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Development of a knowledge about aging scale Gallie, Karen Ann 1985

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DEVELOPMENT OF A KNOWLEDGE ABOUT AGING SCALE  BY KAREN ANN B.Sc,  GALLIE  UNIVERSITY OF VICTORIA,  1980  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS  IN  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT  OF ADMINISTRATIVE, ADULT AND HIGHER EDUCATION  WE ACCEPT THIS THESIS AS CONFORMING TO THE REQUIRED  STANDARD  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA  SEPTEMBER, 1985  © KAREN ANN G A L L I E ,  1985  In  presenting  degree  this  at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  of  department publication  this or  thesis for by  his  or  the  representatives.  that the  for  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  requirements  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without  head of copying  my or  my written  permission.  Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 J  DE-6(3/81)  ii  Abstract The and  p u r p o s e of  valid  University  to  subjects  of  years  secondary  education,  Subjects  were c h o s e n  gerontological,  Subjects  s c a l e . Two  Columbia,  and  having  0 to  participated on  versus  the no  responded  Quiz  c o n s i s t e d of  b a s i s of  Chronbach's alpha  that of  the  post  of  of  study.  randomized the  Likert  initial  60  Scale  s c a l e were used  Change. T h i s 40  0.839 and  40  dimensions  Change, and  Social item  s c a l e had  confounding  results.  no  However, t y p e  indicated years  significant  i n f l u e n c e ( p ^ 0.05) of t r a i n i n g  a  validity  g e n d e r , and  had  to  i n t e r p r e t e d as  a construct  v a r i a b l e s of age,  on  item s c a l e  independent  education,  item  (OP).  results  secondary  17  post  0.701. A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e  extraneous scale  of  Proto  factor  Biological  the  from  S c a l e , Palmore's F a c t s  initial  three  and  having  Kogan's O l d P e o p l e  Lifestyle/Histological  of  12 y e a r s  a psychometrically appropriate  Psychological,  value  ranging  in t h i s  t o computer  Aging  Responses to the  hundred  gerontological training.  Knowledge About A g i n g (FAQ), and  reliable  f e m a l e s ) from  population,  Proto  that  170  a  Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ,  scale questionnaires consisting  construct  to develop  males,  general  of age,  was  aging  (128  British  members of- t h e 65  study  knowledge a b o u t  ninety-eight  and  this  on  Proto  did influence  Proto  scale  r e s u l t s , with  gerontological  training scoring  (Duncan's M u l t i p l e no  gerontological Investigation  were f u r t h e r this  those  Range T e s t p<  subjects  significantly 0.05)  into Proto's  those  with  scale c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  i n r e l a t i o n t o the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , P a l m o r e ' s FAQ,  as compared  than  higher  training.  analyzed  with d i s c u s s i o n  having  focussing  to Palmore's  on FAQ.  and  subjects in  Kogan's OP  Proto's psychometric  scale, rigor  iv  Acknowledgements I would the  like  f o l l o w i n g people  investigation. on  my  of  Geriatric  T.J.  Medicine  of p i l o t  a c k n o w l e d g e and assistance  Sork and B.L.  D.S.  i n f o r m a t i o n . Dr.  for accessing  recruitment enabling  Social  Work.  at  and  S.F.U., as  subject  G.  coordinating w e l l as M.  recruitment  who  B e a t t i e , Head,  U.B.C., whose h e l p  thank  in t h i s  Butt  thesis  served Division  allowed Gutman, D i r e c t o r  Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ' s G e r o n t o l o g y  Centre,  for  Drs.  for their  t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e . Dr.  collection of  to g r a t e f u l l y  Research subject  Hill  and  E.  Stolar,  f r o m U.B.C.'s S c h o o l  of  V  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  . .  TABLE OF CONTENTS L I S T OF TABLES  iv v v i i  CHAPTER  I.  INTRODUCTION  1  CHAPTER  II.  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE'  5  CHAPTER  I I I . METHODOLOGY  12  SUBJECTS  12  MATERIALS  12  PROCEDURE  18  ANALYSIS  19  CHAPTER  IV.  RESULTS  24  PROPERTIES OF 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE  24  PROPERTIES OF 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE  48  PROPERTIES OF PALMORE'S FAQ  69  CHAPTER V.  DISCUSSION  84  PERSONAL COMMUNICATION  93  REFERENCES  94  APPENDIX A PALMORE'S FAQ  98  APPENDIX B ALPHA R E L I A B I L I T Y OF PALMORE FAQ PILOT .102 APPENDIX C FACTOR ANALYSIS OF PALMORE FAQ  104  APPENDIX D PROTO SCALE  106  vi  APPENDIX E DOCUMENTATION SOURCES FOR PROTO SCALE ..118 APPENDIX F KOGAN'S  OP SCALE  APPENDIX G REVISED FAQ  121 128  APPENDIX H PILOT RESULTS OF CHANGING PALMORE FAQ ..133 APPENDIX I TEST BATTERY  135  APPENDIX J PROTO ANSWERS AND DEBRIEFING SHEET  158  APPENDIX K SCORING KEY FOR SCALES  165  APPENDIX L OVERVIEW OF R E L I A B I L I T Y AND VALIDITY APPENDIX M FINAL 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE  ...168 172  L I S T OF  TABLE  TABLES  1a MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR TOTAL SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY AGE GROUP 25  TABLE  1b MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS SOCIAL SCIENCE SUBSCALE SCORES ON PROTO SCALE BY AGE GROUP  FOR THE  THE 60 ITEM .25  TABLE  1c MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS BIOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE PROTO SCALE BY AGE GROUP  FOR 60 ITEM 25  TABLE  1d MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY AGE GROUP 26  TABLE  1e MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR TOTAL SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION 26  TABLE  1f MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SOCIAL SCIENCES SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION 26  TABLE  1g MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR BIOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION 27  TABLE  1h MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION 27  TABLE  1 i MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR TOTAL SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SEX 27  TABLE  1j MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SOCIAL SCIENCES SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SEX 28  TABLE  1k MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR BIOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SEX 28  TABLE  11 MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SEX 28  TABLE  1m MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR TOTAL SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA 29  TABLE  1n MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SOCIAL SCIENCES SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA 29  TABLE  1o MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR BIOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO. SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA 30  TABLE  IP MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA 30  TABLE 2a MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON PALMORE'S FACTS ON AGING QUIZ BY AGE GROUP 31 TABLE 2b MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON PALMORE'S FACTS ON AGING QUIZ BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION 31 TABLE 2c MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON PALMORE'S FACTS ON AGING QUIZ BY SEX 31 TABLE 2d MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON PALMORE'S FACTS ON AGING QUIZ BY SUBJECT AREA  32  ix  TABLE 3a MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR ON KOGAN'S O.P. SCALE BY AGE GROUP  SCORES 33  TABLE 3b MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON KOGAN'S O.P. SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION 33 TABLE 3c MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR ON KOGAN'S O.P. SCALE BY SEX  SCORES 33  TABLE 3d MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON KOGAN'S O.P. SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA 34 TABLE 4a ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO TOTAL SCORES BETWEEN IN-CLASS AND OUT-OF-CLA'SS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS 35 TABLE 4b ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO SOCIAL SCIENCES SUBSCALE SCORES BETWEEN IN-CLASS AND OUT-OF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS 35 TABLE 4c ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO BIOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES BETWEEN IN-CLASS AND OUT-OF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS 35 TABLE 4d ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO PSYCHOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES BETWEEN IN-CLASS. AND OUT-OF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS 36 TABLE 4e ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PALMORE'S FACTS ON AGING QUIZ BETWEEN IN-CLASS AND OUTOF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS 36 TABLE 4f ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF KOGAN'S O.P. BETWEEN IN-CLASS AND OUT-OF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS 36  X  TABLE 5 ITEM SUBSCALE POINT BISERIAL CORRELATIONS FOR THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE 38 TABLE 6a ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO (60 ITEM) SCALE BY AGE GROUP 40 TABLE 6b ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO (TOTAL.) SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION 42 TABLE 6c ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO (60 ITEM) SCALE BY SEX (GENDER) 44 TABLE 6d ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO (60 ITEM) SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA 46 TABLE 7 ALPHA VALUE  OF PROTO SCALE IF ITEM  DELETED 49  TABLE 8a ITEM DIFFICULTY LEVELS OF THE FINAL 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE 50 TABLE 8b CATEGORIZATION OF 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE AS EASY, MEDIUM, AND HARD BASED ON ITEM DIFFICULTY LEVELS 52 TABLE 9 CHRONBACH'S R E L I A B I L I T Y ALPHAS OF PROTO (40 ITEM) AND SOCIAL SCIENCE, BIOLOGY, AND PSYCHOLOGY SUBSCALES 53 TABLE  10 VARIMAX ROTATED FACTOR SOLUTION 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE  OF FINAL 54  TABLE  11a ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF SCALE BY AGE GROUP  40 ITEM PROTO 56  TABLE  11b ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION 58  TABLE  11c ANALYSIS SCALE BY SEX  OF VARIANCE OF  40 ITEM PROTO 60  xi  TABLE  11d ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA  40 ITEM PROTO 60  TABLE  12a ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO SCALE AGAINST AGE GROUP WITH YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT 63  TABLE  12b ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO SCALE AGAINST YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION WITH AGE AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT 65  TABLE  12c ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO SCALE AGAINST SUBJECT AREA WITH AGE AND YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION PARTIALED OUT 67  TABLE  13a CATEGORIZATION OF 25 ITEM FAQ SCALE (5 POINT SCALE, CANADIAN FACTS) AS EASY, MEDIUM, AND HARD BASED ON THE FREQUENCY OF CORRECT PARTICIPANT RESPONSE 70  TABLE  13b CATEGORIZATION OF 25 ITEM FAQ SCALE (ORIGINAL TRUE/FALSE, AMERICAN ITEM FORMAT) AS EASY, MEDIUM, AND HARD BASED ON THE FREQUENCY OF CORRECT PARTICIPANT RESPONSE 71  TABLE  14 CHRONBACH'S R E L I A B I L I T Y ALPHAS OF PALMORE'S FAQ SCALE 73  TABLE  15 VARIMAX ROTATED FACTOR SOLUTION PALMORE'S FAQ SCALE  OF 74  TABLE  16a ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PALMORE SCALE AGAINST AGE GROUP 76  TABLE  16b ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PALMORE SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION 76  TABLE  16c ONE SCALE BY  WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PALMORE SEX (GENDER) 76  xi i  TABLE  16d ANALYSIS OF PROTO  SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA 77  TABLE  17a ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PALMORE SCALE AGAINST AGE GROUP WITH EDUCATION AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT 79  TABLE  17b ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PALMORE SCALE AGAINST YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION WITH AGE AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT 79  TABLE  17c ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PALMORE SCALE AGAINST SUBJECT AREA WITH AGE AND YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION PARTIALED OUT 81  TABLE  18 PEARSON CORRELATIONS OF PROTO, FAQ, AND KOGAN'S OP SCALES  PALMORE'S 82  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  The  growing  s i z e of N o r t h A m e r i c a ' s o v e r  group i s i n c r e a s i n g  the  an  aging  (National  At  present,  population the  the  Canadian  17%  by  the  65  and  necessity  population,  year  2021  but  (Fact  t o meet the  Advisory  o v e r age  on  (sanitation,  Book on  well  as  the  immunization), maturing  1980). S i n c e  to  Aging  being  turned  society.  As  in medical decline  a  will  be  altered,  and  social  of  aspects  of  As  one  population,  on  Gerontology,  response  to  professional  the  young and  students' old  working with  to  rates,  as  groups' (Kimmel,  trend  towards  an  attention  have  on  biological, the  human  research  aging (Canadian  1984).  c h a n g i n g age  schools  a w a r e n e s s of  profile  of  i n North America  begun t o d e v e l o p g e r o n t o l o g y / g e r i a t r i c increase  of  this  in b i r t h  the  9.7%  increase  increasing  p r o c e s s have become t o p i c a l a r e a s of Association  1980).  knowledge  towards e f f e c t s t h i s w i l l  r e s u l t , studies  psychological,  the  of  i n Canada,  baby boom c o h o r t  i t i s u n l i k e l y that  aging population is  of  needs  group represents  i s expected  i n c l u d i n g advances  age  Aging,  1983). Numerous r e a s o n s have been c i t e d f o r increase,  65  the  the  have  c u r r i c u l a to  differences  between  i n d i v i d u a l s . However, d i s i n t e r e s t i n the  e l d e r l y by  professional  groups such  as  2  clergy  (Longino & K i t s o n ,  (Cicchetti, nurses  Fletcher,  (Elliot,  reported  aging the  and  presence  the  elderly  are  w i t h t h i s age  In  of  1973), 1984)  related  to  to  greater  (Mills,  interest  r e c t i f y the  g r o w i n g need  individuals  particular  d e t e r m i n e how This  i s an  area  understanding  of  Of  link  (Maisonville, high  levels  interest  the  particular  hypothesized  interest between  If  education  since  working  to  t h i s area  i s the  f i n d ways of  need  d e v e l o p e d and  to  influenced.  t o many g r o u p s and key  to  to  a  increased  educators  & Beck,  knowledge r e l a t e target,  such a  i t would have  educators,  enter  knowledge and  Holtzman  towards a p a r t i c u l a r  exist,  the  in  clear  interest  elderly.  1984; of  individuals.  are  could hold  in working with  to  interest  attitudes  toward  for  of  Of  towards  1972).  s p e c i a l i s t s , i t i s important  practice.  been  has  attitudes  gerontological encouraging  and have  negative attitudes  [i.e. positive  group]  order  & Coleman,  l i t e r a t u r e . This disinterest  the  elderly  Lerner,  students  P e r s o n a l communications,  i n the  paralleled  1976), m e d i c a l  in attitude  attitudes  1979). Namely,  in t h i s case,  important  the  to p o s i t i v e  relationship  i t would  is  could  c h a n g e . In  the  the  attitudes elderly  be  ramifications  indicate  do  shown  to  for  possible  usage  s p e c i f i c area  of  of  3  gerontology/geriatrics  i t would  i n c r e a s e c u r r i c u l u m time  support  program p l a n n i n g  find and  more i n t e r e s t  f o r the  education.  need t o  Additionally,  c l a s s e s , f o r the  active and  study  attitudes,  behavior  and  need of  time,  no  attitudes,  The  therefore,  was  dimensionally  target  that  the  to  future  t o become  effects  (Maisonville, research tools  line  of m e a s u r i n g  of  inquiry.  elderly "pure"  the dimensions  has  At  scales  and  aging  knowledge of  etc., is available.  study  to develop pure,  process  psychometrically reliable  stereotypes,  p u r p o s e of  this  of a d e q u a t e  u n c o n f o u n d e d by  greater  between.knowledge  whether  to pursue t h i s  s c a l e capable  about a g i n g ,  substance  seminars.  w h i c h measure a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e exist,  would  send  aging  relationships  secondly,  although  own  same r e a s o n s  towards a p a r t i c u l a r  made i t d i f f i c u l t  area  in continuing  for adult educators  1984). However, a d e a r t h  this  their  attend preretirement  i n the  of  c o u n s e l l o r s might  gerontology  i s great  i n the  curricula  involve staff  t r o u b l e d about  There  educators  and  i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n would have  individuals  retirees  to  gerontological instruction  in developing  d u r a t i o n . Those  proof  and  need  in p r o f e s s i o n a l schools  undergraduate departments. Adult of  the  described  in this  a psychometrically  instrument  for assessing  thesis,  sound, knowledge  4  about in  a g i n g . The  this  chapter  study two  as  development follows;  r e v i e w s the  three describes  the  well  scale  as  presents  how the  constitutes  the  study's  of  after  the  pertinent  research was  scale  outlined  introduction,  literature.  developed. Chapter  and  is  Chapter  m e t h o d o l o g y employed  findings,  a discussion  such a  and  chapter  summary of  as  four  five  these  findings.  5  CHAPTER II REVIEW OF Currently, knowledge a b o u t  o n l y one aging  scale,  [FAQ],  1977)  (Palmore,  i n s t r u m e n t which  discussion,  s c a l e c a p a b l e of  a g i n g , 3)  about  a g i n g , and  A]  was  Quiz  developed  1) a c t a s a s t i m u l u s f o r overall  identify  to the  F a c t s on A g i n g  [see Appendix  could  measuring  available  Palmore's  2) d e t e r m i n e  about  LITERATURE  is readily  researcher. This  an  THE  levels  of  t h e most common m i s c o n c e p t i o n s  4) a c t as an  indirect  negative bias  However,  i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e whether t h i s  adequate  f o r a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n as a s t i m u l u s f o r (Lutsky,1980;  an  be c i t e d  a s a r e s e a r c h t o o l . The  item c o n s t r u c t i o n  to inadequate  investigation  conducted  (1980) f o u r m a j o r p r o b l e m s were a l l e g e d . use  Their  of ambiguous  twenty-five  items  people.  scale  is group  f o r t h e FAQ's criticisms  psychometric  by M i l l e r  and  regarding item  criticisms  included  range  i n the FAQ  Dodder  construction  the p r e v a l e n t  phrases  o u t of such  as  exemplifies  this  criticism;  g e n e r a l , most o l d p e o p l e a r e p r e t t y  much  alike."  Terminology  s u c h as t h i s  #15  incorporate  from  properties.  t e r m i n o l o g y . F o r example, e i g h t  "most o l d p e o p l e . " Item "In  older  Klemmack,1978).  Numerous r e a s o n s can  In  towards  measure of  and/or  inadequacy  group  knowledge  positive  discussion  as  i s open t o v a r i o u s  6  interpretations little  applicability  Secondly, containing nature. people  have no  his/her  interest  relations, interest  or both  criticisms  s u c h as #13  of t h i s  type  the  i f the respondent  of i n f o r m a t i o n namely, e i t h e r  f o r sexual  i n t h e FAQ  chose  contained 1) no  in  interest  namely,  relations.  were  no  S i x out  concluded  o f P a l m o r e ' s FAQ  documentation " I t i s almost  t o l e a r n s o m e t h i n g new"  t o be of  but a l s o p r e s e n t s  dilemma  of q u a l i f y i n g  w e l l a s "most FAQ  i s that  subjective #11,  impossible  the meaning  o l d people." i t is riddled  o l d people  items.  f o r most  Items o l d people  non-documentable i n  the respondent  with  of "almost  the impossible"  An a d d i t i o n a l p r o b l e m with  and o b j e c t i v e f a c t s . "most  include the  of statement  i s not only  nature,  item  f o r , sexual  p a r t s of the statement,  contained  questionable  the  s t a t e s , "most o l d  nature. Other  as  sure  t h e FAQ f o r  or 2) no c a p a c i t y f o r s e x u a l  i n , or c a p a c i t y  25 i t e m s  three  t o items  be  knowledge.  double-barrelled in  i n , or c a p a c i t y  on t h e b a s i s  relations,  t o have  criticized  number  of t h e s t a t e m e n t ,  sexual  this  item  can never  answer  one p a r t  and D o d d e r  In r e s p o n s e s  investigator  of  Miller  F o r example,  be s a i d  i n s c a l e s w h i c h measure  s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h were  relations."  in  and t h e r e f o r e c o u l d  To  with  the f u s i o n of illustrate  are set in their  this is  ways and  7  unable  t o change."  nature  whereas  "Set i n t h e i r  "unable  ways"  i s subjective in  t o change", a l t h o u g h  vague, i s  objective.  In t h e i r items  half)"  approximately  and found  five  percent  out t o d i r e c t l y  responses  construction  double-barrelled a critical An  make c o n c e r n i n g  response  the g e n e r a l  changes  indicates FAQ  this  in correct i n item  that wording i s  items. author  would  like to  g i v e s the respondent  the correct  the higher  a n a l y z e d . Many  experience  response.  a 50%  In a d d i t i o n ,  that the g r e a t e r the e d u c a t i o n a l  of the respondent  extensive of  category  findings  seriously  d i d not  FAQ i t e m c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t h a t t h e  chance of g u e s s i n g  be  criticism  they  ambiguous t e r m i n o l o g y and  i n answering  additional  true/false  to their  statements),  factor  scored  how w e l l t h e FAQ measured  of v a r i a t i o n  ( i . e . changing  changed  o f "most" t o " m a j o r i t y  higher. Although  levels  attributable  and Dodder  that respondents  determine  knowledge, t h e h i g h  level  Miller  c o n t a i n i n g the terminology  (more t h a n  set  investigation  t h e FAQ s c o r e  individuals  should  who have  i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m a r e aware  t h e adage that, i t i s unwise t o c o n s i d e r an i t e m  makes adamant  statements  "it  impossible") as being  i s almost  which  (such as "the m a j o r i t y o f " or t r u e . Upon  8  inspection majority  o f t h e FAQ  of q u e s t i o n s  were odd numbered so  that  using  Contributing  item  reliability)  to the questionable  face  was  author  of t h i s  B). This  low c o n s i s t e n c y  level.  scale  scale  No  (other  1981)  (item  to t o t a l  study l e v e l of  represents  an  reported than  found  validity  those  reporting  validity).  i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n d u c t e d by Klemmack item  to t o t a l  principal  factor loadings  possessed  poor  to t o t a l  no s t a t i s t i c a l  there  (Palmore,  i n d i c a t e d a 0.57  (see Appendix  d e t e r m i n e FAQ's  This  of t h e FAQ  f o r group  0.47. S i m i l a r l y , a p i l o t  exists for this  An  item  numbered  false.  utility  t h a n as a s t i m u l u s  reliability  by t h i s  reliability  value  and even  c o r r e c t l y , as being  p r o p e r t i e s . McKinlay  the alpha  extremely  t h e FAQ  a r e t h e r e s u l t s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o i t s  psychometric  conducted  Palmore d e v i s e d  i t e m s were f a l s e  any p u r p o s e o t h e r  that  qualifiers  i t i s t o a respondents advantage t o  answer an adamant  discussion  that the  t h e s e adamant  items. Since  odd numbered  i t e m s were t r u e ,  for  i t was d e t e r m i n e d  was was  item  c o r r e l a t i o n and  i n d i c a t e d that  discriminary  correlations  the instrument as low  (18 o u t of t h e 25 i t e m s had  i n t e r p r e t e d by Klemmack reason  first  powers a s w e l l  significance in relation  "little  (1978) t o  to t o t a l  score).  as i n d i c a t i n g t h a t  to believe  that  the t o t a l  score  9  on  t h e FAQ  is reflective  information principal  on a g i n g "  factor  relationship negative  the  that  to the  (Gallie,  rather,  appears  older of  items  from  and  social  mental,  analysis  solution  ( s e e A p p e n d i x C ) . The  can  be  t o Klemmack's comments t h a t  stereotype  of o l d e r  knowledge p e r  FAQ  se"  In r e s p o n s e  by  this  (1978; p.  factor  indicated  to  o f t h e FAQ  that  the  i t is  aging.  seriously  and  lends  "inadequate  of knowledge  rather  than  level  of a  of  403).  to these v a r i o u s c r i t i c i s m s  admitted  he  this  s c o r e s " a r e more a f u n c t i o n persons  author  that  aging,  used  for assessing levels  that  405).  F a c t u a l - G e n e r a l a s p e c t s of  credence  a g i n g " and  function  Socio-Economic,  the psychometric  as a r e s e a r c h t o o l  a  (p.  a four  question  (1978) has  t o be  inadequacies are  analysis  rigor  as  measure  about  indicated  Taken t o g e t h e r , t h e s e r e s u l t s  and  t h r e e s u b j e c t a r e a s of  o f Myths o r S t e r e o t y p e s , and  first  a  (1977) c o n t e n d s  facts  factor  Factual-Medical,  but  people"  these  the  author's  factors  d o e s not  Whereas P a l m o r e  FAQ  the  by Klemmack  obtained in a study conducted  h i s 25  of  hypothesized positive  FAQ  substantiation  1984).  physical,  were low,  interpreted  h o l d s about  level  In a d d i t i o n ,  results  "Palmore's  a g i n g , but  image one  results  chose  loading  between P a l m o r e ' s  knowledge on  Adding  individual's  (p. 405).  b i a s q u e s t i o n s was  indicating  of an  o f an  t h e FAQ's  Palmore  psychometric  on  10  properties it  could  is undesirable  FAQ's e d u m e t r i c before/after interfere frequent  simply"  i m p r o v e d . However, he  t o do  with  qualities,  toward  the  " t h i s would measurement  a ratio  scale  i t s major p u r p o s e s of  and  changes  the  FAQ  can  aged w h i c h  solely  It  in these  of and  identifying  levels  i s the  opinion  a stimulus  "edumetric"  tool  plethora  uncritically  using  knowledge  the  in different  inappropriately  i s an  of  quickly  study  admission  using  of  t o o l . To  the  Luszcz,  Beck,  1979;  1982;  does  that  the  FAQ  is  as  an  and  changes. are of  are  Unfortunately,  levels  the, more  of  knowledge, the  more  with being  a r e l i a b l e and  valid  illustrate  Allen,  Klemmack,  FAQ  aging.  groups  quiz.  Palmore  the  t o compare l e v e l s  a r t i c l e s which used  1984;  that  before/after  subject  and  attitudes  i n v e s t i g a t o r s who  FAQ  most  of  f o r group d i s c u s s i o n  is falsely associated  inspected  to  t h i s author  i s used to a s s e s s  research  used  f o r gauging  However, t h e  FAQ  be  that  reduce  basis],  levels  measure knowledge a b o u t  a d e q u a t e as  the  [the  contends  ( p . 4 0 6 ) . However, i n l a t e r p u b l i c a t i o n s that  it  since  misconceptions, measuring  claims  the  so  c h a n g e s on  information,  not  be  this the  1981;  1978). In  FAQ  was  used to a s s e s s  studies  the  authors concluded  point, FAQ  this  (West  &  Laner,  1981;  f i v e out  of  levels that  of  author Levy, Holtzman  six  studies  k n o w l e d g e . In  the  FAQ  was  &  these  11  appropriate  in assessing  knowledge  on a g i n g ,  many of them had a l s o s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  although  used i t - to  measure  attitudes. Therefore, exists  in light  of these  for a psychometrically  strictly attitudes  knowledge and  about a g i n g  stereotypes.  facts,  sound  a definite  s c a l e which  without  need  measures  t h e c o n f o u n d s of  1 2  CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY  Subjects  Subjects of  British  general  consisted  Columbia,  Simon F r a s e r  p u b l i c who v o l u n t e e r e d  study. Volunteers ability  categorized education,  U n i v e r s i t y and t h e  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the of t h e i r  i n t o e i t h e r g e r o n t o l o g i c a l or  b a c k g r o u n d s , and were  gerontology,  non-academic  psychology,  (128 m a l e s ,  and s o c i a l  further  were i n c l u d e d  biology,  (general work. I n t o t a l ,  170 f e m a l e s ) r a n g i n g  o f a g e , a n d 0 t o 12 y e a r s  education,  the U n i v e r s i t y  i n t o one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g g r o u p s ;  population), subjects  from  were c h o s e n on t h e b a s i s  t o be c a t e g o r i z e d  nongerontological  years  of students  from  298  17 t o 64  of p o s t - s e c o n d a r y  in this investigation.  Materials  Development  of the I n i t i a l  Proto  Knowledge a b o u t  Aging  Scale Development scale aging,  (see  draft)  Proto  A p p e n d i x D ) , w h i c h measures knowledge  about  proceeded  of the i n i t i a l  by a v o i d i n g  (or f i r s t  t h e item  construct  13  difficulties avoided and  the  use  d i d not  were a l s o  found  i n t h e FAQ.  of ambiguous t e r m i n o l o g y  based  on  documentable  c o n s t r u c t e d from  domains of B i o l o g y and  the  Social  The  Junquerira,  Scale  items;  Book on A g i n g  1975;  1983  1980;  levels,  d i s c e r n e d by  knowledge w h i c h was  addition,  intention continuum,  of  Shock,  Proto  scale  treating  r a t h e r than  items  as an  easy  event  life  represented life  were d e s i g n e d  to  in nature.  were d e v e l o p e d  the p r o c e s s  the  different  observing  highly specialized items  1962;  (n=20),  t h i n k i n g about  difficulty  1980;  items  so t h a t  c a t e g o r i z e d as  whereas medium d i f f i c u l t y  Items of h a r d  1975;  Kimmel,  a b l e t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between  t h a t c o u l d be  i n the  (n=20), medium  events,  In  subject  Psychology,  E). Sixty  information o b t a i n a b l e through  test  scale  1983;  1977;  (See A p p e n d i x  knowledge. Q u e s t i o n s  situations.  i n mind  were u s e d  sampled  facts  Items  the  Butler,  Poon,  (n=20) i t e m d i f f i c u l t y  of  from  i n Canada,  to r e p r e s e n t easy  s c a l e would be levels  "most"  the  (Physiology, Pathology),  Petrofsky,  were s e l e c t e d  Keeping  i n f o r m a t i o n chosen  of P r o t o  & Birren,  hard  as  of g e r o n t o l o g y ,  Carneiro, & Contopoulos,  1977;  Woodruff  such  Sciences.  Cross,1982; Fact  and  nature  facts.  f o l l o w i n g reference sources  documentation  Moore,  items  include d o u b l e - b a r r e l l e d statements.  the m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y was  Namely, P r o t o  of a g i n g as  with  the  a  which occurs at  the  14  age  of  65  years.  Since Proto information, nature  was  items  content  avoided.  were b a s e d  o f an  on  attitudinal  In o r d e r  i n a dichotomous response  response  scale  Be  from  True"  a v o i d a 50%  c h a n c e of  This  scale  used.  versus  methodologies. randomized  format.  Canadian  usage, not  problems a  five-point  False",  True", done  flexibility  "Might  and in order  the c o r r e c t  non-parametric  in order  C a n a d i a n and  the  In a d d i t i o n ,  response  Be  T h i s was  guessing  also provided  parametric  Aging  was  stereotypical  format,  "Definitely  F a l s e " , "Don't Know", "Might  "Definitely  or  t o escape the  inherent  ranging  documented  to  response.  for using  statistical  items  were  computer  to avoid a p r e d i c t a b l e t r u e / f a l s e  Since  the  scale  item content American  was  was  developed  for  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  f a c t s as  i s Palmore's F a c t s  on  Quiz. Before  proceeding  study  was  conducted  flaws  in Proto's  study  were u s e d  with data  in order  collection,  t o d e t e c t any  c o n s t r u c t i o n . R e s u l t s from to  further  refine  Proto  Kogan's A t t i t u d e Towards O l d P e o p l e  Since  test  a  pilot  ambiguity this  scale  construction in i t s e l f  should  pilot  items.  Scale  be  or  1 5  developed criteria  with  respect  (Anastasi,  to a t t i t u d e s  about  investigation  into  characteristics. an  t o some c o v e r t  1961) P r o t o was t e s t e d aging,  Using  attitudes (OP)  i s generally  people with  respect  differences, people point  that  Likert  scale  also  be u s e d  was u s e d  (Kogan,  have been  to select"  ( M c T a v i s h , 1982,  positive  and m i s c o n c e p t i o n s a b o u t  1982). T h i s with  scale  34 s h o r t  consists  statements  (McTavish,  stated  was f o u n d  Odd-even  from  ranges  0.76 t o 0.83,  from 0.66 t o 0.77.  between t h e n e g a t i v e and t o r a n g e between  0.46 and 0.52  1982).  Two t y p e s o f v a l i d i t y conducted  (17 n e g a t i v e  c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the negative  f o u n d t o range scale  older  o f a seven  1961) [ r e f e r t o A p p e n d i x F ] .  correlations  scale  towards o l d  t o b o t h norms and i n d i v i d u a l  whereas t h e p o s i t i v e Interscale  Scale  a s "among t h e b e t t e r  assesses attitudes  Spearman-Brown r e l i a b i l i t y scale  for future  i n measuring  s t a t e m e n t s a n d 17 i d e n t i c a l b u t p o s i t i v e l y statements  provided  Towards O l d P e o p l e  regarded  stereotypes,  (McTavish,  scale  knowledge and a t t i t u d e  f o r an i n v e s t i g a t o r  p . 5 5 6 ) . Kogan's OP s c a l e  in relation  validity  Proto could  was Kogan's A t t i t u d e  which  scales  The s c a l e  overt  allowing  an a t t i t u d e  into possible  relationships.  therefore  i t s construct  i n d i c a t i o n o f whether  inquiries  and/or  on t h e OP s c a l e ;  e x a m i n a t i o n s have correlations  been  of s c a l e s  with  16  other  variables,  and  correlations  behaviors. Construct successfully  assessed  (authoritarian disability  validity  the  with Adorno's  scale)  scales,  of  of  as  and  well  the  as  scales  with  OP  been  has  later  F-scale  anti-minority,  Srole  Anomie S c a l e  (Kogan,  1961) .  The  OP  scale  differentiating education students  s u c h as  revised given  a  the  five-point  False, well  as  on  FAQ  age' and  by  the  sex,  Aging Quiz  scale  was  and  response  1966), as fields  OP  A pilot  with  to  (McTavish,  1982).  (FAQ).  included since  format  changing American  as  demographic  none a p p e a r the  well  (Thorson,  possible  i n the  test  i t s inclusion  true/false  Be  in  psychology  with Proto. Revising  o r i g i n a l FAQ  used  undergraduate  1976)  s c o r e s on  Don't Know, M i g h t  Appendix G).  successfully  Silverman,  to v o l u n t e e r s  comparison  changing  held  1974). Of  affect  Palmore's F a c t s  direct  1961;  & Hancock,  battery  been  in service-delivery  significantly  A  attitudes  (Kogan,  variables  also  (Gordon & H a l l a u ,  practitioners Whatley  has  the  FAQ  response  allowed involved  format  (Definitely False,  Might  True, D e f i n i t e l y True),  to Canadian  s t u d y was  facts  conducted  to  (refer  in order  as to to  Be  17  determine items  what c h a n g e s ,  from A m e r i c a n  H ) . Any c h a n g e s true/false study  that  format  i f any, r e s u l t e d  t o Canadian  content  from  (see Appendix  o c c u r r e d due t o c h a n g i n g  were d e t e r m i n e d  by c o m p a r i n g  r e s u l t s w i t h the r e s u l t s of the f u l l y  used  i n the t e s t  this  s t u d y . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s p i l o t  that  no s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s  introducing American  battery  a five-point  to Canadian  changing  t h e FAQ's pilot  revised  FAQ  administered to volunteers i n  t o t h e FAQ were  response  facts.  study  scale  indicated incurred  or c h a n g i n g  by  18  Procedure  S u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d consisting  of t h e P r o t o , P a l m o r e ' s  Kogan's OP. well  The o r d e r of e a c h  as t h e o r d e r  were r a n d o m i z e d  of each  thought  scale  by c i r c l i n g  the statement  was  Appendix  F ) . In a d d i t i o n ,  complete  a biographical  y e a r s of p o s t - s e c o n d a r y s t u d y . F o r example, gerontology area  order  which asked the degree  Furthermore,  knowledge-related  effects.  t o which  found a t  they  (refer to  indicating  their  e d u c a t i o n and p r i m a r y  anonymous,  receive  area of  in a  volunteers that  and informed a t any  to p a r t i c i p a t e , a copy  age, sex,  i n the s u b j e c t  notified  participation  them  that  time.  i t informed  of t h e a n s w e r s t o  q u e s t i o n s i n the b a t t e r y ,  and n o t i f i c a t i o n  Appendix J ) .  scale  s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o  i f they agreed  t h e y would  each  as  them t o answer  t r u e or f a l s e  sheet  their  and  i n the b a t t e r y ,  p r o g r a m t h e y were i n c l u d e d  they c o u l d withdraw  debriefing  (revised),  i f t h e y were e n r o l l e d  were s t r i c t l y  them t h a t  FAQ  battery  the i n s t r u c t i o n s  of g e r o n t o l o g y . T h i s sheet  results  to a  of t h e i t e m s w i t h i n  to follow  the b e g i n n i n g of each statement  scale  t o remove p o s s i b l e  S u b j e c t s were t o l d  each  to respond  of t h e s t u d y ' s  along with a r e s u l t s (see  19  Once c o m p l e t e d , unscrambled, analyses  scored  were  responses  t o the  ( s e e A p p e n d i x K)  test and  b a t t e r y were  the  appropriate  conducted.  Analysi s  Refinement  It  Of  Initial  i s standard  psychological  60  procedure  scale,  i n the  pool  a sample of t h e  designed final  final  scale.  for enables  version  item pool  P r e t e s t i n g of  selection  of  These are  selection  by  factor  criterion  item  rational  analytic  keying  the the  1971). To  t h r e e main t e c h n i q u e s  combination.  a  w i t h more i t e m s  population  (Ferguson,  Scale  in developing  to begin  desired on  Item P r o t o  the  total  items  for  the  item  the  initial  used a l o n e  item  are  s c a l e i s being  select  are  than  or  in  selection,  techniques,  (Butt, Personal  or  selection  communications,  1985). The  commonly u s e d  techniques  b a s e d upon  item  item  to subscale  (where  to t o t a l  scale score  correlations  a p p l i c a b l e ) and (Ferguson, criteria 1966)  the  to  item,  item  1971). S i n c e  for selecting  i t i s best items  involve  t o use  (Guilford,  f o l l o w i n g s t r a t e g y was  by  chosen  selection  a number  1938; so  of  Jackson,  that a  scale  20  with  the h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e r e l i a b i l i t y ,  discrimination and  area  of  Using  based  study,  s u b j e c t ' s age,  would be  1967)  and  social  scale  score c o r r e l a t i o n s  data,  i . e . the  False"  to  would  format  l e n d no  whether  items  correcting original  scale  True"  Proto  t o 40  Secondly, age, and  0.30  based  these  four  on  the a b i l i t y  41  t o 60  independent  were computed  so t h a t  contributions  t o the  scale  the  Social and  o r h i g h e r were r e t a i n e d . u s i n g the c r i t e r i a education,  to determine  the  with  of sex,  which  i s , retention  item to d i s c r i m i n a t e  variables. items  of  Psychology)  r e t a i n e d . That of  After  1 t o 20  s u b j e c t a r e a , were computed would be  regarding  ( i . e . items  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e  items  data  highest  number o f y e a r s of p o s t - s e c o n d a r y  additional was  of  had  a  the  B i o l o g y , and  a correlation  "Definitely  f o r o v e r l a p , those  Science, had  from  answered.  w h i c h a)  for  dichotomous  of c o n t i n u o u s  been c o r r e c t l y  items  on  interpretation  t o each s u b s c a l e  b)  (HOMOG)  (biological,  collapsed into  since analysis  correlation 21  sex,  item-to-total  ranging  was  the c o r r e l a t i o n s  60  and  were computed  meaningful had  Programme  s u b s c a l e domains science),  five-point  "Definitely  true/false  education,  item-to-subscale correlations  i n e a c h of t h e t h r e e  psychological,  and  developed.  t h e Homogeneity of V a r i a n c e  (Gronek & T y l e r , items  on  validity  Thirdly,  item  the h i g h e s t  were r e t a i n e d .  alphas  alpha  21  Psychometric  P r o p e r t i e s of the F i n a l  Examination final easy  selected  40 Item P r o t o  of the item d i f f i c u l t y  Proto  (n=12), medium  items  level  r e v e a l e d those  (n=17), and h a r d  o f t h e 40  items  (n=11>  Scale  o f an  difficulty  level. Psychometric  p r o p e r t i e s of t h e f i n a l  s c a l e and i t s t h r e e (Le,  s u b s c a l e s were a s s e s s e d  1981), HOMOG (Gronek & T y l e r ,  Statistical  Package  program. I n t e r item Chronbach's' a l p h a  f o r the S o c i a l  were computed  reliability  was c h o s e n  be  from  scale  intact  factor  analytic  With  over  other  scale  results  the  since i t could  obtained  from a  examination  p r o p e r t i e s was c o n d u c t e d  of  using  techniques.  of post-secondary  Package  f o r the S o c i a l  of age,  sex, and  using the S t a t i s t i c a l  S c i e n c e s . The p o s s i b i l i t y  age, number o f y e a r s s u b j e c t group might  variables  education,  a r e a ANOVA's were computed  influences  (SPSS, 1983)  items. T h i s type of types  subject  and  Sciences  r e s p e c t t o the independent  number o f y e a r s  that  1967) and t h e  administration. Further  Proto's psychometric  u s i n g FAN  t o determine  of homogeneity of t e s t  single  Proto  r e l i a b i l i t i e s i n t h e form o f  consistency  computed  40 i t e m  of post  interact  on t h e s e ANOVA  secondary t o produce  results.  existed  education confounding  Therefore,  Analyses  22  of  Covariance  variables  were computed  h o l d i n g e a c h of  constant. Construct  w h i c h P r o t o m e a s u r e s what  a g i n g ) , was  point-by-serial  correlations  scales (refer  reliability  and  Psychometric  validity  five-point assessed 1967) item  response  SPSS  reliability  computed  h o m o g e n e i t y of  intact  scale  other  psychometric analytic  calculating and  f o r a summary of  FAQ revised  Canadian  1981), HOMOG computer  form  items)  (Gronek  were &  Tyler,.  packages. I n t e r  of C h r o n b a c h ' s a l p h a  obtained  was  c o n s i s t e n c y of of  reliability  s i n c e i t c o u l d be from  computed  a single  Further examination  p r o p e r t i e s was  FAQ ( i . e .  of  conducted  was from  scale  FAQ's using  factor  techniques.  With  r e s p e c t to the  number of y e a r s subject  L  items. T h i s type  types  results  administration.  and  to determine  test  to  types).  1983)  i n the  in order  chosen over  to Appendix  format  (SPSS,  extent  a g a i n s t P a l m o r e ' s FAQ  p r o p e r t i e s of t h e  u s i n g FAN ' ( L e ,  and  examined by  P r o p e r t i e s of P a l m o r e ' s  Psychometric  or t h e  three  i t p u r p o r t s t o measure, ( i . e .  knowledge a b o u t  Kogan's OP  validity,  these  of p o s t  independent secondary  variables  of  education,  sex,  a r e a ANOVA's were computed u s i n g t h e  SPSS  age, and  23  p a c k a g e . S i n c e the p o s s i b i l i t y of  years  might  of p o s t  interact,  holding  each  measures what  and  e d u c a t i o n and  of C o v a r i a n c e  three variables  validity,  that  or  the extent  point-by-serial  number  were  computed  constant. to which the  correlations  examined against  FAQ by  Proto  scale.  establish  whether P r o t o p o s s e s s e d  psychometric  p r o p e r t i e s than  (Chronbach's  alpha)  were c o n d u c t e d  age,  s u b j e c t group  i t p u r p o r t s t o measure, was  Kogan's OP To  Analyses  of t h e s e  Construct  calculating  secondary  existed  on  and  the  P a l m o r e ' s FAQ,  construct validity FAQ.  better reliability estimates  24  CHAPTER IV RESULTS  P r o p e r t i e s of the I n i t i a l Tables this  study  sex ( g e n d e r ) ,  standard  provide  of  postsecondary  subject area  breakdowns  Scale  of s u b j e c t s used i n  breakdown  d e v i a t i o n s of P r o t o . T a b l e s  similar  OP s c a l e s  profiles  r e g a r d i n g age, y e a r s  education, and  1a-1p p r o v i d e  60 Item P r o t o  2 a - 2 d and 3a-3d  f o r P a l m o r e ' s FAQ and Kogan's  respectively.  To d e t e r m i n e whether d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d those  who c o m p l e t e d  Analysis  Proto  s c a l e and t h r e e  who c o m p l e t e d  (60 item)  biology subscale  Similar  a One Way  (see Tables  subscale  s c o r e s of  These  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  i t at their  own  results  (F=0.000, df.=1,292,  (F=0.183, df.=1,292,  nonsignificant results  were  found  f o r the  p=0.745), t h e  (F=0.132, df.=1,292, p=  subscale  in class  leisure  (F=0.105, df.=1,292,  science subscale  the p s y c h o l o g y  FAQ  leisure,  (ANOVA) was computed  that completed  scale  social the  own  t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  between t h o s e those  between  b a t t e r y i n c l a s s and  P a l m o r e ' s FAQ and Kogan OP s c a l e s .  indicated  and  the t e s t  i t at their  of V a r i a n c e  4 a - 4 f ) on t h e t o t a l Proto,  and mean  p=0.985), 0.716), and p=0.668).  f o r Palmore's  (F=2.235, df.=1,292, p=0.135) and Kogan's  OP  25  TABLE 1a MEANS AND :STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR TOTAL SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY AGE GROUP.  AGE  GROUP  17-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-65  N  MEAN  YRS. 127 33.59 37. 17 YRS. 100 YRS. 40 37.98 1 5 40.07 YRS. YRS. 1 3 36.31  TOTAL  295  37.02  STANDARD DEVIATION  STANDARD ERROR  MINIMUM  MAXIMUM  7.25 8.04 10.09 9.77 6.54  0.64 0.80 1 .60 2.52 1.81  3.0 9.0 2.0 16.0 23.0  48.0 51 .0 50.0 52.0 50.0  8.34  1 .47  10.6  50.2  TABLE 1b MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE SOCIAL SCIENCE SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY AGE GROUP. AGE  GROUP  17-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-65  N  YRS. 127 YRS. 1 00 YRS. 40 YRS. 1 5 1 3 YRS.  TOTAL  295  MEAN  STANDARD DEVIATION  STANDARD ERROR  MINIMUM  MAXIMUM  1 1 .22 12.28 1 2.60 13.00 1 2.46  2.91 2.94 3.19 3.57 2.60  0.26 0.29 0.50 0.92 0.72  1.0 2.0 2.0 5.0 7.0  '16.0 17.0 17.0 18.0 17.0  12.31  3.04  0.54  3.4  17.0  TABLE 1c MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR BIOLOGICAL SUBSCALE THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY AGE GROUP. AGE  GROUP  17-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-65 TOTAL  N  YRS. 1 27 YRS. 100 YRS. 40 1 5 YRS. 13 YRS. 295  MEAN  STANDARD DEVIATION  STANDARD ERROR  MINIMUM  SCORES ON  MAXIMUM  12.58 13.65 1 3.43 1 4.73 1 2.54  2.99 3.45 4.07 3.64 2.33  0.27 0.35 0.64 0.94 0.65  1 .0 1 .0 0.0 6.0 9.0  18.0 20.0 20.0 19.0 16.0  1 3.39  3.30  0.57  3.4  1 8.6  26  TABLE 1d MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY AGE GROUP. AGE GROUP 17-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-65  N  YRS. 1 27 YRS. 100 YRS. 40 YRS. 1 5 YRS. 1 3  TOTAL  295  MEAN  STANDARD DEVIATION  STANDARD ERROR  MINIMUM  MAXIMUM  9.80 1 1 .24 1 1 .95 12.33 11.31  2.76 3.31 3.78 3.35 3.07  0.25 0.33 0.60 0.87 0.85  1 .0 3.0 0.0 5.0 7.0  17.0 18.0 17.0 17.0 17.0  11.33  3.25  0.58  3.2  17.2  TABLE 1e MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR TOTAL SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION. YEARS OF EDUCATION  N  MEAN  STANDARD DEVIATION  STANDARD ERROR  0 YRS. 1-4 YRS. 5-12 YRS  1 4 216 65  33.21 34.98 39.31  8.67 7.71 9.12  2.32 ' 0.53 1.13  TOTAL  295  35.83  8.49  1 .32  MINIMUM  MAXIMUM  11.0 3.0 2.0  50.0 52.0 51 .0  5.3  51 .0  TABLE 1f MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SOCIAL SCIENCES SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION • YEARS OF EDUCATION  N  MEAN  STANDARD DEVIATION  STANDARD ERROR  MINIMUM  MAXIMUM  0 YRS. 1-4 YRS. 5-12 YRS  1 4 216 65  1 1 .79 1 1 .67 12.75  2.97 2.99 3.08  0.79 0.20 0.38  7.0 1 .0 2.0  18.0 17.0 17.0  TOTAL  295  12.07  3.01  0.46  3.3  17.3  27  TABLE 1g MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR BIOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION. YEARS OF EDUCATION  N  0 YRS. 1-4 YRS. 5-12 YRS  14 216 65  1 1 .86  12.88 14.40  3.76 3.16 3.62  1.01 0.22 0.45  3.0 1 .0 0.0  19.0 19.0 20.0  TOTAL  295  13.05  3.51  0.56  1 .3  19.3  MEAN  STANDARD DEVIATION  STANDARD ERROR  MINIMUM  MAXIMUM  TABLE In MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION. YEARS OF EDUCATION  N  0 YRS. 1-4 YRS. 5-12 YRS  14 216 65  9.57 10.44 12.15  TOTAL  295  10.71  MEAN  STANDARD DEVIATION  STANDARD ERROR  MINIMUM  3.11 3.09 3.46  0.83 0.21 0.43  0.0 1.0 0.0  13.0 18.0 18.0  3.21  0.49  0.3  16.3  MAXIMUM  TABLE 1 i MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR TOTAL SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SEX. SEX  N  MEAN  STANDARD DEVIATION  STANDARD ERROR  MINIMUM  MAXIMUM  FEMALE MALE  170 125  36.18 35.40  8.17 8.42  0.63 0.75  2.0 3.0  52.0 51.0  TOTAL  295  35.79  8.29  0.69  2.5  51.5  28  TABLE 1j MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SOCIAL SCIENCES SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SEX. SEX  N  MEAN  STANDARD DEVIATION  STANDARD ERROR  MINIMUM  MAXIMUM  FEMALE MALE  170 125  12.04 11.74  2.90 3.20  0.22 0.29  2.0 1.0  18.0 17.0  TOTAL  295  11.89  3.05  0.26  1.5  17.5  TABLE 1k MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR BIOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SEX. SEX  N  MEAN  STANDARD DEVIATION  STANDARD ERROR  MINIMUM  MAXIMUM  FEMALE MALE  1 70 1 25  1 3.24 13.06  3.43 3.27  0.26 0.29  0.0 1 .0  20.0 18.0  TOTAL  295  13.15  3.35  0.28  0.5  19.0  TABLE  11  MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SEX • SEX  N  MEAN  STANDARD DEVIATION  STANDARD ERROR  MINIMUM  MAXIMUM  FEMALE MALE  1 70 1 25  1 0.90 1 0.60  3.17 3.37  0.24 0.30  0.0 1.0  17.0 18.0  TOTAL  295  10.75  3.27  0.27  0.5  17.5  29  TABLE 1m MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR TOTAL SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA. AREA  N  MEAN  STANDARD DEVIATION  STANDARD MINIMUM ERROR  MAXIMUM  PSYCHOLOGY NON-ACADEMIC BIOLOGY GERONTOLOGY EDUCATION SOCIAL WORK  1 69 20 21 37 24 23  34.39 31 .55 40.00 43.97 34.46 34.48  7.13 7.04 11.14 6.22 8.20 8.31  0.55 1 .57 2.43 1 .02 1 .67 1 .73  3.0 11.0 2.0 30.0 16.0 16.0  48.0 40.0 51 .0 52.0 46.0 48.0  TOTAL  294  36.48  8.01  1 .49  13.0  47. 5  TABLE 1n MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SOCIAL SCIENCES SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA. AREA  N  MEAN  STANDARD DEVIATION  STANDARD MINIMUM ERROR  MAXIMUM  PSYCHOLOGY NON-ACADEMIC BIOLOGY GERONTOLOGY EDUCATION SOCIAL WORK  1 69 20 21 37 24 23  1 1 .53 11.05 12.33 14.30 11.42 1 1 .65  2.89 2.65 3.26 2.37 3.48 3.01  0.22 0.59 0.71 0.39 0.71 0.63  1 .0 5.0 2.0 7.0 5.0 5.0  17.0 15.0 17.0 18.0 17.0 17.0  TOTAL  294  12.05  2.94  0.54  4.2  16.8  30  TABLE 1o MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR BIOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA. AREA  N  MEAN  STANDARD DEVIATION  STANDARD ERROR MINIMUM  MAXIMUM  PSYCHOLOGY NON-ACADEMIC BIOLOGY GERONTOLOGY EDUCATION SOCIAL WORK  1 69 20 21 37 24 23  12.91 1 1 .25 14.33 1 5.97 12.17 12.09  3.04 2.97 4.44 2.68 3.17 3.38  0.23 0.66 0.98 0.44 0.65 0.71  1 .0 3.0 0.0 8.0 6.0 5.0  18.0 16.0 19.0 20.0 17.0 17.0  TOTAL  294  13.12  3.28  0.61  3.8  17.8  TABLE 1p MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES ON THE 60 ITEM :PROTO SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA. AREA  N  MEAN  STANDARD DEVIATION  STANDARD ERROR' MINIMUM  MAXIMUM  PSYCHOLOGY NON-ACADEMIC BIOLOGY GERONTOLOGY EDUCATION SOCIAL WORK  169 20 21 37 24 23  9.95 9.25 1 3.33 1 3.70 1 0.88 1 0.74  2.70 2.83 4.64 2.47 3.13 3.09  0.21 0.63 1.01 0.41 0.64 0.65  1 .0 1 .0 0.0 9.0 5.0 4.0  17.0 14.0 18.0 17.0 17.0 16.0  TOTAL  294  11.30  3.14  0.59  3.3  16.5  31  TABLE 2a MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON PALMORE'S FACTS ON AGING QUIZ BY AGE GROUP. AGE GROUP 17-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-65  YRS. YRS. YRS. YRS. YRS.  TOTAL  N  STANDARD DEVIATION  MEAN  STANDARD ERROR  MINIMUM  MAXIMUM  1 27 100 40 1 5 13  1 2.75 14.61 1 5.65 1 7.60 1 5.92  3.03 3.38 4.41 2.97 3.10  0.27 0.34 0.70 0.77 0.86  0.0 8.0 0.0 10.0 10.0  19.0 23.0 22.0 21.0 21.0  295  15.31  3.38  0.59  5.6  21.2  TABLE 2b MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON PALMORE'S FACTS ON AGING QUIZ BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION. YEARS OF EDUCATION  N  STANDARD DEVIATION  MEAN  STANDARD ERROR  MINIMUM  MAXIMUM  0 YRS. 1-4 YRS. 5-12 YRS  1 4 216 65  13.93 13.51 16.35  3.45 3.30 3.87  0.92 0.23 0.48  8.0 0.0 0.0  19.0 22.0 23.0  TOTAL  295  1 4.60  3.54  0.54  2.7  21 .3  TABLE 2c MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON PALMORE'S FACTS ON AGING QUIZ BY SEX. SEX  N  MEAN  STANDARD DEVIATION  STANDARD ERROR  MINIMUM  MAXIMUM  FEMALE MALE  170 125  14.27 14.01  3.51 3.79  0.27 0.34  0.0 0.0  23.0 22.0  TOTAL  295  14.14  3.65  0.31  0.0  22.5  32  TABLE 2d MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON PALMORE'S FACTS ON AGING QUIZ BY SUBJECT AREA. AREA  N  MEAN  STANDARD DEVIATION  STANDARD ERROR MINIMUM  MAXIMUM  PSYCHOLOGY NON-ACADEMIC BIOLOGY GERONTOLOGY EDUCATION SOCIAL WORK  169 20 21 37 24 23  12.90 14.15 1 5.48 1 8.08 15.00 14.65  3.11 3.03 4.47 3.00 3.07 2.87  0.24 0.68 0.98 0.49 0.63 0.60  0.0 8.0 0.0 10.0 10.0 10.0  20.0 19.0 20.0 23.0 20.0 20.0  TOTAL  294  15.04  3.26  0.60  6.3  20.3  33  TABLE 3a MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON KOGAN'S O.P. SCALE BY AGE GROUP. AGE  GROUP  17-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-65  MEAN  N 1 27 1 00 40 1 5 1 3  YRS. YRS. YRS. YRS. YRS.  TOTAL  295  STANDARD DEVIATION  STANDARD ERROR  6.39 8.42 8.88 10.13 9.08  4.05 4.05 3.01 3.99 2.93  0.36 0.41 0.48 1 .03 0.81  8.58  3.61  0.62  MINIMUM  MAXIMUM  -3.0 -6.0 3.0 3.0 4.0  15.0 16.0 16.0 15.0 13.0  0.2  15.0  TABLE 3b MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON KOGAN'S O.P. SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION. YEARS OF EDUCATION  N  MEAN  STANDARD DEVIATION  STANDARD ERROR  MINIMUM  MAXIMUM  0 YRS. 1-4 YRS. 5-12 YRS.  1 4 216 65  8.21 7.22 9.29  3.38 4.20 3.18  0.90 0.29 0.40  4.0 -6.0 3.0  14.0 16.0 16.0  TOTAL  295  8.24  3.59  0.53  0.3  15.3  TABLE 3c MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON KOGAN'S O.P. SCALE BY SEX. SEX  N  MEAN  STANDARD DEVIATION  STANDARD ERROR  MINIMUM  MAXIMUM  FEMALE MALE  1 70 1 25  7.85 7.55  3.93 4.20  0.30 0.38  -2.0 -6.0  16.0 16.0  TOTAL  295  7.70  4.06  0.34  -4.0  16.0  34  TABLE 3d MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR SCORES ON KOGAN'S O.P. SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA. AREA  N  MEAN  STANDARD STANDARD DEVIATION MINIMUM ERROR  MAXIMUM  PSYCHOLOGY NON-ACADEMIC BIOLOGY GERONTOLOGY EDUCATION SOCIAL WORK  169 20 21 37 24 23  6.80 9.00 8.62 10.14 9.08 7.22  4.13 2.94 3.89 3.27 3.45 4.02  0.32 0.66 0.85 0.54 0.70 0.84  -6.0 4.0 -3.0 4.0 3.0 -1.0  16.0 14.0 14.0 16.0 15.0 16.0  TOTAL  294  8.48  3.62  0.65  0.2  15.1  35  TABLE 4a ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO TOTAL SCORES BETWEEN INCLASS AND OUT-OF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS. SOURCE  D.F.  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  1 292 293  SUM OF SQUARES  MEAN SQUARES  F RATIO  F PROB.  7.156 19803.554 19810.710  7.156 67.820  0.105  0.745  TABLE  4b  ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO SOCIAL SCIENCES SUBSCALE SCORES BETWEEN IN-CLASS AND OUT-OF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS. SOURCE  D.F.  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  1 292 293  SUM OF SQUARES  MEAN SQUARES  F RATIO  F PROB.  0.003 2641.197 2641.200  0.003 9.045  0.000  0.985  TABLE 4c ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO BIOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES BETWEEN IN-CLASS AND OUT-OF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS. SOURCE  D.F.  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  1 292 293  SUM OF SQUARES  MEAN SQUARES  F RATIO  F PROB.  1.508 3335.293 3336.802  1.508 11.422  0.132  0.716  36  TABLE 4d ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO PSYCHOLOGICAL SUBSCALE SCORES BETWEEN IN-CLASS AND OUT-OF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS. SOURCE  D.F.  SUM OF SQUARES  MEAN SQUARES  F RATIO  F PROB.  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  1 292 293  1.934 3078.433 3080.367  1.934 10.542  0.183  0.668  TABLE 4e ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PALMORE'S FACTS ON AGING QUIZ BETWEEN IN-CLASS AND OUT-OF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS. SOURCE  D.F.  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  1 292 293  SUM OF SQUARES 28.986 3785.571 3814.557  MEAN SQUARES 28.962 12.964  F RATIO 2.235 ;  F PROB.. 0.135  TABLE 4f ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF KOGAN'S O.P. BETWEEN IN-CLASS AND OUT-OF-CLASS COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE BOOKLETS. SOURCE  D.F.  SUM OF SQUARES  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  1 292 293  170.447 4633.120 4803.568  MEAN SQUARES 170.447 15.866  F RATIO  F PROB.  10.742  0.052  scale  (F=10.742, df.=1,292, p=0.052). Table  and  total  5 presents correlations  Asterisks of its  the r e s u l t s  a) h a v i n g  of t h e 60 i t e m P r o t o  indicate  the items  ( i . e . items  21-40 b i o l o g y , i t e m s  correlation meeting  scale.  w h i c h met  the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n  respective subscale  items  of item t o s u b s c a l e  value 1-20  the c r i t e r i a falling  social  41-60 p s y c h o l o g y )  v a l u e > 0.30. Those  these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  initial  included  of  6a-6d p r e s e n t  responses  independent education, indicated 2, 3, 8,  analysis  t o t h e 60 i t e m P r o t o variables  science,  with a  Proto  items  items  2,17,24,28,30,32,34,38,40,43,45,47,48,53,and Tables  59.  of v a r i a n c e scale  o f age, y e a r s  of  based  results on t h e  post-secondary  sex ( g e n d e r ) , and s u b j e c t a r e a . T h e s e that using the c r i t e r i o n  10,  on  o f p ^ 0.05,  results items  1,  12, 13, 17, 19, 20, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 33,  34,  35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 52, 53,  54,  55, 56, 58, 59 a n d 60 s h o u l d  final  v e r s i o n based  response  differences  variables education,  on t h e i r  be i n c l u d e d i n P r o t o ' s  ability  to d i s t i n g u i s h  on t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d  of s u b j e c t a g e , y e a r s  of  independent  post-secondary  sex ( g e n d e r ) , and s u b j e c t a r e a . However,  t o comments made by s u b j e c t s a b o u t 55 c o n c e r n i n g  items  36,46,52, and  c o n t r a d i c t o r y documentation,  were s u b s e q u e n t l y  deleted.  due  these  items  38  TABLE 5 ITEM SUBSCALE POINT BISERIAL CORRELATIONS SCALE. ITEM** 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 1 2 13 14 15 16 17 18 1 9 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39  SOCIAL SCIENCE 0.30 0.40* 0.23 0.18 0.12 0.13 0.03 0.12 0.10 0.31 0.11 0.11 0.31 0.12 0.30 0.33 0.31*. 0.18 0.27 0.13 0.35 0.06 0.41 0.25 0.38 0.25 0.27 0.29 0.30 0.26 0.27 0.23 0.21 0.24 0.15 0.18 0.34 0.33 0.16  BIOLOGICAL 0.28 0.30 0.23 0.13 0.11 0.13 0.07 0.22 0.08 0.37 0.11 0.15 0.38 0.11 0.30 0.32 0.30 0.12 0.29 0.23 0.40 0.15 0.39 0.41 * 0.36 0.24 0.26 0.35* 0.29 0.34* 0.30 0.31* 0.22 0.30* 0.19 0.17 0.25 0.39* 0.22  FOR THE 60 ITEM PROTO  PSYCHOLOGICAL 0.36 0.31 0.11 0.18 0.14 0.10 0.09 0.02 0.14 0.34 0.11 0.16 0.35 0.14 0.40 0.34 0.19 0.23 0.22 0.18 0.41 0.18 0.28 0.36 0.26 0.30 0.28 0.34 0.26 0.23 0.31 0.16 0.22 0.27 0.21 0.13 0.38 0.29 0.27  * ITEM SELECTED FOR REFINED PROTO SCALE ** SEE APPENDIX D FOR ITEMS REFERRED TO IN TABLE  TOTAL 0.36 0.39 0.22 0.19 0.14 0.14 0.07 0.14 0.12 0.40 0.15 0.16 0.41 0.15 0.39 0.38 0.31 0.21 0.30 0.21 0.41 0.16 0.42 0.40 0.38 0.30 0.28 0.39 0.33 0.32 0.30 0.27 0.26 0.31 0.22 0.21 0.38 0.39 0.25  TABLE 5 ITEM** 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60  SOCIAL SCIENCE 0.29 0.24 0.27 0.31 0.18 0.32 0.08 0.22 0.23 0.28 0.21 0.21 0.04 0.35 0.21 0.09 0.23 0.38 0..22 0.29 0.16  BIOLOGICAL 0.33* 0.25 0.29 0.32 0.17 0.36 0. 16 0.30 0.24 0.22 0.19 0.34 0.12 0.28 0.12 0.09 0.28 0.37 0.29 0.26 0.22  (CONT.)  PSYCHOLOGICAL 0.23 ' 0.25 0.28 0.42* 0.18 0.41* 0.08 0.31* 0.34* 0.14 0.21 0.25 0.12 0.36* 0.18 0.09 0.27 0.28 0.23 0.33* 0.18  * ITEM SELECTED FOR REFINED PROTO SCALE ** SEE APPENDIX D FOR ITEMS REFERRED TO IN TABLE  TOTAL 0.33 0.29 0.33 0.41 0.21 0.43 0.13 0.32 0.31 0.24 0.26 0.32 0.12 0.38 0.20 0.10 0.30 0.40 0.29 0.34 .0.22  40  TABLE 6a ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO (60 ITEM) SCALE BY AGE GROUP. ITEM # ** DF  F. RATIO  4  2.307 4.608 1 .656 0.492 1 .571 1 .035 0.756 3.495 2.338 3. 188 0.786 2.588 3.221 2.877 1 .720 1 . 1 55 1.135 3.562 4. 1 40 3.922 0.813 1 . 1 94 0.523 4.433 0.736 5.003 0.329 2.037 1 .269 1 .081 1.131 1 .373 2.431 0.223 1 .838 2.327 6.733 0.815 2.365 0.703 0. 1 06 2.284 7.837 0.540  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 1 2 1 3 14 15 1 6 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44  F. PROB. 0.058 0.001* 0. 1 60 0.741 0.181 0.389 0.554 0.008* 0.055 0.013* 0.534 0.037* 0.013* 0.052 0. 1 45 0.330 0.339 0.061 0.002* 0.004* 0.517 0.313 0.718 0.001* 0.567 0.000* 0.858 0.089 0.282 0.365 0.341 0.243 0.047* 0.925 0.121 0.056*** 0.000* 0.516 0.053 0.590 0.980 0.060 0.000* 0.706  TABLE 6a (CONT.) ITEM # ** DF 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60  4  F. RATIO 2.350 0.785 4.881 6.954 1 .855 0.611 2.385 2.865 1 . 1 08 2.615 3.692 4.240 1 .394 2.291 8.731 4.442  F. PROB. 0.054 0.535*** 0.000* 0.000* 0.118 0.654 0.051 0.023*** 0.352 0.055 0.006*** 0.052 0.236 0.059 0.000* 0.001*  * ITEM SELECTED FOR FINAL 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE ** SEE APPENDIX D FOR ITEMS REFERRED TO IN TABLE * * * I T E M REMOVED FROM CONSIDERATION DUE TO 'PARTICIPANT COMMENTS  42  TABLE 6b ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO (TOTAL) SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION. ITEM # ** DF 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 15 1 6 1 7 18 1 9 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44  2  F. RATIO  F. PROB.  3. 189 3.520 2.222 0.473 1 .451 1 . 1 52 2. 1 30 4.439 0.562 5.330 1 .607 0.724 2.364 1 .375 2.041 2.392 0.284 0.891 4.848 6.631 0.689 0.951 1 .522 3.357 0. 163 3.823 1 .363 2.427 0.372 2.866 0.008 1 .256 10.540 0.208 5.065 4.536 7.275 0. 1 64 1 . 1 40 0.515 0.088 2.936 9.957 2.799  0.042* 0.030* 0.110 0.623 0.236 0.317 0. 1 20 0.012* 0.570 0.005* . 0.202 0.485 0.095 0.254 0.131 0.093 0.752 0.411 0.008* 0.001* 0.502 0.387 0.219 0.036* 0.849 0.023* 0.257 0.090 0.689 0.058 0.991 0.286 0.000* 0.811 0.060 0.061*** 0.008* 0.848 0.321 0.597 0.915 0.054 0.000* 0.062  TABLE 6b (CONT.) ITEM # ** DF 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60  2  F. RATIO 0.394 0.249 12.123 5. 1 37 0.285 2.263 1 .736 5. 1 40 2.327 5.505 7.768 3.385 0.608' 1 .497 8.449 6.998  F. PROB. 0.674 0.779*** 0.000* 0.006* 0.752 0. 1 05 0. 1 78 0.006*** 0.099 0.054 0.000*** 0.055 0.545 0.225 0.000* 0.001*  * ITEM SELECTED FOR FINAL 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE ** SEE APPENDIX D FOR ITEMS REFERRED TO IN TABLE *** ITEM REMOVED FROM CONSIDERATION DUE TO PARTICIPANT COMMENTS  44  ONE WAY  TABLE 6c ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF PROTO (GENDER). ITEM # ** DF 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 1 2 1 3 14 15 1 6 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44  1  F. RATIO 2.050 0.464 12.075 0.989 0.867 0.891 2.042 0.086 1 .099 0. 1 77 0.588 4.556 0.959 0.689 1 .501 2.008 2.469 1.383 1.755 0.843 1 .383 1 .909 0. 127 1.215 0.002 0.230 1.361 7.118 0.565 1 .989 0. 199 1.258 0.099 0.161 0.729 0.174 0.135 0.792 0.337 1 .694 1.112 11.194 2.570 0.233  (60 ITEM) SCALE BY SEX  F. PROB. 0. 1 53 0.496 0.000* 0.320 0.352 0.345 0. 154 0.768 0.295 0.674 0.443 0.033* 0.328 0.407 0.221 0. 1 57 0.117 0.240 0. 1 86 0.359 0.240 0. 168 0.721 0.271 0.958 0.631 0.244 0.008* 0.452 0. 1 59 0.655 0.262 0.753 0.687 0.393 0.676*** 0.713 0.374 0.561 0. 1 94 0.292 0.000* 0. 109 0.629  TABLE 6c (CONT.) ITEM 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60  DF 1  F. RATIO 0.057 1 .924 0.046 0.085 2.313 1.017 0.904 2.330 1 .878 0.698 4.514 0.069 0. 1 06 2.520 2.330 0.811  F. PROB. 0.810 0.166*** 0.828 0.770 0. 1 29 0.313 0.342 0.128*** 0.171 0.404 0.034*** 0.792 0.744 0.113 0. 1 28 0.368  * ITEM SELECTED FOR FINAL 60 ITEM PROTO SCALE ** SEE APPENDIX D .FOR ITEMS REFERRED TO IN TABLE *** ITEM REMOVED FROM CONSIDERATION DUE TO PARTICIPANT COMMENTS  46  TABLE 6d OF PROTO (60 ITEM) SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA.  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ITEM # ** DF 1 o 3 4 5 6 7 8' 9 10 1 1 12 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 18 1 9 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44  5  F.  RATIO  4.017 4.768 2.822 0.897 2.130 1 .757 0.867 5.745 2.012 2. 1 62 1 .276 3. 525 3.513 1 .806 0.800 1.714 2.911 1 .621 3.743 6.622 1 .444 2.269 0.629 6.594 1 .780 6.301 1.214 3.064 1 .768 4.326 0.246 5.602 1 1 .840 0.868 4.707 3.016 6.034 0.523 3. 177 1 . 192 0.643 5.054 11.616 0.889  F. PROB. 0.001* 0.000* 0.016* 0.483 0.061 0.121 0.503 0.000* 0.076 0.058 0.274 0.004* 0.004* 0.111 0.550 0.131 0.013* 0. 1 54 0.002* 0.000* 0.208 0.057 0.677 0.000* 0.116 0.000* 0.302 0.010* 0.119 0.000* 0.941 0.000* 0.000* 0.502 0.000* 0.011*** 0.000* 0.758 0.053 0.313 0.666 0.000* 0.000* 0.488  TABLE 6d ITEM # ** DF 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60  5  (CONT.)  F. RATIO 3.201 3.686 4. 1 64 10.403 0.714 1 .995 1 .380 3.705 5.095 6.514 7.211 4.804 0.427 3.141 19.852 4.591  F. PROB. 0.007* 0.003*** 0.001* 0.000* 0.613 0.794 0.231 0.002*** 0.051 0.054 0.000*** 0.060 0.829 0.000* 0.000* 0.000*  * ITEM SELECTED FOR FINAL 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE ** SEE APPENDIX D FOR ITEMS REFERRED TO IN TABLE *** ITEM REMOVED FROM CONSIDERATION DUE TO PARTICIPANT COMMENTS  Table third  7 presents  major c r i t e r i a  i t e m a l p h a v a l u e s w h i c h was t h e in final  Those o f t h e o r i g i n a l been  selected  correlations age,  the  selection  60 P r o t o  o r ANOVA a n a l y s i s  for their  original  60 i t e m  based  alpha  total  alpha  i f removed from  were s e l e c t e d  on  of  contribution  ability  scale),  now  based  the c r i t e r i o n  on t h e i r  for inclusion  were  to  lower  the f o l l o w i n g items  i n the f i n a l  Proto  scale:  9,  16, 23, 25, 29, 50, 51.  Psychometric Table correctly Using  P r o p e r t i e s o f t h e 40 Item P r o t o  8a p r e s e n t s responded  the a r b i t r a r y response  category. correct  criterion  as i n d i c a t i n g  medium d i f f i c u l t y category. correct  w i t h which Proto  an i t e m o f easy fell  using the c r i t e r i o n  response  Scale  items.  difficulty  into  this  of a 41 t o 70%  r a t e as r e p r e s e n t i n g an i t e m of  17 o r 42.5% o f t h e 40 i t e m s  Thirdly,  response  subjects  o f an 80 t o 100% c o r r e c t  o r 30% o f i t e m s  Secondly,  item  the frequency  t o t h e 40 s e l e c t e d  12 o f t h e 40 i t e m s  40%  w h i c h had n o t  value c o n t r i b u t i o n  on h i g h e s t a l p h a v a l u e  were s e l e c t e d  this  items  on t h e b a s i s of s u b j e c t  s c a l e . Using  items  item  selection.  s e x , and s u b j e c t a r e a  (i.e.  15,  item  on t h e b a s i s o f i t e m t o s u b s c a l e  educational level,  scrutinized  scale  using the c r i t e r i o n  fell  into  of a 0 t o  r a t e a s r e p r e s e n t i n g an i t e m o f  49  TABLE 7 ALPHA  ITEM # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 18 19  20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30  VALUE**** OF PROTO SCALE IF ITEM DELETED. ALPHA IF ITEM DELETED 0.5897** 0.5787** 0.5998** 0.7275 0.7257 0.7219 0.7219 0.6165** 0.6147* 0.5896** 0.7295 0.6117** 0.5871** 0.7255 0.5935*0.5897* 0.5884** 0.7252 0.5949** 0.6169** 0.7218 0.7337 0.7180* 0.7101** 0.7184* 0.7262** 0.7224 0.7163** 0.7217* 0.7177**  ITEM # 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60  ALPHA IF ITEM DELETED 0.7262 0.7221** 0.7263** 0.7229** 0.7304** 0.7286*** 0.7250** 0.7167** 0.7287 0.7191** 0.7317 0.6579** 0.6406** 0.7381 0.6417** 0.6808*** 0.6558** 0.6514** 0.7308 0.6570* 0.6621* 0.6740*** 0.7481** 0.7682** 0.6803*** 0.7589** 0.7617 0.6630** 0.6518** 0.6688**  *ITEM SELECTED FOR FINAL 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE **ITEM PREVIOUSLY SELECTED FOR FINAL PROTO SCALE FROM ANOVA RESULTS ***ITEM REMOVED FROM CONSIDERATION DUE TO PATICIPANT COMMENTS ****ALPHA VALUES TAKEN TO FOUR DECIMAL PLACES FOR PRECISION IN MAGNITUDE DISCRIMINATION POWERS.  50  TABLE 8a ITEM DIFFICULTY LEVELS OF THE FINAL ITEM # 1 2 3 8 9 10 1 2 1 3 15 16 17 19 20 23 24 25 26 28 29 30  PERCENT CORRECT 65. 0% 75.6 64.0 68.0 13.6 80.3 48.8 62.4 82.4 85.8 69.5 76.6 47. 1 91 .9 47.5 89.5 29.5 66. 1 79.7 70.8  ITEM # 32 33 34 35 37 38 40 42 43 45 47 48 50 51 53 54 56 58 59 60  40 ITEM PROTO SCALE. PERCENT CORRECT 57.3% 12.9 50.2 27.8 74.9 89.8 81.4 24.7 41.4 40.0 '56.0 29.5 50.2 87.5 54.2 24.7 28.8 33.9 38.6 66. 1  hard  difficulty,  category  9 presents  (corrected 40 i t e m  and  psychology  Proto  scale alpha projected  an  s c a l e and i t s s o c i a l  an o v e r a l l  were d e t e r m i n e d .  alpha alpha  determined.  analysis  were  the r e s u l t s  analytic  f o r a 100 subscale  and a  an o v e r a l l  alpha  determined. o f an  investigation  p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e 40 i t e m  the technique  Proto  of m u l t i p l e r ' s , a Scree  a 3 Factor  Dimension, F a c t o r  D i m e n s i o n and F a c t o r  of  o f 0.9244  subscale  solution.  were i n t e r p r e t e d as f o l l o w s ; F a c t o r  Histological  o f 0.6140 f o r  and a p r o j e c t e d a l p h a o f  subscale  10 p r e s e n t s  indicated  Psychology  alpha  For the  o f 0.9371 f o r a 1 0 0 . i t e m s u b s c a l e were  0.9434 f o r a 100 i t e m  Using  overall  For the b i o l o g y  For the psychology  the f a c t o r  an  scale.  of 0.6759 f o r t h e 14 i t e m s  0.6842 f o r t h e 13 i t e m s  scale.  alphas  s c a l e and a  of 0.9287 f o r a 100 i t e m  and a p r o j e c t e d a l p h a  subscale  overall  into  this  science, biology,  indicated  f o r t h e 40 i t e m  science subscale  Table  reliability  subscales. Results  alpha  projected  of  Chronbach's  o f 0.8391  13 i t e m s  item  into  f o r a t t e n u a t i o n u s i n g G u i l f o r d ' s formula) f o r  the  the  fell  (see Table 8 b ) .  Table  social  11 o r 27.5% o f t h e i t e m s  These  test  factors  I representing a  I I a s a B i o l o g i c a l Change  I I I as a combined  Change F a c t o r . An o v e r a l l  0.8809 a n d a 20.6% c u m u l a t i v e  Social sampling  Lifestyle/ adequacy  p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l  52  TABLE 8b CATEGORIZATION OF 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE AS EASY, MEDIUM AND HARD* BASED ON ITEM D I F F I C U L T Y LEVELS. PERCENT CORRECT ITEM ITEM DIFFICULTY RESPONSE RATE NUMBER N > 90% EASY *  23  1  81-90  15 16 25 38 40 51  6  71-80  2 10 19 29 37  5 1 2  61-70%  1 3 8 13 17 28 30  MEDIUM *  8  60  51-60  32 47 53  3  41-50  12 20 24 34 43 50  6 1 7  HARD *  31-40%  45 58 59  3  21-30  26 35 42  6  48 54 11-20  56  9 33  0-10  2 0 1 1  ITEM TOTAL  40  * Items o f e a s y d i f f i c u l t y were a r b i t r a r i l y c h o s e n a s i t e m s 100 t o 80% of p a r t i c i p a n t s a n s w e r e d c o r r e c t l y . Items of medium d i f f i c u l t y were d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f a 70 t o 41% c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e r a t e and i t e m s of h a r d d i f f i c u l t y as a 40 t o 0% c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e .  that  53  TABLE 9 CHRONBACH'S RELIABILITY ALPHAS* OF PROTO (40 ITEM) AND SOCIAL SCIENCE, BIOLOGY, AND PSYCHOLOGY SUBSCALES. ALPHA** FINAL PROTO SCALE  NUMBER OF ITEMS  ALPHA PROJECTED TO 100 ITEMS  0.8391  40  0.9287  0.6140 0.6759 0.6842  13 14 13  0.9244 0.9371 0.9434  SUBSCALES SOCIAL SCIENCE BIOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY  * Corrected for attenuation using G u i l f o r d . ** A l p h a v a l u e s t a k e n t o f o u r d e c i m a l p l a c e s f o r g r e a t e r p r e c i s i o n i n magnitude d i s c r i m i n a t i o n powers.  54  TABLE  10  iRIMAX ROTATED FACTOR SOLUTION OF FINAL 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE. FACTOR ITEM #* 43 59 45 26 48 53 1 37 56 50 60 1 5 58 2 42 34 7 EIGENVALUES VARIANCE ACCOUNTED  I LOADING 0.542 0.494 0.477 0.434 0.429 0.424 0.395 0.391 0.371 0.354 0.323 0.322 0.318 0.312 0.284 0.257 . 0.138 " 5.158 12.895**  FACTOR ITEM # 23 29 38 1 6 51 25 1 0 1 9 1 7 30 28 40  11  FACTOE: I I I  LOADING 0.600 0.522 0.509 0.494 0.491 0.489 0.405 0.391 0.343 0.317 0.305 0.292  ITEM # 32 20 24 35 8 1 3 3 54 9 47  LOADING 0.564 0.451 0.413 0.397 0.349 0.314 0.310 0.289 0.285 0.270  •  1 .751  1 .340  4.377  3.351  OVERALL SAMPLING ADEQUACY =< 0.8809 * See A p p e n d i x D f o r i t e m s r e f e r r e d t o i n T a b l e . ** F a c t o r a n a l y s i s a c c o u n t e d f o r 35.295% o f t h e v a r i a n c e f o r t h e 40 i t e m s c a l e , w i t h t h e 3 f a c t o r s o l u t i o n a c c o u n t i n g f o r 20.623%.  v a r i a n c e was a c c o u n t e d Tables final  11a-11d p r e s e n t  40 i t e m P r o t o  variables 31-40,  scale  of p a r t i c i p a n t  41-50,  (grouped  for in this results  against the  51-65), y e a r s  independent a s 17-20,  of p o s t - s e c o n d a r y  a s 0, 1-4, a n d 5-12 y e a r s ) , g e n d e r  gerontology, psychology,  (grouped  non-academic and s o c i a l  1m f o r f u r t h e r  solution.  o f ANOVAs of t h e  age ( g r o u p e d  f e m a l e ) and s u b j e c t a r e a  1i,  3 factor  21-30,  education (male,  as b i o l o g y , e d u c a t i o n ,  (general population),  work) [ r e f e r  breakdown  to Tables  1a, 1e,  of s u b j e c t s i n each  category].  Results indicated  o f an ANOVA  t h a t both  a g a i n s t age ( T a b l e 11a)  Proto's  total, scale  s u b s c a l e showed  significant  scale  df.=4, p= 0.000), t h e s o c i a l  (F=8.937,  F values  and e a c h  f o r the T o t a l  Proto  science  subscale  (F=4.652,  df.=4, p= 0.001), t h e b i o l o g y  subscale  (F=3.023,  df.=4, p= 0.018), a n d t h e p s y c h o l o g y  subscale  (F=13.351,  Duncan's results  Multiple  indicated  participants  than  that  between  g r o u p s o f 21-30, better  df.=4, p= 0.000). ( s e e SPSS,  i n t h e 40 i t e m  scale  1983) those  t h e a g e s o f 21 t o 50 ( i . e .  31-40,  (i.e. correctly  those  Range t e s t  participants  41-50) s c o r e d  significantly  a n s w e r e d more i t e m s ) aged  17-20.  the  [ p ^ 0.05]  56  TABLE ANALYSIS  11 a  OF VARIANCE OF 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY AGE GROUP,  SCALE FINAL PROTO SCALE  DF  F. RATIO  F . PROB.  8.937  0.000  4.652 3.023 13.351  0.001 0.018 0.000  SUBSCALES SOCIAL SCIENCE BIOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY  Duncan's M u l t i p l e Range t e s t s subscale the  a g a i n s t age  ages o f  better than  31  t o 50  (p < 0.05)  d i d those With  probability With  items  social  science  that p a r t i c i p a n t s  between  contained  participants  17-20  to Proto's  significantly  participants  in this  years  b e t t e r at the  the  of  those an  education  (Table  s c o r e and  e a c h of  psychology  ages of  41-50) s c o r e d  than  Results  21  t o 50  17-20  age  no  two  age  0.05  11b)  indicated  i t s three  that  f o r the  Total  0.000), t h e  of  Proto  social  0.000), t h e  biology  (F=7.224, d f . = 2 , p=  0.000), and  the  indicated  total  significant  scale  science' subscalesubscale  psychology  o f P r o t o and  that those  of post-secondary  signi f icantly  Proto's  subscale  0.000).  D u n c a n ' s M u l t i p l e Range t e s t s subscales  post-secondary  showed  (F=8.064, d f . = 2 , p=  (F=18.431, d f . = 2 , p=  ( i . e . groups better  both  subscales  those  group.  ANOVA a g a i n s t y e a r s  (F=15.793, d f . = 2 , p=  12 y e a r s  age.  subscale,  significantly  i n the  between g r o u p F v a l u e s  to  of  subscale  biology subscale  to Proto's  between  21-30, 31-40,  three  significantly  level.  respect  (p < 0.05)  the  (31-40, 41-50) s c o r e d  on  regards  groups s c o r e d  indicated  of  its  participants  education  scored  with  5  58  TABLE 11b ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF 40 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION. SCALE FINAL PROTO SCALE  DF  F . RATIO  F . PROB.  15.793  0.000  8.064 7.224 18.431  0.000 0.000 0.000  SUBSCALES SOCIAL SCIENCE BIOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY  better than of  (i.ecorrectly  didparticipants  post-secondary Results  [Table total the p=  reporting either  education  three  subscales  0.636),  biology  no s i g n i f i c a n t  (F=0.061,  (F=1.734,  F values  science  f o r the  (F=0.224,  df.=1,  d f . = 1 , p= 0.805), and  df.=1, p=  0.189).  a n a l y s i s of P r o t o  subscales against participant  significant  sex (gender)  d f . = 1 , p= 0.408)as w e l l a s  of s o c i a l  As w o u l d be e x p e c t e d , three  0 or 1 t o 4 years  (Table 11b).  s c a l e (F=0.687,  psychololgy  [ p ^ 0.05]  of t h e One Way ANOVA a g a i n s t  11c] i n d i c a t e d Proto  a n s w e r e d more i t e m s )  d i f f e r e n c e between  gender  and i t s  i n d i c a t e d no  male and f e m a l e  responses  (p < 0.05) [ T a b l e 1 1 c ] . Results 1ld)  o f an ANOVA a g a i n s t  indicated  that both  showed s i g n i f i c a n t  subject area  P r o t o and i t s t h r e e  F values. Total  Proto  subscales  scale  (F=18.657,  df.=5, p= 0.000);  (F=10.118,  df.=5, p= 0.000); b i o l o g y s u b s c a l e  df.=5, p= 0.000); p s y c h o l o g y p=  social  science  subscale  (Table  subscale (F=10.519,  (F=24.333,  df.=5,  0.000). Duncan's  indicated with (i.e.  M u l t i p l e Range t e s t  that  (DMRt)  results  f o r the Proto  scale,  those  gerontological training  scored  significantly  correctly  a n s w e r e d more i t e m s ,  participants, higher  p ^ 0 . 0 5 ) than d i d  60  TABLE ANALYSIS  OF VARIANCE OF  SCALE  40 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY  DF  FINAL PROTO SCALE  11c  F. RATIO  1  SEX.  F. PROB.  0.687  0.408  0.224 0.061 1 .734  0.636 0.805 0. 189  SUBSCALES SOCIAL SCIENCE BIOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY  TABLE ANALYSIS  OF VARIANCE OF  SCALE FINAL PROTO SCALE  11d  40 ITEM PROTO SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA.  DF  F. RATIO  F. PROB.  5  18.657  0.000  10.118 10.519 24.333  0.000 0.000 0.000  SUBSCALES SOCIAL SCIENCE BIOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY  61  participants biology,  from  education,  (non-academic), participants group than  non-academic  and s o c i a l  with  did participants  (general  work. I n t u r n ,  biological  (i.e. correctly  academic work  e a c h of t h e f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t  training  a n s w e r e d more from  population) those  s c o r e d b e t t e r as a  items,  p ^ 0.05)  the subject areas  (general p o p u l a t i o n ) , psychology  o f non-  and s o c i a l  (see T a b l e 11d).  With  regards  to Proto's  analysis  indicated  training  scored  b i o l o g y s u b s c a l e , DMRt  that p a r t i c i p a n t s  significantly the areas  better  participants  from  population),  education, psychology,  Table  areas;  1 1 d ) . Those w i t h  significantly academic  with g e r o n t o l o g i c a l (p < 0.05) t h a n d i d  of the non-academic  and s o c i a l ' w o r k ( s e e  biology training  b e t t e r than  those  (general population)  (general  scored  participants  subject areas  from non(p ^ 0.05)  [see T a b l e 11d].  With  regards  to Proto's psychology  analysis  indicated  training  did significantly  participants (general turn,  from  that p a r t i c i p a n t s  the areas  of education,  non-academic  and s o c i a l  p a r t i c i p a n t s with b i o l o g i c a l  work. I n  training did  b e t t e r (p < .0.5) t h a n  the non-academic  with g e r o n t o l o g i c a l  b e t t e r (p < 0.05) t h a n  p o p u l a t i o n ) , psychology  significantly  s u b s c a l e , DMRt  participants  ( g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n ) and  from  psychology.  62  Likewise,  those  significantly  with  b e t t e r than  (p < 0 . 0 5 ) . L a s t l y , training  scored  a n s w e r e d more psychology  the  items,  higher  p ^ 0.05)  Proto  psychology  scale  df.=4, p=  on t h e t o t a l  df.=2, p=  main Proto  post  on  0.214) nor i t s df.=4,  p=  and  0.285).  h o l d i n g the  against  effects scale  (Table  (p ^ 0.05)  (F=2.366,  0.221), b i o l o g y (F=1.107,  df.=2, p=  12-b)  of  df.=2,  p=  science  (F=1.930,  constant  years  independent  s u b s c a l e s of s o c i a l  education  (Table  (p < 0.05)  0.466),  group h o l d i n g the independent secondary  age  of post  (F=1.394,  R e s u l t s o f an A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e  and  against  o f age and s u b j e c t g r o u p c o n s t a n t  0.148), and p s y c h o l o g y  subject  with  effects  df.=4, p=  education  0.097) nor on t h e t h r e e (F=1.525,  those  of y e a r s  science  df.=4, p=  no s i g n i f i c a n t  education  work  (i.e. correctly  o f an A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e  secondary  revealed  social  11d).  main  (F=1.462,  (F=0.987,  (F=1.263,  Results  psychology  and s u b j e c t g r o u p c o n s t a n t  s u b s c a l e s of s o c i a l  variables  than  variables  r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t  post  with  from  of an A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e  0.236), b i o l o g y  of  significantly  education  total  three  participants  participants  the independent  secondary 12-a)  training did  backgrounds (see T a b l e  Results holding  education  df.=2,  p=  0.333).  against  variables (Table  o f age  12-c)  63  TABLE 12a ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO TOTAL SCALE AGAINST.AGE GROUP WITH YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE AGE GROUP EXPLAINED RESIDUAL TOTAL  D.F. 4 6 288 294  SUM OF SQUARES  MEAN SQUARES  F RATIO  F PROB.  212. 172 1901.617 10447.827 12349.444  53.043 316.936 36.277 42.005  1 .462 8.737  0.214 0.000  TABLE 12a  (CONT.)  ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO SOCIAL SUBSCALE AGAINST AGE GROUP WITH YEARS OF POST SECONDARY AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE AGE GROUP EXPLAINED RESIDUAL TOTAL  D.F. 4 6 288 294  SUM OF SQUARES  MEAN SQUARES  F RATIO  F PROB.  29.768 129.012 1537.584 1666.597  7.442 21.502 5.339 5.669  1 .394 4.027  0.236 0.001  TABLE 12a  (CONT.)  ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO BIOLOGY SUBSCALE GROUP WITH YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION AND PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE AGE GROUP EXPLAINED RESIDUAL TOTAL  D.F. 4 6 288 294  AGAINST AGE SUBJECT AREA  SUM OF SQUARES  MEAN SQUARES  F RATIO  F PROB.  22.416 166.928 1799.831 1966.759  5.604 27.821 6.249 6.690  0.987 4.452  0.466 0.000  64  TABLE  12a (CONT.)  ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO PSYCHOLOGY SUBSCALE AGAINST AGE GROUP WITH YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE AGE GROUP EXPLAINED RESIDUAL TOTAL  D.F. 4 6 288 294  SUM OF SQUARES  MEAN SQUARES  30.508 473.591 1739.311 2212.902  7.627 78.932 6.039 7.527  F RATIO  F PROB.  1 .263 13.070  0.285 0.000  65  TABLE  12b  ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO TOTAL SCALE AGAINST YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION WITH AGE AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE EDUCATION EXPLAINED RESIDUAL TOTAL  D.F. 2 4 171 175  SUM OF SQUARES  MEAN SQUARES  F RATIO  F PROB.  135.329 210.886 4890.000 5100.886  67.664 52.722 28.596 29.148  2.366 1 .844  0.097 0. 1 23  TABLE  12b  (CONT.)  ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO SOCIAL SUBSCALE AGAINST YEARS OF POST SECONDARY WITH AGE AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE EDUCATION EXPLAINED RESIDUAL TOTAL  D.F.  SUM OF SQUARES  MEAN SQUARES  F RATIO  F PROB.  2 4 171 175  14.599 32.238 818.483 850.722  7.299 8.060 4.786 4.861  1 .525 1 .684  0.221 0. 1 56  TABLE  12b  (CONT.)  ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO BIOLOGY SUBSCALE AGAINST YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION WITH AGE AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE EDUCATION EXPLAINED RESIDUAL TOTAL  D.F.  SUM OF SQUARES  MEAN SQUARES  F RATIO  F PROB.  2 4 171 175  19.953 44.070 883.970 928.040  9.977 11.017 5. 169 5.303  1 .930 2.131  0. 1 48 0.079  66  TABLE  12b  (CONT.)  ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO PSYCHOLOGY SUBSCALE AGAINST YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION WITH AGE AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE EDUCATION EXPLAINED RESIDUAL TOTAL  D.F.  SUM OF SQUARES  MEAN SQUARES  2 4 171 1 75  12.219 51.124 943.763 994.886  6.110 12.781 5.519 5.685  F RATIO  F PROB.  1 . 107 2.316  0.333 0.059  67  TABLE 12c ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO TOTAL SCALE AGAINST SUBJECT AREA WITH AGE AND YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE  D.F.  SUBJECT AREA 5 EXPLAINED 7 RESIDUAL 286 TOTAL 293  SUM OF SQUARES  MEAN SQUARES  F RATIO  F PROB.  1537..237 3309.,325 8964..733 12274..058  307,.447 472,.761 31 .345 , 41 .891 ,  9..808 15.,082  0..000 0,.000  TABLE  12c (CONT.)  ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO SOCIAL SUBSCALE AGAINST SUBJECT AREA WITH AGE AND YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE  D.F.  SUBJECT AREA 5 EXPLAINED 7 RESIDUAL 286 TOTAL 293  SUM OF SQUARES  MEAN SQUARES  F RATIO  F PROB.  180.955 286.527 1367.041 1653.568  36. 191 40. 932 4. 780 5. 644  7 .572 8 .564  0. 000 0. 000  TABLE  12c (CONT.)  ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO BIOLOGY SUBSCALE AGAINST SUBJECT AREA WITH AGE AND YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE  D.F.  SUBJECT AREA 5 EXPLAINED 7 RESIDUAL 286 TOTAL 293  SUM OF SQUARES  MEAN SQUARES  F RATIO  F PROB.  208.710 334.175 1630.822 1964.997  41.742 47.739 5.702 6.706  7.320 8.372  0.000 0.000  68  TABLE  12c (CONT.)  ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PROTO PSYCHOLOGY SUBSCALE AGAINST SUBJECT AREA WITH AGE AND YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE  D.F.  SUBJECT AREA 5 EXPLAINED 7 RESIDUAL 286 TOTAL 293  SUM OF SQUARES 258..821 693..951 1 504. .923 2198..874  MEAN SQUARES 51 .764 . 99., 1 36 5..262 7..505  F RATIO  F PROB.  9..837 18..840  0..000 0..000  revealed  significant  g r o u p on t h e P r o t o its  scale  psychology  Table  13a p r e s e n t s  Canadian  i t e m of easy fell  criterion  0.000).  P r o p e r t i e s of Palmore's  responded  into  this  with  item  the a r b i t r a r y response  category.  Secondly, item  the  fell  criterion  items  fell  Table  an i t e m o f h a r d  into  subjects correctly (True/False, criterion indicating or  difficulty,  t h i s category  13b p r e s e n t s  o f an 80 t o 100% c o r r e c t  52% o f i t e m s  fell  into  r a t e as 7 o r 28% o f t h e  with  which  t o the o r i g i n a l  items). Using  an i t e m o f e a s y  using the  (see Table 13a).  the frequency  responded  American  response  r a t e as  8 o r 32% o f  category. Thirdly,  o f a 0 t o 40% c o r r e c t  representing  o r 40% o f  response  an i t e m o f medium d i f f i c u l t y this  criterion  using the  representing  into  (5 p o i n t  a s i n d i c a t i n g an  10 o f t h e 25 .items  o f a 41 t o 70% c o r r e c t  25 i t e m s  which  t o t h e 25 i t e m FAQ  items). Using  difficulty  FAQ  the frequency  an 80 t o 100% c o r r e c t  items  (F=7.572, df.=5, p=  (F=7.320, df.=5, p= 0.000), and  subjects correctly Likert,  science  (F=9.837, df.=5, p=  Psychometric  (p < 0.05) o f s u b j e c t  (F=9.808, df.=5, p= 0.000) and  3 s u b s c a l e s of s o c i a l  0.000), b i o l o g y  of  main e f f e c t s  the a r b i t r a r y item  difficulty this  FAQ  response  as  13 o f t h e 25  category.  Secondly,  items using  70  TABLE 13a CATEGORIZATION OF 25 ITEM FAQ SCALE (5 POINT SCALE, CANADIAN FACTS.) AS EASY, MEDIUM AND HARD* BASED ON THE FREQUENCY OF CORRECT PARTICIPANT RESPONSE. ITEM DIFFICULTY  PERCENT CORRECT RESPONSE RATE  ITEM NUMBER 6  1  7 14 19 21  4  > 90% EASY *  81-90 71-80  N  2 22  4 10 23  5 10  MEDIUM *  61-70%  12  1  51-60  17  1  41-50  8 9 11 18 20 25  6 8  31-40% HARD *  21-30 1 1-20  0 35 1  16 14 5 3 15  3 0  0-10 ITEM TOTAL *  4  7 25  Items o f an e a s y c a l i b e r were a r b i t r a r i l y c h o s e n as i t e m s i n w h i c h 100 t o 80% o f p a r t i c i p a n t s a n s w e r e d c o r r e c t l y . Items of medium d i f f i c u l t y were d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s of a 70 t o 41% c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e r a t e and i t e m s of a h a r d c a l i b e r a s a 40 t o 0% c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e r a t e .  71  TABLE 13b CATEGORIZATION OF 25 ITEM FAQ SCALE (ORIGINAL TRUE/FALSE, AMERICAN ITEM FORMAT) AS EASY, MEDIUM AND HARD* BASED ON THE FREQUENCY OF CORRECT PARTICIPANT RESPONSE. ITEM D I F F I C U L T Y  PERCENT CORRECT RESPONSE RATE > 90%  EASY *  ITEM NUMBER 1 6 3 5 10 13 14 1 5 22  81-90  9 1 2 20 25  71-80  N 8 1  4 1 3  61-70% MEDIUM *  51-60  2  4 8 1 1 18  5  17 23  2  41-50  0 7  31-40% HARD *  21-30  7 1 6 19 21  24  2 3  1 1-20  0  0-10  0 5 ITEM TOTAL  25  * Items o f an e a s y c a l i b e r were a r b i t r a r i l y c h o s e n a s i t e m s i n w h i c h 100 t o 80% o f p a r t i c i p a n t s answered c o r r e c t l y . Items o f medium d i f f i c u l t y were d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f a 70 t o 41% c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e r a t e and i t e m s of a h a r d c a l i b e r a s a 40 t o 0% c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e r a t e .  the as  criterion  o f a 41 t o 70% c o r r e c t  item response  r e p r e s e n t i n g an i t e m o f medium d i f f i c u l t y  the  25 i t e m s  criterion  fell  fell  difficulty,  category  Table into Using  15 p r e s e n t s  indicated  15.09% c u m u l a t i v e  as F a c t o r  1 6a-c  o f an  solution.  investigation  II as a B i o l o g i c a l sampling  2 factor  present  These  factors  Change  a d e q u a c y o f 0.794 and a v a r i a n c e was  solution.  the r e s u l t s  P a l m o r e ' s FAQ a g a i n s t t h e i n d e p e n d e n t age ( g r o u p e d  test  I r e p r e s e n t i n g an A g e i s m  p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l  for in this  51-65), y e a r s  o f 0.9012  p r o p e r t i e s o f P a l m o r e ' s FAQ.  a 2 factor  D i m e n s i o n . An o v e r a l l  participant  formula) f o r an o v e r a l l  of m u l t i p l e r ' s a Scree  and F a c t o r  Tables  the r e s u l t s  analytic  interpreted  accounted  indicated  alphas  scale.  the technique  Dimension  reliability  o f 0.6952 and a p r o j e c t e d a l p h a  the f a c t o r  analysis  5 o r 20% o f t h e  (see T a b l e 13b).  25 i t e m P a l m o r e FAQ. R e s u l t s  a 100 i t e m  using the  r a t e as  f o r attenuation using Guilford's  scale alpha  were  this  7 o r 28% of  Thirdly,  response  14 p r e s e n t s C h r o n b a c h ' s  (corrected  for  category.  an i t e m o f h a r d  into  Table  the  this  o f a 0 t o 40% c o r r e c t  representing items  into  rate  o f ANOVA's o f v a r i a b l e s of  a s 17-20, 21-30, 31-40,  of post-secondary  1-4 and 5-12 y e a r s ) , g e n d e r  education  (male,  41-50,  (grouped  a s 0,  f e m a l e ) and s u b j e c t  73  TABLE 14 CHRONBACH'S R E L I A B I L I T Y ALPHAS* OF PALMORE'S FAQ SCALE. ALPHA** FAQ SCALE  0.6952  NUMBER OF ITEMS 25  ALPHA PROJECTED TO 100 ITEMS 0.9012  * Corrected f o rattenuation using G u i l f o r d . ** A l p h a v a l u e s t a k e n t o f o u r d e c i m a l p l a c e s f o r g r e a t e r p r e c i s i o n i n magnitude d i s c r i m i n a t i o n powers.  74  TABLE 15 VARIMAX  ROTATED FACTOR SOLUTION OF PALMORE'S FAQ SCALE. FACTOR ITEM #* 9 11 17 5 16 23 20 3 1 10 19 7 18 15 13 8 21 25 12  EIGENVALUES VARIANCE ACCOUNTED  I  FACTOR  II  LOADING  ITEM #  LOADING  0.508 0.499 0.450 0.447 0.393 0.362 0.356 0.350 0.345 0.333 0.316 0.303 0.291 0.280 0.270 0.242 0.164 0.103 0.181  6 14 4 22 2 24  0.516 0.501 0.426 0.318 0.303 0.239  2.641  1.134  10.564  4.535  OVERALL SAMPLING ADEQUACY = 0.794 * See A p p e n d i x G f o r i t e m s r e f e r r e d t o . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s a c c o u n t e d f o r 29.306% of t h e v a r i a n c e f o r t h e 25 i t e m s c a l e , w i t h t h e 2 f a c t o r s o l u t i o n a c c o u n t i n g f o r 15.098%.  area  (grouped  [general  population]  psychology further  [non-academic],  and s o c i a l  work) [ r e f e r  gerontology, t o Table  16a) i n d i c a t e d  indicated  significant  that p a r t i c i p a n t s  significantly  more i t e m s )  than  Results  F values,  significant  better  of t h i s  result  between t h e ages o f 21 t o 65 ( i . e . correctly  participants  education  F'values  DMRt a n a l y s i s  17-20 y e a r s  (Table  answered  (p < 0 . 0 5 ) .  significantly  ( F=26.146, df.=2,245, p= 0.000).  of t h i s  result  indicated  b e t t e r (p < .05) t h a n  either  years  16b) i n d i c a t e d  5 t o 12 y e a r s o f p o s t - s e c o n d a r y  reporting  (F=15.621,  o f an ANOVA o f P a l m o r e ' s FAQ a g a i n s t  of p o s t - s e c o n d a r y  with  2a t o 2d f o r  o f an ANOVA o f P a l m o r e ' s FAQ a g a i n s t age  df.=4,240, p= 0.000). DMRt a n a l y s i s  scored  non-academic  breakdown o f s u b j e c t s i n e a c h c a t e g o r y ] .  Results (Table  as b i o l o g y , e d u c a t i o n ,  0 or 1 t o 4 years  that  participants  education those  of  scored  participants  post-secondary  education. R e s u l t s o f a One Way ANOVA o f P a l m o r e ' s FAQ a g a i n s t sex  (gender)  [Table  16c] i n d i c a t e d  v a l u e s between male and f e m a l e  no s i g n i f i c a n t  responses  F  (F=0.723,  df.=1,244, p= 0.396). Results subject  area  o f an ANOVA o f P a l m o r e ' s FAQ a g a i n s t (Table  16d) i n d i c a t e d  significant  F values  TABLE 16a ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE  OF PALMORE SCALE AGAINST  AGE GROUP.  SOURCE  D.F.  SUM OF SQUARES  MEAN SQUARES  F RATIO  F PROB.  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  4 240 244  685.363 2632.432 3317.795  171.340 10.968  15.621  0.000  TABLE 16b ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE  D.F.  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  2 245 247  OF PALMORE SCALE BY YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION. SUM OF SQUARES  MEAN SQUARES  F RATIO  F PROB.  626.347 2934.490 3560.838  313.174 11.977  26.146  0.000  TABLE 16c ONE WAY  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE  OF PALMORE SCALE BY SEX  (GENDER).  SOURCE  D.F.  SUM OF SQUARES  MEAN SQUARES  F RATIO  F PROB.  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  1 244 245  10.399 3508.333 3518.732  10.399 14.378  0.723  0.396  TABLE I6d ANALYSIS OF PROTO SCALE BY SUBJECT AREA. SOURCE  D.F.  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  5 288 293  SUM OF SQUARES  MEAN SQUARES  F RATIO  F PROB.  891.126 2923.430 3814.557  178.225 10.150  17.557  0.000  (F=17.557, df.=5,288, p= result  i n d i c a t e d that  gerontological (i.e.  biology,  training  education,  Likewise, scored  than  the  work. In  training  better  as  a group  better  areas;  population),  as  a  group  psychology.  training  (p -< 0.05)  did  those p a r t i c i p a n t s  d i d p a r t i c i p a n t s from  those p a r i c i p a n t s with  than  subject  (general  turn,  scored  better  p < 0.05)  following  this  with  significantly  non-academic  social  biological  (p < 0.05)  in  education  than p a r t i c i p a n t s  psychology.  Results holding  the  education  of. an  and  (Table  subject  1 7 - a ) . FAQ of  an  of  significant  age  main e f f e c t s of  P a l m o r e ' s FAQ  (Table  (p <  secondary  0.05)  on  Palmore's  0.005).  of C o v a r i a n c e a g a i n s t holding  subject  age  revealed  (F=3.854, d f . = 4 , p=  Analysis  and  age  against  post  group constant  secondary education  variables  of C o v a r i a n c e .  v a r i a b l e s of  main e f f e c t s of  Results of p o s t  Analysis  independent  significant FAQ  scored  from e a c h o f  p s y c h o l o g y and  from  those p a r t i c i p a n t s  c o r r e c t l y answered more i t e m s ,  participants  with  0.000). DMRt a n a l y s i s of  the  independent  group c o n s t a n t education  1 7 - b ) . FAQ  years  revealed  (p < 0.05)  (F=1.548, df.=2,  no  on p=  0.216). Results subject  of an  Analysis  group h o l d i n g  the  of C o v a r i a n c e  independent  against  v a r i a b l e s of  age  79  TABLE 17a ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PALMORE SCALE AGAINST AGE GROUP WITH EDUCATION AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE AGE EXPLAINED RESIDUAL TOTAL'  D.F.  SUM OF SQUARES  MEAN SQUARES  F RATIO  F PROB.  4 6 288 294  169.218 700.075 3161 .437 3861.512  42.304 116.679 10.977 13.134  3.854 1 0.629  0.005 0.000  TABLE  17b  ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PALMORE SCALE AGAINST YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION WITH AGE AND SUBJECT AREA PARTIALED OUT. MEAN F SOURCE D.F. SUM OF F PROB. SQUARES RATIO SQUARES EDUCATION EXPLAINED RESIDUAL TOTAL  2 4 171 175  29.765 92.469 1644.077 1736.545  14.882 23. 117 9.614 9.923  1 . 548 2.404  0.216 0.052  and  post  secondary  education  revealed  significant  0.05)  P a l m o r e ' s FAQ  on  Table (validity  main e f f e c t s of  49.2%  with  Proto's  with  rxy= 0.539, p=  social  science  P a l m o r e ' s FAQ  rxy=  v a r i a n c e was  0.000 or  f o r by  and  with  t h e FAQ  of  v a r i a n c e was  Proto's  rxy=  w i t h Kogan's OP  scale  0.701, for  by  0.000 or  f o r by  the  with Palmore's  Proto's  variance  psychology  the  FAQ. FAQ was  subscale  0.000 or  f o r by rxy=  p=  subscale  0.600, p=  0.595, p=  accounted  rxy=  accounted  accounted  29.08% o f  t h e FAQ.  correlated  correlated  correlations  P a l m o r e ' s FAQ  biology subscale c o r r e l a t e d  Proto's  0.000).  P a l m o r e ' s FAQ  of P r o t o ' s v a r i a n c e was  36.06% of P r o t o ' s  accounted  (p<  scales.  P a l m o r e ' s FAQ.  Proto's  17-c)  s u b j e c t group  18 p r e s e n t s p o i n t - b y - s e r i a l  Proto c o r r e l a t e d  correlated  (Table  (F=6.538, df.=5, p=  c o e f f i c i e n t s ) of P r o t o ,  Kogan's OP  0.000 or  constant  35.41%  FAQ.  0.370, p=  Proto  0.000 o r  81  TABLE 17c ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PALMORE SCALE AGAINST SUBJECT AREA WITH AGE AND YEARS OF POST SECONDARY EDUCATION PARTIALED OUT. SOURCE  D.F.  SUBJECT AREA 5 EXPLAINED 7 RESIDUAL 286 TOTAL 293  SUM OF SQUARES  MEAN SQUARES  F RATIO  F PROB.  327.806 946.726 2867.831 3814.558  65.561 135.247 10.027 13.019  6.538 13.488  0.000 0.000  82  TABLE 18 PEARSON CORRELATIONS OF PROTO, PALMORE'S FAQ, AND KOGAN'S SCALES. SCALE COMPARISON  CORRELATION COEFFICIENT  PERCENT ACCOUNTED  OP PROB. LEVEL  PROTO BY PALMORE  0.701  49.20%  0.000  *S.S. BY PALMORE B i o l . B Y PALMORE Psyc.BY PALMORE  0.600 0.539 0.595  36.06% 29.08% 35.41%  0.000 0.000 0.000  PROTO BY KOGAN  0.370  13.69%  0.000  S.S. BY KOGAN B i o l . B Y KOGAN Psyc.BY KOGAN  0.364 0.243 0.310  13.26% 5.94% 9.60%  0.000 0.000 0.000  0.443  19.64%  0.000  PALMORE BY KOGAN  *S.S. - S o c i a l S c i e n c e S u b s c a l e o f P r o t o * B i o l . - Biology Subscale of Proto *Psyc. - Psychology S u b s c a l e of P r o t o  13.69% o f P r o t o ' s v a r i a n c e was a c c o u n t e d OP  scale.  Proto's  w i t h Kogan's OP its  rxy=  accounted  scale.  w i t h Kogan's OP  P a l m o r e ' s FAQ c o r r e l a t e d p=  accounted  p=  0.000 o r 13.26% of  f o r by t h e OP  scale.  w i t h Kogan's OP  Proto's  of i t s v a r i a n c e was  0.4432,  0.364,  correlated  0.000 o r 5.94% o f i t s v a r i a n c e was  by t h e OP  correlated 9.6%  science subscale  subscale correlated  0.243, p= for  scale  v a r i a n c e was  biology  social  f o r by Kogan's  0.000,  psychology  scale  scale  accounted  p=  0.000 o r  f o r by t h e OP  w i t h Kogan's OP. s c a l e  scale.  scale.  rxy=  o r 19.64% o f P a l m o r e ' s v a r i a n c e  f o r by Kogan's OP  rxy=  subscale  rxy= 0.310,  accounted  Proto's  was  84  CHAPTER V DISCUSSION  This  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s e t out  psychometrically "only" item  [pure]  reliable  universally original Proto  i n s c a l e development,  s c a l e . Of  rigorous  primary  developed,  but  than  discussion  therefore  psychometric With respect  whereas t h e FAQ  concept be  an  ensures  greater  what p a r t second  of  asset  avoidance alike')  i s noted  statements.  important  the  and  sixty  The  Proto's  item  items are  i s not more  construction the  part  item r e l i a b i l i t y subject  FAQ's.  limited  (doubleto s i n g l e this  author  a s p e c t of P r o t o ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n  of P r o t o ' s  how  construction,  i s c o n s i d e r e d by  item the  final  following  as compared w i t h  i . e . one  can  be c e r t a i n to. A  i s the  ( i . e . ' p r e t t y much  g e n e r a l i t i e s ('most o l d p e o p l e ' )  to  since i t  i s responding  item c o n s t r u c t i o n  o f ambiguous w o r d i n g  and  of  psychometric  f o r i t s two  This  an  used  i t possesses  f o c u s on  t o s c a l e and  items Proto  following  however,  P a l m o r e ' s FAQ.  properties  measuring  f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the  whether  characteristics will  forty  importance,  scale construction  barrelled)  a g i n g . By  of  s i m i l a r to that  i t e m s were s e l e c t e d  P r o t o was  and  scale capable  knowledge a b o u t  s e l e c t i o n procedure  to develop a  that  are  85  present since  i n t h e FAQ.  This  i s an  i t h e l p s to ensure  important  characteristic  c o n s i s t e n c y i n item  interpretation.  Since Proto's a  scale  of  items  were i n i t i a l l y  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e t h r e e main  gerontology  (namely  social  psychology)  would be  that  interpretations  factor  However, a l t h o u g h FAQ  selected  items  from  Palmore  the a r e a s  confirm these  of p h y s i c a l ,  interpretations  discussed further  dealing imply  with psychometric  that  subject  Proto  areas  And the  five-point  the  rigor  percent  with  response  format  scale,  format  present  of t h e FAQ  Proto's  used  five-point  in test  scale).  into a true/false  interpretation  he  chose  and  social  factor  i n the These  knowledge  section results from  the  FAQ.  i n P r o t o adds t o  s i n c e i t e l i m i n a t e s the i n the  Collapsing  format  of w h e t h e r t h e  noted  results,  batteries  the  that  the  five-point allowed  correctly  in  FAQ  were i d e n t i c a l  for analysis  i t e m was  fifty  original  ( i t s h o u l d be  t o m a i n t a i n c o m p a r a b i l i t y of format  in  i s the  note  respect to s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  c h a n c e of g u e s s i n g p r e s e n t  response  scales  at t e s t i n g  i t p u r p o r t s t o than  of t h i s  true/false order  confirmed  considerations).  is better  finally,  that  mental  i s not  to  dimensions.  said  a s p e c t s of a g i n g , t h i s ( t o be  and  i t i s important  (1977) has  that  s u b j e c t domains  sciences, biology  developed,  so  to  86  a n s w e r e d . Any s i g n i f i c a n t statistical lowering  results  revolve primarily  changes,  other than  With  levels,  the  respect  ideally  of r e s p o n s e  f r e q u e n c i e s to each  scales,  in particular,  a scale  that  powers).  Proto appears  format)  results  produced  side,  a similar  medium  correct an  difficulty  response  easy d i f f i c u l t y  correct  response  level  rate]),  0-40%  17 o f 40 o r 42.5% of i t e m s  were  had a 41-70%  12 o f 40 o r 30% o f i t e m s were o f [ i . e . items which  had a 71-100%  Palmore's  found  FAQ was  s t a c k e d on t h e e a s y  side  of  8 o r 32% were o f medium  hard d i f f i c u l t y ,  s t a c k e d on  [ i . e . i t e m s had a  [ i . e . items which  rate],  item  (11 o u t o f 40 o r 27.5% of  i t e m s were o f h a r d d i f f i c u l t y rate],  item  investigation.  difficulty  of  this  i n the frequency of c o r r e c t  the  response  what with  to possess  breakdown, b u t whereas P r o t o was  correct  out those  ( i . e . want a s c a l e  difficulty medium  difficulty  v e r s u s g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n about  as e x e m p l i f i e d  (revised  item  can p i c k  r e s p o n s e s o b t a i n e d by s u b j e c t s i n t h i s FAQ  in this  t o t h e p s y c h o m e t r i c p r o p e r t i e s of  s c a l e p u r p o r t s t o measure  quality  c a t e g o r i e s . No o t h e r  o f any s i g n i f i c a n c e  desire  specialized  distinguishing  reliability  results.  P r o t o and P a l m o r e  with  loss  c a t e g o r y , was  investigations  of response  have had on  around the  of r e l i a b i l i t y v a l u e s , s i n c e  i n c r e a s e s w i t h number  scale  c h a n g e s t h i s may  (7 o f 25 o r 28% o f i t e m s  t o be were  difficulty,  87  and  10 o r  40%  were o f e a s y  Interestingly, conducted (i.e.  on  a similar  pilot  true/false  or  28%  20%  of  of  results  u s i n g the o r i g i n a l  in correct  results  might p o s s e s s information  that  psychology  in this  from  likelihood  25  level,  13 or  as  hard d i f f i c u l t l y  7  52%  compared equal  items,  for distinguishing  difficulty  levels  (as based  i n v e s t i g a t i o n ) . Not  items),  biology  o n l y does  powers, but  (14  on  items  domains  items),  and  items).  factors,  of s c a l e  o f measurement  o f t h e two  reliabilty  reliability,  P r o t o a t 0.8391 p o s s e s s e s  a Chronbach's r e l i a b i l i t y comparison  and  i t s three purported subject  In c o n s i d e r a t i o n to chance  (5 o f  format  item d i s c r i m i n a t o r y  s c i e n c e (13 (13  FAQ  stronger a b i l i t i e s  response  social  a  Proto, with a r e l a t i v e l y  of d i f f e r e n t  sample e q u a l l y  a scale  item responses  of t h e o r i g i n a l  P r o t o p o s s e s s good  since  indicated  format  difficulty).  breakdown o f easy/medium and  of  items)  FAQ  i t e m s were of a h a r d d i f f i c u l t y  to Proto, suggest  subject  breakdown  i t e m s were o f medium d i f f i c u l t y  were o f e a s y  The  level.  item d i f f i c u l t y  and A m e r i c a n  n o t i c e a b l e change items or  difficulty  fluctuation a l p h a of  s c a l e s as  i s influenced  due  less  t h a n t h e FAQ  with  0.6952. However,  such by  or e r r o r  i s inappropriate  t h e number o f  items i n  ( i . e . t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f i t e m s t h e h i g h e r  88  the  reliability).  superior for  100  greater  reliability items  which  reliability  Consideration that  More d e f i n i t e  biology  than  Proto for  and  FAQ  {indicated  Scree  t o the  were sampled  subject  (social  factor  psychology of  aspects the  test  two  analysis).  interpretations three  As  Factor,  and  0.9012).  to the  solutions  a l l u d e d to  social  split  scale which  science  Factor III  Lifestyle/Histological  were not  interpretations  changes,  t o t h e F a c t o r II  Change F a c t o r , and  the  interpretation  FAQ's p u r p o r t e d  of p h y s i c a l ,  mental,  and  item social  separately distinguishable of F a c t o r  Factor I I , a Biological  of  accounted  s u b j e c t domains from  of a B i o l o g i c a l  the areas  is  of t h e P r o t o  f r o m . Namely, t h e  of S o c i a l  of a g i n g  less  dimensions  factor  s u b j e c t domain t o t h e F a c t o r I  from  factor  FAQ  of FAQ's v a r i a n c e  a P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i m e n s i o n . The  sampling  indicate  s c i e n c e 0.9244;  analytic  t h e b i o l o g y s u b j e c t domain c o r r e s p o n d s interpretation  0.9012).  subscale possesses  0.9434 v e r s u s  the  domain c o r r e s p o n d s  interpretation  possesses  s c a l e s r e v e a l s t h a t 20.623 p e r c e n t  factor  corresponded items  into  still  (0.9287 v e r s u s  r e s p e c t i v e t h r e e and  by  previously,  each  t h e FAQ  15.098 p e r c e n t  in their  Proto's  three subscales also  0.9371; p s y c h o l o g y  P r o t o and  that Proto  the FAQ  items  than  Investigation of  indicate  100  measurement e r r o r  of  i s exemplified in value p r o j e c t i o n s  of P r o t o ' s  p r o j e c t e d to  proof  I , an  Ageism  Change F a c t o r .  in  89  Investigation three  subscales  secondary  t r e n d s were  of p o s t  sex ( g e n d e r ) and s u b j e c t a r e a of  indicated  somewhat  for significant  education  of P r o t o , i t s  and t h e FAQ a g a i n s t age, y e a r s  education,  participants  age,  i n t o ANOVA r e s u l t s  similar  trends.  d i f f e r e n c e s to occur  and s u b j e c t a r e a  groupings  These between  of  part i c ipants.  Because educational effects  attainment  might  on s c a l e r e s u l t s ,  conducted. that  i t was p o s s i b l e t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t  Analyses  born  between  have t y p i c a l l l y  reached  attainment  previous  than  indicated  were c o n s i d e r e d  holding years  of p o s t  subscales  showed no s i g n i f i c a n t a n a l y s i s o f t h e FAQ  age i s a c o n f o u n d i n g  r e s u l t s . When y e a r s attainment subject  was c o n s i d e r e d  area  0.05) were  of p o s t  constant,  found  secondary Proto  and- i t s t h r e e  d i f f e r e n c e s (p<  indicated  d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d . These  participant  1982).  t h a t when p o s s i b l e age d i f f e r e n c e s  and s u b j e c t area- c o n s t a n t ,  age  years]  of e d u c a t i o n a l  (Cross,  education  although  [baby boom  levels  age g r o u p s  were  s i n c e i t i s known  1943-61  higher  interactive  of C o v a r i a n c e  I n t e r a c t i o n was p l a u s i b l e  individuals  Results  be e x e r t i n g  age and  that  results  0.05)  significant  imply  that  i n f l u e n c e i n FAQ s c a l e  secondary  education  holding participant  no s i g n i f i c a n t  f o r P r o t o and FAQ  age and  d i f f e r e n c e s (p<  scale  responses.  90  As a c a u t i o n a r y m e a s u r e , A n a l y s e s were c o n d u c t e d FAQ,  on P r o t o ,  i t s three  considering subject area  participant  age and y e a r s  constant. Results effects  indicated  which  gerontological participants  indicated  training  from  secondary  taken  education subject  together  that p a r t i c i p a n t s  scored  other  holding  no s i g n i f i c a n t  (p< 0.05). T h e s e r e s u l t s ,  ANOVA r e s u l t s  Covariance  s u b s c a l e s , and t h e  effects  of post  of  significantly  subject areas,  area  with with  higher  indicated  than  that  the e f f e c t s  due t o s u b j e c t a r e a  were not c o n f o u n d e d by  age  secondary  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . In  or post  summary, doing  individuals  significantly  specialized attainment participant area  with  However,  As s u c h ,  confounds subject area  i n t h e FAQ's  interpretations  case,  i m p l i e s t h a t t h e FAQ in i t s scale  of m e a s u r i n g  pure  o f t h e FAQ w i t h Kogan's OP (an  f o r by t h i s  P r o t o ' s . Coupled  their  effects).  scale) indicated  was a c c o u n t e d  of  influence in subject  and age e f f e c t s  education  Correlations attitude  this  ( i . e . i s not c a p a b l e  gerontological  were  and n o t due t o age o r e d u c a t i o n a l  age was a c o n f o u n d i n g  results.  results  gerontological training  b e t t e r on P r o t o a s a r e s u l t  training effects.  education  with  t h a t more o f FAQ's attitude  the f a c t  o f t h e FAQ  scale  that  indicated  than  variance was  factor t h a t an  attitude  91  dimension  was  w h i c h has  been  confounding  present  (Ageism F a c t o r ) ,  that  age,  l i n k e d to a t t i t u d e s about a g i n g ,  is a  influence, affirms  Klemmack's  Palmore's  (1981) s t a t e m e n t s t h a t  attitudes  and/or  stereotypes  from t h i s of  scale  which can  gerontological be  for Proto's  knowledge,  sampling  i t e m s of  difficulty  l e v e l s from  the  have a  l e v e l s of  subject  be  i n v e s t i g a t e e f f e c t s that  knowledge m i g h t not  possible  knowledge and pure  gerontology. Using  have on  before,  since  In indicate  the  summary, r e s u l t s f r o m t h i s that  Proto  subject  is a highly  domains of  gerontology.  allow  gerontological  of  now  aging.  This  was  from  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of not  possible.  investigation  hard  and  it will  gerontological  reliable  scale construction detection  so  hard  areas  measures  a t t i t u d e s was  w h i c h m e a s u r e s e a s y , medium and three  FAQ  a t t i t u d e dimensions,  knowledge e f f e c t s on  the  gerontological  Proto,  a t t i t u d e s about  the  about  e a s y , medium and  three  in  rigorous  include  of  to  results  researchers  representative possible  that  knowledge  usage  t o measure b e f o r e / a f t e r  and  measures  fact  now  t o measure  (1979)  aging.  i s the  education  used  Implications  ability  FAQ  i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n d i c a t e that  field  aging.  the  about  However, more i m p o r t a n t  and  and  items Its  valid  from  the  stringent  psychometric c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s training effects  scale  92  devoid  of age  participants. suggest  that  participants  or e d u c a t i o n a l Initial Proto with  level  results  is also  from t h i s  able  specialized  to  of a g i n g . However, f u r t h e r  Proto's  ability  areas  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  necessary  before  any  of  investigation  distinguish  knowledge of b i o l o g i c a l  aspects  to d i s t i n g u i s h  attainment  investigation  participants  i t s three  from  subscales w i l l  c o n c l u s i o n s can  be  reached.  into subject be  References  1) B e a t t i e ,  B.L.  (1984). P e r s o n a l  communications.  2) B u t t , D.S.  (1985). P e r s o n a l  communications.  3) E l l i o t ,  (1984). P e r s o n a l  communications.  L.  94  References A l l e n , B . J . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . Knowledge on A g i n g : A C r o s s - S e c t i o n a l S t u d y o f T h r e e D i f f e r e n t Age G r o u p s . E d u c a t i o n a l G e r o n t o l o g y , 6, 49-60. A n a s t a s i , A . (1961). P s y c h o l o g i c a l M a c M i l l a n Company.  T e s t i n g . New  York:  Borg,W.R. & G a l l , M . D . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h I n t r o d u c t i o n . 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Belmont C a l i f o r n i a : B r o o k s - C o l e P u b l i s h i n g Company.  98  APPENDIX A  99  Palmore's  true  Instructions: or f a l s e .  Facts  on A g i n g  Please c i r c l e  Quiz  whether  the item i s  1) The m a j o r i t y of o l d p e o p l e ( p a s t 65) a r e s e n i l e ( i . e . d e f e c t i v e memory, d i s o r i e n t e d , or d e m e n t e d ) . True 2) A l l f i v e True  False senses tend t o d e c l i n e  i n o l d age.  False  3) Most o l d p e o p l e have no i n t e r e s t sexual True  relations. False  4) Lung c a p a c i t y True  i n , or c a p a c i t y f o r ,  tends t o d e c l i n e  i n o l d age.  False  5) The m a j o r i t y  of o l d p e o p l e  feel  m i s e r a b l e most o f t h e  time. True 6) P h y s i c a l  False strength  tends t o d e c l i n e  i n o l d age.  True False 7) A t l e a s t o n e - t e n t h o f t h e aged a r e l i v i n g i n l o n g s t a y i n s t i t u t i o n s ( i . e . n u r s i n g homes, m e n t a l h o s p i t a l s , homes f o r t h e aged, e t c . ) . True  False  8) Aged d r i v e r s have fewer a c c i d e n t s d r i v e r s under age 65. True  False  per person  than  100  9) Most o l d e r  workers  younger True  cannot  work as e f f e c t i v e l y  as  workers. False  10) About out  80%  of t h e aged  their  True  normal  are healthy  enough t o  carry  activities.  False  11) Most o l d p e o p l e a r e s e t i n t h e i r  ways and  unable  to  change. True  False  12) O l d p e o p l e u s u a l l y  take longer  to learn  something  new. True 13)  False  It i s impossible  f o r most o l d p e o p l e t o l e a r n  new  things. True 14) The  False reaction  slower True 15)  than r e a c t i o n  True  people.  most o l d p e o p l e a r e p r e t t y much  alike.  False majority  True 17) The  t i m e of younger  be  False  In g e n e r a l ,  16) The  t i m e o f most o l d p e o p l e t e n d s t o  o f o l d p e o p l e a r e seldom  bored.  False majority  of o l d p e o p l e a r e s o c i a l l y  isolated  lonely. True  False  18) O l d e r w o r k e r s  have fewer  accidents  than  younger  workers. True  False  19) Over 15% o f t h e U.S. over. True False  population  a r e now  age  65  or  and  101  20)  Most m e d i c a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s to the aged. True  21)  low  priority  False  False  The m a j o r i t y o f o l d p e o p l e a r e w o r k i n g o r would t o have some k i n d o f work t o do ( i n c l u d i n g housework and v o l u n t e e r w o r k ) . True  23)  to give  The m a j o r i t y o f o l d e r p e o p l e have incomes below t h e p o v e r t y l i n e ( a s d e f i n e d by t h e F e d e r a l Government). True  22)  tend  Older  like  False people  tend  t o become more r e l i g i o u s  as t h e y  age. True 24)  25)  False  The m a j o r i t y o f o l d p e o p l e a r e s e l d o m angry. True False  i r r i t a t e d or  The h e a l t h and s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f o l d e r p e o p l e (compared t o y o u n g e r p e o p l e ) i n t h e y e a r 2000 w i l l p r o b a b l y be a b o u t t h e same a s now. True  False  102  APPENDIX B  PILOT RESULTS OF THE FAQ R E L I A B I L I T Y  N 136  MEAN 21.245  VARIANCE 8.533  VALUE.  STANDARD DEVIATION  CHRONBACH'S ALPHA  2.921  0.579  104  APPENDIX C  1 05  R e s u l t s o f an i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o p e r t i e s o f P a l m o r e ' s FAQ.  into  the f a c t o r  analytic  VARIMAX ROTATED FACTOR SOLUTION OF PALMORE'S FAQ SCALE. I  FACTOR  FACTOR  ITEM*  LOADING  1  0.838 0.802 0.620 0.581 0. 462  1 3 3 5 15  EIGENVALUES  ITEM 1 7 21 1 6 24 19 23  11 LOADING 0.708 0.645 0.577 0.548 0.419 0.345  FACTOR : I I I ITEM 2 1 4 1 2 25 20 4  LOADING 0.602 0.560 0.517 0.488 0.426 0.375  2.900  2.315  2.091  VARIANCE 11.598 ACCOUNTED  9.260  8.364  FACTOR ITEM 1 1 8 9 18 10 22 6 7 EIGENVALUE  * See A p p e n d i x  B f o r item  1 .601  IV  -  LOADING 0.576 0.480 0.448 0.427 0.412 0.380 0.361 0.235 VARIANCE ACCOUNTED  refered to.  6. 403  1 06  APPENDIX D  107  P r o t o Knowledge on A g i n g  Scale  I n s t r u c t i o n s : The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s a r e d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s y o u r knowledge a b o u t a g i n g . P l e a s e answer e a c h s t a t e m e n t by c i r c l i n g t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h you t h i n k t h e i t e m i s t r u e o r f a l s e . P l e a s e answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s c a r e f u l l y and be s u r e t o p r o v i d e a r e s p o n s e for every item.  1) A c c o r d i n g t o S t a t i s t i c s Canada, o v e r 50% o f u n a t t a c h e d i n d i v i d u a l s aged 65 a n d o l d e r have incomes below t h e p o v e r t y l i n e ( l e s s t h a n $7,000 p e r y e a r ) . Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  2) A c c o r d i n g t o d e m o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s , t h e C a n a d i a n g r o u p w h i c h i s i n c r e a s i n g i n g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n i s t h e 65 a n d o l d e r age g r o u p , ( a s compared t o t h e 64 a n d younger age g r o u p ) . Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  3) A c c o r d i n g t o C a n a d i a n Law i t i s i l l e g a l past 65 y e a r s o f a g e . Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  f o r an i n d i v i d u a l  M i g h t Be True 4  4) A c c o r d i n g t o S t a t i s t i c s Canada t h e a v e r a g e C a n a d i a n women a t age 65 i s 83 y e a r s . Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  Definitely True 5  M i g h t Be True 4  t o work  Definitely True 5 life  expectancy f o r  Definitely True 5  108  5) A c c o r d i n g t o S t a t i s t i c s Canada t h e a v e r a g e C a n a d i a n male a t b i r t h i s 79 y e a r s . Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  life  M i g h t Be True 4  expectancy  Definitely True 5  6) Women ( aged 65+) a r e more l i k e l y t o have a d e q u a t e i n t a k e s t h a n t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  for a  M i g h t Be True 4  nutrient  Definitely True 5  7) O l d Age S e c u r i t y and G u a r a n t e e d Income S u p p l e m e n t s a r e t h e g r e a t e s t s o u r c e o f f i n a n c i a l income f o r p e o p l e aged 66 a n d older. Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  8) W o r k e r s 55 a n d old-er (male and f e m a l e ) who l o s e t h e i r .jobs g e n e r a l l y r e m a i n unemployed f o r s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n s t h a n w o r k e r s under 55 y e a r s o f a g e . Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  9) P e o p l e o v e r 65 a r e more than t w i c e a s l i k e l y under 65 t o be t h e v i c t i m s o f r o b b e r y . Definitely False 1 10) More men death.  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  (65+) t h a n women  Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  M i g h t Be True 4  (65+) have l o s t  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  than i n d i v i d u a l s Definitely True 5  their  spouse  Definitely True 5  through  109  11) R e s p i r a t o r y d i s e a s e s a r e t h e l e a d i n g among t h o s e 65 a n d o l d e r . Definitely M i g h t Be False False 1 2  Don't Know 3  cause  M i g h t Be True 4  of h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n Definitely True 5  12) I n d i v i d u a l s under 65 a r e more l i k e l y t o make y e a r l y the d e n t i s t t h a n t h o s e 65 y e a r s a n d o l d e r . Definitely M i g h t Be False False 1 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  v i s i t s to  Definitely True 5  13) More t h a n 50% of i n d i v i d u a l s 65 y e a r s o f age a n d o l d e r institutions. Definitely M i g h t Be False False 1 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  live in  Definitely True 5  14) C a n a d i a n s under 65 a r e a s l i k e l y a s t h o s e o v e r 65 t o be homeowners a c c o r d i n g t o S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a . Definitely M i g h t Be False False 1 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  15) H e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n a n d i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n age when i t comes t o i n t e r e s t i n c o n t i n u e d l e a r n i n g . Definitely M i g h t Be False False 1 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  16) Not e v e r y o n e e x p e r i e n c e s memory i m p a i r m e n t Definitely M i g h t Be False False 1 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5 w i t h a d v a n c i n g age Definitely True 5  110  17) D r i v e r s o v e r 65 a r e i n v o l v e d than teenage d r i v e r s . Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  i n a higher M i g h t Be True 4  percentage of a c c i d e n t s Definitely True 5  18) One o f t h e p r i m a r y r e a s o n s f o r t h e c h a n g e s i n s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d o l d e r p e o p l e h a s been t h e r a p i d g r o w t h o f t h e o l d e r populat ion. Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  19) L o n e l i n e s s i s seldom by widows. Definitely False 1 20)  reported  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  as the g r e a t e s t M i g h t Be True 4  difficulty  M i g h t Be False  21) M a x i m a l b r e a t h i n g Definitely False 1 A l l five decline  Don't Know 3  capacity  M i g h t Be False 2  Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  M i g h t Be True 4  smell, taste, process.  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  measure o f t h e  Definitely True 5  d e c l i n e s a s one grows  Don't Know 3  senses (hearing, during the aging  M i g h t Be True 4  faced  Definitely True 5  C h r o n o l o g i c a l age c a n be r e g a r d e d a s an a c c u r a t e r a t e o f human a g i n g processes. Definitely False 1 2  22)  Don't Know 3  older.  Definitely True 5 t o u c h , and v i s i o n ) Definitely True 5  111  23)  24)  Bones become more b r i t t l e  with i n c r e a s i n g age.  Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  The c a p a c i t y  f o r drug metabolism  Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4 increases M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5 with i n c r e a s i n g age. Definitely True 5  25) The r a t e o f human development ( p h y s i c a l g r o w t h ) r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t t h r o u g h o u t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e s p a n . Definitely False 1 2 26)  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  The human a g i n g p r o c e s s i s c o n s i d e r e d in nature. Definitely False 1  27)  M i g h t Be False  Physical age) .  , M i g h t Be False 2  strength  Definitely False 1 2  Don't Know 3  declines  M i g h t Be False  Definitely True 5  t o be s o l e l y  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  w i t h a d v a n c i n g age ( o v e r  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  pathological  70 y e a r s o f  Definitely True 5  28) D e v e l o p i n g p r e s b y o p i a ( f a r s i g h t e d n e s s ) i n y o u r 4 t h d e c a d e (40 y e a r s ) i s c u r r e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be p a r t o f t h e " n o r m a l " aging process. Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  11 2  29)  From c o n c e p t i o n t o b i r t h , t h e human o r g a n i s m r a p i d r a t e of p h y s i c a l growth. Definitely False 1  30)  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  n o i s e s of h i g h  Definitely True 5  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  than  Definitely True 5  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  The most s t r i k i n g change o b s e r v e d i n c e l l s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age i s the- d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f a pigment c a l l e d l i p o . f u s c i n . Definitely False 1  34)  Definitely True 5  In t h e m a j o r i t y o f t i s s u e t y p e s f o u n d i n t h e body, t h e p e r c e n t a g e of- c e l l s i n d i v i s i o n a t any t i m e i n c r e a s e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age. Definitely False 1 2  33)  M i g h t Be False  i t s most  An i n d i v i d u a l a t age 60 t y p i c a l l y r e q u i r e s l e s s f o o d i n t a k e a 20 y e a r o l d i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n h i s / h e r b o d y ' s e n e r g y requirements. Definitely False 1 2  32)  M i g h t Be True 4  As an i n d i v i d u a l a g e s , h i s / h e r c a p a c i t y t o h e a r f r e q u e n c y (above 16,000 Hz.) i n c r e a s e s . Definitely False 1 2  31)  Don't Know 3  undergoes  Postural  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  sway d e c r e a s e s w i t h  Def i n i t e l y False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  i n c r e a s i n g age. M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  1 1 3  35)  The c a p a c i t y t o d i g e s t with i n c r e a s i n g age. Definitely False 1  36)  M i g h t Be False 2  S t u d i e s have been a b l e not p r o l o n g r e t e n t i o n o r g a n i sms. Definitely False 1  37)  M i g h t Be False 2  The a b s e n c e  of e x e r c i s e  Definitely False 1 38)  M i g h t Be False 2  M i g h t Be False 2  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  t o document t h e f a c t t h a t e x e r c i s e d o e s of p h y s i o l o g i c a l c a p a c i t i e s i n aging Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  can exacerbate aging r e l a t e d processes, Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  I t i s u s u a l f o r humans t o e x p e r i e n c e w e i g h t i n c r e a s i n g age. Definitely False 1  40)  Don't Know 3  i s s e r i o u s l y impaired  Definitely True 5  I t i s not unusual t o experience a s l i g h t decrease i n p h y s i c a l h e i g h t a s one r e a c h e s t h e i r -5th d e c a d e (50 y e a r s ) . Definitely False 1  39)  and a b s o r b food  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  Might. Be True 4  Definitely True 5 increases Definitely True 5  The pumping a b i l i t y o f t h e h e a r t a n d c a r d i o v a s c u l a r g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age. Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  l  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  with  system  Definitely True 5  11 4  41) D e p r e s s i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a s e r i o u s m e n t a l p e r s o n s 65 y e a r s o f age a n d o l d e r . Definitely False 1 2 42)  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  health  M i g h t Be True 4  problem f o r  Definitely True 5  T y p i c a l p h y s i c a l symptoms o f d e p r e s s i o n ( e g . s l e e p and a p p e t i t e d i s t u r b a n c e s ) may r e s u l t from a v a r i e t y o f d i s e a s e s and m e d i c a t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y p r e s c r i b e d t o o l d e r p e o p l e (65 +). Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  43) Most o f t h e n e u r o p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e a r e not a p p r o p r i a t e t o use w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s o v e r t h e age o f 60 s i n c e t h e y do n o t have a d e q u a t e norms a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them. Definitely False 1 44)  Clinical age.  M i g h t Be True 4  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  large  Definitely True 5 changes w i t h  M i g h t Be True 4  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  increasing  Definitely True 5  S e n i l e p a t i e n t s show s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d c e r e b r a l f l o w a s compared w i t h n o n - s e n i l e age c o u n t e r p a r t s . Definitely False 1 2  46)  Don't Know 3  EEG's show s i g n i f i c a n t l y  Definitely False 1 45)  M i g h t Be False 2  vascular  Definitely True 5  S l e e p p a t t e r n s ( a s m e a s u r e d by EEG's) i n young a d u l t s d i f f e r g r e a t l y from t h o s e f o u n d i n t h e e l d e r l y ( t h o s e 65+). Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  11 5  47)  Chronological Definitely False 1 2  48)  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  live.  Definitely True 5  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  to increase Don't Know 3  Definitely True 5  as p e o p l e grow  M i g h t Be True 4  older.  Definitely True 5  Psychologists believe that great p o t e n t i a l f o r personal d e v e l o p m e n t o c c u r s i n o l d age (65+). Definitely False 1.  51)  M i g h t Be False 2  A w a r e n e s s of d e a t h t e n d s Definitely False 1 2  50)  M i g h t Be False  i n d i c a t o r o f t h e way p e o p l e  The n o t i o n o f i n e v i t a b l e d e c l i n e , known a s t h e "decrement model of o l d a g e " , has n o t been c o n f i r m e d i n r e s e a r c h w i t h t h e elderly. Definitely False 1  49)  age i s a good  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be • D e f i n i t e l y True True 4 5  Humans r e a c h t h e peak o f t h e i r s t r e n g t h , h e a l t h , d u r i n g young t o m i d d l e a d u l t h o o d (ages 2 0 - 4 0 ) . Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t -Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  and e n d u r a n c e  Definitely True^ 5  1  52) Young p e o p l e a r e more s u s c e p t i b l e aged (65+). Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  to s o c i a l  M i g h t Be True 4  p r e s s u r e than the Definitely True 5  53) P s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t a d a p t i v e , g o a l and p u r p o s e f u l q u a l i t i e s o f p e r s o n a l i t y , do n o t a p p r e c i a b l y change w i t h a g e . Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  54) I n c i d e n c e s o f n e u r o s e s Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  55) P e o p l e become more Definitely False 1 56) A s t r o n g l i n k behavior. Definitely False 1 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  and p s y c h o s i s Don't Know 3  Definitely True 5  increases  M i g h t Be True 4  directed  with age.  Definitely True 5  i n t r o v e r t e d as they age.  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  e x i s t s between M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4 chronological M i g h t Be True4  Definitely True 5 age a n d human Definitely True 5  57) I n v e s t i g a t o r s a r e f i n d i n g e v i d e n c e t h a t s u g g e s t s t h a t l i f e s t y l and p e r s o n a l i t y p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n l o n g e v i t y . Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  1 17  58)  There i s evidence t o suggest that in middle or o l d age. Definitely False 1  59)  The term a g e i s m Definitely False 1  60)  M i g h t Be False 2  The a b i l i t y Definitely False 1  Don't Know 3  refers  M i g h t Be False 2 to learn  sex r o l e  M i g h t Be True 4  to the g l o r i f i c a t i o n Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  reversals Definitely True 5  of growing o l d . Definitely True 5  d r a s t i c a l l y decreases after  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  may o c c u r  t h e age o f 20,  Definitely True 5  118  APPENDIX E  119  DOCUMENTATION  ITEM NUMBER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 21 22 22 23 24 25 26 27 27 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 33 34 35 36 37  SOURCES FOR PROTO SCALE  ITEMS.  SOURCE OF DOCUMENTATION F a c t Book on A g i n g i n Canada ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.42. F a c t Book on A g i n g i n Canada ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.14. F a c t Book on A g i n g i n Canada ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.36-40. F a c t Book on A g i n g i n Canada ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p . 5 1 . F a c t Book on A g i n g i n Canada ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.48. F a c t Book on A g i n g i n Canada ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.52. F a c t Book on A g i n g i n Canada ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.46. F a c t Book on A g i n g i n Canada ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.40. F a c t Book on A g i n g i n Canada ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.82. F a c t Book on A g i n g i n Canada ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.66. F a c t Book on A g i n g i n Canada ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.62-63. F a c t Book on A g i n g i n Canada ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p . 6 0 . F a c t Book on A g i n g i n Canada ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.68. F a c t Book on A g i n g i n Canada ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.78. Kimmel, D.C. ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p.359. Kimmel, D.C. ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p.365. Kimmel, D.C. ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p.352. Kimmel, D.C. ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p.448. W o o d r u f f , D.S. & B i r r e n , J . E . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.105. W o o d r u f f , D.S. & B i r r e n , J . E . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p . 7 3 . W o o d r u f f , D.S. & B i r r e n , J . E . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.252. Shock, N.W. ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p.100-110. W o o d r u f f , D.S. & B i r r e n , J . E . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.256. Kimmel, D.C. ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p.349-351. W o o d r u f f , D.S. & B i r r e n , J . E . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.254. W o o d r u f f , D.S. & B i r r e n , J . E . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.271. Moore, K.L.. ( 1 9 7 7 ) , p.2-6. W o o d r u f f , D.S. & B i r r e n , J . E . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.252. W o o d r u f f , D.S. & B i r r e n , J . E . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.288. P e t r o f s k y , J . S . ( 1 9 7 5 ) , p.91-95. Shock, N.W., ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p.100-110. Kimmel, D.C. ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p.350. Moore, K.L. ( 1 9 7 7 ) , p.2-6. Kimmel, D.C. (1980),. p.350. Kimmel, D.C. ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p.348. W o o d r u f f , D.S. & B i r r e n , J . E . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.232. J u n q u e i r a , L.C., C a r n e i r o , J . & C o n t o p o u l o s , A. (1977), p.40. W o o d r u f f , D.S. & B i r r e n , J . E . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.228. B e a t t i e , B.L. P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , ( 1 9 8 4 ) . W o o d r u f f , D.S. & B i r r e n , J . E . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.256. W o o d r u f f , D.S. & B i r r e n , J.E'. ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.273. W o o d r u f f , D.S. & B i r r e n , J . E . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.273.  1 20  ITEM NUMBER 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 5960 60  SOURCE OF DOCUMENTATION W o o d r u f f , D.S. & B i r r e n , J . E . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.254. W o o d r u f f , D.S. & B i r r e n , J . E . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.290. Kimmel, D.C. ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p.287. Poon, L.W. ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p . 1 1 . Poon, L.W. ( 1980) , p . 2 3 . Poon, L.W. ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p . 6 9 . Poon, L.W. ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p.71 . Poon, L.W. ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p . 7 1 . Poon, L.W. ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p . 7 2 . W o o d r u f f , D.S. & B i r r e n , J . E . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.417. W o o d r u f f , D.S. & B i r r e n , J . E . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.181-197. Kimmel, D.C. ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p.496-497. Poon, L.W. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Kimmel, D.C. ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p.382. Kimmel, D.C. ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p.404. Kimmel, D.C. ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p.405. Kimmel, D.C. ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p.409. Kimmel, D.C. ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p.404. Kimmel, D.C. ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p.30-31. W o o d r u f f , D.S. & B i r r e n , J . E . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.124. W o o d r u f f , D.S. & B i r r e n , J . E . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.123. Butler, (1975). C r o s s , K.P. ( 1 9 8 2 ) , p.152-157. W o o d r u f f & B i r r e n , J . E . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p.149-177.  121  APPENDIX F  1 22  Kogan A t t i t u d e  Toward O l d P e o p l e  Scale  I n s t r u c t i o n s : P l e a s e answer e a c h s t a t e m e n t by c i r c l i n g t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h you e i t h e r a g r e e or d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t . 1)  I t would p r o b a b l y be b e t t e r i f most o l d p e o p l e l i v e d r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s w i t h p e o p l e of t h e i r own age.  Strongly Disagree 1 2)  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  in Strongly Agree 7  I t would p r o b a b l y be b e t t e r i f most o l d p e o p l e l i v e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s t h a t a l s o housed younger p e o p l e .  Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  3) T h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t about most t o f i g u r e out what makes them t i c k . Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral 4  Agree 6  old people;  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  4) Most o l d p e o p l e a r e r e a l l y no d i f f e r e n t from a n y b o d y t h e y ' r e a s easy t o u n d e r s t a n d as y o u n g e r p e o p l e . Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  5) Most o l d p e o p l e change. Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3 get  Neutral 4  set i n t h e i r  Slightly Disagree 3  ways and  Neutral 4  SlightlyAgree 5  Agree 6  are unable  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7 i t ' s hard Strongly Agree 7 else; Strongly Agree 7 to Strongly Agree 7  1 23  6) Most o l d p e o p l e a r e c a p a b l e s i t u a t i o n demands i t . Strongly Disagree 1  7) Most or  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  of new  a d j u s t m e n t s when t h e  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  o l d p e o p l e would p r e f e r t o q u i t work a s soon a s t h e i r c h i l d r e n can s u p p o r t them.  Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  8) Most o l d p e o p l e would p r e f e r t o c o n t i n u e w o r k i n g j u s t as t h e y p o s s i b l y can r a t h e r t h a n be d e p e n d e n t on anybody. Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  9) Most o l d p e o p l e unattractive. Strongly Disagree 1  Slightly Disagree 3 tend  Disagree 2  Neutral 4  t o le.t t h e i r  Slightly Disagree 3  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  homes become shabby  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  pensions Strongly Agree 7 as  long  Strongly Agree 7 and Strongly Agree 7  10) Most o l d p e o p l e c a n g e n e r a l l y be c o u n t e d on t o m a i n t a i n a c l e a n , a t t r a c t i v e home. Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  11) I t i s f o o l i s h Strongly Disagree 1  to c l a i m that  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  wisdom comes w i t h Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  o l d age. Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  124  12) P e o p l e grow w i s e r w i t h t h e coming Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  13) O l d p e o p l e Strongly Disagree 1  Strongly Disagree 1 15) Most Strongly Disagree 1 16) Most Strongly Disagree 1  Neutral  2  Slightly Disagree 3  power  2 o l d people Disagree 2 o l d people Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3 make one  Neutral  Slightly Disagree .3 are very Slightly Disagree 3  Slightly Agree 5  4  Slightly Agree 5  4  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  Strongly Agree 7  politics.  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  politics.  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  i l l at ease.  Neutral  Slightly Agree 5  4 relaxing  t o be  Neutral 4  17) Most o l d p e o p l e b o r e o t h e r s by t h e i r a b o u t t h e "good o l d d a y s " . Strongly Disagree 1  6  i n b u s i n e s s and  Neutral  feel  Agree  i n b u s i n e s s and  s h o u l d have more power  Disagree  Slightly Agree 5  4  have t o o l i t t l e  Disagree  14) O l d p e o p l e  Slightly Disagree 3  of o l d age.  Neutral 4  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  with.  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  insistence Slightly Agree 5  on  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7 talking Strongly Agree 7  18) One o f t h e more i n t e r e s t i n g q u a l i t i e s of most o l d p e o p l e i s t h e i r accounts of t h e i r p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s . Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  125  19) Most o l d p e o p l e spend t o o much t i m e p r y i n g of o t h e r s and g i v i n g u n s o u g h t a d v i c e . Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  20) Most o l d p e o p l e when a s k e d . Strongly Disagree 1 21)  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3 respect  Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  Strongly Disagree 1 23)  Disagree 2  Slightly Agree 5  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  i t , o l d p e o p l e have  Slightly Disagree 3  the a f f a i r s  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  p r i v a c y and g i v e a d v i c e  t o be l i k e d , t h e i r f i r s t irritating faults.  Slightly Disagree 3  22) When y o u t h i n k about anybody e l s e .  4  others  Slightly Disagree 3  I f o l d people expect to g e t r i d o f t h e i r  Neutral  into  Neutral 4  Agree 6 step Agree 6  only  Strongly Agree 7 i s to t r y Strongly Agree 7  t h e same f a u l t s  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  as  Strongly Agree 7  In o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n a n i c e r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o r h o o d , i t would be b e s t i f t o o many o l d p e o p l e d i d n o t l i v e i n it.  Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  126  24)  You c a n c o u n t on f i n d i n g a n i c e r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhood when t h e r e i s a s i z e a b l e number of o l d p e o p l e l i v i n g in i t .  Strongly Disagree 1 25)  2  Slightly Disagree 3  4  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  Slightly Agree 5  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  Disagree 2  Most o l d p e o p l e  Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3 are  Neutral 4  Neutral 4  Neutral 4  Neutral 4  Slightly Disagree 3  4  people  Agree  Strongly Agree 7  6  are very d i f f e r e n t Slightly Agree 5 with  Slightly Agree 5  and  Agree 6 their Agree 6  neat  Slightly Agree 5  grouchy  Neutral  Strongly Agree 7  6  Slightly Agree 5  q u i t e c l e a n and  irritable,  Agree  i n g e n e r a l most o l d  most o l d p e o p l e  Most o l d p e o p l e seem t o be personal appearance.  Strongly Disagree 1 29)  Neutral  Most o l d p e o p l e s h o u l d be more c o n c e r n e d appearance; t h e y ' r e too u n t i d y .  Strongly Disagree 1 28)  Disagree  It i s evident that one a n o t h e r .  Strongly Disagree 1 27)  2  Slightly Disagree 3  T h e r e a r e a few e x c e p t i o n s , b u t a r e p r e t t y much a l i k e .  Strongly Disagree 1 26)  Disagree  in  Agree 6  from Strongly Agree 7  personal Strongly Agree 7 their Strongly Agree 7  unpleasant.  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  1 27  30) Most  o l d people  Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  are c h e e r f u l , Slightly Disagree 3  agreeable  Neutral 4  and good  Slightly Agree 5  31) Most o l d p e o p l e a r e c o n s t a n t l y c o m p l a i n i n g b e h a v i o r of the younger g e n e r a t i o n . Strongly Disagree 1 32) One of  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral 4  Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  33) Most o l d p e o p l e reassurance. Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  34) Most o l d p e o p l e anyone e l s e . Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral 4  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  about the  Slightly Agree 5  seldom hears o l d people c o m p l a i n i n g the younger g e n e r a t i o n .  humored.  about  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6 the  Strongly Agree 7  behavior  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  make e x c e s s i v e demands f o r l o v e and Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  need no more l o v e and r e a s s u r a n c e Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  than  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  Strongly Agree 7  1 28  APPENDIX G  1 29  Palmore's  F a c t s on A g i n g  Quiz  I n s t r u c t i o n s : P l e a s e answer e a c h s t a t e m e n t by c i r c l i n g t h e degree t o which you t h i n k the item i s true or f a l s e .  1) The m a j o r i t y o f o l d p e o p l e a r e s e n i l e d i s o r i e n t e d , or demented). Definitely False 1 2 2) A l l f i v e  M i g h t Be False  senses tend  Definitely False 1 2  Don't Know 3  to decline  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  3) Most o l d p e o p l e have no i n t e r e s t relations. Definitely False 1 2 4) Lung v i t a l  capacity  Definitely False 1 2 5) The m a j o r i t y Definitely False 1 6) P h y s i c a l  M i g h t Be False  M i g h t Be True 4  Don't Know 3  of o l d people M i g h t Be False 2  feel  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Don't Know 3  Definitely True 5  i n , or c a p a c i t y M i g h t Be True 4  f o r , sexual  Definitely True 5  i n o l d age.  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  m i s e r a b l e most M i g h t Be True 4  tends t o d e c l i n e  M i g h t Be False  Definitely True 5  i n o l d age.  tends t o d e c l i n e  M i g h t Be False  strength  Definitely False 1 2  Don't Know 3  ( i . e . d e f e c t i v e memory,  o f t h e time,  Definitely True 5  i n o l d age.  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  1 30  7) A t l e a s t 10% o f t h e aged a r e l i v i n g i n l o n g - s t a y institutions ( i . e . n u r s i n g homes, m e n t a l h o s p i t a l s , homes f o r t h e aged, e t c . ) . Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  8) Aged d r i v e r s have under age 65. Definitely False 1 .  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3 workers  M i g h t Be False 2  10) About 80% o f t h e aged normal a c t i v i t i e s . Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be True 4  fewer a c c i d e n t s  9) The m a j o r i t y o f o l d e r younger w o r k e r s . Definitely False 1  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be False 2  cannot  M i g h t Be False 2  12) O l d p e o p l e u s u a l l y Definitely False 1  Definitely True 5  a r e h e a l t h y , enough t o c a r r y . o u t Don't Know 3  Don't Know 3  take longer  M i g h t Be False 2  Definitely True 5  work a s e f f e c t i v e l y a s  M i g h t Be True 4  M i g h t Be True 4  11) Most o l d p e o p l e a r e s e t i n t h e i r Definitely False 1  per person than d r i v e r s M i g h t Be True 4  Don't Know 3  Definitely True 5  Don't Know 3  their  Definitely True 5  ways a n d u n a b l e t o c h a n g e M i g h t Be True 4  to learn M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5 something  new.  Definitely True 5  131  13)  I t i s impossible Definitely False 1 2  f o r most o l d p e o p l e t o l e a r n  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  new  things.  Definitely True 5  14) The r e a c t i o n t i m e o f most o l d p e o p l e t e n d s t o be s l o w e r t h e r e a c t i o n t i m e o f younger p e o p l e . Definitely False 1 2 15)  In g e n e r a l ,  M i g h t Be False  16) The m a j o r i t y bored. Definitely False 1 17) The m a j o r i t y Definitely False 1 2 workers  Definitely False 1 2 19) Over  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  of o l d people r e p o r t M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  that  Definitely True 5  M i g h t Be False  have  fewer  M i g h t Be False  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  M i g h t Be True 4  accidents Don't Know 3  Don't Know 3  Definitely True 5 isolated  and l o n e l y ,  Definitely True 5  than younger  M i g h t Be True 4  population  Definitely True 5  t h e y a r e seldom  of o l d p e o p l e a r e s o c i a l l y  15% o f t h e C a n a d i a n  Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be True 4  most o l d p e o p l e a r e a l i k e .  Definitely False 1 2  18) O l d e r  Don't Know 3  than  workers.  Definitely True 5  a r e now age 65 o r o v e r .  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely. True 5  1 32  20) Most m e d i c a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s aged. Definitely False 1 21)  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  low p r i o r i t y  M i g h t Be True 4  The m a j o r i t y o f o l d e r p e o p l e have incomes l i n e ( a s d e f i n e d by t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l Definitely False 1  22)  tend to give  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  23) O l d e r p e o p l e t e n d t o become more r e l i g i o u s Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  The m a j o r i t y o f o l d p e o p l e r e p o r t i r r i t a t e d or angry. Definitely False 1  25)  Definitely True 5 below t h e p o v e r t y of W e l f a r e ) . Definitely True 5  The m a j o r i t y of o l d p e o p l e a r e w o r k i n g o r would l i k e some k i n d of work t o do ( i n c l u d i n g housework and v o l u n t e e r work). Definitely False 1  24)  to the  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  that  Definitely True 5 as they age. Definitely True 5  they a r e seldom  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  The h e a l t h and s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f o l d e r p e o p l e (compared t o younger p e o p l e ) i n t h e y e a r 2030 w i l l p r o b a b l y be about t h e same a s now. Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  t o have  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  1 33  APPENDIX H  1 34  ONE WAY  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF CANADIAN AMERICAN ITEMS ON PALMORE'S FAQ.  VERSUS  SOURCE  D.F.  SUM OF SQUARES  F RATIO  F PROB.  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  1 217 218  0.0650 914.3824 914.4475  0.0154  0.9012  MEAN SQUARES 0.0650 4.2137  1 35  APPENDIX I  1 36  P l e a s e f o l l o w the d i r e c t i o n s found a t the b e g i n n i n g of each s c a l e and r e a d e a c h s t a t e m e n t c a r e f u l l y . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t y o u i n c l u d e your 1 ) Age 2) Sex 3) Number o f y e a r s o f P o s t - S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n A l l r e s p o n s e s a r e s t r i c t l y anonymous and y o u may w i t h d r a w y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t any t i m e . However, s h o u l d you a g r e e t o p a r t i c i p a t e you w i l l r e c e i v e a d e b r i e f i n g and a copy o f t h e a n s w e r s t o k n o w l e d g e - r e l a t e d i t e m s . You w i l l a l s o be g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o f i n d out the r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  Completion participate.  of t h i s  questionnaire indicates THANK  YOU  your  consent to  1 37  P r o t o Knowledge on A g i n g  Scale  I n s t r u c t i o n s : The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s a r e d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s y o u r k n o w l e d g e about a g i n g . P l e a s e answer e a c h s t a t e m e n t by c i r c l i n g the d e g r e e t o which y o u t h i n k t h e i t e m i s t r u e o r f a l s e . P l e a s e answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s c a r e f u l l y and be s u r e t o p r o v i d e a r e s p o n s e for every item.  1) A c c o r d i n g t o S t a t i s t i c s Canada, o v e r 50% o f u n a t t a c h e d i n d i v i d u a l s aged 65 a n d o l d e r have incomes below t h e p o v e r t y l i n e ( l e s s t h a n $7,000 p e r y e a r ) . Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  2) A c c o r d i n g t o d e m o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s , t h e C a n a d i a n g r o u p w h i c h i s i n c r e a s i n g i n g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n i s t h e 65 and o l d e r age g r o u p , ( a s compared t o t h e 64 a n d y o u n g e r age g r o u p ) . -Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  , M i g h t Be True 4  3) A c c o r d i n g t o C a n a d i a n Law i t i s i l l e g a l p a s t 65 y e a r s o f a g e . Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  f o r an i n d i v i d u a l  M i g h t Be True 4  4) A c c o r d i n g t o S t a t i s t i c s Canada t h e a v e r a g e C a n a d i a n women a t age 65 i s 83 y e a r s . Def i n i t e l y False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  Definitely True 5  M i g h t Be True 4  t o work  Definitely True 5 life  expectancy f o r  Def i n i t e l y True 5  1 38  5) A c c o r d i n g t o S t a t i s t i c s Canada t h e a v e r a g e C a n a d i a n male a t b i r t h i s 79 y e a r s . Def i n i t e l y False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  life  M i g h t Be True 4  expectancy  Definitely True 5  6) Women ( a g e d 65+) a r e more l i k e l y t o have a d e q u a t e i n t a k e s t h a n t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  for a  M i g h t Be True 4  nutrient  Definitely True 5  7) O l d Age S e c u r i t y and G u a r a n t e e d Income S u p p l e m e n t s a r e t h e g r e a t e s t s o u r c e o f f i n a n c i a l income f o r p e o p l e aged 66 and older. Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Def i n i t e l y True 5  8) W o r k e r s 55 and o l d e r (male and f e m a l e ) who l o s e t h e i r j o b s g e n e r a l l y remain unemployed f o r - s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n s t h a n w o r k e r s under 55 y e a r s o f a g e . Def i n i t e l y False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  9) P e o p l e o v e r 65 a r e more t h a n t w i c e a s l i k e l y under 65 t o be t h e v i c t i m s o f r o b b e r y . Def i n i t e l y False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  10) More men (65+) t h a n women (65+) have l o s t death. Def i n i t e l y False. 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  than  individuals  Def i n i t e l y True 5 their  spouse  Def i n i t e l y True 5  through  139  11) R e s p i r a t o r y d i s e a s e s a r e t h e l e a d i n g among t h o s e 65 a n d o l d e r . Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  cause of h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  12) I n d i v i d u a l s under 65 a r e more l i k e l y t o make y e a r l y t h e d e n t i s t t h a n t h o s e 65 y e a r s and o l d e r . Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  v i s i t s to  Definitely True 5  13) More t h a n 50% o f i n d i v i d u a l s 65 y e a r s o f age and o l d e r institutions. Definitely M i g h t Be False False 1 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  live in  Definitely True 5  14) C a n a d i a n s under 65 a r e a s l i k e l y a s t h o s e o v e r 65 t o be homeowners a c c o r d i n g t o S t a t i s t i c s Canada. Definitely M i g h t Be False False 1 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  15) H e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n age when i t comes t o i n t e r e s t i n c o n t i n u e d l e a r n i n g . Definitely False 1 16) Not e v e r y o n e Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely . True 5  e x p e r i e n c e s memory impairment  w i t h advancing age.  M i g h t Be False 2  Definitely True 5  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  1 40  17) D r i v e r s o v e r 65 a r e i n v o l v e d than teenage d r i v e r s . Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  i n a higher M i g h t Be True 4  percentage of a c c i d e n t s Definitely True 5  18) One o f t h e p r i m a r y r e a s o n s f o r t h e c h a n g e s i n s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d o l d e r p e o p l e has been t h e r a p i d g r o w t h o f t h e o l d e r populat ion. Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  19) L o n e l i n e s s i s seldom by widows. Definitely False 1 2 20)  reported  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  as the g r e a t e s t M i g h t Be True 4  difficulty  M i g h t Be False  21) M a x i m a l b r e a t h i n g Definitely False 1 A l l five decline  Don't Know 3  capacity  M i g h t Be False 2  Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  M i g h t Be True 4  measure o f t h e  Definitely True 5  d e c l i n e s a s one grows  Don't Know 3  senses (hearing, during the aging  M i g h t Be True 4  faced  Definitely True 5  C h r o n o l o g i c a l age c a n be r e g a r d e d a s an a c c u r a t e r a t e o f human a g i n g processes. Definitely False 1 2  22)  Don't Know 3  older.  Definitely True 5  s m e l l , t a s t e , t o u c h , and v i s i o n ) process.  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  141  23)  24)  25)  Bones become more b r i t t l e Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  The c a p a c i t y  f o r drug metabolism  Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Physical age) .  M i g h t Be False 2  M i g h t Be False 2  strength  Definitely False 1 2 28)  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4 increases M i g h t Be True 4  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  The human a g i n g p r o c e s s i s c o n s i d e r e d in nature. Definitely False 1  27)  Don't Know 3  Definitely True 5 with i n c r e a s i n g age. Definitely True 5  The r a t e o f human d e v e l o p m e n t ( p h y s i c a l g r o w t h ) r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t t h r o u g h o u t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e s p a n . Definitely False 1  26)  with i n c r e a s i n g age.  Don't Know 3  declines  M i g h t Be False  Definitely True 5  t o be s o l e l y  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  w i t h a d v a n c i n g age ( o v e r  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  pathological  70 y e a r s o f  Definitely True 5  D e v e l o p i n g p r e s b y o p i a ( f a r s i g h t e d n e s s ) i n y o u r 4 t h d e c a d e (40 y e a r s ) i s c u r r e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be p a r t o f t h e " n o r m a l " aging process. Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  142  29)  From c o n c e p t i o n t o b i r t h , t h e human o r g a n i s m u n d e r g o e s r a p i d r a t e of p h y s i c a l growth. Definitely False 1  30)  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  than  Definitely True 5  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  The most s t r i k i n g change o b s e r v e d i n c e l l s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age i s t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f a pigment c a l l e d l i p o f u s c i n . Definitely False 1 2  34)  M i g h t Be False  of h i g h  In t h e m a j o r i t y o f t i s s u e t y p e s f o u n d i n t h e body, t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f c e l l s i n d i v i s i o n a t any time- i n c r e a s e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age. Definitely False 1 2  33)  Definitely True 5  An i n d i v i d u a l a t age 60 t y p i c a l l y r e q u i r e s l e s s f o o d i n t a k e a 20 y e a r o l d i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n h i s / h e r body's e n e r g y r e q u i rements. Definitely False 1 2  32)  M i g h t Be True 4  As an i n d i v i d u a l a g e s , h i s / h e r c a p a c i t y t o h e a r n o i s e s f r e q u e n c y (above 16,000 Hz.) i n c r e a s e s . Definitely False 1 2  31)  Don't Know 3  i t s most  Postural  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  sway d e c r e a s e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g a g e .  Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  1 43  35)  The c a p a c i t y t o d i g e s t with i n c r e a s i n g age. Definitely False 1 2  36)  37)  38)  S t u d i e s have been a b l e not p r o l o n g r e t e n t i o n organisms. Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  The a b s e n c e  of e x e r c i s e  Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  t o document t h e f a c t t h a t e x e r c i s e does of p h y s i o l o g i c a l c a p a c i t i e s i n a g i n g Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  can e x a c e r b a t e a g i n g - r e l a t e d Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  I t i s u s u a l f o r humans t o e x p e r i e n c e w e i g h t i n c r e a s i n g age. Definitely False 1 2  40)  Don't Know 3  food i s s e r i o u s l y impaired  processes,  Definitely True 5  I t i s not unusual t o e x p e r i e n c e a s l i g h t d e c r e a s e i n p h y s i c a l h e i g h t a s one r e a c h e s t h e i r 5 t h decade (50 y e a r s ) . Definitely False 1 2  39)  M i g h t Be False  and a b s o r b  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t BeTrue 4  Definitely True 5 increases Definitely True 5  The pumping a b i l i t y o f t h e h e a r t and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s i n g age. Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  with  system  Definitely True 5  1 44  41) D e p r e s s i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a s e r i o u s m e n t a l h e a l t h p e r s o n s 65 y e a r s o f age a n d o l d e r . Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  problem f o r  Definitely True 5  42) T y p i c a l p h y s i c a l symptoms o f d e p r e s s i o n ( e g . s l e e p and a p p e t i t e d i s t u r b a n c e s ) may r e s u l t f r o m a v a r i e t y o f d i s e a s e s and m e d i c a t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y p r e s c r i b e d t o o l d e r p e o p l e (65 +). Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  43) Most o f t h e n e u r o p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e a r e not a p p r o p r i a t e t o use w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s o v e r t h e age o f 60 s i n c e t h e y do n o t have a d e q u a t e norms a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them. Definitely False 1 44) C l i n i c a l age.  M i g h t Be True 4  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  Definitely True 5  l a r g e changes w i t h  M i g h t Be True 4  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  increasing  Definitely True 5  S e n i l e - p a t i e n t s show s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d c e r e b r a l f l o w a s compared w i t h n o n - s e n i l e age c o u n t e r p a r t s . Definitely False 1  46)  Don't Know 3  EEG's show s i g n i f i c a n t l y  Definitely False 1 45)  M i g h t Be False 2  vascular  Definitely True 5  S l e e p p a t t e r n s (as m e a s u r e d by EEG) i n young a d u l t s d i f f e r g r e a t l y f r o m t h o s e f o u n d i n t h e e l d e r l y ( t h o s e 65+). Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  1 45  47)  Chronological Definitely False 1 2  48)  M i g h t Be True 4  live.  Definitely True 5  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  Definitely True 5  a s p e o p l e grow  M i g h t Be True 4  older.  Definitely True 5  Psychologists believe that great p o t e n t i a l f o r personal d e v e l o p m e n t o c c u r s i n o l d age (65+). Definitely False 1  51)  Don't Know 3  Awareness o f d e a t h t e n d s t o i n c r e a s e Definitely False 1 2  50)  M i g h t Be False  i n d i c a t o r of t h e way p e o p l e  The n o t i o n of i n e v i t a b l e d e c l i n e , known a s t h e "decrement model of o l d a g e " , h a s n o t been c o n f i r m e d i n r e s e a r c h w i t h t h e elderly. Definitely False 1  49)  age i s a good  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  Humans r e a c h t h e peak o f t h e i r s t r e n g t h , h e a l t h , and e n d u r a n c e d u r i n g young a n d m i d d l e a d u l t h o o d (ages 2 0 - 4 0 ) . Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  1 46  52) Young p e o p l e a r e more s u s c e p t i b l e aged (65+). Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  to s o c i a l  M i g h t Be True 4  p r e s s u r e than the Definitely True 5  53) P s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t a d a p t i v e , g o a l and p u r p o s e f u l q u a l i t i e s o f p e r s o n a l i t y , do n o t a p p r e c i a b l y change w i t h a g e . Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  54) I n c i d e n c e s of n e u r o s e s Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  and p s y c h o s i s Don't Know 3  Definitely True 5  increases  M i g h t Be True 4  directed  with age.  Definitely True 5  55) P e o p l e become more i n t r o v e r t e d a s t h e y a g e . Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be ' Don't False Know 2 3  56) A s t r o n g l i n k behavior.  e x i s t s between  Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4 chronological M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5 age a n d human Definitely True 5  57) I n v e s t i g a t o r s a r e f i n d i n g e v i d e n c e t h a t s u g g e s t s t h a t l i f e s t y l e and p e r s o n a l i t y p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n l o n g e v i t y . Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  147  58)  There i s evidence t o suggest that in middle or o l d age. Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  59) The term a g e i s m Definitely False 1 2 60) The a b i l i t y Definitely False •1  Don't Know 3  sex r o l e r e v e r s a l s may o c c u r  M i g h t Be True 4  r e f e r s to the g l o r i f i c a t i o n  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  to learn d r a s t i c a l l y M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5 of growing o l d . Definitely True 5  d e c r e a s e s a f t e r t h e age o f 20. M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  1 48  Kogan A t t i t u d e  Toward O l d P e o p l e  Scale  I n s t r u c t i o n s : P l e a s e answer each s t a t e m e n t by c i r c l i n g t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h you e i t h e r a g r e e or d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t . 1) I t would p r o b a b l y be b e t t e r i f most o l d p e o p l e l i v e d r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s w i t h p e o p l e of t h e i r own age. Strongly Disagree 1 2)  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  in Strongly Agree 7  I t would p r o b a b l y be b e t t e r i f most o l d p e o p l e l i v e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s t h a t a l s o housed younger p e o p l e .  Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  3) T h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t about most o l d p e o p l e ; f i g u r e o u t what makes them t i c k . Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  4) Most o l d p e o p l e a r e r e a l l y no d i f f e r e n t f r o m anybody t h e y ' r e as e a s y t o u n d e r s t a n d as y o u n g e r p e o p l e . Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  5) Most o l d p e o p l e Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3 get  set  Neutral 4  in their  Slightly Disagree 3  ways and  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  are  unable  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  Strongly' Agree 7 i t ' s hard  to  Strongly Agree 7 else; Strongly Agree 7 to change. Strongly Agree 7  1 49  6) Most o l d p e o p l e demands i t . Strongly Disagree 1  are capable  Disagree 2  Slightly Disa.gree 3  7) Most o l d p e o p l e would p r e f e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n can s u p p o r t Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  8) Most o l d p e o p l e they p o s s i b l y Strongly Disagree 1  a d j u s t m e n t s when t h e  Neutral 4 to quit them. Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  work as soon a s p e n s i o n s Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3 tend  Disagree 2  Disagree 2  11) I t i s f o o l i s h Strongly Disagree 1  Neutral 4  to l e t t h e i r  Slightly Disagree 3  Slightly Disagree 3  to claim that  Disagree 2  or  Strongly Agree 7  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  homes become shabby  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  and Strongly Agree 7 a clean,  Strongly Agree 7  wisdom comes w i t h o l d a g e . Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  as  Strongly Agree 7  10) Most o l d p e o p l e can g e n e r a l l y be c o u n t e d on t o m a i n t a i n a t t r a c t i v e home. Strongly Disagree 1  situation  would p r e f e r t o c o n t i n u e w o r k i n g j u s t a s l o n g can r a t h e r t h a n be d e p e n d e n t on a n y b o d y .  9) Most o l d p e o p l e unattractive. Strongly Disagree 1  Slightly Disagree 3  o f new  Strongly Agree 7  150  12) P e o p l e grow w i s e r w i t h t h e coming Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  13) O l d p e o p l e Strongly Disagree 1  Strongly Disagree 1  2  Disagree 2  Disagree • 2  ,  16) Most o l d p e o p l e Strongly Disagree 1  Slightly Disagree 3  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3 make one Slightly Disagree 3 are very Slightly Disagree 3  Slightly Agree 5  4 power  Neutral  Slightly Agree 5  4  Slightly Agree 5  4  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  Strongly Agree 7  politics.  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  politics.  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  i l l at ease.  Neutral  Slightly Agree .5  4 relaxing  t o be  Neutral 4  17) Most o l d p e o p l e b o r e others- by t h e i r t h e "good o l d d a y s " . Strongly Disagree 1  6  i n b u s i n e s s and  Neutral  feel  Agree  i n b u s i n e s s and  s h o u l d have more power  15) Most o l d p e o p l e Strongly Disagree 1  Neutral  have t o o l i t t l e  Disagree  14) O l d p e o p l e  Slightly Disagree 3  of o l d age.  Neutral 4  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  with.  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  insistence Slightly Agree 5  Strongly Agree 7  on t a l k i n g  Agree 6  about  Strongly Agree 7  18) One of t h e more i n t e r e s t i n g q u a l i t i e s of most o l d p e o p l e i s t h e i r a c c o u n t s of t h e i r p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s . Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  151  19) Most o l d p e o p l e spend t o o much t i m e p r y i n g o t h e r s and g i v i n g unsought a d v i c e . Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  20) Most o l d p e o p l e asked. Strongly Disagree 1 21)  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3 respect  4  others  Slightly Disagree 3  Slightly Agree 5  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  22) When y o u t h i n k about anybody e l s e . Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  In order be b e s t  Strongly Disagree 1  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  i t , o l d p e o p l e have  Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral' 4  first  the a f f a i r s of  Agree 6  p r i v a c y and g i v e  I f o l d p e o p l e e x p e c t t o be l i k e d , t h e i r get r i d of t h e i r i r r i t a t i n g f a u l t s .  Strongly Disagree 1  23)  Neutral  into  Strongly Agree 7  advice  Agree 6 step Agree 6  only  Strongly Agree 7 i s to t r y to Strongly Agree 7  t h e same f a u l t s  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  when  as  Strongly Agree 7  t o m a i n t a i n a n i c e r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o r h o o d , i t would i f t o o many o l d p e o p l e d i d n o t l i v e i n i t .  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  1 52  24) You c a n c o u n t on f i n d i n g a n i c e r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o r h o o d when t h e r e i s a s i z e a b l e number o f o l d p e o p l e l i v i n g i n i t . Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral 4  25) T h e r e a r e a few e x c e p t i o n s , b u t p r e t t y much a l i k e . Strongly Disagree  Disagree 2  1  26)  Slightly Disagree 3  I t i s evident that another.  Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  most  Neutral  Disagree 2  1  Slightly Disagree 3  4  Neutral 4  Neutral 4  Agree  are very  different  Slightly Agree 5 with  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6 their Agree 6  Disagree 2  1  29) Most  o l d people  Strongly, Disagree 1  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral 4  are i r r i t a b l e , Slightly Disagree 3  Slightly Agree 5  g r o u c h y and  Neutral 4  are  Strongly Agree 7  6  28) Most o l d p e o p l e seem t o be q u i t e c l e a n and n e a t personal appearance. Strongly Disagree  Strongly Agree 7  6  Slightly Agree 5  27) Most o l d p e o p l e s h o u l d be more c o n c e r n e d appearance; they're too u n t i d y . Strongly Disagree  Agree  i n g e n e r a l most o l d p e o p l e  o l d people  Slightly Disagree 3  Slightly Agree 5  from  one  Strongly Agree 7 personal Strongly Agree 7  in their  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  unpleasant.  Slightly Agree 5  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  153  30) Most o l d p e o p l e Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  are c h e e r f u l , Slightly Disagree 3  agreeable  Neutral 4  and good  Slightly Agree 5  31) Most o l d p e o p l e a r e c o n s t a n t l y c o m p l a i n i n g the younger g e n e r a t i o n . Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  32) One s e l d o m h e a r s o l d p e o p l e the younger g e n e r a t i o n . Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  33) Most o l d p e o p l e Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  34) Most o l d p e o p l e else. Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree 2  Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral 4  Neutral 4  Agree 6  Agree 6  Neutral 4  Slightly Agree 5  Slightly. Agree 5  need no more l o v e and Slightly Disagree 3  Neutral 4  Strongly Agree 7  a b o u t t h e b e h a v i o r of Agree 6  make e x c e s s i v e demands f o r l o v e and Slightly Disagree 3  Strongly Agree 7  a b o u t t h e b e h a v i o r of  Slightly Agree 5  complaining  humored.  Agree 6  reassurance  Slightly Agree 5  reassurance. Strongly Agree 7  than  Agree 6  Strongly Agree 7  anyone  Strongly Agree 7  1 54  Palmore's  Facts  on A g i n g  Quiz  I n s t r u c t i o n s : P l e a s e answer e a c h s t a t e m e n t by c i r c l i n g t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h you t h i n k t h e i t e m i s t r u e o r f a l s e .  1) The m a j o r i t y o f o l d p e o p l e a r e s e n i l e d i s o r i e n t e d , or demented). Definitely False 1 2 2) A l l f i v e  M i g h t Be False  senses tend  Definitely False 1 2  Don't Know 3  to decline  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  3) Most o l d p e o p l e have no i n t e r e s t -. r e l a t i o n s . Definitely False 1 2 4) Lung v i t a l  capacity  Definitely False 1 2 5) The m a j o r i t y Definitely False 1 6)  Physical  M i g h t Be False  M i g h t Be True 4  Don't Know 3  of o l d p e o p l e M i g h t Be False 2  feel  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Don't Know 3  Definitely True 5  i n , or c a p a c i t y M i g h t Be True 4  f o r , sexual  Definitely True 5  i n o l d age.  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True5  m i s e r a b l e most M i g h t Be True 4  tends to d e c l i n e  M i g h t Be False  Definitely True 5  i n o l d age.  tends t o d e c l i n e  M i g h t Be False  strength  Definitely False 1 2  Don't Know 3  ( i . e . d e f e c t i v e memory,  of the time.  Definitely True 5  i n o l d age.  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  1 55  7) A t l e a s t 10% o f t h e a g e d a r e l i v i n g i n l o n g - s t a y institutions ( i . e . n u r s i n g homes, m e n t a l h o s p i t a l s , homes f o r t h e aged, etc.). Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  8) Aged d r i v e r s have age 65. Definitely False 1  fewer  M i g h t Be False  accidents  workers  M i g h t Be False 2  10) About 80% o f t h e aged normal a c t i v i t i e s . Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be True 4  Don't Know 3  2  9) The m a j o r i t y o f o l d e r younger workers. Definitely False 1  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be False 2  cannot  are healthy Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be False 2  12) O l d p e o p l e u s u a l l y Definitely False 1  Don't Know 3  take longer  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  under  Definitely True 5  work a s e f f e c t i v e l y as  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  enough t o c a r r y  M i g h t Be True 4  11) Most o l d p e o p l e a r e s e t i n t h e i r Definitely False 1  p e r p e r s o n than d r i v e r s M i g h t Be True 4  Don't Know 3  Definitely True 5  out t h e i r  Definitely True 5  ways a n d u n a b l e t o c h a n g e . M i g h t Be True 4  to learn M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5 something  new,  Definitely True 5  1 56  13)  I t i s impossible Definitely False 1 2  14)  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  In g e n e r a l ,  M i g h t Be False 2  16) The m a j o r i t y Def i n i t e l y False. 1 17) The m a j o r i t y Def i n i t e l y False 1 workers  Definitely False 1 2 19) Over  M i g h t Be False 2  Definitely True 5  t e n d s t o be s l o w e r  M i g h t Be True 4  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  of o l d p e o p l e r e p o r t M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  that  than t h e  Def i n i t e l y True 5  M i g h t Be False 2 have fewer M i g h t Be False  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  M i g h t Be True 4  accidents Don't Know 3  Don't Know 3  bored.  Definitely True . 5 isolated  and l o n e l y ,  Definitely True 5  than younger  M i g h t Be True 4  population  Definitely True 5  they a r e seldom  of o l d people a r e s o c i a l l y  15% o f t h e C a n a d i a n  Definitely False 1 2  things.  most o l d p e o p l e a r e a l i k e ,  Definitely False 1  18) O l d e r  Don't Know 3  t o l e a r n new  M i g h t Be True 4  The r e a c t i o n t i m e of most o l d p e o p l e r e a c t i o n time of younger p e o p l e . Definitely False 1  15)  f o r most o l d p e o p l e  workers,  Definitely True 5  a r e now age 65 o r o v e r  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  157  20) Most m e d i c a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s aged. Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  21) The m a j o r i t y (as d e f i n e d Definitely False 1  tend t o give  Don't Know 3  low p r i o r i t y  M i g h t Be True 4  to the  Definitely True 5  of o l d e r p e o p l e have incomes below t h e p o v e r t y by t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e ) . M i g h t Be False  2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  line  Definitely True 5  22) The m a j o r i t y of o l d p e o p l e a r e w o r k i n g o r would l i k e t o have some k i n d o f work t o do ( i n c l u d i n g housework a n d v o l u n t e e r work). Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  23) O l d e r p e o p l e t e n d t o become more r e l i g i o u s Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  24) The m a j o r i t y or a n g r y . Definitely False 1  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  of o l d p e o p l e r e p o r t M i g h t Be False  2  Don't Know 3  that  Definitely True 5 as they age. Definitely True 5  t h e y a r e seldom  M i g h t Be True 4  irritated  Definitely True 5  25) The h e a l t h and s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f o l d e r p e o p l e (compared t o y o u n g e r p e o p l e ) i n t h e y e a r 2030 w i l l p r o b a b l y be about t h e same a s now. Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  1 58  APPENDIX J  159  Answers t o t h e P r o t o Knowledge on A g i n g  Scale  1) A c c o r d i n g t o S t a t i s t i c s Canada, o v e r 50% o f u n a t t a c h e d i n d i v i d u a l s aged 65 a n d o l d e r have incomes below t h e p o v e r t y l i n e ( l e s s t h a n $7,000 p e r y e a r ) . (True) 2) A c c o r d i n g t o d e m o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s , t h e C a n a d i a n g r o u p w h i c h i s i n c r e a s i n g i n g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n i s t h e 65 a n d o l d e r age g r o u p , ( a s compared t o t h e 64 a n d y o u n g e r age g r o u p ) . (True) 3) A c c o r d i n g t o C a n a d i a n Law i t i s i l l e g a l p a s t 65 y e a r s o f a g e . (False)  f o r an i n d i v i d u a l  t o work  4) A c c o r d i n g t o S t a t i s t i c s Canada t h e a v e r a g e C a n a d i a n women a t age 65 i s 83 y e a r s . (True)  life  expectancy f o r  5) A c c o r d i n g t o S t a t i s t i c s Canada t h e a v e r a g e C a n a d i a n male a t b i r t h i s 79 y e a r s . (True)  life  expectancy  6) Women ( aged-65+) a r e more l i k e l y t o have a d e q u a t e i n t a k e s t h a n t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . (False)  for a  nutrient  7) O l d Age S e c u r i t y a n d G u a r a n t e e d Income S u p p l e m e n t s a r e t h e g r e a t e s t s o u r c e o f f i n a n c i a l income f o r p e o p l e aged 66 and older. (True) 8) W o r k e r s 55 a n d o l d e r (male a n d f e m a l e ) who l o s e t h e i r j o b s g e n e r a l l y r e m a i n unemployed f o r s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n s t h a n w o r k e r s under 55 y e a r s o f a g e . (False) 9)  P e o p l e o v e r 65 a r e more t h a n under 65 t o be t h e v i c t i m s (False)  10) More men death. (False)  (65+) t h a n  women  twice as l i k e l y of robbery.  (65+) have l o s t  than  their  individuals  spouse  through  160  11)  R e s p i r a t o r y d i s e a s e s are the among t h o s e 65 and o l d e r . (False)  12)  I n d i v i d u a l s under 65 a r e more l i k e l y t h e d e n t i s t t h a n t h o s e 65 y e a r s and (True)  13) More t h a n 50% of institutions. (False) 14)  individuals  leading  cause  of  hospitalization  t o make y e a r l y older.  65 y e a r s of age  and  C a n a d i a n s under 65 a r e as l i k e l y as t h o s e o v e r homeowners a c c o r d i n g t o S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a . (True)  visits  older  65  to  to  live  in  be  15) H e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n age when i t comes t o i n t e r e s t i n c o n t i n u e d l e a r n i n g . (True) 16) Not e v e r y o n e (True) 17)  e x p e r i e n c e s memory i m p a i r m e n t  D r i v e r s o v e r 65 a r e i n v o l v e d than teenage d r i v e r s . (False)  with advancing  in a higher percentage  age.  of a c c i d e n t s  18) One o f t h e p r i m a r y r e a s o n s f o r t h e c h a n g e s i n s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d o l d e r p e o p l e has been t h e r a p i d g r o w t h o f t h e o l d e r population. (True) 19)  L o n e l i n e s s i s seldom by widows. (False)  r e p o r t e d as  the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y  20)  C h r o n o l o g i c a l age c a n be r e g a r d e d a s an r a t e of human a g i n g p r o c e s s e s . (False)  21)  Maximal b r e a t h i n g c a p a c i t y (True)  22)  A l l five decline (True)  23)  Bones become more b r i t t l e (True)  24)  The c a p a c i t y (False)  declines  f o r drug  with  a c c u r a t e measure of  as one  senses ( h e a r i n g , s m e l l , t a s t e , d u r i n g the a g i n g p r o c e s s .  grows  the  older.  t o u c h , and  increasing  metabolism  faced  vision)  age.  increases with  increasing  age.  161  25)  The r a t e o f human d e v e l o p m e n t ( p h y s i c a l t h r o u g h o u t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e s p a n . (False)  growth) remains  constant  26)  The human a g i n g p r o c e s s in nature. (False)  27)  P h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h d e c l i n e s with advancing age). (True)  28)  D e v e l o p i n g p r e s b y o p i a ( f a r s i g h t e d n e s s ) i n y o u r 4 t h d e c a d e (40 y e a r s ) i s c u r r e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be p a r t o f t h e " n o r m a l " aging process. (True)  29)  From c o n c e p t i o n t o b i r t h , t h e human o r g a n i s m r a p i d r a t e of p h y s i c a l growth. (True)  30)  As an i n d i v i d u a l a g e s , h i s / h e r c a p a c i t y t o h e a r f r e q u e n c y (above 16,000 Hz.) i n c r e a s e s . (False)  31)  An i n d i v i d u a l a t age 60 t y p i c a l l y r e q u i r e s l e s s f o o d i n t a k e a 20 y e a r o l d i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n h i s / h e r body's e n e r g y requi rements. (True)  32)  In t h e m a j o r i t y of t i s s u e t y p e s found i n t h e body, t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f c e l l s i n d i v i s i o n a t any t i m e i n c r e a s e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age. (False)  33)  The most s t r i k i n g change o b s e r v e d i n c e l l s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age i s t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e of a pigment c a l l e d l i p o f u s c i n . (False)  34)  P o s t u r a l sway d e c r e a s e s (False)  35)  The c a p a c i t y t o d i g e s t and a b s o r b w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age. (False)  36)  S t u d i e s have been a b l e t o document t h e f a c t t h a t e x e r c i s e does not p r o l o n g r e t e n t i o n o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l c a p a c i t i e s i n a g i n g organisms. (False)  i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be s o l e l y p a t h o l o g i c a l  with  age ( o v e r 70 y e a r s o f  undergoes  i t s most  n o i s e s of high  than  i n c r e a s i n g age. food  i s seriously  impaired  1 62  37)  The a b s e n c e (True)  of e x e r c i s e c a n  exacerbate  38)  I t i s not u n u s u a l t o e x p e r i e n c e a s l i g h t d e c r e a s e i n p h y s i c a l h e i g h t as one r e a c h e s t h e i r 5 t h d e c a d e (50 y e a r s ) . (True)  39)  I t i s u s u a l f o r humans t o e x p e r i e n c e w e i g h t i n c r e a s i n g age. (True)  40)  The pumping a b i l i t y of t h e h e a r t and g e n e r a l l y increases with i n c r e a s i n g (False)  41)  D e p r e s s i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a s e r i o u s mental p e r s o n s 65 y e a r s of age and o l d e r . (True)  42)  T y p i c a l p h y s i c a l symptoms o f d e p r e s s i o n ( e g . s l e e p and a p p e t i t e d i s t u r b a n c e s ) may r e s u l t from a v a r i e t y o f d i s e a s e s and m e d i c a t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y p r e s c r i b e d t o o l d e r p e o p l e (65 +). (True)  43)  Most o f t h e n e u r o p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e a p p r o p r i a t e t o use w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s o v e r t h e age of 60 s i n c e t h e y do not have a d e q u a t e norms a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them. (True)  44)  Clinical age. (False)  45)  S e n i l e p a t i e n t s show s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d c e r e b r a l v a s c u l a r f l o w as compared w i t h n o n - s e n i l e age c o u n t e r p a r t s . (True)  46)  S l e e p p a t t e r n s (as measured by EEG) i n y o u n g a d u l t s d i f f e r g r e a t l y from t h o s e f o u n d i n t h e e l d e r l y ( t h o s e 65+). (True)  47)  C h r o n o l o g i c a l age (False)  48)  The n o t i o n of i n e v i t a b l e d e c l i n e , known a s t h e "decrement model of o l d age", has not been c o n f i r m e d i n r e s e a r c h w i t h t h e elderly. (True)  EEG's show s i g n i f i c a n t l y  i s a good  aging  related  increases with  cardiovascular age. health  of  system  problem  l a r g e changes with  indicator  processes.  t h e way  for  are  not  increasing  people  live.  1  49)  A w a r e n e s s of d e a t h (True)  tends  to increase  50)  Psychologists believe that great p o t e n t i a l for d e v e l o p m e n t o c c u r s i n o l d age (65+). (True)  51)  Humans r e a c h t h e peak of t h e i r s t r e n g t h , h e a l t h , and d u r i n g young and m i d d l e a d u l t h o o d ( a g e s 2 0 - 4 0 ) . (True)  52)  Young p e o p l e a r e more s u s c e p t i b l e aged (65+). (True)  53)  P s y c h o l o g i c a l research i n d i c a t e s that adaptive, goal and p u r p o s e f u l q u a l i t i e s of p e r s o n a l i t y , do n o t a p p r e c i a b l y change w i t h age. (True)  54)  I n c i d e n c e s of neuroses (False)  55)  People (True)  56)  A strong link behavior. (False)  57)  I n v e s t i g a t o r s are f i n d i n g evidence that suggests that l i f e s t y l and p e r s o n a l i t y p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n l o n g e v i t y . (True)  58)  There i s evidence to suggest i n m i d d l e o r o l d age. (True)  59)  The t e r m (False)  60)  The a b i l i t y (False)  and  to s o c i a l  psychosis  become more i n t r o v e r t e d as  as p e o p l e  ageism  sex  endurance  with  the  directed  age.  age  and  human  r o l e r e v e r s a l s may  r e f e r s to the g l o r i f i c a t i o n  to learn d r a s t i c a l l y  personal  age.  e x i s t s between c h r o n o l o g i c a l  that  older.  p r e s s u r e than  increases  they  grow  of g r o w i n g  occur  old.  d e c r e a s e s a f t e r t h e age  of  20  164  Information  Supplied to P a r t i c i p a n t s  Regarding  Study  Results  Thank you f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n i n g i t e m s on knowledge and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s a g i n g . The f o l l o w i n g a r e t h e summarized r e s u l t s of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s of 128 m a l e s and 170 f e m a l e s ( t o t a l = 298) r a n g i n g from 17 t o 64 y e a r s of age, 0 t o 12 y e a r s of p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n and r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e g e n e r a l s u b j e c t a r e a s of b i o l o g y , e d u c a t i o n , g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n (non-academic), g e r o n t o l o g y , p s y c h o l o g y and s o c i a l work. 1/ W i t h R e s p e c t t o Age t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d w h i c h emerged i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t h a t knowledge and a t t i t u d e s c o r e s (+ve) i n c r e a s e d w i t h age, i . e . t h e o l d e r t h e s u b j e c t , t h e g r e a t e r t h e i r knowledge and t h e more p o s i t i v e t h e i r a t t i t u d e s were t o w a r d s a g i n g . 2/ W i t h R e s p e c t t o P o s t - S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d w h i c h emerged was t h a t knowledge and a t t i t u d e s c o r e s (+ve) i n c r e a s e d w i t h l e v e l of p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , i . e . t h e more p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n a s u b j e c t had, t h e b e t t e r t h e y were l i k e l y t o do on knowledge and a t t i t u d e s c a l e s . 3/ W i t h R e s p e c t t o Sex d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d knowledge and a t t i t u d e  (Gender of P a r t i c i p a n t s ) no s i g n i f i c a n t between male and f e m a l e r e s p o n s e s on b o t h scales.  4/ W i t h R e s p e c t To S u b j e c t A r e a s a) S u b j e c t s from g e r o n t o l o g y s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r ( p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l of 0.05) on s c a l e s w h i c h measured knowledge on a g i n g t h a n d i d s u b j e c t s from t h e a r e a s of b i o l o g y , e d u c a t i o n , g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n (non-academic), p s y c h o l o g y , and s o c i a l work. b) S u b j e c t s from b i o l o g y s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r ( p r o b a b i l t y l e v e l of 0.05) t h a n s u b j e c t s from t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n and p s y c h o l o g y on knowledge on a g i n g s c a l e s . c ) S u b j e c t s from g e r o n t o l o g y s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r ( p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l of 0.05) t h a n s u b j e c t s from p s y c h o l o g y on positive attitude scores. The r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n were a l s o u s e d t o d e v e l o p knowledge on a g i n g s c a l e w i t h a r e l i a b i l i t y v a l u e of 0.80 and a v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.70. A g a i n , t h a n k you f o r y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y .  a  APPENDIX K Scoring  Key f o r t h e : 1) Kogan 2) P a l m o r e 3) P r o t o s c a l e s  A. T h e s e v e n t r u e / f a l s e format  p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e f o r Kogan was c o l l a p s e d and t h e i t e m s were s c o r e d a s f o l l o w s :  into a  Odd numbered i t e m s r e f l e c t n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t a t e m e n t s . As s u c h any r e s p o n s e made as " S l i g h t l y A g r e e " , " A g r e e " , a n d " S t r o n g l y A g r e e " were s c o r e d a s 0. L i k e w i s e a r e s o n s e o f " S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e " , "Disagree", " S l i g h t l y Disagree" or " N e u t r a l " were s c o r e d a s 1. Even numbered i t e m s r e f l e c t p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t a t e m e n t s . As such any r e s p o n s e made a s " S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e " , " D i s a g r e e " , " S l i g h t l y D i s a g r e e " , o r " N e u t r a l " were s c o r e d a s 0. L i k e w i s e a response of " S l i g h t l y Agree", "Agree" or " S t r o n g l y A g r e e " were s c o r e d a s 1. The t o t a l s c o r e was o b t a i n e d by a d d i n g even numbered i t e m s . •  t h e summed s c o r e s o f odd and  B. T h e f i v e p o i n t r e s p o n s e s c a l e f o r P a l m o r e was c o l l a p s e d i n t o a t r u e / f a l s e f o r m a t and t h e i t e m s were s c o r e d a s f o l l o w s : R e s p o n s e s of " D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e " o r "Might Be F a l s e " t o odd numbered q u e s t i o n s were s c o r e d a s 1 whereas r e s p o n s e s o f " D e f i n i t e l y T r u e " , "Might Be T r u e " o r "Don't Know" o f t h e same i t e m s were s c o r e d a s 0. R e s p o n s e s o f " D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e " , "Might Be F a l s e " o r "Don't Know" t o even numbered q u e s t i o n s were s c o r e d a s 0. S i m i l a r i l y , r e s p o n s e s o f "Might Be T r u e " o r " D e f i n i t e l y T r u e " t o t h e same i t e m s were s c o r e s a s 1. The t o t a l s c o r e was o b t a i n e d by a d d i n g even numbered i t e m s .  t h e summed s c o r e s o f odd and  C. T h e f i v e p o i n t r e s p o n s e s c a l e f o r P r o t o was c o l l a p s e d i n t o a t r u e / f a l s e f o r m a t and t h e i t e m s were s c o r e d a s f o l l o w s : R e s p o n s e s of " D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e " , "Might Be F a l s e " o r "Don't Know" t o • i t e m s #1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22, 23, 27, 28, 2 9 , 31, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 57, a n d 58 were s c o r e d a s 0. L i k e w i s e r e s p o n s e s o f "Might Be T r u e " a n d " D e f i n i t e l y T r u e " t o t h e same i t e m s were s c o r e d a s 1. R e s p o n s e s o f "Don't Know", "Might Be T r u e " o r " D e f i n i t e l y T r u e " t o i t e m s #3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 17, 19, 20, 24, 25, 26, 30, 32, 3 3 , 34, 35, 36, 40, 44, 47, 54, 56, 59, and 60 were s c o r e d a s 0. L i k e w i s e r e s p o n s e s o f " D e f i n i t e l y F a l s e " o r " M i g h t Be F a l s e " t o t h e same i t e m s were s c o r e d a s 1.  167  The t o t a l P r o t o s c o r e was the sum of t h e t r a n s f o r m e d a n s w e r s t o t h e e n t i r e 60 i t e m s . The s c o r e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e S u b s c a l e was t h e sum of t h e t r a n s f o r m e d r e s p o n s e s t o i t e m s 1 t o 20, 21 t o 40 f o r t h e B i o l o g y S u b s c a l e , and 41 t o 60 f o r t h e P s y c h o l o g y S u b s c a l e .  1 68  APPENDIX L  169  Types of A n a l y s e s An i n t e g r a l p a r t o f any t e s t s ' s e l e c t i o n concerns t h e i n s p e c t i o n o f i t s a s s o c i a t e d r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y values. R e l i a b i l i t y r e f e r s to the consistency of s c o r e s o b t a i n e d u s i n g t h e s c a l e on d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s or u s i n g d i f f e r e n t s e t s of e q u i v a l e n t s c a l e i t e m s . The u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e p t o f r e l i a b i l t y i s t h a t o f a t t r i b u t i n g a v a l u e t o t h e " e r r o r o f measurement" o r "range o f f l u c t u a t i o n " l i k e l y t o o c c u r due t o c h a n c e f a c t o r s . D i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f r e l i a b i l i t y e x i s t , but f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o u r t y p e s w i l l be di scussed. Test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y or c o e f f i c i e n t of s t a b i l i t y r e p r e s e n t s t h e r e l i a b i l i t y v a l u e of a t e s t by means o f r e t e s t o r r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e same t e s t on a d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n . T h i s t y p e o f r e l i a b i l i t y c a n p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n o f t e m p o r a l , s c o r e r , and examiner reliability. E q u i v a l e n t Form r e l i a b i l t y o r C o e f f i c i e n t o f Equivalence T h i s t y p e of r e l i a b i l i t y a v o i d s t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f u s i n g a t e s t - r e t e s t f o r m a t by u s i n g two p a r a l l e l forms of t h e same t e s t s i m u l t a n e o s l y . T h i s t y p e o f r e l i a b i l t y p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f b o t h t e m p o r a l s t a b i l i t y and c o n s i s t e n c y of response t o d i f f e r e n t items of the t e s t . S p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y or C o e f f i c i e n t of I n t e r n a l Consistency P r o v i d e s a measure o f e q u i v a l e n c y o r adequacy o f i t e m s a m p l i n g by s p l i t t i n g one t e s t i n t o two e q u i v a l e n t p a r t s and c o r r e l a t i n g t h e s c o r e s o b t a i n e d . I n t e r i t e m r e l i a b i l i t y o r Method o f R a t i o n a l E q u i v a l e n c e m e a s u r e s t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y based on t h e c o n s i s t e n c y of responses t o a l l items i n a s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e t e s t . V a r i o u s f o r m u l a s c a n be u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e i n t e r i t e m r e l i a b i l i t y w h i c h p r o v i d e s one w i t h an i n d i c a t i o n o f e q u i v a l e n c y and h o m o g e n e i t y o f t e s t i t e m s . The d i f f e r e n c e between s p l i t - h a l f and i n t e r i t e m v a l u e s i n d i c a t e h o m o g e n e i t y of t e s t i t e m s . Another important aspect of a s c a l e i s i t s a s s o c i a t e d v a l i d i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . V a l i d i t y concerns t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether a t e s t measures what i t p u r p o r t s t o m e a s u r e . As w i t h r e l i a b i l t y f o u r t y p e s o f v a l i d i t y can be d i s c u s s e d . Content v a l i d i t y i n v e s t i g a t e s the s c a l e s ' content t o d e t e r m i n e whether i t samples t h e b e h a v i o r domain i t p u r p o r t s t o m e a s u r e . C o n t e n t v a l i d i t y c a n o n l y be a s s e s s e d by o b j e c t i v e l y c o m p a r i n g t e s t i t e m s w i t h t h e  170  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c (behavior, s k i l l s etc.) i t purports to measure. Predictive validity indicates a tests' effectiveness i n p r e d i c t i n g some f u t u r e outcome. T h i s i s done by c h e c k i n g t h e t e s t s c o r e o f an i n d i v i d u a l a g a i n s t t h e i r subsequent performance c r i t e r i a . Concurrent v a l i d i t y i n v e s t i g a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between an i n d i v i d u a l s ' t e s t s c o r e and a s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e d a t t h e same t i m e . C o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of a t e s t i n d i c a t e s the e x t e n t t o which t h e t e s t measures n o n - o b s e r v a b l e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s s u c h a s i n t e l l i g e n c e and a n x i e t y .  The s e c o n d major t y p e o f s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s u t i l i z e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s that of c o r r e l a t i o n a l techniques. C o r r e l a t i o n s are concerned with d e s c r i b i n g t h e d e g r e e o f r e l a t i o n between v a r i a b l e s . The p u r p o s e o f the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s t o e x p r e s s i n m a t h e m a t i c a l t e r m s t h e d e g r e e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between two v a r i a b l e s . I f a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s t r o n g , t h e maximum c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t w i l l be 1.00, i f i t i s weak i t w i l l be c l o s e t o 0. L i k e w i s e , i f t h e two v a r i a b l e s i n c r e a s e i n v a l u e a t t h e same t i m e , t h e n t h e y r e p r e s e n t a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . S i m i l a r l y , i f one v a r i a b l e i n c r e a s e s i n v a l u e when t h e o t h e r d e c r e a s e s , t h e y have a negative r e l a t i o n s h i p or c o e f f i c i e n t . T h e r e f o r e , the c o r r e l a t i o n i s a way of s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n d i c a t i n g t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h one v a r i a b l e i s r e l a t e d t o a n o t h e r .  A p r i n c i p a l advantage of u s i n g c o r r e l a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s i s t h a t i t a l l o w s t h e measure o f a l a r g e number of v a r i a b l e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a t t h e same t i m e , a s w e l l a s t h e d e g r e e o r amount o f r e l a t i o n s h i p . Disadvantages of c o r r e l a t i o n a l techniques i s that they do n o t measure c a u s e and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t i s therefore not p o s s i b l e t o i n f e r that v a r i a b l e a causes v a r i a b l e b or v i s e v e r s a . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o be an a r t i f a c t . C o r r e l a t i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s a r e u s e d f o r two main r e a s o n s . To e x p l o r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i a b l e s and t o p r e d i c t s u b j e c t s ' s c o r e s on o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . Two b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s f o r h a n d l i n g d a t a e x i s t . P r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e u s e d when v a r i a b l e s r e p r e s e n t c o n t i n u o u s s c o r e s . Rank d i f f e r e n c e c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e u s e d when v a r i a b l e s a r e i n rank f o r m . P r e s s i s a t e r m u s e d i n c o r r e l a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s t o d e s i g n a t e one o f two p o s s i b l e s i t u a t i o n s . Alpha p r e s s i s used t o d e s i g n a t e o b j e c t i v e a s p e c t s of a s u b j e c t ' s p h y s i c a l or s o c i a l  171  environment which c o u l d a f f e c t the s u b j e c t s ' responses. Lee C r o n b a c h (1949) i s t h e w e l l n o t e d s t a t i s t i c i a n who developed the formula f o r d e t e r m i n i n g a l p h a . Beta p r e s s i s the term used t o r e p r e s e n t s u b j e c t i v e a s p e c t s of the environment which c o u l d a f f e c t responses. In t h i s s t u d y P r o d u c t Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s (P.M.C.) w i l l be u s e d s i n c e t h e v a r i a b l e s under s t u d y w i l l r e p r e s e n t c o n t i n u o u s s c o r e s . P e a r s o n ' s P r o d u c t Moment f o r m u l a (P.P.M.C.) w i l l be u t i l i z e d s i n c e i t m i n i m i z e s standard e r r o r .  F a c t o r a n a l y s i s i s the t h i r d major type of s t a t i s t i c a l method u t i l i z e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t i s a t y p e o f c o r r e l a t i o n a l method t h a t p e r f o r m s t h e f u n c t i o n of d a t a r e d u c t i o n by g r o u p i n g v a r i a b l e s t h a t a r e m o d e r a t e l y or h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h each o t h e r . F a c t o r s c o r e s (weights a s s i g n e d to e i t h e r items or s u b j e c t s ) c a n be u s e d i n s u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s e s ( f o r example, a t - t e s t can be u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e whether male and f e m a l e s t u d e n t s d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y on one o r a l l of t h e f a c t o r e d d i m e n s i o n s ) .  A problem i n using f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i s that " s e v e r a l v a r i a t i o n s o f f a c t o r a n a l y s i s r e s t on s u b t l e m a t h e m a t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s " ( B o r g & G a l l , 1979, p.507). P r i n c i p a l component a n a l y s i s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e f i r s t stage s o l u t i o n to f a c t o r a n a l y s i s techniques ( G o r s u c h , 1 9 7 4 ) , and a s s u c h was s e l e c t e d o v e r o t h e r a v a i l a b l e t e c h n i q u e s . B e c a u s e modern f a c t o r a n a l y s t s do not c o n s i d e r a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s complete u n t i l f u r t h e r r o t a t i o n s are performed (Gorsuch,1974), varimax r o t a t i o n was s e l e c t e d o v e r equimax and q u a r t i m a x . Equimax r o t a t i o n s a r e seldom a v a i l a b l e a s a computer p r o g r a m and a r e t h e r e f o r e seldom u s e d ( G o r s u c h , 1 9 7 4 ) . Q u a r t i m a x r o t a t i o n s a r e not w i d e l y a c c e p t e d b e c a u s e i t s s o l u t i o n t e n d s t o i n c l u d e one f a c t o r w i t h a l l m a j o r l o a d i n g s and no o t h e r m a j o r l o a d i n g s i n t h e r e s t of t h e m a t r i x . S i n c e v a r i m a x does n o t p o s s e s s t h e i n h e r e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s f o u n d i n q u a r t i m a x and equimax i t was c h o s e n as t h e more a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n i q u e t o u s e . However, v a r i m a x r o t a t i o n i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e when t e s t i t e m s have a h i g h i n t e r n a l consistency.  1 72  APPENDIX M  1 73  P r o t o Knowledge on A g i n g  Scale  I n s t r u c t i o n s : The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s a r e d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s y o u r knowledge a b o u t a g i n g . P l e a s e a n s w e r e a c h s t a t e m e n t by c i r c l i n g the d e g r e e t o w h i c h y o u t h i n k t h e i t e m i s t r u e o r f a l s e . P l e a s e answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s c a r e f u l l y a n d be s u r e t o p r o v i d e a r e s p o n s e for every item.  1) A c c o r d i n g t o S t a t i s t i c s Canada, o v e r 50% o f u n a t t a c h e d i n d i v i d u a l s aged 65 and o l d e r h a v e incomes below t h e p o v e r t y l i n e ( l e s s t h a n $7,000 p e r y e a r ) . Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5"  2) A c c o r d i n g t o d e m o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s , t h e C a n a d i a n g r o u p w h i c h i s i n c r e a s i n g i n g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n i s t h e 65 and o l d e r age group, ( a s compared t o t h e 64 a n d y o u n g e r age g r o u p ) . Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  3) A c c o r d i n g t o C a n a d i a n Law i t i s i l l e g a l p a s t 65 y e a r s of a g e . Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  Definitely True 5  f o r an i n d i v i d u a l  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  4) Workers 55 a n d o l d e r (male and f e m a l e ) who l o s e t h e i r j o b s g e n e r a l l y r e m a i n unemployed f o r s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n s t h a n w o r k e r s under 55 y e a r s o f a g e . Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  t o work  174  5) P e o p l e o v e r 65 a r e more t h a n t w i c e a s l i k e l y under 65 t o be t h e v i c t i m s o f r o b b e r y . Definitely M i g h t Be False False 1 2 6) More men  (65+) than women  Definitely M i g h t Be False False 1 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  than i n d i v i d u a l s Definitely True 5  (65+) a r e widows. Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  7) I n d i v i d u a l s under 65 a r e more l i k e l y t o make y e a r l y d e n t i s t t h a n t h o s e 65 y e a r s a n d o l d e r . Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  visits  Definitely True 5  8) More t h a n 50% o f i n d i v i d u a l s 65 y e a r s o f age and o l d e r institutions. Definitely M i g h t Be False False 1 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  t o the  live in  Definitely True 5  9) H e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n age when i t comes t o i n t e r e s t i n c o n t i n u e d l e a r n i n g . Definitely False. 1 10) Not e v e r y o n e  M i g h t Be False2  Don't Know. 3  M i g h t Be True 4  e x p e r i e n c e s memory i m p a i r m e n t  Definitely M i g h t Be False False 1 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5 with advancing age. Definitely True 5  175  11) D r i v e r s o v e r 65 a r e i n v o l v e d than teenage d r i v e r s . Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  12) L o n e l i n e s s i s seldom by widows. Definitely False 1 2  i n a higher  Don't Know 3 reported  M i g h t Be False  percentage of a c c i d e n t s  M i g h t Be True . 4  Definitely True 5  as the g r e a t e s t  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  difficulty  faced  Definitely True 5  13) C h r o n o l o g i c a l age c a n be r e g a r d e d a s an a c c u r a t e measure o f t h e r a t e o f human a g i n g p r o c e s s e s . Definitely False 1 2 14)  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  Bones become more b r i t t l e Definitely False 1 2  15) The c a p a c i t y Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  with  M i g h t Be True 4  i n c r e a s i n g age.  Don't Know 3  f o r drug metabolism M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  Definitely True 5  M i g h t Be True 4 increases M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5 with  i n c r e a s i n g age.  Definitely True 5  16) The r a t e o f human d e v e l o p m e n t ( p h y s i c a l g r o w t h ) r e m a i n s t h r o u g h o u t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e s p a n . Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  constant  176  17)  The human a g i n g p r o c e s s i s c o n s i d e r e d - t o be s o l e l y in nature. Definitely False 1 2  18)  Definitely True 5  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  i t s most  Definitely True 5  As an i n d i v i d u a l a g e s , h i s / h e r c a p a c i t y t o h e a r n o i s e s f r e q u e n c y (above 16,000 Hz.) i n c r e a s e s . Definitely False 1 2  21)  M i g h t Be True 4  From c o n c e p t i o n t o b i r t h , t h e human o r g a n i s m u n d e r g o e s r a p i d r a t e of p h y s i c a l growth. Definitely False 1 2  20)  Don't Know 3  D e v e l o p i n g p r e s b y o p i a ( f a r s i g h t e d n e s s ) i n y o u r 4 t h d e c a d e (40 y e a r s ) i s c u r r e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be p a r t o f t h e " n o r m a l " aging process. Definitely False 1 2  19)  M i g h t Be False  pathological  of h i g h  Definitely True 5  I n t h e m a j o r i t y o f t i s s u e t y p e s f o u n d i n t h e body, t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f c e l l s i n d i v i s i o n a t any t i m e i n c r e a s e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age. Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  177  22)  The most s t r i k i n g change o b s e r v e d i n c e l l s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age i s t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f a pigment c a l l e d l i p o f u s c i n . Definitely False 1 2  23)  Postural  25)  26)  M i g h t Be False  The c a p a c i t y t o d i g e s t with i n c r e a s i n g age. Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  The a b s e n c e  of e x e r c i s e  Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  M i g h t Be True 4  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  and a b s o r b food  Definitely True 5  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be False 2  Definitely True 5  i s s e r i o u s l y impaired  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  can e x a c e r b a t e a g i n g - r e l a t e d processes, Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  I t i s not u n u s u a l t o e x p e r i e n c e a s l i g h t h e i g h t a s one a g e s . Definitely False 1  27)  Don't Know 3  sway d e c r e a s e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g a g e .  Definitely False 1 2 24)  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3 -  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5 decrease i n p h y s i c a l Definitely True 5  The pumping a b i l i t y o f t h e h e a r t an c a r d i o v a s c u l a r g e n e r a l l y increases with i n c r e a s i n g age. Definitely False 1  M i g h t Be False 2  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  system  Definitely True 5  178  28)  T y p i c a l p h y s i c a l symptoms o f d e p r e s s i o n ( e g . s l e e p and a p p e t i t e d i s t u r b a n c e s ) may r e s u l t from a v a r i e t y of d i s e a s e s and m e d i c a t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y p r e s c r i b e d t o o l d e r p e o p l e (65 +). Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  1 79  29) Most of t h e n e u r o p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e a r e not a p p r o p r i a t e t o u s e w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s o v e r t h e age of 60 s i n c e t h e y do n o t have a d e q u a t e norms a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them. Definitely False 1 30)  Chronological Definitely False 1 2  32)  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  age i s a good M i g h t Be False  M i g h t Be True 4  vascular  Definitely True 5  i n d i c a t o r o f t h e way p e o p l e  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  live,  Definitely True 5  The n o t i o n o f i n e v i t a b l e d e c l i n e known a s t h e "decrement model of o l d a g e " has n o t been c o n f i r m e d i n r e s e a r c h w i t h t h e elderly. Definitely False 1 2  33)  Don't Know 3  S e n i l e p a t i e n t s show s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d c e r e b r a l flow a s compared w i t h n o n - s e n i l e age c o u n t e r p a r t s . Definitely False 1 2  31)  M i g h t Be False 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  P s y c h o l o g i s t s b e l i e v e that great p o t e n t i a l f o r personal d e v e l o p m e n t o c c u r s i n o l d age (65+). Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  34) Humans r e a c h t h e peak o f t h e i r s t r e n g t h , d u r i n g young a d u l t h o o d (ages 2 0 - 4 0 ) . Definitely False 1 2  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5 health,  and e n d u r a n c e  Definitely True 5  180  35)  P s y c h o l o g i c a l research i n d i c a t e s that adaptive, goal d i r e c t e d and p u r p o s e f u l q u a l i t i e s o f p e r s o n a l i t y do n o t a p p r e c i a b l y change w i t h a g e . Definitely False 1  36)  M i g h t Be False 2  The a b i l i t y Definitely False 1 2  Definitely True 5  increases  M i g h t Be True 4  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  age and human  M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  sex r o l e r e v e r s a l s may  M i g h t Be True 4  Don't Know 3  to learn d r a s t i c a l l y M i g h t Be False  Don't Know 3  M i g h t Be True 4  occur  Definitely..... True 5  r e f e r s t o the g l o r i f i c a t i o n  M i g h t Be False 2  with age.  Definitely True 5  e x i s t s between c h r o n o l o g i c a l  The t e r m a g e i s m Definitely False 1  40)  Don't Know 3  There i s evidence t o suggest t h a t in middle or o l d age. Definitely False 1 2  39)  M i g h t Be False  A strong l i n k behavior. Definitely False 1 2  38)  M i g h t Be True 4  I n c i d e n c e s o f n e u r o s e s and p s y c h o s i s Definitely False 1 2  37)  Don't Know 3  of growing o l d . Definitely True 5  d e c r e a s e s a f t e r t h e age o f 20. M i g h t Be True 4  Definitely True 5  Papers Submitted f o r P u b l i c a t i o n Gal 1 i e , K.A. and Kozak, J . F . F a c t o r A n a l y t i c Study o f Canadian Responses to the W i l s o n Conservatism S c a l e . Manuscript s u b m i t t e d to the B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l Psychology. Kozak, J . F . and G a l l i e , K.A. J u n g i a n Typology and P e r c e i v e d P e r s o n a l i t y . M a n u s c r i p t s u b m i t t e d to the Canadian J o u r n a l on A g i n g . Papers  Presented  L a k o w s k i , R.L., G a l l i e , K.A. & MacEntee, M. Assessment o f C o l o u r V i s i o n A p t i t u d e s i n Dental P e r s o n n e l . Report presented to the V i s u a l L a b o r a t o r y and F a c u l t y o f D e n t i s t r y , U.B.C., Vancouver, B.C., O c t . 1982. G a l l i e , K.A. and Kozak, J . F . P e r s o n a l i t y and the P e r c e i v e d T r a i t s of an E l d e r l y Woman. Paper presented a t the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n on G e r o n t o l o g y , Vancouver, B.C., Nov. 1984. Kozak, J . F . and G a l l i e , K.A. J u n g i a n Typology and P e r c e i v e d P e r s o n a l i t y . Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n on G e r o n t o l o g y , Vancouver, B.C., Nov. 1984. Papers to be Presented G a l l i e , K.A. A Knowledge About Aging S c a l e Which Measures B i o l o g i c a l , P s y c h o l o g i c a l and S o c i a l Aspects o f A g i n g . To be p r e s e n t e d a t the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n on G e r o n t o l o g y , Hamilton O n t a r i o , O c t . 1985. G a l l i e , K.A. and Kozak, J . F . I n v e s t i g a t i o n I n t o a P o s s i b l e R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Knowledge About Aging and A t t i t u d e s Toward Old P e o p l e . To be p r e s e n t e d a t the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n , on G e r o n t o l o g y , H a m i l t o n O n t a r i o , O c t . 1985.  

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