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The process of educational change : a staff development initiative in two school districts Edwards, Constance Louise 1987

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THE PROCESS OF EDUCATIONAL CHANGE: A STAFF DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE IN TWO SCHOOL DISTRICTS By CONSTANCE LOUISE EDWARDS B.Ed. The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 M.Ed. The U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , Adult and Higher Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1987 @ Constance Louise Edwards, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) i i ABSTRACT This study explored, d e s c r i b e d , and attempted to e x p l a i n the process of change i n two school d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The study sought to determine why and how the two d i s t r i c t s s e l e c t e d and put i n t o place the same s t a f f development program. A comparative case study method was used. A purposive sample of t h i r t y - t w o persons from the two d i s t r i c t s was interviewed to obta i n t h e i r perceptions of the processes of change i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d i s t r i c t s . The i n d i v i d u a l s i n the sample represented three l e v e l s of d i s t r i c t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e -- classroom teachers, school p r i n c i p a l s , and d i s t r i c t o f f i c i a l s . Other data sources were d i s t r i c t documents and the researcher's f i e l d notes. The data were f i r s t analyzed d e s c r i p t i v e l y using as a framework F u l l a n ' s three phases of the change process: (1) i n i t i a t i o n , ( 2 ) implementation, and (3) c o n t i n u a t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g perceived outcomes). Secondly, a comparative a n a l y s i s between the d i s t r i c t s was undertaken. T h i r d l y , an i n t e r p r e t i v e a n a l y s i s , i n r e l a t i o n to the current l i t e r a t u r e on change i n education was completed. The three analyses y i e l d e d twenty-nine f i n d i n g s , most of i i i which are i n accor d with the c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e . Some f i n d i n g s , however, do not f i t t h a t l i t e r a t u r e . An a n a l y s i s of these f i n d i n g s has l e d to s p e c u l a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s i n the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : (1) e x p l a i n i n g program s e l e c t i o n , (2) emphasizing the importance of c e r t a i n process i s s u e s ( t i m i n g , c o n f l i c t , and c e n t r a l o f f i c e involvement), (3) p a r t i c i p a t i o n of personnel i n r e l a t i o n to p o s i t i o n i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , and (4) the importance of c o n t e x t . Four recommendations based on the f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s are made. Two are addressed to p r a c t i t i o n e r s : (1) c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n should be p a i d to the contemporary l i t e r a t u r e because i t does e x p l a i n much of what happens, (2) p r a c t i t i o n e r s should c o n s i d e r c a r e f u l l y the le s s o n s to be learned from l o c a l v a r i a t i o n s because every case appears to have i t s c o n t i n g e n c i e s t h a t a f f e c t the proc e s s . The other two recommendations are addressed to those who would do f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h : (3) f u t u r e r e s e a r c h which seeks t o e x p l a i n what i t i s t h a t accounts f o r l o c a l v a r i a t i o n s c o u l d enhance our understanding of change, and (4) a number of metho d o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s of the present s t u d y should be addressed i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h attempts of t h i s k i n d . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES x i LIST OF FIGURES x i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i v CHAPTER 1. THE BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY.. 1 BACKGROUND PERSPECTIVES: STAFF DEVELOPMENT AS CHANGE 2 THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 12 OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY 13 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 15 STUDIES OF EDUCATIONAL INNOVATION 15 FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE THE CHANGE PROCESS 21 I n i t i a t i o n 23 Implementation 25 C o n t i n u a t i o n 29 A FRAMEWORK ON STAFF DEVELOPMENT 30 STAFF DEVELOPMENT AS CHANGE 37 CONCLUSION: NEEDED RESEARCH 42 3. RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES 45 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS 45 V CHAPTER PAGE THE NATURE OF THE STUDY AND DATA SOURCES 46 Interviews 47 D i s t r i c t Documents 49 Researcher's F i e l d Notes 50 DATA COLLECTION 50 I n i t i a l P r e p a r a t i o n 51 S i t e s e l e c t i o n 51 Sample procedure 53 C o l l e c t i o n of the Data 54 R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y of the Data. 55 DATA ANALYSIS 57 D e s c r i p t i v e A n a l y s i s 57 Comparative A n a l y s i s 58 I n t e r p r e t i v e A n a l y s i s 59 DELIMITATIONS AND LIMITATIONS. 59 4. METHOD OF PRESENTATION AND CASE BACKGROUND 61 METHOD OF PRESENTATION . . . 61 Chronology and Phasing 62 C o n t i n u a t i o n and Outcomes 64 CASE SETTING AND BACKGROUND. 65 D i s t r i c t A 66 D i s t r i c t B 71 v i CHAPTER PAGE CONTEXTS COMPARED 75 Si z e and L o c a t i o n 76 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e s 76 H i s t o r y of S t a f f Development 78 5. PROGRAM INITIATION 81 INITIATION IN DISTRICT A 82 INITIATION IN DISTRICT B 96 INITIATION: CONTRIBUTING FACTORS 113 Contextual V a r i a b l e s 113 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e 114 H i s t o r y of s t a f f development 115 Context as p r e d i c t o r 116 The Sources of the I n i t i a t i v e s 117 Key personnel 117 M o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r s i n the s e l e c t i o n 125 Sources as p r e d i c t o r 129 The A t t r i b u t e s of the Program 129 Program a v a i l a b i l i t y 129 Program c o m p a t i b i l i t y 131 A t t r i b u t e s as p r e d i c t o r 133 The Gathering of Support 134 E x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l support 134 v i i CHAPTER PAGE Target audiences 135 Marketing the program 139 Support as p r e d i c t o r 148 Summary of F a c t o r s C o n t r i b u t i n g to I n i t i a t i o n 149 6. PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION 153 IMPLEMENTATION IN DISTRICT A 154 IMPLEMENTATION IN DISTRICT B 169 MOVEMENT AND RESISTANCE IN IMPLEMENTATION 183 Personnel 184 Superintendents 184 C e n t r a l o f f i c e s t a f f 188 P r i n c i p a l s 189 Process 190 Implementation pla n n i n g 191 Program management 196 The use of t r a i n e r s 200 SUMMARY: RETROSPECT AND PROSPECT 203 Fa c t o r s Which Created Forward Movement 203 Personnel 205 Pla n n i n g 207 v i i i CHAPTER PAGE Content and time 208 F a c t o r s Which Created R e s i s t a n c e 208 Personnel 208 Plan n i n g 209 7. CONTINUATION AND OUTCOMES 211 CONTINUATION IN DISTRICT A 212 C o n t i n u a t i o n : An Outcome 219 Program content 220 Sustained support and l e a d e r s h i p . . . 221 REPORTED OUTCOMES IN BOTH DISTRICTS.... 223 Teachers 224 Improved t e a c h i n g 224 Improved p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l confidence 227 Improved student performance 228 Improved c o l l e g i a l i t y 228 Provided a b a s i s f o r other p r o f e s s i o n a l growth 228 Negative outcomes 229 P r i n c i p a l s 230 Improved s u p e r v i s o r y p r a c t i c e s 231 Improved r e p o r t w r i t i n g / e v a l u a t i o n 234 i x CHAPTER PAGE Improved c o l l e g i a l i t y / c l i m a t e 234 Improved t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s 235 Negative f a c t o r s 235 C e n t r a l O f f i c e Personnel 236 P o s i t i v e outcomes 237 Negative outcomes 241 Summary 242 OUTCOMES AND CHANGE 24 3 8. THE FINDINGS OF THE STUDY AND THE PROCESSES OF CHANGE 2 47 INITIATION 247 IMPLEMENTATION 272 CONTINUATION IN DISTRICT A 285 OUTCOMES IN BOTH DISTRICTS 291 THE FINDINGS OF THE PRESENT STUDY COMPARED WITH FULLAN AND GRIFFIN 296 9. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.. 301 SUMMARY 301 F i n d i n g s Related to I n i t i a t i o n 302 Fi n d i n g s R e l a t e d to Implementation... 304 F i n d i n g s R e l a t e d t o C o n t i n u a t i o n i n D i s t r i c t A 304 X CHAPTER PAGE F i n d i n g s R e l a t e d to Pe r c e i v e d Outcomes i n Both D i s t r i c t s 305 CONCLUSIONS 306 Accounting For S e l e c t i o n 306 Needs, fads or? 307 Support and p o p u l a r i t y of themes... 308 A f t e r S e l e c t i o n : Process Issues 316 The importance of t i m i n g 316 A r e l a t i v e absence of c o n f l i c t 319 C e n t r a l o f f i c e involvement 321 Per s o n n e l : P o s i t i o n and P a r t i c i p a t i o n 323 The Importance of Context 329 RECOMMENDATIONS 332 BIBLIOGRAPHY 336 APPENDIX I L e t t e r of Approval ( D i s t r i c t A) 350 APPENDIX II L e t t e r of Approval ( D i s t r i c t B) 351 APPENDIX I I I Interview Schedule 352 x i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE IA. F u l l a n ' s Factors Associated with Change.... 22 IB. F u l l a n and G r i f f i n Compared 39 2. F u l l a n ' s Phasing and the Corresponding Time Frames of Those Phases i n the Two School D i s t r i c t s 63 3. Contexts Compared 80 4. I n i t i a t i o n Phase 81 5. I n i t i a t i o n Events i n D i s t r i c t A 83 6. Respondents and Their Respective P o s i t i o n s i n D i s t r i c t A 84 7. I n i t i a t i o n Events i n D i s t r i c t B 97 8. Respondents and Their Respective P o s i t i o n s i n D i s t r i c t B 98 9. D i s t r i c t A Respondents' Perceptions of "WHO" Selected the ITIP Program 118 10. D i s t r i c t B Respondents' Perceptions of "WHO" Selected the ITIP Program 119 11. P r e d i c t i o n s : How w i l l f a c t o r s which have c o n t r i b u t e d to i n i t i a t i o n a f f e c t implementation? 151 12. Implementation Phase 153 13. Implementation Events i n D i s t r i c t A 155 14. Implementation Events i n D i s t r i c t B 170 x i i TABLE PAGE 15. F a c t o r s Which Emerged and Appeared to Have an Impact on Implementation 204 16. C o n t i n u a t i o n Events i n D i s t r i c t A 213 17. F a c t o r s Which C o n t r i b u t e d t o C o n t i n u a t i o n 219 18. Teachers' P e r c e p t i o n s of the I n i t i a t i v e s i n D i s t r i c t s A and B 225 19. P r i n c i p a l s ' P e r c e p t i o n s of the I n i t i a t i v e s i n D i s t r i c t s A and B 232 20. C e n t r a l O f f i c e Personnel's P e r c e p t i o n s of the I n i t i a t i v e s i n D i s t r i c t s A and B 238 21. F i n d i n g s of the Present Study Compared with F u l l a n and G r i f f i n 297 22. R e l a t i o n s h i p Between O r g a n i z a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n and the Roles Played by Personnel During the I n i t i a t i v e s 325 x i i i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Changes i n Role of Superintendents 185 2. Theme E v o l u t i o n i n D i s t r i c t A 310 3. Theme E v o l u t i o n i n D i s t r i c t B 311 4. Theme E v o l u t i o n i n Both D i s t r i c t s A and B... 312 xiv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I thank the members of my s u p e r v i s o r y committee, Dr. Ian Housego (Chairman), Dr. Graham K e l s e y and Dr. Peter Grimmett f o r t h e i r support and a s s i s t a n c e . My s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n i s extended to a number of i n d i v i d u a l s who have, over the past few y e a r s , p r o v i d e d f r i e n d s h i p , empathy and humour: Maria Marson, Kathy Adams, Dr. A l i s o n Dewar, Rob Watson, Sharon O'Shea and Dr. Frank E c h o l s . My s p e c i a l thanks to S t a n l e y French f o r h i s time, a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement over the l a s t few months. A p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o expressed to Diane Gray, whose word p r o c e s s i n g s k i l l s have proved i n v a l u a b l e . I am g r a t e f u l f o r her f r i e n d s h i p and p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n my work. I acknowledge my p a r e n t s , Bert and Mary K a r l i n e r and my s i s t e r Susan B r e r e t o n . T h e i r love and u n c o n d i t i o n a l support gave me e x t r a s t r e n g t h when I needed i t . I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l to my husband Bob, whose p a t i e n c e , love and c o n s t a n t encouragement enabled me to complete my d o c t o r a l work. CHAPTER 1 THE BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The process of change i n education i s a t o p i c of considerable current i n t e r e s t . Researchers who explore the change process i n c r e a s i n g l y i n s i s t upon the importance of the l o c a l context i n undertaking change (Berman, 1981; F u l l a n , 1982; G r i f f i n , 1983). One way school d i s t r i c t s attempt change i s through s t a f f development programs. While these programs are oft e n a mechanism for the i n t r o d u c t i o n of changes i n teaching or other f u n c t i o n s , they are themselves changes i n that they are new a c t i v i t i e s , s e l e c t e d from a p a r t i c u l a r source f o r p a r t i c u l a r reasons. They are both instruments of change and changes i n t h e i r own r i g h t . In B r i t i s h Columbia, between the years 1976-1984, two adjacent school d i s t r i c t s put i n t o place the same s t a f f development program. This provided a unique o p p o r t u n i t y to explore not only the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r program, but a l s o the extent to which d i f f e r e n t l o c a l contexts made for d i f f e r e n c e s i n the processes by which the new program was s e l e c t e d and put i n t o p l a c e . 1 2 This chapter contains a d e s c r i p t i o n of the background to the study, a statement of purpose, and an overview of the t h e s i s . BACKGROUND PERSPECTIVES: STAFF DEVELOPMENT AS CHANGE S t a f f development i s the focus of an extensive body of l i t e r a t u r e . A review of that l i t e r a t u r e from an h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e shows evidence of s t a f f development, i n some form, for as long as teachers have worked i n p u b l i c schools ( T y l e r , 1971). The term " s t a f f development 1' i s one which i s not u n i v e r s a l l y used by those who w r i t e about the education of teachers. Throughout the l i t e r a t u r e there are attempts to define and c l a r i f y terms r e f e r r i n g to teacher i n - s e r v i c e education. Terms such as p r o f e s s i o n a l development, c o n t i n u i n g education, and s t a f f development are used interchangeably i n reference to the l n - s e r v l c e education of teachers. The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n of s t a f f development o f f e r e d by G r i f f i n provides the view of s t a f f development taken In the present study: S t a f f development r e f e r s to any systematic attempt to change school personnel (1983:414). G r i f f i n (1983) takes the p o s i t i o n that s t a f f development change may be r o l e s p e c i f i c , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , c u r r l c u l a r , 3 personal or mult ifo c u s e d . C u r r e n t l y , s t a f f development programs, i n a v a r i e t y of forms, are part of the r e g u l a r a c t i v i t i e s of every school d i s t r i c t . In f a c t , recent references suggest th a t s t a f f development i s a massive undertaking In education i n North America. Yarger et a l . (1980) report t h a t the r a t i o of s t a f f development personnel to teachers may be as high as one In ten i n America. Given those f i n d i n g s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to consider the r e s u l t s of a n a t i o n a l survey (Joyce et a l . , 1977) which i n d i c a t e s that "teachers i n v a r i a b l y reported that they p a r t i c i p a t e d i n r e l a t i v e l y small amounts of s t a f f development during the course of the preceding year." With respect to a t t i t u d e s regarding the q u a l i t y of programs, the same study r e p o r t s that only 25% f e l t programs were i n "good or e x c e l l e n t h e a l t h , " while 30% saw them as " l e s s than adequate or poor" and the remaining 45% were "lukewarm In t h e i r assessment." Those r e s u l t s suggest that many teachers are c r i t i c a l of present p r a c t i c e s yet the great m a j o r i t y reported i n the Joyce et a l . survey (1977) that s t a f f development g e n e r a l l y was e i t h e r an " e x c e l l e n t " or "good" idea. While comparable s t u d i e s are not a v a i l a b l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t seems reasonable to suggest t h a t i n 4 t h i s province the r a t i o of s t a f f development personnel to teachers i s not as high as one to ten. However, a l o c a l study d i d i n d i c a t e that a t t i t u d e s of B . C . teachers toward s t a f f development are s i m i l a r to the f i n d i n g s of the Joyce et a l . (1977) study i n s o f a r as they considered s t a f f development to be a good idea but were c r i t i c a l of present p r a c t i c e s (Bens, 1981). The l i t e r a t u r e r e p o r t s a range of a t t i t u d e s expressed by ed u c a t i o n a l researchers regarding the present s t a t u s of s t a f f development. Anderson et a l . (1979) conclude that s t a f f development o f f e r s one of the most promising roads to the improvement of i n s t r u c t i o n . At the opposite end of the continuum i s the opinion expressed by Wood and Thompson (1980) who take the p o s i t i o n that most s t a f f development programs are i r r e l e v a n t , i n e f f e c t i v e , and a waste of time and money. While these two p o s i t i o n s may appear to be c o n t r a d i c t o r y , they suggest t h a t , i f s t a f f development p r a c t i c e s are going to improve I n s t r u c t i o n , the programs cannot be seen by educators to be i r r e l e v a n t and i n e f f e c t i v e and, i n times of f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t , s t a f f development programs cannot be seen to be a waste of time and money. S t a f f development programs are c r i t i c i z e d i n the 5 l i t e r a t u r e f o r f a l l i n g to respond to l o c a l l y assessed needs and f o r responding to fads — jumping on bandwagons that come and go. As i l l u s t r a t e d i n an h i s t o r i c a l review of the l i t e r a t u r e on s t a f f development ( T y l e r , 1971; Howey and Vaughan, 1983; Knezevich, 1984) the p a r t i c u l a r focus of s t a f f development programs at any given time i s of t e n a response to a major current theme. For example: 1930's There was post depression i n t e r e s t i n new c u r r i c u l u m with an emphasis on v o c a t i o n a l relevancy. This appears to have been a response to the increased number of students remaining i n school due to the poor economic c o n d i t i o n s . 1960's In response to the l a u n c h i n g of "Sputnik" i n 1957, the focus turned q u i c k l y to an increased i n t e r e s t i n mathematics and scien c e . One r e s u l t was n a t i o n a l l y developed "teacher proof" packaged programs i n these areas. 1970's The s o c i a l a c t i v i s m of the day created a stronger need f o r awareness of c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . 6 One r e s u l t was an emphasis on t r a i n i n g i n human r e l a t i o n s , group process and communication s k i l l s . 1980's The economic c o n d i t i o n s of the present have r e s u l t e d i n p u b l i c c r i e s for cost e f f i c i e n c y i n education. The p u b l i c i s demanding a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . This c o i n c i d e s with an i n t e r e s t i n school improvement and teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s . S t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e s have been discussed from a number of p e r s p e c t i v e s . Studies have examined i t s extensiveness, the c o s t , the v a r i e t y of program content, the process of implementation, the degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n or value which i t seems to provide and t o a l e s s e r extent, the impact of c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s . One feature of s t a f f development programs that has escaped the a t t e n t i o n of most researchers i s the process of s e l e c t i o n of a t o p i c or program or theme. A l l s t a f f development programs have a t o p i c , theme or t i t l e . I t Is t h i s theme which d e f i n e s the program, se t s I t s tone, i d e n t i f i e s the need i t i s addressing and, to some exten t , a f f e c t s i t s p o p u l a r i t y . As I l l u s t r a t e d above, the s t a f f development program themes oft e n r e f l e c t a 7 c u r r e n t major I n t e r e s t i n education. During times of f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t and p u b l i c demands f o r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y "teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s " has become a dominant theme. This means th a t a d d i t i o n a l pressures are a p p l i e d to d e c i s i o n s r e l a t e d to funds designated f o r s t a f f development. There i s a l s o a heightened p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the perceived q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e provided by school d i s t r i c t s . Lack of m o b i l i t y among school personnel, coupled w i t h an aging teaching population has added to the need f o r e f f e c t i v e s t a f f development at a time when budgets are being cut. Thus, the need f o r d i s t r i c t s to make wise s e l e c t i o n s of s t a f f development programs i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important. Several school d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia have responded to the theme of "teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s " by s e l e c t i n g and p u t t i n g i n t o place programs r e f l e c t i n g t hat t o p i c . Two d i s t r i c t s i n the lower mainland s e l e c t e d and put i n t o place the same program w i t h i n a few years of each other. Both d i s t r i c t s expressed a w i l l i n g n e s s to be part of the present study thus making i t p o s s i b l e to explore, i n two s i t e s , the processes of s e l e c t i o n and p u t t i n g i n t o place a program r e f l e c t i n g a "teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s " theme. This study was worth doing f o r a number of reasons. We are l i m i t e d i n our a b i l i t y to answer questions about 8 the way s t a f f development programs are s e l e c t e d and subsequently put i n t o p l a c e . What l i t t l e knowledge there i s , i s based l a r g e l y on s t u d i e s conducted i n the United S t a t e s . Very few reference sources reviewed were Canadian s t u d i e s and even fewer were s p e c i f i c to B r i t i s h Columbia. None of the s t u d i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y addressed the questions of who s e l e c t s programs and how and why those s e l e c t i o n s are made. The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study should provide greater understanding of how and why these school d i s t r i c t s s e l e c t e d a s t a f f development program r e f l e c t i n g a current major i n t e r e s t i n the f i e l d of education. The f i n d i n g s should a l s o provide information about who made s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n s and upon what those d e c i s i o n s were based. Moreover, the f i n d i n g s should a l s o add to our understanding of what occurs a f t e r the s e l e c t i o n has been made and attempts are made to put the i n i t i a t i v e i n place. Context i s i d e n t i f i e d i n current l i t e r a t u r e as a f a c t o r which has a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on any change i n i t i a t i v e (Berman and McLaughlin, 1976; Berman, 1981; L i t t l e , 1981; G r i f f i n , 1983). Even when school d i s t r i c t s i n i t i a t e s t a f f development programs i n response to a common s t i m u l u s , these programs may d i f f e r from d i s t r i c t to d i s t r i c t . For instance i n the 1970's the executive development programs i n Kamloops and 9 Vancouver were d i f f e r e n t although both were responses to a common need f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , s e l e c t i o n and p r e p a r a t i o n (Bruce, 1976). D i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s may be a f f e c t e d by d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s which, i n t u r n , may i n f l u e n c e the s e l e c t i o n and p u t t i n g i n t o p l a c e of a given s t a f f development program. Moreover, d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s may be a f f e c t e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways by the same c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e . Thus, the s e l e c t i o n of a common program i n two separate d i s t r i c t s may r e s u l t i n two ve r y d i f f e r e n t programs. T h i s study, which examines the s e l e c t i o n and p u t t i n g i n t o p l a c e of the same program i n two d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s , may provide some e m p i r i c a l evidence i n d i c a t i n g . t h e e f f e c t which l o c a l c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s have on the process of i n i t i a t i n g change. The study examines the p e r c e p t i o n s of the s e l e c t i o n and p u t t i n g i n t o p l a c e of a d i s t r i c t s t a f f development program as expressed by three l e v e l s of personnel ( c e n t r a l o f f i c e p ersonnel, p r i n c i p a l s and teac h e r s ) i n two s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . In the l i t e r a t u r e the r o l e of p r i n c i p a l s and teachers i n the change process has been examined more c l o s e l y than t h a t of c e n t r a l o f f i c e p e r s o n n e l . The need to study the r o l e of c e n t r a l o f f i c e p e r s o nnel i n d i s t r i c t s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e s i s c u r r e n t l y acknowledged by r e s e a r c h e r s ( F u l l a n , 1982; 10 F u l l a n , 1985). H a l l et a l . make the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n : There i s a s u r p r i s i n g l y l i m i t e d amount of l i t e r a t u r e about the r o l e s and a c t i v i t i e s of s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o f f i c e p e r s o n n e l . Much th a t i s a v a i l a b l e t a r g e t the g e n e r i c r o l e of s u p e r v i s o r s and the a c t i v i t i e s of s u p e r v i s i o n . These tend to be t h e o r e t i c a l and c o n t e x t - f r e e d e s c r i p t i o n s of the r o l e r a t h e r than p i e c e s that d i r e c t l y s c r u t i n i z e r e a l p o s i t i o n s and people who work i n p a r t i c u l a r d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s (1985:2). T h i s study e x p l o r e s the a c t i v i t i e s of c e n t r a l o f f i c e p ersonnel and d e s c r i b e s t h e i r r o l e s , along with those of the p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s , i n the two d i s t r i c t - w i d e programs. Another j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s study i s t h a t i t d e s c r i b e s the processes of s e l e c t i o n and p u t t i n g i n t o p l a c e of an i n n o v a t i o n i n two s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . As w i l l be shown i n the l i t e r a t u r e review, there i s a need to conduct e x p l o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h i n the area of s t a f f development because there i s s t i l l much to l e a r n about the c o m p l e x i t i e s of i n i t i a t i n g change i n e d u c a t i o n . F u l l a n (1985:392) takes the p o s i t i o n t h a t " s t u d i e s that t r a c e change over a p e r i o d of time (even s h o r t p e r i o d s ) are e s s e n t i a l to i n f e r r i n g how people change." Yarger and G a l l u z o (1983:176) p o i n t out t h a t there are "very few case s t u d i e s of program a c t i v i t i e s ; thus, there are few r e p o r t s a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b i n g the 'how t o ' of 11 i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n . . . c l e a r d e s c r i p t i o n s of the processes i n v o l v e d and the problems encountered are r a r e indeed." McQuarrie et a l . r e f e r to the present s t a f f development p r a c t i c e s as a maze and put f o r t h the f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t i o n : The e x i t to a maze i s found by s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t i n g the t o t a l maze, i d e n t i f y i n g the t r u e path through i t , and d e v e l o p i n g a p l a n to get from where one i s to where one wishes to be. To escape from the development maze, then, we need to examine s y s t e m a t i c models which attempt to d e s c r i b e the process f o r d e s i g n i n g e f f e c t i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l development programs. Once we've found a model t h a t holds promise, we can determine the extent to which t h a t process has been implemented and what needs to be done to a l l o w us to emerge from the maze (1984:76). C o n s i s t e n t with t h a t p o i n t of view i s another which Yarger and G a l l u z o p r e s e n t : C e r t a i n l y one aspect of r e s e a r c h on i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n t h a t needs a great d e a l of work i s the a c c u r a t e and o b j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of how one goes about d e v e l o p i n g a program t h a t i s b e l i e v e d to be a c o n t r i b u t i o n to the f i e l d (1983:186). The present study e x p l o r e s s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e s which o c c u r r e d i n two d i s t r i c t s , one from 1976-1986 and the other from 1979-1986 and d e s c r i b e s i n d e t a i l the processes of s e l e c t i o n and p u t t i n g i n t o p l a c e of these programs. P u l l a n h i g h l i g h t s the need f o r such an i n q u i r y i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n : 12 Research needs to go beyond t h e o r i e s of change (what f a c t o r s e x p l a i n change) t o t h e o r i e s of 'changing' (how change occurs, and how to use t h i s new knowledge) (1985:392). Because the same program was i n i t i a t e d i n two s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n a few years of each other, the study a l l o w s f o r the data to be compared a c r o s s s i t e s . These f i n d i n g s should c o n t r i b u t e to a b e t t e r understanding of the process of i n i t i a t i n g change. THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY In B r i t i s h Columbia, i n re c e n t y e a r s , two s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s adopted a s t a f f development program r e f l e c t i n g the theme of "teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s . " The s e l e c t i o n s were not made at the same time, nor were they commonly i n s p i r e d . The preceding d i s c u s s i o n i d e n t i f i e s a number of q u e s t i o n s which suggest t h a t a study of these two s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e s may shed l i g h t on some of the unexplained f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to the way i n which s t a f f development programs are s e l e c t e d and put i n t o p l a c e . The purpose of the study i s to analyze the process of change by a d e t a i l e d examination of the same s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e i n two d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . 13 OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY T h i s document i s organized i n t o nine c h a p t e r s . In chapter 1, the t o p i c was introduced and background p e r s p e c t i v e s were p r o v i d e d . The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r and purpose of the study were presented as i s an overview of the t h e s i s . Chapter 2 i n c l u d e s a review of the l i t e r a t u r e on change i n the educa t i o n s e t t i n g i n r e l a t i o n to the undertaking of s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e s . The chapter concludes with a summary of needed r e s e a r c h . Chapter 3 presents the gen e r a l r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n and two r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s which emerged from the review of the l i t e r a t u r e . The q u a l i t a t i v e methods used to c o l l e c t and analyze the data are a l s o d i s c u s s e d . The d e l i m i t a t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s of the study are presented. Chapter 4 d e s c r i b e s the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the data and the context of the two s i t e s i n which the study was conducted. Chapters 5 through 7 provide in-depth d e s c r i p t i o n s of the three stages of the change pro c e s s : i n i t i a t i o n , implementation and c o n t i n u a t i o n . These d e s c r i p t i o n s are presented i n a n a r r a t i v e , the content being taken from i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s , d i s t r i c t documents and r e s e a r c h e r ' s f i e l d notes. 14 The i n i t i a t i o n phase i s d e s c r i b e d i n chapter 5 and the f i n d i n g s are d i s c u s s e d and comparisons are made between d i s t r i c t s . The implementation phase i s the focus of chapter 6. A d e s c r i p t i o n of the events of implementation i n both d i s t r i c t s i s presented i n n a r r a t i v e form f i r s t . Then the f i n d i n g s are d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n to events which preceded the phase as w e l l as f o r what they might p r e d i c t f o r the next phase. Chapter 7 g i v e s a n a r r a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of the c o n t i n u a t i o n phase i n one d i s t r i c t and d i s c u s s e s those f i n d i n g s . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n of p e r c e i v e d outcomes as r e p o r t e d by respondents i n both d i s t r i c t s . In chapter 8, the f i n d i n g s are d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n to c u r r e n t knowledge about i n i t i a t i n g change i n the e d u c a t i o n s e t t i n g by way of s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e s . F i n a l l y , chapter 9 p r e s e n t s a s e t of c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter reviews c u r r e n t work on the sub j e c t of ed u c a t i o n a l change. Since the present study examines s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e s as an example of change i n education, the review a l s o includes some work on what i s Important to consider when examining s t a f f development. The chapter begins with a p r e s e n t a t i o n of s t u d i e s on edu c a t i o n a l innovations and i s followed by a d i s c u s s i o n of the f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e the change process i n education. Some research on s t a f f development i s then presented and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between e d u c a t i o n a l change and s t a f f development i s e s t a b l i s h e d . A concluding s e c t i o n draws on the m a t e r i a l reviewed and i d e n t i f i e s the kind of research which i s needed. STUDIES OF EDUCATIONAL INNOVATIONS A number of s t u d i e s on i n i t i a t i n g change have been done i n the ed u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g and provide i n s i g h t s i n t o a v a r i e t y of aspects of the change process. The f o l l o w i n g appear to be most r e l e v a n t to the present study. Berman and McLaughlin re p o r t the f i n d i n g s of a 15 16 l a r g e study which examined the process of implementing e d u c a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n s and focused on the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g those i n i t i a t i v e s . T h e i r r e s e a r c h i n c l u d e s a survey of 293 change agent p r o j e c t s , f i e l d work on 29 d i f f e r e n t s i t e s , as w e l l as i n t e r v i e w s with o f f i c i a l s who were i n v o l v e d on four of the p r o j e c t s . Berman and McLaughlin conclude t h a t : 1. Implementation, r a t h e r than the adoption of a technology, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n about i t , or the l e v e l of funds committed to i t , dominated the i n n o v a t i v e process and i t s outcomes; 2. E f f e c t i v e implementation depended on the r e c e p t i v i t y of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g ; 3. E f f e c t i v e implementation was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the process of mutual a d a p t a t i o n ; and 4. L o c a l school systems v a r i e d i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y to d e a l with i n n o v a t i o n s and with the stages of the i n n o v a t i v e process (1976:365). An E x p l o r a t o r y Study of School D i s t r i c t A daptation was conducted by Berman and McLaughlin. T h e i r e x p l o r a t o r y study was designed to shed l i g h t on the way sc h o o l d i s t r i c t s adapt to e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s f o r change. The r e s e a r c h took plac e over a two-year p e r i o d and c o n s i s t e d of f i e l d work i n f i v e d i s t r i c t s with r e p u t a t i o n s f o r being u n u s u a l l y i n n o v a t i v e . The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary of a 1979 r e p o r t i n which they conclude t h a t there were three broad c a t e g o r i e s of p a t t e r n s of a d a p t a t i o n among the s c h o o l 17 d i s t r i c t s s t u d i e d : 1. Maintenance. School d i s t r i c t s where adaptation without e d u c a t i o n a l Improvement occurred; 2. Decay. School d i s t r i c t s where the community p o l a r i z e d along i d e o l o g i c a l l i n e s , p o l i t i c i z e d the school system and imposed new p r i o r i t i e s on i t s e d u c a t i o n a l program thus p l a c i n g the long-term e f f e c t i v e n e s s of e d u c a t i o n a l d e l i v e r y i n jeopardy; and 3. Development. School d i s t r i c t s where they adapted to t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r pressures so as to c o n s i s t e n t l y implement and s u s t a i n profound changes that may improve e d u c a t i o n a l performance. Berman discusses the concept of p o l i c y image development as a f u n c t i o n of m o b i l i z a t i o n ( i n i t i a t i o n ) during an e d u c a t i o n a l change e f f o r t . His d e f i n i t i o n of p o l i c y image development i s as f o l l o w s : The d e c i s i o n to adopt an i n n o v a t i o n , to seek funds to innovate, and a l l a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s (which) d e f i n e what a school d i s t r i c t intends to do and communicates these i n t e n t i o n s to various audiences, both e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l to the d i s t r i c t (1981:269) . With reference to the few other s t u d i e s which have considered t h i s f u n c t i o n , Berman h i g h l i g h t s the importance of developing a p o l i c y image f o r a change e f f o r t . While he contends p o l i c y image development i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important during i n i t i a t i o n , he a l s o makes the po i n t that during the l i f e of a p r o j e c t such an Image evolves and may change over time. The importance of p o l i c y image development i s l i n k e d by Berman to the 18 g a t h e r i n g of support, not only by funders but a l s o by p a r t i c i p a n t s . He sees p o l i c y image development as a means of f a c i l i t a t i n g a commonly held view of the p r o j e c t among p a r t i c i p a n t s which he b e l i e v e s i s an a t t r i b u t e which c o n t r i b u t e s to program success. Other researchers are i n agreement wi t h t h i s p o s i t i o n (Moore et a l . , 1977; M i l e s et a l . , 1978; F u l l a n , 1982). The study of Dissemination E f f o r t s Supporting School Improvement (DESSI) i n v e s t i g a t e d 146 schools where improvement e f f o r t s were underway. The sample represents a wide range: inner c i t y to farm communities wit h student populations from very s m a l l t o s e v e r a l thousand. Based on t h e i r f i n d i n g s they conclude t h a t : 1. School improvement programs supported by the U.S. Department of Education are d e l i v e r i n g f a r - r e a c h i n g and s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n conventional s c h o o l s ; 2. There i s consensus among researchers and concurrence by p r a c t i t i o n e r s about the c r i t i c a l i n g r e d i e n t s of an e f f e c t i v e improvement s t r a t e g y . The f a c e t of s u c c e s s f u l adoption and implementation i d e n t i f i e d i n other e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s are a l s o operative i n t h i s study involvement more than content; 3. F o r c e f u l l e a d e r s h i p i s the f a c t o r t h a t c o n t r i b u t e s most d i r e c t l y and s u r e l y to major, e f f e c t i v e change i n classroom p r a c t i c e that become f i r m l y incorporated i n t o everyday r o u t i n e ; 4. New p r a c t i c e s e n t a i l i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of change l i v e and d i e by the amount of personal a s s i s t a n c e they r e c e i v e ; 19 5. Concrete steps must be taken to ensure that s u c c e s s f u l new p r a c t i c e s are i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o an improved r o u t i n e . School personnel implementing a new p r a c t i c e who do not a t t e n d to i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n may r e a l i z e o n l y ephemeral r e s u l t s ; 6. School b u i l d i n g s t a f f do not experience f e d e r a l d i s s e m i n a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s as more or l e s s i n t r u s i v e than s t a t e or d i s t r i c t s t r a t e g i e s ; 7. There are vast d i f f e r e n c e s i n the assumptions u n d e r l y i n g the d i s s e m i n a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s of d i f f e r e n t f e d e r a l programs, and consequent d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r d i s s e m i n a t i o n procedures and s t r u c t u r e s ; and 8. There i s minimal c o o r d i n a t i o n among f e d e r a l programs, among o f f i c e s w i t h i n s t a t e a g e n c i e s , and between f e d e r a l and s t a t e a g e n c i e s . T h i s o f t e n r e s u l t s i n much " r e i n v e n t i o n of the wheel", d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t s , and f a i l u r e to mount comprehensive e f f o r t s with the p o t e n t i a l of s i g n i f i c a n t s c h o o l improvement ( C r a n d a l l , 1979:8-14). Taking a somewhat narrower p e r s p e c t i v e on implementing change, H a l l et a l . (1985) conducted a study e n t i t l e d , D i s t r i c t O f f i c e P e r s o n n e l : T h e i r Roles  and I n f l u e n c e on School and Classroom Change. Recog n i z i n g the lack of i n f o r m a t i o n on the r o l e of d i s t r i c t o f f i c e personnel i n the change process, H a l l et a l . sought to e x p l o r e the f u n c t i o n and i n f l u e n c e of the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e as i t r e l a t e s to s c h o o l change. The data were d e r i v e d from two s o u r c e s : an a n a l y s i s of the l i t e r a t u r e and an a n a l y s i s of i n t e r v i e w d a t a . A t o t a l of 550 i n t e r v i e w s took p l a c e i n e l e v e n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n c l u d i n g 60 i n t e r v i e w s i n d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s and 490 i n 20 s c h o o l s . T h e i r r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g s i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : How they ( d i s t r i c t o f f i c e personnel) work i n r e l a t i o n to the change p r o c e s s : 1. D i s t r i c t o f f i c e personnel are p r o v i d i n g the impetus as w e l l as being the source of many inn o v a t i o n s t h a t are implemented i n s c h o o l s ; 2. D i s t r i c t o f f i c e personnel tend not to be aware of apparent d i f f e r e n c e s i n how they approach elementary s c h o o l s as compared to secondary s c h o o l s ; 3. Teachers tend to l i n k the c r e d i b i l i t y of d i s t r i c t o f f i c e personnel to t h e i r t e a c h i n g assignment p r i o r to j o i n i n g the d i s t r i c t of f i c e ; 4. A d i s t r i c t o f f i c e person's c r e d i b i l i t y with teachers i s f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d with how long the person has been away from the classroom; 5. I t appears t h a t the l i n e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e make the adoption d e c i s i o n and then i t i s the s t a f f persons who plan and f a c i l i t a t e implementation at the school and classroom l e v e l ; and 6. The people i n l i n e p o s i t i o n s tend to be more a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n o r i e n t a t i o n and they d e a l d i r e c t l y with p r i n c i p a l s (1985:18). S t r a t e g i e s and t a c t i c s employed to f a c i l i t a t e s c h o o l change: 1. There i s n e a r l y unanimous agreement i n the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e t h a t p r i n c i p a l s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r change w i t h i n t h e i r b u i l d i n g s ; and 2. A f r e q u e n t l y observed s t r a t e g y f o r making the i n i t i a l a d o p t i o n d e c i s i o n i s down/up/down (1985:20). These four s t u d i e s provide an i n d i c a t i o n of c u r r e n t f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d to implementing change i n the e d u c a t i o n 21 s e t t i n g . FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE THE CHANGE PROCESS Var i o u s l i s t s of f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e the change process i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s appear i n the 1 i t e r a t u r e . The Rand Change Agent Study (1977) i d e n t i f i e s four c l u s t e r s of f a c t o r s c r u c i a l to s u c c e s s f u l implementation and l o c a l change: (1) i n s t i t u t i o n a l m o t i v a t i o n , (2) p r o j e c t implementation s t r a t e g i e s , (3) i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p , and (4) teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Berman (1981) concludes t h a t f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of f a c t o r s a f f e c t e d the e d u c a t i o n a l change pro c e s s . Those f a c t o r s a r e : (1) l o c a l c o n t e x t u a l c o n d i t i o n s , (2) primary a t t r i b u t e s of change e f f o r t s , (3) l o c a l p o l i c y c h o i c e s , (4) endogenous v a r i a b l e s , and (5) e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s ( o u t s i d e v a r i a b l e s s u b j e c t to change d u r i n g implementation). Based on an e x t e n s i v e review of r e s e a r c h , F u l l a n not o n l y i d e n t i f i e s f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e the change process but a l s o r e l a t e s those f a c t o r s to each of the three broad phases of the change process ( i n i t i a t i o n , implementation, and c o n t i n u a t i o n ) as i n d i c a t e d i n Table 1A. Table 1A Fullan s Factors Associated with Change. Initiation/A doption: 1. Existence and quality of innovations 2. Access to information 3. A d v o c a c y of centra! administrators 4. Teacher pressure/support 5. Consultants and change agents 6. Community pressure/support/apathy/opposition 7. Availability of federal or other funds 8. New central legislation or policy (federal/state.province) 9. Problem solving incentives for adopt ion 10. Bureaucratic incentives for adoption Implementation: A. Characteristics of the Change 1. Need and relevance of the change 2. Clarity 3. Complexity 4. Quality and practicality of programs B. Characteristics at the School District Level 5. The history of innovative attempts 6. The adoption process 7. Central administrative support and involvement 8. Staff development (in-service) and participation 9. Time-line and information system (evaluation) 10. Board and community characteristics C. Characteristics at the School Level 11. The principal 12. Teacher-teacher relations 13. Teacher characteristics and orientations D. Characteristics External to the Local System 14. Role of government 15. External assistance Continuation: 1. High level of local interest 2. Ability to fund at the local level 3. High level of central office interest and support 4. Act ive and continued involvement of principals 23 I n i t i a t i o n F u l l a n a s s o c i a t e s ten f a c t o r s with the I n i t i a t i o n / a d o p t i o n phase. He takes the view t h a t the existe n c e and q u a l i t y of innovations i s important to adoption. He acknowledges that many educ a t i o n a l changes have been adopted i n the past without much a t t e n t i o n to q u a l i t y . However, he f e e l s that the q u a l i t y of e x t e r n a l l y derived programs i s being more c a r e f u l l y considered at present because of l i m i t e d resources. D i f f e r e n t i a l access to Information i s another f a c t o r r e l a t e d to adoption and, i n F u l l a n ' s view, accounts f o r why c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel most oft e n make s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n s . He po i n t s out that i t i s c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel, as d i s t i n c t from school personnel, who spend large amounts of time at conferences and workshops. The advocacy of c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i s seen by F u l l a n to be an important source f o r d i s t r i c t - w i d e change. He suggests t h a t "one of the most powerful advocates i s the c h i e f d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r , with h i s or her s t a f f , e s p e c i a l l y i n combination with school board support or mandate" (1982:45). With respect to teacher advocacy, F u l l a n r e i t e r a t e s h i s p o s i t i o n t h a t teachers have l e s s o p portunity t o come i n t o contact with new ideas but acknowledges that 24 teachers do innovate. While teachers seldom i n i t i a t e new programs, they can be a powerful source of i n f l u e n c e on adoption when they are given a r o l e i n the i n i t i a t i o n phase. F u l l a n r e f e r s to consulants and change agents as l i n k i n g agents and suggests t h a t they are o f t e n caught between responding to teachers who want help with adopting innovations and responding to c e n t r a l o f f i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Community pressure/support/opposition/apathy i s a combination of f a c t o r s which F u l l a n suggests r e s u l t s i n various adoption p a t t e r n s . He po i n t s out th a t "some communities support i n n o v a t i o n , others block i t , most are a p a t h e t i c , and even more are a l l of those things at one time or another" (1982:47). Whatever the case, the r o l e of the community has the p o t e n t i a l of i n f l u e n c i n g e d u c a t i o n a l change. Resources, i n F u l l a n ' s view, are a f a c t o r which i n f l u e n c e s a l l stages of the process. He po i n t s out that school d i s t r i c t s o f t e n do not have s u f f i c i e n t funds to adopt many innovations and, thus, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of  government and other funds can f a c i l i t a t e adoption. F u l l a n suggests t h a t new c e n t r a l government  l e g i s l a t i o n or p o l i c y which mandates adoption at the l o c a l d i s t r i c t l e v e l sometimes i s the cause of adoption. 25 One way d i s t r i c t s are d r i v e n to adopt an e d u c a t i o n a l change i s by way of a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g  o r i e n t a t i o n . T h i s approach i s d e s c r i b e d by F u l l a n as an attempt to address a l o c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d need. Another way i n which d i s t r i c t s are d r i v e n to adopt a change i s by way of a b u r e a u c r a t i c o r i e n t a t i o n . He suggests t h a t the p o l i t i c a l and symbolic value of a d o p t i o n f o r b u r e a u c r a t i c reasons i s sometimes of g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e than e d u c a t i o n a l merit but may be necessary f o r p o l i t i c a l s u r v i v a l . Implementation F u l l a n a s s o c i a t e s f i f t e e n f a c t o r s with the implementation phase. He i d e n t i f i e s need as one of four c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the change which i s r e l a t e d to implementation. Based on a review of c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e , F u l l a n suggests t h a t implementation i s more e f f e c t i v e when the i n n o v a t i o n i s focussed on an i d e n t i f i e d need. The second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , c l a r i t y about program goals and means, i s i d e n t i f i e d by F u l l a n as a p e r e n n i a l problem i n the change p r o c e s s . He p o i n t s out t h a t problems r e l a t e d to c l a r i t y have been found i n most s t u d i e s of s i g n i f i c a n t change. He takes the p o s i t i o n t h a t the l a c k of c l a r i t y with r e s p e c t to what the 26 i n n o v a t i o n means i n p r a c t i c e , r e p r e s e n t s a major problem d u r i n g implementation. The t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s complexity. "Complexity r e f e r s to the d i f f i c u l t y and extent of change r e q u i r e d of the i n d i v i d u a l s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r implementation" ( F u l l a n , 1982:58). Based on a review of the l i t e r a t u r e , F u l l a n suggests t h a t complex changes promise to accomplish more. The q u a l i t y and p r a c t i c a l i t y of programs i s the f o u r t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a s s o c i a t e d with the nature of the change. F u l l a n takes the p o s i t i o n t h a t "teachers want, need, and b e n e f i t from t a n g i b l e , r e l e v a n t program m a t e r i a l s which have been produced and t e s t e d i n r e a l c lassroom s i t u a t i o n s " (1982:60). The extent to which programs are not seen to be of high q u a l i t y and p r a c t i c a l i s the extent to which there w i l l be d i f f i c u l t i e s d u r i n g implementation. F a c t o r 5 through 7 r e l a t e to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t l e v e l . The d i s t r i c t ' s h i s t o r y of  i n n o v a t i o n attempts i s the f i r s t d i s t r i c t l e v e l f a c t o r d i s c u s s e d by F u l l a n . In r e f e r e n c e to Sarason (1971), F u l l a n proposes that the more teachers or others have had a h i s t o r y of negative experiences with i n n o v a t i o n attempts, the more c y n i c a l or a p a t h e t i c they w i l l be about new attempts. 27 The second d i s t r i c t l e v e l f a c t o r i s the adoption  process. F u l l a n suggests that i f adoption r e s u l t s i n a s p e c i f i c , h i g h - q u a l i t y innovation which i s compatible with d i s t r i c t needs, i t w i l l have a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on the implementation phase. D i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support i s the t h i r d implementation c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e l e v a n t to the d i s t r i c t l e v e l . F u l l a n takes the p o s i t i o n that d i s t r i c t - w i d e change w i l l not happen without d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support. Moreover, teachers and others w i l l not take a change e f f o r t s e r i o u s l y unless c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s demonstrate through t h e i r a c t i o n that they should. S t a f f development and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s the f o u r t h f a c t o r at the d i s t r i c t l e v e l which F u l l a n a s s o c i a t e s with implementation. He takes the p o s i t i o n that s t a f f development i s one of the most important f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to change i n p r a c t i c e and to be e f f e c t i v e s t a f f development should combine concrete t e a c h e r - s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , continuous a s s i s t a n c e and support d u r i n g implementation and r e g u l a r meetings with peers and o t h e r s . Th f i f t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c at the d i s t r i c t l e v e l i s t i m e - l i n e and Information systems ( e v a l u a t i o n ) . He makes two p o i n t s : (1) r e a l i s t i c t i m e - l i n e s need to be set for the complex process of change; and (2) an 28 e v a l u a t i o n of the problems of implementation, of student achievement and of other d e s i r e d outcomes need to be conducted. The f i n a l d i s t r i c t l e v e l f a c t o r suggested by F u l l a n i s Board and community c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . He p o i n t s out that i n d i v i d u a l parents r a t h e r than community groups appear to have the most powerful e f f e c t on implementation. F u l l a n presents three school l e v e l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l e v a n t to implementation, the f i r s t being the r o l e of  the p r i n c i p a l . Based on the major research on i nnovation and school e f f e c t i v e n e s s , F u l l a n i n d i c a t e s that the p r i n c i p a l has the p o t e n t i a l to i n f l u e n c e change s i g n i f i c a n t l y , but many p r i n c i p a l s lack the necessary p r e p a r a t i o n to f a c i l i t a t e change at the school l e v e l . Teacher-teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s F u l l a n ' s second school l e v e l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a s s o c i a t e d with implementation. He suggests that the most current theory of change emphasizes the importance of peer i n t e r a c t i o n . The t h i r d school l e v e l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i d e n t i f i e d by F u l l a n i s teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and o r i e n t a t i o n . He contends t h a t the one t r a i t r e l a t e d to s u c c e s s f u l implementation and student outcomes i s the teacher's sense of e f f i c a c y . 29 The f i n a l category of implementation f a c t o r s suggested by F u l l a n i s the e x t e r n a l environment. He suggests two. Government agencies i s the f i r s t of the e x t e r n a l environment f a c t o r s . He makes the poi n t t h a t while government p o l i c i e s a f f e c t l o c a l s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n s , the extent to which implementation w i l l or w i l l not occur depends on the congruence between the l o c a l needs and how the changes are put i n t o p l a c e . F u l l a n ' s second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e l a t e d to the e x t e r n a l environment i s e x t e r n a l a s s i s t a n c e . As with government agencies, e x t e r n a l a s s i s t a n c e , such as support m a t e r i a l s , w i l l s t i m u l a t e implementation only i f they are i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the other f a c t o r s at the l o c a l l e v e l . C o n t i n u a t i o n Four f a c t o r s are a s s o c i a t e d with the c o n t i n u a t i o n phase. High l e v e l of l o c a l I n t e r e s t i s one f a c t o r which F u l l a n suggests i s necessary f o r c o n t i n u a t i o n to occur. The a b i l i t y of the d i s t r i c t to fund the program or  p r o j e c t without the a i d of e x t e r n a l resources i s the second f a c t o r . T h i r d , c e n t r a l o f f i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  support must continue and f o u r t h , continued, a c t i v e  Involvement of p r i n c i p a l s i s needed. I t i s u s e f u l to r e l a t e F u l l a n ' s f a c t o r s t o s p e c i f i c 30 kinds of change that take plac e i n s c h o o l s . Many of these changes focus on the e d u c a t i o n a l program. Changes of t h i s k i nd f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e the ed u c a t i o n and s k i l l development of p r a c t i t i o n e r s . As i n d i c a t e d on page 1, one way s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s attempt change i s through s t a f f development programs. While these programs are o f t e n mechanisms f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of changes i n t e a c h i n g or other f u n c t i o n s , they are themselves changes i n th a t they are new a c t i v i t i e s , s e l e c t e d from a p a r t i c u l a r source f o r p a r t i c u l a r reasons. They are both instruments of change and changes i n t h e i r own r i g h t . I t i s u s e f u l to examine a c u r r e n t framework i n which s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e s can be e x p l a i n e d . A FRAMEWORK ON STAFF DEVELOPMENT Research s t u d i e s of e d u c a t i o n a l change with s t a f f development as t h e i r primary focus are ve r y l i m i t e d (Yarger, 1982; G r i f f i n , 1983; Yarger and G a l l u z o , 1983; Howey and Vaughan, 1983). S t a f f development i s a complex t o p i c and r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have been plagued with methodological d i f f i c u l t i e s . While r e s e a r c h s p e c i f i c a l l y on s t a f f development i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to c l a i m a sound body of knowledge, there a r e , as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, s i g n i f i c a n t amounts of r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h i n the areas of teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s , 31 e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l s and e f f e c t i v e change process i n s c h o o l s , c r u c i a l t o e f f e c t i v e s t a f f development (Vaughan, 1983). For the purpose of t h i s review, the r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h i s c o n s i d e r e d i n the context of four a s p e c t s of s t a f f development ( G r i f f i n , 1983): 1. Assessment 2. Content 3. Context 4. Process Assessment 'Assessment' r e f e r s not to a c o n v e n t i o n a l needs assessment but to a c a r e f u l examination of needs. The needs may be observed by o u t s i d e r s to the s c h o o l or p e r c e i v e d by tea c h e r s i n s i d e the system. Assessment a l s o i n c l u d e s judging the degree to which what i s needed/desired can or should become an o b j e c t of s t a f f development ( G r i f f i n , 1983:416). L i t t l e i s known about how d i s t r i c t s s e l e c t s t a f f development program t o p i c s . As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , themes o f t e n r e f l e c t major c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t s of the day but how and why those s e l e c t i o n s were made was not r e p o r t e d . As G r i f f i n p o i n t s out: Many observers of s c h o o l s have judged t h a t the content of s t a f f development i s most o f t e n determined by an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n the s c h o o l or s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , a l though t h i s judgement i s not supported by s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h (1983:418). 32 G r i f f i n acknowledges the evidence that from time to time t e a c h e r s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , government agencies and other i n s t i t u t i o n s p l a y a p a r t i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of s t a f f development a c t i v i t i e s . He a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t few s t u d i e s have expl o r e d the q u e s t i o n of who s e l e c t s s t a f f development programs and upon what they base t h e i r s e l e c t i o n s . Moreover, the l i t e r a t u r e i s l i m i t e d i n r e p o r t i n g the r o l e s played by personnel i n d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s d u r i n g the s e l e c t i o n of a program. Content 'Content' of s t a f f development i s the body of knowledge, s k i l l , and/or a t t i t u d e s t h a t i s meant to be int r o d u c e d i n t o the sch o o l s e t t i n g ( G r i f f i n , 1983:416). A major c r i t i c i s m of s t a f f development t h a t s u r f a c e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e i s t h a t the program content does not take i n t o account the c o n s i d e r a b l e knowledge on e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g ( G r i f f i n , 1983; Howey and Vaughan, 1983; Vaughan, 1983; S c h l e c h t y and Whitford, 1983; McQuarrie et a l . , 1984). For example, Howey and Vaughan make the f o l l o w i n g comment: Even though there are c o n s i s t e n t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s of e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g behaviours t h a t are e f f e c t i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g student l e a r n i n g i n elementary r e a d i n g and mathematics, we would contend t h a t the vas t m a j o r i t y of i n - s e r v i c e o f f e r i n g s do not u t i l i z e those r e s u l t s (or p r e - s e r v i c e 33 courses, f o r that matter) as the content or even p a r t of the content t h a t i s o f f e r e d to teachers (1983:100). There are two bodies of r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d to teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s and both are s u b s t a n t i a l . The f i r s t i s the r e s e a r c h on e f f e c t i v e c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n (Medley, 1977; Good, 1980; S t a l l i n g s , 1981; Rosenshine, 1982) and the second i s the r e s e a r c h on classroom management (Kounin, 1970; Ev e r t s o n et a l . , 1980; Brophy, 1982). Given t h a t there i s a s u b s t a n t i a l body of r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s a v a i l a b l e to s t a f f developers one wonders how d e c i s i o n s are made r e g a r d i n g program content. While u t i l i z i n g programs which r e f l e c t the c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h on e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g makes good common sense, there must be other f a c t o r s which have an impact on e f f e c t i v e l y implementing change because some d i s t r i c t s have i n i t i a t e d programs based on c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h yet problems r e g a r d i n g p e r c e i v e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s s t i l l e x i s t i n the minds of the p u b l i c . I t appears t h a t d i s t r i c t c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact. Context 'Context* i s the complex s e t of s e t t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n which s t a f f development occurs ( G r i f f i n , 1983:416). S e v e r a l r e c e n t s t u d i e s have u n d e r l i n e d the importance of c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s on s t a f f development p r a c t i c e s 34 (Berman and McLaughlin, 1974; L i t t l e , 1981; Berman, 1981; F u l l a n , 1982; Howey and Vaughan, 1983). Howey and Vaughan (1983:102) take the p o s i t i o n t h a t "the content must be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n the context of l o c a l p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e as w e l l as s t a f f a t t i t u d e s about and use of content being proposed." G r i f f i n (1983:418) suggests t h a t the i n f l u e n c e of context on s t a f f development must not be underestimated. He reviews s e v e r a l s t u d i e s (Barth, 1972; Berman and McLaughlin, 1975; G r i f f i n and Lieberman, 1974; Bentzen, 1974; Devaney and Thorn, 1975; L i t t l e , 1981) and prov i d e s the f o l l o w i n g summary of c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s t h a t r e l a t e t o s t a f f development p r a c t i c e s : 1. Norms of the s e t t i n g ( i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e g u l a r i t i e s ); 2. H i s t o r y of the o r g a n i z a t i o n ; 3. P e r c e p t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s of s c h o o l personnel r e g a r d i n g p r a c t i c e ; 4. P e r c e p t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s of community members; 5. Mutual a d a p t a t i o n of the sc h o o l and the d e s i r e d change; 6. A b i l i t y of l e a d e r s (and others) t o analyze the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s e t t i n g ; 7. Knowledge of the o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s p a r t s by l e a d e r s ; 8. C o - o r d i n a t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s by l e a d e r s ; 9. Supportive l e a d e r s h i p ; 35 10. A d u l t - a d u l t i n t e r a c t i o n s ( i n c l u d i n g the p r i n c i p a l ) ; and 11. F l e x i b i l i t y i n use of time and space ( G r i f f i n , 1983:418). Berman (1981) argues t h a t the same i n n o v a t i v e idea i s implemented d i f f e r e n t l y i n d i f f e r e n t s i t e s depending on the context and, f u r t h e r , the value of any program depends on the cont e x t , thus i t changes from s i t e to s i t e f o r the same program. He goes on to emphasize the need f o r c o m p a t i b i l i t y between the i n n o v a t i o n and the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l context and takes the p o s i t i o n t h a t the c o m p a t i b i l i t y f a c t o r i s a program a t t r i b u t e which p l a y s an important p a r t i n the s e l e c t i o n as w e l l as implementation. Berman (1981) suggests t h a t outcomes of e d u c a t i o n a l change e f f o r t s tend to be context-dependent and time-dependent. Berman and McLaughlin (1976:361) r e p o r t the f i n d i n g s of a major study of implementing e d u c a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n s and conclude t h a t "an in n o v a t i o n ' s l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g has a major i n f l u e n c e on i t s pro s p e c t s f o r e f f e c t i v e implementation." Thus, a study which e x p l o r e s and d e s c r i b e s the s e l e c t i o n and implementation of the same research-based program i n d i f f e r e n t s i t e s may d i s c o v e r c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s which a f f e c t the change e f f o r t . 36 Process 'Process' of s t a f f development r e f e r s to how content i s conveyed to the p a r t i c i p a n t s and to d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s t h a t are r e l a t e d to p l a n n i n g , implementation and e v a l u a t i o n of both content and the d e l i v e r y system ( G r i f f i n , 1983:416). Based on the s t u d i e s he reviewed, G r i f f i n (1983) i d e n t i f i e s the f o l l o w i n g process f a c t o r s which are r e l a t e d to p o s i t i v e s t a f f development outcomes: 1. v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; 2. t e a c h e r - a d m i n i s t r a t o r teaming and other p r o f e s s i o n a l c o l l e g i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; 3. teachers as t r a i n e r s ; 4. r e l e a s e time f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s ; 5. c o n c r e t e , t e a c h e r - s p e c i f i c p l a n s ; 6. t e a c h e r s o b s e r v i n g other t e a c h e r s ; 7. p a r t i c i p a t i v e governance; 8. i n - c l a s s a s s i s t a n c e ; 9. s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c s u p p o r t i n g m a t e r i a l s ; 10. d i a l o g u e , d e c i s i o n making, a c t i o n , and e v a l u a t i o n r e l a t e d to s c h o o l problems; 11. acknowledgement t h a t the s c h o o l i s an i n v a l u a b l e resource f o r problem s o l v i n g ; 12. a v a i l a b i l i t y of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e ; 13. s y s t e m a t i c a t t e n t i o n by t e a c h e r s to i d e n t i f y i n g and a c t i n g on problems they p e r c e i v e as being important ones; 14. need; and 37 15. e v a l u a t i o n ( G r i f f i n , 1983:422,423). STAFF DEVELOPMENT AS CHANGE There i s a growing body of informat i o n i n the area of e f f e c t i v e s t a f f development processes (Bentzen, 1974; Berman and McLaughlin, 1975, 1976; Berman and F r i e d e r w i t z e r , 1981; Wood et a l . , 1981; L i t t l e , 1981; Berman, 1981; F u l l a n , 1982). Most w r i t e r s agree with F u l l a n (1982) who suggests that "change Is a process not an event." The process of implementing change i s examined most f r e q u e n t l y i n terms of stages or phases (Lewin, 1951; Rogers, 1962; Havelock, 1969; Berman and McLaughlin, 1976; Berman, 1981; Wood et a l . , 1981; F u l l a n , 1982). As al r e a d y noted, F u l l a n (1982), a f t e r a review of the l i t e r a t u r e on change i n education, i d e n t i f i e s three broad phases as i n i t i a t i o n , Implementation, and c o n t i n u a t i o n . As demonstrated i n Table 1A, F u l l a n i d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r s which appear to in f l u e n c e the process during the three phases. G r i f f i n (1983) discussed four aspects of s t a f f development and i t Is i n t e r e s t i n g to note the extent to which there are s i m i l a r i t i e s between F u l l a n ' s f a c t o r s and what G r i f f i n c o n s i d e r s the Important components of the four aspects of s t a f f development. An examination of these 38 s i m i l a r i t i e s f o l l o w s . The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the process of e d u c a t i o n a l change and s t a f f development i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table IB i n which the components of F u l l a n ' s (1982) f a c t o r s of the change process are matched with G r i f f i n ' s (1983) as p e c t s of s t a f f development. The t a b l e shows F u l l a n ' s f a c t o r s down the l e f t s i d e and G r i f f i n ' s a s p e c t s a c r o s s the top. An "x" i s shown a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n f o r each of G r i f f i n ' s a s p e c t s of s t a f f development which can be s a i d to correspond with one or more of F u l l a n ' s f a c t o r s . G r i f f i n does not r e l a t e the asp e c t s of s t a f f development to phases, t h e r e f o r e , where the r e i s a match between an aspect and a f a c t o r , i t i s sometimes i n d i c a t e d i n more than one phase. For example, G r i f f i n ' s aspect 6 r e f e r s to s u p p o r t i v e l e a d e r s h i p and matches with F u l l a n ' s f a c t o r s r e g a r d i n g l e a d e r s h i p , both d i s t r i c t and c e n t r a l o f f i c e , i n a l l three phases ( f a c t o r 3 i n a d o p t i o n , f a c t o r s 7 and 11 i n implementation and f a c t o r s 3 and 4 i n c o n t i n u a t i o n ) . G r i f f i n ' s (1983) d i s c u s s i o n of the assessment and content a s p e c t s of s t a f f development does not d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y with the f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with each. As a r e s u l t , these two a s p e c t s do not lend themselves to an easy match with F u l l a n ' s f a c t o r s . However, G r i f f i n does Table IB Fullan and Griffin Compared 39 Fullan's Factors Associated with Change. Griffin's Aspects of Staff Development. Initiation/Adoption: 1. Existence and quality of innovations 2. Access to information 3. A d v o c a c y of central administrators 4. Teacher pressure/support 5. Consultants and change agents 6. Community pressure/support/apathy/opposition 7. Availability of federal or other funds 8. New central legislation or policy (federal/state.province) 9. Problem solving incentives for adopt ion 10. Bureaucratic incentives for adopt ion X X XXX X X XX X XXXXX Implementation: A. Characteristics of the Change 1. Need and relevance of the change 2. Clarity 3. Complexity 4. Quality and practicality of programs X X XXX X XX B. Characteristics at the School District Level 5. The history of innovative attempts 6. The adoption process 7. Central administrative support and involvement 8. Staff development (in-service) and participation 9. Time-line and information system (evaluation) 10. Board and community characteristics X XXX X XXX XXXXX XXXXXXX XX C. Characteristics at the School Level 11. The principal 12. Teacher-teacher relations 13. Teacher characteristics and orientations XXXX X X XXX XXX XX D. Charcateristics External to the Local System 14. Role of government 15. External assistance X XX Continuation: 1. High level of local interest 2. Ability to fund at the local level 3. High level of central office interest and support 4. Act ive and continued involvement of principals X XXX XXX X 4 0 acknowledge t h a t a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s i n s c h o o l s and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s u s u a l l y determine the content of s t a f f development. In t h a t way he i s i n accord with F u l l a n on assessment as i n d i c a t e d i n Table 2 . With r e s p e c t to conten t , G r i f f i n makes the p o i n t t h a t program s e l e c t i o n s can now be based on the works of s c h o l a r s i n order to i d e n t i f y content which would l i k e l y r e s u l t i n improved p r a c t i c e of sc h o o l p e r s o n n e l . In t h i s sense, he and F u l l a n are i n agreement as i n d i c a t e d i n Table IB. As d i s t i n c t from assessment and content, G r i f f i n does i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s which appear to c o n t r i b u t e to s u c c e s s f u l s t a f f development i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of cont e x t and pro c e s s . I t i s i n r e l a t i o n t o these two aspe c t s t h a t G r i f f i n and F u l l a n are v e r y c l o s e l y a l i g n e d . Table IB i l l u s t r a t e s the o v e r l a p . G r i f f i n ' s aspects of cont e x t , as demonstrated i n Table IB match c l o s e l y with the c o n t e x t u a l l y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d by F u l l a n . A l l but one of G r i f f i n ' s e l e v e n a s p e c t s of context match with f a c t o r s of F u l l a n . G r i f f i n p l a c e s an emphasis on l e a d e r s h i p i n s o f a r as he i n c l u d e s four s p e c i f i c l e a d e r s h i p - r e l a t e d a s p e c t s . While F u l l a n ' s l e a d e r s h i p f a c t o r s are s t a t e d more g e n e r a l l y , a l l of G r i f f i n ' s a s p e c t s match with F u l l a n . L e a d e r s h i p f a c t o r s , both d i s t r i c t and s c h o o l l e v e l , are i n c l u d e d i n a l l three of F u l l a n ' s phases. Both G r i f f i n 41 and F u l l a n a l s o i d e n t i f y the p o t e n t i a l i n f l u e n c e of three other c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s : (1) community; (2) h i s t o r y of i n n o v a t i v e attempts; and (3) i n t e r a c t i o n between teac h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s and among t e a c h e r s . There i s a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p between G r i f f i n ' s a spects of process and F u l l a n ' s p r o c e s s - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s . A l l of G r i f f i n ' s f i f t e e n a s p e c t s of process correspond t o f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d by F u l l a n . As evidenced i n Table 1, there i s a s t r o n g l i n k between as p e c t s and f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to process a t the sc h o o l l e v e l d u r i n g implementation. T h i s i s a r e s u l t of the emphasis G r i f f i n p l a c e s on process a t the sc h o o l l e v e l . Both G r i f f i n and F u l l a n agree on the i n f l u e n c e of the support of t e a c h e r s , a s s i s t a n c e t o t e a c h e r s , and pro b l e m - s o l v i n g s t r a t e g i e s a t the sc h o o l l e v e l . As w e l l , they are i n accord on the importance of the need for and re l e v a n c e of the change, q u a l i t y of the program, p a r t i c i p a t i o n of teach e r s and p r i n c i p a l s , and on-going e v a l u a t i o n . O v e r a l l , when G r i f f i n ' s four aspects of s t a f f development are con s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n to F u l l a n ' s f a c t o r s of change, there i s a c l o s e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p noted between the two. I t seems reasonable to take the p o s i t i o n t h a t a s p e c t s seen by G r i f f i n to i n f l u e n c e s t a f f development are very much i n accor d with f a c t o r s seen by 42 F u l l a n to i n f l u e n c e e d u c a t i o n a l change. In t h i s way, there appears to be j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a study which examines s t a f f development as a means of d i s c o v e r i n g more about the process of change i n e d u c a t i o n . Based on the o v e r l a p between the two frameworks, i t seems l i k e l y t h a t context and process i s s u e s w i l l emerge as important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which i n f l u e n c e the two i n i t i a t i v e s being s t u d i e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y as they r e l a t e d to l e a d e r s h i p . CONCLUSION: NEEDED RESEARCH The a v a i l a b l e e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t the e a r l y stages of assessment are c r u c i a l to the s u c c e s s f u l implementation of s t a f f development programs, yet the l i t e r a t u r e does not provide i n f o r m a t i o n about how themes or programs are s e l e c t e d . I t has been demonstrated t h a t themes or programs o f t e n r e f l e c t c u r r e n t major i n t e r e s t s i n e d u c a t i o n : however, one i s l e f t wondering i f s e l e c t e d programs f o l l o w trends or i f they are based on c a r e f u l l o c a l needs assessment. L i t t l e i s known about the b a s i s of s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n s . Another aspect of implementing change which has been i d e n t i f i e d as c r i t i c a l to e f f e c t i v e s t a f f development e f f o r t s i s l o c a l c o n t e x t . A number of c u r r e n t s t u d i e s done i n North America have i d e n t i f i e d 43 s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s which a f f e c t the o v e r a l l change process but few s t u d i e s have determined which c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s are l i n k e d to s e l e c t i n g and p u t t i n g i n t o p l a c e an i n n o v a t i o n . One important element of the l o c a l c ontext i s p e r s o n n e l . A number of s t u d i e s have demonstrated the key r o l e played by the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l i n any change e f f o r t . The r o l e of teachers has a l s o been the focus of s e v e r a l s t u d i e s . The same cannot be s a i d about the r o l e of d i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l . While the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e i r r o l e i s v e r y important, l i t t l e i s known about what they a c t u a l l y do i n a d i s t r i c t change i n i t i a t i v e . H a l l et a l . (1985) conducted a p r e l i m i n a r y study of the r o l e of d i s t r i c t personnel i n the change process but ag a i n , t h e i r f i n d i n g s are s p e c i f i c to s e t t i n g s i n the United S t a t e s . Very l i t t l e has been r e p o r t e d about the r o l e of d i s t r i c t p ersonnel i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A study i n v o l v i n g the r o l e s of three l e v e l s of d i s t r i c t p e rsonnel ( d i s t r i c t o f f i c e , s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and tea c h e r s ) may provide an i n t e r e s t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e on the v a r i o u s r o l e s as they r e l a t e t o a change e f f o r t . Such r e s e a r c h may shed l i g h t on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n and the r o l e played by personnel Involved i n a change e f f o r t . In summary, a t l e a s t two areas of needed r e s e a r c h 44 emerge from the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed i n t h i s c h a p t e r : (1) how and why programs are s e l e c t e d ( p r o c e s s ) , and (2) the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of important f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e change attempts ( c o n t e x t ) . CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES T h i s chapter p r e s e n t s the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n and procedures used i n the c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s of the dat a . I t begins with the statement of the problem and r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . The sources of the data and data c o l l e c t i o n process are presented, f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n of r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . The chapter a l s o i n c l u d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the data a n a l y s i s and concludes with the d e l i m i t a t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s of the study. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS The purpose of the study, as s t a t e d i n chapter 1, was to analyze the process of change by a d e t a i l e d examination of the same s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e s i n two s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . The l i t e r a t u r e review presented i n the preceding chapter i d e n t i f i e d two areas of needed r e s e a r c h . These suggest the f o r m u l a t i o n of the problem f o r the present study and i t s a s s o c i a t e d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . 45 46 The g e n e r a l problem may be s t a t e d as f o l l o w s : In l i g h t of e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e , what more can be lear n e d about the process of change by examining the s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e s taken i n two sc h o o l d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n the same ten-year period? T h i s g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n was explo r e d by making a d i s t i n c t i o n between what F u l l a n (1982) c a l l s " i n i t i a t i o n " and the events which f o l l o w the i n i t i a t i o n . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n allowed c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n to be pa i d t o the reasons f o r and the processes of s e l e c t i o n of the programs before e x p l o r i n g the way they were put i n t o p l a c e . A c c o r d i n g l y , two r e s e a r c h questions guided the data c o l l e c t i o n . These were: 1. How and why does a gi v e n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s e l e c t a p a r t i c u l a r program? 2. What events, i s s u e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s are a s s o c i a t e d with the p u t t i n g i n t o p l a c e of a program i n a given s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ? THE NATURE OF THE STUDY AND DATA SOURCES Because of the i n t e r e s t i n process and i n the e f f e c t of l o c a l c ontext, a case study approach appeared to be the most a p p r o p r i a t e . Thus, an e x p l o r a t o r y study of two B.C. sc h o o l d i s t r i c t s was undertaken. Both d i s t r i c t s had s e l e c t e d and put i n t o p l a c e the same s t a f f development program. In each d i s t r i c t , respondents 47 c o n s i s t e d of c e n t r a l o f f i c e , s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and teacher personnel who were in t e r v i e w e d i n an attempt t o a s c e r t a i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the processes of the s e l e c t i o n and p u t t i n g i n t o p l a c e of the two i n i t i a t i v e s . Emerging from t h i s case study were the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s of the p e r c e p t i o n s among respondents, not only between groups w i t h i n each s i t e but a l s o a c r o s s s i t e s . The data f o r the study were d e r i v e d from three s o u r c e s : i n t e r v i e w s , d i s t r i c t documents and r e s e a r c h -e r ' s f i e l d notes. The d e c i s i o n to employ a multi-method approach to data c o l l e c t i o n , what Denzin r e f e r s to as " t r i a n g u l a t i o n " , was an attempt to circumvent some of the weaknesses inherent i n a study r e p o r t i n g f i n d i n g s from a s i n g l e source of data. Denzin takes the p o s i t i o n t h a t t r i a n g u l a t i o n i s a means of b r i n g i n g m u l t i p l e kinds of data to bear on a s i n g l e problem or i s s u e . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n summarizes h i s p o s i t i o n : 1 now o f f e r as a f i n a l m ethodological r u l e the p r i n c i p l e t h a t m u l t i p l e methods should be used i n every i n v e s t i g a t i o n . . . ( 1978:28 ) . Interviews The i n t e r v i e w s provided the major source of da t a . The g e n e r a l i n t e n t of the study was to determine what 48 respondents p e r c e i v e d happened d u r i n g the i n i t i a t i v e s . Bogdan and B i k l e n (1982:135) suggest the i n t e r v i e w i s best used to "...gather d e s c r i p t i v e data i n the s u b j e c t s ' own words so t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r can develop i n s i g h t on how s u b j e c t s i n t e r p r e t , some pie c e of the world." Guba and L i n c o l n (1981:55) suggest t h a t " f a c e - t o - f a c e v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n p r o v i d e s the re s e a r c h e r with the o p p o r t u n i t y of ta p p i n g i n t o the experience of respondents i n t h e i r own n a t u r a l language." An i n t e r v i e w schedule was used to guide the i n t e r v i e w i n g p r o c e s s . The d e c i s i o n to prepare the que s t i o n s and, as a r e s u l t , s t r u c t u r e the i n t e r v i e w s was made f o r three reasons. F i r s t l y , a predetermined s e t of qu e s t i o n s made i t p o s s i b l e to send c o p i e s to respondents p r i o r to the i n t e r v i e w . T h i s served three purposes: (1) the inte r v i e w e e s were able to co n s i d e r the ques t i o n s p r i o r to the i n t e r v i e w ; (2) knowing the focus of the i n t e r v i e w , respondents c o u l d decide whether or not they s t i l l were w i l l i n g to take p a r t i n the study; and (3) i t was hoped the f a c t they had the ques t i o n s before the i n t e r v i e w might l e s s e n t h e i r a n x i e t y d u r i n g the a c t u a l i n t e r v i e w . Secondly, s e v e r a l i n t e r v i e w s were arranged on the s i t e f o r the same day and the scheduled i n t e r v i e w helped to keep a l l of the i n t e r v i e w s to approximately the same l e n g t h of time. F i n a l l y , a predetermined s e t 49 of q u e s t i o n s ensured a l l respondents were asked the same q u e s t i o n s thus a l l o w i n g g r e a t e r c o m p a r a b i l i t y i n the dat a a n a l y s i s . While the s t r u c t u r e d s e t of q u e s t i o n s served t o guide the i n t e r v i e w s , the r e s e a r c h e r s t i l l had enough f l e x i b i l i t y to probe, c l a r i f y and encourage respondents t o expand some of t h e i r responses. The qu e s t i o n s were not designed to r e s t r i c t the e x p l o r a t i o n of the study; r a t h e r they served as a guide f o r an in-depth d e s c r i p t i o n of the processes as they o c c u r r e d . The r e s e a r c h e r , while c a r e f u l to i n c l u d e a l l qu e s t i o n s d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w , d i d from time to time a l l o w the flow of the i n t e r a c t i o n t o determine the order of the q u e s t i o n s . I t was f e l t to do otherwise may have the e f f e c t of i n h i b i t i n g the responses. The i n t e r v i e w schedule i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix I I I . D i s t r i c t Documents Documents r e l a t e d to the two i n i t i a t i v e s were requested from both d i s t r i c t s . Not o n l y were o f f i c i a l d i s t r i c t documents such as program d e s c r i p t i o n s , p o l i c i e s and h i s t o r i c a l overviews forthcoming but p e r s o n a l f i l e s of s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel were a l s o made a v a i l a b l e to the r e s e a r c h e r . These p e r s o n a l f i l e s Included memos, minutes of meetings, news c l i p p i n g s , and announcements. These documents were 50 examined to provide a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and to s u b s t a n t i a t e i n t e r v i e w d a t a . Researcher's F i e l d Notes F i e l d notes were kept by the r e s e a r c h e r from the f i r s t c o n t a c t with i n d i v i d u a l s i n each d i s t r i c t . For the purpose of t h i s study, the d e f i n i t i o n of f i e l d notes put f o r t h by Bodgan and B i k l e n was adopted: The w r i t t e n account of what the r e s e a r c h e r hears, sees, e x p e r i e n c e s , and t h i n k s i n the course of c o l l e c t i n g and r e f l e c t i n g i n a q u a l i t a t i v e study (1982:74). A f t e r making the i n i t i a l c o n t a c t s , d e s c r i p t i o n s of people, p l a c e s , c o n v e r s a t i o n s , and events were recorded. In a d d i t i o n , the f i e l d notes i n c l u d e d the r e s e a r c h e r s ' r e f l e c t i o n s , hunches and q u e s t i o n s which emerged as the data were c o l l e c t e d and ana l y z e d . Throughout the study, the r e s e a r c h e r had i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t with respondents p e r i o d i c a l l y and p e r t i n e n t p o i n t s r e l e v a n t to the study were recorded i n the f i e l d notes subsequent to the meetings. DATA COLLECTION T h i s s e c t i o n i s an account of the process used to c o l l e c t the data f o r the present study. I t i n c l u d e s both i n i t i a l p r e p a r a t i o n and the a c t u a l data c o l l e c t i o n . 51 I n i t i a l P r e p a r a t i o n S e v e r a l p r e p a r a t o r y steps were r e q u i r e d before the a c t u a l data were c o l l e c t e d . These s t e p s i n c l u d e d s e l e c t i n g the s i t e s , g a i n i n g o f f i c i a l e n t r y , choosing p a r t i c i p a n t s and e n s u r i n g access to the necesssary data. S i t e s e l e c t i o n . Two lower mainland s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia were chosen from among those d i s t r i c t s which were i n v o l v e d i n a s t a f f development program r e f l e c t i n g a teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s theme. Contact was made with a s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e o f f i c i a l i n each d i s t r i c t to d e s c r i b e the study and d i s c u s s the p o s s i b i l i t y of conducting such a study i n h i s d i s t r i c t . The two i n d i v i d u a l s were known to the re s e a r c h e r p r i o r to the c o n t a c t and as such c o u l d be termed what Agar (1980:30) r e f e r s to as 'the c o l l e a g u e c o n n e c t i o n . ' Both a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s responded p o s i t i v e l y to the study; t h e r e f o r e , another meeting was planned to d i s c u s s i t f u r t h e r . Both s i t e s were r e l a t i v e l y convenient f o r the re s e a r c h e r to get to and i n n e i t h e r s i t e had the re s e a r c h e r been d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n a way which would m i t i g a t e a g a i n s t being c o n s i d e r e d a n e u t r a l observer. Bodgan and B i k l e n (1982) suggest both of these are important i n the s i t e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . 52 During the i n i t i a l meetings with the c o n t a c t person i n each d i s t r i c t the r e s e a r c h e r assessed the q u e s t i o n s of access to data, g a i n i n g o f f i c i a l e n t r y , and the a v a i l a b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s of respondents to take p a r t i n the study. Access to data appeared to be no problem. Both a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s provided the r e s e a r c h e r with access to t h e i r p e r s o n a l f i l e s which r e l a t e d t o the i n i t i a t i v e s as w e l l as to r e l e v a n t d i s t r i c t documents. An i n v i t a t i o n was a l s o extended to the r e s e a r c h e r to peruse board minutes which were s p e c i f i c to the time frame of the i n i t i a t i v e s . In each d i s t r i c t , the a s s i s t a n t s u p e r intendent o f f e r e d to f a c i l i t a t e the g a i n i n g of o f f i c i a l e n t r y and o u t l i n e d the necessary procedures r e q u i r e d i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t . F u r t h e r , both c o n t a c t people i n d i c a t e d t h a t , i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , other d i s t r i c t personnel would be both a v a i l a b l e and w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. In f a c t , both suggested that they f e l t i n d i v i d u a l s would be anxious to take p a r t . Based on the responses of the c o n t a c t people, the r e s e a r c h e r assessed the two s i t e s as f e a s i b l e l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n which to conduct the present study. Having s e l e c t e d the s i t e , respondents from each s i t e were 53 chosen. Sample procedure. The respondents were s e l e c t e d according to a technique r e f e r r e d to by Bodgan and B i k l e n (1982:67) as purposeful sampling. They de f i n e the procedure as choosing " p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t s to include because they are b e l i e v e d to f a c i l i t a t e the expansion of the developing theory." The contact people were asked to name i n d i v i d u a l s who had been involved i n the p r o j e c t from the e a r l y stages -- key a c t o r s . A sample r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of c e n t r a l o f f i c e , school a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and teachers was requested. Subsequent to r e c e i v i n g the f i r s t l i s t , the researcher asked two other people named on the o r i g i n a l l i s t to do the same. From the three l i s t s , the researcher chose the sample from respondents common across a l l three l i s t s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l three l e v e l s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The researcher included both elementary and secondary respondents among teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . These people were the key informants f o r the study. According to Bodgan and B i k l e n (1982:63) key informants are i n d i v i d u a l s who have "a greater experience i n the s e t t i n g , or are e s p e c i a l l y i n s i g h t f u l about what goes on." The f i n a l sample c o n s i s t e d of t h i r t y - t w o 54 respondents, seventeen -in D i s t r i c t A and f i f t e e n i n D i s t r i c t B. T h e i r gender and p o s i t i o n i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n are i n d i c a t e d i n Table 6 on page 84 and Table 8 on page 98. F o l l o w i n g the c o m p i l a t i o n of the sample, each respondent was contacted by telephone, a follow-up to a l e t t e r which e x p l a i n e d the p r o j e c t , to i n d i c a t e t h a t o f f i c i a l d i s t r i c t a p p r o v a l had been granted and to extend an i n v i t a t i o n to take p a r t i n the study. A l l t h i r t y - t w o i n d i v i d u a l s i n d i c a t e d a w i l l i n g n e s s to be i n t e r v i e w e d . C o l l e c t i o n of the data Once a respondent i n d i c a t e d h i s or her w i l l i n g n e s s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study, an i n t e r v i e w time was e s t a b l i s h e d . S t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s provided the major source of data i n the present study. Interviews i n D i s t r i c t A were conducted d u r i n g October 1984 and i n D i s t r i c t B they were done d u r i n g November 1984. A l l i n t e r v i e w s but two took plac e i n the respondent's s c h o o l or i n c e n t r a l o f f i c e . One took p l a c e i n the respondent's home, the other i n the lounge of a racquet c l u b . A l l Interviews were guided by the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . The r e s e a r c h e r began each i n t e r v i e w by 55 c o n f i r m i n g the respondent's w i l l i n g n e s s t o have the i n t e r v i e w taped. None of the respondents r e f u s e d t o be tape r e c o r d e d . The respondents were a l l asked a t the ou t s e t to d e s c r i b e t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a t the time the p r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d and e x p l a i n b r i e f l y how they got i n v o l v e d . T h i s was done i n an attempt t o put the respondent at ease p r i o r to moving on to the more s p e c i f i c i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s . Each i n t e r v i e w l a s t e d about an hour. Each tape was numbered, dated and I n d i c a t e d the name of the i n t e r v i e w e e . A l l tapes were copied and one se t was kept i n the r e s e a r c h e r ' s home while the other s e t was kept i n the o f f i c e . A l l tapes were t r a n s c r i b e d and two c o p i e s of each t r a n s c r i p t were made. Again, one se t of t r a n s c r i p t s was used f o r coding and the o r i g i n a l s were kept a t the r e s e a r c h e r ' s home. R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y of the Data The i s s u e s of r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y are concerns c e n t r a l to any r e s e a r c h . The value of r e s e a r c h i s , i n p a r t , dependent upon the a b i l i t y of the r e s e a r c h e r t o demonstrate t h a t the f i n d i n g s are c r e d i b l e . Campbell and S t a n l e y ' s (1963) " t e s t s of r i g o r " which i n c l u d e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y are the most commonly r e f e r r e d t o . There i s a c u r r e n t l y expressed view t h a t the 56 techniques r e q u i r e d to respond to the q u e s t i o n of c r e d i b i l i t y i n q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h d i f f e r from those i n t r a d i t i o n a l and q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h (Guba and L i n c o l n , 1981; Le Compte and Goetz, 1982; Bogdan and B i k l e n , 1982; M i l e s and Huberman, 1984). Bogdan and B i k l e n (1982:44) take the p o s i t i o n t h a t " q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h e r s view r e l i a b i l i t y as a f i t between what they r e c o r d as data and what a c t u a l l y o ccurred i n a s e t t i n g under study, r a t h e r than the l i t e r a l c o n s i s t e n c y a c r o s s d i f f e r e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s . " Thus, two r e s e a r c h e r s i n the same s i t e c o u l d come up with d i f f e r e n t data and d i f f e r e n t f i n d i n g s , yet both c o u l d be r e l i a b l e unless the two s t u d i e s y i e l d e d incompatible r e s u l t s . T h i s view may be compared with Le Compte and Goetz's d e s c r i p t i o n of v a l i d i t y : V a l i d i t y i s concerned with the accuracy of s c i e n t i f i c f i n d i n g s . E s t a b l i s h i n g v a l i d i t y r e q u i r e s determining the extent to which c o n c l u s i o n s e f f e c t i v e l y r e p r e s e n t e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y and a s s e s s i n g whether c o n s t r u c t s d e v i s e d by r e s e a r c h e r s r e p r e s e n t or measure the c a t e g o r i e s of human experience t h a t occur (1983:32). I t i s c l e a r t h a t i f we accept Bogdan and B i k l e n ' s view, r e l i a b i l i t y i n a q u a l i t a t i v e study i s best assessed as a form of v a l i d i t y . The task i s to ensure t h a t the recorded data are as a c c u r a t e a r e f l e c t i o n as p o s s i b l e of what a c t u a l l y o c c u r r e d . 57 The means by which t h i s was done i n the present study have a l r e a d y been d e s c r i b e d above (p. 47). What might be added here i s that where d i s c r e p a n c i e s were found i n d i f f e r e n t respondents' accounts of the same events, a v a i l a b l e documentary sources were used to a s c e r t a i n which responses were c o r r e c t . In a d d i t i o n to the sources a l r e a d y l i s t e d , the documentary evidence i n c l u d e d two l o c a l l y conducted s t u d i e s ( K i l l o u g h , 1980; Grimmett e t a l . , 1985). The f a c t s having been e s t a b l i s h e d , the d i s c r e p a n c y i t s e l f remained as a f a c t about the d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s of respondents. DATA ANALYSIS A n a l y s i s of the data began once the t r a n s c r i p t s were a v a i l a b l e . Bogdan and B i k l e n (1982), Le Compte and Goetz (1982), and M i l e s and Huberman (1984) were c o n s u l t e d and provided a guide f o r the a n a l y s i s . Three stages of a n a l y s i s were c a r r i e d out: d e s c r i p t i v e , comparative, and i n t e r p r e t i v e . D e s c r i p t i v e A n a l y s i s I n i t i a l l y , the t r a n s c r i p t s were a l l checked a g a i n s t the tape f o r accuracy. A p p r o p r i a t e changes were made. The r e s e a r c h e r d e c i d e d to keep the t r a n s c r i p t s i n t a c t because the sheer volume of pages made c u t t i n g and 58 p a s t i n g seem i m p r a c t i c a l . In an attempt to begin to make sense of the data, the r e s e a r c h e r c o n s i d e r e d them i n r e l a t i o n t o the i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s . Respondents' answers to the qu e s t i o n s were i n d i c a t e d on l a r g e f i l e cards which were c o l o u r coded to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between d i s t r i c t s and among the three l e v e l s of p e r s o n n e l . For i n s t a n c e , responses from c e n t r a l o f f i c e respondents from D i s t r i c t A were a l l recorded on pink c a r d s , while a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and teachers i n D i s t r i c t A were recorded on y e l l o w and blue, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The cards were then d i s p l a y e d , i n envelopes, on one w a l l i n the r e s e a r c h e r ' s o f f i c e . The data were analyzed to provide a d e s c r i p t i o n of what occurred i n the two d i s t r i c t s as they s e l e c t e d and put i n t o place a d i s t r i c t s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e . The d e c i s i o n was made to present the d e s c r i p t i v e data c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y by phases. Thus, each phase of the change process ( i n i t i a t i o n , implementation, and c o n t i n u a t i o n ) would be d e s c r i b e d based on the p e r c e p t i o n s of the respondents, and themes which emerged would be d i s c u s s e d w i t h i n those phases. Comparative A n a l y s i s T h i s second stage of a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d of comparing the response p a t t e r n s of respondents. The 59 d e s i g n of the present study provided the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r comparative a n a l y s i s on s e v e r a l f r o n t s . The responses of each p a r t i c i p a n t were compared w i t h i n and a c r o s s q u e s t i o n s . Comparisons of responses were a l s o made between the three l e v e l s of personnel, both w i t h i n and a c r o s s s i t e . A comparison of the events of the s e l e c t i o n and implementation of the s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e s was made to determine what s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s occurred between the two s i t e s and f u r t h e r to determine the congruencies or d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s of those events among the three l e v e l s of d i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l . I n t e r p r e t i v e A n a l y s i s The data were f u r t h e r analyzed to provide p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the events which were d e s c r i b e d i n the two d i s t r i c t s . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data was based on a c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s of the present study i n r e l a t i o n to c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e . DELIMITATIONS AND LIMITATIONS The present study was d e l i m i t e d to two sch o o l d i s t r i c t s i n the lower mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia and to two s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e s . The major data source was the r e c a l l e d p e r c e p t i o n s of t h i r t y - t w o 60 respondents who comprised a non-random purposive sample. Each of the d e l i m i t a t i o n s c a r r i e s with i t a l i m i t a t i o n on the study. F i r s t l y the data were r e s t r i c t e d t o c e r t a i n kinds of d a t a : i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s , d i s t r i c t documents and r e s e a r c h e r ' s f i e l d n otes. Other data, such as o b s e r v a t i o n a l data, may suggest d i f f e r e n t f i n d i n g s . Secondly, the f a c t t h a t the respondents were a l l a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the i n i t i a t i o n and implementation phases of the i n i t i a t i v e s may have le d to the r e p o r t i n g of a b i a s e d p e r s p e c t i v e . The purposive sample i s j u s t i f i a b l e because those i n v o l v e d are the ones best a b l e to give accounts of the processes which were the major focus of the study, but t h e i r involvement means t h a t c a u t i o n may be needed i n i n t e r p r e t i n g statements about p o s i t i v e or negative outcomes -- p a r t i c u l a r l y as no non-perceptual data about outcomes were c o l l e c t e d . CHAPTER 4 METHOD OF PRESENTATION AND CASE BACKGROUND In t h i s chapter, the method of p r e s e n t a t i o n of the data i s d i s c u s s e d and a d e s c r i p t i o n of the two s i t e s i s pr o v i d e d . The chapter concludes with a comparative summary of the case backgrounds. METHOD OF PRESENTATION T h i s study e x p l o r e s the complicated process of change i n each of two s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ( D i s t r i c t s A and B). T h i r t y - t w o i n d i v i d u a l s r e p r e s e n t i n g three l e v e l s of s c h o o l d i s t r i c t personnel ( c e n t r a l o f f i c e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and teac h e r s ) were i n t e r v i e w e d . Each of the respondents was asked to respond to an i n t e r v i e w schedule which sought t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to the change i n i t i a t i v e s i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t . In a d d i t i o n to the i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t d ata, d i s t r i c t documents and r e s e a r c h e r ' s f i e l d notes were a l s o c o l l e c t e d . The E l l i o t t (1985) study of the change processes i n a h o s p i t a l s e t t i n g e f f e c t i v e l y presents s i m i l a r data by 61 62 usi n g a c h r o n o l o g i c a l format w i t h i n a framework pr o v i d e d by F u l l a n (1982). Such a c h r o n o l o g i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of data i n phases suggests a workable model f o r the present study. Chronology and Phasing F u l l a n (1982:39) r e p o r t s t h a t "most r e s e a r c h e r s now see three broad phases to the change process ... i n i t i a t i o n , implementation and c o n t i n u a t i o n . " F u l l a n (1982:39) d e f i n e s i n i t i a t i o n as the process which leads up to and i n c l u d e s a d e c i s i o n to adopt or proceed with a change. Implementation r e f e r s to the f i r s t two or three years of use i n c l u d i n g the f i r s t e x p eriences of attempting to put an idea or program i n t o p r a c t i c e . C o n t i n u a t i o n i s an e x t e n s i o n of implementation when the change gets b u i l t i n as pa r t of the system. Table 2 shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p among the three phases d e f i n e d above and the time-frame of those phases i n the two s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . Table 2 a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s the framework which w i l l be used to present the da t a . Chapters 5 through 7 provide the two cases phase by phase. Thus, chapter 5 d e s c r i b e s the i n i t i a t i o n phase i n D i s t r i c t A, then i n D i s t r i c t B 63 Table 2 F u l l a n ' s Phases and the Corresponding Time Frames of Those Phases i n the Two School D i s t r i c t s F u l l a n ' s Phase D i s t r i c t A D i s t r i c t B I n i t i a t i o n 1976 - 1978 1979 - 1981 ( F a l l ) ( F a l l ) ( S p r i n g ) ( S p r i n g ) Implementation 1978 - 1981 1981 - 1986* ( F a l l ) (Spring) ( S p r i n g ) ( S p r i n g ) C o n t i n u a t i o n 1981 - 1986* ( S p r i n g ) ( S p r i n g ) * 1986(Spring) merely marks the end of the present study and does not imply the end of the program i n D i s t r i c t B nor the end of c o n t i n u a t i o n i n D i s t r i c t A. 64 and concludes with an i n t e r p r e t i v e a n a l y s i s . Chapter 6, f o c u s s i n g on the implementation phase, repeats the format of chapter 5 and i n c o r p o r a t e s a d i s c u s s i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between phases ( i n i t i a t i o n and implementation) i n an attempt to e x p l o r e the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between phases. Current r e s e a r c h e r s ( F u l l a n , 1982; Berman, 1981; Berman and McLaughlin, 1976; M i l e s and Huberman, 1984) view change as a process not an event and take the p o s i t i o n that what occurs a t one phase a f f e c t s what w i l l occur d u r i n g subsequent phases. As demonstrated i n Table 2, c o n t i n u a t i o n data, by F u l l a n ' s d e f i n i t i o n above, were not a v a i l a b l e from D i s t r i c t B; t h e r e f o r e , there were no data on that phase to p a r a l l e l c o n t i n u a t i o n i n D i s t r i c t A. However, the present study d i d generate data on outcomes i n both d i s t r i c t s and because there appears to be a l i n k between c o n t i n u a t i o n and outcomes, the two are d i s c u s s e d i n one c h a p t e r . C o n t i n u a t i o n and Outcomes F u l l a n (1982:39) adds outcomes as a f o u r t h phase to the three phases d e s c r i b e d above. He takes the p o s i t i o n t h a t adding outcomes p r o v i d e s "a more complete p i c t u r e of the change p r o c e s s . " Outcomes, by F u l l a n ' s 65 d e f i n i t i o n , i n c l u d e s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t types of r e s u l t s such as p e r c e i v e d gains and l o s s e s and p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e s i d e e f f e c t s . Such outcome data were c o l l e c t e d i n the present study. Respondents were asked to g i v e t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the r e s u l t s of the i n i t i a t i v e i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t . There i s some d i f f e r e n c e of o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g c o n t i n u a t i o n and outcomes expressed i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Whereas F u l l a n (1982) views outcomes as separate from c o n t i n u a t i o n , Berman and McLaughlin (1976:354) r e f e r to c o n t i n u a t i o n as an outcome measure "to the extent t h a t an i n i t i a t i v e p e r s i s t s a f t e r the major implementation e f f o r t s . " These two p o s i t i o n s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , i t seems reasonable to argue t h a t there i s a l i n k between c o n t i n u a t i o n and outcomes. Because of the absence of c o n t i n u a t i o n data from D i s t r i c t B and because of the apparent l i n k between c o n t i n u a t i o n and outcomes suggested by Berman and McLaughlin, i t seems j u s t i f i a b l e to combine the two i n t o one chapter. Thus, Chapter 7 d e s c r i b e s the c o n t i n u a t i o n phase i n D i s t r i c t A as w e l l as outcomes f o r both d i s t r i c t s and concludes with an i n t e r p r e t i v e a n a l y s i s . CASE SETTING AND BACKGROUND Context, as d e f i n e d by G r i f f i n (1983:416) " i s the 66 complex s e t of s e t t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n which s t a f f development o c c u r s . " Context has r e c e i v e d i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n from r e s e a r c h e r s over the past decade and i s c o n s i d e r e d a f a c t o r which must form an i n t e g r a l p a r t of any study of s t a f f development (Berman and McLaughlin, 1976; Berman, 1981; G r i f f i n , 1982, 1983; Howey and Vaughan, 1982; F u l l a n , 1982, 1985; Cuban, 1983; Sparks, 1983; M i l e s and Huberman, 1984). The c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e on context suggests an i n t r i c a t e l y i n t e r t w i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s of a s i t e and any s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e . In p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the p r e s e n t a t i o n of two case s t u d i e s , both s i t e s are d e s c r i b e d i n order t h a t the events can be c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n to the context w i t h i n which they o c c u r r e d . Within the t e x t , e x c e r p t s from i n t e r v i e w data i n d i c a t e the i n t e r v i e w number and page, e.g., (6:10) w i l l r e f e r to i n t e r v i e w number 6 page 10 . D i s t r i c t A D i s t r i c t A i s s i t u a t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia's Lower Mainland M e t r o p o l i t a n area and covers approximately 80 square m i l e s . The D i s t r i c t i s urban and comprises r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial and i n d u s t r i a l f e a t u r e s . In 1978, when D i s t r i c t A chose to i n i t i a t e the s t a f f development program which i s the focus of t h i s 67 study, I n s t r u c t i o n a l Theory Into P r a c t i c e ( I T I P ) , the p u p i l p o p u l a t i o n was 22,168 ( f u l l time e q u i v a l e n t s ) i n 45 elementary s c h o o l s and 13 secondary s c h o o l s . The d i s t r i c t employed 1,235 teachers ( f u l l time e q u i v a l e n t s ) , 88 s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s (60 P r i n c i p a l s and 28 V i c e - P r i n c i p a l s ) , and 22.5 c e n t r a l o f f i c e e d u c a t i o n personnel (1 s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , 3 a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , 11 s u p e r v i s o r s and 7.5 c u r r i c u l u m c o o r d i n a t o r s and c o n s u l t a n t s ) . By the time of the data c o l l e c t i o n f o r the present study i n 1984, these f i g u r e s had not changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Student p o p u l a t i o n , t e a c h i n g , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f and c e n t r a l o f f i c e s t a f f had a l l decreased s l i g h t l y . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the c e n t r a l o f f i c e s t a f f i n D i s t r i c t A have accepted, as p a r t of t h e i r r o l e , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of keeping up to date with new trends i n s t a f f development and have done so by sending s t a f f to major conferences throughout North America. In t u r n , the i n n o v a t i v e ideas were f i l t e r e d back to the d i s t r i c t ' s s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l . The p r i n c i p a l s were viewed as the major v e h i c l e f o r the promotion and implementation of new s t a f f development. As one c e n t r a l o f f i c e s u p e r v i s o r d e s c r i b e d i t , "We b u i l d through the stages of g e t t i n g the p r i n c i p a l ' s i n t e r e s t f i r s t because, u n l e s s the p r i n c i p a l s are i n t e r e s t e d , t h i n g s 68 don't go w e l l . . . " [3:21. In D i s t r i c t A there were two committees, the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s * P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee and the l o c a l Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee, which appear to have played s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e s i n promoting the importance of s t a f f development w i t h i n the D i s t r i c t by being a c t i v e , and working i n c o o p e r a t i o n with c e n t r a l o f f i c e . T y p i c a l l y , s t a f f development a c t i v i t i e s addressed a v a r i e t y of themes, were of s h o r t d u r a t i o n , were separate f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and teach e r s and attendance was v o l u n t a r y . O v e r a l l , the d i s t r i c t ' s s t a f f development a c t i v i t i e s were p e r c e i v e d by the respondents as being of e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y and were viewed as a d i s t r i c t p r i o r i t y . The f o l l o w i n g excerpt from a t r a n s c r i p t i l l u s t r a t e s a teacher's p e r s p e c t i v e on s t a f f development: ... teachers had always been happy with the way p r o f e s s i o n a l development had gone i n our d i s t r i c t [17:9]. The same teacher went on to h i g h l i g h t the t r a d i t i o n of v o l u n t a r y attendance: ...and we had never ever gone the l a i d on model. ..117:9]. C o n s i s t e n t l y throughout the i n t e r v i e w s , p e r sonnel i n D i s t r i c t A, a t a l l three l e v e l s , express p r i d e i n the s t a f f development. They view themselves as l e a d e r s i n the p r o v i n c e . The same respondent quoted above 69 d e s c r i b e s the d i s t r i c t ' s p r i d e i n the f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t : I think the Board always f e l t proud t h a t they were i n the f o r e f r o n t of t h i n g s and they saw s p i n o f f s of that...They were always near the top and they r e a l l y enjoyed t h a t — the l i m e l i g h t , and they wanted to maintain i t [17:22]. D i s t r i c t A has a h i s t o r y of a c t i v e involvement i n promoting and p r o v i d i n g i n n o v a t i v e , q u a l i t y s t a f f development f o r a l l d i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l . Moreover, there i s a p r i d e i n past accomplishments and the events which occurred d u r i n g the time frame s p e c i f i c t o t h i s study suggest there i s a d e s i r e to maintain t h a t l e a d e r s h i p s t a t u s . M a i n t a i n i n g s t a t u s as a forerunner i n i n n o v a t i v e s t a f f development r e q u i r e d people who c o u l d provide l e a d e r s h i p and D i s t r i c t A appears to have had such people. When asked to d e s c r i b e what i t i s about the d i s t r i c t t h a t allowed the ITIP program to be adopted a c e n t r a l o f f i c e s u p e r v i s o r r e p l i e d : . . . t r a d i t i o n too, I t h i n k there i t probably has been as a r e s u l t of l e a d e r s h i p over the y e a r s . We have been w e l l b l e s s e d with some f a i r l y e x c e l l e n t s e n i o r s t a f f [3:15]. Another respondent, a t e a c h e r , s t a t e d simply "we had the r i g h t people i n the r i g h t p l a c e s . " Other i n t e r v i e w s c o n f i r m the e x i s t e n c e of a w i d e l y h e l d view t h a t "the r i g h t p l a c e s " were the superintendency and s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e p o s i t i o n s and "the r i g h t people" were 70 those who f i l l e d the p o s i t i o n s a t the time the ITIP program was a major s t a f f development a c t i v i t y ( approximately 1976-1984). With r e s p e c t to the sup e r i n t e n d e n t , who d i e d i n 1983, many d e s c r i b e him as a key i n f l u e n c e i n a l l asp e c t s of the d i s t r i c t . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s are i l l u s t r a t i v e of p e r c e p t i o n s of h i s i n f l u e n c e : "He was a gre a t man of encouragement" [7:14]. "...was a v e r y a s t u t e man" [11:17], "...he was the key a c t o r i n e v e r y t h i n g . . . i n c r e d i b l e person, a b l e to keep h i s f i n g e r on the pulse of e v e r y t h i n g " [16:40]. "...ran the d i s t r i c t -- when he s a i d something happened, i t happened" [17:5]. And s p e c i f i c a l l y as h i s l e a d e r s h i p r e l a t e d to the ITIP program, respondents recounted: " . . . i t was h i s p e r c e p t i o n of where we should f o c u s " [11:3]. "...was anxious to promote i t " [8:8]. The data demonstrate t h a t the sup e r i n t e n d e n t was p e r c e i v e d t o have played a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e i n the s e l e c t i o n of the ITIP program. F u r t h e r , there i s a l s o evidence t h a t other s e n i o r personnel i n c e n t r a l o f f i c e are a l s o p e r c e i v e d to be p r o v i d i n g the necessary l e a d e r s h i p to f a c i l i t a t e p r o g r e s s i v e s t a f f development a c t i v i t i e s . The f o l l o w i n g comments made by respondents 71 I l l u s t r a t e t h a t p e r c e p t i o n : T h i s i s where the l e a d e r s h i p does come i n (respondent names 5 C e n t r a l O f f i c e p e r s o n n e l ) . There was d e f i n i t e l e a d e r s h i p t h e r e . L e a d e r s h i p t h a t encourages people to be i n i t i a t o r s , to be b o l d , t o be a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t " [4: .6] . "Like a guy l i k e (an a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ) i s r e a l l y on top of a l l the s t u f f " 117:18] . What emerges i s a p i c t u r e of very s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n the superintendency and among s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e p o s i t i o n s d u r i n g 1976-84, a School Board with an investment i n m a i n t a i n i n g " i n n o v a t o r " s t a t u s , and a group of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and teachers who have come to expect i n n o v a t i v e , h i g h - q u a l i t y s t a f f development o p p o r t u n i t i e s . In t h i s context occurred the events which l e d to the ado p t i o n and implementation of the d i s t r i c t wide ITIP s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e i n D i s t r i c t A. D i s t r i c t B D i s t r i c t B i s a l s o s i t u a t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia's Lower Mainland area and covers approximately 55 square m i l e s . The d i s t r i c t i s suburban and comprises r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial, i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s . When the data were c o l l e c t e d f o r the study (September 1984) the estimated p u p i l p o p u l a t i o n was 72 8,200 ( f u l l - t i m e e q u i v a l e n t s ) i n 22 elementary s c h o o l s and 4 secondary s c h o o l s . The d i s t r i c t employed 435 ( f u l l - t i m e e q u i v a l e n t ) c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , 46 s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s (26 p r i n c i p a l s and 20 v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s ) and 7 c e n t r a l o f f i c e s t a f f (1 s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , 2 a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , 1 d i r e c t o r of i n s t r u c t i o n , 2 c o o r d i n a t o r s and 1 h e l p i n g t e a c h e r ) . While the d i s t r i c t ' s p u p i l p o p u l a t i o n remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e d u r i n g the time p e r i o d of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study (1979-1986), there were numerous s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n s e n i o r d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and School Board membership j u s t p r i o r to t h a t time. The changes began i n 1973 with the e l e c t i o n of new i n d i v i d u a l s t o the School Board. One i n d i v i d u a l l a t e r became c h a i r p e r s o n and i s d e s c r i b e d as h i g h l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n g a i n i n g support f o r s t a f f development w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t . In 1975, both a new s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and a new s e c r e t a r y t r e a s u r e r were h i r e d . In 1980, a new p o s i t i o n was c r e a t e d and an out of d i s t r i c t person was appointed a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . Among h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s was p r o f e s s i o n a l development f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . In 1982, a d i s t r i c t person who had been working as an a s s i s t a n t to the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t (1979-1982) was appointed the second a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . At t h a t time, he assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 73 f o r t e a c h e r s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l development which had p r e v i o u s l y been the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the d i r e c t o r of i n s t r u c t i o n . H i s t o r i c a l l y , s t a f f development i n D i s t r i c t B d i d not r e c e i v e p r i o r i t y nor d i d i t have a good r e p u t a t i o n among d i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l . J u s t p r i o r t o the implementation of the d i s t r i c t s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s study, there had been a s e r i e s of c u r r i c u l u m implementation p r o j e c t s . One p r i n c i p a l d e s c r i b e d some of the c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t s as "nasty b u s i n e s s " and s p e c u l a t e d t h a t teachers were l i k e l y r e l i e v e d to see a p r o f e s s i o n a l development i n i t i a t i v e t h a t was not content s p e c i f i c . F u r t h e r , i n 1979-80 D i s t r i c t B o f f e r e d a B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n sponsored course which had a c q u i r e d a r e p u t a t i o n among teach e r s and sch o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of being a " f i x - i t " course f o r t e a c h e r s . While the course content was reputed t o be good and there was never any i n t e n t i o n among c e n t r a l o f f i c e i n i t i a t o r s f o r the course to be re m e d i a l , t h a t p e r c e p t i o n developed among teach e r s and the course d i d not c o n t i n u e . T r a d i t i o n a l l y i n D i s t r i c t B, teach e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s had separate p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t i e s . Attendance was v o l u n t a r y and a c t i v i t i e s were pursued i n d i v i d u a l l y or i n s m a l l groups ( i . e . , s c h o o l based). Few l a r g e s c a l e 74 d i s t r i c t - w i d e i n i t i a t i v e s had been attempted. The changes i n s c h o o l board membership coupled with the s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n appointments (1973-1980) appear to have marked a s h i f t i n a t t i t u d e r e g a r d i n g s t a f f development. One respondent d e s c r i b e s the d i s t r i c t as one t h a t "went from spending $65.00 to one t h a t spent $480,000 on p r o f e s s i o n a l development as the board came to acknowledge the importance of i t " (20:2]. The new s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n appear to have f a c i l i t a t e d the change of a t t i t u d e and over time developed what the same respondent c a l l e d a " c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the d i s t r i c t , the School Board and the t e a c h e r s . " L e a d e r s h i p appears to have been a key f a c t o r . Senior a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l , p a r t i c u l a r l y the a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t appointed i n 1980, were p e r c e i v e d by respondents to be p r o v i d i n g the l e a d e r s h i p necessary to i n i t i a t e a d i s t r i c t - w i d e s t a f f development program. The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s the d i r e c t o r of i n s t r u c t i o n ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the i n f l u e n c e of the new a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t : I t h i n k when (the new a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ) came along i t was a breath of l i f e 120:19] . The new a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t a r r i v i n g i n a d i s t r i c t which had r e c e n t l y undergone numerous changes i n s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s seems to have been a c a t a l y s t 75 which sparked i n t e r e s t i n and support f o r a d i s t r i c t - w i d e s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e . The f o l l o w i n g p e r c e p t i o n taken from a p r i n c i p a l ' s t r a n s c r i p t i l l u s t r a t e s the context of D i s t r i c t B as i t was on the verge of i n i t i a t i n g a l a r g e s c a l e s t a f f development program: I t had been a f a i r l y t r a d i t i o n a l d i s t r i c t -- t h a t was my p e r c e p t i o n i n 1975 -- a very t r a d i t i o n a l d i s t r i c t i n many r e s p e c t s . A d i s t r i c t t h a t , I t h i n k , had been held back by I don't know what monetary, s e c r e t a r y t r e a s u r e r s of the o l d s c h o o l . . . I don't know. So I th i n k maybe c l i m a t e was r i g h t i n D i s t r i c t B f o r t h a t , f o r change, f o r improvement f o r growth. New su p e r i n t e n d e n t , new a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , guys l i k e me, I suppose t o a degree, the d i s t r i c t growing a l i t t l e b i t . L o t s of teach e r s i n D i s t r i c t B who are r e a l l y c o n s c i e n t i o u s , r e a l l y c o n s c i e n t i o u s t e a c h e r s [22:131. There's i n t e r e s t e d p r i n c i p a l s , t h e r e ' s i n t e r e s t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f , t h e r e ' s an i n t e r e s t e d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , t h e r e ' s an i n t e r e s t e d s c h o o l board who are i n t e r e s t e d i n -- who have g e n u i n e l y s a i d t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l development or p r o f e s s i o n a l growth of teachers i s important [22:6 J. CONTEXTS COMPARED Three c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s are used to compare the two s i t e s : (1) s i z e and l o c a t i o n , (2) o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , and (3) h i s t o r y of s t a f f development. Those three v a r i a b l e s emerged from the s i t e d e s c r i p t i o n s and appears to capture the essence of the two d i s t r i c t s as 76 they were on the verge of I n i t i a t i n g d i s t r i c t - w i d e s t a f f development programs. S i z e and L o c a t i o n D i s t r i c t A i s a l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t l o c a t e d i n the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. D i s t r i c t B, by comparison, i s a medium-sized suburban s c h o o l d i s t r i c t which borders to the east of D i s t r i c t A. At the time of i n i t i a t i o n of the s t a f f development programs d e s c r i b e d i n the present study, D i s t r i c t A had a p u p i l p o p u l a t i o n ( f u l l - t i m e e q u i v a l e n t s ) of more than two and a h a l f times that of D i s t r i c t B. While the d i f f e r e n c e i n l o c a t i o n of the two d i s t r i c t s i s probably unimportant the d i f f e r e n c e i n s i z e may have accounted fo r some of the d i f f e r e n c e s noted i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s of the two d i s t r i c t s . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e s D i s t r i c t A s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e , j u s t p r i o r to i n i t i a t i o n , c o n s i s t e d of a s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and three a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s . While a new a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t was h i r e d i n 1977 to r e p l a c e one who r e t i r e d , these s e n i o r p o s i t i o n s and the people i n them had been s t a b l e over s e v e r a l y e a r s . U n l i k e D i s t r i c t A, D i s t r i c t B had not had s t a b i l i t y i n i t s s e n i o r 77 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s . P r i o r to i n i t i a t i o n , a new sup e r i n t e n d e n t had been app o i n t e d . In 1979, a p r i n c i p a l was brought i n to c e n t r a l o f f i c e as an a s s i s t a n t to the su p e r i n t e n d e n t and i n 1980 a person was h i r e d to f i l l a newly c r e a t e d p o s i t i o n of a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . J u s t p r i o r to i n i t i a t i o n , both d i s t r i c t s had s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p i n personnel i n s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e p o s i t i o n s . In D i s t r i c t A, there were two committees which were a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n p r o f e s s i o n a l development matters. The l o c a l Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n had i n plac e a P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee which organized, i n c o o p e r a t i o n with c e n t r a l o f f i c e p e r s o n n e l , a c t i v i t i e s f o r i t s members. T h i s committee, r e p r e s e n t i n g both teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , appeared to have the r e s p e c t of d i s t r i c t personnel at a l l l e v e l s . The sup e r i n t e n d e n t i n s t i g a t e d the formation of another committee a few years before the i n i t i a t i v e d e s c r i b e d i n the present study. T h i s commitee (the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee), c h a i r e d by an a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , was e s t a b l i s h e d to d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y with p r o f e s s i o n a l development f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . D i s t r i c t B, on the other hand, d i d not appear to have s i m i l a r a c t i v e l y f u n c t i o n i n g committees. D i s t r i c t B d i d have a l o c a l Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n but 78 t h e r e are no data which d e s c r i b e i t s p r o f e s s i o n a l development p u r s u i t s . There was no committee i n D i s t r i c t B which p a r a l l e l e d the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee of D i s t r i c t A. D i s t r i c t A personnel had enjoyed support and encouragement from t h e i r Board with r e s p e c t to i n n o v a t i v e s t a f f development over many years whereas D i s t r i c t B personnel had not. As a r e s u l t of the e l e c t i o n of some new Board members, D i s t r i c t B began to r e c e i v e more Board support j u s t p r i o r to the i n i t i a t i v e which i s the focus of the present study. H i s t o r y of S t a f f Development There appear to be few s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two d i s t r i c t s with regard to t h e i r h i s t o r y of s t a f f development. In both d i s t r i c t s , s t a f f development a c t i v i t i e s had t r a d i t i o n a l l y been separate f o r teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , attendance had always been v o l u n t a r y and most a c t i v i t i e s had been pursued by i n d i v i d u a l s or s m a l l groups. Ne i t h e r d i s t r i c t had p r e v i o u s l y attempted to i n i t i a t e such a l a r g e s c a l e d i s t r i c t - w i d e program i n c l u d i n g t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a t both the elementary and secondary l e v e l . Other a s p e c t s of the d i s t r i c t s ' h i s t o r i e s were v e r y d i f f e r e n t . D i s t r i c t A had a r e p u t a t i o n both w i t h i n and o u t s i d e the d i s t r i c t as an innovator i n s t a f f 79 development. D i s t r i c t B, i n c o n t r a s t , was d e s c r i b e d by respondents as very t r a d i t i o n a l and c o n s e r v a t i v e i n i t s approach to s t a f f development. D i s t r i c t A per s o n n e l , a t a l l three l e v e l s , d e s c r i b e with p r i d e a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e about the success and q u a l i t y of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l development programs. Conversely, D i s t r i c t B respondents r e c a l l s e v e r a l u n s u c c e s s f u l attempts to i n i t i a t e programs and a somewhat s k e p t i c a l a t t i t u d e toward s t a f f development among some personnel i n the d i s t r i c t . Table 3 p r o v i d e s a summary of the o v e r a l l c o n t e x t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s between D i s t r i c t A and D i s t r i c t B. Within these very d i f f e r e n t s i t e s , a t d i f f e r e n t times, the same program was i n i t i a t e d . While the program content was the same, D i s t r i c t A r e f e r s to i t s i n n o v a t i o n as I n s t r u c t i o n a l Theory Into P r a c t i c e (ITIP) and D i s t r i c t B r e f e r s to i t s program as Teacher E f f e c t i v e n e s s T r a i n i n g (TET). Table 3 Contexts Compared D i s t r i c t A D i s t r i c t B S i z e and L o c a t i o n Large m e t r o p o l i t a n School D i s t r i c t Medium s i z e d School D i s t r i c t j u s t o u t s i d e M e t r o p o l i t a n area O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e A c t i v e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee A c t i v e Teachers' Associa-t i o n P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee S t a b l e s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n H i s t o r i c a l l y Board very s u p p o r t i v e of s t a f f development No A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Develop-ment CommitTtfee Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n P r o f e s s i o n a l Develop-ment Committee i n p l a c e I n s t a b i l i t y i n s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e adminis-t r a t i o n p r i o r to i n i t i a t i o n H i s t o r i c a l l y Board not s u p p o r t i v e of s t a f f development H i s t o r y of S t a f f Development Innovative . T r a d i t i o n a l H i s t o r y of s u c c e s s f u l i n n o v a t i v e s t a f f development a c t i v i t i e s S t a f f development had a p o s i t i v e r e p u t a t i o n among a l l d i s t r i c t p ersonnel H i s t o r i c a l l y s t a f f development a c t i v i t i e s were u n s u c c e s s f u l S t a f f development d i d not have a p o s i t i v e r e p u t a t i o n among d i s t r i c t personnel CHAPTER 5 PROGRAM INITIATION T h i s chapter p r o v i d e s an account of the i n i t i a t i o n phase of a s t a f f development program i n two School D i s t r i c t s (A and B) and ana l y z e s the f i n d i n g s . The i n i t i a t i o n phase c o n s i s t s of the events which l e a d up to and i n c l u d e a d e c i s i o n to adopt or proceed with t h a t change ( F u l l a n 1982:39). T h i s phase took p l a c e a t d i f f e r e n t times i n the two d i s t r i c t s , f i r s t i n D i s t r i c t A and s l i g h t l y l a t e r i n D i s t r i c t B (see Table 4 ) . Table 4 I n i t i a t i o n Phase D i s t r i c t Time l i n e A 1976(Summer) - 1 9 7 8 ( F a l l ) B 1979(Spring) - 1981(Spring) The chapter c o n s i s t s of three s e c t i o n s . The i n i t i a t i o n phases i n D i s t r i c t A and D i s t r i c t B are d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n s one and two, r e s p e c t i v e l y . 81 82 S e c t i o n three concludes the chapter with an a n a l y s i s of the i n i t i a t i o n phases i n the two d i s t r i c t s . INITIATION IN DISTRICT A (1976-1978) The program e n t i t l e d I n s t r u c t i o n a l Theory Into  P r a c t i c e ( I T I P ) , developed o r i g i n a l l y by Dr. Madeline Hunter i n C a l i f o r n i a , was the focus of a t t e n t i o n i n D i s t r i c t A beginning i n 1976. The content of the program c o n s i s t s of elements of s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h i n g ; the g o a l s of the program are to improve p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s k i l l l e v e l i n t e a c h i n g and s u p e r v i s i o n . The program i s designed t o i n c l u d e both s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s (K to Grade 12) as p a r t i c i p a n t s . Emerging from the data were s e v e r a l events which appear to have been s i g n i f i c a n t i n the i n i t i a t i o n phase of the ITIP s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e i n D i s t r i c t A. Table 5 h i g h l i g h t s those Important events and Table 6 l i s t s the a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with them. Each a c t o r i s a s s i g n e d a number and a f i c t i t i o u s name and the Table shows h i s or her o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n . 8 3 Table 5 I n i t i a t i o n Events i n D i s t r i c t A Time-Line Events 1976-77 (School Year) August 1977 1977-78 (School Year) J u l y 1978 August 1978 .Appointment of a new a s s i s t a n t super intendent •A review of teacher r e p o r t s was under-taken . A d m i n i s t r a t o r s focus on improving s k i l l s i n s u p e r v i s i o n and r e p o r t wr i t i n g . D i s t r i c t s t a f f saw p r e s e n t a t i o n by Madeline Hunter .Madeline Hunter i n v i t e d to the D i s t r i c t . I n s t r u c t i o n a l Theory Into P r a c t i c e (ITIP) resource m a t e r i a l purchased .An ITIP Management Committee formed .A c o n s u l t a n t r e t a i n e d .Two C e n t r a l O f f i c e s t a f f attended U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles (UCLA) T r a i n i n g .Seven i n d i v i d u a l s attended S e a t t l e P a c i f i c U n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g .Consultant's p r o p o s a l r e j e c t e d (the a d a p t a t i o n of ITIP to the l o c a l s e t t i n g ) .Board approved the program (ITIP) i n pr i n c i p l e .ITIP Management Committee made plans f o r i n i t i a l program implementation i n F a l l of 1978. 84 Table 6 Respondents and T h e i r Respective P o s i t i o n s * i n D i s t r i c t A In t e r v i e w F i c t i t i o u s P o s i t i o n i n the Number Name D i s t r i c t 1 B i l l A s s i s t a n t Superintendent 2 Michael A s s i s t a n t Superintendent 3 Wes D i r e c t o r of I n s t r u c t i o n 4 Sam D i r e c t o r of I n s t r u c t i o n 5 Rosemary Coord i n a t o r 6 Stan CoordInator 7 Sadie Su p e r v i s o r 8 Joe P r i n c i p a l (Secondary) 9 K a l i n P r i n c i p a l (Elementary) 10 Ted P r i n c i p a l (Elementary) 11 Bob P r i n c i p a l (Elementary) 12 Frank P r i n c i p a l (Elementary) 13 C a r l Teacher (Elementary) 14 P a t r i c i a Teacher (Secondary) 15 S a l l y Teacher (Elementary) 16 Heather Teacher (Elementary) 17 John Teacher (Elementary) Not i n t e r v i e w e d but r e f e r r e d t o f r e q u e n t l y i n the t e x t : Don Superintendent (1972-83) Howard A s s i s t a n t Superintendent ( r e t i r e d 1984) Note: W i t h i n the t e x t e x c e r p t s from i n t e r v i e w data w i l l i n d i c a t e the i n t e r v i e w number and page, e.g., (#6:10) w i l l r e f e r t o i n t e r v i e w 6 page 10. • P o s i t i o n s shown are the p o s i t i o n s h e l d a t the time of the i n t e r v i e w . 85 In a d d i t i o n to t r a n s c r i p t data, the researcher had access t o d i s t r i c t documents. Throughout the study, reference i s made to various memos, reports and l e t t e r s . In an e f f o r t to maintain c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , those documents are not included i n the appendix and w i l l be kept on f i l e by the researcher and are r e f e r r e d to i n the t e x t by number. For example, (R.F. #1] w i l l r e f e r to item number one i n the researcher's f i l e . Between the Summer of 1976 and the F a l l of 1978 a number of events occurred which l e d up to a d e c i s i o n t o proceed with the implementation of the ITIP program i n D i s t r i c t A. The e a r l i e s t stages of the i n i t i a t i o n were l i n k e d to the superintendent's i n t e r e s t i n p r o f e s s i o n a l development f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the area of s u p e r v i s i o n and report w r i t i n g . The superintendent had i n i t i a t e d the formation of a committee to deal s p e c i f i c a l l y with a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l development (the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee). This committee was ch a i r e d by an a s s i s t a n t superintendent. Joe, a secondary p r i n c i p a l and an o r i g i n a l member of the committee, r e f l e c t s on that period of time and r e c a l l s that the committee was: set up by the superintendent and i t was an on-going committee from h i s o f f i c e . . . A t t h a t time the superintendent had funds and was able to put aside funds i n the budget for p r o f e s s i o n a l development f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s [8:11. 86 In the Summer of 1976, B i l l was appointed to the p o s i t i o n of a s s i s t a n t superintendent. Among h i s personal i n t e r e s t s was the s u p e r v i s i o n of teachers (1:21. During B i l l ' s f i r s t year i n the d i s t r i c t , the superintendent requested t h a t he conduct a review of teacher r e p o r t s which had been completed by p r i n c i p a l s . The r e s u l t s of that review confirmed f o r the superintendent the need to focus on the improvement of s k i l l s i n the area of report w r i t i n g and s u p e r v i s i o n and t h i s was subsequently conveyed to the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee. A l l of the respondents who were i n c e n t r a l o f f i c e a t the time (1976) and four of f i v e who were then p r i n c i p a l s , c o n f irm the existence of t h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l development focus. There was a pressure to improve r e p o r t w r i t i n g . There was a pressure to improve s u p e r v i s o r y p r a c t i c e [4:11. He (the superintendent) was promoting p r o f e s s i o n a l development, he was promoting i t q u i t e a c t i v e l y , he was anxious for a d m i n i s t r a t i v e growth...for awhile i t was j u s t h i s p a r t i c u l a r agenda [8:9]. We were moving i n t o , I think perhaps, l o o k i n g at more research based p r e s e n t a t i o n s , teaching s t y l e s , s u p e r v i s o r y models (10:11. I would say t h a t i t became a common t h r u s t t h a t the superintendent I n t e n s i f i e d . . . t h e expectations about the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s of teachers, about the 87 e v a l u a t i o n process [3:5], A r e p o r t from an a s s i s t a n t s u p erintendent t o the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee dated 1976:12:10 f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l development focus f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s was c l e a r l y s u p e r v i s i o n and e v a l u a t i o n . I t proposes t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t i e s f o r 1977 "focus on the goal of improving the competence of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n the area of s u p e r v i s i o n " [R.F. #11. In response to the su p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s of p r o f e s s i o n a l growth f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n s u p e r v i s i o n and e v a l u a t i o n , the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee began a s e a r c h f o r a program t h a t would address t h i s need. Two respondents who were members of the committee d e s c r i b e those e f f o r t s i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s : We ( A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Develop-ment Committee) were l o o k i n g f o r people who were t r y i n g t o d e f i n e what i s e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g , what i s good t e a c h i n g , how do you improve t h a t t e a c h i n g process [ 4 : 3 ] . R e a l l y k i n d of s e a r c h i n g around f o r something... l o o k i n g f o r a f e e l i n g of r e j u v e n a t i o n , and i t a l s o i n v o l v e d a k i n d of f o c u s s i n g down on s u p e r v i s i o n . . . I t h i n k t h a t some of us f e l t t h a t " I t ' s a l l w e l l and good to look a t a s u p e r v i s i o n model but maybe we should look a t a model of t e a c h i n g f i r s t , and then t h a t g i v e s us a good place t o hang on t o afterwards f o r your s u p e r v i s i o n p r o j e c t [11:21. 88 In a f a s h i o n which appears to have been t y p i c a l f o r the d i s t r i c t , s p e c i a l i s t s were i n v i t e d to give p r e s e n t a t i o n s . Wes, a c e n t r a l o f f i c e s t a f f person recounts v i s i t s by Manett, Block, Bloom and Rosenshine [3:4]. In a d d i t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l s attended conferences outside the d i s t r i c t and i t was during such a conference that D i s t r i c t A personnel encountered Dr. Madeline Hunter. B i l l , an a s s i s t a n t superintendent, r e p o r t s having seen her at conferences and read some of her m a t e r i a l [1:31. A v i c e - p r i n c i p a l from one of the la r g e high schools had taken an ITIP course a t Western Washington U n i v e r s i t y and upon h i s r e t u r n recommended to the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee t h a t they consider Madeline Hunter's work [8:41. Sadie r e c a l l e d meeting Madeline Hunter at a s u p e r v i s o r s ' conference at H a r r i s o n , B.C. and being so impressed that she asked the superintendent " i f i t might be p o s s i b l e to have her as a speaker f o r the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' meeting held a t the end of August" (7:11. K a l i n , a p r i n c i p a l on the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee, had a l s o heard her speak while he was a t t e n d i n g S e a t t l e P a c i f i c U n i v e r s i t y and he too lobbie d to have Dr. Hunter i n v i t e d to the D i s t r i c t [9:2]. These s p e c i f i c examples i l l u s t r a t e an excitement about the work of Madeline Hunter which was experienced by s e v e r a l c e n t r a l o f f i c e 89 and s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n personnel a t t h i s time. As a r e s u l t of t h i s growing i n t e r e s t , Bob, a member of the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s * P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee, r e c a l l e d making the arrangements f o r Madeline Hunter t o make a p r e s e n t a t i o n to the d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s [11:11. B i l l , an a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , t o l d of how he persuaded the su p e r i n t e n d e n t to gi v e up h i s t r a d i t i o n a l address t o the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n favour of a p r e s e n t a t i o n by Madeline Hunter [1:3.1. The Madeline Hunter p r e s e n t a t i o n i n August 1977 c o n s t i t u t e s a major event i n the i n i t i a t i o n phase. T h i r t e e n of seventeen respondents i d e n t i f y the Hunter p r e s e n t a t i o n as a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i n the d e c i s i o n to s e l e c t the ITIP program. The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s are i n d i c a t i v e of respondents' p e r c e p t i o n s of th a t event: I could see th a t they were r e a l l y impressed, t h a t they f e l t t h a t she was down to e a r t h and was g i v i n g what people c o u l d a p p l y i n the classroom. So I was ver y pleased with t h e i r r e a c t i o n and t h a t r e a l l y s o r t of s e t the stage f o r people t a l k i n g about i t [7:21. I t h i n k f i r s t and foremost i t was t h a t our a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were r e a l l y impressed with Madeline Hunter h e r s e l f [5:41. I t impressed me p e r s o n a l l y a t our A d m i n i s t r a t o r s annual get together a t the end of August [8:51. 90 F o l l o w i n g the Hunter p r e s e n t a t i o n In August 1977 a number of ITIP r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s were i n i t i a t e d . Books and f i l m s were purchased i n large q u a n t i t i e s and c i r c u l a t e d i n sc h o o l s , a sub-committee of the Ad m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee (ITIP Management Committee) was formed to deal s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h ITIP and the d i s t r i c t sponsored people to go to the U.S.A. f o r ITIP t r a i n i n g . There was a major e f f o r t during the 1977-78 school year to b u i l d awareness among teachers i n D i s t r i c t A by encouraging school p r i n c i p a l s to introduce ITIP v i a books and f i l m s . Only days a f t e r Madeline Hunter's August p r e s e n t a t i o n , Howard, an a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n -tendent, sent a memo to workshop p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t i n g p o s s i b l e resource m a t e r i a l s . An a d d i t i o n a l memo from the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee, a week l a t e r , o u t l i n e d a proposed follow-up to the Madeline Hunter workshops. I t proposes [R.F. #21: 1. t h a t a summary of the Hunter workshop be prepared and made a v a i l a b l e to every teacher; 2. t h a t a r t i c l e s be d u p l i c a t e d and sent to ad m i n i s t r a t o r s f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n to teachers upon request; 3. t h a t audio tapes made at the Hunter p r e s e n t a t i o n be copied and made a v a i l a b l e to teachers; and 4 . t h a t m u l t i p l e s e t s of Madeline Hunter books and f i l m s be purchased. 91 The data i n d i c a t e that there was quick a c t i o n f o l l o w i n g the proposal as evidenced i n a memo from the Ad m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee i n November announcing the a r r i v a l of twenty s e t s of seven books and a set of eleven c o l o u r f i l m s . The purpose of having the m a t e r i a l s i s expressed i n t h a t memo i n the f o l l o w i n g way: I t i s hoped t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s , admin-i s t r a t o r s and p a r t i c i p a n t s of the workshop w i l l take the opportunity t o view the f i l m s , become p r o f i c i e n t i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of these m a t e r i a l s and be a v a i l a b l e to schools as resource people. Respondents' r e c o l l e c t i o n s suggest t h a t the hope expressed i n t h i s memo was only p a r t l y f u l f i l l e d . In at l e a s t one respe c t , the Hunter f i l m s f a i l e d t o impress the viewers as demonstrated i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s : .. . I don't think she works w e l l on 16 nun...I think those 16 nun, i n r e t r o s p e c t , probably hurt our purposes i n many ways [12:2] . ...we used to have Madeline Hunters' f i l m f e s t i v a l which was a t o t a l bore [7:121. ...a l o t of p r i n c i p a l s r e a l l y became gung ho about i t , l i k e any good program, once you get i n t o i t you f i n d t h a t i t ' s got value . . . U n f o r t u n a t e l y what happened i s the same approach was taken by a l o t of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . You know, "Hey, I've got I t . This i s g r e a t , l e t ' s do I t . " and they s t a r t e d showing f i l m s a t lunch time, you know...Her s t u f f i s good but the f i l m s were j u s t t e r r i b l e . I could remember s i t t i n g i n a staff r o o m where a bunch of us j u s t walked out because i t was I n t e r f e r i n g 9 2 with our lunch hour [17 : 9 1 . The r e a c t i o n t o the 16 nun f i l m s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , enthusiasm continued to b u i l d . The ITIP Management Committee q u i c k l y r e a l i z e d t h a t the ITIP program would be of l i t t l e use to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s without t e a c h e r s . Joe, a secondary p r i n c i p a l and member of the committee, comments on the d e c i s i o n t o i n v o l v e t e a c h e r s i n the f o l l o w i n g way: Probably the most s i g n i f i c a n t t h i n g was we r e a l i z e d t h a t as we went along t h e r e ' s no way we co u l d do t h i s i n i s o l a t i o n from teachers [8 : 8 1 . At t h i s stage, the committee chose to i n v o l v e t e a c h e r s by i n v i t i n g the c h a i r p e r s o n of the l o c a l Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee to be pa r t of the p l a n n i n g . Rosemary, the Cha i r p e r s o n , and a classroom teacher a t the time, d e s c r i b e s the s i t u a t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g way: They (the Committee) made ov e r t u r e s to the ( D i s t r i c t A) Teachers' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee with the idea they wanted teacher involvement r i g h t from the s t a r t . . . d u r i n g ITIP p l a n n i n g i t was i n t e r e s t i n g , because I t h i n k i t was q u i t e unique, they i n s i s t e d t h a t the P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Chai r p e r s o n be p a r t of the p l a n n i n g s e s s i o n s [ 5 : 2 , 5 :61 . During the 1977-78 s c h o o l year, the ITIP Management Committee recommended, "that the emphasis f o r the coming year s h i f t from the knowledge l e v e l of the Hunter p r i n c i p l e s to the a p p l i c a t i o n l e v e l . " I t was re c o g n i z e d 93 t h a t t h i s d e c i s i o n c o n s t i t u t e d a major commitment of time and money [R.F.#3]. Other committee a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d d i s c u s s i o n with a c o n s u l t a n t from Western Washington who was subsequently i n v i t e d to submit a d e t a i l e d p r o p o s a l f o r the implementation of a program designed to adapt the ITIP m a t e r i a l s to meet the s p e c i f i c l o c a l needs of D i s t r i c t A. L a t e r t h a t year (June 26-July 7) Wes and Howard, a d i r e c t o r of i n s t r u c t i o n and an a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , were sponsored by the d i s t r i c t to a t t e n d the " C l i n i c a l S u p e r v i s i o n " workshop at Madeline Hunter's s c h o o l a t the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles (UCLA). In a d d i t i o n , another a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , M i c h a e l , r e c e i v e d d i s t r i c t funding to a t t e n d "Beginning ITIP" a t S e a t t l e P a c i f i c U n i v e r s i t y . S e v e r a l o t h e r s , i n c l u d i n g p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s , were a l s o sponsored and attended the course i n S e a t t l e with M i c h a e l . K a l i n and Frank, both elementary p r i n c i p a l s , had, by t h i s time, a p p l i e d f o r and r e c e i v e d a p p r o v a l f o r a p r o p o s a l to develop model ITIP s c h o o l s . S a l l y and Heather were teache r s on Frank's s t a f f and were among those who t r a v e l l e d to S e a t t l e P a c i f i c U n i v e r s i t y f o r the "Beginning ITIP" course. S a l l y r e c a l l s Frank's v i s i o n of a model ITIP s c h o o l as f o l l o w s : (He) had i n mind t h a t the s c h o o l s become model s c h o o l s , have a couple of s t a f f 94 members do the t r a i n i n g , we c o u l d do the I n s e r v i c e f o r the r e s t of the s t a f f members and we c o u l d make o u r s e l v e s a v a i l a b l e i f other s c h o o l s would l i k e us to come 115:6]. These v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s demonstrate the growing i n t e r e s t i n ITIP among D i s t r i c t A personnel. I t appears t h a t the d i s t r i c t was " t e s t i n g the waters" and t r y i n g t o f i n d out as much as p o s s i b l e about the program before t a k i n g the f i n a l s t e p and committing l a r g e sums of money to a d i s t r i c t - w i d e ITIP s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e . I t a l s o appears t h a t as people got more i n v o l v e d the enthusiasm f o r the program i n t e n s i f i e d . Two major i n i t i a t i o n events took p l a c e i n August, 1978. The budget f o r the pro p o s a l submitted by the American c o n s u l t a n t was i n excess of $50,000 and, while i t c o n t a i n e d many of the ideas espoused by the ITIP Management Committee, i t was not approved [R.F.#4]. The o f f i c i a l reason for r e j e c t i o n was co s t but i n the view of B i l l , one of the a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , there were other reasons. He r e p o r t s f e e l i n g the o r i g i n a l g o a l of improving s u p e r v i s i o n had been l o s t i n the proposed a d a p t a t i o n and he argues t h a t the o r i g i n a l ITIP program had the p o t e n t i a l of meeting the p r o j e c t o b j e c t i v e s [1:6]. The other major event was the g r a n t i n g of Board a p p r o v a l t o the pro p o s a l f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l development. Howard, an 95 a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , presented the p r o p o s a l which c o n s t i t u t e d the implementation of a d i s t r i c t - w i d e ITIP i n i t i a t i v e . The formal a p p r o v a l f o r the adoption of the ITIP program having been granted, the ITIP Management Committee began to formulate a d i s t r i c t p l a n which would e v e n t u a l l y i n v o l v e a l l p r i n c i p a l s and some teachers i n the t r a i n i n g . The c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r the f i r s t workshop and a p p l i c a t i o n forms were sent out i n September, 1978 [R.F.#51. Noteworthy i s the f a c t t h a t f o r the f i r s t time i n D i s t r i c t A there was an e x p e c t a t i o n from s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel t h a t every a d m i n i s t r a t o r would p a r t i c i p a t e i n the I n i t i a t i v e . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n from one of the a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s i s i l l u s t r a t i v e of t h a t e x p e c t a t i o n : No one was going to get shot a t dawn i f they d i d n ' t t u r n out f o r i t , but there was a p r e t t y heavy e x p e c t a t i o n . . . [ 2 : 5 ] . The f i r s t ITIP t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n was scheduled to begin i n e a r l y October, 1978, about s i x weeks a f t e r formal Board app r o v a l f o r the p r o j e c t . The goal of the p r o j e c t was to improve the s u p e r v i s o r y s k i l l s of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . P r i n c i p a l s were expected to a t t e n d with one or more te a c h e r s depending on the s i z e of t h e i r s c h o o l . 96 THE INITIATION IN DISTRICT B (1979-1982) A program e n t i t l e d Teacher E f f e c t i v e n e s s T r a i n i n g (TET) was the^focus of a t t e n t i o n i n D i s t r i c t B beginning i n 1980. The content of the program c o n s i s t s of the ITIP m a t e r i a l developed by Dr. Madeline Hunter and i t i s the same program which was adopted i n D i s t r i c t A. Emerging from the data were s e v e r a l events which appear to have been s i g n i f i c a n t i n D i s t r i c t B. Table 7 h i g h l i g h t s these events and Table 8 l i s t s the a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with them. Each a c t o r i s assigned a number and a f i c t i t i o u s name and Table 8 shows h i s or her p o s i t i o n i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Between the years 1979 and 1982, a s e r i e s of i n t e r r e l a t e d events occurred i n D i s t r i c t B which appear t o have l e d t o the d e c i s i o n t o proceed w i t h a d i s t r i c t - w i d e s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e e n t i t l e d TET (Teacher E f f e c t i v e n e s s T r a i n i n g ) . For reasons which are discussed l a t e r , D i s t r i c t B personnel chose not to r e f e r to the program as ITIP although the content i s the same as th a t used i n D i s t r i c t A. 97 Table 7 I n i t i a t i o n Events i n D i s t r i c t B Time-1ine Events P r e - I n i t i a t i o n 1973 .A h i g h l y i n f l u e n t i a l member e l e c t e d to the School Board 1975 .Both a new superintendent and a new s e c r e t a r y t r e a s u r e r were h i r e d .Supervisor i n t e r e s t e d i n ITIP j o i n e d c e n t r a l o f f i c e s t a f f . I n i t i a t i o n 1979-80 Summer 1980 1980-81 Summer 1981 1981-82 .A c e n t r a l o f f i c e a d m i n i s t r a t o r attempted to i n i t i a t e the ITIP program .A d i s t r i c t p r i n c i p a l was appointed to the p o s i t i o n of a s s i s t a n t to the super i n t e n d e n t . ,An ITIP s e s s i o n was presented a t the d i s t r i c t ' s annual c o n v e n t i o n . .A new p o s i t i o n of a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t was c r e a t e d and an o u t - o f - d i s t r i c t person was appo i n t e d . . P r e l i m i n a r y work on a d i s t r i c t TET program was done .Two c e n t r a l o f f i c e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and a p r i n c i p a l attended an E r n i e Stachowski workshop i n a neighbouring d i s t r i c t . .A c e n t r a l o f f i c e a d m i n i s t r a t o r and a p r i n c i p a l attended a Madeline Hunter workshop at S e a t t l e P a c i f i c U n i v e r s i t y and c o n t a c t was made with C a r o l Cummings. .Carol Cummings presented a d i s t r i c t workshop f o r "best" t e a c h e r s s e l e c t e d by t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s . .Teachers' r e a c t i o n was e n t h u s i a s t i c . 98 Table 8 Respondents and T h e i r Respective P o s i t i o n * i n D i s t r i c t B In t e r v i e w F i c t i t i o u s P o s i t i o n i n the Number Name D i s t r i c t 18 Nick A s s i s t a n t Superintendent 19 Barry A s s i s t a n t Superintendent 20 Ted D i r e c t o r 21 Nathan He l p i n g Teacher 22 Tony P r i n c i p a l (Secondary) 23 A r t P r i n c i p a l (Elementary) 24 Bob P r i n c i p a l (Elementary) 25 Doug P r i n c i p a l (Elementary) 26 Kent P r i n c i p a l (Elementary) 27 O l i v e Teacher (Elementary) 28 W i l l i a m Teacher (Elementary) 29 Diane Teacher (Elementary) 30 Josh Teacher (Secondary) 31 David Teacher (Secondary) 32 Kathy Teacher (Elementary) • P o s i t i o n s shown are the p o s i t i o n s held a t the time of the i n t e r v i e w 99 I t appears the e a r l i e s t stages of the TET i n i t i a t i v e began around 1979 and are l i n k e d t o the s u p e r v i s i o n of t e a c h e r s . Barry, who a t t h a t time was an a s s i s t a n t to the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , was encouraged by the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t to pursue the t o p i c of s u p e r v i s i o n [19:2], During 1979, B a r r y completed the f i r s t d r a f t of a document e n t i t l e d " S u p e r v i s i o n : A D i s t r i c t P e r s p e c t i v e " [R.F.#61. P r i o r t o 1979 there were a number of events which appear to have s e t the stage f o r change ( p r e - i n i t i a t i o n ) . By 1975, the d i s t r i c t had undergone s e v e r a l changes i n s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and a t the Board l e v e l . Tony, a s u p e r v i s o r of i n s t r u c t i o n a t the time, had begun to p l a n t seeds. He was i d e n t i f i e d by s e v e r a l respondents as one of the key a c t o r s i n the TET i n i t i a t i o n phase. He came to D i s t r i c t B i n 1975 from a neighbouring s c h o o l d i s t r i c t reputed to be a forerunner i n the area of s u p e r v i s i o n of t e a c h e r s . At that time he was appointed to the c e n t r a l o f f i c e p o s i t i o n of s u p e r v i s o r of i n s t r u c t i o n . His i n t e r e s t i n s u p e r v i s i o n had l e d him to Madeline Hunter's work and he became an advocate f o r ITIP. B a r r y and Nick, both s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e p e r s o n n e l , d e s c r i b e Tony's e a r l y e f f o r t s to i n i t i a t e an ITIP program i n the f o l l o w i n g way: 100 Tony came from D i s t r i c t N, had been down to UCLA, I b e l i e v e one summer wit h Madeline and came out of the D i s t r i c t N s u p e r v i s i o n model and so when he was i n c e n t r a l o f f i c e , which was before I was, I thi n k he was encouraging t h a t approach to s u p e r v i s i o n [19:3], Of course Tony had been involved i n t h i s s o r t of t h i n g and I learned that he had been t r y i n g to s e l l the notion of Madeline Hunter before I got here and got burned i n the process [18:4]. Tony e x p l a i n s h i s own involvement a t the time i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: As a s u p e r v i s o r , I was using some of the c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n t h i n g s . I don't want to sound e g o t i s t i c a l , but I think I s t a r t e d a l o t of t a l k i n g about b r i n g i n g Madeline Hunter i n t o the d i s t r i c t which never was accomplished i n my three years i n c e n t r a l o f f i c e [22:1]. Barry speculates that Tony was unable to i n i t i a t e i n 1975 the very program th a t was i n i t i a t e d i n 1980, because h i s p o s i t i o n a t the time d i d not hold enough power: I t could be t h a t h i s area of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was not...he wasn't a d i r e c t o r of i n s t r u c t i o n and perhaps i f he had been, he might have been able to move and shake a b i t more [19:3]. Another respondent r e c a l l s the f o l l o w i n g : He (Tony) had been c r e a t i n g an awareness of the program which was p a r t l y accepted by some and d e f i n i t e l y r e j e c t e d by one or two. One of whom was very i n f l u e n t i a l . Consequently, the program never r e a l l y got o f f the ground [26:11. Tony was not the only person who f a i l e d to gather 101 support f o r the ITIP program. In the Spring of 1980, an ITIP s e s s i o n was included on the program of the D i s t r i c t B Spring Convention. The s e s s i o n had been arranged by the Convention Chairperson who had experienced ITIP i n D i s t r i c t A. Independently, Barry, who had been a t a S u p e r v i s i o n Workshop i n D i s t r i c t A, had endorsed the idea of I n c l u d i n g an ITIP workshop on the program. The r e a c t i o n t o ITIP was negative. Several respondents remember the negative r e a c t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the f o l l o w i n g ways: I t h i n k probably the b i g t h i n g there i s t h a t ITIP i s such, when i t was f i r s t brought i n t o the D i s t r i c t , i t was a number of years ago, even p r i o r to my coming here, had been s o r t of introduced t o the teachers by a D i s t r i c t A teacher, I b e l i e v e . The response of the teachers at the Convention a t the time with regard to the program, was very negative [ 2 1 : 4 ] . At a conference...we put on a s e s s i o n on ITIP...and we got a guy from D i s t r i c t A t o come i n and give i t and i t bombed [26:51. . . . t h i s school was one who went to a workshop, which was e n t i t l e d ITIP, and i t was j u s t an absolute d i s a s t e r . . . d i s a s t e r -v i l l e , s i x months i t s e t us back [22:81. This r e a c t i o n to the ITIP p r e s e n t a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n D i s t r i c t B c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel choosing not to r e f e r t o the program as ITIP. Instead they renamed t h e i r program TET (Teacher E f f e c t i v e n e s s T r a i n i n g ) . There were strong f e e l i n g s among c e n t r a l o f f i c e s t a f f r egarding t h a t d e c i s i o n . Barry, the a s s i s t a n t to the 102 superintendent at the time, explained they simply f e l t they had t o change the name of t h e i r program to avoid any connection with the ITIP p r e s e n t a t i o n made a t the 1980 convention. The f o l l o w i n g quotation i l l u s t r a t e s the r a t i o n a l e behind that d e c i s i o n : I t had been w e l l attended i n the morning -the manner of p r e s e n t a t i o n offended a l l kinds of people and they went away saying forge t i t . They a l l went to other a c t i v i t i e s i n the afternoon. Some s a i d , "Hey i f we c a l l i t ITIP, we're going to get a negative r e a c t i o n (that) r i g h t o f f the bat we w i l l have to overcome, so l e t ' s c a l l i t " E f f e c t i v e Teaching" or "TET" 119:9]. P r i o r t o the F a l l 1980, attempts to i n i t i a t e the ITIP program appeared doomed to f a i l u r e . Moreover, about the same time a B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation sponsored program, P r o j e c t TEACH, was o f f e r e d and i t , too, f a i l e d . Despite the f a c t t h a t the P r o j e c t TEACH content was considered good, the program f a i l e d because i t was perceived by teachers as a remedial or " f i x - i t " program [18:21]. In the Summer of 1980, Nick was appointed to a newly created p o s i t i o n of a s s i s t a n t superintendent. He came t o D i s t r i c t B from D i s t r i c t P i n the i n t e r i o r of B.C. His appearance appears to mark a s h i f t i n a t t i t u d e regarding the i n i t i a t i o n of a d i s t r i c t s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e . The f o l l o w i n g excerpt i s Nick's e x p l a n a t i o n of how the program was i n i t i a t e d : 103 I wondered what r o l e I would p l a y i n terras of the people s i d e of t h i n g s because I'd been away from t h a t . I hadn't been i n P r o f e s s i o n a l Development work up North...Here i t was a l l s o r t of under my umbrella, and so t h i n k i n g of the people s i d e of the t h i n g , t e a c h i n g , the q u a l i t y of t e a c h i n g , t h i s s o r t of t h i n g . I was aware of what was going on i n the P r o f e s s i o n a l Development program i n D i s t r i c t P because the guy's o f f i c e was next t o mine. He had arranged to b r i n g i n E r n i e Stachowski...I heard a l o t of good t h i n g s from classroom teachers and sc h o o l p r i n c i p a l s . . . S o without r e a l l y knowing much about i t . . . I s i m p ly wrote back to D i s t r i c t P...and asked her i f she c o u l d get me E r n i e ' s address or phone number...[18:3] Worthy of note i s the f a c t t h a t " i n 1980 the Board of School T r u s t e e s s e t as a major goal the es t a b l i s h m e n t of a D i s t r i c t - w i d e p r o j e c t to encourage the p r o f e s s i o n a l growth of t e a c h e r s " [R.F.#7]. Thus, Nick's p u r s u i t of p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t i e s to enhance teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s was a l i g n e d with formal D i s t r i c t g o a l s . I t appears t h a t without knowing too much about ITIP, Nick, the new a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , f e l t r e s p o n s i b l e to i n i t i a t e a p r o f e s s i o n a l development program f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . N i ck's i n i t i a l c o n t a c t with E r n i e Stachowski r e s u l t e d i n an arrangement whereby a few D i s t r i c t B personnel attended an ITIP workshop by Stachowski i n nearby D i s t r i c t W i n the Winter of 1981. Nick attended and i n v i t e d Ted and Tony to j o i n him. Nick e x p l a i n s 104 t h e r e was a s t r a t e g y r e l a t e d to h i s c h o i c e s : I had got the d r i f t from l i s t e n i n g t o people t h a t Tony had been r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s k i n d of t h i n g so t h a t was the reason I chose him to go to D i s t r i c t W and he a l s o has a f a i r amount of power among the P r i n c i p a l s . Ted being the d i r e c t o r of i n s t r u c t i o n (was) i n charge of the t e a c h e r s . I wanted the person who i s most c l o s e l y working with teachers and who a l s o had, I assumed, a l o t of power i n the d i s t r i c t and who had been here a long time [18:41. The three men were Impressed and decided they "should get going on t h i s s o r t of t h i n g " but wondered about the best way to approach such an i n i t i a t i v e . As Nick p o i n t s out: We d i d n ' t r e a l l y go through to seek f i e l d support a t t h i s stage. We s t i l l wanted to have some other o p i n i o n s of how we might go and i n the back of my mind was the f a c t t h a t sure you can b r i n g i n E r n i e Stachowski, but i t i s not very p r a c t i c a l to have your resource person down i n Long Beach...He might be a good person to k i c k t h i n g s o f f , I f e l t , but we have to s o l v e th problem as to how we would continue [18:51. During the S p r i n g of t h a t year, c o n s i s t e n t with h i s ongoing i n t e r e s t i n s u p e r v i s i o n , Barry presented a s e s s i o n on " C o l l e g i a l S u p e r v i s i o n " a t the D i s t r i c t Teachers' Convention. In keeping with Nick's i n c l i n a t i o n to gather other o p i n i o n s about the best way to introduce t h i s program to the f i e l d f o r t h e i r support, he decided t o send a few 105 d i s t r i c t people to S e a t t l e P a c i f i c U n i v e r s i t y f o r some more t r a i n i n g and exposure t o ITIP. During the Summer of 1981, Ted, Tony and another d i s t r i c t p r i n c i p a l t r a v e l l e d to S e a t t l e P a c i f i c U n i v e r s i t y f o r ITIP t r a i n i n g and during t h a t time, contact was made with C a r o l Cummings who impressed them a l l . Nick had decided not to attend because he f e l t " i t was important f o r (me) not to look l i k e (I) was pushing i t from my p o i n t of view." However, based on the recommendation of Tony and Ted upon t h e i r r e t u r n from S e a t t l e P a c i f i c , they "moved q u i c k l y to get Carol to come i n and do a workshop" [18:61. While Nick's "motivation a l l along had been the needs of school p r i n c i p a l s . . . t o understand the process of teaching...so they w i l l use t h e i r s k i l l s f o r h e l p i n g teachers", he was convinced by Ted and Barry to o f f e r a workshop f o r teachers only. Nick r e c a l l s being convinced because of h i s fear that "when p r i n c i p a l s are c l o s e d i n a room by themselves, the teachers are wondering what the h e l l those guys are doing." Barry e x p l a i n s h i s philosophy and the t h i n k i n g t h a t guided h i s wish f o r teachers only: ...there was a theory behind i n v i t i n g teachers only...my goal was to give teachers more a u t h o r i t y , more power, whatever. And a l s o , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y I thought i t may, or p o l i t i c a l l y or whatever i t may be, i t may make sense to hold out a 106 c a r r o t to the p r i n c i p a l s [19:10]. Nick was persuaded by B a r r y and the i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g was o f f e r e d to teachers o n l y . P r i n c i p a l s were asked to send t h e i r " b e s t" t e a c h e r s and i n c l u d e l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s [19:12]. The c r i t e r i a g i v e n to p r i n c i p a l s i n c l u d e d "best t e a c h e r s " , "people who are openminded", "people who w i l l t e l l o t h e r s about i t " [20:6]. In the q u o t a t i o n below, Ted d e s c r i b e s how t h i s s t r a t e g y to acknowledge teac h e r s f o r t h e i r s t r e n g t h s and c e l e b r a t e t h e i r a b i l i t i e s i n the s e l e c t i o n process f o r the i n i t i a l workshop f e l l somewhat s h o r t of the intended g o a l : I had a number of teachers come up to me and do a p e r c e p t i o n check. They wanted to know why they had been s e l e c t e d . I s a i d , "Well, you should know why you have been s e l e c t e d . " No, I don't. I f e e l i n s u l t e d and e v e r y t h i n g e l s e . " And I s a i d , "Why would you f e e l i n s u l t e d ? " "Because you f e e l I should be here [20:6]." T h i s f i r s t TET workshop i n D i s t r i c t B, presented by C a r o l Cummings, was o f f e r e d i n the F a l l of 1981 to t e a c h e r s o n l y . I t appears to have been another " t e s t i n g of the waters" d u r i n g the i n i t i a t i o n phase. Despite the f a c t t h a t some d i d n ' t understand why they were s e l e c t e d to a t t e n d , e v a l u a t i o n s from t h i s workshop with C a r o l Cummings were e n t h u s i a s t i c -- 96% thought i t was good or e x c e l l e n t [19:11]. T r u s t e e s were a l s o i n v i t e d and i t appears t h a t as a r e s u l t of t h e i r involvement they 107 became more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e . In October, t h a t same F a l l (1981), Nick made a p r e s e n t a t i o n to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s on "a program designed to help you understand even more about the a r t and s c i e n c e of t e a c h i n g and about how you can a c c u r a t e l y a s s i s t t e a c h e r s to grow." That meeting stands out as a ve r y important event i n the i n i t i a t i o n phase. The f o l l o w i n g excerpt p r o v i d e s Nick's p e r s o n a l account of t h a t meeting: Now a c t u a l l y t h a t i s s t i l l at the end of my f i r s t year, no t h a t must be my second year. Somewhere i n t h i s mix i t r e a l l y gets hazy. I p r e t t y w e l l had to go ahead on the assumption t h a t I would be abl e to convince p r i n c i p a l s to not have t h e i r annual r e t r e a t , which i s something very c l o s e to them and to spend that money to b r i n g i n Stachowski. I had made arrangements, behind the scenes to be honest, c o n t a c t i n g E r n i e g e n e r a l l y g e t t i n g h i s agreement yes he would come, how many days? F i r s t we had s i x days and then you know i t was changed around f o r budget reasons and t h i s s o r t of t h i n g . But I knew then t h a t E r n i e , yes he would come because up to t h a t p o i n t he was t e l l i n g me about D i s t r i c t W and a l l t h i s s o r t of s t u f f and on the phone t h a t he r e a l l y d i d n ' t know whether he wanted to take on another s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . So before I went to the p r i n c i p a l s I was sure t h a t he would come. I made a p r e s e n t a t i o n to p r i n c i p a l s about having a major, t h i s was a t the same time t h a t C a r o l was a l r e a d y coming i n . (you a n t i c i p a t e d my question) and my speaking notes are i n here hand w r i t t e n p r o b a b l y a h a l f an hour before the meeting. What am I going to say to these guys now? But I was nervous. You know I 108 don't r e a l l y tend to operate t h a t way. You know, mind you i t i s j u s t a phone c a l l , " E r n i e no, they won't buy i t , I'm s o r r y . Thanks f o r being i n t e r e s t e d , " so I wasn't too concerned, but I was concerned about the f a c t t h a t I was a s k i n g p r i n c i p a l s to g i v e up something v e r y dear to them. Not no r e t r e a t s i s going to be i n house here, you won't be a b l e to go away and have a b i g p a r t y a t n i g h t and t h i s s o r t of t h i n g . And t h a t i s an Important t h i n g to do. I am not s a y i n g t h a t we shouldn't do t h a t but we c o u l d n ' t do both. We c o u l d n ' t have E r n i e i n and a l s o do t h a t . I was v e r y pleased with the p r i n c i p a l s . They s a i d , "Sure, l e t ' s go for i t . " There i s a c t u a l l y a p i e c e t h a t I kept r e f e r r i n g to t h a t I n o t i c e d i n my notes t h i s morning t h a t I was j u s t l o o k i n g through i n my book and i t ' s m i s s i n g . I keep r e f e r r i n g to the paper before you and the damn t h i n g i s n ' t there (oh no) Anyhow, i t r e a l l y j u s t s a i d the b a s i c o u t l i n e , but the other t h i n g was t h a t not o n l y would we not have the r e t r e a t but we are not going to be there on our own f o l k s , I want you to b r i n g a teacher a l o n g . E r n i e had convinced us of t h a t anyhow. He s a i d , "Don't ever put a group of p r i n c i p a l s on t h i s t o p i c by themselves." So we asked p r i n c i p a l s , please b r i n g a teacher along who you r e s p e c t and t h a t the other s t a f f members r e s p e c t as being a good te a c h e r , whatever t h a t means. Don't b r i n g a person al o n g who you f e e l i s having some t r o u b l e and don't b r i n g a person along t h a t even i f they're good the r e s t of the s t a f f doesn't f e e l good about [18:81. Having a sense of Nick's p e r c e p t i o n s , the f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s from the t r a n s c r i p t s demonstrate r e a c t i o n s to t h a t meeting from some of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s : 109 He (Nick) c e r t a i n l y was the proponent, he was the g u i d i n g l i g h t , he was the one t h a t c o u l d i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e i t and e x p l a i n i t , and I f e e l t h a t he was c e r t a i n l y the c h i e f i n i t i a t o r and he has kept h i s f i n g e r i n i t [25:6]. ...then Nick, who i s the a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t of the d i s t r i c t , came i n and I think t h a t was probably the c a t a l y s t t h a t r e a l l y got i t going [22:17]. ...he [Nick] showed the l e a d e r s h i p i n order to get i t going...the whole t h i n g was p r e t t y c a r e f u l l y o r c h e s t r a t e d [26:2]. The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s appeared w i l l i n g to support Nick on t h i s i n i t i a t i v e . Perhaps t h e i r r e a c t i o n was r e l a t e d to a comment Ted made about him: I thi n k when Nick came along i t was a breath of l i f e . . . N i c k came down and he was ready to make an impression, to make a name f o r h i m s e l f . He cares about people [20:18]. Nick, i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n , p r o v i d e s h i s own p e r c e p t i o n of the p r i n c i p a l s ' w i l l i n g n e s s to support h i s p l a n : . . . i n terms of the p r i n c i p a l s , i t co u l d w e l l have been t h a t when you are new i n the d i s t r i c t as a new a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , t h a t they are w i l l i n g to say " l e t ' s go with h i s i d e a , l e t ' s go with h i s r e q u e s t . I don't l i k e i t but we have got to l e t t h i s guy have some rope... I th i n k a l s o i t i s j u s t the n o t i o n t h a t , hey, t h i s guy i s new and most people want people to succeed. They r e a l l y do, and so i f he wants to do t h i s we b e t t e r go al o n g because we don't want him to get i n t o t r o u b l e [18:21]. The data demonstrate t h a t there was a unanimously held 110 p e r c e p t i o n among a d m i n i s t r a t o r s (5 of 5) t h a t Nick was the c a t a l y s t and c h i e f i n i t i a t o r of the TET i n i t i a t i v e . I t was not, however, t o t a l l y a one man show. The data a l s o p rovide evidence t h a t other c e n t r a l o f f i c e p ersonnel were i n v o l v e d i n the i n i t i a t i o n phase. Barry, the a s s i s t a n t to the superintendent at the time, i n f l u e n c e d a number of key d i s c u s s i o n s d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n . He i n f l u e n c e d the d e c i s i o n to c a l l the program TET r a t h e r than ITIP and i t was h i s idea to o f f e r the f i r s t t r a i n i n g program to t e a c h e r s o n l y . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n r e f l e c t s Nick's r e c o l l e c t i o n of the a d v i c e he r e c e i v e d from h i s c o l l e a g u e s r e g a r d i n g the use of ITIP: I f you mention the word ITIP or i f you say ITIP, i f you t a l k about Madeline Hunter you're dead i n the water. I t was good ad v i c e because I had no idea what was going on [18:11). Ted, a d i r e c t o r of i n s t r u c t i o n , had been i n c l u d e d i n the " t e s t i n g of the waters" both i n D i s t r i c t w and at S e a t t l e P a c i f i c U n i v e r s i t y . I t was d u r i n g a t r a i n i n g course i n S e a t t l e P a c i f i c U n i v e r s i t y he met C a r o l Cummings and r e t u r n e d with the recommendation to i n v o l v e her i n the d i s t r i c t . I l l The superintendent appears to have played the r o l e of support g a t h e r e r . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s are i l l u s t r a t i v e of the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s involvement d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n : The s u p erintendent was wise enough not to get i n the road. He saw the p l a n and gave us moral support [20:19]. He (the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ) was d e f i n i t e l y p r o a c t i v e r a t h e r than r e a c t i v e . . . a n d he persuaded the Board to support i t [24:22]. ...and he's done a tremendous amount of work, I t h i n k , with the Board i n c o n v i n c i n g them i n h i s way because of h i s r o l e as s u perintendent t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l development of teachers i s important [22:5]. In a d d i t i o n to the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s e f f o r t s to gain support from the Board, Nick c r e d i t e d Barry and Ted with having the awareness of the l o c a l p o l i t i c a l scene and the f o r e s i g h t to i n v i t e the e x e c u t i v e of the Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n to the f i r s t workshop f o r p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s . Once Nick had gained the support of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and the Board had i n d i c a t e d support, a c t i o n was taken to secure E r n i e Stachowski f o r the i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g experience i n the S p r i n g of 1982. The p l a n was to o f f e r the course to a l l p r i n c i p a l s who were asked to a t t e n d with one or more of t h e i r t e a c h e r s . On the eve of the implementation phase, c o n s i d e r a b l e enthusiasm f o r the TET i n i t i a t i v e was 112 developing i n a d i s t r i c t which had p r e v i o u s l y r e s i s t e d ITIP and other s t a f f development e f f o r t s . N i n e t y - s i x percent of the teachers who had taken the i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g had rated i t as e x c e l l e n t and the p r i n c i p a l s had i n d i c a t e d t h e i r support to the new a s s i s t a n t superintendent's request f o r involvement i n the TET i n i t i a t i v e . The a r r i v a l of the new a s s i s t a n t superintendent i n 1980 appears to have been a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g t h i s s h i f t i n a t t i t u d e towards s t a f f development a c t i v i t i e s . Throughout the i n i t i a t i o n the new a s s i s t a n t superintendent had consulted with h i s c o l l e a g u e , Barry, a s s i s t a n t t o the superintendent. By the end of i n i t i a t i o n , Barry had been appointed as the second a s s i s t a n t superintendent r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d i s t r i c t ' s teachers. Nick who was r e s p o n s i b l e for the d i s t r i c t ' s p r i n c i p a l s recounts h i s perception of t h e i r working r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the f o l l o w i n g way: ...Barry and I work c l o s e l y together very well...He works with me with the p r i n c i p a l s , and I work wi t h him with the teachers (18:251. The data suggest t h a t t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s may have i n c l i n e d the two o f f i c i a l s to d i f f e r i n t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e on the primary t a r g e t audience f o r the p r o j e c t . Accounts of Nick's a c t i o n suggest t h a t he saw p r i n c i p a l s as the primary t a r g e t 113 audience while Barry's a c t i o n s suggest that he s t r o n g l y advocated teachers as the primary t a r g e t audience. This d i f f e r e n c e notwithstanding, both of these s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s agreed t h a t the TET i n i t i a t i v e should proceed. The E r n i e Stachowski t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n f o r a l l p r i n c i p a l s and some of t h e i r teachers took place i n the Spring of 1982 and marked the beginning of implementation and the end of the i n i t i a t i o n phase. INITIATION: CONTRIBUTING FACTORS The events which occurred during i n i t i a t i o n and which appear to have c o n t r i b u t e d to the adoption of the I n i t i a t i v e i n both d i s t r i c t s were r e l a t e d to four v a r i a b l e s : (1) co n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s , (2) the sources of the i n i t i a t i v e , (3) the a t t r i b u t e s of the i n i t i a t i v e , and (4) the gathering of support. These v a r i a b l e s c o n s i s t of a number of f a c t o r s which a l l i n t e r a c t e d w i t h i n the context of each d i s t r i c t and appear to have c o n t r i b u t e d to the d e c i s i o n to adopt the i n i t i a t i v e . Contextual V a r i a b l e s Two co n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s appear t o have had an e f f e c t on the events which l e d to the adoption of the i n i t i a t i v e s d escribed i n t h i s study: o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and h i s t o r y of s t a f f development. 114 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . As d i s c u s s e d i n chapter 4, D i s t r i c t A had two a c t i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l development committees f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . An a n a l y s i s of the data p e r t i n e n t t o i n i t i a t i o n suggests t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of these two committees may have accounted f o r some d i f f e r e n c e s i n the events which occurred w i t h i n the two d i s t r i c t s d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n . The A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee was a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the s e a r c h f o r and the s e l e c t i o n of the ITIP program i n D i s t r i c t A. I t appears t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of t h i s committee may have r e s u l t e d i n many more a d m i n i s t r a t o r s being i n v o l v e d i n D i s t r i c t A than was to be the case i n D i s t r i c t B. Those few a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who were i n v o l v e d i n D i s t r i c t B d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n appear to have been i n v o l v e d on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s by i n v i t a t i o n of the primary i n i t i a t o r . The e x i s t e n c e of the committee i n D i s t r i c t A seems to have f o r m a l i z e d the c o n t a c t between c e n t r a l o f f i c e and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s whereas the lack of a s i m i l a r committee i n D i s t r i c t B seems to have made th a t c o n t a c t more i n f o r m a l . Teachers were not i n c l u d e d i n the s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n i n e i t h e r d i s t r i c t but the Chai r p e r s o n of the 115 D i s t r i c t A l o c a l Teachers* A s s o c i a t i o n P r o f e s s i o n a l Development committee was i n v i t e d to s i t on the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Sub-Committee du r i n g the ITIP I n i t i a t i v e . The long standing s t r e n g t h of the Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n Committee may have accounted, i n p a r t , f o r the d e c i s i o n i n D i s t r i c t A to include a teacher r e p r e s e n t a t i v e once the committee decided teachers would be included d u r i n g Implementation. H i s t o r y of s t a f f development. Two very d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i e s of s t a f f development c h a r a c t e r i z e d D i s t r i c t s A and B and yet each h i s t o r y i n i t s own way appears to have been I n f l u e n t i a l i n the s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n . In D i s t r i c t A there was an expectation of and p r i d e i n innovative s t a f f development. The data suggest that the innovative aspects of the ITIP i n i t i a t i v e may have appealed to program i n i t i a t o r s , users and Board members because such a program would maintain the D i s t r i c t ' s r e p u t a t i o n as an innovator. The f o l l o w i n g quotations are supportive of such s p e c u l a t i o n : We were always l o o k i n g for something new (3:181 Tremendous d i s t r i c t p r i d e . . . d e s i r e t o keep i n the f o r e f r o n t [4:51 I t h i n k the Board always f e l t proudly t h a t they were In the f o r e f r o n t of things...[17:221. 116 In D i s t r i c t B s t a f f development had h i s t o r i c a l l y been c o n s e r v a t i v e l y approached and had not been a d i s t r i c t p r i o r i t y . Funds had not been made r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e by the Board and the s t a f f development a c t i v i t i e s had t y p i c a l l y not been w e l l received by d i s t r i c t teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . The h i s t o r y i n D i s t r i c t B suggests t h a t i t wouldn't c o n t r i b u t e to i n i t i a t i o n but i t d i d . The f o l l o w i n g q u o tation i s i l l u s t r a t i v e of the f a c t t h a t people i n the d i s t r i c t were ready f o r a new approach: ...the d i s t r i c t was ready f o r change. I t had been a f a i r l y t r a d i t i o n a l d i s t r i c t . . . So, I think maybe c l i m a t e was r i g h t i n D i s t r i c t B f o r t h a t , f o r change f o r Improvement, f o r growth [ 2 2:131. Context as p r e d i c t o r . The h i s t o r y of s t a f f development and the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s i n the two d i s t r i c t s are very d i f f e r e n t . One would th i n k these d i f f e r e n c e s would r e s u l t i n d i f f e r e n t i n i t i a t i o n outcomes but they d i d not. Both d i s t r i c t s s e l e c t e d the same program and decided to proceed with implementation. Perhaps the d i f f e r e n c e s i n h i s t o r y and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e p r e d i c t d i f f e r e n t r e a c t i o n s during implementation. 117 The Sources of the I n i t i a t i v e s One i n d i v i d u a l emerged i n each d i s t r i c t as the primary i n i t i a t o r of a d i s t r i c t s t a f f development program. I t appears u n l i k e l y t h a t e i t h e r i n i t i a t i v e would have been adopted without t h e i r e f f o r t s . While these two i n d i v i d u a l s played the l e a d i n g a c t o r r o l e i n each d i s t r i c t , both had a number of supporting a c t o r s who a l s o emerged as key personnel i n the i n i t i a t i v e . The f o l l o w i n g pages c o n t a i n a d i s c u s s i o n of both the key personnel and the f a c t o r s which appear to have motivated them i n t h e i r s e l e c t i o n . Key personnel. Bach of the respondents was asked who s e l e c t e d the program as the focus of a d i s t r i c t s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e . Tables 9 and 10 i l l u s t r a t e the respondents* perceptions of who s e l e c t e d the programs i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t . Tables 9 and 10 i n d i c a t e that i n these two d i s t r i c t s the perceptions r e f l e c t e d a commonly held view that the program was s e l e c t e d by s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel. 118 Table 9 D i s t r i c t A Respondents' P e r c e p t i o n s of "Who" S e l e c t e d the ITIP Program Respon- Respondents Answers to Q u e s t i o n of "Who" S e l e c t e d  dent C e n t r a l O f f i c e Personnel P r i n c i p a l s Teachers No. S* R* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 PD* 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 * * * * * * * * * * 8 9 10 11 12 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 13 * * * * 14 * * * 15 * * 15 * * * 17 * * * *S R PD Su p e r i n t e n d e n t R e t i r e d A s s i s t a n t S u perintendent A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee 119 Table 10 D i s t r i c t B Respondents* Perceptions of "Who" Selected the TET Program Respon- Respondents Answers to Question of "Who" Selected dent C e n t r a l O f f i c e No. Personnel P r i n c i p a l s Teachers S* 18 19 20 21 SC* 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 18 * * * * * 19 * * * * * 20 * * 21 * * 22 23 24 25 26 * * * * * * 27 28 29 30 31 32 * * * S = Superintendent SC 3 S t e e r i n g Committee 1 2 0 In D i s t r i c t A the involvement of the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development committee was acknowledged by a l l the s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . A l l but three respondents i n D i s t r i c t A i d e n t i f y the superintendent. While teachers' responses g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t the perceptions of the other two groups i n Table 9, the t r a n s c r i p t data demonstrate tha t t h e i r responses were s p e c u l a t i v e rather than grounded i n a c t u a l knowledge of who s e l e c t e d the program. In D i s t r i c t B, the senior c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel and a l l of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s are i n accord with respect to the s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n being made by the a s s i s t a n t superintendent. Furthermore, the most i n f l u e n t i a l p r i n c i p a l i n i n i t i a t i o n i n D i s t r i c t B was i d e n t i f i e d by c e n t r a l o f f i c e respondents and by a f e l l o w p r i n c i p a l . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , teachers' perceptions of who s e l e c t e d the program are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from those of the other two groups. Four of the s i x teachers perceive the d i r e c t o r of i n s t r u c t i o n to have s e l e c t e d the program. While the data i n d i c a t e he was a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d , he c l e a r l y d i d not s e l e c t the program. As i n D i s t r i c t A, teachers responses were s p e c u l a t i v e ; i n f a c t , one teacher s a i d she "didn't know." These f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t among those respondents 121 who were Involved d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n (teachers were not a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n e i t h e r d i s t r i c t ) t here was a f a i r l y c l e a r understanding of who had played a r o l e i n the s e l e c t i o n of the programs. In D i s t r i c t A, the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i s p e r c e i v e d by most to be the primary i n i t i a t o r whereas i n D i s t r i c t B the newly appointed a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i s p e r c e i v e d to have played t h a t r o l e . I t seems reasonable to take the view t h a t n e i t h e r i n i t i a t i v e would have been adopted without the primary i n i t i a t o r and h i s s u p p o r t e r s . What appears to be the most important f e a t u r e of the i n i t i a t o r s i s t h e i r v ery s e n i o r p o s i t i o n s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n s . There i s support f o r t h i s view among respondents as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s : We j u s t had the r i g h t people i n the r i g h t p l a c e s [14:4]. He ( a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ) was i n the r i g h t p o s i t i o n [26:13]. In f a c t , i n D i s t r i c t B, a s u p e r v i s o r i n c e n t r a l o f f i c e had been u n s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s attempt to i n i t i a t e the same program a few years p r i o r to the a r r i v a l of the new a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . I t i s suggested by a respondent t h a t h i s l a c k of success was a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the f a c t t h a t h i s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n l a c k e d the necessary power [19:3]. Thus, the 122 a t t r i b u t i o n of power adds f u r t h e r support to the suggestion t h a t the s e n i o r p o s i t i o n of those who i n i t i a t e d the p r o j e c t i s an important f a c t o r i n the s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n i n these two d i s t r i c t s . As d e s c r i b e d i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter, the r o l e played by the superintendent i n D i s t r i c t A was to d e c l a r e a need, i n s t i g a t e a search for a program which would meet that need and, based on the feedback from a number of sources, s e l e c t the ITIP program. The data provide evidence t h a t he was a c t i v e l y i n v o lved du r i n g i n i t i a t i o n . For example, s h o r t l y a f t e r the i n i t i a l Madeline Hunter p r e s e n t a t i o n , he contacted an i n d i v i d u a l a t S e a t t l e P a c i f i c U n i v e r s i t y as suggested by Dr. Hunter and met w i t h that person along w i t h two of h i s a s s i s t a n t s [2:41. F u r t h e r , he p e r s o n a l l y met w i t h two of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to d i s c u s s t h e i r proposals to cr e a t e model ITIP schools [9:41. Moreover, he sought i n d i v i d u a l s ' r e a c t i o n s t o the ITIP t r a i n i n g experiences which occurred out of the d i s t r i c t (15:151. The a c t i v e l e a d i n g r o l e played by the superintendent appears to have been the source of the ITIP i n i t i a t i v e i n D i s t r i c t A and to have had a powerful e f f e c t on subsequent d e c i s i o n s and events r e l a t e d to the program. 123 In D i s t r i c t B, as i l l u s t r a t e d In Table 10 and demonstrated i n the n a r r a t i v e , the newly appointed a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t was the primary i n i t i a t o r . He alone appears t o have s e l e c t e d the program, l a r g e l y based on the success i t had had i n h i s former d i s t r i c t . In a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t time he was ab l e to ga i n the necessary support of h i s c o l l e a g u e s i n c e n t r a l o f f i c e and the s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . He accomplished t h i s i n a d i s t r i c t which had had a h i s t o r y of u n s u c c e s s f u l change e f f o r t s . The data i n d i c a t e t h a t h i s success may have been r e l a t e d to the f a c t t h a t he was new to the d i s t r i c t . The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t i s the p e r c e p t i o n of a p r i n c i p a l : He came as an o u t s i d e r who d i d n ' t have any hidden agendas [20:13]. The a c t i v e l e a d i n g r o l e played by the new a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i s c l e a r l y the source of the i n i t i a t i v e i n D i s t r i c t B. Thus, two men who held d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c c e s s f u l l y i n i t i a t e d the same program i n two d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . They had d i f f e r e n t reasons f o r i n i t i a t i n g the p r o j e c t , they chose d i f f e r e n t approaches and the context w i t h i n which they worked was v e r y d i f f e r e n t . In both d i s t r i c t s , the primary i n i t i a t o r s had the support of other key personnel i n c e n t r a l o f f i c e and 124 s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Support for the i n i t i a t i v e from c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel appears to have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the adoption process i n both d i s t r i c t s . A number of school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a l s o played important supporting r o l e s which seem to have f u r t h e r f a c i l i t a t e d the adoption d e c i s i o n s i n both d i s t r i c t s . With respect to key personnel, there were some major d i f f e r e n c e s between the two d i s t r i c t s . On the one hand i n D i s t r i c t A, more people were involved i n the s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n . There was a need i d e n t i f i e d , and a committee i n place to search f o r a program to meet that need. Both c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s played a r o l e i n that search and had input i n t o the u l t i m a t e s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n which was made by the superintendent. In D i s t r i c t B, on the other hand, there was no need I d e n t i f i e d , no search occurred and a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l , an a s s i s t a n t superintendent, s e l e c t e d the program. However, because t h i s i n d i v i d u a l was new t o the d i s t r i c t , he looked to a c o l l e a g u e , the a s s i s t a n t to the superintendent, f o r advice. As a r e s u l t of both h i s a c t i o n s and h i s a d v i c e , t h i s i n d i v i d u a l appears to have Influenced some key i n i t i a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . Furthermore, the superintendent i n D i s t r i c t B played a r o l e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of the superintendent i n D i s t r i c t A. He played a supporting r o l e f o c u s s i n g h i s a t t e n t i o n 125 d u r i n g I n i t i a t i o n on s e c u r i n g the support of the Board. The f i n a l d i f f e r e n c e r e l a t e d t o key personnel was the number of school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s involved i n the planning f u n c t i o n of i n i t i a t i o n . In D i s t r i c t A, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were Involved whereas i n D i s t r i c t B they were not. As members of the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee, i n co n j u n c t i o n w i t h s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel, D i s t r i c t A a d m i n i s t r a t o r s planned f o r implementation. In D i s t r i c t B, planning f o r implementation was done by the primary i n i t i a t o r and h i s c e n t r a l o f f i c e c o l l e a g u e s . There seems to be a l i n k between key personnel and the forces which appeared to a f f e c t t h e i r s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n s . M o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r s i n the s e l e c t i o n . The i n i t i a t o r s i n both d i s t r i c t s s e l e c t e d the same program but the motiva t i n g f a c t o r s which l e d up t o t h a t d e c i s i o n appear to have been d i f f e r e n t . In D i s t r i c t A, the mo t i v a t i n g f a c t o r s behind the s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n appears to have been the need to improve s u p e r v i s i o n and r e p o r t w r i t i n g s k i l l s . The need was I d e n t i f i e d by the superintendent who was i d e n t i f i e d as the primary i n i t i a t o r . Subsequently, the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee and c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel began t o look f o r a program 126 which would meet that need. Thus, the motivat i n g f a c t o r behind the s e l e c t i o n of the ITIP program i n D i s t r i c t A seems to have been to meet an i d e n t i f i e d need. In D i s t r i c t B, by c o n t r a s t , the primary i n i t i a t o r d i d not i d e n t i f y a need and the motivat i n g f a c t o r s behind h i s s e l e c t i o n appear d i f f e r e n t from those i n D i s t r i c t A. F i r s t , he expresssed the view that he was anxious to i n i t i a t e a p r o f e s s i o n a l development program for a d m i n i s t r a t o r s soon a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l i n a new school d i s t r i c t . Second, he was w e l l aware of the success of the program i n h i s former d i s t r i c t . T h i r d , the Board i n D i s t r i c t B had set p r o f e s s i o n a l development for d i s t r i c t personnel as one of t h e i r g o a l s . The new a s s i s t a n t superintendent's i n c l i n a t i o n t o i n i t i a t e a p r o f e s s i o n a l development program f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s soon a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l was obvious to others as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n : Nick came down and he was ready to make an impression, to make a name f o r himself [20:19]. F u r t h e r , w i t h i n months of h i s a r r i v a l , the new a s s i s t a n t superintendent had begun i n q u i r i n g of former colleagues about the ITIP program. His i n i t i a l motivations t o i n i t i a t e ITIP i n D i s t r i c t B were, i n h i s words, " s i m p l i s t i c . " The f o l l o w i n g excerpt i l l u s t r a t e s h i s i n i t i a l i n t e r e s t : 127 F r a n k l y , one of the t h i n g s that r e a l l y got me keen on i t was the f a c t that I got such favourable responses from classroom teachers and p r i n c i p a l s i n D i s t r i c t P and I could e a s i l y get i t because I had nothing t o do with the program...if teachers and p r i n c i p a l s were e x c i t e d about what they were hearing, whatever i t was...they s a i d i t was h e l p i n g them to be b e t t e r teachers. W e l l , t h a t ' s good enough for me [18:12] . In a d d i t i o n , i t seems reasonable to assume that the goal set by the Board to support p r o f e s s i o n a l development f o r d i s t r i c t s t a f f may have presented a need which had t o be addressed and, i n that way, a l s o motivated the new a s s i s t a n t superintendent to put a program i n p l a c e . An a d d i t i o n a l aspect of a m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r r e l a t e d to key personnel emerges and appears s i g n i f i c a n t i n D i s t r i c t B. The new a s s i s t a n t superintendent, as described p r e v i o u s l y , looked to others i n c e n t r a l o f f i c e for advice about the h i s t o r y of the d i s t r i c t . One c o l l e a g u e , the a s s i s t a n t to the superintendent a t t h a t time, played an i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e i n s e v e r a l i n i t i a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . The f a c t o r s which apparently motivated the a s s i s t a n t to the superintendent to support the TET i n i t i a t i v e d i f f e r from t h a t of the primary i n i t i a t o r and c o n s t i t u t e an i n t e r e s t i n g feature of the i n i t i a t i o n phase i n D i s t r i c t B. As described i n the n a r r a t i v e , he saw the program as an o p p o r t u n i t y to empower teachers i n the s u p e r v i s i o n process. In t h i s way h i s p e r s p e c t i v e 128 d i f f e r e d from that of the primary i n i t i a t o r who o r i g i n a l l y viewed the program more from the perspec t i v e of enhancing a d m i n i s t r a t o r s * s k i l l s . The data i n d i c a t e t h a t the a s s i s t a n t t o the superintendent a l s o convinced the primary i n i t i a t o r to change the t i t l e of the i n i t i a t i v e as w e l l as t o emphasize teacher p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p r o j e c t . Thus, i n D i s t r i c t B, the s e l e c t i o n appears to have been made by one i n d i v i d u a l who was motivated by one set of f a c t o r s and who was Influenced by a colleague who was motivated to s e l e c t the program by a completely d i f f e r e n t set of f a c t o r s . When key personnel are considered i n r e l a t i o n t o what f a c t o r s motivated them i n t h e i r s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n s , i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s are noted between the two d i s t r i c t s . Career and/or personal motives are i n d i c a t e d as the mo t i v a t i o n behind the s e l e c t i o n i n D i s t r i c t B. There are considerable data to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h a t f a c t . This was not so i n D i s t r i c t A. Very l i t t l e data other than that mentioned above r e f e r to motivation which guided s e l e c t i o n . While i t seems reasonable t o speculate that career motives l i k e l y played a part i n the s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n s of i n i t i a t o r s i n D i s t r i c t A, the data do not provide s u b s t a n t i a t i n g evidence. Perhaps t h i s suggests t h a t career motives are much l e s s l i k e l y to be a s c r i b e d to a s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n when the 129 i n i t i a t i v e i s p e r c e i v e d to be a d d r e s s i n g an i d e n t i f i e d need. Sources as p r e d i c t o r s . The involvement i n and the support f o r the i n i t i a t i v e among s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e p e r s o n nel i n both d i s t r i c t s would seem t o p r e d i c t a p o s i t i v e response to the p r o j e c t among p a r t i c i p a n t s i n both s i t e s . However, p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of why the p r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d may a l s o have an impact on whether or not they w i l l support an i n i t i a t i v e . Whether a program i s p e r c e i v e d to meet a need or f a c i l i t a t e a car e e r move may w e l l a f f e c t the way p a r t i c i p a n t s r e a c t to an i n i t i a t i v e . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n the m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r s behind the s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n s may p r e d i c t d i f f e r e n t r e a c t i o n s among p a r t i c i p a n t s a c r o s s s i t e s . The A t t r i b u t e s of the Program There are two a t t r i b u t e s of the program which appear to have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the adoption d e c i s i o n . These a t t r i b u t e s are the program's a v a i l a b i l i t y and I t s c o m p a t a b i l i t y with the context of the two d i s t r i c t s at the time of ad o p t i o n . I t should be noted t h a t there was no attempt made i n the present study to conduct an e v a l u a t i o n of the program content. Thus, the a t t r i b u t e s of the program r e f e r to those which were r e p o r t e d i n the 130 data. Program a v a i l a b i l i t y . In both d i s t r i c t s there appears to have been a sense of urgency to get a s t a f f development program i n p l a c e . In D i s t r i c t A, the superintendent had i n s t i g a t e d a search for a program to improve the s u p e r v i s i o n and re p o r t w r i t i n g s k i l l s of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . In D i s t r i c t B, a new a s s i s t a n t susperintendent wanted t o i n i t i a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l development fo r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l i n the d i s t r i c t . Moreover, the Board i n D i s t r i c t B had j u s t e s t a b l i s h e d , as one of i t s g o a l s , p r o f e s s i o n a l development f o r d i s t r i c t personnel and the new a s s i s t a n t superintendent knew of the success of the ITIP program i n h i s former d i s t r i c t . The ITIP program comprising t e x t s , f i l m s and support m a t e r i a l s was r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n both cases. Furthermore, t r a i n e r s f o r the program were a l s o a v a i l a b l e -- a f a c t o r of some importance i n the s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n . The e x p e r t i s e and c r e d i b i l i t y of the t r a i n e r s c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the momentum of enthusiasm which began to b u i l d among i n d i v i d u a l s i n both d i s t r i c t s d u r i n g I n i t i a t i o n . This study suggests t h a t without the c r e d i b l e t r a i n e r s who were used dur i n g i n i t i a t i o n , n e i t h e r program would have been as e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y supported. Program planning d e c i s i o n s , i n both 131 d i s t r i c t s , were based on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the e x t e r n a l t r a i n e r s . Both d i s t r i c t s chose the ITIP program and n e i t h e r of them chose to adapt the content p r i o r to the implementation phase. In D i s t r i c t A, there i s evidence t h a t s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n was given to adapting the program s p e c i f i c a l l y t o meet l o c a l needs but f o r l a r g e l y f i n a n c i a l reasons the proposal was r e j e c t e d . There i s no evidence from D i s t r i c t B to i n d i c a t e t h a t an ada p t a t i o n was considered. Thus, as a r e s u l t of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the ITIP program and the e x t e r n a l t r a i n e r s , the i n i t i a t o r s i n both d i s t r i c t s were able t o move q u i c k l y i n t o the implementation phase once the s e l e c t i o n had been made. Program c o m p a t i b i l i t y . Not only d i d program a v a i l a b i l i t y appear to c o n t r i b u t e to the s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n but the program appears t o have " f i t " the needs and context of each d i s t r i c t a t the time. F i r s t l y , the program met the needs of the i n i t i a t o r s i n both d i s t r i c t s . The content of the ITIP program comprises both e f f e c t i v e teaching s k i l l s and s u p e r v i s i o n s k i l l s ; thus i n i t i a t o r s i n both d i s t r i c t s were able to j u s t i f y a f i t between t h e i r program goals and the program content s u p e r v i s i o n s k i l l s i n D i s t r i c t A and teacher 132 e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n D i s t r i c t B. Secondly, the more i n d i v i d u a l s came i n t o contact w i t h the program the more e n t h u s i a s t i c they became about i t . In both d i s t r i c t s " t e s t i n g of the waters" took place and these a c t i v i t i e s appear to have had a major impact on the s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n . These a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i s t e d of sending people out of d i s t r i c t f o r ITIP t r a i n i n g , b r i n g i n g c r e d i b l e t r a i n e r s i n t o the d i s t r i c t t o give presentations and c i r c u l a t i n g ITIP r e l a t e d m a t e r i a l s i n the sch o o l s . In both d i s t r i c t s , the combination of these a c t i v i t i e s r e s u l t e d i n enthusiasm f o r the i n i t i a t i v e . The f o l l o w i n g quotations are i l l u s t r a t i v e of D i s t r i c t A respondents' perceptions that the program was a good f i t at the time: Things have t h e i r t i m e . . . r i g h t f o r the time 112:91. She (Madeline Hunter) came along a t the r i g h t time with the r i g h t kind of research [11:51. That was a time i n h i s t o r y and i t was something that we saw as being needed and worthy a t the time [5:81. The f o l l o w i n g quotations i l l u s t r a t e a s i m i l a r perception of goodness of f i t and t i m e l i n e s s i n D i s t r i c t B: I think maybe c l i m a t e was r i g h t (22:131. In t h a t kind of c l i m a t e , and I guess there i s always a c l u s t e r of key personnel (22:61. I t h i n k a new approach t o s t a f f 133 development...was r e f r e s h i n g . The time was j u s t r i g h t 131:12). I t h i n k i t was a t a time when i t seemed to s t r i k e everybody that they wanted to do something i n t h i s area [28:4]. Program c o m p a t i b i l i t y seems to have been a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n i n both d i s t r i c t s . A t t r i b u t e s as p r e d i c t o r . During i n i t i a t i o n the program content appears to have accounted f o r the support i t r e c e i v e d . A v a i l a b i l i t y and c o m p a t i b i l i t y d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n appear to be p r e d i c t o r s of s u c c e s s f u l implementation. The f a c t t h a t the program and c r e d i b l e t r a i n e r s were r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e meant that both d i s t r i c t s could respond q u i c k l y to the momentum b u i l d i n g among some p a r t i c i p a n t s ( c o m p a t i b i l i t y ) d u r i n g the " t e s t i n g of the waters" which occurred d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n . This e n t h u s i a s t i c response would seem to p r e d i c t success duri n g implementation i f those involved during i n i t i a t i o n were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the m a j o r i t y of d i s t r i c t personnel. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r program a f f o r d e d the i n i t i a t o r s the opportunity to emphasize one component ( s u p e r v i s i o n ) or the other (teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s ) i n a way that would address t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e program g o a l s . Given the t a r g e t audience i n both d i s t r i c t s included both a d m i n i s t r a t o r s 134 and teachers by the end of i n i t i a t i o n , i t may p r e d i c t a need t o expand program goals to accommodate both groups of p a r t i c i p a n t s i f maximum support i s to be gained l a t e r i n the i n i t i a t i v e . The Gathering of Support Another feature which appears to have been a major f a c t o r l e a d i n g to the adoption of the program i n both d i s t r i c t s i s the gathering of support f o r the p r o j e c t . B u i l d i n g an awareness o f , and enthusiasm f o r the p r o j e c t among prospective users are support s t r a t e g i e s which both d i s t r i c t s employed. E x t e r n a l and I n t e r n a l support. While c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e r e p o r t s the value of both i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l support generation (Berman, 1981; F u l l a n , 1982) these two d i s t r i c t s gathered i n t e r n a l support only. E x t e r n a l support generation r e f e r s to attempts made to gain support from l o c a l and l a r g e r communities. Despite the f a c t that e x t e r n a l support has been found t o be a major c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n , researchers have found t h a t few d i s t r i c t s i n v o l v e parents and community members i n t h e i r innovative e f f o r t s ( F u l l a n , 1982; Berman, 1981; Cohen and Far r a n , 1977; P a u l , 1977). The present study must be added to the l i s t of those w i t h such a f i n d i n g . 135 On the other hand, i n t e r n a l support generation, which r e f e r s to the gathering of support from Board members, d i s t r i c t o f f i c i a l s , s c hool a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and teachers, took place . i n both d i s t r i c t s . Given the programs were both i n i t i a t e d by s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel, t h e i r task was to gain Board support and prospective user support. Board approval f o r funding was granted i n both d i s t r i c t s . Few d e t a i l s are a v a i l a b l e from D i s t r i c t A about how Board support was gained. However, i n D i s t r i c t B se n i o r o f f i c i a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the superintendent, are reported t o have a c t i v e l y pursued support from the Board. Moreover, the planners I n v i t e d Board members to the i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s . Two other aspects of support g a t h e r i n g d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n which appear t o have been s i g n i f i c a n t i n the adoption d e c i s i o n are r e l a t e d t o the t a r g e t audiences and marketing the program. Target audiences. Target audience r e f e r s to the users of the in n o v a t i o n . The present study provides an op p o r t u n i t y to examine t h i s f a c t o r from an i n t e r e s t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e . The i n i t i a t i v e s i n both d i s t r i c t s u l t i m a t e l y included two separate groups, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and teachers, as the t a r g e t audience. I t appears t h i s may have added to the complexity of the i n i t i a t i o n 136 phase. Berman (1981:270) p o i n t s out that some of the c o m p l e x i t i e s r e l a t e d to generating i n t e r n a l support have to do with the f a c t that d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s hold d i f f e r e n t views about an innovation and i t s value f o r them. I t seems reasonable to speculate that t h i s would be an even greater f a c t o r when the t a r g e t audience c o n s i s t s of i n d i v i d u a l s from two groups, each with very d i f f e r e n t r o l e s and fu n c t i o n s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Although both d i s t r i c t s moved i n t o the implementation phase with e n t h u s i a s t i c support from some a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and teachers, the support gathering s t r a t e g i e s were d i f f e r e n t i n the two d i s t r i c t s . S t r a t e g i e s to gain a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' support i n D i s t r i c t A c o n s i s t e d of i n v o l v i n g them i n the planning from the i n i t i a l stages. By way of the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee on the one hand, a l l school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were o s t e n s i b l y kept informed of planning during i n i t i a t i o n and encouraged to b u i l d awareness of the p r o j e c t among t h e i r s t a f f (R.F.#8]. School a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were a l s o among the groups sponsored to take ITIP t r a i n i n g out of the d i s t r i c t . In D i s t r i c t B, on the other hand, school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were not part of the planning d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n . They were Informed of the p r o j e c t and asked t o support i t by the newly appointed a s s i s t a n t superintendent. A few 137 p r i n c i p a l s were sponsored to attend ITIP t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s out of the d i s t r i c t . One support g a t h e r i n g s t r a t e g y employed i n D i s t r i c t B which was very d i f f e r e n t from D i s t r i c t A was the o f f e r i n g of an i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n f o r teachers o n l y -- an attempt to r a i s e the l e v e l of concern among school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t ation from the t r a n s c r i p t of the a s s i s t a n t t o the superintendent who i n s t i g a t e d the s t r a t e g y d e s c r i b e s h i s t h i n k i n g : Another reason f o r doing i t that way was that i t would then up the l e v e l of concern of the p r l n c l p a l s . . . " m y God these people are coming up with something I don't have" and t h e r e f o r e they would want t o f e e l that they should get involved the next time i t came around 119:12]. S t r a t e g i e s f o r gathering support among teachers d i f f e r between d i s t r i c t s as w e l l . In D i s t r i c t A a teacher r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the l o c a l Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n was i n v i t e d to j o i n the planning committee. B u i l d i n g awareness among teachers i n D i s t r i c t A was encouraged by the committee who requested t h a t p r i n c i p a l s use the resource m a t e r i a l which had been purchased (books, f i l m s , a r t i c l e s ) . In a d d i t i o n , some teachers were i n v i t e d to the Madeline Hunter p r e s e n t a t i o n and some were among those sponsored t o attend ITIP t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s out of the d i s t r i c t . In D i s t r i c t B, some teachers were i n v i t e d to be 138 p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the f i r s t t r a i n i n g s e r i e s as a s t r a t e g y to g a i n t h e i r support. As p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , t h i s p l a n had two p a r t s : one was to r a i s e the l e v e l of concern among p r i n c i p a l s while the other was to i n v i t e good teachers and thereby acknowledge ex c e l l e n c e among the d i s t r i c t ' s good teachers and h o p e f u l l y d i s p e l any no t i o n that the p r o j e c t was a " f i x i t " program. The s t r a t e g y f e l l somewhat short of i t s i n t e n t i n s o f a r as the data r e p o r t that some teachers d i d n ' t know why they had been i n v i t e d . I t was s u c c e s s f u l to the extent t h a t teachers became very e n t h u s i a s t i c about the p r o j e c t as a r e s u l t of the t r a i n i n g experience. In both d i s t r i c t s , teacher involvement i n planning d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n was minimal. While s t r a t e g i e s d i f f e r e d between the two d i s t r i c t s , both moved i n t o the implementation phase with considerable support from the pros p e c t i v e users. The t a r g e t audience i n D i s t r i c t B, u n l i k e t h a t i n D i s t r i c t A, included teachers from the very e a r l y stages. The primary i n i t i a t o r was persuaded by h i s colleague at the outset not only to include teachers but to emphasize teacher p a r t i c i p a t i o n . This l e d to a group of "only teachers" r e c e i v i n g the i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g s e r i e s which c o n s t i t u t e d the extent of teacher involvement d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n . A d m i n i s t r a t o r s were only involved i n 139 i n i t i a t i o n i n s o f a r as the primary I n i t i a t o r made a p r e s e n t a t i o n to them regarding the i n i t i a t i v e and asked f o r t h e i r support. In D i s t r i c t B, u n l i k e D i s t r i c t A, there were very few people involved i n the i n i t i a t i o n phase. However, there was considerable enthusiasm and commitment to the TET i n i t i a t i v e among both teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n D i s t r i c t B as they moved i n t o the implementation phase. ( I n i t i a l programs were oversubscribed). Another important aspect of gathering support was h e l p i n g i n d i v i d u a l s develop an understanding of the purpose of the p r o j e c t and convincing them of i t s value. This holds true f o r funders as w e l l as prospective users. There appears t o be an element of marketing necessary i n order to accomplish t h i s task. Marketing the program. In order to proceed with the implementation of a d i s t r i c t - w i d e program, i n i t i a t o r s i n both d i s t r i c t s needed Board funds and an i n d i c a t i o n of user support. The extent to which the i n i t i a t o r s were able to convince the Board and t h e i r t a r g e t audiences of the value of the program i s an important feature of i n i t i a t i o n . I t seems reasonable to take the p o s i t i o n that a School Board would be u n l i k e l y to fund a d i s t r i c t - w i d e i n i t i a t i v e without having a c l e a r understanding of the 140 program's i n t e n t and without seeing some value i n supporting the i n i t i a t i v e . The data provide evidence t h a t a t t e n t i o n was given to gathering Board support i n both d i s t r i c t s . While there are no data which d e s c r i b e s p e c i f i c a l l y what information the Boards received about the programs, i t i s c l e a r that they approved funding f o r them. I t seems reasonable to conclude that they both understood the program i n t e n t s and supported them. Given the context of each d i s t r i c t , i t a l s o seems reasonable to speculate f u r t h e r t h a t the Boards may have seen advantages beyond p r o f e s s i o n a l development for d i s t r i c t personnel. The Board i n D i s t r i c t A may w e l l have supported the program because i t was an innovative approach and they were i n t e r e s t e d i n maintaining t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n as an innovative d i s t r i c t . The f o l l o w i n g excerpt lends some support to th a t s p e c u l a t i o n : They (Board) r e a l l y valued being seen as the f o c a l area i n the metrop o l i t a n d i s t r i c t a l l the time. Sort of a metro competition...They were always near the top and they r e a l l y enjoyed t h a t , t h a t l i m e l i g h t and they wanted to maintain i t [17:22]. In D i s t r i c t B, they may have been anxious to be seen p u b l i c l y as supportive of a teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n i t i a t i v e because the p u b l i c a t t i t u d e toward education In the province of B.C. i n 1980-81 was so negative ( D o b e l l , 1983; O'Shea, 1985). 141 Current research suggests that prospective users w i l l e i t h e r support or r e j e c t an i n i t i a t i v e depending on whether or not they understand the i n t e n t of the p r o j e c t and are able to d e r i v e meaning f o r themselves i n i t (Mi l e s and Huberman, 1984; F u l l a n , 1982; Berman, 1981; Berman and McLaughlin, 1976). F u r t h e r , research i n d i c a t e s that not only do i n d i v i d u a l s need to d e r i v e meaning i n the p r o j e c t but s u c c e s s f u l implementation i s dependent on p a r t i c i p a n t s s h a r i n g a common view of the i n i t i a t i v e . These two f a c t o r s h i g h l i g h t the importance of pres e n t i n g the program to the ta r g e t audience i n a way that w i l l a l l o w each p a r t i c i p a n t t o d e r i v e i n d i v i d u a l meaning and to e s t a b l i s h a commonly held view of the p r o j e c t among a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . Some i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d to t h i s aspect of i n i t i a t i o n emerge from the present study. In both d i s t r i c t s a l l of the respondents were asked why the program was s e l e c t e d i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t . Noteworthy i s the f a c t t h a t a l l respondents were i d e n t i f i e d as key a c t o r s i n the p r o j e c t s and were inv o l v e d from the e a r l y stages. Therefore, i t seems reasonable to assume that they would be those best informed about the p r o j e c t . In D i s t r i c t A, by the end of the i n i t i a t i o n phase there was enthusiasm and support f o r the ITIP i n i t i a t i v e 142 among c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and teachers. However, the data provide evidence of a lack of a commonly held view of the i n i t i a t i v e among pros p e c t i v e users. There i s a marked d i f f e r e n c e between the responses of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and the teachers. A d m i n i s t r a t o r s express a very c l e a r understanding of the i n t e n t of the i n i t i a t i v e as defined by c e n t r a l o f f i c e . A l l of the respondents who were p r i n c i p a l s at the time s a i d the program was i n i t i a t e d to address the need to improve s u p e r v i s i o n and re p o r t w r i t i n g s k i l l s . This f i n d i n g i s not s u r p r i s i n g given the a c t i v e involvement of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , most of whom were members of the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee at the time of i n i t i a t i o n . Teachers i n D i s t r i c t A, by c o n t r a s t , express an u n c e r t a i n t y about why the program was i n i t i a t e d . Only two of the f i v e teachers l i n k e d the program's i n t e n t to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l development i n s u p e r v i s i o n . The f o l l o w i n g quotations demonstrate t h i s lack of a common view among teachers and i l l u s t r a t e the tone of u n c e r t a i n t y i n t h e i r responses: Yah — you r e a l l y don't know. Sometimes people are supportive of a program because they need to have a program t o support...So you know i t ' s hard t o know what i s on the minds of some people who b r i n g out the programs...hopefully some 143 a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were l o o k i n g f o r something you can r e a l l y improve i n the area of teaching, and a l s o c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n and making i t a p o s i t i v e growth t h i n g instead of a r e i g n of t e r r o r [13:3]. You're asking my s p e c u l a t i o n ? . . . I would say that the d i s t r i c t has always had a very high r e p u t a t i o n f o r you know competent teachers. . . . I think because we've had some people, and probably I d i d n ' t even know who they were when I began, but there were people at the Board o f f i c e that were r e a l l y keen on g e t t i n g t h i n g s going i n our d i s t r i c t [14:41. I onl y think we became involved because somebody happened to i n v i t e Madeline Hunter up and people got to hear about her program, and I think t h a t was how the r e s t of the d i s t r i c t found out. You know i t was j u s t a happenstance r e a l l y , and I don't think there was any grand scheme at the time (15:41. Well...I t h i n k b a s i c a l l y you know, the merits of a program that has a d i s t i n c t i v e vocabulary, a p r o f e s s i o n a l vocabulary...Another reason why I think t h a t ITIP might have been s e l e c t e d i s t h a t without a c c o u n t a b i l i t y that we are a l l f e e l i n g the pressures of now, t h i s program r e a l l y was a v e h i c l e to f a c i l i t a t e t h a t . . . (16:401. I t ( D i s t r i c t A) always stood out as being a good d i s t r i c t but f o r some rhyme or reason somebody was l o o k i n g at i t , I t h i n k mostly the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , some kind of a program to s o r t of help teachers become more c o n s i s t e n t with t h e i r teaching p r a c t i c e s (17:31. This f i n d i n g i s perhaps not too s u r p r i s i n g given the f a c t t h a t teacher involvement i n D i s t r i c t A was minimal d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n . Only one teacher, the Chairperson of the l o c a l Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n 144 P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee, was Included i n planning a c t i v i t i e s and a few teachers were included i n t r a i n i n g out of the d i s t r i c t . Minimal teacher Involvement notwithstanding, teachers were s l a t e d to be part of the t a r g e t audience by the end of i n i t i a t i o n . Given t h i s f a c t , i t would seem reasonable to expect the i n t e n t of the program to r e f l e c t t h e i r involvement. However, there are no data which i n d i c a t e t h a t program I n i t i a t o r s shared the o r i g i n a l program goal ( s u p e r v i s i o n and r e p o r t w r i t i n g s k i l l s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ) or expanded or changed the o r i g i n a l Intent once teachers were included as part of the t a r g e t audience. This may suggest that the i n i t i a t o r s were only i n t e r e s t e d i n the p r o j e c t t o the extent that i t met the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t and were co n f i d e n t that teachers would support the i n i t i a t i v e . In f a c t , there was considerable support from teachers by the end of i n i t i a t i o n . This f i n d i n g suggests t h a t teachers were e n t h u s i a s t i c about the p r o j e c t for reasons other than being c l e a r about why the p r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d . A l s o , teachers d i d not share with a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a common view of the p r o j e c t . Regardless of t h i s lack of a commonly held view among teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , as they prepared f o r Implementation, there was considerable support f o r the ITIP l n t i a t i v e among both groups. 145 In D i s t r i c t B, t h i s aspect of i n i t i a t i o n unfolded d i f f e r e n t l y . The program intent expressed by the i n i t i a t o r s (R.F.#9] was based on the assumption that everyone wants to improve. The intent of the Teacher Effectiveness Training (TET) i n i t i a t i v e was to provide professional development to enhance effectiveness among teachers. The program name i t s e l f implied an image or goal of teacher effectiveness. While teacher effectiveness was the program focus which was emphasized during i n i t i a t i o n , supervision was always an important component of the program. As previously described, the two senior o f f i c i a l s d i f f e r e d somewhat in their perspective on the supervision component of the project. The primary i n i t i a t o r o r i g i n a l l y viewed i t more as professional development for administrators whereas his colleague, another senior central o f f i c e o f f i c i a l , viewed i t as a way to empower teachers in the supervision process. While the two expressed the view that t h e i r differences were not necessarily in c o n f l i c t with one another, the d i f f e r e n t views may have led to confusion regarding the intent of the program among prospective p a r t i c i p a n t s . The data indicate that there was c l e a r l y not a commonly held view of the project 146 among program u s e r s . There are a v a r i e t y of responses which r e p r e s e n t a number of d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s among those who were program u s e r s . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s i l l u s t r a t e the lack of a commonly he l d view of the program i n t e n t : I don't ever r e c a l l i t being d i s c u s s e d . . . I t i s something t h a t i s measurable and i t i s based on r e s e a r c h . I th i n k he ( a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ) j u s t p i c k e d i t (24:51. P r i n c i p a l So, teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s seemed to e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f as a ve r y l o g i c a l , s e q u e n t i a l , commonsense type program...it was a l s o a program t h a t c o u l d be used with p r i n c i p a l s and teachers a t the same time [25:71. P r i n c i p a l I t h i n k there was a p e r c e i v e d need [26:31. P r i n c i p a l I t h i n k i t has a l o t to do with a c c o u n t a b i l i t y (27:21. Teacher I don't r e a l l y know the answer to t h a t [28:41. Teacher I have no idea...none [29:21. Teacher I th i n k i t was good sound e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g [31:41. Teacher I t h i n k i t was chosen because i t i s e f f e c t i v e [32:41. Teacher T h i s f i n d i n g r e g a r d i n g a lack of a commonly held view suggests t h a t program i n i t i a t o r s d i d not do a very good job o f s h a r i n g t h e i r i n t e n t e i t h e r to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s or t e a c h e r s . Grimmett et a l . (1986) s t u d y i n g the same i n i t i a t i v e r e p o r t the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s among those 147 which p a r t i c i p a n t s i d e n t i f i e d as impeding the attainment of d e s i r e d outcomes: Lack of c l e a r communication of the p r o j e c t ' s g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s and i n t e n t to the p a r t i c i p a t i n g teachers by the d i s t r i c t i n i t i a t o r s ; f a i l u r e of the d i s t r i c t I n i t i a t o r t o ensure the p h i l o s o p h i c a l acceptance of the s u b s t a n t i v e content of the p r o j e c t . . . , and f a i l u r e to o b t a i n adequate s t a f f input i n the e a r l y stages of planning (1986:63). The f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d to gathering support for the program during i n i t i a t i o n appear to be important. F i r s t , the research suggests that p a r t i c i p a n t support fo r a p r o j e c t i s dependent on i n d i v i d u a l s d e r i v i n g value from the program based on t h e i r understanding of the p r o j e c t ' s i n t e n t . The f i n d i n g s i n t h i s study show tha t many p a r t i c i p a n t s supported the program yet were unable to i d e n t i f y the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t of the i n i t i a t i v e . The exception to t h i s f i n d i n g occurred among a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n D i s t r i c t A. Where the i n i t i a t i v e addressed a need and a commmittee played an a c t i v e r o l e i n the planning f u n c t i o n during i n i t i a t i o n , there was evidence of a common view of the p r o j e c t shared by the i n i t i a t o r s and some school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . However, most of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r respondents i n the present study were members of the planning committee. F u r t h e r , i n both d i s t r i c t s the t a r g e t audience comprised both teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , but the two groups d i d not appear t o 1 4 8 share a common view of the program i n t e n t . The f i n d i n g s suggest that there are weaknesses i n the way i n which i n i t i a t o r s communicated the i n t e n t of t h e i r programs to the t a r g e t audiences. However, t h i s f i n d i n g may a l s o provide f u r t h e r evidence that the content of the program c o n t r i b u t e d to the support i t r e c e i v e d . I t i s the r e f o r e p o s s i b l e that program i n t e n t s are not as Important as what the l i t e r a t u r e suggests. Maybe what i s more important i s perceived p r a c t i c a l i t y . Support as a p r e d i c t o r . During i n i t i a t i o n , the pr o j e c t I n i t i a t o r s were able to gather support from the Board and t h e i r t a r g e t audiences. The research i n d i c a t e s that many p r o j e c t s do not continue when e x t e r n a l funds are withdrawn. Given that both d i s t r i c t I n i t i a t i v e s were funded i n t e r n a l l y i t suggests that the l i k e l i h o o d of the p r o j e c t ' s c o n t i n u i n g would be good. While there were strong signs of user support i n d i c a t e d during i n i t i a t i o n , that support was not based on the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' understanding of the p r o j e c t i n t e n t . I t appears t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s were s o l d on the p r o j e c t f o r reasons other than understanding why i t was being i n i t i a t e d . Moreover, teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s comprised the t a r g e t audience yet the two groups d i d not share a common view of the p r o j e c t . 149 Given the importance placed to these two f a c t o r s i n the l i t e r a t u r e , i t may p r e d i c t d i f f i c u l t i e s d u r i n g implementation. F u r t h e r , i t may p r e d i c t that i n d i v i d u a l meaning and a common view of the p r o j e c t are not as important d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n and meaning w i l l develop duri n g implementation. F u r t h e r , n e i t h e r d i s t r i c t involved teachers i n the I n i t i a t i v e phase and t h i s may p r e d i c t lack of involvement and commitment during implementation. Moreover, given that a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were expected to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the i n i t i a t i v e , i t may r e s u l t i n a lack of Involvement and s i n c e r e commitment durin g implementation. Summary of Factors C o n t r i b u t i n g to I n i t i a t i o n The f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s appear to have had a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the adoption d e c i s i o n s : 1. The h i s t o r y of s t a f f development i n both d i s t r i c t s , f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons, appears to have played a part i n the support given to the i n i t i a t i v e by p r ospective users; 2. The c h i e f i n i t i a t o r s were i n senior c e n t r a l o f f i c e p o s i t i o n s ; 3. In D i s t r i c t A, the m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r behind the s e l e c t i o n appeared to be problem s o l v i n g whereas i n D i s t r i c t B, the m o t i v a t i o n which c o n t r i b u t e d to the s e l e c t i o n appeared to be career r e l a t e d ; 4. The a t t r i b u t e s of the program were major c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s . Enthusiasm grew markedly 150 a f t e r i n d i v i d u a l s had been exposed to the program. I t appears the enthusiasm was r e l a t e d to both content and the e x t e r n a l t r a i n e r s . 5. I t appears to have been very important t o the i n i t i a t o r s to seek and gain support f o r the program from school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ; and 6. E a r l y user support f o r the program was i n d i c a t e d but i t d i d not appear to be dependent on p a r t i c i p a n t s understanding why the p r o j e c t was being undertaken. This s e c t i o n includes a number of p r e d i c t i o n s f o r implementation based on the features of i n i t i a t i o n which c o n t r i b u t e d to a s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n . Some features suggest they w i l l have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on implementation while others p r e d i c t d i f f i c u l t i e s . The f o l l o w i n g Table 11 summarizes the p r e d i c t i o n s f o r implementation based on the f i n d i n g s of the i n i t i a t i o n phase. 151 Table 11 P r e d i c t i o n s : How w i l l f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e d t o i n i t i a t i o n a f f e c t implementation? D i s t r i c t A D i s t r i c t B Factors which are l i k e l y to have a p o s i t i v e a f f e c t . H i s t o r y of good s t a f f development .Involvement of a committee of p r i n c i p a l s i n s e l e c t i o n and planning f o r implemen-t a t i o n .Involvement of a teacher r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on planning committee •Strong s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e support •P r o j e c t perceived by p r i n c i p a l s as meeting a need •Program was r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e •Credible t r a i n e r s were used to introduce courses .Board supported the i n i t i a t i v e .Only i n t e r n a l funds were used .Strong s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e support . P r i n c i p a l s were w i l l i n g to support i t .Program was r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e •Credible t r a i n e r s were used to introduce courses .Board supported the i n i t i a t i v e .Only i n t e r n a l funds were used . E n t h u s i a s t i c user support i n d i c a t e d . E n t h u s i a s t i c user support i n d i c a t e d 152 D i s t r i c t A D i s t r i c t B Factors which are l i k e l y to have a negative e f f e c t . H i s t o r y of negative experiences with s t a f f development .No p r i n c i p a l s or teachers Involved i n the s e l e c t i o n or planning d u r i n g I n i t i a t i o n .Prospective teacher users not sure why the p r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d . P r i n c i p a l s and teachers d i d n ' t share a common view of the p r o j e c t .Prospective teacher users not sure why the p r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d . P r i n c i p a l s and teachers d i d n ' t share a common view of the pr o j e c t . P r i n c i p a l s d i d n ' t express a common view of the p r o j e c t . P r i n c i p a l s were expected to support i n i t i a t i v e . P r i n c i p a l s were expected to support the i n i t i a t i v e CHAPTER 6 PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION T h i s chapter p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the implementation phase of the s t a f f development programs i n D i s t r i c t s A and B and i n t e r p r e t s the f i n d i n g s . The implementation phase r e f e r s to the f i r s t two or three years of use of a program ( F u l l a n , 1982). T h i s phase took plac e at d i f f e r e n t times i n the two d i s t r i c t s as demonstrated i n Table 12. Table 12 Implementation Phase D i s t r i c t Time Line A 1 9 7 8 ( F a l l ) - 1981(Spring) B 1982(Spring) - 1986(Spring) T h i s chapter c o n s i s t s of three s e c t i o n s . The implementation phases of the s t a f f development programs f o r each d i s t r i c t are d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n s one and two, 153 154 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The concluding s e c t i o n provides an i n t e r p r e t i v e a n a l y s i s of the f i n d i n g s and a summary of the f a c t o r s which appear to have had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on implementation. IMPLEMENTATION IN DISTRICT A (1978-1981) The data suggest there were a number of events which are i n t e r r e l a t e d and appear to have a f f e c t e d implementation. Table 13 i s a l i s t of those events. W e l l , i t s t a r t e d o f f i n a very rocky way (17:31 . This quotation provides a teacher's perception of e a r l y implementation. That perception i s r e l a t e d to an apparently u n a n t i c i p a t e d negative r e a c t i o n from s e v e r a l d i s t r i c t personnel. During the f i n a l stages of the i n i t i a t i o n phase, the ITIP Management Committee, i n con j u n c t i o n with senior c e n t r a l o f f i c e s t a f f , developed an I n i t i a l implementation p l a n . A memo was sent to p r i n c i p a l s I n v i t i n g them to s i g n up with one or more teachers f o r a Beginning ITIP course (R.F.#101. While there was not adequate space for a l l p r i n c i p a l s during the f i r s t course, there was an expectation from c e n t r a l o f f i c e that they would a v a i l themselves of one of the three Beginning ITIP courses being o f f e r e d during 155 Table 13 Implementation Events i n D i s t r i c t A Time L i n e Events 1978-79 School Year F a l l 1978 .The f i r s t s e s s i o n , Beginners ITIP, was o f f e r e d . . C o n f l i c t arose as a r e s u l t of some A d m i n i s t r a t o r s f e e l i n g a g i t a t e d r e g a r d i n g the p e r c e i v e d mandatory attendance. In a d d i t i o n , there was a growing fear among some te a c h e r s t h a t f u t u r e teacher e v a l u a t i o n s would be based s o l e l y on the ITIP program. 11 October 1978 .A D i s t r i c t meeting was hel d a t one of the High Schools to a l l o w t e a c h e r s and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s to a i r t h e i r concerns and a l l o w the Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee to present t h e i r p o s i t i o n . 17 October 1978 .The P r o f e s s i o n a l Development D i v i s i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n (BCTF) a c t i v e l y opposed the s e l e c t i o n and implementation of the ITIP Program. . C o n f l i c t a l s o arose between a group of people i n the d i s t r i c t who had become keen "ITIPPERS" and those who wanted to proceed a t a more moderate pace. .There was growing pressure from some to h i r e a l o c a l teacher to provide followup coaching a f t e r the t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s . 1979-80 School Year F a l l 1979 . C e n t r a l O f f i c e s t a f f were d i v i d e d on the issue of h i r i n g a l o c a l t r a i n e r . •The Management of the ITIP programs was handed over from the ITIP Management Committee ( A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and C e n t r a l O f f i c e Personnel) to the D i s t r i c t Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee. January/February 1980 .A fee was charged f o r the course f o r the f i r s t time ($25 f o r Beginning ITIP, $30 f o r Advanced I T I P ) . 1980-81 School Year •For the f i r s t time, a l o c a l teacher was used as one of the t r a i n e r s f o r the Beginning ITIP course. .While four courses were agai n o f f e r e d d u r i n g t h i s s c h o o l year, the number of s e s s i o n s i n the Beginning course decreased t o four from the o r i g i n a l s i x s e s s i o n s . As w e l l a Classroom Manage-ment Course was o f f e r e d i n two s e s s i o n s , down from f o u r . •By the end of t h i s s c h o o l year " a p p r o x i -mately 270 or 20% of D i s t r i c t A's 1,250 Teachers, A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and C e n t r a l O f f i c e s t a f f have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n one or more ITIP programs d u r i n g the past three y e a r s " ( K i l l o u g h , 1981). 157 t h a t school year. This e x p e c t a t i o n marked a dramatic s h i f t i n a d i s t r i c t norm of v o l u n t a r y attendance a t p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t i e s and r e s u l t e d i n con s i d e r a b l e r e s i s t a n c e from some p r i n c i p a l s . Sam, who was a p r i n c i p a l a t the time, r e c a l l s h i s r e a c t i o n : This caused q u i t e a b i t of an uproar at the time. Again i n t h i s d i s t r i c t i t had not been based on f o r c i n g t h i s kind of thing...But l i k e many p r i n c i p a l s i n the d i s t r i c t , when I'm t o l d I have to do something, the hackles go up and I s t a r t to get a l i t t l e negative... I t came through the form that space was being provided for an a d m i n i s t r a t o r and a teacher i n each s c h o o l . I f the a d m i n i s t r a t o r was not at t e n d i n g , then the teacher could not att e n d . Meanwhile, considerable i n t e r e s t had been b u i l d i n g up on the part of teachers 14:111. I t appears that the enthusiasm which had been shown by p r i n c i p a l s who were members of the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee d i d not t r a n s l a t e i n t o o v e r a l l p r i n c i p a l support. Further, there was growing i n t e r e s t among some teachers who were becoming anxious to get involved with the program and t h e i r attendance was made contingent upon t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s ' attendance, thus p u t t i n g a d d i t i o n a l pressure on a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to s i g n up. Moreover, while enthusiasm was beginning to b u i l d among some teachers, s k e p t i c i s m was b u i l d i n g among others. Some teachers, r e g a r d l e s s of the f a c t t h e i r attendance was v o l u n t a r y , began to express f e a r s t h a t the program was being mandated f o r 158 p r i n c i p a l s and would l a t e r be used as the s o l e means by which to e v a l u a t e t e a c h e r s . As a r e s u l t of the growing resentment on the p a r t of some a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and the b u i l d i n g f e a r among some t e a c h e r s , the l o c a l Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n , r e p r e s e n t i n g both groups, got i n v o l v e d . A document i n the f i l e s IR.F.#11] l i s t s a s e t of concerns compiled by the P r e s i d e n t of the l o c a l Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n . Although the concerns of p r i n c i p a l s and tea c h e r s were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n the memo, they both expressed the view t h a t there had been a lack of i n p u t . They were c r i t i c a l of the process by which ITIP was being implemented and were querying the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the program f o r s u p e r v i s i o n and e v a l u a t i o n . On 11 October 1978, a d i s t r i c t meeting was h e l d at one of the High Schools to a l l o w t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s an o p p o r t u n i t y to a i r t h e i r concerns and to p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee to present t h e i r views. Some of the respondents' r e c o l l e c t i o n s of that meeting are as f o l l o w s : There was some h e s i t a t i o n , I t h i n k , on the p a r t of some groups of the Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n . They wondered what i t was a l l about...I can remember being asked to go to a meeting, h e l d by the D i s t r i c t A te a c h e r s over i n (the High School) here, t h a t had been put on by the Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n i n which they asked a l o t of p o i n t e d q u e s t i o n s about what was going on (2:101. 159 Well, the m a j o r i t y were c l e a r l y i n favour of what was going on. And I t h i n k , you know, I th i n k people saw i t as being a p o s i t i v e v a l u e , but a l o t of people weren't aware of the s u b t l e t i e s t h a t went with the p r e s s u r e s . . . I had j u s t come back from being p r e s i d e n t f o r a f u l l term and I was a t a meeting... one of our a s s o c i a t i o n meetings where we got i n t o a heated debate about the ITIP program and there were a couple of p r i n c i p a l s there who were very pro-ITIP and there were a l o t of teachers there who were r e a l l y r e s e n t f u l . . . 117.61. W i t h i n a week of t h i s meeting, the ITIP Managment Committee prepared a p o s i t i o n statement f o r the p r e s i d e n t of the l o c a l Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n responding to a number of the expressed concerns [R.F.#121. The growing concern had caused the l o c a l Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n e x e c u t i v e to f e e l r e s p o n s i b l e to i n v e s t i g a t e f u r t h e r the Teachers' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee's involvement i n the ITIP program. The C h a i r p e r s o n , who had been i n c l u d e d on the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development ITIP Management Committee, r e c a l l s t h a t p o i n t i n time: Well then, the e x e c u t i v e , of course, f e e l i n g r e s p o n s i b l e to f i n d out i f we were i n f a c t spending t e a c h e r s ' money to push back a program on them t h a t was making them f e e l t h r e a t e n e d . Then more than u s u a l , asked the P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee, the C h a i r p e r s o n i n p a r t i c u l a r , t o present a l l the d e c i s i o n s t h a t were made to the e x e c u t i v e . So t h a t person had to a c t u a l l y s i t with the e x e c u t i v e and defend the P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee d e c i s i o n s — now t h a t doesn't 1 6 0 happen f r e q u e n t l y . . . I t was f r u s t r a t i n g i n t h a t most of the e x e c u t i v e members would not be w i l l i n g to a t t e n d a s e s s i o n . They were s a y i n g t h i n g s t h a t they had no t r u e understanding o f . . . I was t r y i n g to communicate t h a t (some d i s t r i c t people were r e a l l y e x c i t e d about the program) to people who had p o l i t i c a l reasons f o r s a y i n g not everyone i s e x c i t e d [10:12]. Rosemary goes on to p o i n t out t h a t the r e s i s t a n c e had become more than a l o c a l i s s u e ; by t h i s time the p r o v i n c i a l Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n was i n v o l v e d . I t was wider spread because the BCTF, the PDAC ( P r o f e s s i o n a l Development A d v i s o r y Committee) meetings where the ( l o c a l ) P r o f e s s i o n a l Development C h a i r p e o p l e had to a t t e n d those meetings. One meeting i n p a r t i c u l a r was organized t o t a l k about t h i s top-down i n s e r v i c e t h a t was being implemented i n ( D i s t r i c t A) [5:14]. When asked how t h i s r e s i s t a n c e had been d e a l t with, respondents were of the o p i n i o n t h a t i t simply d i s s i p a t e d : I t wasn't. I don't t h i n k i t was r e s o l v e d . I t h i n k i t kind of went away [14:16]. No, i t wasn't r e s o l v e d . I t was the f e a r t h a t dwindled away a f t e r awhile [9:13]. 161 Despite the u n a n t i c i p a t e d r e s i s t a n c e which occurred as a r e s u l t of the i n i t i a l implementation e f f o r t s , the Beginning ITIP program o r i g i n a l l y planned f o r the school year 1978-79 was over-subscribed by the middle of September. The f o l l o w i n g excerpt taken from a memo the ITIP Management Committee sent to school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f provides evidence of the e n t h u s i a s t i c response: The response to the proposal to o f f e r Beginning ITIP i n ( D i s t r i c t A) to p r i n c i p a l s and teachers has been most g r a t i f y i n g to the committee. As of yesterday (1978.09.18) 219 teachers, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and sup e r v i s o r s have i n d i c a t e d t h e i r i n t e n t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t e i n one of the three proposed sessions (R.F.#13]. The ITIP courses had f i l l e d w ith p a r t i c i p a n t s before the r e s i s t a n c e . There were two d i s t i n c t camps at t h i s stage, the ITIP e n t h u s i a s t s (ITIPPERS) and the s k e p t i c s . The f i r s t course took place between October 13 and November 11, 1978 (October 13,14,27,28, November 10,11) and a memo dated j u s t a f t e r the completion of the f i r s t s e s s i o n [R.F.#14] i n d i c a t e s that p a r t i c i p a n t s expressed "no f e a r s " and "some of the most severe c r i t i c s became the most s u p p o r t i v e , " and "sessions ended very p o s i t i v e l y . " In a d d i t i o n to the Beginning course, which was taught by American t r a i n e r s , the d i s t r i c t continued 162 to sponsor d i s t r i c t personnel to attend ITIP t r a i n i n g outside the d i s t r i c t . During October and November 1 9 7 8 , f i v e people attended Advanced ITIP courses a t S e a t t l e P a c i f i c U n i v e r s i t y and seven others attended Beginning ITIP i n B l a i n e , Washington [ R . F . I 1 5 ] . Subsequent to the f i r s t course and running c o n c u r r e n t l y with the second, follow-up d i s c u s s i o n sessions were undertaken [R.F.I161. F u r t h e r , d i s t r i c t c o o r d i n a t o r s and d i r e c t o r s were conducting ITIP p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n sch o o l s . An ITIP newsletter was undertaken by the ITIP Management Committee and there were plans to make videos of l o c a l teachers using the ITIP s k i l l s i n t h e i r classroom. In a d d i t i o n , other ITIP courses were planned for p a r t i c i p a n t s who had completed the Beginning course. ITIP Classroom Management was scheduled f o r two weekends i n March. School based a c t i v i t i e s were a l s o t a k i n g place and a few very keen p r i n c i p a l s were i n the process of c r e a t i n g model ITIP sc h o o l s . The f o l l o w i n g excerpts from p r i n c i p a l s are i l l u s t r a t i v e of the extent of involvement at some sch o o l s . In our s c h o o l , every teacher but one i n tha t school went f o r the t r a i n i n g 112:7]. We got a l l our s t a f f and were able t o take the course [ 9 : 8 1 . A l e t t e r was sent to a l l ITIP p a r t i c i p a n t s i n 163 February, 1979 from Michael and Howard, two a s s i s t a n t superintendents, announcing they were "now g i v i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the o b j e c t i v e s e t by the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee th a t s t a t e s the i n t e n t i o n of p r o v i d i n g l o c a l resource teachers ( p r e s e n t e r s - c o n s u l t a n t s ) f o r ITIP type programs" [R.F.I17]. They extended an i n v i t a t i o n for i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s to submit a w r i t t e n a p p l i c a t i o n . Among those i n d i v i d u a l s i n the d i s t r i c t who had become keen supporters of ITIP, there had been a lobby to a l l o c a t e l o c a l teachers to d i s t r i c t p o s i t i o n s to provide t r a i n i n g and follow-up coaching i n the classroom a f t e r t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s . The data provide evidence of strong support f o r l o c a l t r a i n e r s : i n f a c t , one of the major c r i t i c i s m s of the o v e r a l l implementation from the "ITIPPERS" was the lack of such follow-up. The f o l l o w i n g quotations are i n d i c a t i v e of the perceptions of some of the e n t h u s i a s t s : The time I would say would be the biggest and f o l l o w up, maybe f o l l o w up Is what I'm t a l k i n g about. Follow up more than anything [14:9]. We tried...we f e l t someone i n the d i s t r i c t should have been t r a i n e d . The d i s t r i c t d i d n ' t take any I n i t i a t i v e [17:131. I t ' s t hat there i s j u s t no follow-up, there's no follow-up f o r the teachers t h a t have been t a k i n g the program. They t r y i t out i n the classroom, they don't know whether or not they have been doing a 164 s u c c e s s f u l job [16:21]. I don't know why the d i s t r i c t went the way of not having a t r a i n e r . . . I t h ink ( D i s t r i c t A) r e a l l y took a g i a n t step backwards [13:15]. You have to have somebody, a s t a f f t r a i n e r , who could come and t e l l you how you're doing and to give you that kind of s p e c i f i c feedback... [9:7], We wanted to do t h a t , B i l l j u s t d i d n ' t support i t [9:6]. In f a c t , K a l i n , quoted above [ 9 ] , was accurate. During the year 1978-79, B i l l , an a s s i s t a n t superintendent, had been seconded to the M i n i s t r y of Education. In h i s absence, the other two a s s i s t a n t superintendents were a c t i v e l y supporting the idea of having a d i s t r i c t t r a i n e r . Upon B i l l ' s r e t u r n to the d i s t r i c t from the M i n i s t r y , the superintendent changed senior c e n t r a l o f f i c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and B i l l was assigned r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee. S h o r t l y a f t e r , at a meeting of the ITIP Management Committee i n September 1979, "the concept of f r e e i n g one or two d i s t r i c t ITIP t r a i n e r s was not endorsed" [R.F.#18]. On 18 September 1978, a memo was sent to the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee informing them of t h a t d e c i s i o n . When asked i n an i n t e r v i e w about the d e c i s i o n not to h i r e l o c a l t r a i n e r s , B i l l commented as f o l l o w s : I guess my argument was along the l i n e 165 t h a t i f t h i s i s good, everyone i n a s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n , be i t d i s t r i c t s t a f f or a d m i n i s t r a t o r , ought to be aware of and exposed to i t [1:71. When asked who made the f i n a l d e c i s i o n not to have d i s t r i c t t r a i n e r s he s a i d " i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , I guess the d e c i s i o n came from the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t " [1:8 J. One of the a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s who had been an advocate of d i s t r i c t t r a i n e r s shares the f o l l o w i n g p e r c e p t i o n s : I was a promoter of the thought t h a t i t probably would be v a l u a b l e f o r us to have d i s t r i c t s t a f f who were s p e c i a l i z e d . A c t u a l l y , I t h i n k there was a time f o r doing these t h i n g s when the i r o n i s hot, and to keep the momentum going, and to get the most value out of i t , i t would be v a l u a b l e to do t h i s . I guess we were at the time, moving towards more s t r a i n e d f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , and we were beginning a l r e a d y to see shadows over the t h i n g . The other thought t h a t was here t h a t s o r t of counted was t h a t so many of our d i s t r i c t s t a f f were a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r with ITIP and were e n t h u s i a s t i c about i t and u s i n g i t s ideas i n t h e i r work t h a t they were doing with s t a f f t h a t i t would be d u p l i c a t i n g work done by our v a r i o u s c o n s u l t a n t s , c o o r d i n a t o r s and so on [2:7]. T h i s comment from M i c h a e l , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , suggests a peak i n the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of c e n t r a l o f f i c e by way of h i s r e f e r e n c e to s t r a i n e d resources and "shadows over the t h i n g . " While the idea of a d i s t r i c t t r a i n e r was a s e n s i t i v e issue f o r some, the data suggest i t j u s t seemed to "dwindle away." S a l l y , one of the d i s t r i c t t e a c h e r s who had a p p l i e d f o r one of the p o s i t i o n s , makes 166 the f o l l o w i n g remark when asked to comment on why the d i s t r i c t d i d n ' t h i r e a l o c a l t r a i n e r : But I don't think I can r e a l l y answer as to why the d i s t r i c t s a i d no, and I do remember being puzzled [15:16]. In c onversation with B i l l regarding whether or not the d i s t r i c t had an implementation plan he s a i d , "yeah, a plan to involve a l l the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . " By the end of the f i r s t year, a l l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s had taken the course and the goal to have a l l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s p a r t i c i p a t e was r e a l i z e d . In the second year, p a r t i c i p a n t s were l a r g e l y teachers. The ITIP Management Committee, a sub-committee of the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee, concluded i t s f u n c t i o n i n g with the o f f e r i n g of an Advanced ITIP course i n the F a l l of 1979 with b i g name speakers E r n i e Stachowski and Sue Wells [R.F.#19]. The c o n t i n u i n g management of ITIP now rested l a r g e l y with the Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee. By 1979, the Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n was paying h a l f the cost of the resource people, a change from the f i r s t year when cost s were assumed through the d i s t r i c t P r o f e s s i o n a l Development funds. In December of the same school year, the Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n a d v e r t i s e d another Advanced ITIP course and charged $30 to cover expenses. During 167 the winter of 1980 the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the courses i n c l u d e d personnel from other d i s t r i c t s . While there c l e a r l y had been a s h i f t i n the management of the ITIP s e s s i o n s , and the p a r t i c i p a n t s were e x c l u s i v e l y t e a c h e r s , the e v a l u a t i o n s w r i t t e n by p a r t i c i p a n t s continued t o be e n t h u s i a s t i c . The f o l l o w i n g are examples taken from a composite e v a l u a t i o n sheet prepared i n February 1980: . I t made me b e t t e r a t q u e s t i o n i n g .ITIP was a good r e f r e s h e r course. Helped remind me of areas t h a t I have n e g l e c t e d . . F a n t a s t i c , r e l e v a n t , necessary, a time t o r e e v a l u a t e y o u r s e l f . .ITIP promotes a more e f f e c t i v e and p r o d u c t i v e teacher [R.F. #201. Whereas there was an implementation p l a n , a l b e i t i n f o r m a l , to have a l l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s take the course, there was no implementation p l a n f o r t e a c h e r s . Rosemary e x p l a i n s t h a t i n the f o l l o w i n g way: I don't know t h a t we c o u l d c a l l what we d i d an implementation p l a n with a begi n n i n g and an end. I see an implementation p l a n as t h a t . You have a p l a n and e s t a b l i s h a time l i n e . We d i d n ' t e s t a b l i s h a time l i n e , we j u s t kept c o n t i n u i n g as the needs arose...we c o u l d say t h i n g s l i k e we've had four s e s s i o n s , f u l l attendance, e v a l u a t i o n s overwhelmingly p o s i t i v e , proven need f o r next year [5:10]. Another of the respondents a l s o suggests t h a t i t was t e a c h e r s ' enthusiasm which c a r r i e d the program. 168 I t h i n k the enthusiasm of the people t h a t were i n v o l v e d In the course c a r r i e d i t through because the program speaks f o r i t s e l f . . . [ 1 6 : 1 9 ] . The t h i r d year of implementation brought with i t no c o n t r o v e r s y and the data i n d i c a t e t h a t the enthusiasm had peaked. For the f i r s t time a l o c a l teacher who had pursued c e r t i f i c a t i o n as an ITIP i n s t r u c t o r a t S e a t t l e P a c i f i c U n i v e r s i t y was used as one of two t r a i n e r s f o r the Beginning ITIP course. Four courses were agai n o f f e r e d d u r i n g the s c h o o l year (1980-81) but the number of s e s s i o n s i n the begin n i n g course decreased to four from the o r i g i n a l s i x s e s s i o n s and the Classroom Management Course was o f f e r e d i n two s e s s i o n s i n s t e a d of fo u r . By the end of the t h i r d year of implementation "approximately 270 or 21.6% of D i s t r i c t A's 1,250 t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and c e n t r a l o f f i c e s t a f f had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n one or more ITIP programs d u r i n g the past three y e a r s " ( K i l l o u g h , 1981:69) . Three years a f t e r the i n i t i a l implementation a c t i v i t i e s , enthusiasm f o r ITIP began to decrease and the Teachers' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee began to c o n s i d e r other t o p i c s such as Lea r n i n g S t y l e s , Slow L e a r n e r s , Time Management, and Racism [R.F . I 2 1 1 . A d m i n i s t r a t o r s continued to pursue t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n s u p e r v i s i o n and e v a l u a t i o n as evidenced i n a conference he l d i n January 1980 [R.F . I22 ] f o c u s s i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y on 169 those two t o p i c s . However, ITIP continued to be o f f e r e d i n accordance with the expressed needs and i n t e r e s t s of t e a c h e r s . Noteworthy i s the f a c t t h a t the ITIP program, three years a f t e r the i n i t i a l course was o f f e r e d , was being attended e x c l u s i v e l y by t e a c h e r s and was being managed by teachers -- a dramatic s h i f t from the o r i g i n a l c o u r s e s , which were p r i m a r i l y f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who were requested to a t t e n d with one or more t e a c h e r s . A l s o the i n i t i a l o u t b u r s t of r e s i s t a n c e appears to have been o v e r r i d d e n by those who were e n t h u s i a s t s . IMPLEMENTATION IN DISTRICT B (1982-1986) Table 14 i s an advance o r g a n i z e r which h i g h l i g h t s the major implementation events which emerge from the data. Implementation oc c u r r e d between the S p r i n g of 1982 and the S p r i n g of 1986. 170 Table 14 Implementation Events i n D i s t r i c t B Time L i n e Events S p r i n g 1982 A s e s s i o n f o r p r i n c i p a l s and teachers presented by E r n i e Stachowski was o f f e r e d . Summer 1982 Autumn 1982 F o l l o w i n g Stachowski's workshop v o l u n t e e r s were r e c r u i t e d f o r a D i s t r i c t S t e e r i n g Committee. One s c h o o l decided (May 82) to i n i t i a t e a s c h o o l based P r o f e s s i o n a l Development program f o r the 82/83 s c h o o l year. A group of 15 p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s ( v o l u n t e e r s ) were sponsored to a t t e n d a f i v e - d a y ITIP workshop. A four-day i n - d i s t r i c t workshop was o f f e r e d f o r t e a c h e r s who were t r a i n e d a t S e a t t l e P a c i f i c . They were asked to a t t e n d with another teacher from the same s c h o o l . C a r o l Cummings met with the S t e e r i n g Committee. January 1983 S t e e r i n g Committee began work on formal Implementation P l a n . P r e l i m i n a r y arrangements were made f o r a Summer Sch o o l . The S t e e r i n g Committee endorsed the appointment of a D i s t r i c t " h e l p i n g t e a c h e r " . Work continued on a long range implementation p l a n . 171 S p r i n g 1983 Summer School 1983 T h i r t y - f i v e secondary teachers and department heads attended a four-day i n - d i s t r i c t workshop. 101 t e a c h e r s attended the f i r s t Summer Sch o o l . F a l l 1983 Summer 1984 A h e l p i n g teacher was h i r e d . The f i r s t phase of the implementation p l a n was put i n t o a c t i o n . The S t e e r i n g Committee focussed on "stages of growth." The Board and L o c a l Teachers' A s s o c i a -t i o n approved a p o l i c y / p r o c e s s on e v a l u a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n of te a c h e r s C a r o l Cummings continued throughout t o present workshops on a school-wide b a s i s . . The superintendent was among the p a r t i c i p a n t s a t Summer Sc h o o l . 1984-85 . The second phase of the implementation p l a n was put i n t o a c t i o n . . The present study was conducted. 172 The workshop i n the S p r i n g 1981 emerges as the t r a n s f e r p o i n t from i n i t i a t i o n t o implementation because i t marked the beginning of a long-term p l a n to i n v o l v e p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s i n a d i s t r i c t s t a f f development i n i t i a t i v e . While a program had been o f f e r e d i n the p r e v i o u s F a l l , t h a t course was f o r t e a c h e r s o n l y and appeared to serve more of a " b u i l d i n g awareness" or " t e s t i n g the waters" purpose. Thus, f o r t h i s study, i t i s seen to be p a r t of the I n i t i a t i o n phase. As r e p o r t e d i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n i t i a t i o n phase, i n the F a l l of 1981 the s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n d i c a t e d t h e i r support f o r the TET i n i t i a t i v e and t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to engage i n the t r a i n i n g with one or more teachers from t h e i r s t a f f . Immediately f o l l o w i n g the i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n ( S p r i n g 1982) with E r n i e Stachowski, Nick, the a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , asked p a r t i c i p a n t s to v o l u n t e e r to serve on a D i s t r i c t S t e e r i n g Committee. Both teachers and p r i n c i p a l s were sought and i n an i n t e r v i e w Nick e x p l a i n s h i s g o a l f o r the Committee: W e l l , I would have l i k e d to have seen the S t e e r i n g Committee p l a y the major r o l e i n d e c i d i n g on the d i r e c t i o n s f o r the d i s t r i c t , and i t has made some key d e c i s i o n s [8:16]. Barry, who had been the a s s i s t a n t to the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and was now the second a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , 173 d e s c r i b e s h i s p e r c e p t i o n of the Committee's f u n c t i o n : So the S t e e r i n g committee s o r t of took over...I r e c a l l the S t e e r i n g Committee s t a r t e d to meet f o r m a l l y i n the autumn of '82...The committee, as a whole, c r i t i q u i n g , we should do t h i s and we should do t h a t , don't do that and so on. I r e c a l l one other t h i n g - we were su g g e s t i n g t h a t there be awards and they s a i d " f o r God sake, no, t h i s i s n ' t the S t a t e s , t h a t w i l l t u r n people o f f i f you g i v e them l i t t l e c e r t i f i c a t e s and so on [9:13]. These two c e n t r a l o f f i c e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , Nick and Barry, i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , had made a l l the d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the TET program d u r i n g the i n i t i a t i o n phase. The formation of the S t e e r i n g Committee at the o u t s e t of the implementation phase appears to s i g n a l a d e c i s i o n to broaden the decision-making body to i n c l u d e people from the f i e l d . Two p r i n c i p a l s , Tony and Kent, who were among the o r i g i n a l S t e e r i n g Committee members, expressed the view t h a t t h i s Committee played an i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e i n the implementation phase. The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s are i l l u s t r a t i v e of t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s : Now a f t e r t h a t there was a Committee of people chosen to be the e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g committee, S t e e r i n g Committee, and they came from some people who were i n v o l v e d with t h a t f i r s t s o r t of i n s e r v i c e s e s s i o n with E r n i e Stachowski and j u s t p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s , a mixture of people, which was i d e a l , who had a genuine i n t e r e s t i n , s h a l l I use the word, promoting the development of t h i s k i nd of p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t y [22:61. 174 Since I was on the S t e e r i n g Committee, I thought I had some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and I supported the work of the S t e e r i n g Committee...we s a i d , "Look the r e s e a r c h says t h a t you should have a s c h o o l based p r o f e s s i o n a l development program...it was a bandwagon t h a t was r o l l i n g a long and I t h i n k we jumped on i t v e r y e a r l y i n terms of implementing something a t the s c h o o l [26:8J. In f a c t , Kent had a p r o p o s a l f o r a s c h o o l based TET s t a f f development p l a n i n p l a c e f o r the next s c h o o l year by the end of May 1982. Not o n l y was the p l a n i n p l a c e , but a l s o h i s s t a f f i n d i c a t e d s t r o n g support. Teachers were a l s o members of the S t e e r i n g Committee and the f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s from t h e i r t r a n s c r i p t s p rovide another p e r s p e c t i v e on the S t e e r i n g Committee. David, a secondary teacher, saw the committee as an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r input from the "grass r o o t s " i n t o an i n i t i a t i v e which appeared to have become a d i s t r i c t p r i o r i t y . The f o l l o w i n g excerpt d e s c r i b e s h i s p e r c e p t i o n : When as classroom t e a c h e r s we were made aware of the f a c t t h a t i t was being made a p r i o r i t y item at the d i s t r i c t l e v e l , we had o p p o r t u n i t i e s to get i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g committees, and the system of which the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e reaches out to the grass r o o t s , i f you l i k e , I t h i n k i t works w e l l [31:21. An elementary t e a c h e r , W i l l i a m , had a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t view of the S t e e r i n g Committee but he too saw i t as a p l a c e to engage i n d i a l o g u e about the TET i n i t i a t i v e . 175 His views are i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g two q u o t a t i o n s : ...the S t e e r i n g Committee was s t r u c k with E r n i e Stachowski's workshop and i t was, I b e l i e v e , by the powers t h a t be, had a l r e a d y been decided t h a t t h i s i s the d i r e c t i o n they hoped t o go... [28:31. ...being on the S t e e r i n g Committee and i t ' s c o n f i d e n t i a l - they (Nick and Barry) run the t h i n g . We go i n and hear what they have t o say, gi v e some feedback and most of the time i t ' s what they want but they pick up a l o t of l i t t l e t i d b i t s from us but they have a b e t t e r o v e r a l l p i c t u r e . . . [28:111. Thus, a t the o u t s e t of the implementation phase the d e c i s i o n making body was expanded to a D i s t r i c t S t e e r i n g Committee which would provide input from p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s . Among those i n t e r v i e w e d there was ge n e r a l agreement t h a t i t was an important committee, i t had the p o t e n t i a l to have an i n f l u e n c e on the implementation, and the members took t h e i r membership r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s e r i o u s l y . The I n i t i a l t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n of the implementation phase was w e l l r e c e i v e d . Enthusiasm f o r the program had begun t o b u i l d and the D i s t r i c t sponsored f i f t e e n p r i n c i p a l s and teachers ( v o l u n t e e r s ) to a t t e n d ITIP workshops a t S e a t t l e P a c i f i c U n i v e r s i t y d u r i n g the Summer of 1982. During the s c h o o l year 1982-83 the S t e e r i n g Committee began i t s task of f o r m a l i z i n g an 176 implementation p l a n . The TET program was seen to have four s t r a n d s , each r e q u i r i n g a minimum of twenty hours of I n s t r u c t i o n : 1. Beginning TET - Awareness and Knowledge 2. Advanced TET - Knowledge Review, P r a c t i c e and R e t e n t i o n 3. Classroom Management 4. I n s t r u c t i o n a l S u p e r v i s i o n [R.F. #23], P r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s were encouraged to become i n v o l v e d a t a l l four l e v e l s and s e s s i o n s were o f f e r e d f o r p r i n c i p a l s and teachers t o g e t h e r . C a r o l Cummings re t u r n e d to the d i s t r i c t i n the F a l l of 1982 to conduct a four-day i n - d i s t r i c t workshop and c o n s u l t with the S t e e r i n g Committree r e g a r d i n g f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s f o r the program. She recommended t h a t the committee c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of an i n - d i s t r i c t t r a i n e r who c o u l d provide i n - c l a s s follow-up a f t e r the t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s . The committee endorsed the concept and steps were taken to develop job s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r a D i s t r i c t TET H e l p i n g Teacher. Plans were a l s o begun f o r a TET Summer School f o r the Summer of 1983. During S p r i n g 1983, t h i r t y - f i v e secondary t e a c h e r s attended a four-day workshop, a g a i n with C a r o l Cummings as the t r a i n e r . Among those who were i n t e r v i e w e d , C a r o l Cummings was c o n s i d e r e d a i n f l u e n t i a l a c t o r d u r i n g the implementation phase. Three i n d i v i d u a l s r e f e r t o her i n 177 the f o l l o w i n g ways: She i s a master a t b u i l d i n g i n the program [20:51. C a r o l Cummings was r e f e r r e d t o us as a v a l u a b l e resource and C a r o l has p r i m a r i l y been the anchor ever s i n c e then - the anchor resource person [22:51. I don't t h i n k you can d i s c o u n t C a r o l Cummings' involvement. She was always a v a i l a b l e , she switched her t i m e t a b l e , she r e a l l y became q u i t e i n v o l v e d i n what was happening, she v i s i t e d numerous s c h o o l s , she reviewed tapes, she served as a c o n s u l t i n g person when she was i n the area and I f e e l t h a t somehow or other, i n my mind anyhow, she was q u i t e a dominant i n d i v i d u a l i n terms of making the program happen and work [25:121. The d i s t r i c t TET i n i t i a t i v e took a d u a l approach to implementation: on the one hand, i t was c l e a r l y a c e n t r a l o f f i c e i n i t i a t e d program o f f e r i n g s e s s i o n s to personnel a c r o s s the d i s t r i c t but, on the other hand, there was encouragement f o r i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s to develop school-based implementation p l a n s . Kent's s c h o o l , as mentioned e a r l i e r , was underway with a s c h o o l improvement p l a n as e a r l y as the S p r i n g of 1982. Some of the respondents were members of Kent's s t a f f and the f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s provide a p i c t u r e of t h e i r s c h o o l based TET program: We had one Pro-D day here (school) while I was here i n the S p r i n g then we had another i n the f o l l o w i n g F a l l . Then because I showed some I n t e r e s t I took the Summer course. I saw what was going on with a couple of other t e a c h e r s t h a t were 178 keen...then I was keen and...got i n on the s u p e r v i s i o n t h i n g [27:71. ...we'd come back from a workshop and we'd jump i n t o our classrooms and boy we'd hop to it...we used to share and observe each other and Kent (the p r i n c i p a l ) used t o come i n and observe myself and I would observe Kent t e a c h i n g my c l a s s . So i t was a r e a l growing and l e a r n i n g y e a r . . . L a s t year (1983) the d i s t r i c t had a s i t u a t i o n where one teacher i n each s c h o o l , there were f i v e s c h o o l s s e l e c t e d , would have one day a week o f f to work with other s t a f f members and i n t r o d u c e a p e r s o n a l i z e d s c h o o l based group plan [28:41. These comments are i l l u s t r a t i v e of some of the enthusiasm f o r the program which was o c c u r r i n g a t the s c h o o l l e v e l . T h i s s t a f f was v e r y a c t i v e and over a few years became, i n the view of some, a TET l i g h t h o u s e s c h o o l . They moved q u i c k l y to incoporate a l l four s t r a n d s of the implementation plan and got p a r t i c u l a r l y i n v o l v e d i n the peer coaching component of the program. By March 1984 "a t o t a l of 184 v i s i t s had been made by t e a c h e r s t o c o l l e a g u e s ' classrooms. Teachers i n the s c h o o l had attended a t o t a l of 134 workshops ranging from 5 day summer courses to h a l f hour s t a f f meeting p r o f e s s i o n a l development s e s s i o n s " [R.F.#241. Moreover, Kent, the p r i n c i p a l , d e v i s e d a p e r s o n a l growth p l a n whereby he r e c e i v e d feedback on h i s coaching techniques [R.F.#251. At the same time, other s c h o o l s were d e v e l o p i n g plans i n t h e i r own ways. Tony, i n a w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n of the program at h i s s c h o o l w r i t e s : 179 The p r i n c i p a l and teachers who attended the d i s t r i c t s e s s i o n s became t h i s s c h o o l ' s p r o j e c t committee, and plans were made to i n c o r p o r a t e an element of e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g i n each s t a f f meeting with committee members assuming l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s i n these one-hour s e s s i o n s . Each committee member has reached out beyond the workshop c i r c l e to draw i n a c o l l e a g u e whose o n l y exposure has been the s c h o o l based s e s s i o n s . O p p o r t u n i t i e s have been provided f o r committee members and others to v i s i t each other's classroom to share implementation s t r a t e g i e s , and to develop s k i l l s of o b s e r v a t i o n and a n a l y s i s [R.F.#25]. The above accounts provide evidence of e n t h u s i a s t i c school-based a c t i v i t i e s . Some s c h o o l s r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n - d i s t r i c t s upport. In the F a l l of 1983, the d i s t r i c t e s t a b l i s h e d a .2 teacher i n seven of the l a r g e s t elementary s c h o o l s to f a c i l i t a t e school-based TET. A d i s t r i c t p r i n c i p a l was appointed to the p o s i t i o n of h e l p i n g t e a c h e r , a l s o to f a c i l i t a t e school-based a c t i v i t i e s . F u r t h e r , the S t e e r i n g Committee adopted the "Stages of Growth" implementation p l a n prepared by Nick, the a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t f o r D i s t r i c t B [R.F.#27]. I t c o n s t i t u t e d a formal p l a n to i n v o l v e a l l of the s c h o o l s , o n e - t h i r d a t a time, over a three year p e r i o d s t a r t i n g with the f i r s t phase i n the 1983-84 s c h o o l year. While some s c h o o l s ( o n e - t h i r d ) i n the d i s t r i c t were r e c e i v i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t r i c t support, other s c h o o l s 180 r e c e i v e d much l e s s . One of the p r i n c i p a l s i n t e r v i e w e d expressed h i s view t h a t the s m a l l s c h o o l s had not r e c e i v e d d i s t r i c t support. The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s i l l u s t r a t e h i s p e r s p e c t i v e : Some people, because they d i d n ' t have enough reso u r c e s i n s m a l l e r s c h o o l s t o implement these t h i n g s , are behind. Some sch o o l s know an awful l o t about i t and have got r i g h t down to the p o i n t where there i s peer coaching. But other s c h o o l s haven't t r i e d t h a t kind of concept out... Some of the s m a l l e r s c h o o l s need an awful l o t more e x t e r n a l help i n s e t t i n g up the program 123:4] . Thus, the c e n t r a l o f f i c e d e c i s i o n to support the l a r g e s c h o o l s r e s u l t e d i n some of the smal l s c h o o l s f e e l i n g l e f t behind. Summer School o p p o r t u n i t i e s were a v a i l a b l e to d i s t r i c t personnel on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s and were w e l l attended. In f a c t , the sup e r i n t e n d e n t attended the Beginning s e s s i o n d u r i n g the Summer of 1984. The f o l l o w i n g excerpt i s the expressed r e a c t i o n of one of the t e a c h e r s : ...I was v e r y much impressed... 1 111 always remember i t as, you know, you get the paper from the superintendent who say s . . . t h e r e w i l l be e f f e c t i v e teacher t r a i n i n g , and you're s i t t i n g t here s a y i n g , "But what has he done?" because you never see him a t any of these workshops, and bingo, there he was t a k i n g the course [28:8]. S e v e r a l respondents commented on the p o s i t i v e impact the 181 s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s attendance had on d i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l . H i s involvement i n the t r a i n i n g and h i s subsequent enthusiasm f o r i t was r e p o r t e d as having a negative impact as w e l l . F o l l o w i n g h i s attendance a t Summer School, the superintendent met with p r i n c i p a l s and i m p l i e d t h a t promotions i n the d i s t r i c t would r e q u i r e a p r i n c i p a l to be very knowledgeable about the TET program con t e n t . C e n t r a l o f f i c e s t a f f respondents a l l expressed concern about the way p r i n c i p a l s r e a c t e d to the comment. Barry p r o v i d e s h i s p e r s p e c t i v e on the matter i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n : At the f i r s t p r i n c i p a l s ' meeting t h i s year, the superintendent s a i d you would i n e f f e c t go nowhere i n t h i s d i s t r i c t u n l e s s you were prepared to buy i n t o TET and take the courses or some of them and be f a m i l i a r with a t l e a s t the knowledge l e v e l . No, i n f a c t , he s a i d a p p l y i n g a t the p r a c t i c a l l e v e l . . . T h a t scared the h e l l out of a l o t of the p r i n c i p a l s , f a r more so than I thought (19:16]. Barry, r e f l e c t i n g on h i s s t r a t e g y to i n v o l v e t e a c h e r s o n l y i n the f i r s t t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n , f e l t t h a t perhaps more t r a i n i n g and support should have been o f f e r e d to p r i n c i p a l s . He expressed the view t h a t had p r i n c i p a l s been i n v o l v e d from the f i r s t t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s i t may have avoided the negative r e a c t i o n to the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s comment. Given t h a t the implementation phase i n D i s t r i c t B c o i n c i d e d with a downturn i n the p r o v i n c i a l economy, 182 which r e s u l t e d i n cutbacks i n e d u c a t i o n budgets, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t most of the respondents i d e n t i f i e d l a c k of money as the major f a c t o r having a negative i n f l u e n c e on implementation e f f o r t s . An a d d i t i o n a l negative f a c t o r r e p o r t e d by respondents i s the TET H e l p i n g Teacher p o s i t i o n . While the concept was advocated by most, there was disappointment expressed t h a t the person appointed to the p o s i t i o n hadn't managed to f u l f i l l the e x p e c t a t i o n s which had o r i g i n a l l y been h e l d f o r t h a t p o s i t i o n . He d i d not appear to have c r e d i b i l i t y among many of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s . In June 1984, the Board undertook the f i r s t r e a d i n g of a s e t of d i s t r i c t p o l i c i e s and procedures on s u p e r v i s i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f . T h e i r espoused p o s i t i o n on s u p e r v i s i o n c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the peer coaching component of the TET program. They took the p o s i t i o n t h a t " s u p e r v i s i o n i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a l l and i t may be undertaken by any p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f member" [R.F.#28]. F u r t h e r , they expressed commitment "to p r o v i d e the necessary r e s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s , to a s s i s t i n d e v e l o p i n g s u p e r v i s o r y programs" [R.F.#291. 183 The r e s e a r c h data were c o l l e c t e d i n the F a l l of 1984 d u r i n g the second phase of the formal three year implementation p l a n . A follow-up c o n v e r s a t i o n with Barry, an a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , confirmed t h a t the three year p l a n was c a r r i e d through to completion as of the S p r i n g of 1986. MOVEMENT AND RESISTANCE IN IMPLEMENTATION The most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s of the implementation phase appear to be the f a c t o r s which e i t h e r f a c i l i t a t e d movement toward implementation goals or c r e a t e d r e s i s t a n c e . The events of the implementation phase are very d i f f e r e n t from those of i n i t i a t i o n . Throughout i n i t i a t i o n , the personnel i n v o l v e d were e i t h e r program i n i t i a t o r s or keen s u p p o r t e r s . The data do not show evidence of r e s i s t a n c e d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n : i n s t e a d , a l l the s i g n i f i c a n t events appeared to c o n t r i b u t e to moving the i n i t i a t i v e toward a d o p t i o n . T h i s was not the case with the events of implementation. As the i n i t i a t i v e and the t a r g e t audience came i n t o c o n t a c t there was e n t h u s i a s t i c support and forward movement on the one hand and s k e p t i c i s m and r e s i s t a n c e on the other. T h i s s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s of three s u b s e c t i o n s . In the f i r s t two s u b s e c t i o n s the f a c t o r s which e i t h e r 184 f a c i l i t a t e d movement or r e s u l t e d i n r e s i s t a n c e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o two major c a t e g o r i e s : personnel and pro c e s s . The s e c t i o n concludes with a summary of s i g n i f i c a n t implementation f a c t o r s and c o n s i d e r s those f a c t o r s as they r e l a t e to i n i t i a t i o n as w e l l as what they may p r e d i c t f o r c o n t i n u a t i o n . Personnel During Implementation more people became i n v o l v e d i n the process and c o n t r i b u t e d to the events which appear s i g n i f i c a n t . While some key personnel who were i n v o l v e d d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n stayed a c t i v e , others changed r o l e s and some new personnel emerge as key a c t o r s d u r i n g implementation. Superintendents. During implementation the r o l e s of the two su p e r i n t e n d e n t s changed as i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1. 185 I n i t i a t i o n Implementation D i s t r i c t A High p r o f i l e — ^ Low p r o f i l e Superintendent D i s t r i c t B Low p r o f i l e ^ High p r o f i l e Super intendent F i g u r e 1: Changes i n Role of Superintendents In D i s t r i c t A, the superintendent withdrew from the a c t i v e r o l e he had assumed d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n and d e l e g a t e d t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to h i s a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n from a p r i n c i p a l i s i l l u s t r a t i v e of t h a t t r a n s i t i o n : W e l l , Don (superintendent) wasn't a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n implementation, he was s o r t of the person behind the s t a r t of the t h i n g . I guess Howard ( a s s i s t a n t superintendent) was the work horse...[8:17]. The superintendent i n D i s t r i c t A changed from a high p r o f i l e to a low p r o f i l e a c t o r . The data provide no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h i s s h i f t i n r o l e had any negative e f f e c t s on implementation. The data do provide evidence t h a t the a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s were g e n e r a l l y p e r c e i v e d to be very s t r o n g l e a d e r s (see chapter 4 ) and they had a l s o been a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n which may, i n p a r t , account f o r the apparent ease with which the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t c o u l d withdraw. 186 Something q u i t e d i f f e r e n t o c c u r r e d with the r o l e of the superintendent i n D i s t r i c t B. Whereas he played a low p r o f i l e r o l e d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n and focussed h i s a t t e n t i o n on g a t h e r i n g the necessary Board support, he became a high p r o f i l e , a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t d u r i n g implementation. He was a p a r t i c i p a n t i n one of the courses o f f e r e d d u r i n g Summer School i n 1984. The r e s u l t a n t e f f e c t was two-sided as d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n of an a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t : At the end of summer s c h o o l he s a i d , "by God, t h a t ' s i t " . . . I t h i n k i t r e a l l y b o l s t e r e d the program, i n both a negative and p o s i t i v e sense. I t l e g i t i m i z e d i t even f u r t h e r , but i n a negative sense, h i s comments a t the opening p r i n c i p a l s ' meeting r a i s e d the l e v e l of concern too much maybe with some people [19:20]. The comment made at the opening p r i n c i p a l s ' meeting as r e c a l l e d by one of the p r i n c i p a l respondents was as f o l l o w s : I t i s now a compulsory program and your f u t u r e depends on whether you are i n v o l v e d or not i n v o l v e d [22:15]. P r i n c i p a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those whose s c h o o l s had not yet been i n c l u d e d i n the t h r e e - y e a r p l a n , were r e s i s t a n t t o the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s s t a n d . By c o n t r a s t , the p a r t i c i p a n t s of Summer School were impressed. The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t i v e of the p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n : 187 As a matter of f a c t , he (superintendent) attended one week of workshops... t h i s past summer and I was very much impressed [29:8]. While the high p r o f i l e r o l e of the superintendent d u r i n g implementation r e s u l t e d i n a p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n from some, i t d i d cause d i f f i c u l t i e s . A comparison of the r o l e s played by the two sup e r i n t e n d e n t s suggests an i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n . Did t h e i r past experience with i n n o v a t i v e programs account f o r the very d i f f e r e n t r o l e s they chose t o play? The su p e r i n t e n d e n t i n D i s t r i c t A had experience with the process of implementing i n n o v a t i v e programs. His d i s t r i c t had a h i s t o r y of s u c c e s s f u l s t a f f development and a r e p u t a t i o n as an in n o v a t o r . He chose t o p l a y a low p r o f i l e , s u p p o r t i n g r o l e d u r i n g implementation whereas h i s c o u n t e r p a r t i n D i s t r i c t B chose t o p l a y a high p r o f i l e , p a r t i c i p a t i v e r o l e . The superintendent i n D i s t r i c t B d i d not have the same experience with the implementation of i n n o v a t i v e programs to draw upon. While h i s z e a l as a p a r t i c i p a n t r e s u l t e d i n some p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n , i t c l e a r l y caused d i f f i c u l i t e s d u r i n g implementation. Perhaps the d i f f e r e n c e s i n experience with i n n o v a t i o n s help to account f o r the d i f f e r e n t r o l e s the two s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s p l a y e d . 188 C e n t r a l o f f i c e s t a f f . As d e s c r i b e d i n the n a r r a t i v e s e c t i o n s , the c e n t r a l o f f i c e s t a f f were v e r y i n v o l v e d i n s u p p o r t i n g the i n i t i a t i v e s i n both d i s t r i c t s . They provided follow-up s e s s i o n s , c r e a t e d n e w s l e t t e r s , made p r e s e n t a t i o n s to s c h o o l s t a f f s and attended t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s with the p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s . During implementation, c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel other than the s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s , s u r f a c e d as key a c t o r s who played an a c t i v e r o l e . While the s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s remained i n v o l v e d , i t was the s u p e r v i s o r s and d i r e c t o r s of i n s t r u c t i o n who played the l i a i s o n r o l e between c e n t r a l o f f i c e and the s c h o o l s . Given the importance of the l i n k between c e n t r a l o f f i c e and the s c h o o l s i n a d i s t r i c t - w i d e i n i t i a t i v e , t h i s l i a i s o n f u n c t i o n would seem to have the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n t r i b u t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y to implementation yet the data do not i n d i c a t e t h a t i t was as s i g n i f i c a n t as might be expected. While they provided follow-up s e s s i o n s , c r e a t e d n e w s l e t t e r s , and conducted p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n the s c h o o l s and while t h i s l i a i s o n f u n c t i o n appears to have served the purpose of c o - o r d i n a t i n g follow-up a c t i v i t i e s , they lacked power to a f f e c t the change e f f o r t . In D i s t r i c t A, the reason given f o r not h i r i n g a 189 l o c a l t r a i n e r was t h a t a l l people i n c e n t r a l o f f i c e s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n s c o u l d provide t h a t s e r v i c e . While t h a t appears to have been p o s s i b l e , there i s no evidence t h a t any c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel were i n v o l v e d i n follow-up coaching i n the classrooms. T h i s suggests a d i s c r e p a n c y i n the r o l e the a s s i s t a n t superintendent saw them p l a y i n g i n the implementation and the r o l e they a c t u a l l y p l a y e d . Pr i n c i p a l s . Some p r i n c i p a l s are i d e n t i f i e d by respondents as a major f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g implementation. In s c h o o l s where the i n i t i a t i v e was s u c c e s s f u l l y implemented the p r i n c i p a l s were a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d , not o n l y i n the d e s i g n of a school-based p l a n , but a l s o i n the t r a i n i n g and follow-up p r a c t i c e as w e l l . In each of the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , two s c h o o l s s u r f a c e d as "model" or " l i g h t h o u s e " s c h o o l s . In a l l four cases the p r i n c i p a l s had been i n v o l v e d i n the i n i t i a t i o n phase. Both "model" sc h o o l p r i n c i p a l s i n D i s t r i c t A had been on the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee and one was among those who t r a v e l l e d to S e a t t l e P a c i f i c U n i v e r s i t y f o r t r a i n i n g . In D i s t r i c t B, one of the p r i n c i p a l s was i n v i t e d to a t t e n d the " t e s t i n g of the waters" s e s s i o n i n D i s t r i c t W as w e l l as being asked to a t t e n d the t r a i n i n g a t S e a t t l e 190 P a c i f i c U n i v e r s i t y . He i s the i n d i v i d u a l who had o r i g i n a l l y t r i e d to i n i t i a t e ITIP i n t o D i s t r i c t B, years b e f o r e . The other p r i n c i p a l was i n f l u e n c e d by h i s v i c e - p r i n c i p a l who became i n v o l v e d d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n . T h i s p r i n c i p a l was an o r i g i n a l member of the S t e e r i n g Committee. A l l four p r i n c i p a l s were keen s u p p o r t e r s of the i n i t i a t i v e and q u i c k l y moved to e s t a b l i s h a school-based program which was designed to i n c l u d e t h e i r e n t i r e s t a f f . I t seems reasonable to suggest t h a t the outcomes i n these s c h o o l s may have occurred r e g a r d l e s s of the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e e f f o r t s d u r i n g implementation, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t p r i n c i p a l s were v e r y important d u r i n g implementat i o n . Process While key personnel are found t o be an important f a c t o r which f a c i l i t a t e d implementation, what those people chose to do a l s o emerges as s i g n i f i c a n t . Three a s p e c t s r e l a t e d to process appeared to have the e f f e c t of e i t h e r f a c i l i t a t i n g movement forward i n the implementation or c r e a t i n g r e s i s t a n c e to i t . These a r e : (1) implementation p l a n n i n g , (2) program management, and (3) use of t r a i n e r s . 191 Implementation p l a n n i n g . The p l a n n i n g r e l a t e d to implementation was v e r y d i f f e r e n t i n the two d i s t r i c t s . In one d i s t r i c t the p l a n n i n g appears i n f o r m a l , almost c a s u a l , whereas i n the other there i s a very formal w r i t t e n implementation p l a n . In D i s t r i c t A, there i s no evidence of a formal implementation p l a n but when asked about such a pl a n an a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t responded i n the f o l l o w i n g way: Yeah, a p l a n to i n v o l v e a l l the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s [1:11]. In f a c t , the go a l to i n v o l v e a l l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s was r e a l i z e d and i n t h a t way the p l a n may have c o n t r i b u t e d to forward movement i n implementation but i t a l s o c r e a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s i s t a n c e from both a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s . The pl a n i n c l u d e d three a s p e c t s which c o n s t i t u t e d major diverg e n c e s from t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e : (1) a s t r o n g e x p e c t a t i o n from c e n t r a l o f f i c e t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s would a t t e n d , (2) t r a i n i n g which comprised s i x s e s s i o n s and would be o f f e r e d over time and, (3) t e a c h e r s would be i n c l u d e d as pa r t of the t a r g e t audience. Inherent i n any change e f f o r t are f e e l i n g s of r e s i s t a n c e , a n x i e t y and c o n f l i c t . Given the magnitude of the changes r e q u i r e d i n t h i s p l a n , i t does not seem s u r p r i s i n g t h a t there was c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s i s t a n c e yet there i s no evidence t h a t the negative r e a c t i o n t o the 192 p l a n was a n t i c i p a t e d . T h i s evidence does suggest t h a t the superintendent and h i s s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s must have f e l t secure enough to proceed with a p l a n which expected a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to comply with an e x p e c t a t i o n f o r them to make such dramatic changes. T h i s a l s o suggests t h a t the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee had not communicated very w e l l with t h e i r f e l l o w a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . The r e s i s t a n c e nowithstanding, the data i n d i c a t e t h a t a l l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s complied with the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t they would take p a r t . A l s o noteworthy i s the f a c t t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a l implementation p l a n n i n g took p l a c e d u r i n g the f i n a l phases of i n i t i a t i o n and the goal to have a l l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a t t e n d was a t t a i n e d by the end of the f i r s t year of implementation. Very soon a f t e r t h a t , the management of the program was handed over to the Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n i n D i s t r i c t A. As demonstrated i n the n a r r a t i v e , the Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n d i d not develop a formal implementation p l a n e i t h e r but simply continued to meet the i n t e r e s t of t e a c h e r s who expressed the d e s i r e to r e c e i v e f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g . In D i s t r i c t B, by c o n t r a s t , the Implementation p l a n n i n g was v e r y formal i n comparison to D i s t r i c t A but the p l a n n i n g took shape d u r i n g the implementation phase 193 I t s e l f . As d e s c r i b e d i n the n a r r a t i v e s e c t i o n , a S t e e r i n g Committee comprised of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and tea c h e r s was formed a t the ou t s e t of implementation f o r the purpose of p r o v i d i n g input i n t o p l a n n i n g . The r e s u l t of the S t e e r i n g Committee e f f o r t s was a three-year p l an which i n v o l v e d a l l s c h o o l s , o n e — t h i r d each year f o r three y e a r s . T h i s plan was w r i t t e n by the program i n i t i a t o r and endorsed by the committee. A l s o i n c l u d e d i n the pl a n were two Summer School o f f e r i n g s . While attendance a t Summer School was v o l u n t a r y , the formal 3-year p l a n does imply an e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t a l l sc h o o l s would take p a r t over the three s c h o o l y e a r s . The data provide some evidence of r e s i s t a n c e i n s o f a r as respondents i n d i c a t e d t h a t some d i s t r i c t personnel f e l t p r e s s u r e d . The f o l l o w i n g are ex c e r p t s i l l u s t r a t i v e of the pressure which some p a r t i c i p a n t s a p p a r e n t l y f e l t : There have been some teach e r s who have f e l t that...who have s a i d they've been f o r c e d to take a course or two [29:9]. I t h i n k people f e l t a l i t t l e pressured l a s t year because we d i d have someone f o r h a l f a day [27:9]. There was more of a push to do i t than t h a t , but th e r e ' s been no follow-up to see tha t i t ' s been done [30:12]. P r i n c i p a l s of s c h o o l s not i n c l u d e d i n the f i r s t year r e p o r t e d t h a t they f e l t l e f t behind. The 194 w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d p r a c t i c e of i n v o l v i n g f i e l d people i n the p l a n n i n g r e s u l t e d , i n p a r t , i n some f i e l d people, p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n s m a l l s c h o o l s , not f e e l i n g t h e i r i n t e r e s t s were taken i n t o account. The data p r o v i d e no evidence to suggest t h a t the p l a n n i n g committee a n t i c i p a t e d the negative r e a c t i o n from s c h o o l s l e f t out i n the f i r s t phase. Despite these two negative r e a c t i o n s , the formal three year implementation p l a n was c a r r i e d through to completion. In comparison to D i s t r i c t A, there appeared to be f a r l e s s o v e r t r e s i s t a n c e . Two f a c t o r s may account f o r t h a t d i f f e r e n c e . F i r s t l y , the data from D i s t r i c t A suggest t h a t the l o c a l Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n was h i s t o r i c a l l y v e r y s t r o n g and a c t i v e i n p r o f e s s i o n a l development matters. That s t r e n g t h may account f o r the organized negative r e a c t i o n to the changes i n t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e i nherent i n the i n i t i a l implementation e f f o r t s . There was no evidence of s i m i l a r s t r e n g t h on the p a r t of the Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n i n D i s t r i c t B. Secondly, the implementation phase i n D i s t r i c t B took p l a c e a t a d i f f e r e n t time and c o i n c i d e d with a negative p r o v i n c i a l c l i m a t e toward e d u c a t o r s . As a r e s u l t , t e a c h e r s may have been somewhat a p a t h e t i c on the one hand and r e l u c t a n t to be o v e r t l y r e s i s t a n t on the o t h e r . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n lends 195 some support f o r t h a t s p e c u l a t i o n : The c l i m a t e i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n now and e s p e c i a l l y over, the f i r s t couple of years s i n c e our f r i e n d B i l l Vander Zalm s t a r t e d throwing d a r t s , we f e l t the c o s t f o r t h i s year i s a l o t of apathy [28:13]. That s p e c u l a t i o n gains f u r t h e r support from the Grimmett et a l . study. They r e p o r t the f o l l o w i n g : The emphasis on a c c o u n t a b i l i t y and the p r e v a i l i n g mood of "teacher bashing" which c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n teacher p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m was a l s o p e r c e i v e d as having a f f e c t e d teacher a t t i t u d e s and involvement. Negative a t t i t u d e s and teacher s k e p t i c i s m were r e p o r t e d to have l e d to teacher r e l u c t a n c e to j o i n the d i s t r i c t i n i t i a t e d p r o j e c t ( 1 9 8 6 : 4 4 ) . I t appears t h a t implementation p l a n n i n g , a l b e i t v ery d i f f e r e n t between the two d i s t r i c t s , i n c u r r e d some r e s i s t a n c e . The o v e r t r e s i s t a n c e i n D i s t r i c t A was a r e a c t i o n to the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s would a t t e n d . In D i s t r i c t B, the r e s i s t a n c e , p a r t l y r e l a t e d to a three-year p l a n and p a r t l y a f f e c t e d by a very negative p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e , appeared much more p a s s i v e i n comparison. Nonetheless, both plans moved forward. When the p l a n n i n g aspect of implementation i s compared, i t seems c u r i o u s t h a t D i s t r i c t A, with a h i s t o r y of s u c c e s s f u l implementation and a r e p u t a t i o n as an i n n o v a t o r , appeared to approach p l a n n i n g i n such an Informal manner. Furthermore, i n D i s t r i c t B, where they d i d c r e a t e a formal implementation p l a n , the p l a n was 196 c r e a t e d a f t e r the f a c t . Perhaps D i s t r i c t B's pl a n was more a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n f o r the p r o j e c t than i t was a pl a n which would f a c i l i t a t e implementation and c o n t i n u a t i o n . Noteworthy i s the f a c t t h a t n e i t h e r d i s t r i c t engaged i n d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g p r i o r to implementation. Program management. The management of the program i s another s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e of implementation which was handled d i f f e r e n t l y i n the two d i s t r i c t s . In D i s t r i c t A, the management of the program s h i f t e d to the Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n whereas i n D i s t r i c t B, the two a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s maintained c o n t r o l . In D i s t r i c t A, the o r i g i n a l ITIP Management Committee, a subcommittee of the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee, comprised of a d m i n i s t r a t o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and c h a i r e d by an a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , had planned f o r and managed ITIP d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n and e a r l y implementation. However, management r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were handed over to the l o c a l Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee d u r i n g implementation. As d e s c r i b e d i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n , the Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n assumed the management of the program f o l l o w i n g the Advanced ITIP Course o f f e r e d i n the F a l l of 1979. Two p o i n t s appear 197 important. F i r s t , by the time the s h i f t i n program management occ u r r e d , a l l of the s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s had taken a t l e a s t the Beginning ITIP course. Thus, the o r i g i n a l c e n t r a l o f f i c e implementation goal had been a t t a i n e d . Second, when asked about an implementation p l a n once the management s h i f t e d , Rosemary, the C h a i r p e r s o n of the Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n Committee a t the time, s a i d there was no p l a n : they j u s t continued to meet the needs expressed i n the i n f o r m a l assessments which were completed a t the end of each course. The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t i v e of the committee's p o s i t i o n : B a s i c a l l y , our committee f e l t v e ry s t r o n g l y t h a t i f we kept doing these assessments, and f i n d i n g the need there t h a t should prove to the people who are f e e l i n g p o l i t i c a l t h a t yes, there are 30 or more people who want to continue i f we have a c l a s s [5:11]. C o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t on the p a r t of teachers continued f o r a number of y e a r s . As r e p o r t e d by K i l l o u g h (1981), by 1980-81 o n l y teachers were p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the ITIP c o u r s e s . Thus, the s h i f t i n management appears to have had the e f f e c t of m a i n t a i n i n g momentum among t e a c h e r s . While the courses were open to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , few attended. The s h i f t i n management personnel i n D i s t r i c t A, i n the o p i n i o n of one respondent, was t y p i c a l i n the 198 d i s t r i c t . The following excerpt demonstrates his view: From the fact that i t , in t y p i c a l D i s t r i c t A fashion, evolved from something that was i n i t i a t e d by a small committee operating close to the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e , very close, to something that's taken over completely by the Teachers' Association [4:19]. The feature of management personnel is quite d i f f e r e n t in D i s t r i c t B. As described in the second section, the Steering Committee, comprised of both administrators and teachers, was formed at the outset of implementation. Their function was to provide input to the central o f f i c e personnel who maintained primary control over the program management throughout implementation. There was a reluctance on the part of the two assistant superintendents to r e l i n q u i s h t h e i r management r o l e . The following quotation demonstrates the i r view: I guess what's happened is that both of us have been a f r a i d to l e t go of i t because we don't want to see i t sink. We think i f we do i t w i l l [19:18]. There are no indications in the present study that t h i s reluctance to hand over program management had a negative influence on implementation. However, Grimmett et a l . who studied the same i n i t i a t i v e conclude the following: Although the supervisors (the two assistant superintendents) did attempt to oversee the program's implementation and were perceived by the majority of 199 p a r t i c i p a n t s as p l a y i n g a p r o j e c t s u s t a i n i n g r o l e , they d i d not monitor i n a focussed way the various stages and tasks a s s o c i a t e d with the implementation process (1986:101). There are, however, i n d i c a t i o n s that the formation of the S t e e r i n g Committee had some p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on implementation. Various members report examples of such p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g quotations: Since I was on the St e e r i n g Committee, I thought I had some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to t r y and f o l l o w t h a t p l a n . Which i s what I've done [26:8]. So, r i g h t from the beginning i t ' s been a shared t h i n g between p r i n c i p a l and teachers [22:41 . We had the opportunity to get involved i n planning committees...That's when I s t a r t e d a t t e n d i n g meetings, and we had an idea then of what the d i s t r i c t was planning and were q u i t e e n t h u s i a s t i c about having some inpu t . . . those of us who showed that l e v e l of i n t e r e s t were made respo n s i b l e f o r showing some of that enthusiasm at the l o c a l s t a f f room l e v e l (31:21. Again, the h i s t o r y of s t a f f development i n the two d i s t r i c t s may account, i n p a r t , f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s . In D i s t r i c t A, there was a t r a d i t i o n of innovations being i n i t i a t e d by c e n t r a l o f f i c e and a subsequent t r a n s f e r of management t o the Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n . D i s t r i c t B had no such t r a d i t i o n and the i n i t i a t o r s appear to have been r e l u c t a n t to t r a n s f e r management c o n t r o l . 200 Other d i f f e r e n c e s between the two d i s t r i c t s may a l s o have accounted f o r the s h i f t i n D i s t r i c t A and maintenance of c o n t r o l i n D i s t r i c t B. In D i s t r i c t A, the i n i t i a t o r s held a narrow view of the p r o j e c t and t h e i r g oal to have a l l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s p a r t i c i p a t e was achieved d u r i n g the f i r s t year of implementation. In D i s t r i c t B, the i n i t i a t o r s h e l d a broader view of the p r o j e c t and t h e i r goal was to i n c l u d e a l l s c h o o l s over three y e a r s . F u r t h e r , the i n i t i a t o r s i n D i s t r i c t B appeared to have c a r e e r goals l i n k e d to the success of the p r o j e c t which may suggest they were l e s s anxious to disengage. Moreover, i n D i s t r i c t B, d u r i n g implementation, the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t became a program p a r t i c i p a n t and ardent advocate. T h i s too may have made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s to assume a s u p p o r t i n g r o l e . Nonetheless, i t i s i r o n i c t h a t one of the program goals of one of the a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s was teacher empowerment, yet he was one of those u n w i l l i n g to give up c o n t r o l of the program management. The use of t r a i n e r s . E x t e r n a l t r a i n e r s are a s i g n i f i c a n t component of the implementation process i n both d i s t r i c t s . Together, the q u a l i t y of the packaged program content and the c r e d i b i l i t y of the t r a i n e r s 201 c o n t r i b u t e d to forward movement during implementation. While both d i s t r i c t s made e x c l u s i v e use of e x t e r n a l t r a i n e r s d u r i n g the i n i t i a l implementation a c t i v i t i e s , the issue of having l o c a l t r a i n e r s surfaced i n both d i s t r i c t s . The two d i s t r i c t s responded d i f f e r e n t l y to the issue of a l o c a l t r a i n e r , yet the r e s u l t a n t e f f e c t was negative i n both cases. In D i s t r i c t A, the d e c i s i o n was not to h i r e a l o c a l t r a i n e r whereas i n D i s t r i c t B, a p r i n c i p a l was appointed to the p o s i t i o n . In D i s t r i c t A there was considerable support f o r l o c a l t r a i n e r s , both among some c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel and e s p e c i a l l y among some p a r t i c i p a n t s who had become keen advocates of the ITIP i n i t i a t i v e . The d e c i s i o n , however, appears to have been made by the superintendent and one of the a s s i s t a n t superintendents. The a s s i s t a n t superintendent involved explained that the d e c i s i o n to h i r e a l o c a l t r a i n e r would imply a narrow focus which would not a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t the p r o f e s s i o n a l development philosophy of the d i s t r i c t . He repor t s that they d i d n ' t want "to put a l l our eggs i n one basket" 11:81. Several of the respondents [#9,11,13,14,15 and 161 lamented th a t d e c i s i o n and i n d i c a t e d that the lack of follow-up provided by a l o c a l t r a i n e r c o n s t i t u t e d a major f l a w i n the implementation plan. Important to note i s the f a c t that once the program 202 management was i n the hands of the l o c a l Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n , a l o c a l teacher, who i n the meantime had acquired c e r t i f i c a t i o n as a t r a i n e r , d i d do some of the t r a i n i n g . The concept, however, was d i f f e r e n t i n s o f a r as he d i d the t r a i n i n g out of school time and d i d not provide follow-up coaching i n the classroom. In D i s t r i c t B, the d e c i s i o n to h i r e a l o c a l t r a i n e r was made during the f i r s t year of implementation. A p r i n c i p a l who was very knowledgeable about the program content was appointed to that p o s i t i o n . The e f f e c t of that appointment on the implementation e f f o r t s was negative; the appointment s t i m u l a t e d r e s i s t a n c e . One of the a s s i s t a n t superintendents i d e n t i f i e s the appointment as a major mistake made during implementation [19:171. While the two a s s i s t a n t superintendents took the advice of Carol Cummings to h i r e a t r a i n e r , when i t came time to appoint someone, they based t h e i r d e c i s i o n on expediency. Furthermore, they appear to have been aware tha t t h i s was a r i s k to program implementation. Perhaps the personnel management d e c i s i o n had to take precedence over the p r o j e c t but i t seems curious nonetheless, given the personal career motives which appeared to have played a part i n the o r i g i n a l s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n . 203 SUMMARY: RETROSPECT AND PROSPECT This section of the chapter summarizes the factors which appear to have had an impact on the implementation phase. Further, these factors are considered in r e l a t i o n to what occurred during i n i t i a t i o n and what might occur during continuation. The preceding discussion demonstrates that a number of factors had an impact on the implementation phase of the i n i t i a t i v e s in the two d i s t r i c t s . In some instances, the factors had the e f f e c t of moving the project forward whereas other factors resulted in resistance. In two cases, both movement and resistance occurred in r e l a t i o n to d i f f e r e n t aspects of the same factor. Table 15 presents the factors and demonstrates the e f f e c t of those factors on the implementation phase. These f a c i l i t a t i n g factors are discussed f i r s t . Factors Which Created Forward Movement The factors which created movement f a l l into three categories: (1) personnel, (2) planning, and (3) content and time. Personnel. The personnel who were involved in the i n i t i a t i v e s were very important factors in both d i s t r i c t s . 204 Table 15 Factors Which Emerged and Appeared to Have an Impact on Implementation E f f e c t : F a c t o r s E f f e c t : R e s i s t a n c e Movement B Superintendent *A and B C e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel A and B P r i n c i p a l s A and B A and B Implementation p l a n n i n g A and B E x t e r n a l t r a i n e r s A and B B L o c a l t r a i n e r s Program content A and B Time i n " H i s t o r y " of D i s t r i c t A and B *A B = F a c t o r s i n D i s t r i c t A = F a c t o r s i n D i s t r i c t B 2 0 5 The superintendents in both d i s t r i c t s were supportive of the i n i t i a t i v e s and appear to have f a c i l i t a t e d implementation with their support. Considered in r e l a t i o n to i n i t i a t i o n , the two superintendents played d i f f e r e n t r o l e s . The superintendent in D i s t r i c t A assumed a low p r o f i l e role whereas the superintendent in D i s t r i c t B assumed a high p r o f i l e r o l e . When considered in r e l a t i o n to what the two d i f f e r e n t roles might suggest for continuation, the support i s l i k e l y to help sustain interest among part i c i p a n t s . However, the low p r o f i l e role of the superintendent in D i s t r i c t A made i t u n l i k e l y for him to be linked to any negative reaction to the program, whereas the high p r o f i l e role of the superintendent in D i s t r i c t B allowed him to be linked to a negative reaction. Central o f f i c e personnel in both d i s t r i c t s provided support during implementation. It is noted that a number of supervisors and d i r e c t o r s who were not very involved during i n i t i a t i o n emerged as key actors during implementation. Looking ahead to continuation i t would seem reasonable to speculate that the involvement of central o f f i c e personnel might subside as schools became involved in school-based projects. 2 0 6 A d i f f e r e n c e which occ u r r e d between the two d i s t r i c t s r e g a r d i n g c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel i s r e l a t e d t o the r o l e s the s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s p l a y e d . In D i s t r i c t B, s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel f o l l o w e d the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s l e a d and withdrew from the a c t i v e management of the program. In D i s t r i c t B, s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel maintained c o n t r o l . Looking forward i n D i s t r i c t A, the low p r o f i l e r o l e would a l l o w them to take c r e d i t f o r the p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s of what occur r e d and d i s t a n c e themselves from the negative a s p e c t s . Conversely, i n D i s t r i c t B, the f a c t t h a t s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel maintained management c o n t r o l i t put them i n the p o t e n t i a l p o s i t i o n of t a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r negative r e a c t i o n s . When p r i n c i p a l s are c o n s i d e r e d as a f a c t o r , i t i s noted t h a t those p r i n c i p a l s who were most a c t i v e and s u c c e s s f u l d u r i n g implementation were p r i n c i p a l s who were i n v o l v e d d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n . Given the minimal f o l l o w - u p a s s i s t a n c e provided by c e n t r a l o f f i c e , i t appears t h a t the p r i n c i p a l s who were most s u c c e s s f u l with the p r o j e c t were a b l e to take a p r o j e c t they were i n t e r e s t e d i n and run with i t on t h e i r own. Looking back, i t seems reasonable to s p e c u l a t e t h a t these p r i n c i p a l s may have implemented ITIP i n t h e i r s c h o o l 207 r e g a r d l e s s of the d i s t r i c t e f f o r t s . Looking forward, i t a l s o seems reasonable to s p e c u l a t e t h a t the school-based programs w i l l continue as long as the p r i n c i p a l c o n t i n u e s to support i t and provi d e s the necessary l e a d e r s h i p . The f i n a l personnel r e l a t e d f a c t o r concerns the use of e x t e r n a l t r a i n e r s . In both d i s t r i c t s , the e x t e r n a l t r a i n e r s are a major f a c t o r both i n i n i t i a t i o n and implementation. When the e x t e r n a l t r a i n e r s are co n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n to program c o n t i n u a t i o n , i t seems reasonable to thin k t h a t l o c a l t r a i n e r s c o u l d take over at some p o i n t . What i s not c l e a r i s when to make the sw i t c h and who should become l o c a l t r a i n e r s . P l a n n i n g . T h i s f a c t o r appears to be a weak aspect of the i n i t i a t i v e . As noted i n Table 15, the plann i n g i n both d i s t r i c t s r e s u l t e d i n both p o s i t i v e (movement) and negative ( r e s i s t a n c e ) r e a c t i o n s d u r i n g implementation. The aspect of s e t t i n g goals i s the component of the p l a n n i n g which appears to have f a c i l i t a t e d movement i n both d i s t r i c t s . In D i s t r i c t A, the g o a l , s e t d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n , to have a l l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s go through the program was r e a l i z e d . S i m i l a r l y , i n D i s t r i c t B, the p l a n n i n g g o a l to have a l l s c h o o l s r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g , s e t d u r i n g implementation, was 208 a l s o met. I t seems reasonable to conclude t h a t these plans may have had an e f f e c t on moving the p r o j e c t s forward. However, i t i s c u r i o u s t h a t so l i t t l e p l a n n i n g f o r Implementation and c o n t i n u a t i o n was done. Perhaps i t suggests t h a t formal p l a n n i n g i s not c o n s i d e r e d necessary or t h a t more p l a n n i n g was done than the data i n d i c a t e or that the p r o j e c t s c o u l d have been more s u c c e s s f u l i f more formal p l a n n i n g had taken p l a c e . Content and time. From i n i t i a t i o n through to c o n t i n u a t i o n the content of t h i s program appears to s e l l i t s e l f i n both d i s t r i c t s . I t i s noted t h a t the program content comprises both a s u p e r v i s i o n and a teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s component. Both of those components re p r e s e n t e d u c a t i o n a l t o p i c s which were of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s d u r i n g the time of i n i t i a t i o n and implementation. Looking ahead, one wonders how long a s i n g l e program theme can s u s t a i n the i n t e r e s t of educators. F a c t o r s Which Created R e s i s t a n c e The f a c t o r s which c r e a t e d r e s i s t a n c e d u r i n g implementation f a l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : (1) p e r s o n n e l , and (2) p l a n n i n g . P e r s o n n e l . In D i s t r i c t B, the a c t i o n s of two 209 people appear to have r e s u l t e d i n r e s i s t a n c e d u r i n g implementation. The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s high p r o f i l e r o l e and apparent off-hand comment a t a p r i n c i p a l s ' meeting d u r i n g implementation c r e a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s i s t a n c e from some p r i n c i p a l s . By assuming a high p r o f i l e r o l e , he put him s e l f i n the p o s i t i o n of being p e r s o n a l l y l i n k e d to a d i f f i c u l t y d u r i n g implementation. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h i s a c t i o n may a f f e c t peoples' confidence i n h i s a b i l i t y to f a c i l i t a t e i n n o v a t i v e change i n the f u t u r e . The l o c a l t r a i n e r was unable to f a c i l i t a t e implementation e f f o r t s i n D i s t r i c t B and, i n f a c t , c r e a t e d r e s i s t a n c e from people i n the f i e l d . While the two a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s acted on the expert a d v i c e of C a r o l Cummings to h i r e a l o c a l t r a i n e r , they took the r i s k of a p p o i n t i n g a p r i n c i p a l who lacked c r e d i b i l i t y i n the d i s t r i c t because i t was e x p e d i t i o u s to do so. The r e a c t i o n d u r i n g implementation was so negative i t would seem reasonable to s p e c u l a t e t h a t the person w i l l be removed from the p o s i t i o n as soon as p o s s i b l e . P l a n n i n g . The p l a n n i n g which took plac e was d i f f e r e n t i n the two d i s t r i c t s but r e s u l t e d i n some r e s i s t a n c e d u r i n g implementation i n both s i t e s . In D i s t r i c t A, the p l a n , s e t d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n , to 210 have a l l p r i n c i p a l s a t t e n d flew i n the face of t r a d i t i o n and c r e a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s i s t a n c e . While the r e s i s t a n c e appeared to d i s s i p a t e d u r i n g implementation, i n s o f a r as a l l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s d i d take the program, i t may have accounted, i n p a r t , f o r the f a c t t h a t c e n t r a l o f f i c e chose as soon as they d i d to s h i f t the management to the Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n . In D i s t r i c t B, the three-year p l a n l e f t some s c h o o l s out of the p r o j e c t f o r two y e a r s . On the one hand, the plan l e f t people out f o r a time whi l e , on the other hand, the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t was l i n k i n g a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' promotions to t h e i r a b i l i t y to use the s k i l l s of the program. These two t h i n g s together suggest a lack of c o o r d i n a t i o n between the planners and the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . T h i s evidence f u r t h e r suggests that h i s involvement was more from a p e r s o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e than a p o l i c y maker's p e r s p e c t i v e . P l a n n i n g i n both d i s t r i c t s appeared c a s u a l . Given the investment each of these d i s t r i c t s had i n the p r o j e c t s , c a r e f u l f r o n t - e n d p l a n n i n g would have seemed l i k e l y yet i t d i d not occur i n e i t h e r d i s t r i c t . Yet, d e s p i t e t h i s lack of p l a n n i n g , the p r o j e c t s were both implemented. CHAPTER 7 CONTINUATION AND OUTCOMES Thi s chapter presents the data r e l e v a n t to the c o n t i n u a t i o n phase i n D i s t r i c t A and r e p o r t s p e r c e i v e d outcomes from respondents i n both d i s t r i c t s . C o n t i n u a t i o n r e f e r s to the extent to which an i n i t i a t i v e c ontinues beyond the f i r s t few years of the implementation e f f o r t s . The time frame of the present study, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n chapter 4 , provided data on the c o n t i n u a t i o n phase i n D i s t r i c t A o n l y . The c o n t i n u a t i o n phase i n c l u d e s events which occurred from 1981 to 1986. Outcomes, f o r the purpose of t h i s study, r e f e r to the p o s i t i v e or negative e f f e c t s of the i n i t i a t i v e s as r e p o r t e d by the respondents. I t i s important to note t h a t a l l respondents were s e l e c t e d because they were i d e n t i f i e d as i n f l u e n t i a l a c t o r s i n the i n i t i a t i v e , and the r e p o r t s of p e r c e i v e d outcomes need to be con s i d e r e d i n t h a t l i g h t . T h i s chapter c o n t a i n s three major s e c t i o n s . The c o n t i n u a t i o n phase i s d e s c r i b e d and d i s c u s s e d i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n . The r e p o r t e d outcomes are presented i n the second s e c t i o n and the chapter concludes with an 2 1 1 212 a n a l y s i s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between outcomes and o r i g i n a l program g o a l s . CONTINUATION IN DISTRICT A (1981-1986) Table 16 l i s t s the events which appear to have been important i n the c o n t i n u a t i o n phase. The data suggest t h a t enthusiasm f o r the course had peaked d u r i n g the implementation phase. However, d u r i n g 1981-82 two ITIP courses were o f f e r e d . A Classroom Management course ran i n the F a l l and a Beginning ITIP ran i n the S p r i n g . An e x t e r n a l t r a i n e r was brought i n from Washington, teachers were granted some r e l e a s e time but, f o r the f i r s t time, they were r e q u i r e d t o pay $20.00 f o r the course. Student teachers i n the d i s t r i c t were i n v i t e d to a t t e n d and the course was a d v e r t i s e d o u t s i d e the d i s t r i c t f o r a fee of $40.00. During c o n t i n u a t i o n , p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the courses were a l l t e a c h e r s , s u b s t i t u t e teachers or student teachers [R.F.#30]. I t i s n otable t h a t i n f o r m a l course e v a l u a t i o n s completed by tea c h e r s a t the end of the ITIP programs continued to i n d i c a t e an i n t e r e s t i n more t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s four years a f t e r the i n i t i a l implementation e f f o r t . 213 TABLE 16 C o n t i n u a t i o n Events i n D i s t r i c t A T i m e - l i n e Events 1981-82 School Year 1982- 83 School Year 1983- 84 School Year 1984-85 School Year 1985-86 .An a s s i s t a n t s u p e r intendent presented an h i s t o r i c a l overview of the ITIP i n i t i a t i v e to the BCSTA (B.C. School T r u s t e e s ' A s s o c i a t i o n ) . .Two courses were o f f e r e d d u r i n g the year; one Classroom Management course i n the F a l l and one Beginning ITIP course i n the S p r i n g . A fee was charged. .Two courses were o f f e r e d as i n the previous year. .Two courses were o f f e r e d . They r e p r e s e n t -ed a combination of i n s t r u c t i o n a l s k i l l s and classroom management. The t r a i n e r was a l o c a l t e a c h e r . .As above, two courses were o f f e r e d . .Three s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s submitted a pro p o s a l to conduct a Peer Coaching p r o j e c t i n t h e i r s c h o o l s and brought i n C a r o l Cummings as a t r a i n e r . .A Classroom Management course was o f f e r e d and t r a i n i n g was done by a l o c a l t e a c h e r . •ITIP content was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l improvement i n i t i a t i v e s . 214 An I n t e r e s t i n g event of the c o n t i n u a t i o n phase was a p r e s e n t a t i o n made to the B.C. School T r u s t e e s ' A s s o c i a t i o n (BCSTA) by B i l l d u r i n g the F a l l of 1981. B i l l , an a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , had been requested by the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t to prepare an h i s t o r i c a l account of the D i s t r i c t A ITIP i n i t i a t i v e [R.F.#31]. That account d e s c r i b e s how c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel viewed the i n i t i a t i v e d u r i n g c o n t i n u a t i o n . F i r s t l y , i t r e f e r s to a 1981-82 p l a n to i d e n t i f y a l i s t of behaviours and p r o p e r t i e s of a competent teacher which i n t u r n c o u l d guide teacher s e l e c t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n , i n s e r v i c e and e v a l u a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . The content of th a t paragraph appears to r e a f f i r m a s u s t a i n e d i n t e r e s t , on the p a r t of c e n t r a l o f f i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n the same goals which had l e d to the adoption of the ITIP program f i v e years e a r l i e r . S u p e r v i s i o n and e v a l u a t i o n s t i l l appeared to be t h e i r major i n t e r e s t . Secondly, another i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t made i n the account i s th a t ITIP was not seen to be the o n l y i n s e r v i c e a c t i v i t y going on. D i s t r i c t documents support the f a c t t h a t there was a r i c h a r r a y of workshops i n the d i s t r i c t f o r teachers and p r i n c i p a l s and many at t e n d o u t s i d e conferences each year. While ITIP had been the major p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the i n i t i a l implementation phase, the 215 P r o f e s s i o n a l Development b u l l e t i n s c i r c u l a t e d d u r i n g the c o n t i n u a t i o n phase f e a t u r e a range of s t a f f development a c t i v i t i e s [R.F.R32]. By March 1984, seven years a f t e r the i n i t i a l implementation e f f o r t s , a d r a f t resource book on School E f f e c t i v e n e s s was completed by a sub-committee of the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Committee. A review of t h a t resource book pr o v i d e s evidence t h a t ITIP m a t e r i a l s had been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the content [R.F.#33]. For example, i n a s e c t i o n r e f e r r i n g to t e a c h i n g behaviours which are evident i n e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l s , there i s r e f e r e n c e made to Madeline Hunter's P r i n c i p l e s of L e a r n i n g . The present study was conducted d u r i n g the F a l l of 1984 w i t h i n the time l i n e of the c o n t i n u a t i o n phase. The respondents were asked to d e s c r i b e ITIP i n the D i s t r i c t a t t h a t time and the f o l l o w i n g excerpt p r o v i d e s one respondent's p e r s p e c t i v e on the ITIP i n i t i a t i v e d u r i n g c o n t i n u a t i o n : T h i s i s kind of l i m p i n g along r i g h t now. We do two courses a year. We have 20 p a r t i c i p a n t s per c l a s s . . . i t ' s k i n d of a m i x . . . i t ' s determined by me because I'm p u t t i n g i t on [13:18]. The above exc e r p t suggests a somewhat disc o u r a g e d view of one of the o r i g i n a l "ITIPPER" t e a c h e r s . C a r l , quoted above, i s one who pursued ITIP t r a i n e r s t a t u s a t S e a t t l e 216 P a c i f i c U n i v e r s i t y and by 1983 began to teach the ITIP courses i n D i s t r i c t A. From h i s comment, i t appears t h a t the ITIP course o f f e r i n g s began to change from the o r i g i n a l course o f f e r i n g s ( " i t ' s k i n d of a mix"). The data demonstrate t h a t C a r l combined the e s s e n t i a l a s pects of a number of the ITIP courses i n t o a condensed v e r s i o n because of time c o n s t r a i n t s . Release time was no longer provided and the courses were o f f e r e d a f t e r the r e g u l a r s c h o o l day. A more o p t i m i s t i c view i s expressed i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n from a p r i n c i p a l : I t h i n k there are a few of us ( P r i n c i p a l s ) , i n f a c t three of us, t h a t are attempting to b r i n g C a r o l tCummings] back now i n her new phase. Now whether we can get enough teac h e r s to take the next s t e p , we are not s u r e . . . I t h i n k ITIP i s going to have a second run a t i t s e l f [11:22]. The P r i n c i p a l s r e f e r r e d to i n the above q u o t a t i o n were very i n v o l v e d i n the i n i t i a t i o n phase, and s e v e r a l years l a t e r , were ready to i n i t i a t e a second wave of ITIP as evidenced i n the f o l l o w i n g comment: I would say i t ' s ready f o r another wave [10:14] . Both p r i n c i p a l s are r e f e r r i n g to "peer coaching", a component of the ITIP program which was developed by C a r o l Cummings. During 1984-85, these three p r i n c i p a l s submitted a p r o p o s a l to c e n t r a l o f f i c e r e q u e s t i n g funding to support a peer coaching p r o j e c t i n t h e i r 217 s c h o o l s . The p r o p o s a l i n c l u d e d b r i n g i n g C a r o l Cummings i n as the t r a i n e r . [Note: T h i s p r o j e c t d i d not proceed as a r e s u l t of lack of support from t e a c h e r s . ] The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t i v e of how another of the o r i g i n a l "ITIPPER" p r i n c i p a l s i n c o r p o r a t e d ITIP s t r a t e g i e s i n t o h i s teacher e v a l u a t i ons. I can do i t [provide feedback] myself with my own s t a f f when I ev a l u a t e my t e a c h e r s . When I'm working with them, I'm ab l e to use the conference as a t e a c h i n g s e s s i o n [9:7] . A c e n t r a l o f f i c e person p r o v i d e s a d d i t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s i n the f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t : I think i t ' s j u s t t i c k i n g a l o n g . I thi n k i t ' s going now i n t o some d i f f e r e n t avenues, t h a t i t i s being supplemented by d i f f e r e n t kinds of aspects of teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s and e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l s . . . There i s an ongoing i n t e r e s t i n the d i s t r i c t , and we get as much of the new s t u f f as we can and people s t i l l go and take the c o u r s e s . . . There are s t i l l courses being o f f e r e d [2:16]. M i c h a e l , an a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , makes the p o i n t t h a t by 1984 ITIP had r e a l l y become a s c h o o l i n i t i a t i v e and what happened with i t i n the sc h o o l s depended to a l a r g e extent on who was on s t a f f and who the p r i n c i p a l was. Sam, a d i r e c t o r of i n s t r u c t i o n , i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n p r o v i d e s a sense of how the program was adapted w i t h i n the s e t t i n g : 218 I t would be an adapted a d a p t a t i o n and t h i s would go on throughout the d i s t r i c t . The good p a r t s of the program would become par t of the d a i l y l e s s o n p l a n , p a r t of d a i l y t e a c h i n g [ 4:23]. The above q u o t a t i o n a l s o suggests t h a t while e x i s t i n g i n a v a r i e t y of forms throughout the d i s t r i c t i t had become p a r t of everyday p r a c t i c e f o r some. F u r t h e r , i n 1985, a teacher was appointed as a H e l p i n g Teacher to f a c i l i t a t e s c h o o l based s c h o o l improvement e f f o r t s . I t i s noteworthy t h a t the teacher, P a t r i c i a , was one of the o r i g i n a l D i s t r i c t A "ITIPPERS". During a follow-up c o n v e r s a t i o n i n August 1986 Rosemary, a s u p e r v i s o r , d e s c r i b e d how P a t r i c i a was i n c o r p o r a t i n g ITIP i n t o her work with s c h o o l s . Moreover, Rosemary r e p o r t e d u s i n g ITIP i n her own work with s c h o o l s . One of the examples she provided i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g i n s o f a r as i t p r o v i d e s evidence t h a t ITIP was used e x t e n s i v e l y by some a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . Rosemary d e s c r i b e d how she was sometimes c a l l e d i n t o a s c h o o l to do an ITIP r e f r e s h e r f o r teachers when p r i n c i p a l s were moved from one s c h o o l to another i n accordance wih a d i s t r i c t r o t a t i o n p o l i c y . She e x p l a i n e d t h a t these requests came from s c h o o l s r e c e i v i n g an a d m i n i s t r a t o r who was known to use ITIP concepts and v o c a b u l a r y i n h i s / h e r s u p e r v i s i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of t e a c h e r s . Thus 10 years a f t e r the D i s t r i c t A ITIP s t a f f 219 development i n i t i a t i v e , i t appears t h a t ITIP, i n a number of d i f f e r e n t forms, had become a p a r t of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e t t i n g . C o n t i n u a t i o n : An Outcome As d i s c u s s e d i n chapter 4, c o n t i n u a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d an outcome measure to the extent t h a t an i n i t i a t i v e p e r s i s t s a f t e r the major Implementation e f f o r t s cease (Berman and McLaughlin, 1976). The ITIP i n i t i a t i v e began i n 1976 and continued to be p a r t of the p r o f e s s i o n a l development i n D i s t r i c t A over ten y e a r s . The data i n Table 17 i n d i c a t e a number of f a c t o r s which seem to have c o n t r i b u t e d to s u s t a i n i n g the program over time. Table 17 F a c t o r s Which C o n t r i b u t e d to C o n t i n u a t i o n 1. Program content 3. Continued i n t e r e s t among p r i n c i p a l s 4. Continued i n t e r e s t among teachers 5. Leadership 6. S t a b i l i t y i n s t a f f and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The above f a c t o r s c l u s t e r around two key v a r i a b l e s : (1) program content, and (2) s u s t a i n e d support and l e a d e r s h i p . 220 Program content. The program content emerges i n c o n t i n u a t i o n , as i t d i d d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n and implementation, as an important v a r i a b l e which appears to account f o r the s u s t a i n e d enthusiasm among program p a r t i c i p a n t s . The data i n d i c a t e t h a t enthusiasm had l e v e l l e d out d u r i n g c o n t i n u a t i o n i n comparison to the peak d u r i n g implementation, when a l l courses were o v e r s u b s c r i b e d . However, ITIP courses d i d continue to a t t r a c t p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s were c o n s i s t e n t l y very p o s i t i v e . The l e v e l l i n g f e a t u r e i s perhaps not s u r p r i s i n g i n view of one respondent's s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t "almost a l l teachers have now (1984) had some of Madeline's work" [11:21. Another respondent estimated t h a t a t l e a s t 70% of the d i s t r i c t had been through p a r t of i t [4:161. Of i n t e r e s t i s the f a c t t h a t d u r i n g c o n t i n u a t i o n the courses were taught s o l e l y by an i n t e r n a l t r a i n e r . The data suggest t h a t t h i s s h i f t away from e x t e r n a l t r a i n e r s r e s u l t e d i n a d a p t a t i o n s to the course content. While the ITIP m a t e r i a l continued to provide the content, i t was s y n t h e s i z e d a p p a r e n t l y to a l l o w f o r more to be covered i n a s h o r t e r time. In the words of the i n t e r n a l t r a i n e r , the content became "kind of a mix". Such an a d a p t a t i o n i n D i s t r i c t A i s understandable g i v e n t h a t , d u r i n g c o n t i n u a t i o n , teachers no longer r e c e i v e d 221 r e l e a s e time, and both p a r t i c i p a n t s and the t r a i n e r were t a k i n g p a r t i n the course a f t e r s c h o o l hours. Nonetheless, there i s evidence that twenty teachers p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a course which took p l a c e over four s e s s i o n s i n October 1984 and the e v a l u a t i o n s were l a u d a t o r y [R.F.#34]. Thus, over time, the content was condensed, an i n t e r n a l r a t h e r than an e x t e r n a l t r a i n e r p r o v i d e d the i n s t r u c t i o n and p a r t i c i p a n t s took the t r a i n i n g on t h e i r own time. When the program content was presented by an i n t e r n a l t r a i n e r i n a s y n t h e s i z e d form i t continued to a t t r a c t p a r t i c i p a n t s s e v e r a l years a f t e r the program was i n i t i a t e d . Given t h i s f i n d i n g , one wonders i f i n t e r n a l t r a i n e r s c o u l d have been used sooner. Sustained support and l e a d e r s h i p . Although management s h i f t e d to the teachers d u r i n g the i n i t i a t i v e , the data provide evidence that c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel s u s t a i n e d i n t e r e s t and had a sense of p r i d e i n the ITIP p r o j e c t throughout. Examples of i n t e r e s t and p r i d e are i n d i c a t e d i n the r e p o r t made to the B.C. School T r u s t e e s ' A s s o c i a t i o n by the a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i n 1982 [R.F.#35]. F u r t h e r , i n 1985 the d i s t r i c t h i r e d one of the o r i g i n a l "ITIPPER" teachers as a He l p i n g Teacher to f a c i l i t a t e school-based 222 improvement. In a d d i t i o n , some c e n t r a l o f f i c e s u p e r v i s o r s continued to present ITIP " r e f r e s h e r s " i n the s c h o o l s . Sustained support and l e a d e r s h i p on the p a r t of p r i n c i p a l s a l s o appear to have c o n t r i b u t e d to the ITIP c o n t i n u a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n , from an a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n , suggests t h a t the program was being used i n a v a r i e t y of ways i n s c h o o l s and classrooms and the extent to which i t was used depended on the t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s : Depends l a r g e l y on who i s on s t a f f and who the p r i n c i p a l i s [ 2:16]. Another example of s u s t a i n e d i n t e r e s t on the p a r t of p r i n c i p a l s , r e f e r r e d to e a r l i e r , demonstrates t h a t three p r i n c i p a l s attempted to i n i t i a t e an I T I P - r e l a t e d s c h o o l p r o j e c t In 1984. The most s u c c e s s f u l r e s u l t s appear to have occurred i n s c h o o l s where the p r i n c i p a l s maintained i n t e r e s t and continued to encourage ITIP p r a c t i c e s through s u p e r v i s i o n and e v a l u a t i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g may suggest t h a t the d i s t r i c t might have been ab l e to f a c i l i t a t e more widespread i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the ITIP i n i t i a t i v e i f c e n t r a l o f f i c e had kept the pressure on p r i n c i p a l s beyond the f i r s t year. As i t was, they chose not to and appear to have l e f t the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the p r o j e c t to happenstance. Nonetheless, the ongoing 223 support of c e n t r a l o f f i c e and the s u s t a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p on the p a r t of some p r i n c i p a l s appear to have c o n t r i b u t e d to the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the program i n D i s t r i c t A over ten y e a r s . REPORTED OUTCOMES IN BOTH DISTRICTS A l l t h i r t y - t w o respondents were asked t o ev a l u a t e the outcomes of the i n i t i a t i v e s i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t s . The p e r c e i v e d outcomes are r e p o r t e d by respondents who were a l l e i t h e r i n i t i a t o r s or keen sup p o r t e r s of the p r o j e c t from the very e a r l y s t a g e s : t h e r e f o r e , the data need to be c o n s i d e r e d i n l i g h t of that l i m i t a t i o n . T h i s s e c t i o n has three s u b s e c t i o n s each of which presents the re p o r t e d outcomes of a group of respondents. Because there are c o n s i d e r a b l e s i m i l a r i t i e s among the responses of t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s and c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel a c r o s s s i t e s , the outcomes are r e p o r t e d together by r o l e . Thus, the f i r s t s u b s e c t i o n presents the outcomes r e p o r t e d by teach e r s i n both d i s t r i c t s . The second and t h i r d s u b s e c t i o n s r e p o r t the outcomes of p r i n c i p a l s and c e n t r a l o f f i c e p e r s o n n e l , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Each s u b s e c t i o n concludes with a d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s . 224 Teachers A t o t a l of 11 t e a c h e r s were interv i e w e d i n the two d i s t r i c t s . There were f i v e teacher respondents, four elementary and one secondary i n D i s t r i c t A and s i x teacher respondents, f i v e elementary and one secondary i n D i s t r i c t B. Table 18 i s a summary of the outcomes which they r e p o r t e d . As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 18, the teachers r e p o r t outcomes which were mostly p o s i t i v e . P o s i t i v e outcomes were r e p o r t e d i n the areas of improved t e a c h i n g , improved p e r s o n a l / p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n f i d e n c e , improved student performance, improved c o l l e g i a l i t y , and f i n a l l y , they r e p o r t t h a t i t p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l growth. Each of these c a t e g o r i e s of p o s i t i v e outcomes i s d i s c u s s e d . Improved t e a c h i n g . In a v a r i e t y of ways a l l eleven teachers r e p o r t e d t h a t , as a r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the p r o j e c t i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t , they p e r c e i v e d themselves to be more e f f e c t i v e . S e v e r a l mentioned improvements i n classroom management while others r e p o r t e d s p e c i f i c improvements i n aspects of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s i l l u s t r a t e t y p i c a l responses r e l a t e d to improved t e a c h i n g : 225 Table 18 Teachers' P e r c e p t i o n s of the I n i t i a t i v e s i n D i s t r i c t s A and B Types of Responses D i s t r i c t A D i s t r i c t B T o t a l n=5 n=6 n = l l Improved Teaching: . i t ' s a fabulous t e a c h -ing model •ITIP program great f o r teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s •classroom management .makes good teachers b e t t e r .can f i g u r e out what i s going wrong . r e i n f o r c e s some t h i n g s .teaches new t h i n g s .time management .more s e n s i t i v e to students needs Improved P e r s o n a l / P r o -f e s s i o n a l Confidence: . c o i n c i d e s with r e s e a r c h • j u s t f e e l b e t t e r about t e a c h i n g . f e e l more p r o f e s s i o n a l .showed us some super t h i n g s t h a t are being done i n e d u c a t i o n .lower s t r e s s .conf idence Improved Student Perform-ance : .1 c o u l d come back to my c l a s s and put i t to work r i g h t away and see s u c c e s s f u l r e s u l t s . r e a c t i o n of k i d s more p r e d i c t a b l e . r e t e n t i o n b e t t e r ** ** 4 * * * * * * * * * * 2_Q * * * * * * 5 * 1 * 1 * 1 * 1 * * * 3 * 1 * * * 3 * * * 3 * * * * * * g * 1 * * 2 * * * 3 * * * * * * g * i * 1 226 Improved C o l l e g i a l i t y : .vocabulary . tone Prov i d e d f o r : .other programs which complement i t .student te a c h e r s .b e t t e r s u p e r v i s i o n / e v a l u a t i o n Negative F a c t o r s : . p r i n c i p a l s used i n r e p o r t s .some teach e r s f e l t p ressure . p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e / s t r ike * I n d i c a t e s a response * *** 4 * 1 *** 3 ** ** 4 * * * 3 ** 2 ** *** 5 *** 3 227 P e r s o n n a l l y I t h i n k i t i s an e x c e l l e n t program...I t h i n k as teachers we have to keep growing...We have to be a c c o u n t a b l e . . . We have to produce something d u r i n g those 200 days t h a t we teach...I've seen i t work. I know when I've taught a good l e s s o n and I know why now. I d i d n ' t before [27:14]. F i r s t course I've ever had where I c o u l d come back to my c l a s s and put i t to work r i g h t away and see s u c c e s s f u l r e s u l t s [15:12]. The ITIP program i s great f o r teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s because i t makes you aware t h a t c h i l d r e n need to have a s o l i d ground [16:23] . Improved per s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n f i d e n c e . Many of the teachers r e p o r t e d t h a t the p r o j e c t had r e s u l t e d i n p e r s o n a l b e n e f i t s f o r them. Increased c o n f i d e n c e , a sense of enhanced p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e i r s t r e s s l e v e l accounted f o r these p e r c e i v e d p e r s o n a l outcomes. Some respondents simply s a i d they f e l t b e t t e r about t e a c h i n g , having p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the course. The e x c e r p t s below demonstrate such p e r c e i v e d p e r s o n a l b e n e f i t s : J u s t f e e l b e t t e r about t e a c h i n g . . . i t r e i n f o r c e s some t h i n g s , teaches some new t h i n g s and makes them f e e l more p r o f e s s i o n a l [13:17]. In terms of me p e r s o n a l l y , as a teacher, the s t r e s s l e v e l i s down...much more c o n f i d e n t i n what I am doing...I guess i f I f e e l b e t t e r about myself as a teacher then I am going to do a b e t t e r job [28:18]. 228 Improved student performance. The teachers were c a u t i o u s about r e p o r t i n g dramatic improvements i n student performance as i t r e l a t e s to inc r e a s e d student achievement but d i d express the view t h a t students had b e n e f i t t e d . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s are i n d i c a t i v e of such p e r c e p t i o n s of improved student performance: The r e a c t i o n of the k i d s i s more p r e d i c t a b l e [13:17]. I taught t h i n g s f a s t e r and the r e t e n t i o n was b e t t e r than l a s t y e a r . . . i t made such a d i f f e r e n c e i n a r i t h m e t i c and phonics and re a d i n g [29:12]. Improved c o l l e q i a l i t y . F i v e of the teach e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t the common voc a b u l a r y which p a r t i c i p a n t s shared as a r e s u l t of the course had the e f f e c t of improving communication among s t a f f members. I l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n i s one teacher's p e r c e p t i o n of how the common v o c a b u l a r l y had been a p o s i t i v e outcome f o r her: Communicating on a common voc a b u l a r y which i s r e a l l y h e l p f u l and number two, communicating and f e e l i n g c o n f i d e n t t h a t I know what they are t a l k i n g about [28:18], Pr o v i d e d a b a s i s f o r other p r o f e s s i o n a l growth. Another p o s i t i v e outcome of the i n i t i a t i v e appears to be r e l a t e d t o the f a c t t h a t t e a c h e r s saw the program as a good b a s i s to b u i l d on. Three of the respondents i n 229 D i s t r i c t A i n d i c a t e d t h a t the ITIP program complemented other p r o f e s s i o n a l development programs which were o f f e r e d . Four of the respondents r e p o r t e d the inherent value i n the program f o r student t e a c h e r s . Three i n D i s t r i c t A mentioned t h a t the p r o j e c t had r e s u l t e d i n improved s u p e r v i s i o n and e v a l u a t i o n . However, while most of the re p o r t e d outcomes were p o s i t i v e some negative outcomes were a l s o r e p o r t e d . Negative Outcomes. Not a l l teacher respondents agreed t h a t s u p e r v i s i o n and e v a l u a t i o n had improved as a r e s u l t of the i n i t i a t i v e . In f a c t , i n D i s t r i c t A, the one negative outcome which emerged was r e l a t e d to the s u p e r v i s o r y / e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s e s . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n d e s c r i b e s a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n i n which an a d m i n i s t r a t o r misused the ITIP m a t e r i a l and the outcome was n e g a t i v e : The other negative impact i n our d i s t r i c t was t h a t a l o t of these p r i n c i p a l s who became gung ho s t a r t e d to ev a l u a t e teachers on the ITIP model. And t h a t was j u s t a t e r r i b l e e x p e r i e n c e . I can remember being the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n p r e s i d e n t and a teacher brought i n the te a c h i n g r e p o r t to show me, and they d i d n ' t understand what the t e a c h i n g r e p o r t s a i d . T h i s p r i n c i p a l had used a l l , evalu a t e d them on the words, the voca b u l a r y was ITIP...the teacher d i d n ' t know what the h e l l the person was t a l k i n g about [17:10]. 230 While t h i s i n c i d e n t was o b v i o u s l y a very negative experience f o r those i n v o l v e d , the data suggest t h a t i t wasn't p a r t i c u l a r l y widespread. Only one c e n t r a l o f f i c e s t a f f member and one p r i n c i p a l r e f e r r e d to i t d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . Furthermore, the teacher quoted above went on to d e s c r i b e t h a t when the superintendent was made aware of the matter he took the p o s i t i o n t h a t , "That shouldn't happen" [17:10], T h i s suggests t h a t the matter may have been d e a l t with q u i c k l y . In D i s t r i c t B, negative outcomes are r e l a t e d to the p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e d u r i n g implementation. The funding c u t s i n educa t i o n and a negative p u b l i c a t t i t u d e toward teach e r s appear to have had an impact on how some teachers r e a c t e d to the i n i t i a t i v e . Respondents r e p o r t e d t h a t some of t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s were a p a t h e t i c and d i f f e r e n t p h i l o s o p h i e s on the "teacher s t r i k e " had caused c o n f l i c t among some t e a c h e r s . F u r t h e r , the d i s t r i c t ' s 3-year implementation plan r e s u l t e d i n r e p o r t s of some teachers f e e l i n g pressured to take p a r t . However, d e s p i t e the few negative outcomes d e s c r i b e d i n the two d i s t r i c t s , the teacher respondents r e p o r t e d outcomes which were overwhelmingly p o s i t i v e . P r i n c i p a l s A t o t a l of ten p r i n c i p a l s were in t e r v i e w e d i n the 231 two d i s t r i c t s . There were f i v e p r i n c i p a l respondents from both d i s t r i c t s , four elementary and one secondary i n each. Table 19 d i s p l a y s t h e i r responses. The p r i n c i p a l s a l s o r e p o r t e d outcomes which were ver y p o s i t i v e . They p e r c e i v e d p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s i n the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : improved s u p e r v i s o r y p r a c t i c e s , improved r e p o r t w r i t i n g , improved c o l l e g i a l i t y , and improved t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s . While the r e p o r t e d outcomes were g e n e r a l l y seen to be p o s i t i v e , a major negative outcome emerged i n both d i s t r i c t s and each w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . Improved s u p e r v i s o r y p r a c t i c e . In a v a r i e t y of ways, p r i n c i p a l s r e p o r t e d t h a t the i n i t i a t i v e had r e s u l t e d i n improvements i n t h e i r s k i l l s of s u p e r v i s i o n . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t i v e of one p r i n c i p a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the major b e n e f i t of the program f o r him: I t ' s been the g r e a t e s t t r a i n i n g f o r me i n terms of my s u p e r v i s o r y j o b . . . i t enables me to work more e f f e c t i v e l y with t e a c h e r s . . . a b l e to s t a t e t h i n g s more c l e a r l y [8:26 ] . The above q u o t a t i o n i s t y p i c a l of the d e s c r i p t i o n s of how the program r e s u l t e d i n improved s k i l l s i n s u p e r v i s i o n . S e v e r a l others r e p o r t e d t h a t having a common language improved teacher c o n f e r e n c e s . They a l s o Table 19 P r i n c i p a l s ' P e r c e p t i o n s of the I n i t i a t i v e s i n D i s t r i c t s A and B Types of Responses D i s t r i c t A D i s t r i c t B T o t a l n=5 n=5 n=10 Improved S u p e r v i s o r y P r a c t i c e s : •common voc a b u l a r y .gave me the t o o l s to work with .adds to teacher con-ference • t r a i n i n g i n terms of s u p e r v i s ion .more comfortable with s u p e r v i s i o n Improved Report W r i t i n g / E v a l u a t i o n .I use i t when I'm w r i t i n g r e p o r t s Improved C o l l e g i a l i t y / Climate • f a c i l i t a t e d d i s c u s s i o n .people took more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward t h i n g s . l o t s of s h a r i n g / v i s i t i n g .adds to teacher c o n f i -dence Improved Teaching P r a c t i c e s : • i n c r e a s e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s .provides an awareness of what should be done .become planners . s o l i d beginning/windup a t end .awareness of t e a c h i n g process .reinforcement ** *** 5 * 1 * * 3 * * * * * * * * 3 * * 2 * *** 4 * * * * 4 * * * 3 * * 2 * * 2 **** ***** g * * * 3 * 1 * 1 * * 2 * 1 233 Improved Student Performance: •good f o r k i d s .kids are f a r more on task t h i s year P r o v i d e d f o r : .groundwork f o r a l o t of t h i n g s we are doing now .ready f o r another surge Negat i v e : .some f e e l pressured .some f e e l l e f t behind .superintendent's z e a l * * 2 * 1 *** * 4 ** 2 * * * 3 * * * 3 * * * 3 234 r e p o r t e d having developed much more conf i d e n c e i n the s u p e r v i s i o n p r o c e s s . Improved r e p o r t w r i t i n g / e v a l u a t i o n . Three p r i n c i -p a l s l i n k e d p o s i t i v e outcomes to improvements i n t h e i r r e p o r t w r i t i n g . T h e i r comments seem to i n d i c a t e an i n c r e a s e d confidence i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s k i l l s . As one p r i n c i p a l r e p o r t e d : I t g i v e s me a l o t of confidence to go i n and help and a l s o when necessary, to t e l l i t l i k e i t i s [26:12]. Improved c o l l e g i a l i t y / c l i m a t e . I t appears from the data t h a t i n some s c h o o l s the program had r e s u l t e d i n a n o t i c e a b l e change in the c l i m a t e . P r i n c i p a l s r e p o r t e d the p o s i t i v e aspects of i n c r e a s e d communication u s i n g a common terminology, a g e n e r a l l y more p o s i t i v e tone among s t a f f members and more s h a r i n g and v i s i t i n g between classrooms. The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o s i t i v e outcome as r e p o r t e d by a p r i n c i p a l : I've always f e l t t h a t one of the b i g i n h i b i t e r s i s we are so i s o l a t e d . . . I T I P changed t h a t . There was more p r o f e s s i o n a l exchange between a d u l t s i n s h a r i n g and more c o n t a c t , more i n t e r a c t i o n [12:17]. A p r i n c i p a l from the other d i s t r i c t shared a s i m i l a r p e r c e p t i o n as i n d i c a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t : We t h i n k the tone i n the s c h o o l i s b e t t e r : we t h i n k the a t t i t u d e of t e a c h e r s ' s h a r i n g 235 i s b e t t e r [22:17]. Improved t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s . A l l of the p r i n c i p a l s who were interv i e w e d r e p o r t e d an outcome i n d i c a t i v e of improved teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s . They r e p o r t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s had become b e t t e r p l a n n e r s , were more aware of. what needed to be done, and introduced and concluded l e s s o n s b e t t e r than before the course. Related to improved t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s , a number of p r i n c i p a l s f e l t the students b e n e f i t t e d as w e l l . One p r i n c i p a l from D i s t r i c t B provided the f o l l o w i n g p e r c e p t i o n of how the program was "good f o r k i d s " : A number of them (teachers) went back and s t a r t e d p r a c t i c i n g and immediately, w e l l w i t h i n three weeks, you co u l d sense a change i n so many k i d s -- they were being d i g n i f i e d , they were opening up, they were t a k i n g b e t t e r p a r t i n c l a s s [22:17]. Negative F a c t o r s . In D i s t r i c t A, p r i n c i p a l s d i d not r e p o r t negative outcomes. A few lamented the f a c t t h a t not enough had been done but they were c l e a r l y s u p p o r t e r s of the program. However, some were c r i t i c a l of the implementation process as i n d i c a t e d i n chapter 6. In D i s t r i c t B, by c o n t r a s t , negative outcomes were r e p o r t e d . These outcomes were r e l a t e d t o four f a c t o r s . One was the negative r e a c t i o n from some p r i n c i p a l s when the superintendent became "over z e a l o u s " a f t e r 236 p a r t i c i p a t i n g In a Summer School course. Some p r i n c i p a l s r e p o r t e d f e e l i n g pressured t o take p a r t whereas others r e p o r t e d f e e l i n g l e f t behind. Both r e a c t i o n s r e s u l t e d from the 3-year implementation p l a n which i n c l u d e d a l l s c h o o l s over three y e a r s . The negative outcomes i n D i s t r i c t B no t w i t h s t a n d i n g , p r i n c i p a l repondents i n both d i s t r i c t s were d e c i d e d l y p o s i t i v e i n t h e i r r e p o r t e d outcomes. The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s , one from a p r i n c i p a l i n each d i s t r i c t , are almost i d e n t i c a l and capture the tone of the p r i n c i p a l s ' responses to the two p r o j e c t s : I would say i t was c e r t a i n l y good f o r the s t a f f a t School X and the k i d s a t School X. I t h i n k , probably, i t was good f o r the d i s t r i c t o v e r a l l [12:19]. (Elementary P r i n c i p a l , D i s t r i c t A) O v e r a l l I f e l t ITIP has been good f o r me and good f o r the d i s t r i c t and i t has been good f o r teachers [25:21]. (Secondary P r i n c i p a l , D i s t r i c t B) C e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel A t o t a l of elev e n c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel were i n t e r v i e w e d : seven i n D i s t r i c t A and four i n D i s t r i c t B. Table 20 presents the p e r c e p t i o n s of the outcomes of the i n i t i a t i v e s i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t s . An a n a l y s i s of data on r e p o r t e d outcomes i n d i c a t e s a c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e among c e n t r a l o f f i c e respondents when compared with both 237 a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s . Perhaps t h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g g i v e n t h e i r d i f f e r e n t r o l e s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n g e n e r a l l y and the i n i t i a t i v e s s p e c i f i c a l l y . Reported outcomes are both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e . P o s i t i v e outcomes. As i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 20, there i s gen e r a l agreement t h a t the i n i t i a t i v e s had r e s u l t e d i n improved s u p e r v i s i o n , e v a l u a t i o n ( r e p o r t w r i t i n g ) and t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s . In D i s t r i c t A, s e v e r a l comments were s p e c i f i c to improvements p e r c e i v e d i n r e p o r t w r i t i n g . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s are i l l u s t r a t i v e of that p e r c e p t i o n : I read the r e p o r t s t h a t came i n on a qua r t e r of our t e a c h e r s . I can see these concepts (ITIP) being commented on which i n d i c a t e s to me th a t they are being used, t a l k e d about, expected and looked f o r by sc h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s (1:131. I t Is apparent t h a t many p r i n c i p a l s and teacher s -- p r i n c i p a l s i n t h e i r r e p o r t i n g of teachers and teachers i n t h e i r development and t h e i r implementation of l e s s o n p l a n s , make i t obvious t h a t there has been c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e - there have been improvements [3:161. We've moved our r e p o r t w r i t i n g from the t e s t i m o n i a l stage to r e c o r d i n g what i s being seen [4:181. 238 Table 20 C e n t r a l O f f i c e Personnel P e r c e p t i o n s of the I n i t i a t i v e s i n D i s t r i c t s A and B Types of Responses D i s t r i c t A D i s t r i c t B T o t a l n=7 n=4 n = l l Improved S u p e r v i s o r y P r a c t i c e s : .using ITIP i n super-v i s i o n .common language Improved Report W r i t i n g i n E v a l u a t i o n : .moved r e p o r t w r i t i n g from t e s t i m o n a l stage ** *** *** *** 5 3 Improved Teaching P r a c t i c e s : .aware of good i n s t r u c -t i o n i n classroom •used i n i n d i v i d u a l growth plans .reinforcement . p r a c t i c a l . i n c r e a s e d e f f e c t i v e -ness ** * * * * * * * ** *** 4 1 2 3 6 Improved Communication: . t a l k about same t h i n g .confidence ** *** 2 4 239 O v e r a l l Change E f f o r t : .most teac h e r s have had o p p o r t u n i t y .schools i n c o r p o r a t i n g i n t o s e l f - a s s e s s m e n t models .biggest wave of pro-f e s s i o n a l development .b a s i s to b u i l d on .good f o r student t e a c h e r s .ongoing nature • i t ' s been s u c c e s s f u l s c h o o l s s t i l l want i t Negat i v e : . i n s e c u r i t y of those l e f t behind . p r i n c i p a l s misused program i n r e p o r t w r i t i n g • f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t .superintendent's z e a l * * 2 *** *** g * 1 * 1 * * * * * * g *** 3 * 1 **** 4 *** 3 240 Comments s p e c i f i c to r e p o r t w r i t i n g were not e v i d e n t i n the data from D i s t r i c t B. Comments r e l a t e d to p e r c e i v e d outcomes i n D i s t r i c t B appear more g e n e r a l and are r e l a t e d to the o v e r a l l i n i t i a t i v e . There i s a p e r s p e c t i v e expressed i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s which i m p l i e s t h a t success was equated to program c o n t i n u a t i o n : C o n s i d e r i n g the comp l e x i t y of t h i s type of p r o j e c t , i t has been p r e t t y s u c c e s s f u l . The f a c t t h a t i t i s s t i l l going four years l a t e r . . . t h a t i s d e s p i t e the f a c t we have been cut back, cut back, cut back, and we have been f i r i n g t eachers and we had a s t r i k e . . . s o whatever reason I t h i n k t h a t i n i t s e l f i s the measure [18:24]. There has been v e r y l i t t l e b a c k lash [19:23] . Even d u r i n g our summer s c h o o l s e s s i o n , we get a l o t of the same people coming back...we have 120 odd people coming out i n mid-summer to a t t e n d the courses [21:15]. S i m i l a r comments r e g a r d i n g the o v e r a l l success of the i n i t i a t i v e are noted among respondents i n D i s t r i c t A. The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s a s i m i l a r o v e r a l l p e r s p e c t i v e of the i n i t i a t i v e : Seven years f o r an e d u c a t i o n a l idea was a f a i r l y long time to be i n the f r o n t [4:20] . In both d i s t r i c t s , c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel expressed the view t h a t a p o s i t i v e outcome was t h a t the i n i t i a t i v e had provided a good b a s i s upon which to add other 241 p r o f e s s i o n a l development. As one respondent put i t , "the world i s not b u i l t on ITIP alone " [3:18]. Negative outcomes. The negative outcomes r e p o r t e d by c e n t r a l o f f i c e p ersonnel are d i f f e r e n t i n the two d i s t r i c t s . In D i s t r i c t A an outcome mentioned by one respondent i s the misuse of ITIP i n e v a l u a t i o n s by some p r i n c i p a l s . The f o l l o w i n g excerpt i l l u s t r a t e s h i s p e r c e p t i o n of what o c c u r r e d : One of the unforeseen consequences, and the poor consequences of the i n i t i a l a c t was t h a t some p r i n c i p a l s who took the program,... they missed the meat and got the l a b e l s and i t made the r e p o r t s look b e t t e r by p u t t i n g those l a b e l s i n t o the r e p o r t s but they had f o r g o t t e n i n the process t h a t t e a c h e r s hadn't taken the program yet so they d i d n ' t know what the l a b e l s meant...even some of the p r i n c i p a l s d i d n ' t know what the l a b e l s meant [4:20]. As mentioned e a r l i e r , t h i s negative outcome i s not mentioned by other c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel but i s r e c a l l e d by a p r i n c i p a l and a couple of t e a c h e r s . In D i s t r i c t B, the negative outcomes which are re p o r t e d r e l a t e to f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t , the three-year implementation p l a n and the su p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s z e a l . The t i m i n g of implementation i n D i s t r i c t B c o i n c i d e d with a downturn i n the economy and cutbacks i n funding f o r e d u c a t i o n . A l l four c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel mentioned 242 t h a t the cutbacks a f f e c t e d t h e i r implementation e f f o r t s . The r e s u l t a n t e f f e c t was t h a t some people i n s c h o o l s , which were i n c l u d e d i n the TET p r o j e c t , f e l t p r e ssured while some people i n s c h o o l s not i n c l u d e d i n i t i a l l y f e l t l e f t behind. While negative outcomes are mentioned by c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel i n both d i s t r i c t s , r e p o r t e d outcomes are f o r the most p a r t , overwhelmingly p o s i t i v e . Summary I t i s important to note t h a t while respondents i n the present study r e p o r t e d outcomes which are overwhelmingly p o s i t i v e , these i n d i v i d u a l s comprised a ver y s e l e c t group. T h e r e f o r e , the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data need to be co n s i d e r e d i n l i g h t of t h a t f a c t . As i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o r e g o i n g t a b l e s , the te a c h e r s r e p o r t e d outcomes which d i f f e r from those of the p r i n c i p a l s : both the teachers and the p r i n c i p a l s r e p o r t outcomes d i f f e r e n t from those of c e n t r a l o f f i c e p e r s o n n e l . However, the r e p o r t e d outcomes of the three l e v e l s of personnel are ve r y s i m i l a r a c r o s s s i t e s . The d i f f e r e n c e s among the three l e v e l s of personnel ( t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s and c e n t r a l o f f i c e ) c o u l d have been a n t i c i p a t e d , g i v e n the d i f f e r e n t r o l e s each p l a y i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . 243 Somewhat s u r p r i s i n g i s the s i m i l a r i t y between the outcomes r e p o r t e d among the three l e v e l s of personnel a c r o s s s i t e s . T h i s i s important i n l i g h t of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two d i s t r i c t s r e g a r d i n g the h i s t o r y of s t a f f development, the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s , the personnel and the s t r a t e g i e s employed d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n and implementation. T h i s f i n d i n g suggests t h a t the same program can be s u c c e s s f u l l y implemented i n d i f f e r e n t s i t e s but, giv e n the unique context of each d i s t r i c t , d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g i e s may be necessary to achieve s i m i l a r outcomes. OUTCOMES AND CHANGE Did the e n t h u s i a s t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n which occ u r r e d d u r i n g the i n i t i a t i v e s i n both of these d i s t r i c t s r e s u l t i n changes among p a r t i c i p a n t s ? S u c c e s s f u l implementation, a c c o r d i n g to F u l l a n (1982), r e q u i r e s more than e n t h u s i a s t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an i n n o v a t i o n . He takes the p o s i t i o n t h a t success i s dependent on whether or not the i n i t i a t i v e a c t u a l l y a l t e r s the f a c t o r s i t s e t out to change. The p e r c e i v e d outcomes presented i n the pre v i o u s s e c t i o n i l l u s t r a t e t h a t the respondents i n both d i s t r i c t s f e l t changes had occurred as a r e s u l t of the i n i t i a t i v e s . Some ve r y s p e c i f i c examples of these 244 changes are pr o v i d e d . Berman and McLaughlin (1976) i d e n t i f y such p e r c e i v e d outcomes as a measure of p r o j e c t s u c c e s s . In D i s t r i c t A, the o r i g i n a l goal was to improve a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' s k i l l s i n s u p e r v i s i o n and r e p o r t w r i t i n g . Over time, the t a r g e t audience i n c l u d e d t e a c h e r s and improving teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s evolved as a program g o a l . Based on the p e r c e i v e d outcomes r e p o r t e d by the respondents and presented i n s e c t i o n two of t h i s chapter, i t appears t h a t changes were p e r c e i v e d to have occ u r r e d as a r e s u l t of the ITIP i n i t i a t i v e i n D i s t r i c t A, between 1976 and 1984. Improvements i n w r i t t e n teacher r e p o r t s , s u p e r v i s i o n s k i l l s and teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s are a l l i n d i c a t e d . While the data r e p r e s e n t the p e r c e i v e d outcomes of a s e l e c t group of ITIP e n t h u s i a s t s , they c l e a r l y demonstrate t h a t changes had o c c u r r e d , a c c o r d i n g to some p a r t i c i p a n t s . The f i n d i n g s of the present study do not i n d i c a t e how widespread the p e r c e i v e d changes were w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t but the K i l l o u g h (1980) study does. In a survey of p r i n c i p a l s and teachers who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the ITIP i n i t i a t i v e i n D i s t r i c t A, he r e p o r t s t h a t 76.3% of the respondents agreed t h a t ITIP was p e r c e i v e d to be a means of r a i s i n g the l e v e l of teacher classroom e f f e c t i v e n e s s . F u r t h e r , 86.8% b e l i e v e d ITIP provided 245 s u p e r v i s o r s with a u s e f u l approach to use i n h e l p i n g t e a c h e r s to improve. With r e s p e c t to improvements i n r e p o r t w r i t i n g , the K i l l o u g h (1981) study does not s p e c i f i c a l l y address the q u e s t i o n of whether ITIP improved r e p o r t w r i t i n g but he does f i n d t h a t respondents d i d not f e e l t h a t ITIP should be the s o l e b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i n g t e a c h e r s . However, c e n t r a l o f f i c e p e rsonnel i n the present study c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t p r i n c i p a l s ' w r i t t e n r e p o r t s of teachers had improved as a r e s u l t of the ITIP i n i t i a t i v e . Thus, a l l three f a c t o r s which the i n i t i a t o r s had s e t out to a l t e r appear to have changed a c c o r d i n g to some p a r t i c i p a n t s . In D i s t r i c t B, the p e r c e i v e d outcomes re p o r t e d by the respondents i n d i c a t e r e s u l t s which are v e r y s i m i l a r to those r e p o r t e d i n D i s t r i c t A with the e x c e p t i o n of improvements i n r e p o r t w r i t i n g . The data i n d i c a t e t h a t improving r e p o r t w r i t i n g was never p a r t of the program i n t e n t i n D i s t r i c t B. However, improvements were d e s c r i b e d i n both s u p e r v i s i o n s k i l l s and teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Grimmett et a l . (1986) conducted a study of the peer coaching component of the TET i n i t i a t i v e i n D i s t r i c t B. The p e r c e i v e d outcomes r e p o r t e d by teacher respondents are i n a c c o r d with those r e p o r t e d here. T h e i r study i n c l u d e d a c r o s s s e c t i o n of p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s i n the d i s t r i c t and i s t h e r e f o r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e 246 of a l e s s b i a s e d p e r s p e c t i v e of the outcomes of the i n i t i a t i v e . Even so, t h e i r f i n d i n g s , which are r e l a t e d to t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e i v e d outcomes, are c o n s i s t e n t with those of the present study s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the p e r c e i v e d p o s i t i v e outcomes i n D i s t r i c t B may be more widespread than j u s t among the TET e n t h u s i a s t s , who were respondents i n t h i s study. T h e r e f o r e , i t seems reasonable to conclude t h a t the ITIP i n i t i a t i v e i n D i s t r i c t A and the TET i n i t i a t i v e i n D i s t r i c t B were p e r c e i v e d to be s u c c e s s f u l . P o s i t i v e changes were r e p o r t e d by both i n i t i a t o r s and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n areas which had o r i g i n a l l y been t a r g e t t e d f o r change. CHAPTER 8 THE FINDINGS OF THE STUDY AND THE PROCESS OF CHANGE The f i n d i n g s which have been r e p o r t e d i n chapters 5 through 7 are now d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n to the c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e on change and s t a f f development. T h i s chapter c o n s i s t s of four s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t three s e c t i o n s present a f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s which are s p e c i f i c to the three phases: i n i t i a t i o n , implementation and c o n t i n u a t i o n . Outcomes are the t o p i c of d i s c u s s i o n i n s e c t i o n f o u r . INITIATION I n i t i a t i o n o ccurred i n the two d i s t r i c t s a t d i f f e r e n t times. The f i n d i n g s r e l e v a n t t o the i n i t i a t i o n phase i n both d i s t r i c t s are d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the l i t e r a t u r e . 1. In both s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e  p ersonnel were a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the i n i t i a t i o n  phase. a. In D i s t r i c t A the su p e r i n t e n d e n t was the key i n i t i a t o r and i n D i s t r i c t B the newly appointed 247 248 a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t played t h a t r o l e . b. Other s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel played a c t i v e s u p p o r t i n g r o l e s d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n . In D i s t r i c t A they p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the search f o r and s e l e c t i o n of a program which met t h e i r need a t the time. In both d i s t r i c t s they engaged i n support g a t h e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s . F u l l a n takes the p o s i t i o n t h a t : E d u c a t i o n a d o p t i o n never occurs without an advocate, and one of the most powerful i s the c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t o r : with h i s or her s t a f f , e s p e c i a l l y i n combination with s c h o o l board support or mandate (1982:45). Other s t u d i e s t h a t focus on implementing change i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s r e p o r t s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s (Berman and McLaughlin, 1976; C r a n d a l l et a l . , 1983; F u l l a n , 1985; H a l l , 1985; McDonnell, 1985). The f i n d i n g s i n t h i s study l e d to the s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t n e i t h e r program would have been s e l e c t e d without the advocacy of the two c h i e f i n i t i a t o r s . T h e i r l e a d e r s h i p c l e a r l y f a c i l i t a t e d the s e l e c t i o n , yet i n each d i s t r i c t they had s t r o n g support from t h e i r s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e c o l l e a g u e s . C r a n d a l l e t a l . (1983) and F u l l a n (1985) d e s c r i b e the r o l e of c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel as scanners and advocators of promising new p r a c t i c e s . In D i s t r i c t A, the f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t scanning d i d occur p r i o r t o the s e l e c t i o n whereas, i n D i s t r i c t B, the c h i e f i n i t i a t o r appears to 249 have chosen the program because i t had been s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s former d i s t r i c t . Pincus (1974) i d e n t i f i e s a f a c t o r f a v o u r a b l e to program adoption which he d e s c r i b e d as "approval of peer e l i t e s . " His d e s c r i p t i o n suggests t h a t sometimes whatever i s popular among l e a d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l peers i s the determining c r i t e r i o n f o r the s e l e c t i o n of an i n i t i a t i v e . P i n cus's "approval of peer e l i t e s " appears to be i n accord, i n p a r t , with the s e l e c t i o n of the program, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n D i s t r i c t B. McDonnell (1985) advocates t r a n s p o r t i n g , from s i t e to s i t e , programs that have been s u c c e s s f u l elsewhere, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n times of f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t . While the l i t e r a t u r e i s i n accord with r e s p e c t to the c r i t i c a l r o l e played by c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel d u r i n g the change i n i t i a t i v e , s e v e r a l sources p o i n t out the lack of s t u d i e s t h a t focus on the r o l e of c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel (Cuban, 1984; F u l l a n , 1982; H a l l , 1985). The present study d i d focus, i n p a r t , on the r o l e of c e n t r a l o f f i c e and the f i n d i n g s demonstrate that d u r i n g the i n i t i a t i o n phase i n D i s t r i c t s A and B c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel engaged i n s e l e c t i o n and support g a t h e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s . 250 2. The m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r s behind the s e l e c t i o n were  d i f f e r e n t i n the two d i s t r i c t s ; problem s o l v i n g i n one  and growth and c a r e e r motives i n the o t h e r . The p o p u l a r i t y of the program elsewhere a l s o played a r o l e i n the s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n . The l i t e r a t u r e i s l i m i t e d i n r e p o r t i n g why d i s t r i c t s s e l e c t t h e i r s t a f f development programs.. Berman and McLaughlin (1976) conclude t h a t s e l e c t i o n s are based on e i t h e r a problem s o l v i n g o r i e n t a t i o n or an o p p o r t u n i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n . They take the p o s i t i o n t h a t d i s t r i c t programs are s e l e c t e d e i t h e r to address an assessed need or to take advantage of e x t e r n a l funding. The i n i t i a t i v e s i n the present study were both implemented with i n t e r n a l funds so n e i t h e r can be deemed to have been s e l e c t e d f o r what Berman and McLaughlin r e f e r to as o p p o r t u n i s t i c reasons. D i s t r i c t A based t h e i r s e l e c t i o n on a problem s o l v i n g o r i e n t a t i o n i n s o f a r as the program was s e l e c t e d to meet an assessed need. D i s t r i c t B, by c o n s t r a s t , i n i t i a t e d the program mainly for growth and c a r e e r reasons. I l l u s t r a t e d i n chapter 5 were f i n d i n g s which suggest ca r e e r motives a l s o played a part i n the s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n . F u l l a n (1982) suggests t h a t " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a r e e r i s m " or " c a r e e r r e l a t e d i n n o v a t i v e n e s s " i s o f t e n a d r i v i n g f o r c e behind the s e l e c t i o n of s t a f f development programs. The D i s s e m i n a t i o n E f f o r t s Supporting School Improvement 251 (DESSI) ( C r a n d a l l e t a l . , 1982) study a l s o found c a r e e r i n c e n t i v e to be a s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of a d o p t i o n and implementation. I t i s a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t c a r e e r motives are o f t e n o n l y one of s e v e r a l motives f o r s e l e c t i o n . T h i s would seem to be the case i n D i s t r i c t B. F u r t h e r , i t seems reasonable to suggest t h a t the c a r e e r motives which appear to have been a f a c t o r i n the s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n i n D i s t r i c t B had a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the a d o p t i o n d e c i s i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g i s i n agreement with F u l l a n who takes the f o l l o w i n g p o s i t i o n : I t can a l s o be p o s i t i v e when c a r e e r - r e l a t e d motives generate energy and enthusiasm for the e x t r a work r e q u i r e d a t the e a r l y stages of a change e f f o r t (1982:169). Career motives may w e l l have been a f a c t o r i n D i s t r i c t A but the data provide no s u b s t a n t i a t i n g evidence. While c a r e e r motives o f t e n have a negative c o n n o t a t i o n , the f i n d i n g s i n D i s t r i c t B demonstrate that they can and do have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the i n i t i a t i o n phase. The f a c t that the program was popular elsewhere a l s o appears to have been a f a c t o r i n the s e l e c t i o n i n both d i s t r i c t s . However, t h i s aspect i s not d e a l t with i n d e t a i l i n c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e . 252 3. E x t e r n a l , c r e d i b l e p r a c t i o n e r s were used to  " t e s t the waters" i n both d i s t r i c t s and appear to have  f a c i l i t a t e d the g a t h e r i n g of support from p r o s p e c t i v e  p a r t i c i p a n t s . McDonnell (1985) r e p o r t s t h a t e x t e r n a l resource people who are expert with program content can f a c i l i t a t e the t r a n s f e r of a program from one l o c a t i o n to another. C r a n d a l l et a l . (1982) concluded that implementation may not occur unless f a c e - t o - f a c e a s s i s t a n c e i s provided by q u a l i f i e d d i s s e m i n a t i o n s t a f f . L o u i s (1981) drew s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s . In both D i s t r i c t s A and B, e x t e r n a l t r a i n e r s who were expert i n the program content were h i r e d to do the t r a i n i n g . Without q u e s t i o n , these c r e d i b l e e x t e r n a l t r a i n e r s were a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n b u i l d i n g enthusiasm f o r the p r o j e c t s d u r i n g the i n i t i a t i o n phase. The f i n d i n g s of the present study demonstrate, however, t h a t the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and c r e d i b i l i t y of such t r a i n e r s are c r u c i a l . In D i s t r i c t B, an e x t e r n a l t r a i n e r from D i s t r i c t A was imported to do a p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the very e a r l y stages of i n i t i a t i o n and he was u n s u c c e s s f u l . I t appears he lacked the necessary c r e d i b i l i t y . T h i s suggests t h a t d i s t r i c t s must assess c a r e f u l l y the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of t r a i n e r s whom they b r i n g i n from the o u t s i d e . 253 4. The f a c t t h a t the program claimed to be r e s e a r c h  based appeared to be a f a c t o r i n i t s s e l e c t i o n . G r i f f i n (1983) takes the p o s i t i o n t h at there i s now c o n s i d e r a b l e knowledge from r e s e a r c h on t e a c h i n g t h a t can form a major p o r t i o n of the content of s t a f f development. Vaughan (1982) i s c r i t i c a l of the f a c t t h a t present s t a f f development programs o f t e n f a i l to take i n t o account the r e c e n t r e s e a r c h on e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g . The ITIP program which was s e l e c t e d i n both d i s t r i c t s c l a i m s to be based on r e s e a r c h . Among the c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel who played a r o l e i n the s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s , the r e s e a r c h c l a i m was re p o r t e d to have been an important f a c t o r i n the s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g suggests t h a t i n i t i a t o r s may have come to r e a l i z e the importance of the r e s e a r c h and p e r c e i v e themselves as t a k i n g that i n t o account i n t h e i r s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n s . 5. Teacher and p r i n c i p a l respondents d i f f e r e d i n  t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of who s e l e c t e d the programs i n the two d i s t r i c t s . Teachers appeared l e s s w e l l informed  than p r i n c i p a l s . The l i t e r a t u r e i s l i m i t e d i n r e p o r t i n g f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o u s e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of who makes s e l e c t i o n s of s t a f f development programs. In a 254 r e c e n t study, H a l l e t a l . (1985) i n d i c a t e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s do not p e r c e i v e t h a t they have a g r e a t d e a l of i n f l u e n c e on d i s t r i c t p o l i c y . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , they a l s o r e p o r t t h a t d i s t r i c t o f f i c e p e rsonnel b e l i e v e t h a t much of what they do i n the development of p o l i c i e s and programs i s based on teacher i n p u t . The f i n d i n g s i n the present study demonstrate t h a t among the respondents, a l l of whom were key i n f l u e n t i a l s i n the p r o j e c t s , p r i n c i p a l s were c l e a r e r about who s e l e c t e d the program than t e a c h e r s , who were h e s i t a n t and s p e c u l a t i v e i n t h e i r responses. While vague i n t h e i r responses, teachers d i d assume t h a t i t was s e n i o r c e n t r a l o f f i c e personnel who had made the s e l e c t i o n s . F u l l a n (1982) takes the p o s i t i o n t h a t who s e l e c t s i s not as important as what e l s e happens d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n . The f i n d i n g s i n the present study do lend support to the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the power of one's p o s i t i o n may w e l l be important i n who s e l e c t s programs t h a t are adopted. A c e n t r a l o f f i c e s t a f f person was u n s u c c e s s f u l i n having D i s t r i c t B adopt the program which was l a t e r adopted when s e l e c t e d by a person with s u p e r o r d i n a t e l i n e a u t h o r i t y ( H a l l et a l . , 1985). Perhaps i t i s not t h a t important t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a program know who s e l e c t s a program but i t seems 255 s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t e a c h e r s were so vague g i v e n the i n i t i a t i v e s i n both d i s t r i c t s were designed t o become l a r g e d i s t r i c t - w i d e i n i t i a t i v e s . However, as L o r t i e (1972) p o i n t s out, t e a c h e r s are (more) i n t e r e s t e d i n what happens i n t h e i r I n d i v i d u a l classrooms. 6. Teachers and p r i n c i p a l s d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r  p e r c e p t i o n s of why the program was s e l e c t e d . The l i t e r a t u r e Is a l s o l i m i t e d i n r e p o r t i n g f i n d i n g s on p r o s p e c t i v e u s e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of why programs are s e l e c t e d . F u l l a n (1982) p l a c e s a g r e a t d e a l of emphasis on the importance of p a r t i c i p a n t s d e v e l o p i n g meaning i n order f o r an i n i t i a t i v e to be s u c c e s s f u l . I t seems reasonable to take the p o s i t i o n t h a t the reason a p r o j e c t i s i n i t i a t e d i s i n t r i c a t e l y r e l a t e d to program go a l s or i n t e n t s . F u r t h e r , i n order f o r i n d i v i d u a l s to develop meaning i n a p r o j e c t , knowing the g o a l would seem to be an important f a c t o r . Most p r i n c i p a l s i n the two d i s t r i c t s appeared to know why the p r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d ; t e a c h e r s however, a g a i n seemed unsure. Given t h a t p r i n c i p a l support was c o n s i d e r e d important to p r o j e c t i n i t i a t o r s , i t i s understandable t h a t they would be informed of the g o a l s . A l s o , they are l i k e l y t o have had more c o n t