t a r g e t l e a r n e r s , p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s to a c t i v i t i e s such as fund ing and raw m a t e r i a l . 1 4 8 14. Comprehensive r e s e a r c h programs sh ou ld be set up. These , i t i s hoped, would l e a d to a t t e n t i o n of major d imens ions of r e s e a r c h problems and perhaps s t i m u l a t e more i n q u i r y . A c c o r d i n g to F r e i r e (1972) p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h would enhance d i a l o g u e between r e s e a r c h e r s and l e a r n e r s . Through p a r t i c i p a t i o n , o b s e r v a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n , l e a r n e r s would be informed of programs and r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , would formula te v i ews , i d e n t i f y problems and r e s e a r c h e r s would get comments about f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h needs . 15. The nature of r e s e a r c h s e r v i c e s , t h e i r r a t i o n a l e and r e l e v a n c e to the contex t i s an important a spec t of the concept of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . E x t e n s i o n agents s h o u l d r e s e a r c h more i n t o c o n t e x t r e l a t e d a s p e c t s . Research sh ou ld t h e r e f o r e be more s e n s i t i v e to l o c a l problems such as t r a d i t i o n a l c r o p p r o d u c t i o n and the g e n e r a l farming systems. 16. Access to r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n has been l i m i t e d to a few i n d i v i d u a l s . Among o ther f a c t o r s t h i s has been caused by a l i m i t e d nature of the d e l i v e r y modes. These d e l i v e r y modes c o u l d be improved or supplemented through f o r m a t i o n of l i a s o n r e s e a r c h 1 49 teams at n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l , r e g i o n a l and l o c a l l e v e l s . E x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l ought to make o p t i m a l s e l e c t i o n of t e c h n o l o g i e s r e l e v a n t to l o c a l p e o p l e s ' needs . Through p r o v i s i o n of s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n to the f a r m e r s , they would be a b l e to adopt the t echno logy tha t would s u i t t h e i r farming c o n d i t i o n s . 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