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The role of the special education administrator in district funding : an exploratory study Scruton, Andrew M. 1990

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THE ROLE OF THE SPECIAL EDUCATION ADMINISTRATOR IN DISTRICT FUNDING: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY. BY ANDREW M. SCRUTON M.Ed.., The U n i v e r s i t y o f L i v e r p o o l , 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t , and Higher E d u c a t i o n ( E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1990 © Andrew M o r r i s Scruton 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s and l e v e l of funding r e c e i v e d by s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Data were ob t a i n e d from the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n on the number of students i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s c l a i m e d f o r f u n d i n g . These data demonstrated an extreme v a r i a b i l i t y i n the p r o p o r t i o n s o f students claimed f o r f u n d i n g by the v a r i o u s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . In an attempt t o examine t h i s v a r i a b i l i t y and suggest some p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r i t , t h i s study was undertaken. One p o s s i b l e v a r i a b l e t h a t might i n f l u e n c e the number of students claimed f o r f u n d i n g was examined: s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s . S p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were asked t o p r i o r i s e the t h r e e r o l e s of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e behaviour as i d e n t i f i e d by Cuban. These r o l e p r i o r i t i e s were then r e l a t e d t o the l e v e l o f funding r e c e i v e d by the d i s t r i c t . Evidence was found t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e may be a s y s t e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r o l e p r i o r i t i e s of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s working i n d i s t r i c t s w i t h low l e v e l s of funding and the l e v e l of funding r e c e i v e d by the d i s t r i c t . In a d d i t i o n , evidence was found t o suggest i i i t h a t the p r i o r i t y a s s i g n e d t o the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e may d i f f e r e n t i a t e between a d m i n i s t r a t o r s working i n low funded d i s t r i c t s as compared w i t h those working i n h i g h funded d i s t r i c t s . The i m p l i c a t i o n s from the f i n d i n g s o f the study suggest t h a t : t h e framework o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s developed by Cuban may be a p p r o p r i a t e t o d e s c r i b e the v a r i a b i l i t y o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r behaviour; the e x i s t e n c e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r i o r i t y a s s i g n e d t o the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e and d i s t r i c t f u n d i n g l e v e l has p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the s t r u c t u r i n g o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n funding mechanisms and f o r the day t o day work o f the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r . In a d d i t i o n , the study has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g the uniqueness of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r o l e p r i o r i t i e s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and d i s t r i c t outcomes o t h e r than f u n d i n g l e v e l . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES v i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS v i i i 1. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 1 A P e r s o n a l View 1 S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t o r S t e r e o t y p e s 2 The V a r i a b i l i t y i n S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t o r Role Performance 3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 4 RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY 5 THE VARIABILITY IN SPECIAL EDUCATION FUNDING 6 S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n Funding i n B r i t i s h Columbia...6 Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t 8 High i n c i d e n c e , Low c o s t A 8 High i n c i d e n c e , Low c o s t B 9 Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t as the group f o r the study 9 Examples of the V a r i a b i l i t y i n Funding Between D i s t r i c t s 11 Cuban's Framework of A d m i n i s t r a t o r Behaviour... 14 OVERVIEW OF THESIS 14 2. A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 16 THE ROLE OF THE SPECIAL EDUCATION ADMINISTRATOR 16 The E a r l y S t u d i e s 17 The Mackie and Engel study 18 The Marro and Kohl study 18 The L a t e r S t u d i e s 19 FRAMEWORKS FOR DESCRIBING SPECIAL EDUCATION ADMINISTRATOR ROLE PRIORITIES 2 0 V The Mackie and Engel Framework 21 The Board o f Cooperat i v e E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s (BOCES) Model 22 The Cuban Framework 2 3 The i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e 24 The managerial r o l e 25 The p o l i t i c a l r o l e 25 SPECIAL EDUCATION FUNDING 2 6 The F i s c a l Framework i n S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n 27 S e r v i c e l e v e l s i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s 27 A l l o c a t i o n o f re s o u r c e s based p a r t l y upon d i s t r i c t s i z e 28 Prevalence l e v e l s 29 Prevalence l e v e l s s o c i o l o g i c a l l y determined 29 V a r i a t i o n s Between D i s t r i c t s i n Numbers of Students Claimed f o r Funding i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t C a t e g o r i e s 3 0 SUMMARY 31 3. METHODOLOGY 32 SAMPLE SELECTION 3 2 The c r i t e r i a f o r sample s e l e c t i o n 32 Having a s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r . . 3 3 W i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e :.33 The d i s t r i c t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c o n t a c t . . . . 34 DATA COLLECTION 3 5 The Inte r v i e w 3 5 The Semi-Structured I n t e r v i e w 37 The i n t e r v i e w process 3 7 The i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s 37 Respondent V a l i d a t i o n 39 DATA ANALYSIS 39 The Data D i s p l a y M a t r i x 4 0 Content A n a l y s i s 41 SUMMARY 42 4. FINDINGS 44 ROLE PRIORITIES AND FUNDING LEVEL 44 Funding L e v e l and Assigned Role P r i o r i t i e s 45 Content A n a l y s i s 48 A d m i n i s t r a t o r A c t i v i t i e s 49 A c t i v i t i e s not r e l a t e d t o Cuban's t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s 49 SUMMARY 52 5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS 54 SUMMARY 54 CONCLUSIONS 57 Adequacy o f Cuban's Three Roles 58 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Role Performance and Funding L e v e l 59 v i Cuban's Framework and the S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t o r 61 IMPLICATIONS 62 I m p l i c a t i o n s of the F i n d i n g s f o r P r a c t i c e 63 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f u n d i n g mechanisms 63 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r 65 Suggestions f o r F u r t h e r Research 66 Uniqueness o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e . 66 The r e l a t i o n s h i p between r o l e p r i o r i t i e s and funding l e v e l 67 A p p l i c a b i l i t y o f Cuban's framework of a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s both t o r e g u l a r and s p e c i a l educators 67 v i i LIST OF TABLES Tabl e Page I. V a r i a b i l i t y i n numbers of students c l a i m e d i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s as a percentage of t o t a l d i s t r i c t e n r o l l m e n t 13 I I . Data d i s p l a y m a t r i x 4 0 I I I . Combinations of funding l e v e l and p r i o r i t i e s a s s i g n e d t o Cuban's t h r e e r o l e s 46 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o take t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o thank a l l the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n the p r o v i n c e f o r t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n and h e l p . Without t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e t h i s study would not have been p o s s i b l e . 1 CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY T h i s study was conceived out of an i n t e r e s t i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and i t s funding mechanisms t h a t extends over many y e a r s . In t h a t time I have come t o r e a l i s e the t r u t h of the o l d North Y o r k s h i r e e x p r e s s i o n , "People a l t e r p l a c e s , L i k e noses a l t e r f a c e s . " A P e r s o n a l View During the e i g h t years i n which I have been a s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r i n B r i t i s h Columbia, I have been c o n t i n u a l l y f a s c i n a t e d by the extreme v a r i a b i l i t y i n the way i n which my c o l l e a g u e s and I perform our r o l e s . Although our formal r o l e d e s c r i p t i o n s are ve r y s i m i l a r , (School D i s t r i c t #88[Terrace] 1988; School D i s t r i c t #52[Prince Rupert] 1988; School D i s t r i c t # 2 7 [ C a r i b o o - C h i l c o t i n ] , 1988), the v a r i e t y o f ways i n which they are c a r r i e d out i s amazing. A l a y p e r s o n c o u l d be excused f o r t h i n k i n g t h a t t h i s v a r i a b i l i t y was a f u n c t i o n o f d i f f e r i n g j o b t i t l e s . In examining the l i s t o f " s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c o n t a c t s " (the l i s t of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programs i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ) , the f o l l o w i n g t i t l e s were found t o be 2 synonymous wit h * s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' : D i r e c t o r of I n s t r u c t i o n ( S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s ) , S u p e r v i s o r of S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s , D i s t r i c t P r i n c i p a l ( S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n ) , D i s t r i c t V i c e P r i n c i p a l ( S p e c i a l Education) and D i s t r i c t C o u n s e l l o r . Yet i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s and exchanges of job d e s c r i p t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t the formal e x p e c t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these seemingly d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s f o r * s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' are v e r y much the same. Special Education Administrator Stereotypes From my o b s e r v a t i o n s of the work of a number of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e r e appear t o be t h r e e common s t e r e o t y p e s of behaviour. They are: the p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r , the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e a d e r , and the a d m i n i s t r a t o r . The p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r i s the a d m i n i s t r a t o r who spends the m a j o r i t y of h i s / h e r time i n face t o f a c e c o n t a c t w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups, and w i t h p a r e n t s , t r u s t e e s , and p r i n c i p a l s . He/she attends almost every board and committee meeting and i s on f i r s t name terms w i t h M i n i s t r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n V i c t o r i a . The i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e a d e r i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i s the a d m i n i s t r a t o r who spends most of h i s / h e r time i n s c h o o l s working w i t h t e a c h e r s and c h i l d r e n . He/she i s a c t i v e i n both s p o n s o r i n g and d e l i v e r i n g i n s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s . He/she i s i n d e f a t i g a b l e i n h i s / h e r attendance a t workshops and 3 t r i e s t o remain c u r r e n t i n a l l areas of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . When not a c t u a l l y i n a s c h o o l , he/she can o f t e n be found p e r u s i n g the most r e c e n t r e s e a r c h i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . The s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r who sees h i m / h e r s e l f as an a d m i n i s t r a t o r f i r s t and foremost, can o f t e n be r e c o g n i s e d by the t i d i n e s s o f h i s / h e r desk. T h i s i n d i v i d u a l emphasises the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s p e c t s of the r o l e , and g e n e r a l l y spends the m a j o r i t y of h i s / h e r time c l o s e t o , or i n , h i s / h e r o f f i c e . These d e s c r i p t i o n s are, of course, a b s t r a c t i o n s . No one s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r e p r e s e n t s any one s t e r e o t y p e . However, they are i n d i c a t i v e of the extremes i n the ways i n which i n d i v i d u a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s are seen t o perform t h e i r r o l e s . In a d d i t i o n , they correspond w i t h the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the core a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s i n g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n developed by L a r r y Cuban (1986, 1988). The V a r i a b i l i t y i n Special Education Administrator Role P r i o r i t i e s V a r i a b i l i t y i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s has been documented i n the l i t e r a t u r e (e.g., Mackie and Engel, 1955; Marro and Kohl, 1975). What the l i t e r a t u r e does not address i s whether t h e r e are any r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h i s v a r i a b i l i t y and o t h e r a s p e c t s of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n which the a d m i n i s t r a t o r has i n p u t . One such aspect i s the funding p r o c e s s . The i n p u t r e q u i r e d f o r 4 the f u n d i n g process i s the number of students c l a i m e d i n each o f v a r i o u s handicapping c a t e g o r i e s . There i s a h i g h degree of v a r i a t i o n from d i s t r i c t t o d i s t r i c t i n the number of students c l a i m e d i n each o f the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n funding c a t e g o r i e s (and thus the l e v e l of fundi n g r e c e i v e d by the d i s t r i c t ) . A q u e s t i o n t h a t formed i n my mind i s whether the v a r i a b i l i t y i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s i s i n any way r e l a t e d t o the v a r i a t i o n i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n funding among d i s t r i c t s . T h i s study seeks an answer t o t h a t q u e s t i o n . In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n t h i s q u e s t i o n and the purpose o f the study are s t a t e d i n more d e t a i l . PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of t h i s study i s t o a s c e r t a i n whether or not the v a r i a t i o n s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s can be adequately d e s c r i b e d w i t h i n the framework o f Cuban's t h r e e core r o l e s and i f so, i s t h i s v a r i a t i o n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o v a r i a t i o n s i n the number of students c l a i m e d i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n funding c a t e g o r i e s . The term " s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s " w i l l , f o r the purpose of t h i s study, be d e f i n e d as the p a t t e r n o f p r i o r i t i e s s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a s s i g n t o the t h r e e core r o l e s of a d m i n i s t r a t o r behaviour d e f i n e d by Cuban. In a d d i t i o n the 5 study p r o v i d e s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l o r e f u r t h e r the e x t e n t t o which the s p e c i a l case of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s r e f l e c t s the more g e n e r a l case of s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r and superintendent r o l e p r i o r i t i e s . T h i s w i l l , however, be a minor p a r t of the study. RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY The i n f l u e n c e of the p r i n c i p a l ' s r o l e p r i o r i t i e s on x s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s ' , u s i n g such d i v e r s e c r i t e r i a as student vandalism, attendance, i n n o v a t i v e classroom p r a c t i c e s , and t e a c h e r s ' job a t t i t u d e s has been e x t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d (Leithwood and Montgomery, 1986). The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s r o l e as a d i s t r i c t l e a d e r and change agent has a l s o been the s u b j e c t of study (Blumberg, 1986). Although the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e has been the s u b j e c t of c o n s i d e r a b l e study, t h e r e has been no attempt t o r e l a t e the h i g h degree of v a r i a b i l i t y i n r o l e p r i o r i t i e s t o any outcome measures. One outcome measure of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s which i s e a s i l y q u a n t i f i a b l e i s the l e v e l of funding. In B r i t i s h Columbia, due t o the nature o f the f i s c a l framework, fun d i n g i t s e l f cannot be used as an outcome v a r i a b l e because o f the confounding e f f e c t of d i s t r i c t s i z e . An i n t e r m e d i a t e v a r i a b l e r e l a t e d t o funding i s the number of students c l a i m e d . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between 6 a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s and v a r i a t i o n s i n the numbers of students claimed f o r funding i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s expressed as a percentage o f the t o t a l d i s t r i c t e n r o l l m e n t . I f i t can be shown t h a t t h e r e i s , i n f a c t , a r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two v a r i a b l e s , t h i s c o u l d have consequences not o n l y f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f funding formulas, but a l s o f o r the r o l e of the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r . THE VARIABILITY IN SPECIAL EDUCATION FUNDING T h i s s e c t i o n e x p l o r e s the v a r i a b i l i t y o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f u n d i n g among B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . I n i t i a l l y , t he funding system i n B.C. i s d e s c r i b e d , and the r a t i o n a l e f o r s e l e c t i n g a subset o f the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f u n d i n g system i s presented. In the f i n a l s e c t i o n , a s p e c i f i c example of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n one of the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g funding l e v e l among d i s t r i c t s i s g i v e n . S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n Funding i n B r i t i s h Columbia B r i t i s h Columbia funds s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n through a system o f p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s t o s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , supplemented by l o c a l l y generated revenues ( M i n i s t r y o f Ed u c a t i o n , 1988). The funding system i s based on the number 7 o f p u p i l s c l a i m e d i n v a r i o u s s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s . These c a t e g o r i e s are as f o l l o w s : 3.2 0 Moderately M e n t a l l y Handicapped 3.21 S e v e r e l y and Profoundly Handicapped 3.22 P h y s i c a l l y Handicapped 3.2 3 V i s u a l l y Impaired 3.24 Hearing Impaired 3.25 A u t i s t i c 3.26 S e v e r e l y L e a r n i n g D i s a b l e d 3.27 Educable M e n t a l l y Handicapped 3.28 Severe Behaviour Problems 3.29 R e h a b i l i t a t i o n 3.3 0 I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n 3.31 E n g l i s h as a Second Language 3.32 G i f t e d 1 ( M i n i s t r y of Education, 1980). On the b a s i s of per student funding l e v e l p r o v i d e d i n each category, the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n combines the above c a t e g o r i e s i n t o f o u r groups, which are d e s c r i b e d below. T h i s l i s t comprises a l l the funding c a t e g o r i e s based on student count. There are o t h e r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f u n d i n g c a t e g o r i e s not based upon student count. 8 Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t . T h i s group c o n s i s t s o f the f i r s t s i x c a t e g o r i e s : moderately m e n t a l l y handicapped, s e v e r e l y and p r o f o u n d l y handicapped, p h y s i c a l l y handicapped, v i s u a l l y impaired, and a u t i s t i c . A l l these handicapping c o n d i t i o n s have assumed p r e v a l e n c e l e v e l s a c r o s s the p r o v i n c e , based upon h i s t o r i c a l data on the number of students c l a i m e d f o r funding purposes, and on p u b l i s h e d p r e v a l e n c e l e v e l s d e r i v e d from U n i t e d S t a t e s data (Desharnais, 1982). These p r e v a l e n c e l e v e l s serve as g u i d e l i n e s o n l y ; d i s t r i c t s are p e r m i t t e d t o c l a i m f o r fundi n g purposes, as many c h i l d r e n as they a c t u a l l y s e r v e . 2 High i n c i d e n c e , Low c o s t A. T h i s group c o n s i s t s o f the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : s e v e r e l y l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d , educable m e n t a l l y handicapped, severe behaviour problems and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . T h i s group i s ^capped'; t h a t i s , d i s t r i c t s are funded on the b a s i s o f a pr e v a l e n c e l e v e l o f 3.5% of the t o t a l d i s t r i c t e n r o l l m e n t 3 , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f need, or the number o f students served. P e r s o n a l experience however, suggests t h a t when a d i s t r i c t attempts t o c l a i m i n c r e a s e d numbers of students, the o f f i c i a l s i n the S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n D i v i s i o n are v e r y r e l u c t a n t t o accept the i n c r e a s e without c o n s i d e r a b l e ocumentation. For the 1988/89 s c h o o l year the cap was removed from one of the High i n c i d e n c e , Low c o s t c a t e g o r i e s (3.27 Educable M e n t a l l y Handicapped). 9 High incidence, Low cost B. T h i s group c o n t a i n s o n l y I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n and E n g l i s h as a Second Language; t h e r e are no p r o v i n c i a l p r e v a l e n c e l e v e l s i n these c a t e g o r i e s . However, the p u p i l s r e p r e s e n t e d a re v e r y unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d a c r o s s the p r o v i n c e . G i f t e d , which i s capped, i s a sep a r a t e unnamed group. Low incidence, High cost as the group for the study. The Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t group of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s i s the o n l y group of c a t e g o r i e s i n which the fundi n g formula permits v a r i a t i o n s above and beyond p r o v i n c i a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d p r e v a l e n c e l e v e l s , and hence the o n l y one i n which an a s s o c i a t i o n between a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e performance and funding l e v e l might be found. A l l the o t h e r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s are e i t h e r capped or governed by geographic f a c t o r s . In s p i t e o f an expected even d i s t r i b u t i o n a c r o s s the p r o v i n c e o f the c h i l d r e n i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s 4 , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n fund i n g l e v e l s among d i s t r i c t s i n these c a t e g o r i e s a re a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a c t o r s e x t e r n a l t o the 4 Although p r e v a l e n c e l e v e l s of handicapping c o n d i t i o n s are p r o j e c t e d t o be evenly d i s t r i b u t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y and ac r o s s time (U.S. O f f i c e o f Education, 1975, c i t e d i n H a l l a h a n and Kaufman, 198 6), t h e r e are f a c t o r s e x t e r n a l t o d i s t r i c t s t h a t c o u l d a f f e c t p r e v a l e n c e l e v e l s a t a l o c a l l e v e l . These f a c t o r s c o u l d i n c l u d e : r a c i a l makeup of the p o p u l a t i o n ( c e r t a i n o r g a n i c d i s o r d e r s are l i m i t e d t o c e r t a i n r a c i a l t y p e s ) , socio-economic c o n d i t i o n s ( F o e t a l A l c o h o l Syndrome i s much more p r e v a l e n t i n areas o f the p r o v i n c e w i t h h i g h l e v e l s o f a l c o h o l abuse), and f a c t o r s p e c u l i a r t o the community t h a t a t t r a c t p arents w i t h handicapped c h i l d r e n . 10 d i s t r i c t . An example of such a f a c t o r i s geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n (parents with handicapped c h i l d r e n m i g r a t i n g t o l a r g e r c e n t r e s ) which would suggest t h a t d i s t r i c t s w i t h h i g h l e v e l s o f fun d i n g should be those w i t h l a r g e r t o t a l student e n r o l l m e n t s . Another p o s s i b l e f a c t o r i s the presence of a C h i l d Development Centre. U s i n g data p r o v i d e d by the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n l i s t i n g the numbers of students claimed f o r funding purposes and t o t a l student enrollment f o r each d i s t r i c t f o r the 1987/8 s c h o o l year (see Appendix #1) a comparison was made between d i s t r i c t s having a C h i l d Development Centre and those not having one. T h i s comparison d i d not appear t o support the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the presence of a C h i l d Development Centre has an e f f e c t upon the p r e v a l e n c e l e v e l of c h i l d r e n w i t h Low Incidence handicapping c o n d i t i o n s . U s i n g the same data a comparison was made between p r e v a l e n c e l e v e l s i n l a r g e d i s t r i c t s (those w i t h student p o p u l a t i o n s g r e a t e r than 10,000 students) and s m a l l d i s t r i c t s (those w i t h student p o p u l a t i o n s l e s s than 2000), t h e r e b e i n g a presumption t h a t p arents w i t h handicapped c h i l d r e n r e l o c a t e t o communities of l a r g e s i z e t o take advantage of the v a r i o u s medical and ot h e r support s e r v i c e s . The mean pr e v a l e n c e l e v e l i n d i s t r i c t s o f l a r g e s i z e was 0.68% and i n d i s t r i c t s o f l e s s than 2000 students the mean pr e v a l e n c e l e v e l was 0.73%. T h i s does not support the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t d i s t r i c t s o f l a r g e s i z e , because of t h e i r a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s a t t r a c t more c h i l d r e n w i t h Low Inci d e n c e 11 Handicaps. I t would then appear reasonable t o suggest t h a t t h i s v a r i a t i o n may be due t o f a c t o r s i n t e r n a l t o the d i s t r i c t r a t h e r than t o e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s . In o r d e r t o c l a r i f y the a c t u a l nature and degree of d i f f e r e n c e i n fund i n g l e v e l s , s p e c i f i c examples o f the v a r i a b i l i t y i n funding l e v e l s among d i s t r i c t s would be u s e f u l . The next s e c t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e d e t a i l s o f the fundi n g system as i t a p p l i e s t o the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s , and a l s o o f the degree of d i f f e r e n c e i n fund i n g l e v e l s between d i s t r i c t s . Examples of the V a r i a b i l i t y i n Funding Between D i s t r i c t s The f u n d i n g p r o v i d e d t o d i s t r i c t s by the f i s c a l framework i n the Low Incidence, High c o s t group i s based on a formula. T h i s formula p r o v i d e s h i g h e r l e v e l s o f fund i n g per student t o d i s t r i c t s w i t h s m a l l numbers o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n students than i t does t o d i s t r i c t s w i t h l a r g e r numbers of st u d e n t s . T h i s means i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o compare d i s t r i c t s on the b a s i s o f d o l l a r s per s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n student, because of the confounding f a c t o r o f the dependence of the l e v e l o f per p u p i l funding on d i s t r i c t s i z e . I have t h e r e f o r e compared d i s t r i c t s on the b a s i s o f numbers of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n students claimed i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s as a percentage o f the t o t a l d i s t r i c t e n r o l l m e n t . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , d e r i v e d from data p r o v i d e d by the M i n i s t r y of Education, i s based on enro l l m e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r 1987/8 s c h o o l year. S i n c e the i n t e n t i s t o i l l u s t r a t e the wide d i s p a r i t y i n numbers of stud e n t s c l a i m e d as a percentage o f d i s t r i c t t o t a l e n rollment, o n l y data f o r the twenty d i s t r i c t s a t the extremes of the d i s t r i b u t i o n have been i n c l u d e d . To ensure c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , d i s t r i c t names have been changed and enro l l m e n t f i g u r e s have been rounded up t o the n e a r e s t thousand. The data d i s p l a y e d i n Tab l e 1 i n d i c a t e the extreme v a r i a b i l i t y i n the p r o p o r t i o n of students c l a i m e d by s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . A t the outermost l i m i t s o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n , the p r o p o r t i o n of students claimed d i f f e r s by a f a c t o r o f approximately 22 ( i . e . , 1.52% and .07%). I have used the term "number of students c l a i m e d i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s as a percentage o f t o t a l d i s t r i c t e n r o l l m e n t " t o d e s c r i b e the l e v e l o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f u n d i n g r e c e i v e d by a d i s t r i c t . In o r d e r t o a v o i d r e p e t i t i o n f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e s w i l l use the phrase "number of students c l a i m e d i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s " as a d e s c r i p t o r f o r the l e v e l o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f u n d i n g r e c e i v e d by a d i s t r i c t i n these c a t e g o r i e s . 13 Tabl e I. V a r i a b i l i t y i n numbers o f students c l a i m e d i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s as a percentage of t o t a l d i s t r i c t e n r o l l m e n t . D i s t r i c t name T o t a l T o t a l c l a i m e d Percent T o t a l Enrollment Lo i n c , H i c o s t E n r o l l m e n t 1 G a y l e 2 1000 8 1.52% Hawes 2000 18 1.42% B a i n b r i d g e 2000 14 1.36% Wensley 2000 16 1. 32% Aysgarth 2000 20 1.32% Nappa 4000 40 1.15% A s k r i g g 6000 60 1.15% Thornton Rust 1000 11 1.12% E l l e r k i n 2000 21 1.11% Addelborough 3000 24 1.10% Carperby 16000 54 0.35% Worton 2000 4 0.34% B u r t e r s e t t 1000 3 0.34% Sedbusk 1000 2 0.33% Hardraw 2000 4 0.29% S t a l l i n g Busk 6000 11 0.21% Ma r s e t t 2000 2 0.14% C o u n t e r s e t t 1000 1 0.11% Semerwater 2000 1 0.07% J e r v a u l x 1000 0 0.00% 1. The percentages c i t e d are based on a c t u a l e n r o l l m e n t and not on the rounded f i g u r e s . 2. In o r d e r t o ensure c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , these twenty d i s t r i c t s have been a s s i g n e d f i c t i t i o u s names, and d i s t r i c t t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t s have been rounded up t o the n e a r e s t thousand. I have argued e a r l i e r t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h i s magnitude cannot p l a u s i b l y be accounted f o r on the b a s i s of f a c t o r s e x t e r n a l t o the d i s t r i c t . T h i s suggests t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s among d i s t r i c t s s h ould be examined. One of these might be the way i n which s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s p r i o r i t i s e t h e i r r o l e s . 14 Cuban's Framework of Administrator Behaviour Cuban (1986, 1988) p r o v i d e s a framework f o r d e s c r i b i n g a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s t h a t was developed i n s t u d i e s of the behaviour of p r i n c i p a l s and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s . The framework d i v i d e s a d m i n i s t r a t o r behaviour i n t o t h r e e core r o l e s : p o l i t i c a l , managerial and i n s t r u c t i o n a l . The c l o s e correspondence between Cuban's core r o l e s of a d m i n i s t r a t o r behaviour and my own p e r c e p t i o n s of the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t e r e o t y p e s suggests t h a t Cuban's t y p o l o g y of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e behaviour can be adapted t o the study of v a r i a t i o n s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r behaviour. The v a r i a t i o n d e s c r i b e d i n terms of Cuban's t h r e e core r o l e s c o u l d then be r e l a t e d t o v a r i a b i l i t y i n the numbers of students c l a i m e d i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n the review of the l i t e r a t u r e . OVERVIEW OF THESIS The remainder of t h i s t h e s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r c h a p t e r s . Chapter two reviews the l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t t o v a r i a b i l i t y i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r behaviour, v a r i a b i l i t y i n numbers of students c l a i m e d f o r f u n d i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and methodology. The t h i r d c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s the methodology i n d e t a i l . Chapter f o u r p r e s e n t s the f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g the p r i o r i t i e s of the s p e c i a l 15 e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study and r e l a t e s these p r i o r i t i e s t o the v a r i a b i l i t y i n the number o f students c l a i m e d i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f u n d i n g c a t e g o r i e s . The f i f t h c h a pter summarises the t h e s i s and draws c o n c l u s i o n s from these f i n d i n g s . In the f i n a l s e c t i o n of chapter f i v e , i m p l i c a t i o n s of the f i n d i n g s f o r both p r a c t i s e and r e s e a r c h are presented. 16 CHAPTER 2 A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE F i e l d M a r s h a l l E a r l Wavell p u b l i s h e d a book e n t i t l e d Other Men's Flowers, a book of a l l the p o e t r y he c o u l d r e c a l l from memory; i t was an i m p r e s s i v e l y t h i c k book. The poems t h a t he had committed t o memory were those t h a t had meaning f o r him. In the same sense, a review of the l i t e r a t u r e i s a summary of the s t u d i e s we have read t h a t have meaning f o r our own work. The l i t e r a t u r e which g i v e s meaning t o my study on the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l f u n d i n g i s reviewed i n t h r e e p a r t s . The f i r s t i s the l i t e r a t u r e on s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e ; the second, frameworks f o r d e s c r i b i n g s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r behaviour; the t h i r d , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f u n d i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia. THE ROLE OF THE SPECIAL EDUCATION ADMINISTRATOR The purpose of t h i s review i s t o examine the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t d e s c r i b e s how s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a c t u a l l y perform t h e i r r o l e s : t h e i r r o l e performance. T h i s use of the term x r o l e ' t o d e s c r i b e behaviour i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i t s 17 use i n r o l e t h e o r y ( B i d d l e , 1979; B i d d l e and Thomas, 1966) but d i f f e r e n t from i t s use i n s o c i a l systems th e o r y ( G e t z e l s and Guba, 1957; G e t z e l s , Lipham and Campbell, 1968) i n which the term x r o l e / i s used t o d e s c r i b e i n s t i t u t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . W i t h i n the l i t e r a t u r e on the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e as i t i s a c t u a l l y b e i n g performed, the s t u d i e s can be d i v i d e d i n t o two groups: the e a r l y s t u d i e s t h a t used the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n o f s t a t e l e v e l s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w i t h i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and the l a t e r s t u d i e s t h a t sampled t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . The Early Studies Two e a r l y s t u d i e s can be i d e n t i f i e d . Mackie and Engel (1955) and Marro and Kohl (1972) whose work r e p r e s e n t s the f i r s t major s t u d i e s o f the r o l e o f the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r , used the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n o f l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . The d e s i g n o f these two s t u d i e s was v e r y s i m i l a r . A committee of e x p e r t s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n was convened t o l i s t the competencies r e q u i r e d o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . T h i s l i s t o f competencies was then used t o generate a q u e s t i o n n a i r e which was sent t o a l l the d i s t r i c t l e v e l s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s throughout the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The Mackie and Engel study. T h i s study r e p o r t e d t h a t , i n o r d e r o f time devoted t o f u n c t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g were the t a s k s i n which s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s spent the m a j o r i t y of t h e i r time: managerial d u t i e s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l d u t i e s , d i r e c t s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n , p o l i t i c s , and s e l f -d i r e c t e d study and r e s e a r c h . However, w i t h i n each of these t a s k s a g r e a t v a r i a t i o n i n the amount of time spent was r e p o r t e d . For example, the percentage of time spent i n d i r e c t s e r v i c e t o c h i l d r e n v a r i e d between 0% and 60%; s i m i l a r l y , the percentage of time spent on managerial d u t i e s v a r i e d from 2% t o 85%. The Marro and Kohl study. T h i s study d i d not r e p o r t the v a r i a t i o n i n time spent on the v a r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s , but chose t o r e p o r t a c t u a l and i d e a l amounts of time devoted by the average a d m i n i s t r a t o r per week. The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s suggested t h a t they spent too l i t t l e time on d i r e c t s e r v i c e t o c h i l d r e n , s u p e r v i s i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n and c u r r i c u l u m development, and t h a t too much time was spent on c l e r i c a l and managerial work. The t a s k s d e s c r i b e d i n the Marro and Kohl study were, i n o r d e r o f time spent on each t a s k : a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n , d i r e c t s e r v i c e t o e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n , c l e r i c a l work, c u r r i c u l u m development, community work and s e l f improvement. 19 The L a t e r S t u d i e s With the e x c e p t i o n o f Newman's (1972) study, a l l the l a t e r s t u d i e s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e performance ( Sage, 1968; Kay, 1982; Hebert and M i l l e r , 1985; M e l l o , 1986) confirmed the h i g h degree o f v a r i a b i l i t y i n t he time devoted t o v a r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s found i n the e a r l y s t u d i e s . Newman's study was unique among both the e a r l i e r and l a t e r s t u d i e s i n r e v e a l i n g few d i f f e r e n c e s among the t a s k s t h a t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a c t u a l l y performed and i d e a l l y s hould perform. U n l i k e those s t u d i e s , i t r e p o r t e d l i t t l e v a r i a b i l i t y i n the r o l e performance o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . P a r t o f t h i s disagreement may be due t o the nature o f the instrument used by Newman and p a r t may be due t o the nature o f the sample i n her study. Newman's instrument was designed t o survey the t a s k s o f a group o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and not t o r e p o r t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t a s k s they a c t u a l l y performed and i d e a l l y s h ould perform. In a d d i t i o n , Newman's sample ( u n l i k e the samples r e p o r t e d above) was h i g h l y s e l e c t i v e i n terms o f d i s t r i c t s i z e . Only d i s t r i c t s w i t h e n r o l l m e n t s between 13,000 and 30,000 were i n c l u d e d i n her study. T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t t o both the e a r l y and the l a t e r s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d above i n which d i s t r i c t s i z e was not a f a c t o r i n sample s e l e c t i o n . In l a r g e d i s t r i c t s , the v a r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s o f the s e n i o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r tend t o 20 be fewer i n number as the s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r a s s i g n s c e r t a i n d u t i e s t o su b o r d i n a t e s . T h i s may be one of the reasons f o r reduced v a r i a b i l i t y i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e performance i n Newman's sample. With the e x c e p t i o n o f Newman's study, the framework used t o d e s c r i b e the r o l e o f the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r i s s i m i l a r i n a l l the s t u d i e s and appears t o be based on the format used i n the e a r l i e s t study c i t e d (Mackie and Engel, 1955). However, v a r i o u s o t h e r frameworks have been developed t o d e s c r i b e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e performance. These, t o g e t h e r w i t h the one developed by Mackie and Engel, w i l l be the s u b j e c t o f the next s e c t i o n o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e review. FRAMEWORKS FOR DESCRIBING SPECIAL EDUCATION ADMINISTRATOR ROLE PRIORITIES The frameworks used t o d e s c r i b e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s v a r y between those t h a t have been developed p r i m a r i l y i n l a r g e urban s e t t i n g s (Boston P u b l i c Schools, 1976 c i t e d i n Weintraub, Abeson, B a l l a r d and LaVor, 1976) and those designed f o r use i n s m a l l e r d i s t r i c t s . The d e s c r i p t i v e frameworks designed f o r l a r g e urban s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s are intended f o r use when the v a r i o u s r o l e s w i t h i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are d i v i d e d among a h i e r a r c h y o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . These frameworks are 21 not a p p r o p r i a t e t o the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t h a t make up t h i s study because the d i s t r i c t s are s m a l l e r and g e n e r a l l y have o n l y one s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r . The frameworks developed t o d e s c r i b e the r o l e performance of the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r i n s m a l l e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s are much more a p p l i c a b l e t o the s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Examples of these frameworks are: the framework developed i n the f i r s t n a t i o n a l study o f l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n (Mackie and Engel, 1955) , the Board o f Coopera t i v e E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s Model (BOCES) ( c i t e d i n B u r e l l o and Sage, 1979), and the framework developed by Cuban (1986, 1988). The Mackie and Engel Framework The r o l e s performed w i t h i n t h i s framework are: a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s , s u p e r v i s o r y and c o n s u l t a t i v e d u t i e s , i n s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n , s e l f - d i r e c t e d study and r e s e a r c h , p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and d i r e c t s e r v i c e t o e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . The v a r i o u s core r o l e s are w e l l d e f i n e d and e a s i l y understood. In comparison t o the BOCES and Cuban models, the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the core r o l e s i n the Mackie and Engel model are by f a r the most comprehensive. In my view, the weakness of the framework i s t h a t i t i s no l o n g e r r e l e v a n t . I t was developed i n 1953 p r i o r t o the major l i t i g a t i o n and 22 l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t have transformed s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n (Diana v. S t a t e Board of Education, 1970; Penns y l v a n i a A s s o c i a t i o n f o r r e t a r d e d C i t i z e n s v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1972; L a r r y P. v. Wilson R i l e s , 1979; E d u c a t i o n f o r A l l handicapped C h i l d r e n A c t, 1975) and i s no l o n g e r d e s c r i p t i v e o f the r o l e o f the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r . The Board o f Co o p e r a t i v e E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s (BOCES) Model T h i s framework has t h r e e core r o l e s i n t o which l e a d e r s h i p and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or management t a s k s are d i v i d e d . These t h r e e core r o l e s a r e : Management, P u p i l Personnel S e r v i c e s , and S u p e r v i s i o n and Cu r r i c u l u m . Compared w i t h my o r i g i n a l t h r e e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t e r e o t y p e s , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e s are repre s e n t e d , but the p o l i t i c a l s t e r e o t y p e i s m i s s i n g . T h i s i s a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t o mission w i t h i n the B r i t i s h Columbia context, as Boards of School T r u s t e e s enjoy a c o n s i d e r a b l e l a t i t u d e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of funds w i t h i n the sc h o o l d i s t r i c t , and i n a d d i t i o n the composition of the Boards r e f l e c t the wide degree of p o l i t i c a l d i v e r s i t y w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . These two f a c t o r s account f o r the amount of emphasis p l a c e d on the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s as i t r e l a t e s t o e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making. Any framework d e s c r i b i n g s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e 23 performance t h a t omits the p o l i t i c a l r o l e i s , i n my o p i n i o n , i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use i n the B r i t i s h Columbia s e t t i n g . The Cuban Framework The framework of a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s developed by Cuban (1986,1988) was o r i g i n a l l y used t o order the v a r i e t y o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e behaviours e x h i b i t e d among p r i n c i p a l s and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s . The framework has t h r e e core r o l e s : p o l i t i c a l , managerial and i n s t r u c t i o n a l . Because Cuban d e s c r i b e s these t h r e e r o l e s a n e c d o t a l l y throughout the t e x t of h i s work, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e x t r a c t a coherent d e s c r i p t i o n of each one. N e v e r t h e l e s s , I have attempted t o summarise the s c a t t e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o a meaningful whole. Cuban's t h r e e core r o l e s of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e behaviour c o n s t i t u t e an a p p r o p r i a t e framework f o r the p r e s e n t study f o r t h r e e reasons. F i r s t , the r e s e a r c h u n d e r l y i n g the t h r e e r o l e s i s r e c e n t and thus r e f l e c t s more a c c u r a t e l y the c u r r e n t r e a l i t i e s o f the work of e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . Second, i n my view, t h e i r s i m p l i c i t y p e r mits them t o encompass the v a r i a b i l i t y o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e performance. T h i r d , the r o l e s are adequately d e s c r i b e d . What f o l l o w s i s a l i s t i n g o f a l l the items r e f e r r i n g t o the t h r e e core r o l e s o f the framework, namely: I n s t r u c t i o n a l , Managerial and P o l i t i c a l . The i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e . A c c o r d i n g t o Cuban, the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e comprises the f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f a c t i v i t i e s . H e l p i n g t e a c h e r s improve t h e i r pedagogy; H e l p i n g p r i n c i p a l s understand the c u r r i c u l u m ; Teaching p r i n c i p a l s how t o s u p e r v i s e and e v a l u a t e t e a c h e r s ; S e t t i n g g o a l s ; E s t a b l i s h i n g standards; S e l e c t i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g s t a f f ; E n s u r i n g c o n s i s t e n c y i n c u r r i c u l a and t e a c h i n g approaches; Shaping the m i s s i o n of the d i s t r i c t ; E s t a b l i s h i n g a c l i m a t e t h a t s i g n a l s a s e r i o u s n e s s of purpose; De s i g n i n g r i t u a l s and s t r u c t u r e s t h a t ensure t h a t both m i s s i o n and c l i m a t e through communication s k i l l s and p e r s o n a l example become p a r t o f everyday behaviour throughout the o r g a n i s a t i o n ; The means p r i n c i p a l s use t o persuade a d u l t s t o t h e i r b e l i e f s and behaviour i n moving towards g o a l s the p r i n c i p a l seeks; V i s i t i n g c l a s s e s ; and Cuban uses the term l c o r e ' i n r e f e r e n c e t o the "th r e e core r o l e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n " as b e i n g c e n t r a l t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s . Future r e f e r e n c e s t o Cuban's core a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s w i l l omit the term 'core' but i t should be i n f e r r e d by the reader. 25 Promoting o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t e a c h e r development and m o n i t o r i n g performance (Cuban, 1986: 112-114; 1988: 133-136). The managerial r o l e . A c c o r d i n g t o Cuban, the a c t i v i t i e s comprising the managerial r o l e a r e : Managing c o n f l i c t a c r o s s a broad a r r a y of a c t i v i t i e s ; P l a n n i n g ; D e c i s i o n making; G a t h e r i n g and d i s p e r s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ; B u i l d i n g maintenance; Budgeting; H i r i n g ; S c h e d u l i n g c l a s s e s ; Grouping s t u d e n t s ; Completing r e p o r t s ; D e a l i n g w i t h c o n f l i c t ; and M a i n t a i n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y (Cuban, 1986: 114) . The p o l i t i c a l r o l e . A c c o r d i n g t o Cuban, the a c t i v i t i e s c o m prising the p o l i t i c a l r o l e a r e : U s i n g formal or i n f o r m a l i n f l u e n c e t o persuade d e f l e c t or e n l i s t s tudents, t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , or d i s t r i c t o f f i c i a l s t o b u i l d support f o r or overcome o p p o s i t i o n t o what the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s d e s i r e ; 0 I i n t e r p r e t x m o n i t o r i n g performance' as the f o r m a t i v e stage o f the e v a l u a t i v e p r ocess, the p r o c e s s o f improving i n s t r u c t i o n . 26 Those a c t i v i t i e s i n which the a d m i n i s t r a t o r engages, i n order t o a s c e r t a i n and t r a n s f o r m p e r s o n a l and p u b l i c e x p e c t a t i o n s i n t o formal p o l i c i e s ; The g o a l s h e l d and the p r o c e s s s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s used t o determine and t r a n s f o r m p e r s o n a l and p u b l i c e x p e c t a t i o n s i n t o formal p o l i c i e s and o f f i c i a l a c t i o n s ; and Working w i t h and through people t o get done what needs t o be done i n an u n p r e d i c t a b l e , u n c e r t a i n world (Cuban, 1986: 115; 1988: 139). These t h r e e r o l e s of the e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r p r o v i d e one method of d e f i n i n g the v a r i a b l e , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s . The second v a r i a b l e , the number of students claimed f o r f u n d i n g i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f u n d i n g c a t e g o r i e s , i s d e s c r i b e d i n the next s e c t i o n . SPECIAL EDUCATION FUNDING In the summer of 1983 the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n announced a new f i n a n c i a l management system, now commonly r e f e r r e d t o as 'the f i s c a l framework'. T h i s framework r e p l a c e d the p r e v i o u s system of s p e c i a l a p p r o v a l s . In the s p e c i a l a p p r o v a l s system, s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n revenues were generated a t the d i s t r i c t l e v e l on the b a s i s of the numbers o f approved programs b e i n g o f f e r e d . The f i s c a l framework e s t a b l i s h e d a system of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f u n d i n g based upon s e r v i c e l e v e l s . Each s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c a t e g o r y had i t s own s e r v i c e l e v e l . These s e r v i c e l e v e l s e s t a b l i s h e d the 27 revenues a d i s t r i c t was t o r e c e i v e based upon the September 30th student count w i t h i n each category. The F i s c a l Framework i n Special Education The p r e s e n t form of the f i s c a l framework i s r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t from t h a t announced i n the summer of 1983. In 1983, w i t h i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , twenty-one fun d i n g c a t e g o r i e s were i d e n t i f i e d , each w i t h i t s own s e r v i c e l e v e l . Twelve o f those fu n d i n g c a t e g o r i e s had s e r v i c e l e v e l s dependent upon the student count r e p o r t e d by the d i s t r i c t w i t h i n the c a t e g o r y (the o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s used t o t a l d i s t r i c t e n rollment t o e s t a b l i s h s e r v i c e l e v e l ) . By 1987, the number of c a t e g o r i e s i n which the revenue generated depended upon the i n d i v i d u a l d i s t r i c t ' s student count, had dropped t o e i g h t , s i x of them i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s . The t o t a l number of students c l a i m e d f o r f u n d i n g i n these Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s (expressed as a percentage of t o t a l d i s t r i c t enrollment) comprises the second v a r i a b l e i n t h i s study. Service l e v e l s i n the Low incidence, High cost categories. These c a t e g o r i e s each have the same s e r v i c e l e v e l : 28 For the 1st student: 0.5 S p e c i a l Teacher U n i t 9 p l u s 0.5 a i d e PLUS f o r 2nd student: 0.5 a i d e PLUS f o r 3rd student: 0.5 a i d e PLUS f o r 4th student: 0.5 a i d e PLUS f o r remaining s t u d e n t s : 1/8 S p e c i a l Teacher U n i t p l u s 1/8 a i d e ( M i n i s t r y o f Ed u c a t i o n , 1987, emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) . T h i s s t r u c t u r i n g o f the s e r v i c e l e v e l s w i t h i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s a l l o c a t e s r e s o u r c e s based upon d i s t r i c t s i z e , p r o v i d e d t h a t none of the c a t e g o r i e s c o n t a i n more than t h e i r s t a t i s t i c a l l y expected share o f handicapped c h i l d r e n . A l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s based p a r t l y upon d i s t r i c t s i z e . The s t r u c t u r i n g of the s e r v i c e l e v e l s t o p r o v i d e more d o l l a r s per student i n s m a l l d i s t r i c t s compared w i t h l a r g e ones, confounds any a n a l y s i s o f fun d i n g l e v e l s between d i s t r i c t s . However, the number of students c l a i m e d f o r fundi n g i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s as a p r o p o r t i o n o f the t o t a l d i s t r i c t e n rollment, p r o v i d e s a between d i s t r i c t comparison of students c l a i m e d f o r funding A " S p e c i a l Teacher U n i t " i s the d i s t r i c t ' s s h a r e a b l e average i n s t r u c t i o n a l s a l a r y , p l u s the employer's share of s t a t u t o r y b e n e f i t s , p l u s a p o r t i o n o f the employer's share o f n o n - s t a t u t o r y b e n e f i t s , p l u s 8.8% o f the p r o v i n c i a l average i n s t r u c t i o n a l s a l a r y ( a d j u s t e d by the remoteness f a c t o r ) . T h i s w i l l v a r y s l i g h t l y from d i s t r i c t t o d i s t r i c t dependent upon t h e i r s a l a r y l e v e l s . For my own d i s t r i c t (#88, Terrace) i t was $40,273.00. 29 not confounded by d i s t r i c t s i z e . T h i s s t a t i s t i c i s i n f a c t the "Prevalence L e v e l " 1 0 . Prevalence l e v e l s . Prevalence l e v e l s i n d i c a t e the percentage of c h i l d r e n w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r y of e x c e p t i o n a l i t y i n a s p e c i f i c p l a c e a t a p a r t i c u l a r time. The f i s c a l framework d e s c r i b e s expected p r e v a l e n c e l e v e l s f o r each of the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s . S t a t i s t i c s p r o v i d e d by the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r the 1987/8 s c h o o l y e a r the p r e v a l e n c e l e v e l province-wide i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s was 0.73%. S t a t i s t i c s from the U n i t e d S t a t e s O f f i c e o f Ed u c a t i o n ( c i t e d i n Dunn, 1973), i n d i c a t e a p r o j e c t e d p r e v a l e n c e l e v e l f o r 1985 i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s of 1.08%. Prevalence l e v e l s s o c i o l o g i c a l l y determined. Prevalence l e v e l s are not, as i t might appear a t f i r s t s i g h t , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y determined. L o c a l d i a g n o s t i c c r i t e r i a can a f f e c t the pr e v a l e n c e l e v e l , and r e s e a r c h by Mercer and Richardson (1975) has shown t h a t p r e v a l e n c e l e v e l s are as much s o c i o l o g i c a l l y determined as they are 1 0 There i s some c o n f u s i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e between p r e v a l e n c e l e v e l s ' and x i n c i d e n c e l e v e l s ' ( G o e t t e l , 1978; McBride, 1985). "Incidence" r e f e r s t o the number of new cases o f c h i l d r e n w i t h an e x c e p t i o n a l i t y i n a g i v e n p e r i o d o f time, u s u a l l y a year. "Prevalence" r e f e r s t o the t o t a l number of cases (new and old) i n a p o p u l a t i o n a t a g i v e n p o i n t i n time (Hallahan and Kauffman, 1986). 30 p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y . I have, t h e r e f o r e , not used the term "prevalence l e v e l " t o d e s c r i b e the number o f s p e c i a l needs students i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s i n a d i s t r i c t , because i t connotes i m m u t a b i l i t y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l v e r a c i t y . I have i n s t e a d used the term "numbers of students c l a i m e d f o r funding i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s " . Variations Between D i s t r i c t s i n Numbers of Students Claimed for Funding i n the Low incidence, High cost Categories The new f i n a n c i a l management system has, i t would appear, a l t e r e d the d i s t r i b u t i o n of funds i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s t o favour those d i s t r i c t s w i t h s m a l l e r t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t s . Fleming (1979), i n a c r i t i c i s m of the a p p r o v a l s system of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n funding, noted t h a t a t the extremes of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s p e c i a l a p p r o v a l s t o s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n 1979, the h i g h e s t and the lowest funded d i s t r i c t s d i f f e r e d by a f a c t o r of 2 . 8 1 1 . In 1987/8, f o l l o w i n g the implementation of the f i s c a l framework, a t the extremes o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n of students i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s 1 2 , the h i g h e s t and the lowest d i s t r i c t s d i f f e r e d by a f a c t o r of The term " d i f f e r e d by a f a c t o r of 2.8" i s taken t o mean t h a t the d i s t r i c t w i t h the h i g h e s t number of s p e c i a l a p p r o v a l s had 2.8 times as many s p e c i a l a p p r o v a l s as the i s t r i c t w i t h the s m a l l e s t . These f i g u r e s are based on data s u p p l i e d by the M i n i s t r y o f E ducation, S p e c i a l Programs Branch. 3 1 approximately 22. Even when comparing the average o f the upper q u a r t i l e o f d i s t r i c t s w i t h the average of the lower q u a r t i l e i n terms of number of students c l a i m e d f o r fund i n g purposes, the two means d i f f e r by a f a c t o r o f t h r e e 1 3 . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s l a r g e d i s p a r i t y i n numbers o f students claimed i s v a r i a b i l i t y i n the r o l e p r i o r i t i e s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . The s e c t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s p r e s e n t s a methodology f o r a n a l y s i n g the v a r i a b i l i t y i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s , and f o r comparing t h i s v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h the v a r i a b i l i t y among d i s t r i c t s i n the number of stu d e n t s c l a i m e d f o r fund i n g i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s . SUMMARY I t has been the i n t e n t of t h i s c h apter t o summarise f i r s t , the l i t e r a t u r e on s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e s ; second, the frameworks f o r d e s c r i b i n g s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r behaviour; and t h i r d , the l i t e r a t u r e on s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n funding i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The next c h a p t e r i n t h i s t h e s i s d e s c r i b e s i n d e t a i l the methodology t o be used. 1 3 That the two means d i f f e r by a f a c t o r o f t h r e e should be understood t o mean t h a t the average number o f students c l a i m e d f o r fund i n g i n a d i s t r i c t i n the upper q u a r t i l e i s 32 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY T h i s c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s . The t h r e e s e c t i o n s a r e : sample s e l e c t i o n , data c o l l e c t i o n , and data a n a l y s i s . The chapter w i l l conclude w i t h a s h o r t summary of the methodology used i n t h i s study. SAMPLE SELECTION The sample f o r t h i s study was s e l e c t e d u s i n g c r i t e r i o n -based s e l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . I n i t i a l l y , d i s t r i c t s chosen f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the sample were s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s o f numbers of students claimed f o r funding purposes i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s , as a percentage o f t o t a l d i s t r i c t e n rollment. T h i s i s r e f e r r e d t o as "maximum v a r i a t i o n sampling" (Patton, 1980). These procedures w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l i n the s e c t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w . The c r i t e r i a f or sample se l e c t i o n . In or d e r t o ensure t h a t d i s t r i c t s s e l e c t e d f o r the sample r e p r e s e n t e d the t h r e e times the average number claimed i n a d i s t r i c t i n the lower q u a r t i l e . 33 extremes i n numbers of students i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s , B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s were arranged i n descending o r d er based on the number o f students i n those c a t e g o r i e s . The sample was s e l e c t e d from the extremes of t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h a t i s , the uppermost t e n and the lowermost t e n 1 4 . W i t h i n these twenty d i s t r i c t s , two c r i t e r i a were used f o r f i n a l s e l e c t i o n : ( 1 ) having a s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r i n the d i s t r i c t , and ( 2 ) the d i s t r i c t i n d i c a t i n g a w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. Having a sp e c i a l education administrator. E i g h t of the twenty d i s t r i c t s o r i g i n a l l y s e l e c t e d d i d not have a s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r . T h i s l e f t twelve d i s t r i c t s t o be approached f o r w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. Willingness to p a r t i c i p a t e . The Superintendent o f Schools was approached by l e t t e r , r e q u e s t i n g h i s / h e r p e r m i s s i o n f o r the d i s t r i c t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. A copy of t h i s l e t t e r i s shown i n Appendix # 2 . E l e v e n of the twelve s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s who were approached gave t h e i r p e r m i s s i o n f o r the d i s t r i c t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. 1 4 The c h o i c e of t e n d i s t r i c t s a t e i t h e r end of the d i s t r i b u t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a compromise between choosing d i s t r i c t s a t the extremes of the d i s t r i b u t i o n , and having a sample of reasonable s i z e . 34 These e l e v e n d i s t r i c t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were then c o n t a c t e d by phone. The nature o f the study was e x p l a i n e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y the o p t i o n o f the a d m i n i s t r a t o r t o withdraw a t any time, and h i s / h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study s o l i c i t e d . A l l of the elev e n agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. The d i s t r i c t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c o n t a c t . Up t o t h i s p o i n t , I have used the term " s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r " r a t h e r l o o s e l y . By s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r , I mean t h a t person i n the d i s t r i c t l i s t e d as the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c o n t a c t by the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n and h o l d i n g a p o s i t i o n which i n c l u d e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , i . e . , D i r e c t o r o f I n s t r u c t i o n , S u p e r v i s o r o f S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s , D i s t r i c t P r i n c i p a l o r V i c e - P r i n c i p a l , or D i s t r i c t C o u n s e l l o r . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study were these s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c o n t a c t s . The sample, t h e r e f o r e , i n c l u d e d o n l y a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who were the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c o n t a c t s , who were w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study, and who work i n d i s t r i c t s a t one of the extremes of the d i s t r i b u t i o n i n number of students i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s c l a i m e d f o r funding. 35 DATA COLLECTION The s e l e c t i o n o f a s u i t a b l e methodology f o r a study i s e s s e n t i a l i f the data c o l l e c t e d are going t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the purposes of the study. A c c o r d i n g l y , data f o r the pr e s e n t study were c o l l e c t e d d i r e c t l y from the M i n i s t r y o f Ed u c a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the numbers of students c l a i m e d f o r funding, and from s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s . The data from s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were c o l l e c t e d u s i n g an i n t e r v i e w format. T h i s s e c t i o n on data c o l l e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the type of i n t e r v i e w used. The I n t e r v i e w The extended i n t e r v i e w has been one of the t o o l s i n the q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h t r a d i t i o n f o r some time (Simons, 1981; Spradley, 1979; Paul, 1953; Nadel, 1939). Denzin suggests t h a t p a r t i c u l a r types o f i n t e r v i e w s a re a p p r o p r i a t e t o c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s . He observes t h a t , ...the u n s t r u c t u r e d nonstandardised i n t e r v i e w i s b e s t s u i t e d f o r e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d i e s , w h i l e the s t r u c t u r e d , scheduled, s t a n d a r d i s e d i n t e r v i e w i s b e s t s u i t e d f o r hy p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g and r i g o r o u s q u a n t i f i c a t i o n o f r e s u l t s (Denzin, 1970: 126). 36 Because t h i s study i s e x p l o r a t o r y i n nature 5 but uses a p r e - e x i s t i n g c o n c e p t u a l framework, an i n t e r v i e w format was chosen t h a t c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as having f e a t u r e s o f both i d e a l t ypes, a s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w . A f u r t h e r u s e f u l d i s t i n c t i o n among i n t e r v i e w types i s p r o v i d e d by Spradley. Spradley i d e n t i f i e s two types o f i n t e r v i e w s , but c l a s s i f i e s the types a c c o r d i n g t o the r o l e p l a y e d by the person b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d (Spradley, 1979). When the person b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d a c t s as a s u b j e c t , i . e . , when the i n f o r m a t i o n they p r o v i d e i s used t o t e s t a s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s i s , the r e s e a r c h e r imposes a p r e s e l e c t e d c o n c e p t u a l framework upon the responses of the s u b j e c t s . By c o n t r a s t , when the person b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d a c t s as an informant, the r e s e a r c h e r takes g r e a t care, so f a r as i s p o s s i b l e , not t o impose h i s / h e r own conceptual framework upon the informant's responses. I t was deemed most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s study t o reg a r d the i n t e r v i e w e e s as s u b j e c t s , s i n c e the use of the framework of r o l e p r i o r i t i e s imposes a p r e - e x i s t i n g c o n c e p t u a l framework upon the s u b j e c t s ' responses. The i n t e r v i e w w i l l use Cuban's framework t o s t r u c t u r e the s u b j e c t s ' responses. • L D No one t o my knowledge has attempted t o study the p r i o r i t i e s t h a t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia a s s i g n t o the v a r i o u s aspects o f t h e i r r o l e . 37 The Semi-Structured Interview The data f o r t h i s study were c o l l e c t e d u s i n g a semi-s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w . The i n t e r v i e w s t r u c t u r e was imposed by the need t o ensure t h a t a l l t h r e e areas o f Cuban's r o l e s were addressed by each of the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . The i n t e r v i e w process w i l l be d e s c r i b e d , from the i n t e r v i e w i t s e l f through i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t i o n t o response v a l i d a t i o n . The interview process. F o l l o w i n g the u s u a l c o u r t e s i e s , the purpose of the study was e x p l a i n e d , and p e r m i s s i o n was sought t o tape r e c o r d the i n t e r v i e w 1 6 . The i n t e r v i e w e e was reminded t h a t he/she c o u l d opt out of the i n t e r v i e w a t any time and t h a t the tapes and t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f the i n t e r v i e w would be r e t u r n e d t o him/her a t the c o n c l u s i o n o f the study. The i n t e r v i e w e e was then asked t o i n d i c a t e h i s / h e r agreement w i t h these c o n d i t i o n s by s i g n i n g a l e t t e r o f i n t e n t (see Appendix #2). The interview questions. The q u e s t i o n s were s t r u c t u r e d t o a s c e r t a i n the p r i o r i t y a s s i g n e d by the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o each of Cuban's t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s . The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were g i v e n a document l i s t i n g the t h r e e r o l e s (see Appendix #3), wit h each of them d e s c r i b e d u s i n g o n l y 1 6 A l l the respondents agreed t o be tape recorded' 38 Cuban's own d e s c r i p t o r s . Each of the i n t e r v i e w e e s were asked t o read the d e s c r i p t i o n o f Cuban's t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s , and t o p r i o r i t i s e the t h r e e r o l e s i n terms of t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r own work. The i n t e r v i e w e e s were then asked the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e q u e s t i o n s . F i r s t , "You d e s c r i b e d the r o l e as having the h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y i n you own work. Would you g i v e me some f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f what the r o l e means f o r you working as a s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . " Second, "You d e s c r i b e d the r o l e as having an i n t e r m e d i a t e p r i o r i t y i n your own work. Would you g i v e me some f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f what the means f o r you working i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . " T h i r d , "You d e s c r i b e d the r o l e as having the lowest p r i o r i t y i n your own work. Would you g i v e me some f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f what the means f o r you working i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . When any responses were u n c l e a r o r r e q u i r e d e l a b o r a t i o n the i n t e r v i e w e e s were asked t o c l a r i f y o r a m p l i f y t h e i r responses. The i n t e r v i e w e e s were a l s o asked i f t h e r e were important a c t i v i t i e s i n which they engaged as s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s which d i d not f i t i n t o the t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s d e f i n e d by Cuban. 39 Respondent V a l i d a t i o n T h i s i s the pro c e s s o f having respondents v a l i d a t e , and change i f they t h i n k necessary, the content o f the i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t i o n (Bloor, 1978; Hammersly and A t k i n s o n , 1983; Woods, 1986). The t r a n s c r i p t o f the i n t e r v i e w was r e t u r n e d t o each i n t e r v i e w e e and he/she was asked t o ensure t h a t i t a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t e d the p r i o r i t i e s he/she a s s i g n e d h i s / h e r r o l e as d i s t r i c t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r . Having made any necessary changes, the i n t e r v i e w e e was asked t o r e t u r n the amended copy of the t r a n s c r i p t t o the author. Upon r e c e i p t o f the amended t r a n s c r i p t , the respondent's changes were made i n the f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t . DATA ANALYSIS The data from the i n t e r v i e w s comprise two d i s c r e t e s e t s . The f i r s t i s the p r i o r i t i e s a s s i g n e d by s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o Cuban's t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s ; t he second i s the i n t e r v i e w e e s ' responses t o the qu e s t i o n s a s k i n g them t o g i v e a f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f what each o f Cuban's t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s meant f o r them. The f i r s t data s e t , the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r own r o l e p r i o r i t i e s , was analysed by d i s p l a y i n g the data i n a m a t r i x . The second data s e t , the i n t e r v i e w e e s ' responses t o the q u e s t i o n s a s k i n g them t o g i v e f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f 40 what each of Cuban's t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s means f o r them, was ana l y s e d u s i n g content a n a l y s i s . The Data D i s p l a y M a t r i x The data on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r i o r i t y a s s i g n e d t o the t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s and the l e v e l o f fundi n g i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s were d i s p l a y e d i n a matrix. T a b l e I I . Data d i s p l a y matrix. D i s t r i c t Name Funding P r i o r i t y A s s i g n e d t o Cuban's L e v e l Three Core A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Roles Low/High 1 F i r s t Second T h i r d Worton C o u n t e r s e t t S t a l l i n g Busk Carperby Semerwater Hardraw B a i n b r i d g e Nappa Thornton Rust Hawes Addleborough 1. H means High p r o p o r t i o n o f students c l a i m e d as a percentage o f t o t a l e n rollment. L means Low p r o p o r t i o n o f students claimed as a percentage o f t o t a l e n rollment. T h i s m a t r i x p e r m i t t e d the i n t e r v i e w data t o be d i s p l a y e d v i s u a l l y and t o look f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s by i n s p e c t i o n . To a s c e r t a i n i f the i n t e r v i e w e e s i n t e r p r e t e d Cuban's r o l e c a t e g o r i e s i n the manner intended, the i n t e r v i e w e e s ' d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n each of t he t h r e e r o l e s were content a n a l y s e d . Content A n a l y s i s "Content A n a l y s i s may be d e f i n e d as r e f e r r i n g t o any technique a) f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s i g n v e h i c l e s , b) which r e l i e s s o l e l y upon the judgements (which t h e o r e t i c a l l y , may range from p e r c e p t u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t o sheer guesses) o f an a n a l y s t o r group of a n a l y s t s as t o which s i g n v e h i c l e s f a l l i n t o which c a t e g o r i e s , c) on the b a s i s o f formulated r u l e s , d) p r o v i d e d t h a t the a u t h o r s ' judgements are regarded as the r e p o r t s o f a s c i e n t i f i c observer ( J a n i s , 1949: 55 c i t e d i n Kr i p p e n d o r f , 1980: 3). The " s i g n v e h i c l e s " t o be c l a s s i f i e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s are the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' responses t o the t h r e e q u e s t i o n s a s k i n g them t o g i v e f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n s of what each of Cuban's t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s meant f o r them. The responses t o the t h r e e i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s were an a l y s e d i n t h r e e s t e p s . F i r s t , a l l the d e s c r i p t i o n s of a c t i v i t i e s g i v e n by the i n t e r v i e w e e s were a s s i g n e d on the b a s i s of i n s p e c t i o n , t o one of Cuban's t h r e e core r o l e s . Second, each d e s c r i p t i o n was compared t o Cuban's l i s t o f a c t i v i t i e s and a d e c i s i o n made as t o whether the d e s c r i b e d a c t i v i t y d i d or d i d not, correspond t o one of Cuban's t h r e e r o l e s . The d e c i s i o n as t o which a c t i v i t i e s f i t t e d Cuban's l i s t s and which d i d not f i t was based upon the author's 42 judgement. For example " I f I see a need f o r um, a t e a c h e r needing t o address a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f a c t i v i t y o r procedure i n the classroom I ' l l mention t h a t " , was c o n s i d e r e d t o f i t Cuban's "Helping t e a c h e r s improve t h e i r pedagogy", a c t i v i t y f o r the I n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e . L i k e w i s e , " P u t t i n g t o g e t h e r a p l a n , you know f o r f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n and growth", was c o n s i d e r e d t o f i t Cuban's "Planning, d e c i s i o n making" a c t i v i t y f o r the managerial r o l e . By c o n t r a s t "I do the s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s s t a f f i n g " was c o n s i d e r e d as not matching any of Cuban's a c t i v i t i e s f o r the P o l i t i c a l r o l e . S i m i l a r l y "Persuading people t o accept s p e c i a l needs k i d s " , was c o n s i d e r e d as not matching any o f Cuban's a c t i v i t i e s f o r the Managerial r o l e . T h i r d , those t h a t were not c l a s s i f i e d w i t h i n Cuban's d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s were r e t a i n e d . T h i s data subset, which l i s t e d the a c t i v i t i e s i n which s p e c i a l educators engage which do not f i t Cuban's t h r e e r o l e s , was ana l y s e d s e p a r a t e l y . SUMMARY T h i s chapter was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s , namely: sample s e l e c t i o n , data c o l l e c t i o n , and data a n a l y s i s . The s e c t i o n on sample s e l e c t i o n d e s c r i b e d the p r o c e s s o f maximum v a r i a t i o n sampling t h a t was used i n the study. Data were c o l l e c t e d u s i n g a s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w which ensured t h a t a l l t h r e e o f Cuban's a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s were 43 addressed by each of the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . The data from these i n t e r v i e w s y i e l d e d two d i s c r e t e data s e t s . The f i r s t , the p r i o r i t i e s a s s i g n e d by s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o Cuban's t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o l e v e l o f funding, was anal y s e d u s i n g a data d i s p l a y m a t r i x . The second, the i n t e r v i e w e e s ' responses t o the t h r e e q u e s t i o n s a s k i n g them t o g i v e f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n s of what each of Cuban's t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s meant f o r them, was ana l y s e d u s i n g content a n a l y s i s . Chapter f o u r w i l l p r e s e n t the f i n d i n g s and chapter f i v e w i l l p r e s e n t c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t can be drawn from the f i n d i n g s . 44 CHAPTER 4 . FINDINGS The purpose of t h i s chapter i s t o p r e s e n t the f i n d i n g s from each o f the t h r e e phases of data a n a l y s i s The c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e main s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t and second s e c t i o n s r e p o r t r e s p e c t i v e l y the r o l e p r i o r i t i e s - f u n d i n g l e v e l and content a n a l y s i s f i n d i n g s . The t h i r d s e c t i o n summarises the f i n d i n g s from each a n a l y s i s . ROLE PRIORITIES AND FUNDING LEVEL At the b e g i n n i n g of the i n t e r v i e w the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were asked t o p r i o r i t i s e Cuban's t h r e e r o l e s of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e behaviour i n terms of t h e i r own work. The combinations o f r o l e p r i o r i t i e s and l e v e l o f f u n d i n g w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . 45 Funding L e v e l and A s s i g n e d Role P r i o r i t i e s Of the twelve p o s s i b l e combinations of f u n d i n g l e v e l and r o l e p r i o r i t y o n l y f i v e a c t u a l l y o c c u r r e d (with one a d m i n i s t r a t o r r e f u s i n g t o g i v e d i f f e r e n t i a l p r i o r i t y t o any of the r o l e s ) . These combinations are d i s p l a y e d i n Table I I I . W i t h i n each o f the funding l e v e l s t h e r e are s i x p o s s i b l e combinations of r o l e p r i o r i t i e s ; t h e r e f o r e , the maximum number o f p o s s i b l e combinations i s twelve. 46 Table i n . Combinations of funding l e v e l and p r i o r i t i e s a s s i g n e d t o Cuban's t h r e e r o l e s . D i s t r i c t Name Funding L e v e l P r i o r i t y A ssigned t o Cuban's Three Core A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Roles. Low/High 1 F i r s t Second T h i r d Worton L I M P C o u n t e r s e t t L I M P S t a l l i n g Bus L I P M Carperby L I 2 M P Semerwater L I M P Hardraw L I M P B a i n b r i d g e H P M I Nappa H P 3 M I Thornton Rust H 4 4 4 Hawes H M I P Addleborough H M I P 1. H means High p r o p o r t i o n o f students c l a i m e d as a percentage of t o t a l e n rollment. L means Low p r o p o r t i o n o f students claimed as a percentage o f t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t . 2. T h i s a d m i n i s t r a t o r d i s t i n g u i s h e d between what he saw as i d e a l r o l e s and what the e x i g e n c i e s o f the j o b f o r c e d him t o do. The r o l e p r i o r i t i e s r e p o r t e d here are the i d e a l ones. 3. The s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r i n t h i s i n t e r v i e w d e c l i n e d t o g i v e d i f f e r e n t i a l p r i o r i t y t o any of the r o l e s . However, d u r i n g the course of the i n t e r v i e w the p r i o r i t i e s he a s s i g n e d became obvious, and he confirmed these p r i o r i t i e s . 4. T h i s a d m i n i s t r a t o r d e c l i n e d t o i d e n t i f y any of the r o l e s as having d i f f e r e n t i a l p r i o r i t y ; he d i d not change t h i s stance d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w . 47 In the low funded d i s t r i c t s , a l l s i x s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a s s i g n e d f i r s t p r i o r i t y t o the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e , f i v e out of s i x a s s i g n e d second p r i o r i t y t o the managerial r o l e , and f i v e out of s i x a s s i g n e d t h i r d p r i o r i t y t o the p o l i t i c a l r o l e . T h i s suggests t h a t f o r the low funded d i s t r i c t s sampled i n t h i s study t h e r e i s a s y s t e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s r o l e p r i o r i t i e s and the l e v e l of funding r e c e i v e d i n these d i s t r i c t s . No s i m i l a r p a t t e r n i n the r o l e p r i o r i t i e s a s s i g n e d by the f i v e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who worked i n h i g h funded d i s t r i c t s was apparent. Two out o f f i v e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s gave f i r s t p r i o r i t y t o the p o l i t i c a l r o l e and two out of f i v e gave f i r s t p r i o r i t y t o the managerial r o l e . Two out of f i v e gave second p r i o r i t y t o the p o l i t i c a l r o l e and two out of the f i v e gave second p r i o r i t y t o the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e . Two a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a s s i g n e d t h i r d p r i o r i t y t o the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e and two t o the p o l i t i c a l r o l e 1 8 . A l l t h a t can be s a i d of the p a t t e r n of r o l e p r i o r i t i e s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who work i n d i s t r i c t s w i t h h i g h l e v e l s of funding i s t h a t the f o u r who were prepared t o a s s i g n d i f f e r e n t i a l p r i o r i t y t o Cuban's t h r e e r o l e s , a l l a s s i g n e d f i r s t p r i o r i t y t o r o l e s o t h e r than the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l 1 8 One a d m i n i s t r a t o r working i n a h i g h funded d i s t r i c t r e f u s e d t o g i v e d i f f e r e n t i a l p r i o r i t y t o any of the r o l e s . 48 r o l e i n b e i n g a s s i g n e d f i r s t p r i o r i t y by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n low funded d i s t r i c t s , and being a s s i g n e d a p r i o r i t y lower than the f i r s t p r i o r i t y by the f o u r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s working i n h i g h funded d i s t r i c t s who were w i l l i n g t o a s s i g n d i f f e r e n t i a l p r i o r i t y t o the t h r e e r o l e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n chapter f i v e . Content A n a l y s i s The r e s u l t s o f the content a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l o f the a c t i v i t i e s d e s c r i b e d by the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s c o u l d be judged as matching one of Cuban's t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s . T h i s f i n d i n g suggests t h a t based on the v e r y s m a l l n o n - r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample used i n the study, t h a t Cuban's framework of a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s i s a b l e t o encompass w i t h i n the a s s i g n e d r o l e p r i o r i t i e s the h i g h degree of v a r i a b i l i t y i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r behaviour r e f e r r e d t o i n the l i t e r a t u r e review. T h i s i s perhaps c o n t r a r y t o e x p e c t a t i o n s as Cuban's framework was not o r i g i n a l l y c r e a t e d f o r use w i t h s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . 49 Administrator A c t i v i t i e s Cuban's t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s were developed from r e s e a r c h w i t h p r i n c i p a l s and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s . How a p p l i c a b l e the t h r e e r o l e s might be t o the work o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s was c o n j e c t u r a l . F o l l o w i n g the t h r e e q u e s t i o n s which addressed the p r i o r i t y a s s i g n e d t o each o f Cuban's t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s , each s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r was asked t o i n d i c a t e i f t h e r e were important a c t i v i t i e s i n which he/she engaged as a s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r which d i d not seem t o f i t i n t o any of Cuban's t h r e e r o l e s . The f i n d i n g c o n c e r n i n g the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of Cuban's t h r e e r o l e s t o s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . A c t i v i t i e s not related to Cuban's three administrative r o l e s . A l l of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s answered t h i s q u e s t i o n i n the n e g a t i v e i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e r e were no important a c t i v i t i e s i n which they engaged t h a t were not covered by one of the t h r e e r o l e s . However, f o u r of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s d i d q u a l i f y t h e i r answers, which suggests t h a t t h e r e may be some a c t i v i t i e s i n which s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s engage which are not subsumed w i t h i n Cuban's t h r e e r o l e s . What f o l l o w s i s a b r i e f a n a l y s i s o f e x c e r p t s from the q u a l i f y i n g d e t a i l of each a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s response. 50 "The r a p p o r t t h a t i s r e q u i r e d w i t h people" ( I n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t page f i v e , l i n e s 5 and 6, Carperby School D i s t r i c t ) . T h i s c o u l d reasonably be i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e as "The means p r i n c i p a l s use t o persuade a d u l t s t o a l t e r b e l i e f s and behaviour i n moving towards g o a l s t h a t the p r i n c i p a l seeks" (Cuban, 1986: 113), o r w i t h i n the p o l i t i c a l r o l e as "Working w i t h and through people t o get done what needs t o be done i n an u n p r e d i c t a b l e , u n c e r t a i n world" Cuban, 1988: 139). " S t a y i n g i n c o n t a c t w i t h support s t a f f " ( I nterview t r a n s c r i p t page t h r e e , l i n e s 27 and 28, C o u n t e r s e t t School D i s t r i c t ) . The purpose f o r s t a y i n g i n c o n t a c t w i t h support s t a f f c o u l d be f o r "Shaping the m i s s i o n o f the d i s t r i c t " (Cuban, 1988: 133) p a r t o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e as d e f i n e d by Cuban. However, " S t a y i n g i n c o n t a c t w i t h support s t a f f " , c o u l d e q u a l l y w e l l be p a r t o f the managerial o r p o l i t i c a l r o l e s dependent upon the reason f o r s t a y i n g i n c o n t a c t w i t h those s t a f f . "There are two t h i n g s a c t u a l l y t h a t come t o mind. One i s advocacy and the oth e r i s working w i t h p a r e n t s " (Interview t r a n s c r i p t page seven, l i n e s 6 and 7, Addleborough School D i s t r i c t ) . Advocacy i s d e s c r i b e d i n the C o l l i n s Thesaurus (McLeod, 1987: 17) as ^support' which c o i n c i d e s w i t h Cuban's d e s c r i p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s i n a c t i o n , "To b u i l d support f o r or overcome o p p o s i t i o n t o what the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s desire"(Cuban, 1986: 115). 51 Regarding "Working wi t h p a r e n t s " , the a d m i n i s t r a t o r expanded upon t h i s p o i n t t o i n d i c a t e t h a t he meant, "we b r i n g p a r e n t s i n and i n v o l v e them and i n v o l v e the k i d too i n our d e c i s i o n making". T h i s c o u l d be l e g i t i m a t e l y viewed as b u i l d i n g support w i t h p a r e n t s , which i s an a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the p o l i t i c a l r o l e as d e s c r i b e d by Cuban. "There would be a s o c i a l r o l e . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n a s m a l l e r community, when, i f I l i v e d i n Vancouver f o r example and went g r o c e r y shopping, I would not be v i s i b l e , but i f I go g r o c e r y shopping i n B a i n b r i d g e I'm not anonymous. I'm the D i r e c t o r of I n s t r u c t i o n w i t h a l l the attendant myths and b e l i e f s t h a t go w i t h i t " (Interview t r a n s c r i p t page f o u r , l i n e s 38 through 48, B a i n b r i d g e School D i s t r i c t ) . The s o c i a l r o l e as d e s c r i b e d by the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r i n the B a i n b r i d g e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of working i n a h i g h l y v i s i b l e p o s i t i o n i n a s m a l l town, but may be an i n f o r m a l aspect of a s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s r o l e not covered w i t h i n Cuban's t h r e e core r o l e s . I t h i n k i t i s reasonable t o a s s e r t , w i t h i n the l i m i t s imposed by t h i s s m a l l sample, t h a t Cuban's t h r e e core r o l e s of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e behaviour are d e s c r i p t i v e of the a c t i v i t i e s undertaken by s p e c i a l educators i n B r i t i s h Columbia. SUMMARY The f i n d i n g s d e r i v e d from the a n a l y s i s o f the combinations of r o l e p r i o r i t i e s and l e v e l o f funding, and the a c t i v i t i e s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s as they r e l a t e t o Cuban's t h r e e core r o l e s have been pre s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . In low funded d i s t r i c t s sampled i n t h i s study t h e r e i s a s y s t e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' r o l e p r i o r i t i e s and the l e v e l o f fun d i n g r e c e i v e d i n d i s t r i c t s w i t h low l e v e l s o f fu n d i n g ; however, no d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n o c c u r r e d i n the r o l e p r i o r i t i e s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s working i n h i g h funded d i s t r i c t s . The f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g the combinations of fu n d i n g l e v e l and the r o l e a s s i g n e d h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n low funded d i s t r i c t s a l l the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s gave the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y , whereas i n h i g h funded d i s t r i c t s none o f the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s gave the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y . The second s e t of f i n d i n g s concerned the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of Cuban's t h r e e core r o l e s t o the a c t i v i t i e s d e s c r i b e d by the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . A content a n a l y s i s o f the a c t i v i t i e s d e s c r i b e d by the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l the a c t i v i t i e s matched one of Cuban's t h r e e r o l e s . Although none of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s s a i d t h a t they engaged i n any a c t i v i t i e s which d i d not f i t any of Cuban's t h r e e r o l e s , f o u r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s p r o v i d e d q u a l i f y i n g d e t a i l s t o t h e i r responses. The i m p l i c a t i o n s these f i n d i n g s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter f i v e . 54 CHAPTER 5. SUMMARY/ CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS T h i s f i r s t s e c t i o n o f the chapter summarises the purpose, r a t i o n a l e , methodology and f i n d i n g s o f the study. F o l l o w i n g t h i s summary, c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t he f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s and the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f Cuban's framework t o s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a re presented. The chapter concludes w i t h a s e c t i o n o u t l i n i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the study f o r both p r a c t i c e and r e s e a r c h . SUMMARY T h i s s e c t i o n summarises the purpose and r a t i o n a l e o f the study, the review o f the l i t e r a t u r e , the methodology employed and the f i n d i n g s . The s e c t i o n concludes w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t might be drawn from the f i n d i n g s . The purpose o f t h i s study was t o a s c e r t a i n whether o r not the v a r i a t i o n s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s can be adequately d e s c r i b e d w i t h i n the framework of Cuban's t h r e e c o r e r o l e s and i f so, i s t h i s v a r i a t i o n 55 s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o v a r i a t i o n s i n the number of students c l a i m e d i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s . I f , i n f a c t , such a s y s t e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p does e x i s t i t may have consequences f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of f u n d i n g formulas and f o r conceptions of the r o l e of the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r . Three l i t e r a t u r e s were reviewed: (1) the r o l e o f the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r , (2) frameworks f o r d e s c r i b i n g s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r behaviour, and (3) s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n funding i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g the r o l e of the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r was, w i t h o n l y one e x c e p t i o n , i n agreement as t o the h i g h degree of v a r i a b i l i t y i n the behaviour of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . I t was suggested t h a t due t o the demographic nature of B r i t i s h Columbia, the most a p p r o p r i a t e d e s c r i p t i v e frameworks were those developed f o r use i n s m a l l r u r a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . The framework developed by Cuban was chosen t o examine s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r behaviour i n t h i s study because of i t s c u r r e n t nature and because the t h r e e core r o l e s of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as d e s c r i b e d by Cuban were c o n s i d e r e d t o encompass the v a r i a b i l i t y of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r behaviour and t o correspond w i t h my own t h r e e s t e r e o t y p e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r behaviour. The funding mechanism i n e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i . e . , the " f i s c a l framework" was d e s c r i b e d and a l i t t l e o f i t s h i s t o r i c a l background summarised. 56 The methodology f o r the study i n v o l v e d the c o l l e c t i o n o f two s e t s of data. Data on numbers o f students c l a i m e d f o r f u n d i n g were c o l l e c t e d d i r e c t l y from the M i n i s t r y of Ed u c a t i o n . Data on v a r i a b i l i t y i n r o l e p r i o r i t i e s were c o l l e c t e d u s i n g a s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w w i t h s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of numbers of students c l a i m e d f o r funding purposes i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s as a percentage of d i s t r i c t e n r o l l m e n t . The f o l l o w i n g paragraph summarises the f i n d i n g s r e s u l t i n g from the a n a l y s i s of data i n each p a r t of the i n t e r v i e w . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study emerge from two sep a r a t e data s e t s : the combination of r o l e p r i o r i t i e s and l e v e l of funding, and the responses of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o the q u e s t i o n a s k i n g them t o g i v e examples of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t they undertook w i t h i n each r o l e . In the d i s t r i c t s c l a i m i n g low numbers of students i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s , f i v e out of s i x s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s p r i o r i t i s e d the r o l e s i n t h i s order: I n s t r u c t i o n a l , M a n a g e r i a l , P o l i t i c a l . I t i s noteworthy t h a t , i n t h i s low funding l e v e l group, a l l s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s accorded t h e i r h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y t o the I n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e No such d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n of p r i o r i t i e s o c c u r r e d i n the r o l e p r i o r i t i e s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s working i n d i s t r i c t s w i t h h i g h numbers of students c l a i m e d f o r fund i n g i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s . I t i s 57 a l s o noteworthy t h a t , i n t h i s h i g h funding group, two a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a s s i g n e d f i r s t p r i o r i t y t o the p o l i t i c a l r o l e and two a s s i g n e d f i r s t p r i o r i t y t o the managerial r o l e . None of these a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a s s i g n e d f i r s t p r i o r i t y t o the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e . The a c t i v i t i e s d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g undertaken by the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were s u b j e c t e d t o content a n a l y s i s t o a s c e r t a i n i f t h e r e were any a c t i v i t i e s which c o u l d be judged as not matching one of Cuban's t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s . In a d d i t i o n , the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were asked i f t h e r e were important a c t i v i t i e s i n which they engaged as s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s which d i d not f i t i n t o any of Cuban's t h r e e r o l e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s q u e s t i o n and o f the content a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l the a c t i v i t i e s undertaken by these s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s c o u l d be a s s i g n e d t o one of Cuban's t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s . The c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t can rea s o n a b l y be drawn from these f i n d i n g s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the s e c t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s . CONCLUSIONS The purpose o f t h i s study was t o a s c e r t a i n whether or not the v a r i a t i o n s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s can be adequately d e s c r i b e d w i t h i n the framework 58 o f Cuban's t h r e e core r o l e s and i f so, i s t h i s v a r i a t i o n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o v a r i a t i o n s i n fund i n g l e v e l . The f i r s t c o n c l u s i o n s r e l a t e t o whether or not the v a r i a t i o n s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r behaviour can be adequately d e s c r i b e d w i t h i n the framework of Cuban's t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s . The second c o n c l u s i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s , w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f the study, a s y s t e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s and fundi n g l e v e l s . There f o l l o w e d some s p e c u l a t i o n as t o the e x i s t e n c e o f a f o u r t h r o l e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e behaviour, "a s o c i a l r o l e " . Adequacy o f Cuban's Three Roles The f i n d i n g s from the content a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e t h a t , w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by the sm a l l non-r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample, the v a r i a t i o n s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s can be adeguately d e s c r i b e d w i t h i n the framework of Cuban's t h r e e core r o l e s . T h i s suggests t h a t the c h o i c e of Cuban's t h r e e core r o l e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e behaviour was, g i v e n the l i m i t s o f the study, an adequate con c e p t u a l framework f o r encompassing the v a r i a b i l i t y i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s . More r e s e a r c h would be r e q u i r e d w i t h a l a r g e r , more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample i f we were t o make any t h i n g o t h e r 59 than t h i s t e n t a t i v e statement r e g a r d i n g the adequacy o f Cuban's t h r e e r o l e s f o r d e s c r i b i n g the d i v e r s i t y o f the r o l e p r i o r i t i e s o f s p e c i a l educators. I f , however, f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h were t o demonstrate t h a t Cuban's t h r e e r o l e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e behaviour are an a p p r o p r i a t e instrument f o r d e s c r i b i n g the r o l e p r i o r i t i e s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , then they may have a much wider a p p l i c a t i o n i n s t u d y i n g the r o l e o f these i n d i v i d u a l s . Relationship Between Role P r i o r i t i e s and Funding Level The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r the low funded d i s t r i c t s sampled i n t h i s study, t h e r e i s a s y s t e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r o l e p r i o r i t i e s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and low l e v e l s of funding. However, t h e r e i s no s i m i l a r s y s t e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p among the r o l e p r i o r i t i e s of s p e c i a l educators working i n d i s t r i c t s w i t h h i g h l e v e l s o f f u n d i n g . The common th r e a d t h a t r e l a t e s the r o l e p r i o r i t i e s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s working i n h i g h and low funded d i s t r i c t s i s the p r i o r i t y a s s i g n e d t o the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e . The uniqueness of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e i s t h a t a l l s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s working i n low funded d i s t r i c t s i n the sample a s s i g n e d i t f i r s t p r i o r i t y , and none of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n h i g h funded d i s t r i c t s a s s i g n e d i t f i r s t p r i o r i t y . T h i s suggests t h a t 60 t h e r e i s some f e a t u r e of the p r i o r i t y a s s i g n e d t o the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e t h a t i s p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n t l y by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n h i g h funded as d i s t i n c t those i n low funded d i s t r i c t s . From the content of the i n t e r v i e w s and my own d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h v a r i o u s s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , I would s p e c u l a t e t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who g i v e f i r s t p r i o r i t y t o the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e p r i o r i t i s e t h e i r time and t h e i r e n e r g i e s towards the improvement of i n s t r u c t i o n , a t the expense of time spent i n the p o l i t i c a l and managerial r o l e s t h a t may be necessary t o maximise funding l e v e l s . To c i t e one a d m i n i s t r a t o r who works i n a d i s t r i c t w i t h low l e v e l s of f u n d i n g : "When I get a c r y f o r h e l p from a t e a c h e r , he becomes p r i o r i t y number one no matter what the h e l l I'm d o i n g " (Interview t r a n s c r i p t page 4, l i n e s 10 t o 12 Worton School D i s t r i c t ) . A l l the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s working i n d i s t r i c t s w i t h h i g h l e v e l s of funding, who were w i l l i n g t o a s s i g n d i f f e r e n t i a l p r i o r i t y t o the t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s , a s s i g n e d f i r s t p r i o r i t y t o the p o l i t i c a l or managerial r o l e , not t o the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e . Given the v e r y s m a l l sample s i z e , I would s p e c u l a t e t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s working i n d i s t r i c t s w i t h h i g h l e v e l s of funding put more e f f o r t i n t o the p o l i t i c a l and managerial r o l e s r a t h e r t h a t the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e , and t h a t t h i s may l e a d t o i n c r e a s e d funding. As one a d m i n i s t r a t o r working i n a h i g h funded d i s t r i c t s a i d : 61 "I'm not shy about i n v i t i n g people up, and I do t h a t f r e q u e n t l y when i t seems a p p r o p r i a t e when something f a i r l y n i c e i s happening and i f I need i n p u t o r I have a problem I don't h e s i t a t e i n c a l l i n g them up t o get them onside, so t h a t when i t comes time f o r funding t h e r e i s a t l e a s t some understanding of what we are t r y i n g t o do. I f e e l we get a l i t t l e b e t t e r break because of t h a t " ( I n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t page 4, l i n e s 38 t o 46, Thornton Rust School D i s t r i c t ) . Cuban's Framework and the Special Education Administrator The study p r o v i d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l o r e f u r t h e r the e x t e n t t o which the p a r t i c u l a r case of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s r e f l e c t s the more g e n e r a l case of s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r and superintendent r o l e p r i o r i t i e s . In Chapter Four i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t a l l the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s responded i n the n e g a t i v e t o the q u e s t i o n a s k i n g i f t h e r e were important a c t i v i t i e s i n which they engaged t h a t were not covered by one of Cuban's t h r e e r o l e s . A number of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s v o l u n t e e r e d a c t i v i t i e s which they d i d not view as f a l l i n g w i t h i n any of Cuban's t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s . The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t , w i t h one e x c e p t i o n , a l l these a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d be judged as matching one o f Cuban's t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s . The one e x c e p t i o n was what the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r i n the B a i n b r i d g e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t c a l l e d "a s o c i a l r o l e " . Does t h i s " s o c i a l r o l e " r e f l e c t something unique i n the r o l e o f the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r ? Or, i s the omission o f the s o c i a l 62 r o l e a weakness of Cuban's framework g e n e r a l l y ? At t h i s time, and w i t h the v e r y l i m i t e d nature of the p r e s e n t study, I can conclude t e n t a t i v e l y t h a t t h e r e does appear t o be a s o c i a l r o l e t h a t i s not i n c l u d e d w i t h i n Cuban's t h r e e core r o l e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e behaviour. The s i g n i f i c a n c e , i f any, of the omission of t h i s r o l e would need t o be the s u b j e c t of f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . T h i s s e c t i o n has concluded t h a t Cuban's framework does p r o v i d e an adequate conceptual framework f o r d e s c r i b i n g the v a r i a t i o n s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s , and t h a t i n low funded d i s t r i c t s t h e r e i s a s y s t e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r o l e p r i o r i t i e s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and low l e v e l s o f funding. In a d d i t i o n , i t was suggested t h a t t h e r e i s a unique r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r i o r i t y a s s i g n e d t o the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e and l e v e l o f funding. Two areas f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f these c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the next s e c t i o n . IMPLICATIONS The i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e and r e s e a r c h are d i s c u s s e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the s t r u c t u r i n g o f the fun d i n g mechanism o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , 63 the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h o f the f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g Cuban's t y p o l o g y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . Implications of the Findings for Practice The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the f i n d i n g s f o r p r a c t i c e concern the s t r u c t u r i n g o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f u n d i n g mechanisms, and the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n t h e i r day t o day work as s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . I n i t i a l l y , I w i l l address the i s s u e o f the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the s t r u c t u r i n g o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n funding mechanisms. Implications for special education funding mechanisms. I f i t i s accepted t h a t the p r i o r i t y a s s i g n e d by the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r t o the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e has a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n f o r the numbers of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n students c l a i m e d f o r funding by a d i s t r i c t , then the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a system of c a t e g o r i c a l f u n d i n g i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . G o e t t e l (1978) , i n a study o f " S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n Needs and S t a t e A i d i n New York", suggested t h a t c a t e g o r i c a l s t a t e a i d i s j u s t i f i e d i f , "The p r o p o r t i o n s o f s p e c i a l needs students are unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d among d i s t r i c t s . . . " ( G o e t t e l , 1978: 6). The M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n p r e s e n t l y funds s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s through a system o f c a t e g o r i c a l funding. 64 However, the r e s u l t s of t h i s study t e n t a t i v e l y suggest t h a t the uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of students c l a i m e d f o r f u n d i n g may be i n my view, a t l e a s t as much a f u n c t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' r o l e p r i o r i t i e s as i t i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f the a c t u a l numbers o f students i n d i s t r i c t s r e q u i r i n g s e r v i c e s . I f t h i s i s indeed the case, then the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n i s f a c e d w i t h a dilemma. Should they r e t a i n the p r e s e n t system of c a t e g o r i c a l funding, and accept t h a t c e r t a i n d i s t r i c t s may be c l a i m i n g g r e a t e r numbers of students f o r f u n d i n g than a c t u a l r e q u i r e the s e r v i c e , or, should the M i n i s t r y go t o a system of 'block' or 'capped' fun d i n g which i s unable t o respond t o an unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n among d i s t r i c t s o f students r e q u i r i n g s e r v i c e ? I t i s my p e r s o n a l view t h a t the importance of p r o v i d i n g s u f f i c i e n t funds t o d i s t r i c t s t o meet the uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of s p e c i a l needs students a c r o s s the p r o v i n c e , outweighs the p o s s i b l e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f the f u n d i n g system by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who a s s i g n h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y t o the p o l i t i c a l o r managerial r o l e s One p o s s i b l e change t h a t has a l r e a d y been suggested by M i n i s t r y p e r s o n n e l (Main, 1988) would be t o s u b s t i t u t e f o r the p r e s e n t r e p o r t i n g procedure based on s p e c i f i c d i a g n o s t i c c a t e g o r i e s , a r e p o r t i n g procedure based upon the s t u d e n t s ' need f o r s e r v i c e . However, whether such a system would more a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t the number of students a c t u a l l y r e q u i r i n g s e r v i c e i s c o n j e c t u r a l . 6 5 Implications for the s p e c i a l education administrator. T h i s study has suggested the p o s s i b i l i t y of a s y s t e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r o l e p r i o r i t i e s of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and the numbers of students c l a i m e d f o r f u n d i n g i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s . S p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s working i n low funded d i s t r i c t s should be aware t h a t t h e i r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s c o u l d have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the l e v e l o f f u n d i n g r e c e i v e d by the d i s t r i c t . I have s p e c u l a t e d t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who g i v e f i r s t p r i o r i t y t o the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e p r i o r i t i s e t h e i r time and t h e i r e n e r g i e s towards the improvement of i n s t r u c t i o n , a t the expense o f time spent i n the p o l i t i c a l and managerial r o l e s t h a t may be necessary t o maximise fun d i n g l e v e l s . I f t h i s i s indeed the case, then i t i m p l i e s t h a t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who g i v e f i r s t p r i o r i t y t o the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e p r e j u d i c e the l e v e l of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n funding b e i n g r e c e i v e d by the d i s t r i c t . I t a l s o suggests t h a t i f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s wish t o maximise the funds r e c e i v e d by t h e i r d i s t r i c t (and thus p r o v i d e the g r e a t e s t l e v e l of f i n a n c i a l support f o r the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programs f o r which they are r e s p o n s i b l e ) , they s h o u l d examine t h e i r a l l o c a t i o n of p r i o r i t i e s and time, so as t o g i v e more time t o the p o l i t i c a l and managerial r o l e s . The s e c t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s makes sugg e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h based on the c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s from the study. 66 Suggestions f o r Further Research Three p o s s i b l e areas f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h have been suggested r e g a r d i n g the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f Cuban's t h r e e r o l e s : r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g uniqueness of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between the r o l e p r i o r i t i e s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s working i n h i g h and low funded d i s t r i c t s , the importance or otherwise of a s o c i a l r o l e i n the r o l e p r i o r i t i e s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r o l e p r i o r i t i e s and d i s t r i c t outcomes ot h e r than funding l e v e l w i t h i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f Cuban's framework of a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s both t o r e g u l a r and s p e c i a l educators i s r e q u i r e d . The next s e c t i o n w i l l address these areas of p o s s i b l e f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . Uniqueness of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e . In the f i n d i n g s from t h i s study, the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e stands out as unique. In the r o l e p r i o r i t i e s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , i t i s the o n l y p r i o r i t y t h a t appears t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between a d m i n i s t r a t o r s working i n h i g h funded and low funded d i s t r i c t s . The reasons f o r t h i s uniqueness of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e are c o n j e c t u r a l , and f u r t h e r study would be r e q u i r e d t o e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the p r i o r i t y a s s i g n e d t o the i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e by the s p e c i a l 67 e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r and l e v e l o f fund i n g r e c e i v e d by a d i s t r i c t . I t c o u l d be t h a t the q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l o f funding and r o l e p r i o r i t i e s s h ould be formulated w i t h i n the broader framework of understanding human i n t e n t i o n and meaning. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between ro l e p r i o r i t i e s and funding l e v e l . G r e e n f i e l d has suggested t h a t : The b a s i c problem i n the study o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s t h a t o f understanding human i n t e n t i o n and meaning. P a r t o f the complexity i n t h i s problem i s found i n the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t people can a c t p u r p o s e f u l l y and y e t b r i n g about consequences t h a t a re wh o l l y unintended f o r themselves and f o r o t h e r s ( G r e e n f i e l d , 1980:26). I t may be t h a t the r o l e p r i o r i t i e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s c o u l d p r o v i d e some understanding o f human i n t e n t i o n and meaning, and t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these r o l e p r i o r i t i e s and funding l e v e l may shed some l i g h t on the consequences of the p u r p o s e f u l a c t s o f people (the people i n t h i s i n s t a n c e b e i n g e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ) . To e s t a b l i s h the v i a b i l i t y o f t h i s c o n t e n t i o n , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on r o l e p r i o r i t i e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s as they r e l a t e both t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l outcomes and funding l e v e l would be necessary. A p p l i c a b i l i t y of Cuban's framework of administrator r o l e p r i o r i t i e s both to regular and spe c i a l educators. Responses from one of the s p e c i a l educators i n t e r v i e w e d 68 suggested t h a t a " s o c i a l r o l e " s hould be i n c l u d e d w i t h the Manager i a l , P o l i t i c a l and I n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e s . More r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d , f i r s t t o e s t a b l i s h the r e l e v a n c e of Cuban's framework of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e p r i o r i t i e s t o both r e g u l a r and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and, second, t o e s t a b l i s h i f a " s o c i a l r o l e " should be added t o the o t h e r t h r e e r o l e s . As I commented i n the l i t e r a t u r e review, Cuban's framework does appear t o encompass the v a r i a b i l i t y of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r behaviour. What i s now r e q u i r e d i s more r e s e a r c h t o e s t a b l i s h i f t h a t i s indeed the case. Perhaps the most important f i n d i n g o f t h i s study (at l e a s t f o r the a u t h o r ) , i s the v a r i a b i l i t y o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r behaviour. As the o l d North Y o r k s h i r e e x p r e s s i o n puts i t , "There's nowt so funny as f o l k " . However, t o those of us who wish t o comprehend o r g a n i s a t i o n s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e behaviour, an understanding of these same f o l k i s e s s e n t i a l . H o p e f u l l y t h i s study may have made a v e r y s m a l l a d d i t i o n t o t h i s understanding. 69 REFERENCES B i d d l e , B.J. 1979 Role Theory: E x p e c t a t i o n s , I d e n t i t i e s , and Behaviours. New York: Academic P r e s s . B i d d l e , B.J. and Thomas, E . J . 1966 Role Theory: Concepts and Research. New York: Wiley. Bloor,M. 1978 "On the a n a l y s i s o f o b s e r v a t i o n a l d ata: A d i s c u s s i o n of the worth and uses of i n d u c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s and respondant v a l i d a t i o n . " S o c i o l o g y , 12 (3): 545-552. Blumberg, A. 1985 The School Superintendent: L i v i n g With C o n f l i c t . New York: Teacher's C o l l e g e P r e s s . 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" E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 30: 5-22. 70 E d u c a t i o n f o r A l l Handicapped C h i l d r e n A c t . 1975 P u b l i c Law 94-142 Fleming, J . 1979 " S p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f u n d i n g - p r e s e n t and p o s s i b l e f u n d i n g . " B.C. J o u r n a l of S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , 3(4):327-333. G e t z e l s , J.W., Lipham, J.M. and Campbell, R.F. 1968 E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n as a S o c i a l P rocess. New York: Harper and Row. G e t z e l s , J.W. and Guba, E.G.. 1957 " S o c i a l b e h a v i o r and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s . " School Review, 65: 423-441. G o e t t e l , R.J. 1978 S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n Needs and S t a t e A i d i n New York. E.D. 196119. G r e e n f i e l d , T.B. 1980 "The man who comes through the back door i n the w a l l : D i s c o v e r i n g t r u t h , d i s c o v e r i n g s e l f , d i s c o v e r i n g o r g a n i s a t i o n s . " E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , 16(3): 26-59. Ha l l a h a n , D.P. and Kauffman, J.M. 1986 E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n . Engelwood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e H a l l . Hammersly, M. and A t k i n s o n , P. 1983 Ethnography: P r i n c i p l e s i n P r a c t i c e . London: T a v i s t o c k . Hebert, E.A. and M i l l e r , S.I. 1985 "Role c o n f l i c t and the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s u p e r v i s o r : a q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s " . J o u r n a l o f S p e c i a l Education, 19(2): 215-229. Kay, B. 1982 P e r c e i v e d Role E x p e c t a t i o n s of R u r a l an Urban S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n Colorado. Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Denver. Krippendorf,K. 1980 Content A n a l y s i s : An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o i t s Methodology. B e v e r l y H i l l s : Sage. L a r r y , P. vs Wilson R i l e s . 1979 No. C-71-2270-RFP (1979). Leithwood, K.A. and Montgomery, D.J. 1986 The P r i n c i p a l P r o f i l e . Toronto: O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n . 71 Mackie, R.P. and Engel, A.M. 1955 D i r e c t o r s and S u p e r v i s o r s of S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n i n L o c a l School Systems, U.S. O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n B u l l e t i n 1955, No 13. Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . McBride, S. 1985 "The Search f o r E q u i t y : Does the New F i s c a l Framework Promote E q u a l i t y of S e r v i c e s t o the Handicapped i n B r i t i s h Columbia?" B.C. J o u r n a l of S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n . 9 ( 2 ) : 95-103. McLeod, W.T. 1987 C o l l i n s D i c t i o n a r y and Thesaurus. London: C o l l i n s . Main, H.J. 1988 D i s c u s s i o n Paper D r a f t #4 I n t e g r a t i o n . Xerox copy, unpublished. Marro, T.D. and Kohl, J.W. 1972 "Normative study of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n " . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 39(1): 5-14. M e l l o , A. 1986 Role Ambiguity, Role C o n f l i c t and Job S a t i s f a c t i o n P e r c e p t i o n s Among A d m i n i s t r a t o r s of S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n i n New York S t a t e P u b l i c Schools. Ed.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i d g e p o r t . Mercer, J.R. and Richardson, J.G. 1975 Mental r e t a r d a t i o n i s a s o c i a l problem, i n N. Hobbs (ed.), Issues i n the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of C h i l d r e n . San F r a n c i s c o : J o s s e y Bass. M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , S p e c i a l Programs Branch. 1980 "Manual of P o l i c i e s Procedures and G u i d e l i n e s " . V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's P r i n t e r . M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . 1987 1987/88 F i s c a l Framework E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e L e v e l s February 17th, 1987. M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . 1988 1988/89 F i s c a l Framework D e f i n i t i o n s and Cost F a c t o r s A p p l i c a b l e t o A l l D i s t r i c t s March 1st 1988. 72 Nadel, S.F. 19 39 The I n t e r v i e w Technique i n s o c i a l Anthropology. B a r t l e t t , F.C., Ginsberg, M., Lindgren, E . J . and Thouless, R.H. (Eds.), The Study of S o c i e t y . London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l . Newman, K.S. 1972 " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n " . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 36(7): 521-533. Patton, M.Q. 1980 Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n Methods. B e v e r l y h i l l s : Sage. Pa u l , B.D. 1953 I n t e r v i e w i n g Techniques and F i e l d r e l a t i o n s . i n Kroeber, A.C. (Ed.), Anthropology today: An E n c y c l o p a e d i c Inventory. Chicago: Rand McNally. P e n n s y l v a n i a A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Retarded C h i l d r e n v. Commonwealth of P e n n s y l v a n i a . 1972 343 F.Supp. 279 (E.D. PA 1972). Sage, D.D. 1968 " F u n c t i o n a l emphasis i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n " . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 35(1): 69-70. School D i s t r i c t #52(Prince Rupert) 1989 Informal d e s c r i p t i o n of the r o l e of the D i r e c t o r of I n s t r u c t i o n , p r o v i d e d by the incumbent. School D i s t r i c t #88(Terrace). 1988 D i s t r i c t S t a f f R oles. Unpublished d e s c r i p t i o n of the r o l e s of d i s t r i c t s t a f f . School D i s t r i c t #27(Cariboo C h i l c o t i n ) 1988 D i r e c t o r of I n s t r u c t i o n ( S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n ) , unpublished r o l e d e s c r i p t i o n . Simons, H. 1981 C o n v e r s a t i o n p i e c e : The p r a c t i c e of i n t e r v i e w i n g i n case study r e s e a r c h . i n Adelman, C. (Ed.), U t t e r i n g and M u t t e r i n g : C o l l e c t i n g , U s i n g and R e p o r t i n g T a l k f o r S o c i a l and E d u c a t i o n a l Research. London: Grant M c l n t y r e . Spradley, J.P. 1979 The Ethnographic Interview. New York: H o l t Rhinehart and Winston. 73 Weintraub, F . J . , Abeson, A., B a l l a r d , J . , and LaVor, M.L. 1976 P u b l i c P o l i c y and the E d u c a t i o n of E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n . Reston: C o u n c i l f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n . Woods,P. 1986 I n s i d e Schools: Ethnography and E d u c a t i o n a l Research. London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l . APPENDIX #1 V a r i a b i l i t y i n numbers of students c l a i m e d i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s f o r funding purposes i n the 1987/8 s c h o o l year. D i s t r i c t Name Number of Total Percentage Students Claimed Enrollment Claimed Gayle 8 1000 1.52% Hawes 18 2000 1.47% B a i n b r i d g e 14 2000 1.36% Wensley 16 2000 1.32% Aysgarth 20 2000 1.32% Nappa 40 4000 1.15% A s k r i g g 60 6000 1.15% Thornton Rust 11 1000 1.12% E l l e r k i n 21 2000 1.11% Addleborough 24 3000 1.10% New Westminster 41 3789 1. 08% Peace R i v e r South 59 5690 1.04% Cranbrook 43 4227 1. 02% Sooke 76 7620 1.00% Vernon 80 8143 0.98% C h i l l i w a c k 72 7491 0.96% K i t i m a t 24 2575 0.93% Vancouver I s l a n d W 29 3127 0.93% Langley 136 15237 0.89% Nechako 28 3164 0.88% Coquitlam 187 21161 0.88% Sunshine Coast 24 2742 0.88% Peace R i v e r North 46 5314 0.87% Nelson 31 3584 0.86% Surrey 296 34779 0.84% Maple Ridge 75 8915 0.84% Vancouver 425 50742 0.84% A b b o t s f o r d 101 12059 0.84% Keremeos 5 605 0.83% A g a s s i z - H a r r i s o n 6 733 0.82% Reve l s t o k e 15 1837 0.82% S t i k i n e 4 496 0.81% G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a 173 22362 0.77% L i l l o o e t 8 1050 0.76% F o r t Nelson 8 1056 0.76% Nanaimo 95 12655 0.75% Powell R i v e r 24 3232 0.74% Courtenay 51 6944 0.73% Richmond 126 17749 0.71% Cre s t o n 14 2003 0.70% Burnaby 122 17480 0.70% M i s s i o n 36 5284 0.68% B u l k l e y V a l l e y 20 2961 0.68% T r a i l 23 3583 0.64% North Thompson 7 1110 0. 63% Campbell R i v e r 38 6156 0.62% Howe Sound 19 3080 0.62% Cowichan 42 6937 0.61% A l b e r n i 38 6437 0.59% P e n t i c t o n 28 4755 0.59% C a s t l e g a r 13 2228 0.58% P r i n c e Rupert 22 3835 0.57% 76 Saanich 36 6465 0.56% D e l t a 98 17671 0.55% Cariboo C h i l c o t i n 46 8359 0.55% M e r r i t t 11 2006 0.55% North Vancouver 83 15175 0.55% Quesnel 29 5318 0.55% Windermere 6 1140 0.53% Shuswap 26 5190 0.50% P r i n c e George 91 19352 0.47% C e n t r a l Okanagan 68 15301 0.44% Burns Lake 7 1687 0.41% F e r n i e 15 3884 0.39% Hope 5 1449 0.35% Carperby 54 16000 0.35% Worton 4 2000 0.34% B u r t e r s e t t 3 1000 0.34% Sedbusk 2 1000 0.33% Hardraw 4 2000 0.29% S t a l l i n g Busk 11 6000 0.21% M a r s e t t 2 2000 0.14% C o u n t e r s e t t 1 1000 0.11% Semerwater 1 2000 0.07% J e r v a u l x 0 1000 0.00% T h i s t a b l e i s based on i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n 1 . "Number of Students Claimed", r e f e r s t o the number of students c l a i m e d f o r funding i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s . The d i s t r i c t s t h a t formed the sample f o r the study have had t h e i r e n r o l l m e n t s rounded up t o the n e a r e s t thousand t o p r o t e c t anonymity. However, the data on number of students c l a i m e d i n the Low i n c i d e n c e , High c o s t c a t e g o r i e s as a percentage t o t a l enrollment i s based on a c t u a l d i s t r i c t e n r o l l m e n t . 78 these r o l e p r i o r i t i e s t o data on the numbers o f s p e c i a l needs students l i s t e d by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n i n your d i s t r i c t . I am attempting t o examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p ( i f any), between a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s and the number of students r e p o r t e d i n c a t e g o r i e s 3.20 through 3.25. I f indeed i t does appear t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s are r e l a t e d t o number of students r e p o r t e d i n c a t e g o r i e s 3.20 through 3.25, t h i s has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of f u t u r e funding mechanisms i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . Your d i s t r i c t i s one of t e n s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the sample. C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and anonymity w i l l be s t r i c t l y maintained. In a l l r e p o r t s o f t h i s study (both w r i t t e n and o t h e r w i s e ) , a t the U n i v e r s i t y or elsewhere, the names of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w i l l be d i s g u i s e d , as w i l l o t h e r i d e n t i f y i n g f e a t u r e s , i n c l u d i n g d i s t r i c t s i z e . A l l c o p i e s of i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s and audiotapes w i l l be r e t u r n e d t o Mrs. a t the c o n c l u s i o n of the study. Mrs. 's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study w i l l be e n t i r e l y v o l u n t a r y , and she w i l l be f r e e t o withdraw without p r e j u d i c e a t any p o i n t i n the study. Yours t r u l y . Andrew M. Scruton 80 data on how you p r i o r i t i s e d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f your r o l e , and t o r e l a t e these r o l e p r i o r i t i e s t o data on the numbers of s p e c i a l needs students l i s t e d by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n i n your d i s t r i c t . I am attempting t o examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p ( i f any), between a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s and the number o f students r e p o r t e d i n c a t e g o r i e s 3.20 through 3.25. I f indeed i t does appear t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p r i o r i t i e s are r e l a t e d t o number of students r e p o r t e d i n c a t e g o r i e s 3.20 through 3.25, t h i s has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of f u t u r e funding mechanisms i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . Your d i s t r i c t i s one of t e n s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the sample. C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and anonymity w i l l be s t r i c t l y maintained. In a l l r e p o r t s of t h i s study (both w r i t t e n and o t h e r w i s e ) , a t the U n i v e r s i t y o r elsewhere, the names o f the p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w i l l be d i s g u i s e d , as w i l l o t h e r i d e n t i f y i n g f e a t u r e s , i n c l u d i n g d i s t r i c t s i z e . A l l c o p i e s of i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s and audiotapes w i l l be r e t u r n e d t o you a t the c o n c l u s i o n of the study. Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study w i l l be e n t i r e l y v o l u n t a r y , and you w i l l be f r e e t o withdraw without p r e j u d i c e a t any p o i n t i n the study. I f you are w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study, as o u t l i n e d above, p l e a s e i n d i c a t e your w i l l i n g n e s s by s i g n i n g t h i s l e t t e r i n the space below and r e t u r n i n g i t t o me. 81 S i g n a t u r e Date Yours t r u l y . Andrew M. Sc r u t o n APPENDIX #3. Interv i e w P r o t o c o l An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t o r Role P r i o r i t i e s Cuban i d e n t i f i e d from h i s own o b s e r v a t i o n s o f s c h o o l and d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t h r e e a s p e c t s o f the r o l e o f the a d m i n i s t r a t o r . The t h r e e a s p e c t s a r e : POLITICAL MANAGERIAL INSTRUCTIONAL Each of these aspects i s d e f i n e d on the t h r e e cards t h a t f o l l o w . 83 The POLITICAL aspect of the r o l e comprises: Those a c t i v i t i e s i n which the a d m i n i s t r a t o r engages i n order t o a s c e r t a i n and t r a n s f o r m p e r s o n a l and p u b l i c e x p e c t a t i o n s i n t o formal p o l i c i e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e : persuading, r e b u t t i n g and b a r g a i n i n g w i t h s c h o o l board members, p r i n c i p a l s , t e a c h e r s , students, taxpayer c o a l i t i o n s , p a rent a c t i v i s t s and M i n i s t r y o f e d u c a t i o n o f f i c i a l s . A l s o i n c l u d e d a re the use of compromise and i n f l u e n c e t o persuade, d e f l e c t , e n l i s t : s tudents, t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s o r d i s t r i c t o f f i c i a l s t o b u i l d support f o r , o r overcome o p p o s i t i o n t o , what the a d m i n i s t r a t o r d e s i r e s . The p o l i t i c a l aspect of the r o l e can be summarised as: working w i t h and through people t o get done what needs t o be done i n an u n p r e d i c t a b l e , u n c e r t a i n world. The MANAGERIAL aspect of the ro l e comprises: A c t i v i t i e s such as: h i r i n g and f i r i n g , s u p e r v i s i n g s u b o r d i n a t e s and managing c o n f l i c t a c r o s s a broad a r r a y o f a c t i v i t i e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , managerial a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e t a s k s such as: p l a n n i n g , d e c i s i o n making, g a t h e r i n g and d i s p e r s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , b u i l d i n g maintenance, budgeting, s c h e d u l i n g c l a s s e s , grouping students, completing r e p o r t s and p r o c u r i n g r e s o u r c e s . The managerial aspect o f the r o l e can be summarised as: m a i n t a i n i n g o r g a n i s a t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y . 84 The INSTRUCTIONAL aspect o f the r o l e comprises: H e l p i n g t e a c h e r s improve t h e i r pedagogy, h e l p i n g p r i n c i p a l s understand the c u r r i c u l u m , t e a c h i n g p r i n c i p a l s how t o s u p e r v i s e and e v a l u a t e t e a c h e r s , v i s i t i n g c l a s s e s , promoting o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t e a c h e r development, m o n i t o r i n g performance, s e t t i n g g o a l s , e s t a b l i s h i n g standards, s e l e c t i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g s t a f f and e n s u r i n g c o n s i s t e n c y i n c u r r i c u l a and t e a c h i n g approaches. I t a l s o i n c l u d e s : shaping the m i s s i o n o f the d i s r i c t , e s t a b l i s h i n g a c l i m a t e t h a t s i g n a l s a s e r i o u s n e s s of purpose and d e s i g n i n g r i t u a l s and s t r u c t u r e s t h a t i n f u s e l i f e i n both m i s s i o n and c l i m a t e through communication s k i l l s and p e r s o n a l example. The I n s t r u c t i o n a l aspect of the r o l e can be summarised as: the means a d m i n i s t r a t o r s use t o persuade a d u l t s t o t h e i r own b e l i e f s and behaviour i n moving towards g o a l s the a d m i n i s t r a t o r seeks. Questions t o be Asked by the I n t e r v i e w e r The purpose of t h i s study i s t o e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p ( i f any), between Cuban's t h r e e a s p e c t s of the r o l e of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r and the numbers of students r e p o r t e d i n c a t e g o r i e s 3.20 through 3.25. The q u e s t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w are intended t o a s c e r t a i n how you p r i o r i t i s e these t h r e e a s p e c t s of your r o l e as s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r . 1.0 P l e a s e read these d e s c r i p t i o n s of the t h r e e a s p e c t s of the r o l e of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r . As you read them, t h i n k about the p r i o r i t i e s t h a t you p e r c e i v e y o u r s e l f t o have a s s i g n e d t o them i n your work as s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r i n . F e e l f r e e t o ask q u e s t i o n s f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . Take as long as you l i k e t o read the r o l e d e s c r i p t i o n s , but l e t me know when you have f i n i s h e d . 1.1 I am i n t e r e s t e d i n a s c e r t a i n i n g what p r i o r i t y you a s s i g n t o each of these aspects of the r o l e i n your work. P l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o r e - r e a d the r o l e d e s c r i p t i o n s a t any time. 2 . 1 As you t h i n k about your approach t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t o which o f the t h r e e aspects of the r o l e do you tend t o a s s i g n f i r s t p r i o r i t y i n your work? 85 2.2 To which o f the t h r e e a s p e c t s o f the r o l e do you tend t o a s s i g n second p r i o r i t y i n your work? 2.3 To which o f the t h r e e a s p e c t s o f the r o l e do you tend t o a s s i g n t h i r d p r i o r i t y i n your work? 3.1 You d e s c r i b e d the aspect o f the r o l e as b e i n g g i v e n the h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y i n your own work. Would you g i v e me some s p e c i f i c examples of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t you would c h a r a c t e r i s e as 3.2 You d e s c r i b e d the aspect o f the r o l e as b e i n g g i v e n the h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y i n your own work. Would you g i v e me some s p e c i f i c examples of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t you would c h a r a c t e r i s e as 3.3 You d e s c r i b e d the aspect o f the r o l e as b e i n g g i v e n the h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y i n your own work. Would you g i v e me some s p e c i f i c examples of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t you would c h a r a c t e r i s e as . 4 . 0 I f t h e r e are important a c t i v i t i e s i n which you engage as s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r t h a t do not seem t o f i t i n t o any of the p o l i t i c a l , managerial o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s as d e f i n e d above, w i l l you p l e a s e t e l l me about them? End of Interview 

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