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Expressed criteria for school principals : a Parsonian analysis Bond, Arthur James Edward 1979

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EXPRESSED  C R I T E R I A FOR SCHOOL P R I N C I P A L S : A PARSONIAN  ANALYSIS  by  ARTHUR JAMES  EDWARD BOND  B.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , 1974  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER  FOR THE DEGREE OF  OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY Department  OF GRADUATE  of E d u c a t i o n a l  We a c c e p t to  this  STUDIES  Administration  t h e s i s as conforming  the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA JULY 1979  ©  Arthur  James E d w a r d B o n d , 1979  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis in partial  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the L i b r a r y I further for  shall  the U n i v e r s i t y  make i t  agree that  freely  of  extensive  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  this  written  thesis for  It  L  i s understood  f i n a n c i a l gain shall  Educational  July  27,  1979  that  not  Administration  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V 6 T 1W5  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  this  copying or  for that  study. thesis  by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  permission.  Department of  the requirements  B r i t i s h Columbia,  available for  permission for  by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . of  f u l f i l m e n t of  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ABSTRACT  This conceptual the  study  lists All  criteria  the analysis The  which  d i d not specify  Statements which category.  of four  i n d i c a t e whether  n o t be c l a s s i f i e d lacked  classification  of criteria  statements.  contributions concerned recognized  i t i s to be designated  pertained  The t h i r d  that  problematic  which the to Parsons'  Here,  power a n d i n f l u e n c e  subsystems) a r e i n t e r t w i n e d  (goal  to the  a criterion  may  i s t o o c c u r b u t i t may n o t as an i n t e r n a l o r  problem which p r o h i b i t e d  The f o u r t h  and P a r s o n s '  i n an  factor pertained  t o s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h made r e f e r e n c e  inference  factors.  were grouped  exclusively  i n more t h a n o n e s u b s y s t e m .  classifier  useful  for classifica-  according  specificity  The s e c o n d p r o b l e m a t i c  contribution.  to the  and c o n s i d e r e d  the contribution  the subsystem i n which a c o n t r i b u t i o n  external  and s t a f f  according  o f t h e framework as a b i a s  upon t h e r e c o g n i t i o n  degree o f s p e c i f i c i t y imply  statements and  of c r i t e r i a .  was t o make c o u l d  unclassified  classified  P a r s o n s w h i c h was d e s c r i b e d  applicability  criteria  framework.  of criteria  and v a r i a t i o n i n p a r e n t  statements were  of l i s t s  t i o n was d e p e n d e n t  principal  a suitable  f o r the p r i n c i p a l s h i p .  framework o f T a l c o t t  First,  the problem of applying  framework f o r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the nature  criteria  for  addressed  to  problematic  framework.  attainment  exclusive  factor  Parsons  and i n t e g r a t i o n  and t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between  these  i i i c o n t r i b u t i o n s may  be c o n f u s e d  o r where a s t a t e m e n t  lacked  i n c r i t e r i a statements.  specificity  In t h i s  classification  was  instance  dependent  u p o n i n f e r e n c e s made by t h e c l a s s i f i e r . Predominant lists  were  authorship  examined a c c o r d i n g and a u t h o r s h i p The  criteria  largest goal  percent.  scores  Pattern-maintenance  contributions.  that  area,  integrative  Low  outside  statements  standard  Very  referred  of  within  classifi-  As a r e s u l t , to i n t e r n a l  percentage  to represent these  of a l l  a  subsystems a r e the  exception  classifications,  sixty-five  percent  contributions.  f o r two a n d o n e - h a l f  and  and e x t e r n a l  few c o n t r i b u t i o n s , w i t h  the school.  the second  d e v i a t i o n and  tended  at  Adaptation  percentage  e x t e r n a l goal attainment  that a c t i v i t i e s  accounted  percent.  the lowest  a t twenty-one p e r c e n t  criteria classifications  classified  district  c r i t e r i a represented  subsystem c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  external integration  all  revealed  a t twenty-two  each.  among p a r t i c i p a n t s  w e r e recommended  school  in priority  the g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  f o r external adaptation,  priority  and v a r i a t i o n s  area.  of a l l l i s t s  at sixteen percent  concensus  of  to a l l l i s t s ,  c r i t e r i a represented  pattern-maintenance  low  and p a t t e r n s  group o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  attainment  cations  by  examination  represented  forty-two  subsystems  of  Un-  percent  of a l l  district  area,  classifications. The authorship tive  analysis of l i s t s  and a u t h o r s h i p  according  by a r e a  r e a f f i r m e d the importance of i n t e g r a -  c r i t e r i a and t h e low p r i o r i t y  attainment according  to school  of external adaptation,  and e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e . to authorship  revealed  that  staff  external  The a n a l y s i s o f lists  placed  lists  the highest  goal  iv priority lists  on i n t e r n a l  which  Parents teria  placed  placed  integration.  external  a second  (teaching,  values  integration  priority  adaptation,  external  subsystems  represent  responsibility school  internal parent which  participants they  pattern areas the  concerns  live  o r work.  but placed  parent  patterns,  by  to parent  priority.  placed  goal  attainment.  s c h o o l harmony,  positions  and a r e a  These  resource harmony  demonstrated  and e x t e r n a l regardless  III staff participants  a d a p t a t i o n as a f i r s t  internal  internal  i n instruction, parental by a u t h o r  and i m p l i c a t i o n s  and  that  integration for  of the area i n followed  priority.  this  Across  higher  teachers.  criteria  cri-  internal  integration,  o n i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e was  emphasis a t t r i b u t e d Other  high  Area  internal  emphasis  staff lists  and i n t e r n a l  for staff participants occupied  as a f i r s t  On s t a f f l i s t s ,  for internal  The a n a l y s i s  i n contrast  on i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e  p r e c e d e d by i n t e r n a l  integration,  integration  criteria  priority.  allocation - skill  discipline.  r e s u l t was  of education) while  p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e as a f i f t h p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e was  This  ;are dis.-cussed. J  than  CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF TABLES  viii  Chapter 1.  PURPOSE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY  1  The Purpose o f the Study  1  Justification  2  f o r the Study  Theoretical j u s t i f i c a t i o n Methodological j u s t i f i c a t i o n  2 5  Practical justification  5  Overview o f the T h e s i s 2.  6  THE PARSONIAN FRAMEWORK  7  The  General  Framework  8  The  Framework A p p l i e d to O r g a n i z a t i o n s  E x t e r n a l F u n c t i o n s and Relevant I n t e r n a l F u n c t i o n s and Kinds  10  Mechanisms  11  of Decisions  15  Allocative decisions  15  A u t h o r i z a t i o n and enforcement a c t i v i t y Routine-technical a c t i v i t i e s Co-ordinative decisions O r g a n i z a t i o n s D i f f e r e n t i a t e d - An Approach to  the Framework  . . . .  15 16 16  17  Four C l a s s e s o f O r g a n i z a t i o n s  18  The  19  School and P a t t e r n Maintenance  v  vi Chapter  Page Types o f P r i n c i p a l  Criteria  Suggested By  The Framework 3.  21  THE DATA, METHOD OF ANALYSIS AND LIMITATIONS  23  The Data  23  Method o f A n a l y s i s  25  The P r e p a r a t i o n o f the Data  25  Problems  26  i nClassification  " U n c l a s s i f i a b l e " statements  26  " I n t e r n a l " and " E x t e r n a l " r e f e r e n c e Reference to m u l t i p l e subsystems C l a s s i f i e r inference  27 28 29  The T a b u l a t i o n o f R e s u l t s  30  Limitations  32  4.  THE USE OF PARSONS' FRAMEWORK  5.  THE USE OF THE CLASSIFICATION:  33 THE NATURE OF AND  VARIATION IN THE CRITERIA LISTS  47  Predominant  48  Subsystems  Over A l l L i s t s  A n a l y s i s and F i n d i n g s  48  Discussion  49  V a r i a t i o n Among School D i s t r i c t Areas  52  Most F r e q u e n t l y Mentioned Subsystems  52  Subsystems  54  Not Mentioned  An Examination o f Other P r i o r i t i e s by Area  56  Discussion  59  V a r i a t i o n Between Authors Priority  o f Subsystems  Discussion  62 A c c o r d i n g to A u t h o r s h i p  62 65  vii Chapter  Page V a r i a t i o n Between Authors By Area O r d e r i n g o f P r i o r i t i e s by Author and Area  67  Discussion  75  U s i n g the Framework to A n a l y z e School L i s t s : Some Examples Individual  School L i s t s  I-l(a)-staff,  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  Individual 76  IV-9(b)-staff,  II-1-staff  Summary 6.  67  76 82 84  Summary  84  Conclusions  87  BIBLIOGRAPHY  90  APPENDIX  91  LIST  OF  TABLES  Table  Page  1.  Four  2.  External  F u n c t i o n s and R e l e v a n t Mechanisms  13  3.  Internal  F u n c t i o n s , D e c i s i o n s and A c t i v i t i e s  18  4.  Number, P e r c e n t a g e , Mean P e r c e n t a g e a n d S t a n d a r d Deviation of Classifications i n Each Subsystem from Fifty-Two L i s t s  50  Number o f L i s t s (By A r e a ) Most F r e q u e n t l y S e l e c t e d  i n which  53  Number o f L i s t s Not M e n t i o n e d  i n which  5.  6.  7.  8.  9.  10.  11.  Subsystems,  14.  (By A r e a )  and Governing  Each  Each  Standards  . . . .  10  S u b s y s t e m was  S u b s y s t e m was 55  Mean P e r c e n t a g e a n d S t a n d a r d Subsystem by A r e a . . .  Deviation  from 56  f o r Each 58  P r i o r i t y P l a c e m e n t o f S u b s y s t e m s (By A u t h o r s h i p ) from H i g h e s t t o Lowest P e r c e n t a g e  63  Mean P e r c e n t a g e a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n R e s u l t s f o r Each Subsystem A c c o r d i n g t o A u t h o r s h i p  64  The O r d e r o f P r i o r i t i e s f o r S t a f f , P a r e n t and Combined A u t h o r s h i p Groups A c c o r d i n g t o S c h o o l Area  Mean P e r c e n t a g e Each  13.  Outputs  P r i o r i t y P l a c e m e n t o f S u b s y s t e m s (By A r e a ) H i g h e s t t o L o w e s t Mean P e r c e n t a g e  District 12.  Their  68 and S t a n d a r d  Deviation  Scores f o r  Subsystem A c c o r d i n g to A u t h o r s h i p i n Area  I  69  Mean P e r c e n t a g e a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n S c o r e s f o r Each Subsystem A c c o r d i n g to A u t h o r s h i p i n Area I I  70  Mean P e r c e n t a g e a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n S c o r e s f o r Each Subsystem A c c o r d i n g to A u t h o r s h i p i n A r e a I I I  71  viii  ix Table 15.  p Mean P e r c e n t a g e Each  16.  and S t a n d a r d  Deviation  g  e  Scores f o r  Subsystem A c c o r d i n g to A u t h o r s h i p i n Area  Mean P e r c e n t a g e Each  and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n  a  IV  72  Scores f o r  Subsystem A c c o r d i n g to A u t h o r s h i p i n Area V  73  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I wish to thank Dr. J . G. T. K e l s e y  f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e as my  t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , f o r h i s h e l p , a d v i c e and f o r h i s comments on p r e l i m i n a r y and f i n a l d r a f t s o f the t h e s i s . the h e l p and s u g g e s t i o n s standing of Parsonian  o f Dr. R. J . H i l l s  theory  i n the i n i t i a l  I a l s o wish to acknowledge i n o b t a i n i n g an understages o f the study.  are a l s o extended t o Dr. S. M a r t i n and Dr. W. H a r t r i c k f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s as committee members.  x  Thanks  Chapter  PURPOSE AND  In February  1976,  western Canadian urban identifying The  criteria  application  school board's  of  variety  of  provide the  of  teacher  the  fifty-two  between  groups  to attend selection  t a s k was  The  and  of  convened  the  task  school as  teacher and  in a  of  principals.  a  of parent  parent  them g e n e r a t e d  f o r the v a r i o u s  to  initiated  desirability parent  STUDY  result and  of  groups r e p r e s e n t i n g  teacher  groups  some s i x h u n d r e d  and  took  principalships.  these  data  about  a problem  of  long-  a useful opportunity  to  i n v e s t i g a t e the  raised be  an  The  possibility  e v e n more i m p o r t a n t  classified?  Both  these  a  fifteen  e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n appeared  established.  the  teacher  of  statements  of  nature  the  question: questions  and  to  variation  in  investigation, how  might  provided  the  such focus  of  study.  Purpose of  the  In order to  this  THE  students  however,  The  to  i n the  sudden emergence o f to  and  participated.  criteria  concern  criteria  this  In a l l ,  schools  The standing  to a s s i s t  f o r m s and  statements  parent  r e c o g n i t i o n of  participation. thirty-eight  S I G N I F I C A N C E OF  school d i s t r i c t  groups  1  identify  criteria. hitherto  a One  Study to  suitable  address  the  questions  framework f o r the  framework,  comprehensive  f r e q u e n t l y used because o f  noted  examination  of  enough t o a p p e a r  i t s apparent 1  a b o v e i t was the  necessary  lists  usable,  complexity  of but  i s that  not of  2 Talcott  Parsons.  parsimoniously accurately to  the  adequate, in  whether  then  Justification  and f i n a l  o f the l i s t s  study  theoretically,  s t a g e would  of c r i t e r i a  a  necessary  meaningful inadequate,  but i f i t proved  be t o u s e t h e f r a m e w o r k  so as t o g a i n i n s i g h t s  and any v a r i a t i o n  among  the v a r i o u s  i n three d i f f e r e n t  m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y and p r a c t i c a l l y .  into the  lists.  of principals  of assisting  The p r o c e s s  conceptions  roles.  This  i s a linguistic  activity  of a school p r i n c i p a l  linguistic  of discourse.  activity  Hills'  of these i s  of identifying  school board  f o r the expression of " i d e a l "  teacher  Each  ways:  paragraphs.  justification.  f o r the purpose  opportunity  as t o p e r m i t  i t s inadequacy,  may b e j u s t i f i e d  Theoretical  selection  i t was  I f t h e framework proved  s e p a r a t e l y i n the f o l l o w i n g  criteria  such  Second,  f o r the Study  The  levels  o f i t s components.  of c r i t e r i a .  the t h i r d  and  framework so as t o be a b l e t o  t h e f r a m e w o r k was  of the c r i t e r i a  treated  i n t h e s t u d y was t o u n d e r s t a n d  s t a g e would be t o e x p l a i n  an a n a l y s i s  nature  each  of the l i s t s  third  stage  describe Parsons'  interpret  determine  analysis  The f i r s t  officials  which p r o v i d e s an  or "desirable"  p a r e n t and  i n the performance  may b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d  expresses  these  i n the  ofh i s  according to three  levels as:  (1)  t h e l e v e l o n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l d o e s what h e d o e s , whether that i s r e s e a r c h , w r i t i n g , t e a c h i n g or t a k i n g p a r t i n committee d e l i b e r a t i o n s ;  (2)  t h e l e v e l o n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l o p e r a t e s when h e c h a r a c t e r i z e s o r d e s c r i b e s t o a n o t h e r what he d o e s , i e . t h e o r d i n a r y language l e v e l , and;  3 (3)  t h e l e v e l on w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i z e s , d e s c r i b e s a n d e x p l a i n s w h a t he d o e s w i t h i n an a n a l y t i c a l f r a m e w o r k more a b s t r a c t a n d generalized than the o r d i n a r y language l e v e l . (Hills,  The be  d e s c r i p t i o n of viewed  The an  as  third  being  level  of  parent  which  accrue  to  his world,  would  discourse,  not  identified  First,  world  very  one  well  present  to  sense  event,  involves  for  what he  may it  within  has  be may  i t or  i s doing  thing an  that  and  of  of  his  own  them and  them.  Second,  abstract which  has  consider  or  to H i l l s ,  case.  i s within  a given  say,  or  the  of  benefits  see  are  of  aspects  i n ways t h a t  aspects  o n e ' s own  of  he  he  analysis  l e v e l s of  symbolic  events  Once t h e the  other  and  could in  relevant  the  action,  an for  i t  of or  that  same  b e e n done  p r o t o t y p i c a l case  the  s p e c i a l cases  i n d i v i d u a l sees  i f not  not  situations  a l t e r n a t i v e s to  t h e n what has Even  the  behavior,  Third,  once an  i s doing.  pattern  to  a n a l y t i c a l framework,  b e e n done e l s e w h e r e ,  a paradigm,  one  seeing  activities,  s p e c i a l case,  i s to  discourse.  utilization  alternatives that  generalized  a more g e n e r a l  That  may  i n ways q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  considered.  diverse  a  the  actions,  c a s e become a v a i l a b l e e i t h e r a s both.  l e v e l s of  a n a l y t i c a l frameworks  seen  a l t e r n a t i v e t o w h a t he  provide  According  command  and  asked  b e e n s e e n as  more g e n e r a l  models  questions  s p e c i a l cases etc.  seeing  otherwise  representations as  have  two  require  d i f f e r e n t ways, p a r t i c u l a r l y  ask  have  first  procedure  r e v e a l what p a r t i c i p a n t s were  criteria.  have o t h e r w i s e  and  the  however, would  including himself  likely  i n new  enables  of  of  identification  a n a l y t i c a l frameworks p e r m i t  f r o m a c c u s t o m e d ways o f  the  teacher  representative  t h o s e who  several kinds.  fit  and  a n a l y t i c a l framework w h i c h would  " d o i n g " when t h e y  of  the  1975:107)  k-ind  elsewhere  alternative, the  conduct  4 o f h i s own  construct  work  task  1975:108).  If  an  or  evaluate c r i t e r i a  evaluating language"  (Hills,  analytical  alternatives or  to w r i t i n g  subject.  providing  (3)  enable  basis of  criteria  parent  differences  must  employed  for contrast  of  and  lists,  an  i s Talcott  employing  problems  or requirements  performed  an  t o be  knows o r  an " o r d i n a r y  feels One  the  about  simply  a  forgets  Here,  an  s t i m u l a t e o n e ' s memory  the  (2)  behavior; (i.e.,  and  Why  in criteria  determining  analytical  process;  (4) p r o v i d e a  are c e r t a i n  accrue  by  i n c r e a s e the  communication  as  types  a result  of  identification?).  similarities  and  framework p r o v i d e s  employed  within  society.  Parsons'  theory of  Parsons'  level  of  suitable an  of  been chosen  societal  approach  i n the examination  at every  individual  framework w h i c h has  Talcott  framework i s as  organization within  or  a  comparison.  ability  the  own  by  finding  write criteria,  What e f f e c t s  evaluate c r i t e r i a  who  f a r beyond  processes;  teacher p a r t i c i p a t i o n  theory's  Consequently  (1)  questions  predominant?  purposes  desirability  by  to  those  i s "important."  enhancing  conceptual a n a l y t i c a l  classification  one  to thought  thereby  between s e v e r a l  The  The  and  task of  t h o s e who  believes  to c h a r a c t e r i z e h i s / h e r  statements  t h o s e who  basis  one  f o r the a s k i n g of r e l e v a n t  allowing For  be  statements  one  For  down a l l t h a t  systematic guidance of  the  by  T h i s t a s k i s a monumental one.  f r a m e w o r k may  specificity  employed  progress very  level.  t o w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g t h a t analytical  i s not  statements,  cannot  "common s e n s e "  i s similar  particular  framework  lies  organization  analysis as  systems.  in  the  organizational  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o r the  for  an  of  system. the  analysis  roles of  an  5 Methodological societal  justification.  systems has been u t i l i z e d  identifying  the s o c i e t a l  Talcott  primarily  and i n s t i t u t i o n a l  foundations  This  construction  or evaluation of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l goals.  study  emphasis goals.  t o employ P a r s o n i a n  slightly Here,  goals  the emphasis  (according to parent to negate  standing  of the c r i t e r i a  tion  present  which p r i n c i p a l s Variation a result task use to  examination  a r e t o make t o w a r d groups).  of d i v e r s i t y  of identifying  i s not  i s required before  between  i n interests  a t e s t e d framework  emphasis  of a goal)  Therefore, upon  lists  classifica-  i n f e r e n c e s w h i c h may h a v e t o o f statements lists  given.  as a whole  p e r t a i n i n g to the contributions  however,  between  would  principal  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  The c r i t e r i a  of their  very  to exist  groups.  as  The  f a rwithout the  The p r a c t i c a l  f o r general use.  roles.  are likely  the p a r t i c i p a n t  not proceed  o f an a b s t r a c t ; g e n e r a l i z e d framework. provide  the attainment  a  or standards  variations  This  of the  i n s p e c i f y i n g what  t o make i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e  and s i m i l a r i t i e s  of organizational  intent  justification.  ought  I t i s the intent of  An u n d e r -  authors'  conceptions  f o r the  i n a u n i q u e way b y s h i f t i n g t h e  i n t e n t s as w e l l as t h e s p e c i f i c i t y  general  the basis  of organizational goals.  i s s u b j e c t i v e and dependent  Practical  of organizational  upon t h e e x a m i n a t i o n  and a n a l y s i s c a n be c o n d u c t e d .  made a b o u t  has provided  and t e a c h e r  the importance  do ( f o r t h e a t t a i n m e n t  procedure be  i s placed  school principals  intended  should  theory  away f r o m t h e d i r e c t  c o n t r i b u t i o n s which of  process  theory of  f o r the purpose o f  activities.  this  identification  Parsons'  intent  here i s  Overview of  the  This study.  Chapter  application analysis related  the  has  outlined  2 examines T a l c o t t  limitations  to using T a l c o t t  reference  and  chapter  to o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  and  analysis.  school  Thesis  Chapter  teacher  areas.  implications  study.  Parsons' the and  Chapter  for field  purposes  Parsons'  Chapter  the  5 examines  to parent,  district  of  the  and  significance  conceptual  3 examines the Chapter  of  d a t a , methods  4 discusses  the  parent-teacher 6 d i s c u s s e s the  personnel.  analysis  lists  the  f r a m e w o r k and i t s  of  and  with  across  findings  of  problems  framework f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n findings  of  schools this  and  study  Chapter  THE  The  role  PARSONIAN  of the elementary  Columbia  school  has  been  examined by Newberry  is  listed 3.  superintendent's  2  FRAMEWORK  principal  expectations  (1975).  according of "tasks"  A sample  to B r i t i s h and " d u t i e s "  o f Newberry's  findings  below.  T h e f i v e most i m p o r t a n t e x p e c t a t i o n s a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e f r e e responses o f the respondents, f o r the elementary p r i n c i p a l were: (1) i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p , (2) m o t i v a t i o n o f s t a f f , (3) s o u n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l relations, (4) e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l - h o m e - c o m m u n i t y r e l a t i o n s , a n d (5) e f f i c i e n t s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . (1975:118)  5.  The d u t i e s o f t h e p r i n c i p a l t h a t were r a n k e d i n t h e t o p f i v e were i n t h i s o r d e r : (1) " S t i m u l a t e a n d m o t i v a t e t h e s t a f f t o maximum p e r f o r m a n c e , " (2) " E n c o u r a g e continuous study o f c u r r i c u l a r and i n s t r u c t i o n a l innovations," (3) " D e v e l o p p r o g r a m a s s e s s m e n t p r o c e d u r e s , " (4) " D e v e l o p w i t h s t a f f a s y s t e m o f a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , " (5) " P r o v i d e c h a n n e l s f o r i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e community." (1975:119)  7.  T h e i d e a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t i m e f o r a p r i n c i p a l ' s week was r e p o r t e d a s s u p e r v i s i o n (45.4 p e r c e n t ) , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (23.3 p e r c e n t ) , t e a c h i n g (14.3 p e r c e n t ) , community r e l a t i o n s (13.5 p e r c e n t ) , and c l e r i c a l d u t i e s (3.3 p e r c e n t ) . (1975:119)  Newberry's levels That  of discourse  i s t o say they  operates i.e., are  f i n d i n g s as s t a t e d (noted  a b o v e may b e c l a s s i f i e d i n t e r m s o f H i l l s '  i n Chapter  deal with  1) a s b e i n g  "the level  on w h i c h  when h e c h a r a c t e r i z e s o r d e s c r i b e s  the ordinary  comparable w i t h  language the kind  level'-' ( H i l l s , of expressions 7  at the second the  individual  t o a n o t h e r what he 1975:107). found  level.  These  does,  findings  i n the c r i t e r i a  lists  8 used  i n the present  descriptive  study  generalized  framework. Firstly,  diverse  b u t may  broad  such  type  of discourse "overlap"  The " t a s k s "  presented  at  this  f i t i n t o what H i l l s  administration,"  interpretations.  calls  such  may e x i s t  rise  t o two  i n the l i s t e d  a "general  case."  relations," "stimulate  specificity  F o r example,  t o encompass  distinct  lack  gives  an a b s t r a c t o r  a n d " d u t i e s " may a p p e a r t o b e  such as "school-home-community  perceived being  This  considerable  and " d u t i e s . "  motivate,"  are also  findings are not presented within  "tasks"  terms  they  level.  Newberry's  problems.  i n that  Secondly, and  and a r e s u s c e p t i b l e to  the term " a d m i n i s t r a t i o n "  many o f t h e " t a s k s "  as " s u p e r v i s i o n "  and " d u t i e s "  or " c l e r i c a l  may b e  i n d i c a t e d as  duties."  To  overcome  l i m i t a t i o n s t h e use o f an a n a l y t i c a l framework i s r e q u i r e d .  framework  i s provided  by t h e work o f T a l c o t t P a r s o n s  framework w h i c h i s d e s c r i b e d chapter  deal with  the several  section  considers  the kind  i n this  chapter.  components  of predictions  Such a  and i t i s h i s  The s e c t i o n s  of this  o f t h e framework and a about the data  final  of the present  s t u d y w h i c h a r e s u g g e s t e d by t h e framework.  The G e n e r a l Parson's years  and e l a b o r a t e d  summarize him  framework  Framework  i s complex and has been b u i l t  i n a v a r i e t y o f h i s works.  and use P a r s o n s '  Hills'  framework have r e s u l t e d  illustrative For  work w h i c h i s used  quotations  which  T a l c o t t Parsons,  as the source  many  H i l l s ' attempts to i n t h e p r o v i s i o n by  o f an o u t l i n e o f t h e framework w h i c h i s c o n c i s e  therefore  over  and c l e a r and i t i s  o f many o f t h e  follow. several  f u n c t i o n a l problems e x i s t f o r  9 organizational  systems.  (1)  secure  (2)  define i t s reason of  (3)  a supply  goals  (goal  maintain  Each  system and subsystem  of generalized f a c i l i t i e s f o r being  and o r g a n i z e  must:  (adaptation); itself  f o r the attainment  attainment);  the i n t e g r i t y  of i t s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  value  system  (pattern-maintenance); (4)  establish  According duration  to H i l l s ,  depends  Hills  systems  " a l lsocieties  a r e c o n f r o n t e d by t h e s e  existence 242).  a means o f c o - o r d i n a t i n g i t s e f f o r t s  f o u r problems solution  which  medium"  standard"  relationship)  (medium o f e x c h a n g e (definition  i s "effectiveness,"  relation)  outputs)  "symbolic  media,"  permeate  (Hills,  "value  activity"  standards"  a l l subsystems  1.  f o r resources)  the actual  legitimate  standards,"  i n Table  between  1975a: sub-  value  the sub-  subsystem the  i s "power," t h e  system-environment  and i l l e g i t i m a t e  system-  regulating  means o f  " a u t h o r i t y " and " l e a d e r s h i p . "  The  " c o - o r d i n a t i v e s t a n d a r d s " and  associated with  The " s y m b o l i c  and " i n s t i t u t i o n s  of society.  and a p p r o v e d  and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s  are "regulation,"  regulating  below  "co-ordinative  i s "success,"  specifying  producing  summarized  continued  the " c o - o r d i n a t i v e standard" (the  environment  (norms  o f any  to a p a r t i c u l a r  of the appropriate  o f d i s c r e p a n c i e s between  "institutions  t o them"  Thus i n t h e g o a l a t t a i n m e n t  consequence  activity  and t h e i r  d e f i n e s an a p p r o p r i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p  system and i t s environment. "symbolic  systems  on t o e x p l a i n (1975a:244) t h a t each o f t h e s e  a n d t h e u n i t s w i t h i n them i s s u b j e c t  standard  "value  and a l l s o c i e t a l  on t h e s a t i s f a c t o r y  goes  (integration).  each  media," which  Therefore,  subsystem a r e  "value  regulate  standards," activity,"  an i n d i v i d u a l  i n the  10 Table Four  1  Subsystems, T h e i r Outputs Governing Standards  and  Symbolic Media  Value Standards  Co-Ordinative Standards  Adaptation  Money  Utility  Solvency  Goal  Power  Effective-  Success  Attainment  Institutions Regulating Activity  Contract Occupation Property  Regulation  ness  Authority Leadership  Pattern Maintenance  Generalized Commitments  Integrity  PatternConsistence  Moral Authority  Integration  Influence  Solidarity  Consensus  Prestige Adj u d i c a tion  societal  subsystems w i l l  performance according  of  to  the  understanding are  employed  his  of  roles within  standards  i n d i c a t e d above.  the  of  satisfactorily  societal  subsystem,  m o d e l as  i t pertains  Parsons' and  organization  of  to  activities solve  i t i s necessary  The  "internal"  types  to  or  In  "relevant  to  Framework A p p l i e d  of  a m e n t a l h o s p i t a l as  gain  an  mechanisms"  subsystems w i t h i n  to  which  each societal  society.  Organizations framework examines  organizations. an  sanctioned  examine T a l c o t t P a r s o n s '  theoretical organizational aspects  to  p r o b l e m s p r e s e n t e d by  organizational  "external"  order  be  example,  Employing  Parsons  states  both  the that  11 "external  functions"  organization structure" "relating other"  to  the  must b e the  rest  of  performed the  maintained  various  (Parsons,  External Relevant  must be  for  society"  by  the  purpose  (Parsons,  of  the  "relating  1963:112).  "internal functions"  structural parts  of  for  "Internal  the  organization  the  purpose  to  of  each  1963:112).  Functions and Mechanisms Parsons  classifies  process  of  "external  functions"  under  four  main  headings: (1)  "The its  (2)  functions"  "The  process  services,  the  "The  (4)  "The  as  functions an  f u n c t i o n " may adaptation,  facilities  necessary  for  carrying  out  with and  the  r e c i p i e n t s of  above a l l , t h e i r  the  hospital  families, including  attainment). the  operation  of  the  hospital in  the  (pattern-maintenance).  i t operates"  external  hospital  (goal  ways i n w h i c h  which The  patients  l e g i t i m a t i o n of  community"  the  (adaptation).  i n dealing  policy-making" (3)  acquiring  the  hospital i s integrated  (integration) stated  organizational be  classified  above r e p r e s e n t s y s t e m must  according  goal-attainment,  (Parsons,  to  i n t o the  community  1963:112).  problems which  overcome.  Each  i t s expression  pattern-maintenance  in  or  the  mental  "external  as  an  integration  problem. For external "relevant  Parsons,  functions  the  ability  "effectively"  mechanisms."  The  of  the  organization  i s dependent  functions  and  upon the  their  to  perform  operation  relevant  of  mechanisms  are  12 described function  b e l o w and summarized i n T a b l e concerning  upon  a r i g h t of the i n d i v i d u a l .  "relevant has  mechanisms"  argued  endorsed  that  by  those needing  assistance  kind  (goal  o f "membership"  physical  residence  authority Here, for  and  i n dealing involve  1963:114).  attainment  functions  with  i n minimizing  Hills  of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l The e x t e r n a l  community  illness  or the wishes  of the p a t i e n t  which takes  the form of  and s u b j e c t i o n  (1975a:253) t h a t include  of operation,  to 1963:115).  necessitated  external  goal-  the determination the terms of  the determination  functions  pertaining  of specific  i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n  Parsons  to a  of the  settlement  of p r i o r i t i e s  and t h e  policy.  the implementation confidence  of  and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e w a r d e d "  o f t h e h o s p i t a l i n t h e community  automatically.  of  the p r o t e c t i v e measures  o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n  consumers o f t h e p r o d u c t ,  require  mechanisms" i s  the care  the "admission  explains  the s c a l e  Parsons  the r e c i p i e n t s of the h o s p i t a l ' s  i n the organization  of the product,  operation  that  health  1963:117).  the h o s p i t a l i s a c t i v e l y s o l i c i t e d  setting  contribution.  c o n t r o l o f the h o s p i t a l a u t h o r i t i e s " (Parsons,  "co-operation  nature  i s , i n the  a r e r a i s e d by t h e  "relevant  on t h e h o s p i t a l ' s p r e m i s e s  (Parsons,  with  of these  external  judgement t h a t  i n t e r e s t " of entrepreneurs  (Parsons,  attainment)  value  or voluntary  the implementation  to the " s e l f  (adaptation)  F i n a n c i a l resources  of taxation  The p r o c e s s e s services  the s o c i a l  s o c i e t y because of the b e l i e f  cannot be l e f t  F o r example, t h e  a c q u i s i t i o n of resources  case of the h o s p i t a l , based is  2.  to the l e g i t i m a t i o n of the (pattern-maintenance)  mechanisms.  Legitimation  cannot be presumed  (1963:113) has s t a t e d  that  sponsors  also or  to occur ( i n the case  13 Table 2 E x t e r n a l F u n c t i o n s and Relevant External  Functions  Relevant  Mechanisms Mechanisms  External Adaptation: The p r o c e s s e s o f a c q u i r i n g the f a c i l i t i e s necessary f o r c a r r y i n g out i t s f u n c t i o n s . E x t e r n a l Goal  policy decisions d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g approach t o r e c i p i e n t s of s e r v i c e s n a t u r e and q u a l i t y standards o f product determination of p r i o r i t i e s  Pattern-Maintenance:  The l e g i t i m a t i o n o f the o p e r a t i o n o f the h o s p i t a l i n the community.  External  scale)  Attainment:  The p r o c e s s e s i n d e a l i n g w i t h the r e c i p i e n t s o f the h o s p i t a l ' s s e r v i c e s , the p a t i e n t s and above a l l , their families.  External  taxation voluntary contribution fee for services (sliding  Reputation f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n t e g r i t y and t e c h n i c a l competence of the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s sponsors u t i l i z a t i o n of relevant profess i o n a l groups as guarantors of the bona f i d e c h a r a c t e r of the organization  Integration:  The ways i n which the h o s p i t a l i s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the community i n which i t o p e r a t e s .  c o n t r a c t complex - d e f i n i n g o b l i g a t i o n s o f l o y a l t y to the organization a u t h o r i t y complex - d e f i n i n g the r e l a t i o n s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n to p a t i e n t s and p e r s o n n e l u n i v e r s a l i s t i c - r u l e complex c o n c e r n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l observ a t i o n o f standards of "good practice"  of and  the  hospital)  t e c h n i c a l competence  groups  groups  of  the  operation.  associate  of  mechanism or  organization  to  established"  (Parsons,  The the  "three  fourth  the  scope of  organization out  The to  to  external  community  Parsons  these the  (and  and  the  secondly  organization  to  the  For  investigation legitimation  administration  concerning  the  the  of  complexes  honest  the  integration  i s based  upon  given The  of  rule"  the  complex.  of  the  facilities)  to  r e l a t i o n s of In  order  to  degree  of  carry  concerns  "good  discipline severely  the  organizational  complex which of  an  the  some c o n t r o l o v e r  standards  community.  "contract"  definition  personnel.  requirements w i l l  and  the  "universalistic  community  h o s p i t a l i n the  must be  a  i n t e g r a t i v e mechanisms"  mental h o s p i t a l , compulsion, dictated  the  i t operates  "universalistic-rule"  observation  beyond of  are  must be  control  practice."  i t support  complex concerns  i t is associated.  organizational  h e r e as  give  providers  i n d i v i d u a l s with which  the  included  a l l right.  the  i n which  c o m p l e x and  "authority"  i s g o v e r n e d by  fide  relevant  ' r i g h t ' of  function  calls  personnel  the  and  "the  of hospital-community  patients  i t s functions  which  bona  i t must be  a l s o be  complex p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n s  l o y a l t y of  organization.  organization  appeal  the  professional  1963:113).  "authority"  "contractual"  the  of  i f reputable  r e l a t i o n s " may  and  the  1963:120).  the  m e t h o d by  major  major complexes  complex, The  operate  hospital into  (Parsons,  Presumably,  "public  Relevant  become g u a r a n t o r s  themselves with  d i f f u s e area  for responsibility, integrity  i n i t s administration.  legitimation  of  reputation  ( i e . medical profession)  character  The  must h a v e a  or  personal  effect  Similarly,  t r e a t employees " f a i r l y "  the  the by  community  15 standards. The  external  functions  above- i n an a b b r e v i a t e d  Internal Functions Kinds o f Decisions Talcott organization which of  Parson's  analysis  goals  and v a l u e s  aspects  i s particularly  administrator,  (school  monetary  and p h y s i c a l  toward  to the "goal  role of a school's  The k i n d  As a r e s u l t , attainment"  of decisions  facilities  this r o l e of an  as d i s t i n c t  professional  concern  This  the " p o l i t i c a l " or  are a l l o c a t i v e decisions.  among p e r s o n n e l  of activities  the implementation  p r i n c i p a l - s c h o o l superintendent)  decisions.  of the  and t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t .  (1964:30) a l l o c a t i v e d e c i s i o n s  responsibilities  of resources,  of the organization.  of i n t e r n a l adaptation  Parsons  aspects  and t h e t y p e s  i s oriented  adaptable  "pattern-maintenance"  Allocative area  upon d e c i s i o n m a k i n g  of "internal functions"  attainment"  purposes.  analysis of "internal"  are e s s e n t i a l f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n  analysis  the  form f o r r e f e r e n c e  mechanisms a r e l i s t e d  and  focuses  organizational  "goal  and r e l e v a n t  from  staff.  occurring  i n the  According  to  the a l l o c a t i o n of  a n d t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f manpower, i n accordance with  these  responsibilities. In the case of personnel, the fundamental c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the a l l o c a t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to decide, i . e . , 'the d e c i s i o n who s h o u l d d e c i d e , ' a s B a r n a r d p u t i t . . . . B u d g e t a l l o c a t i o n ( d i s t r i b u t i o n of f l u i d resources) i s g i v i n g these subo r g a n i z a t i o n s a c c e s s t o t h e n e c e s s a r y means o f c a r r y i n g o u t t h e i r assignment (Parsons, 1964:33).  Authorization goal  attainment  concern  and e n f o r c e m e n t  activity.  the a u t h o r i z a t i o n  Internal  and enforcement  aspects o f  o f measures  16 required  t o implement  commitments internal  (priorities,  adjustments  appropriate tion  on  A p a r t i c u l a r concern  technical  activities.  organization's  basic  activities.  These  values.  activities and express For H i l l s  of t e c h n i c a l , operative physicians  i n hospitals  technical  activities  do n o t i n v o l v e  capacity,  goals  decisions  integration  "centrifugal  and  or directly  implement the  (1975a:254) t h e s e  changes  decisions.  of the organization  production  are the workers i n  i n schools.  i n the  The k i n d  Routine-  instrumental  of decisions  are integrative. tendency"  from other  Parsons  of subunits  the s p e c i a l adaptive  decisions  as a s y s t e m "  the motivation  of " p u l l s deriving  possibly  are routine-  a r e r o u t i n i z e d under the  and t e a c h e r s  "are the operative  concerned with  performance  from  of a c t i v i t i e s  of i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n are co-ordinative  ordinative  binding  or i n t e g r a t i o n o f the organization.  Co-ordinative  result  The k i n d  personnel,  industry,  problems  members who make  of i n t e r n a l pattern-maintenance  of the o r g a n i z a t i o n  area  and e n f o r c e m e n t o f  others.  i n the area  the  necessitate  a r i s e s as t o t h e a u t h o r i z a -  of certain organizational  occurring  activities  Changes i n e x t e r n a l  p o l i c y , q u a l i t y standards)  Routine-technical  control  commitments.  i n the s e l e c t i o n , a u t h o r i z a t i o n ,  measures.  and l e g i t i m a c y  decisions  external  decisions.  Co-  concerned with the  (Parsons,  of personnel postulates  occurring i n  1964:34).  Here  t o adequate  that  an  of the organization  inherent  a r i s e s as a  from t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s , exigencies  sources  such  of their  particular job situations  as t h e p r e s s u r e  of other  roles i n  17 which  they  suggests  are  that  involved"  (Parsons,  policy decisions  1964:34).  concerning  enforcement  of measures  to  relative  to  the  situation . .  unevenly  on  different  source of  of  the  i t s personnel  tion,  groups w i t h i n  i n t e g r a t i v e problems  integration of  outside  this  be  of  the  the  assured  of  i n d i v i d u a l s are  ments of  organization  that"coercion"  (rewards  for valued  measures  to  employed  (Parsons,  abbreviated  than would  p e r f o r m a n c e ) and  and  commitments  1963:125).  and  upon " e n l i s t i n g  Broadly,  in a  'good'  through b e l i e f  (Parsons,  1963:125).  o t h e r w i s e be  "therapy"  obstacles  act  to  bear  as  Maximizing  the  a the  the  loyalty  organizain  To  with  the ensure  the  case"  (penalties for non-co-operation),  that  require-  Parsons  "inducement"  (a complex c o m b i n a t i o n  co-operation)  may  of  be  1964:34).  internal  form  organization"  "more c l o s e l y i n l i n e  remove m o t i v a t i o n a l  The  the  effectively  taken"  authorization  organization's  i s dependent  most  decisions  "the  Parsons  . have consequences which  organization.  performances the  the  (Parsons,  organization  to  will  "rightness"  notes  implement  Elsewhere,  functions  for reference  are  presented  i n Table  3 in  an  purposes.  Organizations D i f f e r e n t i a t e d An A p p r o a c h t o t h e F r a m e w o r k The written  in a  internal  generalized  many d i f f e r e n t organizations are  to  solve.  and  types may  be  of  external  form which  functions could  organizations.  categorized  be  listed  above have  utilized  i n the  However, H i l l s  according  to  the  types  argues of  been  analysis  of  that  problems  they  18 Table Internal  Functions,  3  Decisions  and  Internal  Functions  Decisions  Internal  Adaptation:  Allocative -  Internal  Goal  Activities  and  Decisions:  a l l o c a t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a l l o c a t i o n of f l u i d resources maintenance of favourable c o n d i t i o n s f o r s t a b l e and continuing operation  Authorization  Attainment:  Activities  and  Enforcement  Activity: Internal  Pattern-Maintenance:  -  Internal Integration:  Routine-technical activities a c t i v i t i e s t h a t express the b a s i c v a l u e s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n  Co-ordinative  Decisions:  - m o t i v a t i o n of personnel adequate performance of  Four  Classes  of  Organizations  Economic enterprises The  value  intent  of  available  may  organizations, business  be  classified  standard the  for tasks  which  commercial  resources  primarily  governs  f i r m s and  within  activity  the  the  adaptive  is utility.  e n t e r p r i s e i s to maximize  through  commercial  production  The  the  subsystem. primary  utility  of marketable  goods  of and  services. Governmental bodies police  f o r c e s may  subsystem.  The  The  intent  primary  be  value of  and  classified standard the  agencies,  primarily which  w i t h i n the  governs  goal attainment  including  activity  the goal  military  and  attainment  is effectiveness.  organization i s to  attain  collective  goals Public  organizations  through c o l l e c t i v e  action.  schools,  organizations, higher  and  families  pattern-maintenance maintenance to v a l u e s ships,  may  be  subsystem.  classified  The  primary  o r g a n i z a t i o n i s to maintain  a s c r i b e d t o by  behavior  category,  religious  and  their  society with  social  this  As  f o r the  integrity  regard  position.  place within  primarily within concern  the  education  of  pattern-  i t s commitment  to p a t t e r n s  public schools  the  of  relation-  belong  subsystem i s e l a b o r a t e d  to  i n the  this next  section. Interest primarily concern  with  of  s y s t e m by from  The  groups  reference  these  School  and  to  political  the  collectivities  promoting  competing  and  or  Pattern  subsystem  organization  to r e l y  involved  personnel  activate  morally  of  extreme need commitments does n o t Secondly,  the  the  the  primary  solidarity  resolving conflicts  public school  o b l i g a t i o n s to  of  the  generated  of  independent of  three  of  factors.  c o n t r o l over  a public school  to  the  occupationally  schools  suggests  with  pattern-  necessity for  capacity  c o n t r i b u t e to  Hills  i t s integrity  The  i n the  the  commitments  services.  is crucial.  result  ability  the  h e a v i l y on  to maintain  maintain  and  (1975a:250) e m p h a s i z e s  binding  i s the  i s to promote  The  Maintenance  to p r o v i d e  educational values  classified  interests.  H i l l s ' d e s c r i p t i o n of maintenance  be  i n t e g r a t i v e subsystem.  common i n t e r e s t s  discrete  p a r t i e s may  the  that  respect  to  Firstly, financial  the  to  implementation school's  i t s value the  public  school  resources.  impose b i n d i n g  decisions  on  20 environing prestige  systems  and  i s limited.  its ability  Lastly,  to persuade  Many s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s process.  As  a  result,  routine-technical lists. has  In  presented  criteria I.  II.  paper  concerning  based  on  directly  likely  limited.  i n v o l v e d i n the  teaching  to pattern-maintenance  t o be  presented  t e a c h i n g and  Talcott  limited  exercise influence i s  pertaining  are  s c h o o l has  Parsons'  in  i t s evaluation, H i l l s framework.  These  include: facilities  (internal  adaptation)  Command o f m a t e r i a l s  2. 3. 4.  A p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods and p r o c e s s e s . S k i l l i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s . Knowledge of i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s .  Goals  (internal  goal  taught.  attainment)  Success i n s e c u r i n g c o o p e r a t i o n of students. Success i n the a t t a i n m e n t o f g o a l s . Appropriateness of goals. Purposefulness of i n s t r u c t i o n .  Norms  (internal integration)  Conformity with legitimate expectations. A d h e r e n c e t o s t a n d a r d s o f good p r a c t i c e .  Values  (internal  pattern-maintenance)  1.  A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of c o n c e p t i o n d e f i n i n g the d e s i r a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t e of the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n i n the relevant area.  2.  A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of c o n c e p t i o n d e f i n i n g the nature desirable class. Commitment t o a c a d e m i c i n t e g r i t y and p r o f e s s i o n a l of p r e p a r a t i o n .  3. 4.  or  criteria  1.  1. 2. IV.  activities  criteria  Generalized  1. 2. 3. 4. III.  a brief  criteria  are  or  a public  Commitment  t o p r o t e c t and  enhance  the  interests (Hills,  of  of  the  standards students.  1977:3)  21 Types of  The  P r i n c i p a l C r i t e r i a Suggested The F r a m e w o r k  descriptions  of  the  external-internal adaptation,  attainment,  p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e and  Parsons  Hills  and  criteria.  represent  P r i o r to  to determine which is  possible  of  the  dent  to  school  about  school's  in society. financial  acquiring  function.  is  likely  to  It  i s quite  may  be  skill the of  i n the  instruction resources this  250). the  to  Here,  the  of  commitments  subsystem of  i n parent  teacher  being was  would be  hampered.  considered limited.  necessitates binding  school.  teachers.  Unless  adaptation lists. and  A principal  An  emphasis  the  on  problem,  argues  be  . . seen  to Parsons'  ."  the  and  that  part  that  emphasis the  of on  school's  its  (Hills,  i n part  or  in  availability  " h e a v y r e l i a n c e on  obligations  According  the  instructional materials  a major  p r i n c i p a l ' s r o l e may  out  a l l o c a t e resources  the  Hills a  very  criteria  were u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  facilities  indepen-  do  external  that  authority  of  and  p r i n c i p a l to  command o f  description  carrying  i n d i c a t e a concern  school  school  for  of  difficult  have  subsystem would  activate morally the  his  does not  by  However, i t  to H i l l s '  i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures.  l e a r n i n g was  criterion  scope  capacity  teachers  within  type of  limited  of  emphasis.  p r i n c i p a l can  necessary  ( i n t e r n a l adaptation) within  a p p l i c a t i o n of  or  for a  school  classification  i t w o u l d be  according  school  the  emphasis  however,  upon b e c a u s e  and  a  facilities  the  consistent  public  resources,  the  i n t e r n a l adaptation parents  the  for  procedure  emphasis  As  minor  possible,  called  an  Consequently,  receive  responsibilities  guidelines  subsystems r e c e i v e on  goal-  i n t e g r a t i o n subsystems presented  classification  speculate  control of  little  the  the  By  as  framework,  1975a: securing the  motivation  of personnel  attainment  emphasizes  (2)  Internal  inducement, ment b e a r  interests securing  therapy).  as  emphasis goal  on  Parsons  of parents the  and  conducted o f power  emphasizes  suggests and  use  adaptive  of  i n the  (Parsons,  and  (1)  Internal  goal  enforement).  influence (coercion,  o r g a n i z a t i o n and  1963:125),  to emphasize  produce  i t w o u l d be  integration  as  enfore-  in  the  a means  personnel. presented  that parent-teacher and  ways.  (authority  the  groups  teachers of  i n two  c o n s e q u e n c e s o f a u t h o r i z a t i o n and  different  integrative  attainment  use  literature  to p r e d i c t on  be  I f the  commitments  From the plausible  the  integration  unevenly  disharmony  may  by  Hills  lists  pattern-maintenance criteria.  and  are  Parsons,  likely  criteria  i t is  to place rather  an  than  of  Chapter 3  THE DATA, METHOD OF ANALYSIS AND LIMITATIONS  The t h r e e purposes o f t h i s study which were i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter 1 a r e :  1) t o understand and d e s c r i b e Parsons' framework so as  to be a b l e t o a c c u r a t e l y i n t e r p r e t  each o f i t s components; ( 2 ) to  determine whether the framework was such as t o permit a meaningful a n a l y s i s of the l i s t s  of c r i t e r i a ;  and ( 3 ) i f the framework proved  inadequate, the inadequacy would be e x p l a i n e d o r i f the framework proved adequate  i t would be used i n an a n a l y s i s o f c r i t e r i a  so as to  g a i n i n s i g h t s i n t o the n a t u r e o f the c r i t e r i a and any v a r i a t i o n among the  various l i s t s . The  Chapter 2. is  first  of these t h r e e purposes has been a c h i e v e d i n  The way i n which the r e m a i n i n g two purposes were addressed  d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r which  i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e major s e c t i o n s  d e a l i n g r e s p e c t i v e l y w i t h the a c q u i s i t i o n and i n i t i a l  treatment o f the  data, the methods used i n the a n a l y s i s and the l i m i t a t i o n s t o which the findings are subject.  The  Data  The raw data f o r the study c o n s i s t e d o f f i f t y - t w o l i s t s o f statements produced by p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s or groups o f p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s combined.  The statements were statements o f c r i t e r i a  held  important by t h e i r authors f o r the next p r i n c i p a l o f the s c h o o l w i t h  24 which  they were  assist  i n the  a request to  selection  from  develop  connected.  an  The  of  to date  replacement  or  prospective  candidates  list  t r a n s f e r was to  five  areas.  due  Schools  see  i n an  Each  list  form  of  the  the  the  lists  been  urban  was  participating  school.  A  indicates  t h a t more t h a n  took  case  list  each  represents  i n which  a  the  criteria  and  appendix. following  complete  forms.  others present  of  a response  the  divided  The  number  Some o f  criteria  the  composite first  of  was  lists  statements.  number—in area  identifies  f o l l o w i n g the  from  criteria  They have been r e p r o d u c e d  the  i n which  the  second  number  composed.  In  separate  authors  this  (parents,  lists  in their  f o r 1976  appears  original  in  the  form w i t h  the  exceptions:  (1)  Reference  to  the  school d i s t r i c t  (2)  The  names o f  (3)  The  names o f p a r t i c i p a n t s  schools  are  is  omitted.  omitted. and  into  criteria  same number  school d i s t r i c t  second  list  s e t of  in  replacements.  numerically.  The  are  teachers). The  was  opportunity for  to keep  generated  various  small l e t t e r one  to  process  a r e a s were i n v o l v e d i n  transfers  generated.  and  the  school the  to  i n response  of  school d i s t r i c t  a Roman n u m e r a l — i d e n t i f i e s t h e  criteria  intent  to provide  a l l areas  identified  started  f o r each  criteria  these  i t e m i z e d form w h i l e  has  was  criteria  transfer.  i n each o f  However, n o t  of  identifying  The  criteria  or  to d i s p r o p o r t i o n a l Each  appear  of  schools within this  identification. lists  officials.  considered,  m i n d when m a k i n g a p l a c e m e n t The  of  school principals  school d i s t r i c t up  process  school personnel  are  omitted.  25 (4) In  A Parsonian each case  classification  the  omissions  Permission board  officials.  identification  are  appears  process  this  lists  was  consists data.  of  The  criteria  method  three  completed  s e c o n d was  as  designated  by  the  of  described  The  of  the  four kinds  the  phrases  a s i n g l e word.  separate In  this  and  All allow  criteria  distinct  were c l a s s i f i e d  school  a n a l y s i s of s t e p was  the  second  until  the  the  the  criteria  each  kinds  step  criteria  item of  i n the  the lists  of  functions  involved  Each of  lists  p r e p a r a t i o n of  T h i r d , the  undertaken.  was  examined  are  detailed  examination  these  steps  the  In other to provide  f o r statements  t o make i n t h e i r  some i n s t a n c e s c r i t e r i a  instance  from  participants.  to c l a s s i f y  This  principals  In  the  obtained  dashes.  was  the  o r more o f  list  teachers.  accompanied  list.  of  the  is  Data  criteria  c o n t r i b u t i o n s which  or  each  following section.  P r e p a r a t i o n of Each  of  collected  of problems.  a n a l y s i s was  i n the  first  framework.  right  of A n a l y s i s  attempt  t o one  by  i n the  The  the  belonging  consideration results  employed  steps.  study  were not  Method The  the  replaced with  to conduct  Criteria  on  emphasis  or  sentence  was  as  principal  i n point  a descriptive  form  i n the  separated  and  using  paragraph  elaboration.  c o n t r i b u t i o n s were c o n t a i n e d compound  roles  were p r e s e n t e d  cases  p e r t a i n i n g to  Often  same the  two  sentence.  components  accordingly.  these  criteria  for manipulation,  statements  comparison  and  were t r a n s p o s e d  on  cards  to  written explanations pertaining  26 to  classification. The  teachers  statements  are not r e s t r i c t e d  attainment  role.  characteristics, and in  which have been produced  These  to expressions  statements  standards  an attempt  to l i m i t  of a p r i n c i p a l ' s  identify  or solve "internal"  ought  and p e r s o n a l  and " e x t e r n a l " f u n c t i o n a l  of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l subsystem  tion,  pattern-maintenance,  applications standards" in  parent  these  of "symbolic  media,"  and " i n s t i t u t i o n s and t e a c h e r  Problems  i n Classification The  (according  process  of i d e n t i f y i n g  activity")  i s entirely  problematic  dependent  type  statements.  the c o n t r i b u t i o n which  classified  according  are identified II(a)#1  several  criteria  media,"  and " i n s t i t u t i o n s the c l a s s i f i e r ' s  statements  "value which  regulate  recognition of  factors.  "Unclassifiable" specify  however,  below.  of "symbolic  upon  often implied  As a r e s u l t ,  and c l a s s i f y i n g  "co-ordinative standards"  Consequently,  I n some s t a t e m e n t s  identified.  a r e examined  to implied applications  standards,"  integration).  adapta-  standards," "co-ordinative  statements.  c o m p o n e n t s may n o t b e r e a d i l y for classification  (i.e.,  which r e g u l a t e a c t i v i t y " a r e  criteria  problems  four  "value  behaviors  t o make t o t h e s c h o o l  problems a t a l l l e v e l s goal attainment,  goal  desirable qualifications,  of expertise, s o c i a l  c o n t r i b u t i o n s (etc.) which a p r i n c i p a l  by p a r e n t s and  - should  13(b)#1 - Best  an i n d i v i d u a l  to Parsons' and l i s t e d  A c r i t e r i o n w h i c h does n o t  framework.  i s t o make  Several statements  below.  p r e f e r a b l y b e a man  person  f o r t h e j o b (Male  cannot  o r Female)  be of this  27 111(a) Statement  -  general  11(a)#1,  does not  m a l e w o u l d make as that  the  "value  "best"  candidates. which are authors  desirable  are  and  which  this  lack  specify to  a  should  the  female.  be  value  given  It  that  statement  specificity  determine  there  standards  Under  I3(b)#l,  does not  are  It could  i s not  preference.  to  administrators  contributions  Statement  i n administrators.  "solidarity."  a l l  a p p o i n t e d but  111(a) i m p l i e s  the  of  desired  authors would apply  r e f e r r i n g to  standards" are of  the  Statement  "integrity"  tion  opposed  person  standards"  attributes desirable  be  a  that  indicates  i n d i c a t e which the  merits  set  of  assumed  "utility,"  that  the  "effectiveness," "value  the  classifica-  i n a l l subsystems p r o h i b i t s a n a l y s i s .  Statements  have been  grouped  and  conditions  of  attributes  c l e a r however w h i c h these  a  classified  i n the  category  "unclassified."  "Internal" factor  and  for classification  criteria  statements.  For  subsystem i n which  the  whether  be  they  could  110(a) r e l a x e d  To  "External" also  pertains  example,  the  s t a t e m e n t s may designated  atmosphere  to  the  be  ( I n t e r n a l and  should  III  Is a t i r e l e s s dedicated Pattern-Maintenance)  worker  provide  a  from l i s t  11(a)  his and  the  contrast,  a  statement  a t t i t u d e to the approachability  statement  from l i s t  11(a)  degree  of  problematic  specificity  l i s t e d below but  do  not  i n t e r n a l or  External  ( I n t e r n a l and  community (External  second  classified  e x c l u s i v e l y as  approachable  The  statements  14  Here  be  reference.  ( I n t e r n a l and  s h o u l d be one integration)  external.  Integration) External  is listed of  s p e c i f i e s "openness"  below.  openness  and  the  indicate  Integration)  External  11(a)  imply  of  "approachability" These  as t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s  contributions  system.  Further  contributions external  may b e c l a s s i f i e d  the statement  that  as part  from l i s t  organization,  contribution.  Consequently,  classified  as an e x t e r n a l  integration  Reference  to multiple  prohibits  exclusive  classification  reference  to contributions are l i s t e d  parents  list  result  may b e o b t a i n e d  the "rightness"  "public  11(a)  may b e  statement.  subsystems. pertains  i n more t h a n  The t h i r d  problem  also  t o s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h make  one s u b s y s t e m .  Examples o f  and t h e community through  o f the school's  Consequently, school  the desire  (External  developing  o f the actions  (i.e.,  Integration).  parental  taken within  to integrate the  the school  newsletters,  the reputation personnel  the implications  i n t h e community  This  a n d community  school  to l e g i t i m i z e the operation  community b y e n h a n c i n g  integrity  rather than excellence of (Internal Adaptation) ( I n t e r n a l Goal Attainment)  12(b) emphasizes  serve  which  below.  relations" activities  These a c t i o n s  the  criterion  an e x c e l l e n t organizer s c h o l a s t i c performance  from  these  an  13(a)  with  the  may b e c o n s i d e r e d  be a b l e t o d e v e l o p a good r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p a r e n t s and t h e community ( E x t e r n a l Integration) (External Pattern-Maintenance)  statement  sub-  As t h e "community" i s  12(b)  school  in  11(a) s p e c i f i e s that  this  "external"  The  of the i n t e g r a t i o n  a r e t o b e made t o t h e c o m m u n i t y .  to the school  these c r i t e r i a  a p r i n c i p a l i s t o make.  belief  through productions).  o f the school i n  f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  (External  Pattern-Maintenance).  f o r " l e g i t i m a t i o n " and " i n t e g r a t i o n " o f  place  this  statement  i n the external  29 p a t t e r n maintenance Statement organization. to  the  subsystems. 13(a)  Here,  allocation  emphasizes  t h e word  of  the maintenance  continuing  o p e r a t i o n , and f o r the  nal Adaptation, t h e r e f o r e , would  of  imply  the  favourable  the  Goal  of  the  perceived to of  enforcement  school's  standards  The  goal  pertain  fluid  conditions for stable  Attainment).  the value  be  allocation  a u t h o r i z a t i o n and  implementation  Internal  desire for excellence i n  " o r g a n i z a t i o n " may  responsibilities,  resources,  necessary  the  of  and measures  commitment  (Inter-  word " e x c e l l e n c e "  "solvency"  and  "effective-  ness."  Classifier prohibits  unique  work.  Parsons  be  As  inference.  classification has  intertwined" (Piatt  criteria heavily  w i t h i n the upon  criteria  the  The  noted, and  goal  a p p l i e s to Parsons'  " i n actual  Parsons,  attainment  p e r c e p t i o n of  statements  fourth problematic  the  which present  fact,  1968:155). and  this  conceptual  power and Hence,  integration  criteria  factor  frame-  i n f l u e n c e must categorization  subsystems  classifier.  problematic  which  Two  factor  relies  examples  are  of  of  listed  below.  In  13(a)  M u s t r e l a t e a s f i r m and f a i r but to s t a f f membership.  14  The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e s e n s i t i v e t o t h e n e e d s a n d p r o b l e m s o f , and be a b l e t o communicate and work e f f e c t i v e l y with parents, teachers, pupils, s e c r e t a r i e s , custodians, school board o f f i c i a l s , community a g e n c i e s a n d a l l p e o p l e and o r g a n i z a t i o n s associated with school.  the  through  examples the  use  directly  above,  o f words  such  as  to not  a l l statements "firm"  and  only  imply  student  body,  "effectiveness"  "effectively."  Conversely,  30 words  s u c h as  "fair"  and  "sensitive"  influence.  The  intertwined  i n t h e s e examples.  For  example,  maintained  subsystems  the d i s t i n c t i o n  Discipline  This  goal  clearly  t a k e s c o n s i s t e n t and i m m e d i a t e (Internal Goal Attainment)  encourages l a t e r a l communications and s t a f f ( I n t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n )  action  Tabulation  systems  and  of  opinion  (Internal  to count  was  classified  f o r each  list  t h e number  criteria  list.  for  subsystem  lists  as a  The  between  case.  integration i s  to  be  action  principal  co-ordina-  was  to the P a r s o n i a n sub-  statements, the t o t a l  determined.  of statements i n each  f o r each  rank  c a t e g o r y was  ordered l i s t s  s e r v e d as  schools,  the b a s i c  authors, school  A  tally  method  number was  classification.  calculated.  The  A  categories  to percentage f o r each  of subsystems components  district  and  the percentages  f o r comparing  a r e a s , and  and  analyzing a l l  whole. The  rank  the  Integration)  according  (subsystems) were rank o r d e r e d a c c o r d i n g  contrasting  clearly  between a u t h o r i z a t i o n - e n f o r c e m e n t and  a category for u n c l a s s i f i a b l e  percentage of t a l l i e s  each  are  Results  classifications  employed  of  i s apparent.  Once a l i s t  of  guidelines  111(a)  tive  always  a t t a i n m e n t and  seeks  the d i s t i n c t i o n  integration  i s not  111(a)  Here,  staff's  however  o r the use  below.  - articulates followed -  of  a t t a i n m e n t and  between  i n the statements  111(a)  The  goal  imply " s o l i d a r i t y "  method  ordering  employed  categories  by  t o compare and  contrast  schools  percentage f o r the purpose  consisted  of determining  31 the  order  of p r i o r i t i e s The  authorship, system.  determination  authorship  authorship.  f o r each  number o f l i s t s  lists,  1 student  list,  lists,  subsystem a c c o r d i n g  f o r each  21 p a r e n t  and 2 l i s t s  was e m p l o y e d  according to  lists,  o f unknown  to calculate  to each  sub-  mean  group where  N  i s the  group.  1  d e v i a t i o n measures were a l s o  and combined  authorship  similar  subsystem  generated  consisted  for five  each  were a l s o  20 c r i t e r i a  lists.  school d i s t r i c t  lists,  area  to c a l c u l a t e areas.  school d i s t r i c t  area.  f o r each  f o r teacher,  i n which  case,  6 lists,  subsystem according  Area  area I I I  and a r e a V  s u b s y s t e m was  Range a n d s t a n d a r d  i n  the l i s t s  t h e y were composed.  I I contained  f o r each  mean p e r c e n t a g e s  In this  a r e a I V c o n s i s t e d o f 13 l i s t s  A mean p e r c e n t a g e  calculated  calculated  lists.  m e t h o d was e m p l o y e d  of 5 l i s t s ,  8 criteria for  lists,  o f mean p e r c e n t a g e s  were s u b d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a r e a I  subsystems.  _ subsystem A = X % subsystem A  X. %  A each  between  c o n s i s t e d o f 23 t e a c h e r  i n an author  Range a n d s t a n d a r d parent  of differences  The f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a  percentages  N £ i=l N  among t h e e i g h t  r e q u i r e d the c a l c u l a t i o n  T h e 52 l i s t s  5 combined  and emphasis  generated  calculated  d e v i a t i o n measures to school  district  area. The of  adding  method employed  a l l percentages  to analyze  of a given  number o f l i s t s .  The r e s u l t i n g  for  fora l l lists.  the subsystem  were a l s o  calculated  f o r each  the l i s t s  as a whole c o n s i s t e d  subsystem and d i v i d i n g  percentage  represents  Range a n d s t a n d a r d  subsystem.  a mean  by t h e t o t a l percentage  d e v i a t i o n measures  32 Limitations It findings  of this  participated Committees, specially criteria fore,  study  directly Parent  i n the c r i t e r i a  c o m m i t t e e s who procedures,  to schools outside this  simultaneously  identification  or conducted  were  conducted  sessions.  varied.  the c r i t e r i a  only t o those  may n o t b e a p p l i e d  Criteria  activities  that  and t h e  individuals  identification students  were not randomly  to  conduct  sampled.  There-  to schools which d i d not  particular  school  s e s s i o n s were n o t  This  during single  restriction  district.  conducted  f o r t h e same p e r i o d s o f t i m e .  the l i s t s  Staff  a n d members o f  r e c e i v e d a mandate  The amounts o f t i m e  Consequently,  who  process.  i n the process w i t h i n the school d i s t r i c t .  applies  evening  pertain  identification  the results  to emphasize  C o n s u l t a t i v e Committees,  constituted  participate also  i s important  These  and m u l t i p l e a f t e r n o o n o r allocated  varied  for this  purpose  a c c o r d i n g l y t o s p e c i f i c i t y and  length. A s many p a r t i c i p a n t s tion  procedures  principals presence effect and  i n the past,  a r e members  i s constant,  on t h e t y p e s  non-testable.  their  activities  of parent  consultative  i t may b e a s s u m e d  For other  that  presented.  committees,  conducted  a s s i s t a n c e and p r e s e n c e  effect  variable  cannot  this  the procedure  be c o n t r o l l e d  and  have an  i sspeculative was d e s c r i b e d a n d  As t h e exact be r e a d i l y  i n this  As  their  f a c t o r would  This effect  cannot  identifica-  was r e q u i r e d .  committees  independently.  administrative of this  criteria  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e guidance  of c r i t e r i a  were  had n o t e x p e r i e n c e d  extent of  determined  study.  the  Chapter  THE  This was  such as  to permit  The Chapter  3 as  reference," viewed lists  right  examples  of four  framework and  side  explanation  analysis  statements," and  of  whether  lists  the  left  and  side  which  33  criteria.  of each  to i n  external may  follow.  be The  Parsons'  listed  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( s )  classification.  of  inference"  with Talcott  the p r o b l e m a t i c f a c t o r s on  framework  referred  "internal  criteria  the  the l i s t s  "classifier  i n accordance  page a p p e a r s  f o r each  to determine  t h e two  in i t s entirety  of each  FRAMEWORK  problematic factors  subsystems"  have been c l a s s i f i e d  appears  PARSONS'  a meaningful  "unclassifiable "multiple  OF  i s designed  i n conjunction with  conceptual list  chapter  USE  4  above.  page. and  a  On  Each the  detailed  two  34 Criteria Authors:  like who:  List  IV-9(b)  Staff  The s t a f f w o u l d an a d m i n i s t r a t o r  i s i n accord with the p h i l o s o p h y o f the s c h o o l , . . .  The " p h i l o s o p h i c a l " s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h h a v e b e e n produced a r e value statements p e r t a i n i n g to educational p r a c t i c e s w i t h i n the school. From one v i e w p o i n t , t h e y may b e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e s t a t e m e n t s p e r t a i n i n g t o " s t a n d a r d s o f good p r a c t i c e " which i f a p p l i e d would i n t e g r a t e t h e s c h o o l w i t h t h e community. T h i s c r i t e r i o n may b e c l a s s i f i e d as an e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n i t e m . From a n o t h e r v i e w p o i n t , t h e s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y may b e c o n s i d e r e d t o be an o r d e r i n g o f p r i o r i t i e s i n terms o f t h e s c h o o l ' s c u s t o d i a l , p r o t e c t i v e and s o c i a l i z a t i o n subgoals. T h i s c r i t e r i o n may b e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e a r e q u e s t t o t h e new p r i n c i p a l to m a i n t a i n r o u t i n e t e c h n i c a l f u n c t i o n s and a v o i d making p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s . For  t h e s e r e a s o n s , t h i s i t e m was c l a s s i f i e d a s : EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  . . . and w i l l b e a r i n mind t h e unique and diverse nature of the s c h o o l , s t u d e n t s and community.  T h i s s t a t e m e n t may b e p e r c e i v e d t o b e a r e q u e s t t o t h e new p r i n c i p a l t o b e r e c e p t i v e t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s . I n e f f e c t , he must b e r e c e p t i v e t o t h e " i n f l u e n c e " o f t h e s e individuals.  has d e m o n s t r a t e d effectiveness i n the administration of a school, i n which teachers share i n d e c i s i o n making.  Here t h e word " e f f e c t i v e n e s s " i s p e r c e i v e d t o be employed i n t h e P a r s o n i a n sense as a r e f e r e n c e t o goal attainment a c t i v i t y . T h i s s t a t e m e n t may also p e r t a i n to aspects of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which include the a l l o c a t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , f l u i d r e s o u r c e s and t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f f a v o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s f o r s t a b l e and c o n t i n u i n g o p e r a t i o n .  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  The p r o c e s s o f s h a r e d d e c i s i o n m a k i n g i m p l i e s t h e "value standard" of consensus. I n the shared d e c i s i o n mode, a d e c i s i o n c a n n o t b e r e a c h e d w i t h out consensus. The " s y m b o l i c medium," " i n f l u e n c e " w i l l be employed i n t h e " s u c c e s s f u l " c a s e t o produce a "consensus." This  criterion  goal  attainment,  may b e c l a s s i f i e d internal  as an  adaptation  internal  and  35 i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n statement. INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION is  open  t o new  ideas,  T h i s statement i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f the d e s i r e to o b t a i n a p r i n c i p a l who h a s a w i l l i n g n e s s t o b e persuaded. The a b i l i t y t o a p p l y t h e " s y m b o l i c medium" o f " i n f l u e n c e " i n i n t e r n a l s t a f f p r i n c i p a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and e x t e r n a l communityparent-principal relationships i s implied. At the i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l t h i s statement may b e c o n s i d e r e d t o p e r t a i n t o c o - o p e r a t i o n a n d c o - o r d i n a t i o n between t h e s t a f f and p r i n c i p a l . A t t h e e x t e r n a l l e v e l t h i s s t a t e m e n t may b e considered to p e r t a i n to dialogue which assures o r g a n i z a t i o n a l adherence to processes which are compatible with parental expectations. This s t a t e m e n t may b e c a t e g o r i z e d a s a n i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n , e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n item. INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  but r e t a i n s respect f o r the best i n t r a d i tional practices  T h i s s t a t e m e n t may b e p e r c e i v e d a s a r e q u e s t t o maintain acceptable routine function. I t may b e c a t e g o r i z e d as an i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e item. INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  who s e e s t e a c h e r s as p r o f e s s i o n a l and i s t o l e r a n t of a v a r i e t y o f t e a c h i n g methods  A d e f i n i t i o n o f "good" t e a c h i n g i s o f t e n dependent upon a s e l e c t s e t o f v a l u e b a s e d c r i t e r i a . "Narrow m i n d e d n e s s " on t h e p a r t o f an e v a l u a t o r ( P r i n c i p a l ) may s e r v e t o be a s o u r c e o f i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . Dissatisfaction i s a problem which i s not conducive to the motivat i o n of personnel f o r adequate performance. This may b e c o n s i d e r e d a n d i n t e r n a l c o - o r d i n a t i v e problem a r i s i n g from goal attainment processes. T h i s s t a t e m e n t may b e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e a r e q u e s t to m a i n t a i n harmony t h r o u g h i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . INTERNAL INTEGRATION  who i s f l e x i b l e and w i l l i n g t o c h a n g e when t h e need a r i s e s  A r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s s t a t e m e n t and t h e s t a t e m e n t " i s o p e n t o new i d e a s " may be e s t a b lished. The words " f l e x i b l e " and " c h a n g e " i n d i c a t e t h e d e s i r e t o implement t h e "symbolic medium" o f " i n f l u e n c e . " T h i s s t a t e m e n t may b e c l a s s i f i e d as an i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n item. INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  36 sees the school i n the context o f the community and p r o m o t e s community use o f t h e s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s f o r the r e c r e a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l use o f the people i n the school t e r r i t o r y , s t r i v i n g t o make the s c h o o l funct i o n as a s e r v i c e centre f o r youth and a d u l t g r o u p s .  The u l t i m a t e g o a l w h i c h i s i m p l i e d h e r e i s t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l i n t o t h e community. It may b e c l a s s i f i e d a s a n e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n i t e m . T h e r e a r e , o f c o u r s e , many r a m i f i c a t i o n s t o t h i s process. F o r e x a m p l e , a p r i n c i p a l may e n g a g e i n a c t i v i t i e s t o maximize the u t i l i t y o f the school's resources through the a l l o c a t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s ( i . e . , space, m a t e r i a l s ) (internal adaptation). T h i s a c t i v i t y w i l l a l s o have a l e g i t i m a t i o n e f f e c t f o r the school (external pattern-maintenance).  i s approachable and p e o p l e oriented,  The w o r d " a p p r o a c h a b l e " i m p l i e s h a r m o n y a n d mutual support i n i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l e x i s t i n t e r n a l l y (Principal-staff, principal-student relations h i p s ) and e x t e r n a l l y ( p r i n c i p a l - p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) . T h i s s t a t e m e n t may b e c a t e g o r i z e d a s a n i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n item.  EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE ADAPTATION  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  promoting a positive interpersonal r e l a tionship with students, staff and p e o p l e i n t h e community,  I n t e r n a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o t h e community a r e i m p l i e d . Similarly, this q u a l i t y may b e c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l f o r i m p r o v i n g " p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s " and l e g i t i m i z i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l i n t h e community. This s t a t e m e n t may b e c a t e g o r i z e d a s a n i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n , e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and e x t e r n a l pattern-maintenance item. INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  who s e e s t h e p o s i t i o n a s one of s e r v i c e to others  The p h r a s e " s e r v i c e t o o t h e r s " i m p l i e s t h e n e e d t o o b t a i n a n i n d i v i d u a l who h a s a r e p u t a t i o n f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n t e g r i t y and i s d e d i c a t e d to educational values. INTERNAL EXTERNAL  and w i l l s t r i v e to m a i n t a i n t h e s c h o o l as a humane a n d h a p p y place,  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  The m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e s c h o o l a s a "humane a n d happy p l a c e " w i l l have consequences f o r s t a f f , s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s . For teachers, this s t a t e m e n t may b e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s a t i s f a c t i o n and m o t i v a t i o n on t h e j o b - t h e use  37 "inducement" r a t h e r than " c o e r c i o n . " The s t a t e ment may a l s o p e r t a i n t o t h e " a u t h o r i t y c o m p l e x " - the r e l a t i o n s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n to students and p e r s o n n e l a n d t h e " u n i v e r s a l i s t i c - r u l e complex" - a s t a n d a r d o f good p r a c t i s e . The " u n i v e r s a l i s t i c - r u l e complex and t h e " a u t h o r i t y complex," have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l i n t h e community a s w e l l a s f o r community t o l e r a n c e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s legitimations. On t h i s b a s i s , t h e s t a t e m e n t may be c l a s s i f i e d a s a n e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n , a n d i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n item. INTERNAL EXTERNAL - while inspiring the best e f f o r t s i n s t u d e n t s and staff  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  T h i s s t a t e m e n t may b e p e r c e i v e d t o p e r t a i n t o t h e m o t i v a t i o n o f p e r s o n n e l and p u p i l s t o t h e performance of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e tasks. Internall y , t h i s i s a c o - o r d i n a t i v e a c t i o n which i n v o l v e s the implementation o f "inducement," " c o e r c i o n " and " t h e r a p y " a n d a d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the c o n d i t i o n s under which each i s employed. At the s o c i e t a l l e v e l , t h e w o r d " i n s p i r e s " may b e p e r c e i v e d to imply the use o f the "symbolic medium" " i n f l u e n c e . " I t i s acknowledged that " b e s t e f f o r t s " may b e b r o u g h t a b o u t t h r o u g h i t s use o f "power." On t h e b a s i s t h a t P a r s o n s s t a t e s " i n a c t u a l f a c t , power a n d i n f l u e n c e must b e i n t e r t w i n e d " ( P i a t t a n d P a r s o n s , 1968, 155) t h i s s t a t e m e n t may b e c l a s s i f i e d a s a n i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n - i n t e r n a l goal attainment item. INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  38 List  IV-9(b)  Analysis Number o f Classifications (Each Category)  Internal Internal Internal Internal External External External External  Integration Adaptation Goal Attainment Pattern-Maintenance Integration  Unclassified Total  classifications  Rank o r d e r o f c a t e g o r i e s 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  by  00.00 00.00 3.84 34.61  0  00.00  percentage:  Adaptation - External  Explanation  0 0 1 9  26  External Integration Internal Integration Internal Pattern-Maintenance Internal Adaptation - Internal External Pattern-maintenance  External  8  7.69 7.69 15.38 30.76  2 2 4  Adaptations Goal Attainment Pattern-Maintenance  goal  Percentage of a l l Classifications  100%  Percentage  goal attainment  34.61 30.76 15.38 7.69  (each)  3.84  attainment - U n c l a s s i f i e d  00.00  - The r a n k o r d e r o f c a t e g o r i e s b y p e r c e n t a g e may b e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e t h e o r d e r o f p r i o r i t i e s among t h e e i g h t f u n c t i o n a l p r o b l e m s as d e s c r i b e d by P a r s o n s and H i l l s .  39 Criteria Authors:  List  I-l(a)  Staff  A Composite p i c t u r e the next p r i n c i p a l (as i n d i c a t e d by answers to the questionnaire)  of  the  Reminder: The a t t r i b u t e s mentioned i n d i c a t e what q u i t e a number o f t h e s t a f f would prefer. Section F i s the only one t h a t i n d i c a t e s strong convictions and preferences. The n e x t p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d preferably be a man (12)  who  The o p e r a t i o n a l w o r d " d e m o c r a t i c , " i m p l i e s a w i l l i n g n e s s t o be i n f l u e n c e d . The s t a t e m e n t does not s p e c i f y i f t h i s a p p r o a c h i s to be a p p l i e d to i n t e r n a l or external r e l a t i o n s . The a p p r o a c h may t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i d e r e d u n i v e r s a l . This statement may be c l a s s i f i e d i n t h e i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s .  i s demo-  cratic  (19),  moderately progressive  collegial the s t a f f  T h i s c r i t e r i o n d o e s n o t s p e c i f y what c o n t r i b u t i o n s a m a l e i s t o make i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f h i s r o l e s as opposed t o a female. N e i t h e r does i t s p e c i f y what c o n t r i b u t i o n s a f e m a l e c a n n o t make i n the p e r f o r m a n c e o f her r o l e as p r i n c i p a l . Due to a l a c k o f s p e c i f i c i t y , the statement i s c a t e g o r i z e d as an u n c l a s s i f i e d s t a t e m e n t . UNCLASSIFIED  (17)  with (17)  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  This statement i m p l i e s that the p r i n c i p a l i s to b r i n g about change g r a d u a l l y . However, t h e c r i t e r i o n does n o t s p e c i f y w h i c h subsystems a r e t o be c h a n g e d . The s t a t e m e n t may b e c l a s s i f i e d i n the u n c l a s s i f i e d category. UNCLASSIFIED T r u s t and c o n f i d e n c e , m a k i n g a l l o w a n c e s f o r competency, and s h a r e d d e c i s i o n making a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c o l l e g i a l (integrated) r e l a tionships. T h i s c r i t e r i o n p e r t a i n s to i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d may t h e r e f o r e be c l a s s i f i e d a s  40 an  friendly the  with  pupils  (16)  but i s a l s o a firm disciplina r i a n (17)  His a t t i t u d e to the community s h o u l d be one o f o p e n n e s s a n d a p p r o a c h a b i l i t y (13)  He s h o u l d a l s o fair, good-natured,  be  i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n statement. INTERNAL INTEGRATION  T h i s s t a t e m e n t i m p l i e s a commitment t o p r o t e c t and enhance t h e i n t e r e s t s o f s t u d e n t s . The s t a t e m e n t may b e c l a s s i f i e d i n t h e i n t e r n a l pattern-maintenance subsystem. INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE D i s c i p l i n e i s conducted through the a u t h o r i z a t i o n a n d e n f o r c e m e n t o f m e a s u r e s deemed n e c e s s a r y t o e n s u r e t h e t e c h n i c a l and m o t i v a t i o n a l competency of c h i l d r e n . T h i s s t a t e m e n t may b e c l a s s i f i e d a s an i n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t c r i t e r i o n . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT The w o r d s " o p e n n e s s " a n d " a p p r o a c h a b i l i t y " i m p l y harmony and s u p p o r t i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n ships. T h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s may e x i s t i n t e r n a l l y ( P r i n c i p a l - s t a f f ) and e x t e r n a l l y ( P r i n c i p a l parent) r e l a t i o n s h i p s . As t h i s c r i t e r i o n s p e c i f i e s "openness" and " a p p r o a c h a b i l i t y " i n e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e s t a t e m e n t may b e c l a s s i f i e d i n the e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n subsystem. EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  approachable,  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  flexible,  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  The f o u r c r i t e r i a a b o v e h a v e b e e n c l a s s i f i e d i n t h e same s u b s y s t e m s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s . F i r s t l y , each statement does n o t i n d i c a t e whether t h e s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s a r e t o b e made i n t e r n a l l y o r externally. T h e r e f o r e , each statement i s c l a s s i f i e d on b o t h l e v e l s . S e c o n d l y , t h e words " f a i r , " " g o o d - n a t u r e d , " " a p p r o a c h a b l e , " " f l e x i b l e " may b e associated with integrative characteristics ( i . e . w i l l i n g n e s s to be i n f l u e n c e d ) . consistent,  C o n s i s t e n c y i s l i k e l y t o be a t t a i n e d t h r o u g h a knowledge o f and a b e l i e f i n (commitment) ones values. T h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n may p e r m i t o t h e r s t o predict actions or behaviors. The e m p h a s i s o n  41 values p l a c e s t h i s c r i t e r i o n i n the maintenance subsystem. INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  pattern-  encouraging,  " E n c o u r a g e m e n t " may be p e r c e i v e d as an i n t e g r a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n i n t h a t i t may be e m p l o y e d a s a component o f " i n d u c e m e n t " o r " t h e r a p y . " INTERNAL INTEGRATION  supportive,  " S u p p o r t " may be p e r c e i v e d as an i n t e g r a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n i n t h a t i t may be e m p l o y e d a s a component o f " i n d u c e m e n t " o r " t h e r a p y . " INTERNAL INTEGRATION  reliable,  An i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l i a b i l i t y c o n c e r n s h i s r e p u t a t i o n f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and integrity. T h i s s t a t e m e n t may b e c l a s s i f i e d a s an e x t e r n a l pattern-maintenance c r i t e r i o n . EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  enthusiastic,  " E n t h u s i a s m " a s a q u a l i t y may be a p p l i e d i n a l l subsystems. This c r i t e r i o n requires a further statement to l i m i t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p o s s i b i l i t i e s . UNCLASSIFIED  and d e m o c r a t i c with his dealings w i t h the s t a f f ,  The w o r d " d e m o c r a t i c " i m p l i e s a w i l l i n g n e s s t o be influenced. I t i s requested that this contribut i o n i s t o be made i n i n t e r n a l - p r i n c i p a l - s t a f f relationships. INTERNAL  as w e l l a s h a v i n g a w e a l t h of experience.  An e x p e r i e n c e d p r i n c i p a l i s l i k e l y t o be v i e w e d as a g u a r a n t o r o f the bona f i d e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e organization. T h i s may be c o n s i d e r e d a f a c t o r which l e g i t i m i z e s the o p e r a t i o n of the s c h o o l i n t h e community. EXTERNAL  A fair proportion (9) o f t h e s t a f f would c o n s i d e r t r a n s f e r r i n g i f he were a v e r y l e n i e n t disciplinarian. None e x p r e s s e d concern at the prospect of having a very strict disciplinarian. A l s o non w o u l d be c o n c e r n e d i f he w e r e  INTEGRATION  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  The s t a t e m e n t s a t t h e l e f t p e r t a i n to "undesirable" contributions. T h e y do n o t s p e c i f y t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t h a t a p r i n c i p a l i s t o make i n t h e organization. As a r e s u l t , t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s may n o t be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o P a r s o n s ' f r a m e w o r k .  very conservative, while a few (3) d o n ' t want a very innovative person. A l s o a few (5) w o u l d l e a v e i f he w e r e v e r y a u t o c r a t i c , and f o u r i f a woman was appointed. A f a i r p r o p o r t i o n of the staff indicated that t h e y would n o t l i k e to h a v e a p r i n c i p a l who is lazy, unapproachable, prejudiced, irresponsible, narrow-minded, e g o t i s t i c a l , verbose, quick-tempered or unprofessional. The s t a f f , a s a w h o l e d i d not c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g i t e m s o f any g r e a t i m p o r tance: w h e r e he comes f r o m or h i s c o u n s e l l i n g background. T h e i r age p r e f e r ences were q u i t e e v e n l y divided although three d i d n ' t want a v e r y y o u n g man ( 2 5 - 3 0 ) and one d i d n ' t want a n o l d one (60-64).  43 List  I-l(a)  Analysis Number o f  Percentage  Classifications (Each  Internal Internal Internal Internal  Adaptation Goal Attainment Pattern-Maintenance Integration  External External External External  Adaptation Goal Attainment Pattern-Maintenance Integration  Category)  00.00 4.00 8.00 36.00 00.00 00.00 12.00 24.00  0 0 3 6  16.00  Unclassified Total  of a l l Classifications  Classification  Rank o r d e r o f c a t e g o r i e s  100.00  25  by p e r c e n t a g e  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Internal integration External integration Unclassified External pattern-maintenance Internal pattern-maintenance  6.  Internal  Percentage 36.00 24.00 16.00 12.00 8.00  goal-attainment  Internal adaptation - External attainment  4.00  adaptation - External  goal 00.00  44 The  applicability  classification degree  to which  statements these  purposes  classifications  could  criteria  were p l a c e d  The n e x t  I-l(a)  Their  Under  category  The c o m p l e t e  category.  because  These  specific  set of "unclassi-  below.  principal  should  age p r e f e r e n c e s  p r e f e r a b l y b e a man ( 1 2 )  were q u i t e  evenly  t h r e e d i d n ' t want a v e r y y o u n g man want a n o l d one ( 6 0 - 6 4 ) . I-l(a)  moderately  I-l(a)  enthusiastic  I.-l(b)  The a l m o s t be a man  I-l(b)  a n d i n t h e 45-60 a g e g r o u p  I-l(b)  T h i s committee would p r e f e r teaching experience at  I-l(b)  we w o u l d  progressive  unanimous o p i n i o n  full  i s that  Educational  leadership  1-3(a)  Applies  1-3(b)  Best  1-8  He/she s h o u l d the s c h o o l .  I-10(a)  preferably  I-10(a)  young  I-10(b)  Male o r Female - n o t  imagination  although  t h e new p r i n c i p a l  a p r i n c i p a l who h a s h a d School.  consideration given  1-2(b)  divided  (25-30) and one d i d n ' t  (17)  was V i c e - P r i n c i p a l f r o m S e p t e m b e r ,  Person  a n a l y s i s some 615  i n the " u n c l a s s i f i e d "  n o t be i d e n t i f i e d .  like  by e x a m i n i n g t h e  T h i r t y - f o u r o r 2.85% o f  i n the " u n c l a s s i f i e d "  i s listed  1-1(a)  occurred.  framework f o r  i n part  1205 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .  s t a t e m e n t s were p l a c e d  fied"  c a n be d e t e r m i n e d  classification  generated  contributions  of T a l c o t t Parsons'  should  previous  to  who  196_ t o June, 197_.  i s essential.  to the p r i n c i p a l s h i p .  f o r the j o b .  (Male o r Female)  be aware o f a l l t h e programs  male  i n spirit important  i n operation i n  I-10(b)  the remaining  I-ll(a)  general  I- 12(a)  2:  specifically  requested  a male  attributes desirable of a l l administrators  Must  have  strong  commitment  t o h i s own i d e a s a n d  principles. II- l  A p e r s o n who p o s s e s s e s  II-2  The p r i n c i p a l imaginative.  I I - 4(b)  a g e 40 t o 50  I I I - 2(a)  High  III-2(a)  Good r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  III-2(b)  Communicative  I I I - 2(b)  Not an  extremist  IV- 1  should  score  IV-7  who a p p r e c i a t e s  IV-8(b)  self-confident  IV-8(b)  Knowledgeable  IV- 8(b)  Able  V- l  being  shall  communication  be e n e r g e t i c ,  degree o f s k i l l  highly  good  i n human  r e s o u r c e f u l , and  relations. officials.  i n human r e l a t i o n s  the advantages  in  t o cope w i t h  skills.  , both  of a primary  and  family  school;  proposals  grouping  and r e g u l a r  and e v e n t s programme  energetic  V-l  innovative  V-l  creative  V-5(b)  I t i s hoped a p r i n c i p a l w i l l be i n v o l v e d as l i t t l e a s p o s s i b l e i n the managerial a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the school.  Eleven activities present  of the c r i t e r i a  as methods  a degree  above  f o r s e l e c t i n g candidates.  of clarity  which  statements.  However, c o n s i d e r a b l e  to  the s p e c i f i c  determine  s p e c i f y age, gender  i s absent  These  i n other  statements  "unclassified"  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would  contributions that  or past  age, gender  have  t o b e made  and p a s t  activity  present.  moderately a  of  Except  in spirit,  for a  small percentage and  c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k may  the  lists  of c r i t e r i a .  has  been a c h i e v e d . appendix.  statements  use  being  vague terms ( i . e . energetic) which  require  interpretation.  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedure  Parsons'  the  remaining  p r o g r e s s i v e , young  g r e a t amount  the  The  As  and  "unclassifiable"  statements,  e x p l a n a t i o n s h a v e shown t h a t be  a result,  A l l lists  of  employed the  their  t o p r o v i d e an  second  purpose  classifications  Talcott  analysis  of  this  may  be  of  study found  in  Chapter 5  THE  USE OF THE CLASSIFICATION:  THE NATURE  OF AND VARIATION IN THE CRITERIA LISTS  T h i s chapter w i l l of  c o n c e n t r a t e on the t h i r d and f i n a l  purpose  t h i s study which i n v o l v e s the use of the framework i n an a n a l y s i s o f  the l i s t s  o f c r i t e r i a so as to g a i n i n s i g h t s i n t o the n a t u r e o f the  c r i t e r i a and any v a r i a t i o n among the l i s t s .  P a t t e r n s and v a r i a t i o n s  among l i s t s a r e d i s c e r n i b l e i n the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study which p r e s e n t the o r d e r o f p r i o r i t y among e i g h t subsystems. r e f e r s to the frequency w i t h which a p a r t i c u l a r appears of  on a c r i t e r i a l i s t .  T h i s frequency  Here, the term  "priority"  type o f statement  i s expressed as a percentage  the o c c u r r e n c e o f a l l items. Two major f a c t o r s which may c o n t r i b u t e to v a r i a t i o n s among the  lists  a r e a u t h o r s h i p ( i . e . s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s that p a r e n t s o r t e a c h e r s  i n t e g r a t e i n t o c r i t e r i a l i s t s ) and f a c t o r s which may be a t t r i b u t e d to i n d i v i d u a l s i n school d i s t r i c t  areas  ( i . e . education l e v e l s ,  backgrounds, income, o c c u p a t i o n , e t c . ) .  cultural  The d i r e c t measurement of these  f a c t o r s was not p o s s i b l e i n t h i s study, but i t may be assumed t h a t to some extent i t i s d i f f e r e n c e s i n these v a r i a b l e s which c h a r a c t e r i z e some of  the d i f f e r e n t . , areas i n the c i t y .  A c c o r d i n g l y some o f the d i f f e r -  ences between area l i s t s may be a t t r i b u t a b l e to these f a c t o r s . r e c o g n i t i o n o f these i n f l u e n c e s ,  the f i r s t  four sections of t h i s  examine the r e l a t i v e predominance o f subsystems over a l l l i s t s ,  In chapter  48 variations variation  between d i s t r i c t between authors  application provides section  of this  by d i s t r i c t  chapter  as to t h e i r  provides  school  lists The  an  and remaining  summary o f t h e f i n d i n g s a n d  reasonableness.  Subsystems  Over A l l L i s t s  and F i n d i n g s  subsystem r e c e i v e s across calculation  52 c r i t e r i a  o f a percentage  ments c l a s s i f i e d  effects  different  classifications calculation  The emphasis  subsystem.  areas  and l i s t s  a r e combined.  of standard  lists.  the exact  of school d i s t r i c t  authorships,  to determine  The f i r s t  with  While  emphasis  with  method  relatively  T h i s method  each requires  given  method to each  may subsystem  lists,  l a r g e numbers o f  a l s o does n o t p e r m i t t h e  d e v i a t i o n o f percentages  between  s e c o n d m e t h o d w h i c h may b e e m p l o y e d  lists,  t h e mean p e r c e n t a g e  of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  52  lists.  below  represents  lists.  to determine the  calculating  The f o r m u l a  this  g r e a t e r numbers o f  each subsystem r e c e i v e s i n c r i t e r i a  criteria  t h e emphasis  representing the proportion of a l l state-  i n a particular  appear u s e f u l f o r determining the  and  Section 5 presents  of p r i o r i t i e s .  a general  Two m e t h o d s may b e e m p l o y e d  a  between authors  areas.  of the l i s t s  Predominant Analysis  variation  o f t h e f r a m e w o r k t o two i n d i v i d u a l  interpretations  speculates  areas,  consists of f o r each  t h e method  subsystem i n employed:  52 E i=l  x.% f o r s u b s y s t e m A  =  x% f o r s u b s y s t e m A  1  52 This  method  method.  shares  However,  many o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s the u t i l i z a t i o n  expressed  of percentages  f o r the f i r s t  from each l i s t  allows  49 for  the c a l c u l a t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l standard  Table  4 below presents  deviation calculations.  t h e number o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  per subsystem,  p e r c e n t a g e a n d mean p e r c e n t a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  p e r subsystem and  standard  Standard  deviation  percentages each  of percentages  have been employed  exception  systems. in  these  According  than  t o method 1 t h e a c t u a l  classifications  subsystems  integration  2 indicates  percentages  the highest  standard  adaptation,  The l o w e s t external  standard  goal  subsystem.  received  by each o f  the greatest  integration  deviations. exhibit  attainment  that proportion  subsystem Adaptation  the lowest  deviations  sub-  percent  B o t h methods r e v e a l  However,  with  classifications  3.73  integration  represent  subsystem c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  classifications.  maintenance  identical.  by s u b s y s t e m .  display  i s approximately  t h e mean e m p h a s i s  subsystem c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  attainment  external  that  stable  integration  percentage of  i n the external  i s virtually  classifications  goal  of  i n percentages f o r  relatively  o f i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and e x t e r n a l  However, m e t h o d  of  f o r methods 1 and 2 r e m a i n  the i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n subsystem  higher  of  to i n d i c a t e d i s p e r s i o n  deviations  subsystem. Percentages  the  p e r subsystem.  and  percentage  are displayed f o r  and e x t e r n a l  pattern-  percentages.  Discussion The assimilates and  preceding  factors  analysis  of prominent  such as d i s p r o p o r t i o n a l  v a r i a t i o n a t t r i b u t a b l e to d i s t r i c t  fulness  of the r e s u l t s i s l i m i t e d .  area.  subsystems  over  representation, Consequently,  I t may b e s t a t e d  a l l lists authorship,  t h e meaning-  however,  that  Table  4  Number, P e r c e n t a g e , Mean P e r c e n t a g e , a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n Each Subsystem from F i f t y - t w o L i s t s Method Number o f Classifications Subsystem  Per  Subsystem  1  Method  Percentage of Classifications Per Subsystem  Mean P e r c e n t a g e o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s Per Subsystem  2 Standard Deviation  Internal  Adaptation  180  14.93  13.34  8.97  Internal  Goal  154  12.78  12.73  7.39  Internal  Pattern-Maintenance  182  15.10  15.72  8.17  Internal  Integration  273  22.65  21.34  9.45  External  Adaptation  22  1.83  1.46  3.03  External  Goal  45  3.73  4.08  4.83  External  Pattern-Maintenance  87  7.21  7.27  5.78  External  Integration  Attainment  Attainment  228  Unclassified  34  Total Note:  1205 Method Method  18.92  2.82  21.45  2.55  10.96  4.39  99.97  I i s a d i r e c t c a l c u l a t i o n of percentage. I I i s conducted  according  t o t h e f o r m u l a o f p a g e 48 a b o v e .  Ln o  integrative tions)  are  standard list  criteria the  most  frequently  deviations  percentages  subsystems.  (representing  for  are  This  these  used  regard  to  teaching,  of  this  priority  must  take  prudence, moderation, in  i n t e r n a l and  External  adaptation,  maintenance standard  and  sixteen  school  relatively  percentages  form of one  priority  large  that for  these  other  disagreement or  more o f  the  twenty-two per  position.  to  educational  contributions  compromise,  cent  The  a principal's contributions  philosophies,  second p l a c e  with  values,  which  reasonableness  portray and  harmony  relationships. goal  percent external  scores.  among p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t  attainment  classifications  comprise  r e s p e c t i v e l y of  a l l classifications.  goal  and  attainment  the  lowest  percentages  These r e s u l t s tend  activities  within  external  to  and  patternlowest  indicate a  these subsystems  concensus  are  low  contributions. An  reveals  a  a l l classifica-  indicate  (representing  second  i s that  subsystems r e c e i v e d  deviation  priority  a  tolerance,  external  Adaptation approximately  list  a t t r i b u t e d to  criteria  occupy  qualifications, etc.  The  of  above.  a l l classifications)  significance  than  represent  be  Pattern-maintenance of  cent  statements.  l e s s homogeneous  d i s p e r s i o n may  mentioned  per  subsystem percentages  b e t w e e n p a r t i c i p a n t s w h i c h may factors  forty-two  that  functions  or  contributions  examination of sixty-five  percent  contributions. or  w e r e recommended  activities or  i n t e r n a l and  expected  of  This (with  external  subsystem  a l l classifications  refer  result indicates  that  the  external  outside  exception the  school.  of  very  percentages to  internal  few integration)  Variation The district such  may b e j u s t i f i e d  as e d u c a t i o n  These  factors  goals  A  from  order  factors  income and o c c u p a t i o n  school d i s t r i c t needs,  i n turn  of ordered  preferences  individual  lists  majority of f i r s t  ranked  three  II lists,  lists five  concern.  integration  criteria  four  lists  list  placed  areas.  e x p e c t a t i o n s and  influence the c r i t e r i a  subsystems by a r e a  are held  (by a r e a s )  lists  internal lists  i n common.  are recorded  preferences  In area  I lists,  as a f i r s t  integrative  gives the First  order  below i n  as a second ranked  order  criteria  integration  (IV-2,  lists  o f t h e twenty  concern.  as a second  The choice.  criteria  internal  o f concern.  integration  lists  seventeen  integrative placed  integrative  integration ranked  list  on i n d i v i d u a l  order  criteria  out o f s i x rank  The r e m a i n i n g  The r e m a i n i n g  integration-external  order  criteria  rank  out of five  of thirteen  percentage.  criteria.  integrative  order  out  socio-economic  Subsystems  examination  first  integrative  remaining  first  to school  5.  include  area  Mentioned  that  The  lists  that  effect  or c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which  cursory  preferences  according  backgrounds,  or i n d i r e c t l y  Areas  process.  Frequently  Table  cultural  may d i r e c t l y  identification  impression  levels,  on t h e b a s i s  i n common b y r e s i d e n t s i n c e r t a i n  educational  Most  District  s e p a r a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f d a t a  area  may b e h e l d  Among S c h o o l  In  as a  and e x t e r n a l  In area  III lists,  criteria  first.  The  second.  In area  IV, eleven  criteria IV-9(a))  remaining  with  the highest  placed  internal  and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h t h e  53 Table 5 Number o f L i s t s (By A r e a s ) i n w h i c h E a c h S u b s y s t e m was most F r e q u e n t l y S e l e c t e d 3  aj  a) a a d a) e e  •rl  d  O •rt  rt  4-J  4-J  rt  u  rt < rH  rt d  4-1  < rH  rt o  d  rt d  4-J  <u a  •rt  rt S I  e  d  o  a  •H  4-1  •rl  4-1  'rl  rt  M  a)  60  4-1 4-1  (U  4->  C  O  rt P-i  H  rH  rH  rH  M  1-1  rt d  rt d  rt a  Number of Lists  4-J  +J  4-1  4-1  H-l  M  I  20  1  II  6  III  <D  <u  a)  o  4-1  rt  •rl  rt i  o  4-J  rH  4.)  rt  M  rH  a)  d  a  4-J 4-J  rH  4-1  d  d  <!  rt d  4J  •rt  4-J  rt ft rt < 4J  rt d  01  rt o  o  rt d  rH  rt d  CD  u  4-1  4-1  a)  rt S-J  60 <D  d  t-H  rt d 1-4  Q)  4-1  i—i  d  i—i  X w  X W  X w  X w  4  2  10  -  1  2  9  1  1  1  2  -  -  -  3  5  1  -  1  2  1  -  -  2  IV  13  -  1  1  8  -  -  1  6  V  8  3  -  3  1  -  -  -  2  52  6  6  8  24  1  1  3  24  Area  Total  C  a)  d <D e d  d  CI  T n s e v e r a l l i s t s more t h a n o n e s u b s y s t e m t i e d f o r h i g h e s t mention. Where t h i s o c c u r r e d e a c h o f t h e t i e d s u b s y s t e m s above, hence given area.  totals  horizontally  may  exceed  frequency of i s counted  t h e number o f l i s t s  i n any  54 second h i g h e s t ranked  percentages.  integrative  exception of l i s t lists in  that  In  little  this  T a b l e 6,  pattern  least  Area V  i n A r e a I , I I , I I I and as a s e c o n d p r i o r i t y  IV  lists  rather  to subsystems  participants.  classifications  adaptation  subsystem.  than  which  T a b l e 6 below  in specific  subsystem  In area  t i e with external  subsystems  i s consistently  I I I , external  adaptation  constant  as a second l e a s t  priority  criteria.  pattern-  classifications  position  Internal  least  t i e for this mentioned  t i e with external  for third  adaptation  i s external  goal  throughout a l l areas.  mentioned  adaptation II.  position  and  In area  V  goal attainment  mentioned external  criteria  subsystem i s  pattern-  are the t h i r d  least  External pattern-maintenance  i n area  classifications  attain-  subsystem.  least  criteria  s t a t e m e n t s i n a r e a s I and  classifications  subsystem  classifications  between i n t e r n a l  maintenance  mentioned  remains  integration  The  third  by  the e x t e r n a l  mentioned  second  classifications  as  second.  distinction.  This  mentioned  w i t h the  lists.  classifications  The  internal  criteria  emerges r e l a t e s  o r no m e n t i o n  criteria  the l e a s t  maintenance  split  are placed  the frequency with which  as  remaining l i s t s ,  lists  Mentioned  n o t o c c u r on  ment.  criteria  second p a t t e r n which  have r e c e i v e d  for  established  three out of e i g h t  priority.  A  depicts  The  V-5(a), rank i n t e g r a t i o n  integrative  Subsystems Not  ranked  first.  depart from a p a t t e r n  as a f i r s t  did  criteria  In area V l i s t s ,  I I but appear  i n a r e a s IV a n d V.  exclusively Internal  55 Table  6  Number o f L i s t s (By A r e a ) i n w h i c h S u b s y s t e m was n o t M e n t i o n e d  Each  3  a)  a)  o  CJ  c  a  cd 4J  a  cu  a o  •H  4-1  cd  Area  Lists  •H cd  4-1  C  e a  4-1  •H cd  4-1  •H cd  1  4-1  •rt  cd !-i  4J  4-1 4J  p  c  a)  4-1  QJ  c  r-l  0)  rH cd  4-1  O  cd  4-1  o  •H  4-1  cd  60 0)  4-1  o  T3  PH  a  H  <!  O  PM  H  rH cd  rH cd  rH cd  rH cd  rH CO  rH cd  rH cd  rH cd  0)  a)  V-i  rn  ft Cd  <  i  rn  4-1  C3 4-1  a  rn  ni  60  o  a  •H cd  rn  <!  c  rn  rH CTJ  o  a)  4-1  rn  u<X td  d  •H  4J  <3  (=1 (1J  rn  Number of  S C  cd  C a)  4-1  O  C  0)  cu  4J  4-1  4-)  H  i—i  H  H  C  S  ti  (3  CD 4-1  0)  0)  XI w  4-1  4-1  w  w  X  X  c  4-1  I  20  6  -  -  1  16  11  3  -  II  6  1  -  -  -  5  3  1  -  III  5  -  1  -  -  4  2  4  -  IV  13  2  2  1  -  9  4  3  -  V  8  -  -  -  2  4  2  1  -  52  9  3  1  3  38  22  12  0  Total  I n s e v e r a l l i s t s more t h a n o n e s u b s y s t e m t i e d w i t h r e g a r d t o n o t b e i n g mentioned. Where t h i s o c c u r r e d e a c h o f t h e t i e d s u b s y s t e m s i s c o u n t e d above, hence t o t a l s h o r i z o n t a l l y may e x c e e d t h e number o f l i s t s i n a n y given area.  goal  attainment  c r i t e r i a are the third  least  mentioned  statements i n  area I I I .  An E x a m i n a t i o n o f O t h e r P r i o r i t i e s by A r e a The variations patterns Table  predominant  i n emphasis  pertaining  7 below,  percentage)  use o f i n t e g r a t i v e c r i t e r i a  among o t h e r s u b s y s t e m s .  to the p r i o r i t y  displays  the rank  o f subsystems  placement  order  tends  A closer  to obscure  examination of  o f subsystems  i s required.  (from h i g h e s t to lowest  by s c h o o l a r e a .  Table  7  P r i o r i t y P l a c e m e n t o f S u b s y s t e m s (By A r e a ) F r o m H i g h e s t t o L o w e s t Mean P e r c e n t a g e 3  Area  II  I  III  V  IV  Internal  I  External  I  Internal  A  Internal  I  External  External  I  Internal  I  Internal  I  External  I  I n t e r n a l PM  Internal  GA  Internal  PM  External  I  Internal  PM  Internal  A  Internal  PM  Internal  GA  Internal  PM  Internal  A  Internal  I  Internal  A  Internal  A  Internal  GA  Internal  GA  Internal  GA  External  PM  External  PM  External  GA  External  PM  External  PM  Unclassified  External  GA  Unclassified  External  GA  External  GA  External  GA  Unclassified  External  A  External  A  External  A  External  A  External  External  PM  Unclassified  Abbreviations:  A  A  I  Unclassified  -. a d a p t a t i o n  GA - g o a l a t t a i n m e n t PM - p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e I - integration  An two  examination  of Table  7 above r e a f f i r m s  the predominance o f  major p a t t e r n s d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n .  Integrative  57 criteria  are placed  external  goal  placed III.  attainment  Here,  internal  priority  One e x c e p t i o n  adaptation  criteria  c o m b i n e d mean p e r c e n t a g e s  not as great  and e x t e r n a l  adaptation,  and e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e  a t a low p r i o r i t y .  However, are  at a high  as t h e combined  to this  p a t t e r n appears i n  are placed  for internal  percentages  c r i t e r i a are  in first  priority.  and e x t e r n a l  for internal  area  adaptation  and e x t e r n a l  integration. In priority  area  than  integration  V internal  integration criteria  external integration.  immediately  r e c e i v e a much  In a l l other  areas  lower  internal  p r e c e d e s o r f o l l o w s e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n as a  priority. The and  internal  randomly  remaining  a n d do n o t e s t a b l i s h  deviations  and  adaptation,  pattern-maintenance subsystems  Table  detailed  internal  internal appear  f o r each subsystem.  table i s to provide  by s c h o o l Patterns  examined  i n Table  integration systems  district with 8.  a sound b a s i s  areas.  where t h e i n t e r n a l  and  standard this  f o r the discussion s e c t i o n the following analysis f o r  areas.  regard  Standard  to standard  An e x c e p t i o n  adaptation  external  i n t e g r a t i o n standard  external  adaptation,  deviation scores  deviations f o r internal  subsystems a r e g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r  across  position  The i n t e n t f o r i n c l u d i n g  a means f o r c o n t r a s t a n d c o m p a r i s o n w i t h  authors  to s h i f t  attainment  a pattern.  8 b e l o w d i s p l a y s mean p e r c e n t a g e s  (by a r e a s )  goal  to this  standard  those  and e x t e r n a l f o r other  pattern occurs  d e v i a t i o n exceeds  deviations.  external goal  than  Standard  attainment,  may b e  sub-  i n area I I I  i n t e r n a l and  deviations f o r  external  pattern-  Table Mean P e r c e n t a g e  Internal Area Adaptation S.D. x %  and S t a n d a r d  Internal Goal Attainment a/ S.D. x %  Internal PatternMaintenance  Internal Integration  x %  S.D.  X  S.D.  8  Deviation  f o r Each  Subsystem by  External External Goal Adaptation Attainment x % S.D. x % S.D.  Area  External PatternMaintenance x % S.D.  Integration x % S.D.  x %  S.D.  External  Un classified  I  10.17  8.30  16.04  8.13  13.40  7.36  23.43  9.67  .83  1.81  3.02  4.79  8.70  6.36  19.30 10.55  3.84  5.82  II  11.39  7.27  14.43  7.02  15.95  5.63  19.27  7.57  1.85  4.53  3.18  4.01  6.04  3.88  24.83  7.50  3.00  3.95  III  24.18  11.50  7.98  5.32  15.56  6.93  22.95  9.96  1.60  3.57  5.56  6.89  1.14  2.55  18.36 10.52  3.14  4.56  IV  11.45  6.43  10.84  6.79  17.18  10.99  23.66  8.05  1.00  2.18  5.04  4.98  8.50  6.49  21.44  9.16  .82  1.69  V  19.05  7.47  9.20  4.18  19.37  6.91  12.89  8.90  3.40  4.67  4.94  4.29  6.42  3.08  23.25 16.19  1.41  2.87  00  59 maintenance standard  and u n c l a s s i f i e d  deviations  categories  f o r other  are generally  categories within  each  lower  than  area.  Discussion The most of  p r e s e n c e o f numerous c r i t e r i a  frequently  variations  condition societal  value  is  oriented  i n this  individual Canadians  argues  a cursory  criteria Hills in  goals.  Like society  value  emphasize highly  doubt  each n a t i o n  above,  descriptions  interpretations.  v a r i e t y of  improving  A t the second  preferences  differ.  Hills  integrative-collective individualistic  have  use of  of integrative  values  goals.  societies altered  and e x t e r n a l  i n emphasis  Integrative  as one w h i c h  over the  1976:28).  the predominant  tends to obscure v a r i a t i o n s  Canadians,  American neighbours,  preferences  conducts i t s i n t e r n a l  indicated  that  society  e x a m i n a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n and American secondary value  to a  and Canadians  as a p r o g r e s s i v e l y  (Hills,  emphasize  observations  and Canadian  Americans  of mastery  their  the  and Canadian  o f the a t t a i n m e n t o f a wide  t h e good  preferences  that  (i.e.  i s similar  of American  "one c a n n o t  the achievement  C a n a d i a n and A m e r i c a n  has p r o v i d e d  their  situation  c o n c e i v e t h e good  end i n v i e w "  i s similar,  As  states,  Canadian preferences  w h i l e American  which  Hills  and c o l l e c t i v e  however,  much t h a t  to the conclusion  toward  seem t o v i e w  This  h a s made  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n  i n the i n t e r e s t  that  subsystems)  i n h i s discussion  o f Canada,  w i t h no u l t i m a t e  level  in  part  heavily  environment  While  patterns.  adaptive values.  least  one,  by H i l l s  has l e d H i l l s  at  integration  between a r e a s d i f f i c u l t .  studied  literature share  mentioned  o f t h e same t y p e  reveals t h e way  affairs.  integrative  i n other  subsystems.  statements which  conceptions portray  assist  a personality  60 which  characteristically  accommodating, committed  imply  a more-or-less  tending closer  from  result  or ethical  tolerant, (rather  principles),  stance with  a capacity  than  1976:32).  the established  With  t h e communities  high socio-economic  of f l u i d  between  the a i d o f Parsons' reveals  One p o s s i b l e  i n which  status.  a d a p t a t i o n and i n t e r n a l  T h i s seems t o  competing  conflicts  classifications  pattern.  firmly  compassionate,  respect to  to mediate  of integration  i s that  internal  allocation  moral  (Hills,  examination  a relatively on  and compromising,  neutral  and hence,  parties"  deviates  moderate,  c a u t i o u s , c o n s e r v a t i v e , r e a s o n a b l e and calm.  principles,  this  conciliatory,  to abstract,  harmonious,  i s "prudent,  these  In this  that  skill  i n the a p p l i c a t i o n  knowledge o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l commitment  t o academic  educational  states  External  of individual  stresses the  of responsibilities,  deviation  regarding reasons seven  scores.  the types  forlimiting  reasons  the a u t h o r s : included  display  professional  f o r these  standards  goal attainment,  consistently These r e s u l t s  types  differences  concerning  and d e s i r a b l e  may  represent a  o f s t a t e m e n t s may  these  concensus  subsystems. differ.  may b e s u g g e s t e d .  role,  and e x t e r n a l  l o w mean p e r c e n t a g e a n d  made i n t h e s e  (1) may n o t h a v e known t h a t  i n a school principals  processes,  persons.  of contributions certain  methods and  and numerous c o n c e p t i o n s  adaptation, external  pattern-maintenance standard  integrity,  have  i n s t a n c e t h e emphasis  of instructional  processes  area V  schools operate  command o f m a t e r i a l s t a u g h t , a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l processes,  framework a  explanationf o r  pattern-maintenance  resources, the a l l o c a t i o n  con-  Within  contributions  (2) may n o t h a v e  However,  At  least  each  area  c o u l d be  considered  these  61 contributions these of  t o be o f i m p o r t a n c e ,  c o n t r i b u t i o n s because o f a c o n c e n t r a t i o n  contributions,  beyond  the legal  considered want  that  ( 4 ) may h a v e c o n s i d e r e d authority of school  f o r granted.  Several  p l a u s i b l e when r e v i e w i n g  o f these  comparatively  small  or  class functions  individual  approval  principal  i s limited  adaptation). scale  Similarly,  decisions policy board.  Secondly,  school  students  public  through various plays).  resources concern  consultative  criteria  a  school  (external  changes i n t h e the nature  and t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n  may  consider  authority of school  may p e r c e i v e  or shared  tend  to indicate a desire  d e c i s i o n making and a l l o w  f o r parent  L a s t l y , the l e g i t i m a t i o n of the school  of  f o r two  and t h a t  or the l o c a l  policy  of  policy  principals  by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n  percentages  school  Beyond  to students,  and t e a c h e r s  and t e a c h e r s  school  A d d i t i o n a l but  activities,  to acquire  attainment  school  decisions (at  l e v e l ) t o be h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d and a u t h o r i t a t i v e .  integration  influence.  be o b t a i n e d  d e c i s i o n s which  parents  the l e g a l  parents  F o r example,  taxation.  of the approach  goal  highly  a t t a i n m e n t ) may h a v e l o w e r p e r c e n t a g e s  Firstly,  be d e c i d e d  external  f o r these  f o r graduating  t o be beyond  should  policy  ( 6 ) may n o t  certain contributions  sales, school  support  problems  (external goal  reasons.  (i.e.,  i n h i s capacity  q u a l i t y standards  possible  the  and m o r a l  of operations,  priorities  through  types  have  r e a s o n s may b e c o n s i d e r e d  sums o f money may  providing  and  consider  external adaptation,  are p r i m a r i l y supported  ( 5 ) may  t o be d i s c u s s e d ,  external pattern-maintenance statements.  functions  on numerous o t h e r  principals,  (7) may  to mention  c e r t a i n c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o be  c e r t a i n c o n t r i b u t i o n s need  c e r t a i n c o n t r i b u t i o n s made,  taken  and  ( 3 ) may h a v e f o r g o t t e n  The  to promote and  teacher  i n t h e community  62 (external  pattern-maintenance)  responsibility sponsors.  In  policy)  that a  well  any  as  depends,  and  technical  competency  this  instance,  i t may  successful candidate  necessary  academic  special  lists  may  be  cerns  may  represent  interests area.  of  I n an  the  effort  first  examines  priority  The  with  assumed  factor of  (because  of  these  school  board  qualities  set of order  data of  or  results. teachers  community  or  as  i s presented  the  school  order  These  and  priority  district  con-  r a t h e r than  i n two  of  criteria  school  of parent  s u b s y s t e m s by  and  the  i n the  extent  examines  to a u t h o r s h i p  integrate into  parents  neighbourhood,  a d i s c u s s i o n of  the  reputation for  Authors  that authors  a major  s e c o n d method  according  concludes  the  organizations  Between  interests  complete  h e l d by  would possess  to a s c e r t a i n the  the  authorship.  as  a particular  orientations method  interests  identified  the  credentials.  Variation The  be  i n p a r t , on  district  teacher ways.  The  according  subsystems area.  the  to  by  This section  results.  P r i o r i t y of Subsystems A c c o r d i n g to A u t h o r s h i p Data have been assembled concerning results, below  the  order  i n Table  standard Table  authorship.  10.  9.  I n an  effort  of p r i o r i t i e s Table  deviation scores  in a to  format  to r e f l e c t  simplify  an  f o r each a u t h o r s h i p  9 i s s u p p l e m e n t e d by f o r each  patterns  examination group a r e  mean p e r c e n t a g e  subsystem according  of listed and  to a u t h o r s h i p  in  Table The O r d e r Staff  of P r i o r i t i e s  Authorship  1.  Internal  2.  Internal  3. E x t e r n a l  Integration Adaptation Integration  for Staff,  9  Parent  and Combined  A u t h o r s h i p Groups  Parent Authorship  Combined  Authorship  1. E x t e r n a l  Integration  1. E x t e r n a l  Integration  2.  Internal  Pattern-Maintenance  2. I n t e r n a l  Pattern-Maintenance  3.  Internal  Integration  3. I n t e r n a l  Integration  4.  4.  Internal  Goal  Attainment  4.  Internal  Goal  5.  Internal  Pattern-Maintenance  5.  Internal  Adaptation  5. I n t e r n a l  6.  External  Pattern-Maintenance  6. E x t e r n a l  Pattern-Maintenance  6. E x t e r n a l  Pattern-Maintenance  7. E x t e r n a l  Goal  7. E x t e r n a l  Goal  7. E x t e r n a l  Goal  Attainment  8.  Unclassified  8. U n c l a s s i f i e d  9.  External  9.  Adaptation  External  Attainment  Attainment  Adaptation  Internal  Goal  Attainment  Adaptation  Attainment  8. U n c l a s s i f i e d 9. E x t e r n a l  Adaptation  ON U3  Table  10  Mean P e r c e n t a g e a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n R e s u l t s f o r Each Subsystem A c c o r d i n g to A u t h o r s h i p Internal Goal Adaptation Attainment S.D. x % S.D. x%  Internal PatternMaintenance x 7o  Internal Integration — <V S.D. S.D. X /o  Staff N = 23  17.95  7.99  13.72  8.23  12.51  5.75  26.96  Parent N = 21  9.65  8.83  11.35  5.59  17.01  9.46  15.77  8.17  7.89  13.84 12.20 20.43  8.50  Internal  External External Goal Adaptation Attainment x % S.D. x % S.D.  External PatternMaintenance x % S.D.  External Integration x % S.D.  class i f ied X % S.D.  6.04  1.30  2.55  3.96  3.92  6.57  5.57  14.62  2.49  3.90  9.42  1.77  3.80  4.99  6.12  8.00  6.42  28.66 10.73 2.73  5.42  19.71 11.96 1.09  2.43  1.36  2.17  6.67  6.39  27.38  2.07  7.31  Un  Combined Authorship N = 5  5.09  1.31  ON  64 According highest This  priority  to  on  result i s i n contrast criteria  Staff  place  lists  resource parents  integration  and  (staff  influence  attainment and  parent  maintenance the  to  parent  criteria  as  a  priority  placement  and  sidered needs of  The  the  may  as  fifth  children)  lists  i s that  criteria  tangible to  priority (values  priority  f o r each  the  of  of  relation-  Internal on  goal  staff,  internal  values  This  group  internal integration  priority place  while and  importance  and  placement  parent  patterncommitment is in  plausible explanation  for  statements p e r t a i n i n g  to  responsibilities,  satisfaction.  For  r e s u l t s i n on-the-job  recognized  (i.e. belief but  job  priority.  physical  to  sharp  i n the  educational school's  these contributions  may  principalin  teacher,  these  situations. may  philosophy, tend  fifth  authorization  the  values  also  this  skill  relationships, discipline,  to  first  i n t e r n a l pattern-maintenance  a l l o c a t i o n of  related  have  priority.  One  a  in principal-parent  fourth  which place  priority.  commitment  important  external  second  importance  Staff  the  criteria  (a p r i n c i p a l ' s e d u c a t i o n a l  lists  are  third  a  relationship). a  place  (human and  recognize  influence  lists.  principal-parent  contributions  which place  criteria  lists  considered  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the  principal's  staff  recognize  are  second  enforcement  lists  teaching).  (parental  function)  contrast  lists  (principal-staff relationship).  i n s t r u c t i o n ) as  in principal-staff  criteria  instruction,  in  the  authorship  teaching  staff  to  lists  criteria  combined  parent  staff  i n t e r n a l pattern-maintenance  i n that  ships)  above,  ( p r i n c i p a l - p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p ) as  pertaining  significant  10  i n t e r n a l adaptation  emphasize  external  to  allocation, skill  commitment  9 and  internal integration  integration  is  Tables  a.  be  con-  meets t o be  A  the  elusive  65 or v i s i o n a r y . External school  i n the  adaptation priority  community),  criteria  by  Table  area  8  effect can  unclassified  be  staff,  of  external  the  noted  largest  by  external  standard  to  area  the  classifications  internal  staff  and  internal  integration  For  parent  lists than  has  d e v i a t i o n was  on  lists,  staff For  I and  obtained  IV.  lists.  combined lists  exclusion of  than  standard  For  and  example.  has  i n t e g r a t i o n when  i n a lower  from  The  deviation scores  authorship  the  rather  subsystems  (internal  for external integration  resulted  i n areas  The  illustrative  i s mixed.  for internal  parent  analysis).  standard  integration  result  deviation score  authorship  standard  the  an  i n lower  deviation score  combined  lower  c h o s e n as  resulted  and  analysis.  deviation scores  of  e x c l u s i o n of  higher  standard  lists.  to a u t h o r s h i p  percentage  lists,  standard  according  the  similar  authorship  (author  groups however,  a lower  combined  of  external  have r e c e i v e d  10  authorship the  and  Table  a n a l y s i s has  integration  and  comparing  i n t e g r a t i o n ) have been  authorship  in  parent  (legitimation  statements,  analyzing results  ( a r e a a n a l y s i s ) and  containing  criteria  (resource a c q u i s i t i o n ) ,  p l a c e m e n t s on The  than  pattern-maintenance  For  for other  authorship resulted and  a  compared  staff  and  deviation score  external integration  i n areas  I I and  V.  Discussion  desire  on  The  predominant  the  part  schools  and  input.  Teacher  integrative  of p a r t i c i p a n t s  to have p r i n c i p a l s participants  present  to o b t a i n or  adopt  tend  results  to  or maintain suggest  retain a  a p i c t u r e of input  in  t o l e r a n c e to  a higher  percentage  a  local accept of  a  for  66  internal integration c r i t e r i a  ( i . e . i n p u t i n shared d e c i s i o n making, use  of rewards r a t h e r than c o e r c i o n , e t c . ) , w h i l e p a r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s to suggest  a h i g h e r percentage  tend  of e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a ( i . e .  i n p u t p e r t a i n i n g to p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s ) . Teacher  p a r t i c i p a n t s do n o t concern  themselves  e x c l u s i v e l y with  i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a and parent p a r t i c i p a n t s do not concern exclusively with external i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a .  One  themselves  Considerable  i s g i v e n to e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a  internal  attention  respectively.  p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e aware o f each o t h e r s  r o l e i n the e d u c a t i o n a l development o f c h i l d r e n .  For example, parents  may b e l i e v e t h a t a 'good' s c h o o l i s one i n which p e r s o n n e l a r e motivated to performance through are made.  i n t h e ' T i g h t n e s s ' o f the d e c i s i o n s t h a t  A manager who a p p l i e s i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n  ( a c c o r d i n g to Parsons) through  a belief  g o a l attainment  procedures  can a c h i e v e t h i s aim w h i l e m o t i v a t i o n s o l e l y procedures  ( a u t h o r i z a t i o n and enforcement) may  produce a d y s f u n c t i o n a l environment.  C o n v e r s e l y , t e a c h e r s may b e l i e v e  t h a t p a r e n t a l b e l i e f i n the ' T i g h t n e s s ' o f the a c t i o n s taken a t s c h o o l (i.e. actions are consistent with parental expectations) are c r i t i c a l f o r a s u c c e s s f u l 'follow-up' a t home. interest  I t may be s t a t e d t h a t each  group i s aware o f the importance  o f the o t h e r but t h i s aware-  ness i s u s u a l l y s u b o r d i n a t e to t h e i r own i n t e g r a t i v e concerns.  An  e x c e p t i o n to t h i s p a t t e r n appears where parent and t e a c h e r authors a r e combined i n t o one group f o r the purpose o f g e n e r a t i n g c r i t e r i a . case the order of p r i o r i t i e s to the o r d e r o f p r i o r i t i e s  f o r combined a u t h o r s h i p l i s t s  f o r parent a u t h o r s h i p l i s t s .  In t h i s  i s identical  Two p o s s i b l e  e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s s i m i l a r i t y a r e t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e l e s s w i l l i n g to  67 voice  their  influenced  opinions by  A external  parent  integration  be  attributed  standard  tends  regard  attributed  of  to  by  by  to  the  an  more i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h can  groups or  patterns  and  authors.  an  emphasis  area  the  groups  useful  of  priorities  area 12,  are 13,  14,  15  An the  the  area  below  of  of  integration  to  these  are  closer  subsystems parents  to  than  tend  external integration  Between A u t h o r s  for this  purpose,  p a t t e r n s and  to s i m p l i f y  i n Table  to  be  than  By  Area  to determine areas  these  and  methods  variations  within  and  discuss  groups  of  are authorship  areas.  an  examination  group  11.  of  according  Table  11  results,  to s c h o o l  the  order  district  i s s u p p l e m e n t e d by  Tables  16. of Tables  internal  they work or  i s consistently  11,  integration  external integration  i n which  authors  and  by  examination  importance  importance  effort  and  be  analysis.  f o r each a u t h o r s h i p  listed  to  for internal  Similarly,  given  to s c h o o l d i s t r i c t  Ordering of P r i o r i t i e s A u t h o r and A r e a I n an  to  between s c h o o l d i s t r i c t  f o r examining  according  given  s e c t i o n s were d e s i g n e d  variations  insufficient  that s t a f f  analysis.  emphasis  area  preceding  Although  are w i l l i n g  deviation scores  indicate  Variation The  teachers  opinions.  comparison  agreement w i t h w o u l d be  i n mixed  12,  13,  for staff  f o r parent  live.  placed at  14,  For  and  16  participants  participants  staff  a higher  15  and  the  r e g a r d l e s s of  participants, priority  indicates  than  internal external  Table The  Order  11  o f P r i o r i t i e s f o r S t a f f , P a r e n t and Combined A u t h o r s h i p A c c o r d i n g to School D i s t r i c t A r e a  Groups  3  Group Staff  Parents  Area  I  Internal  Area I  Internal  Area I  III  Internal  Area  A  External I I n t e r n a l GA I n t e r n a l PM Internal A External PM External GA Unclassified External A  Internal I I n t e r n a l PM External I I n t e r n a l GA External GA External A (External PM) (Unclassified)  External  I  External  External  Internal Internal  I PM  Internal I I n t e r n a l PM I n t e r n a l GA Internal A External PM Unclassified  External  A  External Internal Internal Internal  I PM GA I  (Internal  A)  (External (External  A) GA)  External External 0  I  A GA  Lists  ties  0  Lists  PM)  Area I  in  emphasis.  V  1 List  Only  External I Internal A I n t e r n a l PM I n t e r n a l GA External GA External PM External A Unclassified Internal  PM  External  External Internal Internal External  I I GA PM  Internal A I n t e r n a l PM I n t e r n a l GA External GA Internal I External PM External A Unclassified  Internal A External GA ( E x t e r n a l A) (Unclassified) External Internal Internal  I I PM  Internal External  A PM  Internal  GA  External GA Unclassified External A  (External PM) (Unclassified) Subsystems w i t h b r a c k e t s i n d i c a t e  I  I n t e r n a l PM Internal I Internal A I n t e r n a l GA External GA Unclassified ( E x t e r n a l A) (External  IV  Internal  Internal GA Internal A External I I n t e r n a l PM External PM Unclassified External GA External A  I n t e r n a l GA External PM Internal A External GA Unclassified  Combined  II  0  Lists  I  Table Mean P e r c e n t a g e  Internal  Internal Goal  Adaptation Attainment x % S.D. X A S.D.  12  and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n S c o r e s f o r E a c h A c c o r d i n g to Authorship i n Area I  Internal PatternMaintenance —- a/ S.D. x 7o  Internal Integration x % S.D.  External Goal  External  Adaptation Attainment S.D. x % S.D. X /o  Subsystem  External PatternMaintenance x % S.D.  External Integration S.D. x %  Unclassified x % S.D.  Staff N = 10  15.91  6.84  16.81  9.05  10.27  5.02  28.56  6.11  .82  1.92  2.34  2.60  8.26  2.98  12.66  4.31  4.98  Parents N = 8  5.54  5.08  13.06 4.53  13.38  4.97  19.14  7.90  1.06  1.96  4.63  6.88  11.43  8.25  27.49 10.11 4.21  7.45  Combined Authorship N = 2  0  0  24.16 12.96 29.16  5.89  15.00  0  0  0  0  31.66  0  21.21 0  0  6.89  2.35  0  ON vO  Table Mean P e r c e n t a g e  Internal Internal  Goal Adaptation Attainment O/ S.D. X Yo S.D. x % Staff N = 3 Parents N = 3  13  and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n A c c o r d i n g to A u t h o r s h i p  Internal Pattern-  Internal  Scores f o r Each i n Area II  External  External Goal  Maintenance oy S.D. X /o  Integration S.D. x %  Adaptation Attainment S.D. x % S.D. x %  Subsystem  External Pattern-  External  Un-  Maintenance x % S.D.  Integration S.D. x %  classified oy S.D. X h  14.96  6.21  18.06  3.73  16.82  6.04  22.82  5.01  0  0  3.03  2.63  4.61  4.54  18.20  .82  1.44  2.50  7.83  7.44  10.79  8.35  15.08  6.36  15.73  8.98  3.70  6.41  3.33  5.77  7.46  3.32  31.46  2.87  4.56  5.05  Table 14 Mean P e r c e n t a g e  I n t e l:nal Adapts i t i o n S.D. x %  I n t e lr n a l Goc i l A t t a i i lment x  and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n According to Authorship  %  S.D.  I n t e l:nal P a t t ei r n Mainte m a n c e S.D. x 7o  Scores f o r Each i n Area I I I  Subsystem  Integi ration S.D. x Vo  Exte ; r n a l Extei rnal Exte i r n a l Gc >al P a t t ej r n Extei rnal Adap;: a t i o n A t t a : .nment M a i n t e j n a n c e I n t e g i r a t i o n oy x % S.D. x % S.D. x 7o S.D. x % S.D.  Ui l classj i f i e d x % S.D.  2.66  4.61  3.71  3.57  0  0  8.33  11.78  I n t e l:nal  Staff N = 3  31.42  7.56  5.52  4.79  13.42  5.47  27.14  7.95  Parents N = 2  13.33  4.70  11.66  4.71  17.50  10.60  16.66  11.78  1.90  3.29  12.28  8.74  1.90  3.29  0  0  27.50  3.53  5.00  7.07  Table Mean P e r c e n t a g e  Internal  Staff N = 6 Parents N = 4  Internal Goao  and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n According to Authorship  Internal Pattern-  Scores f o r Each i n A r e a IV External  Subsystem  Internal Integration x % S.D.  Goal Adaptation Attainment S.D. x 7o x % S.D.  External PatternMaintenance x % S.D.  Integration x % S.D.  6.29  27.39  1.27  26.41 15.81  18.67  Adaptation Attainment O/ S.D. S.D. X h x%  Maintenance x % S.D.  14.77  4.85  12.12  12.31  4.86  5.72  11.83 8.24  13.62  3.62  6.60  15  5.82  External  11.16 0  External  Unclassified S.D. x %  2.50  7.25  5.36  7.15  9.29  16.99  9.65  0  3.81  5.24  8.57  2.99  25.81  9.68  0  0  3.14  2.27  2.53 11.12  2.77  24.52  4.30  2.19  2.40  .69  1.69  Combined Authorship N = 3  6.96  6.05  14.60  .36 22.85  4.94  1.81  Table Mean P e r c e n t a g e  16  and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n According to Authorship  Internal Internal Goal Adaptation Attainment x % S.D. x % S.D.  Maintenance x % S.D.  x %  Staff N = 1  22.44  4.08  20.40  20.40  6.12  4.08  Student N = 1  13.79  13.79  20.68  17.24  3.44  6.89  Parent N = 4  22.20 9.21  Unknown Authors N = 2 13.71  7.73  Internal Pattern-  Scores f o r Each i n Area V  Internal Integration  3.60  16.07  8.18  5.76  .79 12.40 2.65  24.81  5.31  21.23  S.D.  6.76  External External Goal Adaptation Attainment x % S.D. x % S.D.  4.41  .26 0  Subsystem  External Pattern-  External Integration x % S.D.  Unclassified x % S.D.  6.12  16.34  0  10.34  10.34  3.44  Maintenance x % S.D.  6.28  6.48  5.32  4.98  0  1.31  1.85  7.51  3.65  32.32 19.62 0  .53 15.03  1.06  3.94  0  5.57  74 integration.  The  ranges  i n emphasis  percent  to s i x t e e n  percent.  pattern  but  from  Instead,  depart  internal  approximately  placing  parents,  higher  priority  extend  from  internal  than  parent  participants  this  percent  this  position  emphasis  than  external integration.  attributed  to a c u l t u r a l  characterized internal  by  I,  a large  of  I I and  this V.  emphasis  ever,  subsystem  this  consistent placement  as  depart  in  placed at  Parent  high third  i n area  perhaps  emphasis by  IV  external  greater be  area which i s emphasis  on  consistency i n  i s maintained  criteria  a c c o r d i n g to s t a f f  Area  percent  I I I but  priority  a  emphasis  placing  seven  population.  i s given a lower  integration.  pattern-maintenance  i n this  a  receives  from  internal  pattern-maintenance  across areas  emphasis  i n fourth of  these  priority  authorization, areas  subsystem  priority.  do  not  receive  participants.  staff  t h a n by  in  How-  parents  a l l areas. Parent  staff  ranges  this  first  i s consistently  parents  i s also  Internal  consistent  across  Oriental  a  and  T h i s e m p h a s i s may  b i a s h e l d by  follow  internal  receives approximately  pattern-maintenance  the placement areas  and  than  as  four  to t w e n t y - s i x p e r c e n t .  Instead,  occupies  participants  The  p a t t e r n but  priority.  approximately  position  integration.  eight  follow  a first  this  g r e a t e r emphasis  internal  from  integration  external integration  approximately  as  III staff  adaptation occupies  four percent  For  integration  Area  extend  I and  II.  on  internal  position  criteria  placement enforcement  goal attainment  f o r areas  in fifth  i n areas  I,  I I , IV  position  I I I and  measures and  IV.  and  i n area The  discipline  criteria V.  The  is priority  I I I corresponds  staff  concern  however,  to  for  i s higher i n  75 The greatly  variable.  participants than  do  emphasis  However, one  place  parent  attributed  a  to  internal  apparent  pattern  consistently higher  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the  adaptation i s that  priority  same s c h o o l  criteria  on  the  these  district  is  staff  contributions  area.  Discussion An  examination  district  area  patterns  which  on  internal  in  cross  school  criteria  that  that  no  combined  As two  criteria  a  ordered  to  place  fifth  of  areas.  priority  of  could  emphasis In  fact  on  and  i n e a c h a r e a w o u l d be to  this  argument  identical.  positions.  However, internal  second  percentage  to  goals  on  are  be  example,  area  to  clearly  for staff,  held  school,  difficult  A wide v a r i a t i o n For  the  i n each  i t can  emphasis  external  observer  commitment  school  staff  the high  expectations  time and  by  authorship  example,  l e a d an  percentage emphasis  and  For  parent  apparent.  several  subsystem p r i o r i t i e s  groups are  32.32).  ( a r e a V)  or  response  lists  similar  (31.46,  adaptation  group,  strong  authorship  second  parents  and  statements  investments  f o r authors  emergence o f  district  i s readily  each a u t h o r s h i p  justify.  subsystems  t h a t many e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s ,  common a n d  with  the  r e s u l t e d i n the  integrative criteria  conclusion  ordered  integration criteria  integration of  has  of  shown  parent occurs  V  and  or in  area  external integration  priority  i n t e g r a t i o n (area  placement II)  of  internal  represent  radical  departures. The at  a higher  implementing h a v e an  p a r e n t a l p a t t e r n of p l a c i n g i n t e r n a l  priority "ideal"  inability  to  than  teachers  educational find  may  be  due  philosophies.  practical  II  t o an  pattern-maintenance attraction  for  T e a c h e r s however,  a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r these  concepts  may in  76 the  classroom.  internal  adaptation  materials  taught,  instructional in  T h i s may e x p l a i n t h e h i g h e r criteria  skill  securing student  and i n t e r n a l  cooperation,  Using  describe,  statistical  summarize and r e d u c e  reproduced  been l i m i t e d  employed  lists.  to reduce  (success  of goals).  Individual  Examples above,  details  serve  as a t o o l to  t h e l a r g e masses o f interpreta-  must b e o b t a i n e d  The f i n d i n g s o f t h r e e  f o r the purpose o f d e s c r i p t i o n .  i n an e f f o r t  criteria  reduction f a c i l i t a t e s  that s p e c i f i c  of i n d i v i d u a l  below  attainment  i n the attainment  Some  this  command o f  knowledge o f  t o a manageable form  While  i t must b e a s s e r t e d  examinations  success  Lists:  methods  d a t a w h i c h were o b t a i n e d . tion,  processes,  goal  placements f o r  allocation,  t h e Framework t o A n a l y z e School  The  (responsibility  i n instructional  processes)  priority  This  from  l i s t s are  s e l e c t i o n has  repetition.  I n d i v i d u a l School L i s t s IV-9(b)staff, I-l(a)-staff, II-1-staff The the by  order Parsons  presented  rank order  of priorities and H i l l s .  o f subsystems by percentage among t h e e i g h t f u n c t i o n a l  The r a n k o r d e r  o f subsystems  below.  LIST: IV-9(b) AUTHORS: Staff Rank O r d e r  o f Subsystems by  Percentage:  1. 2. 3.  External integration Internal integration I n t e r n a l pattern-maintenance  34.61 30.76 15.38  4. 5.  Internal adaptation I n t e r n a l goal attainment  7.69 7.69  6.  E x t e r n a l pattern-maintenance  3.84  i s considered  problems forlist  to be  as d e s c r i b e d IV-9(b) i s  77 Subsystems Not  Mentioned:  External adaptation External goal attainment U n c l a s s i f i e d statements Criteria  concerning  statements w r i t t e n . development  of  significant  the  children.  'Tightness' parental  an  established  i t may  held  of  be  staff  compromise i n  external to  that  i n the  for successful  This  p r i n c i p a l ' s r o l e as  school  is  staff's education  belief  in  the  ( i . e . actions are consistent  pattern  past.  interpersonal  parental  integration criteria  authorship  the  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  advocate  is crucial  the  a l l the  to  integration first  signify  parental  may  65.37 o f  essentially pertain  taken a t s c h o o l  external  the  of  teachers  involvement  importance the  of  expectations) of  and  placement  o f actions  placement  tolerance  importance  Here,  The  parental  The  i n that  awareness of of  These statements  harmony,  relationships.  i n t e g r a t i o n represent  and  'follow-up'  first  may  is a  signify  p l a c e m e n t may  a mediator with  at  home.  departure  a  lack  also  from  of  stress  school  with  the  parents  in  future. Internal  integration tolerance these  integration criteria  criteria.  and  compromise  interpersonal  committees,  which  staff,  the  to m o t i v a t e  staff  The  d e c i s i o n making  e x h i b i t t r u s t and  use  of  influence  toward  third  also  in interpersonal  r e l a t i o n s h i p s are  collegial  activities and  These statements  follow  the  category,  c l o s e l y behind  pertain  to  harmony,  relationships.  manifested (meaningful  confidence  (rewards) r a t h e r  performance of  through  their  For  the  teachers,  staff  decisions),  between  external  various  principal  t h a n power respective  i n t e r n a l pattern-maintenance,  and  (coercion) roles. concerns  the  78 principal's teaching  value  functions.  (1977:3) s t a t e s  the  running  that  Appropriateness  of  conception  Commitment t o a c a d e m i c of p r e p a r a t i o n .  4.  Commitment  difficult  superintendents  criteria  types  of c r i t e r i a The  internal  related  a range  taught,  skill  resources  allocation pertain ensure  position  which  and  standards  of  students.  of  "protecting"  a m a j o r i t y of  or and  lists  in relation  to  other  internal  adaptation  adaptation  and  criteria  i n c l u d e a command o f m a t e r i a l s procedures,  throughout  Internal  enforcement  of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  to s e c u r i n g the  by  instructional  responsibilities.  attainment  ments p e r t a i n  the  predominant.  Internal  the p r i n c i p a l )  to a u t h o r i z a t i o n the  of  teachers, p r i n c i p a l s  However,  are not  statements.  interests  Indeed,  function.  knowledge of  (including  of  the nature  importance  i s occupied  of a c t i v i t i e s  and  the  statements  goal attainment  concern  include:  desirable i n the r e l e v a n t  professional  the  for parents,  students.  to t h i s  these  fourth  of  and  enhance  to d i s m i s s  interests  state  integrity  t o p r o t e c t and  w o u l d be  the  and  class.  3.  "enhancing"  defining  of classrooms  these values  2.  school  the  goals.  cooperation of  allocation  s c h o o l and  goal attainment o f measures  the  the  criteria  deemed n e c e s s a r y  Most o f t e n these  students  through  to  state-  disciplin-  action. External  tion  Hills  i t p e r t a i n s to  A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of c o n c e p t i o n d e f i n i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t e of the i n d i v i d u a l person area.  It  ary  as  1.  desirable  of  system  of  the  individuals  pattern-maintenance  s c h o o l i n the  community.  statements  concern  These statements  reputation for responsibility,  or  the  pertain  integrity,  or  legitimato  an  attainment  of  university  is  a guarantor A  for  the  category  For  list  the  volunteer  help  from the  the  approach  to  ing  students,  in this and  the area  of  the  this  list  no  appear.  that  the  school.  do  not  s t a t e m e n t s were and  necessary  external  changes the  i n the  the  nature  determination i s contrary  to  and of  concerns  s c a l e of  goal  the  A  expressed  in  of  this  making of  standards  priorities.  school  acquisition  operations,  quality  ideas  "unclassi-  f o r c a r r y i n g out  concern  attainment  on  criteria  community w o u l d h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d goal  developed  appear  External adaptation  facilities  principal  m e n t i o n e d " was  statements which  statements which  students,  and  character  others  external adaptation  of  External concern  assure  " c a t e g o r i e s not  In  d i d not  example,  which  integration  lists.  acquisition For  fide  entitled  IV-9(b),  classification. decisions  bona  identifying  criteria  functions.  autonomy  the  criteria  attainment concern  of  purpose of  individual fied."  c r e d e n t i a l s which would  policy  problems for  of  graduat-  principal's i n the  internal  external integration categories.  LIST: I-l(a) AUTHORS: Staff Rank O r d e r o f  S u b s y s t e m s by  Percentage:  1. 2. 3.  Internal integration External integration Unclassified  4. 5. 6.  External pattern-maintenance I n t e r n a l pattern-maintenance I n t e r n a l goal attainment  S u b s y s t e m s Not Internal External External  36.00 24.00 16.00 12.00 8.00 4.00  Mentioned:  adaptation adaptation goal attainment For  comparison  purposes  List  I - l ( a ) may  be  considered  similar  80 to  List  IV-9(b)  classified  in  the  The of  over  integration  third  position  t e r m s w h i c h do  t o make.  A  complete  Chapter  not  fourth  i s occupied  legitimation  the  of  individuals  principal Public  of  criteria  of  relatively  as  a  may  be  high  r e s u l t of  contribution  that  the  percentage  utilizing principal is  u n c l a s s i f i e d s t a t e m e n t s was  I-l(a).  of  activities  for  supplied  The  bona  fide character  may  also  be  m a k i n g any  allocation  of  fluid  absence of  external policy  contribution.  Together,  of  contributions resources goal  or  (value  has  the  List  not  of  the  in this  and  the pertain or that  statements  category.  with  teaching)  account  for  may  terms of  not the  criteria  would  been c o n s i d e r e d  entirely  from  conceive  of  acquisition  indicate as  a  the  or  Similarly,  the  that  possible  the  only  I-l(a).  this l i s t  the  school.  enforcement) occupy  been e l i m i n a t e d  in  others  associated  responsibilities.  attainment  decisions  classified  (authorization  authors  integrity,  which would a s s u r e  s u b s y s t e m has  staff  concern  These statements  the  a l l s t a t e m e n t s on  pattern-mainten-  statements  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , or  pattern-maintenance  adaptive  external  community.  credentials  sixth positions.  The  making of  occur  the  i n the  i s a guarantor of  twelve percent  principal  the  a  pattern-maintenance  school  university  relations  and  may  by  i s o c c u p i e d by  i n t e r n a l goal-attainment  fifth  List  specify  reputation  Internal and  This  position  External  attainment  of  subsystem.  explanation  ance c r i t e r i a .  an  percent  4. The  to  fifty  u n c l a s s i f i e d statements.  vague  in  i n that  the  81 LIST: I I - l AUTHORS: Staff Rank O r d e r 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 4. 4.  o f Subsystem by  Internal adaptation Internal goal attainment Internal integration External integration Internal pattern-maintenance E x t e r n a l goal attainment Unclassified  Categories External External  Not  this  section.  the f i r s t  attainment Internal  I I - l r e p r e s e n t s an e x c e p t i o n to o t h e r Internal  position.  criteria  or external integration Rather,  internal  appear w i t h  the a l l o c a t i o n  Internal  enforcement  goal attainment  o f measures  organizational  goals.  of  statements  present  an  individual  who  educational  i s concerned  percentages. which i n c l u d e  the p r i n c i p a l )  pertain  ( i . e . who  to ensure  statements  disciplinary  through-  decides  t o a u t h o r i z a t i o n and the attainment of  pertain action.  to securing These  on t h e p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l s t a f f with  goal  the "effectiveness"  types  to o b t a i n  of the  process.  From a n o t h e r individual  criteria  through  a desire  do n o t a p p e a r  of a c t i v i t i e s  of responsibility  o f t e n these  co-operation of students  individual  (including  considered necessary Most  criteria  presented i n  and knowledge o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l  of resources  t h e s c h o o l , and t h e a l l o c a t i o n  what).  a range  skill  lists  a d a p t a t i o n and i n t e r n a l  the largest  concern  o f m a t e r i a l s taught,  processes,  the  Mentioned:  adaptation c r i t e r i a  a command  out  21.74 21.74 17.39 17.39 13.04 4.34 4.34  adaptation pattern-maintenance List  in  Percentage:  effect  p o i n t o f view,  of internal  t h e combined  rather  and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n  than  criteria  would  82 indicate (i.e.  the integrative  integration  would be expected  criteria. pertains  which  to the running  graduating of  staff-principal  statements 21.74,  and p a r e n t -  t o l e r a n c e and compromise  by i n t e r n a l  the p r i n c i p a l  i s occupied  the approach  concerning  value  system asi t  by e x t e r n a l g o a l  These statements  concern  to students,  the nature  i s given  pattern-maintenance  and t e a c h i n g f u n c t i o n s .  the making of  of standards f o r  of priorities.  relatively  attainment  problems a s s o c i a t e d  and q u a l i t y  and t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n  role  Activities  criteria  concern  to students,  the p r i n c i p a l ' s  legitimation  i s occupied  statements.  students,  of  occasions.  fourth position  the approach  types  26.08, a d a p t a t i o n  harmony,  of classrooms  d e c i s i o n s w h i c h may a l t e r with  stress  position  These statements  unclassified  a l l other  Consequently,  o n numerous  third  The and  13.04).  interactions  The  exceed  34.78, g o a l a t t a i n m e n t  pattern-maintenance principal  criteria  This  aspect  low emphasis.  the a c q u i s i t i o n  of resources  and t h e  o f t h e s c h o o l i n t h e community were n o t m e n t i o n e d on  List  II-l.  Summary In  an a n a l y s i s o f a l l l i s t s ,  mean p e r c e n t a g e received  r e c e i v e d a mean p e r c e n t a g e  areas.  Goal  received a  criteria  attainment  o f 16.81 p e r c e n t .  Adaptive  o f 14.80 p e r c e n t .  general pattern continued  to school d i s t r i c t  criteria  Pattern-maintenance  o f 22.99 p e r c e n t .  r e c e i v e d a mean p e r c e n t a g e This  according  percent.  a mean p e r c e n t a g e  contributions criteria  o f 42.79  integration  i n an a n a l y s i s  of  lists  Two m a j o r p a t t e r n s w e r e  observed.  83 Firstly,  integrative  priority  position.  adaptation heavy  An  received  staff  integration  however,  d i d not  external  goal  An  at  Thirdly,  within  internal  goal  participants. of  than  these patterns  was  or  III  later  second  i n which  internal  attributed  contributions.  Secondly,  external  first  i n area  were u s u a l l y  closely  to  Internal grouped.  external  a and  This  adaptation,  pattern-maintenance  placed  external  criteria  Parent  internal integration  placed  and  participants  contributions. no  two  tended by  to  placing Lastly,  priority  lists  Secondly, contribu-  priorities  criteria the  emphasis i t was  at  contributions.  higher  reduce  were  staff  integration  internal adaptation  these contributions  existed  placed  school  contributions  contributions.  external  participants  to  Firstly,  than i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n  staff  attainment  according  observations.  integration  consistently  areas,  patterns  in distinct  priority  pattern-maintenance  of  authorship  consistently  a higher  importance  of  resulted  participants  types  i n a r e a V. and  This  a  frequency.  analysis  higher p r i o r i t y  tions  these  occupied  occurred  priority.  priorities  occur  least  areas  participants  parent  first  attainment  appeared with  usually  exception  emphasis on  external  district  criteria  on  noted  than  parent  relative internal that  identical.  on  while  a  CHAPTER 6  SUMMARY AND  CONCLUSIONS  Summary This conceptual the  study  addressed  the problem o f applying a  framework f o r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  investigation  of the nature  lists  criteria  statements  obtained  from a p o p u l a t i o n o f f i f t y - t w o  schools.  f o r the principalship. which  for  Predominant were examined  authorship  criteria forty-two  percent  classifications criteria percent  each.  subsystem order  lists  developed  were c l a s s i f i e d  fifteen  i n thirty-eight  according  to the  and v a r i a t i o n s  useful  school  district  in priority area,  of a l l l i s t s  revealed  that  integrative  the greatest p r o p o r t i o n of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s the highest  c r i t e r i a represented  the lowest  The p r e s e n c e revealed  were  by a r e a .  a t twenty-two p e r c e n t .  represented  and  staff  a s t h e m a t e r i a l t o be c l a s s i f i e d  to a l l l i s t s ,  but presented  Pattern-maintenance  and  and  of c r i t e r i a .  according  examination  represented  The s i x hundred  subsystems and p a t t e r n s  and a u t h o r s h i p The  i n parent  P a r s o n s w h i c h was d e s c r i b e d a n d c o n s i d e r e d  the a n a l y s i s of l i s t s  lists  served  A l l c r i t e r i a statements  framework o f T a l c o t t  of c r i t e r i a statements  and v a r i a t i o n  criteria  suitable  standard  the second Adaptation  percentage  the p o s s i b i l i t y  84  deviation scores. largest  group o f  and g o a l  of classifications  of the integration  and  at  attainment at sixteen  pattern-maintenance  that according  to stated  85 criteria school to  a principal's  contributions with  philosophies, educational values  c o n t r i b u t i o n s which portray  compromise,  reasonableness  relationships. external  Low  adaptation,  external goal  and t e a c h i n g  i n internal  attainment  among p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t a c t i v i t i e s  within  external  i n t e g r a t i o n a t twenty-one p e r c e n t  Unclassified  statements  second  place  tolerance,  and e x t e r n a l scores f o r  to represent  patterna  subsystems  few c o n t r i b u t i o n s w i t h  the school.  classifications  take  and e x t e r n a l  these  contributions.  criteria  Very  tended  priority  outside  qualifications,  d e v i a t i o n and p e r c e n t a g e  maintenance subsystem c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  recommended  to  prudence, moderation,  and harmony  standard  regard  concensus a r e low  the exception  of a l l classifications  As a r e s u l t ,  sixty-five  percent  of were  of a l l  referred to internal contributions. accounted  f o r two a n d o n e - h a l f  percent  of a l l  classifications. The concentrated mentioned school  district  p a t t e r n which to  area,  An e x c e p t i o n  ranked  areas,  the  least  external tions  occurred  attainment.  according  with  external goal  V lists  according  as a f i r s t  where  to school  s u b s y s t e m was  V  least  internal  attainment  to  order  the m a j o r i t y o f A  district  second area  related  o r no m e n t i o n b y p a r t i c i p a n t s .  The s e c o n d  In area  classified  ranked  area  frequently  as a second p r i o r i t y .  received l i t t l e  subsystem.  district  and l e a s t  of l i s t s  i n area  the external adaptation  goal  to school  integrative criteria  emerged on l i s t s  mentioned  tied  On t h e m a j o r i t y  integrative criteria  subsystems which  all  according  upon most f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d  subsystems.  concern. lists  a n a l y s i s of data  Over  c o n s i s t e n t l y ranked  as  mentioned  was  subsystem  integration classifica-  classifications  as a  second  86 least  mentioned  mentioned  subsystem.  s u b s y s t e m was  pattern-maintenance The staff  lists  (principal-staff lists  which  as  a  as  visionary.  for  job  but  integration  (parental  influence  and  Staff  lists while  teachers,  adaptation  third lists  the  priority  pattern-maintenance,  criteria  received  was  the  of  to  parent  emphasized  a principal's  may  and  also  commitment  tend  to  have a  the  physical  attainment  greater  g r o u p was  importance  of  relevance considered  of  external  internal integration Internal  authorship  priorities  internal integration  by for  the  external on  list  staff  parent  of  priority author  goal  and  be  be  (human and  i n t e r n a l goal  f o r each  placements  groups were combined  analysis  that  internal  parents  u n c l a s s i f i e d and  similar priority  parent  revealed  in principal-parent-relationships)  Where a u t h o r s h i p  of  external  (principal-parent  criteria  recognized  importance  external  importance  and  ( i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e ) may  in principal-staff relationship).  An  least  integration  placed  e n f o r c e m e n t ) may  influence  recognized  i d e n t i c a l to  third  i n contrast  criteria  in instruction)  The  staff  internal  these contributions  Internal  satisfaction.  lists  for  authorship  r e s u l t was  priority For  to  on  integration  values  authorization  i n that  This  a second  allocation, skill  significant  parent  according  priority.  educational  elusive  (discipline,  position  internal adaptation  priority  criteria.  important,  resource  lists  highest  first  considered or  of  external  criteria  recognized  between  relationship).  pattern-maintenance to  priority  criteria.  the  placed  relationship) adaptation  split  analysis  placed  The  and  (staff  attainment,  adaptation and  staff  subsystem  lists.  priorities  list. area  reaffirmed  participants  and  the  the  87  importance  o f e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n f o r parent p a r t i c i p a n t s r e g a r d l e s s o f  the a r e a i n which they l i v e o r work.  Area I I I s t a f f  participants  f o l l o w e d t h i s p a t t e r n but p l a c e d i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n as a f i r s t priority.  Parent emphasis on i n t e r n a l pattern-maintenance  (values of  teaching) was h i g h e r than the emphasis a t t r i b u t e d by t e a c h e r s . emphasis was most apparent  This  i n area IV where parents p l a c e d a f i r s t  p r i o r i t y on i n t e r n a l pattern-maintenance.  Parent emphasis on i n t e r n a l  g o a l attainment c r i t e r i a was c o n s i s t e n t i n f o u r t h p o s i t i o n f o r areas I , II,  IV and V.  The p r i o r i t y placement  p o s i t i o n i n area I I I corresponds III  and IV.  o f these c r i t e r i a  in fifth  to s t a f f p r i o r i t y placement  i n areas  The s t a f f concern f o r g o a l attainment measures i s h i g h e r i n  areas I and I I .  The emphasis a t t r i b u t e d  is greatly variable.  to i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n c r i t e r i a  However, one apparent p a t t e r n i s t h a t  p a r t i c i p a n t s p l a c e a c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r p r i o r i t y on these than do parent p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the same s c h o o l d i s t r i c t  staff contributions  area.  Conclusions The  t h r e e purposes  d e s c r i b e Parsons'  of t h i s study were:  1) to understand and  framework so as to be a b l e to a c c u r a t e l y i n t e r p r e t  each o f i t s components; 2) to determine whether the framework was such as to permit a meaningful  a n a l y s i s o f the l i s t s  of c r i t e r i a ;  and 3) to  employ the framework i n an a n a l y s i s o f the c r i t e r i a so as to g a i n i n s i g h t s i n t o the n a t u r e o f the c r i t e r i a and any v a r i a t i o n among the various l i s t s .  These purposes were a c h i e v e d .  The purpose c r i t e r i a was p a r t i a l l y  o f employing  the framework i n the a n a l y s i s o f the  l i m i t e d by f o u r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n problems.  First,  88 c r i t e r i a which to  make c o u l d  d i d not specify n o t be c l a s s i f i e d  Statements which category.  lacked  The second  specificity  the contribution according  specificity  problematic  of c r i t e r i a  factor  statements.  subsystem i n which a c o n t r i b u t i o n whether  were  i t i s to be designated  which  to Parsons'  i n an u n c l a s s i f i e d  pertains  to the degree o f  Here,  a criterion  exclusively  t o s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h made r e f e r e n c e  inference  recognized  that  problem which  these  A  of c r i t e r i a result  of s t a f f  (goal  by a r e a ,  statements.  attitudes criteria This  placed  in  concerned Parsons  and  integration  t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between statements.  Thought  would be enhanced by i m p r o v i n g t h e  interest  concerns  internal adaptation of parent  or prospective  lists  may b e e x p l a i n e d  t o be h i g h l y  criteria external internal  only.  The h i g h  i n part  who may  integrative  i n d i v i d u a l s who h a v e a n i n t e r e s t  On a  and  by a r e a  integration  participants  place-  criteria.  i n t e r n a l pattern-maintenance  criteria  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n processes  the p r i o r i t y  pattern-maintenance  integration,  on i n t e g r a t i v e  may a t t r a c t  factor  framework.  i n criteria  On a m a j o r i t y  of participants  aspect  classifica-  to contributions  attainment  p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e was p r e c e d e d b y e x t e r n a l priority  exclusive  external  statements.  were p r e c e d e d by i n t e r n a l integration  skills  and i n t e r n a l  lists  problematic  Consequently,  of particular  ments o f i n t e g r a t i o n  prohibited  conceptual  may b e c o n f u s e d  and communication  specificity  majority  and P a r s o n s '  intertwined.  contributions  processes  The f o u r t h  power a n d i n f l u e n c e  s u b s y s t e m s ) were  imply the  as an i n t e r n a l o r  tion  classifier  may  i s t o o c c u r b u t i t may n o t i n d i c a t e  The t h i r d  more t h a n o n e s u b s y s t e m .  framework.  grouped  contribution. pertained  t h e i n d i v i d u a l was  by the  recognize  i n nature.  i n integrative  89 concerns.  Consequently,  unrepresentative teachers. tend  considered teacher parent  of the concerns  However,  to i n d i c a t e  that the process  a valued  p r a c t i c e by  groups were combined priority  list.  teachers  a less The  also  of i d e n t i f y i n g  the p r i o r i t y  groups  inhibited  of integrative  list  suggests  be e x p l a i n e d i n t h a t t h i s  order  may  necessary  f o r the p r i n c i p a l s h i p .  parent, (routine in  teacher  technical  a j o b may  based  i s that everyday  activities  be o v e r l o o k e d .  responsibilities  - internal Failure  i n job requirements  on e x p e c t a t i o n s  response  r a t h e r than  kinds  may  result  be and  to allow  and v a l u e s . subsystems  the kinds o f or  c o n c e n t r a t i n g on  to d a i l y  student,  of contributions  pattern-maintenance)  to c o n s i d e r  would  teacher  consider c r i t i c a l  The p r o b l e m w i t h  (e.g. p r i n c i p a l  "crisis")  reflect  required  everyday i n hiring  on n o r m a l a c t i v i t i e s  be  to the  and p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e  or contributions that participants  job behaviors  and  i n order  exchange o f i d e a s , a t t i t u d e s  behaviors  critical  identical  that parent  s h o u l d be s e p a r a t e d  ordering of integration  would  Where p a r e n t  was  may  and  criteria  criteria  the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  This result  identification  criteria  of the majority of parents  the high percentage  criteria  may  the predominance of i n t e g r a t i v e  candidates  performed.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Hills, 1975  R. J e a n "Some N o t e s on t h e M e t h o d o l o g y o f S c i e n c e f o r R e s e a r c h e r s a n d Administrators i n Education." I n W i l l i a m G. Monahan ( e d . ) , T h e o r e t i c a l Dimensions of E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : 106-144 New Y o r k : MacMillan.  H i l l s , R. J e a n 1 9 7 5 a "What E d u c a t o r s R e a l l y Do: A Parsonian View of E d u c a t i o n . " In W i l l i a m G. Monahan ( e d . ) , T h e o r e t i c a l D i m e n s i o n s o f E d u c a t i o n a l Administration: 233-261 New Y o r k : MacMillan. Hills, 1976  R. J e a n " S o c i e t a l a n d E d u c a t i o n a l V a l u e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada: A T e n t a t i v e Comparison." Mimeo C e n t r e f o r t h e S t u d y o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n E d u c a t i o n , U.B.C.  Hills, 1977  R. J e a n " T e a c h i n g and i t s E v a l u a t i o n . " Volume XVI, 6.  Newberry, A l a n 1975  1963  1964  Administrator,  Hesson  Talcott "The M e n t a l H o s p i t a l a s a T y p e o f O r g a n i z a t i o n . " In M i l t o n Greenblatt, et a l . (eds.). The P a t i e n t and t h e M e n t a l Hospital: 108-129 New Y o r k , The F r e e P r e s s .  Parsons,  Piatt,  Canadian  " P r a c t i c e s and C r i t e r i a E m p l o y e d i n t h e S e l e c t i o n o f Elementary School P r i n c i p a l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , Indiana U n i v e r s i t y .  Parsons,  1964  John  The  Talcott " S t r u c t u r e and P r o c e s s The F r e e P r e s s .  G.  M.  and  i n Modern S o c i e t i e s . "  Glencoe,  111.:  T a l c o t t Parsons  "Decision-Making  i n the  Academic  System."  K r u t y b o s c h and S h e l d o n L. M e s s i n g e r University: A u t h o r i t y and C h a n g e . Publications.  90  In  Carlos  E.  (eds.). The S t a t e o f Beverly H i l l s : Sage  the  APPENDIX  Criteria List I-l(a) Authors: Staff  92  >  A  COMPOSITE P I C T U R E OF THE  NEXT P R I N C I P A L (as to  i n d i c a t e d by t h e answers the questionnaire)  Reminder: The a t t r i b u t e s m e n t i o n e d i n d i c a t e w h a t q u i t e a number o f the s t a f f would p r e f e r . Section F i s the o n l y one t h a t i n d i c a t e s s t r o n g c o n v i c t i o n s and p r e f e r e n c e s . The n e x t p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d p r e f e r a b l y b e a man ( 1 2 ) , who  i s democratic (19),  moderately collegial  friendly with but  also  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  progressive (17), with  the s t a f f  (15) ,  the pupils (16),  a firm  d i s c i p l i n a r i a n (17) .  H i s a t t i t u d e t o t h e community s h o u l d b e one o f openness and approachability (13) . He s h o u l d  good-natured,  also  be  UNCLASSIFIABLE  fair,  UNCLASSIFIABLE INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL PATTERN INTERNAL  GOAL  MAINTENANCE  ATTAINMENT  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION approachable,  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  flexible,  I N T E R N A L INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  consistent,  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  encouraging,  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  93  supportive,  INTERNAL  reliable,  EXTERNAL  enthusiastic,  UNCLASSIFIABLE  and d e m o c r a t i c i n h i s d e a l i n g s with the s t a f f ,  INTERNAL  as w e l l as h a v i n g experience.  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTEGRATION  a wealth of PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  A f a i r p r o p o r t i o n (9) o f t h e s t a f f would consider t r a n s f e r r i n g i f he were a v e r y l e n i e n t d i s c i plinarian. None e x p r e s s e d concern at the prospect o f having a very strict disciplinarian. A l s o none w o u l d be c o n c e r n e d i f he were v e r y c o n s e r v a t i v e , w h i l e a few ( 3 ) d o n ' t want a v e r y i n n o v a t i v e p e r s o n . A l s o a few ( 5 ) w o u l d h a v e i f he were v e r y a u t o c r a t i c , and f o u r , i f a woman was appointed. A f a i r proportion o f the s t a f f i n d i c a t e d that they would not l i k e t o h a v e a p r i n c i p a l who i s l a z y , unapproachable, prejudiced, i r r e s p o n s i b l e , narrow-minded, e g o t i s t i c a l , v e r b o s e , quick-tempered o r unprofessional. The consider  s t a f f , as a whole, d i d n o t the f o l l o w i n g items o f  any g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e : w h e r e he comes f r o m o r h i s c o u n s e l l i n g b a c k ground. T h e i r age p r e f e r e n c e s were quite evenly d i v i d e d although three d i d n ' t w a n t a v e r y y o u n g man ( 2 5 - 3 0 ) , and o n e d i d n ' t w a n t a n o l d o n e ( 6 0 - 6 4 ) .  UNCLASSIFIED  C r i t e r i a L i s t I-l(b) Authors: Parents  94  The f o l l o w i n g report i s submitted at the request of the School Board: P r i n c i p a l Appraisal The almost unanimous opinion i s that the new p r i n c i p a l should be a man  UNCLASSIFIED  and i n the 45-60 age group.  UNCLASSIFIED  This Committee would p r e f e r a p r i n c i p a l who has had previous teaching experience at School.  UNCLASSIFIED  He should be a f i r m disciplinarian,  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  but at the same time should be a fair,  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  consistent,  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  approachable,  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  and democratic person.  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  He should be i n t e r e s t e d and dedicated to the welfare of the students i n h i s care,  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  and should be able to communicate w i t h parents and c h i l d r e n .  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  He should encourage p a r t i c i pation of parents  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  95  and t e a c h e r s i n a l l a c t i v i t i e s connected w i t h the s c h o o l .  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  T h i s Committee f e e l s i t most i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e new p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i n w o r k i n g w i t h the Association w h i c h has been a c t i v e i n School since 1931.  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  When t h e S c h o o l B o a r d i s c h o o s i n g a new p r i n c i p a l f o r S c h o o l , we w o u l d f u l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n given to who was V i c e - P r i n c i p a l f r o m S e p t e m b e r , 196 to June, 197  like , UNCLASSIFIED  C r i t e r i a L i s t 1-2(a) Author: P r e s i d e n t o f Parent  Open d o o r s  f o r communication between  parents,  principal  Concerns  for discipline  and  staff.  and r e s p e c t f o r p r o p e r t y s t u d e n t s and s t a f f .  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  o f t h e community  a n d a b l e t o g i v e some to t h e p a r e n t .  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  and  changes.  Interested i n seeing r e c e i v e a good b a s i c  ATTAINMENT  between  W i l l i n g to l i s t e n to suggestions or c o m p l a i n t s w i t h an open mind.  its  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL  A p e r s o n who i s n o t r i g i d i n their thinking.  Knowledge  96  Committee  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION students education  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  direction  To c l o s e I am m o s t s a t i s f i e d w i t h o u r p r e s e n t p r i n c i p a l Mr. and f e e l t h e r e h a s b e e n an improve-, ment i n t h e s c h o o l u n d e r h i s leadership. When t h e r e was some c o n c e r n o n my p a r t I h a v e a l w a y s f o u n d h i s d o o r o p e n t o me t o d i s c u s s the i s s u e .  INTERNAL  GOAL  ATTAINMENT  Criteria  List  Authors:  1-2(b)  97  Staff  The f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f c r i t e r i a for the s e l e c t i o n of a p r i n c i p a l for S c h o o l was s u b m i t t e d by the s t a f f o f the s c h o o l . T h e y a p p e a r i n no p a r t i c u l a r order of preference. The p r i n c i p a l o f School should: - be w e l l  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION  organized,  flexible  and  have  a s e n s e o f humour.  - be s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e t e a c h e r s and t h e i r p r o g r a m s  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  ADAPTATION  and be e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e f o r communication w i t h s t a f f members.  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  Educational essential.  UNCLAS S I F l A B L E  leadership i s  - p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e communication with the s t a f f regarding such items and f i n a n c e s , s c h o o l r o u t i n e s and p o l i c i e s , f u t u r e . e v e n t s , P r o f e s s i o n a l Development. Days, and  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  staffing.  - be f i r m l y committed t o the p h i l o s o p h y o f open e d u c a t i o n and  have a p o s i t i v e  towards team  open a r e a  EXTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT  attitude  s c h o o l s and  teaching.  - u n d e r s t a n d how t o w o r k e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h o p e n a r e a teams  98  and s h o u l d s e e k t o m a i n t a i n some d e c i s i o n m a k i n g w i t h i n t h e teams r e g a r d i n g t e a c h i n g methods, e t c . - be p r e p a r e d t o v i s i t t h e A r e a s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n and c a s u a l e n c o u n t e r s w i t h t h e s t a f f and s t u d e n t s .  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  - t r y t o be p e r c e p t i v e o f s t r a i n e d team r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d a s s i s t teachers i n overcoming a n y d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h may arise.  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  - i n s p i r e enthusiasm and d e d i c a t i o n i n t h e s t a f f and offer recognition f o r a job w e l l done.  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  - be s u p p o r t i v e o f the s t a f f i n matters o f d i s c i p l i n e with pupils  INTERNAL  GOAL  and s u p p o r t i v e when t e a c h e r s are meeting with parents.  EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  - b e aware o f t h e c h a n g i n g t r e n d s i n e d u c a t i o n and must be s u p p o r t i v e o f a t t e m p t s t o innovate.  - c o n s i d e r music, a r t and p h y s i c a l education as v i t a l parts o f a c h i l d ' s education. -  be a b l e  to develop  relationship with the  INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  a good  p a r e n t s and EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN  community  tactful  ATTAINMENT  but truthful;  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  99  firm  but f a i r  i n a l l matters.  INTERNAL GOAL-ATTAINMENT INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  - be w i l l i n g to p r o v i d e s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p a n d make f i n a l d e c i s i o n s .  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  - be w i l l i n g to r e l i e v e of time-consuming items parental inquiries.  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  the s t a f f such as  - a p p r e c i a t e and u n d e r s t a n d t h e remediation provess ( s i c ) f o r b o t h E.S.L. and low a b i l i t y pupils. E n c l o s e d i s an a d d i t i o n a l l i s t of c r i t e r i a developed persona l l y by the p r e s i d e n t o f our S c h o o l C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee.  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  C r i t e r i a L i s t 1-3(a) Authors: S t a f f  100  C R I T E R I A FOR P R I N C I P A L AS FORMULATED BY THE STAFF:  Good p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l H o n e s t a n d m o r a l human Sincere respect tion of others  f o r and  health  being  EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  consideraINTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  Sound  sense o f h u m o r — a  definite  asset  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  An e x c e l l e n t o r g a n i z e r r a t h e r excellence of scholastic performance  Exhibits carrying assigned Applies  than  e f f i c i e n c y and speed i n out those duties not to teaching s t a f f imagination  to p r i n c i p a l s h i p  Suggests and s o l i c i t s i d e a s f o r e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g conditions i n his/her school  W i l l i n g to d i s p l a y t r u s t and r e g a r d o f s t a f f by d e l e g a t i n g authority; thereby using the e x p e r t i s e and s t r e n g t h o f s t a f f members.  B e l i e f i n the democratic process of the concept o f the s t a f f committee  INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL GOAL  ATTAINMENT  UNCLASSIFIED  INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  101 Able to accept s t a f f d e c i s i o n s and when n e c e s s a r y , e x p e d i t e them  Must be an example by p a r t i c i pating i n the teaching of a l l levels w i t h i n the school Leadership calibre  ability  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  o f the highest INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  i s required  Share t e a c h i n g ideas i n f o r m a l l y and f r e e l y w i t h e d u c a t o r s o n staff  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  S t a f f can r e l y on the f a c t that t h e i r p r i n c i p a l i s knowlegable regarding curriculum innovation and c a n be r e c k o n e d upon t o a s s i s t w i t h p r a c t i c a l i d e a s and methods i n t h i s f i e l d  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  M u s t h a v e a minimum o f two y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n some a s p e c t o f P r i m a r y t e a c h i n g as n e c e s s a r y background f o r an elementary principal  EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  R e c o g n i z e s what good t e a c h i n g i s , r a t h e r t h a n w h a t a p p e a r s good t o administration  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  Appreciates that a teacher's is strenuous  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  Has r a p p o r t w i t h s t a f f a first-name basis  work  members o n INTERNAL INTEGRATION  Possesses the a b i l i t y to s o c i a l i z e informally with s t a f f ; can a s s i s t / initiate social activities Public  speaking  professional  ability  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  of a  degree  Holds t h o u g h t - p r o v o k i n g and c o n c i s e s t a f f meetings, p r e s e n t i n g p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s and o p i n i o n s  EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  102  Communicates s c h o o l d i s c i p l i n e and c o n s e q u e n c e s t o s t u d e n t b o d y  INTERNAL  Gains student r e s p e c t pertinent assemblies  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  with  Must r e l a t e a s f i r m and f a i r t o not o n l y s t u d e n t body, b u t t o s t a f f membership  R e l a t e s e q u a l l y w e l l v i a messages addressed to parent assemblies. Can make known t o a f o r e - m e n t i o n e d g r o u p , p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y when c i r c u m s t a n c e so n e c e s s i t a t e s Can  handle  and  b e h a v i o u r a l problem  Is  able  teacher  the constant  GOAL ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT  parentINTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  arises  INTERNAL  Backs h i s / h e r t e a c h e r s 100% Displays s e l f - i n i t i a t i v e f u l input with the School Board  INTERNAL  emotional students  t o c o p e w e l l when a conflict  GOAL ATTAINMENT  and/or  GOAL ATTAINMENT  force-  Furthermore, i t i s the b e l i e f o f the Staff t h a t no p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e assigned to a school with which he cannot f i n d a c c e p t a n c e o f o r a common m e e t i n g g r o u n d w i t h t h a t s t a f f s ' current philosophy of education  EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT EXTERNAL ADAPTATION  INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL  Criteria  List  Authors:  103  I-3(b)  Parents  As r e q u e s t e d , a P a r e n t s ' C o m m i t t e e from School submit the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s as b e i n g important i n choosing a P r i n c i p a l : 1. B e s t P e r s o n o r Female)  f o r the j o b .  (Male UNCLASSIFIABLE  2. Good k n o w l e d g e o f c u r r i c u l u m  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  3. Good k n o w l e d g e o f C h i l d P s y c h o l o g y (growth and d e v e l o p ment)  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  4. A b i l i t y  t o work w i t h  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  staff  5. Good d i s c i p l i n a r i a n - l a y down r u l e s a n d f o l l o w through - be c o n s i s t a n t  INTERNAL GOAL  6. U n i f o r m i t y o f d i s c i p l i n e s t a f f and p r i n c i p a l  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  7. C o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n and p a r e n t  8. P r i n c i p a l -  available  between  school EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  to Parents  take  action just  on problem  and  give i t l i p INTERNAL GOAL  service - be i m p a r t i a l i n d i s p u t e s between p a r e n t s and s t a f f  9. M u s t -  -  like  INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  confidentiality  not  ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  children,  have a good sense  have a p o s i t i v e b e o p e n t o new  ATTAINMENT  o f humour,  approach ideas  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  and INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  104  10.  11.  Be a p p r o a c h a b l e b y c h i l d r e n and l i s t e n t o t h e i r p r o b l e m s Be a w a r e o f r e s o u r c e s the  12.  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  within  area  The c o u r a g e t o t a k e a c t i o n against undesirable teachers  We f e e l t h a t i f y o u t h i n k i t n e c e s s a r y t o a s k us f o r a c r i t e r i a on P r i n c i p a l s , t h e r e s h o u l d be one f o r t e a c h e r s as w e l l , as they h a v e a more d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on our c h i l d r e n We a l s o f e e l t h a t t h i s t a s k i s an e x e r c i s e i n f u t i l i t y . We assume t h a t a l l c r i t e r i a submitted by s c h o o l s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f a few n o n - e d u c a t i o n a l p o i n t s , (whether o r n o t the P r i n c i p a l smokes, w e a r s a t i e , e t c . ) w i l l a l l b e a b o u t t h e same. It i s felt that i f the Superintendent o f S c h o o l s and t h e T u r s t e e s ( s i c ) don't have an i d e a o f c r i t e r i a f o r e f f e c tive administration i n hiring P r i n c i p a l s , there i s something r a d i c a l l y wrong  EXTERNAL INTERNAL  ADAPTATION ADAPTATION  INTERNAL  GOAL  ATTAINMENT  C r i t e r i a L i s t 1-4 Authors: P a r e n t s and S t a f f  105  Dear P a r e n t s : The School Board wishes to i n v o l v e parents i n d e c i s i o n s which a f f e c t the s c h o o l s t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t t e n d . As i t i s a p o l i c y o f the Board t h a t p r i n c i p a l s may be t r a n s f e r r e d every few y e a r s , the School C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee and s t a f f have l i s t e d the c r i t e r i a they want o f f i c i a l s to c o n s i d e r when a change i s to be made a t School. P l e a s e c o n s i d e r the p o i n t s l i s t e d and i f you wish to suggest any a d d i t i o n s o r d e l e t i o n s k i n d l y complete the bottom p o r t i o n and r e t u r n i t to the s c h o o l .  THE CRITERIA TO BE USED IN THE SELECTION OF A NEW PRINCIPAL FOR SCHOOL The p a r e n t s and s t a f f a t School b e l i e v e t h a t the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a f o r p r i n c i p a l s h i p s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d when a change i s to be made a t School. These c r i t e r i a a r e i n a d d i t i o n to the School Board requirements i n respect to h e a l t h , e x p e r i e n c e and academic qualifications. The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d have a w e l l formulated personal philosophy which g e n e r a l l y concurs w i t h that o f School.  2.  The P r i n c i p a l should be f a m i l i a r w i t h , and understand, the s p e c i a l e t h n i c and economic c h a r a c t e r o f the geographical location.  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  106  3. The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e s e n s i t i v e t o t h e d i v e r s e n e e d s o f t h e many t y p e s o f s t u d e n t s w h i c h may attend School, i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , emotionally, e c o n o m i c a l l y , and e t h n i c a l l y .  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  4. The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e s e n s i t i v e to t h e problems the s t u d e n t s o f may h a v e a n d t o the needs o f the p a r e n t s i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r children.  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  5. The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e s e n s i t i v e to t h e n e e d s and p r o b l e m s o f , and t o be a b l e to communicate and work e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h p a r e n t s , teachers, pupils, secretaries, custodians, School Board o f f i c i a l s , Community A g e n c i e s a n d a l l people and o r g a n i z a t i o n s associated with School.  6. T h e P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d a c t i v e l y i n the teaching-learning  situations  and  7. T h e P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e d e c i s i v e yet f l e x i b l e i n decision-making.  8. T h e P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e a good disciplinarian possess  a s e n s e o f humout.  9. The P r i n c i p a l approachable.  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT INTEGRATION  participate  be i n t e r e s t e d i n h e l p i n g t o establish a positive staff morale.  and  INTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL GOAL  ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  s h o u l d be INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  Criteria  List  Authors:  Staff  107  1-5  Characteristics  of  the.Ideal  Principal  I . A p r i n c i p a l must h a v e g o o d leadership qualities. He s h o u l d be a b l e t o : 1. Make s o u n d d e c i s i o n s f o r t h e general b e n e f i t o f the t o t a l school and for  to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y those d e c i s i o n s  2. R e s p e c t  and s u p p o r t h i s s t a f f ,  be w i l l i n g  to give  assistance  and t o a l l o w s t a f f t o s h a r e in deciding policies. 3. C o m m u n i c a t e i d e a s e f f e c t i v e l y to s t a f f , s t u d e n t s and community.  4. I n f l u e n c e  staff  professional  members  EXTERNAL GOAL  ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL GOAL  ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  t o be  i n their job  performances,  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION  to be f i r m i n h i s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t s t a f f a n d s t u d e n t s meet reasonable standards,  INTERNAL GOAL  but and  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  a l s o to give r e c o g n i t i o n p r a i s e when i t i s d u e .  5. D e a l w i t h p e o p l e d i p l o m a t i c a l l y and t a c t f u l l y , b e a p p r o a c h a b l e and fair.  INTERNAL  ATTAINMENT  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  108 6. Organize e f f e c t i v e l y - r u n the school i n an o r d e r l y , e f f i c i e n t manner, get things done.  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION  I I . A P r i n c i p a l should be an emotionally well-balanced person. 1. He should possess a sense of humour.  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  2. He should be c a r i n g , concerned, p r i m a r i l y w i t h human values, l i k e c h i l d r e n and want the best f o r them.  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  3. He should have a good s e l f image .  EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  4. He should be f r i e n d l y and k i n d .  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  I I I . A P r i n c i p a l should have some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l development of his s t a f f . 1. He should have a sound philosophy of education based on experience and good sense. 2. He should be aware of new ideas and open to innovative e x p e r i ments communicating these to staff. 3. He should judge new programs for the b e n e f i t s received by the c h i l d r e n .  EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  Criteria Authors:  109  List 1-6 Staff  C R I T E R I A FOR P R I N C I P A L OF  SCHOOL  - a l l o w s e a c h t e a c h e r autonomy i n p l a n n i n g h i s / h e r program i n accordance with the school based c u r r i r u l u m , and a c h o i c e o f methods and m a t e r i a l s t o be u s e d . - i s aware and s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e g o a l s and t h e p r a c t i c a l implement a t i o n o f community e d u c a t i o n .  - must e n c o u r a g e s t a f f s e l e c t i o n o f new t e a c h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c h o o s i n g new members o f t e a m s . - must be so o r g a n i z e d i n h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e tasks t h a t he/she c a n become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the e d u c a t i o n a l programs o f the school.  - must be k n o w l e d g e a b l e o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i e s and dynamics o f open a r e a e d u c a t i o n and must be supportive o f such p r a c t i c e s .  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION  - must r e c o g n i z e t h e n e e d f o r t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g t i m e — f o r example, e a r l y d i s m i s s a l day f o r team p l a n ning .  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL ADAPTATION  - i s open t o r e q u e s t s by t e a c h e r s and a t t e m p t s t o p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l s and s u p p o r t needed.  help  t h a t may b e INTERNAL ADAPTATION  110  - must be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e neighbourhood resource people, and be a b l e t o p r o v i d e a s t r o n g l i a i s o n b e t w e e n t h e community and e d u c a t i o n a l p e r s o n n e l .  EXTERNAL EXTERNAL EXTERNAL  ADAPTATION INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL INTERNAL  INTEGRATION ADAPTATION  - must a l l o w t h e s t a f f committee to f u n c t i o n as a d e c i s i o n making body.  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  - must b e open a n d h o n e s t i n h i s / h e r d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e s t a f f and e x h i b i t t r u s t and f a i t h i n h i s / h e r s t a f f as p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  - must be s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e s t a f f i n their dealings with parents and children.  INTERNAL  GOAL  - must be w i l l i n g t o d e a l w i t h "administrivia" a n d make n e c e s s a r y d e c i s i o n s a p a r t from the s t a f f yet s t i l l seek guidance from the s t a f f when d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g t h e s c h o o l and t e a c h e r s a r e i n v o l v e d .  - must r e s p e c t confidentiality r e g a r d i n g s t a f f r e l a t i o n s and e n c o u r a g e a c o h e s i v e f e e l i n g among s t a f f members a n d d i s c o u r a g e u n e t h i c a l remarks o r b e h a v i o r .  - must r e c o g n i z e and be open t o a v a r i e t y o f ways o f p a r e n t teacher reporting. -  must show e v i d e n c e  familiar tional  with  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  GOAL  ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL  ADAPTATION  of being  the current  literature,  ATTAINMENT  educa-  methods and  materials. - m u s t h a v e h i s / h e r own w e l l d e fined philosophy of education but be open and r e c e p t i v e t o a v a r i e t y o f teaching approaches within his/her school.  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION  Ill - must c o n s i d e r and c o n s u l t t h e s t a f f when p l a n n i n g t h e i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and arrangement o f classes w i t h i n the school.  INTERNAL  - must e n c o u r a g e p r o f e s s i o n a l growth and v i s i t a t i o n s by h i s / h e r s t a f f a n d make t h e s c h o o l o p e n t o t h o s e who w i s h t o v i s i t .  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  - must b e a b l e t o u s e h i s / h e r knowledge o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e to exped i t e s t a f f d e c i s i o n s and o b t a i n m a t e r i a l s t h a t a r e needed.  - must be c o m m i t t e d t o e a c h c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l and academic growth and be w i l l i n g t o become p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e c h i l d and h i s family.  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL ADAPTATION EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  Criteria  List  Authors:  112  1-7(a)  Staff  T h e members o f t h i s s t a f f were p l e a s e d to l e a r n t h a t i n t h e event t h a t a d i f f e r e n t p r i n c i p a l was a s s i g n e d t o t h i s s c h o o l , y o u would be i n t e r e s t e d i n knowing t h e t y p e o f p e r s o n we w o u l d l i k e to work w i t h and t h a t y o u would attempt to a s s i g n a s u i t a b l e replacement. We  w e r e n o t p l e a s e d when  informed h i s o p i n i o n , a change or even probable t h i s year.  us t h a t i n i s possible coming s c h o o l  I f he h a s a c h o i c e and w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o r e m a i n a t , we w o u l d c e r t a i n l y p e r f e r t h a t h e n o t be t r a n s f e r r e d . I f , however, he w i l l n o t be a t C a r l e t o n n e x t y e a r , t h e n t h e c r i t e r i a we w o u l d l i k e used i n determining h i s s u c c e s s o r a r e as f o l l o w s : - someone who w i l l p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p and f a c i l i t a t e excellence  - someone who w i l l w o r k c l o s e l y w i t h t e a c h e r s t o i n i t i a t e and develop programs s u i t a b l e f o r this school  - someone who w i l l i n v o l v e t e a c h e r s by b e i n g s u p p o r t i v e and work c o o p e r a t i v e l y with the s t a f f committee (a) b y s h a r e d  d e c i s i o n making  educational  INTERNAL INTERNAL  ADAPTATION GOAL-ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT  on  issues  (b) b y a p p r o p r i a t e f o l l o w - u p t o Staff  Committee  decisions  113  - someone who r e c o g n i z e s t h e S t a f f Committee as p l a y i n g a key and v i t a l r o l e i n the f u n c t i o n i n g o f the s c h o o l  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  - someone who w i l l w o r k e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y with teachers i n perfecti n g an e f f e c t i v e and harmonious collegial s y s t e m i n t e a c h i n g and d e c i s i o n making  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  GOAL  - someone who w i l l w o r k d i r e c t l y w i t h students to ensure that the s c h o o l i s p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e maximum development f o r each c h i l d  - someone who i s w i l l i n g t o b e f a m i l i a r with the unique s o c i o e c o n o m i c a s p e c t s o f t h i s community and w i l l b e a b l e t o d i r e c t l y involve himself with the c i t i z e n s o f t h i s community  - someone who w i l l b e i n a c c o r d w i t h The P h i l o s o p h y o f School.  We w o u l d l i k e t o e m p h a s i z e t h e need f o r s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p .  ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  EXTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  Criteria Authors:  List  114  1-7(b)  Parents  We, t h e c o m m i t t e e , h a v e been informed t h a t may n o t b e a t next year.  recently School  I n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t we, a s a committee, a c c e p t the E d u c a t i o n a l Philosophy of the teaching s t a f f , we s u g g e s t s t r o n g l y t h a t a n y new p r i n c i p a l should f u l l y endorse this philosophy.  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  We a l s o a p p r e c i a t e a t t e n t i o n being given to the f o l l o w i n g : (1)  T h a t he t r y t o i n v o l v e t h e community i n t h e s c h o o l .  (2) W i l l b e someone who w i l l communicate w i t h p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s and c h i l d r e n w i t h understanding.  (3) W i l l b e someone who h a s a n awareness o f t h e needs and problems o f a m u l t i - e t h n i c community. (4) W i l l b e someone who i s f i r m , b u t f l e x i b l e when d e a l i n g w i t h s t u d e n t s a n d who w i l l a p p r o a c h s i t u a t i o n s w i t h an open mind.  Thank y o u f o r t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o v o i c e o u r o p i n i o n s and s u g g e s t i o n s .  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  115  Criteria List 1-8 Authors: Staff  The p r i n c i p a l o f t h e s c h o o l s h o u l d h a v e a number o f a t t r i b u t e s and a s p e c i f i c a t t i t u d e i n o r d e r to f u l f i l l h i s f u n c t i o n e f f i c i e n t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y . F i r s t l y , the p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be a b l e t o c a r r y o u t h i s / h e r manageri a l - t e c h n i c a l f u n c t i o n s (paper work, o r d e r i n g , e t c . ) q u i c k l y and thoroughly. A minor p o r t i o n o f t h e week s h o u l d b e d e v o t e d t o t h i s aspect o f the p r i n c i p a l s h i p .  INTERNAL  Secondly, the p r i n c i p a l should be aware. He/she s h o u l d be aware of a l l the programs i n o p e r a t i o n i n the s c h o o l .  UNCLASSIFIED  He/she s h o u l d be aware o f t h e s t a f f and t h e i r f e e l i n g s w i t h r e g a r d to p o l i c i e s , a c t i o n s and changes i n t h e s c h o o l .  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e k n o w l e d g e a b l e o f c u r r i c u l u m and changes i n the f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n .  INTERNAL  ADAPTATION  The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e i n volved. H e / s h e s h o u l d know h i s / her students. T h i s means g e t t i n g t o know a l l s t u d e n t s , n o t j u s t those sent to the o f f i c e . It means b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e a c h i n g classes.  INTERNAL  The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d c o n s u l t . H e / s h e s h o u l d a c t o r make c h a n g e s only a f t e r c o n s u l t i n g w i t h the staff. Important d e c i s i o n s should be a r r i v e d a t b y m a j o r i t y r u l e . (This p a r t i c u l a r c r i t e r i a ( s i c ) was n o t a c c e p t a b l e t o a l l members of the school—some f e l t the p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d make c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s without having to cons u l t the s t a f f . )  ADAPTATION  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  GOAL  ATTAINMENT  116  The cate.  principal  should  He/she s h o u l d  communi-  be a b l e t o  make h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f c l e a r l y  under-  stood by a l l . The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e a b l e t o m a i n t a i n good community r e l a t i o n s b o t h a s a r e s u l t o f t h e communic a t i o n s employed and because o f h i s / h e r understanding o f the community.  F i n a l l y , the a t t i t u d e o f the p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be t h a t o f a humanist. H e / s h e s h o u l d b e warm, u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s u p p o r t i v e w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e b e i n g f i r m a n d directive.  I t i s w i t h p l e a s u r e t h a t we have completed t h i s task. We appreciate the opportunity of d i s c u s s i n g the c r i t e r i a f o r the principalship of  INTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  Criteria Authors:  List  1-9  117  Parents  The f o l l o w i n g C r i t e r i a F o r t h e S e l e c t i o n Of A P r i n c i p a l has been d e c i d e d upon by t h e S c h o o l C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee: 1. C h a r a c t e r a n d P e r s o n a l i t y Honest, t r u s t w o r t h y , and responsible. 2.  3.  EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  Education A , plus a minimum o f o n e y e a r a d d i t i o n a l graduate study.  EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  Experience Recent s u c c e s s f u l elementary t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and administrative experience, e i t h e r as a p r i n c i p a l o r a vice-principal.  EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  4. P h i l o s o p h y  o f Education  -  sympathetic  towards  -  b e l i e v e s i n a c l o s e bond b e t w e e n home a n d s c h o o l  -  emphasis  -  s e t t i n g of reasonable instruction limits  -  on b a s i c  children  skills  teacher  s u p e r v i s i o n and  control  of children  5. R e l a t i o n s h i p W i t h O t h e r s Open l i n e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n — r e a d i l y accessible to children, t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , and o t h e r s i n t h e community.  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  EXTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT  EXTERNAL  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION  118  6. L e a d e r s h i p  Qualities  A b i l i t y to work w i t h s t a f f , take a l e a d i n p r o f e s s i o n a l development and share decision-making with s t a f f .  7. O t h e r  INTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL  INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION  Qualities  Be c o n s i s t e n t a n d d i p l o m a t i c so t h a t s c h o o l " s a i l s on an even k e e l . "  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  119  C r i t e r i a L i s t I-10(a) Authors: Staff  PRIMARY  BUILDING  (traditional) -  preferably  male  UNCLASSIFIED  - good c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h and community and p u p i l s  -  staff INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  p o s i t i v e approach  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION -  encourages p r o f e s s i o n a l  freedom  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  - not meeting o r i e n t e d — c a s u a l and s h o r t m e e t i n g s  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  - t o l e r a n t o f r e l i g i o u s and e t h n i c background—which i s very v a r i e d i n t h i s community.  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  -  supportive  i  of staff  INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL  - aware o f t e a c h e r s ' r i g h t s a n d inter-staff relations  INTERMEDIATE (open -  BUILDING  area)  short  informal  staff  - w i l l Involve teachers d e c i s i o n making -  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  meetings in  d o e s n ' t smoke a t s c h o o l  - support decisions  teachers'  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  professional INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL  -  relaxed  atmosphere  ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  120  - w o n ' t u s e P.A. sarily  system  - w i l l i n g to d i s c u s s philosophy  young  -  n o t dogmatic  -  h a s some i n t e r e s t open  area  ADAPTATION  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  school  in spirit -  INTERNAL  UNCLASSIFIED  -  in  unneces-  flexible  and  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  ADAPTATION  experience  Criteria Authors:  L i s t I-10(b) Parents  121  These a r e the r e s u l t s o f a s e a r c h f o r o p i n i o n s on w h a t k i n d o f a p r i n c i p a l we w o u l d l i k e t o h a v e at School. P h a s e One: At a Parent's Meeting, J a n u a r y 20, 1976, i t was announced that our present p r i n c i p a l , , w i l l be t r a n s f e r r i n g to another p a r t o f the s c h o o l system. W h i l e t h i s announcement was met w i t h d i s m a y , we r e a l i z e d a need to s e a r c h f o r the i d e a l p r i n cipal. We f o r m e d f i v e d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p s and d i s c u s s e d t h e t o p i c "search f o r the i d e a l p r i n c i p a l . " The o b j e c t was t o d e t e r m i n e w h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n our next p r i n c i p a l w o u l d be most h e l p f u l f o r o u r c h i l d r e n , s c h o o l , and community. W h i l e many v o i c e d t h e o p i n i o n t h a t they would l i k e to keep the p r i n c i p a l t h e y now h a v e , e x c i t i n g discussions followed. The concensus o f the r e s u l t s were v e r y revealing. These f e l l i n t o e i g h t main c a t e g o r i e s as f o l l o w s : 1.  Male or  2.  Discipline  3.  P r o g r a m - B a s i c "3 most i m p o r t a n t , and  Female - not -  f i r m but  controversial  should  be  important fair  R's"  EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT subjects  cleared with EXTERNAL  R e l a t i n g to parents and  INTEGRATION  and  students—approachable students  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  are  parents. 4.  UNCLASSIFIED  parents,  by INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  122  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  5. R e l a t i n g t o t e a c h e r s ; o p e n t o t h e i r nedds ( s i c ) and suggestions.  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  6. R e l a t i n g t o Open A r e a — ' experienced i n , or appreciates and u n d e r s t a n d s open a r e a .  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  7. R e l a t i n g t o c o m m u n i t y — promote v o l u n t e e r involvement i n s c h o o l , make u s e o f community f a c i l i t i e s .  EXTERNAL  sympathetic  to e t h n i c  experienced with  problems,  small  informs parents o f  children,  school  activities.  EXTERNAL 8. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n — m a k e and  firm  ADAPTATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  sound  decisions.  EXTERNAL INTERNAL  INTEGRATION GOAL-ATTAINMENT  P h a s e Two: T h i s c o n s i s t e d o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e sent to each parent ( c o p y a t t a c h e d ) i n w h i c h we r e l a t e d o u r f i n d i n g s and asked f o r comments. We r e c e i v e d 56 a n s w e r s w h i c h we s t u d i e d c a r e f u l l y . Many o f t h e comments, r a n g i n g from a need f o r b e t t e r t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s to the " n a i l i n g " o f p e t t y t h i e v e s , r e v e a l e d a need for f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n o f the needs o f our s c h o o l . However, c o n f i n i n g ourselves to the characteristics of a future p r i n c i p a l , the following factors were added to o u r i n f o r m a t i o n . Most p a r e n t s r e s p o n d i n g agreed to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o u t l i n e d i n our meeting o f January 20th. H o w e v e r , w h i l e 38 o f t h e 56 r e s p o n s e s i n d i c a t e d no p r e f e r e n c e r e g a r d i n g a male o r female p r i n c i p a l , the remaining s p e c i f i c a l l y requested a male.  UNCLASSIFIED  123  A l l t h e answers were agreed t h a t d i s c i p l i n e s h o u l d be f i r m and f a i r and seven i n d i c a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s h o u l d be " v e r y s t r i c t . "  INTERNAL GOAL  ATTAINMENT  T h e r e w e r e many i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t p a r e n t s g e n e r a l l y were n o t a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the "program" o f the s c h o o l and d i d n o t understand e x a c t l y w h a t was b e i n g t a u g h t . [Note: A t l e a s t one program and s o m e t i m e s two h a v e b e e n h e l d e a c h y e a r s i n c e t h e s c h o o l opened to a c q u a i n t parents w i t h the program of the school. P a r e n t s who a r e not acquainted with the school's p r o g r a m a r e t h o s e who h a v e n o t attended the meetings.] They d i d want an emphasis on t h e b a s i c " 3 R ' s " a n d a p r i n c i p a l who w o u l d n o t i n t r o d u c e new a n d c o n t r o v e r s i a l programs w i t h o u t c o n s u l t a t i o n with the parents. With r e g a r d to the r e l a t i o n s h i p s to p u p i l and parent, the b a s i c i d e a l o f a p e r s o n who i s a p p r o a c h a b l e , k n o w l e d g e a b l e , and a b l e t o communicate w e l l emerges as w e l l a s t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s already mentioned. Areas  five,  seven  and e i g h t  were e x a c t l y as d e s c r i b e d . T h e r e w e r e a g r e a t many comments o n t h e "Open A r e a . " What m o s t o f the parents a r e concerned w i t h i n t h i s a r e a i s c o n t r o l and o r g a n i z a tion. They w o u l d l i k e a p r i n c i p a l who a p p r e c i a t e s t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h i s s t y l e o f t e a c h i n g and a t t h e same t i m e c a n h e l p e l i m i n a t e t h e problems i n v o l v e d i n i t .  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION  124  W h i l e m o s t p a r e n t s seemed t o a g r e e w i t h "open a r e a " one p e r s o n w r o t e t h a t s h e was n o t i n f a v o r i t ( s i c ) it. A f u r t h e r survey on t h e whole q u e s t i o n o f "Open A r e a " i s p l a n n e d for the future. While i t d i d n o t f a l l under the scope o f o u r q u e s t i o n n a i r e , many comments w e r e made o n t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f the p r i n c i p a l b e i n g "honest," "moral" and a "Christian." T h e s e comments w e r e made b y i n d i v i d u a l p a r e n t s . It  EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  may b e s a i d t h a t we i n are l o o k i n g to the  S c h o o l B o a r d t o h e l p us f i n d a p r i n c i p a l t o p r o v i d e us w i t h good a n d s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p a n d who w i l l , i n t h e words o f one o f o u r p a r e n t s , " s e t a tone o f r e a l l o v e (which does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y always g i v e a c h i l d what he wants, b u t r a t h e r , w h a t i s good f o r h i m ) f a i t h f u l n e s s and d e d i c a t i o n .  Criteria  List  125  I-ll(a)  The S t a f f o f School prefers a balanced structured program o f s t u d i e s w i t h an emphasis on t h e b a s i c s u b j e c t s ; t h a t i s , Language A r t s and A r i t h m e t i c . S o c i a l s , S c i e n c e , A r t , Music and P.E. w o u l d c o m p r i s e t h e r e m a i n i n g f i f t y percent o f the curriculum. Regular e v a l u a t i o n and d i a g n o s t i c testing i s c a r r i e d out i n a l l areas. We b e l i e v e o u r l i b r a r y s h o u l d e x i s t f o r the use o f a l l the grades to supplement and e n r i c h o u r program. In order to achieve these g o a l s we r e q u i r e a p r i n c i p a l who would support o u r philosophy  and  who w o u l d  Community  involve  INTEGRATION  the parents'  i n their  EXTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT  EXTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  advisory  respon-  children's  education  special  EXTERNAL  ADAPTATION  do t h e f o l l o w i n g :  active parent  emphasizes  sibilities  -  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  Involvement  - encourage committee -  INTERNAL INTERNAL  parents  i n assisting  and r e g u l a r  programs  Communication -  seeks  -  dispenses  and  staff's  school  opinion  school  board,  information  community  regularly  -encourages l a t e r a l communication between p r i n c i p a l and s t a f f - promotes a c c e s s i b i l i t y ( t h e d o o r i s a l w a y s open)  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL ADAPTATION  EXTERNAL  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  126  Discipline - encourages teacher r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for classroom behavior  INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION  - supports students  teacher with  - articulates clearly to be f o l l o w e d - takes action  of -  INTERNAL GOAL  ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL GOAL  ATTAINMENT  Qualities  general attributes desirable a l ladministrators empathy w i t h  Decision  staff  UNCLASSIFIED and students  Administrative capable  classes  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  Making  - w i l l i n g to involve s t a f f i n p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t i o n , e.g., staffing, timetabling, school programs, c u r r i c u l a and d e l e g a t i o n o f school funds.  -  ATTAINMENT  guidelines  - r e l a t e s w e l l on p e r s o n a l and professional l e v e l with staff  -  INTERNAL GOAL  c o n s i s t e n t and immediate  Personal -  difficult  Skills  and w i l l i n g  to teach  at a l l levels  efficient  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION  INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  organizer  INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL GOAL  -  demonstrates l e a d e r s h i p  abilities  ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL GOAL  ATTAINMENT  We, as t e a c h e r s , a r e h e r e t o educate our p u p i l s . Hopefully our p r i n c i p a l w i l l g u i d e and a s s i s t us i n o u r t a s k . The a b o v e c r i t e r i a c a n a c t as a " g u i d e l i n e " f o r o u r p r i n c i p a l a n d f o r u s t o do o u r j o b s as e f f e c t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e .  Criteria Authors:  List  128  I-ll(b)  Parents  PARENTS  ADVISORY  COUNCIL RE: P R I N C I P A L P r i n c i p a l t o demand r e s p e c t f o r h i m s e l f as w e l l as o t h e r s .  INTERNAL  GOAL  Emphasize  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL EXTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE GOAL ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL INTERNAL  ADAPTATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  Be w i l l i n g t o i n v o l v e p a r e n t s i n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g , new teachers, e t c .  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  Emphasize  EXTERNAL  GOAL  social  Encourage parent  development. participation.  Two way c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s .  No o p e n a r e a grouping'..'  ATTAINMENT  or family  t h e t h r e e R's.  ATTAINMENT  Criteria  List  Authors:  129  1-12(a)  Staff  S t a f f Committee Recommended C r i t e r i a f o r t h e selection of a principal of the school The s t a f f a n d o t h e r p r o f e s sionals working at S c h o o l recommend t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g be c o n s i d e r e d when a p p o i n t i n g a p r i n c i p a l to t h i s school.  I. Academic Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s : EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  2. A t l e a s t two y e a r s teaching experience i n a secondary school.  EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  3. A minimum o f f i v e y e a r s t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n an elementary school  EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  1. U n i v e r s i t y  graduate  4. Some t r a i n i n g i n b o t h c o u n s e l l i n g and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s work.  II.  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  Personality:  1. A g o o d d e c i s i o n  maker  2. M u s t h a v e s t r o n g t o h i s own i d e a s principles. 3. A u t h o r i t a t i v e enforce 4. Be  firm  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  commitment and UNCLASSIFIED  and w i l l i n g t o  the rules  o f the  school.  INTERNAL  GOAL  ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL  GOAL  ATTAINMENT  130  III. 1.  Relationship with;  Staff: (i)  approachable members.  by  staff  ( i i ) w i l l i n g to r e v e a l leaders h i p by spending time i n the classroom, both as a t e a c h e r and a h e l p e r t o t h o s e who n e e d i t .  (iii)  supportive of  to help  INTERNAL INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE ADAPTATION  INTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL  INTEGRATION ADAPTATION GOAL ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL INTERNAL  ADAPTATION GOAL ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL INTERNAL  INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT  i n the  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f new i d e a s i n c u r r i c u l u m , and t h e f o l l o w - u p o f same  (v) be i n f o r m e d o n t e a c h e r and student problems i n the classroom.  2.  INTEGRATION  collective  staff decisions, regardless of personal p h i l o s o p h i c a l differences.  (iv) w i l l i n g  INTERNAL  Pupils: (i)  (ii)  (iii)  aware o f c h i l d r e n b o t h i n and o u t o f c l a s s r o o m .  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  s h o u l d show i n t e r e s t i n e a c h c h i l d ' s academic and p h y s i c a l achievements through v i s i t s to t h e c l a s s r o o m and v i s i t s to o t h e r non-academic activities.  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  p u p i l s s h o u l d l o o k up t o him as a f i r m , f a t h e r l y leader o f the school.  INTERNAL  GOAL  ATTAINMENT  131  3. N o n - t e a c h i n g staff: E v e r y e f f o r t s h o u l d b e made t o support non-teaching staff.  IV.  Personal professional ment :  have a r e g u l a r  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT  develop-  1. S h o u l d b e r e c e p t i v e t o new c o n c e p t s , and aware o f c u r r e n t trends.  2. S h o u l d  INTERNAL  INTERNAL INTERNAL  INTEGRATION ADAPTATION  INTERNAL  ADAPTATION  schedule  set-up i n the school to inform o t h e r s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l about same  Criteria Authors:  List  1-12(b)  132  Parents  C R I T E R I A FOR P R I N C I P A L 1. P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d a g r e e w i t h p h i l o s o p h y as expressed i n attached l e t t e r .  2. P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d h a v e u n i v e r s i t y training but not necessary to have a Masters o r D o c t o r a l degree. 3. P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d h a v e h a d teaching experience a t both elementary and secondary l e v e l s a n d some c o u n s e l l i n g experience i s desirable.  4. P e r s o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s : F a t h e r l y , approachable by parents and s t u d e n t s , unders t a n d i n g o f p a r e n t and p u p i l problems, sympathetic;  f i r m i n judgements, a b l e to make d e c i s i o n s a n d s t a y w i t h them; consistent—will person  says  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL  GOAL  ATTAINMENT  do w h a t t h e  he/she w i l l  do.  5. P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e a w a r e o f e d u c a t i o n a l trends b u t changes should be d i s c u s s e d w i t h p a r e n t s b e f o r e b e i n g implemented.  We a r e i n c l i n e d t o s t r u c t u r e d type o f with d e f i n i t e goals and c h i l d r e n b e i n g t o m e e t them.  EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  ADAPTATION  EXTERNAL  GOAL  ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL  GOAL  ATTAINMENT  INTEGRATION  favour a education being s e t encouraged  Criteria Authors:  List  133  1-13  Staff  and P a r e n t s  E n c l o s e d phase f i n d the c u r r e n t statement on t h e P h i l o s o p h y and Objectives of School. In c o n j u n c t i o n with the a c c r e d i t i n g p r o c e s s we a r e now u n d e r g o i n g , a n updated v e r s i o n w i l l be f o r t h c o m i n g b e f o r e t h e end o f t h e y e a r . With respect to the c r i t e r i a for p r i n c i p a l , both the S t a f f C o u n c i l and P a r e n t C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee a g r e e t h a t any p r i n c i p a l o f t h e s c h o o l m u s t b e o n e who c a n a c c e p t and promote those i d e a s encompassed i n t h e c u r r e n t s t a t e ment o f p h i l o s o p h y a n d o b j e c t i v e s .  They f u r t h e r agree t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i o n and appointment o f administrators i s the function o f the School Board o f f i c i a l s who a r e m o s t k n o w l e d g e a b l e t o make t h e b e s t c h o i c e o f b o t h t h e s c h o o l and system needs.  INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT  Criteria Authors:  List I I - l S t a f f Committee  134  Re: A p p o i n t m e n t o f P r i n c i p a l t o  We, a s a s t a f f , h a v e e n j o y e d w o r k i n g with our present p r i n c i p a l , We h a v e f o u n d h i m t o b e a warm a n d o p e n p e r s o n who t a k e s i n f i n i t e patience i n dealing with parents, s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s . Our f i r s t p r i o r i t y i n the s e l e c t i o n of our new p r i n c i p a l e m p h a s i z e s t h e a b o v e q u a l i t i e s as e x e m p l i f i e d by  Qualities  desirable i n a  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  Principal:  - a n a f f a b l e p e r s o n who understands t h a t t h e s c h o o l i s a human o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d i s a w a r e o f t h e human growth and development needs o f t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s .  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL P A T T E RN-MAINTENANCE  - A p e r s o n who h a s a w e l l r o u n d e d philosophy o f education which i n c l u d e s an understanding o f the p l a c e o f such t h i n g s as the f i n e a r t s and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n .  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  - S i m i l a r l y the person would p o s s e s s a good u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the elementary s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m .  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  - A p e r s o n who c a n r e s p e c t t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n and competence of s t a f f .  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  - A p e r s o n who c a n a c t a s f a c i l i tator f o r teachers, provide leaders h i p and o r g a n i z e the s c h o o l to allow f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l development o f s t a f f .  - A p e r s o n who i s a b l e t o p r o m o t e f i r m and c o n s i s t e n t d i s c i p l i n e throughout the s c h o o l .  INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL GOAL  ATTAINMENT  135  - A p e r s o n who c a n d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y and p o s i t i v e l y w i t h p a r e n t s and students encouraging their f u l l involvement w i t h the development of the goals o f the s c h o o l .  INTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT  EXTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT  e t h n i c and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l community a n d i t s i m p l i c a t i o n to the educational task.  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  - A p e r s o n who p o s s e s s e s communication s k i l l s .  good UN CLAS S I F I A B L E  -  manage-  - A p e r s o n who  A p e r s o n who  can appreciate the  possesses  ment, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a n d d e c i s i o n making s k i l l s , i n c l u d i n g t h e a b i l i t y : to c o n s u l t , to d e l e g a t e , to f o l l o w t h r o u g h , t o p l a n , and t o manage t i m e .  - We  should also  like  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION  the P r i n c i p a l  to be a b l e t o s p e n d s u f f i c i e n t time i n the s c h o o l to c a r r y o u t the above  The a b o v e i s t h e g e n e r a l of the s t a f f o f School,.  o  INTERNAL  objectives. feeling  GOAL ATTAINMENT  Criteria  L i s t II-2  Prepared  by Schools  136  Committee,  The community w i s h e s to be i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e s e l e c t i o n of a p r i n c i p a l f o rthe s c h o o l , and t h e r e f o r e r e q u e s t s a presence on the s e l e c t i o n committee. 1. T h e p r i n c i p a l w i l l b e c h o s e n o n the b a s i s o f i n t e r e s t and m e r i t . Age, s e x , a n d y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e w i l l n o t be uses as c r i t e r i a .  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  2. T h e p r i n c i p a l s h a l l g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t and p u t i n t p p r a c t i c e the p h i l o s o p h y o f the s c h o o l as expressed i n the S c h o o l P h i l o s o p h y (copy a t t a c h e d ) w h i c h was a d o p t e d b y t h e I n t e r i m C o u n c i l o n May 27, 1 9 7 6 .  3. The p r i n c i p a l s h a l l b e c o m m i t t e d to t h e i d e a o f t h e community s c h o o l as e x p r e s s e d i n t h e above philosophy. 4. T h e p r i n c i p a l resourceful  5. T h e p r i n c i p a l s h a l l b e a c o m m i t t e d e d u c a t o r who i s w i l l i n g t o t r y i n n o v a t i v e i d e a s where these seem a p p r o p r i a t e . H e / s h e s h a l l k e e p up w i t h new r e s e a r c h and developments i n e l e m e n t a r y and community e d u c a t i o n through e d u c a t i o n a l media and contact with other educators.  the the  f EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  s h a l l be e n e r g e t i c ,  and i m a g i n a t i v e .  6. The p r i n c i p a l  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  will  UNCLASSIFIED  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  encourage  use o f v o l u n t e e r s school.  throughout EXTERNAL ADAPTATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  137  7. The p r i n c i p a l w i l l e n c o u r a g e p a r e n t s a n d t h e community t o v i s i t and u s e t h e s c h o o l and w i l l make h i m / h e r s e l f a v a i l a b l e to p a r e n t s as n e c e s s a r y .  8. The p r i n c i p a l w i l l u n d e r s t a n d that teenagers a r e an important p a r t o f t h e community, and s h a l l c o n s i d e r them a s a r e s o u r c e .  9. The p r i n c i p a l s h a l l c o n s i d e r h i m / h e r s e l f a s o n e member o f a team w h i c h i n c l u d e s s t a f f , s t u d e n t s a n d community.  10.  11.  12.  The p r i n c i p a l w i l l p r e f e r t h e democratic s t y l e o f leadership.  The p r i n c i p a l w i l l consider h i m / h e r s e l f more a s a t e a c h e r / c o o r d i n a t o r than as an a d m i n i s t r a t o r and w i l l assume t e a c h i n g d u t i e s when n e c e s s a r y a n d desirable.  EXTERNAL EXTERNAL  ADAPTATION INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  The p r i n c i p a l w i l l e n c o u r a g e and a s s i s t t e a c h e r s t o d e v e l o p approaches t o c u r r i c u l u m and methods t o b e s t s u i t t h e INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL ADAPTATION  children.  13.  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION  The  principal  will  encourage  p e r s o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l development i n t e a c h i n g and nonteaching  staff  and i n INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  volunteers. 14.  The  principal  will  work  the appointment o f a school coordinator.  towards  community INTERNAL ADAPTATION EXTERNAL ADAPTATION  138  15.  The p r i n c i p a l w i l l m a i n t a i n f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s with the c o m m u n i t y a n d make e f f o r t s t o maintain an involvement i n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f community  affairs.  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  Criteria Authors:  Criteria  139  List II-3 Staff  of the P r i n c i p a l s h i p  at  School.  A Principal  should:  1. Be s u p p o r t i v e o f t e a c h e r s a n d i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h i n g methods.  2. B e l i e v e i n t h e c u r r e n t of the s c h o o l .  3. Be o p e n  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL INTEGRATION  philosophy INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  to c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m .  4. A c a p a b l e a d m i n i s t r a t o r a n d organized.  5. S u p p o r t a n d e n c o u r a g e a w r i t t e n core curriculum.  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION  EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  6. Be a b l e t o r e l a t e t o c h i l d r e n a t t h e i r own l e v e l .  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  7. M a i n t a i n d i s c i p l i n e t h a t w i l l e n c o u r a g e r e s p e c t and promote a p o s i t i v e atmosphere.  INTERNAL GOAL  8. Be s e n s i t i v e differences  to i n d i v i d u a l INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  of pupils.  9. P a r t i c i p a t e i n a n d s u p p o r t e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and programs.  10.  11.  Be a p p r o a c h a b l e b y p a r e n t s , p u p i l s and t e a c h e r s ,  Keep p a r e n t s projects regular  ATTAINMENT  informed  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  of school  and a c t i v i t i e s home b u l l e t i n s .  through EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  140  12.  Encourage parent  13.  participation  of  groups.  Emphasize p u n c t u a l i t y and regular school attendance.  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  ADAPTATION  Criteria Authors:  141  L i s t II-4(a) S t a f f Committee  Staff  Committee  A Report on the C r i t e r i a f o r Selection of a Principal The  Principal  should  be:  1. c o m m i t t e d t o t h e c u r r e n t philosophy.  2. i n f a v o u r making .  school EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  of collegial decisionINTERNAL INTEGRATION  3. s u p p o r t i v e o f i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h i n g s t y l e s and approaches to the c u r r i c u l u m .  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  4. a w a r e o f c u r r e n t p r o g r a m s a n d materials.  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  5. a  good o r g a n i z e r and  6. a w a r e o f c u r r e n t education.  facilitator.  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION  trends i n INTERNAL ADAPTATION  7. a b l e t o r e l a t e t o a n d support from parents, and p u p i l s .  elicit staff  8. a n e x p e r i e n c e d p r i n c i p a l a s e n s e o f humor.  INTERNAL INTEGRATION with EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  9. p r e p a r e d t o t a k e s t r o n g d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n when n e c e s s a r y . 10.  aware o f i n - s e r v i c e and  provide  staff 11.  INTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT  programs  opportunities for  participation.  w i l l i n g to work toward a h e a l t h y productive climate with staff and p u p i l s .  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  142  12.  conservative rather  13.  i n h i s approach  than an  extremist.  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  an honest and approachable i n d i v i d u a l who i s d i r e c t a n d to t h e p o i n t the s t a f f .  i n dealing  with EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT  Criteria  List  II-4(b)  Consultative  143  Committee  Comments a n d S u g g e s t i o n s f r o m Members o f t h e S c h o o l C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee The P r i n c i p a l  should be:  1. a n e x p e r i e n c e d  principal  on  4. a  s u b s c r i b e s to emphasis  the b a s i c  3. o n e who  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  UNCLASSIFIABLE  a g e 40 t o 50 2. o n e who  EXTERNAL  skills.  commands  respect.  disciplinarian.  5. f l e x i b l e a n d and s t a f f .  EXTERNAL  GOAL  ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL  GOAL  ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL  GOAL  ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  approachable-parents  6. c o n s e r v a t i v e i n h i s a p p r o a c h  7. a g r e e a b l e t o l i m i t i n g t r i p s to a reasonable of e d u c a t i o n a l value  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  field number— EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  Criteria  List II-5  Authors:  Parents  144  PARENTS' SUGGESTED SUBMISSION FOR C R I T E R I A FOR THE P R I N C I P A L Students F i r s t p r i o r i t y and c o n c e r n t o be the s t u d e n t s , t h e i r e d u c a t i o n and interests. The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be u n d e r s t a n d i n g , approachable and s h o u l d exh i b i t p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s which w i l l e n c o u r a g e s t u d e n t s t o communicate their concerns.  The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o maintain d i s c i p l i n e that w i l l encourage r e s p e c t and a h e a l t h y atmosphere f o r l e a r n i n g , w i t h an e f f e c t i v e system o f d e a l i n g with s t u d e n t s who d i s r u p t this atmosphere.  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL GOAL  ATTAINMENT  Staff The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d know h i s t e a c h e r s ' t a l e n t s and s t r e n g t h s and s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e t h e i r development.  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION  There should be a p o s i t i v e interpersonal relationship between the s t a f f and the p r i n c i p a l .  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  Community Committed t o t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e Community i n t h e S c h o o l ' s p h i l o s o p h y and p r a c t i c e o f education; a b l e to respond sensit i v e l y to the needs o f the s c h o o l community.  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  145  The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d i n f o r m p a r e n t s g r o u p a b o u t new i d e a s i n e d u c a t i o n , b e f o r e they a r e i n t r o d u c e d i n the school.  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h e d i v e r s e economic and c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e community.  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d c o m m u n i c a t e the need o f parent involvement i n our s c h o o l t o promote the q u a l i t y of education.  Professional Should tation  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  Qualities  be a c c e s s i b l e f o r c o n s u l w i t h p a r e n t s when n e c e s s a r y .  The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e a p p r o a c h a b l e , d i r e c t , and to the p o i n t i n dealing with s t a f f , students, and p a r e n t s .  The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e s e c u r e i n h i m s e l f and a b l e t o a c c e p t d i s agreement o r c r i t i c i s m w i t h o u t feeling threatened.  Should b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s c h o o l be committed to maintenance o f academic e x c e l l e n c e ; promotion o f s p e c i a l t a l e n t s , e.g., music, drama, a n d a r t , a n d b e o p e n t o new i d e a s .  The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e and i n c r e a s e l i a i s o n w i t h t h e high schools.  INTERNAL  ADAPTATION  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  ADAPTATION  Criteria Authors:  Re:  146  List III-l Staff  Appointment  of Principal  to  School  very  We, a s a s t a f f , h a v e b e e n p l e a s e d t o be w o r k i n g w i t h  The c o n t r i b u t i o n s h e h a s made i n t e r m s o f a n e a s y , f l e x i b l e working r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the s t a f f , a  gentle accepting attitude  the  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  toward INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  children,  and a c o n c e r n f o r t h e i m p r o v e m e n t of our p h y s i c a l environment  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  have been o f g r e a t b e n e f i t to the s c h o o l o v e r t h e p a s t two y e a r s . We w o u l d l i k e a p r i n c i p a l who i s p r e p a r e d t o c o n t i n u e i n much t h e same m a n n e r .  a  T h e q u a l i t i e s we l o o k f o r i n p r i n c i p a l a r e as f o l l o w s :  -  a p e r s o n who  has a sense  of  humour  and r e c o g n i z e s t h a t a g o o d w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s t a f f and s t u d e n t s i s f a r more i m p o r t a n t than t h e a u t h o r i t y and p r e s t i g e i n v e s t e d i n the job i t s e l f . - a p e r s o n who i s e n c o u r a g i n g a n d s u p p o r t i v e o f open e d u c a t i o n as w e l l as t r a d i t i o n a l programs w i t h i n the s c h o o l .  We e s p e c i a l l y w a n t t h e new p r i n c i p a l to r e s p e c t teachers' p r o f e s s i o n a l judgment i n matters of actual teaching.  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  147  -  a p e r s o n who  library  supports  open INTERNAL ADAPTATION  policies.  - a p e r s o n who h a s a d e e p a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the s o c i o l o g i c a l problems to be d e a l t w i t h i n an school. In our s c h o o l i n p a r t i c u l a r there a r e v e r y g r e a t needs i n special education. These include:  -  -  E n g l i s h as a second language (about f i v e - e i g h t s o f our s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n speak E n g l i s h as a second language).  -  environmentally deprived children.  -  p h y s i c a l l y handicapped children (this i s of special concern i n view o f the movement a f o o t t o g r a d u a l l y i n t e g r a t e deaf and b l i n d children).  a p e r s o n who  parental  This general  i s encouraging o f  involvement  guidelines  w i t h i n the  o f the school philosophy.  resume  feeling  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION  sums up t h e o f the  School Elementary  Staff.  EXTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT  C r i t e r i a L i s t III-2(a) Authors: Staff Council  148  C R I T E R I A FOR A P R I N C I P A L A T SCHOOL  The s t a f f o f School has i n d i c a t e d that a p r i n c i p a l a t t h e s c h o o l should have the f o l l o w i n g q u a l i t i e s and a b i l ities. Those l i s t e d r e f l e c t the s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y and t h e o p i n i o n of a m a j o r i t y o f the s t a f f . A.  The f o l l o w i n g a r e c o n s i d e r e d to be o f extreme importance:  1. H i g h d e g r e e o f s k i l l relations.  i n human UNCLASSIFIED  2. C o n s i s t e n t , c l e a r l y f o r m e d p o l i c i e s i n harmony w i t h t h e school philosophy.  3. W i l l i n g n e s s t o c o n s u l t w i t h s t a f f i n p l a n n i n g programs.  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION  4. S u p p o r t o f t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r d e a l i n g s w i t h s t u d e n t s and parents.  INTERNAL GOAL  5. A b i l i t y t o e v a l u a t e a n d r a t e teachers without threat.  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  6. W i l l i n g n e s s t o w o r k w i t h s t a f f c o u n c i l and i n v o l v e s t a f f c o u n c i l and i n v o l v e s t a f f c o u n c i l when d e a l i n g w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t areas o f school policy.  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  7. A d e e p of  understanding  children.  ATTAINMENT  o f needs INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  149  8 . Must be a v a i l a b l e to s t u d e n t s and make s t u d e n t s f e e l t h a t h e is approachable.  9 . Exhibit personal qualities of l e a d e r s h i p that w i l l encourage s t u d e n t s to communicate t h e i r concerns to him.  INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  10 . R e c o g n i t i o n o f d i v e r s e e c o n o m i c and c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e community.  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  11 . A b i l i t y t o p r o m o t e t h e i d e a l s and p r o g r a m m e s a t W i n d e r m e r e t o t h e p a r e n t s a n d t h e community.  EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  B.  The be  f o l l o w i n g are considered to o f moderate  1. R e c o g n i t i o n o f achievement. 2. I n t e l l i g e n t  importance: teacher  use o f  staff INTERNAL ADAPTATION  meetings. 3. Ready a v a i l a b i l i t y sion  and  for discusINTERNAL ADAPTATION  conferences.  4. F i r m b u t . c o n s t r u c t i v e c o n t r o l of the s t a f f , r e s u l t i n g i n a d h e r e n c e t o p o l i c i e s and regulations.  INTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT  5. A b i l i t y t o c o m m u n i c a t e t h e n e e d for parent involvement i n promoting the q u a l i t y o f education i n our school.  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  C.  The  f o l l o w i n g i s a summary  other  criteria  mentioned  members o f t h e s t a f f .  by  of  150  1. D e s i r e t o s u p p o r t a n d a b i l i t y to e v a l u a t e i n n o v a t i v e p r o grammes o n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l merit.  2. S e n s i t i v i t y t o n e e d f o r c u r r i c u l u m development, beari n g i n mind the d i v e r s e economic and c u l t u r a l b a c k ground o f t h e community.  INTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL  INTEGRATION ADAPTATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE GOAL ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  3. R e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e of academic e x c e l l e n c e .  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  4. T i m e t a b l i n g s k i l l s t h a t r e s u l t i n optimum q u a l i t y o f l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  5. E n c o u r a g e m e n t o f m e a n i n g f u l s t a f f involvement i n timetable construction.  6. W i l l i n g n e s s t o d e l e g a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and c o n f i d e n c e i n s t a f f members t o whom r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s delegated.  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION  INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION  7. A w a r e n e s s a n d s u p p o r t o f s t a f f i n improving working and l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s w i t h respect to p h y s i c a l facilities.  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  8. W i l l i n g n e s s t o p r o m o t e a n d support a l l areas o f e x t r a curricular activities.  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  9. P r o v i d e f o r i n v o l v e m e n t o f student c o u n c i l i n s i g n i f i c a n t areas o f school l i f e .  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  10.  Good r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h officials.  the UNCLASSIFIED  Criteria Authors:  List  151  III-2(b)  Parents  PARENT CONSULTATIVE  COMMITTEE  At  t h e p r e s e n t time the Parent Consult a t i v e Committee s u g g e s t s the following Criteria for a Principal. The a d m i n i s t r a t o r should be: 1. I n t e r e s t e d i n o u r  children.  2. A disciplinarian—e.g., attendance. Use a l l a v a i l a b l e f a c i l i t i e s and personnel i n deciding issues and h a n d l i n g d i s c i p l i n e .  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION INTEGRATION  3.  Flexible.  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  4.  Approachable.  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  5.  Communicative.  UNCLASSIFIED  6. T h e i n i t i a t o r — e . g . , l e a d e r ship. Make s u r e p a r e n t s , s t u d e n t s , s t a f f become involved.  INTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT  7. K n o w l e d g e a b l e o f t h e community. 8. S u p p o r t i v e o f p a r e n t a l , s t u d e n t , and s t a f f r e q u e s t s — with discretion  0  152  9. S u p p o r t i v e  of present  school  philosophy.  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  10.  Not an e x t r e m i s t .  UNCLASSIFIED  11.  Continuity i n administration i n t h e s c h o o l should be present.  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  Adjustments t o t h e above d i s c r i p t i o n may, a n d l i k e l y w i l l , f o l l o w . The a b o v e , o t h e r t h a n i t e m o n e , are not n e c e s s a r i l y i n the order of importance.  Criteria  List  III-3  153  Authors:  Parents  Suggested Selecting  Guidelines For Principals.  The  candidate  should  support  f o r principalship the present  school INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  philosophy,  and d e m o n s t r a t e q u a l i t y l e a d e r ship, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f o l l o w ing areas: 1. D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t that w i l l give him personal s a t i s f a c t i o n , as w e l l as enable him to function i n a competitive society.  EXTERNAL  2. E m p h a s i z e t h e n e e d o f t h e basic s k i l l s : English, Mathematics, Basic Science, and a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f world h i s t o r y .  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  3. A n y m a j o r c h a n g e s r e g a r d i n g school p o l i c y , should only take p l a c e a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h s t a f f , p a r e n t s and students.  4. R e c e n t  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  GOAL  ATTAINMENT  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  format f o r  activities  to continue.  dances r e s t r i c t e d students  Example,  to  only.  5. C o n t i n u e w o r k i n g t o w a r d s b e t t e r d i s c i p l i n e and compulsory attendance.  INTERNAL ADAPTATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION  6. E n c o u r a g e e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s such as s p o r t s , music, a r t and c l u b s t o h e l p s t u d e n t s d e v e l o p s o c i a l l y , m e n t a l l y and competitively.  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE GOAL ATTAINMENT  EXTERNAL  Criteria Authors:  List  III-4  154  Staff  C R I T E R I A I N S E L E C T I N G THE PRINCIPAL  FOR  SCHOOL  For ease o f d i s c u s s i o n these c r i t e r i a c o n s i d e r e d under the f o u r h e a d i n g s w h i c h we c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e ; namely, c r i t e r i a r e l a t e d to the p u p i l s , the s t a f f , t h e community, t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s own p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s a n d m a n a g e r i a l competence.  Students In our opinion  the p r i n c i p a l  needs:  1. To b e a w a r e o f t h e e m o t i o n a l and l e a r n i n g p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r e p e r h a p s more s p e c i f i c t o o u r school because o f the t r a n s i e n t nature of our p u p i l s , the v a r i e t y o f e t h n i c groups and the problems from the predomina t i n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c groups i n t h i s community. 2. To b e k n o w l e d g e a b l e a b o u t E S L classes, other special classes, a n d V.S.B. p r o c e d u r e s t o g e t a s s i s t a n c e to these areas i f needs a r i s e .  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL ADAPTATION EXTERNAL ADAPTATION  Staff The  principal  needs:  1. To b e s u p p o r t i v e a n d k n o w l e d g e able about c u r r i c u l u m decentralization,  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  155  and  t o be aware o f c u r r i c u l u m  needs  f o r g r a d e s K-7, a n d t h e  special  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  classes,  and t o be r e c e p t i v e t o p e r s o n a l teaching involvement i n the classrooms. 2. S p e c i a l i n t e r e s t a n d k n o w l e d g e i n team t e a c h i n g a n d t h e open area concept,  s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e open resource centre.  3. To b e a b l e t o a s s i s t t e a c h e r s i n an e v a l u a t i o n o f the c u r r i c u l u m and t e a c h i n g methods, b e i n g aware o f what i s b e i n g taught and g i v i n g c o n s t r u c t i v e guidance to a i d the teacher.  4. To b e d e m o c r a t i c a n d f r a n k with s t a f f , providing a l i n k between t e a c h e r s from K i n d e r g a r t e n t o G r a d e 7, a n d Special Education teachers. Needs d i p l o m a c y i n d e a l i n g with staff.  Committee  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION  area  Needs t o be a b l e t o g i v e g u i d ance t o t h e s t a f f on r e s o u r c e s and r e s o u r c e p e o p l e a v a i l a b l e through v a r i o u s agencies.  5. To b e f a v o u r a b l e  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION  EXTERNAL ADAPTATION  INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  to the S t a f f  and t h e S c h o o l  Consultative  Committee  concepts. 6. To s u p p o r t t e a c h e r s i n t h e realm o f a u t h o r i t y , thereby maintaining a firm-tone w i t h i n the s c h o o l and p r o v i d i n g a s t a b l e b a s i s i n t h i s way.  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL GOAL  ATTAINMENT  156  7. To a g r e e w i t h t h e u s e o f a u x i l i a r y p e r s o n n e l , e.g., secondary school students, p a r e n t s and community volunteers.  EXTERNAL ADAPTATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  Community He/she  needs:  1. To b e a b l e  t o communicate  e f f e c t i v e l y a n d i n t e r a c t meani n g f u l l y w i t h t h e community, a c t i n g as l i a i s o n between s c h o o l and community.  2. To b e a b l e t o r e s p o n d t o t h e s p e c i a l and g e n e r a l needs o f t h i s community, w i t h t h e e t h n i c and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c variation w i t h i n i t , and the problems a r i s i n g from i t s t r a n s i e n t nature.  3. To a g r e e  with  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION  the open-door  p o l i c y o f the school, encouraging parent involvement with s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s and f u n c t i o n s . Briefly  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  d i s c u s s e d were the  Managerial  Aspects  1. P e r s o n a l D i m e n s i o n s o f ship:  Leader-  Tactfulness  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  Approachability  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  Motivating  INTERNAL INTERNAL  INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT  157  INTEGRATION  Supportive  INTERNAL  Innovative  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  Awareness o f (a)  educational  (b)  curriculum ation  goals  GOAL ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  decentraliz-  (c) s c h o o l laws and procedures  2. K n o w l e d g e  EXTERNAL  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION  of  p o l i c i e s and procedures especi a l l y i n areas o f budgeting, p u r c h a s i n g , a c c o u n t i n g and o f f i c e management. 3. A w a r e n e s s o f i n t e r n a l p h y s i c a l p l a n t and f a c i l i t i e s o f open a r e a s c h o o l s and i t s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h e n g i n e e r i n g s t a f f and workmen t o b e s t f a c i l i t a t e the needs o f the s t a f f , s t u d e n t s a n d community.  Conclusion The s t a f f w o u l d l i k e t o b e g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o meet i n f o r m a l l y w i t h p o t e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e s as s c r e e n e d by t h e School Board o f f i c i a l s .  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  INTERNAL  ADAPTATION  Criteria Authors:  REPORT ON  List IV-1 Parents, teachers,  THE  COMMITTEE  DEVELOPING C R I T E R I A TO IN  THE  S E L E C T I O N OF  PRINCIPAL  158 student  FOR ASSIST  A  FOR  SCHOOL  T h i s i s t h e r e p o r t o f an ad hoc committee e s t a b l i s h e d to p r o v i d e b r o a d e r i n p u t and i n f o r m a t i o n t o those u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a p p o i n t i n g a new p r i n c i p a l f o r School. The  committee  consisted of  four  t e a c h e r s , one student a n d t h r e e c o m m u n i t y members. , Assistant Superintend a n t , a c t e d as r e s o u r c e person f o r the committee. The c o m m i t t e e r e c o g n i z e s t h e wisdom o f the School Board i n p r e p a r i n g f o r the u l t i m a t e l y i n e v i t a b l e replacement. F u r t h e r , we t h a n k t h e B o a r d f o r a s k i n g us t o v o i c e o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g a s u c c e s s o r to the highly-esteemed c u r r e n t incumbent. The p r e s e n t p r i n c i p a l , , has been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d e v e l o p i n g the concept of as a community s c h o o l a n d h a s successf u l l y taken through the p l a n n i n g s t a g e s to e f f e c t i v e operation. Strong leadership notwithstanding, the complex i s i n i t s i n f a n c y and i s u n d e r g o i n g s e v e r e growing pains r e s u l t i n g i n a host o f problems. I t appears s e l f evident that continued strong leadership is imperative.  INTERNAL  ADAPTATION  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  159  I t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to l o c a t e a d m i n i s t r a t o r as c a p a b l e as  an  The c o m m i t t e e ' s t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e were t o develop c r i t e r i a t o f a c i l i t a t e the s e l e c t i o n process i n appointing the s e l e c t i o n process i n a p p o i n t i n g a new p r i n c i p a l f o r School. The Board has a l r e a d y devised procedures f o r the s e l e c tion of principals including a statement o f E d u c a t i o n a l goals and a f r a m e w o r k f o r a c h i e v i n g those goals which i n cludes the following: Matching the r i g h t students with the r i g h t teachers i n f l e x i b l e groupings..  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  Developing a curriculum that i s c l o s e l y related to r e a l l i f e e x p e r i e n c e and which allows f o r the continuous ungraded development o f each student.  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  This requires providing learning options i n c l u d i n g l e a r n i n g i n l o c a t i o n s outside the school building.  EXTERNAL  I d e n t i f y i n g as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e s t u d e n t s who n e e d s p e c i a l a s s i s tance and p r o v i d i n g i t , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , through the l e a r n i n g assistance centre i n the school. Bringing way, ity of  together,  t h o s e who  students with  these  who  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  i n a cooperative  have a  f o r the learning  persons  ADAPTATION  responsibilexperiences  those  resource  can c o n t r i b u t e to  experiences  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION  160  Encouraging teachers f e s s i o n a l f r e e d o m as Board p o l i c y .  to use pros e t out i n  Providing supportive services, c o n s u l t a t i v e a s s i s t a n c e and s t a f f development programs t h a t w i l l help i n the achievement of the goals  E v a l u a t i n g on what i s b e i n g  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  a continuous basis done i n s c h o o l s i n  terms o f these g o a l s , c o n s i d e r i n g b o t h t h e c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e development o f the students.  P r o v i d i n g f o r community i n v o l v e ment i n s c h o o l s t h r o u g h t h e association of teachers, p r i n c i p a l s and s t u d e n t s w i t h p a r e n t s a n d other interested citizens. • -  INTERNAL  T h i s committee can o n l y endorse t h o s e p r o c e d u r e s and a t t e m p t t o a d d t o them b y s u g g e s t i n g qualifications for a principal p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t to t h i s s c h o o l . I t must be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e Complex i s u n i q u e i n i t s needs and operations. We h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o i d e n t i f y some o f t h e c o m p o n e n t s w h i c h make i t s o i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y the r e q u i s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p o t e n t i a l a d m i n i s trator.  ************ The c o m m i t t e e f e l t t h a t t h e r e q u i s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p r i n c i p a l c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d u n d e r two g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s , V I Z . (1) P e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s a n d (2) Experience and s k i l l s . These were b r o k e n down a s f o l l o w s :  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  161  I.  Personality  Factors  1. R e l a t e s w e l l t o a w i d e o f p e o p l e and v a l u e s .  variety INTERNAL .EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  2. I s  d i p l o m a t i c and  3. I s  a good l i s t e n e r — e m p a t h e t i c .  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  4. I s  s i n c e r e and s e n s i t i v e  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  5. I s  tolerant of different  6. I s h i g h l y  7. I s of  tactful.  values.  organized  possessed humour  sense INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  f o r hard EXTERNAL  9. I s a t i r e l e s s worker.  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION  o f a good  8. Has a h i g h t o l e r a n c e work and s t r e s s  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  and d e d i c a t e d . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  EXTERNAL  II  Experience  and  Skills  1. D e m o n s t r a t e d s u c c e s s f u l e x p e r ience i n school administration.  2. E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h open areas considered desirable.  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION  EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  162  3. D e m o n s t r a t e d skills. 4. E x p e r i e n c e d of  decision  making INTERNAL  GOAL  ATTAINMENT  i n and s u p p o r t i v e  curriculum  development.  5. A b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e , i n i t i a t e , and/or maintain, a c l i m a t e w i t h i n the school consistent w i t h community e x p e c t a t i o n s .  INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  6. D e m o n s t r a t e d a b i l i t y i n r e c o g n i z i n g , o r g a n i z i n g and s u p p o r t i n g a v a r i e t y o f c o - c u r r i c u l a r and e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r programmes and a c t i v i t i e s t o promote an e f f e c t i v e and harmonious s c h o o l atmosphere.  7. D e m o n s t r a t e d d i p l o m a c y a n d a b i l i t y to l i s t e n to and mediate conflicts.  E m a n a t i n g f r o m t h e a b o v e t h e communi t t e e f e l t t h a t i n terms o f p r i o r i t i e s the successful candidate s h o u l d s c o r e h i g h l y i n human relations and be a d e d i c a t e d  concerned with learning  educator  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  UNCLASSIFIED INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  f a c i l i t a t i n g the  process.  INTERNAL ADAPTATION EXTERNAL ADAPTATION  Criteria Authors:  163  L i s t IV-2 S t a f f Committee  Re: C r i t e r i a f o r P r i n c i p a l Staff Committee  The  s t a f f committee o f have ( s i c ) d i s c u s s e d the t o p i c C r i t e r i a f o r P r i n c i p a l , and h a v e ( s i c ) a g r e e d t h a t t h e following characteristics are desirable f o r that p o s i t i o n : 1. H a n d l e s  2.  discipline wisely  Diplomatic  3. Good d e c i s i o n  4. A b l e  to give  5. K e e p a g o o d parents  maker  direction  relationship  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT INTEGRATION  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  INTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION ADAPTATION  INTERNAL INTERNAL  ADAPTATION GOAL ATTAINMENT  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  with INTERNAL  b u t b e a b l e t o s t a n d up t o them a n d b a c k up t e a c h e r s when o c c a s i o n demands  6. L e t t e a c h e r s b e i n o n d e c i s i o n s w h i c h a r e g o i n g t o a f f e c t them ( d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d b e made b y the e n t i r e s t a f f )  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL  GOAL  ATTAINMENT  EXTERNAL  GOAL  ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  7. H a v e a g o o d k n o w l e d g e o f p u p i l capability 8. Be o p e n by  and  behaviour  to innovations  teachers.  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  suggested INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  Criteria Authors:  L i s t IV-3 S t a f f and P a r e n t s  164  C R I T E R I A FOR S E L E C T I N G A PRINCIPAL  FOR  SCHOOL  The S t a f f C o m m i t t e e a n d S c h o o l C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee have j o i n t l y agreed upon t h e f o l l o w i n g criteria for selecting a principal for School.  Criteria In  related  to student  needs:  our o p i n i o n the p r i n c i p a l  needs: (a)  (b)  (c)  (d)  teaching experience i n the p r i m a r y and i n t e r m e d i a t e grades i n c l u d i n g work w i t h P r i m a r y New C a n a d i a n s a n d f a m i l y c o u n selling. ( T h e number o f New Canadian and t r a n s i e n t f a m i l i e s w i t h i n o u r s c h o o l community is high).  EXTERNAL  to support r e a l i s t i c expectat i o n s and goals f o r students and t o b e a b l e t o v i e w e a c h c h i l d as an i n d i v i d u a l  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  to maintain a f a i r , understanding, y e t firm standard o f discipline.  to give high p r i o r i t y learning  Criteria (a)  to s t a f f  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  GOAL  to the  of basics.  related  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  ATTAINMENT  needs:  t o be s u p p o r t i v e o f s t a f f i n encouraging innovative programmes a n d c r e a t i v e i d e a s .  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  165  (b)  (c)  t o encourage teachers t o take p a r t i n d e c i s i o n making r e p l a n n i n g , f i n a n c e s , e t c . , and to r e s p e c t t h e i r o p i n i o n s and t o b e o p e n - m i n d e d a b o u t them, y e t w i l l i n g t o make t h e f i n a l decision i f necessary.  to have energy, i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y to a c tas a resource person, to  (d)  (e)  take  (b)  INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL  ADAPTATION  an a c t i v e p a r t i n  classrooms  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  and t o e n c o u r a g e p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f s t a f f members.  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  t o be open t o t h e use o f parap r o f e s s i o n a l s and volunteers throughout the school. (This h a s b e e n c a r r i e d o u t f o r some time i n o u r s c h o o l w i t h great success).  INTERNAL  ADAPTATION  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  EXTERNAL INTERNAL  INTEGRATION ADAPTATION  t o h a v e a s e n s e o f humour.  Criteria (a)  INTERNAL INTERNAL  f o r Community  needs:  t o be a b l e t o cope w i t h and t o e n c o u r a g e community involvement i n the s c h o o l i n areas such a s E n g l i s h c l a s s e s f o r Moms and T o t s , r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a mmes, e t c .  t o be a b l e t o respond to t h e s p e c i a l n e e d s o f t h i s community, w i t h t h e e t h n i c and s o c i o economic v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n i t and t h e p r o b l e m s a r i s i n g f r o m i t s transient nature.  to a g r e e w i t h t h e open-door p o l i c y o f t h e s c h o o l and t o encourage C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee and p a r e n t i n v o l v e ment i n s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s and functions.  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  Criteria Authors:  L i s t IV-4 Staff  167  Our S t a f f C o m m i t t e e met t o d a y t o d i s c u s s t h e c r i t e r i a we w o u l d l i k e to see used as a b a s i s f o r s e l e c t i n g a new P r i n c i p a l f o r We h a v e come up w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s , w h i c h we feel are desirable qualifications in a P r i n c i p a l f o r our school. 1. F i r s t l y , t h i s p e r s o n s h o u l d support a c u r r i c u l u m geared towards t h e b a s i c s u b j e c t s .  EXTERNAL  GOAL  ATTAINMENT  2. S e c o n d l y , we w o u l d l i k e t o s e e t h e same f i r m d i s c i p l i n a r y s t a n d a r d s , a s a r e now i n existence, maintained.  INTERNAL  GOAL  ATTAINMENT  EXTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  3. T h i s p e r s o n s h o u l d b e w i l l i n g t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n good r a p p o r t w i t h parents and pupils.  4. He o r s h e s h o u l d b e f a m i l i a r with a l l l e v e l s of the elementary curriculum, i n c l u d i n g k i n d e r g a r t e n and p r i m a r y programs, and s h o u l d have taught a t t h e elementary l e v e l within recent years.  5. T h i s p e r s o n s h o u l d s u p p o r t a n d encourage the f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e S t a f f Committee i n a l l decision-making that affects the s c h o o l as a whole. 6. F i n a l l y ,  he  INTERNAL ADAPTATION EXTERNAL, PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  o r she should  respect teachers' judgement.  professional  We h o p e t h a t t h i s l i s t w i l l b e o f some a s s i s t a n c e i n m a k i n g y o u r selection.  Criteria  List  Authors:  The  IV-5(a)  168  Parents  p a r e n t members o f t h e School Consultative  Committee,  comprising  ,  >  >  5  J  >  »  J  >  >  , and , representing the m a j o r i t y o f parents a t t h e s c h o o l , w i s h t o make t h e f o l l o w i n g recommendations to t h e School Board w i t h regard to the c h o i c e o f a new p r i n c i p a l a f t e r 's r e t i r e m e n t i n J u n e 1976: 1. We f e e l t h a t t h e b a s i c s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y o f d i s c i p l i n e and code o f good b e h a v i o u r , t o gether w i t h the academic s t a n dards and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n P.E., M u s i c a n d L a n g u a g e a r t [: ( s i c ) w i t h i n a n o v e r a l l f l e x i b l e s t r u c t u r e , s h o u l d be endeavoured to be m a i n t a i n e d , as o u r c h i l d r e n have d e f i n i t e l y b e n e f i t t e d from t h i s system i n terms o f academic p r o g r e s s and s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r .  EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL ADAPTATION  2. We  feel  that  , currently  v i c e - p r i n c i p a l , i s thoroughly imbued w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g system, and h a s a n e x c e l l e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p a r t i c u l a r concerns o f the area which t h i s s c h o o l serves.  EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  has attended every meeting o f the C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee s i n c e i t s f o u n d a t i o n and h a s p r o m o t e d a t r u l y c o o p e r a t i v e atmosphere s t a f f and p a r e n t s .  between  169  We f i n d h i m t o b e a n e x c e l l e n t negotiator, sympathetic, y e t f i r m , and he has an e a s y manner of communicating.  He h a s a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d a n e x t r e m e l y good r a p p o r t w i t h children, and o n s e v e r a l p r e v i o u s o c c a s ions, i n the role of acting p r i n c i p a l , he has proved v e r y c a p a b l e i n a p p l y i n g and uph o l d i n g the school*s philosophy and d i s c i p l i n e .  3. I t h a s b e e n i n d i c a t e d t h a t o t h e r a p p l i c a n t s f o r the p r i n c i p a l s h i p may h a v e a g r e a t e r l e v e l o f s e n i o r i t y over , howe v e r , we f e e l t h a t f o r t h e s a k e of the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f a p o s i t i v e s c h o o l atmosphere and p r o g r e s s , the S c h o o l Board s h o u l d waive the matter o f s e n i o r i t y . If the Board f i n d s t h i s unaccept a b l e , we w i s h t o r e i t e r a t e t h a t Mr. L e n g s h o u l d b e e n c o u r a g e d ro ( s i c ) remain a t t h i s s c h o o l as v i c e - p r i n c i p a l .  we h o p e t h a t t h e B o a r d takes these recommendations i n t o consideration.  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT GOAL ATTAINMENT PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL  INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION  Criteria Authors:  List  IV-5(b)  170  Staff  The s t a f f o r S c h o o l h a s met a number o f t i m e s as a c o m m i t t e e , and p r e p a r e d the following brief. You a r e aware t h a t the p r e s e n t p r i n c i p a l i s r e t i r i n g i n June. As the s t a f f i s w e l l s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e c u r r e n t s t r u c t u r e and l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l , we h o p e t o be a b l e t o a v o i d any r a d i c a l c h a n g e s through the s h i f t i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . We f e e l t h a t b y o u t l i n i n g t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r e o f the s c h o o l , the p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e s t a f f w i l l come to l i g h t . Our h o p e i s t h a t y o u w i l l a t t e m p t t o f i n d a new princ i p a l who w i l l f i t i n t o o u r s y s t e m r a t h e r than t r y to change i t .  INTERNAL  ADAPTATION  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  F i v e areas o f d i s c u s s i o n have been chosen: d i s c i p l i n e , t i m e t a b l i n g , curriculum, s t a f f i n g , committees. F u r t h e r needs were a l s o d i s c u s s e d . The d i s c i p l i n e i n t h e s c h o o l i s b u i l t upon a "Code o f C o n d u c t , " a copy o f which i s e n c l o s e d . Rules a r e e n f o r c e d by a l l t e a c h e r s a t a l l t i m e s , as w e l l as t h r o u g h a 3:00 p.m. d e t e n t i o n room. Hallways are kept clear except during inclement weather. Teachers have agreed t o be i n t h e h a l l w a y s f o r t h e 9:00, 1 1 : 0 5 , and 1:00 b e l l s . The teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f t h e s c h o o l support each other i n d i s c i p l i n e matters.  All  teachers  are  responsible  all  c h i l d r e n at a l l times.  for  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL INTEGRATION  171  T i m e t a b l i n g i s such t h a t the day i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e , one h o u r periods. The f a c t t h a t t h e v i c e p r i n c i p a l teaches allows f o r a spare f o r most t e a c h e r s . There i s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n A r t , P.E., and M u s i c w h i c h h a s b e e n o f much b e n e f i t t o the c h i l d r e n . The s t u d e n t s o f g r a d e s f i v e and s i x spend t h e f i r s t h o u r o f e a c h m o r n i n g i n homogeneous reading groups. These a r e formed through t e s t i n g a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e y e a r and r e - e v a l u a t i o n t e s t s throughout. The l i b r a r y h a s c l a s s e s s c h e d u l e d i n t o i t w i t h the t e a c h e r , but i s always open to anyone. As w i t h m o s t e d u c a t o r s a t t h i s t i m e , we f e e l t h a t c u r r i c u l u m bears l o o k i n g at c l o s e l y . We w o u l d hope t h a t , as i n t h e p a s t , the s t a f f w o u l d be c o n s u l t e d i n any c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e , a l t h o u g h any c h a n g e t o w a r d s a more s t r u c t u r e d c u r r i c u l u m w o u l d be w e l c o m e d .  INTERNAL  T h i s w o u l d e n a b l e a more a c c u r a t e e v a l u a t i o n o f p u p i l s a t each grade l e v e l , a s we f e e l t h a t p r o m o t i o n f r o m l e v e l to l e v e l must be on merit rather that social maturity.  EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  Repeating a grade at the K - 3 level i s o f much m o r e b e n e f i t a c a d e m i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y t o t h e s t u d e n t , than i t i s when he o r s h e i s o l d e r . B a s i c s k i l l s m u s t be s t r e s s e d i n every grade.  EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  Committees i n the s c h o o l have been k e p t as s i m p l e as p o s s i b l e . The S t a f f C o m m i t t e e c o n s i s t s o f a l l t e a c h e r s p l u s the p r i n c i p a l and vice-principal. The c h a i r p e r s o n o f t h i s committee i s e i t h e r the principal. The c h a i r p e r s o n o f t h i s committee i s e i t h e r the p r i n c i p a l , o r the c h a i r p e r s o n o f the  INTEGRATION  172  committee, d e p e n d i n g upon the agenda f o r the day. The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and t h e s t a f f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a r e e l e c t e d as one. The number o f m e e t i n g s a r e k e p t t o a minimum i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e the r u n n i n g o f i n t r a s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s , i . e . , a r t club, ping pong, dance, s o c c e r , e t c .  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  Minutes o f these meetings are kept. A s c h o o l c o n s u l t a t i v e committee has been e l e c t e d and meets d u r i n g the evening. T h i s committee c o n s i s t s of the p r i n c i p a l , v i c e - p r i n c i p a l , two s t a f f members, a n d t h i r t e e n parents. An e x e c u t i v e h a s b e e n e l e c t e d f o r t h i s committee. The p r e s e n t s c h o o l s t a f f work v e r y w e l l t o g e t h e r , as a r e s u l t o f the f a c t t h a t they have been i n v o l v e d i n s e l e c t i o n of replacements f o r tho s e l e a v i n g .  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  P r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s f o r the open a r e a , where i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t everyone g e t s a l o n g , have been i n t e r viewed b o t h by the p r i n c i p a l and the open a r e a s t a f f . We f e e l t h a t a congenial s t a f f r e s u l t s i n a very good s c h o o l atmosphere, p r o m o t i n g a better learning situation. F i n a l l y , we h a v e l o o k e d t o t h e f u t u r e i n a, ( s i c ) e f f o r t t o s e e w h e r e i m p r o v e m e n t s c o u l d b e made a n d new i d e a s a d d e d . T h e r e s h o u l d be an a l t e r n a t i v e t o open a r e a , where i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t some c h i l d r e n cannot f u n c t i o n .  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  C l o s e r a t t e n t i o n must b e p a i d t o h e a l t h and c l e a n l i n e s s r u l e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n v o l v i n g h a i r , c l o t h e s , and p e r s o n a l h y g i e n e . It i s f e l t t h a t a h e a l t h p r o g r a m must be r e - i n s t a t e d , w i t h n u t r i t i o n being o f primary concern.  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  173  School i s b a s i c ally a structured traditional school with organized innovative programs added. We f e e l t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t i o n the students receive has been b e n e f i t t e d by t h e l a c k o f major changes i n b o t h s t a f f and curriculum. We h o p e t h a t a n y e f f o r t s made t o a c q u i r e a new p r i n c i p a l f o r t h e s c h o o l would be d i r e c t e d through the current school s t r u c t u r e and through the s t a f f philosophy.  INTERNAL INTERNAL  Should you wish to discuss these o r any o t h e r p o i n t s , a s t a f f committee w o u l d be happy t o meet with you.  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION  Criteria  List  Authors:  174  IV-6(a)  Parents  Working with , our P a r e n t ' s C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee developed the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a p e r t a i n i n g to the s e l e c t i o n o f a new p r i n c i p a l a n d t o t h e g e n e r a l philosophy o f the school. I t i s t h e i r hope t h a t , a l o n g w i t h the i n p u t from the s t a f f , i t w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n making the appointment o f a p r i n c i p a l to  but  "The kind,  principal  should  be  firm  and young enough t o be a b l e t o s t a y at the school f o r s e v e r a l years. The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e i d e a l i s t i c i n a i m and p r e p a r e d t o f o s t e r and encourage the s t a f f to reach high.  The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e w i l l i n g to innovate, to encourage e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n methodology, o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t r u c t u r e .  The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be aware o f t h e p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s a t work i n and a r o u n d t h e s c h o o l a n d know how t o c o p e w i t h them.  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION  INTERNAL EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION PATTE RN-MAINTENANCE GOAL ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e community o r i e n t e d . He o r s h e s h o u l d be a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e t h e c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t i e s w i t h i n t h i s a r e a , be aware o f t h e p r o b l e m s w i t h i n t h i s d i v e r s i t y and have t h e p a t i e n c e t o s u c c e s s f u l l y cope w i t h such problems.  175  He o r s h e s h o u l d b e w i l l i n g t o p r o m o t e c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s between p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s , m a k i n g them, w i t h t h e children, a l l f e e l a part of the s c h o o l community.  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION  The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e a b l e to have c h i l d r e n l e a r n about and know t h e m s e l v e s .  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  The ment t h a t knowledge enough t o  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  s c h o o l s h o u l d be an e n v i r o n w i l l i n s t i l l a zest f o r and e n t h u s i a s m f o r l e a r n i n g last a lifetime.  Emphasis i n i n s t r u c t i o n should be o n t h e b a s i c s u b j e c t s — t h e 3 R ' s — but with c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n paid to the a r t i s t i c , e s t h e t i c development o f the c h i l d r e n .  The t e a c h i n g s t a f f s h o u l d b e a t t e m p t i n g t o a s s i s t , i n s t r u c t and p r o v i d e a means f o r a h i g h l e v e l of i n d i v i d u a l development."  I  trust  be h e l p f u l  this  information  i n making your  will  selection.  EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  Criteria Authors:  L i s t IV-6(b) Staff  176  The s t a f f o r has, by c o l l e g i a l agreement, l i s t e d t h e a t t a c h e d c r i t e r i a f o r o u r new principal. We f e e l t h i s l i s t w o u l d meet t h e n e e d s o f o u r s c h o o l , s t a f f and community. The l i s t i s i n p o i n t f o r m , b u t i n no p a r t i c u l a r o r d e r o f priority. The s t a f f f e e l s t h a t each item i s important i n i t s e l f .  Criteria  F o r a New  Principal  Educational -  a c t i v e , strong background i n  Language  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL ADAPTATION  Arts.  - competent i n d e a l i n g w i t h d i v e r g e n t e t h n i c groups.  -  community  -  recent  -  experience  widely EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  oriented.  elementary with  experience  primary  children  - w i l l i n g to teach a t a l l grade l e v e l s on a n o n - s t r u c t u r e d b a s i s -  - firm; earn and s t a f f  respect  EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  appreciative of different procedures  EXTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT  of children  - knowledgeable i n d i f f e r e n t in education  ing  INTEGRATION  s t r u c t u r e d i n b a s i c s and  discipline  -  EXTERNAL  trends INTERNAL ADAPTATION teachINTERNAL  INTEGRATION  177  - a p p r e c i a t e s a r t , m u s i c , P.E. (cultural extracurricular activities)  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  Personal/Professional -  comfortable  i n social  situations  - t a c t f u l relationship with s t a f f ; a b l e and w i l l i n g to compliment children;  able  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  -  enjoys  to b u i l d  a  good  rapport  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  -  good  s e n s e o f humour  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  - promotes a happy s i t u a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n , s t a f f and p a r e n t s  - supportive to ( s i c ) teachers in a l l situations  - b e l i e v e s i n the v a l u e o f an e f f e c t i v e S t a f f Committee  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  - communication l i n e s k e p t open; i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t what i s g o i n g on  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  - supports f u l l use o f the l i b r a r y as a r e s o u r c e c e n t r e and L.A.C.  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  C r i t e r i a ' L i s t IV-7 Authors: P a r e n t s and  178 Staff  A principal's position will be a v a i l a b l e i n September a t School. The p a r e n t s and s t a f f a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f the p r i n c i p a l . Because of the t r e n d toward a l t e r n a t e schools w i t h i n the system, we f e e l i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t o u r new p r i n c i p a l t h e t e a c h i n g s t y l e s a n d a t m o s p h e r e t h a t now e x i s t a t INTERNAL EXTERNAL W i t h i n t h e s c h o o l , the s t a f f works together with a u n i f i e d philosophy, although there are differences i n approach to t h i s philosophy. We h o p e t h a t a new h e a d w o u l d r e s p e c t our f e e l i n g s , would take i n t o account o u r u n i t y , and would use a c o l l e g i a l approach toward change. The m a j o r emphasis o f o u r l e a r n i n g program i s language dev e l o p m e n t , w h i c h we t r y t o i n t e g r a t e i n t o every area o f the curriculum. Many o f o u r c h i l d r e n e n t e r s c h o o l without b e i n g a b l e to speak E n g l i s h ; o t h e r s speak E n g l i s h o n l y a t s c h o o l and w i t h t h e i r p l a y m a t e s . To h e l p these c h i l d r e n break the language b a r r i e r , we t r y t o c r e a t e , t h r o u g h out t h e day, i n f o r m a l l a n g u a g e s i t u a t i o n s , where they a r e encouraged t o u s e many d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e s k i l l s without formal evaluation. We f e e l i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p a good s t a n d a r d o f E n g l i s h usage, w h i l e r e t a i n i n g p r i d e in their ethnic heritage. Therefore, we w o u l d a p p r e c i a t e h a v i n g a p r i n c i p a l who w o u l d u n d e r s t a n d o u r g o a l s , a n d who w o u l d e n h a n c e a n d f u r t h e r e n r i c h o u r p r e s e n t schema.  INTERNAL  INTERNAL INTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  INTEGRATION  INTEGRATION ADAPTATION  179  Because the School Board r e a l i z e s that u n i t y w i t h i n a s t a f f c r e a t e s a harmonious atmosphere and a good l e a r n i n g environment, i t has been p o l i c y , i n r e c e n t y e a r s , t o have p r i n c i p a l a n d s t a f f v e t ( s i c ) p o s s i b l e new members o f t h e s t a f f — p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e a m a n d Open A r e a s i t u a t i o n s . We f e e l t h a t t h e p r i n c i p a l i s a member o f t h e s c h o o l 'team' w i t h a unique r o l e to play i n c o - o r d i n a t i n g s c h o o l programs. In a d d i t i o n , the head i s the p r i n c i p a l l i a s o n between p a r e n t s , s t a f f , and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  P a r e n t s and s t a f f a t have d i s c u s s e d the q u a l i t i e s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f our " i d e a l " p r i n c i p a l and have compiled t h e f o l l o w i n g l i s t f o r your c o n s i d e r a t i o n . P a r e n t s a n d s t a f f f e e l we c o u l d work h a p p i l y w i t h a p r i n c i p a l . - who School  i swilling  t o work w i t h  Consultative  the  Committee a s a EXTERNAL  partner; - who h a s p r i m a r y / l a n g u a g e  experience;  - who e n c o u r a g e s t h e u s e o f c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s as p a r t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m ( i . e . , who e n c o u r a g e s f i e l d t r i p s to take the c h i l d r e n i n t o t h e c o m m u n i t y a n d who e n c o u r a g e s communi t y r e s o u r c e p e o p l e t o come i n t o the s c h o o l ) ;  who a p p r e c i a t e s t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f a primary school;  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  UNCLASSIFIED  180  - who u n d e r s t a n d s t h e i m p o r t a n c e of maintaining t r a d i t i o n a l schoolcommunity a c t i v i t i e s ( i . e . , F u n F a i r , S p o r t s Day, e t c . ) ;  - who mode;  likes  t o work i n an  - who ences  respects individual differi n approaches to teaching;  - who  plans  EXTERNAL EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  informal  to teach  and to have  definite educational with the c h i l d r e n .  interaction  We w o u l d h o p e t h a t y o u , i n making the s e l e c t i o n , w i l l c o n s i d e r t h e p o i n t s we h a v e p u t f o r w a r d . We s h o u l d b e h a p p y t o a s s i s t y o u i n a n y way.  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  Criteria  List  IV-8(a)  181  Authors:  Parents  CRITERION  ( s i c ) FOR A P R I N C I P A L  1. V a l u e s a n d q u a l i t i e s principal  of present  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  (a)  cheerfulness  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  (b)  enjoys  children  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  (c) a good needs  listener  (d)  reliable  to others EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL  and c o n s i s t a n t  2. Someone who w i l l s e e t h a t t h e s k i l l s are stressed but allow enough f l e x i b i l i t y t o h e l p c h i l d r e n w i t h s p e c i a l problems.  3. A d i s c i p l i n a r i a n who demands r e s p e c t f o r h i m s e l f and o t h e r s from the s t u d e n t s . 4. A p r i n c i p a l who w i l l t a k e t i m e to l i s t e n to c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r and remain objective.  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL  GOAL  ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  182  C r i t e r i a L i s t IV-8(b) Authors: Staff  CRITERION Personal  ( s i c ) FOR A P R I N C I P A L Qualities  A p e r s o n who respect.  develops  t r u s t and INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL  ADAPTATION  approachable,  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  consistent,  EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  good  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  Someone who i n s t i l l s c o n f i d e n c e and r e s p e c t i n c h i l d r e n , p a r e n t s and s t a f f .  Well  organized,  listener,  patient,  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  self confident,  UNCLASSIFIED  w i l l i n g t o g i v e encouragement on a r e g u l a r b a s i s ,  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  open,  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  s e n s e o f humour,  INTERNAL  available.  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  183  Professional  Qualities  W i l l i n g t o develop an awareness o f t h e many a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e s c h o o l a n d ways t h a t c l a s s e s a r e conducted.  Should have u n d e r s t a n d i n g and knowledge o f c h i l d r e n and curriculum at a l l levels within the s c h o o l .  Should encourage p r o f e s s i o n a l and p e r s o n a l growth i n the s t a f f by e x p o s i n g a n d i n t r o d u c i n g them t o r e s o u r c e s ( p e o p l e , speakers and i n n o v a t i v e m a t e r i a l s ) so t h a t they can be renewed, i n s p i r e d and m o t i v a t e d i n t h e i r own e f f o r t s i n the classroom.  W i l l i n g n e s s t o d e v e l o p an understanding o f current trends i n education.  Should possess the a b i l i t y to p l a c e teachers i n situations that best suit their abilities. Knowledgeable  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL ADAPTATION  INTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION ADAPTATION ADAPTATION  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  i n p r o p o s a l s and UNCLASSIFIED  events.  Philosophy Definitely  i n favour of a  child INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  centered school. Know, u n d e r s t a n d family  grouping.  and support EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  184  A b l e to cope w i t h b o t h f a m i l y g r o u p i n g a n d r e g u l a r programme. Someone who a p p r e c i a t e s t h a t a r e many d i f f e r e n t ways o f r e a c h i n g t h e same g o a l s .  Working with  UNCLASSIFIED  there INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  Staff  Able t o : - deal with teacher colleagues i n a d i r e c t , honest, s t r a i g h t forward way.  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL INTEGRATION  - accept ideas from the teachers and n o t be a d o g m a t i c e x p e r t .  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  - a s s e s s t h e comments o f a n o u t spoken s t a f f without feeling threatened.  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  - keep t h e s t a f f aware o f c u r r e n t s c h o o l and community a c t i v i t i e s .  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  - to p a r t i c i p a t e committee  actively  i n staff INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION  - r e c o g n i z e needs f o r c o l l e g i a l d e c i s i o n making b u t a b l e to take a stand independently i f necessary.  -  distinguish  ing  between p o l i c y  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  effect-  d e c i s i o n s and r o u t i n e , managerINTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  i a l decisions.  Working w i t h  Individual  Staff  Members  Be a v a i l a b l e f o r d i s c u s s i o n a n d advice r e g a r d i n g the school p h i l o s o p y and t h e t e a c h e r s ' role within i t .  INTERNAL ADAPTATION EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  185  W i l l i n g to observe i n d i v i d u a l s teaching and o f f e r c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m a n d new i d e a s . Approachable and a v a i l a b l e f o r innumerable c o n f e r e n c e s and discussions.  Someone who n o t o n l y s u p p o r t s t h e s t a f f b u t who a l s o r e i n f o r c e s and e n c o u r a g e s t h e t e a c h e r s i n what t h e y a r e d o i n g .  Someone t o b e c o n s u l t e d when seeking a second p r o f e s s i o n a l opinion i n dealing with children and p a r e n t s o r i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l areas.  Dealing with Providing -  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL ADAPTATION EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  Children  leadership:  i n dealing  with  children.  - p a t i e n t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g so as t o s e t an example t h a t w i l l be an i n s p i r a t i o n t o t h e s t a f f .  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  - be i n t e r e s t e d i n s o l v i n g p r o b l e m s by s e e k i n g s o l u t i o n s t h a t w i l l have p o s i t i v e , long range r e s u l t s .  INTERNAL GOAL  - w i l l i n g t o g e t t o know t h e c h i l d r e n b y w o r k i n g w i t h them o c c a s i o n a l l y i n the classroom.  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  ATTAINMENT  186  With  Community  Able  to deal e f f e c t i v e l y  parents  who h a v e  lifestyles education.  with  "alternative"  and views on  W i l l i n g t o work a c t i v e l y a t dev e l o p i n g good p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s .  EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  Criteria Authors:  Re:  187  L i s t IV-9(a) Parents  Criteria of  f o r the P r i n c i p a l s h i p School  Our c o n s u l t a t i v e c o m m i t t e e discussed c r i t e r i a f o r the p r i n c i p a l ship of School a t our m e e t i n g o f F e b r u a r y 11, 1976, and are p l e a s e d to submit the f o l l o w i n g :  School  The p r i n c i p a l o f s h o u l d b e someone  who:  - has a broad a p p r e c i a t i o n and r e s p e c t f o r d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups and c u l t u r e s . -  o f the area.  - i s open t o t h e concept community s c h o o l . - c r e a t e s an atmosphere participation. - has had a breadth o f i n the p r i n c i p a l s h i p . dresses  .and -  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  i s aware o f t h e s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c  nature  -  EXTERNAL  of the  f o r parent  experience  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  neatly  has a sense o f p r o p r i e t y .  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  d o e s n o t smoke. favours  home-work o r h o m e - s t u d y .  - encourages academic and good work h a b i t s . - will  be g u i d e d  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  excellence INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  by the s c h o o l INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION  philosophy,  EXTERNAL and the  will  work i n harmony  staff.  with INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  188  - e n c o u r a g e s good manners, and respect f o r older people. I hope  that  these  criteria  w i l l be h e l p f u l to you i n c h o o s i n g a p r i n c i p a l f o r our school.  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  189  C r i t e r i a L i s t IV-9(b) Authors: Staff  F o l l o w i n g o u r m e e t i n g on J a n u a r y 28, 1 9 7 6 , t h e s t a f f was asked to submit c r i t e r i a to a s s i s t i n the s e l e c t i o n o f a p r i n c i p a l . The s u b m i s s i o n s w h i c h r e c e i v e d the w i d e s t support follow. The s t a f f w o u l d a d m i n i s t r a t o r who: - i s i n accord with of the school,  like  the  an  philosophy  - and w i l l b e a r i n mind t h e unique and d i v e r s e n a t u r e o f t h e s c h o o l , s t u d e n t s a n d community. - has demonstrated e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the administration of a school, i n which teachers share i n d e c i s i o n making.  -  i s open  t o new  -•  ideas,  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL:^INTEGRATION  but r e t a i n s respect f o r the best in traditional practises,  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  who s e e s t e a c h e r s a s p r o f e s s i o n a l and i s t o l e r a n t o f a v a r i e t y o f t e a c h i n g methods,  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  who i s f l e x i b l e a n d w i l l i n g t o c h a n g e when t h e n e e d a r i s e s .  - sees the school i n the content o f t h e community and p r o m o t e s community u s e o f t h e s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l use o f the people i n the s c h o o l t e r r i t o r y , s t r i v i n g to  190  make t h e s c h o o l f u n c t i o n a s a s e r v i c e c e n t r e f o r youth and a d u l t groups.  - i s approachable oriented,  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL ADAPTATION  and peopleINTERNAL INTEGRATION ,, EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  promoting a p o s i t i v e i n t e r personal relationship with s t u d e n t s , s t a f f and people i n t h e community,  who s e e s t h e p o s i t i o n of s e r v i c e to others  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  as one INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  and w i l l s t r i v e t o m a i n t a i n t h e s c h o o l a s a humane a n d h a p p y place,  while i n s p i r i n g the best i n s t u d e n t s and s t a f f .  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  efforts INTERNAL INTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT INTEGRATION  Criteria  List V-l  191  Authors:  C r i t e r i a f o r the Selection o f a Principal for Secondary and E l e m e n t a r y School.  A.  Students  1. F i r s t p r i o r i t y a n d c o n c e r n be i n t h e s t u d e n t s , t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and e d u c a t i o n .  to  2. A b l e t o r e l a t e d i r e c t l y w i t h c h i l d r e n i n a f r i e n d l y , nont h r e a t e n i n g manner, a s s o c i a t e d w i t h q u a l i t i e s which w i l l cause s t u d e n t s t o a d m i r e and r e s p e c t the p r i n c i p a l as a person.  B.  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL  INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE GOAL ATTAINMENT  Staff  3. A p r a c t i t i o n e r o f t h e c o l l e g i a l system to debate and c o n s u l t a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n making, and  r e c o g n i z i n g t h e autonomy o f  the  classroom  ting  C.  INTERNAL  teacher  the school  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  i n implemen-  philosophy.  Community  4. C o m m i t t e d t o t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e Community i n p h i l o s o p h y a n d practice of education i n school; able to respond s e n s i t i v e l y t h e community n e e d s . 5. W a n t i n g —not  a  t o work i n t h i s conscript.  to  community EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  192  D.  Philosophy  6. C o m m i t t e d t o t h e c u r r e n t p h i l o s o phy o f open e d u c a t i o n a s o u t l i n e d i n the school philosophy. 7. Open t o new  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  ideas,  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  W i l l i n g to provide o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r p u p i l placement, w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f the resources available.  INTERNAL  ADAPTATION  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  ADAPTATION  Personal  and  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  Qualities  9. A c c e s s i b l e willing  to be i n v o l v e d  will INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  leadership,  INTERNAL INTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION  being  UNCLASSIFIED  students,  10.  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  and c o n v e r s a n t w i t h d i f f e r e n t t h e o r i e s and p r a c t i c e s o f education.  Committed to t h e c r e a t i o n o f an e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h no a c t i v i t y o r c h a l l e n g e i s p l a c e d upon o r d e n i e d to any c h i l d by v i r t u e of h i s o r h e r sex, race o r religion.  E.  INTERNAL  Able  staff  to provide  and  parents.  educational  energetic,  UNCLASSIFIED  innovative, able  to i n s p i r e  response,  creative,  a n d demand  a INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  GOAL  UNCLASSIFIED  ATTAINMENT  193  and Able  self-disciplined. to encourage  similar 11.  staff  EXTERNAL to  qualities.  A knowledgeable a d m i n i s t r a t o r — able to h o l d the respect o f the s t a f f , o f the offici a l s , P a r e n t s and t h e community. Capable o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , and competent i n d i r e c t i n g t h e s c h o o l ' s c l a s s programmes, f i n a n c e s and o t h e r events.  12.  13.  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  A b l e t o d e f i n e own p h i l o s o p h y of education, to e x p l a i n i t and d e f e n d i t . Confident t h e r e f o r e , and n o t l i k e l y t o be o v e r - i n f l u e n c e d by i n d i v i d u a l s with p a r t i c u l a r problems.  I n t e n t on b u i l d i n g a s c h o o l community w h i c h i s w h o l l y committed to the e d u c a t i o n o f the students  and t o a h a r m o n i o u s team o f s t a f f ; i n which enthusiasm and enjoyment a r e i n v o l v e d i n b o t h l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g .  INTERNAL  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL INTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION  EXTERNAL INTERNAL  GOAL GOAL  INTERNAL INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  ATTAINMENT ATTAINMENT  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  Criteria  List  Authors:  194  V-2(a)  Parents  C R I T E R I A FOR THE S E L E C T I O N OF A PRINCIPAL (as approved Consultative  by the  Committee)  1. T h e p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d f e e l t h a t good r e l a t i o n s w i t h p a r e n t s and c o m m u n i t y a r e i m p o r t a n t  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  and t h a t p a r e n t s s h o u l d f e e l welcome i n t h e s c h o o l b o t h t o communicate and p a r t i c i p a t e  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  and h e s h o u l d f u r t h e r b e l i e v e that parents should p a r t i c i p a t e in formulating school philosophy.  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  2. T h e p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e l i e v e i n t h e c h o i c e o f modes o f t e a c h i n g , i . e . , — b o t h multi-level family g r o u p i n g a n d a l s o a more f o r m a l method o f t e a c h i n g , b o t h o f which emphasize b a s i c academic skills  EXTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT  methods.  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  He s h o u l d a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t p a r e n t s s h o u l d have the c h o i c e as t o w h i c h method they w i s h t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o have and f u r t h e r t h a t they s h o u l d have the o p t i o n o f moving t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n the system.  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  and  that s e l f  sidered the  child's  He s h o u l d garten this  discipline  an important  development  also  feel  be  con-  aspect o f i n both  that kinder-  i s an i n t e g r a l  part of INTERNAL ADAPTATION  system.  3. T h e p r i n c i p a l community  should  school  support the  concept  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  195  and b e aware o f t h e needs o f t h e community  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  and i n p a r t i c u l a r have sympathy w i t h m u l t i - c u l t u r a l elements i n t h e community and w i t h i n t h e school.  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  4. The p r i n c i p a l administrator  s h o u l d be a good and l e a d e r  with a broad educational background and e x p e r i e n c e . He s h o u l d a l s o developments  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  b e a w a r e o f new  i n education.  5. I t i s f u r t h e r recommended t h a t t h e i n c o m i n g p r i n c i p a l make a v a i l a b l e a statement o f h i s . e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y and t h a t the outgoing p r i n c i p a l and t h e Area Superintendent should a d v i s e t h e s e l e c t i o n committee on what t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e h a s shown t o b e t h e n e e d s o f p a r e n t s and t h e community.  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  Criteria  List  196  V-2(b)  Authors:  C R I T E R I A FOR THE S E L E C T I O N  OF  A PRINCIPAL  (as a p p r o v e d by t h e Out-of-School Care  Society)  1. T h a t t h e r e b e c o n t i n u e d o f t h e community s c h o o l philosophy,  support EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  i . e . , — p r o v i d i n g resources f o r t h e t o t a l community  INTERNAL  ADAPTATION  and u s i n g t h e t o t a l community as a r e s o u r c e f o r t h e s c h o o l .  EXTERNAL  ADAPTATION  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  ADAPTATION  This would i n c l u d e a l l the members o f o u r c o m m u n i t y w h e t h e r they have c h i l d r e n i n t h e s c h o o l or not. 2. T h a t tion  t h e r e be c o n t i n u e d o b s e r v a o f t h e n e e d s o f t h e community  and a w i l l i n g n e s s t o t a k e a c t i o n to p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s o v e r and above t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l hours. 3. T h a t t h e r e b e c o n t i n u e d e n c o u r a g e ment f o r c o m m u n i t y s p i r i t a n d volunteer help w i t h i n the community.  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL  ADAPTATION  4. T h a t t h e r e b e c o n t i n u e d s y m p a t h y f o r the m u l t i - c u l t u r a l elements o f t h e community.  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  5. T h a t t h e r e b e c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t f o r t h e two modes o f e d u c a t i o n as o u t l i n e d i n t h e l a t e s t newsletter.  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT  197  6. T h a t p a r e n t s c o n t i n u e t o h a v e an e l e m e n t o f c h o i c e i n t h e p l a c e ment o f t h e i r c h i l d w i t h i n t h e s e two modes. 7. T h a t  the school continue  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  to see  l e a r n i n g as an adventure; and to r e g a r d each c h i l d a s an i n d i v i d u a l s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t from h i s p a r e n t s and c u l t u r a l background but also i n f l u e n c e d and growing ground .  w i t h i n that  backINTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL  8. T h a t t h e s c h o o l c o n t i n u e t o s e e d i s c i p l i n e as a p r o c e s s w h i c h i n v o l v e s t h e c h i l d , and a l l o w s h i m / h e r t o grow t o w a r d s s e l f d i s c i p l i n e and r e s p o n s i b l e citizenship.  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  Criteria  List  Authors:  198  V-3  Staff  C R I T E R I A FOR THE S E L E C T I O N OF A P R I N C I P A L FOR AND  SCHOOL  ANNEX  i s a l a r g e elementary s c h o o l where an e x t r e m e l y good r a p p o r t e x i s t s amongst t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s t a f f , p u p i l s and parents. I n v i e w o f t h i s , we,would a p p r e c i a t e a p r i n c i p a l who w i l l c o n t i n u e t h e e x i s t i n g s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y , as s e t out below.  OBJECTIVE  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  1  To c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f each c h i l d ' s p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t by: -  Grouping  children with  their  peers;  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  - E a r l y d i a g n o s i s and r e m e d i a t i o n of learning d i f f i c u l t i e s  INTERNAL GOAL  -  Minimizing  children slow -  o f having  because o f INTERNAL ADAPTATION  Encouraging  excellence  Emphasizing  Promoting  cooperation  through EXTERNAL GOAL  progress; positive  ment a n d s u c c e s s -  grades  progress.  continuous -  the p r a c t i c e  repeat  ATTAINMENT  ATTAINMENT  reinforce-  i n learning;  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  s e l f - c o m p e t i t i o n and i n learning.  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  199  OBJECTIVE To of  2  c o n t r i b u t e to the c h i l d ' s s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by:  sense  - Encouraging s o c i a l l y appropriate b e h a v i o u r and a v o i d i n g s i t u a t i o n s t h a t may c a u s e h o s t i l i t y ;  - E m p h a s i z i n g s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e and the acceptance o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r one's a c t i o n s ; - Providing opportunity f o r coo p e r a t i o n w i t h i n a n d among c l a s s e s ;  - Encouraging every c h i l d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n some f o r m o f s e r v i c e to t h e s c h o o l and to o t h e r p u p i l s ( l i b r a r y , band, c h o i r , sports, classroom chores, s a f e t y patrol, etc.)  OBJECTIVE To  meet  acquire  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL GOAL  ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  3  the need o f the c h i l d to skills  and knowledge by:  - F o l l o w i n g a c u r r i c u l u m t h a t has b o t h p r e s e n t and f u t u r e v a l u e t o him and c h a l l e n g e s h i s i n t e r e s t and ability;  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  - Having classrooms that provide the most c o n d u c i v e p h y s i c a l and human e n v i r o n m e n t s f o r l e a r n i n g ;  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  - Using the teaching s t r a t e g i e s t h a t a r e most a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e unique l e a r n i n g p a t t e r n o f the child;  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  200  - P r o v i d i n g enrichment experiences through e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , f i e l d t r i p s and s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s ; -  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  Continuation of the Learning  Enrichment  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  Program;  - Maximum u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e L e a r n ing A s s i s t a n c e Centre f o r c h i l d r e n w i t h severe and moderate l e a r n i n g disabilities;  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  - Intensive use o f the L i b r a r y / Resource Centre;  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  - Continuation o f the extension o f the French program.  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  EXTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION ADAPTATION  EXTERNAL EXTERNAL  ADAPTATION  - H a v i n g an o p e n s c h o o l o f f i c e w h e r e p a r e n t s a r e w e l c o m e t o come a n d d i s c u s s e d u c a t i o n a l concerns about their children;  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  - Having parent-teacher conferences and o t h e r m e e t i n g s w h e r e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e c h i l d ' s progress and d e v e l o p m e n t may b e e x c h a n g e d ;  EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE GOAL ATTAINMENT  OBJECTIVE To make  4  t h e s c h o o l and f a m i l y a  working-together  team b y :  - Encouraging the parents to share i n d e c i s i o n s about the s c h o o l as s t i p u l a t e d i n the School Consult a t i v e Committee G u i d e l i n e s and t o c o n t r i b u t e some o f t h e i r t i m e a n d t a l e n t as c l a s s parents, v o l u n t e e r aides, t u t o r i a l aides, drivers and s p e c i a l p r o j e c t w o r k e r s ;  -  Having  parents under  open  classrooms  may v i s i t  where  or assist  the d i r e c t i o n  children  o f the  teachers;  EXTERNAL >  INTEGRATION  201  - U t i l i z i n g the Parents' Consult a t i v e Committee t o promote p a r e n t a l participation i n school a c t i v i t i e s and i n d i s c u s s i o n o f s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y and o b j e c t i v e s ;  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  - Continuing the practice of having the M a i n S c h o o l and t h e Annex operate as a s i n g l e organization.  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  OBJECTIVE To h a v e t h e s t a f f every c h i l d by:  5 do t h e i r b e s t f o r  - H a v i n g t h e commitment t o p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the children, p a r e n t s and one a n o t h e r ;  INTERNAL EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  - Providing, to the extent possible, o p t i o n s w i t h i n each classroom that permit c h i l d r e n to learn i n d i f f e r e n t ways; - H a v i n g a l t e r n a t i v e t e a c h i n g modes w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l , on a c l a s s basis; -  Using  a screening  identify, children behaviour -  assess with  committee t o  and p r e s c r i b e f o r  learning  and/or  Encouraging  the Staff  become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d establishing  Encouraging  methods and  Council  to  in  the conditions  promote optimum -  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  problems;  which  learning;  innovative  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  teaching  practices;  - Taking p r o f e s s i o n a l development courses t o update knowledge, s k i l l s and e x p e r t i s e t o meet t h e u n i q u e needs o f a l l c h i l d r e n .  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENAN CE  202  OBJECTIVE 6 To f a c i l i t a t e c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e two g e o g r a p h i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d s e c t i o n s o f t h e s c h o o l (Annex and Main s c h o o l ) : -  Having  joint  staff  meetings;  -  Having j o i n t  staff  council  meetings; -Planning  and p a r t i c i p a t i n g  professional  development  -  Cooperating i n :  -  a unified  -  Parent-Teacher  -  Fund  -  Parent  Sports  raising  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  in  programs;  Day Conferences  activities  EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL ADAPTATION  enlistments  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  - R e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the School C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee.  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  volunteer  The s u c c e s s o f t h i s p h i l o s o p h y a n d the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f i t has been proved c o n c l u s i v e l y a t t h i s s c h o o l . We, t h e r e f o r e , h o p e y o u w i l l g i v e every c o n s i d e r a t i o n to h e l p maintain i t i n the future.  Criteria Authors:  List  203  V-4  C R I T E R I A FOR THE S E L E C T I O N A PRINCIPAL A prospective principal  OF  should:  Support the present School p h i l o s o p h y o f development o f self-worth;  with  Be r e s p o n s i v e t o a n d i n v o l v e d t h e community a t l a r g e ;  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION  EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  Be w i l l i n g t o e x p l o r e a n d / o r implement i n n o v a t i v e i d e a s , programs, e t c . which, a f t e r c a r e f u l and j u d i c i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , show s i g n i f i c a n t promise o f d i s t i n c t and m e a s u r a b l e b e n e f i t s ;  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  Develop i n students s i b i l i t y l e a d i n g to sound citizenship;  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  Be a n e f f e c t i v e administrator;  of of  respon-  o r g a n i z e r and INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION  Foster the individual safety each student i n c l u d i n g p r e v e n t i o n bullying; Encourage an atmosphere  develops  respectful  which  and r e s p o n s i v e INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  students; Have e x p e r i e n c e a s p r i n c i p a l or s e n i o r v i c e - p r i n c i p a l w i t h wide range o f experience i n teaching a l l ages o f elementary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s and be w i l l i n g t o a c t u a l l y teach i f possible.  Be r e s p o n s i v e , and  EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  understanding  supportive o f the s t a f f ; Have a s e n s e  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  o f humour.  * P l e a s e note t h a t the c r i t e r i a have not been l i s t e d i n o r d e r o f p r i o r i t y .  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION  Criteria  List  Authors:  204  V-5(a)  Parents  Secondary  School  C R I T E R I A FOR S E L E C T I O N OF PRINCIPALS Submitted  by  SCHOOL CONSULTATIVE  COMMITTEE  1. T h e c a n d i d a t e f o r p r i n c i p a l s h i p must espouse the p h i l o s o p h y o f Secondary School as o u t l i n e d i n the r e c e n t A c c r e d i -  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  ( a ) To e m p h a s i z e t h e p e r s o n a l w o r t h o f each s t u d e n t and help him develop a p o s i t i v e concept.  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  (b) To h e l p e a c h s t u d e n t d e v e l o p competency i n t h e b a s i c and d i v e r s e s k i l l s e s s e n t i a l to l i v i n g i n the world, p a r t i c u l a r l y the s k i l l s to communicate, t o u s e numbers, t o t h i n k a n d t o make decisions.  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  tation  Booklet,  See a t t a c h e d Philosophy."  specifically:  - "The  School's  2. T h e c a n d i d a t e s h o u l d b e a b l e t o d e m o n s t r a t e a n a b i l i t y to work w i t h p a r e n t s w i t h i n t h e community germane t o t h i s s c h o o l  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  and be s e n s i t i v e t o t h e p l u r a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l needs i n t h e communi t y .  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  INTERNAL  GOAL  INTERNAL  ADAPTATION  3. T h e c a n d i d a t e s h o u l d leadership qualities trative skills,  possess and a d m i n i s ATTAINMENT  205  and  the a b i l i t y  to delegate  authority  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  s o t h a t t h e s t a f f c a n know t h e y a r e a l l members o f c o - o r d i n a t e d team  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  involving students, themselves.  EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION  parents  and  4. T h e c a n d i d a t e s h o u l d h a v e a b a c k g r o u n d i n some r e c o g n i z e d academic d i s c i p l i n e  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  and e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n teaching s u b j e c t matter a t different levels;  EXTERNAL  a l s o an up-to-date awareness o f c u r r i c u l u m needs and d e v e l o p ment.  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  He s h o u l d a l s o b e a b l e t o demons t r a t e h i s own a b i l i t y t o t e a c h by a s s i g n i n g t o h i m s e l f a b l o c k of subject matter.  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  5. T h e c a n d i d a t e s h o u l d b e a b l e t o accept teachers as they a r e by recognizing individual strengths and/or weakness so t h a t he c a n help plan their timetable accordingly; arrange they  c o n d i t i o n s under  c a n work  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  which  effectively  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  and s t i m u l a t e them t o p u t f o r t h their best e f f o r t s .  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  I n a d d i t i o n , we s h o u l d b e a b l e to a p p r e c i a t e t h e v a l u e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l development by o r g a n i z i n g o r recommending appropriate in-service training.  INTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  Criteria Authors:  List  206  V-5(b)  Students  SECONDARY SCHOOL C R I T E R I A FOR S E L E C T I O N OF PRINCIPALS Submitted STUDENT  1.  by  COUNCIL  Philosophy  The c a n d i d a t e f o r p r i n c i p a l s h i p s h o u l d be s u i t a b l e and a d a p t a b l e to the v a r i o u s needs and p h i l o s o p h i e s o f s c h o o l s h e / s h e may b e a p p o i n t e d t o . I n t h e c a s e of , t h e c a n d i d a t e must espouse the philosophy o u t l i n e d i n the accompanying b o o k l e t .  The f u t u r e p r i n c i p a l m u s t b e s e n s i t i v e l y aware o f t h e b a s i c g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f h i s / h e r f u t u r e s c h o o l a n d be a b l e t o r e a l i z e a n d i m p l e m e n t c h a n g e when t h e s c h o o l h a s d i v e r t e d i t s e l f away f r o m t h o s e goals.  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION  INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT GOAL ATTAINMENT  EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  2. P r o f e s s i o n a l Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s The c a n d i d a t e s h o u l d have p e r s o n a l c r e d i b l e academic qualifications as w e l l as c o n s i d e r a b l e in  experience  the teaching p r o f e s s i o n .  In a d d i t i o n to a mastery o f room t e a c h i n g ,  class-  the c a n d i d a t e s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d to d e v e l o p c r i t i c a l and a n a l y t i c a l problem-solving s k i l l s , so a s t o r a t i o n a l l y d e a l w i t h t h e m o s t a d v e r s e s i t u a t i o n s t h a t may a r i s e with either students, t e a c h e r s , o r t h e community.  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  INTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  207  3. C u r r i c u l u m  Awareness  The c a n d i d a t e s h o u l d b e a b l e to comprehand ( s i c ) and e n c o u r a g e use o f the e d u c a t i o n a l potential that e x i s t s o u t s i d e the school i n the community.  EXTERNAL ADAPTATION  The c a n d i d a t e s h o u l d a l s o r e a l i z e the importance o f t e a c h i n g the d y n a m i c s o f o u r community a n d t h e use o f o u r p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s and governmental agencies outside schools. This would u l t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e t e a c h i n g an awareness o f the p o l i t i c a l and economic r e a l i t i e s o f Canada and t h e W o r l d .  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  4. R o l e o f t h e P r i n c i p a l The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the academic, c u l t u r a l , and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s i n which the students are i n v o l v e d . The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r these e d u c a t i o n a l programs i n a s c h o o l and s h o u l d h e l p i n c o n s t a n t c o n t a c t w i t h s t u d e n t s and s t a f f to make s u r e a l l p r o g r a m s a r e r u n e f f i c i e n t l y and i n t e r e s t i n g l y .  I t i s hoped a p r i n c i p a l w i l l be i n v o l v e d as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e i n the m a n a g e r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the s c h o o l . 5. S t a f f  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  UNCLASSIFIED  Relations  The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e a p o s i t i v e l e a d e r i n t h e eyes o f h i s staff, respecting their a b i l i t i e s and e n c o u r a g i n g them t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own i d e a s a n d t e a c h i n g s k i l l s to t h e i r f u l l p o t e n t i a l , so as to ensure the best o f i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the s t u d e n t s .  INTERNAL INTEGRATION  208  6. S t u d e n t  Relations  The c a n d i d a t e s h o u l d h a v e a genuine i n t e r e s t i n the needs o f the s t u d e n t body.  INTERNAL  It i s r e a l i z e d that i n a large s c h o o l n o t a l l t h e needs c a n be met; h o w e v e r , t h e c a n d i d a t e should not be p r e p a r e d to i s o l a t e h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f f r o m t h e s t u d e n t b o d y and" the problems t h a t f a c e i n d i v i d u a l s .  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d a t t e m p t to draw r e s p e c t n o t i n t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n manner, b u t r e s p e c t f o r h i s l e a d e r s h i p and h i s involvement i n the e d u c a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s .  I t would be a p p r e c i a t e d by the students i f the p r i n c i p a l could p a r t i c i p a t e i n the teaching process t o some e x t e n t o r o t h e r w i s e come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h them more o f t e n in their studies.  INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL  INTEGRATION  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION ADAPTATION  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  7. S e l e c t i o n o f P r i n c i p a l s I t i s r e a l i z e d t h e r e i s no model o f a good e d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r , but t h e above c r i t e r i a c a n appear i n myriad d i f f e r e n t leadership s t y l e s , a l l o f w h i c h c a n be e q u a l l y effective. S e l e c t i o n cannot be f o r t h o s e who g i v e a n a p p e a r a n c e of e f f i c i e n c y or i n t e r e s t alone, b u t f o r t h o s e who h a v e p e r s o n a l l y found a p r a c t i c a l formula f o r implementing the c r i t e r i a .  S e l e c t i o n s h o u l d b e made b y t h o s e who a r e a c a d e m i c a l l y a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l l y q u a l i f i e d t o make t h e c h o i c e : members o f t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n and d i r e c t o r s of education a t the school board. The general p u b l i c should not p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p p o i n t i n g s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s , as t h i s would turn i t i n t o a p o l i t i c a l process, r a t h e r than appointment o f people best s u i t e d to the j o b .  INTERNAL GOAL EXTERNAL GOAL  ATTAINMENT ATTAINMENT  Criteria Authors:  L i s t V-6 Parents  209  C R I T E R I A FOR S E L E C T I O N OF SECONDARY SCHOOL P R I N C I P A L  In response  to a request from the and t h e Chairman o f t h e S.C.C. we s u b m i t t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a f o r the s e l e c tion of a school principal f o r  The  principal  - A qualified teacher.  should be: and  accomplished EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL ADAPTATION  - A demonstrated l e a d e r — i n or out o f s c h o o l .  school  - Committed to a p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n and a b l e to e x p l a i n h i s views to h i s s t a f f and to t h o s e s t u d e n t s f o r whom h e i s responsible.  -  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  GOAL GOAL  ATTAINMENT ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT  EXTERNAL  INTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  objective,  INTERNAL EXTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION  and  INTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT  Fair,  decisive.  - A b l e t o i d e n t i f y and communicate op p o r t u n i t i e s a n d p r o b l e m s .  INTERNAL ADAPTATION  -  INTERNAL  A competent  organizer.  GOAL  ATTAINMENT  INTERNAL ADAPTATION - Highly v i s i b l e s t a f f , students, (parents).  and a c c e s s i b l e to a n d community INTERNAL ADAPTATION  210  -  Prepared  minimum  to remain i n the post  o f three  a  years.  - Able t o e f f e c t i v e l y advance h i s s c h o o l ' s programs and needs to the h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y t o whom h e i s accountable.  -  Able  the  to e s t a b l i s h  a rapport  INTERNAL  ADAPTATION  EXTERNAL EXTERNAL  GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION  EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL  INTEGRATION INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  with  students.  Our i n t e r v i e w s , w h i c h h a v e b e e n c o n d u c t e d o v e r t h e p a s t two w e e k s , were n o t c o n d u c t e d on a b r o a d survey b a s i s , b u t on a p e r s o n a l one w i t h c a s u a l a n d s e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p r o f e s s i o n , s t u d e n t s , and p a r e n t s , and t h e c r i t e r i a above f a i r l y r e f l e c t s the r e s u l t o f those interviews. The d u t i e s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f a school principal are clearly l a i d out i n r e g u l a t i o n s under the Schools Act. H o w e v e r , we m u s t e x p r e s s o u r s u r p r i s e t h a t a p p a r e n t l y no d e f i n i t i v e c r i t e r i a f o r the p o s i t i o n have been set out p r e v i o u s l y by e i t h e r the or i t s administration.  ********** Apart would worry  f r o m t h e c r i t e r i a a b o v e , we l i k e to express our personal about:  1. T h e a p p a r e n t l a c k o f c o n c e r n f o r the e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s o f schooling i n the "promotion" system as a d m i n i s t e r e d by the INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  211  2.  The l a c k o f " r e f r e s h e r " t e a c h ing experience i n the higher administrative positions.  We make t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s w i t h t h e objective o f keeping our administ r a t o r s c l o s e r to t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s r a t h e r than g e t t i n g over b a l a n c e d towards t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n demands.  EXTERNAL  PATTERN-MAINTENANCE  

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