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Integrated nonformal education in Zambia : the case of Chipata District 1987

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INTEGRATED NONFORMAL EDUCATION IN ZAMBIA: THE CASE OF CHIPATA DISTRICT by ELIZABETH CISECE MUMBA B.A.(Ed.), The University of Zambia, 1976 M.S., Indiana University, 1979 M.A., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ©Elizabeth Cisece Mumba, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6.3/81) ABSTRACT This research was concerned with integrated nonformal education programmes i n Zambia. The purposes of the research were: (1) to i d e n t i f y f a c t o rs thought by administrators to f a c i l i t a t e and hinder the implementa- t i o n of integrated nonformal education programmes; (2) to e s t a b l i s h the r e l a t i v e influence of each f a c t o r ; (3) to determine the perceived degree of i n t e g r a t i o n from the perspective of four administrative l e v e l s ; and (4) to determine s k i l l s and knowledge acquired from integrated nonformal education programmes through the perceptions of p a r t i c i p a n t s . C r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t interviews and questionnaires were used to gather data from administrators, extension workers and programme p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Chipata D i s t r i c t of Eastern Zambia. Integrated Rural Development Programmes had been i n operation since 1972. The c r i t i c a l incident technique was used to interview seventy-seven administrators and extension workers at four administrative l e v e l s - n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l , d i s t r i c t and l o c a l . Data from the interviews were used to i d e n t i f y a t o t a l of eight factors that were thought to f a c i l i t a t e implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes and nine factors that were thought to hinder implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes. Both f a c i l i t a t i n g and hindering factors were ranked for each administrative l e v e l . Data from questionnaires were used to determine the perceived degree of v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n from the perspectives of four administrative l e v e l s as well as to determine outcomes of i n t e g r a t i o n , through perceptions of programme p a r t i c i p a n t s . A t o t a l of 106 administrators and extension workers responded to the Administrators' Questionnaire; 50 responded to the Local Level Question- n a i r e ; and 77 selected p a r t i c i p a n t s around three l o c a l s i t e s answered the P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Questionnaire. Survey questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive s t a t i s t i c s and one-way analysis of variance to determine whether there were any differences between administrative groups. The major findings that emerged from the study were these: 1. Factors perceived as f a c i l i t a t i n g and hindering implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes rank d i f f e r e n t l y according to the administrative l e v e l of respondents. For administrators at three administrative l e v e l s (national, p r o v i n c i a l and d i s t r i c t ) seminars/workshops and t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s i s a powerful f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r . At l o c a l l e v e l , however, administrators ranked seminars/ workshops fourth as a factor f a c i l i t a t i n g successful implementation. In t h i s research, inadequate s k i l l e d personnel ranked as the highest hindering f a c t o r at three administrative l e v e l s ( n a t i o n a l, p r o v i n c i a l and d i s t r i c t ) but ranked fourth at l o c a l l e v e l . 2. V e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n i s p o s i t i v e l y correlated with horizontal i n t e g r a t i o n . 3. Administrators at the national l e v e l believe that a higher degree of v e r t i c a l and horizontal i n t e g r a t i o n exists i n integrated programmes than do administrators of the other three administrative l e v e l s . 4. The small number of extension workers and t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to adequately cover t h e i r constituency, s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t the impact of integrated nonformal education programmes. Based on the r e s u l t s of the study, recommendations for theory, further research, and for practice are presented. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF TABLES ; x LIST OF FIGURES x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i i i CHAPTER ONE: THE PROBLEM 1 Background to the Problem .... 1 Development Strategies i n Zambia 3 Rural Development Strategy i n Zambia 5 Rationale for Integrated Programmes 8 Integration Defined 9 Ve r t i c a l Integration 10 Horizontal Integration 10 Outcomes of Integration 11 The Problem 13 Purposes of the Study 13 Research Questions 14 Significance of the Study 15 Delimitation of the Study 15 Organization of Remaining Chapters 16 CHAPTER TWO: CONTEXT OF THE STUDY 17 Overview 17 V Page General Background 17 Urban Problems 20 Rural Problems 21 Adult Education i n Pre - and Post-Independent Zambia 25 Nonformal Education and Rural Development 27 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Nonformal Programmes 30 Integrated Rural Development Programmes 34 Summary 40 CHAPTER THREE: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 42 The Concept of Nonformal Education 42 Nonformal Education and Development 52 Development Defined 52 Modernization 53 S t r u c t u r a l Funct ional ism 55 C o n f l i c t Theories 57 Research on Nonformal Education 59 Integrat ion 60 Implementation 63 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Innovation 66 Strategies and T a c t i c s 66 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Adopting Units 67 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Macro S o c i o p o l i t i c a l Factors 67 Summary 69 v i Page CHAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 71 Research Design 72 The Local Sites 73 Site 1: Katopola Farm Institute 74 Site 2: Kalichero Farm Training Centre 76 Site 3: Kalunga Farm Training Centre 76 Subject Selection 79 Research Questions 79 Methods of Data Collection 80 The C r i t i c a l Incident Technique 82 Procedures 83 Categorization of Incidents 86 Instrument Development 86 Administrators' Questionnaire 86 Ve r t i c a l Integration 87 Horizontal Integration 88 Opinions on Integration 88 Opinions on Implementation 88 Local Level Questionnaire 89 Participants' Questionnaire 90 Respondents to Survey Questionnaires 90 R e l i a b i l i t y of Instruments 91 Va l i d i t y 92 Content V a l i d i t y 92 Face V a l i d i t y 92 v i i Page Summary 93 CHAPTER FIVE: RESULTS 94 Results of Interviews 94 Basic Categories 95 R e l i a b i l i t y of Categories 96 V a l i d i t y of Categories 97 F a c i l i t a t i n g Factors 101 Hindering Factors 104 Basic Categories for Each Administrative Level 106 National Level 107 Provincial Level 107 D i s t r i c t Level 107 Local Level 110 Survey Questionnaire Results 112 Characteristics of Respondents • 112 Responses to Administrators' Questionnaire 114 Summary of Responses to Local Level Questionnaire 116 Summary of Responses to Participants' Questionnaire 118 Answering the Research Questions 122 Summary 130 CHAPTER SIX: DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 131 Perceived F a c i l i t a t i n g and Hindering Factors 132 F a c i l i t a t i n g Factors 132 Hindering Factors 139 v i i i Page Perceptions on Existence of Integrat ion 143 V e r t i c a l Integrat ion 143 Hor izonta l Integrat ion 144 Summary '• 150 CHAPTER SEVEN: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 152 Summary 152 The Purposes of the Study 152 Methods of Data C o l l e c t i o n 153 Perceived F a c i l i t a t i n g and Hindering Factors 153 Responses to Adminis trators ' Questionnaire 154 Responses to Loca l Level Questionnaire 154 Responses to P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Questionnaire 155 Limi ta t ions of the Study 155 Conclusions • 157 Recommendations 160 Recommendations for Prac t i ce 160 Recommendations for Theory Bui ld ing 162 Recommendations for Further Research 164 Concluding Remarks 165 BIBLIOGRAPHY 167 APPENDIX 1: Adminis trators ' Questionnaire 181 APPENDIX 2: The C r i t i c a l Incident Interview Form 189 APPENDIX 3: Loca l Level Questionnaire 193 APPENDIX 4: P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Questionnaire 196 i x Page APPENDIX 5: Coding Sheet for Administrators' Questionnaire 199 APPENDIX 6: Coding Sheet for Local Level Questionnaire 203 APPENDIX 7: Coding Sheet for Participants' Questionnaire 206 APPENDIX 8: Administrators' Letter of Recruitment and Consent Form 209 APPENDIX 9: Summary of Responses to Administrators' Questionnaire 212 APPENDIX 10: Summary of Responses to Local Level Questionnaire ... 220 APPENDIX 11: Summary of Responses to Participants' Questionnaire . 224 X LIST OE TABLES Page Table 1. Farmer Attendance i n Training Programmes to Total Population by Province 31 Table 2. Number of Farmer Course Programme "planned" and "held" by Province, 1978-1983 32 Table 3. Participants i n Functional Literacy Programmes by Province, 1976-1979 33 Table 4. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Women's Clubs by Province, 1976-1979 ... 35 Table 5. Data C o l l e c t i o n Procedures 81 Table 6. Summary of Interviews 84 Table 7. R e l i a b i l i t y of Instruments 92 Table 8. Positive and Negative Incidents Reported by Administrative Groups 95 Table 9. Percentages of Responses for F a c i l i t a t i n g and Hindering Factors at Administrative Levels 98 Table 10. Percentages of Responses for F a c i l i t a t i n g and Hindering Factors at Local Level 99 Table 11. Percentage of Responses for F a c i l i t a t i n g and Hindering Factors at National Level 108 Table 12. Percentage of Respondents and Responses for F a c i l i t a t i n g and Hindering Factors at P r o v i n c i a l Level 109 Table 13. Percentage of Respondents and Responses for F a c i l i t a t i n g and Hindering Factors at D i s t r i c t Level I l l Table 14. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Males and Females within Administrative Groups 113 Table 15. Di s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents' Level of Education within Administrative Groups 115 Table 16. Di s t r i b u t i o n of Years of Employment within the Administrative Groups 115 Table 17. Correlations Among Measures of V e r t i c a l , of Horizontal Integration, Opinions on Integration, and Opinions on Implementation: Administrators' Questionnaire 117 x i Page Table 18. Correlations Between Opinions on F a c i l i t a t o r s , Coordination and Obstacles: Local Level Questionnaire .. 118 Table 19. Means and SD on Administrators' Perceptions on Degree of Integration 119 Table 20. Analysis of Variance of Differences Among Administrative Groups on Degree of Integration 119 Table 21. Means and SD on Administrators' Perceptions of Obstacles to Integration: Local Level Questionnaire 120 Table 22. Analysis of Variance of Differences Among Administrative Groups on Administrators' Perceptions of Obstacles to Integration 120 Table 23. Correlations Between S k i l l s , F a c i l i t i e s and A c t i v i t i e s : Participants' Questionnaire 121 Table 24. Correlations of Perceived Degree of V e r t i c a l and Horizontal Integration by Administrative Group 123 Table 25. Analysis of Variance of Differences Between Administra- t i v e Groups on V e r t i c a l Integration 125 Table 26. Means and SD of Administrators' Perceptions of the Degree of V e r t i c a l Integration 12 5 Table 27. Analysis of Variance of Differences Between Administra- t i v e Groups on Administrators' Perceptions of Degree of Horizontal Integration 126 Table 28. Means and SD of Administrators' Perceptions of Degree of Horizontal Integration 126 Table 29. Analysis of Variance of Differences Between Groups on the Degree of Integration i n Programmes 128 Table 30. Means and SD of Administrators' Opinions on the Degree of Integration i n Programmes 128 Table 31. Analysis of Variance of Differences Among Administrative Groups on Opinions on Implementation 129 Table 32. Means and SD of Administrators' Opinions on Implementa- tion of Integrated Programmes 129 x i i LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1. Conceptualization of Relationship Between V e r t i c a l and Horizontal Integration 12 Figure 2. Geographic Location of Zambia i n A f r i c a 18 Figure 3. Location and Population of Zambia's Urban Areas 19 Figure 4. Provinces and D i s t r i c t s i n Zambia 39 Figure 5. La Belle's Typology of Formal, Nonformal, and Informal Education 48 Figure 6. Relationship Between Nonformal and Adult Education ... 50 Figure 7. A Systems Model Representing Inputs and Outputs of Nonformal Education 62 Figure 8. Map Showing Locations of Three Local Sites Included i n the Study 75 Figure 9. Diagram Showing the Training and Delivery of Integrated Nonformal Education A c t i v i t i e s to participants by Extension Workers 7 8 x i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This project was made poss ible through f i n a n c i a l support from the Internat iona l Development Research Centre and the Univers i ty of Zambia; for th i s I thank the o f f i c e r s d i r e c t l y involved . Nothing i s more of a cooperative e f for t than a graduate degree. There are many persons to whom acknowledgements are due: these include f r i e n d s , fe l low students, professors and my family who cannot a l l be named i n d i v i d u a l l y . The greatest debt of grat i tude i s owed to my three super- v i sory committee members: Dr. Thomas Sork, Dr . Robert Conry, and Dr. Vincent D'Oyley. Their patience, understanding, and ins ight throughout the ent i re process contributed immeasurably to the f i n a l product . I am thankful to them equal ly for o f f e r i n g u n f a i l i n g support and ass i s tance . I would l i k e to thank Dr. Vukani Nyirenda of the Univers i ty of Zambia for serving as the In-Country advisor during the f ie ldwork. My grat i tude is due to administrators in the four Zambian government departments involved in the study as wel l as to the v i l l a g e r s who warmly welcomed and p a r t i c i p a t e d with me. L a s t l y , I thank my parents, c h i l d r e n and other family members for t h e i r strong support and encouragement during the ent i re period of study. 1 C H A P T E R O N E T H E P R O B L E M Background to the Problem In the 1960's, belief that more investment i n formal education would lead to development guided the educational planning process of newly independent countries (Dejene, 1980). The c l a s s i c a l view saw education from an economic perspective and argued that educational programmes geared to economic incentives underpinned the greatest return to the i n d i v i d u a l as w e l l as to the modernizing national development process (D'Aeth, 1975). Development was correlated with the nation's per capita income. In the search for national growth, developing countries invested substantial amounts of scarce resources i n the expansion of formal education at a l l l e v e l s . While governments enlarged the educational enterprise, parents continued to demand more schooling for their children and themselves. Bock and Papagiannis (1983) have i n s i s t e d that, to the i n d i v i d u a l , schooling i s c l e a r l y a tool for modernizing. To the government, education i s the technique for providing the c i t i z e n s with modern values and b e l i e f s , and the advanced technological s k i l l s essential for national development (Bock and Papagiannis, 1983). The 20-year eff o r t to expand schooling i n the developing world has largely succeeded: 46.8 percent of 6-11 year olds i n developing countries were attending school i n 1960 while 61.8 percent were attending i n 197 5; u n i v e r s i t y - l e v e l enrollment increased from 2.6 m i l l i o n to 12.5 m i l l i o n i n the same period (UNESCO, 1980). The figures are impres- sive. Yet the absolute number of i l l i t e r a t e s i n developing countries has 2 increased; unemployment has been on the increase; and the poor groups in society have remained poor (Carnoy, 1986). Although these governments have invested heavily in education, they can neither meet the r i s i n g costs of the formal system nor the demand for education resulting from growing populations and increasing expectations of the potency of l i t e r a c y (Simmons, 1979). In l i n e with Coombs' (1968) analysis of world educational systems, many observers noted that formal education was f a i l i n g to meet the needs of the poor majority in rural areas (Coombs, 1968; Evans, 1976; Simmons, 1979). Two of the arguments against the existing formal educational system in developing countries are: that their curricula are unable to equip young school leavers to function pro- ductively within their environment; and that the great educational expan- sion at primary and secondary levels has not been matched with equivalent growth of employment opportunities (Barber, 1976; Forster, 1976; Simmons, 1979). Many view formal schooling as a main contributor to the rural-urban migration and the unequal di s t r i b u t i o n of income characteristic of developing countries (Coombs, 1985; Carnoy, 1986). Planners from the World Bank and other international funding agencies have recommended nonformal education as an alternative to existing educational programmes (Coombs, 1968, 1974, 1985; Coles, 1982). Coombs defined nonformal education as: ...any organized educational a c t i v i t y carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular subgroups in the population, adults as we l l as children (p. 11). Planners and theorists identify nonformal education as a powerful instrument for development because i t can meaningfully assist early school leavers. Nonformal education can f a c i l i t a t e the acquisition of s k i l l s , 3 knowledge, and attitudes for the r u r a l poor, and can indeed u t i l i z e scarce educational resources more e f f i c i e n t l y (Coombs and Ahmed, 1974; Coles, 1982). Since nonformal education i s d i v e r s i f i e d , planners hope that i t w i l l a l l e v i a t e poverty and reduce the growing rural-urban socio-economic gap occasioned by e a r l i e r incomplete development efforts and i n e f f e c t i v e educational p o l i c i e s . Nonformal education as an alternative to investing into formal schooling has great importance to many developing countries whose economies continue to decline (Lynch and Wiggins, 1987). Development Strategies i n Zambia In Zambia, as i n many other developing countries, there has been an educational expansion at a l l levels of schooling (Bown, 1970). But such developments have not been properly matched with the needs of r u r a l communities (Muyoba, 1979). Coombs (1968), i n his analysis of the problems of education i n developing countries, concluded that p o l i t i c i a n s and educational planners found themselves i n a dilemma - they sensed an ever increasing demand for education while facing acute resource s c a r c i t i e s and r i s i n g costs of schooling. Other problems relate to the widening d i f f e r - ences between urban and r u r a l areas, and the r i s i n g unemployment among educated people. He recommended more nonformal education as an alternative to investing i n formal schooling. He recognized the potential of nonformal education for reaching a large number of learners i n rural areas, many of whom never participate i n the formal education system. Nonformal education i n Zambia has developed as a result of remedial efforts to supplement the formal schooling missed by much of the adult population (Bown, 1970). Nonformal education i s offered by several government departments to provide services to r u r a l areas (UNICEF, 1979). 4 Although many government departments are offering nonformal education i n ru r a l Zambia, those working i n the f i e l d do not see their e f f o r t s as educational (Lowe, 1970). Since there i s no single umbrella ministry co- ordinating nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s , most of these e f f o r t s i n Zambia are usually not s t r u c t u r a l l y related to other educational services (Coles, 1982; Loveridge, 1978). For example, both the Ministry of Health and the Department of Community Development offer health education programmes, but they do not coordinate their a c t i v i t i e s . Because nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s are not linked to other educational systems i n the country (Mutemba, 1980; UNICEF, 1979), nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s have been judged i n e f f e c t i v e . In order to coordinate nonformal services between departments, Zambia promotes interdepartmental seminars and tra i n i n g workshops for extension workers (Muntemba, 1980). The term "extension worker" i n this study refers to members of government departments and organizations working at the lowest administrative l e v e l i n ru r a l areas. But from the experiences of the author, such efforts have l i t t l e impact unless they are coordinated at a l l the administrative l e v e l s : national, p r o v i n c i a l , d i s t r i c t and l o c a l . Furthermore, the organizational arrangements that have been established at l o c a l , d i s t r i c t , p r o v i n c i a l , and national levels i n Zambia are highly centralized and rarely permit the pa r t i c i p a t i o n of the l o c a l people i n the planning of major national development ef f o r t s (UNICEF, 1979). Serpell (1980) analyzed the services for women i n ru r a l areas and noted a s i m i l a r problem of duplication of a c t i v i t i e s . In analyzing the sit u a t i o n of women and children i n r u r a l Zambia, UNICEF (1979) observed that each government department operated independently, although the programmes which they offered were directed at the same community. 5 Rural Development Strategy in Zambia Nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s i n Zambia should not be examined i n i s o l a t i o n , but rather as a component of r u r a l development strategies. To better understand the problems of nonformal education i n Zambia, a descrip- t i o n of r u r a l development strategies i n Zambia w i l l be provided. In the 1960*s, r u r a l development was viewed as an increase i n a g r i c u l - t u r a l output (Coombs and Ahmed, 1974; Green, 1974). This resulted i n the establishment of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension programmes aimed at offering a g r i c u l t u r a l education to farmers i n order to increase their a g r i c u l t u r a l output. Later, i n the 1970's, planners and funding agencies adopted a broader view of r u r a l development that integrated a l l facets of developmen- t a l a c t i v i t i e s that contribute to an improved way of l i f e for r u r a l popula- tions. The broader view of ru r a l development refers to: ...far reaching transformation of the s o c i a l and economic structures, i n s t i t u t i o n s , relationships and processes i n any r u r a l area (Coombs, 1974, p. 13). During the United Nations Second Development Decade, i n the 1970's, the growth centre strategy for development was proposed by planners and funding agencies (Paulson, 1975). This approach, formally adopted by many developing countries, involved investing i n central development areas with both economic and s o c i a l services with the anti c i p a t i o n that the benefits would diffuse into surrounding areas. Zambia put into effect the Intensive Development Zones (IDZs) strategy (a variant of the growth centre strategy) for regional planning during the Second National Development Plan (SNDP) (1972). Intensive Development Zones prescribed a l l o c a t i o n of resources to those areas where there was mental and physical equipment available to u t i l i z e them f u l l y . This called for the concentration of resources along a 6 f i f t y mile s t r i p of land of r e l a t i v e l y high population with an intensive a g r i c u l t u r a l zone. This innovative plan was a response to the worsening rural-urban d i s p a r i t i e s occasioned by the continued dominance of the urban i n d u s t r i a l sector. F i r s t implemented i n the Eastern Province of Zambia i n Chipata D i s t r i c t , IDZs were a concept that focused on the concentration of resources i n a few areas. This was contrary to Zambia's philosophy of humanism and i t s desire to foster an e g a l i t a r i a n society. Consequently, i n 1979 the IDZ structure was replaced by the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) i n the Third National Development Plan (TNDP, 1979). Humanism (Kaunda, 1967) advocates establishment of a humanistic society. In order to achieve t h i s , the government has accepted the need for establishing a Man-centred society. Kaunda (1967) stated that humanism places high valuation on Man: ... This valuation of MAN and respect for human dignity which i s a legacy of our t r a d i t i o n should not be lost i n the new A f r i c a . However modern and advanced i n a western sense this young nation of Zambia may become, we are f i e r c e l y determined that this humanism w i l l not be obscured. African society has always been Man-centred. Indeed, this i s as i t should be otherwise why i s a house b u i l t ? Not to give Man shelter and security? ... And yet we can say with j u s t i f i c a t i o n and without any sense of false pride that the Afri c a n way of l i f e with i t s many problems has less setbacks towards the achievement of an ide a l society... (p. 7). Humanism has guided national development plans and i s evident in directing p o l i c i e s of the r u l i n g party and i t s government since independence i n 1964. In Zambia, two schools of thought exist regarding r u r a l development policy. E l l i o t (1980) referred to the two as ideological and technocratic. The ideological view revolves around the leadership in the national party (UNIP) and i t s government, and i s supported by other i n s t i t u t i o n s such as 7 trade unions, educational i n s t i t u t i o n s and churches. This school advocates the interests of the underprivileged and favours equitable d i s t r i b u t i o n of resources to a l l areas of the country (Mwali et a l . , 1981). The i d e o l o g i - c a l view i s consistent with the national philosophy of humanism. The technocratic view i s held by planners, technocrats, and c i v i l servants i n various decision-making bodies. They advocate and seem to represent the interests of the urban, i n d u s t r i a l sector. They stress building on e x i s t i n g bases of strength (Woldring, 1984). They argue that given Zambia's part i c u l a r circumstances, development must st a r t from the centres of population, the already i n d u s t r i a l i z e d areas, and s p i l l over to the r u r a l areas (Musakanya, 1970). The advocates of t h i s view are quick to refer to Zambia's t h i n l y d i s t r i b u t e d r u r a l population and long distances between population centres. They argue that r u r a l development efforts f a i l e d during the period of the F i r s t National Development Plan (1966-70) not only due to i n s u f f i c i e n t investment, but due to the inherent incapacity for development of the r u r a l areas (Mwali e_t a_l., 1981). The technocratic view was instrumental i n the establishment of Inten- sive Development Zones i n 1972, during the Second National Development Plan (1972-76). The party and i t s government argued that IDZs were conducted i n a manner contrary to the philosophy of humanism. Due to pressure from those who held the ideological view, IDZs were reviewed and evaluated (Mwali et_ a l . , 1981). The IDZs were l a t e r modified into Integrated Rural Development Programmes because they had concentrated the i r efforts on families i n a better socio-economic si t u a t i o n (Maimbo, 1982). The programme has the following objectives: 8 (1) to reduce the existing l e v e l of s o c i a l and economic d i s p a r i t i e s between ru r a l and urban areas, between different regions and between areas i n a region; (2) to deploy investment resources so as to involve the l o c a l popula- tion f u l l y i n development, and more importantly to ensure that the greatest possible number of people w i l l benefit from the f r u i t s of economic development (TNDP, 1979). Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), a growth centre strategy, was established as a means to bring s o c i a l and economic development to r u r a l areas. It was hoped that IRDP would contribute p o s i t i v e l y to r u r a l development by retaining existing r u r a l population, and by a t t r a c t i n g those who intend to migrate to urban areas. Integrated Rural Development Programme centres were designed to serve as f o c i for coordinated s o c i a l and physical infrastructure investments, monetary exchange markets, transportation, and communication networks (Paulson, 1975). Rationale for Integrated Programmes Several views exist as to how nonformal educational programmes should be implemented, one of which i s advocated by Coombs et a l . (1973, 1974), Coles (1982), and Evans (1981). With knowledge based on research surveys conducted i n several developing countries, Coombs et a l . (1980) advocate integrated nonformal education, arguing that nonformal education should be seen as part of the ov e r a l l national development process. They believe that when nonformal education programmes are integrated they would be more e f f i c i e n t i n u t i l i z i n g limited resources (Coombs e_t a l . , 1980; Evans, 1981). 9 Carnoy (1982) and Bock and Papagiannis (1983) view education as a contributing factor i n the disparity that exists between r u r a l and urban areas. The urban areas have more schools at a l l l e v e l s , and better equip- ment, than r u r a l schools. The type of education given by the formal system does not help the r u r a l young people to function i n a meaningful way within r u r a l communities (Paulston, 1979). This group argues against state- sponsored nonformal educational programmes because they believe that the state may use these programmes to promote i d e o l o g i c a l , n a t i o n a l i s t i c values that maintain the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l order (Bock and Papagiannis, 1983; Carnoy, 1982). In t h i s way, they believe, the state sponsors nonformal education programmes i n r u r a l areas i n order to extend i t s influence beyond formal schools. They advocate the development of l i b e r a t i n g nonformal education organized by s o c i a l movements to promote c u l t u r a l and ethnic i d e n t i t y (La B e l l e , 1981). They focus on l o c a l l y i n i t i a t e d nonformal education programmes which are conducted and organized by l o c a l communities. Integration Defined Coombs (1980) defines integration as: .... Combining naturally related parts into a more cohesive and unified order to enhance thei r c o l l e c t i v e c o s t - e f f e c t i v e - ness (p. 15). In writing on integration, Coombs (1980) elaborated s i x categories of integration: integration of the national planning process, integration of the components of a par t i c u l a r programme, integration between separate programmes, horizontal integration, v e r t i c a l integration and inter-organi- zational integration. This study focused on two of these categories: v e r t i c a l and horizontal integration. The two categories were more relevant to the study of integrated nonformal education programmes since the study 10 was concerned with communication channels within and between government departments and other agencies offering nonformal a c t i v i t i e s to ru r a l communities. Coomb's d e f i n i t i o n s of v e r t i c a l and horizontal integration have been adapted i n th i s study. V e r t i c a l integration V e r t i c a l integration as used i n this study refers to the free-flow of communication between the national l e v e l and l o c a l l e v e l . V e r t i c a l • integration includes the supervisory control within a department from the national to the lowest administrative l e v e l . Communication from national l e v e l keeps extension workers motivated and aware of new policy guidelines. V e r t i c a l integration involves the communication from the l o c a l l e v e l to the national l e v e l . Communication from the l o c a l l e v e l keeps national l e v e l aware of a c t i v i t i e s and problems i n the f i e l d . A high l e v e l of v e r t i c a l integration exists when there i s constant communication within departments from the national l e v e l to the lowest administrative l e v e l . A low le v e l of v e r t i c a l integration exists when there i s l i t t l e communication within departments from national to l o c a l l e v e l . Horizontal integration Horizontal integration refers to the communication channels between departments, self help projects; and other agencies offering nonformal education programmes. It i s assumed that i f departments and other agencies work together, they would have better impact on the communities within which they are working. A high degree of horizontal integration exists when there i s constant communication between different departments and 11 other agencies. A low degree of horizontal integration exists when there i s l i t t l e communication between departments and agencies. Figure 1 i l l u s t r a t e s the relationship between v e r t i c a l and horizontal integration. The horizontal axis represents the degree of horizontal integration from low to high, while the v e r t i c a l axis indicates the degree of v e r t i c a l integration. The l i n e cutting across both axes represents a balance between horizontal and v e r t i c a l integration. Quadrant 2 represents the desired d i r e c t i o n of development for nonformal education programmes because there i s a balance between v e r t i c a l and horizontal integration. In quadrant 1, a high degree of v e r t i c a l integration occurs, with a low degree o f horizontal integration. In Quadrant 4, there occurs a low degree of both horizontal and v e r t i c a l integration. Quadrant 3 represents a high degree of horizontal integration, with a low degree of v e r t i c a l integration. Outcomes of Integration Outcomes of integration, as used i n t h i s study, refer to both planned and unplanned consequences of integrated nonformal education programmes, focusing on s k i l l s that participants have learnt. The in v e s t i g a t i o n was concerned with participants' opinions of what they learned from integrated nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s . Integrated nonformal education programmes i n r u r a l areas need to relate to people's d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , t h e i r c u l t u r a l orientations and t h e i r aspirations, so that what they learn i s e a s i l y transferable to the i r daily a c t i v i t i e s (Coombs, 1980; Coles, 1982). 12 V e r t i c a l I n t e g r a t i o n H i g h H i g h l y C e n t r a l i z e d A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S y s t e m H o r i z o n t a l I n t e g r a t i o n Low N o n - I n t e g r a t e d A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S y s t e m D e c e n t r a l i z e d I n t e g r a t e d S y s t e m H i g h H i g h l y D e c e n t r a l i z e d A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S y s t e m Low F i g u r e 1: C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n v e r t i c a l a n d h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n . H y p o t h e t i c a l c a s e s : Q u a d r a n t 1 r e p r e s e n t s a h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m , a n d one i n w h i c h t h e r e i s c o n s t a n t c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e d e p a r t m e n t , b u t w i t h l i t t l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e d e p a r t m e n t and a g e n c i e s o u t s i d e o f i t . Q u a d r a n t 2 r e p r e s e n t s a d e c e n t r a l i z e d i n t e g r a t e d s y s t e m i n w h i c h t h e r e i s c o n s t a n t c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h i n i t s e l f , b e t w e e n d e p a r t m e n t s a n d o t h e r a g e n c i e s . Q u a d r a n t 3 r e p r e s e n t s a h i g h l y d e c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m i n w h i c h t h e r e i s c o n s t a n t c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n d e p a r t m e n t s a n d a g e n c i e s , b u t l i t t l e o r m i n i m a l w i t h i n d e p a r t m e n t i t s e l f . Q u a d r a n t 4 r e p r e s e n t s a n o n - i n t e g r a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m i n w h i c h t h e r e i s v e r y m i n i m a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h i n and b e t w e e n d e p a r t m e n t s w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s . The Problem Although Integrated Rural Development Programmes have been in opera- tion i n Zambia for over ten years, no research, to the best knowledge of the author, has i d e n t i f i e d factors that f a c i l i t a t e and hinder the implemen- tation of integrated nonformal education programmes. Evaluation studies have, by focusing only on programme outcomes, ignored the implementation process (Mwali et a l . , 1981; Maramwidze, 1982; SIDA, 1981, 1983; Ministry of Agriculture, 1983). A need exists to understand what behavioural changes administrators make; and what obstacles they face in their effort to implement integrated nonformal education programmes. There is lack of knowledge of factors affecting implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes. It was, therefore, important to study integrated nonformal education programmes i n order to determine factors that may f a c i l i t a t e or hinder implementation of nonformal a c t i v i t i e s . Knowledge of these factors w i l l lead to a better understanding of problems facing administrators and extension workers in their efforts to implement integrated nonformal education programmes. Purposes of the Study The purposes of this study were: (1) to identify factors thought by administrators to f a c i l i t a t e and hinder the implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes; (2) to establish the relative influence of each factor; (3) to determine the perceived degree of integration from the perspective of four administrative levels (national, p r o v i n c i a l , d i s t r i c t and l o c a l ) , and 14 (4) to determine s k i l l s and knowledge acquired from integrated nonformal programmes through the perceptions of par t i c i p a n t s . Research Questions In order to achieve the purposes of the study, several research questions were formulated. 1. What factors are thought by administrators to f a c i l i t a t e implementa- ti o n of integrated nonformal education programmes? 2. What factors are thought by administrators to hinder implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes? 3. What do administrators perceive to be the extent of "integration" i n nonformal education programmes? (a) To what extent do administrators at different administrative levels d i f f e r i n th e i r perceptions of the existence of v e r t i c a l integration? (b) To what extent do administrators at different administrative levels d i f f e r i n t h e i r perceptions of the existence of horizontal integration? (c) To what extent are administrators' perceptions of v e r t i c a l integration correlated with administrators' perceptions of horizontal integration? (d) How does the co r r e l a t i o n between v e r t i c a l and horizontal integra- t i o n d i f f e r according to administrative levels? 4. What s k i l l s do participants perceive to gain from integrated nonformal education programmes' 15 Significance of the Study This study was conducted i n Eastern Zambia where the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was introduced i n 1972. It involved the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and analysis of factors which f a c i l i t a t e or hinder the implementation of integrated r u r a l development programmes. Since the study was carried out i n a region where integrated r u r a l development has been o f f i c i a l l y sanctioned, the findings of t h i s research are important for planners i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g selected departments, and could be of interest to some non-participating departments i n a variety of locations i n Zambia and comparable countries, such as Botswana, Kenya, and Malawi where the integrated approach to implementing nonformal education programmes has been adopted. In any case, i t i s of theoretical value to investigate these phenomena i n Zambia so that the concept of integration may be better under- stood. This study attempted to validate assumptions made in the l i t e r a t u r e on nonformal education and integrated r u r a l development. Knowledge of f a c i l i t a t i n g factors may lead to reinforcing such factors, while knowledge of hindering factors may lead to the removal or reduction of some of these as i d e n t i f i e d i n this study. Information on perceived degree of v e r t i c a l and horizontal integration can a s s i s t Zambian planners to improve communi- cation within a p a r t i c u l a r department and between departments, and other agencies. It i s of equal importance to know participants' perceptions on the outcomes of integrated programmes i n order to enrich existing a c t i v i t i e s . Delimitation of the Study The study was limited to an investigation of selected rura l develop- ment programmes i n Chipata D i s t r i c t . It was limited to the behaviours, role relationships and communication channels that exist between centres at the n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l , d i s t r i c t , and l o c a l l e v e l s . Only the fol lowing departments p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study: Community Development, A g r i c u l t u r e , Marketing and Cooperatives , and the Health Education Unit of the M i n i s t r y of Hea l th . This study did not look at programme effect iveness or the impact of integrated nonformal education programmes. It was l imi ted to i n v e s t i g a t i n g perceptions of selected administrators involved in planning and implementing integrated nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s . Although many nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s are conducted i n urban areas by d i f f e r e n t government departments and non-governmental organizat ions , they were not of concern i n th i s study because th is i n v e s t i g a t i o n focused on a c t i v i t i e s conducted i n r u r a l Zambia. Organization of Remaining Chapters Chapter Two describes the context of the study. It traces the development of nonformal education from c o l o n i a l to present day Zambia. Chapter Three reviews the l i t e r a t u r e on nonformal education as i t re la tes to modernization, factors in f luenc ing implementation, and research surveys on integrated nonformal education programmes ( e spec ia l l y those i n Zambia). _P Chapter Four discusses the research methodology used in the study, methods of data c o l l e c t i o n , and a n a l y t i c a l techniques employed. Chapter Five presents re su l t s of the study. Chapter Six describes the f indings of the study. Chapter Seven presents summary, conclus ions , and recommendations CHAPTER TWO CONTEXT OF THE STUDY Overview Chapter Two outlines the context of the study. It contains a discus- sion of r u r a l problems i n Zambia, the development of adult education before and af t e r independence, the relationships between nonformal education, and ru r a l development, and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n nonformal education and integrated r u r a l development programmes. General Background Zambia (the former B r i t i s h colony of Northern Rhodesia) i s a land- locked country of 752,000 square kilometres with a population of 5.6 m i l l i o n (Central S t a t i s t i c a l O f f i c e , 1980) (see Figure 2). Approximately 60 percent of the t o t a l population i s under 25 years of age. According to the 1980 census, Zambia has one of the highest urban growth rates i n A f r i c a (Banda, 1982) (see Figure 3). At independence (1964), Zambia inherited a dual economy which nad a modern i n d u s t r i a l urban sector and a predominantly a g r i c u l t u r a l r u r a l sector. Such a condition led to the d r i f t of young men from the ru r a l sector to the urban sector i n search of wage employment which was r e a d i l y available during the f i r s t decade of independence. The rura l areas were places for old men and women. This picture has not changed to date. While the bright l i g h t s of the urban sector continue to attract many young men, the r u r a l sector has been unable to reta i n the population of young school leavers and the younger men in v i l l a g e s . The standard of l i v i n g i n rur a l areas has not improved i n the last two decades, although national 18 Figure 2. Geographic l o c a t i o n of Zambia i n A f r i c a . Source: Davies, D.H. (1971). Zambia i n maps. London: Un i v e r s i t y of London Press Ltd. Tfcs Copperfaelt i C •! 1,01 t-f i_oc? a . -s i , ^ j t r Figure 3. Location and population of Zambia's urban areas. Source: Davies, D.H. (1971). Zambia i n maps. London: U n i v e r s i t y o London Press Ltd. 20 a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c i e s and p r i c i n g for a g r i c u l t u r a l produce have not had the intended effect of encouraging some young people to remain i n farming. Furthermore, although government services and infrastructure i n ru r a l areas have increased and improved, these do not seem to have been enough. The bright l i g h t s of the c i t y are bright enough for a farmer to leave his hoe (Seidman, 1974). Urban Problems Rural-urban migration results i n over-crowding i n c i t i e s as large num- bers of people continue to enter urban areas despite the no n - a v a i l a b i l i t y of employment opportunities. The urban proportion out of the t o t a l popula- t i o n grew from 29.4 percent i n 1969 to 43.0 percent i n 1980 (Banda, 1982). This trend i n population patterns can be explained within the framework of "push" and " p u l l " factors. D i f f i c u l t conditions i n r u r a l areas are pushing people out of th e i r v i l l a g e s ; and at the same time, education, employment opportunities, and modern health f a c i l i t i e s ; among others are pu l l i n g them towards urban areas. However, i t should be recognized that rapid urbanization and high rate of rural-urban migration create problems i n housing and provision of basic s o c i a l amenities. The resources required to provide even minimal housing, transport, health, water, and sewage systems i n big c i t i e s r i s e astronomi- c a l l y due to i n f l u x of migrants and natural increase. The concentration of people i n urban areas i s a clear r e f l e c t i o n of economic d i s p a r i t i e s that exi s t between the r u r a l and urban areas. As such, the problems of rapid urbanization and r u r a l development should be viewed as an i n t e g r a l part of the national development process. Since this study focused on nonformal 21 education programmes offered to r u r a l communities, the following section discusses r u r a l problems. Rural Problems The general problems facing r u r a l Zambia today may be outlined as follows: 1. I l l i t e r a c y . 2. Lack of a g r i c u l t u r a l and technical s k i l l s . 3. Inadequate community organization and leadership. 4. Lack of r u r a l industries to retain populations within these r u r a l communities. 5. Lack of marketing f a c i l i t i e s i n r u r a l areas. 6. Inadequate maternal and childcare f a c i l i t i e s . I l l i t e r a c y : I l l i t e r a c y i s higher i n r u r a l areas than i n urban areas because many young people, especially g i r l s , leave school early (UNICEF, 1979). Although schools have expanded since independence, r u r a l areas have not r e a l l y benefited from the expansion. Many r u r a l schools only offer four years of elementary education, after which pupils travel long distances to schools which offer seven years of elementary education. Many do not continue with the i r schooling. Many young people may not acquire l i t e r a c y s k i l l s i n four years. In Zambia, 52 percent of the t o t a l population i s i l l i t e r a t e . Of the i l l i t e r a t e population 35 percent are male and 65 per- cent are female (Central S t a t i s t i c O f fice, 1969). According to Lerner (1958), l i t e r a c y alone does not constitute modernity. In his study of modernity i n the Middle East, Lerner (1958) concluded that, apart from l i t e r a c y , mobility and empathy contributed to indiv i d u a l modernity. None- 22 the less , i l l i t e r a t e i n d i v i d u a l s do not contr ibute p o s i t i v e l y to the modernization process. Those who are i l l i t e r a t e are slow to i n t e r n a l i z e new va lues , new knowledge and s k i l l s . They are unable to read posters at Rural Health Centres , in s t ruc t ions on medicines, and educational materials at t h e i r d i s p o s a l . Lack of a g r i c u l t u r a l and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s : Many r u r a l households lack a g r i c u l t u r a l and t echn ica l s k i l l s that can help them increase a g r i c u l t u r a l output. The a g r i c u l t u r a l extension services are inadequate to reach many r u r a l households. In Zambia, one extension worker is expected to cover 1,387 households in the area of operation (Honeybone and Marter , 1979). Farmers are taught t h e o r e t i c a l aspects of modern farming techniques. Usual ly one contact farmer i s used so that others can learn a lesson from him. Zambian farmer t r a i n i n g i s based on the assumption that the spread of innovations i s a process of communications, which reaches d i f f erent i n d i v i - duals at varying speed. But the question ar i ses as to which type of farmer should receive most t r a i n i n g , those who are quick to adopt innovations or those who are slow to adopt innovat ions . Usua l ly , the successful farmers are used as contact farmers (Honeybone, 1979). The term contact farmer in th i s study refers to the Ind iv idua l an a g r i c u l t u r a l extension worker r e g u l a r l y deals with in the v i l l a g e . Those farmers who need t r a i n i n g the most are often l e f t out because se l ec t ion procedures favour those who are most l i k e l y to adopt innovations . Inadequate community organizat ion and leadership: Several attempts have been made by the government to encourage people to p a r t i c i p a t e i n l o c a l projects and l o c a l organizat ion , through the establishment of V i l l a g e and Ward Development Committees under the Reg i s tra t ion and Development of V i l l a g e s Act of 1971. Committees are comprised of elected representat ives . 23 The V i l l a g e and Ward Development Committees are intended to provide a forum f o r both the expression of l o c a l demands and f o r the enforcement of c e n t r a l p o l i c i e s (Bratton, 1979). Most studies have reported that v i l l a g e produc- t i v i t y committees are nonexistent i n many d i s t r i c t s i n Zambia (Ollawa, 1979; Bwalya, 1984). They observed that headmen used t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l authority i n conducting the a f f a i r s of V i l l a g e P r o d u c t i v i t y Committees. They indic a t e d that peasants do not i n fact get the chance to p a r t i c i p a t e i n decision-making on p o l i c i e s and projects a f f e c t i n g t h e i r l o c a l i t y . Ward Development Committees are usu a l l y comprised of i n f l u e n t i a l party leaders and some members of the l o c a l e l i t e . The peasants and l o c a l poor are excluded from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n these committees. The D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n Act (1981) encourages the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s at D i s t r i c t and l o c a l l e v e l s . Because peasants are not repre- sented i n the V i l l a g e and Ward Development Committee t h e i r chances of being represented i n D i s t r i c t Development Committees are further reduced. Bwalya (1984) contends that genuine and e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n depends on adequate supply and dissemination of information to a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . He argues that e f f e c t i v e involvement of more peasants i n decision-making depends on t h e i r understanding of the issues at play and the socioeconomic i m p l i c a - tions of a v a i l a b l e choices. This i s related to l i t e r a c y . I l l i t e r a c y prevents men and women from taking advantage of opportunities a v a i l a b l e to them to rai s e t h e i r q u a l i t y of l i f e , and i t l i m i t s t h e i r capacity to provide for t h e i r f a m i l i e s through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s that would ra i s e t h e i r family incomes. Their progress i n the development process i s also l i m i t e d because they cannot e f f e c t i v e l y make use of seminars, pamphlets and other f a c i l i t i e s that e x i s t . Lack of r u r a l i n d u s t r i e s : The rura l -urban migration has produced an imbalance in the r u r a l population s t r u c t u r e . Lack of industr ie s in r u r a l areas has led many able bodied young people to leave r u r a l areas in search of wage employment i n urban areas , leaving the old and females in r u r a l areas . Many r u r a l households are unable to produce enough food for the ir fami l i e s due to shortages of labour and resources. In many r u r a l areas of Zambia, 30 percent of r u r a l households are headed by women (Honeybone and Marter , 1979). S t r i k i n g features of female headed households are the i r paucity of production and food processing equipment, lack of labour , and meagre f i n a n c i a l resources, which re su l t s i a reduced l e v e l of food production both in terms of area c u l t i v a t e d and range of crops grown.1 Honeybone and Marter (1979) found that the s c a r c i t y of labour is a major constra int to r u r a l households since t h i s l i m i t s the ef fect iveness of complementary factors such as equipment and f e r t i l i z e r s and p o l i c i e s d irec ted towards small scale farmers such as c r e d i t , extension and t r a i n i n g advice . Lack of marketing and c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s : Although there has been a subs tant ia l expansion of the nat iona l transportat ion networks of major routes , the minor feeder roads that serve the dispersed r u r a l communities have received very l i t t l e a t t en t ion (Evans, 1984). The poor state of feeder roads has i n h i b i t e d the development of small farm markets. It has equal ly affected the t imely supply of a g r i c u l t u r a l inputs through the es tabl i shed state marketing i n s t i t u t i o n s , c r e d i t and other services to smal l - sca le producers. The present c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s provide seasonal loans for small scale farmers which are usual ly inadequate and payment Is often delayed (Evans, 1984). The cred i t system favours l arge - sca le commercial farmers. 1 For a complete d iscuss ion on the s i t u a t i o n of women in r u r a l Zambia, see S e r p e l l (1980). Women i n Zambia: An analys i s of services in r u r a l areas . Lack of r u r a l industries : The rural-urban migration has produced an imbalance i n the r u r a l population structure. Lack of industries i n r u r a l areas has led many able bodied young people to leave r u r a l areas i n search of wage employment i n urban areas, leaving the old and females i n r u r a l areas. Many r u r a l households are unable to produce enough food for their families due to shortages of labour and resources. In many r u r a l areas of Zambia, 30 percent of r u r a l households are headed by women (Honeybone and Marter, 1979). S t r i k i n g features of female headed households are th e i r paucity of production and food processing equipment, lack of labour, and meagre f i n a n c i a l resources, which results i a reduced l e v e l of food production both i n terms of area cultivated and range of crops grown.1- Honeybone and Marter (1979) found that the sca r c i t y of labour i s a major constraint to r u r a l households since t h i s l i m i t s the effectiveness of complementary factors such as equipment and f e r t i l i z e r s and p o l i c i e s directed towards small scale farmers such as cr e d i t , extension and training advice. Lack of marketing and credit f a c i l i t i e s : Although there has been a substantial expansion of the national transportation networks of major routes, the minor feeder roads that serve the dispersed r u r a l communities have received very l i t t l e attention (Evans, 1984). The poor state of feeder roads has inh i b i t e d the development of small farm markets. It has equally affected the timely supply of a g r i c u l t u r a l inputs through the established state marketing i n s t i t u t i o n s , c r e d i t and other services to small-scale producers. The present credit f a c i l i t i e s provide seasonal loans for small scale farmers which are usually inadequate and payment i s often delayed (Evans, 1984). The credit system favours large-scale commercial farmers. 1 For a complete discussion on the si t u a t i o n of women i n ru r a l Zambia, see Serpell (1980). Women i n Zambia: An analysis of services i n r u r a l areas. 25 Inadequate maternal and childcare f a c i l i t i e s : Rural areas receive fewer health services compared to urban areas. While the towns have big hospitals, r u r a l areas have Rural Health Centres which offer maternal and childcare services, and any health services for curative and preventive purposes. Rural Health Centres emphasize preventive and community health education but they are usually ill-equipped, and short on st a f f and medica- tions. I t has been estimated that i n 1978, the cost of running the University Teaching Hospital i n Lusaka amounted to almost the same figure as the t o t a l a l l o c a t i o n for building new Rural Health Centres throughout the country. Adult Education i n Pre- and Post-Independent Zambia Formal adult education, as we understand i t today, was introduced by the C h r i s t i a n missionaries i n 1887 as a tool for the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l transformation of indigenous cultures. T r a d i t i o n a l l y i n Zambia, adults have a special place i n society. They have power to influence decisions of their chiefs (Kenyatta, 1979). They are teachers of morals for the young as they grow up. Elders are a symbol of their ancestral s p i r i t s (Kenyatta, 1979). The function of elders i n their family, group and community, i s one of harmonizing the a c t i v i t i e s of various age-groups, l i v i n g and dead. They offer help to the community with the i r advice and experience. In turn, the community honors them very highly. Although missionary education attempted to change the t r a d i t i o n a l way of l i f e , i t persists with modifications. Adult education as introduced by missionaries included the teaching of the 3Rs: reading, writing and arithmetic; health education; a g r i c u l t u r a l extension; crafts and carpentry. The aim of missionary education was evangelism (Tiberondwa, 1979). Adult 26 education as a tool for s o c i a l and economic change was used i n the attempts to transform Zambian t r a d i t i o n a l societies and their l i f e s t y l e s . This i s we l l summarized by Tiberondwa (1976): ... the medicine men and herbalists were persecuted, being labelled witch doctors and sometimes punished. The worshipping of t r a d i t i o n a l Gods was regarded as primitive and superstitious, the wearing of certain ornaments which were believed to be curative was discouraged, the dancing at weddings was regarded as s i n f u l , the l o c a l drinks were replaced by imported ones and the people who continued drinking alcoholic drinks were drunkards. Instead of l i s t e n i n g to the African riddles and the wise sayings of the African elders, the children spent evenings trying arithmetic and reading about the Sermon on the Mount and the Parables, (p. 59) The above i s a v i v i d description of the s o c i a l and economic changes that took place or were sought with the introduction of formal education from 1887-1964 (Snelson, 1974). The n a t i o n a l i s t movement that gained s e l f - r u l e used adult education for c i t i z e n s h i p training and to meet manpower needs i n the new state (Mwanakatwe, 1968). Aft e r independence (1964), there was a general expansion of education and other services to r u r a l areas (Mwali, 1979). But expansion of both primary and secondary education brought other problems: youth unemploy- ment, rural-urban migration, and high drop-out rates ( D a l l , 1983). Among other changes that occurred i n the educational expansion was the es t a b l i s h - ment of evening class programmes from primary to secondary le v e l designed for adults and youths who had no formal secondary education. These programmes are more organized i n urban areas than i n r u r a l areas. The school curriculum has not assisted young people to learn s k i l l s that can help them solve problems facing r u r a l communities. In this way education appears to have promoted what i s considered by many as undesirable migra- tion from r u r a l to urban areas. The Education Reform Document (Ministry of 27 Education, 1976), preceded by several studies done abroad and a public debate at home, was never implemented. The Education Reform Document advocated a change i n the curriculum which would i n s t i l l s k i l l s that would be useful i n "the world of school and the world of work" (p. 10). Adult education i n s t i t u t i o n s developed i n response to the manpower trai n i n g needs that Zambia experienced soon after independence (Mwanakatwe, 1968). Most adult education a c t i v i t i e s are government-sponsored, although industries and r e l i g i o u s organizations sponsor many train i n g programmes (Zambia Adult Education Advisory Board, 1978). Nonformal Education and Rural Development Nonformal education, not a new phenomenon i n Afr i c a n s o c i e t i e s , existed before the introduction of formal schooling by missionaries (Makulu, 1971; Thompson, 1981). Education was part of the community l i f e of the tribe i n which the younger generation was prepared for i t s role i n society through established patterns and systematic i n s t r u c t i o n because t r i b a l and t r a d i - t i o n a l education was part of the s o c i a l order i n communities (Makulu, 1971). Traditional education differed depending on the needs of a par t i c u l a r society and the demands of i t s environment. In t r a d i t i o n a l education, youth accepted the authority of the elders and learnt s p e c i f i c s k i l l s i n hunting, f i s h i n g or c u l t i v a t i o n . Missionary education, though committed to formal schooling, placed emphasis on nonformal education. Centres for elementary i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n - ing were a l l integral parts of evangelism (Makulu, 1971). The early stages of education i n A f r i c a emphasized the spreading of European c i v i l i z a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , a l l t r i b a l i n s t i t u t i o n s which seemed contrary to this were either discouraged or suppressed. But this approach was challenged by s o c i a l anthropologists who gained a better insight and understanding of African society, i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s and customs. This led to the Phelps- Stoke Commission from America which v i s i t e d A f r i c a i n 1922 and 1925 (Mwanakatwe, 1968). The Phelps-Stoke Commission (1924) made several recom- mendations, one of which was the establishment of Jeanes schools si m i l a r to those i n the U.S.A. As a result teachers from a l l over A f r i c a went to the U.S.A. to study the Jeanes system of education. These teachers were especially interested i n the topics of community development, health centres, and methods of teaching (Makulu, 1971). Jeanes schools concentrated on educational programmes associated with community development (Thompson, 1981). The Jeanes schools established i n East and Central A f r i c a after the Phelps-Stoke Commission were based on the community development t r a d i t i o n - a good example of nonformal education e x i s t i n g i n Zambia before independence. E x i s t i n g community centres i n Zambia (one i n each province) had been set up partly as a result of the demand for l i t e r a c y s k i l l s and, perhaps, partly due to the pressure from missionaries and the Phelps-Stoke Commission which pressured the c o l o n i a l o f f i c e to establish these tra i n i n g centres i n r u r a l areas. Community training centres, established i n rural areas by the co l o n i a l government, portray another aspect of nonformal education which s t i l l e x ists i n Zambia today. E a r l i e r emphasis focused on mass l i t e r a c y , leadership t r a i n i n g , vocational training i n l o c a l s k i l l s , health education, and t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l s . A g r i c u l t u r a l extension, another aspect of nonformal education, was developed, a f t e r 1924, by the B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l o f f i c e i n many African countries, including Zambia (Honeybone et a l . , 1979; Thompson, 1981). A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension Services continue to be operated by the Ministry of 29 Agriculture and Water Development and seek to persuade farmers to increase and d i v e r s i f y production through the introduction of new farming practices. Although they seek to persuade r u r a l women to adopt new homecraft practices, often a g r i c u l t u r a l extension programmes have tended to focus primarily on menfolk (Thompson, 1981; Coombs and Ahmed, 1974). Farmer train i n g centres, established between 1949 and 1951, focused on the trai n i n g of extension workers. But they expanded their a c t i v i t i e s to farmer trai n i n g i n 1960 (Honeybone, 1979). They established a farm i n s t i - tute i n every province which concentrated i t s a c t i v i t i e s on training prosperous farmers as well as extension s t a f f . Farmer tr a i n i n g centres offered the farmer r e s i d e n t i a l courses l a s t i n g from one to two weeks. They focused on teaching theoretical aspects of modern farming techniques to small-scale, subsistence-oriented farmers i n order to speed up th e i r progress. This approach seemed cheaper than v i s i t i n g farmers. Honeybone (1979) notes that, at the time, only 25% of ru r a l households had at least one member who had attended a course. The f i e l d extension service was unable to provide follow-up assistance to the farmers since the extension s t a f f was required to cover an average area of 500 square kilometres on a bicycle. In Zambia and Kenya, the ratios of extension s t a f f to farm holding was 1 to 1,000, a figure which compares favourably with the s i t u a t i o n i n other African countries: Malawi, with one to 1800 holdings; Senegal, one to 2000 holdings and Mali with one to 8500 holdings (Thompson, 1982). Apart from the workload, some extension staff lacked s u f f i c i e n t training to carry out their r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The performance of farmer training centres during the Second National Develop- ment Plan was summarized by Honeybone (1979): Thus the future of farmer trai n i n g i s unclear. Scepticism i n some quarters about i t s contribution i s mixed with the desire for a symbol of development i n others. The u n d e r - u t i l i z a t i o n of e xisting investment and the uncertainty about i t s impact have produced a s i t u a t i o n where i t i s necessary to look, more fundamentally at the relevance of farmer trai n i n g to the needs and conditions of r u r a l communities, (p. 129) Participation i n Nonformal Programmes There i s no clear policy on nonformal education i n Zambia today. Non- formal education a c t i v i t i e s cut across several m i n i s t r i e s , non-governmental organizations, and associations. The ministries are: Labour and Social Services; Agriculture; Defence; Marketing and Cooperatives; Health; Youth and Sport; and Education. Besides government departments, several non- formal education a c t i v i t i e s are conducted by mining companies, parastatal organizations, church organizations, and other non-governmental organiza- tions. Unfortunately, no national body coordinates nonformal education programmes that are conducted by different government departments and non-governmental organizations and associations as i s the case i n some countries - l i k e Lesotho and Botswana (Coles, 1982). The absence of such a body may contribute to lack of coordination of nonformal education - be i t at the planning stage or the implementation stage. P a r t i c i p a t i o n patterns i n nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s have not changed over the years. Table 1 shows attendance i n farmer training programmes by province from 1978 to 1983. Although the figures are incom- plete, female p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s lower than for men. Table 2 presents data on courses organized for farmers for each province. In s i x of the nine provinces the number of courses held increased between 1978 and 1983. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n functional l i t e r a c y classes i s reported i n Table 3- Although there has been about 20 percent increase i n some provinces, such Table 1. Farmer attendance i n training programmes to t o t a l population by province, 1978-1983. Date North- Courses Central Copperbelt Eastern Luapula Lusaka Northern western Southern Western 1978-79 Male 1031 297 44 31 225 113 96 Female 653 678 117 78 150 1981-82 Male 607 109 455 514 345 623 90 91 1,370 Female 43 17 90 30 86 109 351 340 1982-83 Male - — 2,725 886 — — 1,717 200 _ Female — — 1,153 168. - - 606 184 - 1980 ) Male 258,773 642,667 308,718 197,001 355,006 319,373 143,956 337,593 222,382 Population) Female 255,062 606,221 347,663 215,797 338,872 358,521 157,721 348,876 265,606 Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Water Development. Annual Reports (1978-83). Lusaka: Government Printer. Table 2. Number of farmer course programmes "planned" and "held" by province, 1978-1983. North- Courses Central Copperbelt Eastern Luapula Lusaka Northern western Southern Western 1978-79 Courses planned 60 58 171 Course held 13 20 64 1981- 82 Courses planned 88 88 90 Courses held 58 28 61 1982- 83 Courses planned 108 94 303 Courses held 66 63 191 40 83 - 93 20 112 34 20 - 24 11 26 125 97 - 112 120 93 94 - 94 47 62 158 135 18 158 144 230 101 111 11 133 31 145 Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Water Development. Annual Reports (1978-83). Lusaka: Government Printer. Table 3. Participants i n functional l i t e r a c y programmes of province, 1976-1979. Number of North- participants Central Copperbelt Eastern Luapula Lusaka Northern western Southern Western Total 1976 691 218 888 469 — 1,049 231 1,118 843 5,507 1977 560 373 436 416 116 617 344 882 545 4,289 1978 350 305 478 389 84 487 535 421 616 3,665 1979 968 235 557 438 105 889 489 498 710 4,899 1980* * No figures were accessible for 1980 or la t e r . Source: Department of Community Development. Annual Reports (1976-79). Lusaka: Government P r i n t e r . 34 as Central and Northwestern, the t o t a l functional l i t e r a c y participation figures indicate a downward trend from 5,507 i n 1976 to 4,899 i n 1979. Table 4 presents participation figures in Women's Clubs by province. Participation i n Women's Clubs has not increased in some provinces such as Western, Northwestern and Copperbelt. The t o t a l participation figures indicate a downward trend from 17,493 i n 1976 to 15,190 i n 1979. Integrated Rural Development Programmes Zambia inherited a dual economy which is characterized by two major contrasting sectors: a t r a d i t i o n a l rural subsistence sector and a modern, urban i n d u s t r i a l sector. These two sectors manifest contrasting patterns of production, consumption, and exchange. But despite these differences, they are closely locked i n a relationship of great inequality.^ The urban i n d u s t r i a l sector draws resources from the rur a l sector without feeding back proportionate returns. Although Zambia inherited a dual economy at independence (1964), no attempt was made to bridge the socioeconomic gap between rural and urban areas (Seidman, 1974). In fact, that gap has been widening (IL0, 1979). Resource allocation has tended to favour the modern i n d u s t r i a l urban sector. During the F i r s t National Development Plan (1966-72), three provinces (Copperbelt, Central and Southern) absorbed 82 percent of the t o t a l budget, i n contrast to 69 percent envisaged by the plan (Mwali et a l . , 1981). Although the government has invested in services and infrastructure in rura l areas, such investments have not been complemented by either favoura- ble a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c i e s or a good pricing system. For example, prices of a g r i c u l t u r a l produce have been too low for farmers to make any p r o f i t . The h i s t o r i c a l roots of disorted development during the colonial period are adequately dealt with by Mutemba (1980). Table 4. Pa r t i c i p a t i o n i n Women's Clubs by province, 1976-1979. Central Copperbelt Eastern Luapula Lusaka Northern North- western Southern Western Total Clubs 142 72 135 234 209 120 250 100 1,263 1976 Participants 1,426 820 1,392 2,505 2,116 1,845 5,799 1,590 17,493 Clubs 132 72 130 2 37 22 243 169 233 112 1,350 1977 Participants 1,596 754 1,687 2,227 249 2,586 1,890 3,864 1,309 16,162 Clubs 138 72 184 198 24 . 133 110 221 102 1,182 1978 Participants 1,797 600 2,232 2,331 295 2,149 1,573 1,920 1,920 14,817 Clubs 103 28 159 208 24 214 100 229 96 1,161 1979 Participants 1,437 368 1,566 2,350 267 2,746 1,593 3,087 1,776 15,190 Source: Department of Community Development. Annual Reports (1976-79). Lusaka: Government Pri n t e r . 36 Credit f a c i l i t i e s and government subsidies have favoured large scale commercial farmers near urban areas and not small scale peasant farmers who are a majority in rural areas. The services offered in rural areas have not gone far enough compared to those in urban areas (TNDP, 1979). Many rural villages are s t i l l inaccessible to government services and f a c i l i t i e s as well as from essential marketing outlets. Zambia's policy towards rural development has been evolving. Although the Second National Development Plan (1972-76) focused more on rural development than the F i r s t National Development Plan (1966-70), i t was not u n t i l the period of the Third National Development Plan (1979-83) that the government took positive steps to improve agricultural production. An example is the lima programme which focuses on the production of cash crops by peasant farmers. The Lima is a small plot given to an individual, separate from his own plot, for which he receives a seasonal loan for agricultural inputs and services. Even though emphasis was being placed earlier on rural development and agricultural production, Zambia's short- lived prosperity from copper production did not assist in diversifying the economy by investment in rural areas. Instead, money was invested in capital intensive projects in the industrialized urban sector, at the expense of the rural sector (Meyns, 1984). Part of the rural development strategy i n 1972 was establishing Intensive Development Zones (IDZs), which were later reorganized and called Integrated Rural Development Programmes (IRDP). Another rural development strategy involved establishing state farms (Evans, 1984). The Intensive Development Zones policy was based on the growth pole theory and is a variant of the growth centre strategy which assumes that effects in one area w i l l spread to surrounding areas; the spill-over 37 effects (Mwali et a l . , 1981). According to th i s p o l i c y , very l i t t l e expen- diture would be directed to the periphery. The Intensive Development Zone strategy was f i r s t adopted i n Chipata D i s t r i c t of Eastern Province i n 1972. This development strategy seemed to concentrate investment e f f o r t s on a few, selected areas and seemed to be of primary benefit to already better- off households. I t was seen by many to be creating s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n those areas (Mudenda, 1984). After an evaluation of IDZ i n 1978 conducted j o i n t l y by the government of Zambia and the Swedish International Development Agency, the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was established. Whereas the IDZ programme emphasized the s p i l l - o v e r e f f e c t , IRDP emphasized providing direct assistance to those households not being reached by existing govern- ment services. The programme was integrated into the regional strategy for the Third National Development Plan (TNDP) (1979-83). Realizing the gap i n s o c i a l and economic change between urban and ru r a l areas, the government put more emphasis on r u r a l development i n the TNDP (1979-83). It i d e n t i f i e d the following s p e c i f i c objectives for r u r a l development: (1) to increase a g r i c u l t u r a l production to achieve s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n staple foods, both nationally and reg i o n a l l y , and to provide raw materials for a g r i c u l t u r a l industries; ( 2 ) to stimulate and increase production for export; (3) to increase the contribution of the r u r a l sector to the GNP and to promote d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the ru r a l economy; (4) to counter rural-urban migration by creating new employment and income opportunities i n ru r a l areas; and 38 (5) to decentral ize decision-making and encourage greater l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n in r u r a l development (TNDP, 1979, p. 80). It was acknowledged at the time that services offered to r u r a l areas were far fewer than those offered i n urban areas (TNDP, 1979). It was hoped that surrounding areas would benefit from the development of integrated programmes although there is evidence that the Integrated Rural Development Programmes have not produced the ant i c ipated benef i t s . IRDP were i n s t i t u t e d in 1979 i n Eas tern , Northern and Luapula provinces and l a t e r i n Northwestern province (see Figure 4) . The objec t ive of IRDP, i n general terms, has been the improvement of the qua l i ty of l i f e i n r u r a l areas . It i s assumed that the above object ives would be achieved as fo l lows: (1) by strengthening Zambian i n s t i t u t i o n s in r u r a l areas; (2) by improving services to the r u r a l populat ion; (3) by increas ing hectarage under improved c u l t i v a t i o n , hence increas ing a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y ; (4) by increas ing income for the r u r a l populations; (5) by improving the standard of l i v i n g . Di f ferent a id agencies implemented IRDP i n d i f f erent provinces ( for example, the Swedish Internat iona l Development Agency i n Eas tern , Northern, and Luapula prov inces ) . The funding agency worked through ex i s t ing govern- ment departments - A g r i c u l t u r e , Community Development, and Health - in the s p e c i f i c areas in which they were operat ing. In some s i t u a t i o n s , the agency d i r e c t l y implemented the programme as was the case at Kalunga and Kal ichero farm t r a i n i n g centers in Eastern Province . A de ta i l ed d e s c r i p - t i o n of these t ra in ing centres i s included l a t e r i n Chapter 4. But in some d i s t r i c t s in Northern Province , IRDP operated under d i s t r i c t planning Figure 4. Provinces and D i s t r i c t s i n Zambia. = P r o v i n c i a l boundaries; = D i s t r i c t boundaries . rce: The M i n i s t r y . o f Heal th p r o f i l e . (1978). Lusaka: Government P r i n t e r . 40 units. The Decentralization Act (1981) required that one funding agency work through d i s t r i c t planning committees. Recently, Integrated Rural Development Programmes in Chipata District have changed their approach from directly funding programmes through government departments to funding programmes through District Councils. This is a process in transition that seems to be affecting those activities that received funds from IRDP. Summary This chapter has provided the context of the study. It outlines for the reader the development of nonformal education programmes in Zambia before and after the colonial experience. It focuses on present trends in a country that has experienced tremendous social and p o l i t i c a l change in less than a century. Contemporary nonformal education in Zambia-continues to draw strength from i t s h i s t o r i c a l antecedents. The B r i t i s h Colonial Office established Community Development Training Centres farm training institutes, and Marketing Boards in each province as early as 1950*s. The Intensive Development Zones that were established in 1972 and later trans- formed into Integrated Rural Development Programmes were modelled from those established in Malawi under the colonial legacy (Loveridge, 1978). Many original training centres s t i l l exist today along with newly estab- lished ones. Nonformal education has a major role to play in rural areas because i t embraces educational activities of many government departments and non- governmental organizations. Although training centres have continued to offer nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s , there is need to strengthen existing training programmes. Nonformal education may help transform rural areas into more desirable places to live and eventually reverse the rural-urban migration. The IRDP has been one of several attempts to reach the neglected small-scale peasant farmer. But the implementation of the Decentralization Act (1981) may hinder such chances for the small farmer. While the Decentralization Act calls for local participation in the decision-making process, i t neither implies nor guarantees increased participation i n decision-making at the local level (Kanduza et a l . , 1985). Bwalya (1984) has argued that participation in power sharing through ward development and village productivity committees tends to favour the local e l i t e s . The limiting size of village productivity committees comprising 8 members out of an estimated average of 500 people in a village means that only the p o l i t i c a l l y and economically powerful can participate (Bwalya, 1984; Maramwidze, 1980; Ollawa, 1979). Similar observations relate to ward development councils and d i s t r i c t councils. The Decentralization Act may give power for p o l i t i c a l decisions to d i s t r i c t councils, whose Committee members may not be ready for this challenge. Participation in decision- making by provincial and d i s t r i c t administrators may not bring much change unless i t is accompanied by financial autonomy. So long as major financial decisions are introduced from the headquarters in Lusaka, some of the problems related to delays w i l l persist. It Is too early to evaluate the actual impact of the implementation of the Decentralization Act (1981) since i t has not yet been implemented fu l l y in some dist r i c t s such as Chipata. The next chapter reviews literature on nonformal education, i t s origins and i t s role in the development efforts of developing countries. Research studies and other literature on implementation are reviewed and their relevance to this study is discussed. CHAPTER THREE REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE This chapter presents a review of literature relevant to the study. Literature related to five issues is discussed in detail: 1. The concept of nonformal education. 2. Nonformal education and development. 3. Research on nonformal education. 4. Integration. 5. Implementation. The Concept of Nonformal Education Discussions on the meaning and development of the concept of nonformal education are centered around three main topics: international education planning, critique of schooling, and the practice of nonformal education. The f i r s t topic deals with international education planning issues. Coombs (1968), in analyzing educational systems of various developing countries, articulated dissatisfaction with the formal school system and stressed the rapidly approaching limits of further expansion. He advocated nonformal education as a potential solution to this c r i s i s . This pattern of criticism and advocacy led several agencies to sponsor a series of research and development studies to f i e l d test programmes f a c i l i t a t i v e of the nonformal education approach (Evans, 1981). Key examples of such studies are those by Sheffield and Diejomaoh (1972) and the International Council for Educational Development between 1973 and 1980. Another topic is dealt with by c r i t i c s of schooling. This group of theorists assert that nonformal education can be traced from the ideas 43 developed by i n f l u e n t i a l c r i t i c s of school ing- I l l i c h (1970), F r i e r e (1970), and Carnoy (1976) have f o r c e f u l l y presented the case against schools as i n s t i t u t i o n s for development. They argue that schooling perpetuates i n e q u a l i t i e s that exis t i n society and present nonformal education as an a l t e r n a t i v e to formal school ing . The t h i r d topic i s dealt with by a group of p r a c t i t i o n e r s which has allowed the evolut ion of new d e f i n i t i o n s in th i s f i e l d of study. This group has sought to d i s t i n g u i s h which educational a c t i v i t i e s are indeed nonformal education in character . Their main concern has been to cate- gorize the various out -of - school a c t i v i t i e s (Callaway, 1973; F o r s t e r , 1975). Nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s inc lude: bas ic l i t e r a c y , func t iona l l i t e r a c y , farmer education, cooperative education, a g r i c u l t u r a l extension, populat ion education, f a m i l y - l i f e planning, n u t r i t i o n education, community development and youth a c t i v i t i e s . There i s no general agreement in the l i t e r a t u r e as to what nonformal education i s (Coombs, 1968, 1974; Brembeck, 1973; Grandstaff , 1971). Several recent f i e l d studies attempted to c l a s s i f y a c t i v i t i e s that are construed by them to be wi th in the domain of nonformal education (Callaway, 1973; F o r s t e r , 1975). Their c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme has been useful in i d e n t i f y i n g nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s . A major task i n the plethora of f i e l d studies was that of s u b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of out -of - school educational a c t i v i t i e s i n each region of developing countries (Shef f i e ld and Diejomaoh, 1972; Ahmed and Coombs, 1975; Coombs et a d . , 1973). These ear ly attempts i d e n t i f y a d d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s which, though out-of -school i n nature, were c l e a r l y nonformal in character . 44 The definition proposed by Coombs (1973) is the most widely accepted. Coombs (1973) defines nonformal education as: ... any organized educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular subgroups in the population, adults as well as children, (p. 11) The definition seeks to differentiate a wide range of nonformal educational activities carried on in educational institutions (schools). Coombs (1976) argued that both formal and nonformal education are organized to complement and improve upon informal learning. (For example, literacy and numeracy are s k i l l s that individuals cannot easily acquire through their environment). But formal and nonformal education systems di f f e r in their sponsorship, institutional arrangements, educational objec- tives and in the target groups they try to serve (Coombs et a l . , 1973). Brembeck (1973) saw formal and nonformal education as two distinct systems each having i t s own merits in fostering learning. Unlike the case of formal schooling the merits of nonformal education l i e substantially in its a b i l i t y to be used for immediate needs (Brembeck, 1973). He argued that learned behaviour is determined by the environment in which i t takes place. The learning environments of formal and nonformal education tend to have different characteristics (Brembeck, 1973). These characteristics in turn shape learned behaviour. The merits of nonformal education l i e in i t s a b i l i t y to be used for immediate needs. It is therefore essential, he argued, to have both educational environments in order to produce a l l behaviours required in a society. It may appear as though Brembeck was proposing two distinct educational systems: a system of schooling and a system of nonformal education. 45 Evans (1981) defined nonformal educational activities according to how they relate to formal schools. His classification scheme for nonformal education activities identified: (a) complementary education, which rounds out the school curriculum; (b) supplementary education, which adds on to schooling at a later time; and (c) education which replaces schooling. Included under the complementary education category are nonformal educational ac t i v i t i e s involving youth organizations like scouting, young farmers clubs, sports clubs and hobby groups, debating societies, and voluntary service ac t i v i t i e s which are often sponsored by private organiza- tions. Although some of the activities l i s t e d within this category are organized by the schools, some of them are organized and supervised by non- school personnel or organizations. Supplementary education refers to nonformal educational activities that add to the learning produced in school settings. These act i v i t i e s include a wide range of apprenticeships, s k i l l - t r a i n i n g programmes, farmer training courses and family or home economics training (Evans, 1981, p. 2 1 ) . The last category of nonformal education identified by Evans (1981) i s replacement education. Its programmes replace or substitute for formal schooling. Such nonformal endeavors include basic-literacy courses, normally attended by a mixture of unschooled and lesser schooled children and adults. Here the content covered embraces basic s k i l l s of literacy and numeracy, and rudimentary s k i l l s in practical subjects such as health, nutrition, and agriculture. This category of nonformal education has attracted much attention from planners who recognize i t as a technique for alternative schooling. Yet several have argued against replacing formal schooling with out-of-school a c t i v i t i e s . Despite such criticism nonformal education has the potential of reaching a large group of the population not served by formal education. Harbison (1973) followed Coombs definition but viewed nonformal educa- tion as the generation of s k i l l s and knowledge offered outside the formal schooling system. He is especially concerned with human resource develop- ment. Harbison attributed great importance to nonformal education in meeting a nation's new and expanded knowledge and s k i l l requirements. He laid out possible functions of nonformal education which are: 1. Activities oriented primarily to development of the s k i l l and knowledge of members of the labour force who are already employed. 2. Activities designed primarily to prepare persons, mostly youth, for entry into employment. 3. Activities designed to develop s k i l l , knowledge, and understanding which transcend the work world (Harbison, 1973, p. 59). Harbison's views were guided by the human capital theory. He was writing during a time most African countries had just attained their independence, and was concerned about how the countries could expand their economies. His views, however, assumed that nonformal education would be tied to nationally defined aims, chiefly economic, and i t s implementation would be controlled by those whose interests reflect the national aims. Harbison's model, however, ignores implementation of nonformal education programmes organized by different social movements in society, such as those offered through trade union movements. Paulston's (1972) definition views the education system of a society as four concentric ci r c l e s . The outer, largest circle represents formal education systems. The second ring is the nonformal component where 47 structured non-school educational programmes are offered. The third inner c i r c l e represents informal education, where people learn in a non-systematic manner from exposure to cultural f a c i l i t i e s , social institutions, p o l i t i c a l processes, personal media, and mass media. The last ring, international education, includes knowledge inputs made by entities outside national boundaries. Paulston's (1972) definition deals inadequately with the interaction between educational processes between the different circles: a special concern is the a b i l i t y to deal with the inner and outer c i r c l e s . La Belle (1975) outlined a close relationship between formal, non- formal, and informal educational systems by analyzing the predominant learning modes through which each takes place. He follows the definitions of Coombs and Ahmed (1974) in his analysis. While Coombs and Ahmed (1974) seem to treat the three modes of education as discrete entities, La Belle (1975) sees the three educational modes, that i s , informal, nonformal and formal, to exist a l l at the same time. This is illustrated i n Figure 5. Figure 5 illustrates the three interactive modes of informal, non- formal, and formal education systems. In formal education, what is taught in the curriculum i s related to other educational modes like peer group. At the same time, the school offers nonformal education programmes through extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s . Along the vertical line are the predominant modes of education. These reflect the dominant type of learning process from the perspective of the observer or the learner. For example, an observer may decide to choose to focus observation on learning activities that the teacher is offering based on the curriculum rather than on what is learnt from peer groups. 48 Figure 5. La Belle's typology of formal, nonformal, and informal education. Source: La Belle, T.J. (1979). Liberation, development, and rural nonformal education. In R.O. Niehoff (ed.), Nonformal education and the rural poor. East Lansing: Michigan State University. 49 At the top of the figure are educational characteristics. Here the emphasis is on the structure rather than the process of education. Charac- te r i s t i c s of formal education include: ordering of programme levels; compulsory attendance; admission requirements; and ce r t i f i c a t i o n . Charac- te r i s t i c s of nonformal education include: extra curricular a c t i v i t i e s , systematic out-of-school act i v i t i e s and parental instruction and guidance. Characteristics of informal education include: peer group act i v i t i e s and everyday experiences. The aim of the figure is to display the interrelationships among the three educational modes. However, within the three educational modes, there exist other learning opportunities that occur simultaneously in the same instructional setting. For example, children in school learn from their involvement in extra curricular activities and from their interaction with peers in addition to the learning that occurs in the classroom. This author's conceptualization of nonformal education is presented in Figure 6. In Figure 6, quadrants 1 and 4 represent the formal schooling system from elementary to institutions of higher learning. Quadrant 2 represents nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s designed for children and youth, who are not part of the formal school system. There is an overlap between nonformal education and adult education as presented in quadrant 3. Some adult education act i v i t i e s are offered outside the formal education system and are therefore nonformal. It is here that the overlap between nonformal and adult education occurs. Since this research focuses on nonformal education activities for rural youths and adults, the programmes represented by quadrants 2 and 3 were relevant. Definitions of nonformal education have followed that of Coombs (1973). He argued that there is a close relationship between formal, non- Formal Education Nonformal Education Figure 6. Relationship between nonformal and adult education. Quadrants 1 and 4 represent the formal school system. Quadrant 2 represents nonformal education for children and youth. Quadrant 3 represents nonformal education act i v i t i e s for adults. The shaded area represents an overlap between nonformal education and adult education. 51 formal and informal systems of education. Although Coombs (1976) insisted that there are no marked differences between formal and nonformal education systems, he was not clear on the close relationship that exists between the two systems since formal education is largely funded by the state while nonformal education programmes may be funded by private organizations or the state. It may be d i f f i c u l t for privately funded nonformal education acti v i t i e s to have a close relationship with the formal educational system. While Coombs (1974) believes that there is a close relationship between formal and nonformal education, Brembeck (1974) saw the two as distinct systems each having i t s own merits in fostering learning. Since nonformal education is flexible, he argued, i t can easily adapt to innova- tions and i t can be applied to immediate needs of learners. He strongly argued that formal education alone is not able to produce a l l the behaviours required in society as i t is often assumed. It appears that Brembeck (1973) was proposing two distinct kinds of educational systems, i.e., schooling and nonformal education. This analysis differs from Coombs (1974) in which formal education is closely related to nonformal education. Harbison (1973), using a definition similar to Coombs, saw many functions of nonformal education. He believed that the major function of nonformal education i s to provide people with s k i l l s for high level jobs in the economy as well as a means of counterbalancing some distortions created by formal education. Coombs' (1974) model differs from Harbison's because i t emphasizes rural development and the improvement of l i f e for rural people. The common theme that emerges in the l i t e r a t u r e on nonformal education i s as fol lows: nonformal education encompasses a wide range of educational and developmental a c t i v i t i e s that aim to re la t e to the immediate needs of the target populat ion . Nonformal programmes tend to be p r a c t i c a l in nature , and are designed to provide s k i l l s and knowledge for immediate use. Nonformal education programmes tend to be short term and tangible (Simkins, 1971). The nonformal programme may be organized by government, private or voluntary assoc iat ions but i t s implementation is not r i g i d l y s t ruc tured . It i s offered to a l l age groups i n soc ie ty . Nonformal education has great p o t e n t i a l as i t s s tructure and form can be made f l e x i b l e to bring about a desired objec t ive (Dejene, 1980). Nonformal Education and Development Two dominant t h e o r e t i c a l pos i t ions about education and change hold s p e c i a l s i gn i f i cance for th is thes i s : the equ i l ibr ium and the c o n f l i c t p o s i t i o n s . They inf luence the way d i f f erent authors view the r e l a t i o n s h i p between nonformal education and development. Yet wi th in these two main categor ies , numerous perspectives e x i s t . Before we discuss these two t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s , i t i s important to define development. Development Defined The concept of development was at one time equated with economic development (Dejene, 1980). The broader view of development encompasses a l l areas of development: s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic. Rogers (1976) defines development as: ... a widely participatory process of social change in a society, intended to bring about both social and material advancement (including greater equality, freedom, and other valued qualities) for the majority of the people through their gaining greater control over their environment, (p. 133) This definition of development differs from an earlier one that centered on materialist, economic growth. This approach is broad, more flexible and, at the same time, more humanitarian in i t s implications. The valued qualities must be decided by the people themselves through a widely participatory process. Each group might pursue a different pathway to development. In this way, development represents a powerful change toward the kind of social and economic system that a country desires (Schramm and Lerner, 1976). Development is a process of social, economic, and p o l i t i c a l change towards modernity. Myrdal (1972) regards development as the movement upward of the entire social system to an improved standard of l i f e . Because this definition of development is directed to the social systems level, i t includes both economic and non-economic factors such as health, education, and other social needs. This definition incorporates both Rogers' (1976) ideas and those of Schramm and Lerner (1976). Modernization Smelser (1968) defines modernization as a process of transformation of traditional societies, where institutional roles are differentiated and diffused. Other changes that may occur often relate to the following areas (Smelser, 1968: 28): 1. The change from simple and traditional techniques toward the application of knowledge. 2. The evolution from subsistence farming toward commercial produc- tion of agricultural goods. 3. The transition from the use of human and animal power toward industrialization. 4. The movement from the farm and village toward urban centres. Modernization theory emerged in the 1950s as an intellectual response to the two world wars (Fagerlind and Saha, 1983). Early forms of moderni-- zation theory focused on the advancement of newly independent states by studying the path followed by industrialized societies. Huntington (1976) characterized modernization as revolutionary: ... A dramatic shift from traditional to modern, complex (multiple causes), systematic, global (affecting a l l societies), phased (advance through stages), homogenizing (convergence), irreversible and progressive. (Fagerlind and Saha, 1983, p. 15) Modernization theory is based on the idea that there is a direct linkage between the following sets of variables: modernizing institutions, modern values, modern behaviour, modern society and economic development (Inkeles and Smith, 1974; Fagerlind and Saha, 1983). MacLelland (1961) i n major studies in Japan and Asia, examined modernity and argued that the rise and f a l l of ci v i l i z a t i o n s is due to the individual values held by the majority of the population in society. He proclaimed that the achievement motive (n Ach) which an individual acquires through socialization makes a society open to economic and technological advancement. Fagerlind and Saha (1983) argue against the underlying assumptions of the modernization theory which stipulates that modern attitudes and values are incompatible with traditional ones. They have examples from Japan where traditional forms of labour seem to have contributed to economic growth. Modernization theory assumes that modern values and behaviours by individuals necessarily lead to socioeconomic development at the societal level. They argue that society is not simply the sum total of the i n d i v i - duals within i t . They give as an example of the emigration of profes- sionals from less-developed countries, a form of modern behaviour which could not be said to contribute to economic development of those countries. Modernization efforts i n Zambia have taken many forms. Several government development efforts have been designed to transform the Zambian society from a traditional to a modern society. Several contradictions emerge in a society that is in the process of transformation, whether to completely abandon the traditional way of l i f e and internalize new values or to keep traditional values while at the same time internalizing new values. What one may observe is a mixture of two cultures, at times i n harmony with each other. But the government of Zambia is committed to transform the society into a modern society while keeping desirable values from a traditional society of the past. Nonformal education act i v i t i e s offered in rural areas have been designed to assist rural communities i n the move towards modernity while maintaining traditional values. Structural Functionalism Equilibrium theory shows the social system always moves toward a preferred state. Such a state is arrived at as a result of natural order as well as certain mechanisms such as socialization and social control processes. Structural/functionalists believe in equilibrium, that socialization is what holds society together (Karabel and Halsey, 1977). 56 Society is seen as a system composed of interrelated parts (religion, education, p o l i t i c a l structures, the family, e t c ) * These parts are said to be in equilibrium. Non-normative events or arrangements are said to produce tensions (Fagerlind and Saha, 1983). Structural/functionalist theory shows change to be either internal or external to the system. Internal changes are adjustments to some dis- equilibrating pressure which results in some alterations in the system. Structural changes occur when disturbances are sufficient to overcome the forces of equilibrium. Structural/functionalists view educational systems as being able to offer opportunities for mobility of individuals. Coombs (1968) and Harbison (1973) use the structural/functionalist assumptions in their analysis of the relationship between nonformal education and development. Nonformal education is seen as a vehicle for bringing about desired change within a system. Hence, as proponents, they believe that the state should plan nonformal education programmes in order for such change to occur (Evans, 1981). Evans (1981) concludes that: Nonformal education has demonstrated i t s capability of carry- ing out many educational tasks which cannot and should not be attempted in schools. The future development of nonformal education lies in i t s integration into the overall educational sector along with formal education. Planning for nonformal education must function to encourage i t s strengths while pro- viding an overall framework within which i t can grow in a manner consistent with the goals of national development, (p. 97) Structural/functionalism has been c r i t i c i z e d for focusing on static aspects of society to the neglect of change, process, co n f l i c t , and dissent (Fagerlind and Saha, 1983). Harmony and integration are seen as functional, 57 whereas con f l i c t , change, and tension are seen to be dysfunctional and to be avoided. But Parsons' later works incorporated evolutionary theory where societies were said to move along an evolutionary path through the processes of integration, differentiation, and reintegration, taking into account both internal and external factors. Fagerlind and Saha (1983) suggest that neo-evolutionary theory is responsible for the emergence of modernization theory. Conflict Theories Conflict theory rests upon the assumption that human intervention is the decisive force in the shaping of history and social change (Karabel and Halsey, 1977). This intervention results as conflicting groups gain or lose relative p o l i t i c a l power and thus the ab i l i t y to influence change. Education is seen as playing a key role in the acquisition of a t t r i - butes, s k i l l s , and expertise necessary to function in an effective manner to influence change. While structural/functionalists view educational systems as being able to offer opportunities for mobility of individuals, conflict theorists stress the role of education in maintaining a system of structured inequality (Carnoy, 1976; Bock, 1976; La Belle, 1976). They believe that the educational system helps to define which people may l e g i - timately play which roles in society. Bock and Papagiannis (1983) contend that the institutionalization and legitimization of nonformal education further perpetuates the distortions and inequalities that exist between the urban and rural sector. They argue that the state may sponsor nonformal education programmes to extend i t s influence beyond the formal schools. Such influence would foster p a r t i c i p a t i o n and promote n a t i o n a l i s t i c values which would i n turn help to maintain the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l order (La B e l l e , 1976; Bock and Papagiannis, 1983). They argue against i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of nonformal education, as i t l eg i t imizes the i n f e r i o r status of i t s graduates and therefore perpetuates the ex i s t ing i n e q u a l i t i e s i n soc ie ty . The l i t e r a t u r e indicates that d i f f erent t h e o r e t i c a l or ientat ions inf luence how the theor i s t s perceive the r e l a t i o n s h i p between nonformal education and development and how nonformal education may be implemented. Those inf luenced by the s t r u c t u r a l / f u n c t i o n a l i s t theories s tress s t a t e - planned nonformal education systems (Coombs et_ a l . , 1973; Coles , 1982). It i s hoped that planning of nonformal education at the nat iona l l e v e l w i l l increase i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the modernization process (Harbison, 1975; Evans, 1981). This study uses the s t r u c t u r a l / f u n c t i o n a l i s t t h e o r e t i c a l framework in analyz ing state-sponsored integrated r u r a l development i n Zambia. It assumes that government e f for t s to encourage development do contribute to the modernization process. Those that are inf luenced by the c o n f l i c t theories argue that non- formal education should not be i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d (Bock, 1976; La B e l l e , 1976; Paulston, 1976). They view the role of nonformal education as an a l t e r n a t i v e system i n development that may help i n d i v i d u a l s br ing change i n soc i e ty . In most developing countr ies , both state-planned and l o c a l l y i n i t i a t e d nonformal education programmes exist side by s ide (Evans, 1981). 59 Research on Nonformal Education Before discussing the concept of integration, i t is important to review some research studies that have been conducted on nonformal educa- tion. Most research on nonformal education has focused on finding out which act i v i t i e s existed where and i n what form. Research was initiated by international aid agencies that became interested in investing in nonformal education. Earlier research on nonformal education consisted of surveys that tried to find out which nonformal education programmes existed. Specific examples of such research studies were those conducted in several African countries (Kenya, Zambia, Botswana, Nigeria and Tanzania) by Sheffield and Diejomaoh (1972); Coombs et_ a l . (1973); and Coombs and Ahmed (1974). Later studies focused on the projects of individual countries (La Belle, 1976; Bock, 1975; Forster, 1975; Coombs, 1980). These studies focused on the impact of nonformal education on the individual. Results of the studies indicated limited participation among those with l i t t l e previous education. The findings of these studies indicated that most non- formal education programmes developed in response to some specific needs as identified by the government or by the community. The findings that integrated nonformal programmes that involved local people were effective in achieving their goals. Other studies on the impact of nonformal education on the individual have been conducted in Latin America by La Belle (1975). He found that non formal education programmes utilized mainly psychological approaches and did not markedly improved the power and prestige of the participants. Bock (1975) conducted a study in Malaysia in which he found that the graduates of nonformal education training did not get better jobs compared with those who graduated from formal training. But they accepted their inferior position due to the rudimentary quality of their training from the non- formal education programme. Dall (1983) studied nonformal education training programmes for youths who leave school early. He found that young men from these programmes did not aspire to higher paying jobs. In many developing countries, a large number of nonformal education ac t i v i t i e s are state-sponsored such as those recommended by Coombs and Ahmed (1974) and Evans (1981). Specific examples are those from Botswana, Zambia, and Kenya (Coombs and Ahmed, 1974). Coombs and Ahmed (1974) found that projects which had links with other agencies had higher cost effec- tiveness than those which did not. They have argued the need for integra- tion of nonformal education programmes vertically with government agencies and horizontally with other complementary services within the geographical area. Although many nonformal education activities are organized by non- governmental organizations, these act i v i t i e s tend to be fewer than state- sponsored programmes. Integration The concept of integration is based on the system-centered approach, which emphasizes the linkage between individuals, institutions and the environment. This linkage w i l l seek to promote the Improvement of the individual by modifying the patterns of relationships in society. Non- formal education, in this perspective, is one of several important elements in the process of development. 61 I n t e g r a t i o n i s b a s e d o n s y s t e m s t h e o r y . A n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n programme i s s e e n as a s u b - s y s t e m o f t h e l a r g e r s y s t e m . S y s t e m s t h e o r y r e g a r d s t h e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m a s h a v i n g i n p u t s , c a p a b i l i t i e s , a n d o u t p u t s . I n p u t s r e l a t e t o w h at t h e s y s t e m o f f e r s w h i l e o u t p u t s i n c l u d e o u t c o m e s o f t h e s y s t e m . S y s t e m c a p a b i l i t i e s a r e i n s t i t u t i o n s s e t up t h r o u g h w h i c h i n p u t s a r e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o o u t p u t s . A t t h e programme l e v e l , t h i s a p p r o a c h f o c u s e s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t d e p a r t m e n t s a n d a g e n c i e s . F i g u r e 7 shows how n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n c a n be o r g a n i z e d a n d i m p l e m e n t e d . I n p u t s r e p r e s e n t w h a t i s o f f e r e d t h r o u g h n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s ( a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n , c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n , a n d c o o p e r a t i v e s ) . O u t p u t s r e p r e - s e n t o u t c o m e s o f i n t e g r a t e d n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s as t h e y b r i n g c h a n g e t o t h e l i v e s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s o f p r o g r a m m e s . S y s t e m c a p a b i l i t i e s r e p r e s e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t s t h a t a r e u t i l i z e d a t n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l , d i s t r i c t , a n d l o c a l l e v e l s . T h e r e i s f e e d b a c k f r o m t h e l o c a l l e v e l t o n a t i o n a l o n t h e o u t p u t s o f t h e s y s t e m . I n t e g r a t i o n r e l a t e s t o t h e p l a n n i n g o f programmes a t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s : i t i n v o l v e s b o t h d e c e n t r a l i z e d a n d c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o s t r i k e a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n s u p e r v i s o r y c o n t r o l f r o m t h e n a t i o n a l t o t h e l o c a l l e v e l i n o r d e r t o e n c o u r a g e l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t a l s o i n v o l v e s c o o r d i n a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I n t e g r a t i o n i n c o r p o r a t e s c o o r d i n a t i o n . C o o r d i n a t i o n i s a n a s p e c t o f i n t e g r a t i o n . I n t e g r a t i o n i m p l i e s t h e l i n k a g e a n d c o o r d i n a t i o n o f e f f o r t s b e t w e e n e d u c a t i o n a l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a l s e r v i c e s . I t a l s o r e f e r s t o t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f e s s e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m among t h e m t o p r o m o t e t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s . I n t h i s w a y , i n t e g r a t i o n d e a l s w i t h c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h i n a n d b e t w e e n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 62 ENVIRONMENT INPU"B A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n C o m m u n i t y — — D e v e l o p m e n t H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n FEEDBACK OU' PUT N a t i o n a l , P r o v i n c i a l , D i s t r i c t a n d L o c a l l e v e l s . C o o p e r a t i v e s — — — N u t r i t i o n L i t e r a c y M a t e r n a l C h i l d c a r e SYSTEM C A P A B I L I T I E S -> P r o d u c t i v i t y l e v e l -> B e t t e r h e a l t h -> H i g h e r l i t e r a c y l e v e l s F i g u r e 7: A s y s t e m s m o d e l r e p r e s e n t i n g i n p u t s a n d o u t p u t s o f n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . 63 Since integration deals with linkage of one organization with another, i t is assumed that the more linkages an organization has with other organi- zations, the more resources i t could have at i t s disposal. This may not always be true in developing countries. Nonetheless, i t is assumed that integration has the potential to improve u t i l i z a t i o n of limited resources. Implementation Early literature on organizational change focused on individuals' resistance to change (Rogers and Shoemaker, 1964). The literature revealed that the major explanation offered for the success or failure of organiza- tions to implement innovations assumed that members of an organization are i n i t i a l l y resistant to change. The literature also assumed that i t was the ab i l i t y of management or a change agent to overcome resistance that accounts for the success or failure of efforts to implement an innovation. Gross e_t a l . (1971) argued that such an explanation ignores obstacles to which members who are not resistant to change may be exposed to when they make efforts to implement innovations. They believed that the literature ignored the possibility that members who are not resistant to organiza- tional change may later develop a negative orientation to i t . Literature on implementation has increased only during the early '70s through the following groups of researchers (Kritek, 1976): 1. scholars involved in organizational change; 2. p o l i t i c a l scientists concerned with the problem of translating government policies into workable programs, and 3. evaluators who have come to realize that programmes cannot be condemned for f a i l i n g to achieve intended outcomes i f , in fact, they have not been successfully implemented. 64 Aoki (1977) contends that implementation is not a linear scheme of the practical events of putting a programme into practice. Rather, implementa- tion involves a relationship between the developers of the innovation and the users. Implementation is a highly complex process involving relationships between users and managers, and among various groups of users, in a process characterized by inevitable conflict and by anticipated and unanticipated problems that one should be prepared for prior to implementation, and should be continually addressed after. Always think about implementation problems, and always worry that others are not thinking about them, but do not expect major improvements to come quickly. (Williams, 1975, p. 566) Implementation of innovation in developing countries poses even more complex problems since most innovations introduced in these countries come from industrialized western countries (Jennings-Wray, 1985). Jennings- Wray (1985) argues that the assumptions embedded in many innovations from the developed world are often in conflict with traditional cultural values and beliefs in developing countries. Fullan (1980) stipulated that most studies stress the outcomes of innovations once they have been adopted, ignoring whether change has really occurred. He argued that i t is important to study the implementation process in order to determine what actually happened, the roles and role relationships of those organizational members most directly involved in the change process. He believed that for changes to occur the roles and role relationships of organizational members ought to change during implementa- tion. It is important to study implementation on i t s own in order to determine, f i r s t l y , i f in fact change has happened, and secondly to under- stand why change occurs or f a i l s to occur (Fullan, 1980). According to Fullan (1979) implementation is defined as: ... the actual use or putting into practice of a particular change ... i t i s much more complex in r e a l i t y because implementation is multi-dimensional, (p. 336) An examination of the components of implementation according to Fullan (1979) and Ashley and Butts (1971) poses two problems, namely, 1) the c r i t e r i a of inclusion, and 2) the degree of explicitness. The c r i t e r i a of inclusion comprises the implementation characteristics that are considered worthy of inclusion in the process. Fullan and Pomfret (1977) posit that implementation involves considering the following five characteristics or components of the process: 1. Structure/organization 2. Materials 3. Role/Behaviour 4. Knowledge/understanding 5. Internalization (commitment). Fullan (1979) stresses structural changes among these components as necessary and argues that the actual use of the innovation often involves a change of structures or organization. Consideration of materials involves the actual use of new materials by the users. Consideration of role/behaviour raises questions such as "what behavioural change is required by the user?" Knowledge of the innovation is a necessary part of implementation. Commitment is a necessary condition for successful implementation, so lack of commitment may explain why the introduction of an innovation f a i l s . 66 F u l l a n and Pomfret (1977) i d e n t i f y four major categories of determinants of implementation derived from s tud ies . They suggest that a determinant can be described in terms of i t s complexity and i t s e x p l i c i t n e s s . Within the four categories are sub-categories . The four analyzed are l i s t e d here as: Characteristics of the Innovation F u l l a n and Pomfret (1977) argue that the more e x p l i c i t an innovat ion, the higher the degree of implementation. Low exp l i c i tness causes confusion for the user and r e s u l t s i n low degrees of implementation. Complexity or degree of d i f f i c u l t y i n using the innovation i s another important charac- t e r i s t i c of an innovation ( F u l l a n and Pomfret, 1977). F u l l a n and Pomfret bel ieve that the more d i f f i c u l t the change, or the more new learning required by i t , the more l i k e l y that the degree of implementation w i l l vary across groups- They conclude that: The greater the complexity, the more d i f f i c u l t i t i s to be e x p l i c i t about the operat ional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the innovat ion . ( F u l l a n and Pomfret, 1977, p. 371) Strategies and Tactics F u l l a n and Pomfret (1977) devised the fol lowing s trateg ies for e f f ec t ive implementation: 1. In-service t r a i n i n g . 2. Resource support. 3. Feedback mechanisms. 4. P a r t i c i p a t i o n in decis ion-making. There i s a need to see implementation as a s o c i a l i z a t i o n process where the users and developers work i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n with one another in order to speci fy and redefine the e s sent ia l t r a i t s of an innovat ion. 67 Characteristics of the Adopting Units In their analysis, Fullan and Pomfret (1977) developed the following characteristics of the adopting units that affect implementation. These are: 1. Adopting process. 2. Organizational climate. 3. Environmental support. 4. Demographic factors. The question whether the potential users of the innovation f e l t free to accept or reject the innovation is important as i t affects implementa- tion as i t relates to the adopting process. Organizational climate of adopting units plays a c r i t i c a l role on whether or not implementation occurs, and how i t occurs. Support from leadership and fellow workers improves the chances of implementing an innovation. The geographic environment whether urban or rural i s another characteristic that affects implementation. Lastly, the demographic characteristics of users that i s : value orientation in rel a t i o n to the innovation; type of previous training; and a b i l i t y to use the innovation affect implementation (Fullan and Pomfret, 1977). Characteristics of Macro Sociopolitical Factors Fullan and Pomfret (1977) argue that implementation of innovative programmes can be affected by a l l the factors i d e n t i f i e d . At the macro le v e l they identify the following factors: 1. Design issues. 2. Incentive systems. 3. The role of evaluation. 4. P o l i t i c a l complexity. Design issues involve those factors that re la te to who is involved in designing the proposed change. F u l l a n and Pomfret (1977) observe that l arge - sca le programmes proposed by p o l i t i c a l agents in power have several c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that increase the p o s s i b i l i t y of adoption but decrease the l i k e l i h o o d of e f fec t ive implementation. They recognized a need for implementors of an innovation to be rewarded and to be consulted i n the decision-making process regarding the innovat ion . P o l i t i c a l factors affect eva luat ion of the implementation of an innovat ion. If p o l i t i c i a n s are strong advocates of an innovat ion , users of an innovation may be a f r a i d to discuss problems associated with i t s implementation. Another p o l i t i c a l factor associated with problems of implementing an innovation re la tes to lack of l i n k i n g p o l i c y and implementation ( F u l l a n and Pomfret, 1977). The various factors i d e n t i f i e d under d i f f erent headings h i g h l i g h t i n t e r r e l a t e d var iables that affect implementation of an innovat ion. They may appear in d i f f e r e n t degrees i n various innovative programmes but they, nonetheless, a f fec t the implementation of an innovat ion. This study of integrated r u r a l development programmes i n Zambia analyzed the implementation process to determine what factors f a c i l i t a t e or hinder the change process. The study had the fo l lowing purposes: (1) to i d e n t i f y factors thought by administrators to f a c i l i t a t e and hinder the implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes; (2) to e s t a b l i s h the r e l a t i v e inf luence of each fac tor , and (3) to determine the perceived degree of programme in tegra t ion from the perspective of four adminis trat ive l e v e l s . (4) to determine s k i l l s and knowledge acquired from integrated programmes through the perceptions of p a r t i c i p a n t s . 69 Several evaluat ion surveys have been conducted nationwide to review a c t i v i t i e s of s p e c i f i c government departments and of the IRDP i n Zambia. Most studies have focused on the evaluat ion of the a c t i v i t i e s of integrated programmes (Mwali et a l . , 1981; Maramwidze, 1982; Maimbo, 1982; M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Water Development, 1984). Some surveys concentrate on evaluat ing the s i t u a t i o n of women i n r u r a l Zambia ( S e r p e l l , 1980; UNICEF, 1979; Mutemba, 1981; Chilibvumbo and Kanyangwa, 1985; S a f a l i o s - R o t h s c h i l d , 1985). Each evaluat ion studies o f fer recommendations on how programmes can be improved. Other surveys i n i t i a t e d by the funding agencies, focus on how funds have been u t i l i z e d (SIDA, 1980, 1983). Despite a l l the evaluat ion surveys, programmes are faced with i n s u r - mountable problems. Evaluat ion surveys, i t appears, have focused on the impact of the Integrated Rural Development Programmes, rather than on the implementation process of programmes. Summary This chapter provided a review of l i t e r a t u r e re la ted to th is study. It traced the development of the concept of nonformal education and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to development. Relevant research studies were reviewed. It has reviewed l i t e r a t u r e on implementation, and explained why a focus on factors a f f ec t ing implementation of programmes i s important. Several evaluations on nonformal education i n Zambia have been com- p le ted . They have sought to iden t i fy the impact of integrated programmes on r u r a l communities rather than to ident i fy factors a f f ec t ing implementa- t i o n of programmes. This study focused on the implementation process. It was designed to determine factors that f a c i l i t a t e or hinder implementation of integrated programmes based on the perceptions of administrators of specific government departments involved in implementing the programmes The research questions, along with the methods and procedures for this study, are f u l l y described in the next chapter. CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The last chapter discussed literature related to: the concept of non- formal education; nonformal education and development; integration, research on nonformal education; and implementation. Research on integrated nonformal education programmes in Zambia has tended to focus on impact of these activities on the rural population (Mwali et a l . , 1981; Maramwidze, 1982; Maimbo, 1982). Some surveys, especially those conducted by funding agencies, have concentrated their efforts on financial accountability (SIDA, 1980; 1983). Yet others have analyzed the situation of one group of rural people, that is women (Chilibvumbo and Kanyangwa, 1985; Mutemba, 1981; Serpell, 1980; UNICEF, 1979; Safalios-Rothschild, 1985). Research has ignored communication within and between government departments through which integrated nonformal education programmes are conducted. Issues related to factors facil i t a t i n g or hindering implementation of these activities have not been adequately dealt with. This investigation focused on the communication within and between selected departments, and identi- fied factors that faci l i t a t e and hinder implementation of integrated non- formal education programmes. For the benefit of the reader, the purposes of the study are again presented here. The purposes of this study were: (1) to identify factors thought by administrators to facil i t a t e and hinder the implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes; 72 (2) to e s tab l i sh the r e l a t i v e inf luence of each fac tor ; (3) to determine the perceived degree of programme i n t e g r a t i o n , from the perspective of four adminis trat ive leve ls ( n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n - c i a l , d i s t r i c t and l o c a l ) , and (4) to determine s k i l l s and knowledge acquired from integrated nonformal programmes through the perceptions of p a r t i c i p a n t s . Research Design The case study approach was u t i l i z e d in order to achieve purposes of the study of integrated r u r a l development programmes. The case study as a research method is p a r t i c u l a r l y usefu l i n answering "why" questions because i t i s intens ive and brings to l i g h t the important v a r i a b l e s , processes, and in terac t ions that deserve more extensive a t t e n t i o n (Bulmer, 1983). In th i s way, a t t en t ion was focused on questions such as: "What factors promote or hinder the implementation process?" "In what ways has implementation f a i l e d ? " "Where has implementation succeeded and why?" While experimental and q u a s i - experimental designs are concerned with c o n t r o l l i n g confounding v a r i a b l e s , the case study focuses on the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these var iab les (Le Compte and Goetze, 1984; Bulmer and Warwick, 1983; Stake and Keasey, 1978). According to Smith (1978), the case study is d i f f erent from other educat ional research methods in that i t i s the study of a bound system: The crux of the d e f i n i t i o n is some conception of unity or t o t a l i t y to that bounded system. The key notion is that you've got some kind of e n t i t y , a case, and i t has some kind of un i ty . Somebody perceives a part of that unity and wants to study some more of i t . (p. C:30) 73 Along the same line, Stake (1978) argues that the principal difference between case studies and other research studies is that the case is made the focus of attention rather than the population. It is a focus on the happenings around a single actor (be i t child or institution or enter- prise), so as to understand that actor, that bound system, in i t s habitat (Stake, 1978). The uniqueness of a case is not considered "error variance." It i s considered a handle for better understanding the way the case does or does not maintain equilibrium under environmental stress and strain. The case is something deemed worthy of close watch. It has character, i t has totality, i t has boundaries. It is not just an instance representable by a score; i t is not only an entity which could be represented by an endless array of scores. It is a complex, dynamic system, some thing to be thought of as an existing entity, even when simple descriptions are being made of i t . (Stake and Keasey, 1978, p. C:30) The Local Sites The case study involved selected administrators of four government departments at national, provincial, d i s t r i c t and local level and p a r t i c i - pants at three training centres at the local level. These local sites comprising three training centres were selected after several discussions with officers in the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Development, Community Development, and Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) at the provincial level. IDRP funds nonformal education act i v i t i e s directly through various government departments operating in this area. Selection of the local sites depended on the criterion of length of time in existence. Since the Integrated Rural Development Programmes started in the Chipata d i s t r i c t of the Eastern province of Zambia, i t was decided to select local sites situated in that d i s t r i c t * After several discussions with o f f i c i a l s from the Department of Agriculture in Chipata, the Katopola, 74 Kal ichero and Kalunga t r a i n i n g centres were selected as l o c a l s i t e s for th is study. Katopola was es tabl i shed as a farm i n s t i t u t e p r i o r to independence. The other two were establ ished after independence (1964) and are about t h i r t y - f i v e kilometres away from Chipata , the p r o v i n c i a l adminis trat ive centre (see Figure 8 ) . Site 1: Katopola Farm Institute Katopola Farm I n s t i t u t e , es tabl i shed around 1960, i s a p r o v i n c i a l t r a i n i n g centre for extension s t a f f , a r t i s a n s , and blacksmiths. It teaches appropriate technology, r u r a l s t r u c t u r e s , and farm implements engineer ing . P a r t i c i p a n t s of programmes at the centre vary: seminars are held for extension s t a f f ; farmers are drawn from a l l over the province to be trained i n a s p e c i f i c s k i l l so that they can teach others in the i r v i l l a g e ; and sometimes par t i c ipant s come from a s p e c i f i c d i s t r i c t to learn s k i l l s i n appropriate technology. Although one may get a course for male and female p a r t i c i p a n t s , the centre l arge ly caters for male p a r t i c i p a n t s . This may be a t t r i b u t e d to the t echnica l nature of the programmes o f fered . Courses run from eight to twelve weeks and only ten to f i f t een par t i c ipant s can attend a s p e c i f i c course at a time. Several courses may run concurrent ly , depending on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the i n s t r u c t o r and t echn ica l f a c i l i t i e s . Because the courses are r e s i d e n t i a l , only a few par t i c ipant s can be tra ined at one time. The t r a i n i n g centre is also used for week-long seminars and short courses for s t a f f members of the M i n i s t r y of Agr icu l ture and Water Develop- ment and any department wishing to use the r e s i d e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s . 75 Scale: 1 cm to 7 km. Figure 8. Map showing locations of three local sites included in the study. Legend: International boundary. • District boundary. Chipata District Population size = 32,291 (1980 Census) District GNP - K30 p.a. National GNP = K250 p.a. (1980 Census) Value of (Kwacha)-K4 was approximately $5.00 (U.S.) in 1980. Presently K.15.00 is approximately $1.00 (U.S.) In 1987. 76 Site 2: Kalichero Farm Training Centre Kalichero Farm Training Centre instituted in 1972, is located thirty- five kilometres away from the Chipata administrative centre and serves the population i n Chipata North (the northern section of Chipata D i s t r i c t ) . There are nine extension workers at Kalichero. Around the Kalichero Farm Training Centre are the Rural Health centre and a social development sub-centre. Members of staff at Kalichero are supposed to coordinate their efforts in conducting nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s . The Rural Health Centre, situated six kilometres from Kalichero, serves mainly as a centre for curative medicines. Health assistants, assisted by social development workers, teach a captured audience of patients who come for treatments! at the Rural Health Centre. They teach patients nutrition, maternal-child care, general hygiene and how to take care of their sick relatives. There are five health workers and one social development worker. There are nine extension workers at Kalichero. The farm training centre conducts one to two long seminars for farmers, and sometimes for extension staff, at the centre. Other depart- ments like Health and Community Development are welcome to conduct courses related to health and women's activities for people around the area. Agriculture and Community Development coordinate the running of women's clubs and functional literacy programmes. Site 3: Kalunga Farm Training Centre Kalunga, established thirty-seven kilometres from the Chipata adminis- trative centre, serves the population in Chipata South (the southern section of Chipata D i s t r i c t ) . Near Kalunga is a Rural Health Centre and a Community Development Centre that provide nonformal education to the 77 community around Kalunga. The farmer t r a i n i n g centre has seven s t a f f members, one of whom i s female. There are three community development workers, one being female. The Rural Health Centre has four s t a f f members: two male, two female. The Rural Health Centre and A g r i c u l t u r a l Camp, are located at the same place as the Community Development Centre . The centre conducts one- to two-week long seminars for farmers and i s also a v a i l a b l e for other departments who would l i k e to hold seminars there . It i s a centre for farmers to market the ir produce and to buy farm imple- ments, seeds and f e r t i l i z e r s . It has a consumer cooperative shop serving a l l the v i l l a g e s in that area . It works c lo se ly with the Department of Marketing and Cooperatives . The female extension worker at the t r a i n i n g centre works i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n with the female community development ass i s tant i n e s tab l i sh ing and supervis ing women's clubs in the area. This trend i s s i m i l a r to that with the clubs around Kal ichero area, though there the community development ass i s tant i s a man. The extension message at the l a s t two centres may be put in a diagram- matic form (see Figure 9). Members of s t a f f from A g r i c u l t u r e , Heal th , and Community Development are supposed to work c l o s e l y together in conducting t r a i n i n g programmes in the area . In Figure 9, the extension message comes from A g r i c u l t u r e , Health and Community Development to r u r a l communities. Extension workers are supposed to t r a i n par t i c ipants not only in t h e i r area of expert i se , but to integrate a l l other a c t i v i t i e s In order to meet the basic needs of the r u r a l people. Figure 9, i s an example of the type t r a i n i n g extension workers in IRDP t r a i n i n g centres rece ive . Although women, do the bulk of a g r i c u l t u r a l tasks , they do not often receive the extension message. In Figure 9, extension workers are encouraged to focus on female par t i c ipants in the t r a i n i n g programmes. 78 Participants use/skills and knowledge to increase production. The Extension worker trains participants in various aspects of rural l i f e . The Extension message to reflect the needs of participants. T H E EXTENSION WORKER THE EXTENSION MESSAGE A G R I C U L T U R E NUTRITION A P P R O P R I A T E T E C H N O L O G Y Figure 9. Diagram showing the training and delivery of integrated nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s to participants by Extension workers. Source: Zambia Government/SIDA Mission. (1981). Women's development programmes. Report to the 1981 GRZ/SIDA Mission on Agricultural Sector Support. Lusaka: Cooperative College Press. 79 Subject Selection Several discussions were held with heads of the four p a r t i c i p a t i n g departments at national l e v e l . A d e c i s i o n was reached that only adminis- trators who were d i r e c t l y involved i n planning and implementing nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s should respond to the questionnaire. The same s e l e c t i o n procedure was used for other administrative l e v e l s . Research Questions In order to achieve the purposes of the study, several research questions were formulated. 1. What factors are thought by administrators to f a c i l i t a t e implementa- t i o n of integrated nonformal education programmes? 2. What factors are thought by administrators to hinder implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes? 3. What do administrators perceive to be the extent of " i n t e g r a t i o n " i n integrated nonformal education programmes? (a) To what extent do administrators at d i f f e r e n t administrative l e v e l s d i f f e r i n t h e i r perceptions of the existence of v e r t i c a l i ntegration? (b) To what extent do administrators at d i f f e r e n t administrative l e v e l s d i f f e r i n t h e i r perceptions of the existence of h o r i z o n t a l integration? (c) To what extent do administrators' perceptions of v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n c o r r e l a t e with administrators' perceptions on h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n . (d) How does t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n between v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n d i f f e r according to administrative levels? 4. What s k i l l s do participants perceive to gain from integrated nonformal education programmes? Methods of Data Collection In order to answer the research questions, the study u t i l i z e d several and document analysis (see Table 5). Because of scarcity of documented research and lack of knowledge on who is doing what kind of research, and where, the research environment in most developing countries is particular- ly problematic (Shaeffer and Nkinyangi, 1983). Warwick (1984) argues that the integration of several methodological approaches in one study i s particularly useful when conducting research in developing countries. F i r s t l y , when one uses several methods for data collection, one obtains additional categories of information which may not be available from a single method; second, there is.increased accuracy in measuring a single phenomenon; and third, qualitative depth is obtained when observations as well as survey methods are used to complement each other (Warwick, 1984). Bennett and Thais (1967) believe that research must capture a variety of perspectives. The human reality must be apprehended by a variety of view points, not by one alone, because this very reality is always in part a construct, always in part an image, and only by encouraging difference in perspective and approach can one obtain the needed richness of imagery, and consequently theory. (Bennett and Thais, Multiple methods of data collection have proved useful in evaluation research by Stake and others. Although this study is not an evaluation study, i t has benefitted from multiple data collection procedures. survey questionnaires, structured interviews 1967, p. 307) Table 5. Data c o l l e c t i o n procedures Adminis trat ive l eve l Data sources Data c o l l e c t i o n methods National l eve l 26 administrators 18 administrators Admini s tra tors ' Questionnaire C r i t i c a l Incident Interview P r o v i n c i a l l eve l D i s t r i c t l e v e l Local l e v e l S i te 1 Si te 2 Si te 3 30 administrators 23 administrators 21 administrators 15 administrators 21 administrators 6 administrators and ins tructors 4 administrators and ins truc tors 6 administrators and ins tructors 15 part ic ipants 11 administrators and extension workers 9 administrators and extension workers 11 administrators and extension workers 31 part ic ipants 12 administrators and extension workers 8 administrators and extension workers 12 administrators and extension workers 31 part ic ipants Admini s tra tors ' Questionnaire C r i t i c a l Incident Interview Admini s tra tors ' Questionnaire C r i t i c a l Incident Interview Loca l Level Questionnaire Adminis trators ' Questionnaire C r i t i c a l Incident Interview Loca l Level Questionnaire P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Questionnaire Adminis trators ' Questionnaire C r i t i c a l Incident Interview Loca l Level Questionnaire P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Questionnaire Adminis trators ' Questionnaire C r i t i c a l Incident Interview Loca l Level Questionnaire P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Questionnaire 82 The C r i t i c a l Incident Technique The c r i t i c a l incident technique was used in the study to gather infor- mation about factors that are perceived to f a c i l i t a t e or hinder the process of implementing integrated programmes. The c r i t i c a l incident technique has had a variety of applications. It has been used widely in education, commerce, psychology and nursing (Dachelet et a l . , 1981). Evidence regarding r e l i a b i l i t y and validity of the c r i t i c a l incident technique has been provided by Andersson and Nilsson (1964). These authors employed i t to analyze the job of store managers in a Swedish company and found that the information collected by this method is both reliable and valid. One potential weakness of the c r i t i c a l incident technique can be due to the fact that the technique w i l l not always yield results that are valid and reliable depending on how the incidents are reported. Due to this limitation, the technique was employed only in conjunction with other data collection methods. The c r i t i c a l incident technique is a type of projective interview (Cochran, 1985). Its main characteristic is i t s f l e x i b i l i t y in e l i c i t i n g negative and positive responses to an activity. The technique is designed to collect data on incidents that may hinder or f a c i l i t a t e an activity (Flanagan, 1954). Such incidents may be recorded by observers from daily reporting, or by recalling from memory. An incident is defined as any event or happening that is sufficiently complete in i t s e l f to permit the making of inferences and predictions. An incident could occur at a point in time, recurrently over time or more continuously over a period of time. According to Flanagan (1954), an incident is c r i t i c a l " i f i t makes a significant contribution, either positively or negatively, to the general aim of the activity." 83 Three specifications must be clearly stated for a successful c r i t i c a l incident study: the general aim of the activity must be specified, the criterion for accepting an incident—or for allowing the observer to elabo- rate upon it—must be stated; and the interview questions must be clearly established from the start. The c r i t i c a l incident technique employs the following procedures: (Flanagan, 1954): (1) a brief introduction to the purpose of the study is given to the observers; (2) the interviewer requests descriptions of helpful events; (3) each incident is subjected to a criterion check which provides assurance that the incident has had significant impact upon the activity; (4) then specific questions are asked. Procedures Interviews were conducted with administrators at the national, provin- c i a l , and d i s t r i c t levels as well as with administrators and extension workers at the three selected training centres. Administrators and other technical staff were asked to recall incidents that they found particularly helpful in their work. Later they were asked to describe incidents which they f e l t hindered their work. Interviewees were assured of their anonymity on a l l that was discussed. Discussions were held with heads of participating departments at the national level. They identified officers who were to be interviewed. Two pilot interviews were conducted to determine whether this approach would work. The two interviews were successful, and were subsequently included 84 in the study. Some modifications to the form of the interview questions had to be made because each officer was specialized in a different f i e l d . The same approach proved useful at the provincial level. Provincial heads of departments selected officers who were interviewed. When possible, interviews were tape recorded and notes made simul- taneously. Each respondent had a separate recording form (see Appendix 2). Recorded interviews were later transcribed and incorporated with the written notes. Prior to the beginning of the interview the interviewee was informed of the purposes of the study and what information would be sought during the interview. If someone objected to the tape recording, i t was not done. Forty-two interviews were not tape recorded because of technical problems. Table 6 provides a l i s t of interviews conducted at each adminis- trative level. C r i t i c a l incident interviews were designed to determine events that helped and hindered administrators and extension staff in their work. Interviews were semi-structured. Administrators were asked to recall Table 6. Summary of interviews. Interviews Interviews recorded not recorded Total National 8 10 18 Provincial 12 11 23 District 6 9 15 Site 1 4 0 4 Site 2 5 4 9 Site 3 0 8 8 85 c r i t i c a l incidents that happened to them, or to others, that they felt facilitated their efforts to implement integrated programmes. Later administrators were asked to recall incidents that hindered their efforts to implement integrated programmes. There were separate recording forms for positive and negative incidents for each individual (see Appendix 2). The interview questions were modified i f an intervieweee could not recall incidents with allowances for particular contexts. The following specific questions were asked about facili t a t i n g events: 1. Think back to a time when you did something that facilitated your work. 2. Tell me which behaviors of yours produced a noticeable improvement of your work. 3. What led to this incident? 4. What exactly happened that was so helpful? 5. Why was i t so helpful in your work? 6. Can you think of another activity that helped fa c i l i t a t e your work? The set of questions were repeated to s o l i c i t new incidents. Then, negative incidents were reported. The following questions were asked about hindering events: 1. Now, think back to a time when you did something that hindered your daily work. 2. Did this event impede action? 3. What was that event? 4. What were the general circumstances around this event? 5. What exactly hindered your daily work? 6. Why did this event hinder your daily work? 7. Can you think of another event? Categorization of Incidents Incidents recorded during the interview were verified by transcribing the tape recorded interviews. Incidents were f i r s t c l a s s i f i e d either "Positive" or "Negative." For each respondent there was a recording form l i s t i n g a l l positive incidents, and one for l i s t i n g a l l negative incidents. Categories were developed by counting the number of times similar or related incidents reappeared in a particular administrative level. Each category represented a factor i f the incidents occurred very often or over a long period of time. After setting categories, incidents of each respondent were c l a s s i f i e d under the category to which they best f i t . Instrument Development To respond to research questions, three sets of questionnaires were developed: Administrators' Questionnaire (national, provincial, d i s t r i c t and local levels); Local Level Questionnaire ( d i s t r i c t and local) ; and Participants' Questionnaire. Administrators' Questionnaire The Administrators' Questionnaire was administered to the following: (a) selected administrators at national level; " (b) selected administrators at provincial level; (c) selected administrators and extension workers at d i s t r i c t level; (d) administrators and extension workers who were available at the local level. 87 The Administrators' Questionnaire consisted of statements derived from the literature review on the integration of nonformal education programmes (Coombs, 1980; 1985; Coles, 1982; Evans, 1974). Statements from the Third National Development Plan (1979) and statements from a framework, for analyzing nonformal education systems developed by Mumba (1985). Vertical Integration. In Section A of the Administrators' Questionnaire items 1 to 10 contains items on vertical integration. From the literature review indicators of vertical integration included statements from the following: (1) existence or absence of s t r i c t supervisory control; (2) communication networks between national, regional and local levels; (3) financial support from national to local level; (4) curriculum preparation; (5) the type of control exercised: centralized or decentralized. Items were rated on a 4 point scale from low to high (see Appendix 1). A high degree of ve r t i c a l integration is considered to be evidenced i f there i s : (a) direct communication networks between national, provincial, d i s t r i c t , and local levels; (b) financial support for programmes from national to local level; and (c) s t r i c t supervisory control. A low degree of vertical integration was evidenced by the absence of communication networks between the administrative levels, and the lack of financial support from the national level for rural programmes, and loose supervisory control. 88 Horizontal Integration. In Section A, items 11-20 included statements derived from the literature review on horizontal integration (Coombs, 1974; 1980; 1985; Coles, 1982; Evans, 1981). Indicators of horizontal integra- tion included: (1) communication networks between departments offering nonformal education in development centres; (2) existence of committees with cross-departmental membership; (3) coordination of activities between different nonformal education agencies; (4) u t i l i z a t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s between agencies and departments; (5) seminars held jointly between agencies; (6) programmes jointly offered with government sponsored programmes. These items were rated on a 4 point scale from low to high (see Appendix 1). A high degree of horizontal integration was considered to exist where communication networks were established between departments, and where committees at regional and local levels had cross departmental membership. The absence of these features indicated a low degree of integration. Opinions on Integration. Section B of the Administrators' Questionnaire contained items that assessed administrators' perceptions of integration. Items were rated on a 5 point scale from low (1) to high (5). Opinions on Implementation. Section C of Administrators' Questionnaire focused on the behavioural change administrators and extension workers made towards implementing integrated programmes. The questionnaire consisted of statements that relate to the following questions: 1. When was i t that they f i r s t heard about the integrated programmes? 2. Was i t clear what was expected of them? 3. What steps did they take in order to implement the required change? 4. Did they make subsequent efforts to continue to work with Integrated Rural Development Programmes? 5. What barriers did they experience in their efforts? 6. What factors f a c i l i t a t e d the required changes? The responses were rated on a 5 point scale from low (1) to high (5). Local Level Questionnaire The Local Level Questionnaire was developed using statements from the literature on nonformal education (Coombs, 1980; 1985; Coles, 1982; Evans, 1974). The questionnaire focused on e l i c i t i n g information on administra- tors' perceptions on the existence of integration. Only administrators and extension workers at d i s t r i c t level and at the three local sites responded to this instrument. The statements were rated on a 3 point scale from low to high. Items 1 through 12 solicited respondents' opinions on the existence of integration. The last ten items focused on respondents' opinions on what they perceive as obstacles in the implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes (see Appendix 3). • Participants' Questionnaire T h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e v e l o p e d t o a s s e s s p a r t i c i p a n t s ' o p i n i o n s f o c u s e d o n o u t c o m e s o f i n t e g r a t e d n o n f o r m a l a c t i v i t i e s c o n d u c t e d by s e l e c t e d d e p a r t m e n t s a t t h e t h r e e t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s a n d i n n e a r b y r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n e d i t e m s t h a t f o c u s e d o n t h e f o l l o w i n g : What s k i l l s t h e y f e l t t h e y h a d l e a r n e d f r o m t h e programme, w h e t h e r f a c i l i t i e s a n d e q u i p m e n t a t t h e c e n t r e w e r e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e i r home, a n d t h e i r o p i n i o n s o n t h e c e n t r e ' s a c t i v i t i e s i n g e n e r a l . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e h a d i t e m s r a t e d o n a 3 p o i n t s c a l e f r o m l o w t o h i g h . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a n t i - c i p a t e d b e n e f i t s t h r o u g h p a r t i c i p a n t s ' o p i n i o n s o n w h a t t h e y h o p e d t o g a i n f r o m i n t e g r a t e d n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s . N o t a l l r e s p o n d e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d h a d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n n o n f o r m a l a c t i v i t i e s a c t u a l l y h e l d a t t h e t h r e e t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s ; some h a d h e a r d a n e x t e n s i o n m e s s a g e r e g a r d i n g h e a l t h , f u n c t i o n a l l i t e r a c y , women's c l u b s , o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . Respondents to Survey Questionnaires A t o t a l o f one h u n d r e d a n d s i x a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a n d e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s r e s p o n d e d t o t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1. T w e n t y - s i x s e l e c t e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l . 2. T h i r t y s e l e c t e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a t p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . 3. T w e n t y - o n e s e l e c t e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a n d e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s a t d i s t r i c t l e v e l . 4. T w e n t y - n i n e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a n d e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s a t l o c a l l e v e l . The Local Level Questionnaire was administered to administrators and extension workers at d i s t r i c t and local levels. Some d i s t r i c t offices were stationed at the local sites. The following responded to the questionnaire 1. Twenty-nine administrators and extension workers at d i s t r i c t level. 2. Six administrators and extension workers at Katopola Farm Training Institute. 3. Eleven administrators and extension workers at Kalichero Farm Training Centre. 4. Twelve administrators and extension workers at Kalunga Farm Training Centre. The Participants* Questionnaire was administered to seventy-seven selected members of rural households residing near the three training centres. They were selected i f they had received any extension message, regarding health, agricultural, literacy or women's clubs. A l l coding of the questionnaires was performed by the researcher. Verification of the coding was accomplished by selecting at random twenty responses and comparing them to the original coding of data. Verification of the data entry onto the U.B.C. computing system by the Data Entry Department was performed by the researcher. Three identified errors were corrected. R e l i a b i l i t y of Instruments R e l i a b i l i t i e s of the measures were established through the use of the LERTAP computer programme (Nelson, 1974). A l l three sets of questionnaires had a high internal consistency among the items. Results of the analysis are presented in Table 7. Table 7. R e l i a b i l i t y of instruments Instrument Hoyt estimate of r e l i a b i l i t y Administrators' Questionnaire .88 Local Level Questionnaire .74 Participants' Questionnaire .72 Validity Content Validity Content validity was the primary consideration in developing the instruments. According to Nunnally (1970) the question of content validity is principally one of the "adequacy with which a specific domain of content is sampled." Content validity was considered in the construction of ques- tionnaires. At the development stage, a panel of three Zambian students at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia were asked to comment on the question- naires' content val i d i t y . Two of the raters had worked in the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Development under which Integrated Rural Development was established. A few questions were modified. Face Validity Face validity was established through discussions with students and faculty members who are specialists in the area of nonformal education. The questionnaire was discussed with other students in a doctoral seminar at U.B.C. The questionnaires were presented to students and a faculty member who reviewed them item by item, and offered systematic comments. 93 Changes were made to items i d e n t i f i e d as unclear. Students generally agreed that survey questionnaires contained items that were a v a l i d measure of i n t e g r a t i o n and i t s outcomes. Summary This chapter has outlined the research methodology u t i l i z e d i n the study. The case study design which was adopted proved a u s e f u l framework for gathering data r e l a t e d to the research questions. The c r i t i c a l i ncident interviews illuminated dimensions of administrators' perceptions on factors that f a c i l i t a t e or hinder t h e i r work, and survey questionnaires e l i c i t e d administrators' perceptions on the extent of i n t e g r a t i o n i n integrated nonformal education programmes. These two methodological approaches complemented each other, providing a r i c h e r p o r t r a y a l of what goes on at d i f f e r e n t administrative l e v e l s than a s i n g l e method might have. The P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Questionnaire was designed to determine outcomes of integrated nonformal education programmes through p a r t i c i p a n t s ' perceptions. Table 5 provides a summary of the research methodology u t i l i z e d and the groups studied. 94 CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' r e s p o n s e s t o s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s a n d s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s as w e l l a s r e s u l t s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The c h a p t e r i s o r g a n i z e d i n f o u r s e c t i o n s , b e g i n n i n g w i t h a s e c t i o n w h i c h p r o v i d e s r e s u l t s o f t h e s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s . I t o u t l i n e s how c a t e g o r i e s h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d a nd p r e s e n t s t h e m f o r e a c h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e g r o u p . The s e c o n d s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n d e n t s a nd t h e g r o u p s t o w h i c h t h e y b e l o n g e d . The n e x t s e c t i o n d i s p l a y s c o r r e l a t i o n s o n v a r i a b l e s i n a l l t h e t h r e e s e t s o f s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , L o c a l L e v e l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . L a s t l y r e s u l t s o f one way a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e o n e a c h v a r i a b l e a r e p r e s e n t e d t o d e t e r m i n e any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s . Results of Interviews T h i s s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s r e s u l t s o f t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t i n t e r v i e w . T h e t e c h n i q u e f o c u s e d o n i d e n t i f y i n g f a c t o r s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e o r h i n d e r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f i n t e g r a t e d n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s . The i n t e r v i e w f o c u s e d o n t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s : 1. What f a c t o r s a r e t h o u g h t by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f i n t e g r a t e d n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s ? 2. What f a c t o r s a r e t h o u g h t by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o h i n d e r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f i n t e g r a t e d n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s ? 95 A total of 77 administrators and extension workers participated in the interview: 18 (23%) at the national level, 23 (29%) at the provincial level, 15 (19%) at the d i s t r i c t level, and 21 (27%) at three local sites. The f i r s t step in the analysis of the interview data was to develop categories into which incidents could be organized. Categories were estab- lished by taking into account the research questions. Other considerations related to how persistent the incident was. A l l incidents mentioned by each respondent were counted and sorted into positive or negative columns as shown in Table 8. Table 8. Positive and negative incidents reported by Administrative group. Group No. of Number of incidents Percent of incidents respondents Positive Negative Total Positive Negative National 18 238 103 341 69.8 30.2 Provincial 23 304 149 453 67.1 32.9 District 15 149 69 218 68.3 31.7 Site 1 4 31 18 49 63.3 36.7 Site 2 9 105 68 173 60.7 39.3 Site 3 8 91 37 128 71.1 38.9 Total 77 918 444 1362 67.4 32.6 Basic Categories Incidents were then divided into the categories into which they belonged within each administrative group. The responses were ranked and percentages for each category were computed. The respondent percentages were calculated by comparing the number of respondents under each category 96 to the total number of respondents within each group. The number of responses represents the number of people who mention an incident in that category. R e l i a b i l i t y of Categories Is the category scheme reliable in the sense that independent judges can use the categories consistently to place incidents? This question differs from the questions of r e l i a b i l i t y of the c r i t i c a l incident inter- view. Flanagan (1954) and Nilsson (1964) provide evidence that similar incidents are e l i c i t e d from people responding to different interviewers, and upon re-interviewing people after an interval of time. Along with i t s long history of successful use in a variety of fields (e.g. Dachelet et a l . , 1981), these findings provide reasonable ground for interview r e l i a b i l i t y . At another instance, i s the method of forming categories reliable? The method of searching for similarities and differences is characteristic of categorization. But an argument cannot be made that the category scheme used is the only one that could be justifiably formed, but that i t f i t s the data and this can be determined largely by whether or not independent judges can use the categories consistently to place incidents (Andersson and Nilsson, 1964). Two judges listened to two recorded interviews. The judges were two Zambian students studying at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. They were asked to f i t incidents into categories that had already been formed. F i r s t l y , they were requested to place incidents into basic categories: positive and negative. They were later requested to place incidents into categories of factors. The results indicated interjudge agreement of 80%. 97 Independent judges can therefore differentiate and categorize incidents in the same way as the investigator using the categories that were formed 8 out of 10 times. Validity of Categories Categories are formed because of the similarity of a group of incidents reported by different people. That i s , a category is formed by the researcher as a result of people independently reporting the same kind of event. When one person reports an incident, i t might be dismissed. But when several people report the same kind of incident, i t greatly increases the likelihood that a category is well founded. This form of validity is inherent in the c r i t i c a l incident technique. Agreement among independent people is one criterion for objectivity (Kaplan, 1964). In this study, the basis of agreement was constituted by people independently reporting the same kind of event. The categories that were developed in this study relate to findings of previous research on nonformal education (Coombs et a l . , 1973; 1974; Thompson, 1982). The total number of responses represents the total number of responses from a l l categories. The percentages of total responses were obtained by dividing the number of responses in each category by the total number of responses. Categories for the four administrative levels are presented in Tables 9 and 10. Faci l i t a t i n g Factors From the l i s t of positive incidents that were mentioned, the following categories were developed: 98 Table 9. Percentages of responses for f a c i l i t a t i n g and hindering factors at administrative l e v e l . Administrative l e v e l s Factors Total number X of I of t o t a l National P r o v i n c i a l D i s t r i c t of respondents respondents responses FACTORS FACILITATING IMPLEMENTATION (n - 56) 1. Seminars/workshops and 16 22 11 49 87.5 16.5 tra i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s 2. Coordination with other 16 20 12 48 85.7 16.2 departments and agencies 3. Financial assistance 14 12 9 35 62.5 11.8 4. A v a i l a b i l i t y of transport 7 16 10 33 58.9 11.1 5. Communication between 13 13 6 32 57.1 10.8 pr o v i n c i a l , d i s t r i c t and national headquarters 6. Target population being 9 8 10 27 48.2 9.9 reached 7. Training and v i s i t 7 11 8 26 46.4 8.8 system good 3. Support for decentralization 10 14 - 24 42.9 8.0 TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONSES - 297 FACTORS HINDERING IMPLEMENTATION (n - 56) 1. Inadequate s k i l l e d personnel 15 10 7 32 57.1 15.1 and lack of tr a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s 2. Inadequate transport 7 14 8 29 51.8 13.6 3. Lack of adequate Inputs, 6 15 7 28 50.0 13.2 material, seeds, etc. 4. Over-centralized aystea 9 11 3 24 42.9 11.3 5. Unstable funding 8 10 6 24 42.9 11.3 6. Lack of aonltoring and 10 4 5 19 33.9 9.0 evaluation of on-going programmes 7. Lack of adequate housing 2 3 8 13 23.2 6.1 8. Lack of awareness among - & 6 12 21.4 5.7 participants TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONSES • 212 99 Table 10. Percentages of responses for f a c i l i t a t i n g and hindering factors at l o c a l l e v e l . Factors Local l e v e l Total number Z of Z of t o t a l S i t e 1 Site 2 Site 3 of respondents respondents responses FACTORS FACILITATING IMPLEMENTATION (n - 21) 1. Coordination with other departments 4 8 8 and agencies 2. Reaching target population 3 7 8 3. F i n a n c i a l support, loan or cr e d i t 4 6 5 f a c i l i t i e s 4. Seminars/workshops, conferences 4 3 6 and t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s 5. A v a i l a b i l i t y of inputs ( f e r t i l i z e r , 4 3 5 seeds, materials, etc.) 6. A v a i l a b i l i t y of transport 4 6 4 7. Communication with d i s t r i c t , 4 3 4 p r o v i n c i a l and national headquarters 8. Improved i n f r a s t r u c t u r e 3 6 4 9. Training and v i s i t and mobile courses 0 7 3 10. Supporting d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n 2 4 5 TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONSES - 145 20 18 15 15 14 14 13 13 12 11 95.2 85.7 71.4 71.4 66.7 66.7 61.9 61.9 57.1 52.4 13.8 12.4 10.3 10.3 9.7 9.7 8.9 8.9 8.2 7.6 FACTORS HINDERING IMPLEMENTATION (n - 21) L. Lack of adequate Inputs ( a g r i c u l t u r a l 3 6 9 teaching materials etc.) 2. Lack of coordination with other 3 4 5 departments and agencies 3. Apathy among part i c i p a n t s 4 5 3 4. Delays i n releasing funds and loans 3 5 3 5. Shortage of s k i l l e d personnel 2 5 4 6. Delays i n releasing inputs 2 4 4 7. Inadequate transport 3 4 3 8. Over-centralized system 2 3 3 9. Unstable funding 2 3 3 10. Late payment of farmers for 0 3 4 their produce 18 12 12 11 11 10 10 8 85.7 57.1 57.1 52.4 52.4 47.6 47.6 38.1 38.1 33.3 15.0 10.0 10.0 9.3 9.3 8.3 8.3 6.6 6.6 5.8 11. Lack of monitoring and evaluation 33.3 3.8 TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONSES - 114 100 1. Coordination with other departments and other agencies This category included incidents that were related to planning, hold- ing regular meetings with another department, meeting with donor agencies, producing materials in conjunction with another department, and holding seminars with another agency or department. From observations, not a l l departments in this study coordinate their a c t i v i t i e s at the national level. The Planning Division and the Department of Agriculture under the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Development coordinate closely with the National Commission for Development Planning and donor agencies while the Department for Social Development works closely with the Health Education Unit and donor agencies. Administrators in the Ministry of Marketing and Cooperatives coordinate their a c t i v i t i e s with the Zambia Federation of Cooperatives and donor agencies. Departments do not coordinate a l l their efforts simultaneously with one another, but two or three departments collaborate in planning and holding regular meetings that relate to their a c t i v i t i e s . 2. Seminars, workshops and training facilities Incidents that related to attending a seminar or workshop were placed under this category. Respondents from a l l groups viewed attending a seminar or workshop to be very helpful in their work. They indicated that further training assisted them in learning new s k i l l s and knowledge that was required in their work. Therefore, further training and seminars and workshops were put under the same category. This category included the possibility of attending a seminar or going for further training. 3. Financial assistance Administrators cited incidents that were related to receiving finan- c i a l assistance from the government or from international organizations to 101 be particularly helpful in conducting their programmes. The category of financial assistance included donations of equipment and materials. It also included the presence of technical experts from outside countries who brought new ideas to Zambia. 4. Communication with provinces Incidents associated with communication between the national level and the provincial and d i s t r i c t offices f e l l under this category. Feedback from the provinces on new policies was a positive sign that things were going well in the regions. This category included incidents concerned with receiving reports, requests, plans, and policy guidelines. 5. Support decentralization Incidents in which decentralization f a c i l i t a t e d programmes f e l l under this category. Many administrators seemed to view the implementation of the Decentralization Act (1981) as one thing that would bring changes to their programmes. Whereas the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) had previously funded programmes through the separate departments that conduct programmes, i t was hoped that after implementation of the Decentralization policy, d i s t r i c t councils would get direct access to funds from IRDP. This, they f e l t , would reduce delays in funds coming from the ministry headquarters. In this way, decentralization was expected to f a c i l i t a t e the implementation of integrated rural development programmes. 6. Target population being reached This category included incidents that were concerned with increases in the number of those who participated in programmes. Some respondents mentioned incidents that indicated that participation in IRDP programmes has increased, as more farmers were being reached through the programme. 102 This i s a positive factor because i t motivates administrators to work harder. 7. A v a i l a b i l i t y of transport Respondents c i t e d incidents i n d i c a t i n g that a v a i l a b i l i t y of transport enabled them to perform t h e i r work better. International organizations (UNICEF and SIDA) donated transport to some departments. Transport enabled extension workers to v i s i t the provinces and projects more reg u l a r l y . Administrators at the national and p r o v i n c i a l levels indicated that trans- port was r e a d i l y available to them. However, respondents at the d i s t r i c t l e v e l and at the three training centres indicated that the u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of transport made t h e i r work d i f f i c u l t (see Table 9). They could not v i s i t farmers or conduct mobile courses wherever they wanted, since they had to r e l y on the limited transport available to the whole group. 8. Training and v i s i t system Extension workers mentioned incidents about the training and v i s i t system and how i t helped them to reach more people than r e s i d e n t i a l courses had done. The new training and v i s i t system involved v i s i t i n g farmers i n th e i r own homes rather than having the farmers come to the training centres. Mobile courses conducted in the farmers' homes f e l l under t h i s category. Although a t r a i n i n g and v i s i t system was viewed as f a c i l i t a t i n g , i t did not replace r e s i d e n t i a l courses. Administrators at a l l administra- ti v e l e v e l s , and i n the three l o c a l s i t e s , held favourable opinions regarding training and v i s i t . Hindering Factors Administrators at different administrative levels mentioned different kinds of incidents that hindered their work (see Table 9 ) . 1 . Inadequately s k i l l e d personnel and lack of adequate training f a c i l i t i e s Included In this category were incidents related to lack of training i n the area in which they were working as a factor making their work more d i f f i c u l t ; and i f incidents mentioned expressed an unfu l f i l l e d desire for further training. 2 . Inadequate transport Incidents relating to lack of adequate transport to travel long distances, and lack of fuel, f e l l under this category. In some cases, extension workers complained that even though vehicles were available, the use of the vehicle by a senior officer prevented them from going out when they wanted to. Such incidents were grouped under this category. 3. Lack of adequate inputs, materials, seeds, and equipment This category included a l l incidents which administrators mentioned as hindering their work because of a lack of inputs. Incidents that indicated a lack of agricultural inputs, teaching materials and equipment were grouped under this category. Such incidents indicated that prior to the introduction of the Decentralization Act, the funding agency supplied agricultural inputs like f e r t i l i z e r and seeds directly to departments offering training programmes. However, this has stopped while new administrative arrangements are being made to implement the new system. Other incidents were also mentioned that hindered activities of Women's Clubs. Women's Clubs were previously given materials and other inputs. This category ranked highest at the local level. 1 0 4 4. Delay8 l n releasing funds, loans and other agricultural inputs Incidents under this category included a l l those mentioned relating to delays in releasing funds from the ministry headquarters for use by exten- sion staff, incidents that were associated with late arrival of f e r t i l i z e r s and seeds for farmers to purchase; and incidents related to the late pay- ment of loans and late payment to farmers for their produce. Administrators at the national and provincial levels did not mention incidents that f e l l under this category. 5. Unstable funding Administrators and extension staff worry about future funding for existing programmes because fewer and fewer inputs are supplied for their training programmes. The poor economic conditions in the country make them unsure whether what they have today w i l l be there tomorrow. Incidents related to lack of adequate funds for programmes were placed under this category, as well as those that are concerned with unstable funding. This category ranked higher among administrators at the national level than among administrators at the local level. 6* Lack of communication Incidents were placed under this category i f they were associated with communication problems with the national headquarters. Administrators cited incidents i n which correspondence to the national headquarters took too long, or in which papers were lost in the process of approval. Some incidents related delays that jeopardized the whole programme for one f i s c a l year. The system required that funds not used in one f i s c a l year be returned to Lusaka, and funding applications made for the new f i s c a l year. Such a centralized system led to unnecessary delays in programmes or in programmes never getting off the ground in some cases. This category of 105 incidents ranked higher at the provincial level than at any other level, since these administrators are the middlemen between the national and local levels. 7. Lack of monitoring and evaluation Administrators cited incidents i n which they expressed dissatisfaction with the system of monitoring and evaluating existing programmes. More often than not, incidents were mentioned that related to lack of monitoring of what was going on in the f i e l d , especially as regards to policy changes. Certain policy changes were made without any prior knowledge of current a c t i v i t i e s . Extension staff were merely told to change their approaches without knowing why such a change occurred. Incidents mentioned indicated that administrators doubted the benefits of integrated programmes. They expressed dissatisfaction with the system of reporting progress. A committee established at the national level to deal with the issues of monitoring and evaluation had not produced results. To date, the committee has not issued directives on how the monitoring should be done. Incidents under this category ranked second to a l l other hindering factors at the national level, but ranked quite low at the local level. 8. Apathy and lack of awareness among participants Incidents cited indicating a lack of awareness among the community concerning the training programmes f e l l under this category. No incidents were mentioned under this category at the national level. For those communities aware of the training programmes, administrators and extension workers l i s t incidents i n which participants showed apathy towards programmes. They harbour feelings of helplessness due to poverty. They are resigned to their way of l i f e and do not see how i t can be changed. Incidents were mentioned in which participants were unable to use knowledge 106 of existing f a c i l i t i e s for their benefit. More incidents refer to women as showing such feelings of helplessness. For extension staff, such apathy discouraged them from continuing with their work. 9. Lack of adequate housing and bad l i v i n g conditions for extension workers Extension staff mentioned incidents in which their personal problems were not solved or listened to by provincial and national headquarters. In some incidents, the provincial personnel have never visited the training centre in the last two years. In one incident, the roof of a house was washed away due to too much rain that occurred in the area. Although this was a natural disaster, no emergency steps were taken, nor long -term solution put forward by the provincial office or the national headquarters, nor did they acknowledge the existence of that problem. No incidents were reported at the national level under this category (see Table 9). The association among the factors was tested by Kendalls Coefficient of Concordance. Results indicate a significant association between f a c i l i t a t i n g factors (a = .003) . The association on hindering factors was not significant. Basic Categories for Each Administrative Level Percentages of respondents represented in each category at each administrative level are reported in this section. Percentages of respondents are one indication of the soundness of the category. They indicate the extent to which different people report the same kind of event as f a c i l i t a t i n g or hindering and Is analogous to the use of inter- subjective agreement by independent observers to achieve objectivity. 107 National Level At the national level (see Table 11), coordination with other depart- ments and agencies, and seminars, workshops and training f a c i l i t i e s were ranked f i r s t among f a c i l i t a t i n g factors (88% of respondents). Coordination in the production of educational materials ranked lowest with 22% of respondents selecting this factor. Inadequate skilled personnel was the most frequently mentioned hindering factor (61% of respondents). Lack of training f a c i l i t i e s was the hindering factor least frequently mentioned (28% of respondents). Provincial Level At the provincial level, seminars, workshops and training f a c i l i t i e s was the most frequently mentioned f a c i l i t a t i n g factor (96% of respondents; see Table 12). Coordination with other departments and agencies ranked next with 87% of respondents mentioning i t . Target population being reached (35%) and importance of technology (27%) were the least frequently mentioned f a c i l i t a t i n g factors. Lack of adequate materials and other inputs (fuel, seeds, batteries, etc.) was ranked as the most important hindering factor at the provincial level (65% of respondents). Inadequate transport was ranked next (61% of respondents). Nine percent of respondents indicated that programmes did not reflect participants' needs. The next lowest ranking hindering factor was lack of accommodation for extension staff (13% of respondents). Di s t r i c t Level At the d i s t r i c t level, coordination with other departments and agencies featured as the most frequently mentioned f a c i l i t a t i n g factor (80% of 108 Table 11. Percentages of responses for fa c i l i t a t i n g and hindering factors at national level. National level Factors Number of X of X of total respondents respondents responses FACTORS FACILITATING IMPLEMENTATION (n - 18) 1. Coordination with other 16 88.8 16.6 departments and agencies 2. Seminars/workshops and 16 88.8 16.6 training f a c i l i t i e s 3. Financial assistance 14 77.7 14.5 4. Communication with provinces 13 72.2 13.5 5. Supporting decentralization 10 55.5 10.4 6. Target population being reached 9 50.0 9.3 7. Availability of transport 7 38.8 7.2 8. Training and v i s i t system good 7 38.8 7.2 9. Coordination between departments 4 22.2 4.1 in producing educational materials TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONSES - 96 FACTORS HINDERING IMPLEMENTATION (n - 18) 1. Inadequate skilled personnel 11 61.1 14.8 2. Lack of clear national policy 10 55.6 13.5 on integrated rural development programmes 3. Lack of monitoring and evaluation 10 55.6 13.5 of on-going programmes 4. Lack of communication 9 50.0 12.2 5. Unstable funding 8 44.4 10.8 6. Inadequate transport 7 38.9 9.5 7. Lack of inadequate inputs, 6 33.3 8.1 materials, etc. 8. Lack of training f a c i l i t i e s 5 27.8 6.8 TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONSES - 66 Table 12. Percentages of respondents and responses for fac i l i t a t i n g and hindering factors at provincial level. Provincial level Factors Number of Z of % of total respondents respondents responses FACTORS FACILITATING IMPLEMENTATION (n - 23) 1. Seminars/workshops and training f a c i l i t i e s 22 95.7 16.6 2. Coordination with other departments 20 86.9 1S.1 and agencies 3. Availability of transport 16 69.6 12.1 4. Supporting decentralization 14 60.9 10.6 5. Good communication with national 13 S6.5 9.8 headquarters and di s t r i c t 6. Financial support, loan or credit f a c i l i t i e s 12 52.2 9.0 7. Training and v i s i t system good 11 47.8 8.3 8. Regular meetings within department 10 43.5 7.5 9. Target population being reached 8 34.8 6.0 10. Importance of appropriate technology 6 26.7 4.5 TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONSES - 132 FACTORS HINDERING IMPLEMENTATION (n - 23) 1. Lack of inadequate materials and other 15 65.3 15.9 inputs (fuel, seeds, batteries, etc.) 2. Inadequate transport 14 60.9 14.89 3. Over-centralized system 11 47.8 11.7 4. Inadequate funds, credit f a c i l i t i e s 10 43.4 10.6 unstable funding 5. Shortage of skilled personnel 10 43.4 10.6 6. Lack of coordination with other departments 7 30.4 7.4 and agencies 7. Communication with national headquarters 7 30.4 7.4 8. Lack of awareness and education among 6 26.1 6.3 participants 9. Lack of support from superiors, feeling 5 21.7 5.3 you cannot do much 10. Lack of (clear national policy) monitoring 4 17.4 4.2 11. Lack of staff accommodation 3 13.0 3.1 12. Programmes not related to participants needs 2 8.7 2.1 TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONSES - 94 110 respondents as presented in Table 13). Seminars, workshops and training f a c i l i t i e s followed with 73% of respondents mentioning this factor. However, communication with national and provincial headquarters (40%) and good infrastructure (20%) were the least frequently mentioned f a c i l i t a t i n g factors. The most frequently mentioned hindering factors were inadequate transport (53% of respondents) and shortage of skilled personnel (47%). Lack of adequate staff housing (13%) and communication problems (13%) were the least frequently mentioned hindering factors. Local Level At local level, coordination with other departments and agencies ranked the highest f a c i l i t a t i n g factor. Although i t ranked high at Kalichero (Site 2) and Kalunga (Site 3), i t ranked third at Katopola (Site 1). Reaching target population was the next highest ranking factor, ranking higher at Kalichero and Kalunga than at Katopola (see Table 10). Seminars/ workshops and training f a c i l i t i e s was the next ranking f a c i l i t a t i n g factor followed by av a i l a b i l i t y of transport and inputs. Although training and v i s i t was cited as a f a c i l i t a t i n g factor at Kalichero and Kalunga i t was not applicable to Katopola Centre which focuses on residential courses. At local level, lack of adequate inputs and lack of coordination with other departments and agencies were the highest ranked hindering factors. Apathy among participants was the second highest ranked hindering factor at a l l training centres. Delays in releasing funds for loans and shortage of skilled manpower ranked the next hindering factor at local level. Apathy among participants ranked the lowest hindering factor as i t was not applicable at Site 1. Table 13. Percentages of respondents and responses for fa c i l i t a t i n g and hindering factors at dis t r i c t level. District level Factors Number of X of Z of total respondents respondents responses FACTORS FACILITATING IMPLEMENTATION (n - 15) 1. Coordination with other depart- 12 80.0 17.3 ments and agencies 2. Seminars/workshops and training 11 73.3 15.9 f a c i l i t i e s 3. Availability of transport 10 66.7 14.4 4. Target population being reached 10 66.7 14.4 5. Financial support, credit 9 60.0 13.0 f a c i l i t i e s 6. Supporting training and v i s i t 8 53.3 11.5 system, mobile courses 7. Communication with provincial 6 40.0 8.6 and national headquarters 8. Good Infrastructure 3 20.0 4.3 TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONSES - 69 FACTORS HINDERING IMPLEMENTATION (n - 15) 1. Inadequate transport 8 53.3 15.3 2. Shortage of skilled personnel 7 46.7 13.4 3. Lack of inadequate inputs 7 46.6 13.4 4. Unstable funding 6 40.0 11.5 5. Lack of awareness among 6 40.0 11.5 participants 6. Late payment of farmers for their 5 33.3 9.6 produce 7. Lack of staff involvement in 5 33.4 9.6 planning and lack of clear national policy, evaluation and monitoring 8. Delays of Inputs (seeds, 4 26.6 7.6 f e r t i l i z e r , equipment) 9. Over-centralized system 2 13.3 3.8 7. Lack of adequate staff housing 2 13.3 3.8 TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONSES - 52 112 This section presented results of the c r i t i c a l incident interviews conducted with selected administrators and extension workers at four administrative levels. The section that follows w i l l display results of three sets of survey questionnaires administered to selected administrators at a l l administrative levels and to selected participants of integrated nonformal education programmes. Survey Questionnaire Results Characteristics of Respondents This section provides a description of respondents and their groups. Groups are described in terms of administrative level: national, provin- c i a l , d i s t r i c t , and local level comprising Site 1, Site 2, and Site 3. Individual respondents are described in four demographic variables: sex, age, level of education, and number of years in employment. The data were collected as responses to the Administrators' Questionnaire. Tables 14 to 16 present respondents' sex, age, level of education and number of years employed. Level of education and gender are reported as frequencies and percentages over the whole population and by the administrative group to which they belonged. A l l analysis of data from survey questionnaires used the computer programme SPSSX (Nie and Hull, 1980). Significance was set at p < .05. Table 14 shows the distribution of male and female respondents. The figures of Table 14 indicate a predominance of males (79%) in the sample of administrators who participated in the study. At the national level 73% were male, at the provincial level 80%, at the d i s t r i c t level 81%, and at the local level 100%, 82%, and 75%, respectively. At the three i n s t i t u - Table 14. Distribution of males and females within administrative groups. Number Percent Administrative group Male Female Male Female National 19 7 73 27 Provincial 24 6 80 20 District 17 4 81 19 Local Site 1 6 - 100 Site 2 9 2 82 18 Site 3 9 3 75 25 Total 84 22 79 21 n = 106 114 tions representing the local level the percent of male administrators ranged from 75-100%. Table 15 displays the distribution of respondents' levels of education. The results indicate that the majority of respondents had at least a c e r t i - ficate (56%). The highest concentration of those holding certificates appears at Sites 2 and 3, and at the provincial and d i s t r i c t administrative levels. Sixty-two percent of administrators who participated in this study at national level have university degrees. Table 16 displays a breakdown of years of employment by administrative group. The results show a concentration at the national level and at Sites 1 and 3 of administrators that have worked less than ten years. One hundred and six administrators and extension workers responded to the Administrators' Questionnaires which included items on demographic data. Demographic data for the respondents appear to indicate: (a) that a very small proportion of females are currently employed at different administrative levels; (b) that females tend to have lower educational attainment than males; and (c) that those with high educational attainment appear to have been employed for a relatively shorter period of time. Responses to Administrators' Questionnaire The Administrators' Questionnaire was designed to answer the following questions: 1. What do administrators perceive to be the extent of "integration" in nonformal education programmes? (a) To what extent do administrators at different administrative levels differ in their perceptions of the existence of vertical integration? 115 Table 15. Distribution of respondents' level of education within administrative groups. Administrative Number group Certificate Diploma Degree Percent Certificate Diploma Degree Nat ional Provincial District Local Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Total 4 18 15 2 11 10 60 6 7 5 2 24 16 5 1 22 16 60 17 33 100 83 56 2 23 24 67 17 23 62 17 5 21 106 Table 16. Distribution of years of employment within the administrative groups. Administrative group Number Percent 1-10 years 11+ years 1-10 years 11+ years Nat ional Provincial District Local Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 13 8 10 5 5 9 12 22 11 1 6 3 52 27 48 83 46 75 48 73 52 17 54 25 Total 50 55 48 52 n = 105 116 (b) To what extent do administrators at different administrative levels di f f e r in their perceptions of the existence of horizontal integration? (c) To what extent are administrators' perceptions of ver t i c a l integration correlated with administrators' perceptions of horizontal integration? (d) How does this correlation between vertical and horizontal integration differ according to administrative levels? In order to answer these questions, the questionnaire had four sections. Each section of the Administrators' Questionnaire was designed to answer a different question. Section A of the Administrators' Question- naire (Items 1 to 10) contained measures of vertical integration. Responses to Items 11 through 20 measured horizontal integration. Section B of the questionnaire explored administrators' opinions on integration. The last section (C) focused on items pertaining to the implementation process of integrated rural development programmes. Only 34% of adminis- trators at the national level completed Section C of the questionnaire. Table 17 presents correlations between the four variables: vertical integration; horizontal integration; opinions on integration; and opinions on implementation. Correlations between vert i c a l , horizontal and opinions on integration are significant (ot = .05). The positive correlations indicate a high internal consistency among the variables. However, correlations of administrators' opinions on implementation are not correlated with other three variables. The variables were later analyzed separately. Summary of Responses to Local Level Questionnaire The results of the Local Level Questionnaire, developed to determine administrators' opinions on integrated programmes, can be located in Table 17. Correlations among measures of v e r t i c a l , of horizontal integration, opinions on integration and opinions on implementation: Administrators' Questionnaire (n = 106). Variable 1 2 3 4 1. Vertical 1.00 2. Horizontal .48* 1.00 3. Opinions .30* .33* 1.00 4. Implementation -.15 -.06 .06 1.00 5. Total .28 .37 .43 .84 1.00 * Significant at a = .05. 118 Appendix 10. Results of item analysis using Lertap computer programme indicate a positive correlation between facilitators and coordination (see Table 18). But the two variables have a very low positive correlation with obstacles. There is internal consistency among the items. Table 18. Correlations between opinions on facilitators, coordination and obstacles: Local Level Questionnaire (n = 50). Variable 1 2 3 4 1. Facilitators 1.00 2. Coordination .45* 1.00 3. Obstacles .14 .10 1.00 4. Total .18 .71 .56 1.00 * Significant at a = .01. Analyses of variance were performed to determine i f there were differ- ences between the groups on administrators' perceptions of the degree of integration and on obstacles to integration. Results indicate that there were no significant differences between the four groups as presented in Tables 19 to 22. Summary of Responses to Participants' Questionnaire In this study, participants of integrated programmes around the three training centres were requested to respond to a questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to s o l i c i t responses on participants' opinions with regard to outcomes integrated programmes: Seventy-seven participants were interviewed. The questions focused on whether they strongly agreed, 119 Table 19. Means and SD on administrators' perceptions on degree of integration. Group n x SD District 21 21.6 4.6 Local level Site 1 6 17.0 7.5 Site 2 11 24.0 4.0 Site 3 12 20.0 7.4 Total 50 21.4 5.7 Table 20. Analysis of variance of differences among administrative groups on degree of integration. Source SS DF MS Between Administrative Groups 165.32 3 55.1 1.69 .18 Within Groups 1492.45 46 32.44 120 Table 21. Means and SD on administrators' perceptions of obstacles to integration: Local Level Questionnaire. Group n x SD District 21 19.23 3.43 Local level Site 1 6 21.5 1.64 Site 2 11 20.8 2.18 Site 3 12 20.5 3.47 Table 22. Analysis of variance of differences among administrative groups on administrators' perceptions of obstacles to integration. Source SS DF MS Between Administrative Groups 34.77 3 11.59 1.24 .30 Within Groups 429.94 46 9.34 121 agreed, or disagreed with various aspects of integrated programmes. Item analysis conducted through Lertap computer programme indicates a positive correlation among the variables: s k i l l s , f a c i l i t i e s and activities (see Table 23). Skills and f a c i l i t i e s indicate a higher positive correlation than do s k i l l s and activities, while f a c i l i t i e s are highly correlated with s k i l l s . There is internal consistency between the items. Table 23. Correlations between s k i l l s , f a c i l i t i e s and activities: naire (n = 77). Participants' Question- Variable 1 2 3 4 1. Skills 1.00 2. F a c i l i t i e s .32* 1.00 3. Activities .19 .50* 1.00 4. Total .53 .84 .82 1.00 * Significant at a = .01. Participants strongly agreed that the s k i l l s they learned would be useful in their daily activities. A summary of participants' responses are found in Appendix 11. A high percentage (45%) of participants indicated that said equipment and f a c i l i t i e s used at the centres were not available in their homes. Fifty percent of participants felt that things should improve at the training centre; 29.9% were undecided. There was strong agreement among participants that they were acquiring knowledge and s k i l l s that would help them in their daily activities but that they did not have the necessary equipment in their homes. It appears that participants were 122 not sure of the role that the centres had regarding loan distribution and other agricultural inputs. Answering the Research Questions This section focuses on the research questions. In order to answer the research questions several analyses were performed. 1. To what extent are administrators' perceptions of vertical integration correlated with their perceptions of horizontal integration? The answer to the above question was obtained by calculating the Product-Moment correlation between horizontal and vertical integration. Results of the analysis indicate that vertical integration is positively correlated with horizontal integration (r = .49) 2. How does the correlation between vertical and horizontal integration vary according to administrative level? In order to answer this question, the Product-Moment correlation on horizontal and vertical integration were performed. The results of the analysis are presented Table 24, according to administrative group. Results indicate that there is higher positive correlation at the national level (r = .63), and for Site 1 at local level (r = .63), than at other administrative levels, with the provincial level showing the lowest positive correlation (r = .35). A score between 1 and 19 represented low score on perceptions on degree of vertical or horizontal integration while scores between 20 and 40 represented high score on perceptions on the degree of vertical or horizontal Integration. Table 24. Correlations of perceived degree of vertical and horizontal integration by administrative group. Variable SD Corr. National Level Vertical Horizontal 26.42 25.00 5.30 5.66 .63 .0002* Provincial Level Vertical Horizontal 22.93 21.73 5.98 6.86 .35 .02* District Level Vertical Horizontal 22.47 21.71 5.47 6.42 .39 .03* Local Level Site 1 Vertical Horizontal 19.66 22.66 6.02 5.27 .63 .08 Site 2 Vertical Horizontal 22.90 23.00 6.54 5.25 .54 .04* Site 3 Vertical Horizontal 21.33 18.08 8.51 4.56 .54 .03* * Significant at a = .05. 124 3. To what extent do administrators of different administrative levels differ i n their perceptions of the existence of v e r t i c a l integration? In order to answer this question, one-way analysis of variance was performed on the variable vertical integration using the SPSSX computer programme in order to determine whether there were any differences between the means among different administrative levels. Table 25 presents the results of the analysis which indicate that there is a significant d i f f e r - ence between the perceptions of vertical integration by administrators at different administrative levels. Administrators at the national level have a higher mean (x = 26.42) than those at any other level while the local level have the lowest mean (x = 21.58) (see Table 26). 4. To what extent do administrators from different adminstrative levels d i f f e r i n their perceptions of the existence of horizontal integration? One-way analysis of variance was performed using the SPSSX computer programme to determine whether administrators from different administrative levels differed in their perceptions of the existence of horizontal integration. The results do not indicate that there is a significant difference between the four groups. Table 27 presents the results of the analysis as well as the means and standard deviations for each group. The national level had a higher mean (x = 25.0) for horizontal integration when compared with the provincial and d i s t r i c t levels (x = 21.7). The local level administrators scored lowest on horizontal integration (see Table 28). 125 Table 25. Analysis of variance of differences between administrative groups on vertical integration. Source SS DF MS F P Between Administrative Groups 356.95 3 118.98 3.20 .02* Within Groups 3792.48 102 37.18 * Significant at a = .05. Table 26. Means and SD of administrators' perceptions of the degree of vertical integration. G r o u P n x SD National 26 26.42 5.30 Provincial 30 22.93 5.98 Distr i c t 21 22.47 5.47 Local 29 21.58 7.19 126 Table 27. Analysis of variance of differences between administrative groups on Administrators' perceptions of degree of horizontal integration. Source SS DF MS F P Between Administrative Groups 263.49 3 87.83 2.35 .07 Within Groups 3800.84 102 37.26 Table 28. Means and SD of administrators' perceptions of degree of horizontal integration Group n x SD National 26 24 .00 5.66 Provincial 30 21 .73 6.86 District 21 21 .71 6.43 Local 29 20 .71 5.37 Within Groups Total 106 22 .30 6.10 5. To what extent do administrators from different administrative levels differ in their perceptions of the existence of integration? Section B of the Administrators' Questionnaire contained items that assessed administrators' opinions on the existence of various aspects of integration. The questionnaire had items on both vertical and horizontal integration. Analysis of variance was conducted to determine whether administrators from different administrative levels had significant differences in their opinions on the existence of integration in their programmes. Results of the analysis of variance show that administrators fr om different administrative levels did not di f f e r significantly in their opinions on integration (see Table 29). The analysis indicated that the means at the national and provincial levels (x = 40.8 and and x = 40.3, respectively) were higher than those for the d i s t r i c t level (x = 37.0), and for the cases (x = 38.5), but these differences were not significant (see Table 30). 6. To what extent do administrators from different adminstrative levels differ in their perceptions of implementation of integrated programmes Analysis of variance was performed using SPSSX computer programme on Section C of the Administrators' Questionnaire. The results of the analysis are presented i n Table 31. A score between 1 to 29 represented a low score while scores ranging between 30-50 represented high scores on perceptions on the implementation of integrated programmes. Table 32 displays the distribution of means and standard deviations on administra- tors opinions on implementation of integrated programmes. There are no significant differences in the opinions of administrators from different 128 Table 29. Analysis of variance of differences between groups on the degree of integration in programmes. Source SS DF MS F P Between Administrative Groups 157.73 3 52.57 1.58 .19 Within Groups 3378.53 102 33.12 Table 30. Means and SD of administrators' opinions on the degree of integration in programmes. Group n x SD National 26 40.84 5.00 Provincial 30 40.33 3.90 District 21 37.80 9.50 Local 29 38.48 4.13 Grand Mean 106 39.45 5.75 129 Table 31. Analysis of variance of differences among administrative groups on opinions on implementation. Source SS DF MS F P Between Adminstrative Groups 240.76 3 80.25 .91 .43 Within Groups 6806.85 78 87.26 Table 32. Means and SD of administrators' opinions on implementation of integrated programmes. Group n x SD National 17 39.11 8.06 Provincial 21 40.47 9.16 District 16 43.50 8.18 Local 28 38.92 10.68 130 administrative levels with respect to the implementation of integrated programmes. The table indicates that not a l l administrators completed Section C of the Administrators' Questionnaire because i t was not directly applicable to their work. At the national level, nine respondents did not complete Section C because they f e l t they were not actually involved in implementing integrated programmes. Nine at the provincial level did not complete the Section C of the questionnaire. Only one out of twenty-nine extension workers from the three training centres failed to complete Section C. Summary This chapter presented results of this study. The f i r s t section outlined categories developed from interview data. Facilitating and hindering factors have been displayed according to each administrative level. The last section presented results of survey questionnaires that were administered to selected administrators at four administrative levels and to selected participants of integrated nonformal education programmes around three training centres. Chapter Six presents a discussion of the results of this study. 1 3 1 C H A P T E R S I X D I S C U S S I O N O F R E S U L T S Chapter Six discusses results of the study in light of the literature reviewed. The f i r s t section discusses results that emerged through inter- views with administrators at different administrative levels. The second section presents a discussion of the results of the survey questionnaires administered to selected administrators at four administrative levels and to selected participants of integrated nonformal education programmes. For the convenience of the reader the research questions of the study are again presented. 1. What factors are thought by administrators to f a c i l i t a t e implementa- tion of integrated nonformal education programmes? 2. What factors are thought by administrators to hinder implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes? 3. What do administrators perceive to be the extent of integration in integrated nonformal education programmes? (a) To what extent do administrators at different administrative levels differ in their perceptions of the existence of "vertical integration"? (b) To what extent do administrators at different administrative levels differ in their perceptions of the existence of "horizontal integration"? (c) To what extent do administrators' perceptions of vertical integration correlate with administrators' perceptions on horizontal integration? 132 (d) How does this correlation between vertical and horizontal integration differ according to administrative levels? 4. What s k i l l s do participants perceive to gain from integrated nonformal education programmes? Perceived F a c i l i t a t i n g and Hindering Factors F a c i l i t a t i n g Factors In reviewing research on implementation Fullan and Pomfret (1977) identified four major determinants of successful implementation of an innovation. These include: characteristics of the innovation i t s e l f ; the implementation strategies; main features of the"unit adopting the innova- tion; and characteristics of the macro sociopolitical framework within which the innovation is nested. In this study, from a careful analysis of the interrelationships of these determinants a hierarchy of successful innovations can be profiled. Fullan and Pomfret (1977) argue that "parti - cular determinants may be c r i t i c a l under one set of circumstances, while others may be prominent under other conditions." Innovations in developing countries have been central to national development policies (Havelock and Huberman, 1978). Many theorists have argued against the manner in which the third world has introduced innova- tions. One group of theorists insists that innovations represent a power- f u l form of 'cultural imperialism' since they represent ideas borrowed from the developed world (Carnoy, 1974). Another group stresses that the problem of innovation failure in developing countries lies in the conserva- tive nature of educational systems that resists change, which is revealed in a lack of rigorous planning for educational change, and inexperienced practitioners, who receive restricted training and in-service training. Jennings-Wray (1985), from her study of the Integrated Science Project i n the Carribean, concluded that innovative ideas from the industrialized countries can be used with success under certain conditions. These circum- stances include the presence of government support; adequate financing; sufficient time in which to operationalize the change effort, effective dissemination strategies, and the provision of adequate grounding in essential personnel and professional expertise. This study focused on several factors perceived by administrators to f a c i l i t a t e integrated nonformal education programmes. For administrators at three administrative levels (national, provincial and d i s t r i c t ) seminars/workshops and training f a c i l i t i e s is a powerful f a c i l i t a t i n g factor. Their discussions imply that through these practices they learn most about changes being made within their departments and that they "acquire new s k i l l s . " One typical farm management officer said: Having attended a course at the Pan-African Institute in Kabwe, I gained new knowledge and s k i l l s in farm management which I shared with my friends at work. The administrators' valuing of in-service training may be due to their shallow pre-service preparation and the strong continuing pressures to gain new s k i l l s in their sphere of operation. The answers of administrators i n this study suggest that this is so. This perception agrees with research findings on nonformal education by Coombs et a l . (1973; 1974) and Thompson (1981). In-service training i s one of the determinants of successful implementation identified by Fullan (1979) and Jennings-Wray (1985). At the local level, however, administrators ranked seminars/workshops fourth level as a factor f a c i l i t a t i n g successful implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes. It appears that administrators at the higher administrative levels have more access to seminars/workshops and training f a c i l i t i e s than administrators at the local level. Yet i t is the administrators at local level who need more training so as to keep abreast with any policy changes that are constantly being made. The concept of integration assumes that administrators of various departments and agencies w i l l coordinate their efforts in offering non- formal education programmes to rural communities (Maimbo, 1982). Coordina tion as an aspect of horizontal integration is discussed by Coombs (1980) and Cole (1982) as a strong feature of successful implementation of integrated nonformal education programs. In this study a l l four levels of administrators ranked coordination as the second highest f a c i l i t a t i n g factor. Horizontal integration requires a constant interaction between administrators across government departments and non-governmental organiza tions (Coles, 1982). This multi-sectoral approach leads to gain for each department or agency. Indeed as one administrator said: Since youth extension is not seen as a priority, I hardly tour youth projects taking place in the province. The few that I have visited, I have relied on transport from church organizations. Advocates of integrated nonformal education programmes assume that the multi-sectoral approach of programmes leads to more efficient use of resources by virtue of i t s h o l i s t i c effects (Coombs, 1980; Coles, 1982; Evans, 1981). The major argument for integrated nonformal education programmes focuses on the limited resources in most developing countries whose economies w i l l continue to decline (Lynch and Wiggins, 1987). Financial support is one determinant of successful implementation as identified by Fullan (1979) and Jennings-Wray (1985). In this research, administrators at a l l levels ranked financial support third as a f a c i l i t a t ing factor. Although financial support ranked third as a f a c i l i t a t i n g 135 factor, not a l l administrators from a l l departments identified i t as such. Financial support ranked high among administrators of departments (e.g. Agriculture and Marketing and Cooperatives) who have external funding for their programmes, which have to meet high accountability standards. As in many developing countries, i n Zambia unstable funding ranks high as a hindering factor at a l l administrative levels. One administrator in the Ministry of Agriculture said: Since Zambia is undergoing economic recession, financial assistance from outside reassures us of the continuation of integrated programmes. Results of this research are consistent with earlier research findings by Coombs et a l . (1973, 1974) and Thompson (1981). Their studies on nonformal education indicated a lack of commitment to rural development by govern- ments of developing countries. In nearly a l l the countries surveyed, the allocation of resources in the national development plans indicated agricultural and rural development had a low priority. Related to financial support is resource support. Resource support is influential in determining the success of implementation (Fullan and Pomfret, 1977). The avail a b i l i t y of resources like transport and inputs (materials, seeds, and equipment) were identified as f a c i l i t a t i n g factors in this research. Although administrators at a l l administrative levels identified a v a i l a b i l i t y of transport as a f a c i l i t a t i n g factor, only 38.8% of administrators at national level identified i t as one, compared to 79.5% and 66.6% at provincial and d i s t r i c t levels respectively. This may be explained by the fact that national level administrators are not expected to travel long distances to the provinces, whereas their counterparts at other administrative levels are expected to tour d i s t r i c t s and training 136 centres regularly. To these administrators, transport is an important issue. The Department of Community Development emerged as the department most lacking in transport, materials and other inputs. One Community District Development assistant said: Transport is a major handicap for us to tour various Community Development act i v i t i e s to see what our friends in the f i e l d are doing. When we travel, we always rely on our friends from the Department of Agriculture. Lack of adequate inputs, as well, emerged as a hindering factor at lower administrative levels. One literacy officer at the local level said: For a long time now, we have been unable to record programmes for the people. We have also been unable to conduct radio listening groups as we have done in the past due to lack of batteries for radios. The Community Development provincial offices are situated at Katete, 70 kilometres away from Chipata where other provincial and d i s t r i c t offices are. This administrative arrangement may explain the d i f f i c u l t i e s which di s t r i c t officers in Community Development face. Literature pinpoints administrative support as one of the determinants of successful implementation (Fullan, 1979; Jennings-Wrays, 1985). In this study, communication between national, provincial, d i s t r i c t and local levels (vertical integration) was identified as a f a c i l i t a t i n g factor. One respondent indicated that: Regular meetings are held every month between administrators at the headquarters (Ministry of Agriculture and Water Development) and a l l provincial coodinators for IRDP. Although vertical integration ranked high as a f a c i l i t a t i n g factor among both national and provincial levels, i t was ranked very low at d i s t r i c t and local levels. This may be attributed to the fact that the communication between local and d i s t r i c t and national level administrators has to pass through the provincial level. This administrative channel very often lead to delays in getting replies for authorization and delays in releasing funds for recurrent expenditures and loans for farmers. One extension worker lamented that: We cannot teach farmers that during this month of January, apply f e r t i l i z e r , or plant this brand of seed when they are unable to obtain these inputs [in time]. Fullan and Pomfret (1977) identified characteristics of the macro sociopolitical unit as one determinant of successful implementation. They observe that large-scale programmes proposed by p o l i t i c a l agents in power have several features that increase the possibility of adoption but decrease the likelihood of effective implementation. However, results of some other implementation studies have shown that programmes succeed when they are supported by a ministry or department of government (Havelock and Huberman, 1978; Jennings-Wray, 1985). In Zambia, Integrated Rural Development Programmes (IRDP) were sponsored at the national level through the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Development. During the period of implementation of IRDP the Decentralization Act (1981) was enacted. Administrators at a l l levels identified introduction of the Decentralization Act as a f a c i l i t a t i n g factor to implementing integrated nonformal education programmes. Zambian administrators, especially those at lower administrative levels, may see i as a positive factor because i t provides more power in decision-making at provincial and d i s t r i c t levels. Though the Act gives more power at d i s t r i c t level, no administrators at this level identified the Decentrali- zation Act as a f a c i l i t a t i n g factor. They did not project themselves as 138 adequately skilled to participate in planning projects that affect their d i s t r i c t s . Indeed, i t has already been observed by Kanduza et a l . (1985) that implementation of the Decentralization Act required d i s t r i c t adminis- trators to possess basic planning s k i l l s , which many administrators seemed to lack. Although the Decentralization Act gives more power to d i s t r i c t and local level administrators, implementation of the Act has disrupted the way things used to be. Prior to implementation of the Act, Inputs ( f e r t i - l i z e r s , seeds, equipment) were directly given to each department by the IRDP office. This process has been changed. The consequence of the change is that certain a c t i v i t i e s of some departments, such as Community Develop- ment have been disrupted. This may explain why di s t r i c t level administra- tors do not see implementation of the Act as a f a c i l i t a t i n g factor. One Community Development officer said: The women s t i l l meet every Thursday, but they do not do much. We do try to use local materials for doing crafts work, but women want to do more as they used to. Materials are very expensive for women to buy. There are no seeds to plant i n their demonstration plots. In order for an innovation to be successful, i t should be implemented through taking into account other changes taking place in the soc i o p o l i t i - cal system (Jennings-Wray, 1985). Related to the macro sociopolitical factors is the new training and v i s i t system identified as a f a c i l i t a t i n g factor. The new training and v i s i t system permits administrators and extension workers to meet more farmers than they did before. One adminis- trator said: The new system of training and v i s i t is a good system. Every Friday is a f i e l d day. A l l officers v i s i t one block every week. Then, they v i s i t another block the following week. This ensures that the extension worker working in the f i e l d provides information on his extension activities each day of the week which wasn't the case before. During those days an extension worker visited as many farmers as he wanted and was not required to account for his movements. The new system is viewed as a f a c i l i t a t i n g factor, because i t provides accountability for the extension workers, and because i t provides contact with more farmers than the residential courses held at training centres do. Hindering Factors Several categories of hindering factors emerged from interviews conducted at the four administrative levels. Hindering factors identified in this study are similar to problems spotlighted in other research studies on nonformal education (Sheffield and Diejomaoh, 1972; Coombs et a l . , 1973; Callaway, 1973; 1974; 1980; Loveridge 1979; Thompson, 1981). In this research, inadequate skilled personnel ranked as the highest hindering factor at three administrative levels (national, provincial and d i s t r i c t ) . Earlier studies on nonformal education programmes identified inadequate ski l l e d personnel as one of the problems in rural communities. Thompson (1981) summarized the situation in most developing countries: The efficiency of even the more enlightened extension services depended upon a number of factors of which the number and quality of the f i e l d workers was the most crucial. In Kenya and Zambia extension staff came to number approximately one to every 1000 farm holdings, a proportion recommended as a minimum by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization but one which obviously made i t impossible for them to meet the majority of their clientele on a regular and individual basis. Yet even this figure compares favourably with the situation of most developing African countries: Malawi with one worker for every 7800 holdings; Senegal with one for every 2000 families and Mali with one for every 8500 families, (p. 230-231) 140 The small number of extension workers results in the extension message reaching a very small group of the target population who may in fact ignore the message. One extension worker lamented: Most of the time we v i s i t villages, we do not see any changes in the way things are done. What we teach at the centre does not seem to have much impact when they go back home. The number of extension workers is so small that their presence is some- times not f e l t or, at times, their message is ignored. The morale of the extension worker is often very low. In order to be accepted by the community, an extension worker may at times step down and live like one of them, therefore f a i l i n g in duties to change people's attitudes. The scarcity of extension workers is exacerbated by the inadequate pre-service training and the lack of in-service training f a c i l i t i e s . Other studies on nonformal education have indicated that the lack of services, transport in particular, in rural areas makes the work of exten- sion workers very d i f f i c u l t (Ahmed, 1975; Green, 1975; Loveridge, 1979; Thompson, 1981). Administrators and extension workers in this study ranked inadequate transport as the second highest ranking hindering factor. Most extension workers are expected to travel long distances to supervise farmers or to organize literacy classes. One Community Development worker said: Before, we were given a bicycle to use to supervise farmers. That is not the case any more. This means that we cannot v i s i t those farmers who are far from the centres now. Resource support is one of the determinants of implementation (Fullan and Pomfret, 1977; Havelock and Huberman, 1977). In this research Zambian administrators and extension workers identified lack of adequate agricul- tural inputs, materials and equipment and unstable funding as some of the 141 factors that hinder implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes. These problems of lack, of resource support have been examined by previous research on nonformal education (Sheffield and Diejomaoh, 1972; Coombs and Ahmed, 1974). Evaluation and monitoring of integrated nonformal education programmes has been identified as lacking in many research studies on nonformal education (Sheffield and Diejomaoh, 1972; Coombs and Ahmed, 1974; Thompson, 1981). Evaluation is one of the determinants of successful implementation of an innovation as identified by Fullan and Pomfret (1977). In this study, lack of evaluation and monitoring ranked second as a hindering factor at national level but ranked quite low at lower administrative levels. The differences in the ranking may be attributed to the fact that administrators at national level have been exposed to ideas on evaluation and monitoring and are interested in monitoring what is actually happening in the f i e l d through a variety of means including, for example, monthly reports from officers in the f i e l d . Evaluation data is important for making comparisons with other nations, as well as for bilateral relations with industrialized countries and international funding agencies (Woldring, 1984). Although administrators and extension workers at lower administra- tive levels seem to be burdened with a lot of paper work to report to superiors, their administrative reporting does not, on the surface, appear to provide rigorous and complex evaluation data. Extension workers in Zambia and elsewhere in Africa have been trained to communicate information rather than to assess needs of local communities (Thompson, 1981). In the case of IRDP, i t appears that research is usually conducted by the funding agency sponsoring the programme, and does not involve extension workers and bring outside experts from the University of Zambia or elsewhere. 142 This may be attributed to the fact that although IRDP ut i l i z e s a multi-sectoral approach, no statutory national body has been established to monitor nonformal education act i v i t i e s organized by government departments and other agencies. An attempt has been made to establish a national body to coordinate the a c t i v i t i e s of IRDP. It is known as the Inter-Institu- tional National Policy Steering Committee and was instituted in May 1984 (Ministry of Agriculture and Water Development, 1984). The National Steering Committee was designed to coordinate planning act i v i t i e s of a l l donor agencies and the National Commission for Development Planning with leadership from the Planning Division of the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Development. The Provincial Coordination Steering Committees and the Monthly Dist r i c t Coordination Committees evolved out of the same principle of strengthening coordination between departments and donor agencies at local level and improving communication from the local level to the national level within departments. The effectiveness of these Steering Committees is yet to be seen. Advocates of integrated nonformal education programmes assume that when nonformal activities are integrated, large groups of rural communi- ties, normally l e f t out by other educational programmes, w i l l be reached (Coombs, 1980; Coles, 1982). In this study, apathy among participants was identified as the second highest ranking factor by administrators and extension staff at local level. It may be that the number of extension workers in these communities, as discussed earlier, i s too small to make a difference. One extension worker lamented: Although we train participants in improved rural structures and other s k i l l s in appropriate technology, our participants alone are unable to influence change in the villages. 143 Indeed, the time given to farmers to change their practices seems too short. It may be that rural households need more time to change their old ways. With more time, rural households would learn more from training programmes. With a l i t t l e patience and a r e a l i s t i c time line, one may hear comments as this one by another extension worker: I feel very happy when I see that farmers have changed the way they take care of their animals, especially during the rainy season. Perceptions on Existence of Integration The literature on nonformal education indicates that integration at a l l administrative levels -is a necessary condition for state-sponsored nonformal educational act i v i t i e s to realize programme goals (Coombs, 1974, 1980, 1985; Coles, 1982). Both Coombs (1980) and Coles (1982) advocate vertical and horizontal integration of nonformal education programmes. The study of the Integrated Rural Development Programmes (IRDP) focused on the implementation of state-sponsored integrated nonformal education programmes in the Eastern Province of Zambia. IRDP, introduced as an innovative project, was designed to enhance rural development in selected rural areas of Zambia. Vertical Integration Results of the Administrators' Questionnaire indicate that administra- tors at national levels scored higher on the perceived degree of vertical integration. Scores ranging between 1 to 19 reflected a low score of per- ceived vertical integration while scores ranging between 20 to 40 reflected high scores of perceived vertical integration. National level administra- tors scored x = 26.4, a figure higher than other administrative levels. On the other hand, scores at a l l administrative levels indicate a high degree of perceived vertical integration. Results of the one way analysis of variance, performed in order to determine whether the mean scores of different administrative levels were significantly different, showed that there was a significant difference between the means (p <.02). Results of this analysis seem to suggest that the general trend is a high degree of perceived vertical integration, with national level adminis trators scoring higher than other administrative levels. The reason why national level administrators had higher scores on the perceived existence of ve r t i c a l integration may be due to these reasons. F i r s t l y , national level administrators are involved in planning with international agencies, and therefore are more exposed to ideas about integration than administra- tors at the lower administrative levels, especially local level administra tors who are merely told what to implement. Secondly, because national level administrators are involved in the most senior policy formulation, they may feel the highest responsibility to make things work. Lastly, national level administrators are far removed from local level administra- tors and may actually believe that everything is working even i f i t is not The generally high scores among a l l administrative levels seem to suggest that there exists a perceived high degree of vertical integration among administrators of a l l levels. « Horizontal Integration Results of this research indicate that administrators at a l l levels scored high on the perceived degree of horizontal integration. Scores 145 ranging between 1 to 19 reflected low perceived degree of horizontal integration while scores between 20 to 40 reflected a high perceived degree of horizontal integration. Although administrators' scores on the perceived degree of horizontal integration are high at a l l administrative levels, national levels scores (x = 25.0) are higher than other levels (x = 21.73 at province level; x = 21.71 at d i s t r i c t ; x = 20.71 at local level). Results of the one-way analysis of variance on horizontal integration to determine whether the means of different administrative levels were different indicate that there were no significant differences between the means. The high scores of national level administrators on the perceived degree of horizontal integration may be explained by the fact that national level administrators have the keenest understanding of the value of coordi- nation in planning nonformal education programmes (SIDA, 1983). At the same time, the high scores may not mean that a l l four departments plan programmes together, but with one other department or funding agency. It appears that administrators perceive a high degree of horizontal integra- tion to exist in integrated nonformal education programmes even though the integration may only involve one other department or agency. The high scores on the perceived degree of both vertical and horizon- ta l integration seem to support the literature on nonformal education (Coombs, 1980; Coles, 1982). The literature suggests that an ideally integrated system would be characterized by a constant free flow of communication between levels within the same administrative department (vertical integration) and constant interaction between departments and non-governmental agencies at each administrative level. The answer to the question of whether there is a correlation between administrators' perceptions on the existence of vertical and horizontal integration indicates that the national level has the highest positive correlation between perceptions on the existence of vertical and horizontal integration (r = .63), while the provincial and d i s t r i c t levels have the lowest positive correlations (r = .35) and (r = .39) respectively. The results may be explained by the fact that administrators at the national level feel that they are part of the policy making, whereas administrators at provincial and d i s t r i c t levels, though they may participate in planning committees, li v e far away from where the national decision-making process takes place. National level administrators have been exposed to ideas about integration through dealings with international organizations and funding agencies. Through such exposure, they may believe that there exists a high degree of integration in the nonformal programmes. The high positive correlations between vertical and horizontal integration at a l l administrative levels further confirms the assertions made in the nonformal education literature (Coles, 1982; Evans, 1981). The literature asserts that outcomes of integrated nonformal education programmes would benefit rural communities in acquiring new knowledge, s k i l l s and attitudes useful in people's daily a c t i v i t i e s . Results of this study and other research (Coombs et a l . , 1974) indicate that in several government departments the number of extension workers to the number of rural households is small. The small number of extension workers makes their work d i f f i c u l t in their attempt to reach a large number of rural household. Earlier surveys conducted by Sheffield and Diejomaoh (1972) and Coombs and Ahmed (1974) indicated that there was a maldistribution of educational opportunities for rural people. Evidence revealed that those who were most deprived of formal education were similarly most deprived of educational opportunity through nonformal education. The findings also indicated that the participation of g i r l s and women in nonformal education programmes was very low. Although women actively participate in farming, marketing of crops, and other farm management functions, they have been overlooked. In traditional African societies, women have the responsibilities of caring for children, for the sick and for the elderly. These responsibilities, including other household chores, may leave l i t t l e time to participate in nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s . Results of this research are congruent with other research findings on nonformal education. The low percentage of female extension staff affects the delivery of nonformal education ac t i v i t i e s for women. Other surveys have indicated that there is lack of adequate personnel in extension programmes (Coombs, 1974; Thompson, 1981). The low figures of female extension staff reduces the chances for women's participation even further. In this study, the number of female officers employed in government departments may influence the number of women who participate in integrated nonformal education programmes. The demographic data indicate that very few women are employed at provincial, d i s t r i c t and local levels in p a r t i c i - pating departments of this study, and yet each department has a Women's Section for executing specific functions to rural women. At provincial level, one female extension officer was expected to cover a l l six d i s t r i c t s in the province, which covers an area of over 12,000 square kilometres. The same story goes for the di s t r i c t level. Training centres at times had one female extension officer and in some situations, such as at Site 1, they had none. This staffing situation has some of the following effects: (a) Programme acti v i t i e s designed specifically for women, never really reach the target population. This phenomenon has been documented through IRDP annual reports (1981, 1982). At Kalichero and Kalunga training centres, where farmers' training courses were offered, of the total attendance, 33.31% were men, 15.29% were women and 54.4% were school children and members of the Young Farmers Club. (b) Since the majority of extension staff are male, the running of women's clubs is often under the supervision of male extension workers. Some women may be prevented from attending these clubs by their husbands because instructors are men. Male instructors may not understand needs of female participants. Some have argued against conducting separate courses for women (Sjostrom, 1984). They advocate that there is a need for mobile practical f i e l d courses with the same agricultural focus for women and men. But problems do exist in the African traditional societies where roles of women are clearly prescribed. Although the idea of offering practical f i e l d courses for both sexes seems to be a good one, results of such a strategy may continue to indicate a low participation of women farmers. In a survey of women's participation in the Lima programme, Chilibvumbo and Kanyangwa (1985) observed that women traditionally own a separate plot from the household f i e l d to grow crops of their choice. So, the Lima programme - a plot for the woman - is not in conflict with traditional values. Women get extension services and advice for this plot but not for the household plot. The female extension officer distributes loans to women's groups for agricultural inputs for the plot. In the case of the Lima, traditional values have been maintained (Chilibvumbo and Kanyangwa, 1985). A purposive sample of the seventy-seven participants interviewed seemed to believe that they gained much from training programmes at the centres. Although many women are represented among those interviewed, this does not reflect the true picture of those who participate in training programmes (usually men). The women interviewed had come to the training centres for specific meetings concerning credit f a c i l i t i e s specifically for women. They were a convenient group to interview: many women came. But an equal number of men came to these meetings. At these meetings more men spoke and the women merely listened on. This pattern is customary. Many women seem to believe that activities at the centres can become better. For example, they expressed concern on the repayment of seasonal loans which they are required to pay back within one year. Many are not able to. Many were apathetic because even when they had applied for loans, they had never been successful. Many participants generally believe that from the Farm Training Centres and Health Centres they gained many s k i l l s which they practise i n their homes. They agreed, too, that in some instances, they do not have the kind of equipment used in demonstrations. In some cases they said that what was being taught was not what they really wanted to learn. One old man in a literacy class said: I do not just want to learn how to read and write Nyanja (the local language) I would like to learn how to read and write English. It may be that in developing countries learners are rarely consulted on what they want to learn (Coles, 1982). Summary This chapter has presented a discussion of the results of the study. Facilitating and hindering factors differ at different administrative levels. In this study, shortage of skilled personnel was identified as a hindering factor. It has also been identified in other research surveys (Coombs, 1974; Thompson, 1981). The limited number of extension workers limits the number of people that are reached. Results seem to suggest that administrators at national level perceive a higher degree of both vertical and horizontal integration to exist than do the administrators at other administrative levels. This may be due partly to the fact that administrators at national level feel most keenly that they are part of the policy making process, and partly due to the fact that they are so far removed from the provinces, they believe a high degree of integration to exists whether or not that is actually the case. Results of the study indicate that there is a positive correlation between vertical and horizontal integration. The results seem to validate what the l i t e r a - ture says on integrated nonformal education (Coombs et a l . , 1973; 1974; 1980; Sheffield and Diejomaoh, 1972). From this study, i t is d i f f i c u l t to know who really benefits from these integrated programmes. Results of the interviews indicate that participants feel that they learn many s k i l l s which are useful in their daily lives. But many participants seemed to possess feelings of helpless- ness, believing that nothing can change the way things are, especially as related to their economic situation. Results indicate that although they learnt many s k i l l s , they often could not afford the equipment and materials required to increase their agricultural output. But what may be important 1 5 1 i s whether the extension message has reached i t s audience. The small number of extension s t a f f , whether i n A g r i c u l t u r e , Community Development, or N u t r i t i o n l i m i t s the number of par t i c ipant s in integrated programmes. The next chapter presents summary and conclusions drawn from th i s study. It w i l l h igh l igh t recommendations for p r a c t i c e , for theory, and for further research. 152 CHAPTER SEVEN SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS T h i s c h a p t e r g i v e s a b r i e f summary o f t h e p u r p o s e s a n d f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y a s w e l l as some i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s a summary o f t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e s t u d y , m e t h o d s u t i l i z e d a n d t h e m a j o r f i n d i n g s , a n d d i s c u s s e s m a i n c o n c l u s i o n s a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s . The n e x t s e c t i o n o f f e r s a r e a s o f f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r i s i n g f r o m t h e s t u d y . F i n a l l y , r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e , f o r t h e o r y a n d f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e p r o v i d e d . Summary The Purposes of the Study The p u r p o s e s o f t h e s t u d y w e r e ( s e e p. 1 4 ) : ( 1 ) t o i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s t h o u g h t by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o f a c i l i t a t e o r h i n d e r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f i n t e g r a t e d n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s ; ( 2 ) t o e s t a b l i s h t h e r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f e a c h f a c t o r , a n d ( 3 ) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p e r c e i v e d d e g r e e o f i n t e g r a t i o n f r o m t h e p e r - s p e c t i v e o f f o u r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s : ( n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l , d i s t r i c t a n d l o c a l ) . ( 4 ) t o d e t e r m i n e s k i l l s a n d k n o w l e d g e a c q u i r e d f r o m i n t e g r a t e d n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n p r ogrammes t h r o u g h t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . Methods of Data Collection T h e c a s e s t u d y was t h e p r i m a r y m e t h o d u t i l i z e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . I n t e r v i e w s c o n d u c t e d w i t h s e l e c t e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a t e a c h o f t h e f o u r administrat ive leve ls u t i l i z e d the c r i t i c a l incident technique to iden t i fy s p e c i f i c events thought to i l l u s t r a t e f a c i l i t a t i n g or hindering f a c t o r s . Administrators working at four d i f f erent administrat ive leve ls completed the Adminis trators ' Questionnaire (see Appendix 1) which s o l i c i t e d t h e i r perceptions of the degree of hor i zonta l and v e r t i c a l in tegrat ion and the factors thought to f a c i l i t a t e and hinder implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes i n Zambia. Administrators at d i s t r i c t and l o c a l l e v e l responded to a separate survey quest ionnaire , the Loca l Level Quest ionnaire , which focused on degree of in tegra t ion and obstacles to integrated nonformal education programmes. Interviews were also conducted with se lected programme par t i c ipant s i n order to determine outcomes of integrated nonformal education programmes. Perceived F a c i l i t a t i n g and Hindering Factors Administrators at a l l four adminis trat ive levels i d e n t i f i e d seminars/ workshops and t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s and coordinat ion with other departments and agencies as the highest ranking f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r s . F i n a n c i a l support was i d e n t i f i e d as the next highest ranking f a c t o r . The new t r a i n i n g and v i s i t system and support for decentra l i za t ion ranked lowest a f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r s . Other factors were ranked d i f f e r e n t l y across adminis trat ive l e v e l s . Deta i l s of f a c i l i t a t i n g and hinder ing factors are presented in Tables 9 and 10. Inadequate s k i l l s was ranked highest as a hindering factor at three adminis trat ive leve ls (na t iona l , p r o v i n c i a l and d i s t r i c t ) , while i t was ranked s i x t h by administrators and extension workers at l o c a l l e v e l . Inadequate transport was the second highest ranking h inder ing f a c t o r . Administrators i n this study ranked inadequate a g r i c u l t u r a l inputs, materials, equipment and unstable funding as some of the factors that hinder implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes. Administrators at a l l four levels ranked as the lowest hindering factors apathy among participants and lack of monitoring and evaluation. Responses to Administrators' Questionnaire Results of the study indicate that administrators at a l l levels perceive a high degree of both v e r t i c a l and horizontal integration to exist in integrated nonformal education programmes. Scores between 1 to 19 r e f l e c t e d a perceived low degree of integration while scores between 20 to 40 r e f l e c t e d a perceived high degree of integration. Although results suggest that administrators perceive a high degree of integration to exist i n integrated nonformal education programmes, scores for national l e v e l administrators are much higher than scores at other l e v e l s . Results of the one-way analysis of variance on v e r t i c a l integration show that there was a s i g n i f i c a n t difference (p <.02) between the means of d i f f e r e n t administra- ti v e groups. Results of the one-way analysis of variance on horizontal integration indicate that there were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between means. Details of results of the analysis of Administrators' Questionnaire are presented i n Tables 24 - 32. Administrators' perceptions on v e r t i c a l and horizontal integration are p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated at a l l administrative l e v e l s . Responses to Local Level Questionnaire Results indicate that administrators and extension workers believe that the integrated nonformal education programmes meet the learning needs 155 of r u r a l communities. Administrators at d i s t r i c t and l o c a l levels perceived a high degree of integration to exist i n nonformal education programmes. The major obstacles i d e n t i f i e d i n the implementation of integrated non- formal education programmes are: lack of f a c i l i t i e s and equipment at the three t r a i n i n g centres, and communication d i f f i c u l t i e s with higher administrative l e v e l s . Responses to Participants' Questionnaire The Participants' Questionnaire was designed to determine outcomes of integration through the perceptions of participants of integrated programmes. Outcomes of integration related to: s k i l l s they learned from integrated nonformal education programmes; whether f a c i l i t i e s at the three training centres were adequate; and whether the s k i l l s they learned at tr a i n i n g centres were useful i n the i r d a i l y l i v e s . Responses to Part i c i p a n t s ' Questionnaire indicate that those who u t i l i z e services offered at tr a i n i n g centres learn s k i l l s useful i n their d a i l y l i v e s . Results also show that lack of materials and equipment hinder participants from u t i l i z i n g new s k i l l s and knowledge learned at the tra i n i n g centres. Results also suggest that the small number of administrators and extension workers i n h i b i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n of r u r a l households as one travels further away from t r a i n i n g centres. Limitations of the Study The findings of this research are limited to administrators' percep- tions of factors thought to f a c i l i t a t e or hinder implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes; and also to the i r perceptions of the degree of integration i t s e l f in the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP). This study did not investigate the actual nature of communication within and between departments examined: i t relied on administrators' perceptions. Their perceptions may indeed be but one form of r e a l i t y . Perceptions may change over time. Tajfel (1969) points out that: the term 'perception' can be so stretched out that i t could f i n a l l y lead to a consideration of the social and cultural determinants of a l l knowledge about the [interviewee's] world (p. 319). A limitation of the study l i e s in some of the methodological procedures u t i l i z e d . For instance, heads of government departments selected the personnel who were to respond to the survey questionnaires as well as those eventually interviewed. The researcher could instead have randomly selected subjects. Because not a l l interviews were tape-recorded the researcher's analyses relied on her f i e l d notes. The long distances between national level administrators of senior standing and their sub- ordinates made i t d i f f i c u l t to spend more time in either places. Hence more time was spent with administrators at provincial, d i s t r i c t and local levels than at the national headquarters. Although every attempt was made to maintain confidentiality, respondents may have reported what they fel t the researcher wanted to hear. This leaves open to question the degree of correspondence between how subjects report their own experience and what an external measure might report. Survey questionnaires are more intrusive, and generally require more accommodation from subjects to f i t their responses into those options that the study allows. Yet, despite such d i f f i c u l t i e s in using them, survey quest ionnaires such as those used i n th is research do lead to discovery of general human experience. Much debate revolves around whether or not a s ingle case study provides adequate evidence to acclaim contr ibut ion to knowledge. This study would have benefited from mult ip le case studies i n Zambia or i n s i m i l a r countries for comparisons. Because IRDP was, i n 1972, es tabl i shed i n Zambia f i r s t i n Chipata D i s t r i c t , th i s research was conducted i n t h i s area . Its f indings should be understood as having s p e c i a l impl icat ions for Chipata D i s t r i c t , among administrators from p a r t i c i p a t i n g departments. In as much as th i s study is l i m i t e d to adminis trators ' perceptions of f a c i l i - t a t i n g and h inder ing fac tors ; and to adminis trators ' perceptions of the degree of i n t e g r a t i o n , i t s f indings may be of in teres t to other d i s t r i c t s of Zambia, and to other countries (such as Botswana, Malawi, Kenya) of s i m i l a r status which experiment with integrated nonformal education programmes. Conclusions This sect ion presents major conclusions drawn from the study. I m p l i - cat ions of each conclusion are discussed as they re la t e to p r a c t i c e , to theory, and to further research. 1. Adminis trators ' status in the adminis trat ive hierarchy af fects the i r perceptions of f a c i l i t a t i n g and h inder ing fac tors . Results of this research suggest that factors perceived as f a c i l i t a t - ing and hinder ing implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes rank d i f f e r e n t l y according to adminis trat ive l e v e l . Since f a c i l i t a t i n g factors rank d i f f e r e n t l y at each l e v e l , i t i s necessary to 158 reinforce f a c i l i t a t i n g factors i d e n t i f i e d at d i f f e r e n t administrative levels so that administrators and extension workers are able to perform t h e i r work better. For example, at l o c a l l e v e l , the factor of reaching target population i s ranked higher than i t i s at other administrative l e v e l s . Here, one observes that administrators and extension workers at training centres are in a better position to t e l l whether the t r a i n i n g programmes are reaching the target population. Implications for administrative decisions at higher l e v e l s may involve taking into account the f a c i l i t a t i n g factors perceived by extension workers at lower l e v e l administrative o f f i c e r s , during implementation. While at national l e v e l , inadequate s k i l l e d personnel and lack of tr a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s rank as the highest hindering factor, they rank fourth at the l o c a l l e v e l . It appears, then, that administrators at national l e v e l are aware that there are few s k i l l e d personnel i n the f i e l d , while extension workers, though aware of the problem do not perceive the problem as most pressing. The implication of t h i s finding i s that administrators at national l e v e l may be able to arrange t r a i n i n g programmes in the form of seminars/workshops and short courses for junior s t a f f at l o c a l l e v e l . Lack of adequate inputs ranks highest as a hindering factor for administrators at l o c a l l e v e l . It ranks only t h i r d at the other adminis- t r a t i v e l e v e l s . To the extension workers, inputs are an important aspect of t h e i r day-to-day work. The implication of this observation i s that administrators at higher administrative l e v e l s must l i s t e n to the needs of administrators and extension s t a f f who are i n the f i e l d i n order to lessen the burden of their 159 work. At d i f f erent adminis trat ive l e v e l s , h inder ing factors i d e n t i f i e d at d i f f erent adminis trat ive leve ls should be reduced in order to a s s i s t administrators and extension workers i n t h e i r work. 2. This study suggests that adminis trators ' status in the adminis trat ive h ierarchy affects the i r perceptions of the perceived degree of v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n . Administrators at na t iona l l e v e l perceive a higher degree of v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l in tegra t ion to ex i s t in integrated programmes than do administrators of other adminis trat ive l e v e l s . The l i t e r a t u r e on nonformal education suggests that the existence of both v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l in tegra t ion between a l l adminis trat ive l eve l s i s a necessary requirement for e f f ec t ive implementation of nonformal education programmes in r u r a l areas (Coombs, 1980, 1985; Coles , 1982; Dejene, 1980; Thompson, 1981). The i m p l i c a t i o n of these f indings is that there i s need to improve the communication between departments and wi th in departments between the four adminis trat ive l eve l s ( n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l , d i s t r i c t and l o c a l ) . Of f i cers i n the f i e l d very often fee l a l ienated and have a low morale. They need regular communication from the nat iona l and p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e s . 3. Results of th is research are consistent with the patterns set in the conceptual framework. Nonformal education l i t e r a t u r e asserts that there i s a close r e l a t i o n - ship between the existence of v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l in tegra t ion in integrated programmes (Coombs et a l . , 1973; Coles , 1982). Findings of th i s study indicate that the perceived degree of v e r t i c a l in tegrat ion i s c o r r e l a t e d with the perceived- degree of hor i zonta l i n t e g r a t i o n . This f ind ing is consistent with the pattern set in the conceptual framework. 160 The implication of this finding relates to the planning of integrated programmes. It i s imperative during the planning stage, to create good communication channels among departments and agencies as well as within specific departments. 4. The small number of extension workers i n the f i e l d affects the outcomes of integrated nonformal education programmes. The l i t e r a t u r e on nonformal education asserts that when programmes are integrated v e r t i c a l l y and horizontally at a l l administrative levels their outcomes would benefit participants of nonformal a c t i v i t i e s (Coombs et a l . 1973, 1974, 1980; Coles, 1982). Results of this study suggest that there were very few extension workers in government departments in relation to the number of rural households. Based on the participants' responses, a large population of rural households is not reached by integrated nonformal education programmes. This has implications for the implementation of integrated programmes. A need exists to increase the number of extension workers in government departments working i n the f i e l d as well as to improve thei r working conditions so that they are retained in rural areas. Recommendations Recommendations for Practice One of the findings of the study indicates that administrators of different administrative levels d i f f e r in their scores on the perceived degree of integration, with administrators at national level having higher scores compared to other levels. This finding has implications for the practitioner who plans and introduces a new programme. Administrators at national level get involved in planning, but rarely involve administrators at provincial, di s t r i c t and local levels. Administrators and extension workers at lower administrative levels only become involved during the implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes. In this situation, integrated programmes seem to have been introduced from the national level to specific provinces. If administrators at national level would listen to the views of administrators at lower levels they might gai awareness of the problems administrators at lower administrative levels face in carrying out their work. Involved from the beginning, administra- tors at lower levels would become aware of the goals and strategies for implementing integrated nonformal education programmes. Results on administrators' perceptions on the degree of horizontal integration indicate that there is no significant difference in the percep tions of administrators at different administrative levels, although the national level does score the highest mean. If horizontal integration is considered an important element of integrated programmes, then communica- tion between different departments may be improved through some structural changes in the various ministries which offer services to rural areas. Although administrators and extension workers try to coordinate their efforts in reaching rural populations, there are no regulations or guide- lines in each ministry for such activities. Administrators and extension workers at dis t r i c t and local levels are answerable to administrators at provincial and national levels of their particular departments. The following specific recommendations are made for implementing non- formal activities in rural Zambia. 162 1. I n o r d e r t o s t r e n g t h e n i n t e g r a t i o n b e t w e e n d e p a r t m e n t s a nd o t h e r a g e n c i e s , t h e N a t i o n a l S t e e r i n g C o m m i t t e e e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1984 s h o u l d be a l e g i s l a t e d b o d y w h i c h s h o u l d i n c l u d e o f f i c i a l s f r o m t h e Z a m b i a n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A d v i s o r y B o a r d a n d o f f i c i a l s f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t s o f S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t a nd t h e H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n U n i t . The C o m m i t t e e s h o u l d i n c l u d e a l l f u n d i n g a g e n c i e s a n d v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s o f f e r i n g n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e c o u n t r y . 2. H i n d e r i n g f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d s h o u l d be r e d u c e d a t a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f i n t e g r a t e d n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s . I t may be n e c e s s a r y t o r e v i e w t h e t y p e o f t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m m e s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o e n s u r e t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a c q u i r e s k i l l s r e l e v a n t t o t h e i r w o r k . 3. A d m i n i s t r a t o r s a t d i s t r i c t l e v e l s h o u l d be t r a i n e d t h r o u g h s h o r t c o u r s e s a n d s e m i n a r s so t h a t t h e y a r e a b l e t o c o n t r i b u t e i n d i s t r i c t c o m m i t t e e s , b e c a u s e l a c k o f t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s r a n k e d as t h e most p o w e r f u l h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r . 4. The t h r e e t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s s h o u l d p u b l i c i z e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s a n d f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o f a r m e r s , so t h a t f a r m e r s know what g o e s on a t t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s . Recommendations for Theory Building L i t e r a t u r e o n n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a d v o c a t e s a n i n t e g r a t e d a p p r o a c h t o d e v e l o p m e n t i n o r d e r t o i m p r o v e t h e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g o f t h o s e i n r u r a l a r e a s . A n e e d e x i s t s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e e f f i c a c y o f i n t e g r a t e d a p p r o a c h e s i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r i n t e g r a t e d n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n programmes a r e more e f f i c i e n t t h a n n o n - i n t e g r a t e d n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s . The c o n c e p t o f i n t e g r a t i o n a s i t r e l a t e s t o n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n h a s n o t y e t b e e n v e r y w e l l d e v e l o p e d a n d v a l i d a t e d i n t h e f i e l d . 163 In this study, administrators' perceptions of the degree of vertical integration were positively correlated with administrators' perceived degree of horizontal integration. These results support assertions made in the nonformal education literature (Coles, 1982; Evans, 1981). The integrated nonformal education programme which this study focused on shows a high degree of integration. The high correlations between vertical and. horizontal integration may mean that administrators see integration as one type .of communication. The definition of vertical integration stresses the constant free-flow of communication between the local and higher adminis- trative levels. This study underlines the importance of the two-way process; both top-down and bottom-up in the communication flow that i s central to the concept of vertical integration. In fact, at the local level for some participants the down-up component of vertical integration i s of f i r s t importance. The communication which underlies the concept horizontal integration may not always be complete as i t is assumed in the literature on integrated programmes (Coles, 1982; Maimbo, 1984). Many respondents Indicated that they usually coordinated their efforts with one other department or agency operating in the l o c a l i t y . It would be of theoretical value to explore in more detail the concept of integration as i t relates to nonformal education. The factors identified as f a c i l i t a t i n g and hindering implementation of integrated programmes are similar to the findings of other research surveys (Coombs, 1974; Thompson, 1981). The identification of these factors is an important starting point for someone interested in developing a theoretical model of factors that influence integration process. Recommendations for Further Research Several areas for further research have been identified: 1. This study identified factors that facilitate and hinder implementa- tion of government sponsored nonformal programmes. Subsequent research ought to be conducted that focuses on factors that faci l i t a t e or hinder implementation of non-governmental organizations to deter- mine whether fac i l i t a t i n g and hindering factors are similar to those identified in government-sponsored nonformal education programmes. 2. Research on the impact of integrated nonformal education programmes on the rural communities is an exceedingly important area for further research. Several evaluation studies indicate conflicting results on the impact of these programmes (SIDA, 1983; Marawidze et a l . , 1982; Chilibvumbo and Kanyanja, 1985). This study did not focus on the impact of the programmes. But a systematic evaluation of the impact of integrated programmes in Zambia needs to be conducted. 3. Results of this investigation suggest that facil i t a t i n g and hindering factors rank differently at each administrative level. New research should centre on one administrative level in analyzing fa c i l i t a t i n g and hindering factors with selected participants would be useful so as to better understand these factors in relation to outcomes of integrated nonformal education programmes. 4. The instruments used in this study have high internal consistency. These instruments were context-specific, especially so with reference to significant place names, names of programmes, and details of relationships between administrative levels. Subsequent studies 165 should u t i l i z e instruments that being more cul ture- free- 5 w i l l be relevant across d i f f e r e n t na t iona l contexts in the same or a comparable reg ion . 5. This study assumes that innovations in nonformal education should be part of the nat iona l developmental goals . It i s important to conduct inves t igat ions that question who should innovate and manage nonformal education. Should government or should non-governmental and voluntary organizat ions hold th i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ? Nonformal education research on s o c i a l movements such as trade unions, r e l i g i o u s bodies and s e l f - help organizat ions has r a r e l y been done (Paulston and LeRoy, 1980). There i s need for ana lys i s on the d i f f e r e n t i a l impact of these educational innovations according to who does the sponsoring. Concluding Remarks The l i t e r a t u r e on nonformal education i n s i s t s that in tegra t ion at a l l adminis trat ive leve ls i s necessary for successful implementation of government-sponsored nonformal education (Evans, 1981; Thompson, 1981; Coles , 1982). This study of Integrated Nonformal Education (Systems) i n Zambia has i d e n t i f i e d factors that f a c i l i t a t e as wel l as those that hinder implementation of the Integrated Rural Development Programme. Although th i s study suggests that a high degree of in tegrat ion exists i n these programmes, one may s t i l l question whether IRDP i s r e a l i z i n g i t s goals . As a pos t scr ip t we might consider t h i s : are integrated nonformal education programmes d e s i r a b l e , or are they imposed on developing countries? Is i t necessary to conduct integrated nonformal education programmes through -> Boocock (1980) argues some of the pros and cons of c u l t u r e - f r e e t e s t s . Sociology of educat ion. D a l l a s : Houghton Muff in Company. 166 government departments when, in fact a large number of nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s are carr i ed out by non-governmental organizations? Should pr ivate agencies be l e f t to f l o u r i s h on the ir own, or should they c o o r d i - nate the i r a c t i v i t i e s with government departments? Does in tegra t ion r e a l l y ensure better u t i l i z a t i o n of resources? Since IRDP has been ex terna l ly funded can they make a c la im that they are e f f e c t i v e l y managing l imi ted resources? Is i t poss ible to conduct integrated nonformal education programmes in Zambia today without external funding? Is i t r e a l i s t i c to expect l o c a l l e v e l administrators to coordinate t h e i r e f forts at l o c a l l e v e l when they are.answerable to the ir superiors at nat ional level? Do Zambian p o l i c y makers at na t iona l l e v e l support an integrated approach or do they merely pay l i p service to the system? W i l l the implementation of the Decentra l i za t ion Act enhance IRDP a c t i v i t i e s and ensure increased l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? A better understanding of these issues would strengthen IRDP a c t i v i t i e s i n r e a l i z i n g i t s goals to reach r u r a l communities. Since IRDP was designed to reach the poorest r u r a l households, i t s improved implementation could benefit the r u r a l poor i n Zambia's Chipata D i s t r i c t . The poorest sect ion of many r u r a l communities are often l e f t out of educational innovations (Coombs and Ahmed, 1974; Niehoff , 1979; Thompson, 1981). In w r i t i n g about the Zambian peasantry Bwalya (1984) s a i d : . . . From the point of view of the peasant, the various programmes aimed at increas ing h i s capacity for productive engagement have f a i l e d to reach him. 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Zambia Government. M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Water Department. (1982). Integrated Rural Development Programme: Annual Report. Eastern Province . Zambia Government. M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Water Development. (1983). Annual Report of the Extension Branch. Lusaka: Government P r i n t e r . Zambia Government. M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Water Development. (1983). Integrated Rural Development Programme: Annual Report. Eastern Province . Zambia Government. M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Water Development. (1984). Integrated Rural Eevelopment Programme: Annual Report. Eastern Province . APPENDIX 1 ADMINISTRATORS' QUESTIONNAIRE 182 APPENDIX 1 ADMINISTRATORS' QUESTIONNAIRE Please f i l l in the following information by PRINTING in the spaces given below. Date: Year of b i r t h : Sex: Position held: Highest education obtained (eg. C e r t i f i c a t e , Diploma): Number of years employed in extension: (please turn to the next page.) 183 SECTION A: The f o l l o w i n g statements are about what goes on i n an e x t e n s i o n department. Please i n d i c a t e the extent to which each statement d e s c r i b e s your department by p u t t i n g a c i r c l e on one of the answers. I f you t h i n k an item does not a p p l y , PLEASE c i r c l e Not A p p l i c a b l e (N.A.) on the r a t i n g s c a l e . 0 1 2 3 4 N.A. R a r e l y Sometimes Often Very Often o c c u r s occurs occurs occurs 1. There i s a f r e e flow of i n f o r m a t i o n from my o f f i c e to my s u p e r i o r s . 0 1 2 3 4 2. I get a r e p l y to correspondence to my s u p e r i o r s . 0 1 2 3 4 3. New p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s are c l e a r l y communicated to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n the department. 0 1 2 3 4 4. Seminars are h e l d to motivate workers i n the department. 0 1 2 3 4 5. S u p p l i e s and equipment are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r use. 0 1 2 3 4 6 . A d m i n i s t r a t o r s work together to prepare monthly and annual r e p o r t s . 0 1 2 3 4 7. Regular s t a f f meetings are h e l d i n the department f o r both s e n i o r and j u n i o r s t a f f . 0 1 2 3 4 8. F i e l d workers i n the department have had formal t r a i n i n g . 0 1 2 3 4 9 . Committees plan r u r a l development programmes. 0 1 2 3 4 10. Together d i f f e r e n t departments are i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g r u r a l development programmes. 0 1 2 3 4 184 0 1 " 2 3 4 N.A. R a r e l y Sometimes Often Very Often o c c u r s occurs occurs occurs 11. Non-governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s are i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g committees. 0 1 2 3 4 12. F a c i l i t i e s and equipment from other departments are at our d i s p o s a l . 0 1 2 3 4 13. Programmes are run j o i n t l y w i t h other departments and non-govermental o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 0 1 2 3 4 14. The department works c l o s e l y w i t h l o c a l s e l f - h e l p groups i n v o l v e d i n development p r o j e c t s . 0 1 2 3 4 15. The department works c l o s e l y w i t h other departments i n v o l v e d i n development p r o j e c t s . 0 1 2 3 4 16. Seminars are h e l d i n c o n j u n c t i o n with other departments i n v o l v e d i n r u r a l development. 0 1 2 3 4 17. The content of what i s taught to a d u l t s i n r u r a l areas i s l a i d down from above and i s s t r i c t l y f o l l o w e d . 0 1 2 3 4 18. The content of what i s taught to a d u l t s r e f l e c t s the l o c a l needs of p a r t i c u l a r communities. 0 1 2 3 4 19. A v a r i e t y of nonformal methods ( r a d i o , demonstrations, p o s t e r s and d i s c u s s i o n s ) are used i n t e a c h i n g a d u l t s . 0 1 2 3 4 20. E d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e to p a r t i c i p a n t s ' d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . 0 1 2 3 4 (Please t u r n t o the next page.) 185 SECTION B: The f o l l o w i n g statements are about how you view your department. C i r c l e the answer t h a t r e l a t e s how you view your department. 1 2 3 4 5 S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e Undecided Agree S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e agree 1. T h i s department has a major r o l e i n o f f e r i n g s e r v i c e s to the r u r a l a r e a s . 1 2 3 4 5 2. The o b j e c t i v e s of the programmes are c l e a r to me. 1 2 3 4 5 3. The department has a r o l e i n development e f f o r t s of the c o u n t r y . 1 2 3 4 5 4. There are adequate f a c i l i t i e s and equipment that can h e l p me i n my work. 1 2 3 4 5 5. There i s a good working atmosphere that promotes my work to be done w e l l . 1 2 3 4 5 6. There i s a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p with other departments o f f e r i n g e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s to the r u r a l a r e a s . 1 2 3 4 5 7. I t i s p o s s i b l e f o r me to use f a c i l i t i e s from other departments. 1 2 3 4 5 8. I t i s d e s i r a b l e f o r o f f i c e r s to work c l o s e l y together when d e v e l o p i n g e d u c a t i o n a l programmes f o r r u r a l a r e a s . 1 2 3 4 5 9. I t i s important f o r f i e l d workers from d i f f e r e n t departments to c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s i n o f f e r i n g e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s to the r u r a l a r e a s . 1 2 3 4 5 10. F i e l d workers should be g i v e n enough freedom to modify e d u c a t i o n a l programmes a c c o r d i n g t o the needs of the l o c a l communities. 1 2 3 4 5 186 SECTION C: The f o l l o w i n g are statements t h a t r e l a t e to implementation of i n t e g r a t e d programmes. P l e a s e c i r c l e your answer. 1. In g e n e r a l what was your o v e r a l l r e a c t i o n to the way i n t e g r a t e d r u r a l development programmes were int r o d u c e d ? 1. v e ry n e g a t i v e 2. somewhat n e g a t i v e 3. n e u t r a l 4. somewhat p o s i t i v e 5. very p o s i t i v e 2. A f t e r i n t e g r a t e d programmes were i n t r o d u c e d d i d you f e e l t h a t you had a c l e a r understanding of i t ? 1. v e ry u n c l e a r 2. somewhat u n c l e a r 3. not sure 4. somewhat c l e a r 5. v e r y c l e a r 3. At the time the programmes were i n t r o d u c e d , how much importance d i d you f e e l the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Lusaka and C h i p a t a gave to the I n t e g r a t e d R u r a l Development c e n t r e s ? 1. none 2. l i t t l e 3. moderate 4. g r e a t 5. extreme 4. A f t e r the i n t e g r a t e d programmes were i n t r o d u c e d i n the ar e a , d i d you have any s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s about t h e i r s uccess? 1 . none 2. l i t t l e 3. moderate 4. g r e a t 5. extreme 5. How much e f f o r t would you say t h a t you put i n t o t r y i n g to implement i n t e g r a t e d programmes? 1. none 2. l i t t l e 3. some 4. c o n s i d e r a b l e 5. g r e a t 187 6. How w e l l d i d t h i n g s work out as f a r as you concerned? were 1 . very poor 2 . poor 3. no no t a b l e change 4 . q u i t e w e l l 5. extremely w e l l How much d i d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n C h i p a t a or a t the c e n t r e r e a l l y t r y to h e l p you overcome any of these problems? 1 . not sure 2 . none 3. l i t t l e 4 . some 5. c o n s i d e r a b l e To what extent d i d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c i a l s b l o ck you i n any way i n your f i r s t attempts to c a r r y out your work? 1 . not sure 2 . none 3. l i t t l e 4. some 5. c o n s i d e r a b l e 9. How much work? e f f o r t have you made i n c a r r y i n g out your 1 . not sure 2 . none 3. l i t t l e 4. some 5. c o n s i d e r a b l e 1 0 . How much e f f o r t are you making a t the present time i n c a r r y i n g out your work towards implementing I n t e g r a t e d R u r a l Development Programmes? 1 . not sure 2 . none 3. l i t t l e 4. some 5. c o n s i d e r a b l e 188 1 1 . In regard to your o v e r a l l r e a c t i o n t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n of i n t e g r a t e d programmes, what would you say your f e e l i n g s are now? 1 . very n e g a t i v e 2. somewhat n e g a t i v e 3. ambivalent 4. somewhat p o s i t i v e 5. very p o s i t i v e 1 2 . Are i n t e g r a t e d r u r a l development programmes s e r v i n g the int e n d e d t a r g e t groups? 1 . very poor 2 . poor 3. no no t a b l e change 4. q u i t e w e l l 5. extremely w e l l APPENDIX 2 THE CRITICAL INCIDENT INTERVIEW FORM 190 APPENDIX 2 THE CRITICAL INCIDENT INTERVIEW FORM General Aim We are making a study of r u r a l development programmes. We would l i k e t o f i n d out what t h i n g s h e l p or h i n d e r your work. You are e s p e c i a l l y q u a l i f i e d t o t e l l us about some of these f a c t o r s , and t h a t i s why you have been s e l e c t e d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . Could you p l e a s e repeat f o r me your understanding of t h i s e x e r c i s e ( s t u d y ) . Summary Some t h i n g s t h a t h e l p are are communication between p e r s o n n e l i n d i f f e r e n t departments and c o o r d i n a t i o n with other a g e n c i e s working i n the a r e a . I am going to ask you to r e c a l l i n c i d e n t s which happened to you or to your c o l l e a g u e s which were h e l p f u l i n your work. L a t e r , I w i l l ask you q u e s t i o n s about i n c i d e n t s t h a t h i n d e r e d your work. Sponsorship of the Study The r e s e a r c h being conducted i s p a r t of a d o c t o r a l study being undertaken by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . I t i s f u l l y supported by the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the U n i v e r s i t y of Zambia, and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Research Development C e n t r e . Purpose of the Study We wish to f i n d out i n d e t a i l what behaviours are h e l p f u l a t work and which behaviours are not h e l p f u l . We are e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n what kinds of behaviour among ex t e n s i o n workers are h e l p f u l i n t h e i r work. A l l i n t e r v i e w s w i l l be t r e a t e d with c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . Only the r e s e a r c h e r w i l l have a c c e s s to the i n f o r m a t i o n you w i l l g i v e . 191 Questions f o r P o s i t i v e Incidents 1. Think back to a time when you or your f r i e n d d i d something that was very h e l p f u l to your work. What was i t ? 2. Could you d e s c r i b e the event i n d e t a i l f o r me? 3. For how long d i d the i n c i d e n t go on? 4. What e x a c t l y happened t h a t was so h e l p f u l ? 5. Why do you t h i n k the event was so h e l p f u l ? 6. To what extent was the event h e l p f u l i n your work? How much would you say i t helped your work? 1 2 3 0 Some C o n s i d e r a b l e Great Not Know 7. What a c t i o n d i d you take? 8. How d i d your c o l l e a g u e s r e a c t to the event? 9. Was the i n c i d e n t a l s o h e l p f u l to the work of your c o l l e a g u e s ? 10. Can you r e c a l l any other h e l p f u l i n c i d e n t s ? 192 Questions f o r Negative Incidents 1. Can you r e c a l l when you or someone d i d something that you f e l t b l o c k e d you from doing your work. What was i t ? 2. Can you d e s c r i b e i n d e t a i l what e x a c t l y happened? 3 . Why do you t h i n k i t b l o c k e d you from doing your work? 4. Was t h i s event the g r e a t e s t o b s t a c l e at the time? 5. I f no, which other o b s t a c l e s to your work d i d you have at t h a t time? 6. D i d the event block the work of c o l l e a g u e s at the c e n t r e ? How d i d i t block t h e i r work? 7 . To what extent was the event an o b s t a c l e to your work? How much would you say i t b l o c k e d your work? 1 2 3 0 Some C o n s i d e r a b l e Great Not Know 8. Was t h e r e any h e l p or a d v i c e t h a t you needed d u r i n g the time the event occured? 9 . Who p r o v i d e d the h e l p or who i n your o p i n i o n should have p r o v i d e d the help? 10. Can you r e c a l l any other i n c i d e n t s ? 193 APPENDIX 3 LOCAL LEVEL QUESTIONNAIRE APPENDIX 3 LOCAL LEVEL QUESTIONNAIRE I n s t r u c t i o n s : The f o l l o w i n g are statements about your work. I n d i c a t e your response to each statment by c i r c l i n g the most a p p r o p r i a t e answer. 3 2 1 0 S t r o n g l y Agree Agree DisAgree Not Know 1. Committees e x i s t t h a t c o o r d i n a t e i n t e g r a t e d r u r a l development programmes. 3 2 2. Members of the committees r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t departments and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 3 2 3. D i s t r i c t Development Committees c o n s i d e r l o c a l peoples' demands. 3 2 4 . Ward Development Committees work c l o s e l y w i t h I n t e g r a t e d R u r a l Development C e n t r e s . 3 2 5. The p a r t y and church l e a d e r s are a c t i v e i n Development Committees. 3 2 6. I n t e g r a t e d R u r a l Development Programmes c o n s u l t the v i l l a g e committees about what t h e i r needs a r e . 3 2 7. I work c l o s e l y with a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and f i e l d workers from other departments. 3 2 8. F a c i l i t i e s and equipment are shared between departments and other o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 3 2 9. Seminars and other t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a re o f f e r e d j o i n t l y with other departments. 3 2 10. L o c a l people are c o n s u l t e d on what they want to l e a r n . 3 2 195 3 S t r o n g l y Agree 2 Agree Di sAgree 11. I p l a n t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a c c o r d i n g to the needs of the community around the c e n t r e . 12. Many people around the community a t t e n d t r a i n i n g programmes. 13. Women do not p a r t i c i p a t e as o f t e n as men. 14. One of the o b s t a c l e s I face i n my work i s l a c k of f a c i l i t i e s and equipment at the c e n t r e . 15. I t i s not c l e a r as to what I should be doing a t the c e n t r e . 16. I do not get support from a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a t the c e n t r e . 17. The work at the c e n t r e i s too much f o r me. 18. I would r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g to do my job w e l l . 19. One of the o b s t a c l e s I e x p e r i e n c e i n my work i s the lack of quick response from a d m i n i s t r a t o r s at h i g h l e v e l s . 20. Another o b s t a c l e i s the e x i s t i n g communication problems with a d n m i n i s t r a t o r s at the headquarters. 21. The bad roads and telephone system d e l a y communication. 22. O b s t a c l e s that e x i s t do not prevent me from doing my job. 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 23. There should be more c o o p e r a t i o n between departments and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 3 2 1 0 APPENDIX 4 PARTICIPANTS' QUESTIONNAIRE 197 APPENDIX 4 P A R T I C I P A N T S ' Q U E S T I O N N A I R E I n s t r u c t i o n s : Below i s a l i s t of statements t h a t r e l a t e to what you hope to l e a r n from the t r a i n i n g programme. C i r l e the answer which you agree w i t h . 3 2 1 0 S t r o n g l y Agree Agree Disagree Not Know 1. I am l e a r n i n g a l o t from t h i s t r a i n i n g programme. 3 2 1 0 2. I hope t o l e a r n s k i l l s t h a t w i l l h e l p me improve my farming s k i l l s . 3 2 1 0 3. I am l e a r n i n g s k i l l s t h a t are h e l p f u l to improve my l i f e i n g e n e r a l . 3 2 1 0 4. The i n s t r u c t o r ' s t e a c h i n g s t y l e i s h e l p f u l i n e n a b l i n g me t o l e a r n . 3 2 1 0 5. Because of the programme I l e a r n more everyday. 3 2 1 0 6. The f a c i l i t i e s a t the c e n t r e are adequate to h e l p us to l e a r n b e t t e r . 3 2 1 0 7. The f a c i l i t i e s t h a t we use at the c e n t r e are a v a i l a b l e i n my v i l l a g e . 3 2 1 0 8. Equipment that i s used i s a v a i l a b l e i n my home. 3 2 1 0 9. I t would be u s e f u l f o r me to buy equipment from the c e n t r e to use i n my home. 3 2 1 0 198 3 St r o n g l y Agree 2 Agree Disagree 10. I w i l l d e f i n i t e l y be able to use the knowledge and s k i l l s I have learned at the ce n t r e . 11. There i s needless d u p l i c a t i o n of l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s from d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t o r s . 12. I am happy w i t h the way we are being t r a i n e d at the c e n t r e . 13. I would l i k e t h i n g s to improve at the c e n t r e . 14. The centre should h e l p us i n g e t t i n g loans more e a s i l y than at the moment. 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 15. The s k i l l s we l e a r n at the centre w i l l help us to produce more crops. 3 2 1 0 APPENDIX 5 CODING SHEET FOR ADMINISTRATORS' QUESTIONNAIRE 200 APPENDIX 5 CODING SHEET FOR ADMINISTRATORS' QUESTIONNAIRE ID = Columns 1-3 Group = Column 4 Questionnaire = Column 5 Age: 20-30 = 1 Column 6 21-40 = 2 41-60 - 3 Sex: Male Column 7 Female = 2 Educational Background: Certificate = 1 Column 8 Diploma = 2 Degree(s) = 3 Number of Years Employed: Column 9 1-10 11+ 1 2 SECTION A = Columns 10-19 (vertical integration) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 11. 20-29 horizontal integration. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. SECTION B = Columns 30-39 8. 1 | | | | 1 | 1 I 9. | j | | | 1 j j | 10. | | j | | | | | |" SECTION C = Columns 40-51 (opinions on implementation) 1. | | | | | | | | | 2. | | | j | | | | | 3. | | | j | | | | | 4. | | | | | | | | | 5. j | | | 1 | | | | 6. | | | | 1 | | | | 7. | | | | | | | | | 8. | | | | | | | | [ 9. I I I I I I I I 10. APPENDIX 6 CODING SHEET FOR LOCAL LEVEL QUESTIONNAIRE A P P E N D I X 6 C O D I N G S H E E T F O R L O C A L L E V E L Q U E S T I O N N A I R E ID = Columns 1-3 Group = Column 4 Questionnaire = Column 5 Age: 20-30 = 1 31-40 = 2 41-60 = 3 Sex: Male = 1 Female = 2 Column 7 Educational Background: Certificate = 1 Column 8 Diploma = 2 Degree(s) => 3 Number of Years Employed: 1-10 = 1 Column 9 11+ = 2 Columns 10-32 administrators' opinions on integration. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 205 9- | 1 1 1 | | 1 10. | | | | | 1 1 11. | | | 1 | | | 12. | | | | | | | 13. | | | 1 | | | 14. j | | | | | | 15. | | | | | | 1 16. | 1 | | | | | 1 7- 1 1 | | | | 1 1 8* I I 1 | 1 | | 19. | | | | | | | 20. 1 | | 1 | | | 21. 1 1 | | | | | 22. | | 1 | 1 | | 23. I I I t I I I APPENDIX 7 CODING SHEET FOR PARTICIPANTS* QUESTIONNAIRE 207 A P P E N D I X 7 C O D I N G S H E E T F O R P A R T I C I P A N T S ' Q U E S T I O N N A I R E ID = Columns 1-2 Group = Column 3 Age = Column 4 20-30 = 1 31-40 =» 2 41 above = 3 Sex: Male = 1 Column 5 Female = 2 Columns 6-21 (Participants' opinions on programmes) 1. 2. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 208 12. | | 1 | | | j 13. | | | 1 | | | 14. | | | | | 1 | - 15. I I I I I I I APPENDIX 8 ADMINISTRATORS' LETTER OF RECRUITMENT AND CONSENT FORM 2 1 0 Centre for Continuing Education University of Zambia Lusaka January 13, 1986. Head of Department Department of Dear Sir/Madam, Your department has been selected to participate in my study. The study is part of my doctoral programme at the University of British Columbia and is fu l l y supported by the University of Zambia and the International Development Research Centre. I am writing to ask your permission to allow personnel in your department to f i l l in a questionnaire and to be interviewed. Interviews w i l l run for approximately forty-five minutes. Participation in the study is voluntary. A l l responses w i l l be kept s t r i c t l y confidential. Enclosed are consent forms for administrators to f i l l in. Thank you for your cooperation. Yours sincerely, Elizabeth Mumba 211 STUDY: A STUDY OF INTEGRATED NONFORMAL EDUCATION IN ZAMBIA INVESTIGATOR: Elizabeth Mumba The Head of Department is aware of the study and has no objection to i t being conducted. YOUR PARTICIPATION IS VOLUNTARY AND YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO WITHDRAW FROM THE STUDY AT ANY TIME. From: Date: Please check the appropriate items YES, I AM WILLING TO PARTICIPATE IN YOUR RESEARCH. NO, I AM UNWILLING TO PARTICIPATE IN YOUR RESEARCH. Additional Comments: PLEASE RETURN THIS FORM TO Signature: YOUR HEAD OF DEPARTMENT. Thank you. APPENDIX 9 SUMMARY OF RESPONSES TO ADMINISTRATORS' QUESTIONNAIRE Appendix 9, Section A: Responses to Administrator's Questionnaire Item Response 0 1 2 3 4 N.A. Rarely Sometimes Often Very Mean Rank National Provincial D i s t r i c t Case Case Case Occurs Occurs Occurs Often Response Mean Mean Mean 1 2 3 Occurs Mean Mean Mean 1. There Is a free flow of information from my o f f i c e to my superiors. n 3 8 15 42 38 2.98 1 3.31 3.06 2.90 2.83 3.00 2.25 % (2.8) (7.5) (14.2) (39.6) (35.8) 2. I get a reply to correspondence to my superiors. n 6 19 20 33 28 2.54 3 3.15 2.63 2.38 2.16 2.54 1.50 % (5.7) (17.9) (18.9) (31.1) (26.4) 3. New p o l i c y guidelines are c l e a r l y communicated to administrators In the department. n 9 13 21 41 22 2.50 4 2.73 2.63 2.57 2.16 2.27 2.00 % (8.5) (12.3) (19.8) (38.7) (20.8) 4. Seminars are held to motivate workers in the department. n 6 25 30 31 14 2.20 7 2.31 2.03 2.23 1.16 2.54 2.58 % (5.7) (23.6) (28.3) (29.2) (13.2) 5. Supplies and equipment are readily available for use. n 10 38 35 19 4 1.70 9 2.27 1.30 1.42 2.33 2. OO 1.41 % (9.4) (35.8) (33.0) (17.9) (3.8) 6. Administrators work together to prepare monthly and annual reports. n B 23 19 29 27 2.41 5 2.34 2.36 2.52 2.50 2.81 2 .08 % (7.5) (21.7) (17.9) (27.4) (25.5) 7. Regular s t a f f meetings' are held in the department for both senior and junior s t a f f . n 8 25 25 23 25 2.30 6 1.73 2.30 2.38 3.00 1.81 3.50 % (7.5) (23.6) (23.6) (21.7) (23.6) 8. F i e l d workers in the department have had formal tra i n i n g . n 3 10 21 28 43 2.95 2 3.30 2.96 3.00 2.00 3.18 2.33 % (2.8) (9.4) (19.8) (26.4) (40.6) 9. Committees plan rural development programmes. n 27 27 16 25 11 1.67 10 2.61 1.70 1.09 0.90 1.18 1.75 % (25.5) (25.5) (15.1) (23.6) (10.4) 10. Together d i f f e r e n t departments are involved in planning rural development programmes. n 16 19 29 30 12 2.02 8 2.65 1.93 1.95 1.16 1.54 1.91 % (15.1) (17.9) (27.4) (28.3) (11.3) Appendix 9 continued Item Response 0 1 2 3 4 N.A. Rarely Sometimes Often Very Mean Rank National Provincial D i s t r i c t Case Case Case Occurs Occurs Occurs Often Response Mean Mean Mean 1 2 3 Occurs Mean Mean Mean 11. Non-governmental organizations are involved in planning committees. n 28 17 34 24 3 1.59 9 2.11 1.86 1.52 1.33 1.18 0.41 % (26.4) (16.0) (32.1) (22.6) (2.8) 12. F a c i l i t i e s and equipment from other departments are at our disposal. n 26 44 28 5 3 1.19 10 1.65 1.23 0.95 1.16 1.09 0.66 % (24.5) (41.5) (26.4) (4.7) (2.8) 13. Programmes are run J o i n t l y with other departments and non-governmental organizations. n 14 28 32 27 5 1.82 8 2.38 1.96 1.23 2.33 1.21 1.50 % (13.2) (26.4) (30.2) (25.5) (4.7) 14. The department works c l o s e l y with local s e l f-help groups Involved In development projects. n 9 17 22 23 35 2.54 5 2.53 2.56 2.85 2.50 2.45 2.08 % (8.5) (16.0) (20.8) (21.7) (33.0) 15. The department works c l o s e l y with other departments Involved in development projects. n 3 10 26 35 32 2.78 2 3.19 2.56 2.81 2.83 3.36 1.83 % (2.8) (9.4) (24.5) (33.0) (30.2) 16. Seminars are held In conjunction with other departments involved in rural development. n 8 21 32 31 14 2. 20 6 2.61 1.96 2 .14 2 .00 2 .63 1 % (7.5) (198) (30.2 ) (29.2) (13.2) 17 . The content of what is taught to adults in rural areas is l a i d down from above and 1s s t r i c t l y fol1 owed n 14 24 36 25 7 1. 87 7 2.03 1 .66 1 .61 2 . 16 2 .00 2 % (13.2) (22.6) (34.0) (23.6) (6.6) 18 . The content of what Is taught to adults r e f l e c t s the local needs of partIcular commun11les . n 5 12 23 38 28 2. 67 4 2.73 2.63 2 85 2 .33 2 .81 2 % (4.7) (11.3) (21.7) (35.8) (26.4) 19. A vari e t y of nonformal methods (radio, demonstrations, posters, and discussions) are used In teaching adults. n 8 6 21 29 42 2.85 1 2.92 2.70 2.85 3.00 3.36 2.58 % (7.5) (5.7) (19.8) (27.4) (39.6) 20. Educational a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e to participants' d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . n 7 7 25 35 32 2.73 3 2.80 2.56 2.85 3.00 2.81 2.58 % (6.6) (6.6) (23.6) (33.0) (30.2) Appendix 9, Section B: Administrator's Opinions on Integration Item Response 0 1 2 3 4 5 N.A. Strongly Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly Mean Disagree Agree Response Rank National P r o v i n c i a l D i s t r i c t Case Case Case Mean Mean Mean 1 2 3 Mean Mean Mean 1. This department has a major role In o f f e r i n g services to the rural areas. n 3 1 1 0 15 86 % (2.8) (0.9) (0.9) (0.0) (14.2) (81.1) 4.65 4.50 4.86 4. 10 4.83 4.90 4.90 The objectives of the programmes are clear to me. n 4 1 2 1 41 57 % (3.8) (0.9) (1.9) (0.9) (38.7) (53.8) 4.31 4.26 4 . 43 4. 19 4.83 4. 18 4. 16 The department has a role in development e f f o r t s of the country, n 3 0 3 1 22 77 4.54 54 (2.8) (0.0) (2.8) (0.9) (20.8) (72.6) 4.69 4.36 4.61 4.83 4.72 4.25 There are adequate f a c i l i t i e s and equipment that can help me tn my work, n 2 13 50 11 26 4 2.54 10 % (1.9) (12.3) (47.2) (10.4) (24.5) (3.8) 2.76 2.40 2.61 2.16 2.36 2.66 There is a good working atmosphere that promotes my work to be done well, n 1 10 21 13 50 11 3.26 8 54 (0.9) (9.4) (19.8) (12.3) (47.2) (10.4) 3.53 3.30 3.33 3.33 3.00 2.66 There Is a close relationship with other departments o f f e r i n g educational services to the rural areas, n 4 2 18 15 54 13 3.43 7 3.92 3.60 3.09 54 (3.8) (1.9) (17.0) (14.2) (50.9) (12.3) 3.00 3.72 2.50 It i s possible for me to use f a c i l i t i e s from other departments. n 2 10 31 10 50 3 2.99 5 4(1.9) (9.4) (29.2) (9.4) (47.2) (2.8) 3.30 3.36 2 .66 2.33 2.36 2.83 8. It is desireable for o f f i c e r s to work cl o s e l y together when developing educational programmes for rural areas. n 2 2 1 5 24 72 4.48 5 4.73 4.46 4.19 4.50 4.72 4.25 54 ( 1.9) ( 1.9) (0.9) (4.7) (22.6) (67.9) Appendix 9 continued Item Response 0 1 2 3 4 5 N.A. Strongly Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly Mean Rank National P r o v i n c i a l D i s t r i c t Case Case Case Disagree Agree Response Mean Mean Mean 1 2 3 Mean Mean Mean 9. It Is Important for f i e l d workers from d i f f e r e n t departments to coordinate their e f f o r t s In o f f e r i n g educational f a c i l i t i e s to the rural areas. n 1 0 1 3 14 87 4.84 1 2.16 4.86 4.42 4.50 4.81 4.75 % (0.9) (0.0) (0.9) (2.8) (13.2) (82.1) 10. F i e l d workers should be given enough freedom to modify educational programmes according to the needs of the local commlttees. n 1 0 3 3 29 69 4.44 4 2.65 4.66 4.47 4.66 4.63 4.33 % (0.9) (0.0) (2.8) (2.8) (27.4) (65.1) Appendix 9, Section C: Administrator's Opinions on Implementation of Integrated Programmes Item Response 0 1 2 3 4 5 N.A. Very Somewhat Neutral Somewhat Very Mean Rank NatlonalProvlncial D i s t r i c t Case Case Case Negative Negative Positive Positive Response Mean Mean Mean 1 2 3 Mean Mean Mean 1. In general n 0 % (0.0) what is your overall 3 9 (2.8) (8.5) react 1 on 18 (17.0) to the way 29 (27.4) Integrated rural development programmes were 23 3.73 3 3.82 3.47 3 (21.7) introduced? .62 3.80 3 .95 4.41 0 N.A. 1 Very Unclear 2 Somewhat Unc1 ear 3 Not Sure 4 Somewhat Clear 5 Very Clear 2. After n % Integrated programmes were Introduced did you 1 5 11 13 30 (0.9) (4.7) (10.4) (12.3) (28.3) feel you 22 (20.8) had a clear understanding of It? 3.61 5 3.52 3.52 3 .87 3.40 3 .09 4 .08 0 N.A. 1 None 2 L i t t l e 3 Moderate 4 Great 5 Extreme 3. At the time the programmes were introduced, how much importance did you feel the administration in Lusaka and Chipata gave to the Integrated Rural Development centres? n 3 4 8 32 29 6 3.19 8 3.41 3.28 3.56 1.80 2.72 3.25 % (2.8) (3.8) (7.5) (30.2) (27.4) (5.7) 4. After the Integrated programmes were Introduced in the area, did you have any serious questions about th e i r success? n 4 % (3.8) 12 (11.3) 12 (113) 20 ( 18.9) 26 (26.4) 6 (5.7) 2.90 3. .23 3.00 3.00 2.40 2.27 2.91 0 N. A . 1 None 2 L i t t l e 3 Some 4 Cons id erable 5 Great 5. How much e f f o r t would n 5 9 % (4.7) (8.5) you say 6 (5.7) that you 9 (8.5) put into 37 (34.9) trying to 15 (14.2) Implement 3.34 Integrated 6 2. programmes? 88 3.61 4 .00 2.60 2.81 3.50 Appendix 9 continued Item Response o N. A . 1 Very Poor 2 Poor 3 No Notable Change 4 Quite Wei 1 5 Extremely Wei 1 Mean Response Rank Na 11ona1Prov1nc1 a1 Mean Mean D i s t r i c t Mean Case 1 Mean Case 2 Mean Case 3 Mean 6. How we 11 did n 8 % (7.5) things 2 (1.9) work out 5 (4.7) as far as you 18 (17.0) were 45 (42.5) concerned? 3 (2.8) 3.22 7 3.00 3.33 3.73 2.60 2 .63 3.50 0 N.A. 1 Not Sure 2 None 3 L i t t l e 4 Some 5 Consid- erable 7. How much d i d administrators In Chipata or at the centre r e a l l y try to help you overcome any of these problems? n 5 12 7 16 18 23 3.22 4 2.47 3.38 4.13 3.OO 2.36 2.83 % (4.7) (11.3) (6.6) (15.1) (17.0) (21.7) 8. To what extent did administrative o f f i c i a l s block you In any way In your f i r s t attempts to carry out your work? n 7 11 23 20 13 7 2.51 1.88 2.33 3.46 2.60 2.72 2.33 % (6.6) (10.4) (21.7) (18.9) (12.3) (6.6) 9. How much e f f o r t have you made In carrying out your work? n 3 1 3 3 22 49 4.30 1 3.58 4.57 4.80 3.40 4.45 4.50 % (2.8) (0.9) (2.8) (2.8) (20.8) (46.2) 10. How much e f f o r t are you making at the present time in carrying out your work towards Implementing Integrated Rural Development Programmes? n 4 5 8 9 17 38 3.77 2 3.64 3.90 3.86 4.00 3.54 3.75 % (3.8) (4.7) (7.5) (8.5) (16.0) (35.8) 0 1 2 3 4 5 N.A. Very Somewhat Ambivalent Somewhat Very Negative Negative Positive Positive 11. In regard to your overall reaction to the Introduction of Integrated programmes, what would you say your f e e l i n g s are now? n 7 8 7 38 21 25 3.63 4 3.82 3.00 4.20 3 . 40 3 . 36 4 . 08 % (6.6) (7.5) (6.6) (35.8) (19.8) (23.6) Appendix 9 continued Item Response 0 1 2 3 4 5 N.A. Very Poor No Notable Quite Extremely Mean Rank NationalProvlnclal D i s t r i c t Case Case Case Poor Change Well Well Response Mean Mean Mean 1 2 3 Mean Mean Mean 12. Are integrated rural development programmes serving the Intended target groups? n 10 3 2 25 34 7 3.12 9 3.82 % (9.4) (2.8) (1.9) (23.6) (32.1) (6.6) 3.04 3.20 2.20 3.27 2.41 APPENDIX 10 SUMMARY OF RESPONSES TO LOCAL LEVEL QUESTIONNAIRE Appendix 10: Responses to Local Level Administrators' Opinions on Integration Item Response 0 1 2 3 Not Disagree Agree Strongly Know Agree Mean D i s t r i c t Case Case Case Response Mean 1 2 3 Mean Mean Mean 1. Committees e x i s t that coordinate Integrated rural development programmes. n 10 8 27 5 1.54 1.47 1.66 1.66 1.50 % (20.0) (16.0) (54.0) (10.0) 2. Members of the committee represent d i f f e r e n t departments and organizations. n 9 9 23 9 1.64 1.61 1.66 1.72 1.58 % (18.0) (18.0) (46.0) (18.0) 3. D i s t r i c t Development Committees consider local peoples' demands. n 7 8 25 10 1.76 1.90 1.16 1.81 1.75 % (14.0) (16.0) (50.0) (20.0) 4. Ward Development Committees work c l o s e l y with Integrated Rural Development Centres. n 7 13 24 6 1.58 1.57 1.33 2.00 1.33 % (14.0) (26.0) (48.0) (12.0) 5. The party and church leaders are active in Development Committees. n 7 6 28 9 1.78 2.00 1.16 1.81 1.66 % (14.0) (12.0) (56.0) (18.0) 6. Integrated Rural Development Programmes consult the v i l l a g e committees about what the i r needs are. n 8 15 16 11 1.60 1.81 1.00 1.90 1.25 % (16.0) (30.0) (32.0) (22.0) 7. I work c l o s e l y with administrators and f i e l d workers from other departments. n 1 7 24 18 2.18 2.23 2.00 2.40 1.91 % (2.0) (14.0) (48.0) (36.0) 8. P a r t i c i p a n t s and equipment are shared between departments and other organizations. n 3 17 25 5 1.64 1.66 1.66 1.90 1.58 % (6.0) (34.0) (50.0) (10.0) 9. Seminars and other t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s are offered J o i n t l y with other departments. n 1 19 20 10 1.78 1.81 1.83 2.00 1.50 % (2.0) (38.0) (40.0) (20.0) 10. Local people are consulted on what they want to learn. n 3 13 25 9 1.80 1.61 1.16 2.18 2.08 % (6.0) (26.0) (50.0) (18.0) Appendix 10 continued Item Response 0 1 2 3 Not Disagree Agree Strongly Mean D i s t r i c t Case Case Case Know Agree Response Mean 1 2 3 Mean Mean Mean 11. I plan t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s according to the needs of the community around the centre. n 3 5 25 15 2.12 2.04 2.00 2.18 2.25 % (6.0) (10.0) (50.0) (34.0) 12. Many people around the community attend trai n i n g programmes. n 1 12 25 12 1.96 1.85 1.66 2.36 1.91 % (2.0) (24.0) (50.0) (24.0) 13. Women do not p a r t i c i p a t e as often as men. n 0 22 24 4 1.64 1.57 1.83 1.81 1.50 % (0.0) (44.0) (48.0) (8.0) 14. One of the obstacles I face in my work is lack of f a c i l i t i e s and equipment at the centre. n 2 7 17 24 2.26 2.14 2.16 2.45 2.33 % (4.0) (14.0) (34.0) (48.0) 15. It Is not c l e a r as to what I should be doing at the centre. n 5 44 1 0 0.92 0.81 1.00 I.OO 1.00 % (10.0) (88.0) (2.0) (0.0) 16. I do not get support from administrators at the centre. n 2 45 2 1 1.04 1.09 1.00 1.00 1.00 % (4.0) (90.0) (4.0) (2.0) 17. The work of the centre Is too much for me. n 3 36 7 4 1.24 1.09 1.33 1.18 1.50 % (6.0) (72.0) (14.0) (8.0) 18. I would require additional t r a i n i n g to do my job well. n 0 11 21 18 2.14 2.09 2.16 2.36 2.00 % (0.0) (22.0) (42.0) (36.0) 19. One of the obstacles I experience In my work Is the lack of quick response from administrators at high l e v e l s . n 0 6 24 20 2.28 2.28 2.50 2.09 2.33 % (0.0) (12.0) (48.0) (40.0) 20. Another obstacle Is the e x i s t i n g communications problems with administrators at the headquarters. n 3 11 19 17 2.00 1.85 2.33 1.81 2.25 % (6.0) (22.0) (38.0) (34.0) Appendix 10 continued I tern Response 0 Not Know 1 Disagree 2 Agree Strongly Agree Mean Response D i s t r i c t Mean Case 1 Mean Case 2 Mean Case 3 Mean 21. The bad roads and telephone system delay communication. n 3 12 12 23 % (e.O) (24.0) (24.0) (46.0) 2. 10 1 .81 2.66 2.36 2 .08 22. Obstacles that exist do not prevent me from doing my job. n 0 15 31 4 % (0.0) (30.0) (62.0) (8.0) 1 . 78 1 . 76 1 .83 1 .90 1 .66 23. There should be more cooperation between departments and organizations. n O 0 12 38 2.76 % (0.0) (0.0) (24.0) (76.0) 2.71 2.66 2.81 2.83 J APPENDIX 11 SUMMARY OF RESPONSES TO PARTICIPANTS' QUESTIONNAIRE APPENDIX 11: Summary of participants' responses on outcomes of integration. I tea Response 0 1 2 3 Mean Not Know Disagree Agree Strongly Response Agree 1. I am learning a lot from this training programme. n 1 4 23 49 2.55 % (1.3) (5.2) (29.9) (63.6) 2. I hope to learn s k i l l s that will help me improve my farming s k i l l s . n 3 5 24 40 2.24 % (10.4) (6.5) (31.2) (51.9) 3. I am learning s k i l l s that are helpful to improve my l i f e in general. n 4 3 15 50 2.44 % (5.2) (10.4) (19.5) (64.9) 4. The instructor's teaching style is helpful in enabling me to learn. n 3 6 32 36 2.31 % (3.9) (7.8) (41.6) (46.8) 5. Because of the programme I learn more every day. n 8 13 20 36 2.09 % (10.4) (16.9) (26.0) (46.8) 6. The f a c i l i t i e s at the centre are adequate to help us to learn better. n 15 13 27 22 1.72 % (19.5) (16.9) (35.1) (28.6) 7. The f a c i l i t i e s that we use at the centre are available in my village. n 16 36 12 13 1.28 % (20.8) (46.8) (15.6) (16.9) 8. Equipment that is used is available in my home. n 22 35 10 10 1.10 % (28.6) (45.5) (13.0) (73.0) 9. It would be useful for me to buy equipment from the centre to use in my home. n 20 7 28 22 1.67 % (26.0) (9.1) (36.4) (28.6) 10. I wi l l definitely be able to use the knowledge and s k i l l s I have learned at the centre. n 10 3 7 57 2.44 % (13.0) (3.9) (9.1) (74.0) 11. There is needless duplication of learning activities from different instructors. n 28 11 7 31 1.53 % (36.4) (14.3) (9.1) (40.3) 12. I am happy with the way we are being trained at the centre. n 9 9 26 33 2.07 % (11.7) (11.7) (33.8) (42.9) 13. I would like things to improve at the centre. n 23 15 11 28 1.57 % (29.9) (19.5) (14.3) (36.4) 14. The centre should help us in getting loans more easily than at the moment. n 24 4 23 26 1.66 % (31.2) (5.2) (29.9) (33.3) 15. The 3 k i l l s we learn at the centre will help us to produce more crops. n 25 7 16 29 1.63 % (32.5) (9.1) (20.8) (37.7)

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