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Correlates of motivational orientations in employer funded education Williams, David Simmonds 1987

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CORRELATES OF MOTIVATIONAL ORIENTATIONS IN EMPLOYER FUNDED EDUCATION by DAVID SIMMONDS WILLIAMS B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education) We accept this paper as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1987 © David Simmonds Williams, 1987  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  department publication  of  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and study. scholarly  or  her  for  financial  ADULT EDUCATION  The University of British 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6(3/81)  Columbia  APRIL 2ATH, 1987  I further  purposes  the  requirements  I agree  gain shall  that  agree  may  representatives.  permission.  Department of  of  It not  be  that  the  Library  permission  granted  is  by  understood be  for  allowed  an  advanced  shall for  the that  without  make  it  extensive  head  of  my  copying  or  my  written  ii Abstract People who participate i n adult education do so for a variety of reasons. The B r i t i s h Columbia Telephone Company (B.C. Tel) reimburses employees who take courses, and does so because i t i s assumed that employees participate i n education for job-related reasons. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which employees u t i l i z i n g B.C. Tel's "Financial Assistance Plan" take courses for "job" or "non job"  reasons  "motivational  and types"  to determine  the extent  to which  (derived from contrasting job with  motivational orientation scores) possessed different  different non job  socio-demographic  characteristics. Boshier's Education participation Scale (EPS), along with Helmreich and Spence's Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire (WOFO), were assembled i n a questionnaire that also measured the socio-demographic  characteristics of employees u t i l i z i n g the B.C. Tel  Financial Assistance Plan i n 1985. EPS items were subjected to a judging process that identified those deemed to be "job" and those deemed to be "non job" oriented. Of the 250 questionnaires distributed through  B.C. Tel's  internal  mail  system, 159 useable  ones were  returned. A t o t a l EPS "job" score was derived by calculating the mean over the relevant items, a t o t a l "non job" score was derived using the same method for items i n this category. Respondents with the highest "job"  scores ( i e . most l i k e l y enrolled for job-related reasons) were  younger employees, those with shorter periods of employment with B.C. Tel, and union employees. Those with the highest "non job" scores were older employees, respondents with children, and management employees i n staff positions. Although significant relationships  the f i r s t phase of the analysis revealed between socio-demographic  and EPS variables,  iii Abstract (continued) a multivariate analysis which simultaneously considered both "job" and "non job" scores was needed because many participants were enrolled for both reasons. Job motivation i s not the opposite of, or does not exclude,  non  job motivation. Thus, a discriminant analysis  was  performed where the dependent variables were four motivational types. TYPE I respondents were high job/high non job motivated, TYPE I I were high job/low non job motivated, TYPE I I I were low job/low non job motivated, and TYPE IV were low job/high non job motivated. I t was concluded that predicting participant type was possible using only two socio-demographic  variables,  age and employment  function.  TYPE I  participants were younger than TYPE I I I and IV, and were more l i k e l y to be union employees. TYPE I I participants were similar i n age to TYPE I , but were more l i k e l y to be i n management. TYPE I I I participants were mostly management and were older than TYPE I and I I . TYPE IV were similar i n age to TYPE I I I , but were evenly s p l i t between union and management. Further research i s needed concerning the application of the EPS i n a business setting. The judging process used to determine "job" and "non job" scores i s worthy of further examination i n a larger context. As well, i t would be useful to examine i f other categories exist. F i n a l l y , construct validation of the typology of participants developed  i n this study through in-depth interviews conducted with  representative respondents of a similar sample could r a t i f y or refine the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s used i n this thesis.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract L i s t of Tables L i s t of Figures Acknowledgements Dedication CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background J u s t i f i c a t i o n for the Present Study Research Questions  i i vi viii ix x 1 1 3 7  CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Background to Financial Assistance Plans Participation i n Education Sociology of Job Motivation Conclusions Hypotheses  8 9 14 24 31 35  CHAPTER THREE INSTRUMENTATION Motivation for Participation Achievement Orientation Scale R e l i a b i l i t y Analysis  37 38 42 43  CHAPTER FOUR METHODOLOGY Population Sample Sampling procedure Design and S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis Descriptive Objectives Hypothesis Testing  45 45 45 46 47 51 51  CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS 1 Data Collection procedures Sample and Sampling Procedure Problems Characteristics of Respondents Education participation Scale Scoring Work and Family Orientation Scoring Relationship between Motivational Orientation and Achievement Orientation Homogeneity of Variance Hypothesis Testing Summary of Hypotheses Summary  54 54 54 57 62 66 66 67 68 72 73  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) CHAPTER SIX RESULTS 2 Participant Typology  74 74  CHAPTER SEVEN DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY Discussion of Results Theoretical Implications Practical Implications Limitations of the Study Suggestions for Future Research Summary  88 88 92 100 103 105 107  REFERENCES  109  APPENDIX A Questionnaire  113  APPENDIX B EPS Breakdown by B.C. Tel Managers  119  APPENDIX C Coding Schedule  123  vi  LIST OF TABLES Table Number  Title  Page Number  Table 1  Description of Independent and Dependent Variables and Their Associated Scale Values  37  Table 2  EPS Breakdown by "Job-related", "Not Job-related", "Undetermined", "Career Advancement", and "Improved Performance"  40  Table 3  EPS Item Sorted into "Job-related", "Not Jobrelated", and "Undetermined" Categories  41  Table 4  R e l i a b i l i t y Analysis of the Education Participation Scale  43  Table 5  R e l i a b i l i t y Analysis of the Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire  44  Table 6  Hypothesis Testing Procedure by Variable Type and S t a t i s t i c a l Test  53  Table 7  "Personal" Characteristics of B.C. Tel Employees in Adult Education A c t i v i t i e s Financed by the Company - 1985  59  Table 8  Number of Respondents by Course Type, Institution, Reimbursment Category, Number of Courses, and Degree interest/Attainment - 1985  61  Table 9  EPS Ranking of Means by Item, Standard Deviation, and Level of Influence on Participation  63  Table 10 Acceptance and Rejection of Ten Hypotheses Concerning Motivational and Achievement Orientations of B.C. Tel Employees  73  Table 11 Correlation Between Job and Non Job Motivation - Nine Socio-demographic Characteristics  75  Table 12 Typology of participants by Socio-demographic Characteristics  79  Table 13 Interactive Effects of Variables Associated with Typology of Motivational Orientations toward Participation - 13 E l i g i b l e independent variables  81  vii LIST OF TABLES (continued) Table Number  Title  Page Number  Table 14 Interactive Effects of Variables Associated with Typology of Motivational Orientations toward Participation - Seven E l i g i b l e Independent Variables  82  Table 15 Interactive Effects of Variables Associated with Typology of Motivational Orientations toward Participation - Three E l i g i b l e Independent Variables  83  Table 16 Percentage of Participant Types Correctly Classified by Discriminant Function Analysis  84  Table 17 Socio-demographic Characteristics of Four Types of Respondents  85  viii  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1  Diagrammatic portrayal of independent variables and their hypothesised association with dependent variables employed i n this study  34  Figure 2  Typology of participants by job-related and non job-related motivation for participation in adult education a c t i v i t i e s  50  Figure 3  Means of job-related and non job-related motivational orientations for participation in adult education a c t i v i t i e s  71  Figure 4  Scattergram of job-related against non jobrelated motivational orientations for participation  76  Figure 5  Scattergram of TYPE of participant by canonical discriminant function overlaid by t e r r i t o r i a l boundaries  87  ix Acknowledgements I want to especially thank Dr. Roger Boshier, my committee chairman, who kept me going through his interest and enthusiasm i n my particular project.  He challenged  me to seek  the answers to my inumerable  questions myself, and thus helped me work toward being the (fledgling) researcher grateful  that  i s the intent of the Masters program. I am also  to Roger  for the assistance of Dr. John Collins  as a  s t a t i s t i c s advisor, whose penetrating questions forced me to focus on what my thesis was a l l about, and helped develop the methodology for the most interesting part of i t . Dr. Dan Pratt guided me through the red tape that i s usual i n any bureacratic setting, and by his teaching and c r i t i c a l evaluation of my work, led me to my thesis proposal. I also owe my gratitude to the employees of B.C. Tel who f i l l e d out a ten page questionnaire to help a fellow employee. I greatly value their input. Brian Wesley put up with my many moments of distraction through this process, and gave me many valuable insights into how corporations work. B.C. Tel's Human Resources Department provided  me with the  opportunity to do this study. In particular, the support of Jerry Low, and especially Ron Craig, who assisted me on many occassions, was greatly appreciated. F i n a l l y , I wish to thank my partner, Hilary. To mention a l l the many and varied ways i n which she assisted me would be impossible.  X  Dedication  To my  father,  S. L l . W i l l i a m s , M.D.,  F.R.C.P.S.  (1904-1986) A lifelong learner.  1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background The Adult Education committee of the B r i t i s h Ministry of Reconstruction concluded that adult education non-vocational educational  matters.  was almost entirely concerned with  Despite  policy i n Britain  their  exhortations  and her s a t e l l i t e s ,  and impact on adult  learners  continued to participate for a variety of vocational and non-vocational reasons. Sometimes human psychology defies even the most determined attempts of p o l i t i c i a n s and administrators to shape educational policy. Today, educational broadcasters are often perplexed about how to deal with  "pirate"  listeners  or viewers who watch job-related courses  associated with educational broadcasts  for "hobby" reasons. Some want  to "come down hard" and catch interlopers; others are delighted that "non-participants" i n s i s t on participating despite their "motivations". All  this  simply  goes to show that  despite  the best  efforts of  educational planners, human beings behave i n a h o l i s t i c fashion and do not  segment themselves according  to vocational and  non-vocational  directives. Japanese organizations recognize t h i s , and i n that part of the world, the corporation i s far more inclined to involve i t s e l f i n the psyche of i t ' s employees than i s the case i n the West. Since the late 1950's adult educators have become very interested i n the motives, reasons, or "motivational orientations" that appear to explain why people participate i n adult education. Those who sponsor i t (governments,  employers  and community  organizations)  often  have  particular objectives i n mind. But the learners themselves participate for  a variety of reasons, only  some of which f i t the stated or  2 underlying objectives of the sponsoring  agency. For example, i n many  business settings, participants i n job-related educational a c t i v i t i e s are motivated by "hygiene" factors (extrinsic rewards) but, according to Herzberg "motivator"  (1966), have become significantly  more influenced by  factors i n recent decades. Money "motivates", but so does  the opportunity for self-development. This divergence between the motivational orientations of sponsors and learners became the centrepiece  of arguments about whether people  undertaking employer sponsored education should be forced to undertake educational a c t i v i t i e s directly relevant to their job. Some evidence (O.E.C.D.,  1976) suggests  opportunity  that  i t i s the provision  of  educational  makes a difference. Whether an engineer  studies  computerized switching technology or develops s k i l l s as a photographer does not seem to matter. Although employers want their employees to undertake "relevant" studies, i t appears that post-educational employee productivity  or performance  also  improves  i f they  pursue  non  job-related studies. These issues provide  a backdrop to the situation at the B r i t i s h  Columbia Telephone Company (B.C. Tel), undertake educational  activities  where employees wishing to  on their  own time can apply for  financial assistance to do so. B.C. Tel's Financial Assistance Program reimburses an employee for the cost of t u i t i o n , books and relevant materials upon the successful completion of a pre-approved course or program of courses. The architects of the Financial Assistance program assumed that undertake  employees availing  "job-related"  "job-related" concerns.  studies  themselves of the program would and  primarily  be  motivated  by  3 The primary purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of employees u t i l i s i n g  the program and  their  reasons  for doing so.  Specifically, this study examined whether participating employees are motivated by "job" or "non-job" reasons. A secondary purpose was to examine the extent to which types of employees (identified by sex, age, marital  status,  number of children, educational l e v e l ,  length of  service, and employment function) differed with respect to the extent to which they were motivated by "job" and "non job" related reasons. J u s t i f i c a t i o n for the present Study Investments From a company's point of view, employees are i t ' s most c r i t i c a l asset. Thus i t i s important to have an adequate supply of workers with the qualifications and s k i l l s to carry out the business objectives of the corporation. Employee a b i l i t y and motivation are two major factors i n productivity (Pinder, 1984). As a result, corporations invest more i n people than i n any other component. Employers  facing  unsatisfied  labour demands can  bid for desired  workers, lower their standards of employment or offer more training to certain employees. The response companies choose w i l l affect both their p r o f i t a b i l i t y and society's i n f l a t i o n and productivity growth. Offering higher wages or lowering job standards might produce short term profits for the corporation, but the long term effects of these approaches w i l l cost the company through reduced p r o f i t a b i l i t y as a result of reduced quality of output. While this could appear to be good short-term decision making, i t can lead to undesirable social outcomes through inflationary pressure and deteriorating productivity growth  (Medoff,  4 1983). Individuals within the company who undertake educational commitments w i l l be concerned about their individual needs for education. I f they want the company to recognize their desire to do a better job, or want better pay, they w i l l question whether their efforts are recognized. Employees expect experience.  a  return on  Potential  their  investment  returns include access  in an educational  to opportunities for  career advancement, increased wages (Herzberg's "hygiene" factor), the acquisition of new  s k i l l s or the maintenance of existing ones, job  security i n a shrinking job market, and better potential to adjust to social and technological change, i n addition, feelings of self-worth (Herzberg's  "motivator" factor), the social opportunities offered by  participation  i n learning experiences, the satisfaction of general  interest, and cognitive stimulation are recognized as factors that lead people to participate i n education (Boshier, 1 9 7 7 ) . Such a wide range of potential returns to the individual raises questions about the degree to which different types of employees who  take advantage of  financial assistance programs conform to the employer's c r i t e r i a or participate for a variety of more personal reasons. Situation Analysis Most major corporations t r a i n existing employees and thus t r y to avoid the p i t f a l l s of bidding for new employees or lowering standards. As a result, training of a l l levels of personnel, especially i n vigorous and growing  industries, i s receiving much more attention i n this decade  (Wolansky, 1 9 8 4 ) .  5 B.C. Tel has a major commitment to employee training and retraining. Rapid technological change, the reduction and eventual elimination of B.C.  Tel's monopolistic position as a regulated telecommunications  supplier, and the increasing sophistication of the market i n which i t operates, has  increased the  importance  ascribed to training  retraining by the company and the Telecommunications which  and  Workers' Union  represents the company's bargaining unit employees (Gerber,  1987). The company maintains and staffs a major training f a c i l i t y (the B.C. Tel  Education Centre) which  provides internal courses designed to  develop s k i l l s essential to company operations. In addition, there are management and self-development courses designed to make employees more adaptable, better decision-makers, and more aware of the culture of the organization. Although of a general nature, the latter are an important component of employee development. As an adjunct to Education centre courses, the company provides financial Assistance  Plan)  to employees who  assistance (the Financial  successfully  complete  approved  courses at other institutions. Recently i t has been suggested that the company's Financial Assistance Plan had not f u l l y retraining  realized i t ' s potential to satisfy some employee  needs. An  unresearched  opinion suggests  that, were i t  administered differently, the Financial Assistance Plan could provide a valuable  external  supplement  to  the  company's  Education  centre  programs. Long range a c t i v i t i e s which have been considered regarding changes to the administration of the financial assistance program include 1) the identification of external courses which offer  skill  development i n areas particularly needed by the organization, 2) the  6  establishment  of a counseling  function to direct employees toward  participation i n courses that prepare them for job opportunities and s k i l l s needed either now potential  for  or i n the forseeable  joint-venture  U.B.C., S.F.U  and  arrangments with  B.C.I.T to provide  future, and institutions  3)  the  such  as  courses that meet B.C.  Tel's  specific needs as well as those of a more public nature. These changes would have implications for policy and decision making at B.C. Tel and other  agencies.  Current  theories  motivation  of  career  have  acknowledged  i s affected by management practices (eg. Schein,  socio-demographic variables career  development  expectations  (Hill  (Farmer, 1985;  Gottfredson,  that 1971),  1981),  and  & Roselle, 1985). However, much research  remains to be done on external influences on motivation and the impact they have on careers. Multiple career paths, the increase of the labour force due to the major influx of women into the workplace, increased unemployment, more available leisure time, and technological change make i t imperative  to understand environmental influences that help  individuals negotiate  and  renegotiate  their careers. Of particular  interest to this study are factors that lead employees to participate in  post-secondary  education  Financial assistance and  through  employer  sponsored  programs.  i t ' s related c r i t e r i a should have a major  impact on motivation for participation. Most studies have concerned themselves with the adult  "learner at  large". In this study, because of the human capital orientation of the criteria  associated  job-related job-related  with  educational motivational  reimbursement, learners were directed to activities.  Thus  orientations  i t was would  expected outweigh  that other  7 orientations. Recognizing the h o l i s t i c nature of human beings, i t was expected that participants would e n r o l l i n "job-related" courses, but not necessarily for "job-related" reasons. Indeed, given the diversity of types of B.C.  Tel employees, diverse reasons for participation were  expected. In addition, attitudes toward work and the work environment should determine whether Herzberg's "hygiene" factor was  the main  psychological reason for undertaking educational a c t i v i t i e s , or whether "motivator" factors were more important. Research Questions Specific questions to be explored were: What i s the relationship between motivation for participation in courses supported  by  the  Financial Assistance  plan  and  socio-demographic  variables that prior research has found to be correlates of motives for participation  in adult education programs; i e . does motivation  for  participation vary in relation to gender, age, marital status, number of  children, educational  level,  length  of service, and  employment  function when directed toward job-related courses? Are the employer's c r i t e r i a for "job-related" courses reflected i n the motivational  influences cited by participants? S p e c i f i c a l l y , what i s  the relative strength of "job-related" influences to "non and other influences on employees decisions to participate?  job-related"  8  CHAPTER TWO  LITERATURE REVIEW  Given the business environment i n which this study was conducted, i t was desirable  to consider  the economic  background  of financial  assistance programs from the points of view of both employer and employee. As well, participants i n employer funded adult education must adhere to some degree to employer-set c r i t e r i a for enrolment. I t was therefore  important  to examine  the motivational  orientations of  participants within this framework. F i n a l l y , employees are l i k e l y to participate i n educational a c t i v i t i e s to achieve job diversity/career advancement goals. Therefore, an investigation of the goal orientations of participating employees was necessary. Thus, the literature review begins with an examination of human capital theory, primarily the work of Schultz (1961, 1962, 1967) and Becker (1962, 1964), because  i t pertains to why firms offer  financial  assistance programs and employees participate i n them. This i s followed by an overview of educational research on the motivational orientations of adult learners, which focused  on M i l l e r ' s  analysis of job motivation and Boshier's  (1967) "force-field"  (1971, 1973, 1977, 1985)  examination of Houle's (1961) t r i p a r t i t e typology. F i n a l l y , literature discussing the sociology of job motivation was reviewed, beginning with Maslow (1970) and culminating i n concepts of job motivation proposed by Herzberg (1966) and career motivation as discussed by Schein (1971).  9 Background to Financial Assistance Plans Human Capital Theory Human capital theory i s basically an attempt to measure the money value of a human being. In i t s most primitive form, i t was used by S i r William Petty i n h i s estimate of the national wealth of England i n 1691. To Petty, labour was the "father of wealth" which led him to place a money value on labourers. I t i s surely ironic developments springing from this  early  concept  that the  to what has been  described as Schultz's "exciting work on measurement of the return on investments  i n human c a p i t a l "  (Heller, 1975), was v i a the work of  Dublin and Lotka (1882) on behalf of the l i f e insurance business. Human capital theory i s best understood as an outgrowth of neoclassical economics,  which  i s based  on free market  systems  operating i n  conditions of perfect competition. The role of the public sector i n neoclassical economics i s to ensure the efficiency of markets operating under  these  preferences  conditions. Since and, i n practice,  free markets are unlikely  cannot  satisfy a l l  to be perfect, the  neoclassical economist views the public sector role to be one i n which overall economic efficiency i s achieved by the use of cost benefit analysis as an analogue to p r o f i t s . Labour as a factor of production did not receive much attention i n modern growth theory u n t i l the mid-1950's, when an increased interest in  empirical research  on production  (eg. Solow,  1957) produced  perplexing results concerning the relative share of various production factors ( i e . , labour and capital) i n the t o t a l economic growth rate. Researchers  began to look for alternative solutions. In addition,  10 radical  technological  investments  change  created  demands  to meet the need for well-educated  for  educational  manpower (Rubenson,  1980). A l l this reawakened interest i n human capital theory. The Schultz Perspective Recent human capital theorists, beginning with Schultz (1961) consider education to be an investment that contributes to immediate efficiency and  future growth i n a free market system. Schultz argued that  education should not be viewed as mere consumption. Education i s also a form of investment that improves occupational choices available to the individual and provides businesses  and the state with the educated  labor force essential to industrial development and economic growth. He also hypothesised that changes i n investments i n human capital are the basic factors that reduce inequalities i n the distribution of personal income (Schultz, 1962). This  proposal  engendered  excitement  since  i t provided  for the  evaluation of the relative worth of resources allocated to educational a c t i v i t i e s as compared to alternative capital investment opportunities. In addition i t provided the basis for an explanation of the "missing" factor  that  spurred  the explosive  post-World War I I years  (Denison,  growth  i n production  1962). F i n a l l y ,  of the  i t appeared to  address the social issue of perceived inequities of employment to the disadvantaged.  Schultz's new application of this theoretical framework  provided the basis for a considerable dialogue on educational policy and research.  11 The Becker Perspective Becker (1962) cited eight empirical phenomena that had either baffled investigators or been given ad hoc explanations. These he was certain could be explained by human capital theory. In the pursuit of an explanation for these phenomena, Becker became the major proponent and most p r o l i f i c  writer  on  the  subject of human capital  and i t ' s  application to modern economic practice. His book "Human Capital" (1964) i s considered the classic conceptual analysis of investment i n human c a p i t a l . Becker acknowledges the basic idea of human capital theory; that "raw labor"  through  training  becomes an  agent  of enhanced productive  capacity. Because the benefits derived from,the training period are not immediately realizable, the value of the resources used i n training may be  considered as  investment, and  the benefits  derived over  time  (increased productivity, wages, etc.) as y i e l d . In addition, investment in  training  will  be  more profitable,  and  i s more l i k e l y  to  be  undertaken, the longer the period of time over which returns from the investment  can  accrue. Thus, i t i s important to good investment  decision-making to know what kind of training to u t i l i z e i f decision making i s to be effective. The major strength of Becker's argument was the innovative approach he took to this problem by making a distinction between general and specific training. General training makes the worker useful to more than one employer. Thus, Becker argued that an employer has a stronger incentive to invest i n specific training useful only to his firm; this reduces the opportunities for employee job mobility.  12 In discussing the incentive to invest i n training, Becker (1962) argued that incentive to invest i n s k i l l s  increases with the size of the  market. Unfortunately, he did not consider that investment i n training may also increase with the number of tasks to be learned as well as the complexity  of any  one  of them. In addition, technical change i s a  factor that affects human capital (Schultz, 1967); different training given to various age cohorts makes them akin to machines of a different vintage. While for the most part Becker takes a micro-economic approach, he does not ignore social productivity gains. This he views as the external effect on output of the  increase of knowledge associated with  an  increase i n the number of post secondary trained persons. However i t i s possible that there i s a p a r t i a l l y offsetting excess of private over social returns. This relates to the question of whether the earning advantage of post secondary graduates over others reflects enhanced productivity or the prejudices of employers i n favour of post-secondary graduates (Rees, 1965). Becker assumed that the learning needs of the individual are subsumed to those of p r o f i t and society. Second, there i s no indication that he considered  the  continued  learning  process,  in  both  formal  and  non-formal settings, that many individuals pursue. Third, he assumed that attendance at educational institutions constitutes learning. The credentials gained by this attendance are treated as the attainment of competency, and  will  lead to  increased  productivity. F i n a l l y ,  he  implied that the grading system of educational institutions serves as a screening process for a hierarchical workplace.  13 Outgrowths of Becker's research accumulation  are the models of human capital  used to explain why individuals proceed through a series  of stages i n the educational process, from formal education with no employment to employment with on-the-job training and f i n a l l y to f u l l employment (Rosen, 1972; Polachek, 1975). This endogenous approach to human capital  has been p a r t i a l l y  responsible  for the burgeoning  literature on continuing and l i f e l o n g education.  Summary Human capital theory has a major f a i l i n g that stems from i t ' s lack of a philosophical basis and i t ' s separation of the arts and sciences. As a result, i t provides a mechanistic and pragmatic basis for dealing with human beings inconsistent with the philosophical tenets held by the human resource department of most major firms today. Still,  the human capital concept i s useful, both as a theoretical  framework and a phenomenon that stimulated the educational system. I t also  explains  the economic  reasons  for the investments  by both  individuals and corporations of both time and money i n various types of training. In the current study, i t w i l l be used to explain economic motivations  that lead employees to participate i n adult  education  a c t i v i t i e s of a job-related nature, and the employer's willingness to fund those a c t i v i t i e s , provided they are a c t i v i t i e s specific to the needs of the employer. Motivation, then, from an economic perspective i s attributed to the desire of individuals and corporations to gain s k i l l s that w i l l provide for  long  term  needs.  Individuals are motivated,  consciously or  . 14 unconsciously, by relinquishing  short term gains for longer term,  higher gains. Employers are motivated by the reduction of the costs of turnover, the development of required s k i l l s i n the workforce, better quality of workmanship, and long term gains i n productivity.  Participation i n Education Adult  education  literature  provides a conceptual and theoretical  framework for motivational factors which influence participation. Much of this began with the theoretical framework developed by Houle (1961). Most of the ensuing  literature  relationship  socio-economic  between  on this  subject focused  variables  on the  and motivational  orientations (Boshier, 1977). Of particular interest to this study i s Boshier's development of Houle's (1961) t r i p a r t i t e typology of "goal", " a c t i v i t y " , and "learning" orientations. The parsimony of Houle's typology attracted attention. Despite the fact i t was developed using qualitative analysis and never subjected by Houle to empirical testing, much of the motivational literature of the ensuing  25 years  has been based  on i t . While  many studies of  motivational orientations exist, such as those by Burgess (1971), and Haag (1976), this review concentrated on Miller's (1967) "force-field" and Boshier's research on motivational orientations. This i s i n the interest of parsimony as well as i n the expectation that an examination of these two authors w i l l advance the argument of this thesis. Miller's Force-field Analysis Miller  (1967) proposed  that people  participate  i n four types of  educational a c t i v i t y designed to foster vocational competence, personal  15 and family competence, citizenship competence, and self-development and used Lewin's (1947) "force-field" to examine reasons for participation. Lewin developed h i s method to examine "such high level abstractions that exist between 'production', 'consumption' and 'participation' as an equilibrium that results numbers of individuals"  from the innumerable decisions of large  (p. 2). Miller's adaptation of Lewin's method  was based on three assumptions. F i r s t , the willingness of an individual to  undertake an a c t i v i t y demonstrated some personal need, second,  personal needs were "shaped, conditioned and channelled by the social structures and forces of society" (p. 3), therefore the social forces in society which stimulate or i n h i b i t the operation of personal needs for the growth p o s s i b i l i t i e s offered by education must be considered. F i n a l l y , the interaction between personal needs and social forces would result  i n four possible states. 1) the congruence of strong social  forces and strong personal need for a particular educational objective would result i n a high level of participation i n programs relative to that objective, 2) strong personal need with no supporting social force would  lead  participation  to low participation  generally, but e r r a t i c a l l y  high  sporadically, 3) weak personal need with strong social  forces would cause high participation i n i t i a l l y but with a later high dropout rate and 4) conflict between personal need and social forces would create tension within the program, with participation  level  dependent on the strength of the social force that exists. M i l l e r based h i s concept of social forces on Maslow's (1970) "needs hierarchy", but provided a perspective that incorporates educational and economic needs as well as Maslow's socio-psychological needs. Thus, for M i l l e r , Maslow's survival and safety needs were redefined. Survival  16 in  industrial  societies depends on gaining marketable s k i l l s .  The  domination of adult education by job training programs i s thus a direct result of the rapid s h i f t i n s k i l l demands due to rapid technological development. Similarly, safety reinforces this domination since i n today's society, the greatest perceived deprivation i s an economic one and the most general threat i s job loss. Higher order needs (for recognition, achievement and self-realization) tend to be dependent on socio-structural variables such as status, educational  l e v e l , and  age.  Recognition  i s important to the middle  class, whose fundamental needs are largely s a t i s f i e d through stable family structures and active organizational l i v e s . In fact, belonging needs support the middle class desire for career and advancement. The middle class tends to participate to advance their career, while the lower class participate to prepare for job entry. Miller  also  proposed  achievement needs. He  a  relationship  between  participation  suggested a linkage between several  and  personal  factors associated with level of education. Higher levels of education were associated with setting d i s t a l as opposed to proximal goals which in turn i s associated with high levels of achievement need. On  the  other  The  hand,  preconditions  he  associated  of  the  self-realization  satisfaction of  with  age  level.  fundamental needs and  life  situation permits and encourages need seeking at a particular level. Thus s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n needs should increase with the advance of the l i f e cycle. Self-realization i s a drive that leads to "never-ending attempts at perfection" (p. 6). Maslow's need hierarchy  i s central to M i l l e r ' s thesis and,  i n his  17 opinion,  included  the  socio-economic  imperatives  that  act  on  individuals who participate i n adult education. To sum up with M i l l e r ' s (1967) own words: The needs hierarchy, then, appears to f i t very well the immediate r e a l i t i e s of the participation pattern of adult education, with major participation i n programs aiming at the satisfaction of lower need levels, tapering off at the higher levels; i t matches the social class differentiations that we know of. I t also shows an interesting congruence with age and the l i f e cycle. I t i s reasonable to argue, for example, that the early stages of adulthood are primarily concerned with satisfaction of the three lower stages - getting established in a decent, stable job and beginning a family. As the cycle proceeds, the older person begins to devote energy to achieving status (a rough generalization which I s h a l l later modify), and to achievement i n his f i e l d of work (the highest level of productivity i s not reached u n t i l the forties and f i f i t e s ) . I t i s the rare person who begins to think about the meaning of his own l i f e and the value of selfhood before he reaches his f o r t i e s , (p. 7). The interaction between personal needs and social variables that M i l l e r proposed was significant to the current study. His analysis focused on "social class values", with "technological change" and "associational structures" as  subsidiary factors that affect participation. Class  values are not considered  independent and immutable, but depend to a  great extent on the structure of opportunities available to a given social class. While M i l l e r concentrated on social class values, the structure of opportunity inherent i n the environment of the present study s h i f t s the emphasis to population  technological  change. This  i s due  to  the  fact  the  and time of the study deals with a stable work force of  largely middle class values subject to accelerating and ever-present technological change. Yet t h i s i s not incongruent with M i l l e r ' s notion, since technological change has equally powerful, i f different, impacts  18 on both the working and middle class. The working class see education from a pragmatic point of view; the payoff need not be immediate, but there must be some promise of a practical reward such as higher  pay or a better job. In addition,  technological change poses a threat  to which education provides a  solution. M i l l e r (1967) said this of the technological forces that have an impact on the working class: One of the most powerful forces i n the educational picture...results from the congruence of the working class safety need with the extraordinarily strong social drive toward technological change and development. On the industrial scene these two are i n c o n f l i c t , as unions resist change i n order to safeguard jobs, but to the extent that workers and some unions recognize the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of technological advance, safety becomes congruent with educational opportunity, (p. 10). Similarly, the middle class needs for mobilty served  by the educational  system  as well  and status are well as the structure of  opportunity within which they operate. The middle class are thoroughly at home i n a future oriented society. Lower-middles use technological change  as  an  Upper-middles  opportunity  for advancement  (the professional  or executive  of f a m i l i a l  status.  level) propose and  implement the technological change that provides opportunity  to the  middle class and confusion to the lower class. M i l l e r (1967)said of the upper-middles: As for participation i n continuing education, the sustaining forces i n both [professional and executive] groups are clear and strong. The upper-middles create and implement the technological s h i f t s which provide either trouble or opportunity for other social class levels, education i s a comfortable and familiar tool for "keeping up with the f i e l d " and improving s k i l l s , and the corporation and firm pays for i t . A l l of this i s congruent with the driving force of development i n both fields of knowledge and business  19  organizational l i f e . (pg. 13). Motivational Orientations Since 1970,  participation studies have been conducted which focus on  motivational  rather  than  sociological  variables which  influence  participation. Representative of these are Boshier (1973), Morstain & Smart (1974) and Haag (1976). These studies a l l used Boshier's (1982) Education  Participation  Scale  (EPS).  Boshier  and  Collins  (1985)  identified six orientations related to participation; "Social Contact", "Social Stimulation", "Professional Advancement", Community Service", "External Expectations", and "cognitive Interest" influences. Boshier  (1977) used  the  terms  "life-chance" and  "life-space"  as  synonyms for deficiency and growth motivation. Growth or life-space oriented people participate i n adult education for expression rather than i n an attempt to cope with some aspect of their l i f e . Life-chance oriented people participate because of the need to survive and acquire u t i l i t a r i a n knowledge, attitudes or s k i l l s . . . . l i f e chance motivated participants are largely attempting to satisfy the lower order needs on Maslow's hierarchy; life-space motivated participants have largely s a t i s f i e d lower order needs and are primarily enrolled to expand their life-space, persons seeking to satisfy the lower order needs are, i n the long term, seeking to expand social and vocational horizons aspects of their life-space - but i n the short-term are primarily trying to improve their life-chances (which are usually psychological or vocational). Life-chance and life-space motivations are at opposite ends of a single continuum. The continuum i s a psychological dimension which underlies reasons for participation. Future research may show that life-chance/life-space motivation cuts across reasons for participation i n a more orthogonal manner. But, for present purposes, i t i s assumed to l i e i n an oblique or linear relationship with reasons (orientations) for participation, (pp. 92-93). The strength of Boshier's argument l i e s i n his understanding of the effect of social order on the psychological conditions that underly the  20 social order. The belief that environmental influences only have an effect on social class ignores the many psychological attributes that occupy  Maslow's concept.  psychological  as  well  Thus  as  the  i t i s important social  to consider  variables  that  the  influence  participation. Haag's (1976) study appeared to support the notion that motivational orientations are related to psychological states which resemble Maslow's description of deficiency and growth motivation. Haag correlated EPS factor scores with neuroticism and self actualization scores; high levels of neuroticism were assumed to be one manifestation of life-chnace motivation and high levels of s e l f actualization were assumed to be one manifestation of life-space motivation. He found that high "Social Welfare" and high "Escape/Stimulation" Boshier  and  Collins'  (1985)  "Social  (the equivalent of  Stimulation")  scores  were  associated with high neuroticism and low s e l f actualization scores. The association between life-chance motivation and low self actualization suggested a link between deficiency/growth motivation and reasons for participation. Boshier  (1977) found that young participants were more influenced by  External Expectations  and less influenced by cognitive interest than  older participants. Married participants were more l i k e l y to enrol for Professional Advancement reasons than unmarrieds, however, unmarried participants were also more influenced by External Expectations  than  married participants. He also noted that participants with the lowest formal educational qualifications were more influenced by Professional Advancement participants.  and  External  Finally,  Expectations  participants  than  were  influenced  by  well  educated  Professional  Advancement were more l i k e l y to be of low socio-economic status than  21 those  less  influenced  by  Professional  Advancement  reasons for  participation. Since the Boshier  (1977) study, Boshier and Collins (1983) created a  f i l e containing EPS, socio-demographic, and other data on more than 12,000 respondents and calculated mean EPS factor scores by sex, age, and other variables. Because of the large size of this data set, the mean scores of socio-demographic groups ( i e . men and women) on each of the  factors  were  significantly  different.  But, i n  general,  socio-demographic variables accounted for l i t t l e of the variance i n motivational orientations. For example, sex accounted for less than one percent  of the variance  i n Social Contact,  Social  Stimulation,  Professional Advancement, and Community Service. Sex accounted for 1.01% of the variance i n External Expectations  (men were significantly  more l i k e l y to to be influenced by this factor than women) and 2.25% i n Cognitive  Interest  (women were  significantly  more  likely  to be  influenced by this factor than men). Age accounted for 2.25% of the variance i n Social Contact, 3.24% i n Social  Stimulation,  4.84% i n Professional  Advancement, 1.44% i n  Community Service, and 3.24% i n External Expectations.  In a l l these  factors, older respondents were less l i k e l y to be influenced by these factors than younger respondents. Age accounted for 2.56% of the variance  i n Cognitive Interest, but i n this case, older respondents  were more influenced by this factor than younger respondents. Marital status accounted for 2.29% of the variance i n Social Contact and  1.04% i n Social Stimulation  (single participants were more  influenced by these factors than marrieds). Marital status accounted  22  for less than one percent i n the other four factors. Number of children accounted for less than one percent i n a l l factors. Level of education Contact,  1.47%  accounted for 1.89% of the variance  in  Social  Stimulation,  2.21%  Advancement, and 1.55% i n External Expectations levels  of education  participants  with  were more influenced higher  levels  in  i n Social  Professional  (those with  by these  of education).  lower  factors than  Education  accounted for less than one percent of the variance  level  i n Community  Service and Cognitive Interest. Occupation accounted for 6.51% of the variance i n Social Contact, 6.53% in Social Stimulation, 5.34% i n Professional Advancement, 5.34% i n Community  Service,  5.53% i n External  Expectations,  and 3.15% i n  Cognitive interest. Unemployed respondents were more influenced by most of the factors than other groups. Exceptions Advancement  factor, where students  were the professional  and the technical/educational/  professional category were more influenced than other categories, and Cognitive  interest,  where  housewives  and  the  technical/  educational/professional category were more influenced than others. This benchmark study suggests that caution i s necessary when examining socio-demographic correlates of motivational  orientations, i n this  large data set, occupational status was a more powerful predictor of motivational orientations than other socio-demographic variables. The small amounts of variance accounted for suggest that caution i s needed when ascribing motivational orientation variance to socio-demographic variables. Some of the effects may have been masked or "smoothed"  23 because Boshier and Collins created such a large data set from so many different countries, settings, and participant groups. Nevertheless, i n many respects, this large-scale study must be given more weight than Boshier's (1977) study which was conducted with only 242 respondents i n one location (Richmond, B.C.). Summary Motivational orientations appear to be moderately related to s o c i a l , psychological, and other variables. Socio-structural variables appear to influence reasons for participation over a continuum that ranges from "life-chance" to "life-space" motivations. At the lower end of the social order, deficiency i s the operand that leads to the satisfaction of survival and safety needs. Advancing through the continuum, growth needs are met by educational a c t i v i t i e s ranging from status-seeking to self-actualization.  Demographic  variables  partially  determine the  strength of the motivational influences f e l t by the individual. From an environmental point  of view, technological  change i s the  driving force that prevents the entire process from reaching  stasis,  resulting i n the domination of adult education by job-related programs. Job-related  motivation  for individuals  i s therefore  related to  expectations of career advancement, better pay, and increased security, as well as social and psychological factors such as survival, status, and  self esteem. Of these, career  advancement and better pay are  consistent with the economic perspective. The interrelatedness of these two perspectives, while f a i r l y obvious, are an important construct i n the development of this thesis.  24  Sociology of Job Motivation One of the most i n f l u e n t i a l theories about human needs was developed by Maslow (1970) who grouped needs into five basic categories arranged i n a hierarchical order.  Lower order  needs dominate behaviour  until  s a t i s f i e d ; only then do higher order needs receive attention. His ideas on human motivation have had an enormous influence on the thinking of behavioural s c i e n t i s t s , educators, and sociologists. Using the conceptual  framework of need established by Maslow (1970),  adult educators such as Knowles (1974), Knox (1968) and Monette (1977) described relationships between individual needs and those of social organizations; the needs of social organizations can and do influence the acquisition of individual needs. For example, the need of an organization for s k i l l e d workers could lead employees to participate i n educational  a c t i v i t i e s that develop such s k i l l s .  This relationship  between the needs of the social organization (the employer) and the needs of the individual (the employee) i s of particular interest to the present  study.  Miller  (1967)  dealt  more  specifically  with  the  industrial setting. He posited that individual learning needs could be stimulated by both the "technological" needs of the workplace as well as by i t ' s "promotional" needs to advance and develop employees within the organizational hierarchy. Building  on  Maslow's  unassessable  (Alderfer,  1972; Schneider  &  Alderfer, 1973) theory, McGregor (1960) claimed that the perspective or theory a manager holds about other people determines how others  will  respond. McGregor  main  posited  that  most managers had as their  25 perspective what he called "Theory X". This perspective of employees was  a dismal one; workers are egocentric, passive, and  lazy, lack  ambition, resist change, and are followers, not leaders. The result of this theory or perspective led to s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy - employees treated l i k e children responded l i k e children. McGregor challenged this view. Knowledge from behavioural science suggested what McGregor called "Theory Y". Theory Y accepted  that managers needed to manage, but the task of  management was redefined. Recognizing the appropriateness of Maslow's needs hierarchy, McGregor proposed that management's job i s to arrange operations i n such a way that there i s minimum c o n f l i c t between the aims of the organization and the needs of employees. This dramatic (then) suggestion of a s h i f t away from the external control of workers to the provision of an atmosphere that allowed employees to exercise self-control  and  direction  is s t i l l  evident  i n many management  practices today. Herzberg (1966) examined conflict between people and the organization, and reduced Maslow's five factor hierarchy to two motivational levels that affect job satisfaction. One level of the motivators/demotivators included  Maslow's lower  order  needs - psychological, safety, and  belongingness. This he called the "hygiene factor", a producer of job dissatisfaction.  The  higher  order  needs  of  self  esteem  and  self-actualization he labeled the "motivator factor". According to Herzberg, the motivator factor i s the appropriate way to stimulate  employee  productivity.  Hygiene  factors  are  the  work  environment, while motivator factors deal with the work i t s e l f .  He  26 argued that attempts to motivate employees through extrinsic means (the hygiene factors) such as more pay, better benefits, and better work environments are a l l based on what he called the "KITA" approach. Producing acceptable behaviour i n an employee by a "kick i n the a**" may work but, once employed, loses i t ' s effectiveness as a motivator. The appropriate motivator i n Herzberg's view i s job enrichment. Giving an individual authority and accountability w i l l  have a continuing  motivational effect, providing more challenge to an employee to u t i l i z e inherent or acquired s k i l l s . Job redesign to provide enrichment has enjoyed considerable popularity over the last decade, and the implementation of Herzberg's motivator factors i s l i k e l y to continue, leading to a gradual reduction i n the percentage  of  jobs  that  lack  challenge, primarily  through the  automation of those d u l l and routine jobs better performed by robots. But  job enrichment  i s not the panacea for a l l the i l l s  of the  workplace. As Bohlman and Deal (1984) point out: ...there are significant barriers to the progress of job enlargement, and d u l l jobs w i l l not entirely disappear i n the future. One source of resistance i s the philosophy of "technological determinism" - the belief that jobs should be organized on the basis of technical imperatives, and people then trained to perform the jobs correctly. Another barrier i s the durability of Theory X. Right or wrong, many managers continue to believe that their workers w i l l be most productive i n a Theory X environment. A third barrier i s economic. Many jobs cannot be altered without major investments i n the redesign of physical plant and machinery. The barriers w i l l slow the movement toward job enrichment, but they are not l i k e l y to stop i t . (p. 8 6 ) . At the organizational l e v e l , reliance on the application of technology has resulted i n creation of a more specialized work force. This applies in particular to firms with a high requirement for automation. In such  27 firms, a large proportion of employees are developed into specialists with an  extensive  educational background i n the  technology  to  be  applied. S i m i l a r i l y , many managers i n industrial concerns have often enjoyed a l i b e r a l education followed by graduate training. Zalesnik et a l . (1970) proposed that individuals make career choices based on needs for i n t r i n s i c or extrinsic rewards. His categorization of career paths into two types (Specialists and Managers), contains parallels to theories of adult education that clearly demonstrate the sociological roots of both. The "Specialist" i s described thus: By choosing i n t r i n s i c rewards and foregoing extrinsic ones, the ... Specialists appear committed primarily to the pursuit of knowledge for i t ' s own sake, i t was as though external recognition was threatening to the dedicated pursuit of knowledge. A sense of pride i n careful, thorough workmanship and the satisfaction of realizing valued ideals presumably compensated for the lesser emphasis on external rewards.... (Zalesnik, 1970, pp. 73-74). The "Manager", on the other hand, saw as more legitimate and acceptable goals those of higher status and salary. In addition, "Managers" seemed to presume that challenge comes from the a b i l i t y to perform a task considered  v i t a l to the functioning of the corporation. Above a l l ,  specialists seemed to be motivated by i n t r i n s i c rewards, while managers seemed to consider extrinsic rewards such as money and status more appropriate objects of pursuit. Sedge (1985) summed up the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the "technical specialist" thus: F i r s t , the motivations or reward system for an individual i n management may be i n direct conflict with those for an  28  individual i n engineering or science. For example, an individual with a high need for autonomy or independence might find working as a scientist or an engineer very f u l f i l l i n g but not find satisfaction working as a manager. In contrast, a person with high leadership needs might find the management role more satisfying than working as a scientist or engineer. Second, some individuals experience d i f f i c u l t y relinquishing the technical role as they move into management. Bayton and Chapman saw each step up the management hierarchy as requiring less technical expertise and more interpersonal/administrative s k i l l s . Technical managers were described as oriented more toward the maintenance of their technical s k i l l s than they were toward the acquisition of organizational role s k i l l s . Third, there may be an interpersonal or organizational s k i l l deficiency for some technical personnel making the transition into management. The engineer, performing a role with a 'thing' or 'data' orientation, may have never acquired the neccessary interpersonal skills to operate in a 'people'-oriented role. Bayton and Chapman (1977) concluded that most management training f a i l s to meet the needs of those i n t r a n s i t i o n , and they recommend improved selection and training procedures to smooth the transition process, (p. 57). Schein (1971) echoed zalesnik's concerns. For zalesnik, the fundamental issue was the correspondence between the interests of the organization and  the demands of the occupational  role. Schein focused on the  "structural variables" (the organization, the individual, the career) which he considered  to be more or less stable, and the interaction  between the organization  and the individual. The resulting "career  dynamics" of this interplay consisted of a sequence of career decisions that  Schein called "boundary passages". An employee can progress  upwards through promotion within the management hierarchy,  laterally  within a department, or from department to department within the organization.  In the case of zalesnik's technical s p e c i a l i s t ,  this  movement i s usually upward. I t i s the interests of the organization that are served by this progression  or passage. The concerns of the  29 individual are not always taken into account other than by providing opportunties for this progression. Social, peer, and career pressure, either real or perceived, often leads the individual to accept this progression only i n the concept of company and career, with l i t t l e thought given to the individual's own needs, desires, or concerns. In a later a r t i c l e Schein (1978) sums up the dilemma of organizations thus: Any human resource planning and development system must attempt to match the needs of the organization with those of the individual. I f such a system i s to work, much more effort must be devoted to understanding the needs and characteristics of the individual. Those needs derive not only from the individual's working l i f e , but also from the interaction within the t o t a l "life-space" of issues of work, family, and self-development. One of the weaknesses of traditional employee and management development systems has been the tendency to assume that employees can be conceived as leaving family and s e l f at home when they come to work and that, therefore, the organization need worry only about creating opportunities for work-oriented development a c t i v i t i e s . As the study of adult development progresses, i t is becoming more and more clear that work, family, and self-concerns interact strongly within people throughout their l i v e s . This interaction simply cannot any longer be ignored, (p. 17). As a result, many major corporations have instituted dual career paths for  their employees (Feuer, 1986). Technical experts and other task  oriented employees such as high-performing  salespeople, accountants,  and lawyers, often f a i l when promoted to management ranks. These are people who make valuable contributions i n their areas of expertise, but lack the interest and/or a b i l i t y to do budgeting, coaching, recruiting, and other management tasks. In an attempt to retain such people and to promote technical and professional excellence, many organizations have set  up separate but equal career ladders for non-management employees.  These ladders have status levels, pay scales, and other perquisites that correspond to those of the management hierarchy.  30 As noted i n the l i t e r a t u r e , companies i n the high-technology arena are driven to increasing specialization within their employee groups i n order  to keep pace with accelerating technological change. This i s  particularly true of B.C. Tel. AS Bohlman and Deal (1984) point out: ...the telephone company i s trying to survive changes of magnitude unparalleled i n human experience...what we are witnessing now i s just the t i p of what the future holds. Revolutions i n technology and i n information production and the accelerating pace of change w i l l transform most sectors of work radically. As i n the past, the form and function of human organization w i l l struggle to keep up, but they w i l l lag well behind the other changes. And unless leaders (or leading managers) arise to help us close the gap, to create complex organizations to equal complex technologies, productivity and morale w i l l sag. Work for many people w i l l lose i t ' s meaning, (p. 295). Summary Organizational development i s largely concerned with trying to match the needs of individuals and organizations. Based on Maslow's needs hierarchy,  researchers  i n this  tradition  have  focused  on  how  organizations can motivate employees i n an effective and continuing manner that minimizes conflict between the requirements of employees, and what Schein c a l l s "the 'life-space' of issues of work, family, and self-development" of the individual. Good arguments exist for solutions that use " i n t r i n s i c " such  as  involvement motivators. motivators  job-enrichment, as  a  participative management,  replacement  Yet clearly  there  for more are s t i l l  traditional  motivation,  and  employee  "extrinsic"  those who view extrinsic  such as better salaries, benefits, and status that comes  from promotion as important.  31 As mentioned i n earlier sections of this study, the "form and function of human organization" i s essential to the provision of the structural variables (Schein, 1971) that attempt to meet the needs of individuals within organizations. Needs of the individuals within the corporate and societal  framework  are considered  i n the theoretical  frameworks  developed by researchers i n the f i e l d s of organizational development, career development, and social behaviour. In hierarchical organizations, rewards for high achieving employees are usually provided by promotion into the managerial ranks. Not a l l good technical specialists make good managers, nor do they necessarily want management  jobs. They may prefer  to remain  i n their  areas of  specialization. As a result, the notion of dual career paths has developed credence i n some organizations (Feuer, 1986), providing an opportunity  for the extrinsic  motivation  of both  managers and  specialists, thus meeting two types of needs and reducing conflict between individual needs and corporate needs. Conclusions Much of the upset  and i r r i t a t i o n  currently  being  experienced by  employees affected by technological and economic change arises from insecurity concerning their a b i l i t y to compete for jobs and careers i n a changing work environment. Training and educational credentials are presumed  to enhance qualifications.  requirements  of the workforce  The nature  and workplace  of work and the  are undergoing  rapid  change, and the expectations of workers and employers have reached different levels. One of the many avenues available to the worker i s to gain  skills  that provide either  a better opportunity for career  32 advancement or to increase their capabilities i n their present job. This study examines the effect of socio-demographic, motivational, and achievement  orientation  variables  on  employee  reasons  for  participation. Socio-demographic  correlates of motivation  for participation are  discussed i n the literature. Most studies have concerned themselves with the adult "learner at large". In this case, because of the human capital  orientation of the c r i t e r i a associated with reimbursement,  learners are directed toward job-related a c t i v i t i e s . Thus, i t was reasonable  to presume that participants would be more motivated by  "job" than " non job" reasons for participation. Motivation  as cited  by economic, educational, and organizational  development literature provide a common ground for this study. From the economic perspective, education and training should change s k i l l s or behaviour. I f not, i t only adds a new coat of paint to an old piece of machinery. Motivation from an economic perspective i s attributed to the desire of both individuals and corporations to gain s k i l l s that w i l l enhance long term yields. Individuals are motivated, unconciously,  conciously or  by giving up short term, smaller gains for longer term  higher gains. Employers are motivated by reduced costs through lower turnover, better u t i l i z a t i o n of developed s k i l l s , and longer term gains through improved productivity and better quality workmanship. From an educational perspective, participants i n educational a c t i v i t i e s are motivated  for a varity of reasons. Many are for what Herzberg  (1966) called "hygiene" factors, though "motivator" factors are l i k e l y to be of equal importance, particularly i n the last two decades. Of  33 these, career advancement and employer expectation are consistent with economic motivations while those of status and self-actualization are consistent with those of the sociological perspective. Organizations  provide  educational  and  career  opportunities  in  an  attempt to reduce conflict between the needs of employees and those of the corporation, i n addition, motivation of employees to provide  an  effective and productive workforce i s an important component of human resource programs and policy. The need for increasing specialization to meet the needs of rapidly changing technology has caused new to be applied i n developing  pressures  areas of career choice of importance to  both the individual and the company. The needs for training f e l t by both  employee  and  employer  are  consistent  with  the  economic  perspective, while the social and psychological reasons for individual participation are consistent with the educational perspective. The  interactions between demographic, motivational, and  achievement  orientation variables employed i n this study are depicted i n Figure 1. Socio-demographic variables can  influence motivational orientations  either d i r e c t l y , or indirectly through mediating variables such as achievement orientations. For example, the literature suggests that older participants are less influenced by life-chance motivations than younger participants. Thus, assuming that achievement orientations of employees are neutral, older employees should be less influenced by job-related employee's  reasons  than  motivational  competitiveness  younger  orientation  employees. may  be  However, mediated  achievement orientation. This may  an by  older a  high  lead to an  older  employee c i t i n g job-related influences as highly as younger employees.  34 Similarly,  participation  opportunities  i n education  for job security  may  for the union  present  "life-chance"  employee, while to a  Figure 1 Diagrammatic portrayal of independent variables and their hypothesised association with dependent variables employed in this study  I N D E P E N D E N T  V A R I A B L E S  Socio-demographic Characteristics Personal • Gender • Age • Marital Status • Number of Children • Education Level Job-related • Length of Service • Employment Function • Union Function • Management Function  -  M E D I A T I N G  V A R I A B L E S  Achievement Orientation • Work • Mastery • Competitiveness • Personal Unconcern  i D E P E N D E N T  Motivational Orientation V A R I A B L E  —-  Job-related  Not jobrelated  35 management  employee  development.  i t is a  "life-space"  opportunity  for self  Thus, the union employee would be more influenced by  job-related reasons for participation, while the manager would indicate non  job-related  employees  with  reasons. Achievement orientations could desire  for i n t e l l e c t u a l  challenge  lead union  to c i t e  non  job-related reasons for participation where the literature suggests job-related reasons would be of more influence. The hypotheses that result reflect relationships expected from the interaction of variables shown i n Figure 1. Hypotheses Hypothesis 1. Demographic characteristics w i l l be associated with motivational orientations for participation. Specifically: • males w i l l be more influenced by job-related motivational orientations for participation than females. • younger participants w i l l be more influenced by job-related motivational orientations than older participants. • single participants w i l l be more influenced by job-related motivational orientations than married participants. • respondents without children w i l l be more influenced by job-related motivational orientations than those with children. • the longer the term of employment, the less l i k e l y that job-related motivational orientations w i l l be an influence in decisions to participate.  36  • participants with higher educational level w i l l be less influenced by job-related motivational orientations than those of lower levels of education. • union employees w i l l be more influenced by job-related motivational orientations than management employees. Hypothesis 2. Job-related w i l l be more i n f l u e n t i a l than non job-related motivational orientations for participation. Hypothesis 3. Men and women w i l l d i f f e r i n their achievement orientations. • Males w i l l rate i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge and desire to succeed in a competitive environment higher than females. • Females w i l l rate desire to work hard and not be afraid of success higher than males.  37 CHAPTER THREE INSTRUMENTATION This  study  involved  the collection  of demographic data  and the  measurement of the "motivational" and "achievement" orientations of participants (Table 1). This data was collected v i a a questionnaire (Appendix A) developed by the researcher  that incorporated questions  related to socio-demographic characteristics of participants, Boshier's (1982)  "Education  Participation Scale"  to determine  motivational  Table 1 Description of independent and Dependent Variables and Their Associated Scale Values Variable  Type  Scale  Sex Age Marital Status  Independent Independent Independent  Children  Independent  Educational Level  Independent  Length of service Employment Function Union Function Management Function  Independent  l=male, 2=female actual age l=never married, 2=married or common-law, 3=separated, divorced, widowed, l i v e alone, 4=separated, divorced, widowed, l i v e with someone 0=none, l=one c h i l d , 2=two children 3=three or more children l=grade 12, 2=post-secondary c e r t i f icate, 3=part of a degree, 4=degree 5=degree plus c e r t i f i c a t e actual period of employment  Independent  l=union, 2=exempt, 3=management  Independent Independent  l = c l e r i c a l , 2=traffic, 3=plant l=line, 2=staff, 3=Human Resources 4=MIS, 5=other  Job-related Motivation for participation  Dependent  l=no influence, 2=little influence 3=moderate influence, 4=much influence  Non Job-related Motivation for participation  Dependent  l=no influence, 2=little influence 3=moderate influence, 4=much influence  Achievement Orientation  Dependent  5 point scale, 0 to 4, ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree  38 orientations, and Orientation  Helmreich and  Questionnaire"  to  Spence's assess  (1978) "Work and  components  of  Family  achievement  orientation. As described above, socio-demographic data related to sex, age, marital status, number of children, educational l e v e l , length of service, employment function (union or management), union function (clerical,  operator,  or  installation  and  repair),  and  management  function ( l i n e , s t a f f , or other) were gathered. In addition, data on course type, i n s t i t u t i o n attended, reimbursment, number of course taken in the last five years, and degree/diploma/certificate aspiration or attainment  were also  collected. The  latter  were used  only  for  descriptive purposes and hence are not included i n Table 1. Motivation for Participation This study used the Education participation Scale (Boshier, 1982). The instrument  contains 40 items rated on a four point L i k e r t - l i k e scale  ranging from 1 to 4, where a rating of one indicates "no influence" and four (EPS)  indicates "much influence". The  Education  Participation  Scale  consists of six factors (Boshier & C o l l i n s , 1985). These are  "Social Contact",  "Social Stimulation", "Professional Advancement",  "Community Service", "External Expectations", and "Cognitive Interest". Scale scores are derived by summing over items that comprise each factor. The  EPS  has test-retest item r e l i a b i l i t i e s significant at the  level ranging from .44 to 1.00 with an average of .81  .001  (Boshier, 1971).  Typically, this instrument has been used i n adult education settings i n an educational i n s t i t u t i o n or community environment.  39 The current research was done i n an industrial setting. Participants apply i n advance for financial assistance for the course or courses they wish to take. Approval i s based on two c r i t e r i a ; the course taken should bear a relationship to the employer's business and be taken at an "approved" i n s t i t u t i o n such as the B.C.  Institute of Technology  (BCIT), the University of B r i t i s h Columbia (UBC), or Simon Fraser University (SFU). As a result, participants i n the current study were directed toward courses considered job-related by the company. After successfully completing the course, the participant i s reimbursed for costs incurred for t u i t i o n and books. This study involved the creation of a typology that contrasted the relative influence of "job" and "non job" reasons for participation i n education. Thus, the EPS was scored as follows. Thirty B.C. Tel. supervisors i n a variety of disciplines that reflected the employment function categories used i n this study were asked to rate the 40 questions of the Education Participation Scale, using the scale shown i n Appendix B. Respondents were f i r s t asked to rate each question, assuming a positive response, as "definitely job-related, definitely not job-related or can't decide". The second step applied only to those questions rated as definitely job-related. Respondents were  asked  to  distinguish  between  items  related  to  "career  advancement", or a "desire to do a current job better" (Table 2). Follow up  interviews of  a l l 30  respondents were conducted by the  researcher to c l a r i f y any potential misunderstandings. In only one case did this change the ratings. Ratings of 25 and above i n any of the categories were considered sufficient j u s t i f i c a t i o n for inclusion i n that category. This resulted i n 18 questions being  categorized as job-  40 Table 2 EPS Breakdown by "Job-related", "Not Job-related", "Undetermined", "Career Advancement", and "Improved Performance" Step One Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40  Job Related  Not Job Related  — —30 — —29  30 30  2  —26  —5  28 1 3 29 2  Step Two Undetermined  — — —25  2  —25  1 2  —3  —2  28  —1  —1 —1  1 30  —28 —30  30 25  —28 . 30— —30 — —  29  — — —  1  —3 30 27 30 27  25 28  — — —29  29 2 29 29  27 1 28 29 30 27 30  — —2 —  3 30 5 1 30 30 29 1  1  1  —1 — —3 —2 1  —2 —27 —1 — — — —1 — —1 —  Career Advancement  Improved Performance  — —30 — —27  — — — — —28  — —30 — —28 —2  —26 —25 — — —28 — —30  1  28  — — —30 — — — — — — — — —3  1  1  — — —29 — — —  1  —3 27  —23  — — — —20  — — — —  — — —29  27 30 27  1  27  41 related, 19 not job-related, and 3 undetermined. Of the 18 job-related questions, 9 were judged to reflect a desire for career advancement and 9 for improved performance i n a current job (the distinction between "career advancement" and "improved performance" and the part of the analysis for which i t was intended, was later abandoned). As can be seen i n Table 3, items 3, 10, 15, 18, 20, 30, and 32 were rated "job-related" by 30 respondents while items 6, 23, and 40 were deemed "job-related" by 29 of the 30 respondents. Items 11 and 35 were scored as "job-related" by 25 of the 30 respondents, 28 respondents rated items 13, 16, and 36 as "job-related". Table 3 EPS Items Sorted into "Job-related, Not Job-related, and Undetermined" Categories Job-related  Not Job-related  3, 6, 9, 10, 11 , 13, 15, 16, 18, 20, 23, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 40.  Undetermined  1, 2, 5, 8, 12, 14, 17, 19, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 34, 37, 38, 39.  4, 7, 9  Items 1, 2, 8, 12, 14, 17, 21, 25, 26, 28, 34, 37, 38, and 39 ' rated as "non job-related" by a minimum of 29 respondents, while items 5, 19, 22, 24, and 27 were scored thus by at least 25 of them. These usually  comprise  Stimulation,  and  the other  Cognitive "social"  Interest, factors.  Social Three  Contact, Social items were  rated  "undetermined". Only 25 respondents considered that items 4 and 7 belonged i n this category; 27 respondents believed this to be true of item 29. Due to the paucity of items i n this category, i t was dropped from further analysis.  42 Achievement Orientation The Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire (WOFO) was developed to assess achievement orientation and attitudes toward family and career (Helmreich & Spence, 1978). The inventory asks respondents to rate 32 items that describe values related to family, work, and career on a five point Likert-type scale ranging from 0 to 4. The 23 items related to  achievement orientation  yield  scores  on four subscales; Work,  Mastery, Competitiveness, and Personal Unconcern. "Work" i s described by  the authors  intellectual  as desire to work  challenge,  hard,  "Competitiveness",  "Mastery", desire  desire for  to succeed  in  competitive, interpersonal situations, and "Personal Unconcern" as a measure  of attitudes  about  the possible negative interpersonal  consequences of achievement. The remaining  eight items  relate to  career, education, marriage, children, and family orientations. The  authors  found  Competitiveness,  that  males  while females  scored  higher  on  Mastery  and  scored higher on Work and Personal  Unconcern. A high score i n this last subscale indicated a lack of concern with the negative reactions of others to personal achievement, while i n the previous three, high scores indicated high desire for hard work, i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge, and success i n competitive environments. R e l i a b i l i t i e s , as expressed i n Alpha coefficients, are satisfactory for scales of this length, ranging from lows of .50 i n both sexes on Personal Unconcern to .76 and .72 for Competitiveness  i n males and  females respectively. For this study, only 24 of the 32 questions were used. In addition to  43 the 23 items that constitute the achievement orientation scales (six for  Work, eight for Mastery,  five  for Competition, and four for  Personal Unconcern), item 24 was included i n the present study since i t reflects the importance of a desire for promotion and better pay. The remaining eight questions were not used since they are directed towards family attitudes, which were not relevant to this study. Since these eight questions are descriptive only, their omission did not affect the scoring. Scale R e l i a b i l i t y Analysis Education Participation Scale To ensure the dependability of findings developed from the Education Participation Scale (EPS), an analysis of the internal r e l i a b i l i t y of the job-related and non job-related  scales  (Table 4) was  conducted  using data gathered from the 159 B.C. Tel employees participating i n this study. R e l i a b i l i t i e s as expressed i n Alpha Coefficients were found to be satisfactory. The Alpha coefficient for the EPS was .91. Alpha for both job-related and non job-related scores was .86.  Table 4 R e l i a b i l i t y Analysis of the Education Participation Scale Scale Education Participation  Scale Mean 73.61  F  cronbach's Alpha  104.64  .91  Scale job-related  38.00  86.80  .86  Non job-related  29.22  92.27  .86  44  Work and Family Orientation Scales  An  analysis  of the internal r e l i a b i l i t y  of WOFO Mastery, Work,  Competitiveness, and Personal Unconcern scales was also conducted (n = 159). R e l i a b i l i t i e s as expressed i n Alpha Coefficients were found to be satisfactory, ranging from  .47 for Personal Unconcern to .63 for  Mastery. Table 5 shows the results of this r e l i a b i l i t y analysis over the 24 questions of the WOFO using data gathered from the 159 B.C. Tel employees participating i n this study. Table 5 R e l i a b i l i t y Analysis of the Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire: Scale Mean  F  Cronbach's Alpha  Mastery  23.37  249.51  .63  Work  21.35  563.51  .55  Competitiveness  12.69  274.54  .61  Personal Unconcern  11.38  297.12  .47  Scale  45  CHAPTER FOUR - METHODOLOGY  Population The population for this study was defined as B.C. Tel employees who, on their  own time, participated i n educational a c t i v i t i e s financed by  their employer. These employees could be i n management or th± un:on. The c r i t e r i a applied by the company for financial assistance included at a minimum 1) the course taken should bear a relationship to B.C. Tel's business, 2) should be taken at an approved  post-secondary  i n s t i t u t i o n , and 3) should be successfully completed by the employee. Sample Participants i n this study were B.C. Tel employees whose Employee Development Record indicated that they had taken outside courses i n 1985 (as noted l a t e r , this led to certain d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the returns received). Management and bargaining unit employees of both sexes were included i n the sample. The sample excluded employees from outside the lower mainland of Vancouver and those who had taken F i r s t Aid courses via the Worker's Compensation Board  (First Aid courses provided by  other institutions were retained). The former were excluded for two reasons; one, out-of-town employees would be d i f f i c u l t to follow up and two, the relative lack of courses outside the Vancouver area made their inclusion less interesting for this type of research. The latter were excluded mainly because motivation for participation i n such a course was  f a i r l y obvious; employees are directed by the company to take  F i r s t Aid Certificates, primarily to meet the requirements of the  46 Canada Labour Code, Part IV. Twenty-five percent the employees who reported  taking  researcher  a  course  decided  to  i n 1985  exclude  fell  these  into  this  category.  participants  since  The their  participation was mandatory. The number of employees who voluntarily took courses i n 1985 was (excluding  employees as  described above).  To  reduce  1,487  this  to  a  manageable s i z e , employees were selected who met the sample c r i t e r i a through assignment by random number. This provided any employee who had indicated i n their Employee Development Record that they had taken a course i n 1985, other than those who  had taken F i r s t Aid via the  Worker's Compensation Board or an out-of-town participant, with an equal opportunity to participate i n the study Sampling Procedure A  questionnaire was  developed  that  incorporated Boshier's  (1982)  Education Participation Scale (EPS), Helmreich and Spence's (1978) Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire (WOFO) and questions related to socio-demographic  variables. As well, a coding schedule (Appendix C)  was prepared. The questionnaire was sent via inter-departmental mail to 250 randomly selected  employees  from  the  population described above who  had  indicated they had taken courses i n 1985. I t was anticipated that this would produce a sample size of (approximately) N = 212 based on an anticipated  response  rate  of  85%.  The  researcher  encountered  unanticipated d i f f i c u l t i e s with t h i s , described i n Chapter Five. A covering letter (see Appendix A) explained the purpose and anticipated  47 benefits of the study, procedures for completing and questionnaire,  and  assured  participants  that  returning  their  rights  the to  confidentiality and refusal to participate would be respected. Design and S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis Socio-demographic Variables For certain s t a t i s t i c a l procedures "age"  and "length of service" data  were recoded. Frequency counts, crosstabulation procedures, and one-way analysis of variance breakdowns would have been cumbersome had this not been done. These recodes recategorized age as under 25, 26 to 30, 31 to 35, 36 to 40, 41 to 45, 46 to 50, and over 50; length of service to 5 years or less, 6 to 10 years, 11 to 15 years, 16 to 20 years, and more than 20 years. A recode of employment function was  also  required;  category 2 (exempt) consisted of only two respondents. Data for these two  employees were recoded to include them as union employees. An  optional recode for "type of course" was defined, which  summarized the  12 course types into three; management courses, technical courses, and "other" courses. Education Participation Scale An analysis of the internal consistency  of the job-related and  non  job-related scales was conducted. R e l i a b i l i t i e s as expressed i n Alpha Coefficients were found to be .86 for the job-related scale and .86 for the non  job-related scale. Results of this analysis can be found i n  Chapter Three under "Scale R e l i a b i l i t y Analysis" (p. 43). Thereafter,  each  respondent's  job-related scale was  mean  on  the  job-related  and  non  calculated by using the "compute" statement of  y  SPSS . The items in the EPS used were: 1) job-related, 18 items (3, 6,  48 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 18, 20, 23, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, and 40). 2) non job-related, 19 items (1, 2, 8, 12, 14, 17, 21, 25, 26, 28, 34, 37, 38, and 39). The mean for each subject was calculated for each category using responses to the four point item scale on the EPS: 1 = l i t t l e influence, 2 = some influence, 3 = moderate influence, and 4 = much influence. Work and Family Orientation An analysis of the internal consistency of the four WOFO scales (Work, Mastery,  Competitiveness,  and Personal  Unconcern) was conducted.  R e l i a b i l i t i e s as expressed i n Alpha Coefficients ranged from .47 for Personal Unconcern to .63 for Mastery. Results of this analysis can be found in Chapter Three under "Scale R e l i a b i l i t y Analysis" (p. 44). The  means of the four Work and Family Orientation  (Mastery,  Competitiveness,  Work,  and Personal  calculated  on a five-point  scale  ranging  (WOFO) scales  Unconcern)  were  from 0 to 4 for each y  participant i n the study using the compute statement of SPSS . The mean of question 24 of the WOFO, which gives a general indication of the "Ambition" orientation of respondents, was calculated using the same method. Participant Typology part  of this study involved  characteristics  the analysis of the socio-demographic  of employees who participated  for job-related as  compared to non job-related reasons. To determine t h i s , a typology of participant types was constructed.  Based on the mean scores of a l l  participants, those with high job-related participation and high non job-related participation ( i e . above the overall means for both job and  49 non  job-related)  low  non  and  low non  were l a b e l e d  job-related  job-related typology  (HH), w i t h  high  job-related  p a r t i c i p a t i o n TYPE I I (HL), w i t h  job-related and h i g h  TYPE I  p a r t i c i p a t i o n TYPE  low  job-related  I I I ( L L ) , and  with  i s depicted  alone  or  i n Figure  living  with  without c h i l d r e n ) t o i n c r e a s e  A  scattergram  participation sample  of was  would  2.  "Marital  plotted  make t h i s  about  the i n t e r s e c t i o n  would  be  established status  status"  and  "number  participation  worthwhile.  classify.  by  non  i f sufficient  education  or  level,  management),  installation-repair), used  nd non  Therefore,  Discriminant this  function  length  union  of  an  respondents analysis  service,  function  and management  to classify  (with  or  exclusion  clustered means  zone  was  sex, age, domestic (with o r without  employment  (line,  the four  i n the  job-related  (clerical,  function into  spread  function  operator,  staff,  or  or other)  motivational  types.  i s d e s i g n e d t o p r e d i c t group membership  t h e s i s , TYPE I , TYPE I I , TYPE I I I , and TYPE IV as  above). The d a t a c o n s i s t e d  status"  job-related  Those p a r t i c i p a n t s  o f the job-related  to  status"  ( l i v e a l o n e o r l i v e w i t h someone), c h i l d s t a t u s  (union  (in  "child  of  the robustness o f the a n a l y s i s .  t o determine  step  and  a t .1 away from each mean. T h e r e a f t e r ,  children),  were  someone)  job-related  difficult  low  non j o b - r e l a t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n TYPE IV (HL). T h i s  c h i l d r e n " were recoded i n t o dichotomous v a r i a b l e s o f "domestic (living  and  of "discriminating"  (independent)  described variables  which measured t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on which t h e groups were expected t o differ.  Based  on t h e s e  variables,  the discriminant  function  analysis  would determine i f t h e groups d i f f e r e d , and weight and l i n e a r l y combine the  discriminating  variables to force  groups t o be as  statistically  50  Figure  2.  4.0  Typology o f p a r t i c i p a n t s by j o b - r e l a t e d and non j o b - r e l a t e d motivation f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education a c t i v i t i e s .  h  i  3.8 3.6 •  TYPE I I  3.4 •  high job,  high job,  J o b  3.2 -  low non j o b  h i g h non j o b  3.0 -  related  R e  2.8 •  1  2.6 -  TYPE I  related (HH)  (HL)  CI  t e d  2.4 • 2.2 -  TYPE I I I  TYPE IV  2.0 •  low j o b ,  low j o b ,  1.8 -  low  h i g h non j o b  1.6 •  related  1.4 -  non j o b  related (LH)  (LL)  1.2 • 1.0 • 1.0  1-  1.4 1.2  1.8 1.6  2.2 2.0  2.6 2.4  3.0 2.8  3.4 3.2  3.8 3.6  4.0  Non J o b - R e l a t e d  distinct  as p o s s i b l e .  Thus, v a r i a b l e s were s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a n a l y z e d t o  determine which c o n f i g u r a t i o n o r combination best high low  job/high job/high  non j o b , h i g h  d i s t i n g u i s h e d between  job/low non j o b , low job/low non j o b , and  non j o b - r e l a t e d m o t i v a t i o n a l  orientations.  51  Descriptive Objectives Frequency counts of the data from the survey instrument produced histograms and related s t a t i s t i c s objectives  of this  research.  which s a t i s f i e d  Broadly  stated,  the descriptive  these were 1) who  participates? 2) i n what courses? 3) at which institution? 4) as part of a degree, diploma, or c e r t i f i c a t e program? Results of this analysis are described i n Chapter Five - Results. Hypothesis Testing In addition to the descriptive objectives discussed above, the purpose of this research was to test three operational hypotheses:  1. Demographic characteristics w i l l be associated with motivation for participation. 2. Job-related w i l l be more i n f l u e n t i a l than non job-related motivational orientations for participation. 3. Men and women w i l l d i f f e r i n their achievement orientations.  Hypothesis 1. To examine both the degree of association between socio-demographic independent variables such as sex, age, domestic status (live alone or l i v e with someone), child status (with or without children), education l e v e l , length of service, employment function (union or management), union  function  (clerical,  operator,  or installation-repair), and  management function (line, s t a f f , or other) and the dependent variables "job-related" and "non job-related" motivational orientations, and also to determine the a b i l i t y to generalize the associations found i n the  52 sample to the population as a whole, scatterplots and their related statistics  were produced.  For most of the independent  variables,  Pearson's r was deemed sufficient. In the case of gender and employment function a t-test was considered appropriate. Union and management function required analysis of variance since more than two groups were involved. Hypothesis 2. Mean job and non job scores were compared to test whether job-related reasons were as i n f l u e n t i a l as non job-related reasons. Pearson's r_ was calculated to determine i f the mean scores differed s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Hypothesis 3. Two  and  three way  analyses of variance  were  used  to examine  relationships between achievement orientations and gender. To achieve the study's purpose, hypotheses were tested at the  = .05  level of s t a t i s t i c a l significance. Although research hypotheses suggest the  use  of directional  tests,  evidence  i n the literature  was  insufficient to justify the use of one-tailed tests. Given the nature of  this  study, two-tailed  tests were considered appropriate. The  s t a t i s t i c a l procedures shown i n Table 6 were employed to test the various hypotheses.  53  Table 6 Hypothesis Testing procedure by Variable Type and s t a t i s t i c a l Test. Variable 1  Statistical Type  variable 2  Statistical Type  procedure  Hypothesis 1 - Socio-demographic Variables by Motivational Orientations. Gender Age Domestic Status Child Status Length of Service Education Level Employment Function Union Function Management Function  Nominal Ordinal Ordinal  Motivational Orientation II  interval " I?  T-Test Pearson's II  Ordinal  n  II  II  Ordinal  II  II  II  Ordinal  II  II  II  Nominal  II  II  T-Test  II  n  n  ANOVA  II  II  II  II  Hypothesis 2 - Job-related by Non Job-related Participation Jobrelated Non Jobrelated  Interval "  Motivational Orientation "  Interval "  Frequency Counts and Pearson' r  Hypothesis 3 - Achievement Orientation by Gender Mastery & Competitiveness Work & Personal Unconcern  Interval  Gender  Nominal  Interval  Gender  Nominal  ANOVA  54  CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS 1 This chapter reports the results of the data analysis. section  describes  socio-demographic third  section  data  collection.  Following  The i n i t i a l this  characteristics of the sample are outlined.  reports results  pertaining  the The  to main and subsidiary  hypotheses as they relate to each of the areas considered i n the study (namely, socio-demographics, the Education Participation Scale, and the Work and Family Orientation Scale). Research hypotheses are restated and results outlined. The chapter concludes with a summary of the hypotheses examined and their acceptance or rejection. Data Collection procedures Two hundred and f i f t y  questionnaires were distributed to a random  sample of employees of B.C. Tel who reported courses taken i n 1985. This resulted i n 159 valid questionnaires being returned. Returned questionnaires were coded onto Fortran sheets (Appendix A) and entered into a f i l e after data entry and v e r i f i c a t i o n .  Sample and Sampling Procedure Problems Sample Three  problems  were encountered  Development Records  i n the sample.  First,  Employee  did not accurately reflect participation  in a  course or courses i n 1985. In 1984 (and thereafter on a regular basis) a b u l l e t i n was sent to a l l employees requesting an update of the records of B.C. Tel's Human Resources department to reflect courses  55 taken but not recorded. As a result, four participants indicated they had taken no courses i n 1985. In addition this led to respondents indicating degrees, diplomas and c e r t i f i c a t e s gained that did not reflect participation i n the Financial Assistance Program. Fortunately, the numbers were small (four employees i n the entire sample) and did not affect the results of the survey. Second, due to technological change and the normal movement of employees, some reassignment of employees had occured. As a result, two employees responded  with  socio-demographic  that  information  related  to employment  function  reflected both their current job and the one they held when they took the reported course. In these cases, the participant's 1985 employment function  was  used.  Third,  some  difficulty  was  encountered i n  determining bargaining unit level; again, as a result of technological change, 292 employees were declared surplus. These employees, who were primarily  "plant",  were  assigned  to c l e r i c a l  or t r a f f i c  jobs.  Socio-demographic data was assigned on the basis of their bargaining unit function at the time they took the course. Sampling Procedure Problems Four  sampling  procedure  problems  were  encountered.  First,  interdepartmental envelopes were of the reusable type. When an envelope i s received, the recipient crosses o f f the addressing information and reuses i t by putting new address information i n the next box. Despite a l l attempts by the researcher to ensure that  only the address of the  participant was on the envelope, some went astray. Since no name was on the questionnaire, some were returned to the researcher, others were never seen again. Second, some negative reactions to the research were experienced.  Five  complaints were lodged with  B.C. Tel's Human  56 Resources Department. Four of these related to invasion of privacy; i t was considered inappropriate that the researcher was given access to names of employees who had participated i n outside courses. The  fifth  concerned the confidentiality of the survey. Third, the survey  was  conducted at a time when employees of the company were particularly sensitive to research of any kind. This was due to two factors; f i r s t , technological change and the ensuing displacement of some employees had raised suspicions about the potential use of research data against the interest of employees, and second, a consultant, S c i e n t i f i c Management Corporation (SMC) was i n the process of making recommendations to the company that led to further dislocation and  staff reductions. An  indication of the effect that this had was an Employee Opinion Survey circulated to the bargaining unit by Tower and Perrins i n early 1986. While response rate to a similar survey of management employees i n 1984 yielded a response rate of 86%, that of the bargaining unit was 26%. In fact, i n this instance the union advised i t s members not to respond, citing  as  one  of  the  reasons possible involvement  by  Scientific  Management Corporation. Evidence of a similar attitude was  experienced  by this researcher i n questionnaires returned blank, with the tracking number removed, or with major sections of data missing. This resulted in 8% of a l l returned questionnaires being rejected as unusable.  In  addition, employee and union executive reaction to some of the above factors may employees unexpectedly  have skewed results, especially i n the number of union in  the  final  sample.  Fourth,  the  response  rate  was  low. Instead of the 85% return anticipated, a response  rate of 72% was the f i n a l outcome. This was partly due to the factors mentioned above and an encroaching holiday season. The f i r s t wave of  57 100 questionnaires, sent on May 21st, resulted i n a 90% response rate. The second wave, 50 questionnaires sent on June 2nd, provided a return rate of 70%. The return rate for the third wave, 100 questionnaires sent on June 9th, dropped to 30%. Increasing excitement over Expo '86 and the beginnings of summer holidays may have been factors here. As a result of the above and those questionnaires that had to be rejected for one reason or another, the f i n a l sample size was 159, representing 64% of the t o t a l number of questionnaires distributed.  Characteristics of Respondents Socio-Demographic Variables Personal Of the 159 employees who responded to the questionnaire, 88 were men and 71 were women. They ranged i n age from 23 to 57 years, with an average age of 35 years (SD = 7.23). The 26 to 35 age group represented over half the sample (54.8%). The next largest block was 36 to 45 years old (33.2%) while under 25 and over 45 year olds were 2.5% and  9.6%  respectively. Most of the sample were married or l i v i n g common-law (66.7%), 22.6% were single and the remainder (10.6%) were separated, divorced or widowed. F i f t y percent  (50.3) had no children, s l i g h t l y  less than 6% had three or more children, and the remainder (44.1%) had one or two children. A minority  (22.7%) of respondents had  a degree as  their  highest  educational qualification while s l i g h t l y over 32% had a Grade 12 level of education. The  balance  (45.3%) either had or were working on a  post-secondary c e r t i f i c a t e . Of these, 18.9% reported they had part of a degree.  58 The average length of employment with B.C. Tel was 12 years (SD = 6.97). Almost three quarters of the sample (74.5%) had worked for the company for 15 years or less. Over 56% of respondents were management employees, 42.8% were i n the union (the missing .6% was due to one of the questionnaires being returned without this information). Of the 42.8% union employees, 1.3% (2 employees) were "exempt", that i s , union employees who because of the nature of their  job are considered  quasi-management. Because of the small size of this group, they were considered union employees i n this research. Union employees participating were s p l i t equally between men and women, with 34 i n each group. Of the 68 union employees, 57.6% were i n the clerical  division,  7.6% were t r a f f i c operators, and the remainder  (34.8%) "plant" ( i n s t a l l a t i o n and repair) employees. In the management group, 57 were men and 37 were women. Management employees (n = 88) were for the most part from staff groups. Of these, headquarters staff accounted for 47.8% of the sub-sample, Management Information Systems employees (MIS), Human Resources, and other staff groups made up an additional  25.5%.  employees. Table  Only  26.7% of the sample were line management  7 describes i n d e t a i l a breakdown of "personal"  variables. Educational Course type Broadly speaking, most participants took "management" courses ( 3 9 . 9 % ) . "Technical" courses represented the lowest percentage of courses taken ( 2 7 . 8 % ) , while "other" courses represented 32.2% of the t o t a l . Business administration courses were more highly favoured than any other (22.2%)  59  Table 7 "Personal" Characteristics of B.C. Tel Employees i n Adult Education A c t i v i t i e s Financed by the Company - 1985 (n = 159) Variable Sex Male Female Age  Less than 25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 Over 50  Marital status Never married Married + spouse Separated, divorced, widowed, l i v e alone Separated, divorced, widowed, l i v e with someone  n 88 69 4 35 51 26 26 8 7  mean NA  35.86  % of sample 56.1 43.9 2.5 22.3 32.5 16.6 16.6 5.1 4.5  36 106 11  22.9 66.9 7.0  5  3.2  Number of children No children One c h i l d Two children Three or more children  80 33 35  Work experience 5 years and less 6 to 10 years 11 to 15 years 16 to 20 years 21 years and over  32 43 44 26 14  Education Grade 12 Post-secondary c e r t i f i c a t e Part of a degree Degree Degree plus c e r t i f i c a t e  50 42 29 20 16  Employment Function Management Union  88 68  0.83  •9  12.04  NA  NA  51.0 21.0 22.3 5.7 20.1 27.0 27.7 16.4 8.8 31.8 26.8 18.5 12.7 10.2 56.1 43.3  60  data processing and management courses accounted f o r 17.1% and  17.7%  respectively,  sales  11.4%  reported  self-development  courses were 10.1%. Other courses academic  (4.4%), d r a f t i n g  courses at 0.6%  taken  courses,  and  included e l e c t r o n i c s (8.9%),  (1.3%), and  secretarial  and  engineering  each. J u s t over f i v e percent of courses could not be  included i n the above categories (Table 8). Institution Most respondents chose t o take courses at BCIT (56.3%), school boards (mainly correspondence)  were the choice of 11.4% of repondents, while  those attending the u n i v e r s i t i e s 5.1%  respectively.  participants  Commercial  (UBC  and SFU)  institutions  represented 7.0%  provided  with courses, while community c o l l e g e s  9.5%  and  of  provided  the 7.0%.  U n c l a s s i f i e d i n s t i t u t i o n s accounted f o r the remaining 3.8% of courses taken by p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Reimbursment Given  the  nature  of the  study, i t was  no  s u r p r i s e that 98.1%  of  respondents reported reimbursment by the company. The balance included two  temporary  employees who  do  not  receive t h i s  benefit  and  one  employee who was unaware of the F i n a n c i a l Assistance Program.  Number of courses Respondents were asked t o report the number of courses taken through the F i n a n c i a l Assistance Program i n the l a s t f i v e years. With a mean of 5.40  (SD =4.73) t h i s should have i n d i c a t e d an average of approximately  one  course per year  f o r each  p a r t i c i p a n t . As the standard  deviation  61 Table 8 Number of Respondents by course Type, Institution, Reimbursment Category, Number of Courses, and Degree Interest/Attainment - 1985 (n = 159) Variable Course Type Management Technical Other  n  % of sample  63 44 52  39.9 27.8 32.2  Institution UBC SFU BCIT School Board Other (college) Other (commercial) Other (unclassified)  11 8 89 18 11 15 6  6.9 5.0 56.0 11.3 6.9 9.4 3.8  155 3  98.1 1.9  98 37 17 5  62.4 23.6 10.8 3.2  79 78 34 123  50.3 49.7 21.7 78.3  Reimbursment Yes No Number of Courses (five years) One to five Six to ten 11 to 15 16 or more Degree Interest/Attainment Working toward Not working toward Completed Not completed  indicates, the mean i n this case i s not an appropriate measure. Over 35% had taken two courses or less, while one individual  reported 24  courses taken i n the last five years!  Programs of study Slightly more than half of the participants were working towards a degree,  certificate,  or diploma  (50.3%). Business Administration  62 c e r t i f i c a t e s , B. Comm's and MBA's accounted for 12.3%, 3.9%, and 2.6% respectively. Almost 22% reported having completed a degree, diploma, or c e r t i f i c a t e via the Financial Assistance Plan. Education Participation Scale Scoring Socio-demographic correlates The mean job and non job-related Education Participation Scale (EPS) scores  for people  i n each  of the socio-demographic  groups was  calculated to determine whether gender, age, marital status, number of children, length of service, educational union  function,  motivation  and management function  for participation. Pearson  indicated that  l e v e l , employment function, had any relationship to product-moment  older employees were less influenced  correlations  by job-related  motivation than younger employees (r_ = -.25, p < .01), that the longer the  period  of employment, the less  job-related  motivation  was an  influence to participate (_r = -.19, p < .05), and that union employees were more influenced  by job-related  reasons to participate than  management employees (_t = 3.27, p < .01). There were no significant differences i n the EPS scores of people i n different gender, marital status, number of children, educational  l e v e l , union function, and  management function groups.  Job-related Participation It was decided that a score of 2.50 on the four-point EPS scale, where 1 denotes "no" and 4 denotes "much" influence, constituted a " c r i t i c a l " mean. Thus, 2.5 i s midway between " l i t t l e " and "moderate" influence for participation.  63 It was assumed that scores above this " c r i t i c a l " mean indicated that the participant was influenced by the reason encompassed i n the item. Thus, an item with a mean at or above 2.5 would indicate at least moderate influence on participation, while those below would not. Depending on the "job" or "non job" rating by B.C. Tel managers of an item, i t should be possible to determine which EPS items were most influential  i n the motivational  orientations of participants,  and  whether the item reflected job-related or non job-related reasons for participation.  Table  9  indicates  i n summary  form  the  level  of  influence, i n ranked order by means, of the items of the EPS as scored by respondents. Table 9 EPS Ranking of Means by Item, Standard Deviation, and Level of Influence on Participation Item Number  Question  Participation Type  Mean  std. dev.  JR  3. 30  .83  much  JR  3. 07  .96  much  NJR  2. 96  .91  moderate  JR  2. 95  1 .24  moderate  UND  2. 89  .87  moderate  JR  2. 67  1 .03  moderate  JR  2. 54  .99  moderate  JR  2. 48  1 .04  little  NJR  2. 29  .98  little  JR  2. 28  1 .18  little  3 To secure profess18 1 20 7 10 13 15 25 32  ional advancement To increase my job competence  To seek knowledge for i t ' s own sake To help me earn a degree, diploma or c e r t i f i c a t e To satisfy an inquiring mind To give me higher status i n my job To acquire knowledge to help with other courses To keep up with competition To learn just for the joy of learning To meet formal requirements  level of influence  64 T a b l e 9 (continued) EPS Ranking o f Means by i t e m , Standard D e v i a t i o n , and L e v e l o f I n f l u e n c e on P a r t i c i p a t i o n Item Number  37 11 16  30  4 23 35 12 31  6 33 29 17 36  5 14 27 28  Question  Participation Type  To l e a r n j u s t f o r t h e sake o f l e a r n i n g To supplement a narrow p r e v i o u s education To escape t h e intellectual narrowness o f my o c c u p a t i o n To keep up w i t h others To become more e f f e c t i v e as a c i t i z e n To g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o human r e l a t i o n s To p r o v i d e a cont r a s t w i t h my previous education To s t o p myself from becoming a v e g e t a b l e To improve my s o c i a l standing To c a r r y out t h e recommendation o f some a u t h o r i t y To m a i n t a i n or improve my s o c i a l standing To improve my a b i l i t y t o s e r v e mankind To p a r t i c i p a t e i n group a c t i v i t y To comply w i t h the s u g g e s t i o n s o f someone e l s e To g e t r e l i e f from boredom To f u l f i l l a need f o r personal association and f r i e n d s h i p s To p r o v i d e a c o n t r a s t t o t h e r e s t o f my l i f e To g e t a break i n t h e r o u t i n e o f home o r work  Mean  std. dev.  level of influence  NJR  2.25  1.02  little  JR  2.10  1.02  little  JR  2.05  1.07  little  JR  2.04  .91  little  UND  1.92  .89  little  JR  1.78  .97  little  JR  1.73  .88  little  NJR  1.67  .94  little  JR  1.65  .81  little  JR  1.63  .87  little  JR  1.62  .84  little  UND  1.58  .82  little  NJR  1.57  .83  little  JR  1.55  .83  little  NJR  1.49  .79  no  NJR  1.49  .71  no  NJR  1.46  .71  no  NJR  1.42  .74  no  65 Table 9 (continued) EPS Ranking o f Means by i t e m , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n , and L e v e l o f I n f l u e n c e on P a r t i c i p a t i o n Item Number  26 40  8 2 38 39 22  9 19 21 24 34 JR NJR UND  Participation Type  Question  To become a c q u a i n t e d with congenial people To comply w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s from someone e l s e To over come t h e f r u s t r a t i o n o f day t o day l i v i n g To s h a r e a common i n t e r e s t w i t h my spouse or f r i e n d To make new f r i e n d s To improve my a b i l i t y t o do community work To p r e p a r e f o r community s e r v i c e To be a c c e p t e d by others to gain i n s i g h t i n t o my p e r s o n a l problems To escape t e l e v i s i o n t o have a few hours away from responsibilities To escape an unhappy relationship  Mean  std. dev.  level of influence  NJR  1.40  .63  no  JR  1.39  .73  no  NJR  1.38  .68  no  NJR  1.34  .68  no  NJR NJR  1.33 1.31  .61 .65  no no  NJR  1.26  .54  no  JR  1.24  .52  no  NJR  1.23  .50  no  NJR NJR  1.18 1.14  .44 .38  no no  NJR  1.04  .21  no  = job-related = non j o b - r e l a t e d = undetermined  As can be seen i n T a b l e mean  of  2.5,  "undetermined" these  five  i t ' s own  were  i t e m was  items both  9, of  reflect  t h e seven items r a t e d above the; c r i t i c a l  job-related. above  the  cognitive  One  non  critical influence  sake" and "To s a t i s f y an i n q u i r i n g  job-related  mean. Note ("To  mind").  seek  and  however  one that  knowledge f o r  66 Work and Family Orientation Scoring Socio-demographic Correlates An  examination  of Work and Family  Orientation  (WOFO) scores by  socio-demographic characteristics was conducted to determine whether gender, age, marital status, number of children, length of service, education l e v e l , employment function, union function, and management function had any relationship to achievement orientation. None of these independent variables accounted for significant amounts of variance i n desire  for i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge  (Mastery) scores.  However, women  indicated a greater desire to work hard (Work) than men (F = 4.60, p < .05),  men were more inclined  to desire  success  i n competitive,  interpersonal situations (Competitiveness) than women (F = 4.93,  p <  .05), and line managers appeared more concerned about the possible negative interpersonal consequences of achievement (Personal Unconcern) than were staff managers (F = 2.77, p < .05). Older employees were less concerned  than  "opportunities considered  younger  employees  for advancement  opportunity  (r_ =  and better  -.21, p  <  .01) about  pay". Plant  employees  for promotion and advancement less important  than did c l e r i c a l or t r a f f i c employees (F = 2.98, p < .05). Cochran's C was  significant i n this case. This may reflect the small numbers of  t r a f f i c employees (n = 5) that participated i n this study. No other significant relationships were found.  Relationship Between Motivational Orientation and Achievement Orientation Job-related An  examination of the interaction between job-related  motivational  67 orientation (EPS) and achievement orientation (WOFO) scores indicated that participants that rated job-related influences highly were also high i n achievement orientation, participants influenced by job-related reasons also indicated Mastery (r_ = .20, p < .05), Competitiveness (_r = .26, p < .01) and Personal Unconcern (r; = -.16, p < .05) were key components of their achievement orientation. In other words, employees more influenced by job reasons for participation also rated high i n desire for i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge, desire to succeed i n competitive, interpersonal  environments, and less l i k e l y  consequences job-related  of personal  success  than  reasons. No s t a t i s t i c a l l y  to fear the negative  those  less  influenced  by  significant relationship was  found between job-related motivation for participation and Work (desire to work hard).  Homogeneity of Variance One of the assumptions underlying the use of analysis of variance tests i s that the variances of the dependent-variable scores for each of the populations sampled are equal.  Significant differences i n the variance  of unequally sized groups can affect the alpha level and ( i f the variance i n the smaller group i s greater than that i n the larger group) increase the chances of making a Type 1 error ( i . e . , rejecting the n u l l hypothesis when i t should be retained). In the present study, the size of various sub-groups tended to be different.  This  was  demographic variables.  p a r t i c u l a r l y apparent  i n some  subsets of  For example, the size of groupings for age  ranged between n = 4 (under 25 years old) and n = 49 (31 to 35 years old).  68 To test for significant differences i n group variance, the homogeneity Y  of variance (one way) sub-program of SPSS was applied to the data. Ten significant differences i n group variance were reported for job-related scores.  Of these,  four were found for age, three for length of  service, and three for employment function. Results for the WOFO showed there  to be s i x significant  independent-variable groups.  differences i n the variance  among  Of these, three were found for sex, two  for age, and one for management function. Homogeneity of variance assumptions are not s a t i s f i e d i n those cases where s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant findings were reported.  Assumptions of  homogeneity of variance are quite robust and can stand some degree of violation.  Nonetheless, caution i s necessary i n interpreting results  that relate to items reported of significance related to age, length of service, and employment function. In particular, EPS questions 9, 30, and 40 appear to be suspect, since two items of significant differences in variance were reported i n each. In question 9, both age (C = .46, p < .001) and length of service (C = .37, p <.01) showed significant difference. In question 30, age gave a C value of .35 (p < .001) and employment function was .63 (p < .05), while i n question 40 C = .29 (p <.01) for age and C = .34 (p < .05) for length of service.  Hypothesis Testing The f i r s t research hypothesis examined with regard to motivational orientation was as follows: Hypothesis 1. Demographic characteristics w i l l be associated with motivational  69 orientations for participation. S p e c i f i c a l l y : Gender • males w i l l be more influenced by job-related reasons for participation than females. The mean score for men (2.14) was not significantly higher than the mean score for women (2.07). Thus, the hypothesis was rejected. Age • younger participants w i l l be more influenced by job-related reasons to participate than older participants. Younger employees were more influenced by job-related motivation to participate than older employees (_r = -.25, p < .01). The hypothesis was accepted. Marital Status • single participants w i l l be more influenced by job-related reasons than married participants. • respondents without children w i l l be more influenced by job-related reasons than those with children. While the mean job-related motivational  orientation score of single  participants was higher than that of any other group, there was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant difference between the mean EPS "job" scores of single, married, or other groups of respondents. The hypothesis was rejected. While participants with no children exhibited a s l i g h t l y higher EPS job score than those with children, the difference was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. The hypothesis was rejected.  70 Educational Level • participants with higher educational level w i l l be less influenced by job-related reasons than those with lower levels of education. While respondents with higher levels of education had s l i g h t l y lower mean scores than those with less education, the difference was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. The hypothesis was rejected. Length of service • the longer the term of employment, the less l i k e l y that job-related reasons w i l l be an influence i n decisions to participate. Employees with more years of employment  by the company were less  influenced by job-related reasons to participate than younger employees (r_ = -.19, p < .01). The hypothesis was accepted. Employment function • union employees w i l l be more influenced by job-related motivations than management employees. Union employees were more influenced  by job-related  reasons for  participation than management employees (t. = 3.27, p < .01). The hypothesis was accepted.  Hypothesis 2. Job related w i l l be more i n f l u e n t i a l than non job-related reasons for participation.  71 The  mean score for job-related motivational  orientation was 2.11,  calculated by summing over eighteen items, while  the mean for non  job-related motivational orientations was 1.54 over nineteen questions. These means are represented graphically i n Figure 3.  Figure 3. Means of job-related and non job-related motivational orientations for participation i n adult education a c t i v i t i e s . 4.00  i-  3.8 3.6 3.4 3.2 •3.00 •2.8 2.6 2.4 •2.2 •2.00 1.8 1.6 •1.4 •1.2 1.00 Job-related  Non Job related  72 Job-related  motivational  orientations  were  significantly  more  " i n f l u e n t i a l " than non job-related motivational orientations (r; = .50, p < .001). The hypothesis was accepted.  Hypothesis 3. Hypothesis 3. Men and women w i l l d i f f e r i n their achievement orientations • Males w i l l rate i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge and desire to succeed in a competitive environment higher than females. • Females w i l l rate desire to work hard and not be afraid of success higher than males. While  men reported a greater desire  to succeed  i n competitive  environments than women (F = 4.93, p < .05), there was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant difference between men and women i n desire for i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge. The sub-hypothesis was rejected. Women reported a greater desire to work hard (F = 4.60, p < .05) than men but were not significantly different  from men i n their lack of  concern over the possible negative consequences of personal success. The sub-hypothesis was rejected.  Summary of Hypotheses Ten hypotheses were tested. Each i s l i s t e d i n Table 10, followed by i t ' s corresponding s t a t i s t i c a l finding.  73 Table 10 Acceptance and Rejection of Ten Hypotheses Concerning Motivational and Achievement Orientations of B.C. Tel Employees Hypothesis Accept Males w i l l be more influenced by job-related reasons for participation than females. Younger participants w i l l be more influenced by jobX related reasons for participation than older participants. Single participants w i l l be more influenced by jobrelated reasons than married participants. Respondents without children w i l l be more influenced by job-related reasons than those with children. Participants with higher educational level w i l l be less influenced by job-related reasons than those of lower levels of education. The longer the term of employment, the less l i k e l y that X job-related reasons w i l l be an influence i n decisions to participate. Union employees w i l l be more influenced by job-related X reasons than management employees. Job related reasons w i l l as i n f l u e n t i a l as non jobX related reasons for participation. Males w i l l rate i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge and desire to succeed i n a competitive environment higher than females. Females w i l l rate desire to work hard and not be afraid of success higher than males.  Reject X  X X X  X X  Summary Thus f a r , the focus of the data analysis has been on bivariate relationships; between EPS job-related scores, WOFO scores, and each of the socio-demographic (independent) variables or between WOFO scores and each of the dependent variables. Four hypotheses were accepted and six rejected. However, at the outset, i t was noted that this research concerned both "job" and "non job" motivational orientations. Thus, the next chapter reports results of a discriminant function analysis which attempted to c l a s s i f y respondents into motivational "types" which used interactions between socio-demographic variables to explain differences between them.  74  CHAPTER SIX  RESULTS 2  participant Typology In the introduction to t h i s thesis, i t was noted that enrol  for a variety of job and non job-related  participants  reasons. A "job"  motivational orientation i s not necessarily the converse of a "non job" motivational  orientation. There are people who participate for both  high job and non job reasons, others for high job and low non job reasons, and s t i l l others who participate for low job and high non job reasons. A fourth category consists of participants with low scores i n both job and non job-related motivational orientations. In the earlier sections of this thesis the focus has been on relationships between job-related EPS scores, socio-demographic variables, and WOFO scores. U n t i l now, non job-related scores have not been considered. Given the difference  i n means (2.11 for job-related,  1.54 for non  job-related), an examination of job and non job-related motivation by socio-demographic characteristics was considered essential. Pearson product moment correlations were calculated status without  for sex, age, domestic  ( l i v i n g alone or l i v i n g with someone), c h i l d status (with or children), education  level,  length  of service,  employment  function (management or union), union function, and management function (Table 11).  75 Table 11 Correlation Between Job and Non Job-related Motivation and Nine Socio-deinographic Characteristics.  Variable Sex Age Domestic Status Child Status Education level Length of service Emplymnt. function Union function Mgmt. function  n 156 156 156 156 156 156 156 67 89  Job-related Pearson s r -.07 -.25 -.13 -.11 -.10 -.20 -.24 .01 -.16  Non Job-related Pearson s n r P P 156 .13 .001 156 -.22 .01 ** 156 -.14 156 -.19 .02 * 156 .02 .01 ** 156 -.10 .001 *** 156 -.29 .001 *** 67 -.17 89 -.23 .03 *  * p < .05 ** p < .01 *** p < .001 Results  indicated  that  employment function  while  only  age, length  were significantly  associated  of service, and with  job-related  motivation, this was not the case i n non job-related. Older employees and  those i n management were less influenced  job-related motivational  by both job and non  orientations. Respondents with children and  managers i n staff positions were more influenced by non job-related motivational orientations than participants who were childless or i n line  management  postions.  Respondents with  shorter  periods of  employment with B.C. Tel were more l i k e l y to participate because of job-related influences. When job-related and non job-related scores of the 159 respondents were displayed on a scattergram (Fig. 4) where job-related scores are on the v e r t i c a l axis and non job-related scores on the horizontal, i t was evident  that  most  respondents were clustered  quadrant. When the means of job-related  i n the lower  left  (2.11) and non job-related  (1.54) were added to the scattergram, i t became clear that participants  76 f e l l mainly into either the high job/high non job, or low job/low non job-related quadrants. While fewer i n number, those i n the high job/low non job and low job/high  non job-related  categories  were clearly  identifiable i n the scattergram. Since participants immediately about the means would be d i f f i c u l t to distinguish from those at the "centre" of each type (or quadrant), an exclusion zone (shown by the square) was set at .1 on either side of each mean. This resulted i n the elimination of 36 respondents. In addition, empty c e l l s were discovered i n the data on three participants. These were also eliminated, resulting i n n = 120. Figure 4. Scattergram of job-related against non job-related motivational orientations for participation. High TYPE II  4  1  TYPE I 1  1  4  1 1  4  J o b R e 1 a t e d  2  1 4  i  1  *  S  : 1  i  t t  fffflHt  W§3§£ t 4  +  R  1  3  ?  e  i  4  1  : 1 : 1  1  4  i  1.1  LOW  t *  4  2  ..,.«wH««5!*aWiS;  1  iilitt  »  Stl&i SSIil  i  4  4  1  i  2 \  : 1  Low  2  t  i 1  a  »  I  •+  ttittlltllltt flftttlliilf  s  +  1:  SIP"" i *  1  1 t  14 i  i  f t  R  4  3  1  1  1 1 2  1  TYPE I1I I 1.2  1.3  2 1  1  1.4  1  1  1  1.5  4  TYPE IV 1.6  1.7  1.8  1.9  2  Non Job-related  2.1  2.2  2.3  2.4  High  77  Four  types  of  job-related I),  with  participants  and h i g h high  orientations  orientations  job-related motivational  In  the  were  explored.  motivational  low  non  those  with  orientations  job-related  low j o b - r e l a t e d  orientations  sections  of  variables  In t h i s  identified;  high (TYPE  motivational  and low non  job-related  (TYPE I I I ) , and w i t h low j o b - r e l a t e d and h i g h  non  socio-demographic  and  I I ) , with  preceding  now  non j o b - r e l a t e d  job-related  (TYPE  motivational  were  this  (TYPE I V ) .  thesis,  and j o b - r e l a t e d  section  relationships  motivational  an attempt  was  made  between  orientations  t o examine t h e  e x t e n t t o which socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s , when working t o g e t h e r ( i n conjoint  relationships)  discriminate this  to  between t h e f o u r  research.  study  Note  that  i s participant  the extent  job-related  This  determine  the  extent  to  which  they  t y p e s o f B.C. T e l employees s t u d i e d i n  t h e dependent  variable  in this  part  "type". Each p a r t i c i p a n t has been typed  t o which  can  they  were  motivated  by  o f the  according  both  j o b and non  of a  discriminant  reasons.  section  o f the t h e s i s  describes  the r e s u l t s  f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s conducted on t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e sample u s i n g t h e typology  described  socio-demographic  above where variables  analysis  resembles  multiple  correlation  into  known  interactions regression, shows  were  regression  groups between  statistic, (the the  "TYPE" was t h e dependent  "y"  independent.  except  that,  i t attempts variable)  independent  on (or  v a r i a b l e and  Discriminant instead  of  to classify the "x")  basis  function  yielding  a  respondents of  variables.  various Like  t h e p r o c e s s i s begun by c r e a t i n g a c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x which  inter-relationships  between  independent  variables.  Next,  78 variables variable enters  are  entered  that  first,  remaining  accounts  for  followed  by  variables  explanatory  power,  produces  "functions"  clusters  of  which,  produces  the  (type).  In  status with  to  c o e f f i c i e n t s i n an  this  research,  children), union  variables  consisted  I I I ) , and  function, of  fail  yield  to  in  a  The  variance  function  in The  function.  x variables  to  any  job/high  non  (TYPE I I ) , low  the  further then  analysis,  are  variables  the  dependent  procedure  Finally, predict  of  management f u n c t i o n ,  j o b / h i g h non  When  then like  d i r e c t i o n o f each x  included  length  variable  c o e f f i c i e n t s " which,  magnitude and  attempt  "x"  procedure  factor  orientation).  level,  high  job-related  low  variable.  the  sex,  age,  service, and  procedure  group membership  l i v i n g w i t h someone), c h i l d s t a t u s  education  function,  non  the  "y"  (socio-demographic)  explain  each  time. The  i n the  terminated.  show the  a  powerful  factors  discriminant  ( l i v i n g a l o n e or  job/low  like  motivational  contribution  these  entry is  step at  variance  most  independent  b e t a weights i n r e g r e s s i o n ,  employs  for  one  the  next  together,  of  of  process  which,  "standardized  variable's  equation  most  eligible  working  ("type"  the  the  interelated  when  variable  into  domestic  (without  employment  WOFO s c o r e s .  job-related  job/low non  job-related motivational  or  (TYPE  The  I),  y  high  job-related  (TYPE  orientations  (TYPE  IV) .  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p between each o f  the  was  determined  the  This  prior  to  running  helped  identify  x  variables  discriminant  analysis  (Table  12).  to  independent  variables  discriminant be  included  and  function or  excluded  "TYPE"  analysis. from  the  Table 12 Typology of Participants by Socio-demographic Characteristics: Breakdown Analysis Variable Sex Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Age Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Domestic Status Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Child Status Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Education Level Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Length of Service Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Emplymnt. Function Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Union Function Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Managmnt. Function Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 * p < .05  n 120 39 18 47 16 120 39 18 47 16 120 39 18 47 16 120 39 18 47 16 120 39 18 47 16 120 39 18 47 16 120 39 18 47 16 52 17 8 20 7 68 22 10 27 9  Mean 1.48 1.49 1.39 1.47 1.56 35.88 33.92 33.83 37.74 37.31 1.68 1.62 1.67 1.72 1.75 1.43 1.31 1.44 1.49 1.56 2.47 2.41 2.06 2.49 3.00 12.32 11.26 9.94 13.79 13.25 1.57 1.44 1.56 1.71 1.50 .74 .88 .83 .53 .88 1.08 .74 1.17 1.36 .94  Standard Deviation .51 .51 .50 .50 .51 7.02 7.14 6.12 7.71 6.12 .47 .49 .49 .45 .45 .50 .47 '.51 .51 .51 1.33 1.27 1.00 1.46 1.00 6.85 5.60 4.93 8.22 4.93 .49 .50 .51 .46 .52 1.05 1.05 1.15 .97 1.15 1.03 .94 1.20 1.01 1.12  F .34  2.85  Sig .79  .04 *  .50  .68  1.40  .25  1.45  .23  1.85  .14  2.22  .09  1.05  .38  2.69  .05 *  80 Discriminant function analysis.  Only age and management function were significantly related to type when considered separately. These were selected as variables for entry in the discriminant equation. However, due to the well-known "third variable" problem (Neale & Liebert, 1973), variables with no known relationship to TYPE were also readied for entry. During the f i r s t discriminant function analysis thirteen independent variables  were  socio-demographic  entered  into  the equation.  They  included  nine  variables and four WOFO scores for each respondent.  Table 13 l i s t s the variables i n their order of entry into the equation, the i n i t i a l F-value of the variable before entry into the equation, and the standardized discriminant function coefficient resulting from the analysis. These coefficients are comparable to beta weights  in a  regression equation and indicate the extent to which each variable has an effect (when "working" with the other variables). The larger the coefficient, the more powerful the effect. The  first  variable  to enter  the equation  was a WOFO  score  (Competitiveness), followed by age. The WOFO score for Mastery was entered next, followed by management function and education  level.  These were followed by another WOFO score (Personal Unconcern). Sex, length of service, child status, employment function, domestic status ( l i v i n g alone or with someone), union function, and the remaining WOFO score (Work) were excluded from the analysis.  81 Table 13 Interactive Effects of Variables Associated with Typology of Motivational Orientations toward Participation - 13 E l i g i b l e Independent Variables  Step Variable Entered Competitiveness 1 Age 2 Mastery 3 Management Function 4 Education Level 5 Personal Unconcern 6  Wilk's Lambda  .90 .84 .79 .76 .71 .69  Initial Univariate F-value  4.42 2.85 3.39 2.69 1.45 1.59  Standardized Discriminant Function Coefficients Func 1 Func 2 Func 3  -.31 .39 -.50 .45 -.13 .35  -.64 .36 .55 -.50 .77 .07  .79 .53 -.11 -.02 .26 .33  Canonical Correlation = .98 Earlier  (p. 6 7 ) , i t was noted  that  EPS job-related scores  were  significantly correlated with WOFO Mastery (r_ = . 2 0 ) , Competitiveness (r_ = . 2 6 ) , and Personal Unconcern (_r = -.16) scores. Thus, i t was no surprise to find that WOFO scores contributed to discriminant functions that  correctly c l a s s i f i e d  48.3% of the 120 respondents. Although  psychometrically satisfying, this result was not of great theoretical interest because of the high intercorrelation between WOFO and EPS scores. Moreover, the use of thirteen variables violates the principle of parsimony (Marx, 1 9 6 3 ) . Therefore i n the second analysis WOFO scores were deleted. In addition, management and union function scores were removed since they were neither dichotomous nor  interval variables.  Thus, seven variables were included i n the second analysis. They were sex, age, domestic status ( l i v i n g alone or l i v i n g with someone), child status (without or with children), education l e v e l , length of service, and employment function. The discriminant function analysis used only three of these as can be seen below i n Table 14.  82 Table 14 Interactive Effects of Variables Associated with Typology of Motivational Orientations toward Participation - Seven E l i g i b l e Independent Variables  Step Variable Entered Age 1 Education Level 2 Employment Status 3  Wilk's Lambda .93 .90 .85  Initial Univariate F-value 2.85 1.45 2.22  Standardized Discriminant Function Coefficients Func 1 Func 2 Func 3 .79 .26 -.61 .27 .88 .51 .38 -.84 .55  Canonical Correlation = .55 Interactions between these three variables i n this second analysis resulted i n the successful c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of 45.0% of the respondents into  the  four  "TYPE"s. Thus deletion of the WOFO and  union  and  management function scores did not damage the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process. At this point a decision was needed. It was apparent that three or even two  independent variable solutions were almost as  "successful"  classifying as were seven or 13 variable solutions. Since age, of service, and  employment status were known to be  at  length  significantly  related to job-related motivational orientations (see p. 71), these were readied for entry as a three variables analysis. Two survived and resulted  i n the  successful  classification  of  45.8%  of the  cases.  Although this analysis misclassified approximately three percent more cases than the 13 variable one,  i t proved to be more effective and  parsimonious than the  using  analysis  seven variables where  three  survived. The focus i n the remainder of this chapter w i l l thus be on the "two variable" discriminant function analysis because, despite the loss of three  percent of the cases, the need for parsimony takes  precedence over explanatory  power. Moreover, as w i l l be shown later,  83 t h e r e were good reasons f o r t h e i n a b i l i t y o f t h e e q u a t i o n s t o c o r r e c t l y classify  respondents i n TYPE I I and IV. R e s u l t s  o f t h e "two v a r i a b l e "  a n a l y s i s a r e shown i n T a b l e 1 5 .  T a b l e 15 I n t e r a c t i v e E f f e c t s o f V a r i a b l e s A s s o c i a t e d w i t h Typology o f M o t i v a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n s toward P a r t i c i p a t i o n - Three E l i g i b l e Independent v a r i a b l e s  Step Entered  Variable  Wilk's Lambda  1  Age Employment S t a t u s  Initial Univariate F-value  .93 .90  2  2.85 2.22  Standardized Discriminant Function C o e f f i c i e n t s Func 1 Func 2  .72 -.72 .56 .85  C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n = .43  The  "TYPE"  (canonical  across  t h e two  for  29.9% of  function)  correlation  functions. the  total  accounted  coefficients  powerful  variable  configurations  by  . 4 3 ) . Age function  variance,  the  when working  the  described  the  that  total  (age  and  employment Discriminant  (.72, - . 7 2 ) was  with  the other  correlation  above accounted  distributed  variance.  (.56, .85) was t h e next  canonical  was  ( l a r g e l y age) accounted  second  age  together  o f the t o t a l v a r i a n c e i n variance  The f i r s t  indicated  used. Employment f u n c t i o n  indicated  of  f o r 12.7% of  function  As  43%  two v a r i a b l e s shown here accounted f o r  two  (.43),  the  f o r approximately  between t y p e s . The d i s c r i m i n a n t  classify  4 5 . 8 % o f t h e c a s e s i n t o t h e i r " c o r r e c t " TYPE (Table  and  variables  strongest.  variance  r e a d i n g T a b l e 16 pay p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n  t h e most  f u n c t i o n was a b l e  variable  43% o f the  to correctly 1 6 ) . When  t o the m i s c l a s s i f i e d TYPE I I  TYPE IV c a s e s (who l a r g e l y ended up i n TYPE I and I I I ) .  84 T a b l e 16 Percentage o f p a r t i c i p a n t Types C o r r e c t l y C l a s s i f i e d by D i s c r i m i n a n t Function Analysis Number o f Cases  TYPE  p r e d i c t e d Group Membership  1 19 48.7%  2 0 0 .0%  3 20 51.3%  4 0 0,.0%  1 High j o b - r e l a t e d High non j o b - r e l a t e d  39  2 High j o b - r e l a t e d Low non j o b - r e l a t e d  18  8 44.4%  0 0 .0%  10 55.6%  0 0,.0%  3 Low j o b - r e l a t e d Low non j o b - r e l a t e d  47  11 23.4%  0 0 .0%  36 76.6%  0 0,.0%  4 Low j o b - r e l a t e d High non j o b - r e l a t e d  16  8 50.0%  0 0 .0%  8 50.0%  0 0,.0%  45.83%  Percent o f "Grouped" Cases C o r r e c t l y C l a s s i f i e d :  In p r e d i c t i n g classified  (48.7%)  TYPE I p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t  19  high  job/high  the I  (44.4%)  and non  successful.  (76.6%)  III  job-related  (55.6%)  as TYPE I I I . No h i g h  (TYPE  participants.  III)  Instead,  11  but m i s c l a s s i f i e d  were  i n the  classified  participants  (23.4%)  low  non  job/high  was  variables, each t y p e .  on  the  i t was  combined  possible  interactive  to construct  most  as TYPE  I . None o f  job-related  (TYPE IV)  misclassified  and e i g h t as TYPE I I I  or  o f low  the  effects  a profile  eight  (50.0%).  meaning o f T a b l e s 15 and 16 i s b e s t understood by c o n s u l t i n g Based  TYPE  36 TYPE I I I p a r t i c i p a n t s  c o r r e c t l y . The a n a l y s i s  (50.0%)  Prediction  participants  The a n a l y s i s c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d  p a r t i c i p a n t s as TYPE I  17.  participants  (TYPE I I ) p a r t i c i p a n t s were p r e d i c t e d .  t e n TYPE  16 p a r t i c i p a n t s  category  The  (TYPE I)  correctly  a n a l y s i s m i s c l a s s i f i e d t h e 18 TYPE I I p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o e i g h t  job/low  the  job-related  20 p a r t i c i p a n t s (51.3%)  but m i s c l a s s i f i e d  job/low non j o b - r e l a t e d  non  function  of  the  Table above  of participants i n  85 T a b l e 17 Socio-demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Four Types o f Respondents TYPE I I (n = 18) (high job/low non job)  . TYPE I (n = 39) (high j o b / h i g h non job)  Primary  Primary  Average age - 33.8 y e a r s Management 5 6 % Union 44% Secondary  Average age - 3 3 . 9 y e a r s Management 4 4 % Union 5 6 % Secondary  Length o f s e r v i c e - 9.9 y e a r s  Length o f s e r v i c e - 1 1 . 3 y e a r s  TYPE I I I (n = 47) (low job/low non job)  TYPE IV (n = 16) (low j o b / h i g h non job)  Primary  Primary  Average age - 37.7 y e a r s Management 7 0 % Union 3 0 % Secondary  Average age - 37.3 y e a r s Management 5 0 % Union 5 0 % Secondary  Length o f s e r v i c e - 13.8 y e a r s  Length o f s e r v i c e - 1 3 . 3 y e a r s  TYPE  I and TYPE  similar differ  and  so  II participants i s their  primarily  length  i n employment  are s i m i l a r . Their o f time  TYPE  I I a r e managers. TYPE  similar split  age and l e n g t h  employed by  function;  images o f each o t h e r i n t h i s r e s p e c t ;  they  that  more  B.C.  T e l . They  are p r a c t i c a l l y  IV p a r t i c i p a n t s  mirror  also  had a  U n l i k e TYPES I and I I , TYPE IV was  e v e n l y between union and management, w h i l e TYPE I I I p a r t i c i p a n t s  had by f a r t h e l a r g e s t number o f management employees this  ages a r e  i s , 4 4 % o f TYPE I and 5 6 % o f  I I I and TYPE  of service.  average  respect,  TYPE IV p a r t i c i p a n t s  closely.  employment  Since  function  i n the  (70%).  resemble TYPE I and I I  discriminant  function  were t h e most p o w e r f u l  Indeed, i n respondents  analysis  variables  age  and  i n the equation,  t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s between TYPE I and I I , TYPE I I I and IV i n age combined with the s i m i l a r i t y would  tend  to  between TYPE IV, I I , and I i n employment  inhibit  the  ability  of  the equation  to  function  distinguish  86 between TYPE I I and TYPE IV respondents.  The  inability  of discriminant  function analysis to correctly identify  memberships  o f TYPE  I I and IV can be  scatterplot  produced  by c a n o n i c a l  the of  s c a t t e r p l o t (Figure group  number. into  types.  which  TYPE  discriminant  are. i d e n t i f i e d  the area  correctly  participants the in  appear  classified fell  usually  Overlaid  on  group  by d i s c r i m i n a n t  function  i n t o t h e "2" t e r r i t o r y ,  t o appear. S i m i l a r l y ,  f o r TYPE I I p a r t i c i p a n t s .  appropriate  territorial analysis.  no TYPE  "area" a r e No  TYPE I I  IV p a r t i c i p a n t s i n  TYPE I I and TYPE IV p a r t i c i p a n t s were found  TYPE  I and TYPE  found  i n t h e "1" t e r r i t o r y ,  addition, and  the area  i n their  "4" t e r r i t o r y . I n s t e a d , both  function.  by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  I I I p a r t i c i p a n t s were expected  that  referring to a  bounded by "3"'s i n d i c a t e s t h e t e r r i t o r y  the a r e a bound by "2"'s d e s i g n a t e s  Group numbers  by  5) i s a t e r r i t o r i a l map showing t h e b o u n d a r i e s  Boundaries  Therefore,  explained  III territory.  Note, however, t h a t  "2"s a r e  and "4"s i n t h e "3" t e r r i t o r y . In  some TYPE I p a r t i c i p a n t s can be found  i n TYPE I I I t e r r i t o r y  v i c e - v e r s a . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t a r e those m i s c l a s s i f i e d "type"s  found  f a r from  right-hand  t h e boundary;  quadrant  f o r example, t h e TYPE  I near  t h e upper  o f TYPE I I I t e r r i t o r y . While d i s c r i m i n a n t  function  a n a l y s i s c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d over 7 6 % o f TYPE I I I p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h e r e is  enough  similarity  undistinguishable participants be  between  i n some  using  discriminant  appears t h a t t h e a - p r i o r i  these  cases.  I  and  Similarly,  III TYPE  to II  make  and  them  TYPE  IV  s o c l o s e l y resemble TYPE I and TYPE I I I t h a t they cannot  segregated  note  TYPE  the "large" quadrants.  "types"  distribution, Also  note  how  function  analysis.  In  short, i t  were not p u r e . R e t u r n i n g t o page 7 6 , or s c a t t e r TYPE  o f respondents  throughout  I I and IV respondents  converge  87 about the two axes. Most respondents l i e i n the area over which a half tone has been applied. Their resemblance to those i n TYPE I and I I I outweighs the extent to which they are different (to each other or TYPE I and I I I ) . There appears to be a clear distinction between TYPE I and TYPE I I I respondents. In other words, TYPE I I and TYPE IV respondents are close relatives of those i n TYPE I and I I I . Figure 5 C a n o n i c a 1 D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n 1  Scattergram of TYPE of participant by canonical discriminant function overlaid by t e r r i t o r i a l boundaries  OUT  x--  -3.0  -*-  OUT xai3 2213 1131 3233 1233 21222233 3.0 -Mil 1111333* 11133 11333 111333 11133 11333 111333* 11133 11333 111333 11133 11333 111333* 3 4* 34* *2 1 1113^2 331 1* 33 33 »1«1333 111333 11133 * 11333 111*33* 11133 » • H333 111333 11133 11333 113)3 1 # IITlH* 112 1* 343 4 * 2 12 31 11333 1  1  OUT X  XOUT  1  1  3  3  111333 11133 11333 111333* 11133 11333 111133 11 t i l 11333 111333* 111333333 1144443333333 144 44444444 114 4 144  •  1.0  2.0  Canonical Discriminant Function 2  V*t  3.0  x OUT  88 CHAPTER SEVEN DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY Discussion of Results In this research, ten sub-hypotheses were examined. Four were accepted and six rejected. In addition, a typology of four types of participants was developed. Discriminant analysis successfully c l a s s i f i e d 45.8% of "types" of participants using only two socio-demographic variables, age and employment function. Previous  research  relationships population  on  adult  between  and  participation has  socio-demographic  largely  variables  participation i n "general  of  focused the  interest" adult  on  general education  a c t i v i t i e s (Statistics Canada, 1 9 8 4 ) . The population at B.C. Tel i s not representative  of such a cross-section and  Program i s not those that  concerned with  have at  "general  the Financial Assistance  interest" courses, but  with  least a minimal relationship to participant's  careers and the company's needs. The results of this study showed that assumptions  extrapolated  from  more  general  literature  cannot  necessarily be d i r e c t l y applied to the industrial setting.  Job-related Participation This research examined the relative influence of job-related and job-related motivational motivation  was  non  orientations for participation. Job-related  significantly more i n f l u e n t i a l than non  job-related  motivation (r_ = .50, p < .001). Given the c r i t e r i a for reimbursment, i t was  anticipated that  results would have been very strongly skewed  toward job-related motivational orientations. The relatively low mean  89 for  job-related participation (2.11) indicated this was not the case.  However, given that for the most part, job-related influences within  the  education  top  twenty  i n rankings,  and  the  notion  that  fell  general  i s more useful than specific (Ironside, 1984) i n that i t  provides for better decision making, rational thought processes,  and  "learning how to learn" (Bandeen, 1 9 8 3 ) , motivational orientations that on the surface appeared to f a l l outside the job-related c l a s s i f i c a t i o n may  i n fact be  i n tune with the  intent of B.C.  Tel's system of  financial assistance. Achievement Orientations Results indicated that respondents most influenced by also scored  higher  i n i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge,  "job" reasons  competitiveness,  and  unconcern about the possible negative consequences of personal success than those less influenced by job-related reasons. I t appeared that employees  who  participated  for  mostly  "job"  reasons  also  seek  i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge. I t may be they have mastered their jobs i n the workplace and have not been able to seek new environments for challenge through promotion or job change, and thus seek i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge elsewhere. Similarly, such employees do not fear that their proactive approach to seeking new avenues toward promotion or doing their current job better w i l l alienate them from their fellow employees (or i f i t does, they don't care). F i n a l l y , their competitive nature leads them to seek an advantage over their fellow employees by setting d i s t a l rather than proximal goals (Miller, 1967) and using educational opportunities to reach them.  90 Participant Typology It  was  noted  that  of  the  four  types  of  B.C.  Tel  employees  participating, s i m i l a r i t i e s existed between TYPE I (high job/high non job) and TYPE I I (high job/low non job), and between TYPE I I I (low job/low non job) and TYPE IV (low job/high non job). These s i m i l a r i t i e s were based  on two  socio-demographic  variables, age and employment  function, which were the most powerful variables i n a multivariate analysis which simultaneously considered both job and non job reasons for  participation.  The  discriminant function  equation  classified  respondents into "types" of participant. A closer examination of these classifications i n the context of Maslow's deficiency/growth metaphor might lead to speculation that they are i n fact four distinct types. TYPE I respondents reasons  (n = 39) scored highly on both job and non job  for participation. This seems to indicate that this group  sought s e l f actualization and were also highly job-oriented. Life-space to them included the status seeking associated with promotion  and  recognition, as well as the s e l f development that i s important as a means to achieve self actualization. Their relative youth indicated they are i n the early stages of their career path, yet they appear to have worked at B.C. Tel long enough (over 11 years on average) to feel secure i n both their job and work environment. The majority were union employees, who may  seek status and self-actualization through entry  into management or more rewarding jobs through specialization. TYPE II participants (n = 18), while highly similar to TYPE I were more l i k e l y to exhibit life-chance motivations. Like TYPE I participants, they were relatively youthful, and differed primarily i n a higher  91 proportion of management employees. Because their average period of employment with B.C. Tel was less than the other "types", life-chance orientations are more l i k e l y i n this group as they seek to s t a b i l i z e job and career. Their high job and low non job scores seem to indicate that  this  group sought  to overcome deficiencies  (either  real or  perceived) i n their qualifications that might hinder their progress toward promotion and career advancement. TYPE IV participants (n = 16) on the other hand, were more l i k e l y to seek  growth  through  self  development.  Their  high  non  job,  low  job-related participation indicated a desire for s e l f actualization. They were older than TYPE I and TYPE I I participants and had longer terms of employment with B.C.  Tel. As M i l l e r  (1967) suggests, the  search for s e l f actualization i s more l i k e l y i n the older adult. TYPE I I I participants were an enigma. Besides differing considerably from the other three types i n employment function (70% were managers compared to roughly 50-50% s p l i t s i n the other groups) they were also the oldest group and had worked for B.C. Tel the longest. They were the largest group i n the sample (n = 47). Their low job, low non job scores lead one to question why they participated at a l l . It i s possible that respondents in this group were in fact, much l i k e TYPE IV participants but did not rate non job-related EPS influences as honestly. Had they been  able  to  take  courses  they  wished  to  take  (for example,  photography) they may have rated the EPS differently. But they wanted to take a course, the company pays for i t , so they took a "job-related" course they didn't particularly enjoy. I t may  be they took courses  because they were bored, and then found course-taking boring too. They  92 may have enroled almost against their own wishes, feeling they needed to do something to improve themselves.  It may  be they viewed the  Financial Assistance Plan as a perquisite they wished  to exploit.  F i n a l l y , i t may be that mediating variables of achievement orientation had a negative effect on their participation. Referring to the model of hypothesised association between variables (p. 3 4 ) , where, for example, competitiveness could lead an older employee to be as influenced by job-related reasons for participation as a younger employee, lack of competitiveness leading  could have an  them to score low  inverse effect  i n both  job and  on older employees, non  job motivational  orientations.  Theoretical Implications This study  provided  an  opportunity to explore aspects  of theory  concerning motivational orientations. Two main findings were derived. The f i r s t concerns the fact job related motivation generally exceeded non  job motivation. However, although the participants motivational  orientations were reasonably congruent with B.C. Tel's objectives for the Financial Assistance Plan, many participants were as motivated by non job as by job reasons. This seems to imply that job and non job motivational orientations are inter-related and not mutually exclusive. The typology presented i n Chapter Six showed that 39 respondents with high scores i n "job" also scored highly i n "non job". S i m i l a r i l y , 47 respondents with low scores i n "job" had low scores in "non job". B.C. Tel has a need to ensure that employees participating i n the Financial Assistance Plan do so for job-related reasons. I f theory i s to serve practice,  this  typology  should  provide the  administrators of  the  93 Financial the  A s s i s t a n c e P l a n w i t h some guidance.  discriminant  participation  analysis  i n the  suggest  However, the  i t would  P l a n a c c o r d i n g t o the  be  unwise  extent  results  to  t o which  of  evaluate employees  a r e job m o t i v a t e d .  The  second  finding  essence  of  this  several  of the  stems from  research  the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s .  i s contained  socio-demographic  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  variables  a s s o c i a t e d with  and  "employment  (at  B.C.  T e l ) entered the equation  of  the  respondents.  unexplained  f u n c t i o n " and,  This  v a r i a n c e and why  i n Table  job or  17  (p. 85).  shown i n T a b l e non  Although  11  (p.  job s c o r e s , o n l y  t o a lesser extent, "length of  several  t h e s e two  questions  75)  "age"  service"  that successfully c l a s s i f i e d  evokes  The  45.8%  related  to  v a r i a b l e s , and not o t h e r s , were  t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s o f TYPE o f p a r t i c i p a n t .  Unexplained  Variance  The s u c c e s s f u l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f 45.8% participants variable  using  solution  suggests  that  only  two  o f repondents  variables,  and  the  i n t o four types of failure  t o improve the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s  other  untested  variables  may  have  of  the  13  significantly,  allowed  a  better  p r e d i c t i o n o f t y p e . In p a r t i c u l a r , the enigma o f TYPE I I I p a r t i c i p a n t s (older  managers)  reasons,  who  participated  needs t o be  e x p l a i n e d . An  for  low  job/low  examination  non  job-related  o f c a r e e r path  needs,  work v a l u e s , t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward t h e i r employment a t B.C.  T e l , and  deeper  social  examination  have shed "non other  of  some l i g h t  their on  m o t i v a t i o n " . While  why  background, both they  beyond  participated  the  scope  of  familial  and  despite their this  study,  i n s t r u m e n t s , such as Super's (1968) Work V a l u e s  the  a  may  apparent use  of  I n v e n t o r y , which  94 was  developed  to  assess  the  range  of  values  that  affect  work  motivation, may have explained more variance. The Typology There appear to be two possible approaches to explaining differences between respondents located i n different parts of the typology. For example, what i s i t that explains why those i n TYPE I (high job/high non  job)  were  largely  youngish  union  employees.  Why  were  the  "unmotivated" respondents i n TYPE I I I (low job/low non job) largely older managers. One explanation assumes that the types d i f f e r , that the data reflects the dynamics of whatever relationships distinguish the types. The other explanation challenges the veracity of the typology. Explanation One: Age and Employment Function as Predictors. It  was  expected  that  reasons  for participation  given by  older  management employees would be less job-related than those of younger union employees. This was supported by the results of this research. As noted  i n the l i t e r a t u r e ,  participate  for  "life  young union people  chance"  motivation  are more l i k e l y  (Boshier, 1977),  to thus  satisfying lower order needs by bolstering their a b i l i t y to achieve job status and security. Young union employees may also seek to satisfy a desire for more pay and higher status through the Financial Assistance Plan. M i l l e r (1967) has noted the difference between working class and middle class values and the pragmatic approach that the working class takes toward education as a means toward better jobs and better pay. As well, Herzberg's (1966) claim that "motivator" factors (self esteem and self  actualization)  are  more  effective  than  "hygiene"  factors  (extrinsic rewards) may be a factor that led young union employees to  95 rate both "job" and "non job" more highly than older managers. Young union employees may be setting goals that w i l l enable them to achieve self-actualization through jobs i n which they have more self-control. Older management employees, on the other hand, have for the most part reached a relatively stable level of achievement, with a lesser need for  advancement or pay and thus seek "life-space" opportunities to  expand  their  horizons.  As a result,  these  may  have  cited  non  job-related motivational orientations more frequently, not because of lack of interest i n "job" reasons, but because as M i l l e r (1967) said: "It i s the rare person who begins to think about the meaning of his own l i f e and the value of selfhood before he reaches his f o r t i e s " (p. 7). It may be that management positions offer employees already i n that category  greater  opportunity  to  satisfy  self-esteem  and  self-actualization needs i n their jobs. While management employees have potentially less job security, they may feel more i n control of their own destiny. The  secondary variable, length of service at B.C. Tel, was highly  correlated to age (r_ = .72, p < .001). Union employees were younger than management employees (r_ = .21, p < .01). Thus, employees with longer terms of employment were more l i k e l y to be older managers, and less l i k e l y to be influenced by job-related motivational orientations than younger employees  union  would  orientations,  employees hired  therefore  while  older  be  more recently. Younger  more  managers  orientations more appropriate.  Boshier  influenced would  union  by  "life-chance"  consider  "life-space"  (1977) proposed that  these  orientations l i e at opposite ends of a "psychological" continuum. While  96 new  and u n f a m i l i a r w i t h j o b and company, the employee seeks t o s a t i s f y  survival  and  s a f e t y needs as a s h o r t  term g o a l , w h i l e t h e i r  long  term  g o a l s r e l a t e t o h i g h e r o r d e r needs. The l o n g e r t h e term o f employment, the more l i k e l y security effect  employees a r e t o f e e l  w i t h both  1962).  (Becker,  i n v e s t i n t h e i r own to  realize  a  j o b and  employer.  Shorter  term  s u r e about Economic  their  abilities  factors  employees  are  also  more  and  have  an  inclined  to  human c a p i t a l , l o n g e r term employees have l e s s time  return  on  their  investment  i n an  Thus, young union employees a r e more l i k e l y reasons; o l d e r managers a r e more l i k e l y  educational  activity.  to participate  to c i t e  "non  f o r "job"  j o b " reasons f o r  participation.  Age,  employment  function,  and  length  p r e d i c t o r s o f TYPE I p a r t i c i p a n t s , explain both  why  TYPE I respondents  j o b and non  the  converse  unmotivated  service  (mostly younger  be  less  by  "job". non  That  job  TYPE  by  " j o b " reasons f o r  j o b " i s not  respondents cannot  rated  TYPE I I I p a r t i c i p a n t s  influenced  III  influences  reasonable  union employees)  and why  However, as a l r e a d y noted, "non of  were  t o some e x t e n t , TYPE I I I . They  job i n f l u e n c e s h i g h l y ,  (mostly o l d e r managers) would participation.  and  of  be  necessarily  appear  to  explained  be by  as the  a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e v a r i a b l e s o f age, employment f u n c t i o n , and l e n g t h o f service.  E x p l a n a t i o n Two: The  assumption  The Typology as an A r t i f a c t . underlying  used i n t h i s r e s e a r c h was orthogonal assumption  or  the  construction  that  job and non  uncorrelated  because,  as  noted  relationship. earlier,  job  of  the f o u r - p a r t t y p o l o g y  j o b m o t i v a t i o n s e x i s t i n an This  may  s c o r e s were  be  a  dubious  significantly  97 c o r r e l a t e d w i t h non marked  tendency  for  m o t i v a t e d by non system  job s c o r e s  the  "motivated"  respondents job  into  inter-related  by  both  high  upper  right  m o t i v a t i o n s ) . TYPE I I I f e l l job  and  by  non  job  Thus, t h e r e was  reasons  nature  job  of  job and  h i g h non  8 5 ) . As  and  fell  high  i n t o the lower  m o t i v a t i o n ) . The  left  evidence  non  job  respondents  job reasons; TYPE I I I  by both  (both  be  i n t o TYPE I  low  job and  F i g u r e 5 shows, TYPE I  quadrant  also  in  job  quadrant  would  low  non  respondents and  non  job  (low i n both  seem  to  suggest  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t some c o n f i d e n c e can be p l a c e d i n the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n at  least  there  these  is  two  types  compelling  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r why and  non  job)  than  of participants.  evidence  to  If this  support  a  classification  job  number o f respondents  to  47 p a r t i c i p a n t s r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . TYPE I  ( T a b l e 17, p.  the  < .001).  p  were c o n v e r s e l y "unmotivated"  reasons;  fell  "motivated"  f a r the l a r g e s t  and Type i l l ( 3 9 and were  = .50,  job reasons. R e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from the  reflected  m o t i v a t i o n . By  those  (r_  this  i s the  of  case,  and  interpretation,  an  TYPE I I I o l d e r managers were " l e s s " m o t i v a t e d ( j o b t h e younger  (largely  union)  members o f TYPE  I is  required.  There  a r e two  "unmotivated"  possible explanations for t h i s  d i v e r g e n c e between  older  managers and younger "motivated" u n i o n members. The  first  explanation  is  criteria  the  of  "life-chance"  based  on  Maslow's  Financial  orientation  need  hierarchy.  Assistance plan of  the  younger  is  union  in  The  keeping  employee.  job-related with They  e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s as a means o f s a t i s f y i n g s u r v i v a l and needs.  Education  obtaining advancement  better  of  a  job-related  jobs,  better  i n t h e i r chosen  nature  pay,  and  increases their promotion  seek safety  chances  and/or  o c c u p a t i o n . O l d e r managers a r e more  the  of  career likely  98 to be expanding their life-space opportunities. Thus, enrolment i n a job-related course does not f i t their life-space orientation toward education.  In other words, had  job-related courses, high non  they  been  free  to • opt  for non  job scores might have been expected.  Instead, they take courses for the wrong reasons, and  are thus  demotivated by the experience. This leads one to question why they participate at a l l .  In the context of B.C. Tel, TYPE I participants  (mostly union) are protected by union contract for both job choice and job security. TYPE I I I participants (mostly older managers) face the insecurity generated by recent reorganization events (p. 56) i n B.C. Tel, the early retirement programs that could constitute a threat to their continued employment i n a preferred job, or being encouraged into early retirement due to the company's requirement for reductions within the management group. Hence, they participate i n courses they don't particularly want to take because they wish to either enhance their apparent worth to the company or prepare themselves for retirement. Second, the p o s s i b i l i t y must be considered that these results do not reflect the motivational characteristics of young union employees and older managers but stem from differences i n response style, i s i t possible that the young union employees adopted a "company oriented" rather than a "personally oriented" response and claimed to be more "influenced" by job-related items than the older managers who may have downplayed the influence of a l l or most of the items of the EPS. This p o s s i b i l i t y has to be understood i n the context of B.C. Tel. F i r s t , older managers tend to be autonomous and less l i k e l y to consider themselves  "influenced". Younger employees,  on the other hand, are  99 accustomed to being "influenced" by many aspects of their environment, including the older managers participating i n this study. As well, i t may be that the responses of the older managers to the items of the EPS are an underestimation Obviously,  of the actual strength of various influences.  such an explanation  i s hypothetical  and would  require  further research of a qualitative nature. Second, as noted earlier  (p. 56), the response rate  from union  employees was surprisingly low relative to other years for which data on the Financial Assistance Plan are available. This was attributed to a possible union directive against research using i t ' s membership as respondents. Thus, union employees responding to this questionnaire may have been restricted  to those proactive  union employees who were  strongly influenced by both job and non job motivations and therefore highly  motivated  to  participate.  Further,  i n a hierarchical  organization l i k e B.C. Tel, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of recognition through better jobs, better pay, and/or career advancement i s more accessible to younger union employees, while older management employees are more limited, since fewer jobs are available at higher levels within the hierarchy.  Therefore,  job-related courses,  while  older  management employees may  their expectations  efforts are less l i k e l y .  This  take  of being rewarded for their  reduced expectation  may well be a  demotivator that led older participants to respond i n an "unmotivated" fashion to the items of the EPS. The answers to many of the questions raised i n this section are beyond the scope of this study and require further research. However, the typology of participants holds promise for theoretical development. The  100 potential research opportunities i n the industrial/business community through this  application of the EPS could  contribute to refining  theories of motivational orientations of adult learners.  Practical Implications Data collected from B.C. Tel employees i n this sample underlines the need to examine more closely the objectives of B.C. Tel's Financial Assistance Program. Participants expressed a clear desire to combine employment with education for reasons i n which the top ten motivational orientations included eight job-related and two learning or cognitive interest reasons for participation. As noted i n the introduction to this thesis, i t i s often the opportunity to participate i n a learning experience that makes a difference i n employee productivity. In the case of B.C. Tel's Financial Assistance plan, resources directed toward employees i n the high job-related categories (TYPE 1 and TYPE 2) would more closely match the stated objectives of the Plan  than would  providing  toward non  funds  to employees who are more oriented  job-related participation. Given the number of employees involved i n the Financial Assistance Plan who rated non job-related motivational orientations highly (TYPE 1 and TYPE 3), i t i s apparent that despite the  criteria,  job-related  employees at B.C. Tel take courses for other  reasons. While  courses  that  develop  one's s k i l l s i n  photography are unlikely to make the approved courses l i s t , educational  activities  that  stimulate  cognitive  than  skills  those  should  be  re-examined for inclusion i n the Financial Assistance Plan. The results of the present study corroborate assumptions made about the nature of adult learners i n a corporate environment. Socio-demographic  101 variables can  be  used to predict the motivational orientations of  participants.  Although  function, and  management function were s u f f i c i e n t l y  only  age,  length  of  service, employment influential  to  predict relationships, the general trend of a l l relationships was  as  expected. Older employees and those of longer service to the company appeared to be relatively less influenced by job-related motivational orientations; this must be weighed against the accumulated value of experience they bring to their jobs. There i s insufficient evidence i n a  study of  this  type to  suggest  re-evaluation  of  the Financial  Assistance plan with regard to the age or length of service of e l i g i b l e applicants. However, the implication that middle-age to older employees seem unlikely to prepare for future retraining could be a problem to this  group and  the  middle-age to older  company that  employs them. Retention  work force may  be  the  most important  of  the  labour  development of the next twenty years (Morrison, 1983). The  fact that union employees had stronger motivational orientations  toward  job-related participation does not  bargaining  imply  that  funding  of  unit employees would better serve the objectives of the  plan. In fact, participation may only reflect the proactive nature of those who  do take a role i n their own  self-development (Boshier &  C o l l i n s , 1985). The  Financial Assistance Plan may  provide the opportunity to develop  employees for the future who are qualified i n both the technical and managerial/commercial aspects of the telecommunications industry. By directing managers toward technical self-development and  technicians  toward business administration self-development, a pool of potentially  102 interactive  employees  could  be  developed  that  would  be  equally  comfortable i n both environments (Kaplan, 1986). This development of an integrative management cadre would f a c i l i t a t e cross-training and assist companies  in  high-technology  businesses  meet  their  corporate  objectives. In retrospect, i t might have been more useful to use an instrument that identified high potential employees rather than the achievement orientations measured by the WOFO. I f a typology could be developed that identified such high potential employees, they could be encouraged  to  developmental  participate  i n the  Financial  Assistance  Plan for  purposes. Union employees with the attributes to  fill  entry level management positions would be readily identifiable as well as those who should be considered for technical specialization i n those areas of current or future requirements. Management employees could be prepared for cross-overs between line and staff positions i f i t were determined that such cross-training would be of value to the company. Further, as noted e a r l i e r , not a l l good specialists make good managers. In those cases where i t becomes evident that a placement error has been made, the  Financial Assistance Plan could provide the  retraining  necessary for re-entry to a specialist or other position. F i n a l l y , the Financial Assistance Plan could prepare employees facing retirement (especially early retirement) with l i f e and career s k i l l s to ease the transition from f u l l employment to semi or f u l l retirement. The  findings i n this study that competitiveness was an i n f l u e n t i a l  mediating variable may statements employees  by as  have implications for policy making. General  the company of expectations of self-development a  pre-requisite for advancement may  misdirect  by the  participation orientation of employees. More emphasis on appropriate  103 guidance  at the immediate  supervisor  level  (aided  by Employee  Development) should be given to ensure that employees are not wasting either their time or the funds of the Financial Assistance Program i n gaining s k i l l s that are either redundant or not required i n the future (Menzies, 1981). Another implication for policy making emerges from the results of this study.  By identifying the major  categories  of courses  i n which  employees participate, a small step has been taken i n the process of narrowing down and identifying those which are or could be most useful for  retraining. The percentage  of employees who participate i n  management courses i s disproportionate compared to the limited career opportunities i n management i n B.C. Tel today, and could be considered an indicator that some form of counseling may be warranted to direct participation away from general management and supervisory courses and toward  more  job-related  specialized or technical courses. influences  are a  moderate  The finding  to strong  participation indicates provision of counseling  predictor  that of  would be compatible  with employee's present reasons for participation; would l i k e l y be positively received; and would strengthen  the existing relationship  rather than diminish i t .  Limitations of the Study There were several limitations to the study.  Subject participation was  voluntary. Although every effort was made to ensure that the sample was representative, i t was not possible to know about those who chose not to participate.  I t i s possible that their lack of interest i n the  study reflected either some of the factors mentioned i n the beginning  104 pages of Chapter Five, or was the result of heavy work cornmitment. Of particular concern i s the p o s s i b i l i t y that the sample may have been biased towards management employees due to the reluctance  of union  personnel to respond to questionnaires as the result of union executive directive. In any case, the results of the study may have been altered had non-volunteers been included. The timing  of data collection not only added to the d i f f i c u l t y of  collecting responses (as described i n the early pages of Chapter Five), but  also had the potential to cause confusion over what course to  report i n the questionnaire, as a new school year had already begun. Although the r e l i a b i l i t y of the two instruments used was satisfactory, the  job-related  c r i t e r i a of the Financial Assistance Plan may have  hindered the a b i l i t y of the Education Participation Scale (EPS) to measure motivational  orientations of these participants. In addition,  the application of the EPS to a commercial setting rather  than an  educational one may have had an impact on the results. As mentioned, the contribution  of the WOFO to t h i s research was  marginal, i t could have been more useful to employ an instrument that measured participant potential to f i l l skilled  technical  positions.  either management or highly  Alternatively,  descriptive  questions  s o l i c i t i n g career ambitions may have been useful to determine the goals of respondents as an adjunct to their motivational  orientations.  A l l of the subjects were union and management employees of B.C. Tel,. It i s assumed that they are representative other  large  Canadian  telephone  of similar employees i n  companies, however, there  i s no  105 guarantee that t h i s i s so. F i n a l l y , the correlational design of the study makes i t impossible for definitive statements to be made about the causal nature of observed differences.  Suggestions for Further Research It would be of value for future researchers to replicate this study with other populations (for example, union and management employees i n other large commercial companies, public administration departments, or companies of various sizes). similar  I t would also be of interest to compare a  sample of participants with  company. The  non-participants  results of such a study  i n the same  would enable researchers  to  evaluate the impact that involvement i n adult education has on employee aptitudes, attitudes, and behaviour. understanding educational  of  the  activities  I t would, moreover, increase our  interaction between as  a  measure  of  work  experiences  employee  worth  and  to  the  development of  the  corporation. Future  investigators may  wish  to  follow the  employees i n this sample and could consider the merits of gathering information about the career paths of current participants over time compared to the career paths of non-participants. Studies i n the future that use the Education Participation Scale  (EPS)  could usefully incorporate the results of this study to examine the possibility  of  modifications  that  would  more  precisely measure  motivation orientations of such a homogenous and job-oriented group.  106 This  application  methodology  of  of  the  EPS  re-rating  orientations  could  be  productivity  oriented  in  the  used or  a  commercial  EPS to  to  f a c t o r s developed i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . examine whether s u b - c a t e g o r i e s o f career  advancement  would  be  valid  large-scale categories  Finally, this  useful  B o s h i e r and  useful  may  reveal  other  prediction to  In a d d i t i o n ,  job-related  well  as  refine  i t would be  influences  discriminators.  other  useful  to  e x i s t , such  as  categories  Factor  the  analysis  d i s c l o s e other  or  that of  a  different  of  t y p o l o g y o f p a r t i c i p a n t s developed  variables, participant  examine r e l a t i o n s h i p s  or  a  methodology  classification.  between TYPE o f  of  Alternatively,  a  the  orientations  TYPEs o f B.C.  the  would  I t would have  T h i s may  four  in  types,  and  provide and  in  i n s i g h t i n t o the e n i g m a t i c TYPE I I I p a r t i c i p a n t .  construct  conducted  of  that  participant  C o l l i n s ' (1985) s i x f a c t o r c a t e g o r i z a t i o n .  p a r t i c u l a r , p r o v i d e an  four  as  (eg.,  for inclusion.  explanations  interviews  scales)  The  motivational  categorizations  improved performance, or  a r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f the  study  better  and  i s unusual.  job-related  other  study o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e may  enable b e t t e r been  and  reflect  develop  proactivity  setting  with  validation  representative  T e l employees c o u l d  of  this  typology  through  respondents from each o f  ratify  the  the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s used  in this thesis.  Summary This adult  study  examined  education  job-related indicated  relationships  activities  motivational that  funded  between by  the  orientations  for  significant  differences  employee  participation  participant's  employer  this participation. existed  between  in and  Results reported  107 job-related  motivational orientations  according to age,  length of  service, and employment function. Younger employees, those with shorter periods  of  employment, and  union  employees were more l i k e l y  to  participate for job-related reasons than their counterparts. As well, respondents scoring high i n i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge, peer competition, and interpersonal relationships were more l i k e l y to participate for "job" reasons, while desire to work hard was  less indicative of  participation for job-related reasons. The participant typology developed i n this research showed that people participate for a variety of "job" and "non  job" reasons, even i n  job-related courses. Some participate primarily for "job" reasons, and hence seek to overcome real or perceived deficiencies (life-chance). Others participate for "non job" reasons, and are l i k e l y to seek growth opportunities  in  educational  activities,  leading  them  toward  self-actualization. S t i l l others participate for both deficiency and growth reasons by undertaking educational a c t i v i t i e s for both job and non job reasons. Job, i n this case, i s l i k e l y congruent with promotion, career advancement, or more pay, while non job i s part of a search for self-actualization and i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge. F i n a l l y , there appear to be those who participate for t o t a l l y mysterious reasons, or motives that cannot be measured using the instruments applied i n this research. Yet the multivariate analysis was most successful at predicting this type of participant (77%). So clearly, they are readily identifiable by the  classification  process,  perhaps  this  typology  i s better  at  identifying "motivated" and "non motivated" types of participants than those who reported a more complex blend of motivations.  108 The results of this study may be useful to corporations who provide t u i t i o n refunds to employees who participate i n job-related educational activities  on their  own  time.  Evidence  shows  orientations of those who participate support  the motivational  the objectives of a  financial assistance program; that i s , most of those who participate do so for job-related reasons. The inter-related nature of job and non job motivations  cannot  be  overlooked.  Citing  non  job reasons for  participation i s not necessarily incongruent with the intent of B.C. Tel's Financial Assistance Plan. Rather, i t would seem to indicate a desire for learning closely related to high "job" motivations for participation. The development of a typology of participant categories holds promise for the readier identification of employees who should be directed toward  specific programs. Although  no recommendations for  specific changes to 'existing policy are made i n this study, several suggestions are made to optimize the value of the Financial Assistance Plan to both B.C. Tel and i t ' s employees.  109 REFERENCES Alderfer, C P . (1972). Existence, relatedness, and growth. New York: Free Press. Bandeen, R. (1983). Discussion on higher education, policies and p r i o r i t i e s . Canadian Labour Markets i n the 1980s: Proceedings of a conference held at Queen's University (pp. 182-185). Kingston: Queen's University Press. Becker, G. S. (1962). Investment i n human capital: a theoretical analysis. The Journal of P o l i t i c a l Economy, 70(5), 9-49. Becker, G. S. (1964). 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Sedge, S.K. (1985). A comparison of engineers pursuing a l t e r n a t e career paths. Journal o f Vocational Behaviour, 27(1), 56-70. Solow, R.M. (1957). Technical change and the aggregate f u n c t i o n . Review of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , 39, 32-57.  production  S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1984). One i n every f i v e . Ottawa: M i n i s t e r of Supply and Services Canada. Super, D.E. (1968). Houghton-Mifflin.  The  Work  Values  Inventory.  Boston:  Wolansky, W.D. (1984). Growing a t t e n t i o n t o employer sponsored t r a i n i n g . Canadian Vocational J o u r n a l , 1_9(4), 39-41.  skill  Zaleznik, A., Dalton, G., & Barnes, L.B. (1970). O r i e n t a t i o n and c o n f l i c t i n career. Boston, MA: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , Graduate School of Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  113  APPENDIX A  115 PART I - GENERAL INFORMATION Please indicate your response by a mark i n the box at the l e f t of each question. 1. Are you a man or a woman?  Man  Woman  2. What i s your age? 3. I f you are or have been married, answer this question. I f you have never married, write N.A. (Not Applicable) i n t h i s box and go on to the next question. If married, separated or divorced, check the category that best describes your l i v i n g arrangements: Married or common-law and l i v i n g with  spouse/partner  Separated/divorced/widowed and l i v e alone Separated/divorced/widowed but l i v e with a person (or people) other than my spouse 4. Do you have children l i v i n g with you? No I  I Yes  How many?  One Two Three or more  5. How long have you worked at B.C.Tel?  116 6. What i s the highest educational qualification you hold? (Check only one) Grade 12 or equivalent (ie: GED) Post secondary c e r t i f i c a t e or diploma (e.g. Vocational School diploma, B.C.I.T. Certificate, etc.) | Part of a university degree or diploma |  | University degree or diploma  J  1 University degree or diploma plus additional post secondary qualification (e.g. B.A. and B.C.I.T. certificate)  7. Indicate the name of the course you last attended on the financial assistance program. Be specific. Name of course  I  Institution at which you took i t (eg. BCIT)  Were you reimbursed by the plan? Yes  No  8. At the time you took the course were you Bargaining unit?  Management?  \ ] Clerical  I | Line  | | Traffic  •  •  | | Human Resources  Craft  Staff  Q MIS  I I Other (specify)  117 Thank you. The next section deals with the various reasons employees take outside courses. Think back to when you enrolled for the course noted above and indicate the extent to which each of the reasons l i s t e d below influenced you to participate. Circle the category which best reflects the extent to which each reason influenced you to enroll i n this course. There are 40 reasons l i s t e d . Circle one category for each reason Please be frank. There are no right or wrong answers. Reasons for participation  (the 40 items of Boshier's (1982) Education Participation Scale were inserted here)  119  APPENDIX B  120 The following 40 questions were asked as part of a project to determine the motivations of employees who take outside courses on their own time. I need your help to determine which of these questions indicate job-related motivation and the type of job-relatedness represented. Step One Assume each question was answered positively. To the right of each question i s a scale that allows you to rate each question as "job-related" "not job-related" or "can't decide". C i r c l e "job-related" i f you think the question i s definitely job-related, "not job-related" i f d e f i n i t e l y not job-related, and "can't decide" i f you're uncertain. Step Two I also need a further refinement of those questions you rated as job-related. I think most people take job-related courses either for career advancement or because they want to do their current job better. I would l i k e you to go back to those questions that you marked "job-related" and write i n the blank to the extreme right of the page either "CA" for those that reflect career advancement reasons, or "BJ" for those that reflect desire to do a better job. Thanks for helping  David. Reasons for participation  To seek knowledge for i t ' s own sake  job related  not job related  can't decide  To share a common interest with my spouse or friend  job related  not job related  can't decide  To secure professional advancement  job related  not job related  can t decide  To become more effective as a citizen  job related  not job related  can t decide  To get r e l i e f from boredom  job related  not job related  can t decide  To carry out the recommendation of some authority  job related  not job related  can t decide  To satisfy an enquiring mind  job related  not job related  can t decide  To overcome the frustration of day to day l i v i n g  job related  not job related  can't decide  To be accepted by others  job related  not job related  can't decide  10 To give me higher status i n my job  job related  not job related  can't decide  121 11 To supplement a narrow previous education  job related  not job related  can't decide  12 To stop myself from becoming a vegetable  job related  not job related  can't decide  13 To acquire knowledge to help with other courses  job related  not job related  can't decide  14 To f u l f i l l a need for personal association and friendships  job related  not job related  can't decide  15 To keep up with competition  job related  not job related  can't decide  16 To escape the intellectual narrowness of my occupation  job related  not job related  can't decide  17 To participate i n group a c t i v i t y  job related  not job related  can't decide  18 To increase my job competence  job related  not job related  can't decide  19 To gain insight into my personal problems  job related  not job related  can't decide  20 To help me earn a degree, diploma or c e r t i f i c a t e  job related  not job related  can't decide  21 To escape television  job related  not job related  can't decide  22 To prepare for community service  job related  not job related  can't decide  23 To gain insight into human relations  job related  not job related  can't decide  24 To have a few hours away from responsibilities  job related  not job related  can't decide  25 To learn just for the joy of learning  job related  not job related  can't decide  122 26 To become acquainted with congenial people  job related  not job related  can't decide  27 To provide a contrast to the rest of my l i f e  job related  not job related  can't decide  28 To get a break i n the routine of home or work  job related  not job related  can't decide  29 To improve my a b i l i t y to serve mankind  job related  not job related  can't decide  30 To keep up with others  job related  not job related  can't decide  31 To improve my social standing  job related  not job related  can't decide  32 To meet formal requirements  job related  not job related  can't decide  33 To maintain or improve my social standing  job related  not job related  can't decide  34 To escape an unhappy relationship  job related  not job related  can't decide  35 To provide a contrast with my previous education  job related  not job related  can't decide  36 To comply with the suggestions of someone else  job related  not job related  can't decide  37 To learn just for the sake of learning  job related  not job related  can't decide  38 To make new friends  job related  not job related  can't decide  39 To improve my a b i l i t y to do community work  job related  not job related  can't decide  40 To comply with instructions from someone else  job related  not job related  can't decide  123  APPENDIX C  124 Coding Schedule Column 1  Variable sex  2-3 4  age marital status  5  children  6-7 8  length of service educational level  9-10  course type  11  institution  12  reimbursed?  13  employment status  14  union class.  15  exempt class.  16  mgmt class.  Category Code man =1 woman =2 actual =00 not married =1 married/spouse =2 s/d/w l i v e alone =3 s/d/w + people =4 none =0 one =1 two =2 three plus =3 actual =00 grade 12 =1 post sec. cert. =2 > part degree =3 degree =4 degree plus =5 DP =01 sales =02 drafting =03 electronics =04 business admin =05 personnel =06 secretarial =07 academic =08 engineering =09 management =10 self-development =11 other =12 UBC =1 SFU =2 BCIT =3 school board =4 other ( c o l l . ) =5 other (comm.) =6 other (unclas) =7 yes =2 no =1 union =1 exempt =2 management =3 blank i f not union clerical =1 traffic =2 craft =3 blank i f not exempt clerical =1 traffic =2 craft =3 blank i f not management line =1 staff =2 human resources =3 MIS =4 other =5  125  17  blank  end of demographics  18- -57  EPS quest.  58 59- -61 62 63- -86  blank ID blank WOFO  =1 =2 =3 =4  87  blank  no influence little infl. moderate i n f l . much i n f l . end of EPS assigned ennd of ID strongly agree s l i g h t l y agree neither s l i g h t l y disagree strongly disagree end WOFO  88- -89 9  # of courses d/d/c  91- -92  type d/d/c  93  completed  94- -95  d/d/c obtained  actual yes no N/A BA B.Comm MBA MA (other) ADED diploma Mgmt. c e r t i f i c a t e Acctg/fin c e r t i f i c a t e CGA program Data proc c e r t i f i c a t e B. Comp. Science Bus Admin c e r t i f i c a t e Mktg c e r t i f i c a t e Pers Mgmt c e r t i f i c a t e PR & Advt c e r t i f i c a t e Eng. tech c e r t i f i c a t e yes no N/A BA B.Comm MBA MA (other) ADED diploma Mgmt. c e r t i f i f i c a t e Acctg/fin c e r t i f i c a t e CGA program Data proc c e r t i f i c a t e B. Comp. Science Bus Admin c e r t i f i c a t e Mktg c e r t i f i c a t e Pers Mgmt c e r t i f i c a t e PR & Advt c e r t i f i c a t e Eng. tech c e r t i f i c a t e  =00 =2 =1 =00 =01 =02 =03 =04 =05 =06 =07 =08 =09 =10 =11 =12 =13 =14 =15 =2 =1 =00 =01 =02 =03 =04 =05 =06 =07 =08 =09 =10 =11 =12 =13 =14 =15  =1 =2 =3 =4 =5  

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