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Expressed criteria for school principals : a Parsonian analysis Bond, Arthur James Edward 1979

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EXPRESSED CRITERIA FOR SCHOOL PRINCIPALS: A PARSONIAN ANALYSIS by ARTHUR JAMES EDWARD BOND B.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JULY 1979 © A r t h u r James Edward Bond, 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . L E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 J u l y 27, 1979 ABSTRACT T h i s study a d d r e s s e d the problem o f a p p l y i n g a s u i t a b l e c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c r i t e r i a s tatements and the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the n a t u r e and v a r i a t i o n i n p a r e n t and s t a f f c r i t e r i a l i s t s f o r the p r i n c i p a l s h i p . A l l c r i t e r i a statements were c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to the framework o f T a l c o t t Parsons which was d e s c r i b e d and c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l f o r the a n a l y s i s o f l i s t s o f c r i t e r i a . The a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the framework as a b i a s f o r c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n was dependent upon the r e c o g n i t i o n o f f o u r p r o b l e m a t i c f a c t o r s . F i r s t , c r i t e r i a which d i d not s p e c i f y the c o n t r i b u t i o n which the p r i n c i p a l was to make c o u l d n ot be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to Pars o n s ' framework. Statements which l a c k e d s p e c i f i c i t y were grouped i n an u n c l a s s i f i e d c a t e g o r y . The second p r o b l e m a t i c f a c t o r p e r t a i n e d t o the degree o f s p e c i f i c i t y o f c r i t e r i a s t a t e m e n t s . Here, a c r i t e r i o n may imply the subsystem i n which a c o n t r i b u t i o n i s to o c c u r but i t may not i n d i c a t e whether i t i s to be d e s i g n a t e d e x c l u s i v e l y as an i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n . The t h i r d problem which p r o h i b i t e d e x c l u s i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r t a i n e d to statements which made r e f e r e n c e t o c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n more than one subsystem. The f o u r t h p r o b l e m a t i c f a c t o r concerned c l a s s i f i e r i n f e r e n c e and Pars o n s ' framework. Parsons r e c o g n i z e d t h a t power and i n f l u e n c e ( g o a l a t t a i n m e n t and i n t e g r a t i o n subsystems) a r e i n t e r t w i n e d and the d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e s e i i i c o n t r i b u t i o n s may be c o n f u s e d i n c r i t e r i a s t a t e m e n t s . In t h i s i n s t a n c e o r where a statement l a c k e d s p e c i f i c i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was dependent upon i n f e r e n c e s made by the c l a s s i f i e r . Predominant subsystems and p a t t e r n s and v a r i a t i o n s i n p r i o r i t y l i s t s were examined a c c o r d i n g to a l l l i s t s , s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a , a u t h o r s h i p and a u t h o r s h i p by a r e a . The e x a m i n a t i o n o f a l l l i s t s r e v e a l e d t h a t i n t e g r a t i v e c r i t e r i a r e p r e s e n t e d the g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a t f o r t y - t w o p e r c e n t . P a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e c r i t e r i a r e p r e s e n t e d the second l a r g e s t group o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a t twenty-two p e r c e n t . A d a p t a t i o n and g o a l a t t a i n m e n t c r i t e r i a r e p r e s e n t e d the lowest p e r c e n t a g e o f c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n s a t s i x t e e n p e r c e n t each. Low s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n and p e r c e n t a g e s c o r e s f o r e x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n , e x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t and e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e subsystem c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s tended to r e p r e s e n t a concensus among p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n these subsystems a r e low p r i o r i t y c o n t r i b u t i o n s . Very few c o n t r i b u t i o n s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n a t twenty-one p e r c e n t o f a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , were recommended o u t s i d e the s c h o o l . As a r e s u l t , s i x t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of a l l c r i t e r i a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s r e f e r r e d to i n t e r n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s . Un-c l a s s i f i e d statements a c c o u n t e d f o r two and o n e - h a l f p e r c e n t o f a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The a n a l y s i s o f l i s t s a c c o r d i n g to s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a , a u t h o r s h i p and a u t h o r s h i p by a r e a r e a f f i r m e d the importance o f i n t e g r a -t i v e c r i t e r i a and the low p r i o r i t y of e x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n , e x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t and e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e . The a n a l y s i s o f l i s t s a c c o r d i n g to a u t h o r s h i p r e v e a l e d t h a t s t a f f l i s t s p l a c e d the h i g h e s t i v p r i o r i t y on i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . T h i s r e s u l t was i n c o n t r a s t to p a r e n t l i s t s which p l a c e d e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a as a f i r s t p r i o r i t y . P a r e n t s p l a c e d a second p r i o r i t y on i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e c r i -t e r i a ( t e a c h i n g , v a l u e s of e d u c a t i o n ) w h i l e s t a f f l i s t s p l a c e d i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e as a f i f t h p r i o r i t y . On s t a f f l i s t s , i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e was preceded by i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n , i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n , e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n , and i n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t . These subsystems r e p r e s e n t concerns f o r i n t e r n a l s c h o o l harmony, r e s o u r c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a l l o c a t i o n - s k i l l i n i n s t r u c t i o n , p a r e n t a l harmony and s c h o o l d i s c i p l i n e . The a n a l y s i s by a u t h o r and a r e a demonstrated t h a t i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n f o r s t a f f p a r t i c i p a n t s and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n f o r p a r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s o c c u p i e d h i g h p o s i t i o n s r e g a r d l e s s o f the a r e a i n which they l i v e o r work. A r e a I I I s t a f f p a r t i c i p a n t s f o l l o w e d t h i s p a t t e r n but p l a c e d i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n as a f i r s t p r i o r i t y . A c r o s s a r e a s p a r e n t emphasis on i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e was h i g h e r than the emphasis a t t r i b u t e d by t e a c h e r s . Other p a t t e r n s , c r i t e r i a and i m p l i c a t i o n s ;are Jdis.-cussed. CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i i Chapter 1. PURPOSE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 1 The Purpose of the Study 1 J u s t i f i c a t i o n for the Study 2 Theoretical j u s t i f i c a t i o n 2 Methodological j u s t i f i c a t i o n 5 P r a c t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n 5 Overview of the Thesis 6 2. THE PARSONIAN FRAMEWORK 7 The General Framework 8 The Framework Applied to Organizations 10 External Functions and Relevant Mechanisms 11 Internal Functions and Kinds of Decisions 15 A l l o c a t i v e decisions 15 Authorization and enforcement a c t i v i t y 15 Routine-technical a c t i v i t i e s 16 Co-ordinative decisions . . . . 16 Organizations D i f f e r e n t i a t e d - An Approach to the Framework 17 Four Classes of Organizations 18 The School and Pattern Maintenance 19 v v i Chapter Page Types of P r i n c i p a l C r i t e r i a Suggested By The Framework 21 3. THE DATA, METHOD OF ANALYSIS AND LIMITATIONS 23 The Data 23 Method of Analysis 25 The Preparation of the Data 25 Problems i n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 26 "U n c l a s s i f i a b l e " statements 26 "Int e r n a l " and "External" reference 27 Reference to multiple subsystems 28 C l a s s i f i e r inference 29 The Tabulation of Results 30 Limitations 32 4. THE USE OF PARSONS' FRAMEWORK 33 5. THE USE OF THE CLASSIFICATION: THE NATURE OF AND VARIATION IN THE CRITERIA LISTS 47 Predominant Subsystems Over A l l L i s t s 48 Analysis and Findings 48 Discussion 49 Va r i a t i o n Among School D i s t r i c t Areas 52 Most Frequently Mentioned Subsystems 52 Subsystems Not Mentioned 54 An Examination of Other P r i o r i t i e s by Area 56 Discussion 59 Var i a t i o n Between Authors 62 P r i o r i t y of Subsystems According to Authorship 62 Discussion 65 v i i Chapter Page V a r i a t i o n Between Authors By Area 67 Ordering of P r i o r i t i e s by Author and Area 67 Discussion 75 Using the Framework to Analyze Individual School L i s t s : Some Examples 76 Individual School L i s t s IV-9(b)-staff, I - l ( a ) - s t a f f , I I - 1 - s t a f f 76 Summary 82 6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 84 Summary 84 Conclusions 87 BIBLIOGRAPHY 90 APPENDIX 91 LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1. Four Subsystems, T h e i r Outputs and Gov e r n i n g Standards . . . . 10 2. E x t e r n a l F u n c t i o n s and R e l e v a n t Mechanisms 13 3. I n t e r n a l F u n c t i o n s , D e c i s i o n s and A c t i v i t i e s 18 4. Number, Pe r c e n t a g e , Mean P e r c e n t a g e and Standard D e v i a t i o n o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n Each Subsystem from F i f t y - T w o L i s t s 50 5. Number o f L i s t s (By Area) i n which Each Subsystem was Most F r e q u e n t l y S e l e c t e d 53 6. Number o f L i s t s (By Area) i n which Each Subsystem was Not Mentioned 55 7. P r i o r i t y Placement o f Subsystems (By Area) from H i g h e s t t o Lowest Mean P e r c e n t a g e 56 8. Mean Pe r c e n t a g e and Standard D e v i a t i o n f o r Each Subsystem by Area. . . 58 9. P r i o r i t y Placement o f Subsystems (By A u t h o r s h i p ) from H i g h e s t to Lowest P e r c e n t a g e 63 10. Mean Pe r c e n t a g e and Standard D e v i a t i o n R e s u l t s f o r Each Subsystem A c c o r d i n g t o A u t h o r s h i p 64 11. The Order of P r i o r i t i e s f o r S t a f f , P a r e n t and Combined A u t h o r s h i p Groups A c c o r d i n g t o S c h o o l D i s t r i c t A r e a 68 12. Mean Pe r c e n t a g e and Standard D e v i a t i o n S c o r e s f o r Each Subsystem A c c o r d i n g to A u t h o r s h i p i n Are a I 69 13. Mean Pe r c e n t a g e and Standard D e v i a t i o n Scores f o r Each Subsystem A c c o r d i n g to A u t h o r s h i p i n Are a I I 70 14. Mean Perc e n t a g e and Standard D e v i a t i o n Scores f o r Each Subsystem A c c o r d i n g to A u t h o r s h i p i n A r e a I I I 71 v i i i i x T a b l e p a g e 15. Mean Pe r c e n t a g e and St a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n S c o r e s f o r Each Subsystem A c c o r d i n g to A u t h o r s h i p i n A r e a IV 72 16. Mean Pe r c e n t a g e and Standard D e v i a t i o n Scores f o r Each Subsystem A c c o r d i n g to A u t h o r s h i p i n A r e a V 73 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank Dr. J. G. T. Kelsey for h i s assistance as my thesis supervisor, for h i s help, advice and for h i s comments on preliminary and f i n a l drafts of the thesi s . I also wish to acknowledge the help and suggestions of Dr. R. J. H i l l s i n obtaining an under-standing of Parsonian theory i n the i n i t i a l stages of the study. Thanks are also extended to Dr. S. Martin and Dr. W. Hart r i c k f o r t h e i r contributions as committee members. x Chapter 1 PURPOSE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY In F e b r u a r y 1976, p a r e n t and t e a c h e r groups convened i n a w e s t e r n Canadian urban s c h o o l d i s t r i c t t o a t t e n d to the t a s k o f i d e n t i f y i n g c r i t e r i a to a s s i s t i n the s e l e c t i o n of s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f groups t o t h i s t a s k was i n i t i a t e d as a r e s u l t of the s c h o o l board's r e c o g n i t i o n o f the d e s i r a b i l i t y of p a r e n t and t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n a l l , f i f t y - t w o p a r e n t and t e a c h e r groups r e p r e s e n t i n g t h i r t y - e i g h t s c h o o l s p a r t i c i p a t e d . The p a r e n t and t e a c h e r groups took a v a r i e t y o f forms and between them ge n e r a t e d some s i x hundred and f i f t e e n statements of c r i t e r i a f o r the v a r i o u s p r i n c i p a l s h i p s . The sudden emergence of t h e s e d a t a about a problem of l o n g -s t a n d i n g c o n c e r n to s t u d e n t s of e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n appeared t o p r o v i d e a u s e f u l o p p o r t u n i t y to i n v e s t i g a t e the n a t u r e and v a r i a t i o n i n the c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , however, r a i s e d an even more im p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n : how might such statements be c l a s s i f i e d ? Both t h e s e q u e s t i o n s p r o v i d e d t h e f o c u s of t h i s s t u d y . The Purpose o f the Study I n o r d e r to a d d r e s s t h e q u e s t i o n s n o t e d above i t was n e c e s s a r y to i d e n t i f y a s u i t a b l e framework f o r the e x a m i n a t i o n of the l i s t s o f c r i t e r i a . One framework, comprehensive enough to appear u s a b l e , but not h i t h e r t o f r e q u e n t l y used because o f i t s apparent c o m p l e x i t y i s t h a t of 1 2 T a l c o t t P a r s o n s . The f i r s t s t a g e i n the stu d y was to un d e r s t a n d and p a r s i m o n i o u s l y d e s c r i b e P a r s o n s ' framework so as to be a b l e t o a c c u r a t e l y i n t e r p r e t each o f i t s components. Second, i t was n e c e s s a r y to determine whether the framework was such as to pe r m i t a m e a n i n g f u l a n a l y s i s o f the l i s t s o f c r i t e r i a . I f the framework proved i n a d e q u a t e , the t h i r d s t a g e would be to e x p l a i n i t s inadequacy, but i f i t proved adequate, then the t h i r d and f i n a l s t a g e would be to use the framework i n an a n a l y s i s o f the l i s t s o f c r i t e r i a so as to g a i n i n s i g h t s i n t o the n a t u r e of the c r i t e r i a and any v a r i a t i o n among the v a r i o u s l i s t s . J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the Study The s t u d y may be j u s t i f i e d i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t ways: t h e o r e t i c a l l y , m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y and p r a c t i c a l l y . Each of t h e s e i s t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y i n the f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s . T h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n . The p r o c e s s o f i d e n t i f y i n g c r i t e r i a f o r the purpose o f a s s i s t i n g s c h o o l board o f f i c i a l s i n the s e l e c t i o n o f p r i n c i p a l s i s a l i n g u i s t i c a c t i v i t y which p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the e x p r e s s i o n o f " i d e a l " or " d e s i r a b l e " p a r e n t and t e a c h e r c o n c e p t i o n s o f a s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l i n the performance o f h i s r o l e s . T h i s l i n g u i s t i c a c t i v i t y may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d a c c o r d i n g to t h r e e l e v e l s o f d i s c o u r s e . H i l l s ' e x p r e s s e s t h e s e l e v e l s a s: (1) the l e v e l on which the i n d i v i d u a l does what he does, whether t h a t i s r e s e a r c h , w r i t i n g , t e a c h i n g or t a k i n g p a r t i n committee d e l i b e r a t i o n s ; (2) the l e v e l on which the i n d i v i d u a l o p e r a t e s when he c h a r a c t e r i z e s o r d e s c r i b e s to another what he does, i e . the o r d i n a r y language l e v e l , and; 3 (3) the l e v e l on which the i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i z e s , d e s c r i b e s and e x p l a i n s what he does w i t h i n an a n a l y t i c a l framework more a b s t r a c t and g e n e r a l i z e d than the o r d i n a r y language l e v e l . ( H i l l s , 1975:107) The d e s c r i p t i o n of the p a r e n t and t e a c h e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e may be viewed as b e i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the f i r s t two l e v e l s of d i s c o u r s e . The t h i r d l e v e l o f d i s c o u r s e , however, would r e q u i r e the u t i l i z a t i o n o f an a n a l y t i c a l framework which would r e v e a l what p a r t i c i p a n t s were " d o i n g " when they i d e n t i f i e d c r i t e r i a . A c c o r d i n g to H i l l s , the b e n e f i t s which a c c r u e to those who have command of a n a l y t i c a l frameworks a r e of s e v e r a l k i n d s . F i r s t , a n a l y t i c a l frameworks p e r m i t one t o see a s p e c t s of h i s w o r l d , i n c l u d i n g h i m s e l f and h i s own a c t i o n s , i n ways t h a t he would not l i k e l y have o t h e r w i s e seen them and i n ways q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from accustomed ways of s e e i n g them. Second, s e e i n g a s p e c t s of the w o r l d i n new and d i f f e r e n t ways, p a r t i c u l a r l y one's own b e h a v i o r , e n a b l e s one to ask q u e s t i o n s and c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t he c o u l d not v e r y w e l l have o t h e r w i s e asked or c o n s i d e r e d . T h i r d , a n a l y s i s i n the p r e s e n t sense i n v o l v e s a b s t r a c t g e n e r a l i z e d l e v e l s o f s y m b o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h i n which d i v e r s e a c t i v i t i e s , e v e n t s and s i t u a t i o n s f i t as s p e c i a l cases of a more g e n e r a l c a s e . Once the r e l e v a n t a c t i o n , event, e t c . has been seen as a s p e c i a l c a s e , the o t h e r s p e c i a l c a ses of the more g e n e r a l case become a v a i l a b l e e i t h e r as a l t e r n a t i v e s to i t o r models f o r i t or b o t h . That i s to say, once an i n d i v i d u a l sees t h a t what he i s d o i n g i s w i t h i n a g i v e n a n a l y t i c a l framework, the same k-ind of t h i n g t h a t has been done elsewhere, then what has been done elsewhere may be an a l t e r n a t i v e to what he i s d o i n g . Even i f not an a l t e r n a t i v e , i t may p r o v i d e a paradigm, p a t t e r n or p r o t o t y p i c a l case f o r the conduct 4 of h i s own work ( H i l l s , 1975:108). I f an a n a l y t i c a l framework i s not employed by t h o s e who c o n s t r u c t o r e v a l u a t e c r i t e r i a s t a t e m e n t s , t h e t a s k of f i n d i n g or e v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s cannot p r o g r e s s v e r y f a r beyond an " o r d i n a r y language" or "common sense" l e v e l . F o r those who w r i t e c r i t e r i a , the t a s k i s s i m i l a r t o w r i t i n g down a l l t h a t one knows or f e e l s about a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t . T h i s t a s k i s a monumental one. One s i m p l y f o r g e t s to w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g t h a t one b e l i e v e s i s " i m p o r t a n t . " Here, an a n a l y t i c a l framework may be employed to (1) s t i m u l a t e one's memory by p r o v i d i n g s y s t e m a t i c guidance to thought p r o c e s s e s ; (2) i n c r e a s e the s p e c i f i c i t y o f statements t h e r e b y enhancing the communication p r o c e s s ; (3) enable one to c h a r a c t e r i z e h i s / h e r own b e h a v i o r ; and (4) p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r the a s k i n g of r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s ( i . e . , Why a r e c e r t a i n types of c r i t e r i a s tatements predominant? What e f f e c t s a c c r u e as a r e s u l t o f a l l o w i n g p a r e n t and t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c r i t e r i a i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ? ) . For t hose who must e v a l u a t e c r i t e r i a by d e t e r m i n i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between s e v e r a l l i s t s , an a n a l y t i c a l framework p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r c o n t r a s t and comparison. The c o n c e p t u a l a n a l y t i c a l framework which has been chosen f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n purposes i s T a l c o t t P a r s o n s ' t h e o r y of s o c i e t a l systems. The d e s i r a b i l i t y of employing T a l c o t t P a r s o n s ' approach l i e s i n the t h e o r y ' s a b i l i t y t o be employed i n the e x a m i n a t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problems or r e q u i r e m e n t s a t every l e v e l of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system. Consequently t h e framework i s as s u i t a b l e f o r the a n a l y s i s o f the r o l e s performed by an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n as an a n a l y s i s of an o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n s o c i e t y . 5 M e t h o d o l o g i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n . T a l c o t t P a r s o n s ' t h e o r y o f s o c i e t a l systems has been u t i l i z e d p r i m a r i l y f o r the purpose o f i d e n t i f y i n g the s o c i e t a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s has p r o v i d e d the b a s i s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n or e v a l u a t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s . I t i s the i n t e n t o f t h i s study t o employ P a r s o n i a n t h e o r y i n a unique way by s h i f t i n g the emphasis s l i g h t l y away from the d i r e c t e x a m i n a t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s . Here, the emphasis i s p l a c e d upon the e x a m i n a t i o n o f the c o n t r i b u t i o n s which s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s a r e t o make toward the a t t a i n m e n t o f g o a l s ( a c c o r d i n g t o p a r e n t and t e a c h e r g r o u p s ) . T h i s emphasis i s not i n t e n d e d t o negate the importance o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s . An under-s t a n d i n g of the c r i t e r i a a u t h o r s ' i n t e n t i n s p e c i f y i n g what a p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d do ( f o r the a t t a i n m e n t of a goa l ) i s r e q u i r e d b e f o r e c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n and a n a l y s i s can be conducted. T h e r e f o r e , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o cedure i s s u b j e c t i v e and dependent upon i n f e r e n c e s which may have t o be made about i n t e n t s as w e l l as the s p e c i f i c i t y o f statements g i v e n . P r a c t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n . The c r i t e r i a l i s t s as a whole p r e s e n t g e n e r a l c o n c e p t i o n s o r s t a n d a r d s p e r t a i n i n g t o the c o n t r i b u t i o n s which p r i n c i p a l s ought to make i n the performance o f t h e i r r o l e s . V a r i a t i o n and s i m i l a r i t i e s between l i s t s however, a r e l i k e l y t o e x i s t as a r e s u l t of d i v e r s i t y i n i n t e r e s t s between the p a r t i c i p a n t groups. The t a s k o f i d e n t i f y i n g v a r i a t i o n s would not pro c e e d v e r y f a r w i t h o u t the use o f an a b s t r a c t ; g e n e r a l i z e d framework. The p r a c t i c a l i n t e n t here i s to p r o v i d e a t e s t e d framework f o r g e n e r a l use. Overview of the T h e s i s T h i s c h a p t e r has o u t l i n e d the purposes and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the s t u d y . Chapter 2 examines T a l c o t t P a r s o n s ' c o n c e p t u a l framework and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Chapter 3 examines the d a t a , methods of a n a l y s i s and l i m i t a t i o n s of the study. Chapter 4 d i s c u s s e s problems r e l a t e d t o u s i n g T a l c o t t P a r s o n s ' framework f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and a n a l y s i s . Chapter 5 examines the f i n d i n g s o f the a n a l y s i s w i t h r e f e r e n c e to p a r e n t , t e a c h e r and p a r e n t - t e a c h e r l i s t s a c r o s s s c h o o l s and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a s . Chapter 6 d i s c u s s e s the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study and the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f i e l d p e r s o n n e l . C h a p t e r 2 THE PARSONIAN FRAMEWORK The r o l e of the elementary p r i n c i p a l a c c o r d i n g t o B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s o f " t a s k s " and " d u t i e s " has been examined by Newberry (1975). A sample o f Newberry's f i n d i n g s i s l i s t e d below. 3. The f i v e most im p o r t a n t e x p e c t a t i o n s as i n d i c a t e d by the f r e e r e s p o n s e s o f the r e s p o n d e n t s , f o r the elementary p r i n c i p a l were: (1) i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p , (2) m o t i v a t i o n o f s t a f f , (3) sound i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , (4) e f f e c t i v e school-home-community r e l a t i o n s , and (5) e f f i c i e n t s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . (1975:118) 5. The d u t i e s of the p r i n c i p a l t h a t were ranked i n the top f i v e were i n t h i s o r d e r : (1) " S t i m u l a t e and m o t i v a t e t h e s t a f f to maximum performance," (2) "Encourage c o n t i n u o u s s t u d y of c u r r i c u l a r and i n s t r u c t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n s , " (3) "Develop program assessment p r o c e d u r e s , " (4) "Develop w i t h s t a f f a system of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , " (5) " P r o v i d e c h a n n e l s f o r inv o l v e m e n t o f t h e community." (1975:119) 7. The i d e a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f time f o r a p r i n c i p a l ' s week was r e p o r t e d as s u p e r v i s i o n (45.4 p e r c e n t ) , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (23.3 p e r c e n t ) , t e a c h i n g (14.3 p e r c e n t ) , community r e l a t i o n s (13.5 p e r c e n t ) , and c l e r i c a l d u t i e s (3.3 p e r c e n t ) . (1975:119) Newberry's f i n d i n g s as s t a t e d above may be c l a s s i f i e d i n terms of H i l l s ' l e v e l s o f d i s c o u r s e (noted i n Chapter 1) as b e i n g at the second l e v e l . That i s to say they d e a l w i t h " t h e l e v e l on which the i n d i v i d u a l o p e r a t e s when he c h a r a c t e r i z e s or d e s c r i b e s t o another what he does, i . e . , the o r d i n a r y language level'-' ( H i l l s , 1975:107). These f i n d i n g s a r e comparable w i t h the k i n d o f e x p r e s s i o n s found i n the c r i t e r i a l i s t s 7 8 used i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y i n t h a t they a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d at t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e l e v e l . Newberry's f i n d i n g s a r e not p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n an a b s t r a c t or g e n e r a l i z e d framework. T h i s type o f d i s c o u r s e g i v e s r i s e t o two problems. F i r s t l y , c o n s i d e r a b l e " o v e r l a p " may e x i s t i n the l i s t e d " t a s k s " and " d u t i e s . " The " t a s k s " and " d u t i e s " may appear t o be d i v e r s e but may f i t i n t o what H i l l s c a l l s a " g e n e r a l c a s e . " Secondly, terms such as "school-home-community r e l a t i o n s , " " s t i m u l a t e and m o t i v a t e , " a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " l a c k s p e c i f i c i t y and a r e s u s c e p t i b l e to broad i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . For example, the term " a d m i n i s t r a t i o n " may be p e r c e i v e d t o encompass many of the " t a s k s " and " d u t i e s " i n d i c a t e d as b e i n g d i s t i n c t such as " s u p e r v i s i o n " or " c l e r i c a l d u t i e s . " To overcome such l i m i t a t i o n s the use of an a n a l y t i c a l framework i s r e q u i r e d . Such a framework i s p r o v i d e d by the work o f T a l c o t t P arsons and i t i s h i s framework which i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . The s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r d e a l w i t h the s e v e r a l components of the framework and a f i n a l s e c t i o n c o n s i d e r s the k i n d o f p r e d i c t i o n s about the d a t a o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y which a r e sugg e s t e d by the framework. The G e n e r a l Framework Parson's framework i s complex and has been b u i l t over many y e a r s and e l a b o r a t e d i n a v a r i e t y of h i s works. H i l l s ' attempts t o summarize and use P a r s o n s ' framework have r e s u l t e d i n the p r o v i s i o n by him o f an o u t l i n e o f the framework which i s c o n c i s e and c l e a r and i t i s t h e r e f o r e H i l l s ' work which i s used as the s o u r c e o f many of the i l l u s t r a t i v e q u o t a t i o n s which f o l l o w . F o r T a l c o t t P a r s o n s , s e v e r a l f u n c t i o n a l problems e x i s t f o r 9 o r g a n i z a t i o n a l systems. Each system and subsystem must: (1) s e c u r e a s u p p l y o f g e n e r a l i z e d f a c i l i t i e s ( a d a p t a t i o n ) ; (2) d e f i n e i t s r e a s o n f o r b e i n g and o r g a n i z e i t s e l f f o r the a t t a i n m e n t of g o a l s ( g o a l a t t a i n m e n t ) ; (3) m a i n t a i n the i n t e g r i t y o f i t s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d v a l u e system ( p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e ) ; (4) e s t a b l i s h a means o f c o - o r d i n a t i n g i t s e f f o r t s ( i n t e g r a t i o n ) . A c c o r d i n g to H i l l s , " a l l s o c i e t i e s and a l l s o c i e t a l systems of any d u r a t i o n are c o n f r o n t e d by t h e s e f o u r problems and t h e i r c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e depends on the s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n to them" ( H i l l s , 1975a: 242). H i l l s goes on to e x p l a i n (1975a:244) t h a t each o f these sub-systems and the u n i t s w i t h i n them i s s u b j e c t to a p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e s t a n d a r d which d e f i n e s an a p p r o p r i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the sub-system and i t s environment. Thus i n the g o a l a t t a i n m e n t subsystem the "s y m b o l i c medium" (medium o f exchange f o r r e s o u r c e s ) i s "power," the " v a l u e s t a n d a r d " ( d e f i n i t i o n of the a p p r o p r i a t e system-environment r e l a t i o n s h i p ) i s " e f f e c t i v e n e s s , " the " c o - o r d i n a t i v e s t a n d a r d " (the consequence of d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the a c t u a l and approved system-environment r e l a t i o n ) i s " s u c c e s s , " and the i n s t i t u t i o n s r e g u l a t i n g a c t i v i t y (norms s p e c i f y i n g l e g i t i m a t e and i l l e g i t i m a t e means o f p r o d u c i n g o u t p u t s ) a r e " r e g u l a t i o n , " " a u t h o r i t y " and " l e a d e r s h i p . " The "s y m b o l i c media," " v a l u e s t a n d a r d s , " " c o - o r d i n a t i v e s t a n d a r d s " and " i n s t i t u t i o n s r e g u l a t i n g a c t i v i t y " a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each subsystem a r e summarized below i n T a b l e 1. The " s y m b o l i c media," " v a l u e s t a n d a r d s , " " c o - o r d i n a t i v e s t a n d a r d s " and " i n s t i t u t i o n s which r e g u l a t e a c t i v i t y , " permeate a l l subsystems o f s o c i e t y . T h e r e f o r e , an i n d i v i d u a l i n the 10 T a b l e 1 Four Subsystems, T h e i r Outputs and G o v e r n i n g Standards Symbolic Media V a l u e Standards C o - O r d i n a t i v e Standards I n s t i t u t i o n s R e g u l a t i n g A c t i v i t y A d a p t a t i o n Money U t i l i t y S o l v e n c y C o n t r a c t O c c u p a t i o n P r o p e r t y Goal A t t a i n m e n t Power E f f e c t i v e - Success ness R e g u l a t i o n A u t h o r i t y L e a d e r s h i p P a t t e r n Maintenance G e n e r a l i z e d I n t e g r i t y Commitments P a t t e r n -C o n s i s t e n c e M o r a l A u t h o r i t y I n t e g r a t i o n I n f l u e n c e S o l i d a r i t y Consensus P r e s t i g e Adj u d i c a -t i o n performance of h i s r o l e s w i t h i n s o c i e t a l subsystems w i l l be s a n c t i o n e d a c c o r d i n g to the s t a n d a r d s i n d i c a t e d above. I n o r d e r to g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the t y p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s o r " r e l e v a n t mechanisms" which a r e employed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t o s o l v e problems p r e s e n t e d by each s o c i e t a l subsystem, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine T a l c o t t P a r s o n s ' s o c i e t a l model as i t p e r t a i n s to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l subsystems w i t h i n s o c i e t y . The Framework A p p l i e d to O r g a n i z a t i o n s P a r s o n s ' t h e o r e t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l framework examines b o t h " i n t e r n a l " and " e x t e r n a l " a s p e c t s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Employing the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a mental h o s p i t a l as an example, Parsons s t a t e s t h a t 11 " e x t e r n a l f u n c t i o n s " must be performed f o r the purpose of " r e l a t i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n to the r e s t of the s o c i e t y " (Parsons, 1963:112). " I n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e " must be m a i n t a i n e d by " i n t e r n a l f u n c t i o n s " f o r the purpose of " r e l a t i n g the v a r i o u s s t r u c t u r a l p a r t s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n to each o t h e r " (Parsons, 1963:112). E x t e r n a l F u n c t i o n s and R e l e v a n t Mechanisms Parsons c l a s s i f i e s " e x t e r n a l f u n c t i o n s " under f o u r main h e a d i n g s : (1) "The p r o c e s s of a c q u i r i n g the f a c i l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r c a r r y i n g out i t s f u n c t i o n s " ( a d a p t a t i o n ) . (2) "The p r o c e s s i n d e a l i n g w i t h the r e c i p i e n t s of the h o s p i t a l s e r v i c e s , the p a t i e n t s and above a l l , t h e i r f a m i l i e s , i n c l u d i n g p o l i c y - m a k i n g " ( g o a l a t t a i n m e n t ) . (3) "The l e g i t i m a t i o n o f the o p e r a t i o n of the h o s p i t a l i n the community" ( p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e ) . (4) "The ways i n which the h o s p i t a l i s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the community i n which i t o p e r a t e s " ( i n t e g r a t i o n ) (Parsons, 1963:112). The e x t e r n a l f u n c t i o n s s t a t e d above r e p r e s e n t problems which the mental h o s p i t a l as an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system must overcome. Each " e x t e r n a l f u n c t i o n " may be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to i t s e x p r e s s i o n as an a d a p t a t i o n , g o a l - a t t a i n m e n t , p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e or i n t e g r a t i o n problem. For P arsons, the a b i l i t y of the o r g a n i z a t i o n to p e r f o r m e x t e r n a l f u n c t i o n s " e f f e c t i v e l y " i s dependent upon the o p e r a t i o n of " r e l e v a n t mechanisms." The f u n c t i o n s and t h e i r r e l e v a n t mechanisms a r e 12 d e s c r i b e d below and summarized i n T a b l e 2. For example, the e x t e r n a l f u n c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g a c q u i s i t i o n of r e s o u r c e s ( a d a p t a t i o n ) i s , i n the case o f the h o s p i t a l , based upon the s o c i a l v a l u e judgement t h a t h e a l t h i s a r i g h t o f the i n d i v i d u a l . F i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s a r e r a i s e d by the " r e l e v a n t mechanisms" of t a x a t i o n or v o l u n t a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n . Parsons has argued t h a t the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e " r e l e v a n t mechanisms" i s endorsed by s o c i e t y because of the b e l i e f t h a t the c a r e of i l l n e s s cannot be l e f t to the " s e l f i n t e r e s t " of e n t r e p r e n e u r s or the wishes of those n e e d i n g a s s i s t a n c e (Parsons, 1963:117). The p r o c e s s e s i n d e a l i n g w i t h the r e c i p i e n t s o f the h o s p i t a l ' s s e r v i c e s ( g o a l a t t a i n m e n t ) i n v o l v e t h e " a d m i s s i o n o f the p a t i e n t to a k i n d of "membership" i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n which t a k e s the form of p h y s i c a l r e s i d e n c e on the h o s p i t a l ' s p r e m i s e s and s u b j e c t i o n to a u t h o r i t y and c o n t r o l o f the h o s p i t a l a u t h o r i t i e s " (Parsons, 1963:115). Here, " c o - o p e r a t i o n i n m i n i m i z i n g the p r o t e c t i v e measures n e c e s s i t a t e d f o r the h o s p i t a l i s a c t i v e l y s o l i c i t e d and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y rewarded" (Parsons, 1963:114). H i l l s e x p l a i n s (1975a:253) t h a t e x t e r n a l g o a l -a t t a i n m e n t f u n c t i o n s o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c l u d e the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the n a t u r e o f the p r o d u c t , the s c a l e o f o p e r a t i o n , the terms of s e t t l e m e n t w i t h consumers o f the p r o d u c t , the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p r i o r i t i e s and the s e t t i n g of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o l i c y . The e x t e r n a l f u n c t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to the l e g i t i m a t i o n o f the o p e r a t i o n o f the h o s p i t a l i n the community ( p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e ) a l s o r e q u i r e the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c mechanisms. L e g i t i m a t i o n or community c o n f i d e n c e i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n cannot be presumed to o c c u r a u t o m a t i c a l l y . P arsons (1963:113) has s t a t e d t h a t sponsors ( i n the case 13 Table 2 External Functions and Relevant Mechanisms External Functions Relevant Mechanisms External Adaptation: The processes of acquiring the f a c i l i t i e s necessary for carrying out i t s functions. External Goal Attainment: taxation voluntary contribution fee for services ( s l i d i n g scale) The processes i n dealing with the r e c i p i e n t s of the hospi t a l ' s services, the patients and above a l l , t h e i r f a m i l i e s . External Pattern-Maintenance: The l e g i t i m a t i o n of the operation of the h o s p i t a l i n the community. External Integration: The ways i n which the h o s p i t a l i s integrated into the community i n which i t operates. p o l i c y decisions decisions regarding approach to re c i p i e n t s of services nature and q u a l i t y standards of product determination of p r i o r i t i e s Reputation for r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n t e g r i t y and technical compe-tence of the organization's sponsors u t i l i z a t i o n of relevant profes-s i o n a l groups as guarantors of the bona f i d e character of the organization contract complex - defining o b l i g a -tions of l o y a l t y to the organization authority complex - defining the r e l a t i o n s of the organization to patients and personnel u n i v e r s a l i s t i c - r u l e complex -concerning organizational obser-vation of standards of "good p r a c t i c e " of the h o s p i t a l ) must have a r e p u t a t i o n f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n t e g r i t y and t e c h n i c a l competence i n i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . R e l e v a n t p r o f e s s i o n a l groups ( i e . m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n ) become g u a r a n t o r s of the bona f i d e c h a r a c t e r of the o p e r a t i o n . Presumably, i f r e p u t a b l e and r e l e v a n t groups a s s o c i a t e themselves w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n i t must be a l l r i g h t . The d i f f u s e a r e a o f " p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s " may a l s o be i n c l u d e d h e r e as a l e g i t i m a t i o n mechanism or method by which "the ' r i g h t ' of the o r g a n i z a t i o n to o p e r a t e and the a p p e a l to g i v e i t s u p p o r t are e s t a b l i s h e d " (Parsons, 1963:113). The f o u r t h major e x t e r n a l f u n c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the i n t e g r a t i o n of the h o s p i t a l i n t o the community i n which i t o p e r a t e s i s based upon " t h r e e major complexes of h o s p i t a l - c o m m u n i t y i n t e g r a t i v e mechanisms" (Parsons, 1963:120). Parsons c a l l s t h e s e complexes the " c o n t r a c t " complex, the " a u t h o r i t y " complex and the " u n i v e r s a l i s t i c r u l e " complex. The " c o n t r a c t u a l " complex p r i m a r i l y concerns the d e f i n i t i o n o f the scope o f l o y a l t y of p e r s o n n e l (and the p r o v i d e r s of f a c i l i t i e s ) t o an o r g a n i z a t i o n . The " a u t h o r i t y " complex concerns the r e l a t i o n s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n to p a t i e n t s and s e c o n d l y to p e r s o n n e l . In o r d e r to c a r r y out i t s f u n c t i o n s the o r g a n i z a t i o n must be g i v e n some c o n t r o l over the i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h which i t i s a s s o c i a t e d . The degree o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t r o l i s governed by the " u n i v e r s a l i s t i c - r u l e " complex which concerns the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n of community s t a n d a r d s of "good p r a c t i c e . " F o r the mental h o s p i t a l , c o m p u l s i o n , d i s c i p l i n e o r p e r s o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n beyond d i c t a t e d r e q u i r e m e n t s w i l l s e v e r e l y e f f e c t the l e g i t i m a t i o n o f the h o s p i t a l i n the community. S i m i l a r l y , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n must be honest and t r e a t employees " f a i r l y " by community 15 s t a n d a r d s . The e x t e r n a l f u n c t i o n s and r e l e v a n t mechanisms a r e l i s t e d above- i n an a b b r e v i a t e d form f o r r e f e r e n c e p u r p o s e s . I n t e r n a l F u n c t i o n s and Kin d s o f D e c i s i o n s  T a l c o t t Parson's a n a l y s i s o f " i n t e r n a l " a s p e c t s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n f o c u s e s upon d e c i s i o n making and the ty p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s which a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s , the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s and v a l u e s and the r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t . T h i s a n a l y s i s o f " i n t e r n a l f u n c t i o n s " i s o r i e n t e d toward the " p o l i t i c a l " or " g o a l a t t a i n m e n t " a s p e c t s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , t h i s a n a l y s i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a d a p t a b l e t o the " g o a l a t t a i n m e n t " r o l e of an a d m i n i s t r a t o r , ( s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l - s c h o o l s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ) as d i s t i n c t from the " p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e " r o l e of a s c h o o l ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f . A l l o c a t i v e d e c i s i o n s . The k i n d o f d e c i s i o n s o c c u r r i n g i n the a r e a of i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n a r e a l l o c a t i v e d e c i s i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o Parsons (1964:30) a l l o c a t i v e d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n the a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s among p e r s o n n e l and the a l l o c a t i o n o f manpower, monetary and p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s i n ac c o r d a n c e w i t h these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I n the case o f p e r s o n n e l , the fundamental c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o d e c i d e , i . e . , 'the d e c i s i o n who s h o u l d d e c i d e , ' as Ba r n a r d put i t . . . . Budget a l l o c a t i o n ( d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f l u i d r e s o u r c e s ) i s g i v i n g t h e se sub-o r g a n i z a t i o n s a c c e s s to the n e c e s s a r y means o f c a r r y i n g out t h e i r assignment ( P a r s o n s , 1964:33). A u t h o r i z a t i o n and enforcement a c t i v i t y . I n t e r n a l a s p e c t s o f g o a l a t t a i n m e n t c o n c e r n the a u t h o r i z a t i o n and enforcement of measures 16 r e q u i r e d to implement e x t e r n a l commitments. Changes i n e x t e r n a l commitments ( p r i o r i t i e s , p o l i c y , q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s ) n e c e s s i t a t e i n t e r n a l adjustments i n the s e l e c t i o n , a u t h o r i z a t i o n , and enforcement o f a p p r o p r i a t e measures. A p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n a r i s e s as t o the a u t h o r i z a -t i o n and l e g i t i m a c y o f c e r t a i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l members who make b i n d i n g d e c i s i o n s on o t h e r s . R o u t i n e - t e c h n i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . The k i n d o f a c t i v i t i e s o c c u r r i n g i n the a r e a of i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e a r e r o u t i n e -t e c h n i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . These a c t i v i t i e s are r o u t i n i z e d under the c o n t r o l o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n and e x p r e s s o r d i r e c t l y implement the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s b a s i c v a l u e s . F o r H i l l s (1975a:254) these a r e the a c t i v i t i e s of t e c h n i c a l , o p e r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l , p r o d u c t i o n workers i n i n d u s t r y , p h y s i c i a n s i n h o s p i t a l s and t e a c h e r s i n s c h o o l s . R o u t i n e -t e c h n i c a l a c t i v i t i e s do not i n v o l v e changes i n the i n s t r u m e n t a l c a p a c i t y , g o a l s or i n t e g r a t i o n o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n . C o - o r d i n a t i v e d e c i s i o n s . The k i n d o f d e c i s i o n s o c c u r r i n g i n the a r e a of i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n a r e c o - o r d i n a t i v e d e c i s i o n s . Co-o r d i n a t i v e d e c i s i o n s " a r e t h e o p e r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s c oncerned w i t h the i n t e g r a t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n as a system" (Parsons, 1964:34). Here problems concerned w i t h the m o t i v a t i o n o f p e r s o n n e l t o adequate performance a r e i n t e g r a t i v e . Parsons p o s t u l a t e s t h a t an i n h e r e n t " c e n t r i f u g a l tendency" o f s u b u n i t s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a r i s e s as a r e s u l t of " p u l l s d e r i v i n g from the p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s , from the s p e c i a l a d a p t i v e e x i g e n c i e s o f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r j o b s i t u a t i o n s and p o s s i b l y from o t h e r s o u r c e s such as the p r e s s u r e o f o t h e r r o l e s i n 17 which they are i n v o l v e d " (Parsons, 1964:34). Elsewhere, Parsons sugg e s t s t h a t p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g " t h e a u t h o r i z a t i o n and enforcement of measures to implement the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s commitments r e l a t i v e t o the o u t s i d e s i t u a t i o n . . . have consequences which bear unevenly on d i f f e r e n t groups w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n " and a c t as a s o u r c e o f i n t e g r a t i v e problems (Parsons, 1963:125). M a x i m i z i n g the i n t e g r a t i o n o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s dependent upon " e n l i s t i n g the l o y a l t y o f i t s p e r s o n n e l to the o r g a n i z a t i o n . B r o a d l y , i n a 'good' o r g a n i z a -t i o n , t h i s w i l l be a s s u r e d most e f f e c t i v e l y through b e l i e f i n the " r i g h t n e s s " of the d e c i s i o n s t a k e n " (Parsons, 1963:125). To ensure t h a t performances of i n d i v i d u a l s a r e "more c l o s e l y i n l i n e w i t h the r e q u i r e -ments of the o r g a n i z a t i o n than would o t h e r w i s e be the c a s e " Parsons notes t h a t " c o e r c i o n " ( p e n a l t i e s f o r n o n - c o - o p e r a t i o n ) , "inducement" (rewards f o r v a l u e d performance) and " t h e r a p y " (a complex c o m b i n a t i o n of measures to remove m o t i v a t i o n a l o b s t a c l e s t o c o - o p e r a t i o n ) may be employed (Parsons, 1964:34). The i n t e r n a l f u n c t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 3 i n an a b b r e v i a t e d form f o r r e f e r e n c e p u r p oses. O r g a n i z a t i o n s D i f f e r e n t i a t e d - An Approach t o the Framework The i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l f u n c t i o n s l i s t e d above have been w r i t t e n i n a g e n e r a l i z e d form which c o u l d be u t i l i z e d i n the a n a l y s i s of many d i f f e r e n t types o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s . However, H i l l s argues t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n s may be c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g to the types of problems they are to s o l v e . 18 T a b l e 3 I n t e r n a l F u n c t i o n s , D e c i s i o n s and A c t i v i t i e s I n t e r n a l F u n c t i o n s D e c i s i o n s and A c t i v i t i e s I n t e r n a l A d a p t a t i o n : I n t e r n a l G o a l Attainment: I n t e r n a l P a t t e r n - M a i n t e n a n c e : I n t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n : A l l o c a t i v e D e c i s i o n s : - a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s - a l l o c a t i o n o f f l u i d r e s o u r c e s - maintenance of f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s f o r s t a b l e and c o n t i n u i n g o p e r a t i o n A u t h o r i z a t i o n and Enforcement  A c t i v i t y : - R o u t i n e - t e c h n i c a l a c t i v i t i e s - a c t i v i t i e s t h a t e x p r e s s the b a s i c v a l u e s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t i v e D e c i s i o n s : - m o t i v a t i o n of p e r s o n n e l f o r adequate performance of t a s k s Four C l a s s e s of O r g a n i z a t i o n s Economic o r g a n i z a t i o n s , b u s i n e s s f i r m s and commercial e n t e r p r i s e s may be c l a s s i f i e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h i n the a d a p t i v e subsystem. The v a l u e s t a n d a r d which governs a c t i v i t y i s u t i l i t y . The p r i m a r y i n t e n t of the commercial e n t e r p r i s e i s t o maximize the u t i l i t y o f a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s through the p r o d u c t i o n o f m a r k e t a b l e goods and s e r v i c e s . Governmental b o d i e s and a g e n c i e s , i n c l u d i n g the m i l i t a r y and p o l i c e f o r c e s may be c l a s s i f i e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h i n the g o a l a t t a i n m e n t subsystem. The v a l u e s t a n d a r d which governs a c t i v i t y i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The p r i m a r y i n t e n t of t h e g o a l a t t a i n m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t o a t t a i n c o l l e c t i v e g o a l s through c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n . P u b l i c s c h o o l s , r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s and f a m i l i e s may be c l a s s i f i e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h i n the p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e subsystem. The p r i m a r y c o n c e r n f o r the p a t t e r n -maintenance o r g a n i z a t i o n i s to m a i n t a i n the i n t e g r i t y o f i t s commitment to v a l u e s a s c r i b e d to by s o c i e t y w i t h r e g a r d to p a t t e r n s of r e l a t i o n -s h i p s , b e h a v i o r and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . As p u b l i c s c h o o l s b e l o n g to t h i s c a t e g o r y , t h e i r p l a c e w i t h i n t h i s subsystem i s e l a b o r a t e d i n the next s e c t i o n . I n t e r e s t groups and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s may be c l a s s i f i e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the i n t e g r a t i v e subsystem. The p r i m a r y c o n c e r n of these c o l l e c t i v i t i e s i s to promote the s o l i d a r i t y of the system by promoting common i n t e r e s t s and r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s g e n e r a t e d from competing or d i s c r e t e i n t e r e s t s . The S c h o o l and P a t t e r n Maintenance H i l l s ' d e s c r i p t i o n of the p u b l i c s c h o o l i n the p a t t e r n -maintenance subsystem (1975a:250) emphasizes the n e c e s s i t y f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n to r e l y h e a v i l y on the commitments of o c c u p a t i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d p e r s o n n e l to p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s . The s c h o o l s c a p a c i t y to a c t i v a t e m o r a l l y b i n d i n g o b l i g a t i o n s to c o n t r i b u t e to the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s i s c r u c i a l . H i l l s s u g g e s t s t h a t the s c h o o l ' s extreme need to m a i n t a i n i t s i n t e g r i t y w i t h r e s p e c t to i t s v a l u e commitments i s the r e s u l t o f t h r e e f a c t o r s . F i r s t l y , the p u b l i c s c h o o l does not m a i n t a i n independent c o n t r o l o v e r f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . S e c o n d l y , the a b i l i t y of a p u b l i c s c h o o l to impose b i n d i n g d e c i s i o n s on 20 e n v i r o n i n g systems i s l i m i t e d . L a s t l y , a p u b l i c s c h o o l has l i m i t e d p r e s t i g e and i t s a b i l i t y to persuade o r e x e r c i s e i n f l u e n c e i s l i m i t e d . Many s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s are d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s . As a r e s u l t , c r i t e r i a p e r t a i n i n g t o p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e or r o u t i n e - t e c h n i c a l a c t i v i t i e s are l i k e l y to be p r e s e n t e d i n c r i t e r i a l i s t s . I n a b r i e f paper c o n c e r n i n g t e a c h i n g and i t s e v a l u a t i o n , H i l l s has p r e s e n t e d c r i t e r i a based on T a l c o t t P a r s o n s ' framework. These c r i t e r i a i n c l u d e : I . G e n e r a l i z e d f a c i l i t i e s ( i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n ) 1. Command of m a t e r i a l s t a u g h t . 2. A p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods and p r o c e s s e s . 3. S k i l l i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s . 4. Knowledge of i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s . I I . G oals ( i n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t ) 1. Success i n s e c u r i n g c o o p e r a t i o n of s t u d e n t s . 2. Success i n the a t t a i n m e n t o f g o a l s . 3. A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of g o a l s . 4. P u r p o s e f u l n e s s of i n s t r u c t i o n . I I I . Norms ( i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n ) 1. C o n f o r m i t y w i t h l e g i t i m a t e e x p e c t a t i o n s . 2. Adherence to s t a n d a r d s of good p r a c t i c e . IV. V a l u e s ( i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e ) 1. A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of c o n c e p t i o n d e f i n i n g the d e s i r a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t e of the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n i n the r e l e v a n t a r e a . 2. A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of c o n c e p t i o n d e f i n i n g the n a t u r e of the d e s i r a b l e c l a s s . 3. Commitment to academic i n t e g r i t y and p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s of p r e p a r a t i o n . 4. Commitment to p r o t e c t and enhance the i n t e r e s t s o f s t u d e n t s . ( H i l l s , 1977:3) 21 Types o f P r i n c i p a l C r i t e r i a Suggested By  The Framework The d e s c r i p t i o n s of the e x t e r n a l - i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n , g o a l -a t t a i n m e n t , p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e and i n t e g r a t i o n subsystems p r e s e n t e d by Parsons and H i l l s r e p r e s e n t the g u i d e l i n e s f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of c r i t e r i a . P r i o r to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e i t would be d i f f i c u l t to determine which subsystems r e c e i v e c o n s i s t e n t emphasis. However, i t i s p o s s i b l e to s p e c u l a t e on an emphasis a c c o r d i n g to H i l l s ' d e s c r i p t i o n of the s c h o o l i n s o c i e t y . As the p u b l i c s c h o o l does not have in d e p e n -dent c o n t r o l o f f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , a s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l can do v e r y l i t t l e about a c q u i r i n g the f a c i l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r c a r r y i n g out the s c h o o l ' s f u n c t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the subsystem o f e x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o r e c e i v e minor emphasis i n p a r e n t and t e a c h e r c r i t e r i a l i s t s . I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e , however, f o r a p r i n c i p a l t o a l l o c a t e r e s o u r c e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ( i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n ) w i t h i n the s c h o o l . A p r i n c i p a l may be c a l l e d upon because of h i s command of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s or s k i l l i n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s . An emphasis i n the i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n subsystem would i n d i c a t e a c o n c e r n on the p a r t of p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s t h a t f a c i l i t i e s were u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n or l e a r n i n g was b e i n g hampered. U n l e s s the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the s c h o o l was c o n s i d e r e d a major problem, emphasis on t h i s type of c r i t e r i o n would be l i m i t e d . H i l l s argues t h a t the s c h o o l ' s l i m i t e d scope of a u t h o r i t y n e c e s s i t a t e s a "heavy r e l i a n c e on i t s c a p a c i t y to a c t i v a t e m o r a l l y b i n d i n g o b l i g a t i o n s . . ." ( H i l l s , 1975a: 250). Here, the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l ' s r o l e may be seen i n p a r t as s e c u r i n g the commitments of t e a c h e r s . A c c o r d i n g to P a r s o n s ' framework, the m o t i v a t i o n o f p e r s o n n e l may be conducted i n two ways. (1) I n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t emphasizes the use o f power ( a u t h o r i t y and enforement). (2) I n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n emphasizes the use of i n f l u e n c e ( c o e r c i o n , inducement, t h e r a p y ) . I f the consequences o f a u t h o r i z a t i o n and e n f o r e -ment bear unevenly on d i f f e r e n t groups i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and produce disharmony as Parsons s u g g e s t s (Parsons, 1963:125), i t would be i n the i n t e r e s t s o f p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s to emphasize i n t e g r a t i o n as a means of s e c u r i n g the commitments o f p e r s o n n e l . From the l i t e r a t u r e p r e s e n t e d by H i l l s and P a r s o n s , i t i s p l a u s i b l e t o p r e d i c t t h a t p a r e n t - t e a c h e r l i s t s a r e l i k e l y t o p l a c e an emphasis on i n t e g r a t i v e and p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e c r i t e r i a r a t h e r than g o a l a t t a i n m e n t and a d a p t i v e c r i t e r i a . Chapter 3 THE DATA, METHOD OF ANALYSIS AND LIMITATIONS The three purposes of t h i s study which were i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter 1 are: 1) to understand and describe Parsons' framework so as to be able to accurately i n t e r p r e t each of i t s components; (2) to determine whether the framework was such as to permit a meaningful analysis of the l i s t s of c r i t e r i a ; and (3) i f the framework proved inadequate, the inadequacy would be explained or i f the framework proved adequate i t would be used i n an analysis of c r i t e r i a so as to gain insi g h t s into the nature of the c r i t e r i a and any v a r i a t i o n among the various l i s t s . The f i r s t of these three purposes has been achieved i n Chapter 2. The way i n which the remaining two purposes were addressed i s described i n th i s chapter which i s divided into three major sections dealing r e s p e c t i v e l y with the a c q u i s i t i o n and i n i t i a l treatment of the data, the methods used i n the analysis and the l i m i t a t i o n s to which the findings are subject. The Data The raw data for the study consisted of fi f t y - t w o l i s t s of statements produced by parents, teachers or groups of parents and teachers combined. The statements were statements of c r i t e r i a held important by t h e i r authors for the next p r i n c i p a l of the school with 24 which they were connected. The p r o c e s s of i d e n t i f y i n g c r i t e r i a t o a s s i s t i n the s e l e c t i o n o f s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s was s t a r t e d i n response to a r e q u e s t from s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o f f i c i a l s . The i n t e n t o f the p r o c e s s was to d e v e lop an up to date l i s t o f c r i t e r i a f o r each s c h o o l i n which a replacement o r t r a n s f e r was c o n s i d e r e d , to p r o v i d e the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o s p e c t i v e c a n d i d a t e s to see the c r i t e r i a and to keep the c r i t e r i a i n mind when making a placement o r t r a n s f e r . The s c h o o l s w i t h i n t h i s urban s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e a r e a s . S c h o o l s i n each o f these a r e a s were i n v o l v e d i n c r i t e r i a i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . However, not a l l a r e a s g e n e r a t e d the same number o f l i s t s due to d i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t r a n s f e r s and r e p l a c e m e n t s . Each of the l i s t s took v a r i o u s forms. Some of the l i s t s appear i n an i t e m i z e d form w h i l e o t h e r s p r e s e n t composite s t a t e m e n t s . Each l i s t has been i d e n t i f i e d n u m e r i c a l l y . The f i r s t n u m b e r — i n the form of a Roman n u m e r a l — i d e n t i f i e s the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a i n which the c r i t e r i a was g e n e r a t e d . The second number i d e n t i f i e s the p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l . A s m a l l l e t t e r f o l l o w i n g the second number i n d i c a t e s t h a t more than one l i s t o f c r i t e r i a was composed. In t h i s case each l i s t r e p r e s e n t s a response from s e p a r a t e a u t h o r s ( p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s ) . The complete s e t of c r i t e r i a l i s t s f o r 1976 appears i n the appendix. They have been reproduced i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l form w i t h the f o l l o w i n g e x c e p t i o n s : (1) R e f e r e n c e to the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i s o m i t t e d . (2) The names o f s c h o o l s a r e o m i t t e d . (3) The names of p a r t i c i p a n t s and s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l a r e o m i t t e d . 25 (4) A P a r s o n i a n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n appears on the r i g h t o f each l i s t . I n each case the o m i s s i o n s a r e r e p l a c e d w i t h dashes. P e r m i s s i o n to conduct t h i s study was o b t a i n e d from s c h o o l board o f f i c i a l s . C r i t e r i a l i s t s were not c o l l e c t e d u n t i l the c r i t e r i a i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s was completed by the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Method of A n a l y s i s The method employed i n the a n a l y s i s of the c r i t e r i a l i s t s c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e s t e p s . The f i r s t s t e p was the p r e p a r a t i o n of the d a t a . The second was t h e attempt to c l a s s i f y each i t e m i n the l i s t s o f c r i t e r i a as b e l o n g i n g to one or more o f the k i n d s of f u n c t i o n s d e s i g n a t e d by the framework. T h i s second s t e p i n v o l v e d d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f f o u r k i n d s o f problems. T h i r d , the e x a m i n a t i o n of the r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s was undertaken. Each of these s t e p s i s d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . The P r e p a r a t i o n of the Data Each c r i t e r i a l i s t was examined f o r statements p e r t a i n i n g to c o n t r i b u t i o n s which p r i n c i p a l s a r e t o make i n t h e i r r o l e s as p r i n c i p a l t e a c h e r s . In some i n s t a n c e s c r i t e r i a were p r e s e n t e d i n p o i n t form u s i n g p h r a s e s or a s i n g l e word. In o t h e r c a s e s a d e s c r i p t i v e p a r a g r a p h accompanied the c r i t e r i a t o p r o v i d e emphasis or e l a b o r a t i o n . O f t e n two s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t c o n t r i b u t i o n s were c o n t a i n e d i n the same sentence. In t h i s i n s t a n c e the compound sentence was s e p a r a t e d and the components were c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g l y . A l l t h e s e c r i t e r i a s tatements were t r a n s p o s e d on c a r d s t o a l l o w f o r m a n i p u l a t i o n , comparison and w r i t t e n e x p l a n a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g 26 to c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The statements which have been produced by p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s a r e not r e s t r i c t e d to e x p r e s s i o n s of a p r i n c i p a l ' s g o a l a t t a i n m e n t r o l e . These statements i d e n t i f y d e s i r a b l e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s t a n d a r d s of e x p e r t i s e , s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r s and c o n t r i b u t i o n s ( e t c . ) which a p r i n c i p a l ought to make t o the s c h o o l i n an attempt to l i m i t o r s o l v e " i n t e r n a l " and " e x t e r n a l " f u n c t i o n a l problems a t a l l l e v e l s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l subsystem ( i . e . , a d a p t a -t i o n , g o a l a t t a i n m e n t , p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e , i n t e g r a t i o n ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a p p l i c a t i o n s o f " s y m b o l i c media," " v a l u e s t a n d a r d s , " " c o - o r d i n a t i v e s t a n d a r d s " and " i n s t i t u t i o n s which r e g u l a t e a c t i v i t y " a r e o f t e n i m p l i e d i n p a r e n t and t e a c h e r c r i t e r i a s t a t e m e n t s . I n some statements however, these components may not be r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d . As a r e s u l t , s e v e r a l problems f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e examined below. Problems i n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n The p r o c e s s of i d e n t i f y i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g c r i t e r i a statements ( a c c o r d i n g to i m p l i e d a p p l i c a t i o n s o f " s y m b o l i c media," " v a l u e s t a n d a r d s , " " c o - o r d i n a t i v e s t a n d a r d s " and " i n s t i t u t i o n s which r e g u l a t e a c t i v i t y " ) i s e n t i r e l y dependent upon the c l a s s i f i e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f f o u r p r o b l e m a t i c f a c t o r s . " U n c l a s s i f i a b l e " s t a t e m e n t s . A c r i t e r i o n which does not s p e c i f y the c o n t r i b u t i o n which an i n d i v i d u a l i s t o make cannot be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o P a r s o n s ' framework. S e v e r a l statements o f t h i s type a r e i d e n t i f i e d and l i s t e d below. I I ( a ) # 1 - s h o u l d p r e f e r a b l y be a man 13(b)#1 - Best person f o r the j o b (Male o r Female) 27 111(a) - g e n e r a l a t t r i b u t e s d e s i r a b l e of a l l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s Statement 11(a)#1, does not s p e c i f y the d e s i r e d c o n t r i b u t i o n s t h a t a male would make as opposed to a female. Statement I 3 ( b ) # l , i n d i c a t e s t h a t the " b e s t " p e r s o n s h o u l d be a p p o i n t e d but does not i n d i c a t e which " v a l u e s t a n d a r d s " the a u t h o r s would a p p l y to determine the m e r i t s of c a n d i d a t e s . Statement 111(a) i m p l i e s t h a t t h e r e a r e a s e t of a t t r i b u t e s which a r e d e s i r a b l e i n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . I t c o u l d be assumed t h a t the a u t h o r s a r e r e f e r r i n g to the v a l u e s t a n d a r d s " u t i l i t y , " " e f f e c t i v e n e s s , " " i n t e g r i t y " and " s o l i d a r i t y . " I t i s not c l e a r however which " v a l u e s t a n d a r d s " a r e g i v e n p r e f e r e n c e . Under these c o n d i t i o n s the c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n o f t h i s statement i n a l l subsystems p r o h i b i t s a n a l y s i s . Statements which l a c k s p e c i f i c i t y have been grouped and c l a s s i f i e d i n the c a t e g o r y " u n c l a s s i f i e d . " " I n t e r n a l " and " E x t e r n a l " r e f e r e n c e . The second p r o b l e m a t i c f a c t o r f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a l s o p e r t a i n s to the degree of s p e c i f i c i t y of c r i t e r i a s t a t e m e n t s . For example, the statements l i s t e d below imply the subsystem i n which the statements may be c l a s s i f i e d but do not i n d i c a t e whether they c o u l d be d e s i g n a t e d e x c l u s i v e l y as i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l . 110(a) r e l a x e d atmosphere ( I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n ) 14 s h o u l d be a p p r o a c h a b l e ( I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n ) I I I I s a t i r e l e s s d e d i c a t e d worker ( I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l P a t t e r n - M a i n t e n a n c e ) To p r o v i d e a c o n t r a s t , a statement from l i s t 11(a) i s l i s t e d below. 11(a) h i s a t t i t u d e to the community s h o u l d be one of openness and a p p r o a c h a b i l i t y ( E x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n ) Here the statement from l i s t 11(a) s p e c i f i e s "openness" and " a p p r o a c h a b i l i t y " as the c o n t r i b u t i o n s t h a t a p r i n c i p a l i s t o make. These c o n t r i b u t i o n s may be c l a s s i f i e d as p a r t of the i n t e g r a t i o n sub-system. F u r t h e r the statement from l i s t 11(a) s p e c i f i e s t h a t these c o n t r i b u t i o n s a r e to be made to the community. As the "community" i s e x t e r n a l t o the s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h i s may be c o n s i d e r e d an " e x t e r n a l " c o n t r i b u t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , c r i t e r i o n 11(a) may be c l a s s i f i e d as an e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n statement. R e f e r e n c e t o m u l t i p l e subsystems. The t h i r d problem which p r o h i b i t s e x c l u s i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r t a i n s t o statements which make r e f e r e n c e t o c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n more than one subsystem. Examples o f th e s e c r i t e r i a are l i s t e d below. 12(b) be a b l e t o develop a good r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p a r e n t s and the community ( E x t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n ) ( E x t e r n a l P a t t e r n - M a i n t e n a n c e ) 13(a) an e x c e l l e n t o r g a n i z e r r a t h e r than e x c e l l e n c e o f s c h o l a s t i c performance ( I n t e r n a l A d a p t a t i o n ) ( I n t e r n a l Goal A t t a i n m e n t ) The statement from l i s t 12(b) emphasizes the d e s i r e to i n t e g r a t e the s c h o o l w i t h p a r e n t s and the community ( E x t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n ) . T h i s r e s u l t may be o b t a i n e d through d e v e l o p i n g p a r e n t a l and community b e l i e f i n the " r i g h t n e s s " o f the a c t i o n s t a k e n w i t h i n the s c h o o l through " p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s " a c t i v i t i e s ( i . e . , n e w s l e t t e r s , s c h o o l p r o d u c t i o n s ) . These a c t i o n s a l s o s e r v e t o l e g i t i m i z e the o p e r a t i o n o f the s c h o o l i n the community by enhancing the r e p u t a t i o n f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and i n t e g r i t y o f the s c h o o l ' s p e r s o n n e l ( E x t e r n a l P a t t e r n - M a i n t e n a n c e ) . Consequently, the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r " l e g i t i m a t i o n " and " i n t e g r a t i o n " o f the s c h o o l i n the community p l a c e t h i s statement i n the e x t e r n a l 29 p a t t e r n maintenance subsystems. Statement 13(a) emphasizes the d e s i r e f o r e x c e l l e n c e i n o r g a n i z a t i o n . Here, the word " o r g a n i z a t i o n " may be p e r c e i v e d to p e r t a i n to the a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f f l u i d r e s o u r c e s , the maintenance of f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s f o r s t a b l e and c o n t i n u i n g o p e r a t i o n , and the a u t h o r i z a t i o n and enforcement of measures n e c e s s a r y f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the s c h o o l ' s g o a l commitment ( I n t e r -n a l A d a p t a t i o n , I n t e r n a l G o a l A t t a i n m e n t ) . The word " e x c e l l e n c e " t h e r e f o r e , would imply the v a l u e s t a n d a r d s " s o l v e n c y " and " e f f e c t i v e -n e s s . " C l a s s i f i e r i n f e r e n c e . The f o u r t h p r o b l e m a t i c f a c t o r which p r o h i b i t s unique c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a p p l i e s to P a r s o n s ' c o n c e p t u a l frame-work. As Parsons has noted, " i n a c t u a l f a c t , power and i n f l u e n c e must be i n t e r t w i n e d " ( P i a t t and P a r s o n s , 1968:155). Hence, c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f c r i t e r i a w i t h i n the g o a l a t t a i n m e n t and i n t e g r a t i o n subsystems r e l i e s h e a v i l y upon the p e r c e p t i o n of the c r i t e r i a c l a s s i f i e r . Two examples of c r i t e r i a s tatements which p r e s e n t t h i s p r o b l e m a t i c f a c t o r a r e l i s t e d below. 13(a) Must r e l a t e as f i r m and f a i r to not o n l y s t u d e n t body, but to s t a f f membership. 14 The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be s e n s i t i v e to the needs and problems o f , and be a b l e t o communicate and work e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , p u p i l s , s e c r e t a r i e s , c u s t o d i a n s , s c h o o l board o f f i c i a l s , community a g e n c i e s and a l l p e o p l e and o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s c h o o l . In the examples d i r e c t l y above, a l l statements imply " e f f e c t i v e n e s s " t hrough the use o f words such as " f i r m " and " e f f e c t i v e l y . " C o n v e r s e l y , 30 words such as " f a i r " and " s e n s i t i v e " i m p l y " s o l i d a r i t y " or the use of i n f l u e n c e . The subsystems g o a l a t t a i n m e n t and i n t e g r a t i o n a r e c l e a r l y i n t e r t w i n e d i n t h e s e examples. T h i s however i s not always the case. For example, the d i s t i n c t i o n between g o a l a t t a i n m e n t and i n t e g r a t i o n i s m a i n t a i n e d i n the statements below. 111(a) D i s c i p l i n e - a r t i c u l a t e s c l e a r l y g u i d e l i n e s t o be f o l l o w e d - t a k e s c o n s i s t e n t and immediate a c t i o n ( I n t e r n a l G o a l A t t a i n m e n t ) 111(a) seeks s t a f f ' s o p i n i o n ( I n t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n ) 111(a) encourages l a t e r a l communications between p r i n c i p a l and s t a f f ( I n t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n ) Here, the d i s t i n c t i o n between a u t h o r i z a t i o n - e n f o r c e m e n t and c o - o r d i n a -t i v e a c t i o n i s a p p a r e n t . The T a b u l a t i o n o f R e s u l t s Once a l i s t was c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to the P a r s o n i a n sub-systems and a c a t e g o r y f o r u n c l a s s i f i a b l e s t a t e m e n t s , the t o t a l number of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r each l i s t was determined. A t a l l y method was employed to count the number of statements i n each c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A p e r c e n t a g e o f t a l l i e s f o r each c a t e g o r y was c a l c u l a t e d . The c a t e g o r i e s (subsystems) were rank o r d e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o p e r c e n t a g e f o r each c r i t e r i a l i s t . The rank o r d e r e d l i s t s o f subsystems and the p e r c e n t a g e s f o r each subsystem s e r v e d as the b a s i c components f o r comparing and c o n t r a s t i n g s c h o o l s , a u t h o r s , s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a s , and a n a l y z i n g a l l l i s t s as a whole. The method employed to compare and c o n t r a s t s c h o o l s c o n s i s t e d of rank o r d e r i n g c a t e g o r i e s by p e r c e n t a g e f o r the purpose of d e t e r m i n i n g 31 the o r d e r of p r i o r i t i e s and emphasis among the e i g h t subsystems. The d e t e r m i n a t i o n of d i f f e r e n c e s between l i s t s , a c c o r d i n g to a u t h o r s h i p , r e q u i r e d the c a l c u l a t i o n o f mean p e r c e n t a g e s f o r each sub-system. The 52 l i s t s c o n s i s t e d o f 23 t e a c h e r l i s t s , 21 p a r e n t l i s t s , 5 combined a u t h o r s h i p l i s t s , 1 s t u d e n t l i s t , and 2 l i s t s o f unknown a u t h o r s h i p . The f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a was employed to c a l c u l a t e mean pe r c e n t a g e s f o r each subsystem a c c o r d i n g to each group where N i s the number o f l i s t s i n an author group. N _ £ X. % subsystem A = X % subsystem A i = l 1 N Range and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n measures were a l s o c a l c u l a t e d f o r t e a c h e r , p a r e n t and combined a u t h o r s h i p l i s t s . A s i m i l a r method was employed to c a l c u l a t e mean p e r c e n t a g e s i n each subsystem f o r f i v e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a s . I n t h i s c a s e, the l i s t s were s u b d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g t o the a r e a i n which they were composed. A r e a I g e n e r a t e d 20 c r i t e r i a l i s t s , a r e a I I c o n t a i n e d 6 l i s t s , a r e a I I I c o n s i s t e d of 5 l i s t s , a r e a IV c o n s i s t e d of 13 l i s t s and a r e a V ge n e r a t e d 8 c r i t e r i a l i s t s . A mean p e r c e n t a g e f o r each subsystem was c a l c u l a t e d f o r each s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a . Range and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n measures were a l s o c a l c u l a t e d f o r each subsystem a c c o r d i n g to s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a . The method employed to a n a l y z e the l i s t s as a whole c o n s i s t e d of a d d i n g a l l p e r c e n t a g e s o f a g i v e n subsystem and d i v i d i n g by the t o t a l number o f l i s t s . The r e s u l t i n g p e r c e n t a g e r e p r e s e n t s a mean pe r c e n t a g e f o r the subsystem f o r a l l l i s t s . Range and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n measures were a l s o c a l c u l a t e d f o r each subsystem. 32 L i m i t a t i o n s I t i s im p o r t a n t to emphasize t h a t the c r i t e r i a and the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study p e r t a i n o n l y t o t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who p a r t i c i p a t e d d i r e c t l y i n the c r i t e r i a i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s . S t a f f Committees, P a r e n t C o n s u l t a t i v e Committees, s t u d e n t s and members of s p e c i a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d committees who r e c e i v e d a mandate to conduct c r i t e r i a i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , were not randomly sampled. There-f o r e , the r e s u l t s may not be a p p l i e d to s c h o o l s which d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p r o c e s s w i t h i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . T h i s r e s t r i c t i o n a l s o a p p l i e s t o s c h o o l s o u t s i d e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . C r i t e r i a i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s e s s i o n s were not conducted s i m u l t a n e o u s l y or conducted f o r the same p e r i o d s of time. These a c t i v i t i e s were conducted d u r i n g s i n g l e and m u l t i p l e a f t e r n o o n o r ev e n i n g s e s s i o n s . The amounts o f time a l l o c a t e d f o r t h i s purpose v a r i e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the l i s t s v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g l y t o s p e c i f i c i t y and l e n g t h . As many p a r t i c i p a n t s had not e x p e r i e n c e d c r i t e r i a i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n p r o c e d u r e s i n the p a s t , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e guidance was r e q u i r e d . As p r i n c i p a l s a r e members of p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i v e committees and t h e i r p r esence i s c o n s t a n t , i t may be assumed t h a t t h i s f a c t o r would have an e f f e c t on the types of c r i t e r i a p r e s e n t e d . T h i s e f f e c t i s s p e c u l a t i v e and n o n - t e s t a b l e . F o r o t h e r committees, the pro c e d u r e was d e s c r i b e d and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s were conducted i n d e p e n d e n t l y . As the exact e x t e n t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n c e and pre s e n c e cannot be r e a d i l y determined the e f f e c t o f t h i s v a r i a b l e cannot be c o n t r o l l e d i n t h i s study. Chapter 4 THE USE OF PARSONS' FRAMEWORK T h i s c h a p t e r i s d e s i g n e d to determine whether the framework was such as to p e r m i t a m e a n i n g f u l a n a l y s i s o f the l i s t s of c r i t e r i a . The examples of f o u r p r o b l e m a t i c f a c t o r s r e f e r r e d to i n Chapter 3 as " u n c l a s s i f i a b l e s t a t e m e n t s , " " i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l r e f e r e n c e , " " m u l t i p l e subsystems" and " c l a s s i f i e r i n f e r e n c e " may be viewed i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the two c r i t e r i a l i s t s which f o l l o w . The two l i s t s have been c l a s s i f i e d i n accordance w i t h T a l c o t t P a r s o n s ' c o n c e p t u a l framework and the p r o b l e m a t i c f a c t o r s l i s t e d above. Each l i s t appears i n i t s e n t i r e t y on the l e f t s i d e o f each page. On the r i g h t s i d e o f each page appears the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( s ) and a d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n f o r each c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 33 34 C r i t e r i a L i s t IV-9(b) A u t h o r s : S t a f f The s t a f f would l i k e an a d m i n i s t r a t o r who: i s i n a c c o r d w i t h the p h i l o s o p h y o f the s c h o o l , . . . The " p h i l o s o p h i c a l " statements which have been produced a r e v a l u e statements p e r t a i n i n g to e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s w i t h i n the s c h o o l . From one v i e w p o i n t , they may be c o n s i d e r e d to be statements p e r t a i n i n g t o " s t a n d a r d s o f good p r a c t i c e " which i f a p p l i e d would i n t e g r a t e the s c h o o l w i t h the community. T h i s c r i t e r i o n may be c l a s s i f i e d as an e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n i t e m . From a n o t h e r v i e w p o i n t , the s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y may be c o n s i d e r e d to be an o r d e r i n g o f p r i o r i t i e s i n terms o f the s c h o o l ' s c u s t o d i a l , p r o t e c t i v e and s o c i a l i z a t i o n s u b g o a l s . T h i s c r i t e r i o n may be c o n s i d e r e d to be a r e q u e s t to the new p r i n c i p a l to m a i n t a i n r o u t i n e t e c h n i c a l f u n c t i o n s and a v o i d making p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s . For t h e s e r e a s o n s , t h i s i t e m was c l a s s i f i e d as: EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE . . . and w i l l b e a r i n mind the unique and d i v e r s e n a t u r e o f the s c h o o l , s t u d e n t s and community. has demonstrated e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n o f a s c h o o l , i n which t e a c h e r s share i n d e c i s i o n making. T h i s statement may be p e r c e i v e d to be a r e q u e s t to the new p r i n c i p a l to be r e c e p t i v e t o the i n t e r e s t s o f s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s . I n e f f e c t , he must be r e c e p t i v e t o the " i n f l u e n c e " o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION Here the word " e f f e c t i v e n e s s " i s p e r c e i v e d to be employed i n the P a r s o n i a n sense as a r e f e r e n c e t o g o a l a t t a i n m e n t a c t i v i t y . T h i s statement may a l s o p e r t a i n t o a s p e c t s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which i n c l u d e the a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , f l u i d r e s o u r c e s and the maintenance o f f a v o r a b l e c o n d i -t i o n s f o r s t a b l e and c o n t i n u i n g o p e r a t i o n . The p r o c e s s o f shared d e c i s i o n making i m p l i e s t h e " v a l u e s t a n d a r d " of consensus. In the shared d e c i s i o n mode, a d e c i s i o n cannot be r e a c h e d w i t h -out consensus. The " s y m b o l i c medium," " i n f l u e n c e " w i l l be employed i n the " s u c c e s s f u l " case t o produce a "consensus." T h i s c r i t e r i o n may be c l a s s i f i e d as an i n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t , i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n and 35 i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n statement. INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION i s open to new i d e a s , T h i s statement i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f the d e s i r e to o b t a i n a p r i n c i p a l who has a w i l l i n g n e s s t o be persuaded. The a b i l i t y to a p p l y the " s y m b o l i c medium" of " i n f l u e n c e " i n i n t e r n a l s t a f f -p r i n c i p a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and e x t e r n a l community-p a r e n t - p r i n c i p a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s i m p l i e d . At the i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l t h i s statement may be c o n s i d e r e d t o p e r t a i n to c o - o p e r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n between the s t a f f and p r i n c i p a l . At the e x t e r n a l l e v e l t h i s statement may be c o n s i d e r e d to p e r t a i n t o d i a l o g u e which a s s u r e s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l adherence t o p r o c e s s e s which a r e co m p a t i b l e w i t h p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . T h i s statement may be c a t e g o r i z e d as an i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n , e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n i t e m . INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION but r e t a i n s r e s p e c t f o r the b e s t i n t r a d i -t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s T h i s statement may be p e r c e i v e d as a r e q u e s t to m a i n t a i n a c c e p t a b l e r o u t i n e f u n c t i o n . I t may be c a t e g o r i z e d as an i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e it e m . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE who sees t e a c h e r s as p r o f e s s i o n a l and i s t o l e r a n t of a v a r i e t y o f t e a c h i n g methods A d e f i n i t i o n o f "good" t e a c h i n g i s o f t e n depen-dent upon a s e l e c t s e t of v a l u e based c r i t e r i a . "Narrow mindedness" on the p a r t of an e v a l u a t o r ( P r i n c i p a l ) may s e r v e to be a s o u r c e o f i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s a problem which i s not c o n d u c i v e t o the m o t i v a -t i o n o f p e r s o n n e l f o r adequate performance. T h i s may be c o n s i d e r e d and i n t e r n a l c o - o r d i n a t i v e problem a r i s i n g from g o a l a t t a i n m e n t p r o c e s s e s . T h i s statement may be c o n s i d e r e d t o be a r e q u e s t to m a i n t a i n harmony through i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . INTERNAL INTEGRATION who i s f l e x i b l e and w i l l i n g to change when the need a r i s e s A r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s statement and the statement " i s open to new i d e a s " may be e s t a b -l i s h e d . The words " f l e x i b l e " and "change" i n d i c a t e the d e s i r e t o implement the " s y m b o l i c medium" o f " i n f l u e n c e . " T h i s statement may be c l a s s i f i e d as an i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and e x t e r -n a l i n t e g r a t i o n i t e m . INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 36 sees the s c h o o l i n the c o n t e x t o f the community and promotes community use o f the s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s f o r the r e c r e a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l use o f the p e o p l e i n the s c h o o l t e r r i t o r y , s t r i v i n g to make the s c h o o l f u n c -t i o n as a s e r v i c e c e n t r e f o r y o u t h and a d u l t groups. i s a p p r o a c h a b l e and p e o p l e o r i e n t e d , The u l t i m a t e g o a l which i s i m p l i e d here i s the i n t e g r a t i o n o f the s c h o o l i n t o the community. I t may be c l a s s i f i e d as an e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n item. There a r e , of c o u r s e , many r a m i f i c a t i o n s t o t h i s p r o c e s s . F o r example, a p r i n c i p a l may engage i n a c t i v i t i e s t o maximize the u t i l i t y o f the s c h o o l ' s r e s o u r c e s through the a l l o c a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s ( i . e . , space, m a t e r i a l s ) ( i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n ) . T h i s a c t i v i t y w i l l a l s o have a l e g i t i m a t i o n e f f e c t f o r the s c h o o l ( e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e ) . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL ADAPTATION The word " a p p r o a c h a b l e " i m p l i e s harmony and mutual support i n i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l e x i s t i n t e r n a l l y ( P r i n c i p a l - s t a f f , p r i n c i p a l - s t u d e n t r e l a t i o n -s h i p s ) and e x t e r n a l l y ( p r i n c i p a l - p a r e n t r e l a t i o n -s h i p s ) . T h i s statement may be c a t e g o r i z e d as an i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n i t e m . INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION promoting a p o s i t i v e i n t e r -p e r s o n a l r e l a -t i o n s h i p w i t h s t u d e n t s , s t a f f and p eople i n the community, I n t e r n a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o t h e community a r e i m p l i e d . S i m i l a r l y , t h i s q u a l i t y may be c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l f o r improv-i n g " p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s " and l e g i t i m i z i n g the o p e r a t i o n of the s c h o o l i n the community. T h i s statement may be c a t e g o r i z e d as an i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n , e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e i t e m . INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE who sees the p o s i t i o n as one of s e r v i c e to o t h e r s The p hrase " s e r v i c e to o t h e r s " i m p l i e s the need to o b t a i n an i n d i v i d u a l who has a r e p u t a t i o n f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n t e g r i t y and i s d e d i c a t e d to e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE and w i l l s t r i v e to m a i n t a i n the s c h o o l as a humane and happy p l a c e , The maintenance o f the s c h o o l as a "humane and happy p l a c e " w i l l have consequences f o r s t a f f , s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s . F o r t e a c h e r s , t h i s statement may be c o n s i d e r e d to be d i r e c t e d toward s a t i s f a c t i o n and m o t i v a t i o n on the j o b - the use 37 "inducement" r a t h e r than " c o e r c i o n . " The s t a t e -ment may a l s o p e r t a i n to the " a u t h o r i t y complex" - the r e l a t i o n s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n to s t u d e n t s and p e r s o n n e l and the " u n i v e r s a l i s t i c - r u l e complex" - a s t a n d a r d o f good p r a c t i s e . The " u n i v e r s a l i s t i c - r u l e complex and the " a u t h o r i t y complex," have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n of the s c h o o l i n the community as w e l l as f o r community t o l e r a n c e o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s l e g i t i m a t i o n s . On t h i s b a s i s , the statement may be c l a s s i f i e d as an e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n , and i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n item. INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION - w h i l e i n s p i r i n g T h i s statement may be p e r c e i v e d to p e r t a i n t o the the b e s t e f f o r t s m o t i v a t i o n o f p e r s o n n e l and p u p i l s to the i n s t u d e n t s and performance o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e t a s k s . I n t e r n a l -s t a f f l y , t h i s i s a c o - o r d i n a t i v e a c t i o n which i n v o l v e s the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f "inducement," " c o e r c i o n " and " t h e r a p y " and a d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the c o n d i t i o n s under which each i s employed. At the s o c i e t a l l e v e l , the word " i n s p i r e s " may be p e r c e i v e d to imply the use of the " s y m b o l i c medium" " i n f l u e n c e . " I t i s acknowledged t h a t " b e s t e f f o r t s " may be brought about t h r o u g h i t s use o f "power." On the b a s i s t h a t P arsons s t a t e s " i n a c t u a l f a c t , power and i n f l u e n c e must be i n t e r t w i n e d " ( P i a t t and P a r s o n s , 1968, 155) t h i s statement may be c l a s s i f i e d as an i n t e r n a l i n t e -g r a t i o n - i n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t item. INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 38 L i s t IV-9(b) A n a l y s i s Number o f P e r c e n t a g e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f a l l (Each Category) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s I n t e r n a l A d a p t a t i o n s 2 7.69 I n t e r n a l G o a l A t t a i n m e n t 2 7.69 I n t e r n a l P a t t e r n - M a i n t e n a n c e 4 15.38 I n t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n 8 30.76 E x t e r n a l A d a p t a t i o n 0 00.00 E x t e r n a l G o a l A t t a i n m e n t 0 00.00 E x t e r n a l P a t t e r n - M a i n t e n a n c e 1 3.84 E x t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n 9 34.61 U n c l a s s i f i e d 0 00.00 T o t a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s 26 100% Rank o r d e r o f c a t e g o r i e s by p e r c e n t a g e : P e r c e n t a g e 1. E x t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n 34.61 2. I n t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n 30.76 3. I n t e r n a l P a t t e r n - M a i n t e n a n c e 15.38 4. I n t e r n a l A d a p t a t i o n - I n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t 7.69 (each) 5. E x t e r n a l P a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e 3.84 E x t e r n a l A d a p t a t i o n - E x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t - U n c l a s s i f i e d 00.00 E x p l a n a t i o n - The rank o r d e r of c a t e g o r i e s by p e r c e n t a g e may be c o n s i d e r e d to be the o r d e r o f p r i o r i t i e s among the e i g h t f u n c t i o n a l problems as d e s c r i b e d by Parsons and H i l l s . 39 C r i t e r i a L i s t I - l ( a ) A u t h o r s : S t a f f A Composite p i c t u r e o f the next p r i n c i p a l (as i n d i c a t e d by the answers to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) Reminder: The a t t r i b u t e s mentioned i n d i c a t e what q u i t e a number of the s t a f f would prefer. S e c t i o n F i s the o n l y one t h a t i n d i c a t e s s t r o n g c o n v i c t i o n s and p r e f e r e n c e s . The next p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d preferably be a man (12) T h i s c r i t e r i o n does not s p e c i f y what c o n t r i b u -t i o n s a male i s to make i n the performance o f h i s r o l e s as opposed to a female. N e i t h e r does i t s p e c i f y what c o n t r i b u t i o n s a female cannot make i n the performance of her r o l e as p r i n c i p a l . Due to a l a c k o f s p e c i f i c i t y , the statement i s c a t e -g o r i z e d as an u n c l a s s i f i e d statement. UNCLASSIFIED who i s demo-c r a t i c (19), The o p e r a t i o n a l word " d e m o c r a t i c , " i m p l i e s a w i l l i n g n e s s to be i n f l u e n c e d . The statement does not s p e c i f y i f t h i s approach i s to be a p p l i e d to i n t e r n a l o r e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s . The approach may t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i d e r e d u n i v e r s a l . T h i s s t a t e -ment may be c l a s s i f i e d i n the i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a -t i o n and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s . INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION moder a t e l y p r o g r e s s i v e (17) T h i s statement i m p l i e s t h a t the p r i n c i p a l i s to b r i n g about change g r a d u a l l y . However, the c r i t e r i o n does not s p e c i f y which subsystems a r e to be changed. The statement may be c l a s s i f i e d i n t h e u n c l a s s i f i e d c a t e g o r y . UNCLASSIFIED c o l l e g i a l w i t h the s t a f f (17) T r u s t and c o n f i d e n c e , making a l l o w a n c e s f o r competency, and s h a r e d d e c i s i o n making a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c o l l e g i a l ( i n t e g r a t e d ) r e l a -t i o n s h i p s . T h i s c r i t e r i o n p e r t a i n s to i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and may t h e r e f o r e be c l a s s i f i e d as 40 an i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n statement. INTERNAL INTEGRATION f r i e n d l y w i t h the p u p i l s (16) T h i s statement i m p l i e s a commitment to p r o t e c t and enhance the i n t e r e s t s o f s t u d e n t s . The statement may be c l a s s i f i e d i n t h e i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e subsystem. INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE but i s a l s o a f i r m d i s c i p l i n -a r i a n (17) D i s c i p l i n e i s conducted through the a u t h o r i z a t i o n and enforcement o f measures deemed n e c e s s a r y to ensure the t e c h n i c a l and m o t i v a t i o n a l competency o f c h i l d r e n . T h i s statement may be c l a s s i f i e d as an i n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t c r i t e r i o n . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT H i s a t t i t u d e to the community s h o u l d be one of openness and a p p r o a c h a b i l i t y (13) The words "openness" and " a p p r o a c h a b i l i t y " imply harmony and s u p p o r t i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s may e x i s t i n t e r n a l l y ( P r i n c i p a l - s t a f f ) and e x t e r n a l l y ( P r i n c i p a l -p a r e n t ) r e l a t i o n s h i p s . As t h i s c r i t e r i o n s p e c i -f i e s "openness" and " a p p r o a c h a b i l i t y " i n e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the statement may be c l a s s i f i e d i n the e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n subsystem. EXTERNAL INTEGRATION He s h o u l d a l s o be f a i r , good-natured, INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION a p p r o a c h a b l e , f l e x i b l e , INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION c o n s i s t e n t , The f o u r c r i t e r i a above have been c l a s s i f i e d i n the same subsystems f o r the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s . F i r s t l y , each statement does not i n d i c a t e whether t h e s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s a r e to be made i n t e r n a l l y o r e x t e r n a l l y . T h e r e f o r e , each statement i s c l a s s i -f i e d on b o t h l e v e l s . S econdly, the words " f a i r , " " good-natured," " a p p r o a c h a b l e , " " f l e x i b l e " may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n t e g r a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( i . e . w i l l i n g n e s s to be i n f l u e n c e d ) . C o n s i s t e n c y i s l i k e l y to be a t t a i n e d through a knowledge o f and a b e l i e f i n (commitment) ones v a l u e s . T h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n may p e r m i t o t h e r s t o p r e d i c t a c t i o n s o r b e h a v i o r s . The emphasis on 41 v a l u e s p l a c e s t h i s c r i t e r i o n i n the p a t t e r n -maintenance subsystem. INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE en c o u r a g i n g , "Encouragement" may be p e r c e i v e d as an i n t e g r a -t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n i n t h a t i t may be employed as a component of "inducement" o r " t h e r a p y . " INTERNAL INTEGRATION s u p p o r t i v e , "Support" may be p e r c e i v e d as an i n t e g r a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n i n t h a t i t may be employed as a component of "inducement" o r " t h e r a p y . " INTERNAL INTEGRATION r e l i a b l e , An i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l i a b i l i t y c o n c e r n s h i s r e p u t a t i o n f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and i n t e g r i t y . T h i s statement may be c l a s s i f i e d as an e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e c r i t e r i o n . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE e n t h u s i a s t i c , " Enthusiasm" as a q u a l i t y may be a p p l i e d i n a l l subsystems. T h i s c r i t e r i o n r e q u i r e s a f u r t h e r statement to l i m i t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p o s s i b i l i t i e s . UNCLASSIFIED and d e m o c r a t i c w i t h h i s d e a l i n g s w i t h the s t a f f , The word " d e m o c r a t i c " i m p l i e s a w i l l i n g n e s s to be i n f l u e n c e d . I t i s r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h i s c o n t r i b u -t i o n i s to be made i n i n t e r n a l - p r i n c i p a l - s t a f f r e l a t i o n s h i p s . INTERNAL INTEGRATION as w e l l as h a v i n g a w e a l t h of e x p e r i e n c e . An e x p e r i e n c e d p r i n c i p a l i s l i k e l y t o be viewed as a g u a r a n t o r o f the bona f i d e c h a r a c t e r of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s may be c o n s i d e r e d a f a c t o r which l e g i t i m i z e s the o p e r a t i o n of the s c h o o l i n the community. EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE A f a i r p r o p o r t i o n (9) of the s t a f f would c o n s i d e r t r a n s f e r r i n g i f he were a v e r y l e n i e n t d i s c i p l i n a r i a n . None e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n a t the p r o s p e c t of h a v i n g a v e r y s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n a r i a n . A l s o non would be concerned i f he were The s t atements a t the l e f t p e r t a i n to " u n d e s i r -a b l e " c o n t r i b u t i o n s . They do not s p e c i f y the c o n t r i b u t i o n s t h a t a p r i n c i p a l i s to make i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , t h e s e statements may not be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to P a r s o n s ' framework. v e r y c o n s e r v a t i v e , w h i l e a few (3) don't want a v e r y i n n o v a t i v e p e r s o n . A l s o a few (5) would l e a v e i f he were v e r y a u t o c r a t i c , and f o u r i f a woman was a p p o i n t e d . A f a i r p r o p o r t i o n of the s t a f f i n d i c a t e d t h a t they would not l i k e to have a p r i n c i p a l who i s l a z y , unapproachable, p r e j u d i c e d , i r r e s p o n s i b l e , narrow-minded, e g o t i s t i c a l , v e r b o s e , quick-tempered o r u n p r o f e s s i o n a l . The s t a f f , as a whole d i d not c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g items of any g r e a t impor-ta n c e : where he comes from or h i s c o u n s e l l i n g back-ground. T h e i r age p r e f e r -ences were q u i t e e v e n l y d i v i d e d a l t h o u g h t h r e e d i d n ' t want a v e r y young man (25-30) and one d i d n ' t want an o l d one (60-64). 43 L i s t I - l ( a ) A n a l y s i s Number of P e r c e n t a g e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f a l l (Each Category) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s I n t e r n a l A d a p t a t i o n I n t e r n a l G o a l A t t a i n m e n t I n t e r n a l P a t t e r n - M a i n t e n a n c e I n t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n 00.00 4.00 8.00 36.00 E x t e r n a l A d a p t a t i o n E x t e r n a l G o a l A t t a i n m e n t E x t e r n a l P a t t e r n - M a i n t e n a n c e E x t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n 0 0 3 6 00.00 00.00 12.00 24.00 U n c l a s s i f i e d 16.00 T o t a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 25 100.00 Rank o r d e r o f c a t e g o r i e s by p e r c e n t a g e P e r c e n t a g e 1. I n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n 36.00 2. E x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n 24.00 3. U n c l a s s i f i e d 16.00 4. E x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e 12.00 5. I n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e 8.00 6. I n t e r n a l g o a l - a t t a i n m e n t 4.00 I n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n - E x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n - E x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t 00.00 44 The a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f T a l c o t t P a r s o n s ' framework f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n purposes can be determined i n p a r t by examining the degree to which c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o c c u r r e d . Under a n a l y s i s some 615 statements g e n e r a t e d 1205 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . T h i r t y - f o u r or 2.85% o f these c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were p l a c e d i n the " u n c l a s s i f i e d " c a t e g o r y . These statements were p l a c e d i n the " u n c l a s s i f i e d " c a t e g o r y because s p e c i f i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s c o u l d not be i d e n t i f i e d . The complete s e t o f " u n c l a s s i -f i e d " c r i t e r i a i s l i s t e d below. 1-1(a) The next p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d p r e f e r a b l y be a man (12) I - l ( a ) T h e i r age p r e f e r e n c e s were q u i t e e v e n l y d i v i d e d a l t h o u g h t h r e e d i d n ' t want a v e r y young man (25-30) and one d i d n ' t want an o l d one (60-64). I - l ( a ) m o d e r a t e l y p r o g r e s s i v e (17) I - l ( a ) e n t h u s i a s t i c I.-l(b) The almost unanimous o p i n i o n i s t h a t the new p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be a man I - l ( b ) and i n the 45-60 age group I - l ( b ) T h i s committee would p r e f e r a p r i n c i p a l who has had p r e v i o u s t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a t S c h o o l . I - l ( b ) we would l i k e f u l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n to who was V i c e - P r i n c i p a l from September, 196_ to June, 197_. 1-2(b) E d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p i s e s s e n t i a l . 1-3(a) A p p l i e s i m a g i n a t i o n to the p r i n c i p a l s h i p . 1-3(b) Best Person f o r the j o b . (Male o r Female) 1-8 He/she s h o u l d be aware o f a l l the programs i n o p e r a t i o n i n the s c h o o l . I-10(a) p r e f e r a b l y male I-10(a) young i n s p i r i t I-10(b) Male o r Female - not i m p o r t a n t I-10(b) the r e m a i n i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y r e q u e s t e d a male I - l l ( a ) g e n e r a l a t t r i b u t e s d e s i r a b l e o f a l l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s I - 12(a) 2: Must have s t r o n g commitment t o h i s own i d e a s and p r i n c i p l e s . I I - l A p e r s o n who p o s s e s s e s good communication s k i l l s . I I - 2 The p r i n c i p a l s h a l l be e n e r g e t i c , r e s o u r c e f u l , and i m a g i n a t i v e . I I - 4(b) age 40 to 50 I I I - 2(a) High degree o f s k i l l i n human r e l a t i o n s . I I I - 2 ( a ) Good r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o f f i c i a l s . I I I - 2 ( b ) Communicative I I I - 2(b) Not an e x t r e m i s t IV- 1 s h o u l d s c o r e h i g h l y i n human r e l a t i o n s IV-7 who a p p r e c i a t e s the advantages o f a p r i m a r y s c h o o l ; IV-8(b) s e l f - c o n f i d e n t IV-8(b) Knowledgeable i n , and p r o p o s a l s and eve n t s IV- 8(b) A b l e to cope w i t h b o t h f a m i l y g r o u p i n g and r e g u l a r programme V- l b e i n g e n e r g e t i c V - l i n n o v a t i v e V - l c r e a t i v e V-5(b) I t i s hoped a p r i n c i p a l w i l l be i n v o l v e d as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e i n the m a n a g e r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the s c h o o l . E l e v e n o f the c r i t e r i a above s p e c i f y age, gender or p a s t a c t i v i t i e s as methods f o r s e l e c t i n g c a n d i d a t e s . These statements p r e s e n t a degree o f c l a r i t y which i s absent i n o t h e r " u n c l a s s i f i e d " s t a t e m e n t s . However, c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would have to be made to d etermine the s p e c i f i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s t h a t age, gender and p a s t a c t i v i t y p r e s e n t . The r e m a i n i n g statements use vague terms ( i . e . m o d e r a t e l y p r o g r e s s i v e , young i n s p i r i t , b e i n g e n e r g e t i c ) which r e q u i r e a g r e a t amount of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Except f o r a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e of " u n c l a s s i f i a b l e " s t a t e ments, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e and e x p l a n a t i o n s have shown t h a t T a l c o t t P a r s o n s ' c o n c e p t u a l framework may be employed to p r o v i d e an a n a l y s i s o f the l i s t s o f c r i t e r i a . As a r e s u l t , the second purpose o f t h i s study has been a c h i e v e d . A l l l i s t s and t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s may be found i n the appendix. Chapter 5 THE USE OF THE CLASSIFICATION: THE NATURE OF AND VARIATION IN THE CRITERIA LISTS This chapter w i l l concentrate on the t h i r d and f i n a l purpose of t h i s study which involves the use of the framework i n an analysis of the l i s t s of c r i t e r i a so as to gain i n s i g h t s into the nature of the c r i t e r i a and any v a r i a t i o n among the l i s t s . Patterns and va r i a t i o n s among l i s t s are d i s c e r n i b l e i n the findings of t h i s study which present the order of p r i o r i t y among eight subsystems. Here, the term " p r i o r i t y " r e f e r s to the frequency with which a p a r t i c u l a r type of statement appears on a c r i t e r i a l i s t . This frequency i s expressed as a percentage of the occurrence of a l l items. Two major factors which may contribute to v a r i a t i o n s among the l i s t s are authorship ( i . e . s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s that parents or teachers integrate into c r i t e r i a l i s t s ) and factors which may be a t t r i b u t e d to in d i v i d u a l s i n school d i s t r i c t areas ( i . e . education l e v e l s , c u l t u r a l backgrounds, income, occupation, e t c . ) . The d i r e c t measurement of these factors was not possible i n th i s study, but i t may be assumed that to some extent i t i s differences i n these variables which characterize some of the different., areas i n the c i t y . Accordingly some of the d i f f e r -ences between area l i s t s may be a t t r i b u t a b l e to these fa c t o r s . In recognition of these influences, the f i r s t four sections of t h i s chapter examine the r e l a t i v e predominance of subsystems over a l l l i s t s , 48 v a r i a t i o n s between d i s t r i c t a r e a s , v a r i a t i o n between a u t h o r s and v a r i a t i o n between a u t h o r s by d i s t r i c t a r e a s . S e c t i o n 5 p r e s e n t s an a p p l i c a t i o n o f the framework to two i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l l i s t s and p r o v i d e s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the l i s t s o f p r i o r i t i e s . The r e m a i n i n g s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s a g e n e r a l summary of the f i n d i n g s and s p e c u l a t e s as to t h e i r r e a s o n a b l e n e s s . Predominant Subsystems Over A l l L i s t s  A n a l y s i s and F i n d i n g s Two methods may be employed to determine the emphasis each subsystem r e c e i v e s a c r o s s 52 c r i t e r i a l i s t s . The f i r s t method r e q u i r e s a c a l c u l a t i o n o f a pe r c e n t a g e r e p r e s e n t i n g the p r o p o r t i o n o f a l l s t a t e -ments c l a s s i f i e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r subsystem. While t h i s method may appear u s e f u l f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the exa c t emphasis g i v e n to each subsystem the e f f e c t s o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a s w i t h g r e a t e r numbers o f l i s t s , d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r s h i p s , and l i s t s w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e numbers o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are combined. T h i s method a l s o does not p e r m i t the c a l c u l a t i o n o f s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f p e r c e n t a g e s between l i s t s . The second method which may be employed to determine the emphasis each subsystem r e c e i v e s i n c r i t e r i a l i s t s , c o n s i s t s o f c a l c u l a t i n g the mean pe r c e n t a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r each subsystem i n 52 c r i t e r i a l i s t s . The f o r m u l a below r e p r e s e n t s the method employed: 52 E x.% f o r subsystem A = x% f o r subsystem A i = l 1  52 T h i s method shar e s many o f the l i m i t a t i o n s e x p r e s s e d f o r the f i r s t method. However, the u t i l i z a t i o n o f p e r c e n t a g e s from each l i s t a l l o w s 49 f o r the c a l c u l a t i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n c a l c u l a t i o n s . T a b l e 4 below p r e s e n t s the number o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s per subsystem, p e r c e n t a g e and mean p e r c e n t a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s p e r subsystem and st a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of p e r c e n t a g e s per subsystem. S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f pe r c e n t a g e s have been employed to i n d i c a t e d i s p e r s i o n i n p e r c e n t a g e s f o r each subsystem. P e r c e n t a g e s f o r methods 1 and 2 remain r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n sub-systems. A c c o r d i n g to method 1 the a c t u a l p e r c e n t a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n the i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n subsystem i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3.73 p e r c e n t h i g h e r than c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n the e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n subsystem. However, method 2 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the mean emphasis r e c e i v e d by each o f these subsystems i s v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l . Both methods r e v e a l t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n subsystem c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t the g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s by subsystem. However, i n t e g r a t i o n subsystem p e r c e n t a g e s d i s p l a y the h i g h e s t s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s . A d a p t a t i o n and g o a l a t t a i n m e n t subsystem c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s e x h i b i t the lo w e s t p e r c e n t a g e of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The lowest s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s a r e d i s p l a y e d f o r e x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n , e x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t and e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n -maintenance p e r c e n t a g e s . D i s c u s s i o n The p r e c e d i n g a n a l y s i s o f prominent subsystems over a l l l i s t s a s s i m i l a t e s f a c t o r s such as d i s p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , a u t h o r s h i p , and v a r i a t i o n a t t r i b u t a b l e to d i s t r i c t a r e a . C onsequently, the meaning-f u l n e s s o f the r e s u l t s i s l i m i t e d . I t may be s t a t e d however, t h a t T a b l e 4 Number, P e r c e n t a g e , Mean Percentage, and Standard D e v i a t i o n o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n Each Subsystem from F i f t y - t w o L i s t s Method 1 Method 2 Subsystem Number o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s Per Subsystem Perc e n t a g e o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s P e r Subsystem Mean Percentage C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s Subsystem of Per Standard D e v i a t i o n I n t e r n a l A d a p t a t i o n 180 14.93 13.34 8.97 I n t e r n a l G o a l A t t a i n m e n t 154 12.78 12.73 7.39 I n t e r n a l P a t t e r n - M a i n t e n a n c e 182 15.10 15.72 8.17 I n t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n 273 22.65 21.34 9.45 E x t e r n a l A d a p t a t i o n 22 1.83 1.46 3.03 E x t e r n a l G o a l A t t a i n m e n t 45 3.73 4.08 4.83 E x t e r n a l P a t t e r n - M a i n t e n a n c e 87 7.21 7.27 5.78 E x t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n 228 18.92 21.45 10.96 U n c l a s s i f i e d 34 2.82 2.55 4.39 T o t a l 1205 99.97 Note: Method I i s a d i r e c t c a l c u l a t i o n o f p e r c e n t a g e . Method I I i s conducted a c c o r d i n g to t h e formula o f page 48 above. Ln o i n t e g r a t i v e c r i t e r i a ( r e p r e s e n t i n g f o r t y - t w o per c e n t o f a l l c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n s ) a r e the most f r e q u e n t l y used s t a t e m e n t s . The r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r these subsystem p e r c e n t a g e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e se l i s t p e r c e n t a g e s are l e s s homogeneous than l i s t p e r c e n t a g e s f o r o t h e r subsystems. T h i s d i s p e r s i o n may r e p r e s e n t a form of disagreement between p a r t i c i p a n t s which may be a t t r i b u t e d to one or more of the f a c t o r s mentioned above. P a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e c r i t e r i a ( r e p r e s e n t i n g twenty-two per cent of a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ) occupy a second p r i o r i t y p o s i t i o n . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s p r i o r i t y i s t h a t a p r i n c i p a l ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d to q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h i e s , e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s , t e a c h i n g , e t c . must take second p l a c e to c o n t r i b u t i o n s which p o r t r a y prudence, moderation, t o l e r a n c e , compromise, r e a s o n a b l e n e s s and harmony i n i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A d a p t a t i o n and g o a l a t t a i n m e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s comprise a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t e e n p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y of a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . E x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n , e x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t and e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n -maintenance subsystems r e c e i v e d the l o w e s t p e r c e n t a g e s and lowest s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s . These r e s u l t s tend to i n d i c a t e a concensus among p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e se subsystems a r e low p r i o r i t y c o n t r i b u t i o n s . An e x a m i n a t i o n of i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l subsystem p e r c e n t a g e s r e v e a l s t h a t s i x t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s r e f e r to i n t e r n a l f u n c t i o n s or c o n t r i b u t i o n s . T h i s r e s u l t i n d i c a t e s t h a t v e r y few c o n t r i b u t i o n s o r a c t i v i t i e s (with the e x c e p t i o n of e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n ) were recommended or e x p e c t e d o u t s i d e the s c h o o l . V a r i a t i o n Among S c h o o l D i s t r i c t A reas The s e p a r a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f d a t a a c c o r d i n g to s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a may be j u s t i f i e d on the b a s i s t h a t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s such as e d u c a t i o n l e v e l s , c u l t u r a l backgrounds, income and o c c u p a t i o n may be h e l d i n common by r e s i d e n t s i n c e r t a i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a s . These f a c t o r s may d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y e f f e c t needs, e x p e c t a t i o n s and e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s or c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e the c r i t e r i a i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s . Most F r e q u e n t l y Mentioned Subsystems A c u r s o r y e x a m i n a t i o n of o r d e r e d subsystems by a r e a g i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t f i r s t o r d e r p r e f e r e n c e s a r e h e l d i n common. F i r s t o r d e r p r e f e r e n c e s from i n d i v i d u a l l i s t s (by a r e a s ) a r e r e c o r d e d below i n T a b l e 5. The m a j o r i t y o f f i r s t o r d e r p r e f e r e n c e s on i n d i v i d u a l l i s t s i n c l u d e i n t e g r a t i v e c r i t e r i a . In a r e a I l i s t s , s e v e n t e e n o f the twenty l i s t s ranked i n t e g r a t i v e c r i t e r i a as a f i r s t o r d e r c o n c e r n . The re m a i n i n g t h r e e l i s t s rank i n t e g r a t i v e c r i t e r i a as a second c h o i c e . In a r e a I I l i s t s , f i v e l i s t s out o f s i x rank i n t e g r a t i v e c r i t e r i a as a f i r s t o r d e r c o n c e r n . The r e m a i n i n g l i s t p l a c e d i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a as a second o r d e r o f co n c e r n . In a r e a I I I l i s t s , f o u r l i s t s out o f f i v e ranked i n t e g r a t i v e c r i t e r i a f i r s t . The r e m a i n i n g l i s t p l a c e d i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a second. I n a r e a IV, e l e v e n out o f t h i r t e e n l i s t s ranked i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a w i t h the h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e . The r e m a i n i n g l i s t s (IV-2, I V - 9 ( a ) ) p l a c e d i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n - e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h the 53 T a b l e 5 Number of L i s t s (By Areas) i n which Each Subsystem was most F r e q u e n t l y S e l e c t e d 3 a) aj a a d rt rt d 4-J d d <u d 01 a) <D 4 J e a e d e •rt d d •rt d d •rl rt o a •H rt o O rt S 'rl o rt a •rl •rt 4-J I 4-1 •rl 4-1 i 4-J 4-J 4-1 e rt 4-1 4-J d rt rt < M rt <! S-J u a) 60 4 J 60 rH 4-1 (U ft rH 4-J <D rt rt 4-1 4-> rt rt 4-J 4 . ) o rt C o rt d < O P-i H < o M rH rH rH rH rH rH rH t-H rt rt rt rt rt rt rt rt Number d d d a d d d d M 1-1 u 1-4 of <D a) <u a) a) CD a) Q) 4-J +J 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-1 A r e a L i s t s C d CI d X X X X H-l M i—i i—i w W w w I 20 1 4 2 10 - 1 2 9 I I 6 1 1 1 2 - - - 3 I I I 5 1 - 1 2 1 - - 2 IV 13 - 1 1 8 - - 1 6 V 8 3 - 3 1 - - - 2 T o t a l 52 6 6 8 24 1 1 3 24 T n s e v e r a l l i s t s more than one subsystem t i e d f o r h i g h e s t f r e q u e n c y o f mention. Where t h i s o c c u r r e d each o f the t i e d subsystems i s counted above, hence t o t a l s h o r i z o n t a l l y may exceed the number of l i s t s i n any g i v e n a r e a . 54 second h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e s . In a r e a V l i s t s , t h r e e out of e i g h t l i s t s ranked i n t e g r a t i v e c r i t e r i a f i r s t . The r e m a i n i n g l i s t s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f l i s t V - 5 ( a ) , rank i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a second. A r e a V l i s t s d e p a r t from a p a t t e r n e s t a b l i s h e d i n A r e a I, I I , I I I and IV l i s t s i n t h a t i n t e g r a t i v e c r i t e r i a a r e p l a c e d as a second p r i o r i t y r a t h e r than as a f i r s t p r i o r i t y . Subsystems Not Mentioned A second p a t t e r n which emerges r e l a t e s to subsystems which have r e c e i v e d l i t t l e o r no mention by p a r t i c i p a n t s . T a b l e 6 below d e p i c t s the f r e q u e n c y w i t h which c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n s p e c i f i c subsystems d i d not o c c u r on c r i t e r i a l i s t s . In T a b l e 6, the e x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n subsystem i s c o n s i s t e n t l y ranked as the l e a s t mentioned subsystem. In a r e a I I I , e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n -maintenance c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t i e w i t h e x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n . The second l e a s t mentioned subsystem i s e x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n -ment. T h i s p a t t e r n remains c o n s t a n t throughout a l l a r e a s . I n a r e a V i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t i e w i t h e x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s as a second l e a s t mentioned subsystem. The p r i o r i t y p o s i t i o n f o r t h i r d l e a s t mentioned subsystem i s s p l i t between i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n c r i t e r i a and e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n -maintenance c r i t e r i a . I n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n c r i t e r i a a r e the t h i r d l e a s t mentioned statements i n a r e a s I and I I . E x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t i e f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n i n a r e a I I but appear e x c l u s i v e l y as t h i r d l e a s t mentioned c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n a r e a s IV and V. I n t e r n a l 55 T a b l e 6 Number of L i s t s (By Area) i n which Each Subsystem was not M e n t i o n e d 3 A r e a a) a) o CJ c a cd cd 4 J C 4-1 a a) (=1 a) cu 4-1 (1J 4-1 S C e a C • H d a • H a • H cd o c • H cd o o cd • H o cd a • H • H 4 J 1 4-1 •rt 4-1 i 4-1 4-1 4-1 p cd 4 J 4 J c cd cd <3 c !-i C3 < r-l u a) 60 4-1 0) 60 <X r H 4-1 QJ ft r H 4-1 0) td CTJ 4-1 Cd cd 4-1 4-1 O ni a T 3 O cd c <! o P H H <! O P M H r H r H r H r H r H r H r H r H cd cd cd cd CO cd cd cd Number rn rn C V-i rn rn rn rn rn o f 0) a) 0) cu CD 0) 0) 4 J 4-1 4-) 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-1 L i s t s S ti (3 C XI X X H i—i H H w w w I 20 6 - - 1 16 11 3 -I I 6 1 - - - 5 3 1 -I I I 5 - 1 - - 4 2 4 -IV 13 2 2 1 - 9 4 3 -V 8 - - - 2 4 2 1 -T o t a l 52 9 3 1 3 38 22 12 0 In s e v e r a l l i s t s more than one subsystem t i e d w i t h r e g a r d to not b e i n g mentioned. Where t h i s o c c u r r e d each of the t i e d subsystems i s counted above, hence t o t a l s h o r i z o n t a l l y may exceed t h e number o f l i s t s i n any g i v e n a r e a . g o a l a t t a i n m e n t c r i t e r i a a r e the t h i r d l e a s t mentioned statements i n a r e a I I I . An Examination o f Other P r i o r i t i e s by Ar e a  The predominant use o f i n t e g r a t i v e c r i t e r i a tends t o obscure v a r i a t i o n s i n emphasis among o t h e r subsystems. A c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f p a t t e r n s p e r t a i n i n g to the p r i o r i t y placement o f subsystems i s r e q u i r e d . T a b l e 7 below, d i s p l a y s the rank o r d e r (from h i g h e s t to lo w e s t p e r c e n t a g e ) o f subsystems by s c h o o l a r e a . T a b l e 7 P r i o r i t y Placement o f Subsystems (By Area) From H i g h e s t to Lowest Mean P e r c e n t a g e 3 A r e a I I I I I I IV V I n t e r n a l I E x t e r n a l I I n t e r n a l A I n t e r n a l I E x t e r n a l I E x t e r n a l I I n t e r n a l I I n t e r n a l I E x t e r n a l I I n t e r n a l PM I n t e r n a l GA I n t e r n a l PM E x t e r n a l I I n t e r n a l PM I n t e r n a l A I n t e r n a l PM I n t e r n a l GA I n t e r n a l PM I n t e r n a l A I n t e r n a l I I n t e r n a l A I n t e r n a l A I n t e r n a l GA I n t e r n a l GA I n t e r n a l GA E x t e r n a l PM E x t e r n a l PM E x t e r n a l GA E x t e r n a l PM E x t e r n a l PM U n c l a s s i f i e d E x t e r n a l GA U n c l a s s i f i e d E x t e r n a l GA E x t e r n a l GA E x t e r n a l GA U n c l a s s i f i e d E x t e r n a l A E x t e r n a l A E x t e r n a l A E x t e r n a l A E x t e r n a l A E x t e r n a l PM U n c l a s s i f i e d U n c l a s s i f i e d A b b r e v i a t i o n s : A -. a d a p t a t i o n GA - g o a l a t t a i n m e n t PM - p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e I - i n t e g r a t i o n An e x a m i n a t i o n of T a b l e 7 above r e a f f i r m s the predominance o f two major p a t t e r n s d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . I n t e g r a t i v e 57 c r i t e r i a a r e p l a c e d a t a h i g h p r i o r i t y and e x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n , e x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t and e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e c r i t e r i a a r e p l a c e d a t a low p r i o r i t y . One e x c e p t i o n to t h i s p a t t e r n appears i n a r e a I I I . Here, i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n c r i t e r i a a r e p l a c e d i n f i r s t p r i o r i t y . However, combined mean p e r c e n t a g e s f o r i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n a r e not as g r e a t as the combined p e r c e n t a g e s f o r i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . In a r e a V i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a r e c e i v e a much lower p r i o r i t y than e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . I n a l l o t h e r a r e a s i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n immediately precedes o r f o l l o w s e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n as a p r i o r i t y . The r e m a i n i n g i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n , i n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t and i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e subsystems appear to s h i f t p o s i t i o n randomly and do not e s t a b l i s h a p a t t e r n . T a b l e 8 below d i s p l a y s mean p e r c e n t a g e s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s (by are a s ) f o r each subsystem. The i n t e n t f o r i n c l u d i n g t h i s d e t a i l e d t a b l e i s t o p r o v i d e a sound b a s i s f o r the d i s c u s s i o n s e c t i o n and a means f o r c o n t r a s t and comparison w i t h the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s f o r a u t h o r s by s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a s . P a t t e r n s w i t h r e g a r d to s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s may be examined i n T a b l e 8. Standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n subsystems a r e g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r than those f o r o t h e r sub-systems a c r o s s a r e a s . An e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s p a t t e r n o c c u r s i n a r e a I I I where the i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n exceeds i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s . Standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r e x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n , e x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t , e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n -T a b l e 8 Mean P e r c e n t a g e and Standard D e v i a t i o n f o r Each Subsystem by Area I n t e r n a l I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l E x t e r n a l I n t e r n a l G o a l P a t t e r n - I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l G o a l P a t t e r n - E x t e r n a l Un A r e a A d a p t a t i o n A t t a i n m e n t Maintenance I n t e g r a t i o n A d a p t a t i o n Attainment Maintenance I n t e g r a t i o n c l a s s i f i e d x % S.D. a/ x % S.D. x % S.D. X S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. I 10.17 8.30 16.04 8.13 13.40 7.36 23.43 9.67 .83 1.81 3.02 4.79 8.70 6.36 19.30 10.55 3.84 5.82 I I 11.39 7.27 14.43 7.02 15.95 5.63 19.27 7.57 1.85 4.53 3.18 4.01 6.04 3.88 24.83 7.50 3.00 3.95 I I I 24.18 11.50 7.98 5.32 15.56 6.93 22.95 9.96 1.60 3.57 5.56 6.89 1.14 2.55 18.36 10.52 3.14 4.56 IV 11.45 6.43 10.84 6.79 17.18 10.99 23.66 8.05 1.00 2.18 5.04 4.98 8.50 6.49 21.44 9.16 .82 1.69 V 19.05 7.47 9.20 4.18 19.37 6.91 12.89 8.90 3.40 4.67 4.94 4.29 6.42 3.08 23.25 16.19 1.41 2.87 00 59 maintenance and u n c l a s s i f i e d c a t e g o r i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y lower than s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s w i t h i n each a r e a . D i s c u s s i o n The p r e s e n c e of numerous c r i t e r i a o f the same type ( i . e . the most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned i n t e g r a t i o n subsystems) has made o b s e r v a t i o n s of v a r i a t i o n s between a r e a s d i f f i c u l t . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s s i m i l a r to a c o n d i t i o n s t u d i e d by H i l l s i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f American and Canadian s o c i e t a l v a l u e p a t t e r n s . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f American and Canadian l i t e r a t u r e has l e d H i l l s to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t Americans and Canadians share a d a p t i v e v a l u e s . H i l l s s t a t e s , "one cannot doubt t h a t Canadians, at l e a s t i n t h i s p a r t of Canada, c o n c e i v e the good s o c i e t y as one which i s o r i e n t e d h e a v i l y toward the achievement o f mastery over the environment i n the i n t e r e s t o f the a t t a i n m e n t o f a wide v a r i e t y of i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e g o a l s . L i k e t h e i r American n e i g h b o u r s , Canadians seem t o view the good s o c i e t y as a p r o g r e s s i v e l y i m p r o v i n g one, w i t h no u l t i m a t e end i n view" ( H i l l s , 1976:28). A t the second l e v e l however, Canadian and American v a l u e p r e f e r e n c e s d i f f e r . H i l l s argues t h a t Canadian p r e f e r e n c e s emphasize i n t e g r a t i v e - c o l l e c t i v e v a l u e s w h i l e American p r e f e r e n c e s emphasize h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c g o a l s . While a c u r s o r y e x a m i n a t i o n o f Canadian and American s o c i e t i e s r e v e a l s much t h a t i s s i m i l a r , secondary v a l u e p r e f e r e n c e s have a l t e r e d the way i n which each n a t i o n conducts i t s i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s . As i n d i c a t e d above, the predominant use o f i n t e g r a t i v e c r i t e r i a tends to obscure v a r i a t i o n s i n emphasis i n o t h e r subsystems. H i l l s has p r o v i d e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f i n t e g r a t i v e statements which a s s i s t i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . I n t e g r a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n s p o r t r a y a p e r s o n a l i t y 60 which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y i s "prudent, moderate, t o l e r a n t , accommodating, c o n c i l i a t o r y , and compromising, ( r a t h e r than f i r m l y committed to a b s t r a c t , moral o r e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s ) , compassionate, harmonious, c a u t i o u s , c o n s e r v a t i v e , r e a s o n a b l e and calm. T h i s seems to imply a m o r e - o r - l e s s n e u t r a l s t a n c e w i t h r e s p e c t to competing p r i n c i p l e s , and hence, a c a p a c i t y to mediate c o n f l i c t s between con-t e n d i n g p a r t i e s " ( H i l l s , 1976:32). With the a i d o f Pars o n s ' framework a c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f i n t e g r a t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s r e v e a l s t h a t a r e a V d e v i a t e s from the e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s r e s u l t i s t h a t the communities i n which these s c h o o l s o p e r a t e have a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h socio-economic s t a t u s . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e the emphasis on i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n and i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e s t r e s s e s the a l l o c a t i o n o f f l u i d r e s o u r c e s , the a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , command o f m a t e r i a l s taught, a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods and p r o c e s s e s , s k i l l i n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s , knowledge o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s and numerous c o n c e p t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g commitment to academic i n t e g r i t y , p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s and d e s i r a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t e s o f i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n s . E x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n , e x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t , and e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e d i s p l a y c o n s i s t e n t l y low mean p e r c e n t a g e and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s . These r e s u l t s may r e p r e s e n t a concensus r e g a r d i n g the types o f c o n t r i b u t i o n s made i n t h e s e subsystems. However, reasons f o r l i m i t i n g c e r t a i n types o f statements may d i f f e r . At l e a s t seven reasons f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s may be suggested. W i t h i n each a r e a the a u t h o r s : (1) may not have known t h a t t h ese c o n t r i b u t i o n s c o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n a s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s r o l e , (2) may not have c o n s i d e r e d these 61 c o n t r i b u t i o n s to be of importance, (3) may have f o r g o t t e n to mention these c o n t r i b u t i o n s because o f a c o n c e n t r a t i o n on numerous o t h e r types o f c o n t r i b u t i o n s , (4) may have c o n s i d e r e d c e r t a i n c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o be beyond the l e g a l a u t h o r i t y o f s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s , (5) may have c o n s i d e r e d t h a t c e r t a i n c o n t r i b u t i o n s need to be d i s c u s s e d , (6) may not want c e r t a i n c o n t r i b u t i o n s made, (7) may c o n s i d e r c e r t a i n c o n t r i b u t i o n s taken f o r g r a n t e d . S e v e r a l o f these reasons may be c o n s i d e r e d h i g h l y p l a u s i b l e when r e v i e w i n g e x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n , e x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t and e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e s t a t e m e n t s . F o r example, p u b l i c s c h o o l f u n c t i o n s a r e p r i m a r i l y s u p p o r t e d through t a x a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l but c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l sums o f money may be o b t a i n e d through v a r i o u s s c h o o l o r i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s f u n c t i o n s ( i . e . , s a l e s , s c h o o l p l a y s ) . Beyond p r o v i d i n g a p p r o v a l and moral support f o r t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s , a s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l i s l i m i t e d i n h i s c a p a c i t y to a c q u i r e r e s o u r c e s ( e x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n ) . S i m i l a r l y , p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s which c o n c e r n changes i n the s c a l e o f o p e r a t i o n s , problems of the approach to s t u d e n t s , the n a t u r e o f and q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s f o r g r a d u a t i n g s t u d e n t s and the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p r i o r i t i e s ( e x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t ) may have lower p e r c e n t a g e s f o r two p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s . F i r s t l y , p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s may c o n s i d e r p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s to be beyond the l e g a l a u t h o r i t y o f s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s and t h a t p o l i c y s h o u l d be d e c i d e d by the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o r the l o c a l s c h o o l board. Secondly, p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s may p e r c e i v e p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s ( a t the s c h o o l l e v e l ) to be h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d and a u t h o r i t a t i v e . The i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a p e r c e n t a g e s tend t o i n d i c a t e a d e s i r e to promote c o n s u l t a t i v e o r shar e d d e c i s i o n making and a l l o w f o r p a r e n t and t e a c h e r i n f l u e n c e . L a s t l y , the l e g i t i m a t i o n o f the s c h o o l i n the community 62 ( e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e ) depends, i n p a r t , on the r e p u t a t i o n f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t e c h n i c a l competency h e l d by the o r g a n i z a t i o n s s p o n s o r s . In t h i s i n s t a n c e , i t may be assumed (because of s c h o o l b o a r d p o l i c y ) t h a t a s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e would p o s s e s s t h e s e q u a l i t i e s as w e l l as any n e c e s s a r y academic c r e d e n t i a l s . V a r i a t i o n Between Authors The s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s t h a t a u t h o r s i n t e g r a t e i n t o c r i t e r i a l i s t s may be i d e n t i f i e d as a major f a c t o r i n the r e s u l t s . These con-c e r n s may r e p r e s e n t the i n t e r e s t s o f p a r e n t s o r t e a c h e r s r a t h e r than the i n t e r e s t s o f a p a r t i c u l a r neighbourhood, community or s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a . In an e f f o r t to a s c e r t a i n the e x t e n t of p a r e n t and t e a c h e r o r i e n t a t i o n s the complete s e t of d a t a i s p r e s e n t e d i n two ways. The f i r s t method examines the o r d e r of subsystems by p r i o r i t y a c c o r d i n g to a u t h o r s h i p . The second method examines the o r d e r of subsystems by p r i o r i t y a c c o r d i n g to a u t h o r s h i p and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a . T h i s s e c t i o n c o n c l u d e s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s . P r i o r i t y of Subsystems A c c o r d i n g to A u t h o r s h i p Data have been assembled i n a format to r e f l e c t p a t t e r n s c o n c e r n i n g a u t h o r s h i p . In an e f f o r t t o s i m p l i f y an e x a m i n a t i o n of r e s u l t s , the o r d e r of p r i o r i t i e s f o r each a u t h o r s h i p group a r e l i s t e d below i n T a b l e 9. T a b l e 9 i s supplemented by mean p e r c e n t a g e and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s f o r each subsystem a c c o r d i n g to a u t h o r s h i p i n T a b l e 10. T a b l e 9 The Order o f P r i o r i t i e s f o r S t a f f , Parent and Combined A u t h o r s h i p Groups S t a f f A u t h o r s h i p P a r e n t A u t h o r s h i p Combined A u t h o r s h i p 1. I n t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n 1. E x t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n 1. E x t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n 2. I n t e r n a l A d a p t a t i o n 2. I n t e r n a l P a t t e r n - M a i n t e n a n c e 2. I n t e r n a l P a t t e r n - M a i n t e n a n c e 3. E x t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n 3. I n t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n 3. I n t e r n a l I n t e g r a t i o n 4. I n t e r n a l G o a l A t t a i n m e n t 4. I n t e r n a l Goal Attainment 4. I n t e r n a l G o a l A t t a i n m e n t 5. I n t e r n a l P a t t e r n - M a i n t e n a n c e 5. I n t e r n a l A d a p t a t i o n 5. I n t e r n a l A d a p t a t i o n 6. E x t e r n a l P a t t e r n - M a i n t e n a n c e 6. E x t e r n a l P a t t e r n - M a i n t e n a n c e 6. E x t e r n a l P a t t e r n - M a i n t e n a n c e 7. E x t e r n a l G o a l A t t a i n m e n t 7. E x t e r n a l Goal Attainment 7. E x t e r n a l Goal A t t a i n m e n t 8. U n c l a s s i f i e d 8. U n c l a s s i f i e d 8. U n c l a s s i f i e d 9. E x t e r n a l A d a p t a t i o n 9. E x t e r n a l A d a p t a t i o n 9. E x t e r n a l A d a p t a t i o n ON U3 T a b l e 10 Mean P e r c e n t a g e and Standard D e v i a t i o n R e s u l t s f o r Each Subsystem A c c o r d i n g to A u t h o r s h i p I n t e r n a l I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l E x t e r n a l I n t e r n a l G o a l P a t t e r n - I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l Goal P a t t e r n - E x t e r n a l Un A d a p t a t i o n A t t a i n m e n t Maintenance I n t e g r a t i o n A d a p t a t i o n Attainment Maintenance I n t e g r a t i o n c l a s s i f i e d x % S.D. x % S.D. x 7o S.D. — <V X /o S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. X % S.D. S t a f f N = 23 17.95 7.99 13.72 8.23 12.51 5.75 26.96 6.04 1.30 2.55 3.96 3.92 6.57 5.57 14.62 7.31 2.49 3.90 P a r e n t N = 21 9.65 8.83 11.35 5.59 17.01 9.46 15.77 9.42 1.77 3.80 4.99 6.12 8.00 6.42 28.66 10.73 2.73 5.42 Com-b i n e d A u t h o r -s h i p N = 5 8.17 7.89 13.84 12.20 20.43 8.50 19.71 11.96 1.09 2.43 1.36 2.17 6.67 6.39 27.38 5.09 1.31 2.07 ON 64 a. A c c o r d i n g to T a b l e s 9 and 10 above, s t a f f l i s t s p l a c e the h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y on i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n ( p r i n c i p a l - s t a f f r e l a t i o n s h i p ) . T h i s r e s u l t i s i n c o n t r a s t to p a r e n t l i s t s which p l a c e e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a ( p r i n c i p a l - p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p ) as a f i r s t p r i o r i t y . S t a f f l i s t s p l a c e i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n c r i t e r i a (human and p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n , s k i l l i n i n s t r u c t i o n ) as a second p r i o r i t y w h i l e p a r e n t s emphasize i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e c r i t e r i a ( v a l u e s and commitment p e r t a i n i n g to t e a c h i n g ) . The t h i r d p r i o r i t y f o r each group i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t the s t a f f l i s t s r e c o g n i z e the importance of e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n ( p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e i n p r i n c i p a l - p a r e n t r e l a t i o n -s h i p s ) and p a r e n t l i s t s r e c o g n i z e the importance o f i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n ( s t a f f i n f l u e n c e i n p r i n c i p a l - s t a f f r e l a t i o n s h i p ) . I n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t c r i t e r i a a r e c o n s i d e r e d a f o u r t h p r i o r i t y on s t a f f , p a r e n t and combined a u t h o r s h i p l i s t s . S t a f f l i s t s p l a c e i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n -maintenance c r i t e r i a (a p r i n c i p a l ' s e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s and commitment to the t e a c h i n g f u n c t i o n ) as f i f t h p r i o r i t y . T h i s placement i s i n sharp c o n t r a s t to p a r e n t l i s t s which p l a c e i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e c r i t e r i a as a second p r i o r i t y . One p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s f i f t h p r i o r i t y placement i s t h a t c r i t e r i a s tatements p e r t a i n i n g to p r i n c i p a l -s t a f f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , s k i l l i n i n s t r u c t i o n , p r i n c i p a l - p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , d i s c i p l i n e , a u t h o r i z a t i o n and enforcement are r e l a t e d to j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . F o r the t e a c h e r , t h e s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s may have t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s i n o n - t h e - j o b s i t u a t i o n s . A p r i n c i p a l ' s commitment to r e c o g n i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s may be con-s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t ( i . e . b e l i e f i n the s c h o o l ' s p h i l o s o p h y , meets the needs of c h i l d r e n ) but t h e s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s may a l s o tend to be e l u s i v e 65 o r v i s i o n a r y . E x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e c r i t e r i a ( l e g i t i m a t i o n o f the s c h o o l i n the community), u n c l a s s i f i e d s t a t e m e n t s , and e x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n c r i t e r i a ( r e s o u r c e a c q u i s i t i o n ) , have r e c e i v e d s i m i l a r p r i o r i t y placements on s t a f f , p a r e n t and combined a u t h o r s h i p l i s t s . The e f f e c t o f a n a l y z i n g r e s u l t s a c c o r d i n g to a u t h o r s h i p r a t h e r than by a r e a can be noted by comparing s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s from T a b l e 8 ( a r e a a n a l y s i s ) and T a b l e 10 (author a n a l y s i s ) . The subsystems c o n t a i n i n g the l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ( i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n ) have been chosen as an i l l u s t r a t i v e example. The a u t h o r s h i p a n a l y s i s has r e s u l t e d i n lower s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s f o r e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n on s t a f f l i s t s . F o r o t h e r a u t h o r s h i p groups however, the r e s u l t i s mixed. For combined a u t h o r s h i p l i s t s , the e x c l u s i o n of s t a f f and p a r e n t a u t h o r s h i p l i s t s has r e s u l t e d i n a lower s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s c o r e f o r e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and a h i g h e r s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s c o r e f o r i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n when compared to the a r e a a n a l y s i s . F o r p a r e n t l i s t s , the e x c l u s i o n o f s t a f f and combined a u t h o r s h i p l i s t s has r e s u l t e d i n a lower s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s c o r e f o r i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n than i n a r e a s I and IV. F o r e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n a lower s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n was o b t a i n e d than i n a r e a s I I and V. D i s c u s s i o n The predominant i n t e g r a t i v e r e s u l t s p r e s e n t a p i c t u r e of a d e s i r e on the p a r t of p a r t i c i p a n t s t o o b t a i n o r r e t a i n i n p u t i n l o c a l s c h o o l s and to have p r i n c i p a l s adopt o r m a i n t a i n a t o l e r a n c e to a c c e p t i n p u t . Teacher p a r t i c i p a n t s tend to suggest a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e of 66 i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a ( i . e . input i n shared decision making, use of rewards rather than coercion, e t c . ) , while parent p a r t i c i p a n t s tend to suggest a higher percentage of external i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a ( i . e . input pertaining to parental expectations of school a c t i v i t i e s ) . Teacher p a r t i c i p a n t s do not concern themselves excl u s i v e l y with i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a and parent p a r t i c i p a n t s do not concern themselves exclu s i v e l y with external i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a . Considerable attention i s given to external and i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a r e s p e c t i v e l y . One possible explanation i s that p a r t i c i p a n t s are aware of each others r o l e i n the educational development of chil d r e n . For example, parents may believe that a 'good' school i s one i n which personnel are motivated to performance through a b e l i e f i n the 'Tightness' of the decisions that are made. A manager who applies i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n procedures (according to Parsons) can achieve t h i s aim while motivation s o l e l y through goal attainment procedures (authorization and enforcement) may produce a dysfunctional environment. Conversely, teachers may believe that parental b e l i e f i n the 'Tightness' of the actions taken at school ( i . e . actions are consistent with parental expectations) are c r i t i c a l for a successful 'follow-up' at home. It may be stated that each in t e r e s t group i s aware of the importance of the other but t h i s aware-ness i s usually subordinate to t h e i r own in t e g r a t i v e concerns. An exception to th i s pattern appears where parent and teacher authors are combined into one group for the purpose of generating c r i t e r i a . In th i s case the order of p r i o r i t i e s f o r combined authorship l i s t s i s i d e n t i c a l to the order of p r i o r i t i e s for parent authorship l i s t s . Two possible explanations f o r this s i m i l a r i t y are that teachers are less w i l l i n g to 67 v o i c e t h e i r o p i n i o n s i n mixed groups o r t e a c h e r s a r e w i l l i n g to be i n f l u e n c e d by p a r e n t o p i n i o n s . A comparison of s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s f o r i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n tends to i n d i c a t e t h a t s t a f f a u t h o r s a r e c l o s e r to agreement w i t h r e g a r d to the emphasis g i v e n to these subsystems than would be a t t r i b u t e d by an a r e a a n a l y s i s . S i m i l a r l y , p a r e n t s tend to be more i n agreement w i t h the emphasis g i v e n to e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n than can be a t t r i b u t e d by an a r e a a n a l y s i s . V a r i a t i o n Between Authors By Area The p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s were de s i g n e d to determine and d i s c u s s p a t t e r n s and v a r i a t i o n s between s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a s and groups of a u t h o r s . A l t h o u g h u s e f u l f o r t h i s purpose, t h e s e methods a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r examining p a t t e r n s and v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n a u t h o r s h i p groups a c c o r d i n g to s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a s . O r d e r i n g o f P r i o r i t i e s by Author and A r e a In an e f f o r t to s i m p l i f y an e x a m i n a t i o n of r e s u l t s , the o r d e r of p r i o r i t i e s f o r each a u t h o r s h i p group a c c o r d i n g to s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a a r e l i s t e d below i n T a b l e 11. T a b l e 11 i s supplemented by T a b l e s 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f T a b l e s 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 i n d i c a t e s the importance of i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n f o r s t a f f p a r t i c i p a n t s and the importance of e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n f o r p a r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s r e g a r d l e s s of the a r e a i n which they work or l i v e . For s t a f f p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t l y p l a c e d a t a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y than e x t e r n a l T a b l e 11 The Order of P r i o r i t i e s f o r S t a f f , P a r e n t and Combined A u t h o r s h i p Groups A c c o r d i n g to S c h o o l D i s t r i c t A r e a 3 Group A r e a I A r e a I I A r e a I I I A r e a IV A r e a V S t a f f I n t e r n a l I I n t e r n a l I I n t e r n a l A I n t e r n a l I 1 L i s t Only I n t e r n a l GA E x t e r n a l I I n t e r n a l I E x t e r n a l I I n t e r n a l A I n t e r n a l GA I n t e r n a l PM I n t e r n a l A E x t e r n a l I I n t e r n a l PM E x t e r n a l I I n t e r n a l PM I n t e r n a l PM I n t e r n a l A I n t e r n a l GA I n t e r n a l GA E x t e r n a l PM E x t e r n a l PM E x t e r n a l GA E x t e r n a l GA U n c l a s s i f i e d E x t e r n a l GA E x t e r n a l A E x t e r n a l PM E x t e r n a l GA U n c l a s s i f i e d ( E x t e r n a l PM) E x t e r n a l A E x t e r n a l A E x t e r n a l A ( U n c l a s s i f i e d ) U n c l a s s i f i e d P a r e n t s E x t e r n a l I E x t e r n a l I E x t e r n a l I I n t e r n a l PM E x t e r n a l I I n t e r n a l I I n t e r n a l I I n t e r n a l PM E x t e r n a l I I n t e r n a l A I n t e r n a l PM I n t e r n a l PM I n t e r n a l I I n t e r n a l I I n t e r n a l PM I n t e r n a l GA I n t e r n a l GA I n t e r n a l A I n t e r n a l GA I n t e r n a l GA E x t e r n a l PM I n t e r n a l A I n t e r n a l GA E x t e r n a l PM E x t e r n a l GA I n t e r n a l A E x t e r n a l PM E x t e r n a l GA I n t e r n a l A I n t e r n a l I E x t e r n a l GA U n c l a s s i f i e d U n c l a s s i f i e d E x t e r n a l GA E x t e r n a l PM U n c l a s s i f i e d E x t e r n a l A ( E x t e r n a l A) ( E x t e r n a l A) E x t e r n a l A E x t e r n a l A E x t e r n a l GA ( E x t e r n a l PM) ( U n c l a s s i f i e d ) U n c l a s s i f i e d Combined E x t e r n a l I 0 L i s t s 0 L i s t s E x t e r n a l I 0 L i s t s I n t e r n a l PM I n t e r n a l I I n t e r n a l GA I n t e r n a l PM I n t e r n a l I I n t e r n a l A ( I n t e r n a l A) E x t e r n a l PM ( E x t e r n a l A) I n t e r n a l GA ( E x t e r n a l GA) E x t e r n a l GA ( E x t e r n a l PM) U n c l a s s i f i e d ( U n c l a s s i f i e d ) E x t e r n a l A Subsystems w i t h b r a c k e t s i n d i c a t e t i e s i n emphasis. T a b l e 12 Mean P e r c e n t a g e and Standard D e v i a t i o n Scores f o r Each Subsystem A c c o r d i n g to A u t h o r s h i p i n A r e a I I n t e r n a l I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l E x t e r n a l I n t e r n a l G o a l P a t t e r n - I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l Goal P a t t e r n - E x t e r n a l Un-A d a p t a t i o n A t t a i n m e n t Maintenance I n t e g r a t i o n A d a p t a t i o n Attainment Maintenance I n t e g r a t i o n c l a s s i f i e d x % S.D. X A S.D. —- a/ x 7o S.D. x % S.D. X /o S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. S t a f f N = 10 15.91 6.84 16.81 9.05 10.27 5.02 28.56 6.11 .82 1.92 2.34 2.60 8.26 2.98 12.66 6.89 4.31 4.98 P a r e n t s N = 8 5.54 5.08 13.06 4.53 13.38 4.97 19.14 7.90 1.06 1.96 4.63 6.88 11.43 8.25 27.49 10.11 4.21 7.45 Com-b i n e d A u t h o r -s h i p N = 2 0 0 24.16 12.96 29.16 5.89 15.00 21.21 0 0 0 0 0 0 31.66 2.35 0 0 ON vO T a b l e 13 Mean P e r c e n t a g e and Standard D e v i a t i o n Scores f o r Each Subsystem A c c o r d i n g to A u t h o r s h i p i n Area I I I n t e r n a l I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l E x t e r n a l I n t e r n a l G o a l P a t t e r n - I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l Goal P a t t e r n - E x t e r n a l Un-A d a p t a t i o n A t t a i n m e n t Maintenance I n t e g r a t i o n A d a p t a t i o n Attainment Maintenance I n t e g r a t i o n c l a s s i f i e d x % S.D. O/ X Yo S.D. oy X /o S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. oy X h S.D. S t a f f N = 3 14.96 6.21 18.06 3.73 16.82 6.04 22.82 5.01 0 0 3.03 2.63 4.61 4.54 18.20 .82 1.44 2.50 P a r e n t s N = 3 7.83 7.44 10.79 8.35 15.08 6.36 15.73 8.98 3.70 6.41 3.33 5.77 7.46 3.32 31.46 2.87 4.56 5.05 T a b l e 1 4 Mean P e r c e n t a g e and Standard D e v i a t i o n Scores f o r Each Subsystem A c c o r d i n g to A u t h o r s h i p i n Are a I I I I n t e l Adapts x % :nal i t i o n S.D. I n t e l Goc A t t a i i x % r n a l i l lment S.D. I n t e l Patte Mainte x 7o :nal i r n -mance S.D. I n t e l I n t e g i x Vo :nal r a t i o n S.D. Exte Adap; x % i r n a l : a t i o n S.D. Exte Gc A t t a : x % ; r n a l >al .nment S.D. Exte i Patte Mainte x % r n a l j r n -jnance S.D. Ex t e i I n t e g i oy x 7o r n a l r a t i o n S.D. Ui c l a s s x % l -j i f i e d S.D. S t a f f N = 3 P a r e n t s N = 2 3 1 . 4 2 1 3 . 3 3 7 . 5 6 4 . 7 0 5 . 5 2 1 1 . 6 6 4 . 7 9 4 . 7 1 1 3 . 4 2 1 7 . 5 0 5 . 4 7 1 0 . 6 0 2 7 . 1 4 1 6 . 6 6 7 . 9 5 1 1 . 7 8 2 . 6 6 0 4 . 6 1 0 3 . 7 1 8 . 3 3 3 . 5 7 1 1 . 7 8 1 . 9 0 0 3 . 2 9 0 1 2 . 2 8 2 7 . 5 0 8 . 7 4 3 . 5 3 1 . 9 0 5 . 0 0 3 . 2 9 7 . 0 7 T a b l e 15 Mean P e r c e n t a g e and St a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n Scores f o r Each Subsystem A c c o r d i n g t o A u t h o r s h i p i n Area IV I n t e r n a l I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l E x t e r n a l I n t e r n a l Goao P a t t e r n - I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l G o a l P a t t e r n - E x t e r n a l Un-A d a p t a t i o n A t t a i n m e n t Maintenance I n t e g r a t i o n A d a p t a t i o n Attainment Maintenance I n t e g r a t i o n c l a s s i f i e d x % S.D. O/ X h S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. x 7o S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. S t a f f N = 6 14.77 4.85 12.12 6.60 12.31 6.29 27.39 5.82 1.27 2.50 7.25 5.36 7.15 9.29 16.99 9.65 .69 1.69 P a r e n t s N = 4 4.86 5.72 11.83 8.24 26.41 15.81 18.67 11.16 0 0 3.81 5.24 8.57 2.99 25.81 9.68 0 0 Com-b i n e d A u t h o r -s h i p N = 3 13.62 3.62 6.96 6.05 14.60 .36 22.85 4.94 1.81 3.14 2.27 2.53 11.12 2.77 24.52 4.30 2.19 2.40 T a b l e 16 Mean P e r c e n t a g e and St a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n Scores f o r Each Subsystem A c c o r d i n g to A u t h o r s h i p i n Area V I n t e r n a l I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l E x t e r n a l I n t e r n a l G o a l P a t t e r n - I n t e r n a l E x t e r n a l Goal P a t t e r n - E x t e r n a l Un-A d a p t a t i o n A t t a i n m e n t Maintenance I n t e g r a t i o n A d a p t a t i o n Attainment Maintenance I n t e g r a t i o n c l a s s i f i e d x % S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. x % S.D. S t a f f N = 1 22.44 4.08 20.40 20.40 6.12 4.08 6.12 16.34 0 Student N = 1 13.79 13.79 20.68 17.24 3.44 6.89 10.34 10.34 3.44 P a r e n t N = 4 22.20 9.21 7.73 3.60 16.07 8.18 5.76 6.76 4.41 6.28 6.48 5.32 4.98 3.65 32.32 19.62 0 0 Unknown Authors N = 2 13.71 .79 12.40 2.65 24.81 5.31 21.23 .26 0 0 1.31 1.85 7.51 .53 15.03 1.06 3.94 5.57 74 i n t e g r a t i o n . The ranges i n emphasis extend from a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r p e r c e n t to s i x t e e n p e r c e n t . A r e a I I I s t a f f p a r t i c i p a n t s f o l l o w t h i s p a t t e r n but d e p a r t from p l a c i n g i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n as a f i r s t p r i o r i t y . I n s t e a d , i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n o c c u p i e s t h i s p o s i t i o n and r e c e i v e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r p e r c e n t g r e a t e r emphasis than i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . F o r p a r e n t s , e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t l y p l a c e d a t a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y than i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . The ranges i n emphasis extend from a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t p e r c e n t to t w e n t y - s i x p e r c e n t . A r e a IV p a r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s f o l l o w t h i s p a t t e r n but d e p a r t from p l a c i n g e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n as a f i r s t p r i o r i t y . I n s t e a d , i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e o c c u p i e s t h i s p o s i t i o n and r e c e i v e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y seven p e r c e n t g r e a t e r emphasis than e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . T h i s emphasis may perhaps be a t t r i b u t e d to a c u l t u r a l b i a s h e l d by p a r e n t s i n t h i s a r e a which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l a r g e O r i e n t a l p o p u l a t i o n . P a r e n t emphasis on i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e i s a l s o h i g h i n a r e a I I I but c o n s i s t e n c y i n the placement o f t h i s subsystem as a t h i r d p r i o r i t y i s m a i n t a i n e d i n a r e a s I, I I and V. I n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e c r i t e r i a do not r e c e i v e c o n s i s t e n t emphasis a c r o s s a r e a s a c c o r d i n g to s t a f f p a r t i c i p a n t s . How-ever , t h i s subsystem i s g i v e n a lower emphasis by s t a f f than by p a r e n t s a c r o s s a l l a r e a s . P a r e n t emphasis on i n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t c r i t e r i a i s c o n s i s t e n t i n f o u r t h p o s i t i o n f o r a r e a s I, I I , IV and V. The p r i o r i t y placement of these c r i t e r i a i n f i f t h p o s i t i o n i n a r e a I I I c o r r e s p o n d s to s t a f f p r i o r i t y placement i n a r e a s I I I and IV. The s t a f f c o n c e r n f o r a u t h o r i z a t i o n , enforcement measures and d i s c i p l i n e however, i s h i g h e r i n a r e a s I and I I . 75 The emphasis a t t r i b u t e d to i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n c r i t e r i a i s g r e a t l y v a r i a b l e . However, one apparent p a t t e r n i s t h a t the s t a f f p a r t i c i p a n t s p l a c e a c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r p r i o r i t y on t h e s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s than do p a r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the same s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a . D i s c u s s i o n An e x a m i n a t i o n of o r d e r e d subsystems f o r a u t h o r s by s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a has r e s u l t e d i n the emergence of s e v e r a l a u t h o r s h i p p a t t e r n s which c r o s s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a s . F o r example, s t a f f emphasis on i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a and p a r e n t emphasis on e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a i s r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t . In f a c t the h i g h p e r c e n t a g e of i n t e g r a t i v e c r i t e r i a s tatements c o u l d l e a d an o b s e r v e r to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t many e d u c a t i o n a l needs, e x p e c t a t i o n s and g o a l s a r e h e l d i n common and t h a t i n v e s t m e n t s o f time and commitment i n each s c h o o l , w i t h each a u t h o r s h i p group, o r i n each a r e a would be d i f f i c u l t to j u s t i f y . As a s t r o n g r e sponse to t h i s argument i t can be c l e a r l y shown t h a t no two o r d e r e d l i s t s o f subsystem p r i o r i t i e s f o r s t a f f , p a r e n t o r combined a u t h o r s h i p groups a r e i d e n t i c a l . A wide v a r i a t i o n o c c u r s i n the second to f i f t h p r i o r i t y p o s i t i o n s . F o r example, a r e a V and a r e a I I p a r e n t s p l a c e s i m i l a r p e r c e n t a g e emphasis on e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a (31.46, 32.32). However, second p r i o r i t y placement o f i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n ( a r e a V) and i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n ( a r e a I I ) r e p r e s e n t r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e s . The p a r e n t a l p a t t e r n of p l a c i n g i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e a t a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y than t e a c h e r s may be due to an a t t r a c t i o n f o r implementing " i d e a l " e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s . Teachers however, may have an i n a b i l i t y to f i n d p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e s e c o n c e p t s i n 76 the c l a s s r o o m . T h i s may e x p l a i n the h i g h e r p r i o r i t y placements f o r i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n c r i t e r i a ( r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a l l o c a t i o n , command o f m a t e r i a l s taught, s k i l l i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s , knowledge o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s ) and i n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t c r i t e r i a ( s u c c e s s i n s e c u r i n g s t u d e n t c o o p e r a t i o n , s u c c e s s i n the a t t a i n m e n t o f g o a l s ) . U s i n g the Framework to A n a l y z e I n d i v i d u a l  S c h o o l L i s t s : Some Examples The s t a t i s t i c a l methods employed above, s e r v e as a t o o l to d e s c r i b e , summarize and reduce to a manageable form the l a r g e masses o f data which were o b t a i n e d . While t h i s r e d u c t i o n f a c i l i t a t e s i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n , i t must be a s s e r t e d t h a t s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s must be o b t a i n e d from examinations of i n d i v i d u a l l i s t s . The f i n d i n g s o f t h r e e l i s t s a r e repr o d u c e d below f o r the purpose o f d e s c r i p t i o n . T h i s s e l e c t i o n has been l i m i t e d i n an e f f o r t to reduce r e p e t i t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l S c h o o l L i s t s I V - 9 ( b ) -s t a f f , I - l ( a ) - s t a f f , I I - 1 - s t a f f The rank o r d e r o f subsystems by pe r c e n t a g e i s c o n s i d e r e d to be the o r d e r o f p r i o r i t i e s among the e i g h t f u n c t i o n a l problems as d e s c r i b e d by Parsons and H i l l s . The rank o r d e r o f subsystems f o r l i s t IV-9(b) i s p r e s e n t e d below. LIST: IV-9(b) AUTHORS: S t a f f Rank Order o f Subsystems by P e r c e n t a g e : 1. E x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n 34.61 2. I n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n 30.76 3. I n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e 15.38 4. I n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n 7.69 5. I n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t 7.69 6. E x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e 3.84 77 Subsystems Not Mentioned: E x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n E x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t U n c l a s s i f i e d statements C r i t e r i a c o n c e r n i n g i n t e g r a t i o n r e p r e s e n t 65.37 of a l l the statements w r i t t e n . These statements e s s e n t i a l l y p e r t a i n to the development of harmony, t o l e r a n c e and compromise i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The placement of e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n f i r s t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t i t may be h e l d to s i g n i f y the s c h o o l s t a f f ' s awareness of the importance of p a r e n t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n . Here, t e a c h e r s may advocate t h a t p a r e n t a l b e l i e f i n the 'Tightness' o f actions taken a t school ( i . e . actions a r e consistent with p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s ) i s c r u c i a l f o r s u c c e s s f u l ' f o l l o w - u p ' a t home. The placement o f e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a f i r s t i s a d e p a r t u r e from an e s t a b l i s h e d s t a f f a u t h o r s h i p p a t t e r n and may s i g n i f y a l a c k of p a r e n t a l involvement i n the p a s t . T h i s placement may a l s o s t r e s s the importance of the p r i n c i p a l ' s r o l e as a m e diator w i t h s c h o o l p a r e n t s i n the f u t u r e . I n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a f o l l o w c l o s e l y b e h i n d e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a . These statements a l s o p e r t a i n to harmony, t o l e r a n c e and compromise i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . F o r t e a c h e r s , t h e s e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e m a n i f e s t e d through s t a f f committees, c o l l e g i a l d e c i s i o n making (meaningful d e c i s i o n s ) , v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s which e x h i b i t t r u s t and c o n f i d e n c e between the p r i n c i p a l and s t a f f , and the use of i n f l u e n c e (rewards) r a t h e r than power ( c o e r c i o n ) to m o t i v a t e s t a f f toward the performance of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s . The t h i r d c a t e g o r y , i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e , concerns the 78 p r i n c i p a l ' s v a l u e system as i t p e r t a i n s to the r u n n i n g of c l a s s r o o m s and t e a c h i n g f u n c t i o n s . H i l l s (1977:3) s t a t e s t h a t t h e s e v a l u e s i n c l u d e : 1. A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f c o n c e p t i o n d e f i n i n g the d e s i r a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t e of the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n i n the r e l e v a n t a r e a . 2. A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of c o n c e p t i o n d e f i n i n g the n a t u r e of the d e s i r a b l e c l a s s . 3. Commitment to academic i n t e g r i t y and p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s o f p r e p a r a t i o n . 4. Commitment to p r o t e c t and enhance the i n t e r e s t s o f s t u d e n t s . I t would be d i f f i c u l t f o r p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s o r s c h o o l s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s to d i s m i s s the importance o f " p r o t e c t i n g " and "enhancing" the i n t e r e s t s of s t u d e n t s . Indeed, a m a j o r i t y of l i s t s s t a t e c r i t e r i a r e l a t e d to t h i s f u n c t i o n . However, i n r e l a t i o n to o t h e r types of c r i t e r i a t h e s e statements a r e not predominant. The f o u r t h p o s i t i o n i s o c c u p i e d by i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n and i n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t s t a t e m e n t s . I n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n c r i t e r i a c o n c e r n a range o f a c t i v i t i e s which i n c l u d e a command o f m a t e r i a l s t a u g h t , s k i l l and knowledge of i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s , the a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s ( i n c l u d i n g the p r i n c i p a l ) throughout the s c h o o l and the a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t c r i t e r i a p e r t a i n to a u t h o r i z a t i o n and enforcement o f measures deemed n e c e s s a r y to ensure the a t t a i n m e n t of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s . Most o f t e n these s t a t e -ments p e r t a i n to s e c u r i n g the c o o p e r a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s through d i s c i p l i n -a r y a c t i o n . E x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e statements c o n c e r n the l e g i t i m a -t i o n of the s c h o o l i n the community. These statements p e r t a i n to an i n d i v i d u a l s r e p u t a t i o n f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , o r i n t e g r i t y , or a t t a i n m e n t of u n i v e r s i t y c r e d e n t i a l s which would a s s u r e o t h e r s t h a t the p r i n c i p a l i s a g u a r a n t o r o f the bona f i d e c h a r a c t e r o f the s c h o o l . A c a t e g o r y e n t i t l e d " c a t e g o r i e s not mentioned" was d e v e l o p e d f o r the purpose o f i d e n t i f y i n g statements which do not appear on i n d i v i d u a l c r i t e r i a l i s t s . I n t h i s l i s t no statements were " u n c l a s s i -f i e d . " F o r l i s t I V - 9 ( b ) , e x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n and e x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t c r i t e r i a d i d not appear. E x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n c r i t e r i a c o n c e r n the a c q u i s i t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r c a r r y i n g out s c h o o l f u n c t i o n s . F o r example, statements which c o n c e r n the a c q u i s i t i o n o f v o l u n t e e r h e l p from the community would have been i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . E x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t concerns the making of p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s which c o n c e r n changes i n the s c a l e o f o p e r a t i o n s , problems o f the approach to s t u d e n t s , the n a t u r e and q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s f o r g r a d u a t -i n g s t u d e n t s , and the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p r i o r i t i e s . A p r i n c i p a l ' s autonomy i n t h i s a r e a i s c o n t r a r y to i d e a s e x p r e s s e d i n the i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s . LIST: I - l ( a ) AUTHORS: S t a f f Rank Order o f Subsystems by P e r c e n t a g e : 1. I n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n 36.00 2. E x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n 24.00 3. U n c l a s s i f i e d 16.00 4. E x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e 12.00 5. I n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e 8.00 6. I n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t 4.00 Subsystems Not Mentioned: I n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n E x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n E x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t F o r comparison purposes L i s t I - l ( a ) may be c o n s i d e r e d s i m i l a r 80 to L i s t IV-9(b) i n t h a t o v e r f i f t y p e r c e n t o f the c r i t e r i a may be c l a s s i f i e d i n the i n t e g r a t i o n subsystem. The t h i r d p o s i t i o n i s o c c u p i e d by a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p e r c e n t a g e of u n c l a s s i f i e d s t a t e m e n t s . T h i s may o c c u r as a r e s u l t of u t i l i z i n g vague terms which do not s p e c i f y the c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t the p r i n c i p a l i s to make. A complete e x p l a n a t i o n of u n c l a s s i f i e d statements was s u p p l i e d i n Chapter 4. The f o u r t h p o s i t i o n i s o c c u p i e d by e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n -ance c r i t e r i a . E x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e statements c o n c e r n the l e g i t i m a t i o n of the s c h o o l i n the community. These statements p e r t a i n to an i n d i v i d u a l s r e p u t a t i o n f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , o r i n t e g r i t y , or a t t a i n m e n t o f u n i v e r s i t y c r e d e n t i a l s which would a s s u r e o t h e r s t h a t the p r i n c i p a l i s a g u a r a n t o r o f the bona f i d e c h a r a c t e r of the s c h o o l . P u b l i c r e l a t i o n s a c t i v i t i e s may a l s o be c l a s s i f i e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . I n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e ( v a l u e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t e a c h i n g ) and i n t e r n a l g o a l - a t t a i n m e n t ( a u t h o r i z a t i o n and enforcement) occupy the f i f t h and s i x t h p o s i t i o n s . Together, the statements account f o r o n l y twelve p e r c e n t of a l l statements on L i s t I - l ( a ) . The a d a p t i v e subsystem has been e l i m i n a t e d e n t i r e l y from L i s t I - l ( a ) . The s t a f f a u t h o r s of t h i s l i s t may n o t c o n c e i v e of the p r i n c i p a l making any c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n terms of the a c q u i s i t i o n o r a l l o c a t i o n o f f l u i d r e s o u r c e s o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . S i m i l a r l y , the absence of e x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t c r i t e r i a would i n d i c a t e t h a t the making o f p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s has not been c o n s i d e r e d as a p o s s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n . 81 LIST: I I - l AUTHORS: S t a f f Rank Order o f Subsystem by P e r c e n t a g e : 1. I n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n 21.74 1. I n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t 21.74 2. I n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n 17.39 2. E x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n 17.39 3. I n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e 13.04 4. E x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t 4.34 4. U n c l a s s i f i e d 4.34 C a t e g o r i e s Not Mentioned: E x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n E x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e L i s t I I - l r e p r e s e n t s an e x c e p t i o n to o t h e r l i s t s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . I n t e r n a l o r e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a do not appear i n the f i r s t p o s i t i o n . Rather, i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n and i n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t c r i t e r i a appear w i t h the l a r g e s t i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e n t a g e s . I n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n c r i t e r i a c o n c e r n a range of a c t i v i t i e s which i n c l u d e a command o f m a t e r i a l s t a u g h t , s k i l l and knowledge o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s , the a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s ( i n c l u d i n g the p r i n c i p a l ) through-out the s c h o o l , and the a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ( i . e . who d e c i d e s what). I n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t c r i t e r i a p e r t a i n to a u t h o r i z a t i o n and enforcement o f measures c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y to ensure the a t t a i n m e n t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s . Most o f t e n these statements p e r t a i n to s e c u r i n g the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s through d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n . These types o f statements p r e s e n t a d e s i r e on the p a r t o f the s c h o o l s t a f f to o b t a i n an i n d i v i d u a l who i s concerned w i t h the " e f f e c t i v e n e s s " o f the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . From another p o i n t o f view, the combined r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l e f f e c t o f i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a would 82 i n d i c a t e the i n t e g r a t i v e c r i t e r i a exceed a l l o t h e r types o f statements ( i . e . i n t e g r a t i o n 34.78, g o a l a t t a i n m e n t 26.08, a d a p t a t i o n 21.74, pa t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e 13.04). Cons e q u e n t l y , s t a f f - p r i n c i p a l and p a r e n t -p r i n c i p a l i n t e r a c t i o n s which s t r e s s harmony, t o l e r a n c e and compromise would be expected on numerous o c c a s i o n s . The t h i r d p o s i t i o n i s o c c u p i e d by i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e c r i t e r i a . These statements c o n c e r n the p r i n c i p a l v a l u e system as i t p e r t a i n s to the r u n n i n g of c l a s s r o o m s and t e a c h i n g f u n c t i o n s . The f o u r t h p o s i t i o n i s o c c u p i e d by e x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t and u n c l a s s i f i e d s t a t e m e n t s . These statements c o n c e r n the making of d e c i s i o n s which may a l t e r the approach to s t u d e n t s , problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the approach to s t u d e n t s , the n a t u r e and q u a l i t y o f s t a n d a r d s f o r g r a d u a t i n g s t u d e n t s , and the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p r i o r i t i e s . T h i s a s p e c t of the p r i n c i p a l ' s r o l e i s g i v e n r e l a t i v e l y low emphasis. A c t i v i t i e s c o n c e r n i n g the a c q u i s i t i o n of r e s o u r c e s and the l e g i t i m a t i o n o f the s c h o o l i n the community were not mentioned on c r i t e r i a L i s t I I - l . Summary In an a n a l y s i s o f a l l l i s t s , i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a r e c e i v e d a mean p e r c e n t a g e o f 42.79 p e r c e n t . P a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e c r i t e r i a r e c e i v e d a mean p e r c e n t a g e o f 22.99 p e r c e n t . G o a l a t t a i n m e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s r e c e i v e d a mean p e r c e n t a g e o f 16.81 p e r c e n t . A d a p t i v e c r i t e r i a r e c e i v e d a mean pe r c e n t a g e o f 14.80 p e r c e n t . T h i s g e n e r a l p a t t e r n c o n t i n u e d i n an a n a l y s i s of l i s t s a c c o r d i n g to s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a s . Two major p a t t e r n s were obs e r v e d . 83 F i r s t l y , i n t e g r a t i v e c r i t e r i a u s u a l l y o c c u p i e d a f i r s t o r second p r i o r i t y p o s i t i o n . An e x c e p t i o n o c c u r r e d i n a r e a I I I i n which i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n r e c e i v e d f i r s t p r i o r i t y . T h i s was l a t e r a t t r i b u t e d to a heavy s t a f f emphasis on t h e se types of c o n t r i b u t i o n s . I n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n p r i o r i t i e s were u s u a l l y c l o s e l y grouped. T h i s however, d i d not o c c u r i n a r e a V. S econdly, e x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n , e x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t and e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e c r i t e r i a appeared w i t h l e a s t f r e q u e n c y . An a n a l y s i s o f a u t h o r s h i p p a t t e r n s a c c o r d i n g to s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a s r e s u l t e d i n d i s t i n c t o b s e r v a t i o n s . F i r s t l y , s t a f f p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n s i s t e n t l y p l a c e d i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c o n t r i b u t i o n s a t a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y than e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c o n t r i b u t i o n s . Secondly, p a r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n s i s t e n t l y p l a c e d e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c o n t r i b u -t i o n s a t a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y than i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c o n t r i b u t i o n s . T h i r d l y , w i t h i n a r e a s , s t a f f p a r t i c i p a n t s p l a c e d h i g h e r p r i o r i t i e s on i n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t and i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n c r i t e r i a than p a r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s . P a r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s tended to reduce the r e l a t i v e importance of t h e s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s by p l a c i n g emphasis on i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e c o n t r i b u t i o n s . L a s t l y , i t was n o t e d t h a t w h i l e t hese p a t t e r n s e x i s t e d no two p r i o r i t y l i s t s were i d e n t i c a l . CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary T h i s s t u d y a d d r e s s e d the problem o f a p p l y i n g a s u i t a b l e c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of c r i t e r i a statements and the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the n a t u r e and v a r i a t i o n i n p a r e n t and s t a f f c r i t e r i a l i s t s f o r the p r i n c i p a l s h i p . The s i x hundred and f i f t e e n c r i t e r i a statements which s e r v e d as the m a t e r i a l to be c l a s s i f i e d were o b t a i n e d from a p o p u l a t i o n o f f i f t y - t w o l i s t s d e v e l o p e d i n t h i r t y - e i g h t s c h o o l s . A l l c r i t e r i a statements were c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to the framework o f T a l c o t t Parsons which was d e s c r i b e d and c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l f o r the a n a l y s i s o f l i s t s o f c r i t e r i a . Predominant subsystems and p a t t e r n s and v a r i a t i o n s i n p r i o r i t y l i s t s were examined a c c o r d i n g to a l l l i s t s , s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a , a u t h o r s h i p and a u t h o r s h i p by a r e a . The e x a m i n a t i o n o f a l l l i s t s r e v e a l e d t h a t i n t e g r a t i v e c r i t e r i a r e p r e s e n t e d the g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a t f o r t y - t w o p e r c e n t but p r e s e n t e d the h i g h e s t s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s . P a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e c r i t e r i a r e p r e s e n t e d the second l a r g e s t group o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a t twenty-two p e r c e n t . A d a p t a t i o n and g o a l a t t a i n m e n t c r i t e r i a r e p r e s e n t e d the lowest p e r c e n t a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a t s i x t e e n p e r c e n t each. The pr e s e n c e o f t h e i n t e g r a t i o n and p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e subsystem o r d e r r e v e a l e d the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a c c o r d i n g to s t a t e d 84 85 c r i t e r i a a p r i n c i p a l ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d to q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h i e s , e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s and t e a c h i n g take second p l a c e to c o n t r i b u t i o n s which p o r t r a y prudence, moderation, t o l e r a n c e , compromise, r e a s o n a b l e n e s s and harmony i n i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Low s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n and p e r c e n t a g e s c o r e s f o r e x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n , e x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t and e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n -maintenance subsystem c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s tended to r e p r e s e n t a concensus among p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n these subsystems a r e low p r i o r i t y c o n t r i b u t i o n s . Very few c o n t r i b u t i o n s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n a t twenty-one p e r c e n t o f a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were recommended o u t s i d e the s c h o o l . As a r e s u l t , s i x t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f a l l c r i t e r i a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s r e f e r r e d t o i n t e r n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s . U n c l a s s i f i e d statements accounted f o r two and o n e - h a l f p e r c e n t of a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The a n a l y s i s o f dat a a c c o r d i n g to s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a c o n c e n t r a t e d upon most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned and l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y mentioned subsystems. On the m a j o r i t y o f l i s t s c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a , i n t e g r a t i v e c r i t e r i a ranked as a f i r s t o r d e r c o n c e r n . An e x c e p t i o n o c c u r r e d i n a r e a V l i s t s where the m a j o r i t y o f l i s t s ranked i n t e g r a t i v e c r i t e r i a as a second p r i o r i t y . A second p a t t e r n which emerged on l i s t s a c c o r d i n g to s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e a r e l a t e d to subsystems which r e c e i v e d l i t t l e o r no mention by p a r t i c i p a n t s . Over a l l a r e a s , the e x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n subsystem was c o n s i s t e n t l y ranked as the l e a s t mentioned subsystem. The second l e a s t mentioned subsystem was e x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t . I n a r e a V i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n s t i e d w i t h e x t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s as a second 86 l e a s t mentioned subsystem. The p r i o r i t y p o s i t i o n f o r t h i r d l e a s t mentioned subsystem was s p l i t between i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n and e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e c r i t e r i a . The a n a l y s i s o f l i s t s a c c o r d i n g to a u t h o r s h i p r e v e a l e d t h a t s t a f f l i s t s p l a c e d the h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y on i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n ( p r i n c i p a l - s t a f f r e l a t i o n s h i p ) . T h i s r e s u l t was i n c o n t r a s t to p a r e n t l i s t s which p l a c e d e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n c r i t e r i a ( p r i n c i p a l - p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p ) as a f i r s t p r i o r i t y . S t a f f l i s t s p l a c e d i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n c r i t e r i a as a second p r i o r i t y w h i l e p a r e n t s emphasized p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e c r i t e r i a . F o r t e a c h e r s , a p r i n c i p a l ' s commitment to r e c o g n i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s ( i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e ) may be c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t , but t h e s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s may a l s o tend to be e l u s i v e o r v i s i o n a r y . I n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n c r i t e r i a (human and p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n , s k i l l i n i n s t r u c t i o n ) and i n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t ( d i s c i p l i n e , a u t h o r i z a t i o n and enforcement) may have a g r e a t e r r e l e v a n c e f o r j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . The t h i r d p r i o r i t y f o r each group was c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t s t a f f l i s t s r e c o g n i z e d the importance of e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n ( p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e i n p r i n c i p a l - p a r e n t - r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) and p a r e n t l i s t s r e c o g n i z e d the importance of i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n ( s t a f f i n f l u e n c e i n p r i n c i p a l - s t a f f r e l a t i o n s h i p ) . I n t e r n a l g o a l a t t a i n m e n t , e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e , u n c l a s s i f i e d and e x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n c r i t e r i a r e c e i v e d s i m i l a r p r i o r i t y placements on p a r e n t and s t a f f l i s t s . Where a u t h o r s h i p groups were combined the l i s t o f subsystem p r i o r i t i e s was i d e n t i c a l to the p a r e n t a u t h o r s h i p p r i o r i t y l i s t . An a n a l y s i s of p r i o r i t i e s by a u t h o r and a r e a r e a f f i r m e d the importance of i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n f o r s t a f f p a r t i c i p a n t s and the 87 importance of external int e g r a t i o n f o r parent p a r t i c i p a n t s regardless of the area i n which they l i v e or work. Area I I I s t a f f p a r t i c i p a n t s followed t h i s pattern but placed i n t e r n a l adaptation as a f i r s t p r i o r i t y . Parent emphasis on i n t e r n a l pattern-maintenance (values of teaching) was higher than the emphasis a t t r i b u t e d by teachers. This emphasis was most apparent i n area IV where parents placed a f i r s t p r i o r i t y on i n t e r n a l pattern-maintenance. Parent emphasis on i n t e r n a l goal attainment c r i t e r i a was consistent i n fourth p o s i t i o n f o r areas I, II, IV and V. The p r i o r i t y placement of these c r i t e r i a i n f i f t h p o s i t i o n i n area I II corresponds to s t a f f p r i o r i t y placement i n areas III and IV. The s t a f f concern for goal attainment measures i s higher i n areas I and I I . The emphasis a t t r i b u t e d to i n t e r n a l adaptation c r i t e r i a i s greatly v a r i a b l e . However, one apparent pattern i s that s t a f f p a r t i c i p a n t s place a consistently higher p r i o r i t y on these contributions than do parent p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the same school d i s t r i c t area. Conclusions The three purposes of t h i s study were: 1) to understand and describe Parsons' framework so as to be able to accurately i n t e r p r e t each of i t s components; 2) to determine whether the framework was such as to permit a meaningful analysis of the l i s t s of c r i t e r i a ; and 3) to employ the framework i n an analysis of the c r i t e r i a so as to gain insig h t s into the nature of the c r i t e r i a and any v a r i a t i o n among the various l i s t s . These purposes were achieved. The purpose of employing the framework i n the analysis of the c r i t e r i a was p a r t i a l l y l i m i t e d by four c l a s s i f i c a t i o n problems. F i r s t , 88 c r i t e r i a which d i d not s p e c i f y the c o n t r i b u t i o n which the i n d i v i d u a l was to make c o u l d n ot be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to P a r s o n s ' framework. Statements which l a c k e d s p e c i f i c i t y were grouped i n an u n c l a s s i f i e d c a t e g o r y . The second p r o b l e m a t i c f a c t o r p e r t a i n s to the degree o f s p e c i f i c i t y o f c r i t e r i a s t a t e m e n t s . Here, a c r i t e r i o n may imply the subsystem i n which a c o n t r i b u t i o n i s to o c c u r but i t may not i n d i c a t e whether i t i s to be d e s i g n a t e d e x c l u s i v e l y as an i n t e r n a l o r e x t e r n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n . The t h i r d problem which p r o h i b i t e d e x c l u s i v e c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n p e r t a i n e d to statements which made r e f e r e n c e to c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n more than one subsystem. The f o u r t h p r o b l e m a t i c f a c t o r concerned c l a s s i f i e r i n f e r e n c e and Pars o n s ' c o n c e p t u a l framework. Parsons r e c o g n i z e d t h a t power and i n f l u e n c e ( g o a l a t t a i n m e n t and i n t e g r a t i o n subsystems) were i n t e r t w i n e d . Consequently, the d i s t i n c t i o n between these c o n t r i b u t i o n s may be c o n f u s e d i n c r i t e r i a s t a t e m e n t s . Thought p r o c e s s e s and communication s k i l l s would be enhanced by i m p r o v i n g the s p e c i f i c i t y o f c r i t e r i a s t a t e m e n t s . A r e s u l t o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t concerns the p r i o r i t y p l a c e -ments o f i n t e g r a t i o n and i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e c r i t e r i a . On a m a j o r i t y of s t a f f l i s t s by a r e a , i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e c r i t e r i a were preceded by i n t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n , i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n and e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n s t a t e m e n t s . On a m a j o r i t y o f p a r e n t l i s t s by a r e a i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e was pre c e d e d by e x t e r n a l i n t e g r a t i o n o n l y . The h i g h p r i o r i t y p l a c e d on i n t e g r a t i v e c r i t e r i a may be e x p l a i n e d i n p a r t by the a t t i t u d e s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s o r p r o s p e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s who may r e c o g n i z e c r i t e r i a i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s e s to be h i g h l y i n t e g r a t i v e i n n a t u r e . T h i s a s p e c t may a t t r a c t i n d i v i d u a l s who have an i n t e r e s t i n i n t e g r a t i v e 89 c o n c e r n s . Consequently, the predominance o f i n t e g r a t i v e c r i t e r i a may be u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the concerns o f the m a j o r i t y o f p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s . However, the h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f i n t e g r a t i v e c r i t e r i a would tend to i n d i c a t e t h a t the p r o c e s s o f i d e n t i f y i n g c r i t e r i a would be c o n s i d e r e d a v a l u e d p r a c t i c e by the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Where p a r e n t and t e a c h e r groups were combined the p r i o r i t y l i s t was i d e n t i c a l to the p a r e n t p r i o r i t y l i s t . T h i s r e s u l t s u g g e s t s t h a t p a r e n t and t e a c h e r c r i t e r i a i d e n t i f i c a t i o n groups s h o u l d be s e p a r a t e d i n o r d e r to a l l o w t e a c h e r s a l e s s i n h i b i t e d exchange of i d e a s , a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s . The o r d e r i n g o f i n t e g r a t i o n and p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e subsystems may a l s o be e x p l a i n e d i n t h a t t h i s o r d e r may r e f l e c t the k i n d s o f b e h a v i o r s o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n s i d e r c r i t i c a l o r n e c e s s a r y f o r the p r i n c i p a l s h i p . The problem w i t h c o n c e n t r a t i n g on c r i t i c a l j o b b e h a v i o r s (e.g. p r i n c i p a l response to d a i l y s t u d e n t , p a r e n t , t e a c h e r " c r i s i s " ) i s t h a t everyday k i n d s o f c o n t r i b u t i o n s ( r o u t i n e t e c h n i c a l a c t i v i t i e s - i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n - m a i n t e n a n c e ) r e q u i r e d i n a j o b may be o v e r l o o k e d . F a i l u r e to c o n s i d e r everyday r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n j o b req u i r e m e n t s may r e s u l t i n h i r i n g c a n d i d a t e s based on e x p e c t a t i o n s r a t h e r than on normal a c t i v i t i e s performed. BIBLIOGRAPHY H i l l s , R. Jean 1975 "Some Notes on the Methodology of S c i e n c e f o r R e s e a r c h e r s and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n E d u c a t i o n . " In W i l l i a m G. Monahan ( e d . ) , T h e o r e t i c a l Dimensions of E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : 106-144 New York: M a c M i l l a n . H i l l s , R. Jean 1975a "What E d u c a t o r s R e a l l y Do: A P a r s o n i a n View of E d u c a t i o n . " In W i l l i a m G. Monahan ( e d . ) , T h e o r e t i c a l Dimensions of E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : 233-261 New York: M a c M i l l a n . H i l l s , R. Jean 1976 " S o c i e t a l and E d u c a t i o n a l V a l u e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada: A T e n t a t i v e Comparison." Mimeo Centre f o r the Study of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n E d u c a t i o n , U.B.C. H i l l s , R. Jean 1977 " T e a c h i n g and i t s E v a l u a t i o n . " The Canadian A d m i n i s t r a t o r , Volume XVI, 6. Newberry, A l a n John Hesson 1975 " P r a c t i c e s and C r i t e r i a Employed i n the S e l e c t i o n o f Elementary S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia." U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y . Parsons, T a l c o t t 1963 "The M e n t a l H o s p i t a l as a Type of O r g a n i z a t i o n . " In M i l t o n G r e e n b l a t t , e t a l . ( e d s . ) . The P a t i e n t and the M e n t a l H o s p i t a l : 108-129 New York, The F r e e P r e s s . P a r s o n s , T a l c o t t 1964 " S t r u c t u r e and P r o c e s s i n Modern S o c i e t i e s . " Glencoe, 111.: The F r e e P r e s s . P i a t t , G. M. and T a l c o t t Parsons 1964 " D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g i n the Academic System." In C a r l o s E. K r u t y b o s c h and Sheldon L. M e s s i n g e r ( e d s . ) . The S t a t e of the U n i v e r s i t y : A u t h o r i t y and Change. B e v e r l y H i l l s : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s . 90 APPENDIX C r i t e r i a L i s t I - l ( a ) A u t h o r s : S t a f f 92 A COMPOSITE PICTURE OF THE > NEXT PRINCIPAL (as i n d i c a t e d by the answers to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) Reminder: The a t t r i b u t e s mentioned i n d i c a t e what q u i t e a number o f the s t a f f would p r e f e r . S e c t i o n F i s the o n l y one t h a t i n d i c a t e s s t r o n g c o n v i c t i o n s and p r e f e r e n c e s . The next p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d p r e f e r a b l y be a man (12), UNCLASSIFIABLE who i s d e m o c r a t i c (19), INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION m o d e r a t e l y p r o g r e s s i v e ( 17), UNCLASSIFIABLE c o l l e g i a l w i t h the s t a f f (15) , INTERNAL INTEGRATION f r i e n d l y w i t h the p u p i l s ( 1 6 ) , INTERNAL PATTERN MAINTENANCE but a l s o a f i r m d i s c i p l i n a r i a n (17) . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT H i s a t t i t u d e to the community s h o u l d be one o f openness and a p p r o a c h a b i l i t y (13) . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION He s h o u l d a l s o be f a i r , INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION good-natured, INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION a p p r o a c h a b l e , INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION f l e x i b l e , INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION c o n s i s t e n t , INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE PATTERN-MAINTENANCE e n c o u r a g i n g , INTERNAL INTEGRATION 93 s u p p o r t i v e , INTERNAL INTEGRATION r e l i a b l e , EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE e n t h u s i a s t i c , UNCLASSIFIABLE and d e m o c r a t i c i n h i s d e a l i n g s w i t h the s t a f f , INTERNAL INTEGRATION as w e l l as h a v i n g a w e a l t h o f e x p e r i e n c e . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE A f a i r p r o p o r t i o n (9) o f the s t a f f would c o n s i d e r t r a n s f e r r i n g i f he were a v e r y l e n i e n t d i s c i -p l i n a r i a n . None e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n a t the p r o s p e c t o f h a v i n g a v e r y s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n a r i a n . A l s o none would be concerned i f he were v e r y c o n s e r v a t i v e , w h i l e a few (3) don't want a v e r y i n n o v a t i v e p e r s o n . A l s o a few (5) would have i f he were v e r y a u t o c r a t i c , and f o u r , i f a woman was a p p o i n t e d . A f a i r p r o p o r t i o n o f the s t a f f i n d i c a t e d t h a t they would not l i k e to have a p r i n c i p a l who i s l a z y , u n a p proachable, p r e j u d i c e d , i r r e s -p o n s i b l e , narrow-minded, e g o t i s t i c a l , v e r b o s e , quick-tempered o r un-p r o f e s s i o n a l . The s t a f f , as a whole, d i d n o t c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g items o f any g r e a t i mportance: where he comes from o r h i s c o u n s e l l i n g back-ground. T h e i r age p r e f e r e n c e s were q u i t e e v e n l y d i v i d e d a l t h o u g h t h r e e d i d n ' t want a v e r y young man (25-30), and one d i d n ' t want an o l d one (60-64). UNCLASSIFIED C r i t e r i a L i s t I-l(b) Authors: Parents 94 The following report i s sub-mitted at the request of the School Board: P r i n c i p a l Appraisal The almost unanimous opinion i s that the new p r i n c i p a l should be a man UNCLASSIFIED and i n the 45-60 age group. UNCLASSIFIED This Committee would prefer a p r i n c i p a l who has had previous teaching experience at School. UNCLASSIFIED He should be a firm d i s c i p l i n a r i a n , INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT but at the same time should be a f a i r , INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION consistent, INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION approachable, INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION and democratic person. INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION He should be interested and dedicated to the welfare of the students i n his care, INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE and should be able to communicate with parents and children. EXTERNAL INTEGRATION He should encourage p a r t i c i -pation of parents EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 95 and t e a c h e r s i n a l l a c t i v i t i e s c o nnected w i t h the s c h o o l . INTERNAL INTEGRATION T h i s Committee f e e l s i t most i m p o r t a n t t h a t the new p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i n w orking w i t h the A s s o c i a t i o n which has been a c t i v e i n S c h o o l s i n c e 1931. EXTERNAL INTEGRATION When the S c h o o l Board i s c h o o s i n g a new p r i n c i p a l f o r S c h o o l , we would l i k e f u l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n to , who was V i c e - P r i n c i p a l from September, 196 to June, 197 UNCLASSIFIED C r i t e r i a L i s t 1-2(a) Auth o r : P r e s i d e n t o f P a r e n t Committee 96 Open doors f o r communication between p a r e n t s , p r i n c i p a l and s t a f f . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION Concerns f o r d i s c i p l i n e INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT and r e s p e c t f o r p r o p e r t y between s t u d e n t s and s t a f f . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE A p e r s o n who i s n o t r i g i d i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION W i l l i n g to l i s t e n to s u g g e s t i o n s o r c o m p l a i n t s w i t h an open mind. INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION Knowledge o f the community and i t s changes. EXTERNAL INTEGRATION I n t e r e s t e d i n s e e i n g s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e a good b a s i c e d u c a t i o n INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE and a b l e to g i v e some d i r e c t i o n to the p a r e n t . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT To c l o s e I am most s a t i s f i e d w i t h our p r e s e n t p r i n c i p a l Mr. and f e e l t h e r e has been an improve-, ment i n the s c h o o l under h i s l e a d e r s h i p . When t h e r e was some con c e r n on my p a r t I have always found h i s door open to me to d i s c u s s the i s s u e . C r i t e r i a L i s t 1-2(b) A u t h o r s : S t a f f 97 The f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f c r i t e r i a f o r the s e l e c t i o n o f a p r i n c i p a l f o r S c h o o l was sub-m i t t e d by the s t a f f o f the s c h o o l . They appear i n no p a r t i c u l a r o r d e r o f p r e f e r e n c e . The p r i n c i p a l o f Sc h o o l s h o u l d : - be w e l l o r g a n i z e d , INTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION f l e x i b l e INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION and have a sense o f humour. INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION - be s u p p o r t i v e o f the t e a c h e r s and t h e i r programs INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION ADAPTATION and be e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e f o r communication w i t h s t a f f members. INTERNAL ADAPTATION E d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p i s e s s e n t i a l . UNCLAS SIFlABLE - p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e communi-c a t i o n w i t h the s t a f f r e g a r d i n g such items and f i n a n c e s , s c h o o l r o u t i n e s and p o l i c i e s , f u t u r e . ev e n t s , P r o f e s s i o n a l Development. Days, and s t a f f i n g . INTERNAL ADAPTATION - be f i r m l y committed to the p h i l o s o p h y o f open e d u c a t i o n EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT and have a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards open a r e a s c h o o l s and team t e a c h i n g . INTERNAL INTEGRATION - u n d e r s t a n d how to work e f f e c -t i v e l y w i t h open a r e a teams INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 9 8 and s h o u l d seek to m a i n t a i n some d e c i s i o n making w i t h i n the teams r e g a r d i n g t e a c h i n g methods, e t c . INTERNAL INTEGRATION - be p r e p a r e d to v i s i t the Areas on a r e g u l a r b a s i s f o r o b s e r -v a t i o n and c a s u a l e n c o u n t e r s w i t h the s t a f f and s t u d e n t s . INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - t r y to be p e r c e p t i v e o f s t r a i n e d team r e l a t i o n s h i p s and a s s i s t t e a c h e r s i n overcoming any d i f f i c u l t i e s which may a r i s e . INTERNAL INTEGRATION - i n s p i r e e n t h u s i a s m and d e d i c a t i o n i n the s t a f f and o f f e r r e c o g n i t i o n f o r a j o b w e l l done. INTERNAL INTEGRATION - be s u p p o r t i v e o f the s t a f f i n m a t t e r s o f d i s c i p l i n e w i t h p u p i l s INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT and s u p p o r t i v e when t e a c h e r s a r e meeting w i t h p a r e n t s . EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT - be aware o f the changing t r e n d s i n e d u c a t i o n and must be s u p p o r t i v e o f attempts to i n n o v a t e . INTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTEGRATION - c o n s i d e r music, a r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as v i t a l p a r t s o f a c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i o n . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - be a b l e to develop a good r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p a r e n t s and the community EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN t a c t f u l b u t t r u t h f u l ; EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 99 f i r m b u t f a i r i n a l l m a t t e r s . INTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL GOAL-ATTAINMENT INTEGRATION INTEGRATION - be w i l l i n g to p r o v i d e s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p and make f i n a l d e c i s i o n s . INTERNAL ADAPTATION - be w i l l i n g to r e l i e v e the s t a f f o f time-consuming items such as p a r e n t a l i n q u i r i e s . INTERNAL ADAPTATION - a p p r e c i a t e and understand the r e m e d i a t i o n p r o v e s s ( s i c ) f o r b o t h E.S.L. and low a b i l i t y p u p i l s . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE E n c l o s e d i s an a d d i t i o n a l l i s t o f c r i t e r i a d e v e l o p e d p e r s o n -a l l y by the p r e s i d e n t o f our S c h o o l C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee. C r i t e r i a L i s t 1-3(a) A u t h o r s : S t a f f 100 CRITERIA FOR PRINCIPAL AS FORMULATED BY THE STAFF: Good p h y s i c a l and mental h e a l t h EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE Honest and moral human b e i n g EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE S i n c e r e r e s p e c t f o r and c o n s i d e r a -t i o n o f o t h e r s INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION Sound sense o f h u m o r — a d e f i n i t e a s s e t INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION An e x c e l l e n t o r g a n i z e r r a t h e r than e x c e l l e n c e o f s c h o l a s t i c performance INTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION GOAL ATTAINMENT E x h i b i t s e f f i c i e n c y and speed i n c a r r y i n g o u t those d u t i e s not a s s i g n e d to t e a c h i n g s t a f f INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT A p p l i e s i m a g i n a t i o n to p r i n c i p a l s h i p UNCLASSIFIED Suggests and s o l i c i t s i d e a s f o r e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n h i s / h e r s c h o o l INTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTEGRATION W i l l i n g to d i s p l a y t r u s t and r e g a r d o f s t a f f by d e l e g a t i n g a u t h o r i t y ; thereby u s i n g the e x p e r t i s e and s t r e n g t h o f s t a f f members. INTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTEGRATION B e l i e f i n the d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s o f the concept o f the s t a f f committee INTERNAL INTEGRATION 101 A b l e to a c c e p t s t a f f d e c i s i o n s and when n e c e s s a r y , e x p e d i t e them INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT Must be an example by p a r t i c i -p a t i n g i n the t e a c h i n g o f a l l l e v e l s w i t h i n the s c h o o l INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE L e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t y o f the h i g h e s t c a l i b r e i s r e q u i r e d INTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION GOAL ATTAINMENT Share t e a c h i n g i d e a s i n f o r m a l l y and f r e e l y w i t h e d u c a t o r s on s t a f f INTERNAL ADAPTATION S t a f f can r e l y on the f a c t t h a t t h e i r p r i n c i p a l i s knowlegable r e g a r d i n g c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n and can be reckoned upon to a s s i s t w i t h p r a c t i c a l i d e a s and methods i n t h i s f i e l d INTERNAL ADAPTATION Must have a minimum o f two y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n some a s p e c t o f Pr i m a r y t e a c h i n g as n e c e s s a r y background f o r an elementary p r i n c i p a l EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE Recognizes what good t e a c h i n g i s , r a t h e r than what appears good to a d m i n i s t r a t i o n INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE A p p r e c i a t e s t h a t a t e a c h e r ' s work i s s t r e n u o u s INTERNAL INTEGRATION Has r a p p o r t w i t h s t a f f members on a f i r s t - n a m e b a s i s INTERNAL INTEGRATION P o s s e s s e s the a b i l i t y to s o c i a l i z e i n f o r m a l l y w i t h s t a f f ; can a s s i s t / i n i t i a t e s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s INTERNAL INTEGRATION P u b l i c s p e a k i n g a b i l i t y o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l degree EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE Holds t h o u g h t - p r o v o k i n g and c o n c i s e s t a f f meetings, p r e s e n t i n g p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s and o p i n i o n s INTERNAL ADAPTATION 102 Communicates s c h o o l d i s c i p l i n e and consequences to s t u d e n t body INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT Gains s t u d e n t r e s p e c t w i t h p e r t i n e n t a s s e m b l i e s INTERNAL ADAPTATION Must r e l a t e as f i r m and f a i r to not o n l y s t u d e n t body, b u t to s t a f f membership INTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTEGRATION R e l a t e s e q u a l l y w e l l v i a messages a d d r e s s e d to p a r e n t a s s e m b l i e s . Can make known to a f o r e - m e n t i o n e d group, p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y when c i r c u m s t a n c e so n e c e s s i t a t e s EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT Can h a n d l e the c o n s t a n t e m o t i o n a l and b e h a v i o u r a l problem s t u d e n t s INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT I s a b l e to cope w e l l when a p a r e n t -t e a c h e r c o n f l i c t a r i s e s INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION Backs h i s / h e r t e a c h e r s 100% INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT D i s p l a y s s e l f - i n i t i a t i v e and/or f o r c e -f u l i n p u t w i t h the Sc h o o l Board EXTERNAL EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION Furthermore, i t i s the b e l i e f o f the S t a f f t h a t no p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be a s s i g n e d to a s c h o o l w i t h which he cannot f i n d a c c e p t a n c e o f o r a common meeting ground w i t h t h a t s t a f f s ' c u r r e n t p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE C r i t e r i a L i s t I-3(b) A u t h o r s : P a r e n t s 103 As r e q u e s t e d , a P a r e n t s ' Committee from S c h o o l submit the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s as b e i n g im-p o r t a n t i n c h o o s i n g a P r i n c i p a l : 1. B e s t P e r s o n f o r the j o b . (Male o r Female) UNCLASSIFIABLE 2. Good knowledge o f c u r r i c u l u m INTERNAL ADAPTATION 3. Good knowledge o f C h i l d P s y c h o l o g y (growth and d e v e l o p -ment) INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 4. A b i l i t y to work w i t h s t a f f INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT 5. Good d i s c i p l i n a r i a n - l a y down r u l e s and f o l l o w through - be c o n s i s t a n t INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 6. U n i f o r m i t y o f d i s c i p l i n e between s t a f f and p r i n c i p a l INTERNAL INTEGRATION 7. Communication between s c h o o l and p a r e n t EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 8. P r i n c i p a l a v a i l a b l e to P a r e n t s INTERNAL ADAPTATION - c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - take a c t i o n on problem and no t j u s t g i v e i t l i p s e r v i c e INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT - be i m p a r t i a l i n d i s p u t e s between p a r e n t s and s t a f f INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION 9. Must l i k e c h i l d r e n , INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - have a good sense o f humour, INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION - have a p o s i t i v e approach and be open to new i d e a s INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION 104 10. Be a p p r o a c h a b l e by c h i l d r e n and l i s t e n to t h e i r problems 11. Be aware o f r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the a r e a 12. The courage to take a c t i o n a g a i n s t u n d e s i r a b l e t e a c h e r s We f e e l t h a t i f you t h i n k i t n e c e s s a r y to ask us f o r a c r i t e r i a on P r i n c i p a l s , t h e r e s h o u l d be one f o r t e a c h e r s as w e l l , as they have a more d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on our c h i l d r e n INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT We a l s o f e e l t h a t t h i s t a s k i s an e x e r c i s e i n f u t i l i t y . We assume t h a t a l l c r i t e r i a s u b m i t t e d by s c h o o l s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f a few n o n - e d u c a t i o n a l p o i n t s , (whether o r n o t the P r i n c i p a l smokes, wears a t i e , e t c . ) w i l l a l l be about the same. I t i s f e l t t h a t i f the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s and the T u r s t e e s ( s i c ) don't have an i d e a o f c r i t e r i a f o r e f f e c -t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n h i r i n g P r i n c i p a l s , t h e r e i s something r a d i c a l l y wrong C r i t e r i a L i s t 1-4 Authors: Parents and S t a f f 105 Dear Parents: The School Board wishes to involve parents i n decisions which a f f e c t the schools th e i r c h i l d r e n attend. As i t i s a p o l i c y of the Board that p r i n c i p a l s may be transferred every few years, the School Consulta-t i v e Committee and s t a f f have l i s t e d the c r i t e r i a they want o f f i c i a l s to consider when a change i s to be made at School. Please consider the points l i s t e d and i f you wish to suggest any additions or deletions kindly complete the bottom portion and return i t to the school. THE CRITERIA TO BE USED IN THE SELECTION OF A NEW PRINCIPAL FOR SCHOOL The parents and s t a f f at School believe that the following c r i t e r i a for p r i n c i p a l -ship should be considered when a change i s to be made at School. These c r i t e r i a are i n addition to the School Board requirements i n respect to health, experience and academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The P r i n c i p a l should have a w e l l -formulated personal philosophy which generally concurs with that of School. 2 . The P r i n c i p a l should be f a m i l i a r with, and understand, the special ethnic and economic character of the geographical l o c a t i o n . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 106 3. The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be s e n s i t i v e to the d i v e r s e needs o f the many types o f s t u d e n t s which may a t t e n d S c h o o l , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y , and e t h n i c a l l y . INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION 4. The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be s e n s i t i v e to the problems the s t u d e n t s o f may have and to the needs o f the p a r e n t s i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r c h i l d r e n . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 5. The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be s e n s i t i v e to the needs and problems o f , and to be a b l e to communicate and work e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h parents, t e a c h e r s , p u p i l s , s e c r e t a r i e s , c u s t o d i a n s , S c h o o l Board o f f i c -i a l s , Community A g e n c i e s and a l l p e o p l e and o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h S c h o o l . INTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT INTEGRATION 6. The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s and INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE be i n t e r e s t e d i n h e l p i n g to e s t a b l i s h a p o s i t i v e s t a f f m o r a l e . INTERNAL INTEGRATION 7. The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be d e c i s i v e y e t f l e x i b l e i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . INTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTEGRATION INTEGRATION 8. The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be a good d i s c i p l i n a r i a n INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT and p o s s e s s a sense o f humout. INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION 9. The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be a p p r o a c h a b l e . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION C r i t e r i a L i s t 1-5 Au t h o r s : S t a f f 107 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e . I d e a l P r i n c i p a l I . A p r i n c i p a l must have good l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s . He s h o u l d be a b l e t o : 1. Make sound d e c i s i o n s f o r the g e n e r a l b e n e f i t o f the t o t a l s c h o o l EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT and to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r those d e c i s i o n s INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 2. Respect and s u p p o r t h i s s t a f f , INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT be w i l l i n g to g i v e a s s i s t a n c e INTERNAL ADAPTATION and to a l l o w s t a f f to share i n d e c i d i n g p o l i c i e s . INTERNAL INTEGRATION 3. Communicate i d e a s e f f e c t i v e l y to s t a f f , s t u d e n t s and community. INTERNAL EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 4. I n f l u e n c e s t a f f members to be p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t h e i r j o b per f o r m a n c e s , INTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION to be f i r m i n h i s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t s t a f f and s t u d e n t s meet r e a s o n a b l e s t a n d a r d s , INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT bu t a l s o to g i v e r e c o g n i t i o n and p r a i s e when i t i s due. INTERNAL INTEGRATION 5. De a l w i t h p e o p l e d i p l o m a t i c a l l y and t a c t f u l l y , be a p p r o a c h a b l e and f a i r . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION 108 6. Organize effectively-run the school i n an orderly, e f f i c -ient manner, get things done. INTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION II . A P r i n c i p a l should be an emotionally well-balanced person. 1. He should possess a sense of humour. INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION 2. He should be caring, concerned, primarily with human values, l i k e children and want the best for them. INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 3. He should have a good s e l f -image . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 4. He should be friendl y and kind. INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION I I I . A P r i n c i p a l should have some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the professional development of his s t a f f . 1. He should have a sound philosophy of education based on experience and good sense. EXTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 2. He should be aware of new ideas and open to innovative experi-ments communicating these to s t a f f . INTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTEGRATION 3. He should judge new programs for the benefits received by the children. INTERNAL ADAPTATION C r i t e r i a L i s t 1-6 A u t h o r s : S t a f f 109 CRITERIA FOR PRINCIPAL OF SCHOOL - a l l o w s each t e a c h e r autonomy i n p l a n n i n g h i s / h e r program i n acc o r d a n c e w i t h the s c h o o l based c u r r i r u l u m , and a c h o i c e o f methods and m a t e r i a l s to be used. INTERNAL INTEGRATION - i s aware and s u p p o r t i v e o f the g o a l s and the p r a c t i c a l implemen-t a t i o n o f community e d u c a t i o n . EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION INTEGRATION - must encourage s t a f f s e l e c t i o n o f new t e a c h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c h o o s i n g new members o f teams. INTERNAL ADAPTATION - must be so o r g a n i z e d i n h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s t h a t he/she can become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the e d u c a t i o n a l programs o f the s c h o o l . INTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION GOAL ATTAINMENT PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - must be knowledgeable o f the p h i l o s o p h i e s and dynamics o f open a r e a e d u c a t i o n and must be s u p p o r t i v e o f such p r a c t i c e s . INTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION ADAPTATION - must r e c o g n i z e the need f o r t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g t i m e — f o r example, e a r l y d i s m i s s a l day f o r team p l a n -n i n g . INTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE ADAPTATION - i s open to r e q u e s t s by t e a c h e r s and attempts to p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l s and s u p p o r t h e l p t h a t may be needed. INTERNAL ADAPTATION 110 - must be f a m i l i a r w i t h the neighbourhood r e s o u r c e p e o p l e , and be a b l e to p r o v i d e a s t r o n g l i a i s o n between the community and e d u c a t i o n a l p e r s o n n e l . EXTERNAL EXTERNAL EXTERNAL ADAPTATION INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - must be w i l l i n g to d e a l w i t h " a d m i n i s t r i v i a " and make necessary d e c i s i o n s a p a r t from the s t a f f y e t s t i l l seek guidance from the s t a f f when d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g the s c h o o l and t e a c h e r s a r e i n v o l v e d . INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION ADAPTATION - must a l l o w the s t a f f committee to f u n c t i o n as a d e c i s i o n making body. INTERNAL INTEGRATION - must be open and honest i n h i s / h e r d e a l i n g s w i t h the s t a f f and e x h i b i t t r u s t and f a i t h i n h i s / h e r s t a f f as p r o f e s s i o n a l s . INTERNAL INTEGRATION - must be s u p p o r t i v e o f the s t a f f i n t h e i r d e a l i n g s w i t h p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT - must r e s p e c t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y r e g a r d i n g s t a f f r e l a t i o n s and encourage a c o h e s i v e f e e l i n g among s t a f f members and d i s c o u r a g e u n e t h i c a l remarks o r b e h a v i o r . INTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION - must r e c o g n i z e and be open to a v a r i e t y o f ways o f p a r e n t -t e a c h e r r e p o r t i n g . EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT - must show e v i d e n c e o f b e i n g f a m i l i a r w i t h the c u r r e n t educa-t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , methods and m a t e r i a l s . INTERNAL ADAPTATION - must have h i s / h e r own w e l l de-f i n e d p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n but be open and r e c e p t i v e to a v a r i e t y o f t e a c h i n g approaches w i t h i n h i s / h e r s c h o o l . INTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION I l l - must c o n s i d e r and c o n s u l t the s t a f f when p l a n n i n g the i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and arrangement o f c l a s s e s w i t h i n the s c h o o l . INTERNAL INTEGRATION - must encourage p r o f e s s i o n a l growth and v i s i t a t i o n s by h i s / h e r s t a f f and make the s c h o o l open to those who w i s h to v i s i t . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - must be a b l e to use h i s / h e r knowledge o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e to expe-d i t e s t a f f d e c i s i o n s and o b t a i n m a t e r i a l s t h a t a r e needed. EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION GOAL ATTAINMENT GOAL ATTAINMENT - must be committed to each c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l and academic growth and be w i l l i n g to become p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the c h i l d and h i s f a m i l y . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE C r i t e r i a L i s t 1-7(a) A u t h o r s : S t a f f 112 The members o f t h i s s t a f f were p l e a s e d to l e a r n t h a t i n the event t h a t a d i f f e r e n t p r i n c i p a l was a s s i g n e d to t h i s s c h o o l , you would be i n t e r e s t e d i n knowing the type o f p e r s o n we would l i k e to work w i t h and t h a t you would attempt to a s s i g n a s u i t a b l e r e placement. We were n o t p l e a s e d when in f o r m e d us t h a t i n h i s o p i n i o n , a change i s p o s s i b l e o r even p r o b a b l e t h i s coming s c h o o l y e a r . I f he has a c h o i c e and would be w i l l i n g to remain a t , we would c e r t a i n l y p e r f e r t h a t he not be t r a n s f e r r e d . I f , however, he w i l l n o t be a t C a r l e t o n n e x t y e a r , then the c r i t e r i a we would l i k e used i n d e t e r m i n i n g h i s s u c c e s s o r a r e as f o l l o w s : - someone who w i l l p r o v i d e educa-t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p and f a c i l i t a t e e x c e l l e n c e INTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION GOAL-ATTAINMENT - someone who w i l l work c l o s e l y w i t h t e a c h e r s to i n i t i a t e and develop programs s u i t a b l e f o r t h i s s c h o o l INTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - someone who w i l l i n v o l v e t e a c h e r s by b e i n g s u p p o r t i v e and work co-o p e r a t i v e l y w i t h the s t a f f committee - INTERNAL INTEGRATION (a) by s h a r e d d e c i s i o n making on e d u c a t i o n a l i s s u e s INTERNAL INTEGRATION (b) by a p p r o p r i a t e f o l l o w - u p to S t a f f Committee d e c i s i o n s INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 113 - someone who r e c o g n i z e s the S t a f f Committee as p l a y i n g a key and v i t a l r o l e i n the f u n c t i o n i n g o f the s c h o o l INTERNAL INTEGRATION - someone who w i l l work e n t h u s i a s -t i c a l l y w i t h t e a c h e r s i n p e r f e c t -i n g an e f f e c t i v e and harmonious c o l l e g i a l system i n t e a c h i n g and d e c i s i o n making INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT - someone who w i l l work d i r e c t l y w i t h s t u d e n t s to ensure t h a t the s c h o o l i s p r o v i d i n g f o r the maximum development f o r each c h i l d INTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE GOAL ATTAINMENT - someone who i s w i l l i n g to be f a m i l i a r w i t h the unique s o c i o -economic a s p e c t s o f t h i s community and w i l l be a b l e to d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e h i m s e l f w i t h the c i t i z e n s o f t h i s community EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - someone who w i l l be i n a c c o r d w i t h The P h i l o s o p h y o f S c h o o l . INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE PATTERN-MAINTENANCE We would l i k e t o emphasize the need f o r s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p . INTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION GOAL ATTAINMENT C r i t e r i a L i s t 1-7(b) A u t h o r s : P a r e n t s 114 We, the committee, have r e c e n t l y been i n f o r m e d t h a t may not be a t S c h o o l n e x t y e a r . I n view o f the f a c t t h a t we, as a committee, a c c e p t the E d u c a t i o n a l P h i l o s o p h y o f the t e a c h i n g s t a f f , we suggest s t r o n g l y t h a t any new p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d f u l l y endorse t h i s p h i l o s o p h y . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE We a l s o a p p r e c i a t e a t t e n t i o n b e i n g g i v e n to the f o l l o w i n g : (1) That he t r y to i n v o l v e the community i n the s c h o o l . EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE (2) W i l l be someone who w i l l communicate w i t h p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s and c h i l d r e n w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION (3) W i l l be someone who has an awareness o f the needs and problems o f a m u l t i - e t h n i c community. EXTERNAL INTEGRATION (4) W i l l be someone who i s f i r m , b u t f l e x i b l e when d e a l i n g w i t h s t u d e n t s and who w i l l approach s i t u a t i o n s w i t h an open mind. INTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTEGRATION INTEGRATION Thank you f o r t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y to v o i c e our o p i n i o n s and s u g g e s t i o n s . C r i t e r i a L i s t 1-8 A u t h o r s : S t a f f 115 The p r i n c i p a l o f the s c h o o l s h o u l d have a number o f a t t r i b u t e s and a s p e c i f i c a t t i t u d e i n o r d e r to f u l f i l l h i s f u n c t i o n e f f i c i e n t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y . F i r s t l y , the p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be a b l e to c a r r y o u t h i s / h e r manager-i a l - t e c h n i c a l f u n c t i o n s (paper work, o r d e r i n g , e t c . ) q u i c k l y and t h o r o u g h l y . A minor p o r t i o n o f the week s h o u l d be devoted to t h i s a s p e c t o f the p r i n c i p a l s h i p . S e c o n d l y , the p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be aware. He/she s h o u l d be aware o f a l l the programs i n o p e r a t i o n i n the s c h o o l . He/she s h o u l d be aware o f the s t a f f and t h e i r f e e l i n g s w i t h r e g a r d to p o l i c i e s , a c t i o n s and changes i n t h e s c h o o l . The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be knowledge-a b l e o f c u r r i c u l u m and changes i n the f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n . The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be i n -v o l v e d . He/she s h o u l d know h i s / h e r s t u d e n t s . T h i s means g e t t i n g to know a l l s t u d e n t s , n o t j u s t those s e n t to the o f f i c e . I t means b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e a c h i n g c l a s s e s . The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d c o n s u l t . He/she s h o u l d a c t o r make changes o n l y a f t e r c o n s u l t i n g w i t h the s t a f f . Important d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d be a r r i v e d a t by m a j o r i t y r u l e . ( T h i s p a r t i c u l a r c r i t e r i a ( s i c ) was n o t a c c e p t a b l e to a l l members o f the s c h o o l — s o m e f e l t the p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d make c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s w i t h o u t h a v i n g to con-s u l t the s t a f f . ) INTERNAL ADAPTATION UNCLASSIFIED INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 116 The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d communi-c a t e . He/she s h o u l d be a b l e to make h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f c l e a r l y under-s t o o d by a l l . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be a b l e to m a i n t a i n good community r e l a t i o n s b o t h as a r e s u l t o f the communi-c a t i o n s employed and because o f h i s / h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the community. EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE F i n a l l y , the a t t i t u d e o f the p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be t h a t o f a humanist. He/she s h o u l d be warm, u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s u p p o r t i v e w h i l e a t the same time b e i n g f i r m and d i r e c t i v e . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT I t i s w i t h p l e a s u r e t h a t we have completed t h i s t a s k . We a p p r e c i a t e the o p p o r t u n i t y o f d i s c u s s i n g the c r i t e r i a f o r the p r i n c i p a l s h i p o f C r i t e r i a L i s t 1-9 A u t h o r s : P a r e n t s 117 The f o l l o w i n g C r i t e r i a F o r the S e l e c t i o n Of A P r i n c i p a l has been d e c i d e d upon by the S c h o o l C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee: 1. C h a r a c t e r and P e r s o n a l i t y Honest, t r u s t w o r t h y , and r e s p o n s i b l e . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 2. E d u c a t i o n A , p l u s a minimum o f one y e a r a d d i t i o n a l graduate s t u d y . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 3. E x p e r i e n c e Recent s u c c e s s f u l elementary t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e , e i t h e r as a p r i n c i p a l o r a v i c e - p r i n c i p a l . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 4. P h i l o s o p h y o f E d u c a t i o n - s y m p a t h e t i c towards c h i l d r e n INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - b e l i e v e s i n a c l o s e bond between home and s c h o o l EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - emphasis on b a s i c s k i l l s EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT - s e t t i n g o f r e a s o n a b l e i n s t r u c t i o n l i m i t s EXTERNAL INTEGRATION - t e a c h e r s u p e r v i s i o n and c o n t r o l o f c h i l d r e n INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 5. R e l a t i o n s h i p With Others Open l i n e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n — r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e to c h i l d r e n , t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , and o t h e r s i n the community. EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION ADAPTATION 118 6. L e a d e r s h i p Q u a l i t i e s A b i l i t y to work w i t h s t a f f , take a l e a d i n p r o f e s s i o n a l development and share d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w i t h s t a f f . INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION 7. Other Q u a l i t i e s Be c o n s i s t e n t and d i p l o m a t i c so t h a t s c h o o l " s a i l s on an even k e e l . " INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION C r i t e r i a L i s t I-10(a) A u t h o r s : S t a f f 119 PRIMARY BUILDING ( t r a d i t i o n a l ) - p r e f e r a b l y male UNCLASSIFIED - good communication w i t h s t a f f and community and p u p i l s INTERNAL EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - p o s i t i v e approach INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION - encourages p r o f e s s i o n a l freedom INTERNAL INTEGRATION - not meeting o r i e n t e d — c a s u a l and s h o r t meetings INTERNAL ADAPTATION - t o l e r a n t o f r e l i g i o u s and e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d — w h i c h i s v e r y v a r i e d i n t h i s community. EXTERNAL INTEGRATION - s u p p o r t i v e o f s t a f f i INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT - aware o f t e a c h e r s ' r i g h t s and i n t e r - s t a f f r e l a t i o n s INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERMEDIATE BUILDING (open area) - s h o r t i n f o r m a l s t a f f meetings INTERNAL ADAPTATION - w i l l I n v o l v e t e a c h e r s i n d e c i s i o n making INTERNAL INTEGRATION - doesn't smoke a t s c h o o l INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - s u p p o r t t e a c h e r s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l d e c i s i o n s INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT - r e l a x e d atmosphere INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION 120 - won't use P.A. system unneces-s a r i l y INTERNAL ADAPTATION - w i l l i n g to d i s c u s s s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION - young i n s p i r i t UNCLASSIFIED - n o t dogmatic - f l e x i b l e INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION - has some i n t e r e s t and e x p e r i e n c e i n open a r e a INTERNAL ADAPTATION C r i t e r i a L i s t I-10(b) A u t h o r s : P a r e n t s 121 These a r e the r e s u l t s o f a s e a r c h f o r o p i n i o n s on what k i n d o f a p r i n c i p a l we would l i k e to have a t S c h o o l . Phase One: A t a P a r e n t ' s Meeting, January 20, 1976, i t was announced t h a t our p r e s e n t p r i n c i p a l , , w i l l be t r a n s f e r r i n g to a n o t h e r p a r t o f the s c h o o l system. W h i l e t h i s announcement was met w i t h dismay, we r e a l i z e d a need to s e a r c h f o r the i d e a l p r i n -c i p a l . We formed f i v e d i s c u s s i o n groups and d i s c u s s e d the t o p i c " s e a r c h f o r the i d e a l p r i n c i p a l . " The o b j e c t was to determine what c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n our n e x t p r i n c i p a l would be most h e l p f u l f o r o u r c h i l d r e n , s c h o o l , and community. While many v o i c e d the o p i n i o n t h a t they would l i k e to keep the p r i n c i p a l they now have, e x c i t i n g d i s c u s s i o n s f o l l o w e d . The concensus o f the r e s u l t s were v e r y r e v e a l i n g . These f e l l i n t o e i g h t main c a t e g o r i e s as f o l l o w s : 1. Male o r Female - n o t i m p o r t a n t 2. D i s c i p l i n e - f i r m b u t f a i r 3. Program - B a s i c "3 R's" a r e most i m p o r t a n t , and c o n t r o v e r s i a l s u b j e c t s s h o u l d be c l e a r e d w i t h p a r e n t s . 4. R e l a t i n g to p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s — a p p r o a c h a b l e by s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s , UNCLASSIFIED INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 122 sy m p a t h e t i c to e t h n i c problems, EXTERNAL INTEGRATION e x p e r i e n c e d w i t h s m a l l c h i l d r e n , EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE i n f o r m s p a r e n t s o f s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 5. R e l a t i n g to t e a c h e r s ; open to t h e i r nedds ( s i c ) and s u g g e s t i o n s . INTERNAL INTEGRATION 6. R e l a t i n g to Open A r e a — ' e x p e r i e n c e d i n , o r a p p r e c i a t e s and u n d e r s t a n d s open a r e a . INTERNAL ADAPTATION 7. R e l a t i n g to c o m m u n i t y — promote v o l u n t e e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n s c h o o l , make use o f community f a c i l i t i e s . EXTERNAL EXTERNAL ADAPTATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 8. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n — m a k e sound and f i r m d e c i s i o n s . EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION GOAL-ATTAINMENT Phase Two: T h i s c o n s i s t e d o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e n t t o each p a r e n t (copy a t t a c h e d ) i n which we r e l a t e d our f i n d i n g s and asked f o r comments. We r e c e i v e d 56 answers which we s t u d i e d c a r e f u l l y . Many o f the comments, r a n g i n g from a need f o r b e t t e r t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s to the " n a i l i n g " o f p e t t y t h i e v e s , r e v e a l e d a need f o r f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n o f the needs o f our s c h o o l . However, c o n f i n i n g o u r s e l v e s to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a f u t u r e p r i n c i p a l , the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s were added to our i n f o r m a t i o n . Most p a r e n t s r e s p o n d i n g a g r e e d to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o u t l i n e d i n o u r meeting o f J a n -uary 20th. However, w h i l e 38 o f the 56 r e s p o n s e s i n d i c a t e d no p r e f e r e n c e r e g a r d i n g a male o r female p r i n c i p a l , the r e m a i n i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y r e q u e s t e d a male. UNCLASSIFIED 123 A l l the answers were agreed t h a t d i s c i p l i n e s h o u l d be f i r m and f a i r and seven i n d i c a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s h o u l d be " v e r y s t r i c t . " There were many i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t p a r e n t s g e n e r a l l y were n o t a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the "program" o f the s c h o o l and d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d e x a c t l y what was b e i n g taught. [Note: A t l e a s t one program and sometimes two have been h e l d each y e a r s i n c e the s c h o o l opened to a c q u a i n t p a r e n t s w i t h the program o f the s c h o o l . P a r e n t s who a r e no t a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the s c h o o l ' s program a r e those who have n o t a t t e n d e d the meetings.] They d i d want an emphasis on the b a s i c "3R's" and a p r i n c i p a l who would n o t i n t r o d u c e new and c o n t r o v e r s i a l programs w i t h o u t c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the p a r e n t s . W i t h r e g a r d to the r e l a t i o n -s h i p s to p u p i l and p a r e n t , the b a s i c i d e a l o f a p e r s o n who i s ap p r o a c h a b l e , knowledgeable, and a b l e to communicate w e l l emerges as w e l l as those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a l r e a d y mentioned. Ar e a s f i v e , seven and e i g h t were e x a c t l y as d e s c r i b e d . There were a g r e a t many comments on the "Open A r e a . " What most o f the p a r e n t s a r e concerned w i t h i n t h i s a r e a i s c o n t r o l and o r g a n i z a -t i o n . They would l i k e a p r i n c i p a l who a p p r e c i a t e s the b e n e f i t s o f t h i s s t y l e o f t e a c h i n g and a t the same time can h e l p e l i m i n a t e the problems i n v o l v e d i n i t . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION 124 While most p a r e n t s seemed to agree w i t h "open a r e a " one p e r s o n wrote t h a t she was n o t i n f a v o r i t ( s i c ) i t . A f u r t h e r s u r v e y on the whole q u e s t i o n o f "Open A r e a " i s p l a n n e d f o r the f u t u r e . W h i l e i t d i d not f a l l under the scope o f our q u e s t i o n n a i r e , many comments were made on the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f the p r i n c i p a l b e i n g " h o n e s t , " " m o r a l " and a " C h r i s t i a n . " These comments were made by i n d i v i d u a l p a r e n t s . I t may be s a i d t h a t we i n ar e l o o k i n g to the S c h o o l Board to h e l p us f i n d a p r i n c i p a l to p r o v i d e us w i t h good and s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p and who w i l l , i n the words o f one o f o u r p a r e n t s , " s e t a tone o f r e a l l o v e (which does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y always g i v e a c h i l d what he wants, b u t r a t h e r , what i s good f o r him) f a i t h f u l n e s s and d e d i c a t i o n . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE C r i t e r i a L i s t I - l l ( a ) 125 The S t a f f o f S c h o o l p r e f e r s a b a l a n c e d s t r u c t u r e d program o f s t u d i e s w i t h an emphasis on the b a s i c s u b j e c t s ; t h a t i s , Language A r t s and A r i t h m e t i c . S o c i a l s , S c i e n c e , A r t , Music and P.E. would comprise the r e m a i n i n g f i f t y p e r c e n t o f the c u r r i c u l u m . R e g u l a r e v a l u a t i o n and d i a g n o s t i c t e s t i n g i s c a r r i e d out i n a l l a r e a s . We b e l i e v e our l i b r a r y s h o u l d e x i s t f o r the use o f a l l the grades to supplement and e n r i c h our program. In o r d e r to a c h i e v e t h e s e g o a l s we r e q u i r e a p r i n c i p a l who would s u p p o r t our p h i l o s o p h y INTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE ADAPTATION and who would do the f o l l o w i n g : Community Involvement - encourage a c t i v e p a r e n t a d v i s o r y committee EXTERNAL INTEGRATION - emphasizes the p a r e n t s ' r e s p o n -s i b i l i t i e s i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT - i n v o l v e p a r e n t s i n a s s i s t i n g s p e c i a l and r e g u l a r programs EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE Communication - seeks s t a f f ' s o p i n i o n INTERNAL INTEGRATION - d i s p e n s e s s c h o o l b o a r d , community and s c h o o l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g u l a r l y EXTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE ADAPTATION -encourages l a t e r a l communication between p r i n c i p a l and s t a f f INTERNAL INTEGRATION - promotes a c c e s s i b i l i t y ( t h e door i s always open) INTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL ADAPTATION INTEGRATION INTEGRATION 126 D i s c i p l i n e - encourages t e a c h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o r INTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTEGRATION - s u p p o r t s t e a c h e r w i t h d i f f i c u l t s t u d e n t s INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT - a r t i c u l a t e s c l e a r l y g u i d e l i n e s to be f o l l o w e d INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT - takes c o n s i s t e n t and immediate a c t i o n INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s - g e n e r a l a t t r i b u t e s d e s i r a b l e o f a l l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s UNCLASSIFIED - empathy w i t h s t a f f and s t u d e n t s INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - r e l a t e s w e l l on p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l w i t h s t a f f INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE D e c i s i o n Making - w i l l i n g to i n v o l v e s t a f f i n p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t i o n , e.g., s t a f f i n g , t i m e t a b l i n g , s c h o o l programs, c u r r i c u l a and d e l e g a -t i o n o f s c h o o l funds. INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION ADAPTATION A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S k i l l s - c a p a b l e and w i l l i n g to t e a c h c l a s s e s a t a l l l e v e l s INTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - e f f i c i e n t o r g a n i z e r INTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION GOAL ATTAINMENT - demonstrates l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t i e s INTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION GOAL ATTAINMENT We, as t e a c h e r s , a r e h e r e to educate our p u p i l s . H o p e f u l l y o u r p r i n c i p a l w i l l g u i d e and a s s i s t us i n our t a s k . The above c r i t e r i a can a c t as a " g u i d e l i n e " f o r our p r i n c i p a l and f o r us to do our j o b s as e f f e c t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e . C r i t e r i a L i s t I - l l ( b ) A u t h o r s : P a r e n t s 128 PARENTS ADVISORY COUNCIL RE: PRINCIPAL P r i n c i p a l to demand r e s p e c t f o r h i m s e l f as w e l l as o t h e r s . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT Emphasize s o c i a l development. INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE Encourage p a r e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION Two way communication w i t h t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s . EXTERNAL EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE GOAL ATTAINMENT No open a r e a o r f a m i l y grouping'..' INTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE Be w i l l i n g to i n v o l v e p a r e n t s i n d e c i s i o n making, new t e a c h e r s , e t c . INTERNAL INTEGRATION Emphasize the t h r e e R's. EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT C r i t e r i a L i s t 1-12(a) A u t h o r s : S t a f f 129 S t a f f Committee Recommended C r i t e r i a f o r the s e l e c t i o n o f a p r i n c i p a l o f the s c h o o l The s t a f f and o t h e r p r o f e s -s i o n a l s w o r k i n g a t S c h o o l recommend t h a t the f o l l o w i n g be c o n s i d e r e d when a p p o i n t i n g a p r i n c i p a l to t h i s s c h o o l . I . Academic Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s : 1. U n i v e r s i t y g r aduate EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 2. A t l e a s t two y e a r s t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n a secondary s c h o o l . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 3. A minimum o f f i v e y e a r s t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n an elementary s c h o o l EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 4. Some t r a i n i n g i n b o t h c o u n s e l l i n g and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s work. INTERNAL EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE I I . P e r s o n a l i t y : 1. A good d e c i s i o n maker INTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTEGRATION ADAPTATION INTEGRATION 2. Must have s t r o n g commitment to h i s own i d e a s and p r i n c i p l e s . UNCLASSIFIED 3. A u t h o r i t a t i v e and w i l l i n g to e n f o r c e the r u l e s o f the s c h o o l . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 4. Be f i r m INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 130 I I I . R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h ; 1. S t a f f : ( i ) a p p r o a c h a b l e by s t a f f members. ( i i ) w i l l i n g to r e v e a l l e a d e r -s h i p by spe n d i n g time i n the c l a s s r o o m , b o t h as a t e a c h e r and a h e l p e r to those who need i t . ( i i i ) s u p p o r t i v e o f c o l l e c t i v e s t a f f d e c i s i o n s , r e g a r d l e s s o f p e r s o n a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s . ( i v ) w i l l i n g to h e l p i n the im p l e m e n t a t i o n o f new i d e a s i n c u r r i c u l u m , and the f o l l o w - u p o f same (v) be i n f o r m e d on t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t problems i n the c l a s s r o o m . 2. P u p i l s : ( i ) aware o f c h i l d r e n b o t h i n and out o f c l a s s r o o m . ( i i ) s h o u l d show i n t e r e s t i n each c h i l d ' s academic and p h y s i c a l achievements through v i s i t s t o the c l a s s r o o m and v i s i t s to o t h e r non-academic a c t i v i t i e s . ( i i i ) p u p i l s s h o u l d l o o k up to him as a f i r m , f a t h e r l y l e a d e r o f the s c h o o l . INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 131 3. N o n - t e a c h i n g s t a f f : E v e r y e f f o r t s h o u l d be made to s u p p o r t n o n - t e a c h i n g s t a f f . INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT IV. P e r s o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p -ment : 1. Should be r e c e p t i v e to new c o n c e p t s , and aware o f c u r r e n t t r e n d s . INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION 2. Should have a r e g u l a r s c h e d u l e s e t - u p i n the s c h o o l to i n f o r m o t h e r s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l about same INTERNAL ADAPTATION C r i t e r i a L i s t 1-12(b) A u t h o r s : P a r e n t s 132 CRITERIA FOR PRINCIPAL 1. P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d agree w i t h p h i l o s o p h y as e x p r e s s e d i n a t t a c h e d l e t t e r . INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION 2. P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d have u n i v e r -s i t y t r a i n i n g b u t n o t n e c e s s a r y to have a M a s t e r s o r D o c t o r a l degree. EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 3. P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d have had t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a t b o t h elementary and secondary l e v e l s and some c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e i s d e s i r a b l e . EXTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION 4. P e r s o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s : F a t h e r l y , a p p r o a c h a b l e by p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s , under-s t a n d i n g o f p a r e n t and p u p i l problems, s y m p a t h e t i c ; EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE f i r m i n judgements, a b l e to make d e c i s i o n s and s t a y w i t h them; INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT c o n s i s t e n t — w i l l do what the pe r s o n says he/she w i l l do. EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 5. P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be aware o f e d u c a t i o n a l t r e n d s b u t changes s h o u l d be d i s c u s s e d w i t h p a r e n t s b e f o r e b e i n g implemented. INTERNAL EXTERNAL ADAPTATION INTEGRATION We a r e i n c l i n e d to f a v o u r a s t r u c t u r e d type o f e d u c a t i o n w i t h d e f i n i t e g o a l s b e i n g s e t and c h i l d r e n b e i n g encouraged to meet them. EXTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT GOAL ATTAINMENT C r i t e r i a L i s t 1-13 A u t h o r s : S t a f f and P a r e n t s 133 E n c l o s e d phase f i n d the c u r r e n t statement on the P h i l o s o p h y and O b j e c t i v e s o f S c h o o l . In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the a c c r e d i t i n g p r o c e s s we a r e now undergoing, an updated v e r s i o n w i l l be f o r t h c o m -i n g b e f o r e the end o f the y e a r . W i t h r e s p e c t to the c r i t e r i a f o r p r i n c i p a l , b o t h the S t a f f C o u n c i l and P a r e n t C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee agree t h a t any p r i n c i p a l o f the s c h o o l must be one who can a c c e p t and promote those i d e a s encompassed i n the c u r r e n t s t a t e -ment o f p h i l o s o p h y and o b j e c t i v e s . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT They f u r t h e r agree t h a t the p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i o n and appointment o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i s the f u n c t i o n o f the S c h o o l Board o f f i c i a l s who a r e most knowledge-a b l e to make the b e s t c h o i c e o f b o t h the s c h o o l and system needs. C r i t e r i a L i s t I I - l A u t h o r s : S t a f f Committee 134 Re: Appointment o f P r i n c i p a l to We, as a s t a f f , have e n j o y e d w o r k i n g w i t h our p r e s e n t p r i n c i p a l , We have found him to be a warm and open p e r s o n who takes i n f i n i t e p a t i e n c e i n d e a l i n g w i t h p a r e n t s , s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s . Our f i r s t p r i o r i t y i n the s e l e c t i o n o f our new p r i n c i p a l emphasizes the above q u a l i t i e s as e x e m p l i f i e d by INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION Q u a l i t i e s d e s i r a b l e i n a P r i n c i p a l : - an a f f a b l e p e r s o n who understands t h a t the s c h o o l i s a human o r g a n i z -a t i o n and i s aware o f the human growth and development needs o f t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTE RN-MAINTENANCE - A p e r s o n who has a w e l l rounded p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n which i n c l u d e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p l a c e o f such t h i n g s as the f i n e a r t s and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - S i m i l a r l y the p e r s o n would p o s s e s s a good u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the elementary s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . INTERNAL ADAPTATION - A p e r s o n who can r e s p e c t the p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n and competence o f s t a f f . INTERNAL INTEGRATION - A p e r s o n who can a c t as f a c i l i -t a t o r f o r t e a c h e r s , p r o v i d e l e a d e r -s h i p and o r g a n i z e the s c h o o l to a l l o w f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p -ment o f s t a f f . INTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION GOAL ATTAINMENT PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - A p e r s o n who i s a b l e to promote f i r m and c o n s i s t e n t d i s c i p l i n e throughout the s c h o o l . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 135 - A p e r s o n who can d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y and p o s i t i v e l y w i t h p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s e n c o u r a g i n g t h e i r f u l l i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h the development o f the g o a l s o f the s c h o o l . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT - A p e r s o n who can a p p r e c i a t e the e t h n i c and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e o f the s o c i a l community and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n to the e d u c a t i o n a l t a s k . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION - A p e r s o n who p o s s e s s e s good communication s k i l l s . UN CLAS SIFIABLE - A p e r s o n who p o s s e s s e s manage-ment, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and d e c i s i o n making s k i l l s , i n c l u d i n g t h e a b i l i t y : to c o n s u l t , to d e l e g a t e , to f o l l o w through, to p l a n , and to manage ti m e . INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION - We s h o u l d a l s o l i k e the P r i n c i p a l to be a b l e to spend s u f f i c i e n t time i n the s c h o o l to c a r r y o u t the above o b j e c t i v e s . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT The above i s the g e n e r a l f e e l i n g o f the s t a f f o f School,. o C r i t e r i a L i s t I I - 2 136 P r e p a r e d by S c h o o l s Committee, The community wishes to be i n v o l v e d w i t h the s e l e c t i o n o f a p r i n c i p a l f o r the s c h o o l , and t h e r e f o r e r e q u e s t s a pr e s e n c e on the s e l e c t i o n committee. 1. The p r i n c i p a l w i l l be chosen on the b a s i s o f i n t e r e s t and m e r i t . Age, sex, and y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e w i l l n ot be uses as c r i t e r i a . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 2. The p r i n c i p a l s h a l l g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t and p u t i n t p p r a c t i c e the p h i l o s o p h y o f the s c h o o l as e x p r e s s e d i n the S c h o o l P h i l o s o p h y (copy a t t a c h e d ) which was adopted by the I n t e r i m C o u n c i l on May 27, 1976. EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE GOAL ATTAINMENT 3. The p r i n c i p a l s h a l l be committed to the i d e a o f the community s c h o o l as e x p r e s s e d i n the above p h i l o s o p h y . EXTERNAL f INTEGRATION 4. The p r i n c i p a l s h a l l be e n e r g e t i c , r e s o u r c e f u l and i m a g i n a t i v e . UNCLASSIFIED 5. The p r i n c i p a l s h a l l be a committed e d u c a t o r who i s w i l l i n g to t r y i n n o v a t i v e i d e a s where these seem a p p r o p r i a t e . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE He/she s h a l l keep up w i t h new r e s e a r c h and developments i n elementary and community e d u c a t i o n through e d u c a t i o n a l media and c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r e d u c a t o r s . INTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 6. The p r i n c i p a l w i l l encourage the use o f v o l u n t e e r s throughout the s c h o o l . EXTERNAL EXTERNAL ADAPTATION INTEGRATION 137 7. The p r i n c i p a l w i l l encourage p a r e n t s and the community to v i s i t and use the s c h o o l and w i l l make h i m / h e r s e l f a v a i l a b l e to p a r e n t s as n e c e s s a r y . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION 8. The p r i n c i p a l w i l l u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t e e n a g e r s a r e an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f the community, and s h a l l c o n s i d e r them as a r e s o u r c e . EXTERNAL ADAPTATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 9. The p r i n c i p a l s h a l l c o n s i d e r h i m / h e r s e l f as one member o f a team which i n c l u d e s s t a f f , s t u d e n t s and community. INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 10. The p r i n c i p a l w i l l p r e f e r the d e m o c r a t i c s t y l e o f l e a d e r s h i p . INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 11. The p r i n c i p a l w i l l c o n s i d e r h i m / h e r s e l f more as a t e a c h e r / c o o r d i n a t o r than as an a d m i n i s -t r a t o r and w i l l assume t e a c h -i n g d u t i e s when n e c e s s a r y and d e s i r a b l e . INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 12. The p r i n c i p a l w i l l encourage and a s s i s t t e a c h e r s to d e v e l o p approaches to c u r r i c u l u m and methods to b e s t s u i t the c h i l d r e n . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL ADAPTATION 13. The p r i n c i p a l w i l l encourage p e r s o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l de-velopment i n t e a c h i n g and non-t e a c h i n g s t a f f and i n v o l u n t e e r s . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 14. The p r i n c i p a l w i l l work towards the appointment o f a community s c h o o l c o o r d i n a t o r . INTERNAL ADAPTATION EXTERNAL ADAPTATION 138 15. The p r i n c i p a l w i l l m a i n t a i n f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s w i t h the community and make e f f o r t s to m a i n t a i n an inv o l v e m e n t i n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f commun-i t y a f f a i r s . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION C r i t e r i a L i s t I I - 3 A u t h o r s : S t a f f 139 C r i t e r i a o f the P r i n c i p a l s h i p a t S c h o o l . A P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d : 1. Be s u p p o r t i v e o f t e a c h e r s and i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h i n g methods. INTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTEGRATION 2. B e l i e v e i n the c u r r e n t p h i l o s o p h y o f the s c h o o l . INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION 3. Be open to c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION 4. A c a p a b l e a d m i n i s t r a t o r and o r g a n i z e d . INTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION 5. Support and encourage a w r i t t e n c o r e c u r r i c u l u m . EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 6. Be a b l e to r e l a t e to c h i l d r e n a t t h e i r own l e v e l . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 7. M a i n t a i n d i s c i p l i n e t h a t w i l l encourage r e s p e c t and promote a p o s i t i v e atmosphere. INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 8. Be s e n s i t i v e to i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s o f p u p i l s . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 9. P a r t i c i p a t e i n and s u p p o r t e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and programs. INTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION 10. Be a p p r o a c h a b l e by p a r e n t s , p u p i l s and t e a c h e r s , INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION 11. Keep p a r e n t s i n f o r m e d o f s c h o o l p r o j e c t s and a c t i v i t i e s through r e g u l a r home b u l l e t i n s . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 140 12. Encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f p a r e n t groups. EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 13. Emphasize p u n c t u a l i t y and r e g u l a r s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e . INTERNAL ADAPTATION C r i t e r i a L i s t I I - 4 ( a ) A u t h o r s : S t a f f Committee 141 S t a f f Committee A Report on the C r i t e r i a f o r S e l e c t i o n o f a P r i n c i p a l The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be: 1. committed to the c u r r e n t s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y . EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 2. i n f a v o u r o f c o l l e g i a l d e c i s i o n -making . INTERNAL INTEGRATION 3. s u p p o r t i v e o f i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h -i n g s t y l e s and approaches to the c u r r i c u l u m . INTERNAL INTEGRATION 4. aware o f c u r r e n t programs and m a t e r i a l s . INTERNAL ADAPTATION 5. a good o r g a n i z e r and f a c i l i t a t o r . INTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION 6. aware o f c u r r e n t t r e n d s i n e d u c a t i o n . INTERNAL ADAPTATION 7. a b l e to r e l a t e to and e l i c i t s u p p o r t from p a r e n t s , s t a f f and p u p i l s . INTERNAL INTEGRATION 8. an e x p e r i e n c e d p r i n c i p a l w i t h a sense o f humor. EXTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION INTEGRATION 9. p r e p a r e d to take s t r o n g d i s c i -p l i n a r y a c t i o n when n e c e s s a r y . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 10. aware o f i n - s e r v i c e programs and p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s t a f f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 11. w i l l i n g to work toward a h e a l t h y p r o d u c t i v e c l i m a t e w i t h s t a f f and p u p i l s . INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT 142 12. c o n s e r v a t i v e i n h i s approach r a t h e r than an e x t r e m i s t . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 13. an h o n e s t and a p p r o a c h a b l e i n d i v i d u a l who i s d i r e c t and to the p o i n t i n d e a l i n g w i t h the s t a f f . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT C r i t e r i a L i s t I I - 4 ( b ) 143 C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee Comments and S u g g e s t i o n s from Members o f the S c h o o l C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be: 1. an e x p e r i e n c e d p r i n c i p a l EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE age 40 to 50 UNCLASSIFIABLE 2. one who s u b s c r i b e s to emphasis on the b a s i c s k i l l s . EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 3. one who commands r e s p e c t . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 4. a d i s c i p l i n a r i a n . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 5. f l e x i b l e and a p p r o a c h a b l e - p a r e n t s and s t a f f . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION 6. c o n s e r v a t i v e i n h i s approach INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION 7. a g r e e a b l e to l i m i t i n g f i e l d t r i p s to a r e a s o n a b l e number— o f e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e EXTERNAL INTEGRATION C r i t e r i a L i s t I I - 5 A u t h o r s : P a r e n t s 144 PARENTS' SUGGESTED SUBMISSION FOR CRITERIA FOR THE PRINCIPAL Students F i r s t p r i o r i t y and c o n c e r n to be the s t u d e n t s , t h e i r e d u c a t i o n and i n t e r e s t s . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be u n d e r s t a n d -i n g , a p p r o a c h a b l e and s h o u l d ex-h i b i t p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s which w i l l encourage s t u d e n t s to communicate t h e i r c o n c e r n s . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d c o n t i n u e to m a i n t a i n d i s c i p l i n e t h a t w i l l encourage r e s p e c t and a h e a l t h y atmosphere f o r l e a r n i n g , w i t h an e f f e c t i v e system o f d e a l i n g w i t h s t u d e n t s who d i s r u p t t h i s atmosphere. INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT S t a f f The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d know h i s t e a c h e r s ' t a l e n t s and s t r e n g t h s and s h o u l d encourage t h e i r development. INTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION There s h o u l d be a p o s i t i v e i n t e r -p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s t a f f and the p r i n c i p a l . INTERNAL INTEGRATION Community Committed to the inv o l v e m e n t o f the Community i n the S c h o o l ' s p h i l o s o p h y and p r a c t i c e o f e d u c a t i o n ; a b l e to respond s e n s i -t i v e l y to the needs o f the s c h o o l community. EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 145 The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d i n f o r m p a r e n t s group about new i d e a s i n e d u c a t i o n , b e f o r e they a r e i n t r o d u c e d i n the s c h o o l . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e the d i v e r s e economic and c u l t u r a l background o f the community. EXTERNAL INTEGRATION The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d communicate the need o f p a r e n t i n v o l v e m e n t i n our s c h o o l to promote the q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n . EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE P r o f e s s i o n a l Q u a l i t i e s S h o u l d be a c c e s s i b l e f o r c o n s u l -t a t i o n w i t h p a r e n t s when n e c e s s a r y . INTERNAL ADAPTATION The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be approach-a b l e , d i r e c t , and to the p o i n t i n d e a l i n g w i t h s t a f f , s t u d e n t s , and p a r e n t s . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be s e c u r e i n h i m s e l f and a b l e to a c c e p t d i s -agreement o r c r i t i c i s m w i t h o u t f e e l i n g t h r e a t e n e d . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION Should b e l i e v e t h a t the s c h o o l be committed to maintenance o f academic e x c e l l e n c e ; p r o m o t i o n o f s p e c i a l t a l e n t s , e.g., music, drama, and a r t , and be open to new i d e a s . INTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION INTEGRATION The P r i n c i p a l s h o u l d encourage and i n c r e a s e l i a i s o n w i t h the h i g h s c h o o l s . INTERNAL ADAPTATION C r i t e r i a L i s t I I I - l A u t h o r s : S t a f f 146 Re: Appointment o f P r i n c i p a l to S c h o o l We, as a s t a f f , have been v e r y p l e a s e d to be working w i t h The c o n t r i b u t i o n s he has made i n terms o f an easy, f l e x i b l e w orking r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the s t a f f , INTERNAL INTEGRATION a g e n t l e a c c e p t i n g a t t i t u d e toward the c h i l d r e n , INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE and a c o n c e r n f o r the improvement o f our p h y s i c a l environment INTERNAL ADAPTATION have been o f g r e a t b e n e f i t to the s c h o o l over the p a s t two y e a r s . We would l i k e a p r i n c i p a l who i s p r e p a r e d to c o n t i n u e i n much the same manner. The q u a l i t i e s we l o o k f o r i n a p r i n c i p a l a r e as f o l l o w s : - a p e r s o n who has a sense o f humour INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION and r e c o g n i z e s t h a t a good working r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s t a f f and s t u d e n t s i s f a r more i m p o r t a n t than the a u t h o r i t y and p r e s t i g e i n v e s t e d i n the j o b i t s e l f . INTERNAL INTEGRATION - a p e r s o n who i s e n c o u r a g i n g and s u p p o r t i v e o f open e d u c a t i o n as w e l l as t r a d i t i o n a l programs w i t h i n the s c h o o l . INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION ADAPTATION We e s p e c i a l l y want the new p r i n -c i p a l to r e s p e c t t e a c h e r s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l judgment i n ma t t e r s o f a c t u a l t e a c h i n g . INTERNAL INTEGRATION 147 - a p e r s o n who s u p p o r t s open l i b r a r y p o l i c i e s . INTERNAL ADAPTATION - a p e r s o n who has a deep a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the s o c i o l o g -i c a l problems to be d e a l t w i t h i n an s c h o o l . I n our s c h o o l i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e r e a r e v e r y g r e a t needs i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . These i n c l u d e : - E n g l i s h as a second language (about f i v e - e i g h t s o f our s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n speak E n g l i s h as a second l a n g u a g e ) . - e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y d e p r i v e d c h i l d r e n . - p h y s i c a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n ( t h i s i s o f s p e c i a l c o n c e r n i n view o f the movement a f o o t to g r a d u a l l y i n t e g r a t e deaf and b l i n d c h i l d r e n ) . EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION ADAPTATION - a p e r s o n who i s e n c o u r a g i n g o f p a r e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h i n the g u i d e l i n e s o f the s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y . EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT T h i s resume sums up the g e n e r a l f e e l i n g o f the S c h o o l Elementary S t a f f . C r i t e r i a L i s t I I I - 2 ( a ) A u t h o r s : S t a f f C o u n c i l 148 CRITERIA FOR A PRINCIPAL AT SCHOOL The s t a f f o f S c h o o l has i n d i c a t e d t h a t a p r i n -c i p a l a t the s c h o o l s h o u l d have the f o l l o w i n g q u a l i t i e s and a b i l -i t i e s . Those l i s t e d r e f l e c t the s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y and the o p i n i o n o f a m a j o r i t y o f the s t a f f . A. The f o l l o w i n g a r e c o n s i d e r e d to be o f extreme importance: 1. Hi g h degree o f s k i l l i n human r e l a t i o n s . UNCLASSIFIED 2. C o n s i s t e n t , c l e a r l y formed p o l i c i e s i n harmony w i t h the s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y . INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION 3. W i l l i n g n e s s to c o n s u l t w i t h s t a f f i n p l a n n i n g programs. INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION ADAPTATION 4. Support o f t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r d e a l i n g s w i t h s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 5. A b i l i t y to e v a l u a t e and r a t e t e a c h e r s w i t h o u t t h r e a t . INTERNAL INTEGRATION 6. W i l l i n g n e s s to work w i t h s t a f f c o u n c i l and i n v o l v e s t a f f c o u n c i l and i n v o l v e s t a f f c o u n c i l when d e a l i n g w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a s o f s c h o o l p o l i c y . INTERNAL INTEGRATION 7. A deep u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f needs o f c h i l d r e n . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 149 8 . Must be a v a i l a b l e to s t u d e n t s and make s t u d e n t s f e e l t h a t he i s a p p r o a c h a b l e . INTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTEGRATION 9 . E x h i b i t p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s o f l e a d e r s h i p t h a t w i l l encourage s t u d e n t s to communicate t h e i r c oncerns to him. INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 10 . R e c o g n i t i o n o f d i v e r s e economic and c u l t u r a l background o f the community. EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 11 . A b i l i t y to promote the i d e a l s and programmes a t Windermere to the p a r e n t s and the commun-i t y . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE B. The f o l l o w i n g a r e c o n s i d e r e d to be o f moderate importance: 1. R e c o g n i t i o n o f t e a c h e r achievement. INTERNAL INTEGRATION 2. I n t e l l i g e n t use o f s t a f f m e e t i n g s . INTERNAL ADAPTATION 3. Ready a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r d i s c u s -s i o n and c o n f e r e n c e s . INTERNAL ADAPTATION 4. F i r m but. c o n s t r u c t i v e c o n t r o l o f the s t a f f , r e s u l t i n g i n adherence to p o l i c i e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 5. A b i l i t y to communicate the need f o r p a r e n t i n v o l v e m e n t i n promoting the q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n i n our s c h o o l . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION C. The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary o f o t h e r c r i t e r i a mentioned by members o f the s t a f f . 150 1. D e s i r e to s u p p o r t and a b i l i t y to e v a l u a t e i n n o v a t i v e p r o -grammes on t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l m e r i t . INTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION ADAPTATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE GOAL ATTAINMENT 2. S e n s i t i v i t y to need f o r c u r r i c u l u m development, b e a r -i n g i n mind the d i v e r s e economic and c u l t u r a l back-ground o f the community. INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION 3. R e c o g n i t i o n o f the importance o f academic e x c e l l e n c e . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 4. T i m e t a b l i n g s k i l l s t h a t r e s u l t i n optimum q u a l i t y o f l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g c o n d i t i o n s . INTERNAL ADAPTATION 5. Encouragement o f m e a n i n g f u l s t a f f i n v o l v e m e n t i n time-t a b l e c o n s t r u c t i o n . INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION ADAPTATION 6. W i l l i n g n e s s to d e l e g a t e r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y and c o n f i d e n c e i n s t a f f members to whom r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s d e l e g a t e d . INTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTEGRATION 7. Awareness and s u p p o r t o f s t a f f i n i m p r o v i n g working and l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t to p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . INTERNAL ADAPTATION 8. W i l l i n g n e s s to promote and s u p p o r t a l l a r e a s o f e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 9. P r o v i d e f o r i n v o l v e m e n t o f s t u d e n t c o u n c i l i n s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a s o f s c h o o l l i f e . INTERNAL INTEGRATION 10. Good r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the o f f i c i a l s . UNCLASSIFIED C r i t e r i a L i s t I I I - 2 ( b ) A u t h o r s : P a r e n t s 151 PARENT CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE At the p r e s e n t time the P a r e n t C o n s u l -t a t i v e Committee s u g g e s t s the f o l l o w i n g C r i t e r i a f o r a P r i n c i p a l . The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s h o u l d be: 1. I n t e r e s t e d i n our c h i l d r e n . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 2. A d i s c i p l i n a r i a n — e . g . , a t t e n d a n c e . Use a l l a v a i l -a b l e f a c i l i t i e s and p e r s o n n e l i n d e c i d i n g i s s u e s and h a n d l i n g d i s c i p l i n e . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION 3. F l e x i b l e . INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 4. A p p r o a c h a b l e . INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 5. Communicative. UNCLASSIFIED 6. The i n i t i a t o r — e . g . , l e a d e r -s h i p . Make s u r e p a r e n t s , s t u d e n t s , s t a f f become i n v o l v e d . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 7. Knowledgeable o f the community. EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 8. S u p p o r t i v e o f p a r e n t a l , s t u d e n t , and s t a f f r e q u e s t s — w i t h d i s c r e t i o n 0 INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 152 9. S u p p o r t i v e o f p r e s e n t s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y . INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION 10. Not an e x t r e m i s t . UNCLASSIFIED 11. C o n t i n u i t y i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s h o u l d be p r e s e n t . INTERNAL ADAPTATION Adjustments to the above d i s c r i p -t i o n may, and l i k e l y w i l l , f o l l o w . The above, o t h e r than i t e m one, a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n the o r d e r o f i mportance. C r i t e r i a L i s t I I I - 3 A u t h o r s : P a r e n t s 153 Suggested G u i d e l i n e s For S e l e c t i n g P r i n c i p a l s . The c a n d i d a t e f o r p r i n c i p a l s h i p s h o u l d s u p p o r t the p r e s e n t s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y , INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION and demonstrate q u a l i t y l e a d e r -s h i p , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f o l l o w -i n g a r e a s : 1. Development o f the s t u d e n t t h a t w i l l g i v e him p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , as w e l l as en-a b l e him to f u n c t i o n i n a c o m p e t i t i v e s o c i e t y . EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 2. Emphasize the need o f the b a s i c s k i l l s : E n g l i s h , Mathematics, B a s i c S c i e n c e , and an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f w o r l d h i s t o r y . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 3. Any major changes r e g a r d i n g s c h o o l p o l i c y , s h o u l d o n l y take p l a c e a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h s t a f f , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION 4. Recent format f o r a c t i v i t i e s t o c o n t i n u e . Example, dances r e s t r i c t e d to s t u d e n t s o n l y . INTERNAL EXTERNAL ADAPTATION INTEGRATION 5. Co n t i n u e w o r k i n g towards b e t t e r d i s c i p l i n e and compulsory a t t e n d a n c e . INTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION 6. Encourage e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s such as s p o r t s , music, a r t and c l u b s to h e l p s t u d e n t s develop s o c i a l l y , m e n t a l l y and c o m p e t i t i v e l y . INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE GOAL ATTAINMENT C r i t e r i a L i s t I I I - 4 A u t h o r s : S t a f f 154 CRITERIA IN SELECTING THE PRINCIPAL FOR SCHOOL Fo r ease o f d i s c u s s i o n t h e se c r i t e r i a c o n s i d e r e d under the f o u r h e a d ings which we c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e ; namely, c r i t e r i a r e l a t e d to the p u p i l s , the s t a f f , the community, the p r i n c i p a l ' s own p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s and m a n a g e r i a l competence. S t u d e n t s I n our o p i n i o n the p r i n c i p a l needs: 1. To be aware o f the e m o t i o n a l and l e a r n i n g problems which a r e perhaps more s p e c i f i c to our s c h o o l because o f the t r a n s i e n t n a t u r e o f our p u p i l s , the v a r i e t y o f e t h n i c groups and the problems from the predomin-a t i n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c groups i n t h i s community. EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 2. To be knowledgeable about ESL c l a s s e s , o t h e r s p e c i a l c l a s s e s , and V.S.B. p r o c e d u r e s to get a s s i s t a n c e to these a r e a s i f needs a r i s e . INTERNAL EXTERNAL ADAPTATION ADAPTATION S t a f f The p r i n c i p a l needs: 1. To be s u p p o r t i v e and knowledge-a b l e about c u r r i c u l u m decen-t r a l i z a t i o n , INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION ADAPTATION 155 and to be aware o f c u r r i c u l u m needs f o r grades K-7, and the s p e c i a l c l a s s e s , INTERNAL ADAPTATION and to be r e c e p t i v e to p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g involvement i n the c l a s s r o o m s . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 2. S p e c i a l i n t e r e s t and knowledge i n team t e a c h i n g and the open a r e a c o n c e p t , INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION ADAPTATION s u p p o r t i v e o f the open a r e a r e s o u r c e c e n t r e . INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION ADAPTATION Needs to be a b l e to g i v e g u i d -ance to the s t a f f on r e s o u r c e s and r e s o u r c e p e o p l e a v a i l a b l e through v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s . EXTERNAL ADAPTATION 3. To be a b l e to a s s i s t t e a c h e r s i n an e v a l u a t i o n o f the c u r r i c u l u m and t e a c h i n g methods, b e i n g aware o f what i s b e i n g taught and g i v i n g c o n s t r u c t i v e g u i dance to a i d the t e a c h e r . INTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTEGRATION 4. To be d e m o c r a t i c and f r a n k w i t h s t a f f , p r o v i d i n g a l i n k between t e a c h e r s from K i n d e r -g a r t e n to Grade 7, and S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s . Needs di p l o m a c y i n d e a l i n g w i t h s t a f f . INTERNAL INTEGRATION 5. To be f a v o u r a b l e to the S t a f f Committee and the S c h o o l C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee c o n c e p t s . INTERNAL INTEGRATION 6. To s u p p o r t t e a c h e r s i n the r e a l m o f a u t h o r i t y , t h e r e b y m a i n t a i n i n g a f i r m - t o n e w i t h i n the s c h o o l and p r o v i d i n g a s t a b l e b a s i s i n t h i s way. INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 156 7. To agree w i t h the use o f a u x i l i a r y p e r s o n n e l , e.g., secondary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s and community v o l u n t e e r s . EXTERNAL EXTERNAL ADAPTATION INTEGRATION Community He/she needs: 1. To be a b l e to communicate e f f e c t i v e l y and i n t e r a c t mean-i n g f u l l y w i t h the community, a c t i n g as l i a i s o n between s c h o o l and community. EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 2. To be a b l e to respond to the s p e c i a l and g e n e r a l needs o f t h i s community, w i t h the e t h n i c and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n i t , and the problems a r i s i n g from i t s t r a n s i e n t n a t u r e . EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION ADAPTATION 3. To agree w i t h the open-door p o l i c y o f the s c h o o l , encourag-i n g p a r e n t involvement w i t h s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s and f u n c t i o n s . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION B r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d were the M a n a g e r i a l A s p e c t s 1. P e r s o n a l Dimensions o f L e a d e r -s h i p : T a c t f u l n e s s INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION A p p r o a c h a b i l i t y INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION M o t i v a t i n g INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT 157 S u p p o r t i v e INTERNAL INTEGRATION I n n o v a t i v e INTERNAL ADAPTATION Awareness o f (a) e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT (b) c u r r i c u l u m d e c e n t r a l i z -a t i o n INTERNAL INTEGRATION (c) s c h o o l laws and p r o c e d u r e s INTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION 2. Knowledge o f p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s e s p e c -i a l l y i n a r e a s o f b u d g e t i n g , p u r c h a s i n g , a c c o u n t i n g and o f f i c e management. INTERNAL ADAPTATION 3. Awareness o f i n t e r n a l p h y s i c a l p l a n t and f a c i l i t i e s o f open a r e a s c h o o l s and i t s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h e n g i n e e r i n g s t a f f and workmen to b e s t f a c i l i t a t e the needs o f the s t a f f , s t u d e n t s and community. INTERNAL ADAPTATION C o n c l u s i o n The s t a f f would l i k e to be g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y to meet i n f o r m a l l y w i t h p o t e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e s as sc r e e n e d by the S c h o o l Board o f f i c i a l s . C r i t e r i a L i s t IV-1 A u t h o r s : P a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , s t u d e n t 158 REPORT ON THE COMMITTEE FOR DEVELOPING CRITERIA TO ASSIST IN THE SELECTION OF A PRINCIPAL FOR SCHOOL T h i s i s the r e p o r t o f an ad hoc committee e s t a b l i s h e d to p r o v i d e b r o a d e r i n p u t and i n f o r m a t i o n to those u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a p p o i n t i n g a new p r i n c i p a l f o r S c h o o l . The committee c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r t e a c h e r s , one s t u d e n t and t h r e e community members. , A s s i s t a n t S u p e r i n t e n -dant, a c t e d as r e s o u r c e p e r s o n f o r the committee. The committee r e c o g n i z e s the wisdom o f the S c h o o l Board i n p r e p a r i n g f o r the u l t i m -a t e l y i n e v i t a b l e r e p l a c e m e n t . F u r t h e r , we thank the Board f o r a s k i n g us to v o i c e o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g a s u c c e s s o r to the h i g h l y - e s t e e m e d c u r r e n t incumbent. The p r e s e n t p r i n c i p a l , , has been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d e v e l o p i n g the concept o f as a community s c h o o l and has s u c c e s s -f u l l y taken through the p l a n n i n g s t a g e s to e f f e c t i v e o p e r a t i o n . S t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , the complex i s i n i t s i n f a n c y and i s u n d e r g o i n g s e v e r e growing p a i n s r e s u l t i n g i n a h o s t o f problems. I t appears s e l f e v i d e n t t h a t c o n t i n u e d s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p i s i m p e r a t i v e . INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 159 I t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to l o c a t e an a d m i n i s t r a t o r as c a p a b l e as The committee's terms o f r e f e r e n c e were to develop c r i t e r i a to f a c i l i t a t e the s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s i n a p p o i n t i n g the s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s i n a p p o i n t i n g a new p r i n c i p a l f o r S c h o o l . The Board has a l r e a d y d e v i s e d p r o c e d u r e s f o r the s e l e c -t i o n o f p r i n c i p a l s i n c l u d i n g a statement o f E d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s and a frame work f o r a c h i e v i n g t hose g o a l s which i n -c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g : M a t c h i n g the r i g h t s t u d e n t s w i t h the r i g h t t e a c h e r s i n f l e x i b l e g r o u p i n g s . . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE D e v e l o p i n g a c u r r i c u l u m t h a t i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to r e a l l i f e e x p e r i e n c e and which a l l o w s f o r the c o n t i n u o u s ungraded development o f each s t u d e n t . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE T h i s r e q u i r e s p r o v i d i n g l e a r n -i n g o p t i o n s i n c l u d i n g l e a r n i n g i n l o c a t i o n s o u t s i d e the s c h o o l b u i l d i n g . EXTERNAL ADAPTATION I d e n t i f y i n g as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e s t u d e n t s who need s p e c i a l a s s i s -t a n c e and p r o v i d i n g i t , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , through the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e i n the s c h o o l . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE B r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r , i n a c o o p e r a t i v e way, those who have a r e s p o n s i b i l -i t y f o r the l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s o f s t u d e n t s w i t h those r e s o u r c e persons who can c o n t r i b u t e to t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s INTERNAL EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION ADAPTATION ADAPTATION 160 E n c o u r a g i n g t e a c h e r s to use p r o -f e s s i o n a l freedom as s e t out i n Board p o l i c y . P r o v i d i n g s u p p o r t i v e s e r v i c e s , c o n s u l t a t i v e a s s i s t a n c e and s t a f f development programs t h a t w i l l h e l p i n the achievement o f the g o a l s E v a l u a t i n g on a c o n t i n u o u s b a s i s what i s b e i n g done i n s c h o o l s i n terms o f t h ese g o a l s , c o n s i d e r i n g b o t h the c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e development o f the s t u d e n t s . P r o v i d i n g f o r community i n v o l v e -ment i n s c h o o l s through the a s s o c i a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s and s t u d e n t s w i t h p a r e n t s and o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s . INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT EXTERNAL INTEGRATION • - T h i s committee can o n l y endorse those p r o c e d u r e s and attempt to add to them by s u g g e s t i n g q u a l i f i -c a t i o n s f o r a p r i n c i p a l p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t to t h i s s c h o o l . I t must be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e Complex i s unique i n i t s needs and o p e r a t i o n s . We have attempted to i d e n t i f y some o f the components which make i t so i n o r d e r to i d e n t i f y the r e q u i s i t e c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f the p o t e n t i a l a d m i n i s -t r a t o r . ************ The committee f e l t t h a t the r e q u i s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p r i n c i p a l c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d under two g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s , VIZ. (1) P e r s o n -a l i t y f a c t o r s and (2) E x p e r i e n c e and s k i l l s . These were broken down as f o l l o w s : 161 I . P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r s 1. R e l a t e s w e l l to a wide v a r i e t y o f p e o p l e and v a l u e s . INTERNAL .EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION 2. I s d i p l o m a t i c and t a c t f u l . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION 3. I s a good l i s t e n e r — e m p a t h e t i c . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION 4. Is s i n c e r e and s e n s i t i v e INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION INTEGRATION 5. Is t o l e r a n t o f d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION 6. I s h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d INTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION 7. I s p o s s e s s e d o f a good sense o f humour INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION 8. Has a h i g h t o l e r a n c e f o r h a r d work and s t r e s s INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 9. I s a t i r e l e s s and d e d i c a t e d . worker. INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE PATTERN-MAINTENANCE I I E x p e r i e n c e and S k i l l s 1. Demonstrated s u c c e s s f u l e x p e r -i e n c e i n s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . INTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION 2. Ele m e n t a r y s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h open a r e a s c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e . EXTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE ADAPTATION 162 3. Demonstrated d e c i s i o n making s k i l l s . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 4. E x p e r i e n c e d i n and s u p p o r t i v e o f c u r r i c u l u m development. INTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTEGRATION 5. A b i l i t y to p e r c e i v e , i n i t i a t e , and/or m a i n t a i n , a c l i m a t e w i t h i n the s c h o o l c o n s i s t e n t w i t h community e x p e c t a t i o n s . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 6. Demonstrated a b i l i t y i n r e c o g -n i z i n g , o r g a n i z i n g and s u p p o r t i n g a v a r i e t y o f c o - c u r r i c u l a r and e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r programmes and a c t i v i t i e s to promote an e f f e c t i v e and harmonious s c h o o l atmosphere. INTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION INTEGRATION INTEGRATION 7. Demonstrated diplomacy and a b i l i t y to l i s t e n to and mediate c o n f l i c t s . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION Emanating from the above the commun-i t t e e f e l t t h a t i n terms o f p r i o r -i t i e s the s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e s h o u l d s c o r e h i g h l y i n human r e l a t i o n s UNCLASSIFIED and be a d e d i c a t e d e d u c a t o r INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE PATTERN-MAINTENANCE concerned w i t h f a c i l i t a t i n g the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . INTERNAL EXTERNAL ADAPTATION ADAPTATION C r i t e r i a L i s t IV-2 Au t h o r s : S t a f f Committee 163 Re: C r i t e r i a f o r P r i n c i p a l S t a f f Committee The s t a f f committee o f have ( s i c ) d i s c u s s e d the t o p i c C r i t e r i a f o r P r i n c i p a l , and have ( s i c ) agreed t h a t the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e d e s i r a b l e f o r t h a t p o s i t i o n : 1. Handles d i s c i p l i n e w i s e l y 2. D i p l o m a t i c 3. Good d e c i s i o n maker 4. A b l e to g i v e d i r e c t i o n 5. Keep a good r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p a r e n t s but be a b l e to s t a n d up to them and back up t e a c h e r s when o c c a s i o n demands 6. L e t t e a c h e r s be i n on d e c i s i o n s which a r e g o i n g to a f f e c t them ( d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d be made by the e n t i r e s t a f f ) 7. Have a good knowledge o f p u p i l c a p a b i l i t y and b e h a v i o u r 8. Be open to i n n o v a t i o n s s u g g e s t e d by t e a c h e r s . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION EXTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION C r i t e r i a L i s t IV-3 Au t h o r s : S t a f f and P a r e n t s 164 CRITERIA FOR SELECTING A PRINCIPAL FOR SCHOOL The S t a f f Committee and S c h o o l C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee have j o i n t l y agreed upon the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i n g a p r i n c i p a l f o r S c h o o l . C r i t e r i a r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t needs: In our o p i n i o n the p r i n c i p a l needs: (a) t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n the p r i m a r y and i n t e r m e d i a t e grades i n c l u d i n g work w i t h P r i m a r y New Canadians and f a m i l y coun-s e l l i n g . (The number o f New Canadian and t r a n s i e n t f a m i l i e s w i t h i n our s c h o o l community i s h i g h ) . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE (b) to s u p p o r t r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a -t i o n s and g o a l s f o r s t u d e n t s and to be a b l e to view each c h i l d as an i n d i v i d u a l INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE (c) to m a i n t a i n a f a i r , u n d e r s t a n d -i n g , y e t f i r m s t a n d a r d o f d i s c i p l i n e . INTERNAL EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTEGRATION (d) to g i v e h i g h p r i o r i t y to the l e a r n i n g o f b a s i c s . EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT C r i t e r i a r e l a t e d to s t a f f needs: (a) to be s u p p o r t i v e o f s t a f f i n e n c o u r a g i n g i n n o v a t i v e p r o g r a -mmes and c r e a t i v e i d e a s . INTERNAL INTEGRATION 165 (b) to encourage t e a c h e r s to take p a r t i n d e c i s i o n making r e -p l a n n i n g , f i n a n c e s , e t c . , and to r e s p e c t t h e i r o p i n i o n s and to be open-minded about them, y e t w i l l i n g to make the f i n a l d e c i s i o n i f n e c e s s a r y . (c) to have energy, i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y to a c t as a r e s o u r c e p e r s o n , to take an a c t i v e p a r t i n cla s s r o o m s and to encourage p r o f e s s i o n a l development o f s t a f f members. (d) to be open to the use o f para-p r o f e s s i o n a l s and v o l u n t e e r s throughout the s c h o o l . ( T h i s has been c a r r i e d o ut f o r some time i n our s c h o o l w i t h g r e a t s u c c e s s ) . (e) to have a sense o f humour. C r i t e r i a f o r Community needs: (a) to be a b l e to cope w i t h and to encourage community in v o l v e m e n t i n the s c h o o l i n a r e a s such as E n g l i s h c l a s s e s f o r Moms and T o t s , r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a -mmes, e t c . (b) to be a b l e to respond to the s p e c i a l needs o f t h i s community, w i t h the e t h n i c and s o c i o -economic v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n i t and the problems a r i s i n g from i t s t r a n s i e n t n a t u r e . INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION to agree w i t h the open-door p o l i c y o f the s c h o o l and to encourage C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee and p a r e n t i n v o l v e ment i n s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s and f u n c t i o n s . INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION C r i t e r i a L i s t IV-4 A u t h o r s : S t a f f 167 Our S t a f f Committee met today to d i s c u s s the c r i t e r i a we would l i k e to see used as a b a s i s f o r s e l e c t i n g a new P r i n c i p a l f o r We have come up w i t h the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s , which we f e e l a r e d e s i r a b l e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n a P r i n c i p a l f o r our s c h o o l . 1. F i r s t l y , t h i s p e r s o n s h o u l d s u p p o r t a c u r r i c u l u m geared towards the b a s i c s u b j e c t s . EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 2. Se c o n d l y , we would l i k e to see the same f i r m d i s c i p l i n a r y s t a n d a r d s , as a r e now i n e x i s t e n c e , m a i n t a i n e d . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 3. T h i s p e r s o n s h o u l d be w i l l i n g to e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n good r a p p o r t w i t h p a r e n t s and p u p i l s . EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 4. He or she s h o u l d be f a m i l i a r w i t h a l l l e v e l s o f the elementary c u r r i c u l u m , i n -c l u d i n g k i n d e r g a r t e n and p r i m a r y programs, and s h o u l d have taught a t the elemen-t a r y l e v e l w i t h i n r e c e n t y e a r s . INTERNAL ADAPTATION EXTERNAL, PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 5. T h i s p e r s o n s h o u l d s u p p o r t and encourage the f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the S t a f f Committee i n a l l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t h a t a f f e c t s the s c h o o l as a whole. INTERNAL INTEGRATION 6. F i n a l l y , he o r she s h o u l d r e s p e c t t e a c h e r s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l judgement. INTERNAL INTEGRATION We hope t h a t t h i s l i s t w i l l be o f some a s s i s t a n c e i n making your s e l e c t i o n . C r i t e r i a L i s t IV-5(a) A u t h o r s : P a r e n t s 168 The p a r e n t members o f the S c h o o l C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee, c o m p r i s i n g , > > 5 J > » J > > , and , r e p r e s e n t i n g the m a j o r i t y o f p a r e n t s a t the s c h o o l , w i s h to make the f o l l o w i n g recommendations to the S c h o o l Board w i t h r e g a r d to the c h o i c e o f a new p r i n c i p a l a f t e r 's r e t i r e m e n t i n June 1976: 1. We f e e l t h a t the b a s i c s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y o f d i s c i p l i n e and code o f good b e h a v i o u r , t o -g e t h e r w i t h the academic s t a n -dards and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n P.E., Music and Languageart [: ( s i c ) w i t h i n an o v e r a l l f l e x -i b l e s t r u c t u r e , s h o u l d be endeavoured to be m a i n t a i n e d , as our c h i l d r e n have d e f i n i t e l y b e n e f i t t e d from t h i s system i n terms o f academic p r o g r e s s and s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r . EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL ADAPTATION 2. We f e e l t h a t , c u r r e n t l y v i c e - p r i n c i p a l , i s t h o r o u g h l y imbued w i t h the e x i s t i n g system, and has an e x c e l l e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n s o f the a r e a which t h i s s c h o o l s e r v e s . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL INTEGRATION has a t t e n d e d e v e r y meeting o f the C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee s i n c e i t s f o u n d a t i o n and has promoted a t r u l y co-o p e r a t i v e atmosphere between s t a f f and p a r e n t s . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION 169 We f i n d him to be an e x c e l l e n t n e g o t i a t o r , s y m p a t h e t i c , y e t f i r m , and he has an easy manner o f communicating. He has a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d an e x t r e m e l y good r a p p o r t w i t h c h i l d r e n , and on s e v e r a l p r e v i o u s o c c a s -i o n s , i n t h e r o l e o f a c t i n g  p r i n c i p a l , he has prove d v e r y c a p a b l e i n a p p l y i n g and up-h o l d i n g the s c h o o l * s p h i l o s o p h y and d i s c i p l i n e . 3. I t has been i n d i c a t e d t h a t o t h e r a p p l i c a n t s f o r the p r i n c i p a l s h i p may have a g r e a t e r l e v e l o f s e n i o r i t y over , how-ev e r , we f e e l t h a t f o r the sake o f the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f a p o s i t i v e s c h o o l atmosphere and p r o g r e s s , the S c h o o l Board s h o u l d waive the m a t t e r o f s e n i o r i t y . I f the Board f i n d s t h i s unaccep-t a b l e , we w i s h to r e i t e r a t e t h a t Mr. Leng s h o u l d be encouraged ro ( s i c ) remain a t t h i s s c h o o l as v i c e - p r i n c i p a l . INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION we hope t h a t the Board takes these recommendations i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . C r i t e r i a L i s t IV-5(b) A u t h o r s : S t a f f 170 The s t a f f o r S c h o o l has met a number o f times as a committee, and p r e p a r e d the f o l l o w i n g b r i e f . You a r e aware t h a t the p r e s e n t p r i n c i p a l i s r e t i r i n g i n June. As the s t a f f i s w e l l s a t i s f i e d w i t h the c u r r e n t s t r u c t u r e and l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n the s c h o o l , we hope to be a b l e to a v o i d any r a d i c a l changes through the s h i f t i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . We f e e l t h a t by o u t l i n i n g the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e o f the s c h o o l , the p h i l o s o p h y o f the s t a f f w i l l come to l i g h t . Our hope i s t h a t you w i l l attempt to f i n d a new p r i n -c i p a l who w i l l f i t i n t o our system r a t h e r than t r y to change i t . F i v e a r e a s o f d i s c u s s i o n have been chosen: d i s c i p l i n e , t i m e t a b l i n g , c u r r i c u l u m , s t a f f i n g , committees. F u r t h e r needs were a l s o d i s c u s s e d . The d i s c i p l i n e i n the s c h o o l i s b u i l t upon a "Code o f Conduct," a copy o f which i s e n c l o s e d . Rules a r e e n f o r c e d by a l l t e a c h e r s a t a l l t i m e s , as w e l l as through a 3:00 p.m. d e t e n t i o n room. Hallways a r e k e p t c l e a r e x c e p t d u r i n g i n c l e m -ent weather. Teachers have ag r e e d to be i n the h a l l w a y s f o r the 9:00, 11:05, and 1:00 b e l l s . The t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f the s c h o o l s u p p o r t each o t h e r i n d i s c i p l i n e m a t t e r s . A l l t e a c h e r s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l c h i l d r e n a t a l l t i m e s . INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL INTEGRATION 171 T i m e t a b l i n g i s such t h a t the day i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e , one hour p e r i o d s . The f a c t t h a t the v i c e p r i n c i p a l t e a c h e s a l l o w s f o r a s p a r e f o r most t e a c h e r s . There i s s p e c i a l -i z a t i o n i n A r t , P.E., and Music which has been o f much b e n e f i t to the c h i l d r e n . The s t u d e n t s o f grades f i v e and s i x spend the f i r s t h our o f each morning i n homogeneous r e a d i n g groups. These a r e formed through t e s t i n g a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the y e a r and r e - e v a l u a t i o n t e s t s t h roughout. The l i b r a r y has c l a s s e s s c h e d u l e d i n t o i t w i t h the t e a c h e r , but i s always open to anyone. As w i t h most e d u c a t o r s a t t h i s time, we f e e l t h a t c u r r i c u l u m b e a r s l o o k i n g a t c l o s e l y . We would hope t h a t , as i n the p a s t , the s t a f f would be c o n s u l t e d i n any c u r r i c u l u m change, a l t h o u g h any change towards a more s t r u c t u r e d c u r r i c u l u m would be welcomed. T h i s would e n a b l e a more a c c u r a t e e v a l u a t i o n o f p u p i l s a t each grade l e v e l , as we f e e l t h a t p r o m o t i o n from l e v e l to l e v e l must be on m e r i t r a t h e r t h a t s o c i a l m a t u r i t y . R e p e a t i n g a grade a t the K - 3 l e v e l i s o f much more b e n e f i t a c a d e m i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y to the s t u d e n t , than i t i s when he o r she i s o l d e r . B a s i c s k i l l s must be s t r e s s e d i n e v e r y g r a d e . Committees i n the s c h o o l have been kept as s i m p l e as p o s s i b l e . The S t a f f Committee c o n s i s t s o f a l l t e a c h e r s p l u s the p r i n c i p a l and v i c e - p r i n c i p a l . The c h a i r p e r s o n o f t h i s committee i s e i t h e r the p r i n c i p a l . The c h a i r p e r s o n o f t h i s committee i s e i t h e r the p r i n c i p a l , o r the c h a i r p e r s o n o f the INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 172 committee, depending upon the agenda f o r the day. The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and the s t a f f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a r e e l e c t e d as one. The number o f meetings a r e k e p t to a minimum i n o r d e r to f a c i l i t a t e the r u n n i n g o f i n t r a s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s , i . e . , a r t c l u b , p i n g pong, dance, s o c c e r , e t c . INTERNAL ADAPTATION Minutes o f these meetings a r e k e p t . A s c h o o l c o n s u l t a t i v e committee has been e l e c t e d and meets d u r i n g the e v e n i n g . T h i s committee c o n s i s t s o f the p r i n c i p a l , v i c e - p r i n c i p a l , two s t a f f members, and t h i r t e e n p a r e n t s . An e x e c u t i v e has been e l e c t e d f o r t h i s committee. The p r e s e n t s c h o o l s t a f f work v e r y w e l l t o g e t h e r , as a r e s u l t o f the f a c t t h a t they have been i n v o l v e d i n s e l e c t i o n o f replacements f o r tho s e l e a v i n g . INTERNAL INTEGRATION P r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s f o r the open a r e a , where i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t everyone g e t s a l o n g , have been i n t e r -viewed b o t h by the p r i n c i p a l and the open a r e a s t a f f . We f e e l t h a t a c o n g e n i a l s t a f f r e s u l t s i n a v e r y good s c h o o l atmosphere, promoting a b e t t e r l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . F i n a l l y , we have l o o k e d to the f u t u r e i n a, ( s i c ) e f f o r t to see where improvements c o u l d be made and new i d e a s added. There s h o u l d be an a l t e r n a t i v e to open a r e a , where i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t some c h i l d r e n cannot f u n c t i o n . INTERNAL ADAPTATION C l o s e r a t t e n t i o n must be p a i d to h e a l t h and c l e a n l i n e s s r u l e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n v o l v i n g h a i r , c l o t h e s , and p e r s o n a l h y g i e n e . I t i s f e l t t h a t a h e a l t h program must be r e - i n s t a t e d , w i t h n u t r i t i o n b e i n g o f p r i m a r y c o n c e r n . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 173 Sc h o o l i s b a s i c -a l l y a s t r u c t u r e d t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l w i t h o r g a n i z e d i n n o v a t i v e programs added. We f e e l t h a t the i n s t r u c t i o n the s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e has been b e n e f i t t e d by the l a c k o f major changes i n b o t h s t a f f and c u r r i c u l u m . We hope t h a t any e f f o r t s made to a c q u i r e a new p r i n c i p a l f o r the s c h o o l would be d i r e c t e d through t h e c u r r e n t s c h o o l s t r u c t u r e and through the s t a f f p h i l o s o p h y . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION Should you w i s h to d i s c u s s these o r any o t h e r p o i n t s , a s t a f f committee would be happy to meet w i t h you. C r i t e r i a L i s t IV-6(a) A u t h o r s : P a r e n t s 174 Working w i t h , our P a r e n t ' s C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee develop e d the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a p e r t a i n i n g to the s e l e c t i o n o f a new p r i n c i p a l and to the g e n e r a l p h i l o s o p h y o f the s c h o o l . I t i s t h e i r hope t h a t , a l o n g w i t h the i n p u t from the s t a f f , i t w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n making the appointment o f a p r i n c i p a l to "The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be f i r m b u t k i n d , INTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTEGRATION and young enough to be a b l e to s t a y a t the s c h o o l f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . INTERNAL ADAPTATION The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be i d e a l i s t i c i n aim and p r e p a r e d to f o s t e r and encourage the s t a f f to r e a c h h i g h . INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be w i l l -i n g to i n n o v a t e , to encourage e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n methodology, o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t r u c t u r e . INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION ADAPTATION The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be aware o f the p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s a t work i n and around the s c h o o l and know how to cope w i t h them. INTERNAL EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION PATTE RN-MAINTENANCE GOAL ATTAINMENT The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be community o r i e n t e d . He o r she s h o u l d be a b l e to r e c o g n i z e the c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t i e s w i t h i n t h i s a r e a , be aware o f the problems w i t h i n t h i s d i v e r s i t y and have the p a t i e n c e to s u c c e s s f u l l y cope w i t h such problems. INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 175 He o r she s h o u l d be w i l l i n g to promote c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s between p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s , making them, w i t h the c h i l d r e n , a l l f e e l a p a r t o f the s c h o o l community. EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be a b l e to have c h i l d r e n l e a r n about and know themselves. INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE The s c h o o l s h o u l d be an e n v i r o n -ment t h a t w i l l i n s t i l l a z e s t f o r knowledge and enthusiasm f o r l e a r n i n g enough to l a s t a l i f e t i m e . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE Emphasis i n i n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d be on the b a s i c s u b j e c t s — t h e 3 R ' s — but w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n p a i d to the a r t i s t i c , e s t h e t i c development o f the c h i l d r e n . EXTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT PATTERN-MAINTENANCE The t e a c h i n g s t a f f s h o u l d be a t t e m p t i n g to a s s i s t , i n s t r u c t and p r o v i d e a means f o r a h i g h l e v e l o f i n d i v i d u a l development." INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE I t r u s t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be h e l p f u l i n making your s e l e c t i o n . C r i t e r i a L i s t IV-6(b) A u t h o r s : S t a f f 176 The s t a f f o r has, by c o l l e g i a l agreement, l i s t e d the a t t a c h e d c r i t e r i a f o r our new p r i n c i p a l . We f e e l t h i s l i s t would meet the needs o f our s c h o o l , s t a f f and community. The l i s t i s i n p o i n t form, but i n no p a r t i c u l a r o r d e r o f p r i o r i t y . The s t a f f f e e l s t h a t each i t e m i s i m p o r t a n t i n i t s e l f . C r i t e r i a F o r a New P r i n c i p a l E d u c a t i o n a l - a c t i v e , s t r o n g background i n Language A r t s . INTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE ADAPTATION - competent i n d e a l i n g w i t h w i d e l y d i v e r g e n t e t h n i c groups. EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - community o r i e n t e d . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION - r e c e n t e l ementary e x p e r i e n c e EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - e x p e r i e n c e w i t h p r i m a r y c h i l d r e n INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - w i l l i n g to t e a c h a t a l l grade l e v e l s on a n o n - s t r u c t u r e d b a s i s INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - s t r u c t u r e d i n b a s i c s and d i s c i p l i n e EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT - f i r m ; e a r n r e s p e c t o f c h i l d r e n and s t a f f INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT - knowledgeable i n d i f f e r e n t t r e n d s i n e d u c a t i o n INTERNAL ADAPTATION - a p p r e c i a t i v e o f d i f f e r e n t t e a c h -i n g p r o c e d u r e s INTERNAL INTEGRATION 177 - a p p r e c i a t e s a r t , music, P.E. ( c u l t u r a l e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ) INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE P e r s o n a l / P r o f e s s i o n a l - c o m f o r t a b l e i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION - t a c t f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s t a f f ; a b l e and w i l l i n g to compliment INTERNAL INTEGRATION - e n j o y s c h i l d r e n ; a b l e to b u i l d a good r a p p o r t INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - good sense o f humour INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION - promotes a happy s i t u a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n , s t a f f and p a r e n t s INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION - s u p p o r t i v e to ( s i c ) t e a c h e r s i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s INTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION - b e l i e v e s i n the v a l u e o f an e f f e c t i v e S t a f f Committee INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT - communication l i n e s k e pt open; i n f o r m a t i o n about what i s g o i n g on INTERNAL ADAPTATION - s u p p o r t s f u l l use o f the l i b r a r y as a r e s o u r c e c e n t r e and L.A.C. INTERNAL ADAPTATION C r i t e r i a ' L i s t IV-7 A u t h o r s : P a r e n t s and S t a f f 178 A p r i n c i p a l ' s p o s i t i o n w i l l be a v a i l a b l e i n September a t S c h o o l . The p a r e n t s and s t a f f a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n the s e l e c t i o n o f the p r i n c i p a l . Because o f the t r e n d toward a l t e r n a t e s c h o o l s w i t h i n the system, we f e e l i t i s im p o r t a n t t h a t our new p r i n c i p a l the t e a c h i n g s t y l e s and atmosphere t h a t now e x i s t a t W i t h i n the s c h o o l , the s t a f f works t o g e t h e r w i t h a u n i f i e d p h i l o s o p h y , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n approach t o t h i s p h i l o s o p h y . We hope t h a t a new head would r e s p e c t our f e e l i n g s , would take i n t o a ccount our u n i t y , and would use a c o l l e g i a l approach toward change. The major emphasis o f our l e a r n i n g program i s language de-velopment, which we t r y to i n t e g r a t e i n t o e v e r y a r e a o f the c u r r i c u l u m . Many o f our c h i l d r e n e n t e r s c h o o l w i t h o u t b e i n g a b l e to speak E n g l i s h ; o t h e r s speak E n g l i s h o n l y a t s c h o o l and w i t h t h e i r p laymates. To h e l p these c h i l d r e n b r e a k the language b a r r i e r , we t r y to c r e a t e , through-out the day, i n f o r m a l language s i t u a t i o n s , where they a r e encouraged to use many d i f f e r e n t language s k i l l s w i t h o u t f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n . We f e e l i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t the c h i l d r e n develop a good s t a n d a r d o f E n g l i s h usage, w h i l e r e t a i n i n g p r i d e i n t h e i r e t h n i c h e r i t a g e . T h e r e f o r e , we would a p p r e c i a t e h a v i n g a p r i n c i p a l who would u n d e r s t a n d our g o a l s , and who would enhance and f u r t h e r e n r i c h our p r e s e n t schema. INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION 179 Because the S c h o o l Board r e a l i z e s t h a t u n i t y w i t h i n a s t a f f c r e a t e s a harmonious atmosphere and a good l e a r n i n g environment, i t has been p o l i c y , i n r e c e n t y e a r s , to have p r i n c i p a l and s t a f f v e t ( s i c ) p o s s i b l e new members o f the s t a f f — p a r t i c u l a r l y i n team and Open Ar e a s i t u a t i o n s . We f e e l t h a t the p r i n c i p a l i s a member o f the s c h o o l 'team' w i t h a unique r o l e to p l a y i n c o - o r d i n a t i n g s c h o o l programs. INTERNAL ADAPTATION In a d d i t i o n , the head i s the p r i n c i p a l l i a s o n between p a r e n t s , s t a f f , and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . INTERNAL EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE P a r e n t s and s t a f f a t have d i s c u s s e d the q u a l i t i e s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f our " i d e a l " p r i n c i p a l and have co m p i l e d the f o l l o w i n g l i s t f o r your c o n s i d e r a t i o n . P a r e n t s and s t a f f f e e l we c o u l d work h a p p i l y w i t h a p r i n c i p a l . - who i s w i l l i n g to work w i t h the S c h o o l C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee as a p a r t n e r ; EXTERNAL INTEGRATION - who has p r i m a r y / l a n g u a g e e x p e r i e n c e ; INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - who encourages the use o f c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s as p a r t o f the c u r r i c u l u m ( i . e . , who encourages f i e l d t r i p s to take the c h i l d r e n i n t o the community and who encourages commun-i t y r e s o u r c e p e o p l e to come i n t o the s c h o o l ) ; INTERNAL EXTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE who a p p r e c i a t e s the advantages o f a p r i m a r y s c h o o l ; UNCLASSIFIED 180 - who understands the importance o f m a i n t a i n i n g t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l -community a c t i v i t i e s ( i . e . , Fun F a i r , S p o r t s Day, e t c . ) ; - who l i k e s to work i n an i n f o r m a l mode; - who r e s p e c t s i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r -ences i n approaches to t e a c h i n g ; - who p l a n s to t e a c h and to have d e f i n i t e e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the c h i l d r e n . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE We would hope t h a t you, i n making the s e l e c t i o n , w i l l c o n s i d e r the p o i n t s we have put forward. We s h o u l d be happy to a s s i s t you i n any way. C r i t e r i a L i s t IV-8(a) A u t h o r s : P a r e n t s 181 CRITERION ( s i c ) FOR A PRINCIPAL 1. V a l u e s and q u a l i t i e s o f p r e s e n t p r i n c i p a l (a) c h e e r f u l n e s s INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION (b) e n j o y s c h i l d r e n INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE (c) a good l i s t e n e r to o t h e r s needs INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION (d) r e l i a b l e and c o n s i s t a n t EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 2. Someone who w i l l see t h a t the s k i l l s a r e s t r e s s e d b u t a l l o w enough f l e x i b i l i t y to h e l p c h i l d r e n w i t h s p e c i a l problems. INTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 3. A d i s c i p l i n a r i a n who demands r e s p e c t f o r h i m s e l f and o t h e r s from the s t u d e n t s . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 4. A p r i n c i p a l who w i l l take time to l i s t e n to c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r and remain o b j e c t i v e . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION C r i t e r i a L i s t IV-8(b) A u t h o r s : S t a f f 182 CRITERION ( s i c ) FOR A PRINCIPAL P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s A p e r s o n who de v e l o p s t r u s t and r e s p e c t . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT PATTERN-MAINTENANCE Someone who i n s t i l l s c o n f i d e n c e and r e s p e c t i n c h i l d r e n , p a r e n t s and s t a f f . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT PATTERN-MAINTENANCE W e l l o r g a n i z e d , INTERNAL ADAPTATION a p p r o a c h a b l e , INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION c o n s i s t e n t , EXTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE PATTERN-MAINTENANCE good l i s t e n e r , INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION p a t i e n t , INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION s e l f c o n f i d e n t , UNCLASSIFIED w i l l i n g to g i v e encouragement on a r e g u l a r b a s i s , INTERNAL INTEGRATION open, INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION sense o f humour, INTERNAL INTEGRATION a v a i l a b l e . INTERNAL ADAPTATION 183 P r o f e s s i o n a l Q u a l i t i e s W i l l i n g to develop an awareness o f the many a c t i v i t i e s i n the s c h o o l and ways t h a t c l a s s e s a r e conducted. INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE Should have u n d e r s t a n d i n g and knowledge o f c h i l d r e n and c u r r i c u l u m a t a l l l e v e l s w i t h i n the s c h o o l . INTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE ADAPTATION Should encourage p r o f e s s i o n a l and p e r s o n a l growth i n the s t a f f by e x p o s i n g and i n t r o d u c i n g them to r e s o u r c e s ( p e o p l e , s p e a k e r s and i n n o v a t i v e m a t e r i a l s ) so t h a t they can be renewed, i n s p i r e d and m o t i -v a t e d i n t h e i r own e f f o r t s i n the c l a s s r o o m . INTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION ADAPTATION ADAPTATION W i l l i n g n e s s to d e v e l o p an under-s t a n d i n g o f c u r r e n t t r e n d s i n e d u c a t i o n . INTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION ADAPTATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE Should p o s s e s s the a b i l i t y to p l a c e t e a c h e r s i n s i t u a t i o n s t h a t b e s t s u i t t h e i r a b i l i t i e s . INTERNAL ADAPTATION Knowledgeable i n p r o p o s a l s and ev e n t s . UNCLASSIFIED P h i l o s o p h y D e f i n i t e l y i n f a v o u r o f a c h i l d c e n t e r e d s c h o o l . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE Know, u n d e r s t a n d and s u p p o r t f a m i l y g r o u p i n g . EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT 184 A b l e to cope w i t h b o t h f a m i l y g r o u p i n g and r e g u l a r programme. UNCLASSIFIED Someone who a p p r e c i a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e many d i f f e r e n t ways o f r e a c h i n g the same g o a l s . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION Working w i t h S t a f f A b l e t o : - d e a l w i t h t e a c h e r c o l l e a g u e s i n a d i r e c t , honest, s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d way. INTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTEGRATION - a c c e p t i d e a s from the t e a c h e r s and not be a dogmatic e x p e r t . INTERNAL INTEGRATION - a s s e s s the comments o f an o u t -spoken s t a f f w i t h o u t f e e l i n g t h r e a t e n e d . INTERNAL INTEGRATION - keep the s t a f f aware o f c u r r e n t s c h o o l and community a c t i v i t i e s . INTERNAL ADAPTATION - to p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n s t a f f committee INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION ADAPTATION - r e c o g n i z e needs f o r c o l l e g i a l d e c i s i o n making b u t a b l e to take a s t a n d i n d e p e n d e n t l y i f n e c e s s a r y . INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT - d i s t i n g u i s h between p o l i c y e f f e c t -i n g d e c i s i o n s and r o u t i n e , manager-i a l d e c i s i o n s . INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE Working w i t h I n d i v i d u a l S t a f f Members Be a v a i l a b l e f o r d i s c u s s i o n and a d v i c e r e g a r d i n g the s c h o o l p h i l o s o p y and the t e a c h e r s ' r o l e w i t h i n i t . INTERNAL EXTERNAL ADAPTATION GOAL ATTAINMENT 185 W i l l i n g to observe i n d i v i d u a l s t e a c h i n g and o f f e r c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m and new i d e a s . INTERNAL ADAPTATION Approachable and a v a i l a b l e f o r innumerable c o n f e r e n c e s and d i s c u s s i o n s . INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION ADAPTATION Someone who n o t o n l y s u p p o r t s the s t a f f b u t who a l s o r e i n f o r c e s and encourages the t e a c h e r s i n what they a r e d o i n g . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT GOAL ATTAINMENT INTEGRATION Someone to be c o n s u l t e d when s e e k i n g a second p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n i n d e a l i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s o r i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l a r e a s . INTERNAL EXTERNAL ADAPTATION GOAL ATTAINMENT D e a l i n g w i t h C h i l d r e n P r o v i d i n g l e a d e r s h i p : - i n d e a l i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n . INTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE GOAL ATTAINMENT - p a t i e n t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g so as t o s e t an example t h a t w i l l be an i n s p i r a t i o n to the s t a f f . INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - be i n t e r e s t e d i n s o l v i n g problems by s e e k i n g s o l u t i o n s t h a t w i l l have p o s i t i v e , l o n g range r e s u l t s . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT - w i l l i n g to get to know the c h i l d r e n by wo r k i n g w i t h them o c c a s i o n a l l y i n the c l a s s r o o m . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 186 With Community A b l e to d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h p a r e n t s who have " a l t e r n a t i v e " l i f e s t y l e s and views on e d u c a t i o n . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT W i l l i n g to work a c t i v e l y a t de-v e l o p i n g good p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE C r i t e r i a L i s t IV-9(a) A u t h o r s : P a r e n t s 187 Re: C r i t e r i a f o r the P r i n c i p a l s h i p o f S c h o o l Our c o n s u l t a t i v e committee d i s c u s s e d c r i t e r i a f o r the p r i n c i p a l -s h i p o f S c h o o l a t our meeting o f F e b r u a r y 11, 1976, and ar e p l e a s e d to submit the f o l l o w i n g : The p r i n c i p a l o f S c h o o l s h o u l d be someone who: - has a b r o a d a p p r e c i a t i o n and r e s p e c t f o r d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups and c u l t u r e s . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION - i s aware o f the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c n a t u r e o f the a r e a . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION - i s open to the concept o f the community s c h o o l . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION - c r e a t e s an atmosphere f o r p a r e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION - has had a b r e a d t h o f e x p e r i e n c e i n the p r i n c i p a l s h i p . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - d r e s s e s n e a t l y INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE . a n d has a sense o f p r o p r i e t y . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - does n o t smoke. INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE f a v o u r s home-work o r home-study. INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - encourages academic e x c e l l e n c e and good work h a b i t s . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - w i l l be g u i d e d by the s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y , INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION and w i l l work i n harmony w i t h the s t a f f . INTERNAL INTEGRATION 188 - encourages good manners, and r e s p e c t f o r o l d e r p e o p l e . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE I hope t h a t t h ese c r i t e r i a w i l l be h e l p f u l to you i n c h o o s i n g a p r i n c i p a l f o r our s c h o o l . C r i t e r i a L i s t IV-9(b) A u t h o r s : S t a f f 189 F o l l o w i n g our meeting on Janua r y 28, 1976, the s t a f f was asked to submit c r i t e r i a to a s s i s t i n the s e l e c t i o n o f a p r i n c i p a l . The s u b m i s s i o n s which r e c e i v e d the w i d e s t s u p p o r t f o l l o w . -• The s t a f f would l i k e an a d m i n i s t r a t o r who: - i s i n a c c o r d w i t h the p h i l o s o p h y o f the s c h o o l , INTERNAL . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION - and w i l l b e a r i n mind the unique and d i v e r s e n a t u r e o f the s c h o o l , s t u d e n t s and community. EXTERNAL INTEGRATION - has demonstrated e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a s c h o o l , i n which t e a c h e r s s h a r e i n d e c i s i o n making. INTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION INTEGRATION - i s open to new i d e a s , INTERNAL EXTERNAL: INTEGRATION ^INTEGRATION but r e t a i n s r e s p e c t f o r the b e s t i n t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i s e s , INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE who sees t e a c h e r s as p r o f e s s i o n a l and i s t o l e r a n t o f a v a r i e t y o f t e a c h i n g methods, INTERNAL INTEGRATION who i s f l e x i b l e and w i l l i n g to change when the need a r i s e s . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION - sees the s c h o o l i n the c o n t e n t o f the community and promotes community use o f the s c h o o l f a c i l -i t i e s f o r the r e c r e a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l use o f the p e o p l e i n the s c h o o l t e r r i t o r y , s t r i v i n g to 190 make the s c h o o l f u n c t i o n as a s e r v i c e c e n t r e f o r y o u t h and a d u l t groups. EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE ADAPTATION - i s a p p r o a c h a b l e and p e o p l e -o r i e n t e d , INTERNAL ,, EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION promoting a p o s i t i v e i n t e r -p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s t u d e n t s , s t a f f and p e o p l e i n the community, INTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION INTEGRATION who sees the p o s i t i o n as one o f s e r v i c e to o t h e r s INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE PATTERN-MAINTENANCE and w i l l s t r i v e to m a i n t a i n the s c h o o l as a humane and happy p l a c e , INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION w h i l e i n s p i r i n g the b e s t e f f o r t s i n s t u d e n t s and s t a f f . INTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTEGRATION C r i t e r i a L i s t V - l A u t h o r s : 191 C r i t e r i a f o r the S e l e c t i o n o f a P r i n c i p a l f o r Secondary and E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l . A. St u d e n t s 1. F i r s t p r i o r i t y and c o n c e r n to be i n the s t u d e n t s , t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and e d u c a t i o n . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 2. A b l e to r e l a t e d i r e c t l y w i t h c h i l d r e n i n a f r i e n d l y , non-t h r e a t e n i n g manner, a s s o c i a t e d w i t h q u a l i t i e s which w i l l cause s t u d e n t s t o admire and r e s p e c t the p r i n c i p a l as a pe r s o n . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT B. S t a f f 3. A p r a c t i t i o n e r o f the c o l l e g i a l system to debate and c o n s u l t a -t i o n i n d e c i s i o n making, INTERNAL INTEGRATION and r e c o g n i z i n g the autonomy o f the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r i n implemen-t i n g t h e s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y . INTERNAL INTEGRATION C. Community 4. Committed to the i n v o l v e m e n t o f the Community i n p h i l o s o p h y and p r a c t i c e o f e d u c a t i o n i n s c h o o l ; EXTERNAL INTEGRATION a b l e to resp o n d s e n s i t i v e l y to the community needs. EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 5. Wanting to work i n t h i s community — n o t a c o n s c r i p t . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 192 D. P h i l o s o p h y 6. Committed to the c u r r e n t p h i l o s o -phy o f open e d u c a t i o n as o u t -l i n e d i n the s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y . 7. Open to new i d e a s , and c o n v e r s a n t w i t h d i f f e r e n t t h e o r i e s and p r a c t i c e s o f e d u c a t i o n . W i l l i n g to p r o v i d e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r p u p i l placement, w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f the r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . Committed to the c r e a t i o n o f an environment i n which no a c t i v i t y o r c h a l l e n g e i s p l a c e d upon o r d e n i e d to any c h i l d by v i r t u e o f h i s o r h e r sex, r a c e o r r e l i g i o n . E. P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s 9. A c c e s s i b l e and w i l l i n g to be i n v o l v e d w i l l s t u d e n t s , s t a f f and p a r e n t s . 10. A b l e to p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p , b e i n g e n e r g e t i c , i n n o v a t i v e , a b l e to i n s p i r e and demand a re s p o n s e , c r e a t i v e , INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT UNCLASSIFIED 193 and s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e d . A b l e to encourage s t a f f to s i m i l a r q u a l i t i e s . 11. A knowledgeable a d m i n i s t r a t o r — a b l e t o h o l d the r e s p e c t o f the s t a f f , o f the o f f i c -i a l s , P a r e n t s and the community. Capable o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , and competent i n d i r e c t i n g the s c h o o l ' s c l a s s programmes, f i n a n c e s and o t h e r e v e n t s . 12. A b l e to d e f i n e own p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n , to e x p l a i n i t and defend i t . C o n f i d e n t t h e r e f o r e , and n o t l i k e l y to be o v e r - i n f l u e n c e d by i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h p a r t i c u l a r problems. 13. I n t e n t on b u i l d i n g a s c h o o l community which i s w h o l l y committed to the e d u c a t i o n o f the s t u d e n t s and to a harmonious team o f s t a f f ; i n which enthusiasm and enjoyment a r e i n v o l v e d i n b o t h l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE C r i t e r i a L i s t V-2(a) A u t h o r s : P a r e n t s 194 CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF A PRINCIPAL (as approved by the C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee) 1. The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d f e e l t h a t good r e l a t i o n s w i t h p a r e n t s and community a r e im p o r t a n t EXTERNAL INTEGRATION and t h a t p a r e n t s s h o u l d f e e l welcome i n the s c h o o l b o t h to communicate and p a r t i c i p a t e EXTERNAL INTEGRATION and he s h o u l d f u r t h e r b e l i e v e t h a t p a r e n t s s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n f o r m u l a t i n g s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 2. The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d b e l i e v e i n the c h o i c e o f modes o f t e a c h i n g , i . e . , — b o t h m u l t i - l e v e l f a m i l y g r o u p i n g and a l s o a more f o r m a l method o f t e a c h i n g , b o t h o f which emphasize b a s i c academic s k i l l s EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT and t h a t s e l f d i s c i p l i n e be con-s i d e r e d an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f the c h i l d ' s development i n b o t h methods. INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE He s h o u l d a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t p a r e n t s s h o u l d have the c h o i c e as to which method they w i s h t h e i r c h i l d r e n to have and f u r t h e r t h a t they s h o u l d have the o p t i o n o f moving t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n the system. EXTERNAL INTEGRATION He s h o u l d a l s o f e e l t h a t k i n d e r -g a r t e n i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h i s system. INTERNAL ADAPTATION 3. The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d s u p p o r t t h e community s c h o o l concept EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 195 and be aware o f the needs o f the community EXTERNAL INTEGRATION and i n p a r t i c u l a r have sympathy w i t h m u l t i - c u l t u r a l elements i n the community and w i t h i n the s c h o o l . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 4. The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be a good a d m i n i s t r a t o r and l e a d e r INTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION INTEGRATION w i t h a b r o a d e d u c a t i o n a l back-ground and e x p e r i e n c e . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE He s h o u l d a l s o be aware o f new developments i n e d u c a t i o n . INTERNAL ADAPTATION 5. I t i s f u r t h e r recommended t h a t the incoming p r i n c i p a l make a v a i l a b l e a statement o f h i s . e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y and t h a t the o u t g o i n g p r i n c i p a l and the Ar e a S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s h o u l d a d v i s e the s e l e c t i o n committee on what t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e has shown to be the needs o f p a r e n t s and the community. EXTERNAL INTEGRATION C r i t e r i a L i s t V-2(b) A u t h o r s : 196 CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF A PRINCIPAL (as approved by the O u t - o f - S c h o o l Care S o c i e t y ) 1. That t h e r e be c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t o f the community s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y , EXTERNAL INTEGRATION i . e . , — p r o v i d i n g r e s o u r c e s f o r the t o t a l community INTERNAL ADAPTATION and u s i n g the t o t a l community as a r e s o u r c e f o r the s c h o o l . EXTERNAL ADAPTATION T h i s would i n c l u d e a l l the members o f our community whether they have c h i l d r e n i n the s c h o o l o r n o t . 2. That t h e r e be c o n t i n u e d o b s e r v a -t i o n o f the needs o f the community EXTERNAL INTEGRATION and a w i l l i n g n e s s to take a c t i o n to p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s o v e r and above the r e g u l a r s c h o o l hours. INTERNAL ADAPTATION 3. That t h e r e be c o n t i n u e d encourage-ment f o r community s p i r i t and v o l u n t e e r h e l p w i t h i n the community. EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION ADAPTATION 4. That t h e r e be c o n t i n u e d sympathy f o r the m u l t i - c u l t u r a l elements o f the community. EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 5. That t h e r e be c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t f o r the two modes o f e d u c a t i o n as o u t l i n e d i n the l a t e s t n e w s l e t t e r . INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE GOAL ATTAINMENT 197 6. That p a r e n t s c o n t i n u e to have an element o f c h o i c e i n the p l a c e -ment o f t h e i r c h i l d w i t h i n t h e s e two modes. EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 7. That the s c h o o l c o n t i n u e to see l e a r n i n g as an adventure; and to r e g a r d each c h i l d as an i n d i v i d u a l s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t from h i s p a r e n t s and c u l t u r a l background but a l s o i n f l u e n c e d and growing w i t h i n t h a t back-ground . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 8. That the s c h o o l c o n t i n u e to see d i s c i p l i n e as a p r o c e s s which i n v o l v e s the c h i l d , and a l l o w s him/her to grow towards s e l f -d i s c i p l i n e and r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n s h i p . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE C r i t e r i a L i s t V-3 A u t h o r s : S t a f f 198 CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF A PRINCIPAL FOR SCHOOL AND ANNEX i s a l a r g e elementary s c h o o l where an ex t r e m e l y good r a p p o r t e x i s t s amongst the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s t a f f , p u p i l s and p a r e n t s . In view o f t h i s , we,would a p p r e c i a t e a p r i n c i p a l who w i l l c o n t i n u e the e x i s t i n g s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y , as s e t out below. INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE OBJECTIVE 1 To c o n t r i b u t e to the development o f each c h i l d ' s p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t by: - Grouping c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e i r p e e r s ; INTERNAL ADAPTATION - E a r l y d i a g n o s i s and r e m e d i a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT - M i n i m i z i n g the p r a c t i c e o f h a v i n g c h i l d r e n r e p e a t grades because o f slow p r o g r e s s . INTERNAL ADAPTATION - E n c o u r a g i n g e x c e l l e n c e through c o n t i n u o u s p r o g r e s s ; EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT - Emphasizing p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e -ment and s u c c e s s i n l e a r n i n g ; INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - Promoting s e l f - c o m p e t i t i o n and c o o p e r a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 199 OBJECTIVE 2 To c o n t r i b u t e to the c h i l d ' s sense o f s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by: - E n c o u r a g i n g s o c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o u r and a v o i d i n g s i t u a t i o n s t h a t may cause h o s t i l i t y ; INTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION - E m p h a s i z i n g s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e and the a c c e p t a n c e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r one's a c t i o n s ; INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT - P r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o -o p e r a t i o n w i t h i n and among c l a s s e s ; INTERNAL INTERNAL ADAPTATION INTEGRATION - E n c o u r a g i n g e v e r y c h i l d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n some form o f s e r v i c e to the s c h o o l and to o t h e r p u p i l s ( l i b r a r y , band, c h o i r , s p o r t s , c l a s s r o o m c h o r e s , s a f e t y p a t r o l , e t c . ) INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE OBJECTIVE 3 To meet the need o f the c h i l d to a c q u i r e s k i l l s and knowledge by: - F o l l o w i n g a c u r r i c u l u m t h a t has b o t h p r e s e n t and f u t u r e v a l u e to him and c h a l l e n g e s h i s i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y ; INTERNAL ADAPTATION - H a v i n g c l a s s r o o m s t h a t p r o v i d e the most c o n d u c i v e p h y s i c a l and human environments f o r l e a r n i n g ; INTERNAL ADAPTATION - U s i n g the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t a r e most a p p r o p r i a t e to the unique l e a r n i n g p a t t e r n o f the c h i l d ; INTERNAL ADAPTATION 200 - P r o v i d i n g enrichment e x p e r i e n c e s through e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , f i e l d t r i p s and s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s ; INTERNAL ADAPTATION - C o n t i n u a t i o n o f the L e a r n i n g Enrichment Program; INTERNAL ADAPTATION - Maximum u t i l i z a t i o n o f the L e a r n -i n g A s s i s t a n c e C e n t r e f o r c h i l d r e n w i t h s e v e r e and moderate l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s ; INTERNAL ADAPTATION - I n t e n s i v e use o f the L i b r a r y / Resource C e n t r e ; INTERNAL ADAPTATION - C o n t i n u a t i o n o f the e x t e n s i o n o f the F r e n c h program. INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE OBJECTIVE 4 To make the s c h o o l and f a m i l y a w o r k i n g - t o g e t h e r team by: - E n c o u r a g i n g the p a r e n t s to s h a r e i n d e c i s i o n s about the s c h o o l as s t i p u l a t e d i n the S c h o o l C o n s u l -t a t i v e Committee G u i d e l i n e s and to c o n t r i b u t e some o f t h e i r time and t a l e n t as c l a s s p a r e n t s , v o l u n t e e r a i d e s , t u t o r i a l a i d e s , d r i v e r s and s p e c i a l p r o j e c t workers; EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION ADAPTATION - Having open c l a s s r o o m s where p a r e n t s may v i s i t o r a s s i s t c h i l d r e n under the d i r e c t i o n o f the t e a c h e r s ; EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION ADAPTATION - H a v i n g an open s c h o o l o f f i c e where p a r e n t s a r e welcome to come and d i s c u s s e d u c a t i o n a l concerns about t h e i r c h i l d r e n ; EXTERNAL INTEGRATION - H a v i n g p a r e n t - t e a c h e r c o n f e r e n c e s and o t h e r meetings where i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the c h i l d ' s p r o g r e s s and development may be exchanged; > EXTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE GOAL ATTAINMENT 201 - U t i l i z i n g the P a r e n t s ' C o n s u l -t a t i v e Committee to promote p a r e n t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s and i n d i s c u s s i o n o f s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y and o b j e c t i v e s ; EXTERNAL INTEGRATION - C o n t i n u i n g the p r a c t i c e o f h a v i n g the Main S c h o o l and the Annex o p e r a t e as a s i n g l e o r g a n i z a t i o n . INTERNAL ADAPTATION OBJECTIVE 5 To have the s t a f f do t h e i r b e s t f o r e v e r y c h i l d by: - Having the commitment to p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the c h i l d r e n , p a r e n t s and one ano t h e r ; INTERNAL EXTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION - P r o v i d i n g , to the e x t e n t p o s s i b l e , o p t i o n s w i t h i n each c l a s s r o o m t h a t p e r m i t c h i l d r e n to l e a r n i n d i f f e r e n t ways; - Having a l t e r n a t i v e t e a c h i n g modes w i t h i n the s c h o o l , on a c l a s s b a s i s ; INTERNAL INTEGRATION - U s i n g a s c r e e n i n g committee to i d e n t i f y , a s s e s s and p r e s c r i b e f o r c h i l d r e n w i t h l e a r n i n g and/or b e h a v i o u r problems; INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - E n c o u r a g i n g the S t a f f C o u n c i l to become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the c o n d i t i o n s w hich promote optimum l e a r n i n g ; INTERNAL INTEGRATION - E n c o u r a g i n g i n n o v a t i v e t e a c h i n g methods and p r a c t i c e s ; INTERNAL INTEGRATION - T a k i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l development c o u r s e s to update knowledge, s k i l l s and e x p e r t i s e to meet the unique needs o f a l l c h i l d r e n . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENAN CE 202 OBJECTIVE 6 To f a c i l i t a t e c o o p e r a t i o n between the two g e o g r a p h i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d s e c t i o n s o f the s c h o o l (Annex and Main s c h o o l ) : - Having j o i n t s t a f f meetings; INTERNAL INTEGRATION - H a v i n g j o i n t s t a f f c o u n c i l meetings; INTERNAL INTEGRATION - P l a n n i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n p r o f e s s i o n a l development programs; INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - C o o p e r a t i n g i n : - a u n i f i e d S p o r t s Day INTERNAL INTEGRATION - P a r e n t - T e a c h e r Conferences EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE - Fund r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s EXTERNAL ADAPTATION - P a r e n t v o l u n t e e r e n l i s t m e n t s EXTERNAL INTEGRATION - R e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the S c h o o l C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee. EXTERNAL INTEGRATION The s u c c e s s o f t h i s p h i l o s o p h y and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f i t has been prove d c o n c l u s i v e l y a t t h i s s c h o o l . We, t h e r e f o r e , hope you w i l l g i v e e v e r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n to h e l p main-t a i n i t i n the f u t u r e . C r i t e r i a L i s t V-4 A u t h o r s : 203 CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF A PRINCIPAL A p r o s p e c t i v e p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d : Support the p r e s e n t S c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y o f development o f s e l f - w o r t h ; INTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION Be r e s p o n s i v e to and i n v o l v e d w i t h the community a t l a r g e ; EXTERNAL INTEGRATION Be w i l l i n g to e x p l o r e and/or implement i n n o v a t i v e i d e a s , programs, e t c . which, a f t e r c a r e f u l and j u d i c i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , show s i g n i f i c a n t promise o f d i s t i n c t and measurable b e n e f i t s ; INTERNAL ADAPTATION Develop i n s t u d e n t s r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y l e a d i n g to sound c i t i z e n s h i p ; INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE Be an e f f e c t i v e o r g a n i z e r and a d m i n i s t r a t o r ; INTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION F o s t e r the i n d i v i d u a l s a f e t y o f each s t u d e n t i n c l u d i n g p r e v e n t i o n o f b u l l y i n g ; INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE Encourage an atmosphere which d e v e l o p s r e s p e c t f u l and r e s p o n s i v e s t u d e n t s ; INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT Have e x p e r i e n c e as p r i n c i p a l o r s e n i o r v i c e - p r i n c i p a l w i t h wide range o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g a l l ages o f el e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s and be w i l l i n g to a c t u a l l y t e a c h i f p o s s i b l e . EXTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE PATTERN-MAINTENANCE Be r e s p o n s i v e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s u p p o r t i v e o f the s t a f f ; INTERNAL INTEGRATION Have a sense o f humour. INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION * P l e a s e n o t e t h a t the c r i t e r i a have not been l i s t e d i n o r d e r o f p r i o r i t y . C r i t e r i a L i s t V-5(a) A u t h o r s : P a r e n t s 204 Secondary S c h o o l CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF  PRINCIPALS Submitted by SCHOOL CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE 1. The c a n d i d a t e f o r p r i n c i p a l s h i p must espouse the p h i l o s o p h y o f Secondary S c h o o l as o u t l i n e d i n the r e c e n t A c c r e d i -t a t i o n B o o k l e t , s p e c i f i c a l l y : (a) To emphasize the p e r s o n a l worth o f each s t u d e n t and h e l p him develop a p o s i t i v e c o n c e p t . (b) To h e l p each s t u d e n t d e v e l o p competency i n the b a s i c and d i v e r s e s k i l l s e s s e n t i a l to l i v i n g i n the w o r l d , p a r t i c -u l a r l y the s k i l l s to communicate, to use numbers, to t h i n k and to make d e c i s i o n s . See a t t a c h e d - "The S c h o o l ' s P h i l o s o p h y . " 2. The c a n d i d a t e s h o u l d be a b l e to demonstrate an a b i l i t y to work w i t h p a r e n t s w i t h i n the community germane to t h i s s c h o o l and be s e n s i t i v e to the p l u r a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l needs i n the communi t y . 3. The c a n d i d a t e s h o u l d p o s s e s s l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s and a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e s k i l l s , EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE EXTERNAL INTEGRATION EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTERNAL ADAPTATION 205 and the a b i l i t y to d e l e g a t e a u t h o r i t y INTERNAL ADAPTATION so t h a t the s t a f f can know they a r e a l l members o f c o - o r d i n a t e d team INTERNAL INTEGRATION i n v o l v i n g s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s and the m s e l v e s . EXTERNAL INTEGRATION 4. The c a n d i d a t e s h o u l d have a back-ground i n some r e c o g n i z e d academic d i s c i p l i n e INTERNAL ADAPTATION and e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t matter a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s ; EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE a l s o an u p - t o - d a t e awareness o f c u r r i c u l u m needs and d e v e l o p -ment. INTERNAL ADAPTATION He s h o u l d a l s o be a b l e to demon-s t r a t e h i s own a b i l i t y to teac h by a s s i g n i n g to h i m s e l f a b l o c k o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 5. The c a n d i d a t e s h o u l d be a b l e to a c c e p t t e a c h e r s as they a r e by r e c o g n i z i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t r e n g t h s and/or weakness so t h a t he can h e l p p l a n t h e i r t i m e t a b l e a c c o r d i n g l y ; INTERNAL ADAPTATION ar r a n g e c o n d i t i o n s under which they c a n work e f f e c t i v e l y INTERNAL ADAPTATION and s t i m u l a t e them to put f o r t h t h e i r b e s t e f f o r t s . INTERNAL INTEGRATION I n a d d i t i o n , we s h o u l d be a b l e to a p p r e c i a t e the v a l u e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l development by o r g a n i z i n g o r recommending a p p r o p r i a t e i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . INTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE ADAPTATION C r i t e r i a L i s t V-5(b) A u t h o r s : Students 206 SECONDARY SCHOOL CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF PRINCIPALS Submitted by STUDENT COUNCIL 1. P h i l o s o p h y The c a n d i d a t e f o r p r i n c i p a l -s h i p s h o u l d be s u i t a b l e and a d a p t a b l e to the v a r i o u s needs and p h i l o s o p h i e s o f s c h o o l s he/she may be a p p o i n t e d t o . I n the case o f , the c a n d i d a t e must espouse the p h i l o s o p h y o u t l i n e d i n the accompanying b o o k l e t . INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION The f u t u r e p r i n c i p a l must be s e n s i t i v e l y aware o f the b a s i c g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f h i s / h e r f u t u r e s c h o o l and be a b l e to r e a l i z e and implement change when the s c h o o l has d i v e r t e d i t s e l f away from those g o a l s . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION GOAL ATTAINMENT GOAL ATTAINMENT 2. P r o f e s s i o n a l Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s The c a n d i d a t e s h o u l d have p e r s o n a l c r e d i b l e academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE as w e l l as c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e i n the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n . EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE In a d d i t i o n to a mastery o f c l a s s -room t e a c h i n g , INTERNAL ADAPTATION the c a n d i d a t e s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d to d e v e lop c r i t i c a l and a n a l y t i c a l p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , so as to r a t i o n a l l y d e a l w i t h the most a d v e r s e s i t u a t i o n s t h a t may a r i s e w i t h e i t h e r s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s , o r the community. INTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT INTEGRATION INTEGRATION 207 3. C u r r i c u l u m Awareness The c a n d i d a t e s h o u l d be a b l e to comprehand ( s i c ) and encourage use o f the e d u c a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l t h a t e x i s t s o u t s i d e the s c h o o l i n the community. EXTERNAL ADAPTATION The c a n d i d a t e s h o u l d a l s o r e a l i z e the importance o f t e a c h i n g the dynamics o f our community and the use o f our p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s and governmental a g e n c i e s o u t s i d e s c h o o l s . T h i s would u l t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e t e a c h i n g an awareness o f the p o l i t i c a l and economic r e a l i t i e s o f Canada and the World. INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 4. Role o f the P r i n c i p a l The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be p r i m -a r i l y c o ncerned w i t h the academic, c u l t u r a l , and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s i n which the s t u d e n t s a r e i n v o l v e d . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e se e d u c a t i o n a l programs i n a s c h o o l and s h o u l d h e l p i n c o n s t a n t c o n t a c t w i t h s t u d e n t s and s t a f f to make s u r e a l l programs a r e r u n e f f i c i e n t l y and i n t e r e s t i n g l y . INTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE I t i s hoped a p r i n c i p a l w i l l be i n v o l v e d as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e i n the m a n a g e r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the s c h o o l . UNCLASSIFIED 5. S t a f f R e l a t i o n s The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be a p o s i t i v e l e a d e r i n the eyes o f h i s s t a f f , r e s p e c t i n g t h e i r a b i l i t i e s and e n c o u r a g i n g them to develop t h e i r own i d e a s and t e a c h i n g s k i l l s to t h e i r f u l l p o t e n t i a l , so as to ensure the b e s t o f i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the s t u d e n t s . INTERNAL INTEGRATION 208 6. Student R e l a t i o n s The c a n d i d a t e s h o u l d have a genuine i n t e r e s t i n the needs o f the s t u d e n t body. INTERNAL INTEGRATION I t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t i n a l a r g e s c h o o l n ot a l l the needs c a n be met; however, the c a n d i d a t e s h o u l d not be p r e p a r e d to i s o l a t e h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f from the s t u d e n t body and" the problems t h a t f a c e i n d i v i d u a l s . INTERNAL ADAPTATION The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d attempt to draw r e s p e c t n o t i n the a u t h o r i -t a r i a n manner, b u t r e s p e c t f o r h i s l e a d e r s h i p and h i s i n v o l v e m e n t i n the e d u c a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s . INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE PATTERN-MAINTENANCE INTEGRATION ADAPTATION I t would be a p p r e c i a t e d by the s t u d e n t s i f t h e p r i n c i p a l c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n the t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s to some e x t e n t o r o t h e r w i s e come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h them more o f t e n i n t h e i r s t u d i e s . INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 7. S e l e c t i o n o f P r i n c i p a l s I t i s r e a l i z e d t h e r e i s no model o f a good e d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r , but the above c r i t e r i a can appear i n m y r i a d d i f f e r e n t l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e s , a l l o f which can be e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e . S e l e c t i o n cannot be f o r those who g i v e an appearance o f e f f i c i e n c y o r i n t e r e s t a l o n e , but f o r those who have p e r s o n a l l y found a p r a c t i c a l f o r m u l a f o r implementing the c r i t e r i a . INTERNAL EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT GOAL ATTAINMENT S e l e c t i o n s h o u l d be made by those who a r e a c a d e m i c a l l y and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y q u a l i f i e d to make the c h o i c e : members o f the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n and d i r e c t o r s o f e d u c a t i o n a t the s c h o o l b o a r d . The g e n e r a l p u b l i c s h o u l d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p p o i n t i n g s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s , as t h i s would t u r n i t i n t o a p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s , r a t h e r than appointment o f p e o p l e b e s t s u i t e d to the j o b . C r i t e r i a L i s t V-6 Au t h o r s : P a r e n t s 209 CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPAL I n response to a r e q u e s t from the and the Chairman o f the S.C.C. we submit the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a f o r the s e l e c -t i o n o f a s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l f o r The p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be: - A q u a l i f i e d and a c c o m p l i s h e d t e a c h e r . EXTERNAL INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE ADAPTATION - A demonstrated l e a d e r — i n s c h o o l o r o u t o f s c h o o l . INTERNAL EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT GOAL ATTAINMENT - Committed to a p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n and a b l e to e x p l a i n h i s views to h i s s t a f f and to those s t u d e n t s f o r whom he i s r e s p o n s i b l e . INTERNAL EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE GOAL ATTAINMENT - F a i r , INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION o b j e c t i v e , INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION and d e c i s i v e . INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT - A b l e to i d e n t i f y and communicate op p o r t u n i t i e s and problems. INTERNAL ADAPTATION - A competent o r g a n i z e r . INTERNAL INTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION - H i g h l y v i s i b l e and a c c e s s i b l e to s t a f f , s t u d e n t s , and community ( p a r e n t s ) . INTERNAL ADAPTATION 210 - P r e p a r e d to remain i n the p o s t a minimum o f t h r e e y e a r s . INTERNAL ADAPTATION - A b l e to e f f e c t i v e l y advance h i s s c h o o l ' s programs and needs to the h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y to whom he i s a c c o u n t a b l e . EXTERNAL EXTERNAL GOAL ATTAINMENT ADAPTATION - A b l e to e s t a b l i s h a r a p p o r t w i t h the s t u d e n t s . EXTERNAL INTERNAL INTERNAL INTEGRATION INTEGRATION PATTERN-MAINTENANCE Our i n t e r v i e w s , which have been conducted o v e r the p a s t two weeks, were not conducted on a br o a d s u r v e y b a s i s , b u t on a p e r s o n a l one w i t h c a s u a l and s e l e c t e d r e p -r e s e n t a t i v e s from the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p r o f e s s i o n , s t u d e n t s , and p a r e n t s , and the c r i t e r i a above f a i r l y r e f l e c t s the r e s u l t o f those i n t e r v i e w s . The d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f a s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l a r e c l e a r l y l a i d o u t i n r e g u l a t i o n s under the S c h o o l s A c t . However, we must e x p r e s s our s u r p r i s e t h a t a p p a r e n t l y no d e f i n i t i v e c r i t e r i a f o r the p o s i t i o n have been s e t o ut p r e v i o u s l y by e i t h e r the o r i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . ********** A p a r t from the c r i t e r i a above, we would l i k e to ex p r e s s our p e r s o n a l worry about: 1. The appa r e n t l a c k o f c o n c e r n f o r the e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s o f s c h o o l i n g i n the "pr o m o t i o n " system as a d m i n i s t e r e d by the INTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 211 2. The l a c k o f " r e f r e s h e r " t e a c h -i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n the h i g h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s . We make these s u g g e s t i o n s w i t h the o b j e c t i v e o f k e e p i n g our a d m i n i s -t r a t o r s c l o s e r to t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s r a t h e r than g e t t i n g o v e r b a l a n c e d towards t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n demands. EXTERNAL PATTERN-MAINTENANCE 

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