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Integrated nonformal education in Zambia : the case of Chipata District Mumba, Elizabeth Cisece 1987

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INTEGRATED NONFORMAL EDUCATION IN ZAMBIA:  THE CASE OF CHIPATA DISTRICT  by ELIZABETH CISECE MUMBA B.A.(Ed.), The U n i v e r s i t y of Zambia, 1976 M.S., Indiana U n i v e r s i t y , 1979 M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education)  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ©Elizabeth Cisece Mumba, 1987  In  presenting  degree at  this  the  thesis in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this or  publication of  thesis for by  his  or  that the  her  representatives.  It  this thesis for financial gain shall not  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  for  an advanced  Library shall make  it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be  permission.  DE-6.3/81)  requirements  British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  is  granted  by the  understood  that  be allowed without  head of copying  my or  my written  ABSTRACT  T h i s r e s e a r c h was concerned w i t h programmes i n Zambia. factors  The purposes  thought by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  i n t e g r a t e d nonformal  of the r e s e a r c h were:  to f a c i l i t a t e  t i o n of i n t e g r a t e d n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n  education (1) to i d e n t i f y  and h i n d e r  the  implementa-  programmes; (2) to e s t a b l i s h t h e  r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e of each f a c t o r ; (3) t o determine the p e r c e i v e d integration  from the p e r s p e c t i v e  determine s k i l l s  of f o u r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s ; and (4) to  and knowledge a c q u i r e d  programmes through t h e p e r c e p t i o n s interviews  and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  e x t e n s i o n workers Zambia.  Integrated  from i n t e g r a t e d nonformal  of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  were used  and programme  degree of  education  C r i t i c a l incident  to g a t h e r data  from a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ,  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Chipata  District  of E a s t e r n  R u r a l Development Programmes had been i n o p e r a t i o n  s i n c e 1972. The  critical  i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e was used  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and e x t e n s i o n workers national, provincial, d i s t r i c t  to i n t e r v i e w s e v e n t y - s e v e n  at four a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s  and l o c a l .  Data from the i n t e r v i e w s were  used to i d e n t i f y a t o t a l of e i g h t f a c t o r s t h a t were thought i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of i n t e g r a t e d nonformal e d u c a t i o n f a c t o r s t h a t were thought education  programmes.  to h i n d e r  determine the  the p e r c e i v e d  perspectives  programmes and n i n e  and h i n d e r i n g  f a c t o r s were ranked  Data from q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were used to  degree of v e r t i c a l  and h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n from  of f o u r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s  outcomes of i n t e g r a t i o n , through p e r c e p t i o n s  as w e l l as to determine  of programme p a r t i c i p a n t s .  A t o t a l of 106 a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and e x t e n s i o n workers Administrators'  Questionnaire;  to f a c i l i t a t e  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of i n t e g r a t e d n o n f o r m a l  Both f a c i l i t a t i n g  f o r each a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l .  -  50 responded  n a i r e ; and 77 s e l e c t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s around  responded  to the L o c a l L e v e l three  to the  Question-  l o c a l s i t e s answered the  P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Questionnaire.  Survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were analyzed  d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s and one-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e  using  to determine  whether t h e r e were any d i f f e r e n c e s between a d m i n i s t r a t i v e groups. The major f i n d i n g s that emerged from the study were 1.  these:  F a c t o r s p e r c e i v e d as f a c i l i t a t i n g and h i n d e r i n g implementation i n t e g r a t e d nonformal e d u c a t i o n  programmes rank d i f f e r e n t l y  to the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l of respondents.  of  according  F o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s at  t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s ( n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l and d i s t r i c t ) seminars/workshops and t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s factor.  i s a powerful  At l o c a l l e v e l , however, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ranked seminars/  workshops f o u r t h as a f a c t o r f a c i l i t a t i n g In t h i s r e s e a r c h , inadequate  successful  s k i l l e d personnel  hindering f a c t o r at three a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s and 2.  facilitating  d i s t r i c t ) but ranked f o u r t h a t l o c a l  implementation.  ranked as the h i g h e s t (national,  provincial  level.  V e r t i c a l integration i s p o s i t i v e l y correlated with horizontal integration.  3.  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l b e l i e v e t h a t a h i g h e r degree of v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n e x i s t s i n i n t e g r a t e d programmes than do a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of the o t h e r t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s .  4.  The s m a l l number of e x t e n s i o n workers and t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o adequately  cover  their constituency, seriously a f f e c t  i n t e g r a t e d nonformal e d u c a t i o n  the impact of  programmes.  Based on the r e s u l t s of the study, recommendations f o r theory, f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , and f o r p r a c t i c e a r e presented.  iv  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  Page ABSTRACT  .  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES  iv ;  x  LIST OF FIGURES  xii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER ONE:  xiii  THE PROBLEM  Background to the Problem Development Strategies i n Zambia  1 ....  1 3  Rural Development Strategy i n Zambia  5  Rationale f o r Integrated Programmes  8  Integration Defined  9  V e r t i c a l Integration  10  Horizontal Integration  10  Outcomes of Integration  11  The Problem  13  Purposes of the Study  13  Research Questions  14  Significance of the Study  15  D e l i m i t a t i o n of the Study  15  Organization of Remaining Chapters  16  CHAPTER TWO:  17  Overview  CONTEXT OF THE STUDY  17  V  Page G e n e r a l Background  17  Urban Problems  20  R u r a l Problems  21  A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n P r e - and Post-Independent Zambia  25  Nonformal E d u c a t i o n and R u r a l Development  27  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Nonformal Programmes  30  I n t e g r a t e d R u r a l Development  34  Programmes  Summary CHAPTER THREE: The  40 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  42  Concept of Nonformal E d u c a t i o n  42  Nonformal E d u c a t i o n and Development  52  Development  Defined  52  Modernization  53  Structural Functionalism  55  C o n f l i c t Theories  57  Research on Nonformal E d u c a t i o n  59  Integration  60  Implementation  63  Characteristics  of  the I n n o v a t i o n  66  S t r a t e g i e s and T a c t i c s  66  Characteristics  of  67  Characteristics  of Macro S o c i o p o l i t i c a l  Summary  the Adopting U n i t s Factors  67 69  vi  Page CHAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  71  Research Design  72  The Local Sites  73  S i t e 1: Katopola Farm I n s t i t u t e  74  S i t e 2: Kalichero Farm Training Centre  76  S i t e 3: Kalunga Farm Training Centre  76  Subject S e l e c t i o n  79  Research Questions  79  Methods of Data C o l l e c t i o n  80  The C r i t i c a l Incident Technique  82  Procedures  83  Categorization of Incidents  86  Instrument Development  86  Administrators' Questionnaire  86  V e r t i c a l Integration  87  Horizontal Integration  88  Opinions on Integration  88  Opinions on Implementation  88  Local Level Questionnaire  89  P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Questionnaire  90  Respondents to Survey Questionnaires  90  R e l i a b i l i t y of Instruments  91  Validity  92  Content V a l i d i t y  92  Face V a l i d i t y  92  vii  Page Summary CHAPTER FIVE:  93 RESULTS  94  Results of Interviews  94  Basic Categories  95  R e l i a b i l i t y of Categories  96  V a l i d i t y of Categories  97  F a c i l i t a t i n g Factors  101  Hindering Factors  104  Basic Categories f o r Each Administrative Level  106  National Level  107  P r o v i n c i a l Level  107  D i s t r i c t Level  107  Local Level  110  Survey Questionnaire Results C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Respondents  112 •  112  Responses to Administrators' Questionnaire  114  Summary of Responses to Local Level Questionnaire  116  Summary of Responses to P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Questionnaire  118  Answering the Research Questions  122  Summary  130  CHAPTER SIX:  DISCUSSION OF RESULTS  Perceived F a c i l i t a t i n g and Hindering Factors  131 132  F a c i l i t a t i n g Factors  132  Hindering Factors  139  viii  Page Perceptions  on E x i s t e n c e  Vertical  of I n t e g r a t i o n  143  Integration  Horizontal  143  Integration  Summary  144  '•  CHAPTER SEVEN:  150  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  Summary  152 152  The Purposes  of  the Study  152  Methods of Data C o l l e c t i o n  153  P e r c e i v e d F a c i l i t a t i n g and H i n d e r i n g F a c t o r s  153  Responses to A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  154  Responses to L o c a l L e v e l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  154  Responses to P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  155  L i m i t a t i o n s of  the Study  155  Conclusions  •  Recommendations  157 160  Recommendations  for Practice  160  Recommendations  f o r Theory B u i l d i n g  162  Recommendations  f o r F u r t h e r Research  164  Concluding Remarks  165  BIBLIOGRAPHY  167  APPENDIX 1:  Administrators' Questionnaire  181  APPENDIX 2:  The C r i t i c a l  189  APPENDIX 3:  Local Level Questionnaire  193  APPENDIX 4:  P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Questionnaire  196  Incident  Interview Form  ix  Page  APPENDIX 5:  Coding Sheet for Administrators' Questionnaire  199  APPENDIX 6:  Coding Sheet f o r Local Level Questionnaire  203  APPENDIX 7:  Coding Sheet f o r P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Questionnaire  APPENDIX 8:  Administrators' L e t t e r of Recruitment and Consent  206  Form  209  Summary of Responses to Administrators' Questionnaire  212  APPENDIX 10: Summary of Responses to Local Level Questionnaire ...  220  APPENDIX 11: Summary of Responses to P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Questionnaire .  224  APPENDIX 9:  X  LIST OE  TABLES Page  Table 1. Table 2. Table 3.  Farmer Attendance i n T r a i n i n g Programmes to T o t a l Population by Province  31  Number of Farmer Course Programme "planned" and "held" by Province, 1978-1983  32  P a r t i c i p a n t s i n F u n c t i o n a l L i t e r a c y Programmes by Province, 1976-1979  33  Table 4.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Women's Clubs by Province, 1976-1979 ...  35  Table 5.  Data C o l l e c t i o n Procedures  81  Table 6.  Summary of Interviews  84  Table 7.  R e l i a b i l i t y of Instruments  92  Table 8.  P o s i t i v e and Negative Incidents Reported by A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Groups Percentages of Responses f o r F a c i l i t a t i n g and Hindering Factors at A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Levels  Table 9. Table 10. Table 11. Table 12. Table 13. Table 14. Table 15. Table 16. Table 17.  95 98  Percentages of Responses f o r F a c i l i t a t i n g and Hindering Factors at L o c a l L e v e l  99  Percentage of Responses f o r F a c i l i t a t i n g and Hindering Factors at N a t i o n a l L e v e l  108  Percentage of Respondents and Responses f o r F a c i l i t a t i n g and Hindering Factors at P r o v i n c i a l L e v e l  109  Percentage of Respondents and Responses f o r F a c i l i t a t i n g and Hindering Factors at D i s t r i c t L e v e l  I l l  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Males and Females w i t h i n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Groups  113  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents' Level of Education w i t h i n Administrative Groups  115  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Years of Employment w i t h i n the Administrative Groups  115  C o r r e l a t i o n s Among Measures of V e r t i c a l , of H o r i z o n t a l I n t e g r a t i o n , Opinions on I n t e g r a t i o n , and Opinions on Implementation: Administrators' Questionnaire  117  xi  Page Table 18. C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Opinions on F a c i l i t a t o r s , Coordination and Obstacles: Local Level Questionnaire  ..  118  Table 19. Means and SD on Administrators' Perceptions on Degree of I n t e g r a t i o n  119  Table 20. Analysis of Variance of Differences Among A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Groups on Degree of I n t e g r a t i o n  119  Table 21. Means and SD on Administrators' Perceptions of Obstacles to I n t e g r a t i o n : Local Level Questionnaire  120  Table 22. A n a l y s i s of Variance of Differences Among A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Groups on Administrators' Perceptions of Obstacles to Integration  120  Table 23. C o r r e l a t i o n s Between S k i l l s , F a c i l i t i e s and A c t i v i t i e s : P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Questionnaire  121  Table 24. C o r r e l a t i o n s of Perceived Degree of V e r t i c a l and H o r i z o n t a l I n t e g r a t i o n by A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Group  123  Table 25. A n a l y s i s of Variance of Differences Between Administrat i v e Groups on V e r t i c a l I n t e g r a t i o n  125  Table 26. Means and SD of Administrators' Perceptions of the Degree of V e r t i c a l I n t e g r a t i o n  12 5  Table 27. A n a l y s i s of Variance of Differences Between Administrat i v e Groups on Administrators' Perceptions of Degree of Horizontal Integration  126  Table 28. Means and SD of Administrators' Perceptions of Degree of Horizontal Integration  126  Table 29. A n a l y s i s of Variance of Differences Between Groups on the Degree of I n t e g r a t i o n i n Programmes  128  Table 30. Means and SD of Administrators' Opinions on the Degree of I n t e g r a t i o n i n Programmes  128  Table 31. Analysis of Variance of Differences Among A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Groups on Opinions on Implementation  129  Table 32. Means and SD of Administrators' Opinions on Implementat i o n of Integrated Programmes  129  xii  LIST  OF FIGURES Page  Figure 1.  Conceptualization of R e l a t i o n s h i p Between V e r t i c a l and H o r i z o n t a l I n t e g r a t i o n  12  Figure 2.  Geographic Location of Zambia i n A f r i c a  18  Figure 3.  Location and Population of Zambia's Urban Areas  19  Figure 4.  Provinces and D i s t r i c t s i n Zambia  39  Figure 5.  La B e l l e ' s Typology of Formal, Nonformal, and Informal Education R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Nonformal and Adult Education ...  48 50  A Systems Model Representing Nonformal Education  62  Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9.  Inputs and Outputs of  Map Showing Locations of Three Local S i t e s Included i n the Study  75  Diagram Showing the T r a i n i n g and D e l i v e r y of Integrated Nonformal Education A c t i v i t i e s to p a r t i c i p a n t s by Extension Workers  78  xiii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This p r o j e c t was made p o s s i b l e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development  through f i n a n c i a l support  Research Centre and the U n i v e r s i t y of  f o r t h i s I thank the o f f i c e r s  directly  Nothing i s more of a c o o p e r a t i v e  effort  to whom acknowledgements  fellow  professors  individually.  The g r e a t e s t  v i s o r y committee members: Dr. Vincent D'Oyley. the e n t i r e thankful  than a graduate  are due:  degree.  these i n c l u d e  friends,  debt of g r a t i t u d e  is  owed to my three  super-  D r . Thomas Sork, D r . Robert Conry, and u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and i n s i g h t  throughout  process c o n t r i b u t e d immeasurably to the f i n a l p r o d u c t .  departments  the U n i v e r s i t y of Zambia f o r  In-Country a d v i s o r d u r i n g the  My g r a t i t u d e  I am  for o f f e r i n g u n f a i l i n g support and a s s i s t a n c e .  to thank D r . Vukani Nyirenda of  s e r v i n g as the  There  and my f a m i l y who cannot a l l be named  Their patience,  to them e q u a l l y  would l i k e  Zambia;  involved.  are many persons students,  from the  i s due to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  i n v o l v e d i n the study as w e l l  fieldwork.  i n the as  four Zambian government  to the v i l l a g e r s  who warmly  welcomed and p a r t i c i p a t e d w i t h me. Lastly,  I thank my p a r e n t s ,  c h i l d r e n and other f a m i l y members  t h e i r s t r o n g support and encouragement  d u r i n g the e n t i r e  p e r i o d of  for study.  I  1  CHAPTER THE  ONE  PROBLEM  Background to  the Problem  In the 1960's, b e l i e f that more investment i n formal education would lead to development guided the educational planning process of newly independent c o u n t r i e s (Dejene, 1980).  The c l a s s i c a l view saw  education  from an economic perspective and argued that educational programmes geared to economic i n c e n t i v e s underpinned  the greatest r e t u r n to the i n d i v i d u a l  as  w e l l as to the modernizing n a t i o n a l development process (D'Aeth, 1975). Development was c o r r e l a t e d with the nation's per c a p i t a income.  In the  search f o r n a t i o n a l growth, developing countries invested s u b s t a n t i a l amounts of scarce resources i n the expansion of formal education at a l l levels. While governments enlarged the educational e n t e r p r i s e , parents continued to demand more schooling for t h e i r c h i l d r e n and themselves.  Bock  and Papagiannis (1983) have i n s i s t e d t h a t , to the i n d i v i d u a l , schooling i s c l e a r l y a t o o l f o r modernizing.  To the government, education i s the  technique f o r providing the c i t i z e n s with modern values and b e l i e f s , and the advanced t e c h n o l o g i c a l s k i l l s e s s e n t i a l for n a t i o n a l development (Bock and Papagiannis, 1983).  The 20-year e f f o r t to expand schooling i n the  developing world has l a r g e l y succeeded:  46.8 percent of 6-11  year olds i n  developing countries were attending school i n 1960 while 61.8 percent were attending i n 197 5; u n i v e r s i t y - l e v e l enrollment increased from 2.6 to 12.5 m i l l i o n i n the same period (UNESCO, 1980). sive.  million  The figures are impres-  Yet the absolute number of i l l i t e r a t e s i n developing countries has  2  increased; unemployment has been on the increase; and the poor groups i n society have remained poor (Carnoy, 1986). Although these governments have invested heavily i n education, they can neither meet the r i s i n g costs of the formal system nor the demand for education r e s u l t i n g from growing populations and increasing expectations of the potency of l i t e r a c y (Simmons, 1979).  In l i n e with Coombs' (1968)  analysis of world educational systems, many observers noted that formal education was f a i l i n g to meet the needs of the poor majority i n r u r a l areas (Coombs, 1968; Evans, 1976; Simmons, 1979).  Two of the arguments against  the e x i s t i n g formal educational system i n developing countries are: that t h e i r c u r r i c u l a are unable to equip young school leavers to function productively w i t h i n t h e i r environment; and that the great educational expansion at primary and secondary l e v e l s has not been matched with equivalent growth of employment opportunities (Barber, 1976; F o r s t e r , 1976; Simmons, 1979). Many view formal schooling as a main contributor to the rural-urban migration and the unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of income c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of developing countries (Coombs, 1985; Carnoy, 1986).  Planners from the World  Bank and other i n t e r n a t i o n a l funding agencies have recommended nonformal education as an a l t e r n a t i v e to e x i s t i n g educational programmes (Coombs, 1968, 1974, 1985; Coles, 1982).  Coombs defined nonformal education as:  ...any organized educational a c t i v i t y c a r r i e d on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to p a r t i c u l a r subgroups i n the population, adults as w e l l as c h i l d r e n (p. 11). Planners and t h e o r i s t s i d e n t i f y nonformal education as a powerful instrument for development because i t can meaningfully a s s i s t early school leavers.  Nonformal education can f a c i l i t a t e the a c q u i s i t i o n of s k i l l s ,  3  knowledge, and a t t i t u d e s for the r u r a l poor, and can indeed u t i l i z e scarce educational resources more e f f i c i e n t l y (Coombs and Ahmed, 1974; Coles, 1982).  Since nonformal education i s d i v e r s i f i e d , planners hope that i t  w i l l a l l e v i a t e poverty and reduce the growing rural-urban socio-economic gap occasioned by e a r l i e r incomplete development e f f o r t s and i n e f f e c t i v e educational p o l i c i e s .  Nonformal education as an a l t e r n a t i v e to i n v e s t i n g  i n t o formal schooling has great importance  to many developing c o u n t r i e s  whose economies continue to d e c l i n e (Lynch and Wiggins, 1987).  Development Strategies i n Zambia In Zambia, as i n many other developing c o u n t r i e s , there has been an educational expansion at a l l l e v e l s of schooling (Bown, 1970).  But such  developments have not been properly matched with the needs of r u r a l communities (Muyoba, 1979).  Coombs (1968), i n h i s a n a l y s i s of the problems  of education i n developing c o u n t r i e s , concluded that p o l i t i c i a n s and educational planners found themselves  i n a dilemma - they sensed an ever  i n c r e a s i n g demand for education while facing acute resource s c a r c i t i e s and r i s i n g costs of schooling.  Other problems r e l a t e to the widening  differ-  ences between urban and r u r a l areas, and the r i s i n g unemployment among educated people.  He recommended more nonformal education as an a l t e r n a t i v e  to i n v e s t i n g i n formal schooling.  He recognized the p o t e n t i a l of nonformal  education f o r reaching a large number of learners i n r u r a l areas, many of whom never p a r t i c i p a t e i n the formal education system. Nonformal education i n Zambia has developed as a r e s u l t of remedial e f f o r t s to supplement the formal schooling missed by much of the adult population (Bown, 1970).  Nonformal education i s offered by several  government departments to provide services to r u r a l areas (UNICEF, 1979).  4  Although many government departments are o f f e r i n g nonformal education i n r u r a l Zambia, those working i n the f i e l d do not see t h e i r e f f o r t s as educational (Lowe, 1970).  Since there i s no s i n g l e umbrella m i n i s t r y co-  o r d i n a t i n g nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s , most of these e f f o r t s i n Zambia are u s u a l l y not s t r u c t u r a l l y r e l a t e d to other educational s e r v i c e s (Coles, 1982; Loveridge, 1978).  For example, both the M i n i s t r y of Health and the  Department of Community Development o f f e r health education programmes, but they do not coordinate t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s .  Because nonformal  education  a c t i v i t i e s are not l i n k e d to other educational systems i n the country (Mutemba, 1980; UNICEF, 1979), nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s have been judged  ineffective.  In order to coordinate nonformal s e r v i c e s between departments, Zambia promotes interdepartmental seminars and t r a i n i n g workshops f o r extension workers (Muntemba, 1980).  The term "extension worker" i n t h i s study r e f e r s  to members of government departments and organizations working at the lowest a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l i n r u r a l areas.  But from the experiences of  the author, such e f f o r t s have l i t t l e impact unless they are coordinated a t a l l the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s : Furthermore,  n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l , d i s t r i c t and l o c a l .  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l arrangements that have been e s t a b l i s h e d a t  l o c a l , d i s t r i c t , p r o v i n c i a l , and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s i n Zambia are h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d and r a r e l y permit the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the l o c a l people i n the planning of major n a t i o n a l development e f f o r t s (UNICEF, 1979).  Serpell  (1980) analyzed the services f o r women i n r u r a l areas and noted a s i m i l a r problem of d u p l i c a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s .  In analyzing the s i t u a t i o n of women  and c h i l d r e n i n r u r a l Zambia, UNICEF (1979) observed that each government department operated independently, although the programmes which they o f f e r e d were d i r e c t e d at the same community.  5  Rural Development Strategy i n Zambia  Nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s i n Zambia should not be examined i n i s o l a t i o n , but rather as a component of r u r a l development s t r a t e g i e s .  To  better understand the problems of nonformal education i n Zambia, a d e s c r i p t i o n of r u r a l development s t r a t e g i e s i n Zambia w i l l be provided. In the 1960*s, r u r a l development was viewed as an increase i n a g r i c u l t u r a l output (Coombs and Ahmed, 1974; Green, 1974).  This r e s u l t e d i n the  establishment of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension programmes aimed at o f f e r i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l education to farmers i n order to increase t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l output.  L a t e r , i n the 1970's, planners and funding agencies adopted a  broader view of r u r a l development that i n t e g r a t e d a l l f a c e t s of development a l a c t i v i t i e s that c o n t r i b u t e to an improved way of l i f e f o r r u r a l populations.  The broader view of r u r a l development r e f e r s t o :  . . . f a r reaching transformation of the s o c i a l and economic s t r u c t u r e s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s and processes i n any r u r a l area (Coombs, 1974, p. 13). During the United Nations Second Development Decade, i n the 1970's, the growth centre strategy f o r development was proposed by planners and funding agencies (Paulson, 1975).  This approach, formally adopted by many  developing c o u n t r i e s , involved i n v e s t i n g i n c e n t r a l development areas with both economic and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s with the a n t i c i p a t i o n that the b e n e f i t s would d i f f u s e i n t o surrounding areas.  Zambia put i n t o e f f e c t the Intensive  Development Zones (IDZs) strategy (a v a r i a n t of the growth centre strategy) for r e g i o n a l planning during the Second National Development Plan (SNDP) (1972).  Intensive Development Zones prescribed a l l o c a t i o n of resources to  those areas where there was mental and p h y s i c a l equipment a v a i l a b l e to u t i l i z e them f u l l y .  This c a l l e d f o r the concentration of resources along a  6  f i f t y mile s t r i p of land of r e l a t i v e l y high population with an i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l zone.  This innovative plan was a response to the worsening  rural-urban d i s p a r i t i e s occasioned by the continued dominance of the urban i n d u s t r i a l sector. F i r s t implemented i n the Eastern Province of Zambia i n Chipata D i s t r i c t , IDZs were a concept that focused on the concentration of resources i n a few areas.  This was contrary to Zambia's philosophy of humanism and  i t s d e s i r e to f o s t e r an e g a l i t a r i a n s o c i e t y .  Consequently,  i n 1979 the IDZ  s t r u c t u r e was replaced by the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) i n the Third N a t i o n a l Development Plan (TNDP, 1979). Humanism (Kaunda, 1967) advocates establishment of a humanistic society. for  I n order to achieve t h i s , the government has accepted the need  e s t a b l i s h i n g a Man-centred s o c i e t y .  Kaunda (1967) stated that humanism  places high v a l u a t i o n on Man: ... This v a l u a t i o n of MAN and respect f o r human d i g n i t y which i s a legacy of our t r a d i t i o n should not be l o s t i n the new A f r i c a . However modern and advanced i n a western sense t h i s young n a t i o n of Zambia may become, we are f i e r c e l y determined that t h i s humanism w i l l not be obscured. A f r i c a n s o c i e t y has always been Man-centred. Indeed, t h i s i s as i t should be otherwise why i s a house b u i l t ? Not to give Man s h e l t e r and s e c u r i t y ? ... And yet we can say w i t h j u s t i f i c a t i o n and without any sense of f a l s e pride that the A f r i c a n way of l i f e w i t h i t s many problems has less setbacks towards the achievement of an i d e a l s o c i e t y . . . (p. 7 ) . Humanism has guided n a t i o n a l development plans and i s evident i n d i r e c t i n g p o l i c i e s of the r u l i n g party and i t s government since independence i n 1964. In Zambia, two schools of thought e x i s t regarding r u r a l development policy.  Elliot  (1980) r e f e r r e d to the two as i d e o l o g i c a l and t e c h n o c r a t i c .  The i d e o l o g i c a l view revolves around the leadership i n the n a t i o n a l party (UNIP) and i t s government, and i s supported by other i n s t i t u t i o n s such as  7  trade unions, educational i n s t i t u t i o n s and churches. the i n t e r e s t s resources  This school advocates  of the underprivileged and favours equitable d i s t r i b u t i o n of  to a l l areas of the country (Mwali et a l . , 1981).  The  ideologi-  c a l view i s consistent w i t h the n a t i o n a l philosophy of humanism. The technocratic view i s held by planners, technocrats, and servants i n various decision-making represent the i n t e r e s t s building  bodies.  civil  They advocate and seem to  of the urban, i n d u s t r i a l sector.  on e x i s t i n g bases of strength (Woldring, 1984).  They s t r e s s They argue that  given Zambia's p a r t i c u l a r circumstances, development must s t a r t from the centres of population, the already i n d u s t r i a l i z e d areas, and s p i l l over to the r u r a l areas (Musakanya, 1970). r e f e r to Zambia's t h i n l y d i s t r i b u t e d between population centres.  The advocates of t h i s view are quick to r u r a l population and long distances  They argue that r u r a l development e f f o r t s  f a i l e d during the period of the F i r s t N a t i o n a l Development Plan (1966-70) not only due to i n s u f f i c i e n t investment, but due to the inherent i n c a p a c i t y for development of the r u r a l areas (Mwali e_t a_l., 1981). The technocratic view was instrumental i n the establishment of Intensive Development Zones i n 1972, during the Second National Development Plan (1972-76).  The party and i t s government argued that IDZs were conducted i n  a manner contrary to the philosophy of humanism. those who  Due to pressure from  held the i d e o l o g i c a l view, IDZs were reviewed and  (Mwali et_ a l . , 1981).  evaluated  The IDZs were l a t e r modified into Integrated Rural  Development Programmes because they had concentrated t h e i r e f f o r t s families  i n a better socio-economic s i t u a t i o n (Maimbo, 1982).  programme has the following o b j e c t i v e s :  The  on  8  (1)  to reduce the e x i s t i n g l e v e l of s o c i a l and economic between r u r a l and urban areas, between d i f f e r e n t  disparities  regions and  between areas i n a region; (2)  to deploy investment resources so as to involve the l o c a l populat i o n f u l l y i n development, and more importantly to ensure that the greatest possible number of people w i l l benefit from the f r u i t s of economic development  (TNDP, 1979).  Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), a growth centre strategy, was established as a means to bring s o c i a l and economic development to r u r a l areas.  I t was hoped that IRDP would contribute p o s i t i v e l y to r u r a l  development by r e t a i n i n g  e x i s t i n g r u r a l population, and by a t t r a c t i n g those  who intend to migrate to urban areas.  Integrated Rural Development  Programme centres were designed to serve as f o c i f o r coordinated s o c i a l and physical infrastructure  investments, monetary exchange markets,  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and communication networks (Paulson, 1975).  Rationale for Integrated Programmes Several views e x i s t as to how nonformal educational programmes should be implemented, one of which i s advocated by Coombs et a l . (1973, 1974), Coles (1982), and Evans (1981).  With knowledge based on research surveys  conducted i n several developing c o u n t r i e s , Coombs et a l . (1980) advocate integrated nonformal education, arguing that nonformal education should be seen as part of the o v e r a l l n a t i o n a l development process.  They believe  that when nonformal education programmes are integrated they would be more e f f i c i e n t i n u t i l i z i n g l i m i t e d resources (Coombs e_t a l . , 1980; Evans, 1981).  9  Carnoy (1982) and Bock and Papagiannis (1983) view education as a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i n the d i s p a r i t y that e x i s t s between r u r a l and urban areas.  The urban areas have more schools at a l l l e v e l s , and better equip-  ment, than r u r a l schools.  The type of education given by the formal system  does not help the r u r a l young people to f u n c t i o n i n a meaningful way w i t h i n r u r a l communities (Paulston, 1979). sponsored nonformal state may  This group argues against s t a t e -  educational programmes because they b e l i e v e that the  use these programmes to promote i d e o l o g i c a l , n a t i o n a l i s t i c values  that maintain the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l order (Bock and Papagiannis, Carnoy, 1982).  In t h i s way,  they b e l i e v e , the state sponsors  1983; nonformal  education programmes i n r u r a l areas i n order to extend i t s i n f l u e n c e beyond formal schools.  They advocate the development of l i b e r a t i n g  nonformal  education organized by s o c i a l movements to promote c u l t u r a l and ethnic i d e n t i t y (La B e l l e , 1981).  They focus on l o c a l l y i n i t i a t e d  education programmes which are conducted  nonformal  and organized by l o c a l communities.  Integration Defined  Coombs (1980) defines i n t e g r a t i o n as: .... Combining n a t u r a l l y r e l a t e d parts into a more cohesive and u n i f i e d order to enhance t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e c o s t - e f f e c t i v e ness (p. 15). In w r i t i n g on i n t e g r a t i o n , Coombs (1980) elaborated s i x categories of integration:  i n t e g r a t i o n of the n a t i o n a l planning process, i n t e g r a t i o n of  the components of a p a r t i c u l a r programme, i n t e g r a t i o n between separate programmes, h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n , v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n and zational integration.  inter-organi-  This study focused on two of these categories:  v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n .  The two categories were more relevant  to the study of integrated nonformal education programmes since the study  10  was concerned w i t h communication channels w i t h i n and between government departments and other agencies o f f e r i n g nonformal a c t i v i t i e s to r u r a l communities.  Coomb's d e f i n i t i o n s of v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l  integration  have been adapted i n t h i s study.  Vertical  integration  V e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n as used i n t h i s study r e f e r s to the free-flow of communication between the n a t i o n a l l e v e l and l o c a l l e v e l .  Vertical •  i n t e g r a t i o n includes the supervisory c o n t r o l w i t h i n a department from the n a t i o n a l to the lowest a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  level.  Communication  from n a t i o n a l  l e v e l keeps extension workers motivated and aware of new p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s . V e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n involves the communication from the l o c a l l e v e l to the national l e v e l .  Communication  from the l o c a l l e v e l keeps n a t i o n a l  aware of a c t i v i t i e s and problems i n the f i e l d .  level  A high l e v e l of v e r t i c a l  i n t e g r a t i o n e x i s t s when there i s constant communication w i t h i n from the n a t i o n a l l e v e l to the lowest administrative  level.  departments  A low l e v e l of  v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n e x i s t s when there i s l i t t l e communication w i t h i n departments from n a t i o n a l to l o c a l l e v e l .  Horizontal  integration  Horizontal  i n t e g r a t i o n r e f e r s to the communication channels between  departments, s e l f help p r o j e c t s ; and other agencies o f f e r i n g nonformal education programmes.  I t i s assumed that i f departments and other agencies  work together, they would have better impact on the communities which they are working.  within  A high degree of h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n e x i s t s  when there i s constant communication between d i f f e r e n t departments and  11  other agencies.  A low degree of h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n e x i s t s when there  i s l i t t l e communication between departments and agencies. Figure 1 i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between v e r t i c a l and integration.  horizontal  The h o r i z o n t a l axis represents the degree of h o r i z o n t a l  i n t e g r a t i o n from low to high, while the v e r t i c a l axis i n d i c a t e s the degree of v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n .  The l i n e c u t t i n g across both axes represents a  balance between h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n .  Quadrant 2 represents  the desired d i r e c t i o n of development f o r nonformal education programmes because there i s a balance between v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n .  In  quadrant 1, a high degree of v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n occurs, with a low degree o f horizontal integration.  In Quadrant 4, there occurs a low degree of  both h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n .  Quadrant 3 represents a high  degree of h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n , w i t h a low degree of v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n .  Outcomes of  Integration  Outcomes of i n t e g r a t i o n , as used i n t h i s study, r e f e r to both planned and unplanned consequences of integrated nonformal education programmes, focusing on s k i l l s that p a r t i c i p a n t s have l e a r n t .  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n was  concerned w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s ' opinions of what they learned from nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s .  Integrated nonformal  integrated  education programmes  i n r u r a l areas need to r e l a t e to people's d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , t h e i r c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s , so that what they learn i s e a s i l y transferable  to t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s (Coombs, 1980; Coles, 1982).  12  Vertical  Integration High  Highly Centralized A d m i n i s t r a t i v e System  Horizontal  Decentralized Integrated System  Integration  Low  High  Non-Integrated A d m i n i s t r a t i v e System  Highly Decentralized A d m i n i s t r a t i v e System  Low  Figure  Hypothetical  1:  C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of r e l a t i o n s h i p between horizontal integration.  vertical  and  cases:  Quadrant 1 represents a h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system, and one i n w h i c h t h e r e i s c o n s t a n t communication w i t h i n the department, b u t w i t h l i t t l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e d e p a r t m e n t and agencies o u t s i d e of i t . Quadrant 2 represents a d e c e n t r a l i z e d integrated system i n which there is constant c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h i n i t s e l f , between d e p a r t m e n t s and other agencies. Quadrant 3 represents a h i g h l y d e c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e which there i s constant communication between departments agencies, but l i t t l e or m i n i m a l w i t h i n department itself. Quadrant 4 represents a there i s very minimal with other agencies.  system and  in  non-integrated a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system i n which c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h i n and b e t w e e n d e p a r t m e n t s  The  Problem  Although Integrated Rural Development Programmes have been i n operat i o n i n Zambia for over ten years, no research, to the best knowledge of the author, has i d e n t i f i e d factors that f a c i l i t a t e and hinder the implement a t i o n of integrated nonformal education programmes.  Evaluation studies  have, by focusing only on programme outcomes, ignored the implementation process (Mwali et a l . , 1981; Maramwidze, 1982; SIDA, 1981, 1983; M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1983).  A need e x i s t s to understand what behavioural  changes administrators make; and what obstacles they face i n t h e i r e f f o r t to implement integrated nonformal education programmes.  There i s lack of  knowledge of factors a f f e c t i n g implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes.  I t was, therefore, important to study integrated  nonformal education programmes i n order to determine factors that may f a c i l i t a t e or hinder implementation of nonformal a c t i v i t i e s .  Knowledge of  these factors w i l l lead to a better understanding of problems facing administrators and extension workers i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to implement integrated nonformal education programmes.  Purposes of the Study The purposes of t h i s study were: (1)  to i d e n t i f y factors thought by administrators to f a c i l i t a t e and hinder the implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes;  (2)  to e s t a b l i s h the r e l a t i v e influence of each factor;  (3)  to determine the perceived degree of i n t e g r a t i o n from the perspective of four administrative levels ( n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l , d i s t r i c t and l o c a l ) , and  14  (4)  to determine s k i l l s and knowledge acquired from i n t e g r a t e d nonformal programmes through the perceptions of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Research  Questions  In order to achieve the purposes of the study, s e v e r a l research questions were formulated. 1.  What f a c t o r s are thought by administrators to f a c i l i t a t e implementat i o n of i n t e g r a t e d nonformal education programmes?  2.  What f a c t o r s are thought by administrators to hinder implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes?  3.  What do a d m i n i s t r a t o r s perceive to be the extent of " i n t e g r a t i o n " i n nonformal (a)  education programmes?  To what extent do administrators at d i f f e r e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s d i f f e r i n t h e i r perceptions of the existence of v e r t i c a l integration?  (b)  To what extent do administrators at d i f f e r e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s d i f f e r i n t h e i r perceptions of the existence of h o r i z o n t a l integration?  (c)  To what extent are a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' perceptions of v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n c o r r e l a t e d with a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' perceptions of horizontal integration?  (d)  How does the c o r r e l a t i o n between v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n d i f f e r according to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s ?  4.  What s k i l l s do p a r t i c i p a n t s perceive to gain from i n t e g r a t e d nonformal education programmes'  15  Significance of the Study  This study was conducted  i n Eastern Zambia where the Integrated Rural  Development Programme (IRDP) was introduced i n 1972.  I t involved the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of f a c t o r s which f a c i l i t a t e or hinder the implementation of i n t e g r a t e d r u r a l development programmes.  Since the study  was c a r r i e d out i n a region where i n t e g r a t e d r u r a l development has been o f f i c i a l l y sanctioned, the f i n d i n g s of t h i s research are important f o r planners i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g s e l e c t e d departments, and could be of i n t e r e s t to some n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i n g departments i n a v a r i e t y of l o c a t i o n s i n Zambia and comparable c o u n t r i e s , such as Botswana, Kenya, and Malawi where the integrated approach to implementing adopted.  nonformal education programmes has been  In any case, i t i s of t h e o r e t i c a l value to i n v e s t i g a t e these  phenomena i n Zambia so that the concept of i n t e g r a t i o n may be better understood.  This study attempted  to v a l i d a t e assumptions made i n the l i t e r a t u r e  on nonformal education and i n t e g r a t e d r u r a l development.  Knowledge of  f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r s may  lead to r e i n f o r c i n g such f a c t o r s , while knowledge  of h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r s may  lead to the removal or reduction of some of these  as i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study.  Information on perceived degree of v e r t i c a l  and h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n can a s s i s t Zambian planners to improve communic a t i o n w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r department and between departments, and other agencies.  I t i s of equal importance  to know p a r t i c i p a n t s ' perceptions on  the outcomes of integrated programmes i n order to enrich e x i s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  Delimitation of the Study  The study was l i m i t e d to an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of selected r u r a l ment programmes i n Chipata D i s t r i c t .  develop-  I t was l i m i t e d to the behaviours,  r o l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and communication channels that e x i s t between centres at  the n a t i o n a l ,  provincial,  d i s t r i c t , and l o c a l l e v e l s .  departments p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study:  Only the  following  Community Development,  Agriculture,  Marketing and C o o p e r a t i v e s , and the H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n Unit of the M i n i s t r y of  Health.  T h i s study d i d not look at programme e f f e c t i v e n e s s  impact of i n t e g r a t e d nonformal e d u c a t i o n programmes. investigating and  perceptions  of  It was l i m i t e d to  selected administrators involved i n planning  implementing i n t e g r a t e d nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s .  nonformal e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s  study because  Although many  are conducted i n urban areas by d i f f e r e n t  government departments and non-governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s , concern i n t h i s  or the  this  investigation  focused on  they were not  of  activities  conducted i n r u r a l Zambia.  Organization of Remaining Chapters Chapter Two d e s c r i b e s development  of the s t u d y .  It  traces  of nonformal e d u c a t i o n from c o l o n i a l to present  Chapter Three reviews relates  the context  the  the  day Zambia.  l i t e r a t u r e on nonformal e d u c a t i o n as  to m o d e r n i z a t i o n , f a c t o r s  it  i n f l u e n c i n g implementation, and r e s e a r c h  surveys on i n t e g r a t e d nonformal education programmes ( e s p e c i a l l y  those  in  Zambia). _P Chapter Four d i s c u s s e s  the  r e s e a r c h methodology used i n the  methods of data c o l l e c t i o n , and a n a l y t i c a l techniques F i v e presents the  study.  results  of  the study.  Chapter Seven presents  employed.  Chapter S i x d e s c r i b e s summary, c o n c l u s i o n s ,  the  study, Chapter  findings  of  and recommendations  CHAPTER TWO CONTEXT OF THE STUDY  Overview Chapter Two o u t l i n e s the context of the study. s i o n of r u r a l problems i n Zambia, and a f t e r  the development  I t contains a d i s c u s -  of adult e d u c a t i o n  before  independence, the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between nonformal e d u c a t i o n , and  r u r a l development, and p a r t i c i p a t i o n r u r a l development  i n nonformal education and i n t e g r a t e d  programmes.  General Background Zambia  (the former B r i t i s h colony of Northern Rhodesia) i s a l a n d -  l o c k e d country of 752,000 square k i l o m e t r e s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of 5.6 million  (Central S t a t i s t i c a l Office,  1980) (see F i g u r e 2 ) . Approximately  60 percent of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i s under 25 years of age. the  According to  1980 census, Zambia has one of the h i g h e s t urban growth r a t e s i n A f r i c a  (Banda, 1982) (see F i g u r e 3 ) . At  independence (1964), Zambia i n h e r i t e d a d u a l economy which nad a  modern i n d u s t r i a l urban s e c t o r and a predominantly a g r i c u l t u r a l sector.  Such a c o n d i t i o n l e d to the d r i f t  rural  of young men from the r u r a l  s e c t o r to the urban s e c t o r i n search of wage employment which was a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g the f i r s t decade of independence. p l a c e s f o r o l d men and women. the  The r u r a l areas were  T h i s p i c t u r e has not changed  b r i g h t l i g h t s of the urban s e c t o r continue to a t t r a c t  men, the r u r a l s e c t o r has been unable to r e t a i n s c h o o l l e a v e r s and the younger men i n v i l l a g e s . r u r a l areas has not improved i n the l a s t  readily  to date.  While  many young  the p o p u l a t i o n of young The standard of l i v i n g i n  two decades, although n a t i o n a l  18  F i g u r e 2.  Source:  Geographic l o c a t i o n of Zambia i n A f r i c a .  D a v i e s , D.H. (1971). London P r e s s L t d .  Zambia i n maps.  London: U n i v e r s i t y  of  Tfcs Copperfaelt  i C •! 1,01 t-f i_oc? a . - s i , ^ j  F i g u r e 3. Source:  L o c a t i o n and p o p u l a t i o n of Zambia's urban  Davies, D.H. (1971). London P r e s s L t d .  Zambia i n maps.  t r  areas.  London: U n i v e r s i t y o  20  a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c i e s and p r i c i n g for a g r i c u l t u r a l produce have not had the intended e f f e c t of encouraging some young people to remain i n farming. Furthermore, although government services and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i n r u r a l areas have increased and improved, these do not seem to have been enough.  The  bright l i g h t s of the c i t y are bright enough f o r a farmer to leave h i s hoe (Seidman, 1974).  Urban Problems Rural-urban m i g r a t i o n r e s u l t s i n over-crowding i n c i t i e s as large numbers of people continue to enter urban areas despite the n o n - a v a i l a b i l i t y of employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  The urban proportion out of the t o t a l popula-  t i o n grew from 29.4 percent i n 1969 to 43.0 percent i n 1980 (Banda,  1982).  This trend i n population patterns can be explained w i t h i n the framework of "push" and " p u l l " f a c t o r s .  D i f f i c u l t conditions i n r u r a l areas are pushing  people out of t h e i r v i l l a g e s ; and at the same time, education, employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and modern h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s ; among others are p u l l i n g them towards urban areas. However, i t should be recognized that rapid u r b a n i z a t i o n and high rate of rural-urban migration create problems i n housing and p r o v i s i o n of basic s o c i a l amenities.  The resources required to provide even minimal housing,  transport, h e a l t h , water, and sewage systems i n b i g c i t i e s r i s e astronomic a l l y due to i n f l u x of migrants and n a t u r a l increase. The concentration of people i n urban areas i s a c l e a r r e f l e c t i o n of economic d i s p a r i t i e s that e x i s t between the r u r a l and urban areas.  As such, the problems of rapid  u r b a n i z a t i o n and r u r a l development should be viewed as an i n t e g r a l part of the n a t i o n a l development process.  Since t h i s study focused on nonformal  21  education programmes o f f e r e d to r u r a l communities, the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n discusses r u r a l problems.  Rural Problems  The general problems facing r u r a l Zambia today may be o u t l i n e d as follows: 1.  Illiteracy.  2.  Lack of a g r i c u l t u r a l and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s .  3.  Inadequate community o r g a n i z a t i o n and leadership.  4.  Lack of r u r a l i n d u s t r i e s to r e t a i n populations w i t h i n these r u r a l communities.  5.  Lack of marketing f a c i l i t i e s  6.  Inadequate maternal and c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s .  Illiteracy:  i n r u r a l areas.  I l l i t e r a c y i s higher i n r u r a l areas than i n urban areas  because many young people, e s p e c i a l l y g i r l s , leave school e a r l y (UNICEF, 1979).  Although schools have expanded since independence, r u r a l areas have  not r e a l l y b e n e f i t e d from the expansion.  Many r u r a l schools only o f f e r four  years of elementary education, a f t e r which p u p i l s t r a v e l long distances to schools which o f f e r seven years of elementary education.  Many do not  continue with t h e i r schooling. Many young people may not acquire l i t e r a c y s k i l l s i n four years. illiterate.  In Zambia, 52 percent of the t o t a l population i s  Of the i l l i t e r a t e population 35 percent are male and 65 per-  cent are female ( C e n t r a l S t a t i s t i c O f f i c e , 1969).  According to Lerner  (1958), l i t e r a c y alone does not c o n s t i t u t e modernity. modernity  In h i s study of  i n the Middle East, Lerner (1958) concluded t h a t , apart from  l i t e r a c y , m o b i l i t y and empathy contributed to i n d i v i d u a l modernity.  None-  22  theless,  illiterate  i n d i v i d u a l s do not c o n t r i b u t e p o s i t i v e l y  modernization process. new v a l u e s ,  Those who are i l l i t e r a t e  new knowledge and s k i l l s .  Rural Health Centres, i n s t r u c t i o n s at t h e i r  are slow to  on m e d i c i n e s ,  that  The a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n  r u r a l households.  and e d u c a t i o n a l  households  is  services  are inadequate  to reach many  expected  to cover 1979).  t h e o r e t i c a l aspects of modern farming t e c h n i q u e s . farmer i s  used so that others  Zambian farmer t r a i n i n g i s  innovations  a process  duals at v a r y i n g speed.  can l e a r n a l e s s o n from  based on the assumption that  the spread of  of communications, which reaches d i f f e r e n t But the q u e s t i o n a r i s e s  indivi-  as to which type of farmer  should r e c e i v e most t r a i n i n g , those who are q u i c k to adopt i n n o v a t i o n s those who are slow to adopt i n n o v a t i o n s . are used as contact study r e f e r s  r e g u l a r l y deals most are o f t e n  farmers (Honeybone,  to the  left  U s u a l l y , the s u c c e s s f u l 1979).  The term contact  or  farmers farmer i n  I n d i v i d u a l an a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n worker  w i t h i n the v i l l a g e . out because  most l i k e l y to adopt Inadequate  lack  can help them i n c r e a s e a g r i c u l t u r a l  i n the area of o p e r a t i o n (Honeybone and M a r t e r ,  U s u a l l y one contact  this  at  materials  Many r u r a l households  In Zambia, one e x t e n s i o n worker is  Farmers are taught  him.  internalize  disposal.  a g r i c u l t u r a l and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s  1,387  the  They are unable to read posters  Lack of a g r i c u l t u r a l and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s :  output.  to  Those farmers who need t r a i n i n g the  selection  procedures favour those who are  innovations.  community o r g a n i z a t i o n and l e a d e r s h i p :  have been made by the government  to encourage  people  Several  attempts  to p a r t i c i p a t e  l o c a l p r o j e c t s and l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , through the establishment  in  of V i l l a g e  and Ward Development Committees under the R e g i s t r a t i o n and Development of V i l l a g e s Act of  1971.  Committees are comprised of e l e c t e d  representatives.  23  The  V i l l a g e and Ward Development Committees a r e i n t e n d e d  to p r o v i d e a forum  f o r both the e x p r e s s i o n of l o c a l demands and f o r the enforcement of c e n t r a l policies tivity 1979;  (Bratton,  1979).  Most s t u d i e s have r e p o r t e d t h a t  committees a r e n o n e x i s t e n t Bwalya, 1984).  authority  i n many d i s t r i c t s i n Zambia  They observed t h a t  headmen used t h e i r  i n c o n d u c t i n g the a f f a i r s of V i l l a g e  They i n d i c a t e d  that  Development Committees a r e u s u a l l y  e x c l u d e d from p a r t i c i p a t i n g Decentralization  individuals  traditional  Productivity  Committees.  affecting  their  i n these  Because peasants a r e not r e p r e -  and Ward Development Committee t h e i r  genuine and e f f e c t i v e  participation  chances of being reduced.  Bwalya  depends on adequate He argues  involvement of more peasants i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g depends on  t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the i s s u e s a t p l a y and the socioeconomic tions  leaders  A c t (1981) encourages the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of  supply and d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n to a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . effective  Ward  committees.  r e p r e s e n t e d i n D i s t r i c t Development Committees a r e f u r t h e r (1984) contends that  locality.  The peasants and l o c a l poor a r e  a t D i s t r i c t and l o c a l l e v e l s .  sented i n the V i l l a g e  that  (Ollawa,  comprised of i n f l u e n t i a l p a r t y  some members of the l o c a l e l i t e .  The  produc-  peasants do not i n f a c t get the chance to p a r t i c i p a t e  i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g on p o l i c i e s and p r o j e c t s  and  village  of a v a i l a b l e  choices.  This i s related  to l i t e r a c y .  implica-  Illiteracy  p r e v e n t s men and women from t a k i n g advantage of o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o them t o r a i s e  their quality  provide f o r t h e i r raise also  their limited  families  f a m i l y incomes.  of l i f e ,  and i t l i m i t s t h e i r c a p a c i t y to  through p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n a c t i v i t i e s that  T h e i r p r o g r e s s i n the development  process i s  because they cannot e f f e c t i v e l y make use of seminars,  pamphlets and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s  that  exist.  would  Lack of r u r a l i n d u s t r i e s :  The r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n has produced an  imbalance i n the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e . areas has l e d many able bodied young people of wage employment areas.  i n urban a r e a s ,  Many r u r a l households  families  to leave r u r a l areas  of Zambia,  of r u r a l households  1979).  headed households  p r o d u c t i o n and food  of  s c a r c i t y of labour i s  credit,  a major c o n s t r a i n t  and p o l i c i e s  extension  routes,  expansion of  the minor feeder  roads has  equally affected  of complementary f a c t o r s  since  this  such as equipment and  Although there has been a  the n a t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks  of major  roads that  communities  attention  serve the d i s p e r s e d r u r a l (Evans, 1984).  i n h i b i t e d the development  It  the t i m e l y supply of a g r i c u l t u r a l inputs through  the  small-scale  producers. credit f a c i l i t i e s  farmers which are u s u a l l y The c r e d i t  of  The poor s t a t e of  s m a l l farm markets.  s t a t e marketing i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  1984).  the  d i r e c t e d towards s m a l l s c a l e farmers such as  established  The present  female  and t r a i n i n g a d v i c e .  have r e c e i v e d v e r y l i t t l e feeder  of  which r e s u l t s  to r u r a l households  Lack of marketing and c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s : substantial  are  processing  Honeybone and M a r t e r (1979) found that  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  fertilizers  their  food p r o d u c t i o n both i n terms of area c u l t i v a t e d and  range of crops grown.1  limits  S t r i k i n g features  l a c k of l a b o u r , and meagre f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s ,  a reduced l e v e l  rural  resources.  30 percent  are t h e i r p a u c i t y of  rural  i n search  are unable to produce enough food f o r  headed by women (Honeybone and M a r t e r ,  equipment,  in  l e a v i n g the o l d and females i n  due to shortages of labour and  In many r u r a l areas  Lack of i n d u s t r i e s  c r e d i t and other s e r v i c e s  provide seasonal  loans  inadequate and payment Is often  system favours l a r g e - s c a l e  has  to  for small scale delayed  (Evans,  commercial f a r m e r s .  F o r a complete d i s c u s s i o n on the s i t u a t i o n of women i n r u r a l Zambia, see S e r p e l l (1980). Women i n Zambia: An a n a l y s i s of s e r v i c e s r u r a l areas. 1  in  i  Lack of r u r a l i n d u s t r i e s :  The rural-urban migration has produced an  imbalance i n the r u r a l population s t r u c t u r e .  Lack of i n d u s t r i e s i n r u r a l  areas has l e d many able bodied young people to leave r u r a l areas i n search of wage employment i n urban areas, leaving the o l d and females i n r u r a l areas.  Many r u r a l households are unable to produce enough food f o r t h e i r  f a m i l i e s due to shortages of labour and resources. In many r u r a l areas of Zambia, 30 percent of r u r a l households are headed by women (Honeybone and Marter, 1979).  S t r i k i n g features of female  headed households are t h e i r paucity of production and food processing equipment, lack of labour, and meagre f i n a n c i a l resources, which r e s u l t s i a reduced l e v e l of food production both i n terms of area c u l t i v a t e d and range of crops grown. 1  Honeybone and Marter (1979) found that the  s c a r c i t y of labour i s a major c o n s t r a i n t to r u r a l households since t h i s l i m i t s the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of complementary  factors such as equipment and  f e r t i l i z e r s and p o l i c i e s d i r e c t e d towards small scale farmers such as c r e d i t , extension and t r a i n i n g advice. Lack of marketing and c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s :  Although there has been a  s u b s t a n t i a l expansion of the n a t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks of major routes, the minor feeder roads that serve the dispersed r u r a l communities have received very l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n (Evans, 1984).  The poor s t a t e of  feeder roads has i n h i b i t e d the development of small farm markets.  I t has  equally a f f e c t e d the timely supply of a g r i c u l t u r a l inputs through the e s t a b l i s h e d s t a t e marketing i n s t i t u t i o n s , c r e d i t and other services to small-scale producers. The present c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s provide seasonal loans f o r small scale farmers which are u s u a l l y inadequate and payment i s often delayed (Evans, 1984).  The c r e d i t system favours l a r g e - s c a l e commercial farmers.  For a complete d i s c u s s i o n on the s i t u a t i o n of women i n r u r a l Zambia, see S e r p e l l (1980). Women i n Zambia: An a n a l y s i s of services i n r u r a l areas. 1  25  Inadequate maternal and c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s : fewer h e a l t h s e r v i c e s compared to urban areas.  Rural areas receive  While the towns have b i g  h o s p i t a l s , r u r a l areas have Rural Health Centres which o f f e r maternal and c h i l d c a r e s e r v i c e s , and any h e a l t h s e r v i c e s f o r c u r a t i v e and preventive purposes.  Rural Health Centres emphasize preventive and community h e a l t h  education but they are u s u a l l y i l l - e q u i p p e d , and short on s t a f f and medications.  I t has been estimated that i n 1978, the cost of running the  U n i v e r s i t y Teaching H o s p i t a l i n Lusaka amounted to almost the same f i g u r e as the t o t a l a l l o c a t i o n f o r b u i l d i n g new Rural Health Centres  throughout  the country.  Adult Education i n Pre- and Post-Independent Zambia Formal adult education, as we understand i t today, was introduced by the C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s i n 1887 as a t o o l f o r the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l transformation of indigenous c u l t u r e s . have a s p e c i a l place i n s o c i e t y . t h e i r c h i e f s (Kenyatta, 1979). as they grow up. 1979).  T r a d i t i o n a l l y i n Zambia, adults  They have power to i n f l u e n c e decisions of They are teachers of morals f o r the young  Elders are a symbol of t h e i r a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s (Kenyatta,  The f u n c t i o n of elders i n t h e i r f a m i l y , group and community, i s one  of harmonizing the a c t i v i t i e s of various age-groups, l i v i n g and dead. o f f e r help to the community with t h e i r advice and experience.  They  In t u r n , the  community honors them very h i g h l y . Although missionary education attempted  to change the t r a d i t i o n a l way  of l i f e , i t p e r s i s t s w i t h m o d i f i c a t i o n s . Adult education as introduced by missionaries included the teaching of the 3Rs:  reading, w r i t i n g and  a r i t h m e t i c ; h e a l t h education; a g r i c u l t u r a l extension; c r a f t s and carpentry. The aim of missionary education was evangelism (Tiberondwa,  1979).  Adult  26  education as a t o o l for s o c i a l and economic change was used i n the attempts to transform Zambian t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s and t h e i r l i f e s t y l e s .  This i s  w e l l summarized by Tiberondwa (1976): ... the medicine men and h e r b a l i s t s were persecuted, being l a b e l l e d witch doctors and sometimes punished. The worshipping of t r a d i t i o n a l Gods was regarded as p r i m i t i v e and s u p e r s t i t i o u s , the wearing of c e r t a i n ornaments which were believed to be c u r a t i v e was discouraged, the dancing at weddings was regarded as s i n f u l , the l o c a l drinks were replaced by imported ones and the people who continued d r i n k i n g a l c o h o l i c drinks were drunkards. Instead of l i s t e n i n g to the A f r i c a n r i d d l e s and the wise sayings of the A f r i c a n e l d e r s , the c h i l d r e n spent evenings t r y i n g a r i t h m e t i c and reading about the Sermon on the Mount and the Parables, (p. 59) The above i s a v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n of the s o c i a l and economic changes that took place or were sought with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of formal education from 1887-1964 (Snelson, 1974).  The n a t i o n a l i s t movement that gained s e l f - r u l e  used adult education for c i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g and to meet manpower needs i n the new state (Mwanakatwe, 1968). A f t e r independence (1964), there was a general expansion of education and other s e r v i c e s to r u r a l areas (Mwali, 1979).  But expansion of both  primary and secondary education brought other problems:  youth unemploy-  ment, rural-urban m i g r a t i o n , and high drop-out rates ( D a l l , 1983). other changes that occurred i n the educational expansion was ment of evening c l a s s programmes from primary to secondary  Among  the e s t a b l i s h -  l e v e l designed  for a d u l t s and youths who had no formal secondary education.  These  programmes are more organized i n urban areas than i n r u r a l areas.  The  school curriculum has not a s s i s t e d young people to l e a r n s k i l l s that can help them solve problems facing r u r a l communities.  In t h i s way  education  appears to have promoted what i s considered by many as undesirable migrat i o n from r u r a l to urban areas.  The Education Reform Document ( M i n i s t r y of  27  Education, 1976), preceded by several studies done abroad and a public debate at home, was never implemented.  The Education Reform Document  advocated a change i n the curriculum which would i n s t i l l s k i l l s that would be u s e f u l i n "the world of school and the world of work" (p. 10). Adult education i n s t i t u t i o n s developed i n response to the manpower t r a i n i n g needs that Zambia experienced soon a f t e r independence (Mwanakatwe, 1968).  Most adult education a c t i v i t i e s are government-sponsored, although  i n d u s t r i e s and r e l i g i o u s organizations sponsor many t r a i n i n g programmes (Zambia Adult Education Advisory Board, 1978).  Nonformal Education and Rural Development Nonformal education, not a new phenomenon i n A f r i c a n s o c i e t i e s , e x i s t e d before the i n t r o d u c t i o n of formal schooling by m i s s i o n a r i e s (Makulu, 1971; Thompson, 1981).  Education was part of the community l i f e of the t r i b e i n  which the younger generation was prepared f o r i t s r o l e i n society through established patterns and systematic i n s t r u c t i o n because t r i b a l and t r a d i t i o n a l education was part of the s o c i a l order i n communities (Makulu, 1971). Traditional  education d i f f e r e d depending on the needs of a  society and the demands of i t s environment.  particular  In t r a d i t i o n a l education,  youth accepted the a u t h o r i t y of the elders and learnt s p e c i f i c s k i l l s i n hunting, f i s h i n g or c u l t i v a t i o n . Missionary education, though committed to formal schooling, placed emphasis on nonformal education. Centres f o r elementary i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n ing were a l l i n t e g r a l parts of evangelism (Makulu, 1971). of education i n A f r i c a emphasized the spreading of European  The early stages civilization.  As a r e s u l t , a l l t r i b a l i n s t i t u t i o n s which seemed contrary to t h i s were either discouraged or suppressed.  But t h i s approach was challenged by  s o c i a l anthropologists who gained a better i n s i g h t and understanding of A f r i c a n s o c i e t y , i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s and customs.  This led to the Phelps-  Stoke Commission from America which v i s i t e d A f r i c a i n 1922 and 1925 (Mwanakatwe, 1968).  The Phelps-Stoke Commission (1924) made several recom-  mendations, one of which was the establishment of Jeanes schools s i m i l a r to those i n the U.S.A.  As a r e s u l t teachers from a l l over A f r i c a went to the  U.S.A. to study the Jeanes system of education. especially  These teachers were  i n t e r e s t e d i n the topics of community development, h e a l t h  centres, and methods of teaching (Makulu, 1971). Jeanes schools concentrated on educational programmes associated w i t h community development (Thompson, 1981).  The Jeanes schools e s t a b l i s h e d i n  East and C e n t r a l A f r i c a a f t e r the Phelps-Stoke Commission were based on the community development t r a d i t i o n - a good example of nonformal  education  e x i s t i n g i n Zambia before independence. E x i s t i n g community centres i n Zambia (one i n each province) had been set up p a r t l y as a r e s u l t of the demand for l i t e r a c y s k i l l s and,  perhaps,  p a r t l y due to the pressure from missionaries and the Phelps-Stoke Commission which pressured the c o l o n i a l o f f i c e to e s t a b l i s h these centres i n r u r a l areas.  training  Community t r a i n i n g centres, e s t a b l i s h e d i n r u r a l  areas by the c o l o n i a l government, portray another aspect of nonformal education which s t i l l e x i s t s i n Zambia today.  E a r l i e r emphasis focused on  mass l i t e r a c y , leadership t r a i n i n g , v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n l o c a l s k i l l s , h e a l t h education, and t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l s . A g r i c u l t u r a l extension, another aspect of nonformal  education, was  developed, a f t e r 1924, by the B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l o f f i c e i n many A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g Zambia (Honeybone et a l . , 1979; Thompson, 1981). A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension Services continue to be operated by the M i n i s t r y of  29  A g r i c u l t u r e and Water Development and seek to persuade farmers  to increase  and d i v e r s i f y production through the i n t r o d u c t i o n of new farming p r a c t i c e s . Although they seek to persuade r u r a l women to adopt new homecraft p r a c t i c e s , often a g r i c u l t u r a l extension programmes have tended to focus p r i m a r i l y on menfolk (Thompson, 1981; Coombs and Ahmed, 1974). Farmer t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s , e s t a b l i s h e d between 1949 and 1951, focused on the t r a i n i n g of extension workers.  But they expanded t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s to  farmer t r a i n i n g i n 1960 (Honeybone, 1979).  They e s t a b l i s h e d a farm i n s t i -  tute i n every province which concentrated i t s a c t i v i t i e s on t r a i n i n g prosperous farmers as w e l l as extension s t a f f . Farmer t r a i n i n g centres offered the farmer r e s i d e n t i a l courses l a s t i n g from one to two weeks.  They focused on teaching t h e o r e t i c a l aspects of  modern farming techniques to s m a l l - s c a l e , subsistence-oriented farmers i n order to speed up t h e i r progress. v i s i t i n g farmers.  This approach seemed cheaper than  Honeybone (1979) notes that, a t the time, only 25% of  r u r a l households had at least one member who had attended a course.  The  f i e l d extension s e r v i c e was unable to provide follow-up assistance to the farmers since the extension s t a f f was required to cover an average area of 500 square kilometres on a b i c y c l e .  In Zambia and Kenya, the r a t i o s of  extension s t a f f to farm holding was 1 to 1,000, a f i g u r e which compares favourably with the s i t u a t i o n i n other A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s :  Malawi, with one  to 1800 holdings; Senegal, one to 2000 holdings and M a l i with one to 8500 holdings (Thompson, 1982).  Apart from the workload, some extension s t a f f  lacked s u f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g to carry out t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  The  performance of farmer t r a i n i n g centres during the Second National Development Plan was summarized by Honeybone (1979):  Thus the future of farmer t r a i n i n g i s unclear. Scepticism i n some quarters about i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n i s mixed with the desire f o r a symbol of development i n others. The u n d e r - u t i l i z a t i o n of e x i s t i n g investment and the uncertainty about i t s impact have produced a s i t u a t i o n where i t i s necessary to look, more fundamentally at the relevance of farmer t r a i n i n g to the needs and conditions of r u r a l communities, (p. 129) P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Nonformal Programmes  There i s no c l e a r p o l i c y on nonformal education i n Zambia today. formal education a c t i v i t i e s cut across several m i n i s t r i e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and a s s o c i a t i o n s .  The m i n i s t r i e s are:  Non-  non-governmental  Labour and S o c i a l  S e r v i c e s ; A g r i c u l t u r e ; Defence; Marketing and Cooperatives; Health; Youth and Sport; and Education.  Besides government departments, several non-  formal education a c t i v i t i e s are conducted by mining companies,  parastatal  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , church o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and other non-governmental o r g a n i z a tions.  Unfortunately, no n a t i o n a l body coordinates nonformal education  programmes that are conducted by d i f f e r e n t government departments non-governmental  and  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a s s o c i a t i o n s as i s the case i n some  countries - l i k e Lesotho and Botswana (Coles, 1982).  The absence of such a  body may c o n t r i b u t e to lack of coordination of nonformal education - be i t at the planning stage or the implementation stage. P a r t i c i p a t i o n patterns i n nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s have not changed over the years.  Table 1 shows attendance i n farmer t r a i n i n g  programmes by province from 1978 to 1983.  Although the f i g u r e s are incom-  p l e t e , female p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s lower than for men. on courses organized f o r farmers f o r each province.  Table 2 presents data In s i x of the nine  provinces the number of courses held increased between 1978 and  1983.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f u n c t i o n a l l i t e r a c y classes i s reported i n Table 3Although there has been about 20 percent increase i n some provinces, such  Table 1.  Date  Farmer attendance i n t r a i n i n g programmes to t o t a l population by province, 1978-1983.  Courses  1978-79  Male Female  1981-82  Male Female  1982-83  Male Female  1980 ) Male Population) Female  Source:  Central  607 43  Copperbelt  1031 653  297 678  44  109 17  455 90  514 30  -  —  —  —  258,773 255,062  Eastern Luapula  642,667 606,221  2,725 1,153 308,718 347,663  886 168. 197,001 215,797  Lusaka  Northern  345 86 —  —  -  -  355,006 338,872  Northwestern  Southern Western  31  225 117  113 78  96 150  623 109  90 351  91  1,370 340  1,717 606  200 184  143,956 157,721  337,593 348,876  319,373 358,521  M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Water Development. Annual Reports (1978-83). Printer.  Lusaka:  _  222,382 265,606  Government  Table 2.  Courses  Number of farmer course programmes "planned" and "held" by province, 1978-1983.  Central  Copperbelt  Eastern  Northwestern  Southern  Western  -  93  20  112  20  -  24  11  26  125  97  -  112  120  93  94  -  94  47  62  158  135  18  158  144  230  101  111  11  133  31  145  Luapula  Lusaka  40  83  34  Northern  1978-79 Courses planned  60  58  171  Course held  13  20  64  1981- 82 Courses planned  88  88  90  Courses held  58  28  61  1982- 83 Courses planned Courses held Source:  108  94  303  66  63  191  M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Water Development. Printer.  Annual Reports (1978-83).  Lusaka:  Government  Table 3.  P a r t i c i p a n t s i n f u n c t i o n a l l i t e r a c y programmes of province, 1976-1979.  Number of participants  Central  1976  691  218  888  469  —  1977  560  373  436  416  1978  350  305  478  1979  968  235  557  Copperbelt  Eastern Luapula  Lusaka  Northern  Northwestern  Southern  Western  Total  1,049  231  1,118  843  5,507  116  617  344  882  545  4,289  389  84  487  535  421  616  3,665  438  105  889  489  498  710  4,899  1980*  * No figures were accessible f o r 1980 or l a t e r . Source:  Department of Community Development.  Annual Reports (1976-79).  Lusaka:  Government P r i n t e r .  34 as Central and Northwestern, the t o t a l f u n c t i o n a l l i t e r a c y p a r t i c i p a t i o n figures i n d i c a t e a downward trend from 5,507 i n 1976 to 4,899 i n 1979. Table 4 presents p a r t i c i p a t i o n figures i n Women's Clubs by province. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Women's Clubs has not increased i n some provinces such as Western, Northwestern and Copperbelt.  The t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n figures  i n d i c a t e a downward trend from 17,493 i n 1976 to 15,190 i n 1979. Integrated Rural Development Programmes Zambia i n h e r i t e d a dual economy which i s characterized by two major contrasting sectors:  a t r a d i t i o n a l r u r a l subsistence sector and a modern,  urban i n d u s t r i a l sector.  These two sectors manifest c o n t r a s t i n g patterns  of production, consumption, and exchange.  But despite these d i f f e r e n c e s ,  they are c l o s e l y locked i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p of great i n e q u a l i t y . ^ The urban i n d u s t r i a l sector draws resources from the r u r a l sector without feeding back proportionate returns. Although Zambia i n h e r i t e d a dual economy at independence (1964), no attempt was made to bridge the socioeconomic gap between r u r a l and urban areas (Seidman, 1974).  In f a c t , that gap has been widening (IL0, 1979).  Resource a l l o c a t i o n has tended to favour the modern i n d u s t r i a l urban sector.  During the F i r s t National Development Plan (1966-72), three  provinces (Copperbelt, Central and Southern) absorbed 82 percent of the t o t a l budget, i n contrast to 69 percent envisaged by the plan (Mwali et a l . , 1981). Although the government has invested i n services and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i n r u r a l areas, such investments have not been complemented by e i t h e r favourable a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c i e s or a good p r i c i n g system.  For example, prices of  a g r i c u l t u r a l produce have been too low for farmers to make any  profit.  The h i s t o r i c a l roots of disorted development during the c o l o n i a l period are adequately dealt with by Mutemba (1980).  Table 4.  Central  1976  Clubs Participants Clubs  1977  1978  1979  Participants Clubs Participants Clubs Participants  Source:  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Women's Clubs by province, 1976-1979.  Copperbelt  Eastern  Luapula  Lusaka  Northern  Northwestern  Southern  Western  Total  142  72  135  234  209  120  250  100  1,263  1,426  820  1,392  2,505  2,116  1,845  5,799  1,590  17,493  132  72  130  2 37  22  243  169  233  112  1,350  1,596  754  1,687  2,227  249  2,586  1,890  3,864  1,309  16,162  138  72  184  198  24  . 133  110  221  102  1,182  1,797  600  2,232  2,331  295  2,149  1,573  1,920  1,920  14,817  103  28  159  208  24  214  100  229  96  1,161  1,437  368  1,566  2,350  267  2,746  1,593  1,776  15,190  Department of Community Development.  Annual Reports (1976-79).  Lusaka:  3,087  Government P r i n t e r .  36  Credit f a c i l i t i e s and government subsidies have favoured large scale commercial farmers near urban areas and not small scale peasant are a majority i n r u r a l areas.  farmers  who  The services offered i n r u r a l areas have  not gone far enough compared to those i n urban areas (TNDP, 1979).  Many  r u r a l v i l l a g e s are s t i l l inaccessible to government services and f a c i l i t i e s as w e l l as from e s s e n t i a l marketing  outlets.  Zambia's policy towards r u r a l development has been evolving.  Although  the Second National Development Plan (1972-76) focused more on r u r a l development than the F i r s t National Development Plan (1966-70), i t was  not  u n t i l the period of the T h i r d National Development Plan (1979-83) that the government took p o s i t i v e steps to improve a g r i c u l t u r a l production.  An  example i s the lima programme which focuses on the production of cash crops by peasant  farmers.  separate from h i s own  The Lima i s a small plot given to an i n d i v i d u a l , plot, f o r which he receives a seasonal loan for  a g r i c u l t u r a l inputs and services.  Even though emphasis was  being placed  e a r l i e r on r u r a l development and a g r i c u l t u r a l production, Zambia's shortl i v e d prosperity from copper production did not assist i n d i v e r s i f y i n g the economy by investment  i n r u r a l areas.  Instead, money was  invested i n  c a p i t a l intensive projects i n the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d urban sector, at the expense of the r u r a l sector (Meyns, 1984). strategy i n 1972 was  Part of the rural development  establishing Intensive Development Zones (IDZs), which  were l a t e r reorganized and called Integrated Rural Development Programmes (IRDP).  Another r u r a l development strategy involved establishing state  farms (Evans, 1984). The Intensive Development Zones policy was  based on the growth pole  theory and i s a variant of the growth centre strategy which assumes that e f f e c t s i n one area w i l l spread to surrounding areas; the s p i l l - o v e r  37  e f f e c t s (Mwali et a l . , 1981).  According  to t h i s p o l i c y , very l i t t l e expen-  d i t u r e would be d i r e c t e d to the periphery.  The Intensive Development Zone  strategy was f i r s t adopted i n Chipata D i s t r i c t of Eastern Province i n 1972. This development strategy seemed to concentrate  investment e f f o r t s on a  few, selected areas and seemed to be of primary benefit to already b e t t e r o f f households.  I t was seen by many to be c r e a t i n g s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  i n those areas (Mudenda, 1984). A f t e r an e v a l u a t i o n of IDZ i n 1978 conducted j o i n t l y by the government of Zambia and the Swedish I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency, the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was e s t a b l i s h e d .  Whereas the IDZ  programme emphasized the s p i l l - o v e r e f f e c t , IRDP emphasized providing d i r e c t assistance to those households not being reached by e x i s t i n g government s e r v i c e s .  The programme was integrated i n t o the r e g i o n a l strategy f o r  the Third N a t i o n a l Development Plan (TNDP) (1979-83). R e a l i z i n g the gap i n s o c i a l and economic change between urban and r u r a l areas, the government put more emphasis on r u r a l development i n the TNDP (1979-83).  I t i d e n t i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s for r u r a l  development: (1)  to increase a g r i c u l t u r a l production to achieve s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n s t a p l e foods, both n a t i o n a l l y and r e g i o n a l l y , and to provide raw m a t e r i a l s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s ;  (2)  to stimulate and increase production  for export;  (3)  to increase the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the r u r a l sector to the GNP and to promote d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the r u r a l economy;  (4)  to counter rural-urban migration by c r e a t i n g new employment and income opportunities i n r u r a l areas; and  38  (5)  to d e c e n t r a l i z e  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and encourage  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r u r a l development It was acknowledged at the time that were f a r fewer hoped t h a t  than those o f f e r e d  (TNDP,  services  i n urban areas  s u r r o u n d i n g areas would b e n e f i t  i n t e g r a t e d programmes although there i s  greater  1979, offered  80).  to r u r a l  (TNDP, 1979).  It  from the development  evidence  that  areas was  of  the I n t e g r a t e d  Development Programmes have not produced the a n t i c i p a t e d IRDP were i n s t i t u t e d  p.  local  Rural  benefits.  i n 1979 i n E a s t e r n , Northern and Luapula  p r o v i n c e s and l a t e r i n Northwestern p r o v i n c e (see  Figure 4).  The o b j e c t i v e  of IRDP, i n g e n e r a l terms, has been the improvement of the q u a l i t y of in r u r a l areas. as  It  is  assumed that the above o b j e c t i v e s  life  would be achieved  follows: (1)  by s t r e n g t h e n i n g Zambian i n s t i t u t i o n s  (2)  by improving s e r v i c e s  (3)  by i n c r e a s i n g hectarage  in rural  areas;  to the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n ; under improved c u l t i v a t i o n ,  hence  increasing a g r i c u l t u r a l productivity; (4)  by i n c r e a s i n g income f o r the  (5)  by improving the standard of l i v i n g .  Different example,  populations;  a i d agencies implemented IRDP i n d i f f e r e n t  provinces  (for  the Swedish I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency i n E a s t e r n , N o r t h e r n ,  and Luapula p r o v i n c e s ) .  The funding agency worked through e x i s t i n g  ment departments - A g r i c u l t u r e , specific  rural  areas  govern-  Community Development, and H e a l t h - i n  i n which they were o p e r a t i n g .  In some s i t u a t i o n s ,  the  the  agency d i r e c t l y implemented the programme as was the case at Kalunga and K a l i c h e r o farm t r a i n i n g centers t i o n of these t r a i n i n g centres districts  in Eastern Province. is  A detailed  i n c l u d e d l a t e r i n Chapter 4.  descripBut i n some  i n Northern P r o v i n c e , IRDP operated under d i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g  F i g u r e 4. = P r o v i n c i a l boundaries; rce:  The M i n i s t r y . o f  P r o v i n c e s and D i s t r i c t s = District  Health p r o f i l e .  i n Zambia.  boundaries.  (1978).  Lusaka:  Government P r i n t e r .  40  units.  The Decentralization Act (1981) required that one funding agency  work through d i s t r i c t planning committees.  Recently, Integrated Rural  Development Programmes i n Chipata D i s t r i c t have changed their approach from d i r e c t l y funding programmes through government departments to funding programmes through D i s t r i c t Councils.  This i s a process i n t r a n s i t i o n that  seems to be a f f e c t i n g those a c t i v i t i e s that received funds from IRDP.  Summary This chapter has provided the context of the study.  It outlines f o r  the reader the development of nonformal education programmes i n Zambia before and a f t e r the c o l o n i a l experience.  It focuses on present trends i n  a country that has experienced tremendous s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l change i n less than a century.  Contemporary nonformal education i n Zambia-continues  to draw strength from i t s h i s t o r i c a l antecedents.  The B r i t i s h Colonial  Office established Community Development Training Centres farm t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t e s , and Marketing Boards i n each province as early as 1950*s.  The  Intensive Development Zones that were established i n 1972 and l a t e r transformed into Integrated Rural Development Programmes were modelled  from  those established i n Malawi under the c o l o n i a l legacy (Loveridge, 1978). Many o r i g i n a l training centres s t i l l exist today along with newly established ones. Nonformal education has a major role to play i n rural areas because i t embraces educational a c t i v i t i e s of many government departments and nongovernmental organizations.  Although  training centres have continued to  offer nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s , there i s need to strengthen existing t r a i n i n g programmes.  Nonformal education may  help transform r u r a l areas  into more desirable places to l i v e and eventually reverse the rural-urban migration.  The IRDP has been one of several attempts to reach the neglected small-scale peasant farmer.  But the implementation of the Decentralization  Act (1981) may hinder such chances for the small farmer.  While the  Decentralization Act c a l l s f o r l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the decision-making process, i t neither implies nor guarantees increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n decision-making at the l o c a l l e v e l (Kanduza et a l . , 1985).  Bwalya (1984)  has argued that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n power sharing through ward development and v i l l a g e productivity committees  tends to favour the l o c a l e l i t e s .  l i m i t i n g size of v i l l a g e productivity committees  The  comprising 8 members out  of an estimated average of 500 people i n a v i l l a g e means that only the p o l i t i c a l l y and economically powerful can p a r t i c i p a t e (Bwalya, 1984; Maramwidze, 1980; Ollawa, 1979). development  Similar observations relate to ward  councils and d i s t r i c t councils.  The Decentralization Act may  give power f o r p o l i t i c a l decisions to d i s t r i c t councils, whose Committee members may not be ready f o r this challenge. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n decisionmaking by p r o v i n c i a l and d i s t r i c t administrators may not bring much change unless i t i s accompanied  by f i n a n c i a l autonomy.  So long as major f i n a n c i a l  decisions are introduced from the headquarters i n Lusaka, some of the problems related to delays w i l l p e r s i s t .  It Is too early to evaluate the  actual impact of the implementation of the Decentralization Act (1981) since i t has not yet been implemented  f u l l y i n some d i s t r i c t s such as  Chipata. The next chapter reviews l i t e r a t u r e on nonformal education, i t s origins and i t s role i n the development  efforts of developing countries.  Research studies and other l i t e r a t u r e on implementation are reviewed and their relevance to this study i s discussed.  CHAPTER THREE REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  This chapter presents a review of l i t e r a t u r e relevant to the study. Literature related to f i v e issues i s discussed i n d e t a i l : 1.  The concept of nonformal  2.  Nonformal education and development.  3.  Research on nonformal  4.  Integration.  5.  education.  education.  Implementation.  The Concept of Nonformal Education Discussions on the meaning and development of the concept of nonformal education are centered around three main topics:  i n t e r n a t i o n a l education  planning, c r i t i q u e of schooling, and the practice of nonformal  education.  The f i r s t topic deals with international education planning issues. Coombs (1968), i n analyzing educational systems of various developing countries, a r t i c u l a t e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the formal school system and stressed the rapidly approaching l i m i t s of further expansion. nonformal  education as a p o t e n t i a l solution to this c r i s i s .  He  advocated  This pattern  of c r i t i c i s m and advocacy led several agencies to sponsor a series of research and development studies to f i e l d test programmes f a c i l i t a t i v e of the nonformal  education approach (Evans, 1981).  Key examples of such  studies are those by S h e f f i e l d and Diejomaoh (1972) and the International Council for Educational Development between 1973 and  1980.  Another topic i s dealt with by c r i t i c s of schooling. theorists assert that nonformal  This group of  education can be traced from the ideas  43  developed by i n f l u e n t i a l c r i t i c s of  schooling-  I l l i c h (1970),  (1970), and Carnoy (1976) have f o r c e f u l l y presented schools  as i n s t i t u t i o n s  perpetuates  f o r development.  inequalities  that  e d u c a t i o n as an a l t e r n a t i v e The t h i r d allowed  topic is  sought  and present nonformal  in this  f i e l d of  study.  to d i s t i n g u i s h which e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s  g o r i z e the v a r i o u s o u t - o f - s c h o o l  This  are indeed  T h e i r main concern has been to activities  Nonformal e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s  literacy,  schooling  d e a l t w i t h by a group of p r a c t i t i o n e r s which has  nonformal e d u c a t i o n i n c h a r a c t e r .  1975).  against  schooling.  the e v o l u t i o n of new d e f i n i t i o n s  group has  case  They argue that  exist in society  to formal  the  Friere  farmer e d u c a t i o n , c o o p e r a t i v e  cate-  ( C a l l a w a y , 1973; F o r s t e r ,  include:  basic  literacy,  functional  education, a g r i c u l t u r a l extension,  population education,  f a m i l y - l i f e p l a n n i n g , n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n , community  development  activities.  and youth  There i s education i s  no g e n e r a l agreement (Coombs, 1968,  S e v e r a l recent  1974;  i n the  l i t e r a t u r e as to what nonformal  Brembeck, 1973;  f i e l d s t u d i e s attempted  Grandstaff,  to c l a s s i f y  activities  1971). that  are  construed by them to be w i t h i n the domain of nonformal e d u c a t i o n ( C a l l a w a y , 1973;  F o r s t e r , 1975).  Their c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  i d e n t i f y i n g nonformal e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . of  scheme has been u s e f u l  A major task i n the p l e t h o r a  f i e l d s t u d i e s was that of s u b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  activities 1972;  identify  of o u t - o f - s c h o o l  i n each r e g i o n of developing c o u n t r i e s  Ahmed and Coombs, 1975;  (Sheffield  Coombs et a d . , 1973).  additional activities  c l e a r l y nonformal i n c h a r a c t e r .  in  and Diejomaoh,  These e a r l y  which, though o u t - o f - s c h o o l  educational  attempts  i n nature,  were  44  The d e f i n i t i o n proposed by Coombs (1973) i s the most widely accepted. Coombs (1973) defines nonformal education as: ... any organized educational a c t i v i t y carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to p a r t i c u l a r subgroups i n the population, adults as well as c h i l d r e n , (p. 11)  The d e f i n i t i o n seeks to d i f f e r e n t i a t e a wide range of nonformal educational a c t i v i t i e s carried on i n educational i n s t i t u t i o n s (schools). Coombs (1976) argued that both formal and nonformal education are organized to complement and improve upon informal learning.  (For example,  l i t e r a c y and numeracy are s k i l l s that individuals cannot e a s i l y acquire through their environment).  But formal and nonformal education systems  d i f f e r i n their sponsorship, i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements, educational objectives and i n the target groups they try to serve (Coombs et a l . ,  1973).  Brembeck (1973) saw formal and nonformal education as two d i s t i n c t systems each having i t s own merits i n fostering learning.  Unlike the case  of formal schooling the merits of nonformal education l i e s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n i t s a b i l i t y to be used for immediate needs (Brembeck, 1973).  He argued  that learned behaviour i s determined by the environment i n which i t takes place.  The learning environments of formal and nonformal education tend to  have d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Brembeck, 1973). turn shape learned behaviour.  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n  The merits of nonformal education l i e i n i t s  a b i l i t y to be used f o r immediate needs.  It i s therefore e s s e n t i a l , he  argued, to have both educational environments i n order to produce a l l behaviours required i n a society.  I t may appear as though Brembeck was  proposing two d i s t i n c t educational systems: system of nonformal education.  a system of schooling and a  45  Evans (1981) defined nonformal educational a c t i v i t i e s according to how they r e l a t e to formal schools. education a c t i v i t i e s  His c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme for nonformal  identified:  (a)  complementary education, which rounds out the school curriculum;  (b)  supplementary education, which adds on to schooling at a l a t e r time; and  (c)  education which replaces schooling.  Included under the complementary education category are nonformal educational a c t i v i t i e s involving youth organizations l i k e scouting, young farmers clubs, sports clubs and hobby groups, debating s o c i e t i e s , and voluntary service a c t i v i t i e s which are often sponsored by private organizations.  Although some of the a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d within this category are  organized by the schools, some of them are organized and supervised by nonschool personnel or organizations. Supplementary education refers to nonformal educational a c t i v i t i e s that add to the learning produced i n school settings.  These a c t i v i t i e s  include a wide range of apprenticeships, s k i l l - t r a i n i n g programmes, farmer t r a i n i n g courses and family or home economics training (Evans, 1981, p. 2 1 ) . The l a s t category of nonformal education i d e n t i f i e d by Evans (1981) i s replacement education. schooling.  Such nonformal endeavors include b a s i c - l i t e r a c y  normally attended and adults.  I t s programmes replace or substitute for formal courses,  by a mixture of unschooled and lesser schooled c h i l d r e n  Here the content covered embraces basic s k i l l s of l i t e r a c y and  numeracy, and rudimentary s k i l l s i n p r a c t i c a l subjects such as health, n u t r i t i o n , and a g r i c u l t u r e . This category of nonformal education has attracted much attention from planners who recognize i t as a technique f o r alternative schooling.  Yet several have argued against replacing formal  schooling with out-of-school a c t i v i t i e s .  Despite such c r i t i c i s m nonformal  education has the potential of reaching a large group of the population not served by formal education. Harbison (1973) followed Coombs d e f i n i t i o n but viewed nonformal educat i o n as the generation of s k i l l s and knowledge offered outside the formal schooling system. ment.  He i s e s p e c i a l l y concerned with human resource  develop-  Harbison attributed great importance to nonformal education i n  meeting a nation's new and expanded knowledge and s k i l l requirements.  He  l a i d out possible functions of nonformal education which are: 1.  A c t i v i t i e s oriented primarily to development of the s k i l l and knowledge of members of the labour force who  2.  A c t i v i t i e s designed primarily to prepare persons, mostly for  3.  are already employed. youth,  entry into employment.  A c t i v i t i e s designed to develop s k i l l , knowledge, and which transcend the work world (Harbison, 1973,  understanding  p. 59).  Harbison's views were guided by the human c a p i t a l theory.  He  was  writing during a time most African countries had just attained t h e i r independence, and was economies.  concerned  about how  the countries could expand their  His views, however, assumed that nonformal education would be  tied to n a t i o n a l l y defined aims, c h i e f l y economic, and i t s implementation would be controlled by those whose interests r e f l e c t the national aims. Harbison's model, however, ignores implementation  of nonformal education  programmes organized by d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l movements i n society, such as those offered through trade union movements. Paulston's (1972) d e f i n i t i o n views the education system of a society as four concentric c i r c l e s . education systems.  The outer, largest c i r c l e represents formal  The second ring i s the nonformal component where  47  structured non-school educational programmes are offered.  The t h i r d inner  c i r c l e represents informal education, where people learn i n a non-systematic manner from exposure to c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s , s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , processes, personal media, and mass media.  political  The l a s t ring, i n t e r n a t i o n a l  education, includes knowledge inputs made by e n t i t i e s outside national boundaries.  Paulston's  (1972) d e f i n i t i o n deals inadequately with the  i n t e r a c t i o n between educational processes  between the d i f f e r e n t c i r c l e s :  a  s p e c i a l concern i s the a b i l i t y to deal with the inner and outer c i r c l e s . La B e l l e (1975) outlined a close r e l a t i o n s h i p between formal, nonformal, and informal educational systems by analyzing the predominant learning modes through which each takes place. of Coombs and Ahmed (1974) i n his analysis.  He follows the d e f i n i t i o n s  While Coombs and Ahmed (1974)  seem to treat the three modes of education as discrete e n t i t i e s , La Belle (1975) sees the three educational modes, that i s , informal, nonformal and formal, to exist a l l at the same time.  This i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 5.  Figure 5 i l l u s t r a t e s the three i n t e r a c t i v e modes of informal, nonformal, and formal education systems.  In formal education, what i s taught  i n the curriculum i s related to other educational modes l i k e peer group. At the same time, the school offers nonformal education programmes through extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s . modes of education.  Along the v e r t i c a l l i n e are the predominant  These r e f l e c t the dominant type of learning process  from the perspective of the observer or the learner.  For example, an  observer may decide to choose to focus observation on learning a c t i v i t i e s that the teacher i s offering based on the curriculum rather than on what i s learnt from peer groups.  48  Figure 5. Source:  La Belle's typology of formal, nonformal, and informal education. La B e l l e , T.J. (1979). L i b e r a t i o n , development, and r u r a l nonformal education. In R.O. Niehoff (ed.), Nonformal education and the r u r a l poor. East Lansing: Michigan State U n i v e r s i t y .  49  At the top of the figure are educational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Here the  emphasis i s on the structure rather than the process of education. t e r i s t i c s of formal education include: compulsory attendance;  ordering of programme l e v e l s ;  admission requirements;  t e r i s t i c s of nonformal education include:  and c e r t i f i c a t i o n .  extra c u r r i c u l a r  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of informal education include:  Charac-  activities,  systematic out-of-school a c t i v i t i e s and parental i n s t r u c t i o n and  everyday  Charac-  guidance.  peer group a c t i v i t i e s  and  experiences.  The aim of the figure i s to display the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the three educational modes.  However, within the three educational modes,  there e x i s t other learning opportunities that occur simultaneously i n the same i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g . their involvement  For example, children i n school learn from  i n extra c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and from their i n t e r a c t i o n  with peers i n addition to the learning that occurs i n the  classroom.  This author's conceptualization of nonformal education i s presented i n Figure 6.  In Figure 6, quadrants  system from elementary  1 and 4 represent the formal schooling  to i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher learning.  Quadrant 2  represents nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s designed for children and who  are not part of the formal school system.  youth,  There i s an overlap between  nonformal education and adult education as presented i n quadrant 3.  Some  adult education a c t i v i t i e s are offered outside the formal education system and are therefore nonformal. and adult education occurs.  It i s here that the overlap between nonformal Since this research focuses on nonformal  education a c t i v i t i e s for r u r a l youths and adults, the programmes represented by quadrants  2 and 3 were relevant.  Definitions of nonformal education have followed that of Coombs (1973).  He argued that there i s a close relationship between formal, non-  Formal Education  Figure 6.  Nonformal Education  Relationship between nonformal and adult education.  Quadrants 1 and 4 represent the formal school system. Quadrant 2 represents nonformal education for children and youth. Quadrant 3 represents nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s for adults. The shaded area represents an overlap between nonformal education and adult education.  51  formal and informal systems of education.  Although Coombs (1976) i n s i s t e d  that there are no marked differences between formal and nonformal education systems, he was not clear on the close relationship that exists between the two systems since formal education i s largely funded by the state while nonformal education programmes may be funded by private organizations or the state.  It may be d i f f i c u l t  f o r p r i v a t e l y funded nonformal education  a c t i v i t i e s to have a close r e l a t i o n s h i p with the formal educational system. While Coombs (1974) believes that there i s a close relationship between formal and nonformal education, Brembeck (1974) saw the two as d i s t i n c t systems each having i t s own merits i n fostering learning.  Since  nonformal education i s f l e x i b l e , he argued, i t can e a s i l y adapt to innovations and i t can be applied to immediate needs of learners.  He strongly  argued that formal education alone i s not able to produce a l l the behaviours  required i n society as i t i s often assumed.  It appears that  Brembeck (1973) was proposing two d i s t i n c t kinds of educational systems, i.e.,  schooling and nonformal education.  This analysis d i f f e r s from Coombs  (1974) i n which formal education i s c l o s e l y related to nonformal education. Harbison (1973), using a d e f i n i t i o n similar to Coombs, saw many functions of nonformal education.  He believed that the major function of  nonformal education i s to provide people with s k i l l s for high l e v e l jobs i n the economy as well as a means of counterbalancing some d i s t o r t i o n s created by formal education.  Coombs' (1974) model d i f f e r s from Harbison's  because  i t emphasizes r u r a l development and the improvement of l i f e for r u r a l people.  The is and  common theme that emerges i n the l i t e r a t u r e on nonformal e d u c a t i o n  as f o l l o w s :  nonformal e d u c a t i o n encompasses a wide range of e d u c a t i o n a l  developmental a c t i v i t i e s  the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n .  that aim to r e l a t e  to the immediate needs of  Nonformal programmes tend to be p r a c t i c a l  n a t u r e , and are designed to provide s k i l l s and knowledge  in  for immediate  use.  Nonformal e d u c a t i o n programmes tend to be short term and t a n g i b l e ( S i m k i n s , 1971).  The nonformal programme may be o r g a n i z e d by government,  voluntary associations It  is  offered  but i t s  implementation i s not r i g i d l y s t r u c t u r e d .  to a l l age groups i n s o c i e t y .  p o t e n t i a l as i t s desired objective  Nonformal e d u c a t i o n has  s t r u c t u r e and form can be made f l e x i b l e (Dejene,  private or  great  to b r i n g about a  1980).  Nonformal Education and Development Two dominant t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s special  significance  positions.  for this  They i n f l u e n c e  thesis:  about education and change h o l d the e q u i l i b r i u m and the  the way d i f f e r e n t  between nonformal e d u c a t i o n and development. categories,  numerous p e r s p e c t i v e s  theoretical positions,  it  is  exist.  authors view the  conflict relationship  Yet w i t h i n these two main  B e f o r e we d i s c u s s  important to d e f i n e  these two  development.  Development Defined The  concept  development all  of development was at one time equated w i t h economic  (Dejene,  1980).  areas of development:  defines  development  as:  The broader view of development social,  p o l i t i c a l and economic.  encompasses Rogers (1976)  ... a widely participatory process of s o c i a l change i n a society, intended to bring about both s o c i a l and material advancement (including greater equality, freedom, and other valued q u a l i t i e s ) for the majority of the people through their gaining greater control over t h e i r environment, (p. 133)  This d e f i n i t i o n of development  d i f f e r s from an e a r l i e r one that  centered on m a t e r i a l i s t , economic growth.  This approach i s broad, more  f l e x i b l e and, at the same time, more humanitarian i n i t s implications.  The  valued q u a l i t i e s must be decided by the people themselves through a widely p a r t i c i p a t o r y process. development.  Each group might pursue a d i f f e r e n t pathway to  In t h i s way, development represents a powerful change toward  the kind of s o c i a l and economic system that a country desires (Schramm and Lerner, 1976).  Development  i s a process of s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l  change towards modernity. Myrdal (1972) regards development as the movement upward of the entire s o c i a l system to an improved standard of l i f e . development  Because t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of  i s directed to the s o c i a l systems l e v e l , i t includes both  economic and non-economic s o c i a l needs.  factors such as health, education, and other  This d e f i n i t i o n incorporates both Rogers' (1976) ideas and  those of Schramm and Lerner (1976).  Modernization Smelser (1968) defines modernization as a process of transformation of t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , where i n s t i t u t i o n a l roles are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and diffused.  Other changes that may occur often relate to the following areas  (Smelser, 1968: 28): 1.  The change from simple and t r a d i t i o n a l techniques toward the application of knowledge.  2.  The evolution from subsistence farming toward commercial product i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l goods.  3.  The t r a n s i t i o n from the use of human and animal power toward industrialization.  4.  The movement from the farm and v i l l a g e toward urban centres.  Modernization theory emerged i n the 1950s as an i n t e l l e c t u a l response to the two world wars (Fagerlind and Saha, 1983).  Early forms of moderni--  zation theory focused on the advancement of newly independent states by studying the path followed by i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t i e s .  Huntington (1976)  characterized modernization as revolutionary: ... A dramatic s h i f t from t r a d i t i o n a l to modern, complex (multiple causes), systematic, global ( a f f e c t i n g a l l s o c i e t i e s ) , phased (advance through stages), homogenizing (convergence), i r r e v e r s i b l e and progressive. (Fagerlind and Saha, 1983, p. 15) Modernization theory i s based on the idea that there i s a direct linkage between the following sets of v a r i a b l e s :  modernizing i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  modern values, modern behaviour, modern society and economic (Inkeles and Smith, 1974; Fagerlind and Saha, 1983).  development  MacLelland (1961) i n  major studies i n Japan and Asia, examined modernity and argued that the r i s e and f a l l of c i v i l i z a t i o n s i s due to the i n d i v i d u a l values held by the majority of the population i n society.  He proclaimed that the achievement  motive (n Ach) which an i n d i v i d u a l acquires through s o c i a l i z a t i o n makes a society open to economic and technological advancement. Fagerlind and Saha (1983) argue against the underlying assumptions of the modernization theory which stipulates that modern attitudes and values are incompatible with t r a d i t i o n a l ones.  They have examples  from Japan  where t r a d i t i o n a l forms of labour seem to have contributed to economic  growth.  Modernization theory assumes that modern values and behaviours by  i n d i v i d u a l s necessarily lead to socioeconomic level.  development at the s o c i e t a l  They argue that society i s not simply the sum  duals within i t .  t o t a l of the i n d i v i -  They give as an example of the emigration of profes-  sionals from less-developed countries, a form of modern behaviour which could not be said to contribute to economic development of those countries. Modernization e f f o r t s i n Zambia have taken many forms.  Several  government development e f f o r t s have been designed to transform the Zambian society from a t r a d i t i o n a l to a modern society.  Several contradictions  emerge i n a society that i s i n the process of transformation, whether to completely abandon the t r a d i t i o n a l way  of l i f e and i n t e r n a l i z e new  or to keep t r a d i t i o n a l values while at the same time i n t e r n a l i z i n g values.  values new  What one may observe i s a mixture of two cultures, at times i n  harmony with each other.  But the government of Zambia i s committed to  transform the society into a modern society while keeping desirable values from a t r a d i t i o n a l society of the past.  Nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s  offered i n r u r a l areas have been designed to assist r u r a l communities i n the move towards modernity while maintaining t r a d i t i o n a l values.  S t r u c t u r a l Functionalism Equilibrium theory shows the s o c i a l system always moves toward a preferred state.  Such a state i s arrived at as a result of natural order  as well as c e r t a i n mechanisms such as s o c i a l i z a t i o n and s o c i a l control processes.  S t r u c t u r a l / f u n c t i o n a l i s t s believe i n equilibrium, that  s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s what holds society together (Karabel and Halsey, 1977).  56  Society i s seen as a system composed of i n t e r r e l a t e d parts ( r e l i g i o n , education, p o l i t i c a l structures, the family, e t c ) * to be i n equilibrium.  These parts are said  Non-normative events or arrangements are said to  produce tensions (Fagerlind and Saha, 1983). S t r u c t u r a l / f u n c t i o n a l i s t theory shows change to be either i n t e r n a l or external to the system.  Internal changes are adjustments to some d i s -  e q u i l i b r a t i n g pressure which results i n some alterations i n the system. S t r u c t u r a l changes occur when disturbances are s u f f i c i e n t to overcome the forces of equilibrium. S t r u c t u r a l / f u n c t i o n a l i s t s view educational systems as being able to offer opportunities for mobility of i n d i v i d u a l s .  Coombs (1968) and  Harbison (1973) use the s t r u c t u r a l / f u n c t i o n a l i s t assumptions i n their analysis of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between nonformal education and development. Nonformal education i s seen as a vehicle for bringing about desired change within a system.  Hence, as proponents, they believe that the state should  plan nonformal education programmes i n order for such change to occur (Evans, 1981). Evans (1981) concludes that: Nonformal education has demonstrated i t s c a p a b i l i t y of carrying out many educational tasks which cannot and should not be attempted i n schools. The future development of nonformal education l i e s i n i t s integration into the o v e r a l l educational sector along with formal education. Planning f o r nonformal education must function to encourage i t s strengths while providing an o v e r a l l framework within which i t can grow i n a manner consistent with the goals of national development, (p. 97)  Structural/functionalism has been c r i t i c i z e d for focusing on s t a t i c aspects of society to the neglect of change, process, c o n f l i c t , and dissent (Fagerlind and Saha, 1983).  Harmony and integration are seen as functional,  57  whereas c o n f l i c t , change, and tension are seen to be dysfunctional and to be avoided.  But Parsons' l a t e r works incorporated  evolutionary  where s o c i e t i e s were said to move along an evolutionary  theory  path through the  processes of i n t e g r a t i o n , d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , and r e i n t e g r a t i o n , taking into account both i n t e r n a l and external factors. suggest that neo-evolutionary modernization  Conflict  Fagerlind and Saha (1983)  theory i s responsible f o r the emergence of  theory.  Theories  C o n f l i c t theory rests upon the assumption that human intervention i s the decisive force i n the shaping of history and s o c i a l change (Karabel and Halsey, 1977).  This intervention r e s u l t s as c o n f l i c t i n g groups gain or  lose r e l a t i v e p o l i t i c a l power and thus the a b i l i t y to influence change. Education i s seen as playing a key role i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of a t t r i butes, s k i l l s , and expertise necessary to function i n an e f f e c t i v e manner to influence change.  While s t r u c t u r a l / f u n c t i o n a l i s t s view educational  systems as being able to o f f e r opportunities for mobility of i n d i v i d u a l s , c o n f l i c t t h e o r i s t s stress the role of education  i n maintaining  a system  of structured inequality (Carnoy, 1976; Bock, 1976; La B e l l e , 1976). believe that the educational  system helps  They  to define which people may l e g i -  timately play which roles i n society. Bock and Papagiannis (1983) contend that the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n and l e g i t i m i z a t i o n of nonformal education and  further perpetuates the d i s t o r t i o n s  i n e q u a l i t i e s that exist between the urban and rural sector.  that the state may sponsor nonformal education influence beyond the formal schools.  They argue  programmes to extend i t s  Such influence would foster  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and promote n a t i o n a l i s t i c m a i n t a i n the e x i s t i n g 1983). it  s o c i a l order (La B e l l e ,  They argue a g a i n s t  legitimizes  perpetuates  the i n f e r i o r s t a t u s of i t s  the e x i s t i n g  inequalities  how the t h e o r i s t s  e d u c a t i o n and development  which would i n t u r n help 1976;  graduates  Bock and P a p a g i a n n i s ,  that d i f f e r e n t  perceive  and  therefore  theoretical  orientations  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between nonformal  and how nonformal e d u c a t i o n may be  implemented.  theories  stress  state-  planned nonformal e d u c a t i o n systems (Coombs et_ a l . , 1973;  Coles,  1982).  hoped that  increase Evans,  its  p l a n n i n g of nonformal education at  the n a t i o n a l l e v e l  c o n t r i b u t i o n to the m o d e r n i z a t i o n process  (Harbison,  It  will  1975;  1981).  T h i s study uses the s t r u c t u r a l / f u n c t i o n a l i s t analyzing state-sponsored assumes that government the m o d e r n i z a t i o n  integrated efforts  rural  development  to encourage  alternative society.  framework i n  i n Zambia.  development  by the c o n f l i c t  theories  formal e d u c a t i o n should not be i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d Paulston,  theoretical  It  do c o n t r i b u t e  to  process.  Those that are i n f l u e n c e d  1976;  as  in society.  Those i n f l u e n c e d by the s t r u c t u r a l / f u n c t i o n a l i s t  is  to  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of nonformal e d u c a t i o n ,  The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s influence  values  1976).  They view the  system i n development  (Bock,  argue that 1976;  non-  La B e l l e ,  r o l e of nonformal e d u c a t i o n as an  t h a t may help i n d i v i d u a l s b r i n g change  In most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ,  both s t a t e - p l a n n e d  in  and l o c a l l y  i n i t i a t e d nonformal education programmes e x i s t s i d e by s i d e (Evans,  1981).  59  Research on Nonformal Education Before discussing the concept of i n t e g r a t i o n , i t i s important to review some research studies that have been conducted on nonformal education.  Most research on nonformal education has focused on finding out  which a c t i v i t i e s existed where and i n what form.  Research was i n i t i a t e d by  i n t e r n a t i o n a l aid agencies that became interested i n investing i n nonformal education. E a r l i e r research on nonformal education consisted of surveys that t r i e d to find out which nonformal education programmes existed.  Specific  examples of such research studies were those conducted i n several A f r i c a n countries (Kenya, Zambia, Botswana, Nigeria and Tanzania) by S h e f f i e l d and Diejomaoh  (1972); Coombs et_ a l . (1973); and Coombs and Ahmed (1974).  Later studies focused on the projects of i n d i v i d u a l countries (La B e l l e , 1976; Bock, 1975; Forster, 1975; Coombs, 1980).  These studies  focused on the impact of nonformal education on the i n d i v i d u a l .  Results of  the studies indicated limited p a r t i c i p a t i o n among those with l i t t l e previous education.  The findings of these studies indicated that most non-  formal education programmes developed i n response to some s p e c i f i c needs as i d e n t i f i e d by the government or by the community.  The findings that  integrated nonformal programmes that involved l o c a l people were e f f e c t i v e i n achieving their goals. Other studies on the impact of nonformal education on the i n d i v i d u a l have been conducted i n L a t i n America by La B e l l e (1975).  He found that non  formal education programmes u t i l i z e d mainly psychological approaches and did not markedly improved the power and prestige of the participants.  Bock  (1975) conducted a study i n Malaysia i n which he found that the graduates  of nonformal education t r a i n i n g did not get better jobs compared with those who graduated from formal t r a i n i n g .  But they accepted their  inferior  position due to the rudimentary q u a l i t y of their t r a i n i n g from the nonformal education programme.  D a l l (1983) studied nonformal education  t r a i n i n g programmes f o r youths who leave school early.  He found that young  men from these programmes d i d not aspire to higher paying jobs. In many developing countries, a large number of nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s are state-sponsored such as those recommended by Coombs and Ahmed (1974) and Evans (1981).  S p e c i f i c examples are those from Botswana,  Zambia, and Kenya (Coombs and Ahmed, 1974).  Coombs and Ahmed (1974) found  that projects which had links with other agencies had higher cost e f f e c tiveness than those which did not.  They have argued the need f o r integra-  t i o n of nonformal education programmes v e r t i c a l l y with government agencies and h o r i z o n t a l l y with other complementary services within the geographical area.  Although many nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s are organized by non-  governmental  organizations, these a c t i v i t i e s tend to be fewer than state-  sponsored programmes.  Integration The concept of integration i s based on the system-centered  approach,  which emphasizes the linkage between i n d i v i d u a l s , i n s t i t u t i o n s and the environment.  This linkage w i l l seek to promote the Improvement of the  i n d i v i d u a l by modifying the patterns of relationships i n society. formal education, i n this perspective, i s one of several important i n the process of development.  Nonelements  61  Integration programme regards Inputs the  is  the  seen  system. are  At  offered  be  the  to  into  lives  level,  levels:  of  district, on  and  agencies.  i t involves  important  to  local  involves  strike level  a  outputs  Systems  include  set  up  theory  and  outputs.  outcomes  through  education,  local  and  of  which  levels.  the  of  the  planning  decentralized  i n order  to  between  activities  of  represent  cooperatives). activities  are  There  utilized is  nonformal what  is  extension, Outputs  as  they  repre-  bring  System c a p a b i l i t i e s at  feedback  national, from  the  local  system. of and  programmes  at  administrative  centralized control.  local  control  from  participation.  non-governmental  coordination.  how  (agricultural  supervisory  encourage  relationships  Inputs  programmes. that  the  7 shows  education  of  on  Figure  programmes  nonformal  balance  incorporates  education  capabilities,  focuses  implemented.  education  to  both  coordinating  Integration  and  outputs  relates  system.  institutions  arrangements  the  while  approach  participants  and  inputs,  offers  nonformal  larger  this  health  administrative  Integration  the  A  outputs.  integrated  national  of  having  system  organized  of  theory.  c a p a b i l i t i e s are  development,  provincial,  the  the  programme  can  to  represent  to  s y s t e m as  translated  outcomes  level  systems  sub-system  through nonformal  community  change  on  d i f f e r e n t departments  education  sent  a  to what System  the  between  as  political  relate  inputs  i s based  It  the It  is  national also  organizations.  Coordination  i s an  coordination  of  aspect  of  integration. Integration educational of  and  essential  this  way,  implies  linkage  developmental  information  integration  organizations.  the  from  deals  and  services.  It  also  among  to  promote  with  them  efforts  refers  to  their  communication within  and  the  between maintenance  objectives. between  In  62  ENVIRONMENT  FEEDBACK  OU' PUT  INPU"B  National, levels.  Provincial,  Agricultural Extension  Community Development Health  D i s t r i c t and  ->  Local  Productivity level  — —  SYSTEM  CAPABILITIES  Education  -> B e t t e r  health  -> H i g h e r l i t e r a c y levels  Cooperatives — — — Nutrition Literacy Maternal Childcare  Figure  7:  A systems model education.  representing  inputs  and outputs  of nonformal  63  Since integration deals with linkage of one organization with another, i t i s assumed that the more linkages an organization has with other organizations, the more resources i t could have at i t s disposal. always be true i n developing  countries.  This may not  Nonetheless, i t i s assumed that  integration has the p o t e n t i a l to improve u t i l i z a t i o n of limited  resources.  Implementation Early l i t e r a t u r e on organizational change focused on i n d i v i d u a l s ' resistance to change (Rogers and Shoemaker, 1964).  The l i t e r a t u r e revealed  that the major explanation offered for the success or f a i l u r e of organizations to implement innovations assumed that members of an organization are i n i t i a l l y r e s i s t a n t to change.  The l i t e r a t u r e also assumed that i t was the  a b i l i t y of management or a change agent to overcome resistance that accounts for the success or f a i l u r e of e f f o r t s to implement an innovation. Gross e_t a l . (1971) argued that such an explanation ignores obstacles to which members who are not r e s i s t a n t to change may be exposed to when they make e f f o r t s to implement innovations.  They believed that the l i t e r a t u r e  ignored the p o s s i b i l i t y that members who are not resistant to organizat i o n a l change may l a t e r develop a negative o r i e n t a t i o n to i t . Literature on implementation has increased only during the early '70s through the following groups of researchers (Kritek, 1976): 1.  scholars involved i n organizational change;  2.  p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s concerned with the problem of translating government p o l i c i e s i n t o workable programs, and  3.  evaluators who have come to r e a l i z e that programmes cannot be condemned for f a i l i n g to achieve intended outcomes i f , i n fact, they have not been successfully implemented.  64  Aoki (1977) contends that implementation i s not a linear scheme of the p r a c t i c a l events of putting a programme into practice.  Rather, implementa-  t i o n involves a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the developers of the innovation and the users. Implementation  i s a highly complex process involving relationships  between users and managers, and among various groups of users, i n a process characterized by inevitable c o n f l i c t and by anticipated and unanticipated problems that one should be prepared for prior to implementation, and should be continually addressed a f t e r .  Always think about implementation problems, and always worry that others are not thinking about them, but do not expect major improvements to come q u i c k l y . (Williams, 1975, p. 566)  Implementation  of innovation i n developing countries poses even more  complex problems since most innovations introduced i n these countries come from i n d u s t r i a l i z e d western countries (Jennings-Wray, Wray (1985) argues that the assumptions  1985).  Jennings-  embedded i n many innovations from  the developed world are often i n c o n f l i c t with t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l values and b e l i e f s i n developing countries. F u l l a n (1980) stipulated that most studies stress the outcomes of innovations once they have been adopted, ignoring whether change has r e a l l y occurred.  He argued that i t i s important to study the implementation  process i n order to determine what actually happened, the roles and r o l e relationships of those organizational members most d i r e c t l y involved i n the change process.  He believed that for changes to occur the roles and r o l e  relationships of organizational members ought to change during implementation.  It i s important to study implementation on i t s own i n order to  determine, f i r s t l y , i f i n fact change has happened, and secondly stand why  change occurs or f a i l s  According  to under-  to occur ( F u l l a n , 1980).  to F u l l a n (1979) implementation i s defined as:  ... the actual use or putting into practice of a p a r t i c u l a r change ... i t i s much more complex i n r e a l i t y because implementation i s multi-dimensional, (p. 336)  An examination of the components of implementation according  to F u l l a n  (1979) and Ashley and Butts (1971) poses two problems, namely, 1) the c r i t e r i a of i n c l u s i o n , and 2) the degree of e x p l i c i t n e s s . The  c r i t e r i a of i n c l u s i o n comprises the implementation c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  that are considered worthy of i n c l u s i o n i n the process.  Fullan and Pomfret  (1977) posit that implementation involves considering the following five c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or components of the  process:  1.  Structure/organization  2.  Materials  3.  Role/Behaviour  4.  Knowledge/understanding  5.  I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n (commitment).  F u l l a n (1979) stresses s t r u c t u r a l changes among these components as necessary and argues that the actual use of the innovation often involves a change of structures or organization. Consideration of materials involves the actual use of new materials by the users.  Consideration of role/behaviour  behavioural change i s required by the user?" is a necessary part of implementation. for  raises questions  Knowledge of the  fails.  innovation  Commitment i s a necessary condition  successful implementation, so lack of commitment may  introduction of an innovation  such as "what  explain why  the  66  F u l l a n and Pomfret (1977) i d e n t i f y of  four major c a t e g o r i e s of  implementation d e r i v e d from s t u d i e s .  be d e s c r i b e d i n terms of i t s  They suggest that a determinant  complexity and i t s  four c a t e g o r i e s are s u b - c a t e g o r i e s .  determinants  explicitness.  Within  The four analyzed are l i s t e d  here  can  the as:  Characteristics of the Innovation F u l l a n and Pomfret (1977) argue that the h i g h e r the for  degree of implementation.  the user and r e s u l t s  degree of d i f f i c u l t y teristic believe  the more e x p l i c i t Low e x p l i c i t n e s s  i n low degrees of  implementation.  the more d i f f i c u l t  the change,  r e q u i r e d by i t ,  the more l i k e l y that  across  They conclude  groups-  causes  confusion  Complexity or  i n u s i n g the i n n o v a t i o n i s another important c h a r a c -  of an i n n o v a t i o n ( F u l l a n and Pomfret, that  an i n n o v a t i o n ,  1977).  F u l l a n and Pomfret  or the more new l e a r n i n g  the degree of  implementation w i l l vary  that:  The g r e a t e r the c o m p l e x i t y , the more d i f f i c u l t i t e x p l i c i t about the o p e r a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of innovation. ( F u l l a n and Pomfret, 1977, p. 371)  i s to be the  Strategies and Tactics F u l l a n and Pomfret (1977) d e v i s e d effective  the  for  implementation:  1.  In-service  2.  Resource  3.  Feedback mechanisms.  4.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n in decision-making.  There i s  training.  support.  a need to see  the users and developers specify  following strategies  and r e d e f i n e  implementation as a s o c i a l i z a t i o n  process  work i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n with one another  the e s s e n t i a l  traits  of an i n n o v a t i o n .  where  i n order  to  67  Characteristics  of the Adopting Units  In t h e i r a n a l y s i s , F u l l a n and Pomfret (1977) developed the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the adopting u n i t s that affect implementation.  These  are: 1.  Adopting process.  2.  Organizational climate.  3.  Environmental support.  4.  Demographic f a c t o r s .  The question whether the p o t e n t i a l users of the innovation f e l t free to accept or r e j e c t the innovation i s important as i t affects t i o n as i t relates to the adopting process.  implementa-  Organizational climate of  adopting units plays a c r i t i c a l role on whether or not implementation occurs, and how i t occurs.  Support from leadership and fellow workers  improves the chances of implementing an innovation. The  geographic  environment whether urban or r u r a l i s another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that a f f e c t s implementation.  L a s t l y , the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of users that i s :  value o r i e n t a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the innovation; type of previous t r a i n i n g ; and a b i l i t y to use the innovation affect implementation (Fullan and Pomfret, 1977).  Characteristics  of Macro S o c i o p o l i t i c a l Factors  F u l l a n and Pomfret (1977) argue that implementation of innovative programmes can be affected by a l l the factors i d e n t i f i e d . l e v e l they i d e n t i f y the following f a c t o r s : 1.  Design issues.  2.  Incentive systems.  3.  The role of evaluation.  4.  P o l i t i c a l complexity.  At the macro  Design i s s u e s i n v o l v e those f a c t o r s designing  the proposed change.  large-scale  that r e l a t e  to who i s  involved in  F u l l a n and Pomfret (1977) observe  programmes proposed by p o l i t i c a l agents i n power have  characteristics l i k e l i h o o d of  that  increase  effective  implementation.  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g process e v a l u a t i o n of  They recognized a need  r e g a r d i n g the i n n o v a t i o n .  of an i n n o v a t i o n , users  problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t s  If  the  for i n the  P o l i t i c a l factors  the implementation of an i n n o v a t i o n .  s t r o n g advocates  several  the p o s s i b i l i t y of adoption but decrease  implementors of an i n n o v a t i o n to be rewarded and to be c o n s u l t e d  discuss  that  politicians  affect  are  of an i n n o v a t i o n may be a f r a i d  implementation.  Another p o l i t i c a l  f a c t o r a s s o c i a t e d with problems of implementing an i n n o v a t i o n r e l a t e s l a c k of l i n k i n g p o l i c y and implementation ( F u l l a n and Pomfret, The v a r i o u s f a c t o r s interrelated variables  i d e n t i f i e d under d i f f e r e n t  that a f f e c t  headings  degrees i n v a r i o u s i n n o v a t i v e  nonetheless,  implementation of an i n n o v a t i o n .  the  This study of i n t e g r a t e d r u r a l development analyzed the implementation process h i n d e r the change p r o c e s s . (1)  to i d e n t i f y  to  1977).  highlight  implementation of an i n n o v a t i o n .  may appear i n d i f f e r e n t affect  to  programmes but  They they,  programmes i n Zambia  to determine what f a c t o r s  facilitate  The study had the f o l l o w i n g purposes:  factors  thought  by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to f a c i l i t a t e  and  h i n d e r the implementation of i n t e g r a t e d nonformal e d u c a t i o n programmes; (2)  to e s t a b l i s h  the  (3)  to determine the the p e r s p e c t i v e  (4)  relative  influence  p e r c e i v e d degree  of each f a c t o r , and  of programme i n t e g r a t i o n  of four a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  to determine s k i l l s and knowledge programmes through the p e r c e p t i o n s  levels.  a c q u i r e d from i n t e g r a t e d of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  from  or  69  S e v e r a l e v a l u a t i o n surveys have been conducted nationwide activities  of s p e c i f i c  government departments and of  1981; Maramwidze, 1982; Maimbo,  A g r i c u l t u r e and Water Development,  1984).  1985).  integrated  Some surveys c o n c e n t r a t e 1980;  on  UNICEF,  1981; Chilibvumbo and Kanyangwa, 1985; S a f a l i o s - R o t h s c h i l d ,  Each e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s o f f e r  be improved.  of  1982; M i n i s t r y of  e v a l u a t i n g the s i t u a t i o n of women i n r u r a l Zambia ( S e r p e l l , 1979; Mutemba,  review  the IRDP i n Zambia.  Most s t u d i e s have focused on the e v a l u a t i o n of the a c t i v i t i e s programmes (Mwali et a l . ,  to  Other surveys  recommendations on how programmes can  i n i t i a t e d by the funding a g e n c i e s ,  funds have been u t i l i z e d (SIDA,  1980,  1983).  D e s p i t e a l l the e v a l u a t i o n s u r v e y s , mountable problems.  focus on how  Evaluation surveys,  programmes are faced with i n s u r it  appears, have focused on the  impact of the I n t e g r a t e d R u r a l Development Programmes, r a t h e r than on the implementation process  of programmes.  Summary T h i s chapter p r o v i d e d a review of It  t r a c e d the development  of  r e l a t i o n s h i p to development.  l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to t h i s  the concept  study.  of nonformal e d u c a t i o n and  Relevant r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s were reviewed.  has reviewed l i t e r a t u r e on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and e x p l a i n e d why a focus factors  affecting  implementation of programmes i s  Several evaluations pleted.  They have sought  was designed  to i d e n t i f y  on  important.  the impact of  This study focused  to determine  It  on nonformal e d u c a t i o n i n Zambia have been com-  on r u r a l communities r a t h e r than to i d e n t i f y t i o n of programmes.  its  factors  that  factors  i n t e g r a t e d programmes affecting  implementa-  on the implementation p r o c e s s . facilitate  It  or h i n d e r implementation  of integrated programmes based on the perceptions of administrators of s p e c i f i c government departments involved i n implementing the programmes The research questions, along with the methods and procedures study, are f u l l y described i n the next  chapter.  for this  CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  The last chapter discussed l i t e r a t u r e related to:  the concept of non-  formal education; nonformal education and development; integration, research on nonformal education; and implementation. nonformal education programmes i n Zambia has tended  Research on integrated to focus on impact of  these a c t i v i t i e s on the rural population (Mwali et a l . , 1981; Maramwidze, 1982; Maimbo, 1982).  Some surveys, especially those conducted  by funding  agencies, have concentrated their e f f o r t s on f i n a n c i a l accountability (SIDA, 1980; 1983).  Yet others have analyzed the situation of one group of  rural people, that i s women (Chilibvumbo  and Kanyangwa, 1985; Mutemba,  1981; Serpell, 1980; UNICEF, 1979; Safalios-Rothschild, 1985).  Research  has ignored communication within and between government departments through which integrated nonformal education programmes are conducted. related to factors f a c i l i t a t i n g or hindering implementation a c t i v i t i e s have not been adequately dealt with.  Issues  of these  This investigation focused  on the communication within and between selected departments, and i d e n t i f i e d factors that f a c i l i t a t e and hinder implementation  of integrated non-  formal education programmes. For the benefit of the reader, the purposes of the study are again presented here. The purposes of this study were: (1)  to identify factors thought by administrators to f a c i l i t a t e and hinder the implementation programmes;  of integrated nonformal education  72  (2)  to e s t a b l i s h  the r e l a t i v e  (3)  to determine  the p e r c e i v e d degree of programme i n t e g r a t i o n ,  the p e r s p e c t i v e cial, (4)  district  to determine  of  of each  four a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  and l o c a l ) ,  skills  influence  factor;  levels  (national,  from  provin-  and  and knowledge  a c q u i r e d from i n t e g r a t e d  nonformal programmes through the p e r c e p t i o n s  of  participants.  Research Design The the  case study approach was u t i l i z e d i n order to achieve  study of  integrated  r e s e a r c h method i s it  is  intensive  interactions  r u r a l development  particularly useful  and b r i n g s to l i g h t  that  deserve  way, a t t e n t i o n was focused  and  i n answering  the  on questions  such as:  "why" questions  "Where has implementation succeeded  "What f a c t o r s  and why?"  because  p r o c e s s e s , and  (Bulmer, 1983).  "In what ways has  of  The case study as a  important v a r i a b l e s ,  more e x t e n s i v e a t t e n t i o n  h i n d e r the implementation process?" failed?"  programmes.  purposes  In  this  promote or  implementation While experimental  q u a s i - experimental designs are concerned with c o n t r o l l i n g confounding  variables, variables Keasey,  the case study  focuses on the  (Le Compte and Goetze,  1984;  interrelationships  Bulmer and Warwick,  between these 1983;  Stake and  1978).  A c c o r d i n g to Smith (1978), e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h methods  the case study i s d i f f e r e n t  i n that  it  is  from other  the study of a bound system:  The crux of the d e f i n i t i o n i s some conception of u n i t y or t o t a l i t y to that bounded system. The key n o t i o n i s that you've got some k i n d of e n t i t y , a c a s e , and i t has some k i n d of u n i t y . Somebody perceives a part of that u n i t y and wants to study some more of i t . (p. C:30)  73  Along the same l i n e , Stake (1978) argues that the p r i n c i p a l difference between case studies and other research studies i s that the case i s made the focus of attention rather than the population.  It i s a focus on the  happenings around a single actor (be i t c h i l d or i n s t i t u t i o n or enterp r i s e ) , so as to understand (Stake, 1978).  that actor, that bound system, i n i t s habitat  The uniqueness of a case i s not considered "error variance."  I t i s considered a handle f o r better understanding the way the case does or does not maintain equilibrium under environmental stress and s t r a i n . The case i s something deemed worthy of close watch. It has character, i t has t o t a l i t y , i t has boundaries. It i s not just an instance representable by a score; i t i s not only an e n t i t y which could be represented by an endless array of scores. It i s a complex, dynamic system, some thing to be thought of as an existing e n t i t y , even when simple descriptions are being made of i t . (Stake and Keasey, 1978, p. C:30)  The Local Sites The case study involved selected administrators of four government departments at national, p r o v i n c i a l , d i s t r i c t and l o c a l l e v e l and pants at three training centres at the l o c a l l e v e l .  partici-  These l o c a l s i t e s  comprising three t r a i n i n g centres were selected a f t e r several discussions with o f f i c e r s i n the M i n i s t r y of Agriculture and Water Development, Community Development, and Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l .  IDRP funds nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s  through various government departments operating i n this area.  directly Selection  of the l o c a l s i t e s depended on the c r i t e r i o n of length of time i n existence.  Since the Integrated Rural Development Programmes started i n  the Chipata d i s t r i c t of the Eastern province of Zambia, i t was select l o c a l s i t e s situated i n that d i s t r i c t *  decided to  After several discussions  with o f f i c i a l s from the Department of Agriculture i n Chipata, the Katopola,  74  K a l i c h e r o and Kalunga t r a i n i n g centres were s e l e c t e d as l o c a l s i t e s this  study.  Katopola was e s t a b l i s h e d  independence. are  as a farm i n s t i t u t e  The other two were e s t a b l i s h e d  after  about t h i r t y - f i v e k i l o m e t r e s away from C h i p a t a ,  administrative centre  (see  prior  to  independence the  for  (1964) and  provincial  Figure 8 ) .  Site 1: Katopola Farm Institute K a t o p o l a Farm I n s t i t u t e , t r a i n i n g centre for extension appropriate technology,  established staff,  around 1960,  in  staff;  a specific  a provincial  a r t i s a n s , and b l a c k s m i t h s .  It  teaches  r u r a l s t r u c t u r e s , and farm implements e n g i n e e r i n g .  P a r t i c i p a n t s of programmes at the c e n t r e v a r y : extension  is  seminars are h e l d f o r  farmers are drawn from a l l over the province to be t r a i n e d  skill  so that they can teach others  sometimes p a r t i c i p a n t s come from a s p e c i f i c  d i s t r i c t to l e a r n s k i l l s  appropriate technology.  Although one may get  participants,  l a r g e l y caters  the centre  a t t r i b u t e d to the t e c h n i c a l nature of  i n t h e i r v i l l a g e ; and  a course f o r male and female  for male p a r t i c i p a n t s .  the programmes o f f e r e d .  from e i g h t  to twelve weeks and only ten to f i f t e e n  a specific  course at a time.  T h i s may be Courses run  p a r t i c i p a n t s can a t t e n d  S e v e r a l courses may run c o n c u r r e n t l y ,  depending on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the i n s t r u c t o r and t e c h n i c a l Because the courses  in  facilities.  are r e s i d e n t i a l , o n l y a few p a r t i c i p a n t s can be t r a i n e d  at one time. The courses  t r a i n i n g centre is for s t a f f  a l s o used f o r week-long seminars and short  members of the M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and Water Develop-  ment and any department wishing to use  the r e s i d e n t i a l  facilities.  75  Scale: 1 cm to 7 km. Figure 8.  Map showing locations of three l o c a l sites i n the study.  included  Legend: International boundary. • D i s t r i c t boundary. Chipata D i s t r i c t Population size = 32,291 D i s t r i c t GNP - K30 p.a. National GNP = K250 p.a.  (1980 Census) (1980 Census)  Value of (Kwacha)-K4 was approximately $5.00 (U.S.) i n 1980. Presently K.15.00 i s approximately $1.00 (U.S.) In 1987.  76  S i t e 2:  Kalichero Farm Training Centre  Kalichero Farm Training Centre i n s t i t u t e d i n 1972, i s located t h i r t y f i v e kilometres away from the Chipata administrative centre and serves the population i n Chipata North (the northern section of Chipata D i s t r i c t ) . There are nine extension workers at Kalichero.  Around the Kalichero Farm  Training Centre are the Rural Health centre and a s o c i a l development sub-centre.  Members of s t a f f at Kalichero are supposed to coordinate their  e f f o r t s i n conducting nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s .  The Rural Health  Centre, situated s i x kilometres from Kalichero, serves mainly as a centre for curative medicines.  Health a s s i s t a n t s , assisted by s o c i a l development  workers, teach a captured audience of patients who come for treatments! at the Rural Health Centre.  They teach patients n u t r i t i o n , maternal-child  care, general hygiene and how to take care of their sick r e l a t i v e s . are f i v e health workers and one s o c i a l development worker.  There  There are nine  extension workers at Kalichero. The farm t r a i n i n g centre conducts one to two long seminars f o r farmers, and sometimes for extension s t a f f , at the centre.  Other depart-  ments l i k e Health and Community Development are welcome to conduct  courses  related to health and women's a c t i v i t i e s for people around the area. Agriculture and Community Development coordinate the running of women's clubs and functional l i t e r a c y programmes.  S i t e 3: Kalunga Farm Training Centre Kalunga, established thirty-seven kilometres from the Chipata  adminis-  t r a t i v e centre, serves the population i n Chipata South (the southern section of Chipata D i s t r i c t ) .  Near Kalunga i s a Rural Health Centre and a  Community Development Centre that provide nonformal education to the  77  community around Kalunga. members, one of whom i s  The farmer t r a i n i n g centre has seven s t a f f  female.  w o r k e r s , one being female. two male, two female.  There are three community development  The R u r a l H e a l t h Centre has four s t a f f  members:  The R u r a l H e a l t h Centre and A g r i c u l t u r a l Camp, are  l o c a t e d at the same p l a c e as the Community Development C e n t r e . The centre conducts one- to two-week long seminars f o r farmers and i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e for other departments who would l i k e It  is  a centre  ments, all  to hold seminars  there.  f o r farmers to market t h e i r produce and to buy farm i m p l e -  seeds and f e r t i l i z e r s .  the v i l l a g e s  It has a consumer c o o p e r a t i v e shop s e r v i n g  i n that a r e a .  M a r k e t i n g and C o o p e r a t i v e s .  It works c l o s e l y  The female  with the Department of  e x t e n s i o n worker at the t r a i n i n g  c e n t r e works i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the female  community development  assistant  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g women's c l u b s i n the a r e a .  trend i s  s i m i l a r to that w i t h the clubs around K a l i c h e r o a r e a , though  the community development  assistant  is  The e x t e n s i o n message at the l a s t matic form (see  Figure 9).  two c e n t r e s may be put i n a diagramfrom A g r i c u l t u r e ,  Community Development are supposed to work c l o s e l y  from A g r i c u l t u r e ,  there  a man.  Members of s t a f f  t r a i n i n g programmes i n the a r e a .  This  together  H e a l t h , and  i n conducting  In F i g u r e 9, the e x t e n s i o n message comes  H e a l t h and Community Development to r u r a l  communities.  E x t e n s i o n workers are supposed to t r a i n p a r t i c i p a n t s not only i n t h e i r area of  expertise,  but to i n t e g r a t e  a l l other a c t i v i t i e s  b a s i c needs of the r u r a l people.  F i g u r e 9, i s an example of the  t r a i n i n g e x t e n s i o n workers i n IRDP t r a i n i n g centres women, do the bulk of a g r i c u l t u r a l t a s k s , e x t e n s i o n message. on female  In order to meet  receive.  type  Although  they do not often r e c e i v e  In F i g u r e 9, e x t e n s i o n workers are encouraged to  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the  t r a i n i n g programmes.  the  the focus  78  P a r t i c i p a n t s u s e / s k i l l s and knowledge to increase production.  The Extension worker trains participants i n various aspects of rural l i f e .  The Extension message to r e f l e c t the needs of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  THE EXTENSION MESSAGE THE  EXTENSION  WORKER AGRICULTURE  NUTRITION  APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY  Figure 9.  Source:  Diagram showing the t r a i n i n g and delivery of integrated nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s to p a r t i c i p a n t s by Extension workers.  Zambia Government/SIDA Mission. (1981). Women's development programmes. Report to the 1981 GRZ/SIDA Mission on A g r i c u l t u r a l Sector Support. Lusaka: Cooperative College Press.  79  Subject S e l e c t i o n Several  d i s c u s s i o n s were h e l d w i t h  departments at n a t i o n a l l e v e l . t r a t o r s who were d i r e c t l y education  activities  heads of the f o u r p a r t i c i p a t i n g  A d e c i s i o n was reached t h a t o n l y  involved i n planning  should  and implementing  respond to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  s e l e c t i o n procedure was used f o r o t h e r  administrative  adminisnonformal  The same  levels.  Research Questions In order questions 1.  were  to a c h i e v e  the purposes of the study, s e v e r a l  formulated.  What f a c t o r s a r e thought by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t i o n of i n t e g r a t e d n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n  2.  What do a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  perceive  i n t e g r a t e d nonformal education (a)  To what extent levels differ  to f a c i l i t a t e  implementa-  programmes?  What f a c t o r s a r e thought by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t e g r a t e d nonformal education  3.  research  to h i n d e r  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of  programmes? to be the extent  of " i n t e g r a t i o n " i n  programmes?  do a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  at d i f f e r e n t  i n t h e i r perceptions  administrative  of the e x i s t e n c e  of v e r t i c a l  integration? (b)  To what extent levels differ  do a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n their  at d i f f e r e n t  perceptions  administrative  of the e x i s t e n c e  of h o r i z o n t a l  integration? (c)  To what extent  do a d m i n i s t r a t o r s '  i n t e g r a t i o n c o r r e l a t e with  perceptions  administrators'  of v e r t i c a l  perceptions  on  horizontal integration. (d)  How does t h i s  c o r r e l a t i o n between v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l  integration differ  according  to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  levels?  4.  What s k i l l s do p a r t i c i p a n t s perceive to gain from integrated nonformal education programmes?  Methods of Data C o l l e c t i o n In order to answer the research questions, the study u t i l i z e d several survey questionnaires, structured interviews and document analysis (see Table 5).  Because of s c a r c i t y of documented  research and lack of knowledge on who i s doing what kind of research, and where, the research environment i n most developing countries i s p a r t i c u l a r l y problematic  (Shaeffer and Nkinyangi,  1983).  the i n t e g r a t i o n of several methodological p a r t i c u l a r l y useful when conducting  Warwick (1984) argues that  approaches i n one study i s  research i n developing  countries.  F i r s t l y , when one uses several methods for data c o l l e c t i o n , one obtains a d d i t i o n a l categories of information which may not be a v a i l a b l e from a single method; second, there is.increased accuracy  i n measuring a single  phenomenon; and t h i r d , q u a l i t a t i v e depth i s obtained when observations as well as survey methods are used to complement each other (Warwick, 1984). Bennett and Thais (1967) believe that research must capture a v a r i e t y of perspectives. The human r e a l i t y must be apprehended by a variety of view points, not by one alone, because t h i s very r e a l i t y i s always i n part a construct, always i n part an image, and only by encouraging difference i n perspective and approach can one obtain the needed richness of imagery, and consequently theory. (Bennett and Thais, 1967, p. 307)  Multiple methods of data c o l l e c t i o n have proved u s e f u l i n evaluation research by Stake and others.  Although this study i s not an evaluation  study, i t has benefitted from multiple data c o l l e c t i o n  procedures.  Table 5.  Administrative  National  level  level  Data c o l l e c t i o n  procedures  Data sources  Data c o l l e c t i o n methods  26 a d m i n i s t r a t o r s 18 a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  Administrators' Questionnaire C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Interview  30 a d m i n i s t r a t o r s 23 a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  Administrators' Questionnaire C r i t i c a l Incident Interview  21 a d m i n i s t r a t o r s 15 a d m i n i s t r a t o r s 21 a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  Administrators' Questionnaire C r i t i c a l Incident Interview Local Level Questionnaire  6 4 6 15  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and i n s t r u c t o r s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and i n s t r u c t o r s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and i n s t r u c t o r s participants  Administrators' Questionnaire C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Interview Local Level Questionnaire P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Questionnaire  Site 2  11 9 11 31  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and extension workers a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and e x t e n s i o n workers a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and extension workers participants  Administrators' Questionnaire C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Interview Local Level Questionnaire P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Questionnaire  Site 3  12 8 12 31  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and extension workers a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and e x t e n s i o n workers a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and extension workers participants  Administrators' Questionnaire C r i t i c a l Incident Interview Local Level Questionnaire P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Questionnaire  Provincial  District  level  level  Local level Site 1  82  The C r i t i c a l Incident Technique The c r i t i c a l incident technique was used i n the study to gather i n f o r mation about factors that are perceived to f a c i l i t a t e or hinder the process of implementing  integrated programmes.  The c r i t i c a l incident technique has had a v a r i e t y of applications.  It  has been used widely i n education, commerce, psychology and nursing (Dachelet et a l . , 1981).  Evidence regarding r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of  the c r i t i c a l incident technique has been provided by Andersson and Nilsson (1964).  These authors employed i t to analyze the job of store managers i n  a Swedish company and found that the information c o l l e c t e d by t h i s method i s both r e l i a b l e and v a l i d .  One potential weakness of the c r i t i c a l incident  technique can be due to the fact that the technique w i l l not always r e s u l t s that are v a l i d and r e l i a b l e depending on how reported.  Due  yield  the incidents are  to this l i m i t a t i o n , the technique was employed only i n  conjunction with other data c o l l e c t i o n methods. The c r i t i c a l incident technique i s a type of projective interview (Cochran, 1985).  Its main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s i t s f l e x i b i l i t y i n e l i c i t i n g  negative and positive responses to an a c t i v i t y .  The technique i s designed  to c o l l e c t data on incidents that may hinder or f a c i l i t a t e an a c t i v i t y (Flanagan, 1954).  Such incidents may be recorded by observers from d a i l y  reporting, or by r e c a l l i n g from memory. An incident i s defined as any event or happening complete i n i t s e l f  that i s s u f f i c i e n t l y  to permit the making of inferences and predictions.  incident could occur at a point i n time, recurrently over time or more continuously over a period of time.  According to Flanagan (1954), an  incident i s c r i t i c a l " i f i t makes a s i g n i f i c a n t contribution, either p o s i t i v e l y or negatively, to the general aim of the a c t i v i t y . "  An  83  Three s p e c i f i c a t i o n s must be c l e a r l y stated for a successful c r i t i c a l incident study:  the general aim of the a c t i v i t y must be s p e c i f i e d , the  c r i t e r i o n f o r accepting an i n c i d e n t — o r for allowing the observer to elaborate upon i t — m u s t be stated; and the interview questions must be c l e a r l y established from the s t a r t . The c r i t i c a l incident technique employs the following procedures: (Flanagan, 1954): (1)  a b r i e f introduction to the purpose of the study i s given to the observers;  (2)  the interviewer requests descriptions of h e l p f u l events;  (3)  each incident i s subjected to a c r i t e r i o n check which provides assurance  that the incident has had s i g n i f i c a n t impact upon the  activity;  (4)  then s p e c i f i c questions are asked.  Procedures Interviews were conducted with administrators at the national, provinc i a l , and d i s t r i c t levels as w e l l as with administrators and extension workers at the three selected training centres.  Administrators and other  technical s t a f f were asked to r e c a l l incidents that they found h e l p f u l i n t h e i r work.  particularly  Later they were asked to describe incidents which  they f e l t hindered their work.  Interviewees were assured of their  anonymity on a l l that was discussed. Discussions were held with heads of p a r t i c i p a t i n g departments at the national l e v e l .  They i d e n t i f i e d o f f i c e r s who were to be interviewed.  p i l o t interviews were conducted work.  Two  to determine whether this approach would  The two interviews were successful, and were subsequently included  84  in the study.  Some modifications to the form of the interview questions  had to be made because each o f f i c e r was specialized i n a different The same approach proved useful at the provincial l e v e l .  field.  Provincial heads  of departments selected o f f i c e r s who were interviewed. When possible, interviews were tape recorded and notes made simultaneously.  Each respondent had a separate recording form (see Appendix 2).  Recorded interviews were later transcribed and incorporated with the written notes. informed  Prior to the beginning of the interview the interviewee was  of the purposes of the study and what information would be sought  during the interview.  If someone objected to the tape recording, i t was  not done.  Forty-two interviews were not tape recorded because of technical  problems.  Table 6 provides a l i s t of interviews conducted at each  adminis-  trative l e v e l . C r i t i c a l incident interviews were designed  to determine events that  helped and hindered administrators and extension s t a f f i n their work. Interviews were semi-structured. Table 6.  Administrators were asked to r e c a l l Summary of interviews.  Interviews recorded  National  Interviews not recorded  Total  8  10  18  12  11  23  District  6  9  15  Site 1  4  0  4  Site 2  5  4  9  Site 3  0  8  8  Provincial  85  c r i t i c a l incidents that happened to them, or to others, that they f e l t f a c i l i t a t e d their efforts to implement integrated programmes.  Later  administrators were asked to r e c a l l incidents that hindered their efforts to implement integrated programmes.  There were separate recording forms  for positive and negative incidents for each individual (see Appendix 2). The interview questions were modified i f an intervieweee could not r e c a l l incidents with allowances for particular contexts.  The following s p e c i f i c  questions were asked about f a c i l i t a t i n g events: 1.  Think back to a time when you did something that f a c i l i t a t e d your work.  2.  T e l l me which behaviors of yours produced a noticeable improvement of your work.  3.  What led to this incident?  4.  What exactly happened that was so helpful?  5.  Why was i t so helpful i n your work?  6.  Can you think of another a c t i v i t y that helped f a c i l i t a t e your work?  The set of questions were repeated to s o l i c i t new incidents.  Then,  negative incidents were reported. The following questions were asked about hindering events: 1.  Now, think back to a time when you did something that hindered your daily work.  2.  Did this event impede action?  3.  What was that event?  4.  What were the general circumstances around this event?  5.  What exactly hindered your daily work?  6.  Why d i d t h i s event hinder your d a i l y work?  7.  Can you think of another event?  Categorization of Incidents Incidents recorded during the interview were v e r i f i e d by t r a n s c r i b i n g the tape recorded  interviews.  " P o s i t i v e " or "Negative."  Incidents were f i r s t c l a s s i f i e d e i t h e r  For each respondent there was a recording form  l i s t i n g a l l p o s i t i v e i n c i d e n t s , and one f o r l i s t i n g a l l negative i n c i d e n t s . Categories were developed by counting the number of times s i m i l a r or r e l a t e d i n c i d e n t s reappeared i n a p a r t i c u l a r administrative l e v e l .  Each  category represented a f a c t o r i f the i n c i d e n t s occurred very often or over a long period of time.  A f t e r s e t t i n g categories, i n c i d e n t s of each  respondent were c l a s s i f i e d under the category  to which they best f i t .  Instrument Development To respond to research questions, three sets of questionnaires were developed:  Administrators' Questionnaire  (national, provincial, d i s t r i c t  and l o c a l l e v e l s ) ; Local Level Questionnaire Participants'  ( d i s t r i c t and l o c a l ) ; and  Questionnaire.  Administrators' Questionnaire The Administrators' Questionnaire was administered (a) " (b)  to the following:  selected administrators at national l e v e l ; selected administrators at p r o v i n c i a l  level;  (c)  selected administrators and extension workers at d i s t r i c t l e v e l ;  (d)  administrators and extension workers who were a v a i l a b l e at the local  level.  87  The Administrators'  Questionnaire  consisted of statements derived from the  l i t e r a t u r e review on the i n t e g r a t i o n of nonformal education (Coombs, 1980;  1985;  Coles, 1982;  Evans, 1974).  National Development Plan (1979) and analyzing nonformal education V e r t i c a l Integration. items 1 to 10 contains  programmes  Statements from the Third  statements from a framework, for  systems developed by Mumba (1985).  In Section A of the Administrators'  items on v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n .  From the  Questionnaire literature  review indicators of v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n included statements from the following: (1)  existence or absence of s t r i c t supervisory control;  (2)  communication networks between n a t i o n a l , regional and  local  levels; (3)  f i n a n c i a l support from national to l o c a l l e v e l ;  (4)  curriculum  (5)  the type of control exercised:  preparation; c e n t r a l i z e d or decentralized.  Items were rated on a 4 point scale from low  to high (see Appendix 1).  A high degree of v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n i s considered  to be evidenced i f  there i s : (a)  d i r e c t communication networks between national, p r o v i n c i a l , d i s t r i c t , and  (b)  local  levels;  f i n a n c i a l support for programmes from national to l o c a l l e v e l ; and  (c)  s t r i c t supervisory c o n t r o l .  A low degree of v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n was  evidenced by the absence of  communication networks between the administrative levels, and  the lack of  f i n a n c i a l support from the national l e v e l for r u r a l programmes, and supervisory c o n t r o l .  loose  88  Horizontal Integration.  In Section A, items 11-20  included statements  derived from the l i t e r a t u r e review on horizontal integration (Coombs, 1980;  1985;  Coles, 1982;  Evans, 1981).  1974;  Indicators of horizontal integra-  tion included: (1)  communication networks between departments offering nonformal education  i n development centres;  (2)  existence of committees with cross-departmental membership;  (3)  coordination of a c t i v i t i e s between different nonformal  education  agencies; (4)  u t i l i z a t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s between agencies and departments;  (5)  seminars held j o i n t l y between  (6)  programmes j o i n t l y offered with government sponsored programmes.  agencies;  These items were rated on a 4 point scale from low to high (see Appendix 1). A high degree of horizontal integration was  considered  to exist where  communication networks were established between departments, and where committees at regional and l o c a l levels had cross departmental membership. The absence of these features indicated a low degree of integration. Opinions on Integration. contained  Section B of the Administrators'  items that assessed administrators' perceptions  Questionnaire  of integration.  Items were rated on a 5 point scale from low (1) to high (5). Opinions on Implementation. focused on the behavioural  Section C of Administrators'  Questionnaire  change administrators and extension workers made  towards implementing integrated programmes.  The questionnaire  statements that relate to the following questions:  consisted of  1.  When was i t that they f i r s t heard about the integrated programmes?  2.  Was i t c l e a r what was expected of them?  3.  What steps did they take i n order to implement the required change?  4.  Did they make subsequent e f f o r t s to continue to work with Integrated Rural Development Programmes?  5.  What b a r r i e r s did they experience  i n their e f f o r t s ?  6.  What factors f a c i l i t a t e d the required changes?  The responses were rated on a 5 point scale from low (1) to high ( 5 ) .  Local Level  Questionnaire  The Local Level Questionnaire was developed using statements from the l i t e r a t u r e on nonformal education (Coombs, 1980; 1985; Coles, 1982; Evans, 1974).  The questionnaire focused on e l i c i t i n g information on administra-  tors' perceptions on the existence of i n t e g r a t i o n .  Only administrators and  extension workers at d i s t r i c t l e v e l and at the three l o c a l s i t e s responded to this instrument. to high.  The statements were rated on a 3 point scale from low  Items 1 through 12 s o l i c i t e d respondents' opinions on the  existence of i n t e g r a t i o n .  The l a s t ten items focused on respondents'  opinions on what they perceive as obstacles i n the implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes (see Appendix 3).  • Participants' Questionnaire The on  questionnaire  outcomes  departments The  and  of i n t e g r a t e d at the three  questionnaire  skills  developed  they  felt  nonformal training  contained they  items  The cipated  benefits  from i n t e g r a t e d interviewed three  and i n nearby  had learned  from  t h e programme,  were  activities  i n general.  scale  low to  from  of the s t r u c t u r e d  through  education  centres;  interviews  functional literacy,  women's  rural  communities.  whether  home, a n d  What  facilities their  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e  was  to determine  on what  programmes.  some h a d h e a r d  selected  had  high.  participants' opinions  nonformal  by  focused  on the f o l l o w i n g :  available i n their  had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n nonformal  training  health,  centres  conducted  focused  on a 3 point  objective  activities  that  on t h e c e n t r e ' s  rated  participants' opinions  items  equipment a t the centre  opinions  to assess  hoped  to  gain  Not a l l r e s p o n d e n t s  activities  an extension  clubs,  they  the a n t i -  actually held message  or agricultural  at the  regarding extension.  Respondents to Survey Questionnaires A  total  responded  of one hundred  to the Administrators'  Questionnaire  was  administered  1.  Twenty-six  2.  Thirty  3.  Twenty-one  selected  selected  district 4.  and s i x administrators Questionnaire.  The  workers  Administrators'  to the f o l l o w i n g : administrators  administrators  selected  and e x t e n s i o n  at the national  at provincial  administrators  level.  level.  and e x t e n s i o n  workers  at  level.  Twenty-nine  administrators  and e x t e n s i o n  workers  at local  level.  The Local Level Questionnaire was  administered  extension workers at d i s t r i c t and l o c a l l e v e l s . stationed at the l o c a l s i t e s . 1.  to administrators and  Some d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s were  The following responded to the questionnaire  Twenty-nine administrators and extension workers at d i s t r i c t level.  2.  Six administrators and extension workers at Katopola Farm Training Institute.  3.  Eleven administrators and extension workers at Kalichero Farm Training Centre.  4.  Twelve administrators and extension workers at Kalunga Farm Training Centre.  The P a r t i c i p a n t s * Questionnaire was  administered  to  seventy-seven  selected members of r u r a l households residing near the three centres.  training  They were selected i f they had received any extension message,  regarding health, a g r i c u l t u r a l , l i t e r a c y or women's clubs. A l l coding of the questionnaires was V e r i f i c a t i o n of the coding was  performed by the researcher.  accomplished  by selecting at random twenty  responses and comparing them to the o r i g i n a l coding of data.  Verification  of the data entry onto the U.B.C. computing system by the Data Entry Department was  performed by the researcher.  Three i d e n t i f i e d errors were  corrected.  R e l i a b i l i t y of Instruments R e l i a b i l i t i e s of the measures were established through the use of the LERTAP computer programme (Nelson, 1974).  A l l three sets of questionnaires  had a high i n t e r n a l consistency among the items. are presented i n Table  7.  Results of the analysis  Table 7.  R e l i a b i l i t y of instruments  Instrument  Hoyt estimate of  Administrators' Questionnaire  .88  Local Level Questionnaire  .74  P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Questionnaire  .72  reliability  Validity Content V a l i d i t y Content v a l i d i t y was instruments.  the primary consideration i n developing the  According to Nunnally (1970) the question of content v a l i d i t y  i s p r i n c i p a l l y one of the "adequacy with which a s p e c i f i c i s sampled." tionnaires.  Content v a l i d i t y was  domain of content  considered i n the construction of ques-  At the development stage, a panel of three Zambian students at  the University of B r i t i s h Columbia were asked to comment on the questionnaires' content v a l i d i t y .  Two  of the raters had worked i n the Ministry of  Agriculture and Water Development under which Integrated Rural Development was  established.  A few questions were modified.  Face V a l i d i t y Face v a l i d i t y was f a c u l t y members who  established through discussions with students and  are s p e c i a l i s t s  The questionnaire was  i n the area of nonformal education.  discussed with other students i n a doctoral seminar  at U.B.C.  The questionnaires were presented to students and a faculty  member who  reviewed them item by item, and offered systematic comments.  93  Changes were made to items agreed  t h a t survey  identified  as u n c l e a r .  questionnaires contained  of i n t e g r a t i o n and  items  Students  generally  t h a t were a v a l i d  measure  i t s outcomes.  Summary T h i s chapter study.  The  case  has  o u t l i n e d the r e s e a r c h methodology u t i l i z e d  study d e s i g n which was  f o r g a t h e r i n g data r e l a t e d incident on  elicited  adopted proved a u s e f u l framework  to the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s .  The  critical  i n t e r v i e w s i l l u m i n a t e d dimensions of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s '  f a c t o r s that f a c i l i t a t e  or h i n d e r  administrators' perceptions  i n t e g r a t e d nonformal education  i n the  t h e i r work, and on the extent  programmes.  survey  perceptions  questionnaires  of i n t e g r a t i o n i n  These two  methodological  approaches complemented each o t h e r , p r o v i d i n g a r i c h e r p o r t r a y a l of what goes on at d i f f e r e n t The  administrative levels  P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  nonformal e d u c a t i o n provides studied.  than a s i n g l e method might have.  designed  to determine outcomes of i n t e g r a t e d  programmes through p a r t i c i p a n t s '  perceptions.  a summary of the r e s e a r c h methodology u t i l i z e d  and  the  Table  groups  5  94  CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS  This  chapter  interviews  presents  and survey  questionnaires  responses  to the survey  sections,  beginning  structured presents  description  section  three  sets  of survey  Level  Questionnaire  analyses  which  section  provides  respondents  displays  differences  on each  variable  of t h e semi-  section  and the groups  and  presents  to which  on v a r i a b l e s  Administrators'  i n four  been developed  The s e c o n d  and P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Questionnaire.  of variance  of p a r t i c i p a n t s  i s organized  have  correlations  questionnaires:  semi-structured  results  how c a t e g o r i e s group.  to  as r e s u l t s  The c h a p t e r  administrative  of the i n d i v i d u a l The n e x t  significant  a  I t outlines  f o r each  belonged.  way  with  responses  as w e l l  questionnaire.  interviews.  them  administrators'  a  they  i n a l l the  Questionnaire,  Local  Lastly  of one  are presented  results  to determine  any  between the groups.  Results of Interviews This  section  presents  technique  focused  on i d e n t i f y i n g  implementation focused 1.  of integrated  on the f o l l o w i n g What  factors  What  factors  research  factors  that  incident  facilitate  education  interview.  or hinder  programmes.  The  by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s nonformal  education  by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  of integrated  nonformal  to f a c i l i t a t e  interview  education  the  programmes?  to hinder  The  the  questions:  of integrated  are thought  implementation  of the c r i t i c a l  nonformal  are thought  implementation 2.  results  the  programmes?  95  A t o t a l of 77 administrators and extension workers p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the interview:  18 (23%) at the national l e v e l , 23 (29%) at the p r o v i n c i a l  l e v e l , 15 (19%) at the d i s t r i c t l e v e l , and 21 (27%) at three l o c a l s i t e s . The  f i r s t step i n the analysis of the interview data was to develop  categories into which incidents could be organized. lished by taking into account the research questions. related to how persistent the incident was.  Categories were estabOther considerations  A l l incidents mentioned by  each respondent were counted and sorted into p o s i t i v e or negative columns as shown i n Table 8.  Table 8.  Group  P o s i t i v e and negative  No. of  incidents reported by Administrative group.  Number of incidents  Percent  of incidents  respondents  Positive  Negative  Total  Positive  Negative  National  18  238  103  341  69.8  30.2  Provincial  23  304  149  453  67.1  32.9  District  15  149  69  218  68.3  31.7  Site 1  4  31  18  49  63.3  36.7  Site 2  9  105  68  173  60.7  39.3  Site 3  8  91  37  128  71.1  38.9  77  918  444  1362  67.4  32.6  Total  Basic  Categories  Incidents were then divided into the categories i n t o which they belonged within each administrative group.  The responses were ranked and  percentages for each category were computed.  The respondent percentages  were calculated by comparing the number of respondents under each  category  96  to the t o t a l number of respondents within each group. responses represents  the number of people who  The  number of  mention an incident in that  category.  R e l i a b i l i t y of  Categories  Is the category scheme r e l i a b l e i n the sense that independent judges can use the categories consistently to place incidents? d i f f e r s from the questions view.  This  question  of r e l i a b i l i t y of the c r i t i c a l incident i n t e r -  Flanagan (1954) and Nilsson (1964) provide evidence that s i m i l a r  incidents are e l i c i t e d from people responding to d i f f e r e n t interviewers, and upon re-interviewing people a f t e r an i n t e r v a l of time.  Along with i t s  long h i s t o r y of successful use i n a v a r i e t y of f i e l d s (e.g. Dachelet et a l . , 1981), these findings provide  reasonable ground for interview  reliability. At another instance, i s the method of forming categories r e l i a b l e ? The method of searching of categorization. used i s the only one  for s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  But an argument cannot be made that the category scheme that could be j u s t i f i a b l y formed, but that i t f i t s  the  data and this can be determined l a r g e l y by whether or not independent judges can use the categories consistently to place incidents (Andersson and Nilsson, 1964). Two  judges l i s t e n e d to two recorded  interviews.  The  judges were two  Zambian students studying at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia.  They were  asked to f i t incidents into categories that had already been formed. F i r s t l y , they were requested to place incidents into basic categories: positive and negative.  They were l a t e r requested to place incidents into  categories of factors.  The r e s u l t s indicated interjudge agreement of  80%.  97  Independent judges can therefore d i f f e r e n t i a t e and categorize incidents i n the same way as the investigator using the categories  that were formed 8  out of 10 times.  V a l i d i t y of Categories Categories  are formed because of the s i m i l a r i t y of a group of  incidents reported by d i f f e r e n t people. the researcher of event.  That i s , a category i s formed by  as a r e s u l t of people independently reporting the same kind  When one person reports an incident, i t might be dismissed.  But  when several people report the same kind of i n c i d e n t , i t greatly increases the l i k e l i h o o d that a category i s well founded. inherent  i n the c r i t i c a l incident technique.  This form of v a l i d i t y i s  Agreement among independent  people i s one c r i t e r i o n f o r o b j e c t i v i t y (Kaplan, 1964).  In this study, the  basis of agreement was constituted by people independently reporting the same kind of event. The previous  categories  that were developed i n this study r e l a t e to findings of  research on nonformal education  Thompson, 1982).  The t o t a l number of responses represents  of responses from a l l categories. obtained  (Coombs et a l . , 1973; 1974; the t o t a l number  The percentages of t o t a l responses were  by d i v i d i n g the number of responses i n each category by the t o t a l  number of responses.  Categories  for the four administrative levels are  presented i n Tables 9 and 10.  Facilitating  Factors  From the l i s t of p o s i t i v e incidents that were mentioned, the following categories were developed:  98  Table 9.  Percentages of responses f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g and h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r s a t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Administrative Factors National  level.  levels  Provincial  District  T o t a l number of respondents  X of respondents  I of t o t a l responses  FACTORS FACILITATING IMPLEMENTATION ( n - 56) 1.  Seminars/workshops and training f a c i l i t i e s  16  22  11  49  87.5  16.5  2.  C o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h other departments and agencies  16  20  12  48  85.7  16.2  3.  Financial assistance  14  12  9  35  62.5  11.8  4.  A v a i l a b i l i t y of t r a n s p o r t  7  16  10  33  58.9  11.1  5.  Communication between p r o v i n c i a l , d i s t r i c t and n a t i o n a l headquarters  13  13  6  32  57.1  10.8  6.  Target p o p u l a t i o n being reached  9  8  10  27  48.2  9.9  7.  T r a i n i n g and v i s i t system good  7  11  8  26  46.4  8.8  3.  Support f o r d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  10  14  -  24  42.9  8.0  15  10  7  32  57.1  15.1  7  14  8  29  51.8  13.6  TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONSES  -  297  FACTORS HINDERING IMPLEMENTATION (n - 56) 1.  Inadequate s k i l l e d personnel and lack of t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s  2.  Inadequate  3.  Lack of adequate Inputs, m a t e r i a l , seeds, e t c .  6  15  7  28  50.0  13.2  4.  Over-centralized aystea  9  11  3  24  42.9  11.3  5.  Unstable funding  8  10  6  24  42.9  11.3  6.  Lack o f a o n l t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i o n of on-going programmes  10  4  5  19  33.9  9.0  7.  Lack of adequate  2  3  8  13  23.2  6.1  8.  Lack of awareness among participants  -  &  6  12  21.4  5.7  transport  housing  TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONSES  •  212  99 Table 10. Percentages of responses f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g and h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r s at l o c a l l e v e l .  Local l e v e l Factors Site 1  Site 2  Site 3  T o t a l number of respondents  Z of respondents  Z of t o t a l responses  FACTORS FACILITATING IMPLEMENTATION (n - 21) 1.  C o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h other departments and agencies  4  8  8  20  95.2  13.8  2.  Reaching target p o p u l a t i o n  3  7  8  18  85.7  12.4  3.  F i n a n c i a l support, loan o r c r e d i t facilities  4  6  5  15  71.4  10.3  4.  Seminars/workshops, conferences and t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s  4  3  6  15  71.4  10.3  5.  A v a i l a b i l i t y of inputs ( f e r t i l i z e r , seeds, m a t e r i a l s , e t c . )  4  3  5  14  66.7  9.7  6.  A v a i l a b i l i t y of transport  4  6  4  14  66.7  9.7  7.  Communication w i t h d i s t r i c t , p r o v i n c i a l and n a t i o n a l headquarters  4  3  4  13  61.9  8.9  8.  Improved  3  6  4  13  61.9  8.9  9.  T r a i n i n g and v i s i t and mobile courses  0  7  3  12  57.1  8.2  2  4  5  11  52.4  7.6  infrastructure  10. Supporting d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONSES  - 145  FACTORS HINDERING IMPLEMENTATION (n - 21) L.  Lack of adequate Inputs ( a g r i c u l t u r a l teaching m a t e r i a l s e t c . )  3  6  9  18  85.7  15.0  2.  Lack of c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h other departments and agencies  3  4  5  12  57.1  10.0  3.  Apathy among p a r t i c i p a n t s  4  5  3  12  57.1  10.0  4.  Delays i n r e l e a s i n g funds and loans  3  5  3  11  52.4  9.3  5.  Shortage of s k i l l e d personnel  2  5  4  11  52.4  9.3  6.  Delays i n r e l e a s i n g inputs  2  4  4  10  47.6  8.3  7.  Inadequate transport  3  4  3  10  47.6  8.3  8.  O v e r - c e n t r a l i z e d system  2  3  3  8  38.1  6.6  9.  Unstable funding  2  3  3  38.1  6.6  0  3  4  33.3  5.8  33.3  3.8  10. Late payment of farmers f o r t h e i r produce 11. Lack of monitoring and e v a l u a t i o n TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONSES  - 114  100  1.  Coordination with other departments and other agencies  This category included incidents that were related to planning, holding  regular meetings with another department, meeting with donor agencies,  producing materials i n conjunction with another department, and holding seminars with another agency or department. From observations, not a l l departments i n this study coordinate t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s at the national l e v e l .  The Planning D i v i s i o n and the Department  of Agriculture under the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Development coordinate c l o s e l y with the National Commission for Development Planning and donor agencies while the Department for Social Development works c l o s e l y with the Health Education Unit and donor agencies.  Administrators  i n the M i n i s t r y of Marketing and Cooperatives coordinate t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s with the Zambia Federation of Cooperatives and donor agencies.  Departments  do not coordinate a l l their e f f o r t s simultaneously with one another, but two or three departments collaborate i n planning and holding regular meetings that r e l a t e to t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s .  2.  Seminars, workshops and training f a c i l i t i e s  Incidents that related to attending a seminar or workshop were placed under this category.  Respondents from a l l groups viewed attending a  seminar or workshop to be very h e l p f u l i n t h e i r work. further t r a i n i n g assisted them i n learning new was required i n t h e i r work.  s k i l l s and knowledge that  Therefore, further training and seminars  workshops were put under the same category.  and  This category included the  p o s s i b i l i t y of attending a seminar or going for further  3.  They indicated that  training.  Financial assistance  Administrators cited incidents that were related to receiving f i n a n c i a l assistance from the government or from i n t e r n a t i o n a l organizations to  101  be p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l i n conducting their programmes.  The category of  f i n a n c i a l assistance included donations of equipment and materials. also included the presence of technical experts  It  from outside countries who  brought new ideas to Zambia.  4.  Communication with provinces  Incidents associated with communication between the national l e v e l and the p r o v i n c i a l and d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s f e l l under this category. from the provinces  Feedback  on new p o l i c i e s was a positive sign that things were  going well i n the regions.  This category included incidents concerned with  receiving reports, requests, plans, and p o l i c y guidelines.  5.  Support decentralization  Incidents i n which d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e d programmes f e l l under t h i s category.  Many administrators  seemed to view the implementation of  the Decentralization Act (1981) as one thing that would bring changes to their programmes.  Whereas the Integrated Rural Development Programme  (IRDP) had previously funded programmes through the separate departments that conduct programmes, i t was hoped that a f t e r implementation of the Decentralization p o l i c y , d i s t r i c t councils would get direct access to funds from IRDP.  This, they f e l t , would reduce delays i n funds coming from the  ministry headquarters. facilitate  6.  In this way, d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n was expected to  the implementation of integrated r u r a l development programmes.  Target population being reached  This category included incidents that were concerned with increases in the number of those who participated i n programmes.  Some respondents  mentioned incidents that indicated that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n IRDP programmes has increased, as more farmers were being reached through the programme.  102  T h i s i s a p o s i t i v e f a c t o r because i t motivates a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  to work  harder. 7.  A v a i l a b i l i t y of  Respondents c i t e d  transport  i n c i d e n t s i n d i c a t i n g that a v a i l a b i l i t y of  enabled them to perform t h e i r work b e t t e r . (UNICEF and  SIDA) donated t r a n s p o r t  e x t e n s i o n workers to v i s i t Administrators p o r t was  the  to some departments.  provinces  at the n a t i o n a l and  at the three  and  organizations Transport  enabled  p r o j e c t s more r e g u l a r l y .  p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s i n d i c a t e d that  r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to them.  l e v e l and  International  transport  However, respondents at the  t r a i n i n g centres  of t r a n s p o r t made t h e i r work d i f f i c u l t  i n d i c a t e d that the (see Table  9).  trans-  district  unavailability  They c o u l d not  visit  farmers or conduct mobile courses wherever they wanted, s i n c e they had r e l y on the 8.  limited  t r a n s p o r t a v a i l a b l e to the whole group.  T r a i n i n g and  visit  system  E x t e n s i o n workers mentioned i n c i d e n t s about the system and  how  i t helped  had  The  new  done.  t r a i n i n g and  visit  system i n v o l v e d v i s i t i n g  homes r a t h e r than having  centres.  M o b i l e courses conducted i n the  it  Although a t r a i n i n g and  the  regarding  i n the  t r a i n i n g and  three visit.  farmers come to the  visit  d i d not r e p l a c e r e s i d e n t i a l c o u r s e s .  t i v e l e v e l s , and  t r a i n i n g and  visit  them to reach more people than r e s i d e n t i a l  t h e i r own  category.  to  farmers i n  training  farmers' homes f e l l under system was  viewed as  Administrators  courses  this  facilitating,  at a l l a d m i n i s t r a -  l o c a l s i t e s , held favourable  opinions  Hindering  Factors  Administrators  at d i f f e r e n t administrative levels mentioned different  kinds of incidents that hindered 1.  their work (see Table 9 ) .  Inadequately s k i l l e d personnel and lack of adequate t r a i n i n g facilities  Included  In t h i s category were incidents related to lack of training  i n the area i n which they were working as a factor making their work more d i f f i c u l t ; and i f incidents mentioned expressed an u n f u l f i l l e d desire for further 2.  training. Inadequate transport  Incidents r e l a t i n g to lack of adequate transport to t r a v e l long distances, and lack of f u e l , f e l l under t h i s category.  In some cases,  extension workers complained that even though vehicles were a v a i l a b l e , the use of the vehicle by a senior o f f i c e r prevented them from going out when they wanted to. Such incidents were grouped under t h i s category. 3.  Lack of adequate inputs, materials, seeds, and equipment  This category included a l l incidents which administrators mentioned as hindering their work because of a lack of inputs.  Incidents  that indicated  a lack of a g r i c u l t u r a l inputs, teaching materials and equipment were grouped under t h i s category.  Such incidents indicated that prior to the  introduction of the Decentralization Act, the funding agency supplied a g r i c u l t u r a l inputs l i k e f e r t i l i z e r and seeds d i r e c t l y to departments o f f e r i n g t r a i n i n g programmes.  However, t h i s has stopped while new  administrative arrangements are being made to implement the new system. Other incidents were also mentioned that hindered Clubs.  a c t i v i t i e s of Women's  Women's Clubs were previously given materials and other  This category ranked highest at the l o c a l l e v e l .  inputs.  104  4.  Delay8 l n releasing funds, loans and other a g r i c u l t u r a l inputs  Incidents under this category included a l l those mentioned r e l a t i n g to delays i n releasing funds from the ministry headquarters  for use by exten-  sion s t a f f , incidents that were associated with late a r r i v a l of f e r t i l i z e r s and seeds for farmers  to purchase; and incidents related to the late pay-  ment of loans and late payment to farmers f o r t h e i r produce.  Administrators  at the n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l levels did not mention incidents that  fell  under t h i s category. 5.  Unstable funding  Administrators and extension s t a f f worry about future funding f o r e x i s t i n g programmes because fewer and fewer inputs are supplied f o r their t r a i n i n g programmes.  The poor economic conditions i n the country make them  unsure whether what they have today w i l l be there tomorrow.  Incidents  related to lack of adequate funds for programmes were placed under t h i s category, as w e l l as those that are concerned with unstable funding.  This  category ranked higher among administrators at the national l e v e l than among administrators at the l o c a l 6*  level.  Lack of communication  Incidents were placed under this category i f they were associated with communication problems with the national headquarters. cited incidents i n which correspondence  Administrators  to the national headquarters  took  too long, or i n which papers were l o s t i n the process of approval. Some incidents related delays that jeopardized the whole programme for one f i s c a l year.  The system required that funds not used i n one f i s c a l year be  returned to Lusaka, and funding a p p l i c a t i o n s made for the new f i s c a l year. Such a centralized system led to unnecessary  delays i n programmes or i n  programmes never getting off the ground i n some cases.  This category of  105  incidents ranked higher at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l than at any other since these administrators  level,  are the middlemen between the national and l o c a l  levels. 7.  Lack of monitoring and evaluation  Administrators  cited incidents i n which they expressed d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  with the system of monitoring and evaluating e x i s t i n g programmes.  More  often than not, incidents were mentioned that related to lack of monitoring of what was going on i n the f i e l d , e s p e c i a l l y as regards to p o l i c y changes. Certain p o l i c y changes were made without any p r i o r knowledge of current activities.  Extension  s t a f f were merely told to change their approaches  without knowing why such a change occurred. that administrators  Incidents mentioned indicated  doubted the benefits of integrated programmes.  expressed d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the system of reporting  They  progress.  A committee established at the national l e v e l to deal with the issues of monitoring and evaluation had not produced r e s u l t s .  To date, the  committee has not issued d i r e c t i v e s on how the monitoring should be done. Incidents under this category ranked second to a l l other hindering factors at  the national l e v e l , but ranked quite low at the l o c a l 8.  level.  Apathy and lack of awareness among p a r t i c i p a n t s  Incidents cited i n d i c a t i n g a lack of awareness among the community concerning  the t r a i n i n g programmes f e l l under this category.  were mentioned under this category at the national l e v e l .  No incidents  For those  communities aware of the t r a i n i n g programmes, administrators  and extension  workers l i s t incidents i n which participants showed apathy towards programmes.  They harbour feelings of helplessness due to poverty.  They  are resigned  to t h e i r way of l i f e and do not see how i t can be changed.  Incidents were mentioned i n which participants were unable to use knowledge  106  of e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s for t h e i r benefit. showing such feelings of helplessness.  More incidents refer to women as  For extension  s t a f f , such apathy  discouraged them from continuing with t h e i r work. 9.  Lack of adequate housing and bad l i v i n g conditions f o r extension workers  Extension s t a f f mentioned incidents i n which their personal  problems  were not solved or l i s t e n e d to by p r o v i n c i a l and national headquarters.  In  some incidents, the p r o v i n c i a l personnel have never v i s i t e d the t r a i n i n g centre i n the l a s t two years.  In one incident, the roof of a house was  washed away due to too much r a i n that occurred  i n the area.  Although t h i s  was a natural d i s a s t e r , no emergency steps were taken, nor long -term solution put forward by the p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e or the national headquarters, nor did they acknowledge the existence reported The  of that problem.  No incidents were  at the national l e v e l under this category (see Table  9).  association among the factors was tested by Kendalls C o e f f i c i e n t  of Concordance.  Results  indicate a s i g n i f i c a n t association between  f a c i l i t a t i n g factors (a = . 0 0 3 ) .  The association on hindering  factors was  not s i g n i f i c a n t .  Basic Categories  for Each Administrative  Level  Percentages of respondents represented i n each category at each administrative  l e v e l are reported  i n this section.  Percentages of  respondents are one i n d i c a t i o n of the soundness of the category.  They  indicate the extent to which d i f f e r e n t people report the same kind of event as f a c i l i t a t i n g or hindering and Is analogous to the use of i n t e r subjective agreement by independent observers to achieve o b j e c t i v i t y .  107  National Level At the national l e v e l (see Table 11), coordination with other departments and agencies, and seminars, workshops and training f a c i l i t i e s were ranked f i r s t among f a c i l i t a t i n g factors (88% of respondents).  Coordination  i n the production of educational materials ranked lowest with 22% of respondents  selecting this factor.  Inadequate  s k i l l e d personnel was  most frequently mentioned hindering factor (61% of respondents). t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s was  the  Lack of  the hindering factor least frequently mentioned  (28% of respondents).  P r o v i n c i a l Level At the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , seminars, workshops and t r a i n i n g was  facilities  the most frequently mentioned f a c i l i t a t i n g factor (96% of respondents;  see Table 12).  Coordination with other departments and agencies ranked  next with 87% of respondents mentioning i t . reached (35%) and importance  Target population being  of technology (27%) were the least frequently  mentioned f a c i l i t a t i n g factors.  Lack of adequate materials and other  inputs ( f u e l , seeds, b a t t e r i e s , etc.) was  ranked as the most important  hindering factor at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l (65% of respondents). transport was  ranked next (61% of respondents).  Nine percent of respondents  indicated that programmes did not r e f l e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s ' needs. lowest ranking hindering factor was  Inadequate  The next  lack of accommodation for extension  s t a f f (13% of respondents).  D i s t r i c t Level At the d i s t r i c t l e v e l , coordination with other departments and agencies featured as the most frequently mentioned f a c i l i t a t i n g factor (80% of  108 Table 11.  Percentages of responses for f a c i l i t a t i n g and hindering factors at national l e v e l .  National l e v e l Factors  FACTORS FACILITATING  Number of respondents  X of respondents  X of t o t a l responses  IMPLEMENTATION (n - 18)  1.  Coordination with other departments and agencies  16  88.8  16.6  2.  Seminars/workshops and training f a c i l i t i e s  16  88.8  16.6  3.  Financial assistance  14  77.7  14.5  4.  Communication with provinces  13  72.2  13.5  5.  Supporting decentralization  10  55.5  10.4  6.  Target population being reached  9  50.0  9.3  7.  A v a i l a b i l i t y of transport  7  38.8  7.2  8.  Training and v i s i t system good  7  38.8  7.2  9.  Coordination between departments in producing educational materials  4  22.2  4.1  TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONSES  - 96  FACTORS HINDERING IMPLEMENTATION (n - 18) 1.  Inadequate s k i l l e d personnel  11  61.1  14.8  2.  Lack of clear national policy on integrated rural development programmes  10  55.6  13.5  3.  Lack of monitoring and evaluation of on-going programmes  10  55.6  13.5  4.  Lack of communication  9  50.0  12.2  5.  Unstable funding  8  44.4  10.8  6.  Inadequate transport  7  38.9  9.5  7.  Lack of inadequate inputs, materials, e t c .  6  33.3  8.1  8.  Lack of training f a c i l i t i e s  5  27.8  6.8  TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONSES  - 66  Table 12.  Percentages of respondents and responses for f a c i l i t a t i n g and hindering factors at provincial l e v e l .  Provincial level Factors  Number of respondents  Z of respondents  % of total responses  FACTORS FACILITATING IMPLEMENTATION (n - 23) 1.  Seminars/workshops and training f a c i l i t i e s  22  95.7  16.6  2.  Coordination with other departments and agencies  20  86.9  1S.1  3.  A v a i l a b i l i t y of transport  16  69.6  12.1  4.  Supporting decentralization  14  60.9  10.6  5.  Good communication with national headquarters and d i s t r i c t  13  S6.5  9.8  6.  Financial support, loan or credit f a c i l i t i e s  12  52.2  9.0  7.  Training and v i s i t system good  11  47.8  8.3  8.  Regular meetings within department  10  43.5  7.5  9.  Target population being reached  8  34.8  6.0  6  26.7  4.5  10. Importance  of appropriate technology  TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONSES  -  132  FACTORS HINDERING IMPLEMENTATION (n - 23) 1.  Lack of inadequate materials and other inputs ( f u e l , seeds, batteries, etc.)  15  65.3  15.9  2.  Inadequate transport  14  60.9  14.89  3.  Over-centralized system  11  47.8  11.7  4.  Inadequate funds, c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s unstable funding  10  43.4  10.6  5.  Shortage of s k i l l e d personnel  10  43.4  10.6  6.  Lack of coordination with other departments and agencies  7  30.4  7.4  7.  Communication with national headquarters  7  30.4  7.4  8.  Lack of awareness and education among participants  6  26.1  6.3  9.  Lack of support from superiors, feeling you cannot do much  5  21.7  5.3  10. Lack of (clear national policy) monitoring  4  17.4  4.2  11. Lack of staff accommodation  3  13.0  3.1  12. Programmes not related to participants needs  2  8.7  2.1  TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONSES  -  94  110  respondents as presented i n Table 13).  Seminars, workshops and t r a i n i n g  f a c i l i t i e s followed with 73% of respondents mentioning this factor. However, communication  with national and p r o v i n c i a l headquarters (40%) and  good i n f r a s t r u c t u r e (20%) were the least frequently mentioned  facilitating  factors. The most frequently mentioned hindering factors were inadequate transport (53% of respondents) and shortage of s k i l l e d personnel (47%). Lack of adequate s t a f f housing (13%) and communication  problems  (13%) were  the least frequently mentioned hindering factors.  Local Level At l o c a l l e v e l , coordination with other departments the highest f a c i l i t a t i n g factor.  and agencies ranked  Although i t ranked high at Kalichero  (Site 2) and Kalunga ( S i t e 3), i t ranked t h i r d at Katopola ( S i t e 1). Reaching target population was the next highest ranking f a c t o r , ranking higher at Kalichero and Kalunga than at Katopola (see Table 10).  Seminars/  workshops and t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s was the next ranking f a c i l i t a t i n g factor followed by a v a i l a b i l i t y of transport and inputs.  Although t r a i n i n g and  v i s i t was cited as a f a c i l i t a t i n g factor at Kalichero and Kalunga i t was not applicable to Katopola Centre which focuses on r e s i d e n t i a l courses. At l o c a l l e v e l , lack of adequate inputs and lack of coordination with other departments and agencies were the highest ranked hindering f a c t o r s . Apathy among participants was the second highest ranked hindering factor a t a l l t r a i n i n g centres.  Delays i n releasing funds f o r loans and shortage of  s k i l l e d manpower ranked the next hindering factor at l o c a l l e v e l . among participants ranked the lowest hindering factor as i t was not applicable at Site 1.  Apathy  Table 13. Percentages of respondents and responses f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g and hindering factors at d i s t r i c t l e v e l .  District Factors  Number of respondents  level  X of respondents  Z of t o t a l responses  FACTORS FACILITATING IMPLEMENTATION (n - 15) 1.  Coordination with other departments and agencies  12  80.0  17.3  2.  Seminars/workshops and training facilities  11  73.3  15.9  3.  A v a i l a b i l i t y of transport  10  66.7  14.4  4.  Target population being reached  10  66.7  14.4  5.  F i n a n c i a l support, credit facilities  9  60.0  13.0  6.  Supporting training and v i s i t system, mobile courses  8  53.3  11.5  7.  Communication with p r o v i n c i a l and national headquarters  6  40.0  8.6  8.  Good Infrastructure  3  20.0  4.3  TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONSES  - 69  FACTORS HINDERING IMPLEMENTATION (n - 15) 1.  Inadequate transport  8  53.3  15.3  2.  Shortage of s k i l l e d personnel  7  46.7  13.4  3.  Lack of inadequate inputs  7  46.6  13.4  4.  Unstable funding  6  40.0  11.5  5.  Lack of awareness among participants  6  40.0  11.5  6.  Late payment of farmers for their produce  5  33.3  9.6  7.  Lack of staff involvement i n planning and lack of clear national policy, evaluation and monitoring  5  33.4  9.6  8.  Delays of Inputs (seeds, f e r t i l i z e r , equipment)  4  26.6  7.6  9.  Over-centralized system  2  13.3  3.8  7.  Lack of adequate staff housing  2  13.3  3.8  TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONSES  - 52  112  This section presented results of the c r i t i c a l incident interviews conducted with selected administrators and extension workers at four administrative l e v e l s .  The section that follows w i l l display results of  three sets of survey questionnaires administered  to selected administrators  at a l l administrative levels and to selected participants of integrated nonformal education programmes.  Survey Questionnaire Results C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Respondents This section provides a d e s c r i p t i o n of respondents and their groups. Groups are described i n terms of administrative l e v e l :  n a t i o n a l , provin-  c i a l , d i s t r i c t , and l o c a l l e v e l comprising S i t e 1, S i t e 2, and S i t e 3. Individual respondents are described i n four demographic v a r i a b l e s :  sex,  age, l e v e l of education, and number of years i n employment.  The data were  c o l l e c t e d as responses to the Administrators' Questionnaire.  Tables 14 to  16 present respondents' employed. percentages  sex, age, l e v e l of education and number of years  Level of education and gender are reported as frequencies and over the whole population and by the administrative group to  which they belonged.  A l l analysis of data from survey questionnaires used  the computer programme SPSSX (Nie and H u l l , 1980). p <  Significance was  set at  .05. Table 14 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of male and female respondents.  The  figures of Table 14 indicate a predominance of males (79%) i n the sample of administrators who  participated i n the study.  At the national l e v e l  73%  were male, at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l 80%, at the d i s t r i c t l e v e l 81%, and at the l o c a l l e v e l 100%,  82%, and 75%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . At the three i n s t i t u -  Table 14.  D i s t r i b u t i o n of males and females within administrative groups.  Administrative group  Number Female  Male  Male  Percent Female  National  19  7  73  27  Provincial  24  6  80  20  District  17  4  81  19  Site 1  6  -  100  Site 2  9  2  82  18  Site 3  9  3  75  25  84  22  79  21  Local  Total  n = 106  114  tions representing the l o c a l l e v e l the percent of male administrators ranged from 75-100%. Table 15 displays the d i s t r i b u t i o n of respondents' l e v e l s of education. The results i n d i c a t e that the majority of respondents had at least a c e r t i f i c a t e (56%).  The highest concentration of those holding c e r t i f i c a t e s  appears at Sites 2 and 3, and at the p r o v i n c i a l and d i s t r i c t administrative levels.  Sixty-two percent of administrators who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n this  study  at national l e v e l have u n i v e r s i t y degrees. Table 16 displays a breakdown of years of employment by administrative group.  The results show a concentration at the national l e v e l and at Sites  1 and 3 of administrators that have worked less than ten years. One hundred and s i x administrators and extension workers responded to the Administrators' Questionnaires which included items on demographic data.  Demographic data for the respondents appear to i n d i c a t e :  (a) that  a very small proportion of females are currently employed at d i f f e r e n t administrative l e v e l s ; (b) that females tend to have lower educational attainment  than males; and (c) that those with high educational  attainment  appear to have been employed for a r e l a t i v e l y shorter period of time.  Responses to Administrators' Questionnaire The Administrators' Questionnaire was designed  to answer the following  questions: 1.  What do administrators perceive to be the extent of " i n t e g r a t i o n " i n nonformal education programmes? (a)  To what extent do administrators at d i f f e r e n t administrative levels d i f f e r i n their perceptions of the existence of v e r t i c a l integration?  115  Table 15.  Administrative group  D i s t r i b u t i o n of respondents' l e v e l of education within administrative groups.  Certificate  Number Diploma  Percent C e r t i f i c a t e Diploma  Degree  Degree  4  6  16  16  2  62  Provincial  18  7  5  60  23  17  District  15  5  1  17  24  5  33  67  Nat ional  Local Site 1  2  Site 2  11  Site 3  10  2  60  24  Total  100  22  83  17  56  23  21  106  Table 16.  D i s t r i b u t i o n of years of employment within the administrative groups.  Administrative group  Nat ional Provincial District  Number 1-10 years 11+ years  Percent 1-10 years 11+ years  13  12  52  48  8  22  27  73  11  48  52  10  Local Site 1  5  1  83  17  Site 2  5  6  46  54  Site 3  9  3  75  25  50  55  48  52  Total  n = 105  116  (b)  To what extent do administrators at d i f f e r e n t administrative l e v e l s d i f f e r i n t h e i r perceptions of the existence of horizontal integration?  (c)  To what extent are administrators' perceptions of v e r t i c a l integration c o r r e l a t e d with administrators' perceptions of h o r i z o n t a l integration?  (d)  How does this c o r r e l a t i o n between v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l integration d i f f e r according to administrative levels?  In order to answer these questions, the questionnaire had four sections.  Each section of the Administrators' Questionnaire was designed  to answer a d i f f e r e n t question.  Section A of the Administrators'  Question-  naire (Items 1 to 10) contained measures of v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n . Responses to Items 11 through 20 measured horizontal i n t e g r a t i o n .  Section  B of the questionnaire explored administrators' opinions on i n t e g r a t i o n . The l a s t section (C) focused on items pertaining to the implementation process of integrated r u r a l development programmes.  Only 34% of adminis-  trators at the national l e v e l completed Section C of the questionnaire. Table 17 presents c o r r e l a t i o n s between the four v a r i a b l e s :  vertical  integration; h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n ; opinions on i n t e g r a t i o n ; and opinions on implementation.  Correlations between v e r t i c a l , horizontal and opinions  on i n t e g r a t i o n are s i g n i f i c a n t (ot = .05). The positive c o r r e l a t i o n s indicate a high i n t e r n a l consistency among the v a r i a b l e s .  However,  c o r r e l a t i o n s of administrators' opinions on implementation  are not  correlated with other three v a r i a b l e s .  The variables were l a t e r analyzed  separately.  Summary of Responses to Local Level Questionnaire The r e s u l t s of the Local Level Questionnaire, developed  to determine  administrators' opinions on integrated programmes, can be located i n  Table 17.  Correlations among measures of v e r t i c a l , of horizontal i n t e g r a t i o n , opinions on integration and opinions on implementation: Administrators' Questionnaire (n = 106).  Variable  1  1.  Vertical  1.00  2.  Horizontal  .48*  1.00  3.  Opinions  .30*  .33*  4.  Implementation  5.  Total  * S i g n i f i c a n t at a =  .05.  2  3  4  1.00  -.15  -.06  .06  1.00  .28  .37  .43  .84  1.00  118  Appendix 10. Results of item analysis using Lertap computer programme indicate a positive correlation between f a c i l i t a t o r s and coordination (see Table 18). But the two variables have a very low positive correlation with obstacles.  There i s internal consistency among the items.  Table 18.  Correlations between opinions on f a c i l i t a t o r s , coordination and obstacles: Local Level Questionnaire (n = 50).  Variable  1  2  3  1.  Facilitators  2.  Coordination  .45*  3.  Obstacles  .14  .10  1.00  4.  Total  .18  .71  .56  4  1.00 1.00  1.00  * Significant at a = .01. Analyses of variance were performed to determine i f there were d i f f e r ences between the groups on administrators' perceptions of the degree of integration and on obstacles to integration. Results indicate that there were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the four groups as presented i n Tables 19 to 22.  Summary of Responses to Participants' Questionnaire In this study, participants of integrated programmes around the three training centres were requested to respond to a questionnaire. questionnaire was designed  to s o l i c i t responses on participants' opinions  with regard to outcomes integrated programmes: were interviewed.  The  Seventy-seven participants  The questions focused on whether they strongly agreed,  119  Table 19.  Means and SD on administrators' perceptions integration.  on degree of  Group  n  x  SD  District  21  21.6  4.6  Site 1  6  17.0  7.5  Site 2  11  24.0  4.0  Site 3  12  20.0  7.4  50  21.4  5.7  Local l e v e l  Total  Table 20.  Analysis of variance of differences among administrative groups on degree of integration.  Source  Between Administrative Groups Within Groups  SS  DF  165.32  3  1492.45  46  MS  55.1 32.44  1.69  .18  120 Table 21.  Means and SD on administrators' perceptions of obstacles to i n t e g r a t i o n : Local Level Questionnaire.  Group  n  District  21  x  SD  19.23  3.43  Local l e v e l Site 1  6  21.5  1.64  Site 2  11  20.8  2.18  Site 3  12  20.5  3.47  Table 22.  Analysis of variance of differences among administrative groups on administrators' perceptions of obstacles to integration.  Source  Between Administrative Groups Within Groups  SS  DF  MS  34.77  3  11.59  429.94  46  9.34  1.24  .30  121  agreed, or disagreed with various  aspects of integrated programmes.  Item  analysis conducted through Lertap computer programme indicates a positive correlation among the variables: Table 23).  S k i l l s and  s k i l l s , f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s  (see  f a c i l i t i e s indicate a higher positive c o r r e l a t i o n  than do s k i l l s and a c t i v i t i e s , while f a c i l i t i e s are highly correlated with skills.  There is internal consistency  Table 23.  between the items.  Correlations between s k i l l s , f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s : Participants' Questionnaire (n = 77).  1  Variable  2  3  4  1.00  1.  Skills  2.  Facilities  .32*  3.  Activities  .19  .50*  1.00  4.  Total  .53  .84  .82  * Significant at a =  1.00  1.00  .01.  Participants strongly agreed that the s k i l l s they learned would be useful in their daily a c t i v i t i e s . found in Appendix 11. that said equipment and i n their homes.  A summary of participants' responses are  A high percentage (45%) of participants indicated f a c i l i t i e s used at the centres were not  available  F i f t y percent of participants f e l t that things should  improve at the training centre;  29.9%  were undecided.  There was  strong  agreement among participants that they were acquiring knowledge and  skills  that would help them in their daily a c t i v i t i e s but that they did not have the necessary equipment in their homes.  It appears that participants were  122  not sure of the role that the centres had regarding loan d i s t r i b u t i o n and other a g r i c u l t u r a l inputs.  Answering the Research Questions This section focuses on the research questions.  In order to answer  the research questions several analyses were performed.  1.  To what extent are administrators' perceptions of v e r t i c a l integration correlated with their perceptions of horizontal integration? The answer to the above question was obtained by calculating the  Product-Moment correlation between horizontal and v e r t i c a l integration. Results of the analysis indicate that v e r t i c a l integration i s positively correlated with horizontal integration (r = .49) 2.  How does the correlation between v e r t i c a l and horizontal integration vary according to administrative level? In order to answer this question, the Product-Moment correlation on  horizontal and v e r t i c a l integration were performed.  The results of the  analysis are presented Table 24, according to administrative group. Results indicate that there i s higher positive correlation at the national level (r = .63), and for Site 1 at l o c a l level (r = .63), than at other administrative levels, with the provincial level showing the lowest positive correlation (r = .35). A score between 1 and 19 represented low score on perceptions on degree of v e r t i c a l or horizontal integration while scores between 20 and 40 represented high score on perceptions on the degree of v e r t i c a l or horizontal Integration.  Table 24.  Correlations of perceived degree of v e r t i c a l and horizontal integration by administrative group.  Variable  SD  Corr.  National Level  Vertical Horizontal  26.42 25.00  5.30 5.66  .63  .0002*  Provincial  Vertical Horizontal  22.93 21.73  5.98 6.86  .35  .02*  Vertical Horizontal  22.47 21.71  5.47 6.42  .39  .03*  Site 1  Vertical Horizontal  19.66 22.66  6.02 5.27  .63  .08  Site 2  Vertical Horizontal  22.90 23.00  6.54 5.25  .54  .04*  Site 3  Vertical Horizontal  21.33 18.08  8.51 4.56  .54  .03*  District  Level  Level  Local Level  * S i g n i f i c a n t at a = .05.  124  3.  To what extent do administrators of d i f f e r e n t administrative l e v e l s d i f f e r i n their perceptions of the existence of v e r t i c a l integration? In order to answer this question, one-way analysis of variance  was  performed on the variable v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n using the SPSSX computer programme i n order to determine whether there were any differences between the means among d i f f e r e n t administrative l e v e l s .  Table 25 presents  r e s u l t s of the analysis which indicate that there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t  the differ-  ence between the perceptions of v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n by administrators at d i f f e r e n t administrative l e v e l s .  Administrators at the national l e v e l have  a higher mean (x = 26.42) than those at any other l e v e l while the l o c a l l e v e l have the lowest mean (x = 21.58) (see Table  4.  26).  To what extent do administrators from d i f f e r e n t adminstrative l e v e l s d i f f e r i n their perceptions of the existence of h o r i z o n t a l integration? One-way analysis of variance was  performed using the SPSSX computer  programme to determine whether administrators from d i f f e r e n t administrative levels d i f f e r e d i n their perceptions of the existence of h o r i z o n t a l integration.  The r e s u l t s do not indicate that there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t  difference between the four groups.  Table 27 presents the results of the  analysis as well as the means and standard deviations for each group. The national l e v e l had a higher mean (x = 25.0)  for horizontal  i n t e g r a t i o n when compared with the p r o v i n c i a l and d i s t r i c t levels (x = 21.7). The l o c a l l e v e l administrators scored lowest on horizontal i n t e g r a t i o n (see Table  28).  125  Table 25.  Analysis of variance of differences between administrative groups on v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n .  Source  Between Administrative Groups Within Groups  SS  DF  MS  F  P  356.95  3  118.98  3.20  3792.48  102  37.18  .02*  * S i g n i f i c a n t at a = .05.  Table 26.  G r o u  P  Means and SD of administrators' perceptions of the degree of vertical integration.  n  x  SD  National  26  26.42  5.30  Provincial  30  22.93  5.98  District  21  22.47  5.47  Local  29  21.58  7.19  126  Table 27.  Analysis of variance of differences between administrative groups on Administrators' perceptions of degree of horizontal integration.  Source  SS  Between Administrative Groups  263.49  3  87.83  3800.84  102  37.26  Within Groups  Table 28.  DF  MS  Means and SD of administrators' perceptions horizontal integration  Group  n  F  P  2.35  .07  of degree of  x  SD  National  26  24 .00  5.66  Provincial  30  21 .73  6.86  District  21  21 .71  6.43  Local  29  20 .71  5.37  106  22 .30  6.10  Within Groups Total  5.  To what extent do administrators from different administrative levels differ i n their perceptions of the existence of integration?  Section B of the Administrators' Questionnaire contained items that assessed administrators' opinions on the existence of various aspects of integration.  The questionnaire had items on both v e r t i c a l and horizontal  integration.  Analysis of variance was conducted to determine whether  administrators from d i f f e r e n t administrative levels had s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n their opinions on the existence of i n t e g r a t i o n i n their programmes.  Results of the analysis of variance show that administrators  f r om d i f f e r e n t administrative levels did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n their opinions on i n t e g r a t i o n (see Table 29). The analysis indicated that the means at the national and p r o v i n c i a l levels (x = 40.8 and and x = 40.3, respectively) were higher than those f o r the d i s t r i c t l e v e l (x = 37.0), and f o r the cases (x = 38.5), but these differences were not s i g n i f i c a n t (see Table 30).  6.  To what extent do administrators from different adminstrative levels d i f f e r i n their perceptions of implementation of integrated programmes Analysis of variance was performed using SPSSX computer programme  on Section C of the Administrators' Questionnaire. analysis are presented i n Table 31.  The results of the  A score between 1 to 29 represented a  low score while scores ranging between 30-50 represented high scores on perceptions on the implementation  of integrated programmes.  Table 32  displays the d i s t r i b u t i o n of means and standard deviations on administrators opinions on implementation  of integrated programmes.  There are no  s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the opinions of administrators from d i f f e r e n t  128  Table 29.  Analysis of variance of differences between groups on the degree of integration i n programmes.  Source  SS  Between Administrative Groups  157.73  3  52.57  3378.53  102  33.12  Within Groups  Table 30.  Group  DF  MS  F  P  1.58  .19  Means and SD of administrators' opinions on the degree of integration i n programmes.  n  x  SD  National  26  40.84  5.00  Provincial  30  40.33  3.90  District  21  37.80  9.50  Local  29  38.48  4.13  106  39.45  5.75  Grand Mean  129  Table 31.  Analysis of variance of differences among administrative groups on opinions on implementation.  Source  Between Adminstrative  SS  Groups  Within Groups  Table 32.  Group  DF  MS  240.76  3  80.25  6806.85  78  87.26  F  P  .91  .43  Means and SD of administrators' opinions on implementation of integrated programmes.  n  x  SD  National  17  39.11  8.06  Provincial  21  40.47  9.16  District  16  43.50  8.18  Local  28  38.92  10.68  130  administrative levels with respect to the implementation of integrated programmes. The  table indicates that not a l l administrators completed Section C of  the Administrators' Questionnaire their work.  because i t was not d i r e c t l y applicable to  At the national l e v e l , nine respondents did not complete  Section C because they f e l t they were not actually involved i n implementing integrated programmes.  Nine at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l did not complete the  Section C of the questionnaire.  Only one out of twenty-nine  extension  workers from the three t r a i n i n g centres f a i l e d to complete Section C.  Summary This chapter  presented  r e s u l t s of this study.  outlined categories developed from interview data.  The f i r s t section F a c i l i t a t i n g and  hindering factors have been displayed according to each administrative level.  The l a s t section presented  were administered  r e s u l t s of survey questionnaires  that  to selected administrators at four administrative levels  and to selected p a r t i c i p a n t s of integrated nonformal education around three t r a i n i n g centres. r e s u l t s of this study.  programmes  Chapter Six presents a discussion of the  131  CHAPTER DISCUSSION  OF  S I X RESULTS  Chapter Six discusses r e s u l t s of the study i n l i g h t of the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed.  The f i r s t section discusses results that emerged through i n t e r -  views with administrators at d i f f e r e n t administrative l e v e l s . section presents a discussion of the results of the survey administered  The second  questionnaires  to selected administrators at four administrative levels and  to selected participants of integrated nonformal education  programmes.  For the convenience of the reader the research questions of the study are again 1.  presented.  What factors are thought by administrators to f a c i l i t a t e implementation of integrated nonformal education  2.  What factors are thought by administrators to hinder implementation of integrated nonformal education  3.  programmes?  programmes?  What do administrators perceive to be the extent of integration i n integrated nonformal education (a)  programmes?  To what extent do administrators at d i f f e r e n t administrative levels d i f f e r i n their perceptions of the existence of " v e r t i c a l integration"?  (b)  To what extent do administrators at d i f f e r e n t administrative levels d i f f e r i n t h e i r perceptions of the existence of "horizontal integration"?  (c)  To what extent do administrators' perceptions of v e r t i c a l integration c o r r e l a t e with administrators' perceptions on horizontal integration?  132  (d)  How  does this c o r r e l a t i o n between v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l  integration d i f f e r according to administrative levels? 4.  What s k i l l s do p a r t i c i p a n t s perceive to gain from integrated nonformal education programmes?  Perceived F a c i l i t a t i n g and Hindering  Factors  F a c i l i t a t i n g Factors In reviewing research on implementation F u l l a n and Pomfret (1977) i d e n t i f i e d four major determinants of successful implementation of an innovation.  These include:  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the innovation i t s e l f ;  implementation s t r a t e g i e s ; main features of the"unit adopting  the  the  innova-  t i o n ; and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the macro s o c i o p o l i t i c a l framework within which the innovation i s nested.  In this study, from a c a r e f u l analysis of  the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of these determinants a hierarchy of successful innovations can be p r o f i l e d . cular determinants may others may  F u l l a n and Pomfret (1977) argue that " p a r t i -  be c r i t i c a l under one  set of circumstances,  be prominent under other conditions."  Innovations  i n developing countries have been c e n t r a l to national  development p o l i c i e s (Havelock and Huberman, 1978).  Many t h e o r i s t s have  argued against the manner i n which the t h i r d world has introduced tions.  One  while  innova-  group of t h e o r i s t s i n s i s t s that innovations represent a power-  f u l form of ' c u l t u r a l imperialism' since they represent the developed world  (Carnoy, 1974).  ideas borrowed from  Another group stresses that the  problem of innovation f a i l u r e i n developing countries l i e s  i n the  conserva-  t i v e nature of educational systems that r e s i s t s change, which i s revealed i n a lack of rigorous planning for educational change, and p r a c t i t i o n e r s , who  inexperienced  receive r e s t r i c t e d training and in-service t r a i n i n g .  Jennings-Wray (1985), from her study of the Integrated Science Project i n  the Carribean, concluded that innovative ideas from the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d countries can be used with success under c e r t a i n conditions. stances  include the presence of government support;  These  circum-  adequate financing;  s u f f i c i e n t time i n which to operationalize the change e f f o r t , e f f e c t i v e dissemination s t r a t e g i e s , and the provision of adequate grounding i n e s s e n t i a l personnel  and professional expertise.  This study focused on several factors perceived by administrators f a c i l i t a t e integrated nonformal education programmes.  For  at three administrative levels (national, p r o v i n c i a l and  to  administrators  district)  seminars/workshops and t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s i s a powerful f a c i l i t a t i n g factor.  Their discussions imply that through these practices they learn  most about changes being made within their departments and that they "acquire new  skills."  One  t y p i c a l farm management o f f i c e r said:  Having attended a course at the Pan-African I n s t i t u t e i n Kabwe, I gained new knowledge and s k i l l s i n farm management which I shared with my friends at work. The administrators' valuing of i n - s e r v i c e training may  be due  to t h e i r  shallow pre-service preparation and the strong continuing pressures new  s k i l l s i n t h e i r sphere of operation.  t h i s study suggest that this i s so.  The answers of administrators i n  This perception agrees with  findings on nonformal education by Coombs et a l . (1973; 1974) (1981).  to gain  research  and Thompson  In-service training i s one of the determinants of successful  implementation i d e n t i f i e d by F u l l a n (1979) and Jennings-Wray (1985). At the l o c a l l e v e l , however, administrators ranked seminars/workshops fourth l e v e l as a factor f a c i l i t a t i n g successful implementation of integrated nonformal education  programmes.  It appears that  at the higher administrative levels have more access  administrators  to seminars/workshops  and  t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s than administrators at the l o c a l l e v e l .  the administrators at l o c a l l e v e l who  Yet i t i s  need more training so as to keep  abreast with any p o l i c y changes that are constantly being made. The concept of integration assumes that administrators of various departments and agencies w i l l coordinate their e f f o r t s i n o f f e r i n g nonformal education programmes to r u r a l communities (Maimbo, 1982).  Coordina  tion as an aspect of horizontal integration i s discussed by Coombs (1980) and Cole (1982) as a strong feature of successful implementation of integrated nonformal education  programs.  In this study a l l four levels of  administrators ranked coordination as the second highest factor.  Horizontal i n t e g r a t i o n requires a constant  facilitating  i n t e r a c t i o n between  administrators across government departments and non-governmental organiza tions (Coles, 1982). department or agency.  This m u l t i - s e c t o r a l approach leads to gain for each Indeed as one administrator said:  Since youth extension i s not seen as a p r i o r i t y , I hardly tour youth projects taking place i n the province. The few that I have v i s i t e d , I have r e l i e d on transport from church organizations. Advocates of integrated nonformal education programmes assume that the multi-sectoral approach of programmes leads to more e f f i c i e n t use of resources by v i r t u e of i t s h o l i s t i c e f f e c t s (Coombs, 1980; Evans, 1981).  The major argument for integrated nonformal  programmes focuses on the limited resources whose economies w i l l continue F i n a n c i a l support  1982;  education  i n most developing  countries  to decline (Lynch and Wiggins, 1987).  i s one determinant of successful implementation as  i d e n t i f i e d by F u l l a n (1979) and Jennings-Wray (1985). administrators at a l l levels ranked f i n a n c i a l support ing factor.  Coles,  Although f i n a n c i a l support  In this  research,  third as a f a c i l i t a t  ranked t h i r d as a f a c i l i t a t i n g  135  factor, not a l l administrators from a l l departments i d e n t i f i e d i t as such. F i n a n c i a l support  ranked high among administrators of departments (e.g.  Agriculture and Marketing and Cooperatives)  who have external funding f o r  their programmes, which have to meet high accountability standards.  As i n  many developing countries, i n Zambia unstable funding ranks high as a hindering f a c t o r at a l l administrative l e v e l s .  One administrator i n the  Ministry of Agriculture said: Since Zambia i s undergoing economic recession, f i n a n c i a l assistance from outside reassures us of the continuation of integrated programmes.  Results of this research are consistent with e a r l i e r research findings by Coombs et a l . (1973, 1974) and Thompson (1981).  Their studies on nonformal  education indicated a lack of commitment to r u r a l development by governments of developing countries.  In nearly a l l the countries surveyed, the  a l l o c a t i o n of resources i n the national development plans indicated a g r i c u l t u r a l and r u r a l development had a low p r i o r i t y . Related to f i n a n c i a l support i n f l u e n t i a l i n determining Pomfret, 1977).  i s resource support.  Resource support i s  the success of implementation (Fullan and  The a v a i l a b i l i t y of resources l i k e transport and inputs  (materials, seeds, and equipment) were i d e n t i f i e d as f a c i l i t a t i n g factors i n this research.  Although administrators at a l l administrative levels  i d e n t i f i e d a v a i l a b i l i t y of transport as a f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r , only 3 8 . 8 % of administrators at national l e v e l i d e n t i f i e d i t as one, compared to 79.5% and 66.6% at p r o v i n c i a l and d i s t r i c t levels r e s p e c t i v e l y . This may be explained by the fact that national l e v e l administrators are not expected to travel long distances to the provinces, whereas their counterparts at other administrative levels are expected to tour d i s t r i c t s and t r a i n i n g  136  centres r e g u l a r l y . issue.  To these administrators,  transport i s an important  The Department of Community Development emerged as the department  most lacking i n transport, materials and  other inputs.  One  Community  D i s t r i c t Development assistant said: Transport i s a major handicap for us to tour various Community Development a c t i v i t i e s to see what our friends i n the f i e l d are doing. When we t r a v e l , we always rely on our friends from the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e .  Lack of adequate inputs, as well, emerged as a hindering factor at lower administrative l e v e l s .  One  l i t e r a c y o f f i c e r at the l o c a l l e v e l s a i d :  For a long time now, we have been unable to record programmes for the people. We have also been unable to conduct radio l i s t e n i n g groups as we have done i n the past due to lack of batteries for radios. The Community Development p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e s are situated at Katete, kilometres are.  away from Chipata where other p r o v i n c i a l and  This administrative arrangement may  district  70  offices  explain the d i f f i c u l t i e s which  d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s i n Community Development face. L i t e r a t u r e pinpoints administrative support as one of the determinants of successful implementation (Fullan, 1979;  Jennings-Wrays, 1985).  study, communication between national, p r o v i n c i a l , d i s t r i c t and levels ( v e r t i c a l integration) was  In t h i s  local  i d e n t i f i e d as a f a c i l i t a t i n g factor.  One  respondent indicated that: Regular meetings are held every month between administrators at the headquarters (Ministry of Agriculture and Water Development) and a l l p r o v i n c i a l coodinators for IRDP. Although v e r t i c a l integration ranked high as a f a c i l i t a t i n g factor among both national and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s , i t was local levels.  This may  ranked very low at d i s t r i c t  be attributed to the fact that the communication  and  between l o c a l and d i s t r i c t and national l e v e l administrators has to pass through the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l .  This administrative channel very often lead  to delays i n getting r e p l i e s for authorization and delays i n releasing funds for recurrent expenditures and loans for farmers.  One extension  worker lamented that: We cannot teach farmers that during this month of January, apply f e r t i l i z e r , or plant this brand of seed when they are unable to obtain these inputs [ i n time].  Fullan and Pomfret (1977) i d e n t i f i e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the macro s o c i o p o l i t i c a l unit as one determinant of successful implementation.  They  observe that large-scale programmes proposed by p o l i t i c a l agents i n power have several features that increase the p o s s i b i l i t y of adoption but decrease the l i k e l i h o o d of e f f e c t i v e implementation.  However, results of  some other implementation studies have shown that programmes succeed when they are supported by a ministry or department  of government (Havelock and  Huberman, 1978; Jennings-Wray, 1985). In Zambia, Integrated Rural Development Programmes (IRDP) were sponsored at the national l e v e l through the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Development.  During the period of implementation of IRDP the  Decentralization Act (1981) was  enacted.  Administrators at a l l levels  i d e n t i f i e d introduction of the Decentralization Act as a f a c i l i t a t i n g factor to implementing integrated nonformal education programmes.  Zambian  administrators, especially those at lower administrative l e v e l s , may  see i  as a positive factor because i t provides more power i n decision-making at p r o v i n c i a l and d i s t r i c t l e v e l s .  Though the Act gives more power at  d i s t r i c t l e v e l , no administrators at this l e v e l i d e n t i f i e d the Decentralization Act as a f a c i l i t a t i n g factor.  They did not project themselves as  138  adequately s k i l l e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n planning projects that affect their districts.  Indeed, i t has already been observed by Kanduza et a l . (1985)  that implementation of the Decentralization Act required d i s t r i c t  adminis-  trators to possess basic planning s k i l l s , which many administrators seemed to lack.  Although the Decentralization Act gives more power to d i s t r i c t  and l o c a l l e v e l administrators, implementation of the Act has disrupted the way  things used to be. Prior to implementation of the Act, Inputs  l i z e r s , seeds, equipment) were d i r e c t l y given to each department IRDP o f f i c e .  This process has been changed.  by the  The consequence of the change  i s that c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s of some departments, ment have been disrupted.  (ferti-  such as Community Develop-  This may explain why d i s t r i c t  l e v e l administra-  tors do not see implementation of the Act as a f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r .  One  Community Development o f f i c e r said: The women s t i l l meet every Thursday, but they do not do much. We do try to use l o c a l materials for doing crafts work, but women want to do more as they used to. Materials are very expensive f o r women to buy. There are no seeds to plant i n t h e i r demonstration p l o t s . In order f o r an innovation to be successful, i t should be implemented through taking into account other changes taking place i n the s o c i o p o l i t i c a l system (Jennings-Wray,  1985).  Related to the macro s o c i o p o l i t i c a l  factors i s the new training and v i s i t system i d e n t i f i e d as a f a c i l i t a t i n g factor.  The new t r a i n i n g and v i s i t system permits administrators and  extension workers to meet more farmers than they did before.  One adminis-  t r a t o r said: The new system of training and v i s i t i s a good system. Every Friday i s a f i e l d day. A l l o f f i c e r s v i s i t one block every week. Then, they v i s i t another block the following week. This ensures that the extension worker working i n the f i e l d provides information on his extension a c t i v i t i e s each day of the week  which wasn't the case before. During those days an extension worker v i s i t e d as many farmers as he wanted and was not required to account for h i s movements.  The new  system i s viewed as a f a c i l i t a t i n g factor, because i t provides  accountability for the extension workers, and because i t provides contact with more farmers  than the r e s i d e n t i a l courses held at t r a i n i n g centres do.  Hindering Factors Several categories of hindering factors emerged from interviews conducted at the four administrative l e v e l s .  Hindering factors i d e n t i f i e d  i n this study are s i m i l a r to problems spotlighted i n other research studies on nonformal education ( S h e f f i e l d and Diejomaoh, 1972; Callaway,  1973;  1974;  research, inadequate  1980;  Coombs et a l . ,  Loveridge 1979; Thompson, 1981).  1973;  In t h i s  s k i l l e d personnel ranked as the highest hindering  factor at three administrative levels (national, p r o v i n c i a l and E a r l i e r studies on nonformal education programmes i d e n t i f i e d  district).  inadequate  s k i l l e d personnel as one of the problems i n r u r a l communities.  Thompson  (1981) summarized the s i t u a t i o n i n most developing countries: The e f f i c i e n c y of even the more enlightened extension services depended upon a number of factors of which the number and quality of the f i e l d workers was the most c r u c i a l . In Kenya and Zambia extension s t a f f came to number approximately one to every 1000 farm holdings, a proportion recommended as a minimum by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization but one which obviously made i t impossible for them to meet the majority of t h e i r c l i e n t e l e on a regular and i n d i v i d u a l basis. Yet even this figure compares favourably with the s i t u a t i o n of most developing A f r i c a n countries: Malawi with one worker for every 7800 holdings; Senegal with one for every 2000 families and Mali with one for every 8500 families, (p. 230-231)  140  The small number of extension workers results i n the extension message reaching a very small group of the target population who the message.  One  may  i n fact ignore  extension worker lamented:  Most of the time we v i s i t v i l l a g e s , we do not see any changes i n the way things are done. What we teach at the centre does not seem to have much impact when they go back home.  The number of extension workers i s so small that their presence i s sometimes not f e l t or, at times, t h e i r message i s ignored. extension worker i s often very low. community, an extension worker may them, therefore f a i l i n g  The morale of the  In order to be accepted by the at times step down and l i v e  l i k e one of  i n duties to change people's a t t i t u d e s .  s c a r c i t y of extension workers i s exacerbated  by the inadequate  t r a i n i n g and the lack of in-service t r a i n i n g  facilities.  The  pre-service  Other studies on nonformal education have indicated that the lack of services, transport i n p a r t i c u l a r , i n r u r a l areas makes the work of extension workers very d i f f i c u l t Thompson, 1981). inadequate  (Ahmed, 1975;  Loveridge,  1979;  Administrators and extension workers i n this study ranked  transport as the second highest ranking hindering f a c t o r .  extension workers are expected farmers  Green, 1975;  Most  to t r a v e l long distances to supervise  or to organize l i t e r a c y classes.  One Community Development worker  said: Before, we were given a bicycle to use to supervise farmers. That i s not the case any more. This means that we cannot v i s i t those farmers who are far from the centres now.  Resource support i s one of the determinants and Pomfret, 1977;  Havelock and Huberman, 1977).  of implementation  (Fullan  In this research Zambian  administrators and extension workers i d e n t i f i e d lack of adequate a g r i c u l t u r a l inputs, materials and equipment and unstable funding as some of the  141  factors that hinder implementation of integrated nonformal programmes.  These problems of lack, of resource  by previous research on nonformal education  support  education  have been examined  ( S h e f f i e l d and Diejomaoh,  1972;  Coombs and Ahmed, 1974). Evaluation and monitoring  of integrated nonformal education  programmes  has been i d e n t i f i e d as lacking i n many research studies on nonformal education ( S h e f f i e l d and Diejomaoh, 1972; 1981).  Coombs and Ahmed, 1974;  Thompson,  Evaluation i s one of the determinants of successful implementation  of an innovation as i d e n t i f i e d by F u l l a n and Pomfret (1977). study, lack of evaluation and monitoring  In this  ranked second as a hindering  factor at national l e v e l but ranked quite low at lower administrative levels.  The differences i n the ranking may  be attributed to the fact that  administrators at national l e v e l have been exposed to ideas on evaluation and monitoring  and are interested i n monitoring what is a c t u a l l y happening  i n the f i e l d through a v a r i e t y of means including, for example, monthly reports from o f f i c e r s i n the f i e l d .  Evaluation data i s important for  making comparisons with other nations, as well as for b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s with i n d u s t r i a l i z e d countries and i n t e r n a t i o n a l funding agencies 1984).  (Woldring,  Although administrators and extension workers at lower administra-  tive levels seem to be burdened with a l o t of paper work to report to superiors, t h e i r administrative reporting does not, on the surface, appear to provide rigorous and complex evaluation data.  Extension workers i n  Zambia and elsewhere i n A f r i c a have been trained to communicate information rather than to assess needs of l o c a l communities (Thompson, 1981).  In the  case of IRDP, i t appears that research i s usually conducted by the  funding  agency sponsoring  the programme, and does not involve extension workers  and bring outside experts from the University of Zambia or elsewhere.  142  This may  be attributed to the fact that although IRDP u t i l i z e s a  multi-sectoral approach, no statutory national body has been established to monitor nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s organized by government departments and other agencies.  An attempt has been made to e s t a b l i s h a national body  to coordinate the a c t i v i t i e s of IRDP.  It i s known as the I n t e r - I n s t i t u -  t i o n a l National P o l i c y Steering Committee and was  i n s t i t u t e d i n May  (Ministry of Agriculture and Water Development, 1984).  1984  The National  Steering Committee was designed to coordinate planning a c t i v i t i e s of a l l donor agencies and the National Commission for Development Planning with leadership from the Planning D i v i s i o n of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Water Development.  The P r o v i n c i a l Coordination Steering Committees and the  Monthly D i s t r i c t Coordination Committees evolved out of the same p r i n c i p l e of strengthening coordination between departments and donor agencies at l o c a l l e v e l and improving communication from the l o c a l l e v e l to the national l e v e l within departments. Committees i s yet to be  The effectiveness of these Steering  seen.  Advocates of integrated nonformal education programmes assume that when nonformal a c t i v i t i e s are integrated, large groups of r u r a l communit i e s , normally l e f t out by other educational programmes, w i l l be (Coombs, 1980;  Coles, 1982).  reached  In this study, apathy among participants  was  i d e n t i f i e d as the second highest ranking factor by administrators and extension s t a f f at l o c a l l e v e l .  It may  be that the number of extension  workers i n these communities, as discussed e a r l i e r , i s too small to make a difference.  One extension worker lamented:  Although we t r a i n participants i n improved r u r a l structures and other s k i l l s i n appropriate technology, our participants alone are unable to influence change i n the v i l l a g e s .  143  Indeed, the time given to farmers short. ways.  It may  to change their practices seems too  be that r u r a l households need more time to change their old  With more time, r u r a l households would learn more from training  programmes.  With a l i t t l e patience and a r e a l i s t i c time l i n e , one may  hear  comments as this one by another extension worker: I f e e l very happy when I see that farmers have changed the way they take care of t h e i r animals, e s p e c i a l l y during the rainy season.  Perceptions on Existence of Integration The l i t e r a t u r e on nonformal education indicates that integration at a l l administrative levels -is a necessary condition f o r state-sponsored nonformal educational a c t i v i t i e s to r e a l i z e programme goals (Coombs, 1980,  1985; Coles, 1982).  1974,  Both Coombs (1980) and Coles (1982) advocate  v e r t i c a l and horizontal integration of nonformal education programmes.  The  study of the Integrated Rural Development Programmes (IRDP) focused on the implementation  of state-sponsored integrated nonformal education programmes  i n the Eastern Province of Zambia. project, was  IRDP, introduced as an innovative  designed to enhance r u r a l development i n selected r u r a l areas  of Zambia.  V e r t i c a l Integration Results of the Administrators' Questionnaire indicate that administrators at national levels scored higher on the perceived degree of v e r t i c a l integration.  Scores ranging between 1 to 19 r e f l e c t e d a low score of per-  ceived v e r t i c a l integration while scores ranging between 20 to 40 reflected high scores of perceived v e r t i c a l integration.  National l e v e l administra-  tors scored x = 26.4,  a f i g u r e higher than other administrative l e v e l s .  On the other hand, scores at a l l administrative levels indicate a high degree of perceived v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n .  Results of the one way  analysis  of variance, performed i n order to determine whether the mean scores of d i f f e r e n t administrative levels were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , showed that there was  a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the means (p <.02).  Results of this analysis seem to suggest that the general trend i s a high degree of perceived v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n , with national l e v e l adminis trators scoring higher than other administrative l e v e l s .  The reason  national l e v e l administrators had higher scores on the perceived of v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n may  be due to these reasons.  why  existence  F i r s t l y , national  l e v e l administrators are involved i n planning with i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies, and therefore are more exposed to ideas about integration than administrators at the lower administrative l e v e l s , e s p e c i a l l y l o c a l l e v e l tors who  are merely t o l d what to implement.  Secondly, because national  l e v e l administrators are involved i n the most senior policy they may  formulation,  f e e l the highest r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to make things work.  national l e v e l administrators are far removed from l o c a l l e v e l tors and may  administra  Lastly, administra-  a c t u a l l y believe that everything i s working even i f i t i s not  The generally high scores among a l l administrative levels seem to suggest that there exists a perceived high degree of v e r t i c a l integration among administrators of a l l l e v e l s .  «  Horizontal Integration Results of this research indicate that administrators at a l l levels scored high on the perceived degree of horizontal integration.  Scores  145  ranging between 1 to 19 r e f l e c t e d low perceived degree of horizontal integration while scores between 20 to 40 r e f l e c t e d a high perceived degree of horizontal i n t e g r a t i o n . Although  administrators' scores on the perceived  degree of horizontal i n t e g r a t i o n are high at a l l administrative l e v e l s , national levels scores (x = 25.0) are higher than other levels (x = 21.73 at province l e v e l ; x = 21.71 at d i s t r i c t ; x = 20.71 at l o c a l l e v e l ) . Results of the one-way analysis of variance on horizontal i n t e g r a t i o n to determine whether the means of d i f f e r e n t administrative levels were d i f f e r e n t indicate that there were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the means.  The high scores of national l e v e l administrators on the perceived  degree of horizontal i n t e g r a t i o n may be explained by the fact that national l e v e l administrators have the keenest  understanding  of the value of coordi-  nation i n planning nonformal education programmes (SIDA, 1983).  At the  same time, the high scores may not mean that a l l four departments plan programmes together, but with one other department or funding agency. I t appears that administrators perceive a high degree of horizontal integrat i o n to exist i n integrated nonformal education programmes even though the integration may only involve one other department or agency. The high scores on the perceived degree of both v e r t i c a l and horizont a l i n t e g r a t i o n seem to support (Coombs, 1980; Coles, 1982).  the l i t e r a t u r e on nonformal education  The l i t e r a t u r e suggests that an i d e a l l y  integrated system would be characterized by a constant free flow of communication between levels within the same administrative department ( v e r t i c a l integration) and constant i n t e r a c t i o n between departments and non-governmental agencies at each administrative l e v e l . The answer to the question of whether there i s a c o r r e l a t i o n between administrators' perceptions on the existence of v e r t i c a l and horizontal  integration indicates that the national l e v e l has the highest positive c o r r e l a t i o n between perceptions  on the existence of v e r t i c a l and horizontal  i n t e g r a t i o n (r = .63), while the p r o v i n c i a l and d i s t r i c t levels have the lowest positive correlations (r = .35) and r e s u l t s may  (r = .39) r e s p e c t i v e l y .  be explained by the f a c t that administrators  at the national  l e v e l f e e l that they are part of the p o l i c y making, whereas at p r o v i n c i a l and  d i s t r i c t l e v e l s , though they may  The  administrators  p a r t i c i p a t e i n planning  committees, l i v e f a r away from where the national decision-making process takes place.  National l e v e l administrators  have been exposed to ideas  about integration through dealings with i n t e r n a t i o n a l organizations funding agencies.  Through such exposure, they may  believe that  and  there  e x i s t s a high degree of i n t e g r a t i o n i n the nonformal programmes. The high p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between v e r t i c a l and horizontal integration at a l l administrative levels further confirms the assertions made i n the nonformal education  l i t e r a t u r e (Coles, 1982;  l i t e r a t u r e asserts that outcomes of integrated nonformal  Evans, 1981). education  programmes would benefit r u r a l communities i n acquiring new s k i l l s and attitudes useful i n people's d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . study and  other research (Coombs et a l . , 1974)  The  knowledge, Results of this  indicate that i n several  government departments the number of extension workers to the number of r u r a l households i s small.  The  small number of extension workers makes  their work d i f f i c u l t i n their attempt to reach a large number of r u r a l household. E a r l i e r surveys conducted by S h e f f i e l d and Diejomaoh (1972) and Coombs and Ahmed (1974) indicated that there was opportunities for r u r a l people.  a maldistribution of  Evidence revealed  educational  that those who  were most  deprived of formal education were s i m i l a r l y most deprived of educational opportunity through nonformal education.  The findings also indicated that  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of g i r l s and women i n nonformal education programmes was very low.  Although women a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n farming, marketing of  crops, and other farm management functions, they have been overlooked.  In  t r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n s o c i e t i e s , women have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of caring for children, for the sick and for the e l d e r l y . including other household  These r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,  chores, may leave l i t t l e time to p a r t i c i p a t e i n  nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s .  Results of this research are  with other research findings on nonformal education.  congruent  The low percentage of  female extension s t a f f affects the delivery of nonformal education a c t i v i t i e s f o r women.  Other surveys have indicated that there i s lack of  adequate personnel i n extension programmes (Coombs, 1974; Thompson, 1981). The low figures of female extension s t a f f reduces the chances for women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n even further. In this study, the number of female o f f i c e r s employed i n government departments may influence the number of women who p a r t i c i p a t e i n integrated nonformal education programmes.  The demographic data indicate that very  few women are employed at p r o v i n c i a l , d i s t r i c t and l o c a l levels i n p a r t i c i pating departments of this study, and yet each department has a Women's Section for executing s p e c i f i c functions to r u r a l women. l e v e l , one female extension o f f i c e r was expected  At p r o v i n c i a l  to cover a l l six d i s t r i c t s  in the province, which covers an area of over 12,000 square kilometres. The same story goes for the d i s t r i c t l e v e l .  Training centres at times had  one female extension o f f i c e r and i n some s i t u a t i o n s , such as at Site 1, they had none.  This s t a f f i n g s i t u a t i o n has some of the following e f f e c t s :  (a)  Programme a c t i v i t i e s designed s p e c i f i c a l l y for women, never r e a l l y reach the target population.  This phenomenon has been  documented through IRDP annual reports (1981, 1982). At Kalichero and Kalunga  training centres, where farmers' t r a i n i n g  courses were offered, of the t o t a l attendance, 33.31% were men, 15.29% were women and 54.4% were school children and members of the Young Farmers Club. (b)  Since the majority of extension s t a f f are male, the running of women's clubs i s often under the supervision of male extension workers.  Some women may be prevented from attending these clubs  by t h e i r husbands because instructors are men. Male i n s t r u c t o r s may not understand needs of female p a r t i c i p a n t s . Some have argued against conducting separate courses for women (Sjostrom, 1984).  They advocate that there i s a need f o r mobile p r a c t i c a l  f i e l d courses with the same a g r i c u l t u r a l focus for women and men. But problems do e x i s t i n the A f r i c a n t r a d i t i o n a l societies where roles of women are c l e a r l y prescribed. Although the idea of o f f e r i n g p r a c t i c a l  field  courses for both sexes seems to be a good one, r e s u l t s of such a strategy may continue to indicate a low p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women farmers.  In a survey  of women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Lima programme, Chilibvumbo and Kanyangwa (1985) observed that women t r a d i t i o n a l l y own a separate plot from the household f i e l d to grow crops of their choice.  So, the Lima programme - a  plot for the woman - i s not i n c o n f l i c t with t r a d i t i o n a l values.  Women get  extension services and advice for this plot but not for the household p l o t . The female extension o f f i c e r d i s t r i b u t e s loans to women's groups for  a g r i c u l t u r a l inputs for the plot.  In the case of the Lima, t r a d i t i o n a l  values have been maintained (Chilibvumbo and Kanyangwa, 1985). A purposive sample of the seventy-seven participants interviewed seemed to believe that they gained much from t r a i n i n g programmes at the centres.  Although many women are represented among those interviewed, t h i s  does not r e f l e c t the true picture of those who p a r t i c i p a t e i n t r a i n i n g programmes (usually men).  The women interviewed had come to the t r a i n i n g  centres f o r s p e c i f i c meetings concerning c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y for women.  They were a convenient group to interview: many women came. But  an equal number of men came to these meetings.  At these meetings more men  spoke and the women merely listened on. This pattern i s customary. Many women seem to believe that a c t i v i t i e s at the centres can become better.  For example, they expressed concern on the repayment of seasonal  loans which they are required to pay back within one year. able to.  Many are not  Many were apathetic because even when they had applied for loans,  they had never been successful. Many participants generally believe that from the Farm Training Centres and Health Centres they gained many s k i l l s which they practise i n their homes.  They agreed, too, that i n some instances, they do not have  the kind of equipment used i n demonstrations.  In some cases they said that  what was being taught was not what they r e a l l y wanted to learn.  One o l d  man i n a l i t e r a c y class said: I do not just want to learn how to read and write Nyanja (the l o c a l language) I would l i k e to learn how to read and write English. It may be that i n developing countries learners are rarely consulted on what they want to learn (Coles,  1982).  Summary This chapter has presented a discussion of the results of the study. F a c i l i t a t i n g and hindering levels. hindering  factors d i f f e r at d i f f e r e n t  administrative  In this study, shortage of s k i l l e d personnel was i d e n t i f i e d as a factor.  It has also been i d e n t i f i e d i n other research  (Coombs, 1974; Thompson, 1981).  surveys  The limited number of extension workers  l i m i t s the number of people that are reached. Results  seem to suggest that administrators  at national l e v e l  perceive  a higher degree of both v e r t i c a l and horizontal integration to exist than do the administrators  at other administrative  partly to the fact that administrators  levels.  This may be due  at national l e v e l f e e l most keenly  that they are part of the policy making process, and p a r t l y due to the fact that they are so far removed from the provinces,  they believe a high degree  of integration to exists whether or not that i s actually the case.  Results  of the study indicate that there i s a positive c o r r e l a t i o n between v e r t i c a l and horizontal integration.  The results seem to validate what the l i t e r a -  ture says on integrated nonformal education (Coombs et a l . , 1973; 1974; 1980;  S h e f f i e l d and Diejomaoh, 1972). From this study, i t i s d i f f i c u l t  these integrated programmes.  Results  to know who r e a l l y benefits from of the interviews  indicate that  p a r t i c i p a n t s f e e l that they learn many s k i l l s which are useful i n their daily lives.  But many participants seemed to possess feelings of h e l p l e s s -  ness, believing that nothing can change the way things are, e s p e c i a l l y as related to their economic s i t u a t i o n .  Results  indicate that although they  learnt many s k i l l s , they often could not afford the equipment and materials required  to increase  their a g r i c u l t u r a l output.  But what may be important  151  i s whether the e x t e n s i o n message has reached i t s staff,  or N u t r i t i o n l i m i t s  the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n i n t e g r a t e d programmes.  chapter presents  study.  It w i l l  further  research.  in Agriculture,  The s m a l l  number of e x t e n s i o n  The next  whether  audience.  Community Development,  summary and c o n c l u s i o n s  h i g h l i g h t recommendations  for p r a c t i c e ,  drawn from  this  for theory,  and f o r  152  CHAPTER SEVEN SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  This study  as w e l l  provides major  chapter  a s some  a summary  findings,  section  gives  offers  a brief  o f t h epurposes  areas  o f t h epurposes  i m p l i c a t i o n s of these  and discusses  recommendations  summary  main  of thestudy, conclusions  of further research  for practice,  findings.  f o r theory  and f i n d i n g s of The f i r s t  methods  section  utilized  and i m p l i c a t i o n s .  arising  from  the  the study.  and t h e The n e x t Finally,  and f o r further research a r e  provided.  Summary The Purposes of the Study The  purposes  (1)  of thestudy  to identify hinder  were  ( s e e p.  f a c t o r s thought  theimplementation  14):  by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  to facilitate o r  of integrated nonformal  education  programmes; (2)  to establish  therelative  (3)  to determine  t h eperceived  (4)  spective  of four  district  and local).  t o determine nonformal  i n f l u e n c e of each degree  of i n t e g r a t i o n from  administrative levels:  skills  education  and knowledge  factor, and  (national,  acquired  programmes through  from  the per-  provincial,  integrated  t h eperceptions o f  participants.  Methods of Data The  case  Interviews  Collection  study  was t h e p r i m a r y  conducted w i t h  method  utilized  i nthis  s e l e c t e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a t each  research.  of the four  administrative specific  l e v e l s u t i l i z e d the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t  events thought  to i l l u s t r a t e  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s working at  factors  of the  thought  four d i f f e r e n t  administrative  level  factors. completed their  degree of h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n and the  to f a c i l i t a t e  and h i n d e r implementation of  responded to a separate  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , which focused integrated  levels  identify  Appendix 1) which s o l i c i t e d  nonformal education programmes i n Zambia. local  to  f a c i l i t a t i n g or h i n d e r i n g  the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (see perceptions  technique  integrated  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s at d i s t r i c t and  survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  the L o c a l  Level  on degree of i n t e g r a t i o n and o b s t a c l e s  nonformal e d u c a t i o n programmes.  Interviews  were a l s o  to  conducted  with s e l e c t e d programme p a r t i c i p a n t s i n order to determine outcomes of integrated  nonformal e d u c a t i o n programmes.  P e r c e i v e d F a c i l i t a t i n g and H i n d e r i n g F a c t o r s A d m i n i s t r a t o r s at a l l four a d m i n i s t r a t i v e workshops and t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s and agencies as the h i g h e s t support was i d e n t i f i e d t r a i n i n g and v i s i t facilitating  identified  and c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h other  ranking f a c i l i t a t i n g  factors.  factors.  Other f a c t o r s Details  of  departments  The new ranked lowest a  were ranked d i f f e r e n t l y  across  f a c i l i t a t i n g and h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r s  are  i n Tables 9 and 10.  Inadequate administrative  s k i l l s was ranked h i g h e s t as a h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r at levels  (national,  p r o v i n c i a l and d i s t r i c t ) ,  ranked s i x t h by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and e x t e n s i o n workers at Inadequate  seminars/  Financial  the next h i g h e s t ranking f a c t o r .  system and support f o r d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  administrative levels. presented  as  levels  t r a n s p o r t was the  while  local  three  it  was  level.  second h i g h e s t r a n k i n g h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r .  Administrators  i n t h i s study  ranked inadequate a g r i c u l t u r a l  m a t e r i a l s , equipment and u n s t a b l e hinder  funding as some of the f a c t o r s that  implementation of i n t e g r a t e d nonformal education  Administrators  at a l l f o u r l e v e l s ranked as the lowest  apathy among p a r t i c i p a n t s and l a c k of m o n i t o r i n g  Responses t o A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' R e s u l t s of the study  inputs,  programmes. hindering factors  and e v a l u a t i o n .  Questionnaire  i n d i c a t e that a d m i n i s t r a t o r s at a l l l e v e l s  p e r c e i v e a h i g h degree of both v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n to e x i s t i n i n t e g r a t e d nonformal education r e f l e c t e d a perceived  programmes.  Scores between 1 to 19  low degree of i n t e g r a t i o n while  40 r e f l e c t e d a p e r c e i v e d h i g h degree of i n t e g r a t i o n . suggest that a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  scores between 20 to Although  results  p e r c e i v e a high degree of i n t e g r a t i o n to e x i s t  i n i n t e g r a t e d nonformal education  programmes, scores  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a r e much h i g h e r than scores a t other  for national levels.  level  R e s u l t s of the  one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n show that there was a significant  d i f f e r e n c e (p <.02) between the means of d i f f e r e n t  t i v e groups.  Results  of the one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e  i n t e g r a t i o n i n d i c a t e that there were no s i g n i f i c a n t means.  and  on h o r i z o n t a l  d i f f e r e n c e s between  D e t a i l s of r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s o f A d m i n i s t r a t o r s '  are presented  i n Tables  24 - 32.  administra-  Administrators' perceptions  Questionnaire on v e r t i c a l  h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n are p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d a t  a l l administrative  levels.  Responses t o L o c a l L e v e l Results  Questionnaire  i n d i c a t e that a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  t h a t the i n t e g r a t e d nonformal e d u c a t i o n  and e x t e n s i o n workers b e l i e v e  programmes meet the l e a r n i n g needs  155  of  r u r a l communities.  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s at d i s t r i c t  a h i g h degree of i n t e g r a t i o n  to e x i s t  The major o b s t a c l e s i d e n t i f i e d  and l o c a l  i n nonformal education  i n the implementation  formal education programmes a r e :  perceived  programmes.  of i n t e g r a t e d non-  l a c k of f a c i l i t i e s and equipment at the  three t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s , and communication d i f f i c u l t i e s administrative  levels  with  higher  levels.  Responses to Participants' Questionnaire The  P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was designed  i n t e g r a t i o n through programmes.  to determine outcomes of  the p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a n t s of i n t e g r a t e d  Outcomes of i n t e g r a t i o n r e l a t e d  to:  s k i l l s they l e a r n e d from  i n t e g r a t e d nonformal e d u c a t i o n programmes; whether f a c i l i t i e s at the three t r a i n i n g centres were adequate; and whether the s k i l l s they learned a t t r a i n i n g centres were u s e f u l i n t h e i r d a i l y  lives.  Responses to P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n d i c a t e that those utilize  s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d at t r a i n i n g centres l e a r n s k i l l s u s e f u l i n t h e i r  daily lives.  R e s u l t s a l s o show that l a c k of m a t e r i a l s and equipment h i n d e r  p a r t i c i p a n t s from u t i l i z i n g training  who  new s k i l l s and knowledge learned at the  centres.  R e s u l t s a l s o suggest  that the s m a l l number of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and  e x t e n s i o n workers i n h i b i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n of r u r a l households as one t r a v e l s f u r t h e r away from t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s .  Limitations of the Study The  f i n d i n g s of t h i s r e s e a r c h are l i m i t e d  t i o n s of f a c t o r s  thought  to f a c i l i t a t e  to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s '  or hinder implementation  i n t e g r a t e d nonformal education programmes; and a l s o to t h e i r  percep-  of  p e r c e p t i o n s of  the degree of i n t e g r a t i o n i t s e l f i n the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP).  This study did not investigate the actual nature of  communication within and between departments examined: administrators' perceptions. of r e a l i t y .  Perceptions may  Their perceptions may change over time.  i t relied  on  indeed be but one form  T a j f e l (1969) points out  that:  the term 'perception' can be so stretched out that i t could f i n a l l y lead to a consideration of the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l determinants of a l l knowledge about the [interviewee's] world (p. 319).  A l i m i t a t i o n of the study l i e s i n some of the procedures u t i l i z e d .  methodological  For instance, heads of government departments  selected the personnel who  were to respond to the survey questionnaires  well as those eventually interviewed. randomly selected subjects. the researcher's analyses  as  The researcher could instead have  Because not a l l interviews were  r e l i e d on her f i e l d notes.  The  long  tape-recorded distances  between national l e v e l administrators of senior standing and their subordinates made i t d i f f i c u l t more time was  to spend more time i n either places.  Hence  spent with administrators at p r o v i n c i a l , d i s t r i c t and  local  levels than at the national headquarters. Although every attempt was respondents may  made to maintain  confidentiality,  have reported what they f e l t the researcher wanted to hear.  This leaves open to question the degree of correspondence between subjects report their own report.  experience  how  and what an external measure might  Survey questionnaires are more i n t r u s i v e , and generally require  more accommodation from subjects to f i t their responses into those options that the study allows.  Yet, despite such d i f f i c u l t i e s i n using them,  survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  such as those used i n t h i s  r e s e a r c h do lead  to  d i s c o v e r y of g e n e r a l human e x p e r i e n c e . Much debate r e v o l v e s p r o v i d e s adequate  around whether or not a s i n g l e  evidence  study would have b e n e f i t e d similar countries in  Zambia f i r s t  area.  Its  to a c c l a i m c o n t r i b u t i o n to knowledge.  This  from m u l t i p l e case s t u d i e s i n Zambia or i n  f o r comparisons.  Because  i n Chipata D i s t r i c t , t h i s  findings  case study  IRDP was,  i n 1972,  established  r e s e a r c h was conducted i n  should be understood as having s p e c i a l  this  implications  C h i p a t a D i s t r i c t , among a d m i n i s t r a t o r s from p a r t i c i p a t i n g departments. as much as t h i s  study i s  l i m i t e d to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s  t a t i n g and h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r s ; degree of of  integration,  its  and to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s '  f i n d i n g s may be of  Zambia, and to other c o u n t r i e s  similar  perceptions  interest  to other  of of  for In  facilithe  districts  (such as Botswana, M a l a w i , Kenya) of  s t a t u s which experiment w i t h i n t e g r a t e d  nonformal education  programmes.  Conclusions This s e c t i o n  presents major c o n c l u s i o n s  cations  of each c o n c l u s i o n are d i s c u s s e d  theory,  and to f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h .  1.  as they r e l a t e  of  this  r e s e a r c h suggest that  factors  p e r c e i v e d as  and h i n d e r i n g implementation of i n t e g r a t e d nonformal  programmes rank d i f f e r e n t l y facilitating  factors  at each l e v e l ,  it  to  their  facilitat-  education  a c c o r d i n g to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l .  rank d i f f e r e n t l y  Impli-  to p r a c t i c e ,  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' s t a t u s i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h i e r a r c h y a f f e c t s p e r c e p t i o n s of f a c i l i t a t i n g and h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r s .  Results ing  drawn from the s t u d y .  is  Since  necessary  to  158  reinforce  f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d at d i f f e r e n t  administrative  l e v e l s so that a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and e x t e n s i o n workers are able to perform t h e i r work b e t t e r . For example, a t l o c a l l e v e l , is  ranked h i g h e r  the f a c t o r of reaching  than i t i s a t other  target  administrative levels.  population  Here, one  observes that a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and e x t e n s i o n workers a t t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s are i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to t e l l whether the t r a i n i n g programmes are r e a c h i n g the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n .  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s at h i g h e r  l e v e l s may i n v o l v e t a k i n g i n t o account the f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r s p e r c e i v e d by e x t e n s i o n workers a t lower l e v e l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s ,  during  implementation. While at n a t i o n a l l e v e l , inadequate s k i l l e d personnel training f a c i l i t i e s at the l o c a l l e v e l .  and l a c k of  rank as the h i g h e s t h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r , they rank f o u r t h I t appears, then,  t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s at n a t i o n a l  l e v e l are aware that there are few s k i l l e d personnel  i n the f i e l d ,  e x t e n s i o n workers, though aware of the problem do not p e r c e i v e as most p r e s s i n g .  The i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s  f i n d i n g i s that  the problem  administrators  at n a t i o n a l l e v e l may be able to arrange t r a i n i n g programmes seminars/workshops and s h o r t courses  while  i n the form of  f o r j u n i o r s t a f f at l o c a l  level.  Lack of adequate i n p u t s ranks h i g h e s t as a h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s at l o c a l trative  levels.  level.  I t ranks only t h i r d a t the other  To the e x t e n s i o n workers, i n p u t s are an important  adminisaspect  of t h e i r day-to-day work. The  i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n  administrative extension  l e v e l s must l i s t e n  i s that a d m i n i s t r a t o r s at higher  to the needs of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and  s t a f f who are i n the f i e l d  i n order  to l e s s e n the burden of t h e i r  159  work.  At d i f f e r e n t  different  administrative  administrative levels  l e v e l s , hindering factors  identified  should be reduced i n order to  at  assist  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and e x t e n s i o n workers i n t h e i r work.  2.  This study suggests that a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' s t a t u s i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h i e r a r c h y a f f e c t s t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the perceived degree of v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n .  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s at n a t i o n a l l e v e l p e r c e i v e and h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n to e x i s t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of  levels.  The l i t e r a t u r e on nonformal  the e x i s t e n c e of both v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l  i n t e g r a t i o n between a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s i s a necessary for effective areas  1985;  The i m p l i c a t i o n of  Coles,  administrative levels  (national,  very o f t e n  1982;  these f i n d i n g s  communication between departments  field  feel  Dejene, is  that  1980; there  is  need to improve  and w i t h i n departments provincial, district  between the  and l o c a l ) .  a l i e n a t e d and have a low morale.  study i n d i c a t e  that  al.,  1973;  there i s  Coles,  is  1982).  i n the  relationin  F i n d i n g s of  the p e r c e i v e d degree of v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n  c o n s i s t e n t with the p a t t e r n set  Officers  set  a close  c o r r e l a t e d with the perceived- degree of h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n . finding  four  They need  s h i p between the e x i s t e n c e of v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n i n t e g r a t e d programmes (Coombs et  the  offices.  R e s u l t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the patterns c o n c e p t u a l framework.  Nonformal e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e a s s e r t s that  rural  Thompson, 1981).  r e g u l a r communication from the n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l  3.  requirement  implementation of nonformal e d u c a t i o n programmes i n  (Coombs, 1980,  i n the  vertical  i n i n t e g r a t e d programmes than do  other a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  e d u c a t i o n suggests that  a h i g h e r degree of  is This  i n the conceptual framework.  this  160  The i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s finding relates to the planning of integrated programmes.  I t i s imperative during the planning stage, to create good  communication channels among departments and agencies as w e l l as w i t h i n s p e c i f i c departments. 4.  The small number of extension workers i n the f i e l d a f f e c t s the outcomes of integrated nonformal education programmes. The l i t e r a t u r e on nonformal education asserts that when programmes are  integrated v e r t i c a l l y and h o r i z o n t a l l y at a l l administrative levels t h e i r outcomes would benefit p a r t i c i p a n t s of nonformal a c t i v i t i e s (Coombs et a l . 1973, 1974, 1980; Coles, 1982).  Results of t h i s study suggest that there  were very few extension workers i n government departments i n r e l a t i o n to the number of r u r a l households.  Based on the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' responses, a  large population of r u r a l households i s not reached by integrated nonformal education programmes. integrated programmes.  This has i m p l i c a t i o n s for the implementation of A need e x i s t s to increase the number of extension  workers i n government departments working i n the f i e l d as w e l l as to improve t h e i r working conditions so that they are retained i n r u r a l areas.  Recommendations  Recommendations for Practice  One of the findings of the study indicates that administrators of d i f f e r e n t administrative l e v e l s d i f f e r i n t h e i r scores on the perceived degree of i n t e g r a t i o n , with administrators at n a t i o n a l l e v e l having higher scores compared to other l e v e l s .  This finding has implications for the  p r a c t i t i o n e r who plans and introduces a new programme.  Administrators at  national level get involved i n planning, but rarely involve administrators at provincial, d i s t r i c t and l o c a l levels.  Administrators and  extension  workers at lower administrative levels only become involved during the implementation of integrated nonformal education programmes.  In this  s i t u a t i o n , integrated programmes seem to have been introduced from the national level to s p e c i f i c provinces.  If administrators at national level  would l i s t e n to the views of administrators at lower levels they might gai awareness of the problems administrators at lower administrative levels face i n carrying out their work.  Involved from the beginning,  administra-  tors at lower levels would become aware of the goals and strategies for implementing integrated nonformal education programmes. Results on administrators' perceptions on the degree of horizontal integration indicate that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference in the percep tions of administrators at different administrative levels, although national level does score the highest mean. considered an important  the  If horizontal integration i s  element of integrated programmes, then communica-  tion between different departments may  be improved through some structural  changes i n the various ministries which offer services to rural areas. Although administrators and extension workers try to coordinate  their  e f f o r t s in reaching rural populations, there are no regulations or guidelines i n each ministry for such a c t i v i t i e s .  Administrators and  extension  workers at d i s t r i c t and local levels are answerable to administrators at provincial and national levels of their particular departments. The following s p e c i f i c recommendations are made for implementing formal a c t i v i t i e s in rural Zambia.  non-  162  1.  In order  to strengthen  agencies, be  2.  should  include a l l funding  factors  i n order  training acquire  identified  programmes skills  and seminars  committees, powerful  should  they  training  centres  available  the Departments of The C o m m i t t e e  at a l ladministrative  of i n t e g r a t e d  to review  nonformal  t h e type  of  that administrators  should  to farmers,  be t r a i n e d  are able  lack of training factor.  facilities training  because  t h e Zambian  work.  level  so t h a t  hindering  The t h r e e  be r e d u c e d  implementation  to their  from  i n the country.  f o ra d m i n i s t r a t o r s to ensure  Administrators at district courses  from Unit.  I t may be n e c e s s a r y  relevant  other  and v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s  activities  to f a c i l i t a t e  programmes.  Education  should  and  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1984 s h o u l d  include officials  agencies  education  departments  and o f f i c i a l s  and t h e H e a l t h  nonformal  Hindering  should  Board  Development  education  4.  Advisory  Social  levels  3.  body w h i c h  Education  offering  between  t h e N a t i o n a l S t e e r i n g Committee  a legislated  Adult  integration  short  to contribute i n d i s t r i c t  facilities  publicize so t h a t  through  ranked  their  farmers  as t h e most  activities know what  and goes  on a t  centres.  Recommendations f o r Theory B u i l d i n g Literature development areas. order  on nonformal  i n order  A need  more e f f i c i e n t concept  t o improve  exists  to determine than  well  the efficacy  nonformal  as i t r e l a t e s  an i n t e g r a t e d approach to  of l i v i n g  integrated nonformal  non-integrated  developed  advocates  the standard  to establish  whether  of integration  been very  education  of those  i n rural  of i n t e g r a t e d approaches i n education  education  to nonformal  programmes a r e  programmes.  education  and v a l i d a t e d i n the f i e l d .  The  has not y e t  163  In t h i s study, administrators'  perceptions of the degree of v e r t i c a l  i n t e g r a t i o n were p o s i t i v e l y correlated with administrators' degree of horizontal i n t e g r a t i o n .  perceived  These r e s u l t s support assertions made i n  the nonformal education l i t e r a t u r e (Coles, 1982;  Evans, 1981).  The  integrated nonformal education programme which t h i s study focused on shows a high degree of i n t e g r a t i o n . horizontal i n t e g r a t i o n may type .of communication.  The  The  high correlations between v e r t i c a l  mean that administrators  and.  see integration as  one  d e f i n i t i o n of v e r t i c a l integration stresses  the  constant free-flow of communication between the l o c a l and higher administrative levels.  This study underlines  the importance of the two-way  process; both top-down and bottom-up i n the communication flow that i s c e n t r a l to the concept of v e r t i c a l integration.  In f a c t , at the  local  l e v e l for some participants the down-up component of v e r t i c a l integration i s of f i r s t The may  importance.  communication which underlies  the concept horizontal integration  not always be complete as i t i s assumed i n the l i t e r a t u r e on  programmes (Coles, 1982;  Maimbo, 1984).  Many respondents Indicated  they usually coordinated t h e i r e f f o r t s with one operating  i n the l o c a l i t y .  integrated that  other department or agency  It would be of t h e o r e t i c a l value to explore i n  more d e t a i l the concept of integration as i t relates to nonformal education. The  factors i d e n t i f i e d as f a c i l i t a t i n g and hindering  implementation of  integrated programmes are s i m i l a r to the findings of other research (Coombs, 1974;  Thompson, 1981).  The  surveys  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of these factors i s an  important s t a r t i n g point for someone interested in developing a t h e o r e t i c a l model of factors that influence integration process.  Recommendations for Further Research Several areas for further research have been i d e n t i f i e d : 1.  This study i d e n t i f i e d factors that f a c i l i t a t e and hinder implementation of government sponsored nonformal programmes.  Subsequent  research ought to be conducted that focuses on factors that f a c i l i t a t e or hinder implementation of non-governmental organizations to determine whether f a c i l i t a t i n g and hindering factors are similar to those i d e n t i f i e d i n government-sponsored nonformal education programmes. 2.  Research on the impact of integrated nonformal education programmes on the rural communities i s an exceedingly important research.  area for further  Several evaluation studies indicate c o n f l i c t i n g results on  the impact of these programmes (SIDA, 1983; Marawidze et a l . , 1982; Chilibvumbo and Kanyanja, 1985). impact of the programmes.  This study did not focus on the  But a systematic evaluation of the impact  of integrated programmes i n Zambia needs to be conducted. 3.  Results of this investigation suggest that f a c i l i t a t i n g and hindering factors rank d i f f e r e n t l y at each administrative l e v e l .  New  research  should centre on one administrative level i n analyzing f a c i l i t a t i n g and hindering factors with selected participants would be useful so as to better understand these factors in relation to outcomes of integrated nonformal education programmes. 4.  The instruments  used i n this study have high internal consistency.  These instruments were context-specific, especially so with reference to s i g n i f i c a n t place names, names of programmes, and details of relationships between administrative levels.  Subsequent studies  165  should u t i l i z e relevant  instruments  across d i f f e r e n t  that being more c u l t u r e - f r e e -  5  will  be  n a t i o n a l contexts i n the same or a  comparable r e g i o n . 5.  This study assumes that i n n o v a t i o n s  i n nonformal e d u c a t i o n should be  part of the n a t i o n a l developmental g o a l s . investigations education.  It  is  important to conduct  that q u e s t i o n who should innovate and manage nonformal  Should government or should non-governmental and v o l u n t a r y  organizations hold t h i s on s o c i a l movements  responsibility?  Nonformal e d u c a t i o n  research  such as trade u n i o n s , r e l i g i o u s bodies and  h e l p o r g a n i z a t i o n s has r a r e l y been done ( P a u l s t o n and LeRoy, There i s need f o r a n a l y s i s  on the d i f f e r e n t i a l impact of  e d u c a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to who does the  self-  1980).  these  sponsoring.  C o n c l u d i n g Remarks The l i t e r a t u r e on nonformal e d u c a t i o n i n s i s t s administrative levels  is  necessary  for successful  that  i n t e g r a t i o n at  all  implementation of  government-sponsored nonformal e d u c a t i o n (Evans, 1981; Thompson, 1981; Coles,  1982).  This study of I n t e g r a t e d Nonformal E d u c a t i o n (Systems) i n  Zambia has i d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r s implementation of this  that  facilitate  as w e l l as those that h i n d e r  the I n t e g r a t e d R u r a l Development Programme.  Although  study suggests that a h i g h degree of i n t e g r a t i o n e x i s t s i n these  programmes, one may s t i l l q u e s t i o n whether IRDP i s a p o s t s c r i p t we might c o n s i d e r t h i s : programmes d e s i r a b l e , necessary  realizing its  goals.  As  are i n t e g r a t e d nonformal e d u c a t i o n  or are they imposed on developing c o u n t r i e s ?  Is  to conduct i n t e g r a t e d nonformal education programmes through  -> Boocock (1980) argues some of the pros and cons of c u l t u r e - f r e e tests. S o c i o l o g y of e d u c a t i o n . D a l l a s : Houghton M u f f i n Company.  it  166  government departments when, i n f a c t a l a r g e number of nonformal education activities  are c a r r i e d out by non-governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s ?  p r i v a t e agencies be l e f t nate  their activities  ensure b e t t e r  to f l o u r i s h on t h e i r own, or should they c o o r d i -  w i t h government departments?  u t i l i z a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s ?  funded can they make a c l a i m t h a t resources?  Is i t  possible  Does i n t e g r a t i o n  Since IRDP has been  they are e f f e c t i v e l y  really  externally  managing l i m i t e d  to conduct i n t e g r a t e d nonformal e d u c a t i o n  programmes i n Zambia today without expect l o c a l l e v e l  Should  e x t e r n a l funding?  Is  it  realistic  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s  l e v e l when they a r e . a n s w e r a b l e  at  to  local  to t h e i r s u p e r i o r s at n a t i o n a l l e v e l ?  Do  Zambian p o l i c y makers at n a t i o n a l l e v e l support an i n t e g r a t e d approach o r do they merely pay l i p s e r v i c e  to the system?  the D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n Act enhance participation?  A better  IRDP a c t i v i t i e s  in realizing its  IRDP a c t i v i t i e s  understanding of  Since IRDP was designed  of  The poorest  educational innovations  1981).  increased  these i s s u e s would  to reach the poorest  section  and ensure  goals to reach r u r a l  improved implementation c o u l d b e n e f i t District.  W i l l the implementation of local  strengthen  communities.  r u r a l households,  its  the r u r a l poor i n Zambia's C h i p a t a  of many r u r a l communities are o f t e n  (Coombs and Ahmed, 1974;  Niehoff,  left  out  1979; Thompson,  In w r i t i n g about the Zambian peasantry Bwalya (1984) s a i d :  . . . From the point of view of the peasant, the v a r i o u s programmes aimed at i n c r e a s i n g h i s c a p a c i t y f o r p r o d u c t i v e engagement have f a i l e d to reach him. To him, they are a d e l i b e r a t e camouflage to obscure h i s e x p l o i t a t i o n and consequent e x c l u s i o n from s h a r i n g f a i r l y i n the a v a i l a b l e resources and b e n e f i t s of the country (p. 74).  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Eastern Province.  APPENDIX 1  ADMINISTRATORS'  QUESTIONNAIRE  182  APPENDIX 1 ADMINISTRATORS' QUESTIONNAIRE Please f i l l i n the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n by PRINTING i n the spaces g i v e n below. Date: Year of b i r t h : Sex: Position held: Highest  education  obtained  (eg. C e r t i f i c a t e ,  Number of y e a r s employed i n e x t e n s i o n :  (please t u r n t o the next  page.)  Diploma):  183  SECTION A: The f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s a r e a b o u t what g o e s on in an e x t e n s i o n d e p a r t m e n t . Please i n d i c a t e the extent to w h i c h e a c h s t a t e m e n t d e s c r i b e s y o u r d e p a r t m e n t by p u t t i n g a circle on one of the answers. I f y o u t h i n k an i t e m d o e s n o t a p p l y , PLEASE circle Not Applicable (N.A.) on the rating scale. 0 N.A.  1 Rarely occurs  1. T h e r e  is a  f r o m my 2.  2 Sometimes occurs free  office  I get a r e p l y  flow  t o my  3 Often occurs  of  information  superiors.  to correspondence  to  4.  New policy communicated department. Seminars in  7.  guidelines are clearly to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n the  held  to motivate  and equipment f o r use.  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s work t o g e t h e r monthly and a n n u a l r e p o r t s .  10.  Committees programmes.  plan  Together different involved in planning programmes.  3  4  1 2  3  4  0  1 2  3  4  0  1 2  3  4  0  1 2  3  4  0  1 2  3  4  0  1 2  3  4  0  1 2  3  4  0  1 2  3  4  0  1  3  4  to prepare  department  rural  0  2  readily  Regular s t a f f meetings are h e l d department f o r both s e n i o r and staff.  8. F i e l d w o r k e r s i n t h e had f o r m a l t r a i n i n g . 9.  are  1  workers  the department.  5. S u p p l i e s available 6.  are  0 my  superiors. 3.  4 Very Often occurs  i n the junior  have  development  departments are r u r a l development  2  184  0 N.A.  1 Rarely occurs  "  2 Sometimes occurs  3 Often occurs  11. N o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l organizations i n v o l v e d i n planning committees.  4 Very Often occurs  are 0  1 2  3  4  0  1 2  3  4  13. Programmes are run j o i n t l y w i t h o t h e r departments and non-govermental organizations.  0  1 2  3  4  14. The d e p a r t m e n t works c l o s e l y w i t h self-help groups involved development p r o j e c t s .  0  1 2  3  4  15. The d e p a r t m e n t works c l o s e l y w i t h o t h e r departments involved in development projects.  0  1 2  3  4  16. S e m i n a r s a r e h e l d i n c o n j u n c t i o n other departments involved in development.  0  1 2  3  4  17. The c o n t e n t o f what i s t a u g h t t o a d u l t s i n r u r a l a r e a s i s l a i d down f r o m above and i s s t r i c t l y f o l l o w e d .  0  1 2  3  4  18. The c o n t e n t o f what i s t a u g h t t o a d u l t s reflects the l o c a l needs o f p a r t i c u l a r communities.  0  1 2  3  4  19. A v a r i e t y o f n o n f o r m a l methods ( r a d i o , demonstrations, posters and discussions) are used in teaching adults.  0  1 2  3  4  20. E d u c a t i o n a l participants'  0  1 2  3  4  12. F a c i l i t i e s departments  and equipment from are a t our d i s p o s a l .  activities relate daily activities.  (Please  t u r n t o the next  other  local in  with rural  to  page.)  185  SECTION B: The f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s a r e a b o u t how y o u view your department. Circle t h e answer t h a t r e l a t e s how y o u view your department. 1 Strongly disagree  2 Disagree  3 Undecided  4 Agree  5 Strongly agree  1. T h i s department has a major r o l e i n o f f e r i n g s e r v i c e s to the r u r a l areas.  1 2  3  4  5  2. The objectives c l e a r t o me.  1 2  3  4  5  1 2  3  4  5  4. T h e r e are adequate facilities and e q u i p m e n t t h a t c a n h e l p me i n my work.  1 2  3  4  5  5. T h e r e i s a good w o r k i n g a t m o s p h e r e p r o m o t e s my work t o be done w e l l .  1 2  3  4  5  1 2  3  4  5  1 2  3  4  5  It i s desirable for officers to work closely together when developing e d u c a t i o n a l programmes f o r r u r a l a r e a s .  1 2  3  4  5  It i s important f o r f i e l d workers from different departments to coordinate their efforts in offering educational f a c i l i t i e s to the r u r a l areas.  1 2  3  4  5  10. F i e l d workers should be g i v e n enough freedom to modify educational programmes according to the needs of the l o c a l communities.  1 2  3  4  5  of  3. The department development e f f o r t s  t h e programmes a r e  has a role of the country.  in  that  6. T h e r e is a close relationship with other departments o f f e r i n g educational s e r v i c e s to the r u r a l a r e a s . 7.  8.  9.  I t i s p o s s i b l e f o r me t o u s e from o t h e r departments.  facilities  186  SECTION C: The following are statements that r e l a t e to implementation of integrated programmes. Please circle your answer. 1.  In general integrated introduced? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  2.  was y o u r o v e r a l l development  r e a c t i o n t o t h e way programmes were  very negative somewhat n e g a t i v e neutral somewhat p o s i t i v e very p o s i t i v e  A f t e r i n t e g r a t e d programmes were introduced did f e e l t h a t y o u had a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t ? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  3.  what rural  you  very unclear somewhat u n c l e a r not sure somewhat c l e a r very clear  A t t h e t i m e t h e programmes were introduced, how much importance d i d you f e e l the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Lusaka and C h i p a t a g a v e t o t h e I n t e g r a t e d R u r a l Development centres? 1 . none 2. little 3. m o d e r a t e 4. g r e a t 5. e x t r e m e  4.  A f t e r t h e i n t e g r a t e d programmes were i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e area, d i d you have any s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e i r success? 1 . 2. 3. 4. 5.  5.  none little moderate great extreme  How much e f f o r t w o u l d y o u s a y t h a t y o u p u t i n t o t o implement i n t e g r a t e d programmes? 1. none 2. little 3. some 4. c o n s i d e r a b l e 5. g r e a t  trying  187  6.  How w e l l d i d concerned?  things  work  out  as  far  as  you  were  1 . v e r y poor 2. poor 3 . no n o t a b l e c h a n g e 4. quite well 5. e x t r e m e l y w e l l How much d i d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n C h i p a t a o r a t t h e c e n t r e r e a l l y t r y t o h e l p y o u overcome any o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s ? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  not sure none little some considerable  To what e x t e n t d i d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c i a l s block you in a n y way i n your f i r s t attempts t o c a r r y out your work? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 9.  How much work? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  10.  not sure none little some considerable effort  have  you  made i n c a r r y i n g o u t y o u r  not sure none little some considerable  How much e f f o r t a r e you making a t t h e p r e s e n t time i n c a r r y i n g o u t y o u r work t o w a r d s i m p l e m e n t i n g Integrated R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t Programmes? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  not sure none little some considerable  188  11.  In regard to your o v e r a l l r e a c t i o n t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n of i n t e g r a t e d programmes, what would you say your f e e l i n g s a r e now? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  12.  very negative somewhat n e g a t i v e ambivalent somewhat p o s i t i v e very p o s i t i v e  Are i n t e g r a t e d r u r a l development intended target groups? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  v e r y poor poor no n o t a b l e c h a n g e quite well extremely well  programmes  s e r v i n g the  APPENDIX 2  THE CRITICAL INCIDENT INTERVIEW FORM  190  APPENDIX 2 THE  CRITICAL INCIDENT INTERVIEW FORM  General  Aim  We a r e m a k i n g a s t u d y o f r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t programmes. We would l i k e t o f i n d o u t what t h i n g s h e l p o r h i n d e r y o u r work. You a r e e s p e c i a l l y q u a l i f i e d t o t e l l us about some of these factors, a n d t h a t i s why y o u have been s e l e c t e d for p a r t i c i p a t i o n in this research. Could you please repeat exercise (study).  f o r me  your  understanding  of  this  Summary Some t h i n g s t h a t h e l p a r e are communication between personnel in different d e p a r t m e n t s and c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s working i n the a r e a . I am g o i n g t o ask you to recall incidents which happened to you or to your c o l l e a g u e s w h i c h were h e l p f u l i n y o u r work. Later, I will a s k y o u q u e s t i o n s a b o u t i n c i d e n t s t h a t h i n d e r e d y o u r work. S p o n s o r s h i p of the Study The research being conducted i s p a r t of a d o c t o r a l s t u d y b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . It is fully supported by the University of British Columbia, the University of Zambia, and the International Research Development C e n t r e .  Purpose of the  Study  We wish to find out i n d e t a i l what b e h a v i o u r s a r e h e l p f u l a t work and w h i c h b e h a v i o u r s a r e not helpful. We are e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n what k i n d s of b e h a v i o u r among extension workers are helpful in their work. All interviews w i l l be t r e a t e d w i t h c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . Only the r e s e a r c h e r w i l l have a c c e s s t o the information you will give.  191  Questions f o r P o s i t i v e  Incidents  1.  Think back to a time when s o m e t h i n g t h a t was v e r y h e l p f u l it?  2.  Could you d e s c r i b e the event  3.  F o r how  4.  What e x a c t l y  5.  Why  6.  To what e x t e n t was t h e e v e n t h e l p f u l i n y o u r much w o u l d y o u s a y i t h e l p e d y o u r work? 1 Some  long d i d the incident  you or your f r i e n d d i d t o y o u r work. What was  in detail  f o r me?  go on?  happened t h a t  was s o h e l p f u l ?  do y o u t h i n k t h e e v e n t  was s o h e l p f u l ?  2 Considerable  7.  What a c t i o n  8.  How  9.  Was the incident colleagues?  d i d your  3 Great  work?  How  0 Not Know  d i d you take?  colleagues react  10. Can y o u r e c a l l  also  to the event?  helpful  any o t h e r h e l p f u l  to  t h e work  incidents?  of your  192  Questions f o r Negative Incidents 1.  Can y o u r e c a l l when y o u o r someone you felt blocked you from d o i n g it?  2.  Can y o u d e s c r i b e  in detail  3.  Why  do y o u t h i n k  i t blocked  4.  Was  this  5.  I f no, w h i c h o t h e r at t h a t time?  6.  D i d the event block the centre? How d i d i t b l o c k  7.  To what e x t e n t was t h e e v e n t an o b s t a c l e t o y o u r How much w o u l d y o u s a y i t b l o c k e d y o u r work? 1 Some  event  d i d something that y o u r work. What was  what e x a c t l y h a p p e n e d ?  you from d o i n g  your  work?  the g r e a t e s t o b s t a c l e at the time?  o b s t a c l e s t o y o u r work d i d y o u  2 Considerable  work their  3 Great  8.  Was t h e r e any h e l p o r a d v i c e time t h e event occured?  9.  Who provided have p r o v i d e d  10.  Can y o u r e c a l l any o t h e r  the help the help?  of colleagues work?  have  at  the  work?  0 Not Know  t h a t you needed d u r i n g the  o r who  i n your  incidents?  opinion  should  193  APPENDIX 3  LOCAL  LEVEL  QUESTIONNAIRE  APPENDIX 3 LOCAL LEVEL QUESTIONNAIRE Instructions: The f o l l o w i n g a r e s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t your response to each statment a p p r o p r i a t e answer. 3 S t r o n g l y Agree 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  9.  2 Agree  your work. by circling  Indicate the most  1  0  DisAgree  Committees e x i s t t h a t c o o r d i n a t e r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t programmes.  Not  Know  integrated 3  2  3  2  3  2  Ward D e v e l o p m e n t Committees work closely w i t h I n t e g r a t e d R u r a l Development C e n t r e s .  3  2  The p a r t y and c h u r c h l e a d e r s a r e a c t i v e Development Committees.  3  2  3  2  3  2  F a c i l i t i e s and e q u i p m e n t a r e s h a r e d between d e p a r t m e n t s and o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  3  2  Seminars and o t h e r t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a r e o f f e r e d j o i n t l y with other departments.  3  2  3  2  Members different  of the committees represent d e p a r t m e n t s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  District Development Committees l o c a l p e o p l e s ' demands.  Integrated Rural Development consult the v i l l a g e committees t h e i r needs a r e .  consider  Programmes a b o u t what  I work closely with administrators f i e l d workers from o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t s .  10. L o c a l people want t o l e a r n .  are  consulted  in  and  on what t h e y  195  3 S t r o n g l y Agree 11.  12.  3  2  1 0  Many p e o p l e around the t r a i n i n g programmes.  3  2  1 0  3  2  1 0  3  2  1 0  3  2  1 0  3  2  1 0  3  2  1 0  3  2  1 0  3  2  1 0  3  2  1 0  3  2  1 0  3  2  1 0  3  2  Women do  14.  One of lack of centre.  16.  18.  I my  21.  22.  23.  community  p a r t i c i p a t e as  work a t  support  the  attend  o f t e n as  t h e o b s t a c l e s I f a c e i n my facilities and equipment  I do n o t g e t the c e n t r e . The  20.  not  I t i s not c l e a r as to doing a t the c e n t r e .  17.  19.  Di sAgree  I p l a n t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a c c o r d i n g to the n e e d s o f t h e community a r o u n d t h e c e n t r e .  13.  15.  2 Agree  what  I  men. work i s at the  should  from a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  centre  i s too  much f o r  would require additional training job w e l l .  One of the obstacles I experience work i s t h e l a c k of quick response administrators at high l e v e l s . Another obstacle is communication problems with at the headquarters. The bad roads communication.  Obstacles that d o i n g my j o b .  and  exist  be  not  me. to  do  i n my from  the existing adnministrators  telephone  do  at  system  prevent  There should be more c o o p e r a t i o n d e p a r t m e n t s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  me  delay  from  between 1  0  APPENDIX 4  PARTICIPANTS' QUESTIONNAIRE  197  APPENDIX 4 PARTICIPANTS'  QUESTIONNAIRE  Instructions: Below i s a l i s t o f s t a t e m e n t s t h a t r e l a t e t o what y o u hope to learn from t h e t r a i n i n g programme. C i r l e t h e answer which you agree with. 3 S t r o n g l y Agree  1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  9.  I am l e a r n i n g programme.  2 Agree  a  1  l o t from  I hope t o l e a r n s k i l l s t h a t i m p r o v e my f a r m i n g s k i l l s .  this  will  training  help  I am l e a r n i n g s k i l l s t h a t are i m p r o v e my l i f e i n g e n e r a l .  helpful  The i n s t r u c t o r ' s t e a c h i n g i n e n a b l i n g me t o l e a r n .  is  Because of everyday.  the  style  programme  The f a c i l i t i e s a t t h e c e n t r e t o h e l p us t o l e a r n b e t t e r .  I  that  i s used  the  i s available  3  2  1 0  3  2  1 0  3  2  1 0  3  2  1 0  3  2  1 0  3  2  1 0  3  2  1 0  3  2  1 0  3  2  me  to  helpful  learn  are  The f a c i l i t i e s t h a t we u s e a t a r e a v a i l a b l e i n my v i l l a g e . Equipment home.  0 N o t Know  Disagree  more  adequate  centre  in  my  I t w o u l d be u s e f u l f o r me t o buy equipment f r o m t h e c e n t r e t o u s e i n my home.  1  0  198  3 S t r o n g l y Agree  2 Agree  Disagree  10. I w i l l definitely be a b l e t o use t h e knowledge and s k i l l s I have l e a r n e d a t t h e centre.  3  11. There i s n e e d l e s s d u p l i c a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s from d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t o r s .  3 2  12. I am happy w i t h t h e t r a i n e d at the centre.  3  2  3  2  3  2  3  2  13. I would centre.  like  things  way  to  we  are  improve  being  at the  14. The c e n t r e s h o u l d h e l p us i n g e t t i n g more e a s i l y than a t t h e moment. 15. The s k i l l s we l e a r n a t t h e c e n t r e w i l l us t o produce more c r o p s .  loans  help  2  1 0  1 0  1 0  1  0  1 0  1  0  APPENDIX 5  CODING SHEET FOR ADMINISTRATORS'  QUESTIONNAIRE  200  APPENDIX 5 CODING SHEET FOR ADMINISTRATORS' QUESTIONNAIRE  ID = Columns 1-3  Group = Column 4  Age: 20-30 = 1 Column 6  21-40 = 2  Questionnaire = Column 5  41-60 - 3  Sex: Male Column 7  Female = 2  Educational Background: Column 8  Certificate = 1 Diploma = 2 Degree(s) =3  Number of Years Employed: Column 9  1-10 11+  1 2  SECTION A = Columns 10-19 ( v e r t i c a l integration)  1. 2. 3. 4.  5. 6. 7.  8.  11.  20-29 horizontal i n t e g r a t i o n .  13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.  SECTION B = Columns 30-39  8.  1  |  |  |  |  1  |  1  I  9.  |  j  |  |  |  1  j  j  |  10.  |  |  j  |  |  |  |  |  |"  SECTION C = Columns 40-51 ( o p i n i o n s on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n )  1.  |  |  |  2.  |  |  |  3.  |  |  |  4.  |  |  5.  j  6.  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  j  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  1  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  1  |  |  |  |  7.  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  8.  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  [  9.  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  10.  |  j  I  APPENDIX 6  CODING SHEET FOR LOCAL LEVEL QUESTIONNAIRE  APPENDIX CODING  ID = Columns 1-3  SHEET  FOR LOCAL  6  LEVEL  QUESTIONNAIRE  Group = Column 4  Questionnaire = Column 5 Age: 20-30 = 1 31-40 = 2  Sex: Male Column 7  = 1  Educational Background: Column 8  Number of Years Employed: Column 9  41-60 = 3  Female = 2  Certificate = 1 Diploma = 2 Degree(s) => 3  1-10 = 1 11+ = 2  Columns 10-32 administrators' opinions on i n t e g r a t i o n . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  8.  205  9-  |  1  1  1  |  |  1  10.  |  |  |  |  |  1  1  11.  |  |  |  1  |  |  |  12.  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  13.  |  |  |  1  |  |  |  14.  j  |  |  |  |  |  |  15.  |  |  |  |  |  |  1  16.  |  1  |  |  |  |  |  17  -  1  1  |  |  |  |  1  18  *  I  I  1  |  1  |  |  19.  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  20.  1  |  |  1  |  |  |  21.  1  1  |  |  |  |  |  22.  |  |  1  |  1  |  |  23.  I  I  I  t  I  I  I  APPENDIX 7  CODING SHEET FOR PARTICIPANTS* QUESTIONNAIRE  207  APPENDIX CODING  7  SHEET FOR P A R T I C I P A N T S '  ID = Columns 1-2  Group = Column 3  Age = Column 4  20-30 = 1 31-40 =» 2 41 above = 3  Sex: Male Column 5  = 1  QUESTIONNAIRE  Female = 2  Columns 6-21 ( P a r t i c i p a n t s ' opinions on programmes)  1.  2.  7.  8.  9. 10.  11.  208  12.  |  |  1  |  |  |  j  13.  |  |  |  1  |  |  |  14.  |  |  |  |  |  1  |  15.  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  -  APPENDIX 8  ADMINISTRATORS' LETTER OF RECRUITMENT AND CONSENT FORM  210 Centre f o r Continuing Education University of Zambia Lusaka January 13,  1986.  Head of Department Department of  Dear Sir/Madam, Your department has been selected to p a r t i c i p a t e i n my study. The study i s part of my doctoral programme at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and i s f u l l y supported by the University of Zambia and the International Development Research Centre. I am writing to ask your permission to allow personnel i n your department to f i l l i n a questionnaire and to be interviewed. Interviews w i l l run for approximately f o r t y - f i v e minutes. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study is voluntary. A l l responses w i l l be kept s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . Enclosed are consent forms for administrators to f i l l i n . Thank you f o r your cooperation.  Yours sincerely,  Elizabeth Mumba  211  STUDY:  A STUDY OF INTEGRATED NONFORMAL EDUCATION IN ZAMBIA  INVESTIGATOR:  E l i z a b e t h Mumba  The Head of Department i s aware of the study and has no objection to i t being conducted. YOUR PARTICIPATION IS VOLUNTARY AND YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO WITHDRAW FROM THE STUDY AT ANY TIME.  From:  Date:  Please check the appropriate items  YES, I AM WILLING TO PARTICIPATE IN YOUR RESEARCH. NO, I AM UNWILLING TO PARTICIPATE IN YOUR RESEARCH. Additional Comments:  Signature:  PLEASE RETURN THIS FORM TO YOUR HEAD OF DEPARTMENT. Thank you.  APPENDIX  9  SUMMARY OF RESPONSES TO ADMINISTRATORS' QUESTIONNAIRE  Appendix 9, S e c t i o n A: Responses to A d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s Item  Questionnaire  Response 0 N.A.  1 Rarely Occurs  2  3 Often Occurs  4 Very Often Occurs  National Mean  Provincial Mean  District Mean  Case 1 Mean  Case 2 Mean  Case 3 Mean  1. There Is a f r e e flow of i n f o r m a t i o n from my o f f i c e to my s u p e r i o r s . n 3 8 15 42 38 2.98 1 % (2.8) (7.5) (14.2) (39.6) (35.8)  3.31  3.06  2.90  2.83  3.00  2.25  2. I get a r e p l y to correspondence to my s u p e r i o r s . n 6 19 20 33 28 % (5.7) (17.9) (18.9) (31.1) (26.4)  3.15  2.63  2.38  2.16  2.54  1.50  In the department. 4 2.73 2.63  2.57  2.16  2.27  2.00  3. New  Sometimes Occurs  Mean Response  Rank  2.54  3  p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s a r e c l e a r l y communicated to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s n 9 13 21 41 22 2.50 % (8.5) (12.3) (19.8) (38.7) (20.8)  4. Seminars a r e h e l d to motivate workers i n the department. n 6 25 30 31 14 2.20 % (5.7) (23.6) (28.3) (29.2) (13.2)  7  2.31  2.03  2.23  1.16  2.54  2.58  5. S u p p l i e s and equipment a r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r use. n 10 38 35 19 4 % (9.4) (35.8) (33.0) (17.9) (3.8)  9  2.27  1.30  1.42  2.33  2. OO  1.41  work together to prepare monthly and annual r e p o r t s . 23 19 29 27 2.41 5 (21.7) (17.9) (27.4) (25.5)  2.34  2.36  2.52  2.50  2.81  2 .08  7. Regular s t a f f meetings' are h e l d i n the department f o r both s e n i o r and j u n i o r s t a f f . n 8 25 25 23 25 2.30 6 1.73 2.30 % (7.5) (23.6) (23.6) (21.7) (23.6)  2.38  3.00  1.81  3.50  8. F i e l d workers i n the department have had formal t r a i n i n g . n 3 10 21 28 43 2.95 % (2.8) (9.4) (19.8) (26.4) (40.6)  6. A d m i n i s t r a t o r s n B % (7.5)  9. Committees p l a n r u r a l development programmes. n 27 27 16 25 11 % (25.5) (25.5) (15.1) (23.6) (10.4)  1.70  1.67  10. Together d i f f e r e n t departments are i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g r u r a l n 16 19 29 30 12 2.02 % (15.1) (17.9) (27.4) (28.3) (11.3)  2  3.30  2.96  3.00  2.00  3.18  2.33  10  2.61  1.70  1.09  0.90  1.18  1.75  development programmes. 8 2.65 1.93  1.95  1.16  1.54  1.91  Appendix 9 c o n t i n u e d Item 0 N.A.  1 Rarely Occurs  Response 2 Sometimes Occurs  3 Often Occurs  4 Very Often Occurs  Mean Response  Rank  National Mean  Provincial Mean  District Mean  Case 1 Mean  Case 2 Mean  Case 3 Mean  11. Non-governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g committees. n 28 17 34 24 3 1.59 9 % (26.4) (16.0) (32.1) (22.6) (2.8)  2.11  1.86  1.52  1.33  1.18  0.41  12. F a c i l i t i e s and equipment from other departments a r e at our d i s p o s a l . n 26 44 28 5 3 1.19 10 % (24.5) (41.5) (26.4) (4.7) (2.8)  1.65  1.23  0.95  1.16  1.09  0.66  13. Programmes a r e run J o i n t l y with other departments and non-governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s . n 14 28 32 27 5 1.82 8 2.38 1.96 % (13.2) (26.4) (30.2) (25.5) (4.7)  1.23  2.33  1.21  1.50  14. The department works c l o s e l y with l o c a l s e l f - h e l p groups Involved In development p r o j e c t s . n 9 17 22 23 35 2.54 5 2.53 2.56 % (8.5) (16.0) (20.8) (21.7) (33.0)  2.85  2.50  2.45  2.08  15. The department works c l o s e l y with other departments Involved i n development p r o j e c t s . n 3 10 26 35 32 2.78 2 3.19 2.56 % (2.8) (9.4) (24.5) (33.0) (30.2)  2.81  2.83  3.36  1.83  16. Seminars a r e h e l d In c o n j u n c t i o n with other departments i n v o l v e d n 8 21 31 14 2. 20 32 (198) % (7.5) (30.2 ) (29.2) (13.2)  2 .14  2 .00  2 .63  1  17 . The content of what i s taught to a d u l t s i n r u r a l areas i s l a i d down from above and 1s s t r i c t l y f o l 1 owed n 14 24 25 7 1. 87 2.03 1 .66 2 . 16 2 .00 36 7 1 .61 (22.6) % (13.2) (23.6) (6.6) (34.0)  2  18 . The content of what Is taught t o a d u l t s r e f l e c t s the l o c a l needs o f p a r t I c u l a r commun11les . n 5 12 23 38 28 2. 67 4 2.63 2.73 (11.3) (21.7) % (4.7) (35.8) (26.4)  2  i n r u r a l development. 2.61 1.96 6  2 85  2 .33  2 .81  19. A v a r i e t y of nonformal methods ( r a d i o , demonstrations, p o s t e r s , and d i s c u s s i o n s ) a r e used In t e a c h i n g a d u l t s . n 8 6 21 29 42 2.85 1 2.92 2.70 2.85 3.00 3.36 % (7.5) (5.7) (19.8) (27.4) (39.6)  2.58  20. E d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e to p a r t i c i p a n t s ' d a i l y n 7 7 25 35 32 % (6.6) (6.6) (23.6) (33.0) (30.2)  2.58  activities. 2.73  3  2.80  2.56  2.85  3.00  2.81  Appendix 9, S e c t i o n B: A d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s  Item 0 1 N.A. S t r o n g l y Disagree  Response 2 3 Disagree Undecided  1. T h i s department has a major r o l e n 3 1 1 % (2.8) (0.9) (0.9)  4 Agree  5 Strongly Agree  Opinions  Mean Response  In o f f e r i n g s e r v i c e s to the r u r a l 0 15 86 4.65 (0.0) (14.2) (81.1)  on I n t e g r a t i o n  Rank N a t i o n a l Mean  P r o v i n c i a l D i s t r i c t Case Mean Mean 1 Mean  Case Case 2 3 Mean Mean  areas. 4.50  4.86  4. 10  4.83  4.90 4.90  4.31  4.26  4 . 43  4. 19  4.83  4. 18 4. 16  The department has a r o l e i n development e f f o r t s of the country, n 3 0 3 1 22 77 4.54 54 (2.8) (0.0) (2.8) (0.9) (20.8) (72.6)  4.69  4.36  4.61  4.83  4.72 4.25  There a r e adequate f a c i l i t i e s and equipment that can h e l p me tn my work, n 2 13 50 11 26 4 2.54 10 % (1.9) (12.3) (47.2) (10.4) (24.5) (3.8)  2.76  2.40  2.61  2.16  2.36 2.66  There i s a good working atmosphere that promotes my work to be done w e l l , n 1 10 21 13 50 11 3.26 8 54 (0.9) (9.4) (19.8) (12.3) (47.2) (10.4)  3.53  3.30  3.33  3.33  3.00 2.66  areas, 3.09 3.00  3.72 2.50  2 .66  2.36 2.83  The o b j e c t i v e s of the programmes a r e c l e a r to me. n 4 1 2 1 41 % (3.8) (0.9) (1.9) (0.9) (38.7)  57 (53.8)  There Is a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p with other departments o f f e r i n g e d u c a t i o n a l n 4 2 18 15 54 13 3.43 7 54 (3.8) (1.9) (17.0) (14.2) (50.9) (12.3) It  i s p o s s i b l e f o r me t o use f a c i l i t i e s n 2 10 31 10 54(1.9) (9.4) (29.2) (9.4)  from other departments. 50 3 2.99 (47.2) (2.8)  8. I t i s d e s i r e a b l e f o r o f f i c e r s to work c l o s e l y together when d e v e l o p i n g n 2 2 1 5 24 72 4.48 54 ( 1.9) ( 1.9) (0.9) (4.7) (22.6) (67.9)  s e r v i c e s t o the r u r a l 3.92 3.60  3.30 educational 5 4.73  3.36  2.33  programmes f o r r u r a l a r e a s . 4.46 4.19 4.50 4.72 4.25  Appendix 9 c o n t i n u e d Item 0 1 N.A. S t r o n g l y Disagree  Response 2 3 Disagree Undecided  4 Agree  5 Strongly Agree  Mean Response  Rank N a t i o n a l P r o v i n c i a l Mean Mean  D i s t r i c t Case Mean 1 Mean  Case Case 2 3 Mean Mean  9. I t Is Important f o r f i e l d workers from d i f f e r e n t departments t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s In o f f e r i n g e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s t o the r u r a l areas. n 1 0 1 3 14 87 4.84 1 2.16 4.86 4.42 4.50 4.81 4.75 % (0.9) (0.0) (0.9) (2.8) (13.2) (82.1) 10. F i e l d workers should be g i v e n enough freedom t o modify e d u c a t i o n a l programmes a c c o r d i n g t o the needs of the l o c a l commlttees. n 1 0 3 3 29 69 4.44 4 2.65 4.66 4.47 4.66 4.63 4.33 % (0.9) (0.0) (2.8) (2.8) (27.4) (65.1)  Appendix 9, S e c t i o n C: A d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s Opinions on Implementation o f I n t e g r a t e d Programmes Item 0 N.A.  Response 1 2 3 Very Somewhat Neutral Negative Negative  4 Somewhat Positive  5 Very Mean Rank P o s i t i v e Response  1. In general what i s your o v e r a l l r e a c t 1 on to the way Integrated r u r a l 3 9 29 23 3.73 18 n 0 (21.7) (2.8) (8.5) (27.4) (17.0) % (0.0) 0  N.A.  1 2 Somewhat Very Unc1 ear Unclear  3 Not Sure  4 Somewhat Clear  NatlonalProvlncial Mean Mean  District Mean  development programmes were introduced? 3 3.82 3.47 3 .62 3.80 3 .95 4.41  5 Very Clear  2. A f t e r I n t e g r a t e d programmes were Introduced d i d you f e e l you had a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of I t ? 22 3.61 5 3.52 3.52 1 5 11 13 30 n (20.8) (4.7) (10.4) (12.3) (28.3) % (0.9) 0 N.A.  1 None  2 Little  3 Moderate  4 Great  Case Case Case 1 2 3 Mean Mean Mean  3 .87  3.40 3 .09 4 .08  5 Extreme  3. At the time the programmes were introduced, how much importance d i d you f e e l gave to the I n t e g r a t e d Rural Development c e n t r e s ? n 3 4 8 32 29 6 3.19 8 % (2.8) (3.8) (7.5) (30.2) (27.4) (5.7)  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  i n Lusaka and C h i p a t a  3.41  3.56  3.28  1.80 2.72 3.25  4. A f t e r the Integrated programmes were Introduced i n the area, d i d you have any s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s about t h e i r success? n 4 6 3..23 12 12 26 2.90 3.00 3.00 2.40 2.27 2.91 20 (26.4) (5.7) % (3.8) (11.3) ( 18.9) (113) 0 N. A .  1 None  2 Little  3 Some  4 Cons id erable  5 Great  5. How much e f f o r t would you say that you put into t r y i n g to Implement n 5 9 15 3.34 6 9 37 (14.2) % (4.7) (8.5) (5.7) (8.5) (34.9)  I n t e g r a t e d programmes? 6 2.88 3.61  4 .00  2.60 2.81 3.50  Appendix 9 c o n t i n u e d Item  Response  o N. A .  6. How  2 Poor  3 No Notable Change  4 Quite Wei 1  5 Extremely Mean Rank Wei 1 Response  we 11 d i d t h i n g s work out as f a r as you were concerned? 45 3 2 5 18 n 8 (42.5) (2.8) % (7.5) (4.7) (17.0) (1.9) 0 N.A.  7. How  1 Very Poor  1 Not Sure  2 None  3 Little  4 Some  3.22  7  Na 11ona1Prov1nc1 a1 D i s t r i c t Mean Mean Mean  3.00  3.33  3.73  Case Case Case 3 1 2 Mean Mean Mean 2.60 2 .63 3.50  5 Considerable  much d i d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s In Chipata or at the c e n t r e r e a l l y t r y t o h e l p you overcome any of these problems? n 5 12 7 16 18 23 3.22 4 2.47 3.38 4.13 3.OO 2.36 % (4.7) (11.3) (6.6) (15.1) (17.0) (21.7)  2.83  8. To what extent d i d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c i a l s block you In any way In your f i r s t attempts to c a r r y out your work? n 7 11 23 20 13 7 2.51 1.88 2.33 3.46 2.60 2.72 % (6.6) (10.4) (21.7) (18.9) (12.3) (6.6)  2.33  9. How  much e f f o r t have you made In c a r r y i n g out your work? n 3 1 3 3 22 49 % (2.8) (0.9) (2.8) (2.8) (20.8) (46.2)  4.30  1  3.58  4.57  4.80  3.40 4.45  4.50  10. How much e f f o r t are you making at the present time i n c a r r y i n g out your work towards Implementing I n t e g r a t e d Rural Development Programmes? n 4 5 8 9 17 38 3.77 2 3.64 3.90 3.86 4.00 3.54 3.75 % (3.8) (4.7) (7.5) (8.5) (16.0) (35.8) 0 N.A.  1 2 3 4 Very Somewhat Ambivalent Somewhat Negative Negative Positive  5 Very Positive  11. In r e g a r d to your o v e r a l l r e a c t i o n to the I n t r o d u c t i o n of I n t e g r a t e d programmes, what would you say your f e e l i n g s are now? n 7 8 7 38 21 25 3.63 4 3.82 3.00 4.20 3 . 40 3 . 36 4 . 08 % (6.6) (7.5) (6.6) (35.8) (19.8) (23.6)  Appendix 9 c o n t i n u e d Item  Response 0 N.A.  1 Very Poor  12. Are i n t e g r a t e d r u r a l n 10 3 % (9.4) (2.8)  2 Poor  3 No Notable Change  4 Quite Well  5 Extremely Mean Rank Well Response  NationalProvlnclal Mean Mean  development programmes s e r v i n g the Intended t a r g e t groups? 2 25 34 7 3.12 9 3.82 (1.9) (23.6) (32.1) (6.6)  3.04  District Mean  Case Case Case 1 2 3 Mean Mean Mean  3.20  2.20 3.27 2.41  APPENDIX 10  SUMMARY OF RESPONSES TO LOCAL LEVEL QUESTIONNAIRE  Appendix 10: Responses to Local Level A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' Opinions Item  Response 0 Not Know  1. Committees e x i s t n %  on I n t e g r a t i o n  1 Disagree  2 Agree  3 Strongly Agree  Mean Response  District Mean  Case 1 Mean  Case Mean  Case 3 Mean  2  that c o o r d i n a t e Integrated r u r a l development programmes. 10 8 27 5 1.54 (20.0) (16.0) (54.0) (10.0)  1.47  1.66  1.66  1.50  2. Members of the committee represent d i f f e r e n t departments and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . n 9 9 23 9 1.64 % (18.0) (18.0) (46.0) (18.0)  1.61  1.66  1.72  1.58  3. D i s t r i c t Development Committees c o n s i d e r n 7 8 % (14.0) (16.0)  1.90  1.16  1.81  1.75  4. Ward Development Committees work c l o s e l y with I n t e g r a t e d Rural Development Centres. n 7 13 24 6 1.58 1.57 % (14.0) (26.0) (48.0) (12.0)  1.33  2.00  1.33  5. The p a r t y and church leaders are a c t i v e i n Development n 7 6 28 % (14.0) (12.0) (56.0)  1.16  1.81  1.66  Development Programmes c o n s u l t the v i l l a g e committees about what t h e i r needs a r e . 8 15 16 11 1.60 1.81 1.00 (16.0) (30.0) (32.0) (22.0)  1.90  1.25  6. I n t e g r a t e d Rural n %  l o c a l peoples' 25 (50.0)  demands. 10 (20.0)  1.76  Committees. 9 (18.0)  7. I work c l o s e l y with a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and f i e l d workers from other n 1 7 24 18 % (2.0) (14.0) (48.0) (36.0)  1.78  departments. 2.18  8. P a r t i c i p a n t s and equipment a r e shared between departments and other n 3 17 25 5 % (6.0) (34.0) (50.0) (10.0)  organizations. 1.64  9. Seminars and other t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s are o f f e r e d J o i n t l y with other n 1 19 20 10 % (2.0) (38.0) (40.0) (20.0) 10. Local people a r e c o n s u l t e d on what they want to l e a r n . n 3 13 25 % (6.0) (26.0) (50.0)  9 (18.0)  departments. 1.78  1.80  2.00  2.23  2.00  2.40  1.91  1.66  1.66  1.90  1.58  1.81  1.83  2.00  1.50  1.61  1.16  2.18  2.08  Appendix Item  10 c o n t i n u e d  Response 0 Not Know  1 Disagree  2 Agree  3 Strongly Agree  11. I p l a n t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a c c o r d i n g to the needs of the community n 3 5 25 15 % (6.0) (10.0) (50.0) (34.0)  Mean Response  District Mean  around the c e n t r e . 2.12 2.04  Case 1 Mean  Case 2 Mean  Case 3 Mean  2.00  2.18  2.25  12. Many people around the community a t t e n d t r a i n i n g programmes. n 1 12 25 12 % (2.0) (24.0) (50.0) (24.0)  1.96  1.85  1.66  2.36  1.91  13. Women do not p a r t i c i p a t e as o f t e n as men. n 0 22 24 % (0.0) (44.0) (48.0)  1.64  1.57  1.83  1.81  1.50  14. One of the o b s t a c l e s I f a c e i n my work i s lack of f a c i l i t i e s and equipment at the c e n t r e . n 2 7 17 24 2.26 2.14 % (4.0) (14.0) (34.0) (48.0)  2.16  2.45  2.33  15. I t Is not c l e a r as to what I should be doing at the c e n t r e . n 5 44 1 0 % (10.0) (88.0) (2.0) (0.0)  0.92  0.81  1.00  I.OO  1.00  16. I do not get support from a d m i n i s t r a t o r s at the c e n t r e . n 2 45 2 1 % (4.0) (90.0) (4.0) (2.0)  1.04  1.09  1.00  1.00  1.00  17. The work of the c e n t r e n 3 % (6.0)  4 (8.0)  1.24  1.09  1.33  1.18  1.50  18 (36.0)  2.14  2.09  2.16  2.36  2.00  Is too much f o r me. 36 7 (72.0) (14.0)  18. I would r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l n 0 % (0.0)  t r a i n i n g to do my job w e l l . 11 21 (22.0) (42.0)  4 (8.0)  19. One of the o b s t a c l e s I experience In my work Is the lack of quick n 0 6 24 20 % (0.0) (12.0) (48.0) (40.0)  response from a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a t high 2.28 2.28 2.50  20. Another o b s t a c l e Is the e x i s t i n g communications problems with a d m i n i s t r a t o r s at the headquarters. n 3 11 19 17 2.00 1.85 2.33 % (6.0) (22.0) (38.0) (34.0)  levels. 2.09  1.81  2.33  2.25  Appendix  10 c o n t i n u e d  Response  I tern 0 Not Know  1 Disagree  21. The bad roads and telephone system delay n 3 12 % (e.O) (24.0)  2 Agree  Strongly Agree  communication. 12 23 (24.0) (46.0)  22. O b s t a c l e s that e x i s t do not prevent me from doing my j o b . n 0 15 31 4 % (0.0) (30.0) (62.0) (8.0)  Mean Response  District Mean  Case 1 Mean  Case 2 Mean  Case 3 Mean  2. 10  1 .81  2.66  2.36  2 .08  1 . 78  1 . 76  1 .83  1 .90  1 .66  2.71  2.66  2.81  2.83  23. There s h o u l d be more c o o p e r a t i o n between departments and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . n O 0 12 38 2.76 % (0.0) (0.0) (24.0) (76.0)  J  APPENDIX 11  SUMMARY OF RESPONSES TO PARTICIPANTS' QUESTIONNAIRE  APPENDIX 11:  Summary o f p a r t i c i p a n t s ' responses on outcomes of i n t e g r a t i o n .  I tea  Response 0 Not Know  1 Disagree  2  Agree  3 Strongly Agree  1. I am learning a l o t from this training programme. n 1 4 23 49 % (1.3) (5.2) (29.9) (63.6)  Mean Response  2.55  2. I hope to learn s k i l l s that w i l l help me improve my farming s k i l l s . n 3 5 24 40 2.24 % (10.4) (6.5) (31.2) (51.9) 3. I am learning s k i l l s that are helpful to improve my l i f e in general. n 4 3 15 50 2.44 % (5.2) (10.4) (19.5) (64.9) 4. The instructor's teaching style i s helpful in enabling me to learn. n 3 6 32 36 2.31 % (3.9) (7.8) (41.6) (46.8) 5. Because of the programme I learn more every day. n 8 13 20 36 % (10.4) (16.9) (26.0) (46.8)  2.09  6. The f a c i l i t i e s at the centre are adequate to help us to learn better. n 15 13 27 22 1.72 % (19.5) (16.9) (35.1) (28.6) 7. The f a c i l i t i e s that we use at the centre are a v a i l a b l e in my v i l l a g e . n 16 36 12 13 1.28 % (20.8) (46.8) (15.6) (16.9) 8. Equipment that i s used i s a v a i l a b l e in my home. n 22 35 10 10 % (28.6) (45.5) (13.0) (73.0)  1.10  9. It would be useful for me to buy equipment from the centre to use in my home. n 20 7 28 22 1.67 % (26.0) (9.1) (36.4) (28.6) 10. I w i l l d e f i n i t e l y be able to use the knowledge and s k i l l s I have learned at the centre. n 10 3 7 57 2.44 % (13.0) (3.9) (9.1) (74.0) 11. There i s needless duplication of learning a c t i v i t i e s from different instructors. n 28 11 7 31 1.53 % (36.4) (14.3) (9.1) (40.3) 12. I am happy with the way we are being trained at the centre. n 9 9 26 33 2.07 % (11.7) (11.7) (33.8) (42.9) 13. I would l i k e things to improve at the centre. n 23 15 11 28 % (29.9) (19.5) (14.3) (36.4)  1.57  14. The centre should help us in getting loans more easily than at the moment. n 24 4 23 26 1.66 % (31.2) (5.2) (29.9) (33.3) 15. The 3 k i l l s we learn at the centre w i l l help us to produce more crops. n 25 7 16 29 1.63 % (32.5) (9.1) (20.8) (37.7)  

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