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Development of a knowledge about aging scale 1985

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DEVELOPMENT OF A KNOWLEDGE ABOUT AGING SCALE BY KAREN ANN GALLIE B . S c , UNIVERSITY OF VICTORIA, 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE, ADULT AND HIGHER EDUCATION WE ACCEPT THIS THESIS AS CONFORMING TO THE REQUIRED STANDARD THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SEPTEMBER, 1985 © KAREN ANN GALLIE, 1985 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 J DE-6(3/81) i i A b s t r a c t The purpose of t h i s study was to develop a r e l i a b l e and v a l i d knowledge about aging s c a l e . Two hundred and n i n e t y - e i g h t s u b j e c t s (128 males, 170 females) from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , and members of- the general p o p u l a t i o n , ranging from 17 to 65 years of age, and having 0 to 12 years of post secondary education, p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study. Subjects were chosen on the b a s i s of having g e r o n t o l o g i c a l , versus no g e r o n t o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g . S u b j e c t s responded to computer randomized L i k e r t s c a l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o n s i s t i n g of the i n i t i a l 60 item Proto Knowledge About Aging S c a l e , Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ), and Kogan's Old People Scale (OP). Responses to the i n i t i a l Proto s c a l e were used to c o n s t r u c t a p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e 40 item s c a l e that c o n s i s t e d of three f a c t o r dimensions i n t e r p r e t e d as P s y c h o l o g i c a l , B i o l o g i c a l Change, and S o c i a l L i f e s t y l e / H i s t o l o g i c a l Change. T h i s 40 item s c a l e had a Chronbach's alpha of 0.839 and a c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y value of 0.701. A n a l y s i s of Covariance r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that the independent v a r i a b l e s of age, gender, and years of post secondary education, had no s i g n i f i c a n t extraneous confounding i n f l u e n c e (p^ 0.05) on Proto s c a l e r e s u l t s . However, type of t r a i n i n g d i d i n f l u e n c e Proto s c a l e r e s u l t s , with those s u b j e c t s having g e r o n t o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g s c o r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher (Duncan's M u l t i p l e Range Test p< 0.05) than those with no g e r o n t o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g . I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o Proto's s c a l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were f u r t h e r analyzed i n r e l a t i o n to the s u b j e c t s in t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , Palmore's FAQ, and Kogan's OP s c a l e , with d i s c u s s i o n f o c u s s i n g on Proto's psychometric r i g o r as compared to Palmore's FAQ. i v Acknowledgements I would l i k e to g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge and thank the f o l l o w i n g people f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e in t h i s t h e s i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Drs. T.J. Sork and D.S. Butt who served on my t h e s i s committee. Dr. B.L. B e a t t i e , Head, D i v i s i o n of G e r i a t r i c Medicine U.B.C., whose h e l p allowed c o l l e c t i o n of p i l o t i n f o r m a t i o n . Dr. G. Gutman, D i r e c t o r of Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ' s Gerontology Research Centre, f o r a c c e s s i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g subject recruitment at S.F.U., as w e l l as M. H i l l and E. S t o l a r , f o r e n a b l i n g s u b j e c t recruitment from U.B.C.'s School of S o c i a l Work. V TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS v LIST OF TABLES v i i CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE' 5 CHAPTER I I I . METHODOLOGY 12 SUBJECTS 12 MATERIALS 12 PROCEDURE 18 ANALYSIS 19 CHAPTER IV. RESULTS 24 PROPERTIES OF 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE 24 PROPERTIES OF 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE 48 PROPERTIES OF PALMORE'S FAQ 69 CHAPTER V. DISCUSSION 84 PERSONAL COMMUNICATION 93 REFERENCES 94 APPENDIX A PALMORE'S FAQ 98 APPENDIX B ALPHA RELIABILITY OF PALMORE FAQ PILOT .102 APPENDIX C FACTOR ANALYSIS OF PALMORE FAQ 104 APPENDIX D PROTO SCALE 106 v i APPENDIX E DOCUMENTATION SOURCES FOR PROTO SCALE ..118 APPENDIX F KOGAN'S OP SCALE 121 APPENDIX G REVISED FAQ 128 APPENDIX H PILOT RESULTS OF CHANGING PALMORE FAQ ..133 APPENDIX I TEST BATTERY 135 APPENDIX J PROTO ANSWERS AND DEBRIEFING SHEET 158 APPENDIX K SCORING KEY FOR SCALES 165 APPENDIX L OVERVIEW OF RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY ...168 APPENDIX M FINAL 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE 172 LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1a MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR TOTAL SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY AGE GROUP 25 TABLE 1b MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE SOCIAL SCIENCE SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY AGE GROUP .25 TABLE 1c MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR BIOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY AGE GROUP 25 TABLE 1d MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY AGE GROUP TABLE 1e MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR TOTAL SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION 26 26 TABLE 1f MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SOCIAL SCIENCES SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION 26 TABLE 1g MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR BIOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION 27 TABLE 1h MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION 27 TABLE 1i MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR TOTAL SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SEX 27 TABLE 1j MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SOCIAL SCIENCES SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SEX 28 TABLE 1k MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR BIOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SEX 28 TABLE 11 MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SEX 28 TABLE 1m MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR TOTAL SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA 29 TABLE 1n MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SOCIAL SCIENCES SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA 29 TABLE 1o MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR BIOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO. SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA 30 TABLE IP MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA 30 TABLE 2a MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON PALMORE'S FACTS ON AGING QUIZ BY AGE GROUP 31 TABLE 2b MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON PALMORE'S FACTS ON AGING QUIZ BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION 31 TABLE 2c MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON PALMORE'S FACTS ON AGING QUIZ BY SEX 31 TABLE 2d MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON PALMORE'S FACTS ON AGING QUIZ BY SUBJECT AREA 32 ix TABLE 3a MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON KOGAN'S O.P. SCALE BY AGE GROUP 33 TABLE 3b MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON KOGAN'S O.P. SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION 33 TABLE 3c MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON KOGAN'S O.P. SCALE BY SEX 33 TABLE 3d MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON KOGAN'S O.P. SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA 34 TABLE 4a ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO TOTAL SCORES BETWEEN IN-CLASS AND OUT-OF-CLA'SS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS 35 TABLE 4b ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO SOCIAL SCIENCES SUBSCALE SCORES BETWEEN IN-CLASS AND OUT-OF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS 35 TABLE 4c ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO BIOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES BETWEEN IN-CLASS AND OUT-OF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS 35 TABLE 4d ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO PSYCHOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES BETWEEN IN-CLASS. AND OUT-OF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS 36 TABLE 4e ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PALMORE'S FACTS ON AGING QUIZ BETWEEN IN-CLASS AND OUT- OF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS 36 TABLE 4f ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF KOGAN'S O.P. BETWEEN IN-CLASS AND OUT-OF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS 36 X TABLE 5 ITEM SUBSCALE POINT BISERIAL CORRELATIONS FOR THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE 38 TABLE 6a ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO (60 ITEM) SCALE BY AGE GROUP 40 TABLE 6b ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO (TOTAL.) SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION 42 TABLE 6c ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO (60 ITEM) SCALE BY SEX (GENDER) 44 TABLE 6d ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO (60 ITEM) SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA 46 TABLE 7 ALPHA VALUE OF PROTO SCALE IF ITEM DELETED 49 TABLE 8a ITEM DIFFICULTY LEVELS OF THE FINAL 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE 50 TABLE 8b CATEGORIZATION OF 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE AS EASY, MEDIUM, AND HARD BASED ON ITEM DIFFICULTY LEVELS 52 TABLE 9 CHRONBACH'S RELIABILITY ALPHAS OF PROTO (40 ITEM) AND SOCIAL SCIENCE, BIOLOGY, AND PSYCHOLOGY SUBSCALES 53 TABLE 10 VARIMAX ROTATED FACTOR SOLUTION OF FINAL 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE 54 TABLE 11a ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY AGE GROUP 56 TABLE 11b ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION 58 TABLE 11c ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SEX 60 x i TABLE 11d ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA 60 TABLE 12a ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO SCALE AGAINST AGE GROUP WITH YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT 63 TABLE 12b ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO SCALE AGAINST YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION WITH AGE AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT 65 TABLE 12c ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO SCALE AGAINST SUBJECT AREA WITH AGE AND YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION PARTIALED OUT TABLE 13a CATEGORIZATION OF 25 ITEM FAQ SCALE (5 POINT SCALE, CANADIAN FACTS) AS EASY, MEDIUM, AND HARD BASED ON THE FREQUENCY OF CORRECT PARTICIPANT RESPONSE 67 70 TABLE 13b CATEGORIZATION OF 25 ITEM FAQ SCALE (ORIGINAL TRUE/FALSE, AMERICAN ITEM FORMAT) AS EASY, MEDIUM, AND HARD BASED ON THE FREQUENCY OF CORRECT PARTICIPANT RESPONSE 71 TABLE 14 CHRONBACH'S RELIABILITY ALPHAS OF PALMORE'S FAQ SCALE 73 TABLE 15 VARIMAX ROTATED FACTOR SOLUTION OF PALMORE'S FAQ SCALE 74 TABLE 16a ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PALMORE SCALE AGAINST AGE GROUP TABLE 16b ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PALMORE SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION 76 76 TABLE 16c ONE WAY SCALE BY SEX ANALYSIS (GENDER) OF VARIANCE OF PALMORE 76 x i i TABLE 16d ANALYSIS OF PROTO SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA 77 TABLE 17a ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PALMORE SCALE AGAINST AGE GROUP WITH EDUCATION AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT 79 TABLE 17b ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PALMORE SCALE AGAINST YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION WITH AGE AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT 79 TABLE 17c ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PALMORE SCALE AGAINST SUBJECT AREA WITH AGE AND YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION PARTIALED OUT 81 TABLE 18 PEARSON CORRELATIONS OF PROTO, PALMORE'S FAQ, AND KOGAN'S OP SCALES 82 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The growing s i z e of North America's over 65 age group i s i n c r e a s i n g the n e c e s s i t y to meet the needs of an aging p o p u l a t i o n ( N a t i o n a l Advisory on Aging, 1980). At p resent, the 65 and over age group represents 9.7% of the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n , but i s expected to i n c r e a s e to 17% by the year 2021 (Fact Book on Aging in Canada, 1983). Numerous reasons have been c i t e d f o r t h i s i n c r e a s e , i n c l u d i n g advances in medical knowledge ( s a n i t a t i o n , immunization), d e c l i n e in b i r t h r a t e s , as w e l l as the maturing of baby boom cohort groups' (Kimmel, 1980). Since i t i s u n l i k e l y that the trend towards an aging p o p u l a t i o n w i l l be a l t e r e d , i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n i s being turned towards e f f e c t s t h i s w i l l have on s o c i e t y . As a r e s u l t , s t u d i e s of the b i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and s o c i a l a spects of the human aging process have become t o p i c a l areas of research (Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n on Gerontology, 1984). As one response to the changing age p r o f i l e of the p o p u l a t i o n , p r o f e s s i o n a l schools i n North America have begun to develop g e r o n t o l o g y / g e r i a t r i c c u r r i c u l a to i n c r e a s e students' awareness of the d i f f e r e n c e s between young and o l d i n d i v i d u a l s . However, d i s i n t e r e s t i n working with the e l d e r l y by p r o f e s s i o n a l groups such as 2 c l e r g y (Longino & K i t s o n , 1976), medical students ( C i c c h e t t i , F l e t c h e r , Lerner, & Coleman, 1973), and nurses ( E l l i o t , Personal communications, 1984) have been repor t e d in the l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s d i s i n t e r e s t has p a r a l l e l e d the presence of negative a t t i t u d e s towards aging and the e l d e r l y [ i . e . p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward the e l d e r l y are r e l a t e d to g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n working with t h i s age group] ( M i l l s , 1972). In order to r e c t i f y the growing need f o r g e r o n t o l o g i c a l s p e c i a l i s t s , i t i s important to f i n d ways of encouraging i n d i v i d u a l s to enter t h i s area of p r a c t i c e . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s the need to determine how a t t i t u d e s are developed and i n f l u e n c e d . T h i s i s an area of i n t e r e s t to many groups and a c l e a r understanding c o u l d h o l d the key to i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t in working with the e l d e r l y . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to educators i s the h ypothesized l i n k between knowledge and a t t i t u d e s ( M a i s o n v i l l e , 1984; Holtzman & Beck, 1979). Namely, do high l e v e l s of knowledge r e l a t e to p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards a p a r t i c u l a r t a r g e t , i n t h i s case, e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s . I f such a r e l a t i o n s h i p could be shown to e x i s t , i t would have important r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r educators, s i n c e i t would i n d i c a t e the p o s s i b l e usage of education i n a t t i t u d e change. In the s p e c i f i c area of 3 g e r o n t o l o g y / g e r i a t r i c s i t would support the need to i n c r e a s e c u r r i c u l u m time i n p r o f e s s i o n a l schools and undergraduate departments. Adult educators i n the area of program p l a n n i n g and g e r o n t o l o g i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n would f i n d more i n t e r e s t i n d e v e l o p i n g c u r r i c u l a of substance and d u r a t i o n . Those in a d m i n i s t r a t i o n would have g r e a t e r proof f o r the need to i n v o l v e s t a f f in c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , c o u n s e l l o r s might send i n d i v i d u a l s t r o u b l e d about t h e i r own aging process to gerontology c l a s s e s , f o r the same reasons that f u t u r e r e t i r e e s a t t e n d p r e r e t i r e m e n t seminars. There i s great need for a d u l t educators to become a c t i v e i n the study of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between.knowledge and a t t i t u d e s , and secondly, whether t h i s e f f e c t s behavior towards a p a r t i c u l a r t a r g e t ( M a i s o n v i l l e , 1984). However, a d e a r t h of adequate rese a r c h t o o l s has made i t d i f f i c u l t to pursue t h i s l i n e of i n q u i r y . At t h i s time, although p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y r e l i a b l e s c a l e s which measure a t t i t u d e s towards the e l d e r l y and aging e x i s t , no s c a l e capable of measuring "pure" knowledge about aging, unconfounded by the dimensions of a t t i t u d e s , s t e r e o t y p e s , e t c . , i s a v a i l a b l e . The purpose of the study d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , t h e r e f o r e , was to develop a p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y sound, d i m e n s i o n a l l y pure, instrument f o r a s s e s s i n g knowledge 4 about aging. The development of such a s c a l e i s o u t l i n e d i n t h i s study as f o l l o w s ; a f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n , chapter two reviews the p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e . Chapter three d e s c r i b e s the r e s e a r c h methodology employed as w e l l as how the s c a l e was developed. Chapter four p r e s e n t s the study's f i n d i n g s , and chapter f i v e c o n s t i t u t e s a d i s c u s s i o n and summary of these f i n d i n g s . 5 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE C u r r e n t l y , only one s c a l e capable of measuring knowledge about aging i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to the r e s e a r c h e r . T h i s s c a l e , Palmore's F a c t s on Aging Quiz [FAQ], (Palmore, 1977) [see Appendix A] was developed as an instrument which c o u l d 1) act as a stimulus f o r group d i s c u s s i o n , 2) determine o v e r a l l l e v e l s of knowledge about aging, 3) i d e n t i f y the most common misconceptions about aging, and 4) act as an i n d i r e c t measure of p o s i t i v e and/or negative b i a s towards o l d e r people. However, i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e whether t h i s s c a l e i s adequate f o r anything other than as a stimulus f o r group d i s c u s s i o n (Lutsky,1980; Klemmack,1978). Numerous reasons can be c i t e d f o r the FAQ's inadequacy as a research t o o l . The c r i t i c i s m s range from item c o n s t r u c t i o n to inadequate psychometric p r o p e r t i e s . In an i n v e s t i g a t i o n conducted by M i l l e r and Dodder (1980) four major problems regarding item c o n s t r u c t i o n were a l l e g e d . T h e i r c r i t i c i s m s i n c l u d e d the p r e v a l e n t use of ambiguous terminology. For example, e i g h t out of twenty-five items i n the FAQ i n c o r p o r a t e phrases such as "most o l d people." Item #15 e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s c r i t i c i s m ; "In g e n e r a l , most o l d people are p r e t t y much a l i k e . " Terminology such as t h i s i s open to v a r i o u s 6 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e c o u l d be s a i d to have l i t t l e a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n s c a l e s which measure knowledge. Secondly, M i l l e r and Dodder c r i t i c i z e d the FAQ f o r c o n t a i n i n g statements which were d o u b l e - b a r r e l l e d i n nature. For example, item number three s t a t e s , "most o l d people have no i n t e r e s t i n , or c a p a c i t y f o r , sexual r e l a t i o n s . " In responses to items of t h i s type the i n v e s t i g a t o r can never be sure i f the respondent chose h i s / h e r answer on the b a s i s of inf o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n one part of the statement, namely, e i t h e r 1) no i n t e r e s t in sexual r e l a t i o n s , or 2) no c a p a c i t y for sexual r e l a t i o n s , or both p a r t s of the statement, namely, no i n t e r e s t i n , or c a p a c i t y f o r sexual r e l a t i o n s . S i x out of 25 items contained i n the FAQ were concluded to be of t h i s nature. Other c r i t i c i s m s of Palmore's FAQ i n c l u d e the q u e s t i o n a b l e documentation of statement items. Items such as #13 " I t i s almost i m p o s s i b l e f o r most o l d people to l e a r n something new" i s not only non-documentable i n nature, but a l s o presents the respondent with the dilemma of q u a l i f y i n g the meaning of "almost i m p o s s i b l e " as w e l l as "most o l d people." An a d d i t i o n a l problem with the FAQ i s that i t i s r i d d l e d with the f u s i o n of s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e f a c t s . To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s i s item #11, "most o l d people are set i n t h e i r ways and 7 unable to change." "Set i n t h e i r ways" i s s u b j e c t i v e i n nature whereas "unable to change", although vague, i s o b j e c t i v e . In t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n M i l l e r and Dodder changed items c o n t a i n i n g the terminology of "most" to "majority (more than h a l f ) " and found that respondents scored approximately f i v e percent h i g h e r . Although they d i d not set out to d i r e c t l y determine how w e l l the FAQ measured knowledge, the high l e v e l s of v a r i a t i o n i n c o r r e c t responses a t t r i b u t a b l e to t h e i r changes i n item c o n s t r u c t i o n ( i . e . changing ambiguous terminology and d o u b l e - b a r r e l l e d statements), i n d i c a t e s that wording i s a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n answering FAQ items. An a d d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m t h i s author would l i k e to make concerning FAQ item c o n s t r u c t i o n i s that the t r u e / f a l s e response category g i v e s the respondent a 50% chance of guessing the c o r r e c t response. In a d d i t i o n , the general f i n d i n g s t h at the g r e a t e r the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of the respondent the higher the FAQ score should be s e r i o u s l y a nalyzed. Many i n d i v i d u a l s who have e x t e n s i v e experience i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system are aware of the adage that, i t i s unwise to consid e r an item which makes adamant statements (such as "the m a j o r i t y o f " or " i t i s almost impossible") as being t r u e . Upon 8 i n s p e c t i o n of the FAQ i t was determined that the m a j o r i t y of qu e s t i o n s using these adamant q u a l i f i e r s were odd numbered items. Since Palmore d e v i s e d the FAQ so that odd numbered items were f a l s e and even numbered items were t r u e , i t i s to a respondents advantage to answer an adamant item c o r r e c t l y , as being f a l s e . C o n t r i b u t i n g to the q u e s t i o n a b l e u t i l i t y of the FAQ for any purpose other than as a stimulus f o r group d i s c u s s i o n are the r e s u l t s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o i t s psychometric p r o p e r t i e s . McKinlay (Palmore, 1981) found that the alpha r e l i a b i l i t y of t h i s s c a l e (item to t o t a l r e l i a b i l i t y ) was 0.47. S i m i l a r l y , a p i l o t study conducted by t h i s author i n d i c a t e d a 0.57 l e v e l of r e l i a b i l i t y (see Appendix B). T h i s r e p r e s e n t s an extremely low c o n s i s t e n c y l e v e l . No repo r t e d v a l i d i t y value e x i s t s f o r t h i s s c a l e (other than those r e p o r t i n g face v a l i d i t y ) . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n conducted by Klemmack (1978) to determine FAQ's item to t o t a l c o r r e l a t i o n and f i r s t p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r l o a d i n g s i n d i c a t e d that the instrument possessed poor item d i s c r i m i n a r y powers as w e l l as low item to t o t a l c o r r e l a t i o n s (18 out of the 25 items had no s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n r e l a t i o n to t o t a l s c o r e ) . T h i s was i n t e r p r e t e d by Klemmack as i n d i c a t i n g that there was " l i t t l e reason to b e l i e v e that the t o t a l score 9 on the FAQ i s r e f l e c t i v e of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e v e l of i n f o r m a t i o n on aging" (p. 405). In a d d i t i o n , the f i r s t p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r l o a d i n g r e s u l t s were low, but a r e l a t i o n s h i p between Palmore's hypothesized p o s i t i v e and negative b i a s questions was i n t e r p r e t e d by Klemmack as i n d i c a t i n g t h at "Palmore's FAQ does not measure knowledge on aging, but r a t h e r , appears to be a f u n c t i o n of an image one holds about o l d e r people" (p. 405). Adding to the s u b s t a n t i a t i o n of these inadequacies are the r e s u l t s obtained in a study conducted by t h i s author ( G a l l i e , 1984). Whereas Palmore (1977) contends that he chose h i s 25 FAQ items from the three subject areas of p h y s i c a l , mental, and s o c i a l f a c t s about aging, t h i s author's f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d a four f a c t o r s o l u t i o n (see Appendix C). The a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d the f a c t o r s of Myths or Stereotypes, Socio-Economic, F a c t u a l - M e d i c a l , and F a c t u a l - G e n e r a l aspects of aging. Taken t o g e t h e r , these r e s u l t s can be used to s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n the psychometric r i g o r of the FAQ and lends credence to Klemmack's comments that i t i s "inadequate as a r e s e a r c h t o o l f o r a s s e s s i n g l e v e l s of knowledge on aging" and that FAQ scores "are more a f u n c t i o n of a s t e r e o t y p e of o l d e r persons r a t h e r than l e v e l of knowledge per se" (1978; p. 403). In response to these v a r i o u s c r i t i c i s m s Palmore (1978) has admitted that the FAQ's psychometric 10 p r o p e r t i e s c o u l d be improved. However, he contends that i t i s u n d e s i r a b l e to do so s i n c e " t h i s would reduce FAQ's edumetric q u a l i t i e s , [the measurement of b e f o r e / a f t e r changes on a r a t i o s c a l e b a s i s ] , and i n t e r f e r e with i t s major purposes of i d e n t i f y i n g most frequent misconceptions, measuring l e v e l s of i n f o r m a t i o n , and changes in these l e v e l s q u i c k l y and simply" (p.406). However, in l a t e r p u b l i c a t i o n s Palmore claims that the FAQ can be used to study a t t i t u d e s toward the aged which i s an admission that the FAQ does not s o l e l y measure knowledge about aging. I t i s the o p i n i o n of t h i s author that the FAQ i s adequate as a stimulus f o r group d i s c u s s i o n and as an "edumetric" t o o l f o r gauging b e f o r e / a f t e r changes. However, the p l e t h o r a of i n v e s t i g a t o r s who are u n c r i t i c a l l y using the FAQ to compare l e v e l s of knowledge i n d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t groups are i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y using the q u i z . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the, more the FAQ i s used to assess l e v e l s of knowledge, the more i t i s f a l s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with being a r e l i a b l e and v a l i d research t o o l . To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t , t h i s author in s p e c t e d a r t i c l e s which used the FAQ (West & Levy, 1984; Luszcz, 1982; A l l e n , 1981; Laner, 1981; Holtzman & Beck, 1979; Klemmack, 1978). In f i v e out of s i x s t u d i e s the FAQ was used to assess l e v e l s of knowledge. In these s t u d i e s the authors concluded that the FAQ was 11 a p p r o p r i a t e i n a s s e s s i n g knowledge on aging, although many of them had a l s o s i m u l t a n e o u s l y used i t - to measure a t t i t u d e s . T h e r e f o r e , i n l i g h t of these f a c t s , a d e f i n i t e need e x i s t s f o r a p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y sound s c a l e which measures s t r i c t l y knowledge about aging without the confounds of a t t i t u d e s and s t e r e o t y p e s . 1 2 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Subjects Subjects c o n s i s t e d of students from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y and the general p u b l i c who volunteered to p a r t i c i p a t e in the study. V o l u n t e e r s were chosen on the b a s i s of t h e i r a b i l i t y to be c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o e i t h e r g e r o n t o l o g i c a l or n o n g e r o n t o l o g i c a l backgrounds, and were f u r t h e r c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o one of the f o l l o w i n g groups; b i o l o g y , e d u c a t i o n , gerontology, non-academic (general p o p u l a t i o n ) , psychology, and s o c i a l work. In t o t a l , 298 s u b j e c t s (128 males, 170 females) ranging from 17 to 64 years of age, and 0 to 12 years of post-secondary educat i o n , were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . M a t e r i a l s Development of the I n i t i a l Proto Knowledge about Aging Scale Development of the i n i t i a l (or f i r s t d r a f t ) Proto s c a l e (see Appendix D), which measures knowledge about aging, proceeded by a v o i d i n g the item c o n s t r u c t 13 d i f f i c u l t i e s found i n the FAQ. Namely, Proto items avoided the use of ambiguous terminology such as "most" and d i d not i n c l u d e d o u b l e - b a r r e l l e d statements. Items were a l s o based on documentable f a c t s . Keeping i n mind the m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y nature of gerontology, the s c a l e was c o n s t r u c t e d from i n f o r m a t i o n chosen from the s u b j e c t domains of B i o l o g y (Physiology, P a t h o l o g y ) , Psychology, and the S o c i a l S ciences. The f o l l o w i n g r e f e r e n c e sources were used i n the documentation of Proto Scale items; B u t l e r , 1975; Cross,1982; Fact Book on Aging i n Canada, 1983; J u n q u e r i r a , C a r n e i r o , & Contopoulos, 1977; Kimmel, 1980; Moore, 1977; P e t r o f s k y , 1975; Poon, 1980; Shock, 1962; Woodruff & B i r r e n , 1983 (See Appendix E ) . S i x t y items were s e l e c t e d to represent easy (n=20), medium (n=20), and hard (n=20) item d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s , so that the s c a l e would be able to d i s c r i m i n a t e between d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of knowledge. Questions c a t e g o r i z e d as easy sampled i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n a b l e through observing l i f e events, whereas medium d i f f i c u l t y items represented f a c t s that c o u l d be d i s c e r n e d by t h i n k i n g about l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . Items of hard d i f f i c u l t y were designed to t e s t knowledge which was h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d i n nature. In a d d i t i o n , Proto s c a l e items were developed with the i n t e n t i o n of t r e a t i n g the process of aging as a continuum, r a t h e r than as an event which occurs at the 1 4 age of 65 y e a r s . Since Proto items were based on documented i n f o r m a t i o n , content of an a t t i t u d i n a l or s t e r e o t y p i c a l nature was avoided. In order to escape the problems inherent i n a dichotomous response format, a f i v e - p o i n t response s c a l e ranging from " D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e " , "Might Be F a l s e " , "Don't Know", "Might Be True", and " D e f i n i t e l y True" was used. T h i s was done in order to a v o i d a 50% chance of guessing the c o r r e c t response. T h i s s c a l e a l s o p r o v i d e d the f l e x i b i l i t y f o r u s i n g parametric versus non-parametric s t a t i s t i c a l methodologies. In a d d i t i o n , items were computer randomized i n order to a v o i d a p r e d i c t a b l e t r u e / f a l s e response format. Since the s c a l e was developed f o r Canadian usage, item content was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Canadian and not American f a c t s as i s Palmore's F a c t s on Aging Quiz. Before proceeding with data c o l l e c t i o n , a p i l o t study was conducted i n order to d e t e c t any ambiguity or flaws i n Proto's c o n s t r u c t i o n . R e s u l t s from t h i s p i l o t study were used to f u r t h e r r e f i n e Proto s c a l e items. Kogan's A t t i t u d e Towards Old People Scale Since t e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n i n i t s e l f should be 1 5 developed with respect to some c o v e r t and/or over t c r i t e r i a ( A n a s t a s i , 1961) Proto was t e s t e d i n r e l a t i o n to a t t i t u d e s about aging, t h e r e f o r e a l l o w i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o i t s c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Using an a t t i t u d e s c a l e a l s o p rovided an i n d i c a t i o n of whether Proto c o u l d be used f o r f u t u r e i n q u i r i e s i n t o p o s s i b l e knowledge and a t t i t u d e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The s c a l e that was used i n measuring a t t i t u d e s was Kogan's A t t i t u d e Towards Old People Scale (OP) which i s g e n e r a l l y regarded as "among the b e t t e r s c a l e s f o r an i n v e s t i g a t o r to s e l e c t " (McTavish, 1982, p.556). Kogan's OP s c a l e assesses a t t i t u d e s towards o l d people with res p e c t to both norms and i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , s t e r e o t y p e s , and misconceptions about o l d e r people (McTavish, 1982). T h i s s c a l e c o n s i s t s of a seven p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e with 34 short statements (17 negative statements and 17 i d e n t i c a l but p o s i t i v e l y s t a t e d statements (Kogan, 1961) [ r e f e r to Appendix F ] . Odd-even Spearman-Brown r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the negative s c a l e have been found to range from 0.76 to 0.83, whereas the p o s i t i v e s c a l e ranges from 0.66 to 0.77. I n t e r s c a l e c o r r e l a t i o n s between the negative and p o s i t i v e s c a l e was found to range between 0.46 and 0.52 (McTavish, 1982). Two types of v a l i d i t y examinations have been conducted on the OP s c a l e ; c o r r e l a t i o n s of s c a l e s with 16 other v a r i a b l e s , and c o r r e l a t i o n s of s c a l e s with l a t e r b e h a v i o r s . Construct v a l i d i t y of the OP has been s u c c e s s f u l l y assessed with Adorno's F - s c a l e ( a u t h o r i t a r i a n s c a l e ) as well as a n t i - m i n o r i t y , d i s a b i l i t y s c a l e s , and the S r o l e Anomie Scale (Kogan, 1961) . The OP s c a l e has a l s o been s u c c e s s f u l l y used in d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a t t i t u d e s h e l d by undergraduate education (Gordon & H a l l a u , 1976) and psychology students (Kogan, 1961; Silverman, 1966), as w e l l as with p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n s e r v i c e - d e l i v e r y f i e l d s (Thorson, Whatley & Hancock, 1974). Of the p o s s i b l e demographic v a r i a b l e s such as age' and sex, none appear to s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t scores on the OP (McTavish, 1982). Palmore's Fac t s on Aging Quiz (FAQ). A r e v i s e d FAQ s c a l e was i n c l u d e d i n the t e s t b a t t e r y given to v o l u n t e e r s s i n c e i t s i n c l u s i o n allowed d i r e c t comparison with Proto. R e v i s i n g the FAQ i n v o l v e d changing the o r i g i n a l FAQ t r u e / f a l s e response format to a f i v e - p o i n t response format ( D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e , Might Be F a l s e , Don't Know, Might Be True, D e f i n i t e l y T r u e ) , as w e l l as changing American to Canadian f a c t s ( r e f e r to Appendix G). A p i l o t study was conducted i n order to 1 7 determine what changes, i f any, r e s u l t e d from changing items from American to Canadian content (see Appendix H). Any changes t h a t o c c u r r e d due to changing the FAQ's t r u e / f a l s e format were determined by comparing p i l o t study r e s u l t s with the r e s u l t s of the f u l l y r e v i s e d FAQ used i n the t e s t b a t t e r y a d m i n i s t e r e d to v o l u n t e e r s i n t h i s study. The r e s u l t s of t h i s p i l o t study i n d i c a t e d that no s i g n i f i c a n t changes to the FAQ were i n c u r r e d by i n t r o d u c i n g a f i v e - p o i n t response s c a l e or changing American to Canadian f a c t s . 18 Procedure S u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d to respond to a b a t t e r y c o n s i s t i n g of the Proto, Palmore's FAQ ( r e v i s e d ) , and Kogan's OP. The order of each s c a l e i n the b a t t e r y , as w e l l as the order of each of the items w i t h i n each s c a l e were randomized to remove p o s s i b l e order e f f e c t s . S ubjects were t o l d to f o l l o w the i n s t r u c t i o n s found at the beginning of each s c a l e which asked them to answer each statement by c i r c l i n g the degree to which they thought the statement was true or f a l s e ( r e f e r to Appendix F ) . In a d d i t i o n , s u b j e c t s were asked to complete a b i o g r a p h i c a l sheet i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r age, sex, years of post-secondary education and primary area of study. For example, i f they were e n r o l l e d i n a gerontology program they were i n c l u d e d i n the su b j e c t area of gerontology. T h i s sheet n o t i f i e d v o l u n t e e r s that r e s u l t s were s t r i c t l y anonymous, and informed them that they c o u l d withdraw t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n at any time. Furthermore, i f they agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e , i t informed them that they would r e c e i v e a copy of the answers to knowledge-related q u e s t i o n s i n the b a t t e r y , along with a d e b r i e f i n g and n o t i f i c a t i o n of the study's r e s u l t s (see Appendix J ) . 19 Once completed, responses to the t e s t b a t t e r y were unscrambled, scored (see Appendix K) and the a p p r o p r i a t e analyses were conducted. A n a l y s i s Refinement Of I n i t i a l 60 Item Proto S c a l e It i s standard procedure i n developing a p s y c h o l o g i c a l s c a l e , to begin with more items than are d e s i r e d i n the f i n a l s c a l e . P r e t e s t i n g of the t o t a l item pool on a sample of the p o p u l a t i o n the s c a l e i s being designed f o r enables s e l e c t i o n of the items f o r the f i n a l v e r s i o n (Ferguson, 1971). To s e l e c t the i n i t i a l item pool three main techniques are used alone or i n combination. These are r a t i o n a l item s e l e c t i o n , s e l e c t i o n by f a c t o r a n a l y t i c techniques, or s e l e c t i o n by c r i t e r i o n item keying (Butt, Personal communications, 1985). The commonly used techniques i n v o l v e s e l e c t i o n based upon item to item, item to subscale (where a p p l i c a b l e ) and item to t o t a l s c a l e score c o r r e l a t i o n s (Ferguson, 1971). Since i t i s best to use a number of c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i n g items ( G u i l f o r d , 1938; Jackson, 1966) the f o l l o w i n g s t r a t e g y was chosen so that a s c a l e 20 with the h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e r e l i a b i l i t y , v a l i d i t y and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n based on s u b j e c t ' s age, education, sex, and area of study, would be developed. Using the Homogeneity of Variance Programme (HOMOG) (Gronek & T y l e r , 1967) item-to-subscale c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r items i n each of the three subscale domains ( b i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and s o c i a l s c i e n c e ) , and i t e m - t o - t o t a l s c a l e score c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed on dichotomous data, i . e . the f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e ranging from " D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e " to " D e f i n i t e l y True" was c o l l a p s e d i n t o a t r u e / f a l s e format s i n c e a n a l y s i s of continuous data would lend no meaningful i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r egarding whether items had been c o r r e c t l y answered. A f t e r c o r r e c t i n g the c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r o v e r l a p , those of the o r i g i n a l 60 Proto items which a) had the highest c o r r e l a t i o n to each subscale ( i . e . items 1 to 20 S o c i a l S cience, 21 to 40 B i o l o g y , and 41 to 60 Psychology) and b) had a c o r r e l a t i o n of 0.30 or higher were r e t a i n e d . Secondly, A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e using the c r i t e r i a of age, number of years of post-secondary education, sex, and s u b j e c t area, were computed to determine which a d d i t i o n a l items would be r e t a i n e d . That i s , r e t e n t i o n was based on the a b i l i t y of the item to d i s c r i m i n a t e these four independent v a r i a b l e s . T h i r d l y , item alphas were computed so that items with the highest alpha c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the s c a l e were r e t a i n e d . 21 Psychometric P r o p e r t i e s of the F i n a l 40 Item Proto Scale Examination of the item d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l of the 40 f i n a l s e l e c t e d Proto items r e v e a l e d those items of an easy (n=12), medium (n=17), and hard (n=11> d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l . Psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of the f i n a l 40 item Proto s c a l e and i t s three subscales were assessed using FAN (Le, 1981), HOMOG (Gronek & T y l e r , 1967) and the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S ciences (SPSS, 1983) program. I n t e r item r e l i a b i l i t i e s i n the form of Chronbach's' alpha were computed to determine the c o n s i s t e n c y of homogeneity of t e s t items. T h i s type of r e l i a b i l i t y was chosen over other types s i n c e i t c o u l d be computed from i n t a c t s c a l e r e s u l t s obtained from a s i n g l e s c a l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F u r t h e r examination of Proto's psychometric p r o p e r t i e s was conducted using f a c t o r a n a l y t i c techniques. With re s p e c t to the independent v a r i a b l e s of age, number of years of post-secondary e d u c a t i o n , sex, and subje c t area ANOVA's were computed using the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . The p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t e d that age, number of years of post secondary education and s u b j e c t group might i n t e r a c t to produce confounding i n f l u e n c e s on these ANOVA r e s u l t s . T h e r e f o r e , Analyses 22 of Covariance were computed h o l d i n g each of these three v a r i a b l e s c o n s t a n t . C o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y , or the extent to which Proto measures what i t p u r p o r t s to measure, ( i . e . knowledge about a g i n g ) , was examined by c a l c u l a t i n g p o i n t - b y - s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s a g a i n s t Palmore's FAQ and Kogan's OP s c a l e s ( r e f e r to Appendix L f o r a summary of r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y t y p e s ) . Psychometric P r o p e r t i e s of Palmore's FAQ Psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of the r e v i s e d FAQ ( i . e . f i v e - p o i n t response format and Canadian items) were assessed using FAN ' (Le, 1981), HOMOG (Gronek & T y l e r , . 1967) and SPSS (SPSS, 1983) computer packages. I n t e r item r e l i a b i l i t y i n the form of Chronbach's alpha was computed i n order to determine c o n s i s t e n c y of homogeneity of t e s t items. T h i s type of r e l i a b i l i t y was chosen over other types s i n c e i t c o u l d be computed from i n t a c t s c a l e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from a s i n g l e s c a l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F u r t h e r examination of FAQ's psychometric p r o p e r t i e s was conducted using f a c t o r a n a l y t i c techniques. With respect to the independent v a r i a b l e s of age, number of years of post secondary education, sex, and s u b j e c t area ANOVA's were computed using the SPSS 23 package. Since the p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t e d that age, number of years of post secondary education and s u b j e c t group might i n t e r a c t , Analyses of Covariance were computed h o l d i n g each of these three v a r i a b l e s c o n s t a n t . Co n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y , or the extent to which the FAQ measures what i t purports to measure, was examined by c a l c u l a t i n g p o i n t - b y - s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s a g a i n s t Proto and Kogan's OP s c a l e . To e s t a b l i s h whether Proto possessed b e t t e r psychometric p r o p e r t i e s than Palmore's FAQ, r e l i a b i l i t y (Chronbach's alpha) and c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y estimates were conducted on the FAQ. 24 CHAPTER IV RESULTS P r o p e r t i e s of the I n i t i a l 60 Item P r o t o S c a l e Tables 1a-1p provide p r o f i l e s of s u b j e c t s used i n t h i s study regarding age, years of postsecondary education, sex (gender), s u b j e c t area breakdown and mean and standard d e v i a t i o n s of Proto. Tables 2a-2d and 3a-3d provide s i m i l a r breakdowns f o r Palmore's FAQ and Kogan's OP s c a l e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . To determine whether d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d between s u b j e c t s who completed the t e s t b a t t e r y i n c l a s s and those who completed i t at t h e i r own l e i s u r e , a One Way A n a l y s i s of Variance (ANOVA) was computed (see Tables 4a-4f) on the t o t a l s c a l e and three s u b s c a l e scores of Proto, Palmore's FAQ and Kogan OP s c a l e s . These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between those who completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l a s s and those that completed i t at t h e i r own l e i s u r e f o r the Proto s c a l e (60 item) (F=0.105, df.=1,292, p=0.745), the s o c i a l s c i e n c e subscale (F=0.000, df.=1,292, p=0.985), the b i o l o g y subscale (F=0.132, df.=1,292, p= 0.716), and the psychology subscale (F=0.183, df.=1,292, p=0.668). S i m i l a r n o n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were found f o r Palmore's FAQ (F=2.235, df.=1,292, p=0.135) and Kogan's OP 25 TABLE 1a MEANS AND : STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR TOTAL SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY AGE GROUP. STANDARD STANDARD AGE GROUP N MEAN DEVIATION ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM 17-20 YRS. 127 33.59 7.25 0.64 3.0 48.0 21-30 YRS. 100 37. 17 8.04 0.80 9.0 51 .0 31-40 YRS. 40 37.98 10.09 1 .60 2.0 50.0 41-50 YRS. 1 5 40.07 9.77 2.52 16.0 52.0 51-65 YRS. 1 3 36.31 6.54 1.81 23.0 50.0 TOTAL 295 37.02 8.34 1 .47 10.6 50.2 TABLE 1b MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE SOCIAL SCIENCE SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY AGE GROUP. AGE GROUP N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION STANDARD ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM 17-20 YRS. 127 1 1 .22 2.91 0.26 1.0 '16.0 21-30 YRS. 1 00 12.28 2.94 0.29 2.0 17.0 31-40 YRS. 40 1 2.60 3.19 0.50 2.0 17.0 41-50 YRS. 1 5 13.00 3.57 0.92 5.0 18.0 51-65 YRS. 1 3 1 2.46 2.60 0.72 7.0 17.0 TOTAL 295 12.31 3.04 0.54 3.4 17.0 TABLE 1c MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR BIOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY AGE GROUP. STANDARD STANDARD AGE GROUP N MEAN DEVIATION ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM 17-20 YRS. 1 27 12.58 2.99 0.27 1 .0 18.0 21-30 YRS. 100 13.65 3.45 0.35 1 .0 20.0 31-40 YRS. 40 1 3.43 4.07 0.64 0.0 20.0 41-50 YRS. 1 5 1 4.73 3.64 0.94 6.0 19.0 51-65 YRS. 13 1 2.54 2.33 0.65 9.0 16.0 TOTAL 295 1 3.39 3.30 0.57 3.4 1 8.6 26 TABLE 1d MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY AGE GROUP. STANDARD STANDARD AGE GROUP N MEAN DEVIATION ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM 17-20 YRS. 1 27 9.80 2.76 0.25 1 .0 17.0 21-30 YRS. 100 1 1 .24 3.31 0.33 3.0 18.0 31-40 YRS. 40 1 1 .95 3.78 0.60 0.0 17.0 41-50 YRS. 1 5 12.33 3.35 0.87 5.0 17.0 51-65 YRS. 1 3 11.31 3.07 0.85 7.0 17.0 TOTAL 295 11.33 3.25 0.58 3.2 17.2 TABLE 1e MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR TOTAL SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION. YEARS OF EDUCATION N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION STANDARD ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM 0 YRS. 1 4 33.21 8.67 2.32 ' 11.0 50.0 1-4 YRS. 216 34.98 7.71 0.53 3.0 52.0 5-12 YRS 65 39.31 9.12 1.13 2.0 51 .0 TOTAL 295 35.83 8.49 1 .32 5.3 51 .0 TABLE 1f MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SOCIAL SCIENCES SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION • YEARS OF STANDARD STANDARD EDUCATION N MEAN DEVIATION ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM 0 YRS. 1 4 1 1 .79 2.97 0.79 7.0 18.0 1-4 YRS. 216 1 1 .67 2.99 0.20 1 .0 17.0 5-12 YRS 65 12.75 3.08 0.38 2.0 17.0 TOTAL 295 12.07 3.01 0.46 3.3 17.3 27 TABLE 1g MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR BIOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION. YEARS OF EDUCATION N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION STANDARD ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM 0 YRS. 14 1 1 .86 3.76 1.01 3.0 19.0 1-4 YRS. 216 12.88 3.16 0.22 1 .0 19.0 5-12 YRS 65 14.40 3.62 0.45 0.0 20.0 TOTAL 295 13.05 3.51 0.56 1 .3 19.3 TABLE In MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION. YEARS OF STANDARD STANDARD EDUCATION N MEAN DEVIATION ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM 0 YRS. 14 9.57 3.11 0.83 0.0 13.0 1-4 YRS. 216 10.44 3.09 0.21 1.0 18.0 5-12 YRS 65 12.15 3.46 0.43 0.0 18.0 TOTAL 295 10.71 3.21 0.49 0.3 16.3 TABLE 1i MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR TOTAL SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SEX. STANDARD STANDARD SEX N MEAN DEVIATION ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM FEMALE 170 36.18 8.17 0.63 2.0 52.0 MALE 125 35.40 8.42 0.75 3.0 51.0 TOTAL 295 35.79 8.29 0.69 2.5 51.5 28 TABLE 1j MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SOCIAL SCIENCES SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SEX. STANDARD STANDARD SEX N MEAN DEVIATION ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM FEMALE 170 12.04 2.90 0.22 2.0 18.0 MALE 125 11.74 3.20 0.29 1.0 17.0 TOTAL 295 11.89 3.05 0.26 1.5 17.5 TABLE 1k MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR BIOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SEX. SEX N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION STANDARD ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM FEMALE MALE 1 70 1 25 1 3.24 13.06 3.43 3.27 0.26 0.29 0.0 1 .0 20.0 18.0 TOTAL 295 13.15 3.35 TABLE 0.28 11 0.5 19.0 MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SEX SUBSCALE • SCORES SEX N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION STANDARD ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM FEMALE MALE 1 70 1 25 1 0.90 1 0.60 3.17 3.37 0.24 0.30 0.0 1.0 17.0 18.0 TOTAL 295 10.75 3.27 0.27 0.5 17.5 29 TABLE 1m MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR TOTAL SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA. STANDARD STANDARD AREA N MEAN DEVIATION ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM PSYCHOLOGY 1 69 34.39 7.13 0.55 3.0 48.0 NON-ACADEMIC 20 31 .55 7.04 1 .57 11.0 40.0 BIOLOGY 21 40.00 11.14 2.43 2.0 51 .0 GERONTOLOGY 37 43.97 6.22 1 .02 30.0 52.0 EDUCATION 24 34.46 8.20 1 .67 16.0 46.0 SOCIAL WORK 23 34.48 8.31 1 .73 16.0 48.0 TOTAL 294 36.48 8.01 1 .49 13.0 47. 5 TABLE 1n MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SOCIAL SCIENCES SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA. STANDARD STANDARD AREA N MEAN DEVIATION ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM PSYCHOLOGY 1 69 1 1 .53 2.89 0.22 1 .0 17.0 NON-ACADEMIC 20 11.05 2.65 0.59 5.0 15.0 BIOLOGY 21 12.33 3.26 0.71 2.0 17.0 GERONTOLOGY 37 14.30 2.37 0.39 7.0 18.0 EDUCATION 24 11.42 3.48 0.71 5.0 17.0 SOCIAL WORK 23 1 1 .65 3.01 0.63 5.0 17.0 TOTAL 294 12.05 2.94 0.54 4.2 16.8 30 TABLE 1o MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR BIOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA. STANDARD STANDARD AREA N MEAN DEVIATION ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM PSYCHOLOGY 1 69 12.91 3.04 0.23 1 .0 18.0 NON-ACADEMIC 20 1 1 .25 2.97 0.66 3.0 16.0 BIOLOGY 21 14.33 4.44 0.98 0.0 19.0 GERONTOLOGY 37 1 5.97 2.68 0.44 8.0 20.0 EDUCATION 24 12.17 3.17 0.65 6.0 17.0 SOCIAL WORK 23 12.09 3.38 0.71 5.0 17.0 TOTAL 294 13.12 3.28 0.61 3.8 17.8 TABLE 1p MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM : PROTO SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA. STANDARD STANDARD AREA N MEAN DEVIATION ERROR' MINIMUM MAXIMUM PSYCHOLOGY 169 9.95 2.70 0.21 1 .0 17.0 NON-ACADEMIC 20 9.25 2.83 0.63 1 .0 14.0 BIOLOGY 21 1 3.33 4.64 1.01 0.0 18.0 GERONTOLOGY 37 1 3.70 2.47 0.41 9.0 17.0 EDUCATION 24 1 0.88 3.13 0.64 5.0 17.0 SOCIAL WORK 23 1 0.74 3.09 0.65 4.0 16.0 TOTAL 294 11.30 3.14 0.59 3.3 16.5 31 TABLE 2a MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON PALMORE'S FACTS ON AGING QUIZ BY AGE GROUP. AGE GROUP N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION STANDARD ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM 17-20 YRS. 1 27 1 2.75 3.03 0.27 0.0 19.0 21-30 YRS. 100 14.61 3.38 0.34 8.0 23.0 31-40 YRS. 40 1 5.65 4.41 0.70 0.0 22.0 41-50 YRS. 1 5 1 7.60 2.97 0.77 10.0 21.0 51-65 YRS. 13 1 5.92 3.10 0.86 10.0 21.0 TOTAL 295 15.31 3.38 0.59 5.6 21.2 TABLE 2b MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON PALMORE'S FACTS ON AGING QUIZ BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION. YEARS OF EDUCATION N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION STANDARD ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM 0 YRS. 1 4 13.93 3.45 0.92 8.0 19.0 1-4 YRS. 216 13.51 3.30 0.23 0.0 22.0 5-12 YRS 65 16.35 3.87 0.48 0.0 23.0 TOTAL 295 1 4.60 3.54 0.54 2.7 21 .3 TABLE 2c MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON PALMORE'S FACTS ON AGING QUIZ BY SEX. STANDARD STANDARD SEX N MEAN DEVIATION ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM FEMALE 170 14.27 3.51 0.27 0.0 23.0 MALE 125 14.01 3.79 0.34 0.0 22.0 TOTAL 295 14.14 3.65 0.31 0.0 22.5 32 TABLE 2d MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON PALMORE'S FACTS ON AGING QUIZ BY SUBJECT AREA. STANDARD STANDARD AREA N MEAN DEVIATION ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM PSYCHOLOGY 169 12.90 3.11 0.24 0.0 20.0 NON-ACADEMIC 20 14.15 3.03 0.68 8.0 19.0 BIOLOGY 21 1 5.48 4.47 0.98 0.0 20.0 GERONTOLOGY 37 1 8.08 3.00 0.49 10.0 23.0 EDUCATION 24 15.00 3.07 0.63 10.0 20.0 SOCIAL WORK 23 14.65 2.87 0.60 10.0 20.0 TOTAL 294 15.04 3.26 0.60 6.3 20.3 33 TABLE 3a MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON KOGAN'S O.P. SCALE BY AGE GROUP. AGE GROUP N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION STANDARD ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM 17-20 YRS. 1 27 6.39 4.05 0.36 -3.0 15.0 21-30 YRS. 1 00 8.42 4.05 0.41 -6.0 16.0 31-40 YRS. 40 8.88 3.01 0.48 3.0 16.0 41-50 YRS. 1 5 10.13 3.99 1 .03 3.0 15.0 51-65 YRS. 1 3 9.08 2.93 0.81 4.0 13.0 TOTAL 295 8.58 3.61 0.62 0.2 15.0 TABLE 3b MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON KOGAN'S O.P. SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION. YEARS OF EDUCATION N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION STANDARD ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM 0 YRS. 1 4 8.21 3.38 0.90 4.0 14.0 1-4 YRS. 216 7.22 4.20 0.29 -6.0 16.0 5-12 YRS. 65 9.29 3.18 0.40 3.0 16.0 TOTAL 295 8.24 3.59 0.53 0.3 15.3 TABLE 3c MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON KOGAN'S O.P. SCALE BY SEX. STANDARD STANDARD SEX N MEAN DEVIATION ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM FEMALE 1 70 7.85 3.93 0.30 -2.0 16.0 MALE 1 25 7.55 4.20 0.38 -6.0 16.0 TOTAL 295 7.70 4.06 0.34 -4.0 16.0 34 TABLE 3d MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON KOGAN'S O.P. SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA. STANDARD STANDARD AREA N MEAN DEVIATION ERROR MINIMUM MAXIMUM PSYCHOLOGY 169 6.80 4.13 0.32 -6.0 16.0 NON-ACADEMIC 20 9.00 2.94 0.66 4.0 14.0 BIOLOGY 21 8.62 3.89 0.85 -3.0 14.0 GERONTOLOGY 37 10.14 3.27 0.54 4.0 16.0 EDUCATION 24 9.08 3.45 0.70 3.0 15.0 SOCIAL WORK 23 7.22 4.02 0.84 -1.0 16.0 TOTAL 294 8.48 3.62 0.65 0.2 15.1 35 TABLE 4a ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO TOTAL SCORES BETWEEN IN- CLASS AND OUT-OF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF MEAN F F SQUARES SQUARES RATIO PROB. BETWEEN 1 7.156 7.156 0.105 0.745 WITHIN 292 19803.554 67.820 TOTAL 293 19810.710 TABLE 4b ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO SOCIAL SCIENCES SUBSCALE SCORES BETWEEN IN-CLASS AND OUT-OF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF MEAN F F SQUARES SQUARES RATIO PROB. BETWEEN 1 0.003 0.003 0.000 0.985 WITHIN 292 2641.197 9.045 TOTAL 293 2641.200 TABLE 4c ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO BIOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES BETWEEN IN-CLASS AND OUT-OF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF MEAN F F SQUARES SQUARES RATIO PROB. BETWEEN 1 1.508 1.508 0.132 0.716 WITHIN 292 3335.293 11.422 TOTAL 293 3336.802 36 TABLE 4d ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO PSYCHOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES BETWEEN IN-CLASS AND OUT-OF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF MEAN F F SQUARES SQUARES RATIO PROB. BETWEEN 1 1.934 1.934 0.183 0.668 WITHIN 292 3078.433 10.542 TOTAL 293 3080.367 TABLE 4e ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PALMORE'S FACTS ON AGING QUIZ BETWEEN IN-CLASS AND OUT-OF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF MEAN F F SQUARES SQUARES RATIO PROB.. BETWEEN 1 28.986 28.962 2.235 0.135 WITHIN 292 3785.571 12.964 ; TOTAL 293 3814.557 TABLE 4f ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF KOGAN'S O.P. BETWEEN IN-CLASS AND OUT-OF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF MEAN F F SQUARES SQUARES RATIO PROB. BETWEEN 1 170.447 170.447 10.742 0.052 WITHIN 292 4633.120 15.866 TOTAL 293 4803.568 s c a l e (F=10.742, df.=1,292, p=0.052). Table 5 presents the r e s u l t s of item to subscale and t o t a l c o r r e l a t i o n s of the 60 item Proto s c a l e . A s t e r i s k s i n d i c a t e the items which met the c r i t e r i a of a) having the highest c o r r e l a t i o n value f a l l i n g on i t s r e s p e c t i v e subscale ( i . e . items 1-20 s o c i a l s c i e n c e , items 21-40 b i o l o g y , items 41-60 psychology) with a c o r r e l a t i o n value > 0.30. Those i n i t i a l Proto items meeting these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n c l u d e d items 2,17,24,28,30,32,34,38,40,43,45,47,48,53,and 59. Tables 6a-6d present a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e r e s u l t s of responses to the 60 item Proto s c a l e based on the independent v a r i a b l e s of age, years of post-secondary e d u c a t i o n , sex (gender), and s u b j e c t area. These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that using the c r i t e r i o n of p ^ 0.05, items 1, 2, 3, 8, 10, 12, 13, 17, 19, 20, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59 and 60 should be i n c l u d e d i n Proto's f i n a l v e r s i o n based on t h e i r a b i l i t y to d i s t i n g u i s h response d i f f e r e n c e s on the aforementioned independent v a r i a b l e s of subject age, years of post-secondary e d u c a t i o n , sex (gender), and s u b j e c t area. However, due to comments made by s u b j e c t s about items 36,46,52, and 55 concerning c o n t r a d i c t o r y documentation, these items were subsequently d e l e t e d . 38 TABLE 5 ITEM SUBSCALE POINT BISERIAL CORRELATIONS FOR THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE. SOCIAL ITEM** SCIENCE BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL TOTAL 1 0.30 0.28 0.36 0.36 2 0.40* 0.30 0.31 0.39 3 0.23 0.23 0.11 0.22 4 0.18 0.13 0.18 0.19 5 0.12 0.11 0.14 0.14 6 0.13 0.13 0.10 0.14 7 0.03 0.07 0.09 0.07 8 0.12 0.22 0.02 0.14 9 0.10 0.08 0.14 0.12 10 0.31 0.37 0.34 0.40 1 1 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.15 1 2 0.11 0.15 0.16 0.16 13 0.31 0.38 0.35 0.41 14 0.12 0.11 0.14 0.15 15 0.30 0.30 0.40 0.39 16 0.33 0.32 0.34 0.38 17 0.31*. 0.30 0.19 0.31 18 0.18 0.12 0.23 0.21 1 9 0.27 0.29 0.22 0.30 20 0.13 0.23 0.18 0.21 21 0.35 0.40 0.41 0.41 22 0.06 0.15 0.18 0.16 23 0.41 0.39 0.28 0.42 24 0.25 0.41 * 0.36 0.40 25 0.38 0.36 0.26 0.38 26 0.25 0.24 0.30 0.30 27 0.27 0.26 0.28 0.28 28 0.29 0.35* 0.34 0.39 29 0.30 0.29 0.26 0.33 30 0.26 0.34* 0.23 0.32 31 0.27 0.30 0.31 0.30 32 0.23 0.31* 0.16 0.27 33 0.21 0.22 0.22 0.26 34 0.24 0.30* 0.27 0.31 35 0.15 0.19 0.21 0.22 36 0.18 0.17 0.13 0.21 37 0.34 0.25 0.38 0.38 38 0.33 0.39* 0.29 0.39 39 0.16 0.22 0.27 0.25 * ITEM SELECTED FOR REFINED PROTO SCALE ** SEE APPENDIX D FOR ITEMS REFERRED TO IN TABLE TABLE 5 (CONT.) SOCIAL ITEM** SCIENCE BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL TOTAL 40 0.29 0.33* 0.23 ' 0.33 41 0.24 0.25 0.25 0.29 42 0.27 0.29 0.28 0.33 43 0.31 0.32 0.42* 0.41 44 0.18 0.17 0.18 0.21 45 0.32 0.36 0.41* 0.43 46 0.08 0. 16 0.08 0.13 47 0.22 0.30 0.31* 0.32 48 0.23 0.24 0.34* 0.31 49 0.28 0.22 0.14 0.24 50 0.21 0.19 0.21 0.26 51 0.21 0.34 0.25 0.32 52 0.04 0.12 0.12 0.12 53 0.35 0.28 0.36* 0.38 54 0.21 0.12 0.18 0.20 55 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.10 56 0.23 0.28 0.27 0.30 57 0.38 0.37 0.28 0.40 58 0..22 0.29 0.23 0.29 59 0.29 0.26 0.33* 0.34 60 0.16 0.22 0.18 .0.22 * ITEM SELECTED FOR REFINED PROTO SCALE ** SEE APPENDIX D FOR ITEMS REFERRED TO IN TABLE 40 TABLE 6a ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO (60 ITEM) SCALE BY AGE GROUP. ITEM # ** DF F. RATIO F. PROB. 1 4 2.307 0.058 2 4.608 0.001* 3 1 .656 0. 1 60 4 0.492 0.741 5 1 .571 0.181 6 1 .035 0.389 7 0.756 0.554 8 3.495 0.008* 9 2.338 0.055 10 3. 188 0.013* 1 1 0.786 0.534 1 2 2.588 0.037* 1 3 3.221 0.013* 14 2.877 0.052 15 1 .720 0. 1 45 1 6 1 . 1 55 0.330 17 1.135 0.339 18 3.562 0.061 19 4. 1 40 0.002* 20 3.922 0.004* 21 0.813 0.517 22 1 . 1 94 0.313 23 0.523 0.718 24 4.433 0.001* 25 0.736 0.567 26 5.003 0.000* 27 0.329 0.858 28 2.037 0.089 29 1 .269 0.282 30 1 .081 0.365 31 1.131 0.341 32 1 .373 0.243 33 2.431 0.047* 34 0.223 0.925 35 1 .838 0.121 36 2.327 0.056*** 37 6.733 0.000* 38 0.815 0.516 39 2.365 0.053 40 0.703 0.590 41 0. 1 06 0.980 42 2.284 0.060 43 7.837 0.000* 44 0.540 0.706 TABLE 6a (CONT.) ITEM # ** DF F. RATIO F. PROB. 45 4 2.350 0.054 46 0.785 0.535*** 47 4.881 0.000* 48 6.954 0.000* 49 1 .855 0.118 50 0.611 0.654 51 2.385 0.051 52 2.865 0.023*** 53 1 . 1 08 0.352 54 2.615 0.055 55 3.692 0.006*** 56 4.240 0.052 57 1 .394 0.236 58 2.291 0.059 59 8.731 0.000* 60 4.442 0.001* * ITEM SELECTED FOR FINAL 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE ** SEE APPENDIX D FOR ITEMS REFERRED TO IN TABLE ***ITEM REMOVED FROM CONSIDERATION DUE TO 'PARTICIPANT COMMENTS 42 TABLE 6b ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO (TOTAL) SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION. ITEM # ** DF F. RATIO F. PROB. 1 2 3. 189 0.042* 2 3.520 0.030* 3 2.222 0.110 4 0.473 0.623 5 1 .451 0.236 6 1 . 1 52 0.317 7 2. 1 30 0. 1 20 8 4.439 0.012* 9 0.562 0.570 10 5.330 0.005* 1 1 1 .607 . 0.202 1 2 0.724 0.485 1 3 2.364 0.095 1 4 1 .375 0.254 15 2.041 0.131 1 6 2.392 0.093 1 7 0.284 0.752 18 0.891 0.411 1 9 4.848 0.008* 20 6.631 0.001* 21 0.689 0.502 22 0.951 0.387 23 1 .522 0.219 24 3.357 0.036* 25 0. 163 0.849 26 3.823 0.023* 27 1 .363 0.257 28 2.427 0.090 29 0.372 0.689 30 2.866 0.058 31 0.008 0.991 32 1 .256 0.286 33 10.540 0.000* 34 0.208 0.811 35 5.065 0.060 36 4.536 0.061*** 37 7.275 0.008* 38 0. 1 64 0.848 39 1 . 1 40 0.321 40 0.515 0.597 41 0.088 0.915 42 2.936 0.054 43 9.957 0.000* 44 2.799 0.062 TABLE 6b (CONT.) ITEM # ** DF F. RATIO F. PROB. 45 2 0.394 0.674 46 0.249 0.779*** 47 12.123 0.000* 48 5. 1 37 0.006* 49 0.285 0.752 50 2.263 0. 1 05 51 1 .736 0. 1 78 52 5. 1 40 0.006*** 53 2.327 0.099 54 5.505 0.054 55 7.768 0.000*** 56 3.385 0.055 57 0.608' 0.545 58 1 .497 0.225 59 8.449 0.000* 60 6.998 0.001* * ITEM SELECTED FOR FINAL 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE ** SEE APPENDIX D FOR ITEMS REFERRED TO IN TABLE *** ITEM REMOVED FROM CONSIDERATION DUE TO PARTICIPANT COMMENTS 44 TABLE 6c ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO (60 ITEM) SCALE BY SEX (GENDER). ITEM # ** DF F. RATIO F. PROB. 1 1 2.050 0. 1 53 2 0.464 0.496 3 12.075 0.000* 4 0.989 0.320 5 0.867 0.352 6 0.891 0.345 7 2.042 0. 154 8 0.086 0.768 9 1 .099 0.295 10 0. 1 77 0.674 1 1 0.588 0.443 1 2 4.556 0.033* 1 3 0.959 0.328 14 0.689 0.407 15 1 .501 0.221 1 6 2.008 0. 1 57 1 7 2.469 0.117 18 1.383 0.240 19 1.755 0. 1 86 20 0.843 0.359 21 1 .383 0.240 22 1 .909 0. 168 23 0. 127 0.721 24 1.215 0.271 25 0.002 0.958 26 0.230 0.631 27 1.361 0.244 28 7.118 0.008* 29 0.565 0.452 30 1 .989 0. 1 59 31 0. 199 0.655 32 1.258 0.262 33 0.099 0.753 34 0.161 0.687 35 0.729 0.393 36 0.174 0.676*** 37 0.135 0.713 38 0.792 0.374 39 0.337 0.561 40 1 .694 0. 1 94 41 1.112 0.292 42 11.194 0.000* 43 2.570 0. 109 44 0.233 0.629 TABLE 6c (CONT.) ITEM DF F. RATIO F. PROB. 45 1 0.057 0.810 46 1 .924 0.166*** 47 0.046 0.828 48 0.085 0.770 49 2.313 0. 1 29 50 1.017 0.313 51 0.904 0.342 52 2.330 0.128*** 53 1 .878 0.171 54 0.698 0.404 55 4.514 0.034*** 56 0.069 0.792 57 0. 1 06 0.744 58 2.520 0.113 59 2.330 0. 1 28 60 0.811 0.368 * ITEM SELECTED FOR FINAL 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE ** SEE APPENDIX D .FOR ITEMS REFERRED TO IN TABLE *** ITEM REMOVED FROM CONSIDERATION DUE TO PARTICIPANT COMMENTS 46 TABLE 6d ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO (60 ITEM) SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA. ITEM # ** DF F. RATIO F. PROB. 1 5 4.017 0.001* o 4.768 0.000* 3 2.822 0.016* 4 0.897 0.483 5 2.130 0.061 6 1 .757 0.121 7 0.867 0.503 8' 5.745 0.000* 9 2.012 0.076 10 2. 1 62 0.058 1 1 1 .276 0.274 12 3. 525 0.004* 1 3 3.513 0.004* 1 4 1 .806 0.111 1 5 0.800 0.550 1 6 1.714 0.131 1 7 2.911 0.013* 18 1 .621 0. 1 54 1 9 3.743 0.002* 20 6.622 0.000* 21 1 .444 0.208 22 2.269 0.057 23 0.629 0.677 24 6.594 0.000* 25 1 .780 0.116 26 6.301 0.000* 27 1.214 0.302 28 3.064 0.010* 29 1 .768 0.119 30 4.326 0.000* 31 0.246 0.941 32 5.602 0.000* 33 1 1 .840 0.000* 34 0.868 0.502 35 4.707 0.000* 36 3.016 0.011*** 37 6.034 0.000* 38 0.523 0.758 39 3. 177 0.053 40 1 . 192 0.313 41 0.643 0.666 42 5.054 0.000* 43 11.616 0.000* 44 0.889 0.488 TABLE 6d (CONT.) ITEM # ** DF F. RATIO F. PROB. 45 5 3.201 0.007* 46 3.686 0.003*** 47 4. 1 64 0.001* 48 10.403 0.000* 49 0.714 0.613 50 1 .995 0.794 51 1 .380 0.231 52 3.705 0.002*** 53 5.095 0.051 54 6.514 0.054 55 7.211 0.000*** 56 4.804 0.060 57 0.427 0.829 58 3.141 0.000* 59 19.852 0.000* 60 4.591 0.000* * ITEM SELECTED FOR FINAL 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE ** SEE APPENDIX D FOR ITEMS REFERRED TO IN TABLE *** ITEM REMOVED FROM CONSIDERATION DUE TO PARTICIPANT COMMENTS Table 7 presents item alpha v a l u e s which was the t h i r d major c r i t e r i a i n f i n a l s c a l e item s e l e c t i o n . Those of the o r i g i n a l 60 Proto items which had not been s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of item to subscale c o r r e l a t i o n s or ANOVA a n a l y s i s on the b a s i s of s u b j e c t age, e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , sex, and s u b j e c t area were now s c r u t i n i z e d f o r t h e i r alpha value c o n t r i b u t i o n based on the o r i g i n a l 60 item s c a l e . Using the c r i t e r i o n of s e l e c t i o n based on highest alpha value c o n t r i b u t i o n ( i . e . items were s e l e c t e d on t h e i r a b i l i t y to lower t o t a l alpha i f removed from s c a l e ) , the f o l l o w i n g items were s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the f i n a l Proto s c a l e : 9, 15, 16, 23, 25, 29, 50, 51. Psychometric P r o p e r t i e s of the 40 Item Proto Scale Table 8a presents the frequency with which s u b j e c t s c o r r e c t l y responded to the 40 s e l e c t e d Proto items. Using the a r b i t r a r y c r i t e r i o n of an 80 to 100% c o r r e c t item response as i n d i c a t i n g an item of easy d i f f i c u l t y 12 of the 40 items or 30% of items f e l l i n t o t h i s category. Secondly, using the c r i t e r i o n of a 41 to 70% c o r r e c t item response r a t e as r e p r e s e n t i n g an item of medium d i f f i c u l t y 17 or 42.5% of the 40 items f e l l i n t o t h i s c a t e gory. T h i r d l y , u sing the c r i t e r i o n of a 0 to 40% c o r r e c t response r a t e as r e p r e s e n t i n g an item of 49 TABLE 7 ALPHA VALUE**** OF PROTO SCALE IF ITEM DELETED. ALPHA ALPHA IF ITEM IF ITEM ITEM # DELETED ITEM # DELETED 1 0.5897** 31 0.7262 2 0.5787** 32 0.7221** 3 0.5998** 33 0.7263** 4 0.7275 34 0.7229** 5 0.7257 35 0.7304** 6 0.7219 36 0.7286*** 7 0.7219 37 0.7250** 8 0.6165** 38 0.7167** 9 0.6147* 39 0.7287 10 0.5896** 40 0.7191** 1 1 0.7295 41 0.7317 1 2 0.6117** 42 0.6579** 1 3 0.5871** 43 0.6406** 1 4 0.7255 44 0.7381 1 5 0.5935*- 45 0.6417** 1 6 0.5897* 46 0.6808*** 1 7 0.5884** 47 0.6558** 18 0.7252 48 0.6514** 19 0.5949** 49 0.7308 20 0.6169** 50 0.6570* 21 0.7218 51 0.6621* 22 0.7337 52 0.6740*** 23 0.7180* 53 0.7481** 24 0.7101** 54 0.7682** 25 0.7184* 55 0.6803*** 26 0.7262** 56 0.7589** 27 0.7224 57 0.7617 28 0.7163** 58 0.6630** 29 0.7217* 59 0.6518** 30 0.7177** 60 0.6688** *ITEM SELECTED FOR FINAL 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE **ITEM PREVIOUSLY SELECTED FOR FINAL PROTO SCALE FROM ANOVA RESULTS ***ITEM REMOVED FROM CONSIDERATION DUE TO PATICIPANT COMMENTS ****ALPHA VALUES TAKEN TO FOUR DECIMAL PLACES FOR PRECISION IN MAGNITUDE DISCRIMINATION POWERS. 50 TABLE 8a ITEM DIFFICULTY LEVELS OF THE FINAL 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE. PERCENT PERCENT ITEM # CORRECT ITEM # CORRECT 1 65. 0% 32 57.3% 2 75.6 33 12.9 3 64.0 34 50.2 8 68.0 35 27.8 9 13.6 37 74.9 10 80.3 38 89.8 1 2 48.8 40 81.4 1 3 62.4 42 24.7 15 82.4 43 41.4 16 85.8 45 40.0 17 69.5 47 '56.0 19 76.6 48 29.5 20 47. 1 50 50.2 23 91 .9 51 87.5 24 47.5 53 54.2 25 89.5 54 24.7 26 29.5 56 28.8 28 66. 1 58 33.9 29 79.7 59 38.6 30 70.8 60 66. 1 hard d i f f i c u l t y , 11 or 27.5% of the items f e l l i n t o t h i s category (see Table 8b). Table 9 presents Chronbach's r e l i a b i l i t y alphas ( c o r r e c t e d f o r a t t e n u a t i o n u s i n g G u i l f o r d ' s formula) f o r the 40 item Proto s c a l e and i t s s o c i a l s c i e n c e , b i o l o g y , and psychology s u b s c a l e s . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d an o v e r a l l s c a l e alpha of 0.8391 f o r the 40 item s c a l e and a p r o j e c t e d alpha of 0.9287 f o r a 100 item s c a l e . For the s o c i a l s c i e n c e subscale an o v e r a l l alpha of 0.6140 f o r the 13 items and a p r o j e c t e d alpha of 0.9244 f o r a 100 item subscale were determined. For the b i o l o g y subscale an o v e r a l l alpha of 0.6759 f o r the 14 items and a p r o j e c t e d alpha of 0.9371 f o r a 100.item subscale were determined. For the psychology subscale an o v e r a l l alpha of 0.6842 f o r the 13 items and a p r o j e c t e d alpha of 0.9434 f o r a 100 item subscale were determined. Table 10 presents the r e s u l t s of an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the f a c t o r a n a l y t i c p r o p e r t i e s of the 40 item Proto s c a l e . Using the technique of m u l t i p l e r ' s , a Scree t e s t a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d a 3 F a c t o r s o l u t i o n . These f a c t o r s were i n t e r p r e t e d as f o l l o w s ; F a c t o r I r e p r e s e n t i n g a Psychology Dimension, F a c t o r II as a B i o l o g i c a l Change Dimension and Factor III as a combined S o c i a l L i f e s t y l e / H i s t o l o g i c a l Change F a c t o r . An o v e r a l l sampling adequacy of 0.8809 and a 20.6% cumulative p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l 52 TABLE 8b CATEGORIZATION OF 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE AS EASY, MEDIUM AND HARD* BASED ON ITEM DIFFICULTY LEVELS. PERCENT CORRECT ITEM ITEM DIFFICULTY RESPONSE RATE NUMBER N > 90% 23 1 EASY * 81-90 15 16 25 6 38 40 51 71-80 2 10 19 5 29 37 1 2 61-70% 1 3 8 13 17 8 28 30 60 MEDIUM * 51-60 32 47 53 3 41-50 12 20 24 6 34 43 50 1 7 31-40% 45 58 59 3 HARD * 21-30 26 35 42 6 48 54 56 11-20 9 33 2 0-10 0 1 1 ITEM TOTAL 40 * Items of easy d i f f i c u l t y were a r b i t r a r i l y chosen as items that 100 to 80% of p a r t i c i p a n t s answered c o r r e c t l y . Items of medium d i f f i c u l t y were determined on the b a s i s of a 70 to 41% c o r r e c t response r a t e and items of hard d i f f i c u l t y as a 40 to 0% c o r r e c t response. 53 TABLE 9 CHRONBACH'S RELIABILITY ALPHAS* OF PROTO (40 ITEM) AND SOCIAL SCIENCE, BIOLOGY, AND PSYCHOLOGY SUBSCALES. NUMBER ALPHA PROJECTED ALPHA** OF ITEMS TO 100 ITEMS FINAL PROTO 0.8391 40 0.9287 SCALE SUBSCALES SOCIAL SCIENCE 0.6140 13 0.9244 BIOLOGY 0.6759 14 0.9371 PSYCHOLOGY 0.6842 13 0.9434 * C o r r e c t e d f o r a t t e n u a t i o n u s i n g G u i l f o r d . ** Alpha values taken to four decimal p l a c e s f o r gre a t e r p r e c i s i o n i n magnitude d i s c r i m i n a t i o n powers. 54 TABLE 10 iRIMAX ROTATED FACTOR SOLUTION OF FINAL 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE. FACTOR I FACTOR 11 FACTOE : III ITEM #* LOADING ITEM # LOADING ITEM # LOADING 43 0.542 23 0.600 32 0.564 59 0.494 29 0.522 20 0.451 45 0.477 38 0.509 24 0.413 26 0.434 1 6 0.494 35 0.397 48 0.429 51 0.491 8 0.349 53 0.424 25 0.489 1 3 0.314 1 0.395 1 0 0.405 3 0.310 37 0.391 1 9 0.391 54 0.289 56 0.371 1 7 0.343 9 0.285 50 0.354 30 0.317 47 0.270 60 0.323 28 0.305 1 5 0.322 40 0.292 58 0.318 2 0.312 42 0.284 • 34 0.257 . 7 0.138 " EIGEN- 5.158 1 .751 1 .340 VALUES VARIANCE 12.895** ACCOUNTED 4.377 3.351 OVERALL SAMPLING ADEQUACY =< 0.8809 * See Appendix D f o r items r e f e r r e d to i n Ta b l e . ** F a c t o r a n a l y s i s accounted f o r 35.295% of the v a r i a n c e f o r the 40 item s c a l e , with the 3 f a c t o r s o l u t i o n accounting f o r 20.623%. v a r i a n c e was accounted f o r i n t h i s 3 f a c t o r s o l u t i o n . Tables 11a-11d present r e s u l t s of ANOVAs of the f i n a l 40 item Proto s c a l e a gainst the independent v a r i a b l e s of p a r t i c i p a n t age (grouped as 17-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-65), years of post-secondary education (grouped as 0, 1-4, and 5-12 y e a r s ) , gender (male, female) and s u b j e c t area (grouped as b i o l o g y , education, gerontology, non-academic (general p o p u l a t i o n ) , psychology, and s o c i a l work) [ r e f e r to Tables 1a, 1e, 1 i , 1m f o r f u r t h e r breakdown of s u b j e c t s i n each c a t e g o r y ] . R e s u l t s of an ANOVA a g a i n s t age (Table 11a) i n d i c a t e d t h at both Proto's t o t a l , s c a l e and each subscale showed s i g n i f i c a n t F values f o r the T o t a l Proto s c a l e (F=8.937, df.=4, p= 0.000), the s o c i a l s c i e n c e subscale (F=4.652, df.=4, p= 0.001), the b i o l o g y subscale (F=3.023, df.=4, p= 0.018), and the psychology subscale (F=13.351, df.=4, p= 0.000). Duncan's M u l t i p l e Range t e s t (see SPSS, 1983) r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that i n the 40 item s c a l e those p a r t i c i p a n t s between the ages of 21 to 50 ( i . e . the groups of 21-30, 31-40, 41-50) scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r ( i . e . c o r r e c t l y answered more items) [p ̂  0.05] than those p a r t i c i p a n t s aged 17-20. 56 TABLE 11 a ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY AGE GROUP, SCALE DF F. RATIO F. PROB. FINAL PROTO SCALE SUBSCALES 8.937 0.000 SOCIAL SCIENCE BIOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY 4.652 3.023 13.351 0.001 0.018 0.000 Duncan's M u l t i p l e Range t e s t s of the s o c i a l s cience subscale a g a i n s t age i n d i c a t e d t h at p a r t i c i p a n t s between the ages of 31 to 50 (31-40, 41-50) scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r (p < 0.05) on items c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s s ubscale than d i d those p a r t i c i p a n t s 17-20 years of age. With regards to Proto's b i o l o g y subscale no two age groups s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r at the 0.05 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l . With r e s p e c t to Proto's psychology s u b s c a l e , those p a r t i c i p a n t s between the ages of 21 to 50 ( i . e . groups 21-30, 31-40, 41-50) scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r (p < 0.05) than those i n the 17-20 age group. R e s u l t s of an ANOVA a g a i n s t years of post-secondary education (Table 11b) i n d i c a t e d t h at both Proto's t o t a l score and each of i t s three s u b s c a l e s showed s i g n i f i c a n t between group F values f o r the T o t a l Proto s c a l e (F=15.793, df.=2, p= 0.000), the s o c i a l science' subscale- (F=8.064, df.=2, p= 0.000), the b i o l o g y subscale (F=7.224, df.=2, p= 0.000), and the psychology subscale (F=18.431, df.=2, p= 0.000). Duncan's M u l t i p l e Range t e s t s of Proto and i t s three s u b s c a l e s i n d i c a t e d that those p a r t i c i p a n t s with 5 to 12 years of post-secondary e d u c a t i o n scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y 58 TABLE 11b ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION. SCALE DF F. RATIO F. PROB. FINAL PROTO SCALE 15.793 0.000 SUBSCALES SOCIAL SCIENCE BIOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY 8.064 7.224 18.431 0.000 0.000 0.000 b e t t e r ( i . e c o r r e c t l y answered more items) [p ̂  0.05] than d i d p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t i n g e i t h e r 0 or 1 to 4 years of post-secondary education (Table 11b). Re s u l t s of the One Way ANOVA aga i n s t sex (gender) [Table 11c] i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t F values f o r the t o t a l Proto s c a l e (F=0.687, df.=1, p= 0.408)as well as the three subscales of s o c i a l s c i e n c e (F=0.224, df.=1, p= 0.636), b i o l o g y (F=0.061, df.=1, p= 0.805), and ps y c h o l o l g y (F=1.734, df.=1, p= 0.189). As would be expected, a n a l y s i s of Proto and i t s three subscales a g a i n s t p a r t i c i p a n t gender i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between male and female responses (p < 0.05) [Table 11c]. R e s u l t s of an ANOVA ag a i n s t subject area (Table 1ld) i n d i c a t e d that both Proto and i t s three subscales showed s i g n i f i c a n t F v a l u e s . T o t a l Proto s c a l e (F=18.657, df.=5, p= 0.000); s o c i a l s cience subscale (F=10.118, df.=5, p= 0.000); b i o l o g y subscale (F=10.519, df.=5, p= 0.000); psychology subscale (F=24.333, df.=5, p= 0.000). Duncan's M u l t i p l e Range t e s t (DMRt) r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that f o r the Proto s c a l e , those p a r t i c i p a n t s , with g e r o n t o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher ( i . e . c o r r e c t l y answered more items, p ^0.05) than d i d 60 TABLE 11c ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SEX. SCALE DF F. RATIO F. PROB. FINAL PROTO SCALE SUBSCALES 1 0.687 0.408 SOCIAL SCIENCE BIOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY 0.224 0.061 1 .734 0.636 0.805 0. 189 TABLE 11d ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA. SCALE DF F. RATIO F. PROB. FINAL PROTO 5 18.657 0.000 SCALE SUBSCALES SOCIAL SCIENCE 10.118 0.000 BIOLOGY 10.519 0.000 PSYCHOLOGY 24.333 0.000 61 p a r t i c i p a n t s from each of the f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t areas; b i o l o g y , e d u c a t i o n , non-academic (general p o p u l a t i o n ) (non-academic), and s o c i a l work. In t u r n , those p a r t i c i p a n t s with b i o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g scored b e t t e r as a group ( i . e . c o r r e c t l y answered more items, p ^ 0.05) than d i d p a r t i c i p a n t s from the sub j e c t areas of non- academic (general p o p u l a t i o n ) , psychology and s o c i a l work (see Table 11d). With regards to Proto's b i o l o g y s u b s c a l e , DMRt a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d that p a r t i c i p a n t s with g e r o n t o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r (p < 0.05) than d i d p a r t i c i p a n t s from the areas of the non-academic (general p o p u l a t i o n ) , e d u c a t i o n , psychology, and social'work (see Table 11d). Those with b i o l o g y t r a i n i n g scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than those p a r t i c i p a n t s from non- academic (general p o p u l a t i o n ) subject areas (p ̂  0.05) [see Table 11d]. With regards to Proto's psychology subscale, DMRt a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d that p a r t i c i p a n t s with g e r o n t o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g d i d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r (p < 0.05) than p a r t i c i p a n t s from the areas of education, non-academic (general p o p u l a t i o n ) , psychology and s o c i a l work. In t u r n , p a r t i c i p a n t s with b i o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g d i d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r (p < .0.5) than p a r t i c i p a n t s from the non-academic (general p o p u l a t i o n ) and psychology. 62 Likewi s e , those with education t r a i n i n g d i d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than p a r t i c i p a n t s from psychology (p < 0.05). L a s t l y , p a r t i c i p a n t s with s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher ( i . e . c o r r e c t l y answered more items, p ^ 0.05) than those with psychology backgrounds (see Table 11d). R e s u l t s of an A n a l y s i s of Covariance a g a i n s t age h o l d i n g the independent v a r i a b l e s of years of post secondary education and su b j e c t group constant (Table 12-a) r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s (p < 0.05) on the t o t a l Proto s c a l e (F=1.462, df.=4, p= 0.214) nor i t s three s ubscales of s o c i a l s c i e n c e (F=1.394, df.=4, p= 0.236), b i o l o g y (F=0.987, df.=4, p= 0.466), and psychology (F=1.263, df.=4, p= 0.285). R e s u l t s of an A n a l y s i s of Covariance a g a i n s t years of post secondary education h o l d i n g the independent v a r i a b l e s of age and su b j e c t group constant (Table 12-b) re v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s (p ^ 0.05) of education on the t o t a l Proto s c a l e (F=2.366, df.=2, p= 0.097) nor on the three subscales of s o c i a l s c i e n c e (F=1.525, df.=2, p= 0.221), b i o l o g y (F=1.930, df.=2, p= 0.148), and psychology (F=1.107, df.=2, p= 0.333). R e s u l t s of an A n a l y s i s of Covariance a g a i n s t s u b j e c t group h o l d i n g the independent v a r i a b l e s of age and post secondary education constant (Table 12-c) 63 TABLE 12a ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO TOTAL SCALE AGAINST.AGE GROUP WITH YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF SQUARES MEAN SQUARES F RATIO F PROB. AGE GROUP EXPLAINED RESIDUAL TOTAL 4 6 288 294 212. 172 1901.617 10447.827 12349.444 53.043 316.936 36.277 42.005 1 .462 8.737 0.214 0.000 TABLE 12a (CONT.) ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO SOCIAL SUBSCALE AGAINST AGE GROUP WITH YEARS OF POST SECONDARY AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF SQUARES MEAN SQUARES F RATIO F PROB. AGE GROUP EXPLAINED RESIDUAL TOTAL 4 6 288 294 29.768 129.012 1537.584 1666.597 7.442 21.502 5.339 5.669 1 .394 4.027 0.236 0.001 TABLE 12a (CONT.) ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO BIOLOGY SUBSCALE AGAINST GROUP WITH YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION AND SUBJECT PARTIALED OUT. AGE AREA SOURCE D.F. SUM OF SQUARES MEAN SQUARES F RATIO F PROB. AGE GROUP EXPLAINED RESIDUAL TOTAL 4 6 288 294 22.416 166.928 1799.831 1966.759 5.604 27.821 6.249 6.690 0.987 4.452 0.466 0.000 64 TABLE 12a (CONT.) ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO PSYCHOLOGY SUBSCALE AGAINST AGE GROUP WITH YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF SQUARES MEAN SQUARES F RATIO F PROB. AGE GROUP 4 30.508 7.627 1 .263 0.285 EXPLAINED 6 473.591 78.932 13.070 0.000 RESIDUAL 288 1739.311 6.039 TOTAL 294 2212.902 7.527 65 TABLE 12b ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO TOTAL SCALE AGAINST YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION WITH AGE AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF SQUARES MEAN SQUARES F RATIO F PROB. EDUCATION 2 135.329 67.664 2.366 0.097 EXPLAINED 4 210.886 52.722 1 .844 0. 1 23 RESIDUAL 171 4890.000 28.596 TOTAL 175 5100.886 29.148 TABLE 12b (CONT.) ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO SOCIAL SUBSCALE AGAINST YEARS OF POST SECONDARY WITH AGE AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF SQUARES MEAN SQUARES F RATIO F PROB. EDUCATION 2 14.599 7.299 1 .525 0.221 EXPLAINED 4 32.238 8.060 1 .684 0. 1 56 RESIDUAL 171 818.483 4.786 TOTAL 175 850.722 4.861 TABLE 12b (CONT.) ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO BIOLOGY SUBSCALE AGAINST YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION WITH AGE AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF SQUARES MEAN SQUARES F RATIO F PROB. EDUCATION EXPLAINED RESIDUAL TOTAL 2 4 171 175 19.953 44.070 883.970 928.040 9.977 11.017 5. 169 5.303 1 .930 2.131 0. 1 48 0.079 66 TABLE 12b (CONT.) ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO PSYCHOLOGY SUBSCALE AGAINST YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION WITH AGE AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF SQUARES MEAN SQUARES F RATIO F PROB. EDUCATION 2 12.219 6.110 1 . 107 0.333 EXPLAINED 4 51.124 12.781 2.316 0.059 RESIDUAL 171 943.763 5.519 TOTAL 1 75 994.886 5.685 67 TABLE 12c ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO TOTAL SCALE AGAINST SUBJECT AREA WITH AGE AND YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF MEAN F F SQUARES SQUARES RATIO PROB. SUBJECT AREA 5 1537. .237 307, .447 9. .808 0. .000 EXPLAINED 7 3309. ,325 472, .761 15. ,082 0, .000 RESIDUAL 286 8964. .733 31 , .345 TOTAL 293 12274. .058 41 , .891 TABLE 12c (CONT.) ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO SOCIAL SUBSCALE AGAINST SUBJECT AREA WITH AGE AND YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF MEAN F F SQUARES SQUARES RATIO PROB. SUBJECT AREA 5 180.955 36. 191 7 .572 0. 000 EXPLAINED 7 286.527 40. 932 8 .564 0. 000 RESIDUAL 286 1367.041 4. 780 TOTAL 293 1653.568 5. 644 TABLE 12c (CONT.) ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO BIOLOGY SUBSCALE AGAINST SUBJECT AREA WITH AGE AND YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF SQUARES MEAN SQUARES F RATIO F PROB. SUBJECT AREA 5 EXPLAINED 7 RESIDUAL 286 TOTAL 293 208.710 334.175 1630.822 1964.997 41.742 47.739 5.702 6.706 7.320 8.372 0.000 0.000 68 TABLE 12c (CONT.) ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO PSYCHOLOGY SUBSCALE AGAINST SUBJECT AREA WITH AGE AND YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF MEAN F F SQUARES SQUARES RATIO PROB. SUBJECT AREA 5 258. .821 51 . 764 9. .837 0. .000 EXPLAINED 7 693. .951 99. , 1 36 18. .840 0. .000 RESIDUAL 286 1 504. 923 5. .262 TOTAL 293 2198. .874 7. .505 r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s (p < 0.05) of s u b j e c t group on the Proto s c a l e (F=9.808, df.=5, p= 0.000) and i t s 3 subscales of s o c i a l s c i e n c e (F=7.572, df.=5, p= 0.000), b i o l o g y (F=7.320, df.=5, p= 0.000), and psychology (F=9.837, df.=5, p= 0.000). Psychometric P r o p e r t i e s of Palmore's FAQ Table 13a presents the frequency with which s u b j e c t s c o r r e c t l y responded to the 25 item FAQ (5 p o i n t L i k e r t , Canadian items). Using the a r b i t r a r y c r i t e r i o n of an 80 to 100% c o r r e c t item response as i n d i c a t i n g an item of easy d i f f i c u l t y 10 of the 25 .items or 40% of items f e l l i n t o t h i s category. Secondly, u s i n g the c r i t e r i o n of a 41 to 70% c o r r e c t item response r a t e as r e p r e s e n t i n g an item of medium d i f f i c u l t y 8 or 32% of the 25 items f e l l i n t o t h i s category. T h i r d l y , u s i n g the c r i t e r i o n of a 0 to 40% c o r r e c t response r a t e as r e p r e s e n t i n g an item of hard d i f f i c u l t y , 7 or 28% of the items f e l l i n t o t h i s category (see Table 13a). Table 13b presents the frequency with which s u b j e c t s c o r r e c t l y responded to the o r i g i n a l FAQ (Tr u e / F a l s e , American items). Using the a r b i t r a r y c r i t e r i o n of an 80 to 100% c o r r e c t item response as i n d i c a t i n g an item of easy d i f f i c u l t y 13 of the 25 items or 52% of items f e l l i n t o t h i s category. Secondly, using 70 TABLE 13a CATEGORIZATION OF 25 ITEM FAQ SCALE (5 POINT SCALE, CANADIAN FACTS.) AS EASY, MEDIUM AND HARD* BASED ON THE FREQUENCY OF CORRECT PARTICIPANT RESPONSE. PERCENT CORRECT ITEM ITEM DIFFICULTY RESPONSE RATE NUMBER N > 90% 6 1 EASY * 81-90 7 14 19 21 4 71-80 2 4 10 22 23 5 10 61-70% 1 2 1 MEDIUM * 51-60 17 1 41-50 8 9 11 18 20 25 6 8 31-40% 0 HARD * 21-30 35 16 14 5 4 1 1-20 1 3 15 3 0-10 0 7 ITEM TOTAL 25 * Items of an easy c a l i b e r were a r b i t r a r i l y chosen as items i n which 100 to 80% of p a r t i c i p a n t s answered c o r r e c t l y . Items of medium d i f f i c u l t y were determined on the b a s i s of a 70 to 41% c o r r e c t response rate and items of a hard c a l i b e r as a 40 to 0% c o r r e c t response r a t e . 71 TABLE 13b CATEGORIZATION OF 25 ITEM FAQ SCALE (ORIGINAL TRUE/FALSE, AMERICAN ITEM FORMAT) AS EASY, MEDIUM AND HARD* BASED ON THE FREQUENCY OF CORRECT PARTICIPANT RESPONSE. PERCENT CORRECT ITEM ITEM DIFFICULTY RESPONSE RATE NUMBER N > 90% 1 3 5 6 8 10 13 14 1 5 EASY * 81-90 22 1 71-80 9 1 2 4 20 25 1 3 61-70% 2 4 8 5 1 1 18 MEDIUM * 51-60 17 23 2 41-50 0 7 31-40% 7 1 6 2 HARD * 21-30 19 21 24 3 1 1-20 0 0-10 0 5 ITEM TOTAL 25 * Items of an easy c a l i b e r were a r b i t r a r i l y chosen as items i n which 100 to 80% of p a r t i c i p a n t s answered c o r r e c t l y . Items of medium d i f f i c u l t y were determined on the b a s i s of a 70 to 41% c o r r e c t response rate and items of a hard c a l i b e r as a 40 to 0% c o r r e c t response r a t e . the c r i t e r i o n of a 41 to 70% c o r r e c t item response r a t e as r e p r e s e n t i n g an item of medium d i f f i c u l t y 7 or 28% of the 25 items f e l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . T h i r d l y , using the c r i t e r i o n of a 0 to 40% c o r r e c t response r a t e as r e p r e s e n t i n g an item of hard d i f f i c u l t y , 5 or 20% of the items f e l l i n t o t h i s category (see Table 13b). Table 14 prese n t s Chronbach's r e l i a b i l i t y alphas ( c o r r e c t e d f o r a t t e n u a t i o n using G u i l f o r d ' s formula) for the 25 item Palmore FAQ. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d an o v e r a l l s c a l e alpha of 0.6952 and a p r o j e c t e d alpha of 0.9012 for a 100 item s c a l e . Table 15 presents the r e s u l t s of an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the f a c t o r a n a l y t i c p r o p e r t i e s of Palmore's FAQ. Using the technique of m u l t i p l e r ' s a Scree t e s t a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d a 2 f a c t o r s o l u t i o n . These f a c t o r s were i n t e r p r e t e d as Fa c t o r I r e p r e s e n t i n g an Ageism Dimension and Fa c t o r II as a B i o l o g i c a l Change Dimension. An o v e r a l l sampling adequacy of 0.794 and a 15.09% cumulative p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l v a r i a n c e was accounted f o r i n t h i s 2 f a c t o r s o l u t i o n . Tables 1 6a-c present the r e s u l t s of ANOVA's of Palmore's FAQ a g a i n s t the independent v a r i a b l e s of p a r t i c i p a n t age (grouped as 17-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-65), years of post-secondary education (grouped as 0, 1-4 and 5-12 y e a r s ) , gender (male, female) and subject 73 TABLE 14 CHRONBACH'S RELIABILITY ALPHAS* OF PALMORE'S FAQ SCALE. NUMBER ALPHA PROJECTED ALPHA** OF ITEMS TO 100 ITEMS FAQ 0.6952 25 0.9012 SCALE * C o r r e c t e d f o r a t t e n u a t i o n using G u i l f o r d . ** Alpha values taken to four decimal p l a c e s f o r gr e a t e r p r e c i s i o n i n magnitude d i s c r i m i n a t i o n powers. 74 TABLE 15 VARIMAX ROTATED FACTOR SOLUTION OF PALMORE'S FAQ SCALE. FACTOR I FACTOR II ITEM #* LOADING ITEM # LOADING 9 0.508 6 0.516 11 0.499 14 0.501 17 0.450 4 0.426 5 0.447 22 0.318 16 0.393 2 0.303 23 0.362 24 0.239 20 0.356 3 0.350 1 0.345 10 0.333 19 0.316 7 0.303 18 0.291 15 0.280 13 0.270 8 0.242 21 0.164 25 0.103 12 0.181 EIGENVALUES 2.641 1.134 VARIANCE 10.564 4.535 ACCOUNTED OVERALL SAMPLING ADEQUACY = 0.794 * See Appendix G f o r items r e f e r r e d t o . Factor a n a l y s i s accounted f o r 29.306% of the v a r i a n c e f o r the 25 item s c a l e , with the 2 f a c t o r s o l u t i o n accounting f o r 15.098%. area (grouped as b i o l o g y , e d u c a t i o n , non-academic [general p o p u l a t i o n ] [non-academic], gerontology, psychology and s o c i a l work) [ r e f e r to Table 2a to 2d f o r f u r t h e r breakdown of s u b j e c t s i n each c a t e g o r y ] . R e s u l t s of an ANOVA of Palmore's FAQ a g a i n s t age (Table 16a) i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t F values, (F=15.621, df.=4,240, p= 0.000). DMRt a n a l y s i s of t h i s r e s u l t i n d i c a t e d that p a r t i c i p a n t s between the ages of 21 to 65 scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r ( i . e . c o r r e c t l y answered more items) than p a r t i c i p a n t s 17-20 years (p < 0.05). R e s u l t s of an ANOVA of Palmore's FAQ a g a i n s t years of post-secondary education (Table 16b) i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t F'values ( F=26.146, df.=2,245, p= 0.000). DMRt a n a l y s i s of t h i s r e s u l t i n d i c a t e d that p a r t i c i p a n t s with 5 to 12 years of post-secondary education scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r (p < .05) than those p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t i n g e i t h e r 0 or 1 to 4 years of post-secondary education. R e s u l t s of a One Way ANOVA of Palmore's FAQ a g a i n s t sex (gender) [Table 16c] i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t F values between male and female responses (F=0.723, df.=1,244, p= 0.396). R e s u l t s of an ANOVA of Palmore's FAQ a g a i n s t subject area (Table 16d) i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t F values TABLE 16a ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PALMORE SCALE AGAINST AGE GROUP. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF MEAN F F SQUARES SQUARES RATIO PROB. BETWEEN 4 685.363 171.340 15.621 0.000 WITHIN 240 2632.432 10.968 TOTAL 244 3317.795 TABLE 16b ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PALMORE SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF MEAN F F SQUARES SQUARES RATIO PROB. BETWEEN 2 626.347 313.174 26.146 0.000 WITHIN 245 2934.490 11.977 TOTAL 247 3560.838 TABLE 16c ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PALMORE SCALE BY SEX (GENDER). SOURCE D.F. SUM OF MEAN F F SQUARES SQUARES RATIO PROB. BETWEEN 1 10.399 10.399 0.723 0.396 WITHIN 244 3508.333 14.378 TOTAL 245 3518.732 TABLE I6d ANALYSIS OF PROTO SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF MEAN F F SQUARES SQUARES RATIO PROB. BETWEEN 5 891.126 178.225 17.557 0.000 WITHIN 288 2923.430 10.150 TOTAL 293 3814.557 (F=17.557, df.=5,288, p= 0.000). DMRt a n a l y s i s of t h i s r e s u l t i n d i c a t e d that those p a r t i c i p a n t s with g e r o n t o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r ( i . e . c o r r e c t l y answered more items, p < 0.05) than d i d p a r t i c i p a n t s from each of the f o l l o w i n g subject areas; b i o l o g y , education, non-academic (general p o p u l a t i o n ) , psychology and s o c i a l work. In t u r n , those p a r t i c i p a n t s with b i o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g scored b e t t e r as a group (p < 0.05) than d i d p a r t i c i p a n t s from psychology. Likewise, those p a r i c i p a n t s with t r a i n i n g i n education scored b e t t e r as a group (p -< 0.05) than p a r t i c i p a n t s from psychology. R e s u l t s of. an A n a l y s i s of Covariance. a g a i n s t age h o l d i n g the independent v a r i a b l e s of post secondary education and subject group constant r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s of age (p < 0.05) on Palmore's FAQ (Table 17-a). FAQ (F=3.854, df.=4, p= 0.005). Re s u l t s of an A n a l y s i s of Covariance a g a i n s t years of post secondary education h o l d i n g the independent v a r i a b l e s of age and s u b j e c t group constant r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s of education (p < 0.05) on Palmore's FAQ (Table 17-b). FAQ (F=1.548, df.=2, p= 0.216). Re s u l t s of an A n a l y s i s of Covariance a g a i n s t subject group h o l d i n g the independent v a r i a b l e s of age 79 TABLE 17a ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PALMORE SCALE AGAINST AGE GROUP WITH EDUCATION AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF MEAN F F SQUARES SQUARES RATIO PROB. AGE 4 169.218 42.304 3.854 0.005 EXPLAINED 6 700.075 116.679 1 0.629 0.000 RESIDUAL 288 3161 .437 10.977 TOTAL' 294 3861.512 13.134 TABLE 17b ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PALMORE SCALE AGAINST YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION WITH AGE AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF MEAN F F SQUARES SQUARES RATIO PROB. EDUCATION 2 29.765 14.882 1 . 548 0.216 EXPLAINED 4 92.469 23. 117 2.404 0.052 RESIDUAL 171 1644.077 9.614 TOTAL 175 1736.545 9.923 and post secondary education constant (Table 17-c) r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s of subject group (p< 0.05) on Palmore's FAQ (F=6.538, df.=5, p= 0.000). Table 18 p r e s e n t s p o i n t - b y - s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s ( v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ) of Proto, Palmore's FAQ and Kogan's OP s c a l e s . Proto c o r r e l a t e d with Palmore's FAQ rxy= 0.701, p= 0.000 or 49.2% of Proto's v a r i a n c e was accounted f o r by Palmore's FAQ. Proto's s o c i a l s c i e n c e subscale c o r r e l a t e d with Palmore's FAQ rxy= 0.600, p= 0.000 or 36.06% of Proto's v a r i a n c e was accounted f o r by the FAQ. Proto's b i o l o g y subscale c o r r e l a t e d with Palmore's FAQ rxy= 0.539, p= 0.000 or 29.08% of Proto's v a r i a n c e was accounted f o r by the FAQ. Proto's psychology subscale c o r r e l a t e d with the FAQ rxy= 0.595, p= 0.000 or 35.41% of Proto's v a r i a n c e was accounted f o r by the FAQ. Proto c o r r e l a t e d with Kogan's OP s c a l e rxy= 0.370, p= 0.000 or 81 TABLE 17c ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PALMORE SCALE AGAINST SUBJECT AREA WITH AGE AND YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF SQUARES MEAN SQUARES F RATIO F PROB. SUBJECT AREA 5 327.806 65.561 6.538 0.000 EXPLAINED 7 946.726 135.247 13.488 0.000 RESIDUAL 286 2867.831 10.027 TOTAL 293 3814.558 13.019 82 TABLE 18 PEARSON CORRELATIONS OF PROTO, PALMORE'S FAQ, AND KOGAN'S OP SCALES. CORRELATION PERCENT PROB. SCALE COMPARISON COEFFICIENT ACCOUNTED LEVEL PROTO BY PALMORE 0.701 49.20% 0.000 *S.S. BY PALMORE 0.600 36.06% 0.000 Biol.BY PALMORE 0.539 29.08% 0.000 Psyc.BY PALMORE 0.595 35.41% 0.000 PROTO BY KOGAN 0.370 13.69% 0.000 S.S. BY KOGAN 0.364 13.26% 0.000 Biol.BY KOGAN 0.243 5.94% 0.000 Psyc.BY KOGAN 0.310 9.60% 0.000 PALMORE BY KOGAN 0.443 19.64% 0.000 *S.S. - S o c i a l Science Subscale of Proto * B i o l . - Biology Subscale of Proto *Psyc. - Psychology Subscale of Proto 13.69% of Proto's v a r i a n c e was accounted f o r by Kogan's OP s c a l e . Proto's s o c i a l s c i e n c e subscale c o r r e l a t e d with Kogan's OP s c a l e rxy= 0.364, p= 0.000 or 13.26% of i t s v a r i a n c e was accounted f o r by the OP s c a l e . Proto's b i o l o g y subscale c o r r e l a t e d with Kogan's OP s c a l e rxy= 0.243, p= 0.000 or 5.94% of i t s v a r i a n c e was accounted f o r by the OP s c a l e . Proto's psychology subscale c o r r e l a t e d with Kogan's OP s c a l e rxy= 0.310, p= 0.000 or 9.6% of i t s v a r i a n c e was accounted f o r by the OP s c a l e . Palmore's FAQ c o r r e l a t e d with Kogan's OP. s c a l e rxy= 0.4432, p= 0.000, or 19.64% of Palmore's v a r i a n c e was accounted for by Kogan's OP s c a l e . 84 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n set out to develop a p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y r e l i a b l e s c a l e capable of measuring "only" [pure] knowledge about aging. By f o l l o w i n g an item s e l e c t i o n procedure s i m i l a r to that used u n i v e r s a l l y i n s c a l e development, f o r t y of s i x t y o r i g i n a l items were s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the f i n a l Proto s c a l e . Of primary importance, however, i s not how Proto was developed, but whether i t possesses more r i g o r o u s s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n and psychometric c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than Palmore's FAQ. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l t h e r e f o r e focus on Proto's c o n s t r u c t i o n and psychometric p r o p e r t i e s as compared with the FAQ's. With r e s p e c t to s c a l e and item c o n s t r u c t i o n , whereas the FAQ i s noted f o r i t s two part (double- b a r r e l l e d ) items Proto items are l i m i t e d to s i n g l e concept statements. T h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d by t h i s author to be an important aspect of Proto's c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n c e i t ensures g r e a t e r item r e l i a b i l i t y i . e . one can be c e r t a i n what p a r t of the item the s u b j e c t i s responding t o . A second a s s e t of Proto's item c o n s t r u c t i o n i s the avoidance of ambiguous wording ( i . e . ' p r e t t y much a l i k e ' ) and g e n e r a l i t i e s ('most o l d people') that are 85 present i n the FAQ. T h i s i s an important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c e i t helps to ensure c o n s i s t e n c y i n item i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Since Proto's items were i n i t i a l l y s e l e c t e d so that a s c a l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the three main su b j e c t domains of gerontology (namely s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , b i o l o g y and psychology) would be developed, i t i s important to note that f a c t o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s c o n f i r m these dimensions. However, although Palmore (1977) has s a i d that he chose FAQ items from the areas of p h y s i c a l , mental and s o c i a l a s p e c t s of aging, t h i s i s not confirmed i n f a c t o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s (to be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n the s e c t i o n d e a l i n g with psychometric c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ) . These r e s u l t s imply that Proto i s b e t t e r at t e s t i n g knowledge from the s u b j e c t areas i t p u r p o r t s to than i s the FAQ. And f i n a l l y , with r e s p e c t to s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n , the f i v e - p o i n t response format present i n Proto adds to the r i g o r of t h i s s c a l e , s i n c e i t e l i m i n a t e s the f i f t y p ercent chance of guessing present i n the o r i g i n a l t r u e / f a l s e format of the FAQ ( i t should be noted that i n order to maintain c o m p a r a b i l i t y of r e s u l t s , the FAQ response format used i n t e s t b a t t e r i e s were i d e n t i c a l to Proto's f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e ) . C o l l a p s i n g the f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e s i n t o a t r u e / f a l s e format f o r a n a l y s i s allowed i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of whether the item was c o r r e c t l y 86 answered. Any s i g n i f i c a n t changes t h i s may have had on s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s r e v o l v e p r i m a r i l y around the lowering of r e l i a b i l i t y v a l u e s , s i n c e r e l i a b i l i t y i n c r e a s e s with number of response c a t e g o r i e s . No other changes, other than l o s s of response f r e q u e n c i e s to each s c a l e category, was of any s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s r e s u l t s . With respect to the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of Proto and Palmore s c a l e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , item d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s , i d e a l l y d e s i r e a s c a l e that can p i c k out those with s p e c i a l i z e d v e r s u s general i n f o r m a t i o n about what the s c a l e p u r p o r t s to measure ( i . e . want a s c a l e with d i s t i n g u i s h i n g powers). Proto appears to possess t h i s q u a l i t y as e x e m p l i f i e d i n the frequency of c o r r e c t item responses o b t a i n e d by s u b j e c t s in t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . FAQ ( r e v i s e d format) r e s u l t s produced a s i m i l a r item d i f f i c u l t y breakdown, but whereas Proto was stacked on the medium d i f f i c u l t y s i d e , (11 out of 40 or 27.5% of items were of hard d i f f i c u l t y [ i . e . items had a 0-40% c o r r e c t response r a t e ] , 17 of 40 or 42.5% of items were of medium d i f f i c u l t y [ i . e . items which had a 41-70% c o r r e c t response r a t e ] , 12 of 40 or 30% of items were of an easy d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l [ i . e . items which had a 71-100% c o r r e c t response r a t e ] ) , Palmore's FAQ was found to be stacked on the easy s i d e (7 of 25 or 28% of items were of hard d i f f i c u l t y , 8 or 32% were of medium d i f f i c u l t y , 87 and 10 or 40% were of easy d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , a s i m i l a r item d i f f i c u l t y breakdown conducted on p i l o t r e s u l t s using the o r i g i n a l FAQ format ( i . e . t r u e / f a l s e and American items) i n d i c a t e d a n o t i c e a b l e change i n c o r r e c t item responses (5 of 25 items or 20% of items were of a hard d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l , 7 or 28% of items were of medium d i f f i c u l t y and 13 or 52% were of easy d i f f i c u l t y ) . The r e s u l t s of the o r i g i n a l FAQ format as compared to Proto, suggest t h a t Proto, with a r e l a t i v e l y equal breakdown of easy/medium and hard d i f f i c u l t l y items, might possess stronger a b i l i t i e s f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g i n f o r m a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s (as based on subject response i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n ) . Not o n l y does Proto possess good item d i s c r i m i n a t o r y powers, but items sample e q u a l l y from i t s three purported s u b j e c t domains of s o c i a l s c i e n c e (13 items), b i o l o g y (14 i t e m s ) , and psychology (13 i t e m s ) . In c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s c a l e r e l i a b i l i t y , or e r r o r due to chance f a c t o r s , Proto at 0.8391 possesses l e s s l i k e l i h o o d of measurement f l u c t u a t i o n than the FAQ with a Chronbach's r e l i a b i l i t y alpha of 0.6952. However, comparison of the two s c a l e s as such i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e s i n c e r e l i a b i l t y i s i n f l u e n c e d by the number of items i n a s c a l e ( i . e . the g r e a t e r the number of items the higher 88 the r e l i a b i l i t y ) . More d e f i n i t e proof of Proto's s u p e r i o r r e l i a b i l i t y i s e x e m p l i f i e d in value p r o j e c t i o n s for 100 items which i n d i c a t e t h a t Proto s t i l l possesses g r e a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y than the FAQ (0.9287 versus 0.9012). C o n s i d e r a t i o n of Proto's three subscales a l s o i n d i c a t e that p r o j e c t e d to 100 items each subscale possesses l e s s measurement e r r o r than the FAQ ( s o c i a l s c i e n c e 0.9244; b i o l o g y 0.9371; psychology 0.9434 versus FAQ 0.9012). I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the f a c t o r a n a l y t i c dimensions of Proto and FAQ s c a l e s r e v e a l s t h a t 20.623 percent of Proto and 15.098 percent of FAQ's v a r i a n c e i s accounted for i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e three and two f a c t o r s o l u t i o n s { i n d i c a t e d by Scree t e s t a n a l y s i s ) . As a l l u d e d to p r e v i o u s l y , f a c t o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the Proto s c a l e corresponded to the three s u b j e c t domains from which items were sampled from. Namely, the s o c i a l s c i e n c e subject domain corresponds to the s p l i t F a c tor III i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of S o c i a l L i f e s t y l e / H i s t o l o g i c a l changes, the b i o l o g y s u b j e c t domain corresponds to the F a c t o r II i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a B i o l o g i c a l Change F a c t o r , and the psychology s u b j e c t domain to the F a c t o r I i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a P s y c h o l o g i c a l Dimension. The FAQ's purported item sampling from the areas of p h y s i c a l , mental, and s o c i a l aspects of aging were not s e p a r a t e l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e i n the f a c t o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of F a c t o r I, an Ageism F a c t o r , and F a c t o r I I , a B i o l o g i c a l Change F a c t o r . 89 I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o ANOVA r e s u l t s of Proto, i t s three subscales and the FAQ a g a i n s t age, years of post secondary education, sex (gender) and s u b j e c t area of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d somewhat s i m i l a r t r e n d s . These trends were f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s to occur between age, education and s u b j e c t area groupings of part i c i p a n t s . Because i t was p o s s i b l e that p a r t i c i p a n t age and e d u c a t i o n a l attainment might be e x e r t i n g i n t e r a c t i v e e f f e c t s on s c a l e r e s u l t s , Analyses of Covariance were conducted. I n t e r a c t i o n was p l a u s i b l e s i n c e i t i s known that i n d i v i d u a l s born between 1943-61 [baby boom years] have t y p i c a l l l y reached higher l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n a l attainment than previous age groups (Cross, 1982). R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that when p o s s i b l e age d i f f e r e n c e s were c o n s i d e r e d h o l d i n g years of post secondary education and sub j e c t area- c o n s t a n t , Proto and- i t s three subscales showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s (p< 0.05) although a n a l y s i s of the FAQ i n d i c a t e d that s i g n i f i c a n t age d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d . These r e s u l t s imply that p a r t i c i p a n t age i s a confounding i n f l u e n c e i n FAQ s c a l e r e s u l t s . When years of post secondary education attainment was c o n s i d e r e d h o l d i n g p a r t i c i p a n t age and subj e c t area constant, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s (p< 0.05) were found f o r Proto and FAQ s c a l e responses. 90 As a c a u t i o n a r y measure, Analyses of Covariance were conducted on Proto, i t s three s u b s c a l e s , and the FAQ, c o n s i d e r i n g s u b j e c t area e f f e c t s h o l d i n g p a r t i c i p a n t age and years of post secondary education c o n s t a n t . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t s u b j e c t area e f f e c t s (p< 0.05). These r e s u l t s , taken together with ANOVA r e s u l t s which i n d i c a t e d that p a r t i c i p a n t s with g e r o n t o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than p a r t i c i p a n t s from other s u b j e c t areas, i n d i c a t e d that the e f f e c t s due to subject area were not confounded by age or post secondary education c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . In summary, i n d i v i d u a l s with g e r o n t o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g were doing s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r on Proto as a r e s u l t of t h e i r s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g and not due to age or e d u c a t i o n a l attainment e f f e c t s . However, i n the FAQ's case, p a r t i c i p a n t age was a confounding i n f l u e n c e i n s u b j e c t area r e s u l t s . As such, t h i s i m p l i e s that the FAQ confounds s u b j e c t area and age e f f e c t s i n i t s s c a l e r e s u l t s ( i . e . i s not capable of measuring pure g e r o n t o l o g i c a l education e f f e c t s ) . C o r r e l a t i o n s of the FAQ with Kogan's OP (an a t t i t u d e s c a l e ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t more of FAQ's v a r i a n c e was accounted f o r by t h i s a t t i t u d e s c a l e than was Pr o t o ' s . Coupled with the f a c t that f a c t o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the FAQ i n d i c a t e d t h a t an a t t i t u d e 91 dimension was present (Ageism F a c t o r ) , and that age, which has been l i n k e d to a t t i t u d e s about aging, i s a confounding i n f l u e n c e , a f f i r m s Klemmack's (1979) and Palmore's (1981) statements that the FAQ measures a t t i t u d e s and/or s t e r e o t y p e s about aging. However, more important i s the f a c t t h a t r e s u l t s from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n d i c a t e that r e s e a r c h e r s i n the f i e l d of g e r o n t o l o g i c a l education now have a r i g o r o u s s c a l e which can be used to measure knowledge about aging. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Proto's usage i n c l u d e the a b i l i t y to measure b e f o r e / a f t e r l e v e l s of g e r o n t o l o g i c a l knowledge, sampling items of easy, medium and hard d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s from the three s u b j e c t areas r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of gerontology. Using Proto, i t w i l l now be p o s s i b l e to i n v e s t i g a t e e f f e c t s that g e r o n t o l o g i c a l knowledge might have on a t t i t u d e s about aging. T h i s was not p o s s i b l e b e f o r e , s i n c e the FAQ measures from knowledge and a t t i t u d e dimensions, so i n v e s t i g a t i o n of pure knowledge e f f e c t s on a t t i t u d e s was not p o s s i b l e . In summary, r e s u l t s from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n d i c a t e that Proto i s a h i g h l y r e l i a b l e and v a l i d s c a l e which measures easy, medium and hard items from the three s u b j e c t domains of g e rontology. I t s s t r i n g e n t s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n and psychometric c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s allow d e t e c t i o n of g e r o n t o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g e f f e c t s 92 devoid of age or e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l attainment of p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n i t i a l r e s u l t s from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n suggest that Proto i s a l s o a b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h p a r t i c i p a n t s with s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge of b i o l o g i c a l a spects of aging. However, f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o Proto's a b i l i t y to d i s t i n g u i s h p a r t i c i p a n t s from subject areas r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of i t s three subscales w i l l be necessary before any c o n c l u s i o n s can be reached. References 1) B e a t t i e , B.L. (1984). Personal communications. 2) Butt, D.S. (1985). Personal communications. 3) E l l i o t , L. (1984). Personal communications. 94 References A l l e n , B . J . (1981). Knowledge on Aging: A C r o s s - S e c t i o n a l Study of Three D i f f e r e n t Age Groups. E d u c a t i o n a l Gerontology, 6, 49-60. Ana s t a s i , A . (1961). P s y c h o l o g i c a l T e s t i n g . New York: The MacMillan Company. Borg,W.R. & Gall,M.D. (1979). E d u c a t i o n a l Research An I n t r o d u c t i o n . New York: Longman Inc. Butler,R.N. (1975). Why Survive? Being Old i n America. New York: Harper & Row. Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n on Gerontology (1984). 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Jackson,D.N. (1966). A Modern S t r a t e g y f o r P e r s o n a l i t y Assessment: The P e r s o n a l i t y Research Form. Research B u l l e t i n No. 30 U n i v e r s i t y of Western O n t a r i o , Department of Psychology, London, Canada. Junqueira j.L .C.; C a r n e i r o , J . & Contopoulos , A. (1977). Basi c H i s t o l o g y (2nd ed.). C a l i f o r n i a : Lange Med i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n s . Kimmel,D.C. (1980). Adulthood and Aging. Toronto: John Wiley & Sons. Klemmack,D.L. (1978). Comment: An Examination of Palmore's F a c t s on aging Quiz. The G e r o n t o l o g i s t , J_8, 403-406. Kogan,N. (1961). A t t i t u d e s Toward Old People: The development of a s c a l e and an examination of c o r r e l a t e s . J o u r n a l of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology, 62,.44-54. Laner,M.R. (1981). Palmore's F a c t s on Aging Quiz: Does i t Measure Learning ? Gerontology and G e r i a t r i c s Education, 2, 3-7. Le,C. (1981). UBC FAN Factor A n a l y s i s . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Centre Document, Vancouver B.C. Canada. Longino,C.F. & K i t s o n , G.C. (1976). P a r i s h c l e r g y and the aged: Examining s t e r e o t y p e s . J o u r n a l of Gerontology, 31 (3), 340-345. 96 Luszcz,M.A. (1982). F a c t s on Aging: An A u s t r a l i a n V a l i d a t i o n . The G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 22, 369-372. Lutsky,N.S. (1980). i n Annual Review of Gerontology and G e r i a t r i c s E i s d o r f e r ,.C. (ed.) . New York: Spring e r P u b l i s h i n g Company. Mai s o n v i l l e , P . M . (1984). T h e o r i e s Related to A t t i t u d e and A t t i t u d e Change: The S o c i a l i z a t i o n of A d u l t s ' A t t i t u d e s Towards Learning . Unpublished M.Ed.paper, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. McTavish,D.G. (1982). i n Research Instruments i n S o c i a l Gerontology In Mangen,D.J. & Peterson, W.A. ( e d s . ) . Research Instruments i n S o c i a l Gerontology . (p.556). M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota P r ess. M i l l e r , R . B . & Dodder,R.A. (1980). A R e v i s i o n of Palmore's Fa c t s on Aging Quiz. The G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 20, 673-679. M i l l s , J . (1972). A t t i t u d e s of Undergraduate Students Concerning G e r i a t r i c P a t i e n t s . The American J o u r n a l of Occup a t i o n a l Therapy, 4, 200-203. Moore,K.L. (1977). The Developing Human (2nd.ed.). Toronto: W.B. Saunders Company. N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on Aging i n Canada (1980). P r i o r i t i e s f o r A c t i o n . M i n i s t e r of H e a l t h and Welfare, Canada. Palmore,E. (1977). F a c t s on Aging: A Short Quiz. The G e r o n t o l o g i s t 17, 315-320. Palmore,E. (1981). The Fac t s on Aging Quiz: Part Two. The G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 21, 431-437. P e t r o f s k y , J . S . (1975). Aging, i s o m e t r i c s t r e n g t h and endurance and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r responses to s t a t i c e f f o r t . J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d P h ysiology , 38, 91-95. Poon,L.W. (Ed.). (1980). Aging i n the 1980s P s y c h o l o g i c a l Issues . Washington D.C.: American P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . Shock,N.W. (1962). The Physiology of Aging. S c i e n t i f i c American, 206 , 100-110. 97 Silverman, I. (1966). Response-set bi a s and p r e d i c t i v e a b i l i t y a s s o c i a t e d with Kogan's " A t t i t u d e s Toward Old People S c a l e " . J o u r n a l of Gerontology, 21, 86-88. SPSS Inc. (1983). SPSSx User's Guide. Toronto: McGraw- H i l l Book Company. Thorson,J.A., Whatley,L., & Hancock,K. (1974). A t t i t u d e s Toward the Aged as a F u n c t i o n of Age and E d u c a t i o n . The G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 316-318. West,H.L. & Levy,W.J. (1984). Knowledge of Aging i n the M e d i c a l P r o f e s s i o n . Gerontology and G e r i a t r i c s E d u c a t i o n , 4, 23-31. Woodruff,D.S. & B i r r e n , J . E . (1983). Aging- S c i e n t i f i c P e r s p e c t i v e s and S o c i a l Issues (2nd ed.). Belmont C a l i f o r n i a : Brooks-Cole P u b l i s h i n g Company. 98 APPENDIX A 99 Palmore's F a c t s on Aging Quiz I n s t r u c t i o n s : Please c i r c l e whether the item i s true or f a l s e . 1) The m a j o r i t y of o l d people (past 65) are s e n i l e ( i . e . d e f e c t i v e memory, d i s o r i e n t e d , or demented). True F a l s e 2) A l l f i v e senses tend to d e c l i n e i n o l d age. True F a l s e 3) Most o l d people have no i n t e r e s t i n , or c a p a c i t y f o r , sexual r e l a t i o n s . True F a l s e 4) Lung c a p a c i t y tends to d e c l i n e i n o l d age. True F a l s e 5) The m a j o r i t y of o l d people f e e l m iserable most of the time. True F a l s e 6) P h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h tends to d e c l i n e i n o l d age. True F a l s e 7) At l e a s t one-tenth of the aged are l i v i n g i n long- stay i n s t i t u t i o n s ( i . e . n u r s i n g homes, mental h o s p i t a l s , homes f o r the aged, e t c . ) . True F a l s e 8) Aged d r i v e r s have fewer a c c i d e n t s per person than d r i v e r s under age 65. True F a l s e 100 9) Most o l d e r workers cannot work as e f f e c t i v e l y as younger workers. True F a l s e 10) About 80% of the aged are healthy enough to c a r r y out t h e i r normal a c t i v i t i e s . True F a l s e 11) Most o l d people are set i n t h e i r ways and unable to change. True F a l s e 12) Old people u s u a l l y take longer to l e a r n something new. True F a l s e 13) I t i s impossible f o r most o l d people to l e a r n new t h i n g s . True F a l s e 14) The r e a c t i o n time of most o l d people tends to be slower than r e a c t i o n time of younger people. True F a l s e 15) In g e n e r a l , most o l d people are p r e t t y much a l i k e . True F a l s e 16) The m a j o r i t y of o l d people are seldom bored. True F a l s e 17) The m a j o r i t y of o l d people are s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d and l o n e l y . True F a l s e 18) Older workers have fewer a c c i d e n t s than younger workers. True F a l s e 19) Over 15% of the U.S. p o p u l a t i o n are now age 65 or over. True F a l s e 101 20) Most medical p r a c t i t i o n e r s tend to give low p r i o r i t y to the aged. True F a l s e 21) The m a j o r i t y of o l d e r people have incomes below the poverty l i n e (as d e f i n e d by the F e d e r a l Government). True F a l s e 22) The m a j o r i t y of o l d people are working or would l i k e to have some kind of work to do ( i n c l u d i n g housework and v o l u n t e e r work). True F a l s e 23) Older people tend to become more r e l i g i o u s as they age. True F a l s e 24) The m a j o r i t y of o l d people are seldom i r r i t a t e d or angry. True F a l s e 25) The h e a l t h and socioeconomic s t a t u s of o l d e r people (compared to younger people) i n the year 2000 w i l l probably be about the same as now. True F a l s e 102 APPENDIX B PILOT RESULTS OF THE FAQ RELIABILITY VALUE. STANDARD CHRONBACH'S N MEAN VARIANCE DEVIATION ALPHA 136 21.245 8.533 2.921 0.579 104 APPENDIX C 1 05 R e s u l t s of an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the f a c t o r a n a l y t i c p r o p e r t i e s of Palmore's FAQ. VARIMAX ROTATED FACTOR SOLUTION OF PALMORE'S FAQ SCALE. FACTOR I FACTOR 11 FACTOR : III ITEM* LOADING ITEM LOADING ITEM LOADING 1 0.838 1 7 0.708 2 0.602 1 3 0.802 21 0.645 1 4 0.560 3 0.620 1 6 0.577 1 2 0.517 5 0.581 24 0.548 25 0.488 15 0. 462 19 0.419 20 0.426 23 0.345 4 0.375 EIGEN- 2.900 2.315 2.091 VALUES VARIANCE 11.598 9.260 8.364 ACCOUNTED FACTOR IV - ITEM LOADING 1 1 0.576 8 0.480 9 0.448 18 0.427 10 0.412 22 0.380 6 0.361 7 0.235 EIGENVALUE 1 .601 VARIANCE ACCOUNTED 6. 403 * See Appendix B f o r item r e f e r e d t o . 1 06 APPENDIX D 107 Proto Knowledge on Aging Scale I n s t r u c t i o n s : The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s are designed to assess your knowledge about aging. Please answer each statement by c i r c l i n g the degree to which you th i n k the item i s true or f a l s e . Please answer these q u e s t i o n s c a r e f u l l y and be sure to provide a response f o r every item. 1) According to S t a t i s t i c s Canada, over 50% of unattached i n d i v i d u a l s aged 65 and ol d e r have incomes below the poverty l i n e ( l e s s than $7,000 per y e a r ) . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 2) According to demographic s t u d i e s , the Canadian group which i s i n c r e a s i n g i n g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n i s the 65 and o l d e r age group, (as compared to the 64 and younger age group). D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 3) According to Canadian Law i t i s i l l e g a l f o r an i n d i v i d u a l to work past 65 years of age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 4) According to S t a t i s t i c s Canada the average l i f e expectancy f o r Canadian women at age 65 i s 83 y e a r s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 108 5) According to S t a t i s t i c s Canada the average l i f e expectancy f o r a Canadian male at b i r t h i s 79 y e a r s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 6) Women ( aged 65+) are more l i k e l y to have adequate n u t r i e n t intakes than t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 7) Old Age S e c u r i t y and Guaranteed Income Supplements are the gr e a t e s t source of f i n a n c i a l income f o r people aged 66 and o l d e r . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 8) Workers 55 and old-er (male and female) who l o s e t h e i r .jobs g e n e r a l l y remain unemployed f o r s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n s than workers under 55 years of age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 9) People over 65 are more than twice as l i k e l y than i n d i v i d u a l s under 65 to be the v i c t i m s of robbery. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 10) More men (65+) than women (65+) have l o s t t h e i r spouse through death. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 109 11) R e s p i r a t o r y d i s e a s e s are the l e a d i n g cause of h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n among those 65 and o l d e r . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 12) I n d i v i d u a l s under 65 are more l i k e l y to make y e a r l y v i s i t s to the d e n t i s t than those 65 years and o l d e r . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 13) More than 50% of i n d i v i d u a l s 65 years of age and o l d e r l i v e i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 14) Canadians under 65 are as l i k e l y as those over 65 to be homeowners a c c o r d i n g to S t a t i s t i c s Canada. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 15) Hea l t h , education and i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s are more important than age when i t comes to i n t e r e s t i n con t i n u e d l e a r n i n g . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 16) Not everyone experiences memory impairment with advancing age D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 110 17) D r i v e r s over 65 are i n v o l v e d i n a higher percentage of a c c i d e n t s than teenage d r i v e r s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 18) One of the primary reasons f o r the changes i n s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s toward o l d e r people has been the r a p i d growth of the ol d e r populat i o n . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 19) L o n e l i n e s s i s seldom rep o r t e d as the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y faced by widows. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 20) C h r o n o l o g i c a l age can be regarded as an ac c u r a t e measure of the rate of human aging processes. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 21) Maximal b r e a t h i n g c a p a c i t y d e c l i n e s as one grows o l d e r . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 22) A l l f i v e senses (hearing, s m e l l , t a s t e , touch, and v i s i o n ) d e c l i n e d u r i n g the aging process. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 111 23) Bones become more b r i t t l e with i n c r e a s i n g age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 24) The c a p a c i t y f o r drug metabolism i n c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s i n g age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 25) The ra t e of human development ( p h y s i c a l growth) remains constant throughout an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e s p a n . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 26) The human aging process i s considered to be s o l e l y p a t h o l o g i c a l i n nature. D e f i n i t e l y , Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 27) P h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h d e c l i n e s with advancing age (over 70 years of age) . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 28) Developing presbyopia ( f a r s i g h t e d n e s s ) i n your 4th decade (40 years) i s c u r r e n t l y c onsidered to be p a r t of the "normal" aging p r o c e s s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 2 29) From co n c e p t i o n to b i r t h , the human organism undergoes i t s most r a p i d r a t e of p h y s i c a l growth. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 30) As an i n d i v i d u a l ages, h i s / h e r c a p a c i t y to hear n o i s e s of hig h frequency (above 16,000 Hz.) i n c r e a s e s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 31) An i n d i v i d u a l at age 60 t y p i c a l l y r e q u i r e s l e s s food intake than a 20 year o l d in order to maintain h i s / h e r body's energy requirements. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 32) In the m a j o r i t y of t i s s u e types found i n the body, the percentage of- c e l l s i n d i v i s i o n at any time i n c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s i n g age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 33) The most s t r i k i n g change observed i n c e l l s with i n c r e a s i n g age i s the- disappearance of a pigment c a l l e d l i p o . f u s c i n . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 34) P o s t u r a l sway decreases with i n c r e a s i n g age. Def i n i t e l y F a l s e 1 Might Be F a l s e 2 Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y Know True True 3 4 5 1 1 3 35) The c a p a c i t y to d i g e s t and absorb food i s s e r i o u s l y impaired with i n c r e a s i n g age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 36) S t u d i e s have been able to document the f a c t that e x e r c i s e does not p r o l o n g r e t e n t i o n of p h y s i o l o g i c a l c a p a c i t i e s i n aging organi sms. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 37) The absence of e x e r c i s e can exacerbate aging r e l a t e d processes, D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 38) I t i s not unusual to experience a s l i g h t decrease i n p h y s i c a l height as one reaches t h e i r -5th decade (50 y e a r s ) . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 39) I t i s usual f o r humans to experience weight i n c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s i n g age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might. Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 40) The pumping a b i l i t y of the heart and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r system g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s i n g age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 l 1 1 4 41) Depression c o n s t i t u t e s a s e r i o u s mental h e a l t h problem f o r persons 65 years of age and o l d e r . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 42) T y p i c a l p h y s i c a l symptoms of dep r e s s i o n (eg. s l e e p and a p p e t i t e d i s t u r b a n c e s ) may r e s u l t from a v a r i e t y of d i s e a s e s and medications f r e q u e n t l y p r e s c r i b e d to o l d e r people (65 +). D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 43) Most of the ne u r o p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e are not ap p r o p r i a t e to use with i n d i v i d u a l s over the age of 60 sin c e they do not have adequate norms a s s o c i a t e d with them. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 44) C l i n i c a l EEG's show s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e changes with i n c r e a s i n g age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 45) S e n i l e p a t i e n t s show s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced c e r e b r a l v a s c u l a r flow as compared with non-senile age c o u n t e r p a r t s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 46) Sleep p a t t e r n s (as measured by EEG's) i n young a d u l t s d i f f e r g r e a t l y from those found i n the e l d e r l y (those 65+). D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 5 47) C h r o n o l o g i c a l age i s a good i n d i c a t o r of the way people l i v e . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 48) The n o t i o n of i n e v i t a b l e d e c l i n e , known as the "decrement model of o l d age", has not been confirmed in r e s e a r c h with the e l d e r l y . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 49) Awareness of death tends to increase as people grow o l d e r . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 50) P s y c h o l o g i s t s b e l i e v e that great p o t e n t i a l f o r pe r s o n a l development occurs i n o l d age (65+). D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be • D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 . 2 3 4 5 51) Humans reach the peak of t h e i r s t r e n g t h , h e a l t h , and endurance d u r i n g young to middle adulthood (ages 20-40). D e f i n i t e l y Might -Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True^ 1 2 3 4 5 1 52) Young people are more s u s c e p t i b l e to s o c i a l pressure than the aged (65+). D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 53) P s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s that a d a p t i v e , goal d i r e c t e d and p u r p o s e f u l q u a l i t i e s of p e r s o n a l i t y , do not a p p r e c i a b l y change with age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 54) Incidences of neuroses and p s y c h o s i s i n c r e a s e s with age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 55) People become more i n t r o v e r t e d as they age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 - 56) A strong l i n k e x i s t s between c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and human behavior. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True- True 1 2 3 4 5 57) I n v e s t i g a t o r s are f i n d i n g evidence that suggests that l i f e s t y l and p e r s o n a l i t y p l a y s an important r o l e i n l o n g e v i t y . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 1 17 58) There i s evidence to suggest i n middle or o l d age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't F a l s e F a l s e Know 1 2 3 59) The term ageism r e f e r s to the D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't F a l s e F a l s e Know 1 2 3 that sex r o l e r e v e r s a l s may occur Might Be D e f i n i t e l y True True 4 5 g l o r i f i c a t i o n of growing o l d . Might Be D e f i n i t e l y True True 4 5 60) The a b i l i t y to l e a r n d r a s t i c a l l y decreases a f t e r the age of 20, D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 118 APPENDIX E 119 DOCUMENTATION SOURCES FOR PROTO SCALE ITEMS. ITEM NUMBER SOURCE OF DOCUMENTATION 1 Fact Book on Aging i n Canada (1983), p.42. 2 Fact Book on Aging i n Canada (1983), p.14. 3 Fact Book on Aging i n Canada (1983), p.36-40. 4 Fact Book on Aging i n Canada (1983), p.51. 5 Fact Book on Aging i n Canada (1983), p.48. 6 Fact Book on Aging i n Canada (1983), p.52. 7 Fact Book on Aging i n Canada (1983), p.46. 8 Fact Book on Aging i n Canada (1983), p.40. 9 Fact Book on Aging i n Canada (1983), p.82. 10 Fact Book on Aging i n Canada (1983), p.66. 11 Fact Book on Aging i n Canada (1983), p.62-63. 12 Fact Book on Aging i n Canada (1983), p.60. 13 Fact Book on Aging i n Canada (1983), p.68. 14 Fact Book on Aging i n Canada (1983), p.78. 15 Kimmel, D.C. (1980), p.359. 16 Kimmel, D.C. (1980), p.365. 17 Kimmel, D.C. (1980), p.352. 18 Kimmel, D.C. (1980), p.448. 19 Woodruff, D.S. & B i r r e n , J.E. (1983), p.105. 20 Woodruff, D.S. & B i r r e n , J.E. (1983), p.73. 21 Woodruff, D.S. & B i r r e n , J.E. (1983), p.252. 21 Shock, N.W. (1962), p.100-110. 22 Woodruff, D.S. & B i r r e n , J.E. (1983), p.256. 22 Kimmel, D.C. (1980), p.349-351. 23 Woodruff, D.S. & B i r r e n , J.E. (1983), p.254. 24 Woodruff, D.S. & B i r r e n , J.E. (1983), p.271. 25 Moore, K.L.. (1977), p.2-6. 26 Woodruff, D.S. & B i r r e n , J.E. (1983), p.252. 27 Woodruff, D.S. & B i r r e n , J.E. (1983), p.288. 27 P e t r o f s k y , J.S. (1975), p.91-95. 27 Shock, N.W., (1962), p.100-110. 28 Kimmel, D.C. (1980), p.350. 29 Moore, K.L. (1977), p.2-6. 30 Kimmel, D.C. (1980),. p.350. 31 Kimmel, D.C. (1980), p.348. 32 Woodruff, D.S. & B i r r e n , J.E. (1983), p.232. 33 Junqueira, L.C., C a r n e i r o , J . & Contopoulos, A. (1977), p.40. 33 Woodruff, D.S. & B i r r e n , J.E. (1983), p.228. 34 B e a t t i e , B.L. Personal communications, (1984). 35 Woodruff, D.S. & B i r r e n , J.E. (1983), p.256. 36 Woodruff, D.S. & B i r r e n , J.E'. (1983), p.273. 37 Woodruff, D.S. & B i r r e n , J.E. (1983), p.273. 1 20 ITEM NUMBER SOURCE OF DOCUMENTATION 38 Woodruff, D.S. & B i r r e n , J.E. (1983), p.254. 39 Woodruff, D.S. & B i r r e n , J.E. (1983), p.290. 40 Kimmel, D.C. (1980), p.287. 41 Poon, L.W. (1980), p.11. 42 Poon, L.W. ( 1980) , p.23. 43 Poon, L.W. (1980), p.69. 44 Poon, L.W. (1980), p.71 . 45 Poon, L.W. (1980), p.71. 46 Poon, L.W. (1980), p.72. 47 Woodruff, D.S. & B i r r e n , J.E. (1983), p.417. 48 Woodruff, D.S. & B i r r e n , J.E. (1983), p.181-197. 49 Kimmel, D.C. (1980), p.496-497. 50 Poon, L.W. (1980). 51 Kimmel, D.C. (1980), p.382. 52 Kimmel, D.C. (1980), p.404. 53 Kimmel, D.C. (1980), p.405. 54 Kimmel, D.C. (1980), p.409. 55 Kimmel, D.C. (1980), p.404. 56 Kimmel, D.C. (1980), p.30-31. 57 Woodruff, D.S. & B i r r e n , J.E. (1983), p.124. 58 Woodruff, D.S. & B i r r e n , J.E. (1983), p.123. 59- B u t l e r , (1975). 60 Cross, K.P. (1982), p.152-157. 60 Woodruff & B i r r e n , J.E. (1983), p.149-177. 121 APPENDIX F 1 22 Kogan A t t i t u d e Toward Old People Scale I n s t r u c t i o n s : Please answer each statement by c i r c l i n g the degree to which you e i t h e r agree or d i s a g r e e with the statement. 1) I t would probably be b e t t e r i f most o l d people l i v e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s with people of t h e i r own age. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2) I t would probably be b e t t e r i f most o l d people l i v e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s that a l s o housed younger pe o p l e . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3) There i s something d i f f e r e n t about most o l d people; i t ' s hard to f i g u r e out what makes them t i c k . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4) Most o l d people are r e a l l y no d i f f e r e n t from anybody e l s e ; they're as easy to understand as younger people. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y - Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5) Most o l d people get set i n t h e i r ways and are unable to change. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 23 6) Most o l d people are capable of new adjustments when the s i t u a t i o n demands i t . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7) Most o l d people would p r e f e r to q u i t work as soon as pensions or t h e i r c h i l d r e n can support them. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8) Most o l d people would p r e f e r to continue working j u s t as long as they p o s s i b l y can r a t h e r than be dependent on anybody. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9) Most o l d people tend to le.t t h e i r homes become shabby and u n a t t r a c t i v e . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10) Most o l d people can g e n e r a l l y be counted on to maintain a c l e a n , a t t r a c t i v e home. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11) I t i s f o o l i s h to c l a i m that wisdom comes with o l d age. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 124 12) People grow wiser with the coming of o l d age. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13) Old people have too l i t t l e power in business and p o l i t i c s . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14) Old people should have more power in business and p o l i t i c s . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 15) Most o l d people make one f e e l i l l at ease. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 .3 4 5 6 7 16) Most o l d people are very r e l a x i n g to be with. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 17) Most o l d people bore others by t h e i r i n s i s t e n c e on t a l k i n g about the "good o l d days". S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 18) One of the more i n t e r e s t i n g q u a l i t i e s of most o l d people i s t h e i r accounts of t h e i r past e x p e r i e n c e s . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 125 19) Most o l d people spend too much time p r y i n g i n t o the a f f a i r s of others and g i v i n g unsought a d v i c e . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 20) Most o l d people respect others p r i v a c y and give advice only when asked. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 21) I f o l d people expect to be l i k e d , t h e i r f i r s t step i s to t r y to get r i d of t h e i r i r r i t a t i n g f a u l t s . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 22) When you think about i t , o l d people have the same f a u l t s as anybody e l s e . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 23) In order to maintain a n i c e r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhood, i t would be best i f too many o l d people d i d not l i v e i n i t . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 126 24) You can count on f i n d i n g a n i c e r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhood when th e r e i s a s i z e a b l e number of o l d people l i v i n g i n i t . S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 25) There are a few e x c e p t i o n s , but i n general most o l d people are p r e t t y much a l i k e . S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 26) I t i s e v i d e n t that most o l d people are very d i f f e r e n t from one another. S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 27) Most o l d people should be more concerned with t h e i r p e r s o n a l appearance; they're too u n t i d y . S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 28) Most o l d people seem to be q u i t e c l e a n and neat i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l appearance. S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 29) Most o l d people are i r r i t a b l e , grouchy and unpleasant. S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 27 30) Most o l d people are c h e e r f u l , agreeable and good humored. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 31) Most o l d people are c o n s t a n t l y complaining about the behavior of the younger g e n e r a t i o n . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 32) One seldom hears o l d people complaining about the behavior of the younger g e n e r a t i o n . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 33) Most o l d people make ex c e s s i v e demands for love and reassurance. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 34) Most o l d people need no more love and reassurance than anyone e l s e . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 28 APPENDIX G 1 29 Palmore's F a c t s on Aging Quiz I n s t r u c t i o n s : Please answer each statement by c i r c l i n g the degree to which you th i n k the item i s true or f a l s e . 1) The m a j o r i t y of o l d people are s e n i l e ( i . e . d e f e c t i v e memory, d i s o r i e n t e d , or demented). D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 2) A l l f i v e senses tend to d e c l i n e i n o l d age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 3) Most o l d people have no i n t e r e s t i n , or c a p a c i t y f o r , sexual r e l a t i o n s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 4) Lung v i t a l c a p a c i t y tends to d e c l i n e i n o l d age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 5) The m a j o r i t y of o l d people f e e l miserable most of the time, D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 6) P h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h tends to d e c l i n e in o l d age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 1 30 7) At l e a s t 10% of the aged are l i v i n g i n lo n g - s t a y i n s t i t u t i o n s ( i . e . n u r s i n g homes, mental h o s p i t a l s , homes f o r the aged, e t c . ) . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 8) Aged d r i v e r s have fewer a c c i d e n t s per person than d r i v e r s under age 65. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 . 2 3 4 5 9) The m a j o r i t y of o l d e r workers cannot work as e f f e c t i v e l y as younger workers. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 10) About 80% of the aged are healthy, enough to c a r r y . o u t t h e i r normal a c t i v i t i e s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 11) Most o l d people are set i n t h e i r ways and unable to change D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 12) Old people u s u a l l y take longer to l e a r n something new. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 131 13) I t i s impossible f o r most o l d people to l e a r n new t h i n g s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 14) The r e a c t i o n time of most o l d people tends to be slower than the r e a c t i o n time of younger people. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 15) In g e n e r a l , most o l d people are a l i k e . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 16) The m a j o r i t y of o l d people r e p o r t that they are seldom bored. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 17) The m a j o r i t y of o l d people are s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d and l o n e l y , D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 18) Older workers have fewer a c c i d e n t s than younger workers. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 19) Over 15% of the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n are now age 65 or over. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y . F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 1 32 20) Most medical p r a c t i t i o n e r s tend to give low p r i o r i t y to the aged. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 21) The m a j o r i t y of ol d e r people have incomes below the poverty l i n e (as de f i n e d by the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e ) . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 22) The m a j o r i t y of o l d people are working or would l i k e to have some kind of work to do ( i n c l u d i n g housework and vo l u n t e e r work). D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 23) Older people tend to become more r e l i g i o u s as they age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 24) The m a j o r i t y of o l d people r e p o r t that they are seldom i r r i t a t e d or angry. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 25) The h e a l t h and socioeconomic s t a t u s of o l d e r people (compared to younger people) in the year 2030 w i l l probably be about the same as now. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 1 33 APPENDIX H 1 34 ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF CANADIAN VERSUS AMERICAN ITEMS ON PALMORE'S FAQ. SOURCE D.F. SUM OF SQUARES MEAN SQUARES F RATIO F PROB. BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL 1 217 218 0.0650 914.3824 914.4475 0.0650 4.2137 0.0154 0.9012 1 35 APPENDIX I 1 36 Please f o l l o w the d i r e c t i o n s found at the beginning of each s c a l e and read each statement c a r e f u l l y . It i s important that you i n c l u d e your 1 ) Age 2) Sex 3) Number of years of Post-Secondary Education A l l responses are s t r i c t l y anonymous and you may withdraw your p a r t i c i p a t i o n at any time. However, should you agree to p a r t i c i p a t e you w i l l r e c e i v e a d e b r i e f i n g and a copy of the answers to knowledge-related items. You w i l l a l s o be given the o p p o r t u n i t y to f i n d out the r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Completion of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n d i c a t e s your consent to p a r t i c i p a t e . THANK YOU 1 37 Proto Knowledge on Aging S c a l e I n s t r u c t i o n s : The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s are designed to assess your knowledge about a g i n g . Please answer each statement by c i r c l i n g the degree to which you th i n k the item i s true or f a l s e . Please answer these questions c a r e f u l l y and be sure to provide a response f o r every item. 1) A c c o r d i n g to S t a t i s t i c s Canada, over 50% of unattached i n d i v i d u a l s aged 65 and ol d e r have incomes below the poverty l i n e ( l e s s than $7,000 per y e a r ) . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 2) A c c o r d i n g to demographic s t u d i e s , the Canadian group which i s i n c r e a s i n g in g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n i s the 65 and ol d e r age group, (as compared to the 64 and younger age group). - D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't , Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 3) A c c o r d i n g to Canadian Law i t i s i l l e g a l f o r an i n d i v i d u a l to work past 65 years of age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 4) A c c o r d i n g to S t a t i s t i c s Canada the average l i f e expectancy f o r Canadian women at age 65 i s 83 ye a r s . Def i n i t e l y F a l s e 1 Might Be F a l s e 2 Don't Might Be Know True 3 4 Def i n i t e l y True 5 1 38 5) According to S t a t i s t i c s Canada the average l i f e expectancy f o r a Canadian male at b i r t h i s 79 ye a r s . Def i n i t e l y F a l s e 1 Might Be Fa l s e 2 Don't Know 3 Might Be True 4 D e f i n i t e l y True 5 6) Women ( aged 65+) are more l i k e l y to have adequate n u t r i e n t intakes than t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e 1 Might Be Fa l s e 2 Don't Know 3 Might Be True 4 D e f i n i t e l y True 5 7) Old Age S e c u r i t y and Guaranteed Income Supplements are the gr e a t e s t source of f i n a n c i a l income f o r people aged 66 and o l d e r . D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e 1 Might Be Fa l s e 2 Don't Know 3 Might Be True 4 Def i n i t e l y True 5 8) Workers 55 and older (male and female) who l o s e t h e i r jobs g e n e r a l l y remain unemployed f o r - s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n s than workers under 55 years of age. Def i n i t e l y F a l s e 1 Might Be Fa l s e 2 Don't Know 3 Might Be True 4 D e f i n i t e l y True 5 9) People over 65 are more than twice as l i k e l y than i n d i v i d u a l s under 65 to be the v i c t i m s of robbery. Def i n i t e l y F a l s e 1 Might Be Fa l s e 2 Don't Know 3 Might Be True 4 Def i n i t e l y True 5 10) More men (65+) than women (65+) have l o s t t h e i r spouse through death. Def i n i t e l y False. 1 Might Be Fa l s e 2 Don't Know 3 Might Be True 4 Def i n i t e l y True 5 139 11) R e s p i r a t o r y d i s e a s e s are the l e a d i n g cause of h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n among those 65 and o l d e r . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 12) I n d i v i d u a l s under 65 are more l i k e l y to make y e a r l y v i s i t s to the d e n t i s t than those 65 years and o l d e r . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 13) More than 50% of i n d i v i d u a l s 65 years of age and o l d e r l i v e in i n s t i t u t i o n s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 14) Canadians under 65 are as l i k e l y as those over 65 to be homeowners a c c o r d i n g to S t a t i s t i c s Canada. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 15) Health, education and i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s are more important than age when i t comes to i n t e r e s t in continued l e a r n i n g . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y . F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 16) Not everyone experiences memory impairment with advancing age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 1 40 17) D r i v e r s over 65 are i n v o l v e d i n a higher percentage of a c c i d e n t s than teenage d r i v e r s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 18) One of the primary reasons f o r the changes i n s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s toward o l d e r people has been the r a p i d growth of the ol d e r populat i o n . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 19) L o n e l i n e s s i s seldom reported as the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y faced by widows. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 20) C h r o n o l o g i c a l age can be regarded as an accurate measure of the ra t e of human aging processes. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 21) Maximal b r e a t h i n g c a p a c i t y d e c l i n e s as one grows o l d e r . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 22) A l l f i v e senses (hearing, s m e l l , t a s t e , touch, and v i s i o n ) d e c l i n e d u r i n g the aging process. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 141 23) Bones become more b r i t t l e with i n c r e a s i n g age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 24) The c a p a c i t y f o r drug metabolism i n c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s i n g age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 25) The rate of human development ( p h y s i c a l growth) remains constant throughout an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e s p a n . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 26) The human aging process i s c o n s i d e r e d to be s o l e l y p a t h o l o g i c a l i n nature. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 27) P h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h d e c l i n e s with advancing age (over 70 years of age) . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 28) Developing presbyopia ( f a r s i g h t e d n e s s ) i n your 4th decade (40 years) i s c u r r e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d to be part of the "normal" aging p r o c e s s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 142 29) From c o n c e p t i o n to b i r t h , the human organism undergoes i t s most r a p i d r a t e of p h y s i c a l growth. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 30) As an i n d i v i d u a l ages, h i s / h e r c a p a c i t y to hear n o i s e s of high frequency (above 16,000 Hz.) i n c r e a s e s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 31) An i n d i v i d u a l at age 60 t y p i c a l l y r e q u i r e s l e s s food intake than a 20 year o l d i n order to maintain h i s / h e r body's energy requi rements. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 32) In the m a j o r i t y of t i s s u e types found i n the body, the percentage of c e l l s i n d i v i s i o n at any time- i n c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s i n g age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 33) The most s t r i k i n g change observed i n c e l l s with i n c r e a s i n g age i s the disappearance of a pigment c a l l e d l i p o f u s c i n . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 34) P o s t u r a l sway decreases with i n c r e a s i n g age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 1 43 35) The c a p a c i t y to d i g e s t and absorb food i s s e r i o u s l y impaired with i n c r e a s i n g age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 36) Studies have been able to document the f a c t t h at e x e r c i s e does not prolong r e t e n t i o n of p h y s i o l o g i c a l c a p a c i t i e s i n aging organisms. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 37) The absence of e x e r c i s e can exacerbate a g i n g - r e l a t e d processes, D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 38) It i s not unusual to experience a s l i g h t decrease i n p h y s i c a l height as one reaches t h e i r 5th decade (50 y e a r s ) . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 39) It i s usual f o r humans to experience weight i n c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s i n g age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be- D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 40) The pumping a b i l i t y of the heart and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r system g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s i n g age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 1 44 41) Depression c o n s t i t u t e s a s e r i o u s mental h e a l t h problem f o r persons 65 years of age and o l d e r . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 42) T y p i c a l p h y s i c a l symptoms of de p r e s s i o n (eg. s l e e p and a p p e t i t e d i s t u r b a n c e s ) may r e s u l t from a v a r i e t y of d i s e a s e s and medications f r e q u e n t l y p r e s c r i b e d to olde r people (65 +). D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 43) Most of the n e u r o p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e are not a p p r o p r i a t e to use with i n d i v i d u a l s over the age of 60 since they do not have adequate norms a s s o c i a t e d with them. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 44) C l i n i c a l EEG's show s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e changes with i n c r e a s i n g age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 45) Senile- p a t i e n t s show s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced c e r e b r a l v a s c u l a r flow as compared with n o n - s e n i l e age c o u n t e r p a r t s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 46) Sleep p a t t e r n s (as measured by EEG) in young a d u l t s d i f f e r g r e a t l y from those found i n the e l d e r l y (those 65+). D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 1 45 47) C h r o n o l o g i c a l age i s a good i n d i c a t o r of the way people l i v e . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 48) The n o t i o n of i n e v i t a b l e d e c l i n e , known as the "decrement model of o l d age", has not been confirmed i n re s e a r c h with the e l d e r l y . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 49) Awareness of death tends to in c r e a s e as people grow o l d e r . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 50) P s y c h o l o g i s t s b e l i e v e that great p o t e n t i a l f o r p e r s o n a l development occurs i n o l d age (65+). D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 51) Humans reach the peak of t h e i r s t r e n g t h , h e a l t h , and endurance d u r i n g young and middle adulthood (ages 20-40). D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 1 46 52) Young people are more s u s c e p t i b l e to s o c i a l pressure than the aged (65+). D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 53) P s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s that a d a p t i v e , goal d i r e c t e d and p u r p o s e f u l q u a l i t i e s of p e r s o n a l i t y , do not a p p r e c i a b l y change with age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 54) Incidences of neuroses and ps y c h o s i s i n c r e a s e s with age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 55) People become more i n t r o v e r t e d as they age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be ' Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 56) A strong l i n k e x i s t s between c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and human behavior. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 57) I n v e s t i g a t o r s are f i n d i n g evidence that suggests that l i f e s t y l e and p e r s o n a l i t y p l a y s an important r o l e i n l o n g e v i t y . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 147 58) There i s evidence to suggest that sex r o l e r e v e r s a l s may occur i n middle or o l d age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 59) The term ageism r e f e r s to the g l o r i f i c a t i o n of growing o l d . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 60) The a b i l i t y to l e a r n d r a s t i c a l l y decreases a f t e r the age of 20. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True •1 2 3 4 5 1 48 Kogan A t t i t u d e Toward Old People Scale I n s t r u c t i o n s : Please answer each statement by c i r c l i n g the degree to which you e i t h e r agree or d i s a g r e e with the statement. 1) I t would probably be b e t t e r i f most o l d people l i v e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s with people of t h e i r own age. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2) I t would probably be b e t t e r i f most o l d people l i v e d in r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s that a l s o housed younger people. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y ' Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3) There i s something d i f f e r e n t about most o l d people; i t ' s hard to f i g u r e out what makes them t i c k . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4) Most o l d people are r e a l l y no d i f f e r e n t from anybody e l s e ; they're as easy to understand as younger people. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5) Most o l d people get set i n t h e i r ways and are unable to change. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 49 6) Most o l d people are capable of new adjustments when the s i t u a t i o n demands i t . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disa.gree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7) Most o l d people would p r e f e r to q u i t work as soon as pensions or t h e i r c h i l d r e n can support them. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8) Most o l d people would p r e f e r to continue working j u s t as long as they p o s s i b l y can rather than be dependent on anybody. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9) Most o l d people tend to l e t t h e i r homes become shabby and u n a t t r a c t i v e . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10) Most o l d people can g e n e r a l l y be counted on to maintain a c l e a n , a t t r a c t i v e home. St r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11) I t i s f o o l i s h to c l a i m that wisdom comes with o l d age. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 150 12) People grow wiser with the coming of o l d age. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13) Old people have too l i t t l e power i n business and p o l i t i c s . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14) Old people should have more power i n business and p o l i t i c s . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 15) Most o l d people make one f e e l i l l at ease. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 • 2 , 3 4 .5 6 7 16) Most o l d people are very r e l a x i n g to be with. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 17) Most o l d people bore others- by t h e i r i n s i s t e n c e on t a l k i n g about the "good o l d days". S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 18) One of the more i n t e r e s t i n g q u a l i t i e s of most o l d people i s t h e i r accounts of t h e i r past e x p e r i e n c e s . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 151 19) Most o l d people spend too much time p r y i n g i n t o the a f f a i r s of others and g i v i n g unsought a d v i c e . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 20) Most o l d people respect others p r i v a c y and give a d v i c e only when asked. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 21) I f o l d people expect to be l i k e d , t h e i r f i r s t step i s to t r y to get r i d of t h e i r i r r i t a t i n g f a u l t s . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 22) When you think about i t , o l d people have the same f a u l t s as anybody e l s e . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y Neutral' S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 23) In order to maintain a nice r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhood, i t would be best i f too many o l d people d i d not l i v e i n i t . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 52 24) You can count on f i n d i n g a n i c e r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhood when there i s a s i z e a b l e number of o l d people l i v i n g i n i t . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 25) There are a few e x c e p t i o n s , but i n general most o l d people are p r e t t y much a l i k e . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 26) I t i s evident that most o l d people are very d i f f e r e n t from one another. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 27) Most o l d people should be more concerned with t h e i r p e r s o n a l appearance; they're too u n t i d y . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 28) Most o l d people seem to be q u i t e c l e a n and neat i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l appearance. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 29) Most o l d people are i r r i t a b l e , grouchy and unpleasant. S t r o n g l y , Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 153 30) Most o l d people are c h e e r f u l , agreeable and good humored. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 31) Most o l d people are c o n s t a n t l y complaining about the behavior of the younger g e n e r a t i o n . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 32) One seldom hears o l d people complaining about the behavior of the younger g e n e r a t i o n . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 33) Most o l d people make e x c e s s i v e demands f o r love and reassurance. S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y . Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 34) Most o l d people need no more lo v e and reassurance than anyone e l s e . S t r o n g l y Disagree S l i g h t l y N e u t r a l S l i g h t l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 54 Palmore's F a c t s on Aging Quiz I n s t r u c t i o n s : Please answer each statement by c i r c l i n g the degree to which you thin k the item i s true or f a l s e . 1) The m a j o r i t y of o l d people are s e n i l e ( i . e . d e f e c t i v e memory, d i s o r i e n t e d , or demented). D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 2) A l l f i v e senses tend to d e c l i n e i n o l d age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 3) Most o l d people have no i n t e r e s t i n , or c a p a c i t y f o r , sexual -. r e l a t i o n s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 4) Lung v i t a l c a p a c i t y tends to d e c l i n e i n o l d age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True- 1 2 3 4 5 5) The m a j o r i t y of o l d people f e e l miserable most of the time. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 6) P h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h tends to d e c l i n e i n o l d age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 1 55 7) At l e a s t 10% of the aged are l i v i n g i n long-stay i n s t i t u t i o n s ( i . e . n u r s i n g homes, mental h o s p i t a l s , homes f o r the aged, e t c . ) . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 8) Aged d r i v e r s have fewer a c c i d e n t s per person than d r i v e r s under age 65. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 9) The m a j o r i t y of o l d e r workers cannot work as e f f e c t i v e l y as younger workers. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 10) About 80% of the aged are healthy enough to c a r r y out t h e i r normal a c t i v i t i e s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 11) Most o l d people are set i n t h e i r ways and unable to change. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 12) Old people u s u a l l y take longer to l e a r n something new, D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 1 56 13) I t i s im p o s s i b l e f o r most o l d people to l e a r n new t h i n g s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 14) The r e a c t i o n time of most o l d people tends to be slower than the r e a c t i o n time of younger people. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be F a l s e F a l s e Know True 1 2 3 4 Def i n i t e l y True 5 15) In g e n e r a l , most o l d people are a l i k e , D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e 1 Might Be F a l s e 2 Don't Know 3 Might Be True 4 D e f i n i t e l y True 5 16) The m a j o r i t y of o l d people report that they are seldom bored. Def i n i t e l y False. 1 Might Be F a l s e 2 Don't Know 3 Might Be True 4 D e f i n i t e l y True . 5 17) The m a j o r i t y of o l d people are s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d and l o n e l y , Def i n i t e l y F a l s e 1 Might Be F a l s e 2 Don't Might Be Know True 3 4 D e f i n i t e l y True 5 18) Older workers have fewer a c c i d e n t s than younger workers, D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 19) Over 15% of the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n are now age 65 or over D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 157 20) Most medical p r a c t i t i o n e r s tend to give low p r i o r i t y to the aged. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 21) The m a j o r i t y of o l d e r people have incomes below the poverty l i n e (as d e f i n e d by the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e ) . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 22) The m a j o r i t y of o l d people are working or would l i k e to have some kind of work to do ( i n c l u d i n g housework and volunteer work). D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 23) Older people tend to become more r e l i g i o u s as they age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 24) The m a j o r i t y of o l d people r e p o r t that they are seldom i r r i t a t e d or angry. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 25) The h e a l t h and socioeconomic s t a t u s of ol d e r people (compared to younger people) i n the year 2030 w i l l probably be about the same as now. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 1 58 APPENDIX J 159 Answers to the Proto Knowledge on Aging Scale 1) A c c o r d i n g to S t a t i s t i c s Canada, over 50% of unattached i n d i v i d u a l s aged 65 and o l d e r have incomes below the poverty l i n e ( l e s s than $7,000 per y e a r ) . (True) 2) A c c o r d i n g to demographic s t u d i e s , the Canadian group which i s i n c r e a s i n g i n g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n i s the 65 and o l d e r age group, (as compared to the 64 and younger age group). (True) 3) A c c o r d i n g to Canadian Law i t i s i l l e g a l f o r an i n d i v i d u a l to work past 65 years of age. (Fal s e ) 4) According to S t a t i s t i c s Canada the average l i f e expectancy f o r Canadian women at age 65 i s 83 years. (True) 5) According to S t a t i s t i c s Canada the average l i f e expectancy f o r a Canadian male at b i r t h i s 79 ye a r s . (True) 6) Women ( aged-65+) are more l i k e l y to have adequate n u t r i e n t i n t a k e s than t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . (F a l s e ) 7) Old Age S e c u r i t y and Guaranteed Income Supplements are the gr e a t e s t source of f i n a n c i a l income f o r people aged 66 and o l d e r . (True) 8) Workers 55 and o l d e r (male and female) who l o s e t h e i r jobs g e n e r a l l y remain unemployed f o r sh o r t e r d u r a t i o n s than workers under 55 years of age. (Fa l s e ) 9) People over 65 are more than twice as l i k e l y than i n d i v i d u a l s under 65 to be the v i c t i m s of robbery. (F a l s e ) 10) More men (65+) than women (65+) have l o s t t h e i r spouse through death. ( F a l s e ) 160 11) R e s p i r a t o r y d i s e a s e s are the l e a d i n g cause of h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n among those 65 and o l d e r . ( F a l s e ) 12) I n d i v i d u a l s under 65 are more l i k e l y to make y e a r l y v i s i t s to the d e n t i s t than those 65 years and o l d e r . (True) 13) More than 50% of i n d i v i d u a l s 65 years of age and o l d e r l i v e i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . ( F a l s e ) 14) Canadians under 65 are as l i k e l y as those over 65 to be homeowners a c c o r d i n g to S t a t i s t i c s Canada. (True) 15) H e a l t h , education and i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s are more important than age when i t comes to i n t e r e s t i n c o n t i n u e d l e a r n i n g . (True) 16) Not everyone experiences memory impairment with advancing age. (True) 17) D r i v e r s over 65 are i n v o l v e d i n a higher percentage of a c c i d e n t s than teenage d r i v e r s . ( F a l s e ) 18) One of the primary reasons f o r the changes in s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s toward o l d e r people has been the r a p i d growth of the o l d e r p o p u l a t i o n . (True) 19) L o n e l i n e s s i s seldom r e p o r t e d as the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y faced by widows. (F a l s e ) 20) C h r o n o l o g i c a l age can be regarded as an a c c u r a t e measure of the r a t e of human aging p r o c e s s e s . ( F a l s e ) 21) Maximal b r e a t h i n g c a p a c i t y d e c l i n e s as one grows o l d e r . (True) 22) A l l f i v e senses ( h e a r i n g , s m e l l , t a s t e , touch, and v i s i o n ) d e c l i n e d u r i n g the aging p r o c e s s . (True) 23) Bones become more b r i t t l e with i n c r e a s i n g age. (True) 24) The c a p a c i t y f o r drug metabolism i n c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s i n g age. ( F a l s e ) 161 25) The rate of human development ( p h y s i c a l growth) remains constant throughout an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e s p a n . ( F a l s e ) 26) The human aging process i s c o n s i d e r e d to be s o l e l y p a t h o l o g i c a l in nature. ( F a l s e ) 27) P h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h d e c l i n e s with advancing age (over 70 years of age). (True) 28) Developing presbyopia ( f a r s i g h t e d n e s s ) i n your 4th decade (40 years) i s c u r r e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d to be pa r t of the "normal" aging p r o c e s s . (True) 29) From conception to b i r t h , the human organism undergoes i t s most r a p i d r a t e of p h y s i c a l growth. (True) 30) As an i n d i v i d u a l ages, h i s / h e r c a p a c i t y to hear n o i s e s of high frequency (above 16,000 Hz.) i n c r e a s e s . (False) 31) An i n d i v i d u a l at age 60 t y p i c a l l y r e q u i r e s l e s s food intake than a 20 year o l d i n order to maintain h i s / h e r body's energy requi rements. (True) 32) In the m a j o r i t y of t i s s u e types found i n the body, the percentage of c e l l s in d i v i s i o n at any time i n c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s i n g age. (Fal s e ) 33) The most s t r i k i n g change observed i n c e l l s with i n c r e a s i n g age i s the disappearance of a pigment c a l l e d l i p o f u s c i n . ( F a l s e ) 34) P o s t u r a l sway decreases with i n c r e a s i n g age. (False) 35) The c a p a c i t y to d i g e s t and absorb food i s s e r i o u s l y impaired with i n c r e a s i n g age. (Fal s e ) 36) S t u d i e s have been able to document the f a c t that e x e r c i s e does not p r o l o n g r e t e n t i o n of p h y s i o l o g i c a l c a p a c i t i e s i n aging organisms. (False) 1 62 37) The absence of e x e r c i s e can exacerbate aging r e l a t e d p rocesses. (True) 38) I t i s not unusual to experience a s l i g h t decrease in p h y s i c a l height as one reaches t h e i r 5th decade (50 y e a r s ) . (True) 39) I t i s usual f o r humans to experience weight i n c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s i n g age. (True) 40) The pumping a b i l i t y of the heart and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r system g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s i n g age. (F a l s e ) 41) Depression c o n s t i t u t e s a s e r i o u s mental h e a l t h problem for persons 65 years of age and o l d e r . (True) 42) T y p i c a l p h y s i c a l symptoms of depression (eg. s l e e p and a p p e t i t e d i s t u r b a n c e s ) may r e s u l t from a v a r i e t y of d i s e a s e s and medications f r e q u e n t l y p r e s c r i b e d to o l d e r people (65 +). (True) 43) Most of the n e u r o p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e are not a p p r o p r i a t e to use with i n d i v i d u a l s over the age of 60 s i n c e they do not have adequate norms a s s o c i a t e d with them. (True) 44) C l i n i c a l EEG's show s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e changes with i n c r e a s i n g age. ( F a l s e ) 45) S e n i l e p a t i e n t s show s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced c e r e b r a l v a s c u l a r flow as compared with n o n - s e n i l e age c o u n t e r p a r t s . (True) 46) Sleep p a t t e r n s (as measured by EEG) i n young a d u l t s d i f f e r g r e a t l y from those found i n the e l d e r l y (those 65+). (True) 47) C h r o n o l o g i c a l age i s a good i n d i c a t o r of the way people l i v e . ( F a l s e ) 48) The n o t i o n of i n e v i t a b l e d e c l i n e , known as the "decrement model of o l d age", has not been confirmed i n r e s e a r c h with the e l d e r l y . (True) 1 49) Awareness of death tends to i n c r e a s e as people grow o l d e r . (True) 50) P s y c h o l o g i s t s b e l i e v e that great p o t e n t i a l f o r pe r s o n a l development occurs i n o l d age (65+). (True) 51) Humans reach the peak of t h e i r s t r e n g t h , h e a l t h , and endurance d u r i n g young and middle adulthood (ages 20-40). (True) 52) Young people are more s u s c e p t i b l e to s o c i a l pressure than the aged (65+). (True) 53) P s y c h o l o g i c a l research i n d i c a t e s that a d a p t i v e , goal d i r e c t e d and p u r p o s e f u l q u a l i t i e s of p e r s o n a l i t y , do not a p p r e c i a b l y change with age. (True) 54) Incidences of neuroses and p s y c h o s i s i n c r e a s e s with age. ( F a l s e ) 55) People become more i n t r o v e r t e d as they age. (True) 56) A s t r o n g l i n k e x i s t s between c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and human beha v i o r . ( F a l s e ) 57) I n v e s t i g a t o r s are f i n d i n g evidence that suggests that l i f e s t y l and p e r s o n a l i t y p l a y s an important r o l e in l o n g e v i t y . (True) 58) There i s evidence to suggest that sex r o l e r e v e r s a l s may occur i n middle or o l d age. (True) 59) The term ageism r e f e r s to the g l o r i f i c a t i o n of growing o l d . ( F a l s e ) 60) The a b i l i t y to l e a r n d r a s t i c a l l y decreases a f t e r the age of 20 ( F a l s e ) 164 Information S u p p l i e d to P a r t i c i p a n t s Regarding Study R e s u l t s Thank you f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n r egarding the q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n i n g items on knowledge and a t t i t u d e s towards a g i n g . The f o l l o w i n g are the summarized r e s u l t s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e responses of 128 males and 170 females ( t o t a l = 298) ranging from 17 to 64 years of age, 0 to 12 years of post-secondary education and r e p r e s e n t i n g the general subject areas of b i o l o g y , education, g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n (non-academic), gerontology, psychology and s o c i a l work. 1/ With Respect to Age the general t r e n d which emerged i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was that knowledge and a t t i t u d e scores (+ve) i n c r e a s e d with age, i . e . the o l d e r the s u b j e c t , the g r e a t e r t h e i r knowledge and the more p o s i t i v e t h e i r a t t i t u d e s were towards aging. 2/ With Respect to Post-Secondary Education the general trend which emerged was that knowledge and a t t i t u d e scores (+ve) i n c r e a s e d with l e v e l of post-secondary education, i . e . the more post-secondary education a s u b j e c t had, the b e t t e r they were l i k e l y to do on knowledge and a t t i t u d e s c a l e s . 3/ With Respect to Sex (Gender of P a r t i c i p a n t s ) no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between male and female responses on both knowledge and a t t i t u d e s c a l e s . 4/ With Respect To Subject Areas a) Subjects from gerontology scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r ( p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l of 0.05) on s c a l e s which measured knowledge on aging than d i d s u b j e c t s from the areas of b i o l o g y , education, g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n (non-academic), psychology, and s o c i a l work. b) Subjects from b i o l o g y scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher ( p r o b a b i l t y l e v e l of 0.05) than s u b j e c t s from the general p o p u l a t i o n and psychology on knowledge on aging s c a l e s . c) Subjects from gerontology scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher ( p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l of 0.05) than s u b j e c t s from psychology on p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s c o r e s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n were a l s o used to develop a knowledge on aging s c a l e with a r e l i a b i l i t y value of 0.80 and a v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.70. Again, thank you f o r your p a r t i c i p a t i o n in t h i s study. APPENDIX K S c o r i n g Key f o r the: 1) Kogan 2) Palmore 3) Proto s c a l e s A. The seven point L i k e r t s c a l e for Kogan was c o l l a p s e d i n t o a t r u e / f a l s e format and the items were scored as f o l l o w s : Odd numbered items r e f l e c t n e g ative a t t i t u d e statements. As such any response made as " S l i g h t l y Agree", "Agree", and "Stron g l y Agree" were scored as 0. Likewise a resonse of "S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e " , "Disagree", " S l i g h t l y Disagree" or " N e u t r a l " were s c o r e d as 1. Even numbered items r e f l e c t p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e statements. As such any response made as " S t r o n g l y Disagree", "Disagree", " S l i g h t l y Disagree", or " N e u t r a l " were scored as 0. Li k e w i s e a response of " S l i g h t l y Agree", "Agree" or " S t r o n g l y Agree" were scored as 1. The t o t a l s c o r e was obtained by adding the summed scores of odd and even numbered items. • B. The f i v e p o i n t response s c a l e f o r Palmore was c o l l a p s e d i n t o a t r u e / f a l s e format and the items were scored as f o l l o w s : Responses of " D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e " or "Might Be F a l s e " to odd numbered q u e s t i o n s were scored as 1 whereas responses of " D e f i n i t e l y True", "Might Be True" or "Don't Know" of the same items were scored as 0. Responses of " D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e " , "Might Be F a l s e " or "Don't Know" to even numbered questions were scored as 0. S i m i l a r i l y , responses of "Might Be True" or " D e f i n i t e l y True" to the same items were scores as 1. The t o t a l s c o r e was obtained by adding the summed scores of odd and even numbered items. C. The f i v e p o i n t response s c a l e f o r Proto was c o l l a p s e d i n t o a t r u e / f a l s e format and the items were scored as f o l l o w s : Responses of " D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e " , "Might Be F a l s e " or "Don't Know" to • items #1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22, 23, 27, 28, 29, 31, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 57, and 58 were scored as 0. Likewise responses of "Might Be True" and " D e f i n i t e l y True" to the same items were scored as 1. Responses of "Don't Know", "Might Be True" or " D e f i n i t e l y True" to items #3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 17, 19, 20, 24, 25, 26, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 40, 44, 47, 54, 56, 59, and 60 were sc o r e d as 0. Likewise responses of " D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e " or "Might Be F a l s e " to the same items were scored as 1. 167 The t o t a l Proto score was the sum of the transformed answers to the e n t i r e 60 items. The score f o r the S o c i a l Science Subscale was the sum of the transformed responses to items 1 to 20, 21 to 40 f o r the B i o l o g y Subscale, and 41 to 60 f o r the Psychology Subscale. 1 68 APPENDIX L 169 Types of Analyses An i n t e g r a l p a r t of any t e s t s ' s e l e c t i o n concerns the i n s p e c t i o n of i t s a s s o c i a t e d r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y v a l u e s . R e l i a b i l i t y r e f e r s to the c o n s i s t e n c y of scores obtained using the s c a l e on d i f f e r e n t o ccasions or using d i f f e r e n t s e t s of e q u i v a l e n t s c a l e items. The u n d e r l y i n g concept of r e l i a b i l t y i s that of a t t r i b u t i n g a value to the " e r r o r of measurement" or "range of f l u c t u a t i o n " l i k e l y to occur due to chance f a c t o r s . D i f f e r e n t types of r e l i a b i l i t y e x i s t , but f o r the purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n four types w i l l be di scussed. T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y or c o e f f i c i e n t of s t a b i l i t y r e p resents the r e l i a b i l i t y value of a t e s t by means of r e t e s t or r e p e t i t i o n of the same t e s t on a d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n . T h i s type of r e l i a b i l i t y can provide an i n d i c a t i o n of temporal, s c o r e r , and examiner r e l i a b i l i t y . E q u i v a l e n t Form r e l i a b i l t y or C o e f f i c i e n t of Equivalence T h i s type of r e l i a b i l i t y avoids the d i f f i c u l t i e s of using a t e s t - r e t e s t format by using two p a r a l l e l forms of the same t e s t s i m u l t a n e o s l y . T h i s type of r e l i a b i l t y p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n of both temporal s t a b i l i t y and c o n s i s t e n c y of response to d i f f e r e n t items of the t e s t . S p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y or C o e f f i c i e n t of I n t e r n a l Consistency Provides a measure of equivalency or adequacy of item sampling by s p l i t t i n g one t e s t i n t o two e q u i v a l e n t p a r t s and c o r r e l a t i n g the scores obtained. I n t e r i t e m r e l i a b i l i t y or Method of R a t i o n a l Equivalence measures t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y based on the c o n s i s t e n c y of responses to a l l items i n a s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t e s t . V a r i o u s formulas can be used to determine i n t e r i t e m r e l i a b i l i t y which provides one with an i n d i c a t i o n of equivalency and homogeneity of t e s t items. The d i f f e r e n c e between s p l i t - h a l f and i n t e r i t e m values i n d i c a t e homogeneity of t e s t items. Another important aspect of a s c a l e i s i t s a s s o c i a t e d v a l i d i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . V a l i d i t y concerns the q u e s t i o n of whether a t e s t measures what i t pur p o r t s to measure. As with r e l i a b i l t y four types of v a l i d i t y can be d i s c u s s e d . Content v a l i d i t y i n v e s t i g a t e s the s c a l e s ' content to determine whether i t samples the behavior domain i t purports to measure. Content v a l i d i t y can only be assessed by o b j e c t i v e l y comparing t e s t items with the 170 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c (behavior, s k i l l s e t c.) i t pur p o r t s to measure. P r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y i n d i c a t e s a t e s t s ' e f f e c t i v e n e s s in p r e d i c t i n g some f u t u r e outcome. T h i s i s done by checking the t e s t score of an i n d i v i d u a l a g a i n s t t h e i r subsequent performance c r i t e r i a . Concurrent v a l i d i t y i n v e s t i g a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between an i n d i v i d u a l s ' t e s t score and a s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i o n measured at the same time. Construct v a l i d i t y of a t e s t i n d i c a t e s the extent to which the t e s t measures non-observable t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s such as i n t e l l i g e n c e and a n x i e t y . The second major type of s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s u t i l i z e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s that of c o r r e l a t i o n a l t echniques. C o r r e l a t i o n s are concerned with d e s c r i b i n g the degree of r e l a t i o n between v a r i a b l e s . The purpose of the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s to express i n mathematical terms the degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between two v a r i a b l e s . I f a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s t r o n g , the maximum c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t w i l l be 1.00, i f i t i s weak i t w i l l be c l o s e to 0. Li k e w i s e , i f the two v a r i a b l e s i n c r e a s e i n value at the same time, then they represent a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . S i m i l a r l y , i f one v a r i a b l e i n c r e a s e s i n value when the other decreases, they have a negative r e l a t i o n s h i p or c o e f f i c i e n t . T h e r e f o r e , the c o r r e l a t i o n i s a way of s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n d i c a t i n g the extent to which one v a r i a b l e i s r e l a t e d to another. A p r i n c i p a l advantage of using c o r r e l a t i o n a l techniques i s that i t allows the measure of a l a r g e number of v a r i a b l e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s at the same time, as w e l l as the degree or amount of r e l a t i o n s h i p . Disadvantages of c o r r e l a t i o n a l techniques i s that they do not measure cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e not p o s s i b l e to i n f e r that v a r i a b l e a causes v a r i a b l e b or v i s e v e r s a . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to be an a r t i f a c t . C o r r e l a t i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s are used f o r two main reasons. To ex p l o r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i a b l e s and to p r e d i c t s u b j e c t s ' scores on other v a r i a b l e s . Two ba s i c c a t e g o r i e s f o r ha n d l i n g data e x i s t . Product moment c o r r e l a t i o n s are used when v a r i a b l e s represent continuous s c o r e s . Rank d i f f e r e n c e c o r r e l a t i o n s are used when v a r i a b l e s are i n rank form. Press i s a term used i n c o r r e l a t i o n a l techniques to designate one of two p o s s i b l e s i t u a t i o n s . Alpha press i s used to designate o b j e c t i v e a s p e c t s of a s u b j e c t ' s p h y s i c a l or s o c i a l 171 environment which c o u l d a f f e c t the s u b j e c t s ' responses. Lee Cronbach (1949) i s the w e l l noted s t a t i s t i c i a n who developed the formula f o r determining a l p h a . Beta press i s the term used to represent s u b j e c t i v e aspects of the environment which c o u l d a f f e c t responses. In t h i s study Product Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s (P.M.C.) w i l l be used s i n c e the v a r i a b l e s under study w i l l r epresent continuous s c o r e s . Pearson's Product Moment formula (P.P.M.C.) w i l l be u t i l i z e d s i n c e i t minimizes standard e r r o r . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s i s the t h i r d major type of s t a t i s t i c a l method u t i l i z e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t i s a type of c o r r e l a t i o n a l method that performs the f u n c t i o n of data r e d u c t i o n by grouping v a r i a b l e s that are moderately or h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d with each o t h e r . F a c t o r scores (weights a s s i g n e d to e i t h e r items or s u b j e c t s ) can be used i n subsequent analyses ( f o r example, a t - t e s t can be used to determine whether male and female students d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y on one or a l l of the f a c t o r e d dimensions). A problem i n using f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i s that " s e v e r a l v a r i a t i o n s of f a c t o r a n a l y s i s r e s t on s u b t l e mathematical d i s t i n c t i o n s " (Borg & G a l l , 1979, p.507). P r i n c i p a l component a n a l y s i s i s c o n s i d e r e d to be the f i r s t stage s o l u t i o n to f a c t o r a n a l y s i s techniques (Gorsuch,1974), and as such was s e l e c t e d over other a v a i l a b l e t e c hniques. Because modern f a c t o r a n a l y s t s do not c o n s i d e r a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s complete u n t i l f u r t h e r r o t a t i o n s are performed (Gorsuch,1974), varimax r o t a t i o n was s e l e c t e d over equimax and quartimax. Equimax r o t a t i o n s are seldom a v a i l a b l e as a computer program and are t h e r e f o r e seldom used (Gorsuch,1974). Quartimax r o t a t i o n s are not widely accepted because i t s s o l u t i o n tends to i n c l u d e one f a c t o r with a l l major l o a d i n g s and no other major l o a d i n g s i n the r e s t of the matrix. Since varimax does not possess the inherent d i f f i c u l t i e s found in quartimax and equimax i t was chosen as the more a p p r o p r i a t e technique to use. However, varimax r o t a t i o n i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e when t e s t items have a high i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . 1 72 APPENDIX M 1 73 Proto Knowledge on Aging Scale I n s t r u c t i o n s : The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s are designed to assess your knowledge about aging. Please answer each statement by c i r c l i n g the degree to which you think the item i s true or f a l s e . Please answer these q u e s t i o n s c a r e f u l l y and be sure to provide a response f o r every item. 1) According to S t a t i s t i c s Canada, over 50% of unattached i n d i v i d u a l s aged 65 and older have incomes below the poverty l i n e ( l e s s than $7,000 per y e a r ) . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5" 2) According to demographic s t u d i e s , the Canadian group which i s i n c r e a s i n g i n g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n i s the 65 and o l d e r age group, (as compared to the 64 and younger age group). D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 3) According to Canadian Law i t i s i l l e g a l f o r an i n d i v i d u a l to work past 65 years of age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 4) Workers 55 and o l d e r (male and female) who lo s e t h e i r jobs g e n e r a l l y remain unemployed f o r s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n s than workers under 55 years of age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 174 5) People over 65 are more than twice as l i k e l y than i n d i v i d u a l s under 65 to be the v i c t i m s of robbery. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 6) More men (65+) than women (65+) are widows. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 7) I n d i v i d u a l s under 65 are more l i k e l y to make y e a r l y v i s i t s to the d e n t i s t than those 65 years and o l d e r . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 8) More than 50% of i n d i v i d u a l s 65 years of age and ol d e r l i v e i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 9) Hea l t h , education and i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s are more important than age when i t comes to i n t e r e s t i n continued l e a r n i n g . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y False. False- Know. True True 1 2 3 4 5 10) Not everyone experiences memory impairment with advancing age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 175 11) D r i v e r s over 65 are i n v o l v e d i n a higher percentage of a c c i d e n t s than teenage d r i v e r s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True . True 1 2 3 4 5 12) L o n e l i n e s s i s seldom r e p o r t e d as the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y faced by widows. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 13) C h r o n o l o g i c a l age can be regarded as an accurate measure of the rat e of human aging p r o c e s s e s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 14) Bones become more b r i t t l e with i n c r e a s i n g age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 15) The c a p a c i t y f o r drug metabolism i n c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s i n g age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 16) The r a t e of human development ( p h y s i c a l growth) remains constant throughout an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e s p a n . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 176 17) The human aging process i s c o n s i d e r e d - t o be s o l e l y p a t h o l o g i c a l i n nature. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 18) Developing presbyopia ( f a r s i g h t e d n e s s ) i n your 4th decade (40 years) i s c u r r e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d to be p a r t of the "normal" aging p r o c e s s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 19) From conception to b i r t h , the human organism undergoes i t s most r a p i d r a t e of p h y s i c a l growth. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 20) As an i n d i v i d u a l ages, h i s / h e r c a p a c i t y to hear n o i s e s of high frequency (above 16,000 Hz.) i n c r e a s e s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 21) In the m a j o r i t y of t i s s u e types found i n the body, the percentage of c e l l s i n d i v i s i o n at any time i n c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s i n g age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 177 22) The most s t r i k i n g change observed i n c e l l s with i n c r e a s i n g age i s the disappearance of a pigment c a l l e d l i p o f u s c i n . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 23) P o s t u r a l sway decreases with i n c r e a s i n g age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 24) The c a p a c i t y to d i g e s t and absorb food i s s e r i o u s l y impaired with i n c r e a s i n g age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 25) The absence of e x e r c i s e can exacerbate a g i n g - r e l a t e d processes, D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 26) I t i s not unusual to experience a s l i g h t decrease i n p h y s i c a l height as one ages. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 - 4 5 27) The pumping a b i l i t y of the heart an c a r d i o v a s c u l a r system g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s i n g age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 178 28) T y p i c a l p h y s i c a l symptoms of d e p r e s s i o n (eg. s l e e p and a p p e t i t e d i s t u r b a n c e s ) may r e s u l t from a v a r i e t y of d i s e a s e s and medications f r e q u e n t l y p r e s c r i b e d to o l d e r people (65 +). D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 1 79 29) Most of the n e u r o p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e are not ap p r o p r i a t e to use with i n d i v i d u a l s over the age of 60 sin c e they do not have adequate norms a s s o c i a t e d with them. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 30) S e n i l e p a t i e n t s show s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced c e r e b r a l v a s c u l a r flow as compared with n o n - s e n i l e age c o u n t e r p a r t s . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 31) C h r o n o l o g i c a l age i s a good i n d i c a t o r of the way people l i v e , D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 32) The no t i o n of i n e v i t a b l e d e c l i n e known as the "decrement model of o l d age" has not been confirmed i n r e s e a r c h with the e l d e r l y . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 33) P s y c h o l o g i s t s b e l i e v e that great p o t e n t i a l f o r personal development occurs i n o l d age (65+). D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 34) Humans reach the peak of t h e i r s t r e n g t h , h e a l t h , and endurance duri n g young adulthood (ages 20-40). D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 180 35) P s y c h o l o g i c a l research i n d i c a t e s that a d a p t i v e , goal d i r e c t e d and p u r p o s e f u l q u a l i t i e s of p e r s o n a l i t y do not a p p r e c i a b l y change with age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 36) Incidences of neuroses and psy c h o s i s i n c r e a s e s with age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 37) A strong l i n k e x i s t s between c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and human behavior. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 38) There i s evidence to suggest that sex r o l e r e v e r s a l s may occur in middle or o l d age. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y . . . . . F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 39) The term ageism r e f e r s to the g l o r i f i c a t i o n of growing o l d . D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 40) The a b i l i t y to l e a r n d r a s t i c a l l y decreases a f t e r the age of 20. D e f i n i t e l y Might Be Don't Might Be D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e F a l s e Know True True 1 2 3 4 5 Papers Submitted f o r P u b l i c a t i o n Gal 1 i e , K.A. and Kozak, J . F . Factor A n a l y t i c Study of Canadian Responses to the Wilson Conservatism Scale. Manuscript submitted to the B r i t i s h Journal of Soc ia l Psychology. Kozak, J . F . and G a l l i e , K.A. Jungian Typology and Perce ived P e r s o n a l i t y . Manuscr ipt submitted to the Canadian Journa l on Aging. Papers Presented Lakowski, R.L., G a l l i e , K.A. & MacEntee, M. Assessment of Colour V i s i on Apt i tudes i n Dental Personnel . Report presented to the V i s ua l Laboratory and Facu l ty o f D e n t i s t r y , U.B.C., Vancouver, B.C., Oct. 1982. G a l l i e , K.A. and Kozak, J . F . P e r s o n a l i t y and the Perce ived T r a i t s of an E l d e r l y Woman. Paper presented at the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n on Geronto logy, Vancouver, B.C., Nov. 1984. Kozak, J . F . and G a l l i e , K.A. Jungian Typology and Perce ived P e r s o n a l i t y . Paper presented at the Canadian A s s o c i a t i on on Gerontology, Vancouver, B.C., Nov. 1984. Papers to be Presented G a l l i e , K.A. A Knowledge About Aging Scale Which Measures B i o l o g i c a l , P s y cho l o g i c a l and S o c i a l Aspects of Aging. To be presented at the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n on Geronto logy, Hamilton On ta r i o , Oct. 1985. G a l l i e , K.A. and Kozak, J . F . I n v e s t i g a t i o n Into a Po s s i b l e Re l a t i on sh ip Between Knowledge About Aging and A t t i t u d e s Toward Old People. To be presented at the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n , on Gerontology, Hamilton O n t a r i o , Oct. 1985.

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