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Reasons for running : an investigation of intentional change in exercise behaviour Lendvoy, Harry 1984

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REASONS FOR RUNNING: AN INVESTIGATION OF INTENTIONAL CHANGE IN EXERCISE BEHAVIOUR by HARRY LENDVOY M.P.E., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia, 1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE Department  STUDIES  o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t and Higher E d u c a t i o n  We a c c e p t t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as c o n f o r m i n g t o jt#fe r$quj*£exi standard}  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1984 © H a r r y Lendvoy, 1984  In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission.  Department of  Adult Education  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6 (3/81)  January 3, 1985  ABSTRACT  Running ages  are  has  become the  regularly  seen  Canada F i t n e s s Survey  s p o r t o f the  running  1980s.  throughout  (1983) i n d i c a t e d  the  that  Men  and  women o f a l l  community.  The  recent  j o g g i n g i s the f i r s t  choice  o f a c t i v i t i e s which people wish t o b e g i n . Most  a d u l t s who  begin running programs take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  s e l e c t i o n , p l a n n i n g , and which  represent  participating  an  in  provided period  time i n t h e i r  of  a theoretical  potential  stability f o r growth  i s the view  environmental  In  Scale  and  relative identified  a lifespan  framework. or  and  Rather  decline,  this  supervision  of  a  addition  each  Tough's (1982)  developmental p e r s p e c t i v e  p e r s p e c t i v e emphasizes Inherent  in this  to  a  consideration  of  life  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex and  a wide range of  a d u l t s , at a  the  approach,  are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t r a n s i t i o n s d e f i n e d by  age  events and  and  reasons  investigated.  instruments were d e v e l o p e d .  importance  the  of  than r e g a r d i n g adulthood as a  self-improvement.  influences,  identified  under  Instead  t o i n v e s t i g a t e the reasons why  f o r beginning t o run were a l s o Three  programs  lives.  l i v e s , d e c i d e d t o begin t o r u n .  that a d u l t l i v e s  l i f e events.  their  knowledge and s k i l l s r e l e v a n t t o r u n n i n g .  i n t e n t i o n a l change  of  in  programs  i n s t r u c t o r , these i n d i v i d u a l s engage i n s e l f - d i r e c t e d  o f the study was  particular  of personalized exercise  change  running  experiences to a t t a i n  The purpose  concept  important  formal  running or f i t n e s s learning  implementing  f o r the  o f reasons to  the  The  I n i t i a l Reasons For Running  for beginning  individual.  The  to  run  and  the  L i f e Event S c a l e  events e x p e r i e n c e d by a d u l t s and the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t o f each.  The  External Influence Scale  identified  seventeen  environmental  which may have i n f l u e n c e d a man o r woman t o begin The  205 s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d  throughout  the Greater  self-administered  Vancouver  while  area.  questionnaire.  analyzed.  Orthogonal  CHALLENGE,  SOCIALIZATION, PREVENTION,  r o t a t i o n o f data from and  rotation  yielded  from  indicated  interesting  and women o f d i f f e r e n t  d i s t i n c t i o n s appeared specific  factor  PERSONAL Orthogonal  four f a c t o r s — M O D E L , MEDIA, MOVIE,  sex-cohort  t o help e x p l a i n the variance  more  CHALLENGE,  PREVENTION,  were  likely  more  series  variance  i n p r e d i c t i n g motives with  life  likely  than  events women  and REMEDIAL.  than  older  factor  scores.  concerned  with  Health events was e s p e c i a l l y  indicated  t h a t sex  f o r beginning t o run as  and  external  influences.  t o be m o t i v a t e d  by PERSONAL  In terms o f age, younger  adults  o n l y ones which met the c r i t e r i o n those  s c o r e s among  and m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s  t o begin  o f r e g r e s s i o n equations  i n IRFRS  i n IRFRS f a c t o r  In s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s , important  CHALLENGE and l e s s l i k e l y t o begin running A  T h i s two-way  groups.  concerned  However, men were  IRFRS s c o r e s .  between t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n s o f males and females and  age were not as u s e f u l varibles  differences  age groups.  Results of bivariate  were  was  on a  PARTICIPACTION.  analysis  were  t h e IRFRS  REMEDIAL, and HEALTH.  the EIS y i e l d e d  locations  was c o l l e c t e d  s i x factors—SOLITUDE,  between the i n t e r a c t i o n o f sex and age with  and  i n various  A l l data  An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was performed  men  running.  running  Data  factors  running  adults  f o r PERSONAL  f o r PREVENTION.  were  The most  performed significant  t o help explain v a r i a b l e s , the  for entry i n a l l regression equations,  specific  life  important.  events.  The e x p e r i e n c e  of  Although variables  and IRFRS  unexplained. life  events  running  statistical  than  factors,  significance most v a r i a n c e  But o f the v a r i a n c e were more  found  influential  between  i n motives  t h a t was e x p l a i n e d  i t was c l e a r  This  step i n the e x p l a n a t i o n and p r e d i c t i o n o f  iv  was that  for beginning  separately or together.  why a d u l t s begin e x e r c i s e programs.  certain  f o r running  p r e d i c t o r s o f reasons  age or sex, c o n s i d e r e d  r e p r e s e n t s a beginning  was  study  reasons  TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES  viii  LIST OF FIGURES  X  AC KNOWLEDGEMENTS  Xi  CHAPTER ONE  1  INTRODUCTION  1  Statement o f t h e Problem  11  CHAPTER TWO  13  CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK  13  L i f e s p a n Developmental P e r s p e c t i v e  13  L i f e Events and L i f e T r a n s i t i o n s Reasons f o r Running  14 19  Motivational Orientations  22  CHAPTER THREE  24  DEVELOPMENT OF THE INITIAL REASONS FOR RUNNING SCALE  24  Scale  31  Scoring  CHAPTER FOUR  33  DEVELOPMENT OF THE LIFE EVENT SCALE CHAPTER FIVE  33 37  DEVELOPMENT OF THE EXTERNAL INFLUENCE SCALE  37  Scale  44  scoring  I n d i v i d u a l Background V a r i a b l e s  44  Personal Variables  45  Previous A t h l e t i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n Variables  45  Running V a r i a b l e s  45  v  CHAPTER SIX  47  METHOD  47  Preliminary Processes  47  A d m i n i s t e r i n g the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  48  Coding  50  and P r e p a r a t i o n f o r A n a l y s i s  CHAPTER SEVEN  51  RESULTS  51  CHAPTER EIGHT  55  INITIAL REASONS FOR RUNNING SCALE SCORES  55  L i f e Event  58  Scale Scores  E x t e r n a l I n f l u e n c e S c a l e Scores CHAPTER NINE  65 73  PREDICTORS OF IRFRS SCORES  73  Single Variable Predictors  73  Solitude  74  Personal Challenge  76  Socialization  76  Prevention  77  Remedial  78  Health  78  Two-way  I n t e r a c t i o n Between Sex and Age and IRFRS Scores  79  Solitude  79  Personal Challenge  82  Socialization  84  Prevention  86  Remedial  88  Health  88  vi  M u l t i v a r i a t e P r e d i c t o r s o f IRFRS Scores  91  Regression E q u a t i o n s  93  P r e d i c t i n g IRFRS Scores  Solitude  93  Personal Challenge  94  Socialization  96  Prevention  96  Remedial  98  Health  99  CHAPTER TEN  101  CONCLUSIONS  101  The  101  I n i t i a l Reasons f o r Running S c a l e  R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between IRFRS F a c t o r s and P a r t i c i p a n t Varables  102  R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Sex-Cohort Groups and IRFRS Scores  109  Theoretical Considerations  112  CHAPTER ELEVEN  119  FUTURE RESEARCH  119  Suggestions  120  f o r Future Research  REFERENCES  124  APPENDICES  128  APPENDIX A:  Coding Schedule Used t o E x t r a c t Data from Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  129  APPENDIX B:  Questionnaire  132  vii  LIST OF TABLES 1.  I n i t i a l Reasons f o r Running S c a l e : and F a c t o r Loadings  Item Means, S.D.'s,  2.  External Influence Scale: Loadings  3.  Socio-Demographic and P e r s o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f 205 R e c r e a t i o n a l Runners  52  4.  Mean I n i t i a l Reasons Participants  55  5.  Mean L i f e Event S c a l e Scores f o r 205 P a r t i c i p a n t s  59  6.  Frequency and Mean E x t e r n a l I n f l u e n c e Participants  S c a l e Scores f o r 205  66  7.  Mean E x t e r n a l I n f l u e n c e S c a l e Scores f o r 205 P a r t i c i p a n t s  68  8.  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Sex and I n i t i a l S c a l e Scores  73  9.  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Age and L i f e Events and I n i t i a l Reasons For Running S c a l e Scores  75  10.  R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Sex and Age and SOLITUDE Scores  81  11.  R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Sex and Age and PERSONAL CHALLENGE Scores  83  12.  R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Sex and Age and SOCIALIZATION Scores  85  13.  R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Sex and Age and PREVENTION Scores  87  14.  R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Sex and Age and REMEDIAL Scores  89  15.  R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Sex and Age and HEALTH Scores  90  16.  Multivariate Predictors of I n i t i a l S c a l e S c o r e s : SOLITUDE Scores  Reasons For Running  94  17.  M u l t i v a r i a t e P r e d i c t o r s o f I n i t i a l Reasons For Running S c a l e S c o r e s : PERSONAL CHALLENGE Scores  95  18.  M u l t i v a r i a t e P r e d i c t o r s o f I n i t i a l Reasons For Running S c a l e S c o r e s : SOCIALIZATION Scores  97  19.  Multivariate Predictors of I n i t i a l S c a l e S c o r e s : PREVENTION Scores  97  Item Means, S.D.'s, and F a c t o r  f o r Running S c a l e Scores f o r 205  viii  Reasons For Running  Reasons For Running  27  42  20.  Multivariate Predictors of I n i t i a l S c a l e S c o r e s : REMEDIAL Scores  Reasons For Running  99  21.  Multivariate Predictors of I n i t i a l S c a l e Scores: HEALTH Scores  Reasons For Running  100  22.  Type o f V a r i a b l e s E n t e r i n g R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n s t o P r e d i c t I n i t i a l Reasons For Running Scale Scores  ix  103  LIST OF FIGURES 1.  Relationship f o r Running  Between Independent V a r i a b l e s  2.  Motivational  P r o f i l e s f o r Three P a r t i c i p a n t s  56  3.  Motivational  P r o f i l e s f o r Male and Female P a r t i c i p a n t s  56  4.  Mean LES Scores f o r 205 P a r t i c i p a n t s  59  5.  L i f e Event P r o f i l e s f o r P a r t i c i p a n t s A and B  60  6.  L i f e Event P r o f i l e s f o r P a r t i c i p a n t s C and D  60  7.  Mean EIS Scores f o r 205 P a r t i c i p a n t s  68  8.  External  Influence  P r o f i l e s f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s A and B  70  9.  External  Influence  P r o f i l e s f o r P a r t i c i p a n t s C and D  70  10.  Mean SOLITUDE Scores o f Male and Female Runners i n D i f f e r e n t Age Groups  81  11.  Mean PERSONAL CHALLENGE Scores o f Male and Female Runners i n D i f f e r e n t Age Groups  83  12.  Mean SOCIALIZATION Scores o f Male and Female Runners i n D i f f e r e n t Age Groups  85  13.  Mean PREVENTION Scores o f Male and Female Runners i n D i f f e r e n t Age Groups  87  14.  Mean REMEDIAL Scores o f Male and Female Runners i n D i f f e r e n t Age Groups  89  15.  Mean HEALTH Scores o f Males and Female Runners i n D i f f e r e n t Age Groups.  90  x  and Reasons  11  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Four  people  completion  of this  Clement f o r t h e i r To  contributed  study.  critical  Dr. Roger B o s h i e r  understandings and  have  have  significantly  I thank  her support  Brown  and Dr. Doug  advice and encouragement. I owe p a r t i c u l a r  illuminated this  enthusiasm f o r the t o p i c were most For  Dr. S t a n l e y  t o the successful  and p a t i e n c e  gratitude.  study  xi  and h i s g e n e r o s i t y  i n time  appreciated.  throughout  Carol.  H i s i n s i g h t s and  I am indebted  t o my  wife,  1 CHAPTER  ONE  INTRODUCTION  During  the  contributed  to  participation; of  society  Moreover, the  reform  was  of  about  a central  role  over  i n educational  Antigonish  learning  education  helped  the  past  twenty  Self-control increasing  role  years  of individuals  self-improvement. individuals  of adult  became  political a  The  principal  from what  to assist  their and  lives.  political  change  a dramatic to  their  example.  unacceptable  found  themselves.  deficit  status  America  during  status. i n North to  adult  issues  education.  and g o a l s f o r  of this orientation  conditions  regarded agents  of  people  important  t h e i r own  i n medicine,  social  was  dimension  focus  impact  learning.  has been  the present  conditions  became  the  adults.  i n response  i n which  new  (4)  collectively  and t h e d e s i r e d  S e l f - c o n t r o l was the  (2)  can b e n e f i t  t o promote  t h e gap between  i n creating  learners;  spectrum  aspects  i n Canada  situations  of people.  has  as  education  primarily  and s e l f - i m p r o v e m e n t number  a wide  the study o f  movement  brought  education  self-directed  i n d i v i d u a l s could  bridge  and  (5)  and e d u c a t i o n  programs  an i n d i v i d u a l o r community social  adults  undesirable  occurred  or psychological  Improved  an  i n government,  control  The  Participatory  Mult  from  learned  adult  and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ;  and p r o f e s s i o n a l s  a means b y w h i c h  situation.  political  planning  in  (1)  and  have  assume  on:  learning;  services,  Historically,  research  focusing  lifelong  students  Participation  years,  (3) p r o g r a m  educators  people  50  theory  and  social  adult  past  and g u i d e l i n e s f o r  as a process  in  was t h e  guiding,  through  directing,  which and  2  regulating  behaviour  consequences.  that  Goldfriend  might  eventually  lead  to  desired  positive  and Merbaum emphasized:  A prerequisite of s e l f - c o n t r o l i s that i t i s the individual himself who determines his own special goal or outcome to be achieved. That i s not to say that he may be uninfluenced to adapt a particular goal. In the f i n a l analysis, however, the c h o i c e remains an i n d i v i d u a l matter. . . . We view s e l f - c o n t r o l as a functionally defined concept. That i s , whether or not one has demonstrated s e l f - c o n t r o l i s determined not so much upon procedures employed as i t i s on the consequences of the action taken. (1973, p. 13) Mahoney  and  interpretation understanding self-control  Thoresen  of of  was  (1974)  self-control intentional a learned  as  i s dependent  person-environment  on  that  willpower did  behavioural behaviour  environmental c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . behaviour  suggested  An  not  change.  which was  relationships.  and  traditional  contribute  ability  control  Self-control  over  According growth.  to By  i s an  Gross  important  (1977),  acquiring  new  component  lifelong  skills  learning  and  skills  are  Often referred has  those  learning.  self-directed invest  to as the  no prescribed  change  behaviour.  lifelong  implies  to  significant  knowledge, individuals  their occupation or personal future. "second education," l i f e l o n g learning  of  to  an that  i n t e g r a l l y related  enhanced by one's a b i l i t y to identify factors that influence Self-control  to  They stressed  individual's  knowledge of  the  in  adult's  curriculum.  He  stated: The worth to you of any particular subject or f i e l d i s for you to decide on your own terms. V i r t u a l l y , every aspect of your life—work, l e i s u r e , personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s , community a c t i v i t i e s — h a s the latent power to enhance your "second education" i f you can find or create the ways to learn i t . , (P- 18) For many adults, l i f e l o n g learning personal growth and self-directed  has  involved  e f f o r t s to promote  the r e a l i z a t i o n of one's p o t e n t i a l .  learning  projects  in order  to  integrate  Some undertook body and  mind.  3 S i g n i f i c a n t changes in one's behaviour and l i f e s t y l e were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of e f f o r t s to r e a l i z e personal intentjonal changes that projects,  provides  behavioural  change.  organism  capable  psychological, their  adults  crucial  achieve through information  achieving  physical  attempts to gain  knowledge or  for new  goals through continued  in  present The  for  study focus  is of  He  research  into  cognitive,  emphasized  skills,  adult  adults,  He  learning experiences.  investigation i s on  in  in which  indicated that  needs are s a t i s f i e d , adults  s e l f - d i r e c t e d change  the  that  social,  conduct projects  learning experiences.  in advanced nations, as lower order  behaviour.  the  s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning  far-reaching  changes.  they plan and manage their own  the  Tough's (1983) analysis of  Tough (1971) regarded the adult as a s e l f - d i r e c t e d of  and  goals.  strive  A c e n t r a l theme  in  adult  exercise  why  adults  initiate  changes. During the past decade m i l l i o n s of adults have become aware of interested in physical f i t n e s s .  A steady increase in the number of  and men  and women p a r t i c i p a t i n g in various forms of recreational exercise during leisure time has exercise  been observed.  One  of the most conspicuous areas of  involvement i s running.  The  type of p a r t i c i p a t i o n ranges from  the casual weekend jogger runner.  Estimates  to the highly trained and competitive marathon  concerning  the  number  of  recreational runners  North America have grown from two  million  1979  In Canada, running  (Clement & Taunton, 1980).  component of people. a general  the  f i t n e s s explosion  which  i n 1970  involves  in  to t h i r t y m i l l i o n i n is a  significant  some seven m i l l i o n  Recent findings from the Canada Fitness Survey (1983) indicated trend among the adult population  rather than sports.  toward " f i t n e s s "  activities  Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t finding of the survey  4 was  that  women were as l i k e l y  to "exercise"  surveys men had outnumbered women. 60,  Girls  were now as p h y s i c a l l y a c t i v e d u r i n g  men.  with  both  sexes,  jogging  as were men.  On  previous  and women, a t l e a s t up t o age  their  l e i s u r e hours as boys and  was i d e n t i f i e d  as the f i r s t  choice o f  a c t i v i t i e s which people wish t o b e g i n . Many  f a c t o r s have  running.  The advancement  computer-based employment. running,  society Describing  advance,, the  increase.  continue In  from been  growing  t o the dramatic  accompanied  for physical  forms  of  outlets  "As automation and computer  for this  by the i n d i v i d u a l  appetite  are l i k e l y t o  i n importance."  t o employ  publications  such  provided  industrial  sedentary  expression  1971, P a r t i c i p a c t i o n , a p r i v a t e  described  by  t o an  i n adult  f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o t h e growth i n  (1980) s t a t e d :  need  increase  an a g r i c u l t u r a l  sociological  Recreational  incorporated  book  has  Clement and Taunton  dominance will  contributed  marketing  as Cooper's  health  information  methods  Aerobics  problems  and guidance  non-profit  organization,  t o promote  fitness.  had an enormous  related  to a  sedentary  f o r recommended  was  Popular  impact.  This  l i f e s t y l e and  programs o f a c t i v i t y  such as r u n n i n g . According result (the  to Naisbitt  o f an approach  medical  health).  which emphasized  establishment)  Three  major  (1984), running  became a mass movement as a  a shift  from  t o s e l f - h e l p (personal  trends  characterized  this  institutional  help  responsibility for  new emphasis  on t h e  individual: (1) New h a b i t s t h a t a c t u a l i z e our newfound r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r health; (2) S e l f - c a r e that i l l u s t r a t e s our s e l f - r e l i a n c e i n areas not g e n u i n e l y r e q u i r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p ; and (3) t h e triumph o f the new paradigm o f w e l l n e s s , preventive m e d i c i n e , and w h o l i s t i c c a r e o v e r t h e o l d m o d e l o f  5 i l l n e s s , drugs, surgery, and the whole p e r s o n . (p. 147) Several individual  disciplines behaviour  promotion  and  from  behavioural  the  adults  are  and  live  to  changes well  being  being.  I'm  and  investigated  lifestyle  prevention  in a  of  sciences  encouraged  i n value  literature and  the  have  that  have  Matarazzo  r i g h t s and  You're O.K.  has  nutrition, physical fitness,  and  approach  encouraged  much  attention  More  and  for  New  toward  health  that  Healthy  People:  The  U.S.  and D i s e a s e P r e v e n t i o n lifestyle  Canadians.  The  environmental  U.S.  and  individuals  The  (1979)  from  For Number to  assert  for c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g  defined  opportunities  four  report  designed  conducive to h e a l t h .  to  their health,  p a r t i c i p a t i o n sports.  highlighted  the  preventive  i n Lalonde's  (1974) A.  The  former  identified  behavioural  s t r a t e g i e s f o r improving recommended  a  hazards  encouraged  and  the  strategy  health  for  or of  reducing  individuals  to  behaviours. of health  behavioural  health  One,  Promotion  occupational  the  popular  Surgeon G e n e r a l ' s Report on H e a l t h  non^medical aspects  attention  and  and  of  p r a c t i c e health oriented  reflects'  o f C a n a d i a n s — A Working Document  (1979).  changes as one  more health  recent  S t r i n g s , Looking Out  problems was  P e r s p e c t i v e on the H e a l t h  their  partially  Government r e c o g n i t i o n o f the c o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f approach  Health  self-realization  (1981) suggested  assisted  assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  received  education.  This  between  outcomes.  assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  such as P u l l i n g Your Own  O.K.,  have  than  relationships  health  health  manner.  structures  the  and  illness and  to  "healthy"  Dwore and  t r e a t i n g symptoms r a t h e r  sciences  education facilitate  Health  and  as  e x e r c i s e have a t t r a c t e d much and  any  health  combination  voluntary  education  was  education.  adaptations  considered  to  Green  of  learning  of  behaviour  be  a  process  6 which  helps  people  maintain  or  change  their  lifestyles  in  health  enhancing d i r e c t i o n s . A  major  voluntary  emphasis  i n health  participation  activities.  Green,  health-related  cognitive  prominent  are the Health  Belief  Model  has  than p a s s i v e  suggested  been  used  by  in that  concerns  the d u r a b i l i t y o f  health  behaviour behaviour  education  and h e a l t h  and the PRECEDE model. several  i n terms o f s p e c i f i c change  t o the  p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the l e a r n e r .  researchers  behaviour The  Health  (Hochbaum  1959,  Rosenstock 1966, Becker 1977) i n attempts t o e x p l a i n and p r e d i c t related  the  health-promoting  changes i s p r o p o r t i o n a l  to health  B e l i e f Model  literature  individual  and b e h a v i o u r a l  approaches  change  the  e t a l . , (1980)  degree o f a c t i v e r a t h e r Two  of  education  identified  belief  patterns.  the f o l l o w i n g  health-  Proponents o f  sequence  of  events  necessary f o r behaviour change t o o c c u r : (1) The person must b e l i e v e t h a t h i s o r her h e a l t h i s i n jeopardy. (2) The person must p e r c e i v e the p o t e n t i a l s e r i o u s n e s s o f the c o n d i t i o n i n terms o f pain or d i s c o m f o r t , time l o s t from work, economic d i f f i c u l t i e s , and so f o r t h . (3) On a s s e s s i n g the c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the person must b e l i e v e t h a t b e n e f i t s stemming from the h e a l t h y behavior outweigh the c o s t s and are indeed p o s s i b l e and w i t h i n h i s or her grasp. (4) There must be a "cue t o a c t i o n " o r a p r e d i s p o s i n g force t h a t makes the person f e e l the need t o take a c t i o n . (Green e t a l . , 1980, p. 73) The  PRECEDE  predisposing influence  model  perceptions,  the o c c u r r e n c e  (Green,  1974)  "enabling"  proposed  factors  of prescribed  health  that  i n addition  i n the environment or exercise  to will  behaviour.  T h i s model r e c o g n i z e d  the c o m p l e x i t y o f behaviour change and emphasized  a diagnostic  approach  employing  of  social/behavioural  study:  administration.  theory  and t e c h n i q u e s  science,  education,  Kolbe e t a l . (1981) s t a t e d  from  four  fields  epidemiology,  t h a t when the H e a l t h  and  Belief  7 Model  and the PRECEDE model  are used  to design  and evaluate health  education programs, the dependent variable of analysis i s the occurrence of a specified health behaviour. The Health Belief Model and PRECEDE have been designed to represent our understandings about the nature o f , and relationships among, independent variables that influence health behaviors. The ultimate function of these paradigms i s to describe how the component independent variables can be influenced to increase the probability that a given behavior w i l l occur (or not occur as the case may be). (1981) Realizing the complexity of factors between a health decision (such as to exercise regularly) and i t s implementation, Kolbe and associates (1981) suggested that health education alone was not s u f f i c i e n t to bring about behavioural change.  They proposed that t h i s broader task was the  function of health promotion. combination and  They considered health promotion  of health education and related  economic  intervention  designed  organizational,  to f a c i l i t a t e  as any  political  b e h a v i o u r a l and  environmental adaptations that w i l l improve or protect health. Physcial education and fitness researchers have u t i l i z e d components of  s o c i a l learning theory i n investigations of sport p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  fitness promotion  (Martens  1975, Yiannakis et a l . 1979, Lauzon & Kier  1981,  Parcel & Baranowski  1981, Godin  views  exercise  in terms of a continuous  behaviour  cognitive,  behavioural  Baranowski  (1981) emphasized  simply  tell  people  & Shephard  and environmental  what  that tasks  1983).  This theory  interaction  determinants.  Parcel  health or exercise promoters they  have  t o perform  among and  cannot  (knowledge  provision), but must a l s o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o observe (social modelling) and practice ( s k i l l s training) performing s p e c i f i c complex t a s k s ... t o promote the person's b e h a v i o r a l c a p a b i l i t y to perform these tasks. Behavior modification should be promoted' i n small steps to promote the person's perceived s e l f - e f f i c a c y at changing behavior. Appropriate  8 expectations and expectancies must be c l a r i f i e d for learners so that they w i l l not be diverted from achieving a change. (P. 18) Recent medicine  attention  in  behaviours.  has  promoting  been  new  focused  on  perceptions  the  of  role  of  lifestyle  preventive and  health  A l l e n (1978) emphasized that health and exercise practices  are p a r t i a l l y determined by the cultures to which adults belong and that individuals can and w i l l change the groups to which they are when given  an  opportunity  and  assistance.  would replace groups considered which  encouraged  contended  that  are  suggested  that  adults  as inadequate or unsuitable with groups  p o s i t i v e health  there  He  affiliated  and  exercise  hundreds of d i f f e r e n t  practices.  activities  Allen  to promote  health, but i f health promotion i s to become more than a passing fad, i t must become the norm for adults to support p o s i t i v e health p r a c t i c e s . A significant occurred that  change in society's perception of exercise has  as a result of commercial advertisements.  the  positive s o c i a l  image of being  also  Young (1979) stated  f i t i s supported by  some  $25  b i l l i o n per year in North America for advertising, marketing and public relations healthy.  by  industry  where  This trend to use  population  out  of armchairs,  physical  activity  i s featured  as  being  images in promoting f i t n e s s i s s t i r r i n g converting  the passive  spectator  the  into the  active p a r t i c i p a n t . Recent expanded investigation of health and exercise behaviour from both  the  behavioural  information  which has  behaviour.  Recognizing  investigate the  sciences  and  health  fostered a greater  education  has  generated  understanding of adult  health  that no one d i s c i p l i n e has an exclusive right to  factors and  processes  involved  i n human behaviour  and  9 ;  health  promotion,/ Dwore  and  Matarazzo  c o l l a b o r a t i o n between f i e l d s  involved  (1981)  i n the  called  for  a  study o f h e a l t h  greater  behaviour.  Greater c o l l a b o r a t i o n a l l o w s each f i e l d t o p r e s e r v e i d e n t i t y while s t i m u l a t i n g c r o s s f e r t i l i z a t i o n o f ideas among t e a c h e r s , r e s e a r c h e r s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s . . . The c o m b i n e d e x p e r t i s e brought to bear on a problem viewed as a system o f components would e a s i l y surpass the c a p a b i l i t y o f any s i n g l e s p e c i a l t y . (P. 7) This  study  behaviour—why education  start  a  with  running  study  behavioural focused  program  the  (as  change  on  the  or  to  Although psychological antecedents. have  increase  has  as  a  and  a  few  employed  an  during  study  of  an  an  was  adulthood.  a  who  personalized  exercise  external  i n t e n t i o n a l change was  written  adult  l i f e s p a n developmental  participating in  investigations  exercise  s e l f - d i r e c t e d learner  program  agent  or  selected  as  f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  about  the  physiological  and  i s known about i t s b e h a v i o u r a l  Numerous authors have d e s c r i b e d been  of  implementing  supervision  been  It  self-growth  b e n e f i t s o f running, l i t t l e  into  why  adult  runners.  adult  runners  However, i n i t i a t e d "**  programs.  Physiological regular  and  t h e o r e t i c a l foundation  much  aspect  A c e n t r a l theme o f the  planning  opposed  instruction  the most a p p r o p r i a t e  running  one  program.  adult  i n s t r u c t o r ) , Tough's (1982) n o t i o n o f  there  only  framework.  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for  exercise under  for  the  assumed  adults  as a c o n c e p t u a l  capacity  Because  concerned  c o n c e p t — s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g , and  perspective the  was  physical  and  psychological  activity  understanding  of  have  arguments  become  exercise  well  supporting  established.  behaviour  and  are more l i k e l y to p a r t i c i p a t e than o t h e r s ,  to  factors  which  occur  prior  to  In  eventually  which a d u l t s consider  the  beginning  role  of  order  to  predict  i t is essential regular  physical  10 activity.  It  was  anticipated  that  personal  "characteristics"  and  "events" were related to reasons for beginning to run. The  purpose of  this  study was  regular running program. their  own  programs,  self-directed recent  evaluation  population  was  of  provided  explain  why  adults  (1971)  employed  the  impact  support  concept  to of  define  of  the  "running  for this concept.  Kier  and  claimed  program." the  adult  Lauzon  (1980)  fitness c i r c l e s , They  of the members of an adult population  Running  meets  program" was as  these  conditions  considered  he  or  she  specific f a c i l i t i e s , and  in  and  the  a A  to be active, chose a c t i v i t i e s that required no leadership,  teams, no set hours, no  adult  as  takes up physical a c t i v i t y wants to be managed.  reported that over 75 percent  a  implement  adult  P a r t i c i p a c t i o n on  indicated that contrary to popular b e l i e f in sport and not everyone who  initiate  Because most adult runners plan and  Tough's  learner  to  who no  usually no equipment.  present  study,  "running  as the s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning experiences of the develops  the  skills  and  knowledge  pertinent  to  r unning. The  investigator was  sexes and  various  age  p a r t i c u l a r l y interested in why  groups began to  run.  An  compare results among d i f f e r e n t sexed cohorts. running social effort  program  were  perspectives. was  made to  examined  from  adults of both  attempt was  Motives for beginning a  p h y s i o l o g i c a l , psychological,  In terms of physiological or health determine  the  made to  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  and  f a c t o r s , an  three  separate  "orientations": 1.  beginning decline,  to  run  to  maintain  present  health  status  or  prevent  11 2.  beginning to run to control or remediate a s p e c i f i c health problem,  3.  beginning to run to attain optimal or enriched health. The  dependent variables were the physiological, psychological and  social  reasons  number  and  why  adults started  variety of  items  a running  appeared  the  widest  possible  range  of  of  sufficient  i n the questionnaire to provide reasons  conceivably have for this important decision. were l i f e  A  under each of the three factors  (physiological, psychological, social) for  program.  which  individuals  The independent  might  variables  events experienced by the person one year prior to the onset  running, the external influences from the environment,  characteristics.  Age  Behavioural change  (beginning to run)  antecedent  life  (cohort)  events  characteristics  of  and  the  and  sex  were  of  was  investigated  external influences  individual.  Figure  special  as 1  and personal interest.  by considering  well  is a  as  personal  diagrammatic  representation of the study.  ^  External  Reasons for Running  Events  Figure 1: Relationship between independent variables and reasons for running.  Statement of the Problem The  primary  concerning behaviour.  the  aim  of  reasons  this why  study adults  was  to  c o n t r i b u t e to  initiated  The aims of the study were to:  change  theory  in exercise  12 1.  Create to  2.  3.  an  instrument  to e l i c i t  and  q u a n t i f y reasons  for  beginning  r un.  Examine r e l a t i o n s h i p s between reasons  f o r beginning t o run  a.  the e x p e r i e n c e of l i f e  year p r i o r  b.  the e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s o f one's environment,  c.  the p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  On  the  basis  relationships  of  the  events one  data  to running,  individual,  analysis,  between reasons  and:  create  f o r beginning  theory  t o run and  concerning independent  variables. Information providers  of  concerned  and  theory obtained  recreation  with  or  from  fitness  exercise  programs;  prescription;  counsellors;  (4) p u b l i c p o l i c y m a k e r s ;  exercise  health  or  this  behaviour;  and  study may (2)  (3)  interest:  (1)  health professionals adult  educators  or  (5) a d u l t s c o n s i d e r i n g changing (6)  scholars  studying  an  behavioural  change. In  summary,  this  was to  ex  run  post  study  for  various  combinations  of  personal  "characteristics,"  "events."  It  did  involve  non-runners.  A l l respondents  running,  variables  and  analyzed.  The  (Boshier on  & Collins,  not  dependent  a  with  of  adult  variables  I t was  them,  that  variables—"reasons"  independent  theory d e r i v e d from developmental  and  of  runners  and  their  reasons  for  measured  and  were for  running—were tradition  v a r i a b l e s were l a r g e l y  psychology.  by  "events"  i n the m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n r e s e a r c h 1982); the  runners.  "explained"  life  comparison  were r u n n e r s .  associated  dependent  c o n c e p t u a l l y anchored  were  facto  Reasons  external  beginning  an  based  13 CHAPTER TWO  CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK  L i f e s p a n Developmental P e r s p e c t i v e Traditional during  during  emphasizes  and  of  human  development  c h i l d h o o d and a d o l e s c e n c e ,  decline  defined  views  o l d age.  the p o t e n t i a l  of  stability  lifespan  f o r growth  as a p e r s p e c t i v e  optimization  The  "concerned  have  during  growth  a d u l t h o o d , and  developmental  during  with  emphasized  adulthood.  perspective I t has  been  the d e s c r i p t i o n , e x p l a n a t i o n ,  intraindividual  changes  in  behavior,  and  i n t e r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n such changes i n b e h a v i o r , from c o n c e p t i o n to  death"  behaviour  (Hultsch  Deutsch,  1981, p .  i t focuses on the q u e s t i o n s :  changing?,  Why  developmental 1.  &  i s i t changing?, approaches  Development differ  assert  15).  What  and How  When  examining  i s changing?,  When  can i t be changed?  adult is  i t  Lifespan  that:  i s multidirectional  i n that  changes  during  adulthood  i n terms o f o n s e t , d i r e c t i o n , d u r a t i o n , and t e r m i n a t i o n .  2.  Development i n v o l v e s both q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e change.  3.  Developmental dimensions  change such  may  be  viewed  as c h r o n o l o g i c a l  along  multiple  age, b i r t h  time-related  cohort  and  life  transitions. 4.  Development individual  i s produced  by  a  dynamic  and h i s e n v i r o n m e n t .  interaction  Three  between  important  the  sources of  i n f l u e n c e on b e h a v i o u r a l change a r e : i) n o r m a t i v e  age-graded  events  such  as b i o l o g i c a l  a g i n g and  s o c i a l i z a t i o n events such as marriage and c h i l d b i r t h ,  14 ii)  normative h i s t o r y - g r a d e d i n f l u e n c e s i n which most members o f a cohort  experience  economic  historic  events  such  d e p r e s s i o n or p r o s p e r i t y  as wars,  epidemics,  or s o c i o c u l t u r a l  such as changes i n s e x - r o l e s , e d u c a t i o n or l e i s u r e iii)  non-normative related  l i f e event  t o time,  since  influences they  Examples are d i v o r c e , promotion 5.  Different in  6.  do  which  cannot  not occur  evolution  time, be d i r e c t l y  for a l l adults.  and i l l n e s s .  sources o f change are l i k e l y t o occur at d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s  the l i f e  The t i m i n g  cycle. and p a t t e r n i n g  of different  sources  o f influence are  cr i t i c a l . In  order  to provide  undertake  the l e a r n i n g  Darkenwald  (1979)  sophisticated personal affect  a more o f new  emphasize:  conceptions  and s i t u a t i o n a l the nature  effective skills  "Further  e x p l a n a t i o n o f why  or knowledge, research  of the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  needs  adults  Anderson  and  t o employ  more  process  that  include  v a r i a b l e s t h a t can r e a s o n a b l y be p o s t u l a t e d t o  and t i m i n g  o f engagement  i n further  learning  activities."  L i f e Events and L i f e Inherent life  events.  various on  life  critical  stability. are  viewed  Transitions  i n the l i f e s p a n developmental Adult  lives  events. events  are c h a r a c t e r i z e d  When r e c a l l i n g  their  (periods o f t r a n s i t i o n )  H u l t s c h and Deutsch as important  p e r s p e c t i v e i s the notion o f by t r a n s i t i o n s  marked by  personal past, adults rather  (1981) suggest  that:  than  focus  on p e r i o d s o f  "When l i f e  events  antecedents o f behavior change d u r i n g a d u l t h o o d ,  a p o t e n t i a l l y powerful e x p l a n a t o r y framework i s generated"  (p. 216).  15 In an attempt to provide a better understanding undertake the  learning of new  skills  or  of why  knowledge during  individuals adult  life,  several investigators examined the relationship between t r a n s i t i o n s the  onset  require  of  new  role  behaviour.  Knox  (1977) suggested  changes which make some form of  that l i f e  adaptation  and  events  inescapable.  When a change event  occurs  the need for adaptation produces,  adults, a heightened  readiness to engage in learning a c t i v i t y .  for many  Lowenthal, Thurnher and Chiriboga (1975) examined four t r a n s i t i o n a l stages in the adult years and found that changes required i n each group, whether  incremental  potentially  (role  stressful.  reassessment:  gain) The  or  decremental  changes  often  (role caused  a  were  personal  "The anticipation of an impending t r a n s i t i o n often serves  as a stimulus to examine, possibly to reorient, goals and and to reassess personal resources and p r o b a b i l i t y of their attainment" Gould  loss),  aspirations,  impediments in the l i g h t of the  (p. x ) .  (1978), i n Transformations:  Growth and Change in Adult L i f e ,  said growth i s the obligation and opportunity of adulthood. Adulthood i s not changing time for may now view their a possible sign movement toward a  a plateau; rather i t i s a dynamic and a l l of us. . . . With this in mind, adults disturbed feelings at particular periods as of progress, as part of their attempted f u l l e r adult l i f e . (p. 14)  In his research on the adult l i f e cycle, Levinson four  overlapping  developmental  periods  separated  by  (1978) i d e n t i f i e d five  transitions.  The primary task of the t r a n s i t i o n periods i s to terminate the existing l i f e structure and i n i t i a t e a new one. the present  life  This involves the reappraisal of  structure, exploration of new  directions  for change,  and a movement toward c r u c i a l choices that w i l l provide the basis for a new  life  structure.  Levinson  (1978) said the adult moves through  the  16 p e r i o d s i n a p r e d i c t a b l e order and required  for each.  specific  He  lifestyle  components. life  events  that  bring  indicates  which  Like  has  other  t h a t s p e c i f i c developmental  t h a t each p e r i o d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by biological,  researchers,  the to  about  or  signify  a  notable  s t r u c t u r e s or t r a n s i t i o n s  groups  Rather  is  17-22, 28-33, and  undergo s i g n i f i c a n t  internal  than  attribute  processes,  are  change  in  the  r e g a r d i n g the  social  significant periods  adult's  life.  identification  i n the a d u l t l i f e  cycle.  40-45 have c o n s i s t e n t l y  a  been  of  Adults i n observed  behavioural.change. behavioural  Neugarten  r e q u i r e d t o e x p l a i n the  adults  identified  ("marker e v e n t s " ) , d e f i n e d as o c c a s i o n s or extended  event age  p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and  Levinson  Consensus among r e s e a r c h e r s a l s o e x i s t s life  t a s k s are  change  (1968) m a i n t a i n s  timing  of  s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by  during  adulthood  that a s o c i a l  a d u l t development.  the  society  framework  Because most  i n which  must c o n s i d e r b e h a v i o u r a l change i n a s o c i a l c o n t e x t .  to  they  She  live,  one  states:  Age norms and age e x p e c t a t i o n s operate as prods and brakes upon b e h a v i o r , i n some i n s t a n c e s hastened an event, i n o t h e r s d e l a y i n g i t . Men and women are not o n l y aware o f the s o c i a l c l o c k s t h a t operate i n v a r i o u s areas o f t h e i r l i v e s , but they are a l s o aware o f t h e i r own t i m i n g and r e a d i l y d e s c r i b e themselves as " e a r l y " or " l a t e " or "on time" with r e g a r d t o f a m i l y and o c c u p a t i o n a l e v e n t s . . . . The s a l i e n c y of age and age-norms i n i n f l u e n c i n g the behavior o f a d u l t s i s no l e s s than i n i n f l u e n c i n g the behavior o f c h i l d r e n . (1968, pp. 143-144) Life  events  "cumulative" anticipated reasons  impact that  the  antecedents  on  reasons  different  age  of  for and  running.  running sex  Their  were  cohorts  "separate"  studied.  would  have  It  and was  different  for running.  Research information events.  are  by  Lowenthal,  regarding  The  age  investigators  Thurnher and  sex  found  and  Cheriboga  differences that  young  in  (1975) exposure  adults  provided to  life  reported  more  17 exposure  to l i f e  retire.  The younger  older  tended  recorded most  women  to report  and females  source o f s t r e s s  of stress  children's  middle-aged  more n e g a t i v e  between males  were  than  tended  to report  salient  sources  events  education,  colleagues  were  also  i n terms o f cause o f s t r e s s .  The  made  the  incidence  suggest  that  t h e most  and the f a m i l y .  events  salient  Middle-aged  associated  with  The  their  researchers  i s s u e was not the mere o c c u r r e n c e o f a l i f e i t . What one a d u l t may e x p e r i e n c e as  another may e x p e r i e n c e as a c h a l l e n g e .  (self-reported conclusions  Differences  and o c c u p a t i o n .  event, but how the a d u l t p e r c e i v e d a catastrophe,  stresses.  by  marriage,  about t o  more p o s i t i v e s t r e s s e s while t h e  health  stressed  emphasized that the c r i t i c a l  and a d u l t s  f o r men was work w h i l e  f o r women were  especially  parents  distinction of l i f e there  between  events)  Lowenthal and her  exposure  and p e r c e i v e d  to  stress  stress.  Their  are both age and sex d i f f e r e n c e s  in l i f e  event e x p e r i e n c e s and t h a t sex d i f f e r e n c e s appear t o be more s i g n i f i c a n t than age d i f f e r e n c e s . Hultsch  and Deutsch  (1981) emphasized  that  the focus  of  research  i n t o a d u l t development must be on behaviour change p r o c e s s e s r a t h e r  than  age-change f u n c t i o n s .  what  behaviours descriptive  are r e l a t e d variable  physiological, occur  over  changes;  to  only.  time.  Kimmel  Thus,  functions  Apparent  only  age  age i s c o n s i d e r e d  social,  (1980)  ". . . i t i s merely  groups o f a d u l t s  age-change  age, c h r o n o l o g i c a l  psychological,  changes take p l a c e . "  social,  Because  i s viewed  that  an index  age does  o f the speed  as  a  as an index o f  and s e l f - p e r c e i v e d  argues  identify  changes  not cause with  that these  which t h e  age d i f f e r e n c e s between d i f f e r e n t  cohort  are not caused by age; i n s t e a d , "they are the r e s u l t o f  biological,  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  changes  i n addition  t o having  18 lived  longer  stresses  and accumulated  that  physiological  more  researchers  experience"  must  and p s y c h o s o c i a l  look  (1980,  behind  antecedents  p. 31).  Kimmel  "age" t o  responsible  examine  f o r changes i n  adults. There are two g e n e r a l understand how a d u l t s physical, When and  respond t o l i f e  psychological,  investigating fitness  f a c t o r s which must be c o n s i d e r e d  and s o c i a l  changes  status  events.  as  behaviour,  skill  level  which  one  might  engaged  the p h y s i c a l  certainly  adoption o f a more p h y s i c a l l y a c t i v e l i f e s t y l e . exercise  consists o f the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the i n d i v i d u a l .  i n exercise  as w e l l  The f i r s t  i n order t o  health  influence  the  The mode and e x t e n t o f  i n i s largely  determined  by t h e  p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t i e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l . Personality events.  influences  Costa and McCrae  personality: Their  also  suggests  extroversion, that  i n d i v i d u a l s had any c o n t r o l of  life  events  i s also  affected  socio-economic  status,  support  systems  as  Interpersonal resources  support  has been  by  three  providing  social  income,  to  interpersonal  relationships.  The life  life  second g e n e r a l  events  and  in availability  than  those  factor associated  over  life  which  The impact  such  as  ethnic  and  interpersonal  work  associates.  psychological,  Thus, i n d i v i d u a l s having m a r g i n a l i n t e r p e r s o n a l effectively  events  factors  friends,  to  t o experience.  t o these domains.  physical,  shown t o vary  adapt  broad domains o f a d u l t  a l llife  education,  family,  will  and openness  virtually  were r e l a t e d  beliefs,  such  the a d u l t  (1980) i d e n t i f i e d  neuroticism,  research  how  over  or  financial  the l i f e  cycle.  support may respond l e s s  having  more  supportive  with how t h e a d u l t responds t o  events i s the m e d i a t i o n o f the environment.  The type and frequency  19 of  external  influences  vary  in  different  settings.  In some segments of the  considered  "exceptional"  reverse  may  occur,  activity.  the  and  television  adult  the  population "odd."  running  various  a l l segments of  increased  even  that  Through  Participaction nearly  in  or  media  fitness of  participation in  i n other as  a  "normal"  members  individual  of  specific  presented.  perceptions shake t h e i r  minority  adult  as  events,  running.  appears to v a r y  among  The  specific  Because most o f the models appear t o  Indeed,  regarding  adult  have been made aware o f  middle c l a s s , l e i s u r e - o r i e n t e d C a u c a s i a n s , i t seems reasonable that  groups might some  having  be the  such  running  recreational  information  cultural  groups  promotions  community  population  or  a d u l t runner would  regarded  coverage  socioeconomic or e t h n i c groups.  the  However,  is  Canadian  i n f l u e n c e of these sources of  socioeconomic  not  participation in  to expect  identify  different running  be  with  the  attitudes  and  programs  might  heads i n amazement.  Reasons f o r Running Previous reasons  why  adults  biological, beginning regain  research  by  the  initiated  psychological,  running  and  program  social.  The  others  indicates  can  categorized  most  be  common  are a n t i c i p a t e d p h y s i o l o g i c a l a d a p t a t i o n s .  their  health  and  others  physical health  suggest  adults  that  their  current  a  and  (1980) regard  lost  investigator  health  learn  t r a n s i t i o n ) , or  anticipated  transition)"  as a d e s i r e d  new  (a past  to maintain  exercise  transition),  because (p.  81).  they  it.  reasons  and  because afraid  they  are  they w i l l  to  Brickell  s t a t u s among most a d u l t s because  as for  Some a d u l t s run  Aslanian  behaviours  are  that  "they  losing lose  and have  it  (a  it  (an  20 A common t r i g g e r i n g event i s the  realization  that one  is  aging.  Something happens t o make a person r e a l i z e t h a t the years are s l i p p i n g by and t h a t f i t n e s s i s s l i p p i n g away: the a r r i v a l o f a t h i r t i e t h b i r t h d a y , a comment from a f r i e n d met a f t e r a few years of s e p a r a t i o n , or the wedding o f one's c h i l d are the kinds o f c l e a r s i g n a l s t h a t can t r i g g e r the d e c i s i o n t o l e a r n how to stay h e a l t h y . ( A s l a n i a n & B r i c k e l l , 1980, p. 83) The  present  individuals  to  stimulated is  the  interest assume  awareness that  Overeating, in  an  on  a scale  and  climbing  smoking  a  flight  Rather  to  to  is  Commonly  For  Tough  habits  first of  time  stairs  motivate  running  to  new  population  recreational  that are  own  had  now  little  taking  and  life  to  degrees  adults  of  phrases  such  control as  lifestyles,  "listen  hypokinetic  a l l contribute  fitness.  Adults  21  to  the  a cohort  i s based on  gain  effect  their  to  on  toll.  themselves  Events such as  deterioration  through  (1971) i d e n t i f i e d  factor  stepping  becoming out o f breath  some  has  engage  after in  new  further d e t e r i o r a t i o n .  prevent  insights  health  motivating  or  recover  health  these a d u l t s , involvement i n r e g u l a r  attempting  Sedentary  One  encourages  eventually manifest  i n months or  body" would have been r a r e twenty years  older  their  even alarming o c c u r r e n c e .  in adult learning  heard  health  sedentary l i v i n g  improve q u a l i t y o f  lifestyle.  adult  poor  which  some i n d i v i d u a l s i n d i c a t e that running was  attain  experienced.  trend  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for  attempt to prevent  than  health d e f i c i t ,  the  and  or  for the  behaviours i n an  new  medicine  appearance at a younger age  undesirable  serves  more  preventive  some a d u l t s to begin running programs.  one's h e a l t h  means  in  the  years  a  regarded as  a  not  of  his  to  your  own  activity  a healthier  indicated that  l i f e s t y l e decisions over  previously  physical  adoption  e f f e c t and  from  i n which  physical  body,"  or  a  the  health.  "free  your  ago. disease,  and  d e c i s i o n of and  older  an  increasingly  adults  t o engage i n  c u r r e n t l y account  for  21 65 p e r c e n t  of  the  population  greater  proportion.  society  i s entering  aware  Gould  "century  for  regular  the  need  c y c l e one  can  a n t i c i p a t e an  i n the  (1978)  the  of  fitness  and,  of  future, w i l l  has  commented  the  adult."  physical  increase  that As  activity  i n adult  represent North  an  American  more a d u l t s throughout  even  become  the  life  participation in physical  activities.  Many  adults  reasons.  indicate  they  to  escape  goal  some a d u l t Recent  running wishes  to  a personal  are  reported  runners.  research  can  achieve  usually  psychological  such as running  s t r e s s , or  are  for  consequences of running, reasons f o r beginning t o run reduce  variables  running  as  routine,  psychological  began  investigated  by  Although  that  into  the  lend  itself  to  project  into  it.  psychodynamics  any  meaning  According  or to  of  running  suggests  s i g n i f i c a n c e the Sacks  and  Sachs  that  individual (1981),  the  a d a p t a b i l i t y of running to each i n d i v i d u a l i s v e r y much i n keeping with the psychodynamic t h e o r y and i t s e m p h a s i s on t h e p l a s t i c i t y o f b e h a v i o r i n representing c o n f l i c t s and f a n t a s i e s . C e r t a i n l y t h i s c o u l d e x p l a i n the immense p o p u l a r i t y of the sport among so many d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e , each o f them f i n d i n g i n t h e i r running a meaning s p e c i a l to t h e i r own h i s t o r y and c h a r a c t e r . (p. 68) Behavioural techniques shown t o In  a  modify  involve  discussion  Sharkey and  to  medicine r e s e a r c h  both of  health the  one  behaves  multitude  of  with  varying  ever  learned  when  for  "The  attempted  exercise  arousal  motives  (1979) e x p l a i n e d :  how  and  has  and  d i r e c t i o n of  d i r e c t i o n of  behaviors  and  situations"  (p.  is  the  a  apply  in  Thus, one  that  study  activity, i s , where  involving  these  would  is  behaviour.  physical  behavior,  complex  Motivation  exercise  i n t e r a c t i o n of  208) .  psychological  behaviours.  participation  aroused,  to  a  behaviors  expect  that  "motives" would vary between individuals and be influenced by the l e v e l of arousal and previous exercise experiences. Although  few,  i f any,  previous  studies  have  attempted  to  investigate the relationship between the reasons why adults begin to run and  antecedent  reasons  why  adults  investigation categorized the  variables,  of  research  has been  participate  attitudes  in  conducted  physical  towards physical  to  categorize  activity.  activity,  Kenyon  In  an  (1968)  the reasons for adult involvement i n physical a c t i v i t y  into  following:  1.  s o c i a l experience  2.  health and f i t n e s s  3.  pursuit of vertigo  ( t h r i l l of speed and change of d i r e c t i o n while  remaining in control) 4.  an aesthetic experience  5.  catharsis (reduction i n stress or tension)  6.  an ascetic experience ( d i s c i p l i n e or regimentation of t r a i n i n g ) .  Motivational As  a  major  explanation identify patterns  present exercise  purpose  of  the  present  study  was  to  provide  an  of the reasons why adults began to run i t was necessary to  major of  considering rather  Orientations  than  types  of  behaviour  them.  "motives." exist  and  Typologies provide  assume  order  They also f a c i l i t a t e research  or  adult  in  types  Because the  participation in a self-directed  program, the concept of motivational  from the adult education research  general  structure  because general  idiosyncratic individuals can be measured.  investigation involved  that  literature.  orientation was borrowed This concept served the  23 purpose  of  identifying  influenced  adults  specific  to i n i t i a t e  "orientations"  and  that  "motivated"  participate in individualized  or  running  programs. The  present  findings  of  Boshier  (1982, 1984). concerning  in  beginning  has  been  (1971,  the  running  1976,  participation creation  conceptual investigate run and reasons  and  i n the  of  the  frameworks  desire and  relationships  adults  begin  the  1984),  and  by  the  Boshier  research  and  Collins  t o t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h methodology learning  activities  instrument  to  was  measure  especially reasons  for  between  variables. to  integrate  psychometric between  to  the  the  run  study  procedures, adult's  variables. would  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n d i v i d u a l , l i f e influences.  influenced  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  a v a r i e t y of independent why  1983,  in  of  " o r i e n t a t i o n " s c o r e s and other Because  greatly  Boshier's contribution  adult  important  study  established  i t was  reasons  I t was be  into  decided  to  f o r beginning  to  anticipated that  related  to  the  events e x p e r i e n c e d , and  the  personal external  24 CHAPTER THREE  DEVELOPMENT OF THE INITIAL REASONS FOR RUNNING SCALE  As  the primary  concerning  aim o f  this  study  was  reasons why a d u l t s began running  i t was c o n s i d e r e d  to  have an instrument which i d e n t i f i e d motives  a  literature  designed program Scale a  search  t o measure i t was  initial  necessary  (IRFRS).  model  failed  participation  reasons  identified  the  considered  as  sociodemographic  structure  dependent  that  necessary  t o generate  variables  many reasons an  motivate item  " m o t i v a t o r s " as p o s s i b l e .  obtained  from  well  as  for  the  "predicted"  adult  functional  a c t i v i t y are by  various  a d u l t s t o begin  pool  which  Initially,  running, i t  encompassed  75 p o t e n t i a l  as  many  items  were  p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h by the i n v e s t i g a t o r , c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h  runners,  and d i s c u s s i o n s with  fitness  typed on a card and s o r t e d i n t o a - p r i o r i that some items concerned  "Socialization,"  "Prevention,"  items were c o n s i d e r e d redundant arranged  as  motives  variables.  Realizing  was apparent  of  Scale p r o v i d e d  f o r beginning a s p e c i f i c  relevant  adult  a regular exercise  I n i t i a l Reasons For Running  (motivational orientations) i n which the motives  As  specifically  (1982) E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n  relationships  was  an i n s t r u m e n t  the  essential  f o r beginning t o r u n .  f o r beginning  t o develop  Boshier's  which  t o produce  to contribute t o theory  so  systematically  that  items  distributed  leaders.  factors.  expected  to  throughout  load  on  was  "Personal Challenge,"  and " H e a l t h . "  and e l i m i n a t e d .  item  Even a t t h i s stage i t  "Solitude,"  "Remedial,"  Each  Twenty-five  The remaining t h e same  the i n s t r u m e n t .  50 were  factor  The items  were were  25 cast  on a f o u r - p o i n t  Influence,  scale  Much I n f l u e n c e ) .  (No I n f l u e n c e ,  Little  Influence,  The i n s t r u c t i o n s and the f i r s t  Moderate  three  items  were: Think back t o the time immediately b e f o r e you began t o r u n . I n d i c a t e the extent t o which each o f the reasons l i s t e d below i n f l u e n c e d you t o begin r u n n i n g . C i r c l e the c a t e g o r y which best r e f l e c t s the extent t o which each reason i n f l u e n c e d you t o begin r u n n i n g . No reason i s any more o r l e s s d e s i r a b l e than any o t h e r . C i r c l e the one c a t e g o r y f o r each r e a s o n . START HERE:  1.  To improve energy l e v e l  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  2.  To l i v e  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  3.  To escape boredom  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  IRFRS d a t a item  means,  compared  longer  provided  S.D.'s,  with  hand  by 205 s u b j e c t s  minimum  and  maximum  calculations  on  c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x was then f a c t o r e d . performed yielded each  because  15 f a c t o r s  factor  factor  was  disregarded. during  was e x t r a c t e d  with  examined  solutions  idiosyncratic  step  of a desire  that  scores  some  eigenvalues and then  failed  of  raw  than  eight,  seven,  During  step on  additional  one.  from the c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x .  i n t e r p r e t a b l e and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y s a t i s f y i n g  This  and  data.  The  two  of this factors  consisted  and  four  analysis, were  also  After a t h i r d  the " f i n a l "  factors.  This  The content o f  six, five,  major  items were d e l e t e d ,  examined  factors.  Again a v a r i e t y o f s o l u t i o n s was g e n e r a t e d . which  Next,  (varimax) r o t a t i o n was  uncorrelated  greater  t o load  were  the  Orthogonal  t o produce  were g e n e r a t e d .  items  were i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d .  solution  o f s i x pure,  26 Items shown i n Table factor  analyses.  clarification shows  item  Sixteen  purposes,  means,  factors.  The  1 a r e the 34 t h a t items  items  standard  s i x factors  remained  were d e l e t e d d u r i n g  have  been  accounted  and  1 t o 34.  loadings  f o r 52.13  successive  the a n a l y s e s .  renumbered  deviations,  after  on  Table 1  each  percent  of  For  o f the  the  total  variance. The second  first  factor  accounted  f o r 8.37, the t h i r d  f o r 4.28.  items  ranged  extent  t o which  solitary  time  beginning  and  suggests  t h a t many  exercise  program  organized begin  group  running  temporarily  escape adults  such  because  escape  Factor  from  from  from  I , SOLITUDE, c o n s i s t e d o f  .46 t o .83.  t o run  i s related  daily  consider  as running  activity.  o f the v a r i a n c e , t h e  f o r 7.54, the f o u r t h f o r 7.26, the f i f t h f o r  4.45, and the s i x t h whose l o a d i n g s  f o r 20.23 p e r c e n t  an  more  i t provides  T h i s f a c t o r measured t h e to  efforts  routine.  to  Casual or  appealing  more  score  than high  the o p p o r t u n i t y  external pressures  to  or demands.  provide  observation  individualized  I n d i v i d u a l s who  nine  self-directed formal  on t h i s be  and  factor  alone  and  The items  and  l o a d i n g s f o r SOLITUDE are shown below:  FACTOR I SOLITUDE 7. 34. 28. 9. 31. 4. 18. 2. 29.  To To To To To To To To To  p r o v i d e a q u i e t time p r o v i d e a s o l i t a r y time p r o v i d e my own block o f time provide relaxation h e l p cope with an emotional c r i s i s h e l p s o r t out problems escape from r o u t i n e escape boredom p r o v i d e an a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e  .83 .80 .73 .68 .64 .60 .55 .50 .46  TABLE 1:  Initial  Reasons For Running  7. To p r o v i d e a q u i e t time 34. To p r o v i d e a s o l i t a r y time 28. To p r o v i d e my own block o f time 9. To p r o v i d e r e l a x a t i o n 31 . To h e l p cope with an emotional c r i s i s 4. To h e l p s o r t out problems 18. To escape from r o u t i n e 2. To escape boredom 29. To p r o v i d e an a e s t h e t i c experience 3. To compete a g a i n s t myself 24. To compete a g a i n s t o t h e r s 12. To p r o v i d e a p e r s o n a l c h a l l e n g e 5. To s a t i s f y c u r i o s i t y r e g a r d i n g running 6. To make new acquaintances 32. To i n t e r a c t with o t h e r s 17. To e x p e r i e n c e the "runner's h i g h " 20. To g a i n s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e 14. To be l i k e d 26. To get s o c i a l s t a t u s 22. To conform t o the i n f l u e n c e o f o t h e r s 10. To p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t y t o buy " i n " c l o t h e s 23. To get r i d o f g u i l t 33. To avoid c o n f r o n t i n g a problem 1 . To l i v e longer 27. To prevent heart d i s e a s e 15. To prevent premature aging 21 . To i n c r e a s e j o i n t m o b i l i t y 30. To h e l p c o n t r o l s p e c i f i c h e a l t h problem 11 . To f o l l o w the advice o f a p h y s i c i a n 19. To h e l p q u i t smoking 13. To compensate for bad n u t r i t i o n a l h a b i t 8. To m a i n t a i n good p h y s i c a l h e a l t h 16. To improve p h y s i c a l h e a l t h 25. To improve appearance V a r i a n c e accounted f o r (%) Cumulative v a r i a n c e accounted f o r (%)  Scale  Mean 2.17 2.09 1.92 2.64 1 .72 1.91 1 .81 1.80 1 .74 2.21 1 .46 2.65 1 .91 1.33 1 .43 1.73 1 .82 1.16 1 .25 1.30 1.16 1.35 1 .20 2.43 2.51 1.98 1 .78 1.64 1 .30 1.49 1 .68 3.66 3.60 2.83  Item Means, S.D.'s, and F a c t o r  S.D. 1 .05 1.11 1 .06 1.02 .98 1.02 .90 .87 .93 1.05 .81 1.06 .96 .65 .72 .95 .97 .50 .56 .67 .51 .73 .56 1.07 1.14 1.09 .90 1.02 .79 1.03 .97 .59 .63 .97  I .83* .80* .78* .68* .64* .60* .55* .50* .46* .04 .02 .18 .21 .19 .16 .26 .22 .11 .11 .17 .04 .19 .29 .01 .03 .12 .19 .07 .04 .07 .04 .08 .03 .14 20 .23 20 .23  -  -  -  II .12 .10 .14 .11 -.08 .03 .29 .19 .19 .81* .70* .68* .62* .61* .54* .48* .43* .20 .32 .20 -.07 .06 -.05 .02 -.02 .11 .10 -.02 -.02 .09 -.03 .18 .11 .03 8.37 28.60  Loadings  FACTORS III IV .06 .06 .07 .07 .11 • 01 -.08 .13 .24 -.15 .08 .04 .12 .14 .02 -.06 .36 -.03 -.06 -.02 .20 -.06 -.01 -.08 .03 .09 .12 .32 .32 .29 .15 .08 .27 .09 .72* .22 .65* .15 .62* -.05 .60* .17 .54* -.31 .53* -.06 .74* .12 .72* -.03 .21 .61* .02 .55* .18 .14 .35 .04 -.07 -.03 .08 .38 .30 -.13 -.07 .35 .15 .25 7.54 7.26 36.14 43.40  V -.02 -.05 -.05 -.01 .29 .26 -.06 .14 .09 -.05 -.01 .03 .06 -.02 -.01 .32 .38 -.04 -.08 .04 .07 .22 .23 .02 .24 .03 .16 .70* .62* .58* .42* -.15 .03 .23 4.45 47.85  VI .09 .12 .13 .25 -.06 -.19 -.07 -.28 .28 .09 -.01 .30 .10 -.22 -.15 .23 .13 -.16 .01 .09 -.03 .28 -.13 .15 .31 .23 .03 .10 -.20 -.01 .27 .67* .65* .45* 4.28 52.13  28 Factor  I I , PERSONAL  l o a d i n g s t h a t ranged to  which  Adults  an  from  individual  scoring  high  CHALLENGE, .43 t o .81.  began  on  consisted  this  This factor  running factor  of  eight  with  measured the e x t e n t  for " c u r i o s i t y " are o f t e n  items  or " c h a l l e n g e . "  directly  or  indirectly  i n f l u e n c e d by other  i n d i v i d u a l s and e v e n t u a l l y d e c i d e t o "see what i t i s  all  indicate  about."  Some  c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e or t o equal prevalence running  o f runners  that  they  personal  goal  the performance o f another.  i n our s o c i e t y  s t i m u l a t e many  set a  adults  and the media  to "join  t o run a  C e r t a i n l y the  attention  the movement."  given t o  The items and  l o a d i n g s f o r Factor I I a r e shown below:  FACTOR I I PERSONAL CHALLENGE 3. 24. 12. 5. 6. 32. 17. 20.  To To To To To To To To  compete a g a i n s t myself compete a g a i n s t o t h e r s provide a personal challenge s a t i s f y c u r i o s i t y r e g a r d i n g running make new acquaintances i n t e r a c t with o t h e r s e x p e r i e n c e the "runner's h i g h " gain self-confidence  Factor ranging  I I I , SOCIALIZATION,  from  .53 t o .72.  image  and s o c i a l  some  individuals  significant  others  placed  factor  also  SOCIALIZATION measures  running  to  or t o i d e n t i f y  some a d u l t s f e e l almost values  c o n s i s t e d o f s i x items  status of running. begin  compelled  on running  measured  .81 .70 .68 .62 .61 .54 .48 .43  conform  with  the i n f l u e n c e o f the  observation to  loadings  the  the f i t n e s s  suggests  expectations  image.  that of  Certainly  t o run because o f the c o n n o t a t i o n s and  by c e r t a i n  the extent  Casual  with  segments o f the p o p u l a t i o n .  t o which  individuals  began  This  running t o  29 get  r i d of g u i l t or  t o avoid c o n f r o n t i n g a problem.  for  F a c t o r I I I are shown below:  Items and  loadings  FACTOR I I I SOCIALIZATION 14. 26. 22. 10. 23. 33.  To To To To To To  be l i k e d get s o c i a l s t a t u s conform to the i n f l u e n c e o f o t h e r s p r o v i d e the o p p o r t u n i t y to buy the " i n " c l o t h e s get r i d o f g u i l t a v o i d c o n f r o n t i n g a problem  Factors health percent focused  IV,  related of on  separately.  and  aspects  the a  V,  VI  of  total  were  a l l concerned  running.  variance.  specific Factor  Together Because  component  IV,  i n d i v i d u a l s began running  of  PREVENTION, to l i v e  long  and  on  running  as a means of  and  preventing  heart  disease.  .55  Items  to  and  .74.  the  they the  prevent  from  consider  of  measured  the  physical  accounted  health,  ranging  factor  they  each  c o n s i s t e d o f four items this  with  .72 .65 .62 .60 .54 .53  for  three were  extent  15.99  factors analyzed to  which  premature a g i n g . A d u l t s who  or  score  It high  increasing joint mobility  loadings  for  PREVENTION  are  shown below:  FACTOR IV PREVENTION 1. 27. 15. 21.  To l i v e longer To prevent heart d i s e a s e To prevent premature aging To i n c r e a s e j o i n t m o b i l i t y  Factor ranged from  V,  REMEDIAL,  .42 to  .70.  consisted  .74 .72 .61 .55  of  four  High s c o r e r s on t h i s  items  with  loadings  factor  began running  that i n an  30 attempt  to  help  control  recommended by a p h y s i c i a n the  i n d i v i d u a l to q u i t  nutritional  habit.  a  specific  or t o p r o v i d e  adults  regard  overeating  or consuming  preferable  t o "run o f f " a n u t r i t i o n a l  eating  habits.  difficult believe need  support  t o c o n t i n u e smoking  that  by  beginning  for cigarettes.  Running  diet. problem  Sheehan's  was  f o r a "bad"  as a c o u n t e r b a l a n c e t o For some a d u l t s , rather  (1980)  than  claim  will  and l o a d i n g s  that  i t is  reduce or e l i m i n a t e f o r REMEDIAL  it is  t o change  a f t e r one begins running r e g u l a r l y .  t o run they  Items  compensation  running  a non-nutritious  Others  problem.  and was used as an i n t e r v e n t i o n i n a s s i s t i n g  smoking  Many  health  They their  are indicated  below:  FACTOR V REMEDIAL 30. 11. 19. 13.  To To To To  h e l p c o n t r o l a s p e c i f i c h e a l t h problem f o l l o w the advice o f a p h y s i c i a n '. . h e l p q u i t smoking compensate f o r a bad n u t r i t i o n a l h a b i t  Factor running  V I , HEALTH, measured  to maintain  hypothesized oriented indicated with  that  high  i n Factor, v.  V I was  health  status  Running  which  than p r e v e n t i n g  HEALTH are shown below:  health.  It i s  f a c t o r are maintenance or growth  rather  than  deficiency  problem but as a means o f s t r i v i n g i n many r e s p e c t s  i n d i v i d u a l s began  a t t a i n optimal  i s not regarded  related  emphasis i n HEALTH i s more on present rather  or  s c o r e r s on t h i s  i n terms o f h e a l t h  a health  Factor  current  the e x t e n t • t o  .70 .62 .58 .42  oriented  as  as a means o f d e a l i n g for optimal  fitness.  t o PREVENTION.  However, the  or immediate h e a l t h  and appearance  f u t u r e m e d i c a l problems.  Items and l o a d i n g s f o r  31  FACTOR VI HEALTH 8. 16. 25.  To m a i n t a i n good p h y s i c a l h e a l t h To improve p h y s i c a l h e a l t h To improve appearance  .67 .65 .45  Scale Scoring Factors or  are o f t e n d e r i v e d by  greater.  .84.  In  the  present  analysis  Each of the s i x f a c t o r s  on . i t s "own"  and  fail  on  to  load  factor)  the  items with  factors.  are  No  i n c l u d e d i n the  34  the s t r u c t u r a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f motives  great  designed  to  independent construct capable  items  from  .40  .42  to  loading high  items  (items which  item  form  of  the  ;  Although of  "pure"  passenger  IRFRS.  are  loadings of  l o a d i n g s ranged  i s composed o f  low on other any  including  interest, yield  of  One  program.  As  it  instrument  will  decided  utilize  not  and  clusters  is  that  scale  above  could  related  be  conceptually  of  anticipated have  described  were  that  access scores  reasons  to  than  a desire to  beginning  potential  computational  rather  selected  defensible  for  most  primarily  to  outcome o f the p r e s e n t study was  psychometrically measuring  to  procedures  IRFRS, s c o r e s  variables. a  the  f o r b e g i n n i n g t o run  instrument a  users  running of  facilities  factor  scores  this  it  was  calculated  from r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . Scale six  scores  factors  summing factors.  indicating  i n the person's  the  "raw"  Because  the  i t e m s , i t i s the s c a l e  contribution  of  each  of  d e c i s i o n t o begin running were c a l c u l a t e d  responses each  relative  factor  to  items  was  score mean  that  composed (derived  constituted of  a  each  different  by d i v i d i n g  the  of  by the  number total  the  of  score  by  the number  of items)  this was the f i r s t comparison little  which y i e l d s  information.  Since  study using the IRFRS and there were no baseline or  groups against which  the present  data  could  be compared,  significance can be attached to the differences between the mean  scores.  However, the data now constitutes the IRFRS norms against which  other populations can be compared. total  significant  scale scores, S.D.'s,  factors.  Table 4,  and scale score  shown i n Chapter means  for each  8,  shows  of the  33 CHAPTER FOUR  DEVELOPMENT OF THE  Life and  cycle  external  change. adults  and  developmental  life  These  events  events  during  a  which  may  be  particular  individual.  timing of l i f e  consideration  in  are  stage  Idiosyncratic  important  r e s e a r c h e r s have often  normative,  idiosyncratic. The  LIFE EVENT SCALE  of  antecedents  that  the  life  has  understanding  to  behavioural  cycle,  are also  adult  or  those been  life  or  not  an  individual  i s "on  time"  most  they  may  be  unique  to  an  identified  behaviour.  as  an  Neugarten  (1968) emphasizes the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a " s o c i a l c l o c k " which whether  internal  i s , e x p e r i e n c e d by  life  events  events  identified  determines  in experiencing a  specific  event. Researchers  in  developmental  pattern of l i f e  structure  of  stable  (structure  changing)  periods.  alternating  (structure precipitators change.  These  (Levinson, (Aslanian stress  of  and  of  events  life  Readjustment corresponding  have  Scale. stress  events  a  total  are  Rahe  as  1975),  attempt  instrument,  score o f 100, The  to  (Lowenthal,  and  and  predictable  transitional  considered  characterized  s c o r e s were p r o v i d e d .  Spouse, having a s t r e s s a s t r e s s score o f 11.  this  periods  referred  In an  Holmes  In  Life  been  1980).  events,  building)  periods  "stressors"  Brickell,  describe  i n which the a d u l t p r o g r e s s e s through a s e r i e s  transitional  1978),  psychology  by  to q u a n t i f y  (1967) a  list  life  Items range  t o Minor  events"  "triggers" the  developed of  behavioural  "marker and  as  relative  The  Social  events  from  Death  V i o l a t i o n o f Law,  and of  having  score from the 42 items p l a c e s the  34 individual stress  i n one o f three  (151-300),  rating  or high  s c a l e are then  stress-related  ratings: stress  associated  the  Social  specific  conceptual  and psychometric  particularly to  Readjustment life  events  effect  a  life  Results  the l i k e l i h o o d  specific  Scale  i n which  o f an event  =  i t d i d not adequately  event.  study.  negative  could  manner.  be p e r c e i v e d  investigator variables Initial  relative  values  73, Death  construct  i n terms  or  Friend  instrument  the  that  might  contribute  f o r Running  of l i f e  individual. previous  differently  =  which  37), i t was measured  or magnitude  items  events  Because  research  first  derived  scientists,  the be  by two  positive,  event such as pregnancy  among d i f f e r e n t  individuals.  no  i t was  but  a  scores,  also  decided  should  of  instrument  to construct  of variance  not o n l y  the e f f e c t  appropriate  form o f the L i f e from  t o the e x p l a n a t i o n  Scale  s p e c i f i c purposes o f the present The  Social  can the same event  intensity  It i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a l i f e very  emotional  are a l l o c a t e d t o s p e c i f i c  Not o n l y  of  The i n v e s t i g a t o r  i s , unlike  o f Close  an  the  The  b e l i e v e d t h a t L i f e Event Scale s c o r e s , t o be most u s e f u l as  Reasons  incidence  a  and  satisfy  perception  That  on an i n d i v i d u a l .  differently  identified  i n d i v i d u a l s but i t may a l s o be responded t o i n an ambivalent, or  from t h e  o f experiencing  clearly  i n the s u b j e c t ' s  life  to  Scale  purposes o f t h i s  interested  important  perceived  events,  (e.g. Divorce  considered  with  Readjustment  quantified  response  (300 or h i g h e r ) .  illness.  Although  was  low s t r e s s (150 o r l e s s ) , moderate  an  measure t h e  the event  was  i n the  on the  available  instrument  from  f o r the  study. Event  literature  and group d i s c u s s i o n s .  Scale  search, Each  item  (LES) was composed interviews was typed  with  o f 100 social  on a c a r d and  35 then  sorted  eliminated  into and  categories:  a-priori  the  factors.  remaining  71  HEALTH, FAMILY,  Twenty-nine  items  redundant  rearranged  DEATH, SOCIAL,  into  items  were  the f o l l o w i n g  EDUCATION,  RESIDENCE,  FINANCES, and WORK.  she  For  each item the s u b j e c t was  had  experienced  response a  the  event  by  was YES, the s u b j e c t then  seven-point  scale.  but a l s o whether  The  requested  scale  checking indicated  measured  t o i n d i c a t e whether NO,  ?,  or  YES.  three  I f the  the e f f e c t o f the event  not o n l y magnitude  i t was p e r c e i v e d as p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e .  i n s t r u c t i o n s and the f i r s t  he or  of  on  effect  Here are the  items:  LIFE EVENTS Consider (he two year period prior to when you began to run regularly (minimum twice per week). Did you experience any of the following events? If so. what effect did they have? A. H E A L T H 1. Gained weight  9  i  2. Experienced traumatic health change (eg. heart attack, fracture, low back pain)  i  3. Became aware of decreased fitness (eg. less energy, decreased physical capacity)  Frequencies respondents. life  were  In order  YES—•>  Very Negative  Moderately Negalivc  Mildly Negalivc  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  YES—*  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  YES  Vcrv Negative  Modcratefy Negative  Mildly Negative-  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  computed  event was more s i g n i f i c a n t  into  life  three  accumulative  absolute  response  measured  Negative)  was  to 7  (Very  LES  event  as  zero  provided  for and  Positive).  was  or  each  category  For  score  205 of a  an a b s o l u t e s c o r e  e x p e r i e n c e d ) , three  different  used t o aggregate  systems.  a YES  by  the p e r c e i v e d e f f e c t  SPSS RECODE was  classes  score  data  than simply i n d i c a t i n g  systems o f coding were employed. values  the  t o determine whether  (whether or not a s p e c i f i c  event  on  The  first  i n which was  coded  instance, subject  a from 145  life  was NO 1  or  an ?  (Very  received  36 category of  scores o f 8,  2,  0,  5,  2,  2,  3,  3 for a total  life  event  score  25. The  second coding  responses  of  Moderately  Negative  Negative as 0.  The whether  Negative and  f i n a l coding i t was were  Negative  were scored  scored  +3.  -1, 0, +3, In  scored  For +1,  life  -3,  to  -1,  +1,  No  as  +3  No  the  Negative  scored  as  which  Mildly  E f f e c t was  scored  scores of  systems. of  the  YES  were  18,  1,  responses scored  Very  Mildly  Positive  were  and  Positive  were  scores o f  -14,  event  Very  score o f -5.  system  and  and  of  -2,  would  was  be  utilized  performed  the LES  correlations accumulative  of  to  in  show  scores as coded  Because t h e r e were no  the  0,  0, M i l d l y  +2,  Correlation  s i x IRFRS f a c t o r s  to u t i l i z e  data.  coding  3,  2,  received category  for a total l i f e  results  decided  of the  as  YES  31.  were s c o r e d  were  a Pearson  between the  in  scored  scored  1, and  score o f  Effect  Positive  determine  analyses,  systems, i t was the a n a l y s i s  event  Moderately  by each of the three coding differences  were  received category  i n s t a n c e , s u b j e c t 145  +2,  order  relationships  Positive  were  i n that  system measured both the magnitude o f response  Moderately  subsequent  Positive  p e r c e i v e d as n e g a t i v e or p o s i t i v e .  Negative  +1,  Very  were scored  i n s t a n c e , s u b j e c t 145  1, 3 f o r a t o t a l  scored  and  Moderately  and M i l d l y P o s i t i v e  For  3, 3, 2,  Very  system measured magnitude o f response  the  significant  three  coding  a b s o l u t e system f o r  37 CHAPTER FIVE  DEVELOPMENT OF  During Increasing  the  past  numbers  decade,  of  given  to  running.  the m o t i v a t i o n societal that  of an  modification increased adults  It  programs  Research  to  well  runners.  that  as  integral  encourage  a  Kier and  the  increasingly  dedicated  such  to  of  as  promoting  to  fitness  or  running  of  personal  in  external indicated  behaviour  commitment  to  (1980) suggested t h a t many marketing  and  health  and  a  service  of  in  Canada,  campaigns  Canadians are  through  adult  non-profit  fitness  public  messages  promotion  observation  Large numbers o f  related  has  Participaction,  corporate  factor  i s exposure t o  frequent  well  involvement.  media a t t e n t i o n  medicine  massive  f i t n e s s messages through e x t e n s i v e  observed  significant  greater  deliver as  a  occurred.  are  components  Lauzon  because  has  a l l ages  behavioural  run  Organizations  organization  of  amount of p u b l i c and  in  are  s t r a t e g i e s to  as  explosion"  runners  i s hypothesized  influences  begun  "running  a vast  physical a c t i v i t y .  have  a  i n d i v i d u a l to begin running  influences.  external  EXTERNAL INFLUENCE SCALE  recreational  throughout the community and is  THE  various  as  exposed media  presentations. Mass numbers health  of or  media  are  the  population  exercise consistent  indicated  that  be  the  delivered  are  behaviour,  practices  may  channels  with  of  communication  reached. to  are  advertise  physically  active  message communicated  through  They  must  through  or  used  e l e c t r o n i c media such  products Research  relatively as  radio  large  in relation  promote  lifestyles. be  which  and  simple  to or has and  television  38 or  print  article,  medial  such  newspapers  billboards.  In  a  classic  and Knutson  three e f f e c t s o f the mass media on h e a l t h  behaviour:  i n c r e a s e knowledge r e i n f o r c e previously held a t t i t u d e s (but n o t change contrary attitudes) cause b e h a v i o r a l change, p r o v i d e d t h a t a psychological p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o such an a c t i o n a l r e a d y e x i s t s . (p. 516)  3.  Tough  (1979)  suggested  project,  the a d u l t  i s greatly  attempts  t o adopt  new  information  expanded  that  self-directed  learning  a s s i s t e d by nonhuman r e s o u r c e s .  In t h e i r  behaviours,  during  adults  a  most  often  received  relevant  from communication sources such as t e l e v i s i o n , r a d i o ,  newspapers,  more  and  The Role o f Mass Media i n P u b l i c H e a l t h , G r i f f i t h s  (1960) emphasized 1. 2.  as  and  magazines.  vehicles  information  Through  o f communication, regarding  physical  increased  public  today's  adult  fitness  and  books,  interest  i s exposed  exercise  than  and  t o much a t any  previous time. Green of  new  (1975) i n v e s t i g a t e d  health  behaviours.  between communications the  the  effective in influencing  relationships suggested  that  adoption o f behaviour  advances have been made i n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f communication  techniques  to  knowledgeable  fitness  about  promotion  promotion.  the f a c t o r s  identified essential  fitness  campaigns.  appropriate  usually  i n the d e s i g n  Through  a  researchers,  McGuire  and  seven-step  can i d e n t i f y t a r g e t  media t e c h n i q u e s .  professionals  Communication  i n the communication/persuasion  components  communications p r o f e s s i o n a l  health  regarding  the e a r l y s t a g e s o f the d i f f u s i o n p r o c e s s .  Recent  have  His findings  and the d i f f u s i o n o f i n n o v a t i o n s  mass media are most  during  the e f f e c t s o f mass media on the a d o p t i o n  delivery process  populations  (1981) suggested t h a t  do not have the e x p e r t i s e  matrix, of the  and s e l e c t f i t n e s s and  t o consider  the  39 wide  spectrum  persuasion  of  campaign.  analyses,  theoretical  new  reciprocal  between  as  running  psychological  contact and f i l m  environment  by  audio-visual  photographs, and  (1978)  suggests  i s regulated  a by  and a n t i c i p a t i o n o f the  of action.  and behaviour  a  influences.  precipitated  various  behaviour  skills  to  I n f l u e n t i a l models may  Bandura  adult  and by performance courses  or  be  productions,  formulation, i n which  external  may  personal  for d i f f e r e n t  Bandura  describes the  as a r e c i p r o c a l i n f l u e n c e  i n which the environment shapes a d u l t b e h a v i o u r , but i n d i v i d u a l s environment.  her environment with  motivating  consciously  Hence, the a d u l t ' s  "open"  system,  skills  that  a  wide  and u n c o n s c i o u s l y  modifiable  for self-directed  variety experienced  of  by p r o v i d i n g behavioural  the  change  "messages"  are  by an i n d i v i d u a l , an item  pool  as many types o f e x t e r n a l  Twenty-five  items were d e r i v e d  physical  educators  external  i n f l u e n c e s as p o s s i b l e was  from a l i t e r a t u r e  interviews  with  eliminated  because o f redundancy or not being  population.  r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s  him or her t o make use o f them.  encompassed  generated.  i s an  appropriate  Realizing  the  health  contributes  of  (modelling) .  as t e l e v i s i o n  influences  shape t h e i r  which  public  lifestyle.  theory  of others  i n t e r a c t i o n model  individual and  a  through v a r i o u s  understanding  such  In a r e c e n t  consequences interplay  behaviour  such  billboards.  or  that  learning  i n our  through  presentations  also  i n constructing  u n d e r l i e s a sedentary  social  the behaviour  provided  immediate  (1971)  framework  of  observing  process  arise  He emphasized  or o f i n f o r m a t i o n  Bandura's  be  that  the communications p r o f e s s i o n a l can show whether a d e f i c i t o f  motivation  Adoption  issues  and f i t n e s s  leaders.  relevant  Some o f the items were p u r p o s e l y  search and Eight  were  to a l l adults i n  designed  t o be broad  40 in  their  running year  scope  or  such  fitness  as  "A  image."  The Subjects  final were  form  During  " F i t n e s s message comparing  the two  to  was  i n d i c a t e YES,  a 60  t o measure  the  composed  ?, o r NO  of  f o r each  17  items.  item.  The  began t o run twice a week d i d  C i r c l e YES,  ?, or  of a  you  NO. YES  ?  NO  YES  ?  NO  YES  ?  NO  run)  A t e l e v i s i o n movie i n which running  was  portrayed.  A motion p i c t u r e which f e a t u r e d running. Intercorrelations  computed. examined  and  compared  correlation  performed  to  produce  eigenvalues  examined factor  of  EIS  data  provided  by  205  subjects  was  Items means, S.D.'s, and minimum and maximum s c o r e s were then  Next, the  and  a  (e.g. marathon,  community fun  with  employed  three items were:  the f o l l o w i n g ?  event  were intended  instrument  years before you  T e l e v i s i o n coverage running  o l d Canadian"  the  the f i r s t  r e a d , see, or hear  3.  Others  like  which  influence.  of  requested  i n s t r u c t i o n s and  2.  advertisement  o l d Swede t o a 30 year  s i g n i f i c a n c e of a s p e c i f i c  1.  commercial  and  calculations  was  and  than  one.  three  The  factor  s e l e c t e d as the one  satisfaction.  The  some o f  the  orthogonal  This  yielded  content  of  four  each  p r o v i d i n g maximum  final  solution  raw  data.  rotation  solutions generated.  c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x c o n s i s t e d o f 13 i t e m s . were e l i m i n a t e d i n the  of  f a c t o r e d and  uncorrelated factors.  four  s o l u t i o n was  hand  matrix  greater  then  psychometric  with  factors  factor The  (items 14, 8,  a n a l y s i s because they d i d not l o a d  was four  interpretation  e x t r a c t e d from  Three items  was  the 12)  significantly  41 (.39 or l e s s ) factorially had  standard factors factor  deviations,  accounted  influenced  and l o a d i n g s  on each  f o r 29.21 percent  T h i s f a c t o r measured  performance.  The f o u r  variance.  The f i r s t  the second  whom  they  f o r 9.98  and the f o u r t h f o r 6.37 p e r c e n t . items with l o a d i n g s ranging  t h e extent  or p u b l i c  I n d i v i d u a l s who score  with  included  2 shows item means,  t o which  f i g u r e or a  high  on t h i s  can i d e n t i f y .  from  an i n d i v i d u a l i s  specific  individual  factor are influenced  r o l e models who may be c e l e b r i t i e s or i n d i v i d u a l s presented  promotions  i t was  Item t e n , which  o f the f a c t o r s .  o f the v a r i a n c e ,  f o r 7.47 p e r c e n t  by a c e l e b r i t y  Table  o f the t o t a l  I , MODEL, c o n s i s t e d o f four  t o .69.  factors.  because  I and .57 on F a c t o r IV was o n l y  f o r 53.04 p e r c e n t  the t h i r d  Factor  by  was e l i m i n a t e d  IV f o r purposes o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  accounted  percent,  Item nine  impure, l o a d i n g on three d i f f e r e n t  a l o a d i n g o f .56 on F a c t o r  i n Factor  .61  on any f a c t o r .  The items  i n media  and l o a d i n g s f o r  MODEL are i n d i c a t e d - below:  FACTOR I MODEL 15. 11. 16. 17.  A c e l e b r i t y or p u b l i c f i g u r e who endorsed f i t n e s s or running A c t i o n B.C., f i t n e s s promotion I n d i v i d u a l a t h l e t i c performance having g r e a t emotional impact Media promotion o f " s e l f - g r o w t h "  .69 .66 .62 .61  II,  was  MEDIA,  influenced loadings aspects  measured  by the media.  ranged  from  o f running  t o which  This  consisted  factor  .53 t o .81.  may  media communciations.  the extent  an' i n d i v i d u a l of five  C u r i o s i t y and i n t e r e s t  be s t i m u l a t e d  items  whose  i n various  by e l e c t r o n i c and p r i n t e d  mass  Indeed, r a r e l y does a day go by when one i s not  TABLE 2:  External Influence Scale:  Item Means  S.D. ' s , and F a c t o r :Loadings FACTORS Mean S.D. I II III  MODEL 15. A c e l e b r i t y or p u b l i c f i g u r e who endorsed f i t n e s s 11. A c t i o n B.C. f i t n e s s promotion 16. I n d i v i d u a l a t h l e t i c performance having emotional impact 17. Media promotion o f " s e l f - g r o w t h "  1.64 1 .55 1.79 1 .82  .93 .89 .97 .98  .69* .66* .63* .61*  .20 .13 .08 .23  MEDIA 6. A magazine a r t i c l e r e l a t e d t o running 5. A newspaper a r t i c l e r e l a t e d t o running 4. Radio promotion or coverage o f a running event 1. T e l e v i s i o n coverage o f a running event 7. S p e c i f i c running p u b l i c a t i o n such as Runner's World  2.19 2.12 1.71 2.22 1.57  .98 .99 .95 .97 .89  .15 .19 .21 .19 .209  MOVIE 3.'A motion p i c t u r e which f e a t u r e d running 2. T e l e v i s i o n movie i n which running was p o r t r a y e d  1.53 1 .75  .88 .96  PART/ICIPACTIQN 13. F i t n e s s message comparing 60 year o l d Swede... 10. P a r t i c i p a c t i o n f i t n e s s promotion  2.23 2.32  .97 .95  V a r i a n c e accounted f o r (%) Cumulative v a r i a n c e accounted f o r (%)  IV  .13 -.03 .39 -.03  -.24 .08 -.06 .03  .81* .75* .59* .59* .53*  .09 .18 .28 .46 .01  -.07 .07 .14 .07 -.49  .04 .01  .25 .29  .79* .79*  -.01 -.05  .11 .56  .13 .11  -.03 .05  29.21 29.21  9.98 39.20  7.47 46.67  .70* .57* 6.37 53.04  4> to  43 exposed  t o some  increased running as  public  o f running  awareness  and  through  interest  the media. i n fitness  a r t i c l e s have become commonplace i n popular  newspapers  such  aspect  and magazines  as "Runner's World."  as w e l l  as s p e c i f i c  The items  Because o f t h e and  recreation,  r e a d i n g sources  such  running p u b l i c a t i o n s  and l o a d i n g s f o r MEDIA are shown  below:  FACTOR I I MEDIA 6. 5. 4. 1. 7.  A magazine a r t i c l e r e l a t e d t o running A newspaper a r t i c l e r e l a t e d t o running Radio promotion or coverage o f a running event T e l e v i s i o n coverage o f a running event (marathon, community fun run) A s p e c i f i c running p u b l i c a t i o n such as "Runner's World"  Factor  I I I , MOVIE,  c o n s i s t e d o f two  items  with  T h i s f a c t o r measured the extent t o which a s p e c i f i c picture  production  this  factor  them  t o running  and  i n f l u e n c e d an i n d i v i d u a l .  can i d e n t i f y  a particular  or s i g n i f i c a n t l y  movie  .59 .53  l o a d i n g s o f .79.  t e l e v i s i o n or motion  Adults or f i l m  increased t h e i r  .81 .75 .59  scoring which  interest.  high  on  introduced The  items  l o a d i n g s f o r MOVIE are shown below:  FACTOR I I I MOVIE 3. 2.  A motion p i c t u r e which f e a t u r e d running A t e l e v i s i o n movie i n which running was p o r t r a y e d  Factor  .79 .79  IV, PARTICIPACTION, c o n s i s t e d o f two items w i t h l o a d i n g s o f  .57 and .70.  It i s hypothesized  t h a t many a d u l t s have been i n f l u e n c e d  44 throughout  Canada by the f i t n e s s  promotion campaigns o f P a r t i c i p a c t i o n .  Indeed, one o f the major f u n c t i o n s o f P a r t i c i p a c t i o n of  fitness  information  particularly levels  effective  of a mythical  message  was  included  message  the  as many Canadians  was  the comment  Swede t o a t y p i c a l  identified  in  t o reach  so  present  often  i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n  by  study.  comparing  Canadian  adults The  as p o s s i b l e .  adult.  i n the items  the  fitness  Because  community  and  One  this  i t was  loadings  for  PARTICIPACTION a r e shown below:  FACTOR IV PARTICIPACTION 13. 10.  F i t n e s s message comparing a 60 year o l d Swede t o a 30 year o l d Canadian P a r t i c i p a c t i o n f i t n e s s promotion  .70 .57  Scale Scoring In  the present  .53 t o .81. individual  a n a l y s i s item  Scale s c o r e s were generated  was  For  f o r each EIS f a c t o r .  factors.  Table  Item means were  the mean s c a l e score by the number  illustrative  ranged  from  t o show the extent t o which an  i n f l u e n c e d by each o f the four  the mean s c a l e scores by d i v i d i n g  l o a d i n g s on the f a c t o r s  7  shows  calculated  o f items on each  factor.  purposes mean EIS scores f o r the 205 s u b j e c t s are shown  i n F i g u r e 7.  I n d i v i d u a l Background V a r i a b l e s In  a d d i t i o n t o IRFRS,  independent proceed  v a r i a b l e s were  i n a more  LES, and collected.  i n d u c t i v e than  EIS v a r i a b l e s , As  deductive  this  study  manner,  data  on  was i t was  14  other  designed  to  considered  45 desirable related  t o i n c l u d e v a r i a b l e s which, although  not n e c e s s a r i l y d i r e c t l y  t o the dependent v a r i a b l e , might prove u s e f u l i n l a t e r  analysis.  I n d i v i d u a l background v a r i a b l e s were o f the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e 1.  types:  Personal V a r i a b l e s  Sex Age Place of b i r t h Living  arrangements  Educational  qualification  Occupational  status  D u r a t i o n o f r e s i d e n c e i n the Lower  2.  Mainland  Previous A t h l e t i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n V a r i a b l e s  Competitive  a t h l e t e during school  Competitive  athlete after  Participation Participation  years  leaving school  i n team s p o r t s p r i o r in individual  sport  t o running or  exercise  t o Lower  Mainland  running  3.  Running V a r i a b l e s  Running b e f o r e or a f t e r moving Number o f months running Distance  twice a week  run i n an average week  L o c a t i o n o f run  program  prior  to  46 The  manner  operationalized i s reproduced.  in  which  each  of  the  background  variables  i s shown i n Appendix B. where the complete  was  questionnaire  47 CHAPTER SIX  METHOD  Preliminary  Processes  In order and  items  t o determine  on  the  questionnaire  prior  adult  from  were  runners Nursing  reported  instruments,  who  ran  comprehension  individuals study.  various locations  at which  runners  were  as  part  of  the  recreational and e l e v e n  their  personal  s e v e r a l parks and t r a c k s  for recreational  appeared  administered  i n the Lower Mainland  regularly  locations  o f the d i r e c t i o n s  T h i r t e e n were  Next, the r e s e a r c h e r v i s i t e d  t o be popular  frequency  24  t o the a c t u a l  students  f i t n e s s programs.  participant  adult  and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  runners.  The  o f the runners  (age, sex, l e v e l o f performance) were recorded a t d i f f e r e n t times o f the day  on  each  locations  day  and times  to p a r t i c i p a t e  the week.  This  when s u b j e c t s c o u l d be most  runners  who  previously  and  seventy  identified  socioeconomic  areas  of  Although  c o n s i d e r a b l y more  community  having  Greater  after  to  concerning  effectively  approached  running l o c a t i o n s  such  been  include  as opposed  and  difficult  s u b j e c t s who who  tracks  selected  running to  The on  of  runner  remaining  i t was  streets  ran i n d e s i g n a t e d  running  in  neighbourhood  research,  r a n on  while  located  Vancouver.  observed  to those  the type  study.  s u b j e c t s were  parks  selected  necessary  Popular  data  d i d not r e p r e s e n t  under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the p r e s e n t hundred  yielded  were not i n c l u d e d because o f the predominance o f more  competitive  One  process  i n t h i s research p r o j e c t .  as Brockton Oval serious  of  at  different 35  were  streets. considered  throughout  recreational  the areas  48 such  as  parks  accompany  the  beginning This  and  The  neighbourhood  and  data  tracks.  ending  researcher  runner  on  a  run  l o c a t i o n o f the run was  collecting  procedure  soon  was  often  as  in  compelled  most  cases  to the  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s i d e n c e .  became  the  researcher's  primary  p e r s o n a l e x e r c i s e program.  A d m i n i s t e r i n g the  Questionnaire  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was at  tracks  strategic Indeed,  and  in  three  to  on  could  individuals  locations  who  occasions  On  these  various  (Stanley  unable  had  i n the  to  write  researcher  exhausted  after  of  position  began and  Park  her  running On  their  Seawall,  researcher to  the  to write  t o each data  legibly,  and  runs. Park  complete  provided who  On  had  was the  taken  a  were blind  other  individual  the  written  subjects  One  item.  at  a b l e t o s e t up a  occasions  for one  their  Central  participants  three  himself  ended  questionnaires.  responses  recorded run  the  study.  complete  a friend  the  occasions  aspects  participate  personally  too  researcher  with c h a i r s so s e v e r a l s u b j e c t s c o u l d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  materials  lady  the  and Minoru Park p a v i l i o n ) the r e s e a r c h e r was  questionnaire.  time  as  l o c a t i o n s where most  clubhouse, table  parks  c o n s i d e r a b l y more e f f i c i e n t  two  who  was  who  had  administering  the  for  another  both hands bandaged. During  the  process  of  selecting  subjects  and  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the r e s e a r c h e r wore a badge t h a t c l e a r l y a researcher  from the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia c o n d u c t i n g  on  adult runners.  an  i n d i v i d u a l running  just  i n d i c a t e d he  completed  The  a run.  initial or  step i n s u b j e c t s e l e c t i o n  was  to  i n the p r o c e s s of p r e p a r i n g f o r a run or T h i s ensured  t h a t each  subject a c t u a l l y  a  was  study  observe having engaged  49 in  the  behaviour  approached  and  of  interest  asked:  in  "Would you  the  be  study.  willing  Subjects  t o spend  t o 20 minutes to complete a q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e g a r d i n g began running?" determined  I f the  whether  or  individual not  the  were  approximately  the  reasons  responded a f f i r m a t i v e l y ,  following  criteria  then  for  15  why  you  i t was  then  selection  were  satisfied: 1.  over  18 y e a r s of  2.  run on the average at l e a s t t w i c e a week  3.  have s t a r t e d runing twice a week w i t h i n the past f i v e Anonymity  number and  was  age  assured  were not  as  subjects  required to provide  same number o f  s u b j e c t s completed  as  those  compared  taken  to  to  complete  minutes.  This  encountered those  the  j u s t completed  socializing  their  the as  a run.  varied of  as  two  from  verbal  prior  hours  after  a  to  serial  15  run  The  time  minutes  reading  time"  the  their  run.  levels of  Some "took t h e i r On one  by  Approximately  and  different  from t h e i r r u n . for  names.  i t following their  range well  identified  questionnaire  questionnaire  subjects  q u e s t i o n n a i r e to recover remained  completed  reflected  i n the  having  who  the  were  years.  to  40  abilities fatigue in  and  used  the  o c c a s i o n seven s u b j e c t s  having  completed  their  questionnaires. All  subjects  were  thanked  for  their  participation  and  given  r e s e a r c h e r ' s o f f i c e phone number where i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the of  the  study  pleasantly  would  be  surprised  p a r t i c i p a n t s to provide  a v a i l a b l e when by  the  completed.  enthusiasm  information regarding  and  The  running.  results  researcher  willingness  the  of  was the  50 Coding and P r e p a r a t i o n f o r A n a l y s i s IRFRS, onto  LES, EIS, and background  coding  forms.  University  of  routine  SPSS  of  variables were  between  used  to  IRFRS s c a l e  was  Similar  was  (Analysis  regression score  British  data  Columbia  used  was  then  were  computing  t o check  refine  o f Variance)  minimum  were  and v a r i o u s  centre.  were  performed  to  background each  background  transferred file  The  a t the  FREQUENCIES  ranges  of a l l  Successive factor analyses CORR  In  a  and maximum  PEARSON  generated.  and  into  IRFRS.  s c o r e s and s e l e c t e d  equations dependent  the  coded  punched  p r i o r t o the s u b s t a n t i v e a n a l y s i s .  then  ONE-WAY  The  data  (Correlation) show  relationships  variables.  equation  variables  and  a  were  Finally,  IRFRS  scale  independent.  a n a l y t i c procedures were conducted on the LES and E I S .  51 CHAPTER SEVEN  RESULTS  Only complete  ten  i n d i v i d u a l s o f 215  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  approached  two  emphasized  participate. by  nearly  The  that  they  "felt  r e s e a r c h e r was  a l l participants  no i n t e r e s t too  i f they c o u l d take  insufficient  after  their  to  a p p r e c i a t i v e o f the keen i n t e r e s t shown  and  On  type,  run  often  surprised  at  their  Approximately  desire  15  a few o c c a s i o n s the r e s e a r c h e r was  back again so f r i e n d s c o u l d be  informed  to  individuals  "spare" q u e s t i o n n a i r e s with them t o share  a f r i e n d or f a m i l y member. when he would be  declined to  i n r e s e a r c h o f any  sick"  d i s c u s s p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s and p e r c e p t i o n s . asked  percent)  F i v e a p o l o g i z e d t h a t they had  t i m e , t h r e e i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had and  (4.65  and  with asked  arrange  to  complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . In  a l l , 205  selected Track  from  S t a n l e y Park  (n=35),  Thirty-five  and  Langara  i n Greater 112  Table Athletic  3  19 t o  shows the  21  and  chosen  Vancouver.  age  (n=46), Minoru  Balaclava  while  Park  (n=11).  in  various  running  Ninety-three  Table  average  I n d i v i d u a l s were  (n=48), C e n t r a l Park  distribution  Participation,  Prairies,  were  study.  the  participants  3 i n d i c a t e s the age  distribution  was  34.43  of  (S.D.=10.08 years)  with  71.  p a r t i c i p a n t s were born the  The  i n the  (n=30),  were female.  o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s . a range from  Seawall  Track  individuals  neighbourhoods were male  adults participated  and  Running  in British  i n the  United  of  s u b j e c t s by  variables.  Personal,  Seventy-seven  Previous of  the  Columbia, 42 i n E a s t e r n Canada, 32 i n  Kingdom, 12  i n the  United  States, 7 in  TABLE 3 S o c i o - D e m o g r a p h i c and P e r s o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f 205 R e c r e a t i o n a l Runners Variables Personal Sex  Male Female  93 112  45.37 54.63  64 56 55 30  .31.22 27.32 16.83 14.63  77 42 32 21 12 7 7 4 3  37.56 20.49 15.61 10.24  66 50 42 39 8  32.20 24.39 20.49 19.02 3.90  70 39 36 27 21 11 1  34. 15 19.02 17.56 13.17 10.24 5.37 .49  93 38 36 29 9  45.37 18.54 17.56 14.15 4.39  123 82  60.00 40.00  45 160  21.95 78.05  Age  34.43  19-28 29-34 35-45 46-71 Place of B i r t h B r i t i s h Columbia E a s t e r n Canada Prairies U n i t e d Kingdom United States Western Europe Asia E a s t e r n Europe Australasia L i v i n g Arrangements With another a d u l t With a d u l t and 1 o r more c h i l d r e n With 2 o r more a d u l t s 'Alone W i t h 1 o r more c h i l d r e n Education Undergraduate degree P a r t i a l degree Grade 12 o r e q u i v a l e n t Graduate degree V o c a t i o n a l diploma Grade 10 o r 11 No f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n Occupation Professional/Technical Managerial/Administrative Clerical/Sales S k i l l e d worker U n s k i l l e d worker Previous  Athletic  10.08  5.85 3.41 3.41 1 .95 1.46  Participation  Competitive a t h l e t e during school years Yes No Competitive athlete a f t e r l e a v i n g school Yes No Number o f team s p o r t s ( p r i o r t o r u n n i n g ) Number o f i n d i v i d u a l s p o r t s  2.37 6.69  Running Began r u n n i n g b e f o r e moving t o L.M. Began r u n n i n g a f t e r moving t o L.M. Number o f months r u n n i n g t w i c e a week Number o f m i l e s run i n a v e r a g e week Running l o c a t i o n Neighbourhood Park Track  27 125  17.76 82.24 26.53 17.40  50 130 25  2.38 3.73  19.83 12.55  24.39 63.41 12.20  <<t4>> TABLE Mean I n i t i a l  Reasons f o r R u n n i n g S c a l e S c o r e s  IRFRS F a c t o r  T o tt aa ll Possible  1.  4  Solitude  II. Personal Challenge III. Socialization IV. P r e v e n t i o n V. R e m e d i a l VI. Health  36 32 24 16 16 12  Mean SSccaallee  f o r 205 P a r t i c i p a n t s S.D.  17.79 14.56 7.42 8.71 6. 10 10.10  Item Mean  Score 6.05 4.76 2.30 3. 15 2.49 1.62  1.98 1.82 1.24 2. 18 1 .53 3.37  53 Western Europe, 7 i n Asia,  4 i n Eastern Europe, and 3 i n Australasia.  Sixty-six individuals l i v e d with one other adult, 50 with another adult and one or more children, 42 with two or more adults, 39 l i v e d alone and 8 l i v e d as the only adult with a c h i l d or children. The  average  participant  had  Forty-seven percent had completed  involved  in c l e r i c a l  education.  at least an undergraduate  terms of occupation, 45.37 percent percent had managerial  some post-secondary  degree.  were professionally trained,  In  18.54  or administrative positions, 17.56 percent were or  sales positions,  14.15 percent  were  skilled  workers, and 4.39 percent were unskilled. Twenty-six Mainland. year  percent  of the participants  Of the 151 individuals born  percent) began running after and  twenty-three  21.95 percent participated distribution individual  of individuals  sports prior  (30.72 percent)  (60 percent)  of  exercise a c t i v i t y .  ranged  elsewhere,  from one  125 (82.24  in r e l a t i o n  to beginning  After leaving school, only Table  3 indicates the  to p a r t i c i p a t i o n  to run.  i n team and  Of the 205 subjects, 63  i n any team sports, whereas only  did not participate  The r e l a t i v e  One  the subjects competed i n  in organized sport.  did not participate  (3.90 percent)  in the Lower  having moved to the Lower Mainland.  organized sport during their school years.  eight  born  Length of residence for those born elsewhere  to 59 years.  hundred  were  in any individual  sport or  frequencies of previous p a r t i c i p a t i o n  in organized sport presents a clear p r o f i l e indicating that the majority of  adult  organized  recreational  runners  group s p o r t s than  were  involved  individual  in significantly  activities.  consistent with the rather s o l i t a r y nature of running.  This  fewer appears  54 The ranged  number  from  o f months a p a r t i c i p a n t  those  having  recently  having met the maximum c r i t e r i o n period  o f time  (S.D.=19.83) . (S.D.=12.55 percent  The  miles).  Distances  track..  running  run  ranged  r a n 27  from  or  a week  each  week  two  fewer  of subject  ran i n t h e i r Neighbourhood  neighbourhood, runners  miles  s t r e e t s and those w h o " u t i l i z e d parks or s c h o o l s .  was was  The average 26.53 months 17.40  selection.  miles Eighty  per week.  f o r most  This  participants Of  the 205  t o a park t o r u n , 50  and 25  included  a week  t o 80 m i l e s .  nature o f running  t o the v a l i d a t i o n  twice  (one month) t o those  (60 months).  run t w i c e  distance  running  130 (63.41 percent) n o r m a l l y t r a v e l l e d  (24.40 percent) a  average  started  for selection  had  the r e c r e a t i o n a l  contributed  respondents,  on  individual  o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s  substantiated and  an  has been  both  (12.20 percent) r a n those  who  r a n on  55 CHAPTER EIGHT  INITIAL REASONS FOR RUNNING SCALE SCORES  Table  4 shows  the mean s c a l e s c o r e s  means were c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g items  on  each  motivational considered  factor.  useful  for  d i f f e r e n c e s between  highly significant  IRFS  factor.  Item  the mean s c a l e score by the number o f  Although  profiles,  f o r each  illustrating IRFRS  individual  scores  cannot  because o f the absence o f other  be  normative  groups.  TABLE 4 Mean I n i t i a l  Reasons f o r Running S c a l e Scores  IRFRS F a c t o r —  I. II. III. IV. V. VI.  T o t a l Mean S c a l e Possible Score •  .  .  —  —  —  - -  ., „ .  —  —  Solitude Personal Challenge Socialization Prevention Remedial Health The  utility  who  moved  interior  o f IRFRS scores  43 y e a r s  „ —  .  —  17.79 14.56 7.42 8.71 6.10 10.10  is illustrated individuals  designer  and  had  i n organized  old.  She  PERSONAL CHALLENGE,  i n May,  a  college  SOLITUDE,  miles  Item Mean  »  -  1.98 1.82 1.24 2.18 1.53 3.37  i n F i g u r e 2 which p l o t s and compares them t o the  1980.  i n the U n i t e d  States  She was employed  as an  degree.  s p o r t and d i d not s t a r t  ran f i f t e e n  S.D.  6.05 4.76 2.30 3.15 2.49 1.62  S u b j e c t A was a 46 year o l d widow born  t o the Lower Mainland  participated  .  36 32 24 16 16 12  the m o t i v a t i o n a l p r o f i l e s o f t h r e e group mean.  f o r 205 P a r t i c i p a n t s  Subject running  A  had  until  she was  a week a t a neighbourhood  SOCIALIZATION,  and REMEDIAL  never  scores  park. were  56  4.00  1  3.50  A,• »  ••  3.00 2.50 2.00  B.  •• •• •  1  '  i •• • •  \ \ \ \  V  1 1  V /  Jl ft  3.50 3.00 2.50  17--' #  >  i  Personal Challenge  4.00  2.00  V![7  c Solitude  Figure 2.  /  N  1.50 1.00  /  /  /  <  A  4 .  \  1 \ 1 \ J 7 \ / \  Socialization  Prevention  1.50 1.00  Remedial  Health  Motivational profiles for three participants.  4.00  4.00  3.50  3.50  3.00 /  2.50 2.00  /  3.00  /  2.50  /  2.00  •* <  ft  1.50  .. _  1.50  1.00  1.00 Solitude  Figure 3.  Personal Socialization Challenge  Prevention  Motivational profiles for male and female participants.  Remedial —————  Health = Females = Males  57 well  above the norm and were the major motives  running.  PREVENTION  i n her d e c i s i o n t o b e g i n  and HEALTH s c o r e s were below  average.  S u bj e c t B was a 40 year o l d male who a l s o l i v e d i n Vancouver, completed Columbia  and,  Subject  B  at  was  recreationally running  time  never  a  of  m i l e s a week.  the  competitive  C,  London, England  and  35  year  Prior  with  were w e l l below  sports.  He had been  and averaged  SOLITUDE  registered  and, t o a  nurse,  PERSONAL  However,  was  i n May, 1953.  born  in  She l i v e d  t o when the study  f o r beginning  SOCIALIZATION, PREVENTION,  norms.  lesser  30 m i l e s  a  i n a wide v a r i e t y o f i n d i v i d u a l  In terms o f her motives  group  five  a SOCIALIZATION s c o r e  e i g h t months p r i o r  she p a r t i c i p a t e d  SOLITUDE,  and  t o r u n , her  and HEALTH were REMEDIAL  scores  average.  motivational p r o f i l e s  i n F i g u r e 3.  participate  average.  o l d female  s c o r e s on PERSONAL CHALLENGE,  The  did  She u s u a l l y ran a t C e n t r a l Park and averaged  team s p o r t s .  consistent  but  indicated  and moved t o the Lower Mainland  to running  born  business.  and HEALTH scores were a l s o above the norm.  a d u l t s and began running  was "started. week.  a  h i s own  f o r f i v e years  above the average.  CHALLENGE and REMEDIAL s c o r e s were  with other  managed  athlete  S u b j e c t B's IRFRS s c o r e s  e x t e n t , PREVENTION  Subject  study,  i n h i s neighbourhood  significantly  He was  degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  i n a v a r i e t y o f team and i n d i v i d u a l  regularly  which was  the  a graduate  alone.  o f male and female s u b j e c t s are p l o t t e d  There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n mean IRFRS s c o r e s  between male and female  respondents.  58 L i f e Event S c a l e Scores As  determined  during  significant  qualitative  measured  recording  by  the p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s differences  the  actual  number  p e r c e i v e d magnitude o f the events as p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e .  appeared  when  of  or whether  o f LES life  events  variables.  events  and  dividing Little  Table  f o r each  significance  are  shown  derived  i n Figure  by summing  category  totals  experienced i n  5 shows the mean s c a l e category.  Item  scores  means  to differences  purposes  then  events t o life  calculated  i n each  by  category.  i n mean LES s c o r e s  groups a t t h i s  time.  mean LES s c o r e s f o r t h e 205 p a r t i c i p a n t s  As  responses  life  for total  were  score by the number o f items  4.  were  the  T h e r e f o r e the number o f events  can be attached  illustrative  were  were p e r c e i v e d  because o f the absence o f other normative For  no  the events  LES  each mean s c a l e  events  experienced,  each o f the e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s was c o n s i d e r e d when r e l a t i n g other  scores,  indicated t o items  divided  above,  scores  t h a t comprise  by  the number  shown  here  were  each c a t e g o r y ; the of  items  t o get a  c a t e g o r y mean. LES  scores,  like  individual profiles. scores  i n compiling  subjects select  A, B, C,  IRFRS  scores,  are  useful  F i g u r e s 5 and 6 i l l u s t r a t e case  histories.  and D.  Each  in constructing  the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f LES  The mean s c o r e s p l o t t e d  s u b j e c t has been  one o f the four c o h o r t groups  randomly  represent  selected  to  (age 19-28, 29-34, 35-45, 46 and  over) . Subject period  prior  HEALTH  and  decreased  A was a 21 year t o beginning SOCIAL  fitness,  events. lacked  o l d nursing  running, She energy,  student  experienced  gained and  who,  i n the two  a significant  weight,  became  experienced  a  year  number o f  aware  o f her  reminder  o f the  59 TABLE 5 Mean L i f e LES  Event S c a l e Scores f o r 205 P a r t i c i p a n t s  Category  I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII.  Total Mean S c a l e Possible Score  Health Social Residence Work Finances Education Family Death  Health  15 9 5 12 8 6 12 4  Family  Death  6.20 2.91 1.24 1.78 1.12 .72 1.32 .31  S.D.  2.66 2.22 1.20 1 .92 1.30 1 .03 1.50 .59  Social Education Residence Finances Work  Figure 4. Mean LES scores for 205 participants  Item Mean .41 .32 .25 .15 .14 .12 .1 1 .08  60  Health  Figure 6.  Family  Death  Social Education Residence Finances  Life Event profiles for participants C and D .  Work  61 aging p r o c e s s . an  She a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d  increased  awareness  p e r i o d s o f d e p r e s s i o n and i n d i c a t e d  i n physical  fitness  and  preventive  From the SOCIAL category s u b j e c t A a c q u i r e d a new f r i e n d change  i n the  acquaintances, also of  health  of  a  friend.  She  also  medicine.  and i n d i c a t e d a  wished  to  make  j o i n e d a new s o c i a l c l u b , and took a v a c a t i o n .  began post-secondary  study  and e x p e r i e n c e d  a change  new  Subject A  i n the number  i n t e r a c t i o n s with her f a m i l y . Adult  stage  life  of entry  cycle into  research  d e s c r i b e s the 19-28 age p e r i o d  the a d u l t w o r l d .  McCoy  (1977) i d e n t i f i e s  the f a m i l y " and " r e a c h i n g o u t " as c e n t r a l developmental many a d u l t s the l i f e social  i n t h e 19-28 age group,  o f s u b j e c t A.  activities  contact  with  A c q u i r i n g new acquaintances  are important  one's  SOCIAL events  family  preparing  and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n  for a career  developmental  role.  S u b j e c t A, l i k e many young a d u l t s , e x p e r i e n c e d life  events  lifestyle.  Her  f i n d i n g s among beginning  regarding weight  young  her  gain  and  c a r e e r s or advanced  old dentist  event  scores  beginning health.  who  and  decreased  Subject B also  periods of depression.  from  a house  that  became  Less  also  represent  f o r a more  less  fitness  independent  and was  concerned  physically level  secondary  direct  active  a r e common  s c h o o l and a r e  study.  shared  indicated  t o run he  health  a d u l t s who have completed  S u b j e c t B has been s e l e c t e d year  i n preparing  As w i t h  were s i g n i f i c a n t i n  common  with  progression  "leaving  tasks.  aspects o f young a d u l t h o o d .  and  a s the  during  concerned  indicated  the 29-34 age group. with  two other  the about  two  year  He was a 31  adults. period  h i s present  prior  lifestyle  to and  an i n c r e a s e i n s t r e s s and e x p e r i e n c e d  An i n c r e a s e d awareness and i n t e r e s t  f i t n e s s and p r e v e n t i v e medicine  His l i f e  was a l s o  experienced.  in physical  Subject period. with  He d i v o r c e d  h i s marriage.  wished  t o make  activities year Of  B experienced  many major SOCIAL e v e n t s d u r i n g  h i s wife  He f e l t  new  interest  having  he entered  experienced  "off-time" regarding  acquaintances.  and a v a c a t i o n  interval  after  were  dissatisfaction  h i s type o f f r i e n d s and  Significant  also  the two year  indicated.  changes  During  in  this  social  same two  a new r e l a t i o n s h i p which r e s u l t e d i n m a r r i a g e .  t o the r e s e a r c h e r ,  h i s new wife  was a devoted r e c r e a t i o n a l  runner. Subject wife  B purchased  lived.  living  This  and remodelled  event  p r e c i p i t a t e d two  additional  ones—improved  c o n d i t i o n s and o b t a i n i n g a mortgage.  Developmental theory the  a house i n which he and h i s new  29-34  age group.  reappraise  their  self-reflection  suggests t h a t a c r i s i s Individuals  present  status  at this  and f u t u r e  i s o f t e n experienced i n  stage  often  prospects.  evaluate  and  This  period o f  i s o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d as one o f q u e s t i o n i n g .  Levinson  (1978) suggests that the essence o f the Age 30 T r a n s i t i o n i s the growing sense  t h a t change must  into—or  be made soon, otherwise  o u t of—commitment  that  will  events  by  subject  one w i l l  be more  become  and more  locked  difficult  to  change. The described status  in life  and  lifestyle.  experienced cycle  increased  research.  stress  are consistent  H i s concern  suggests  His d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  B  with  a  about  questioning  h i s friends  with  present  Levinson structure  (1978), s u b j e c t  B appears  t h a t were t e n t a t i v e l y  as a c r i s i s  t o have  constructed  and  h i s marriage others.  and, as suggested by  reworked during  health  o f h i s current  i n d i c a t e s an e v a l u a t i o n or r e a p p r a i s a l o f h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s with Subject B's d i v o r c e c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  those  parts  entry  of h i s l i f e  i n t o the a d u l t  63 world, his  and c r e a t e d a r e v i s e d l i f e  next l i f e p e r i o d . Subject  C, s e l e c t e d  from  associate  p r o f e s s o r who l i v e d  two  period before  year  numerous  significant  experienced  i n a house with other  she s t a r t e d  life  a reminder  the 35-45 age group, was a 42 year o l d  increased fear  increased  preventive  s u b j e c t C had e x p e r i e n c e d  She gained  weight,  became  o f the aging p r o c e s s and became alarmed She e x p e r i e n c e d  o l d was a l s o her  During t h e  identified.  awareness  and  about her  a mental h e a l t h problem,  During  interest  "unfit,"  this  i n sleeping. time  i n physical  A  subject C  fitness  and  medicine.  FAMILY  events  experienced  abortion, d i f f i c u l t y also  adults.  s t r e s s , p e r i o d s o f d e p r e s s i o n , and d i f f i c u l t y  o f becoming  also  running,  events.  present h e a l t h and l i f e s t y l e .  She  s t r u c t u r e t h a t would form the b a s i s o f  in raising  was a f f e c t e d  were  a child,  by a n e g a t i v e  becoming  pregnant,  and having  change  having  a child  an  l e a v e home.  i n the h e a l t h o f a f a m i l y  member, t r o u b l e with her i n - l a w s , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with her m a r r i a g e , and a f e e l i n g o f being SOCIAL events  " o f f - t i m e " r e g a r d i n g her r o l e experienced  a v a c a t i o n , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n also f e l t stage and  i n the f a m i l y .  were a d e s i r e t o make new  i n an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program.  Subject C  " o f f - t i m e " r e g a r d i n g her l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n at t h i s  particular  i n her l i f e .  She e x p e r i e n c e d  a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n her income  renewed a mortgage. Recent e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h supports the popular  crisis (Gould,  or " e x p l o s i o n " which 1978).  aware t h a t death to  acquaintances,  modify  During will  this  often  occurs  of a midlife  t h e 35-45  age p e r i o d  s t a g e , the a d u l t o f t e n becomes e m o t i o n a l l y  come and time  unsatisfying  during  concept  aspects  of  i s running current  o u t . Attempts are made  life  structure  and  test  64 elements o f a new s t r u c t u r e . often  brings  emotional  upset  quo—one's established l i f e Many  often  because  one  o f this period  i s challenging  the s t a t u s  structure.  of the events  turbulence  The i n t e n s e reexamination  experienced  characterizing  this  by  stage  subject  C  illustrate  the  o f a d u l t development.  Her  e x p e r i e n c e o f h e a l t h problems and i n c r e a s e d awareness o f aging appear t o precipitate  both a concern  t o make n e c e s s a r y relating  changes f o r improvement.  t o one's  life-cycle  spouse  researchers  SOCIAL events  children. three  and one's  as major  experienced  personal p r i o r i t i e s Subject  r e g a r d i n g her present  He has been s e l e c t e d  other  individuals  HEALTH e v e n t s .  During  subject D experienced  disease,  from  the two year  during  this  period.  i n new s o c i a l  engineer  the over  in  fear  with  h i s in-laws.  included  a decrease  acquaintances. different  WORK  working  an a n t i c i p a t e d  Events  in social related  experienced  activities events  were  a  j o b change  concerned  and  an i n c r e a s e d  medicine.  He a l s o  desire  running,  dying,  experienced  i n t h e SOCIAL  and a  high i n  the onset o f  and  f i t n e s s and p r e v e n t i v e  c o n d i t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  promotion.  L i k e the  and became  s u b j e c t s , he e x p e r i e n c e d  in physical  with h i s  relatively  aging  S u b j e c t D's wife d i e d d u r i n g t h i s time p e r i o d . problems  who l i v e d  45 age group.  of  The  activities.  i n t e r v a l b e f o r e he s t a r t e d  sleeping,  by  to rearrange  A t t h i s time he a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d  L i k e the three other  awareness and i n t e r e s t  an e f f o r t  a weight g a i n , l a c k e d energy,  difficulty  depression.  identified  d e s c r i b e d , s u b j e c t D scored  about h i s present h e a l t h . a  been  and v a l u e s and p a r t i c i p a t e o l d chemical  tasks o f  have  by s u b j e c t C suggest  D was a 52 year  and a d e s i r e  The developmental  children  challenges  lifestyle  category  t o make  new  resulting  in  He was a l s o  denied  Life peak  cycle  theorists  productivity  during  this  and  stage  problems, and  loss  d e s c r i b e the over  creativity.  are  adjusting  o f mate.  of  one's  spouse.  to  the  Subject  He  also  age  Significant  D's  the t r a u m a t i c events of e x p e r i e n c i n g age loss  45  had  p e r i o d as a time developmental  realities profile  of  tasks  work,  certainly  health  illustrates  r e l a t e d h e a l t h problems and  to  accept  the  of  reality  the  that  his  for  the  employment e x p e c t a t i o n s would not be a t t a i n e d . Scores  from  construction  the  of  LES  individual  experienced  by  informative  case  studies.  quantifying  life  events  and  motives  available instrument  an  An  certainly  information  awareness  assists  was  of  i n the  However, i n the present  run.  Now  i t would  administering  would a l s o be of  events  development  study  i t to  be  that  the  useful  other  to  LES  further  populations.  scores  validate  Investigation of individual  item on  the EIS.  As  the  item of  205  subjects  i n the two  adults  of  year  i n the community."  (72.20 percent) period before  a l l ages  and  levels  said  One they  hundred and  they began r u n n i n g . of  fitness  seen  f o r many t o begin  significant,  item 8,  item as w e l l as  The  running running.  "Employee f i t n e s s  your  forty-eight  were i n f l u e n c e d by  s e r v e s as a s t i m u l u s or m o t i v a t o r this  from  indicated,  the most frequent e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e i s the o b s e r v a t i o n o f " A d u l t s  of  the  Scores  T a b l e 6 shows f r e q u e n c i e s o f each  age or o l d e r running  and  interest.  External Influences Scale  own  of  the purpose o f  i s developed  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s c a l e s c o r e s which d i s t i n g u i s h one another  the  t o examine r e l a t i o n s h i p s between LES to  f u t u r e use,  by  useful  profiles.  individual  f o r beginning  for  contribute  this  prevalence in  public  Although promotion,"  TABLE 6 Frequency External  and Mean E x t e r n a l I n f l u e n c e S c a l e S c o r e s f o r 205 P a r t i c i p a n t s  I n f l u e n c e Item  1. A d u l t s your own age or o l d e r running i n community 2. P a r t i c i p a t i o n f i t n e s s promotion 3. F i t n e s s message comparing 60 year o l d Swede t o 30 year o l d Canadian 4. T e l e v i s i o n coverage o f a running event 5. Magazine a r t i c l e r e l a t e d t o running 6. Commericial advertisement employing running or f i t n e s s image 7. Newspaper a r t i c l e r e l a t e d t o running 8. Book promoting h e a l t h b e n e f i t s o f running such as A e r o b i c s 9. Media promotion o f " s e l f - g r o w t h " ( g e t t i n g i n touch with your body) 10. I n d i v i d u a l a t h l e t i c performance having g r e a t emotional impact 11 . T e l e v i s i o n movie i n which running was p o r t r a y e d 12. Radio coverage o f a running event 13. C e l e b r i t y endorsing f i t n e s s or running 14. S p e c i f i c running p u b l i c a t i o n such as Runner's World 15. A c t i o n B.C. f i t n e s s promotion 16. Motion p i c t u r e f e a t u r i n g running 17. Employee f i t n e s s promotion  Yes Response 148 135 125 124 120 118 114 95 83 79 75 72 64 56 55 54 33  Frequency  72.20 65.85 60.98 60.49 58.54 57.56 55.61 46.34 40.49 38.54 36.59 35.12 31.22 27.32 26.83 26.34 16.10  Mean  2.45 2.32 2.23 2.20 2.19 2.17 2.12 1.94 1.82 1.79 1.75 1.71 1.64 1.56 1.55 1.53 1.32  Cfl  67 were  not  loadings employed  included  i n any  (.40  less).  or  running  or  of  the  Item  fitness  four 9,  factors  "A  because o f  commercial  image" was  insufficient  advertisement  a l s o e l i m i n a t e d because  which it  was  f a c t o r i a l y "impure," t h a t i s , i t loaded on s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . Table 7 shows t o t a l each f a c t o r . the  s c a l e s c o r e s , s c a l e score means, and S.D.'s f o r  Item means, c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g  number of  items  on  each  factor  are  the mean s c a l e score  also indicated.  Because o f  absence o f other groups with which t o compare norms, l i t t l e  scores  are  useful,  however,  s c o r e s f o r the 205 More  influenced increase  60  by  the  old  and  two in  of  the  items  adult  illustrative  regarding  This finding  the  second  were  significantly  Participation's  physical fitness.  were  purposes, mean  7.  population  " F i t n e s s message comparing  Canadian"  influence.  For  s u b j e c t s are shown i n F i g u r e  percent  awareness  promotion" year  than  item means.  in describing differences in external  i n f l u e n c e p r o f i l e s between i n d i v i d u a l s . EIS  the  significance  should be attached to the d i f f e r e n c e s between s c a l e score or EIS  by  "Par t i c i p a c t i o n  a 60  and  efforts  year  third  fitness  o l d Swede t o  most  frequent  r e c o g n i z e s the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s  to  a  30  external marketing  strategy. As  expected,  influenced started  them.  running  external  respondents  Because  this  study  i n f l u e n c e s which o c c u r r e d to  featuring  running  time.  there has  said  media  focused  on  w i t h i n the p r e v i o u s f i v e years and  beginning  present  many  run,  items did  such  not  as  score  i n the two a as  year  television high  as  coverage  running  individuals  who  had  attempted t o  identify  period prior  to t h e i r  movie  they  of  or  motion p i c t u r e  probably  would  at  the  S i n c e the r e s e a r c h d a t a f o r t h i s study has been c o l l e c t e d  been a remarkable i n c r e a s e i n r u n n i n g - r e l a t e d movies.  68 TABLE 7 Mean E x t e r n a l I n f l u e n c e S c a l e S c o r e s f o r 205 P a r t i c i p a n t s EIS  Factor  I. II. III. IV.  Total Mean S c a l e Possible Score  Model Media Movie Participaction  Model F i g u r e 7.  Media  M e a n E I S S c o r e s f o r 205  12 15 6 6  6.80 9.80 3.28 4.56  Movie  Participaction  participants.  S.D.  Item Mean  2.72 3.50 1.64 1.58  .57 .65 .55 .76  69 Likewise, individuals has  participation  i n running  probably  previous  the  and  fitness  i n f l u e n c e d more  time.  of c e l e b r i t i e s  physically disabled  programs d u r i n g  adults  Public figures  and  and  such  fitness  as  the  past  programs  T e r r y Fox  and  few  than  Jane  years at  Fonda  any have  become models to thousands of a d u l t s . The  rather  suggests during  that  the  the  b e n e f i t s of  Future  influences  improved  a result  still  employee  fitness  employee  in  o f growing  i n c r e a s i n g awareness by  i n the  present  relevant.  Items  the  populations person's  utility  mean scores  are  s u b j e c t s , one the present  levels,  fitness  study  i n an  awareness  also  and  to  infancy  employers  regarding  i t i s expected  promotion at the  be  attempt  their  employee demands  interest  in  present  items  t o make  for  various  modified identify  that  o f the e x t e r n a l  as w e l l as updating  might  promotion,"  v a r i a b l e s which  exercise  or  other  part-time and  o f EIS used  is illustrated  i n F i g u r e s 8 and  to c o n s t r u c t e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e p r o f i l e s  9.  EIS  for  four  s e l e c t e d from each o f the four c o h o r t groups c o n s i d e r e d i n  A  was  a 22  year  c o l l e g e student.  o l d medical  She  has  at the time o f the" study  been running  approximately  responded p o s i t i v e l y  I, MODEL:  scores  study.  Subject  She  were  fitness  behaviour.  The  A had  "Employee  study might examine the c u r r e n t frequency  sociodemographic influence  an  12,  programs As  i n f l u e n c e d by  used  more  life  item  fitness  programs and  more a d u l t s are  health  on  time o f the study.  fitness  them  score  employee  for  time.  low  lived  lived  stenographer i n the  with  two  who  was  also  Lower Mainland other  -  a  a l l her  adults.  Subject  12 m i l e s a week f o r the past two  years.  t o a l l four e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e items on  Factor  a c e l e b r i t y or p u b l i c f i g u r e who  endorsed  f i t n e s s or  running,  71 A c t i o n BC f i t n e s s great  emotional  Factor by  promotion, impact,  an i n d i v i d u a l  and media  I I , MEDIA, s c o r e s were a l s o  magazine,  Subject  newspaper,  radio,  athletic  promotion  performance  o f "self-growth."  above the norm.  and t e l e v i s i o n  A was not i n f l u e n c e d by e i t h e r  Subject Hong  Kong  running  Participaction  coverage  item o f F a c t o r  B was a 31 year  i n December,  fitness  o l d engineer  1967.  He l i v e d  four years ago. He r a n an average  category  was  publication.  the item  indicating  picture  featuring  with  Factor  IV i t e m s :  message comparing  and  children.  She moved  September, 1946. started  running  other  figure  who  performance influenced event.  adults  He responded  of  t o t h e Lower Mainland  S u b j e c t C, who never five  years  by two items endorsed having  fitness great  from  participated  ago and at the time  from  Subject  positively this  running movie o r  i n f l u e n c e d by  promotion  from  and began  specific  a television  B was  fitness  a  both  and t h e f i t n e s s  o l d s a l e s p e r s o n who l i v e d  m i l e s a week a t Minoru Park. influenced  t o Vancouver  a 60 year o l d Swede t o a 30 year o l d  S u b j e c t C was a 36 year  a motion  The o n l y n e g a t i v e s c o r e from  Subject  Participaction  III:  o f s i x m i l e s a week.  influence  running.  running.  She was i n f l u e n c e d  who moved  He was not i n f l u e n c e d by e i t h e r  motion  of  promotion.  B was not i n f l u e n c e d by any o f the MODEL items. t o four o f the f i v e MEDIA i n f l u e n c e s .  Her  She was i n f l u e n c e d  p i c t u r e or t e l e v i s i o n movie which f e a t u r e d r u n n i n g . by one F a c t o r IV item:  having  Canadian. with her husband  London, England i n i n organized sport,  o f the study,  r a n 14  P r i o r t o beginning t o run she s a i d  she was  Factor or  I , MODEL:  running  emotional  and  impact.  by one Factor I I , MEDIA, item:  a celebrity an She  individual said  r a d i o coverage  or p u b l i c athletic  she was  also  o f a running  S u b j e c t D was a 51 year o l d s e c u r i t y o f f i c e r from an  Winnipeg  average  only  i n June, 1965.  o f 13 m i l e s  influenced  "self-growth."  by  His only  running  publication  MOVIE i t e m s : Subject  D  a week one  He was  items.  He l i v e d  by h i m s e l f and had been  f o r the past  item  from  who moved t o Vancouver  two y e a r s .  MODEL:  media  i n f l u e n c e d , however, by four  negative such  response  to this  as Runner's World.  S u b j e c t D was promotion  o f the f i v e  Factor  was  "a  "Participaction  responded fitness  positively  promotion"  to  of  MEDIA  specific  He was i n f l u e n c e d by both  a t e l e v i s i o n movie and a motion p i c t u r e f e a t u r i n g also  running  both  PARTICIPACTION  running. items:  and the " f i t n e s s message comparing a  60 year o l d Swede t o a 30 year o l d Canadian." As  the focus o f t h i s  IRFRS v a r i a b l e s ,  factor  study  i s to predict  s c o r e s from  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between EIS f a c t o r s . further  analysis  as independent  o f v a r i a n c e i n the reasons  variance  i n the s e p a r a t e  the EIS are not analyzed  t o measure  Rather,  be used i n  variables,  why a d u l t s begin  EIS s c o r e s w i l l assisting running.  i n the e x p l a n a t i o n  73 CHAPTER NINE  PREDICTORS OF  Single Variable This and  RUNNING SCALE SCORES  Predictors  study  reasons why  INITIAL REASONS FOR  concerned  relationships  a d u l t s begin r u n n i n g .  between  independent  From the onset i t was  variables considered  important t o examine the m u l t i v a r i a t e n a t u r e o f motives f o r b e g i n n i n g t o run.  The  entry  into  score. other  procedures r e p o r t e d regression  Although  below were  used  e q u a t i o n s used t o e x p l a i n  some independent v a r i a b l e s  than those o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e i r  motivational inductively Collins,  o r i e n t a t i o n s was and  calculated  to s e l e c t  variables for  variance  i n each  were measured  f o r purposes  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o each o f the  because o f a d e s i r e  to explore c o u n t e r - i n t u i t i v e  IRFRS  hypotheses  t o proceed  (see B o s h i e r &  1982).  Where  the  independent  a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was  variable  performed  Table 8 shows the a n a l y s i s r e g a r d i n g  was  of  a nominal  t y p e , a one-way  f o r each o f the dependent sex and i n i t i a l  variables.  reasons f o r  TABLE 8 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Sex  and I n i t i a l Reasons f o r  Men Mean SOLITUDE PERSONAL CHALLENGE SOCIALIZATION PREVENTION REMEDIAL HEALTH  17.30 15.08 7.46 9.33 6.42 10.09  S.D. 5.62 4.85 2.67 3.29 2.87 1 .52  Running S c a l e S c o r e s F  Women Mean S.D. 18.20 14.13 7.38 8.19 5.84 10.11  6.38 4.66 1.95 2.94 2.10 1 .71  1.12 2.03 0.06 6.92 2.78 0.01  Ratio  (ns) (ns) (ns) (p<.009) (P<-09) (ns)  74 beginning r u n n i n g .  Mean s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d  f o r t h e 93 males and 112  females and the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex and IRFRS s c o r e s determined by a one-way a n a l y s i s o f  variance.  Independent v a r i a b l e s o f an i n t e r v a l type were c o r r e l a t e d product-moment) relationships factor.  with  each  between  age  The f o l l o w i n g  correlation  of  and  the life  discussion  IRFRS events  will  c o e f f i c i e n t s and F - r a t i o s  each o f the v a r i a b l e s  and IRFRS  scores. and  (Pearson  Table  scores  on  9  shows  each  IRFRS  be based on the p r e s e n t a t i o n indicating  relationships  of  between  scores.  SOLITUDE Table SOLITUDE  8  shows  factor.  relationships As  indicated,  between there  9 shows  that  age was  also  scores  on  the IRFRS  was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex and beginning Table  sex and  running  f o r SOLITUDE.  not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d  Likewise, with  this  scores  and  factor. Significant SOLITUDE. Events  correlations  Individuals  (r=.29,  significantly  and  on these v a r i a b l e s .  Events  (r=.17,  in that be  several  Events  (r=.22,  were  caused  f o r many n e c e s s i t a t e s  p r e s s u r e s or demands.  p<.001)  scores  were  F a m i l y Events (r=.19, p<.003) and E d u c a t i o n also  statistically  t o the c o n s t r u c t  stress  LES  f o r SOLITUDE than were low  significant.  v a l i d a t i o n o f the SOLITUDE  i n d i v i d u a l s with a h i s t o r y o f numerous l i f e  experiencing  This  p<.009)  contribute  Work  i n c l i n e d t o begin running  scorers  findings  between  with h i g h e r H e a l t h Events (r=.38, p<.001), S o c i a l  p<.001),  more  appeared  to t e m p o r a r i l y  factor  events are l i k e l y t o  by change or d i s r u p t i o n  a time  These  escape  i n status  quo.  from mounting  TABLE 9:  Relationship Between Age and L i f e Events and I n i t i a l Reasons for Running Scale Scores I  II III PERSONAL CHALLENGE SOCIALIZATION  SOLITUDE  Age  IV  V  PREVENTION  VI  REMEDIAL  HEALTH  -.06  -  -.14  <.03  .003  -  .33  <.001  .09  -  -.04  Health Events  .38  <C.001  .13  <.04  .16  <.009  .38  <.001  .33  <.001  Family Events  .19  .003  -.001  -  .04  -  .03  -  .13  <.03  .15  Death Events  .10  -  .01  -  .04  -  .17  <.009  .09  -  -.09  Social Events  .29  <.001  .32  <.001  .14  <.03  -.06  -  .02  -  .14  Education Events  .17  <.009  .10  -  .11  -  -.08  -  -.09  -  .07  Residents Events  .05  -  .08  -  .03  -  -.14  <.03  -.02  -  .10  Finance Events  .11  -  .10  -  .22  <.001  .01  -  .16  <.01  .19  <.003  Work Events  .22  <.001  .12  <.05  .14  <.03  -.06  -  .05  0  .21  <.001  Total Events  .39  <.001  .23  <.001  .22  <.001  .09  -  .19  <.003  .31  <.001  .33 <.001 <.02  <.03  Cn  76 PERSONAL CHALLENGE Males CHALLENGE  were  slightly  reasons  significantly (r=-.14,  than  higher  p<.03).  participation activity  more  inclined  were  females  scores  This  on  result  s t u d i e s i n which  declines  t o begin (F=2.03).  this  factor  supports adult  as one p r o g r e s s e s  running Younger  than  usual  a d u l t s had  d i d older  findings  participation through  f o r PERSONAL  i n exercise  i n regular  adulthood.  adults  physical  Social  Events  showed the s t r o n g e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o PERSONAL CHALLENGE (r=.32, p<.001). T h i s enhances the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f t h e PERSONAL CHALLENGE f a c t o r i n that  life  social  events  such  activities  as the i n f l u e n c e  can be  related  o f new  t o motives  friends  t o begin  o r changes i n  running  p e r s o n a l d e s i r e t o make new f r i e n d s or i n t e r a c t with o t h e r s . began  running  inclined  f o r PERSONAL  t o have e x p e r i e n c e d more H e a l t h  (r=.12,  p<.05).  related  t o PERSONAL CHALLENGE  that  CHALLENGE  the motives  antecedent  life  The  Total  Life  Events  were  also  A d u l t s who  significantly  (r=.13, p<.04) and Work score  was  also  a new e x e r c i s e behaviour  more Events  significantly  (r=.23, p<.001) s u p p o r t i n g the  for i n i t i a t i n g  as i n a  assumption  are r e l a t e d t o  events.  SOCIALIZATION There or  were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  age and beginning  sexes  running  significant  f o r SOCIALIZATION.  and a l l c o h o r t groups respond  finding  may  be  of  special  relationships  Suggesting  similarly to social  interest  t o those  between sex that  influences,  promoting  or  both this  marketing  e x e r c i s e programs f o r a d u l t s . The p<.001)  correlations and  Health  between Events  SOCIALIZATION and Finance (r=.16,  p<.009)  were  Events  significant.  (r=.22, This  77 finding in  suggests  h e a l t h or  motives  the  attempt  to  interact  e x p e c t a t i o n s or Social also  with  participate  or  by  by  many  fitness  e x p e r i e n c i n g improved  social appears leaders  financial  i n e x e r c i s e programs  conform  to  societal  or  in  peer  related  to  Work Events  (r=.14,  an  group  SOCIALIZATION.  p<.03) were  Support  for  i s p r o v i d e d by the numerous r e p o r t s o f a d u l t s who  influence or  others  influenced  This r e l a t i o n s h i p  held  participate  (r=.14, p<.03) and  significantly  education  or  be  roles.  Events  relationships  aging  to  to  running.  assumption  aware o f  o f t e n motivated  have experienced numerous changes  likely  to begin  a-priori  a d u l t s becoming are  s t a t u s are  decision  with  status  the  i n d i v i d u a l s who  financial  in their  consistent that  that  of  a  "significant  recreation  other"  or  programs as major  in regular f i t n e s s  participation factors  these  identify  i n new  in their  adult  decision  to  activities.  PREVENTION Males  were  significantly  PREVENTION motives between  age  p<.001).  and  more  than were females  PREVENTION  was  also  inclined  to  begin  (F=6.92, p<.009). statistically  As the young a d u l t p r o g r e s s e s through  running  The  for  correlation  significant  (r=.33,  the l i f e c y c l e he or  she  o f t e n becomes more aware o f decreased p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , p o t e n t i a l h e a l t h problems,  and attempts  Adults inclined lower  to  with  higher  begin  ratings.  to prevent premature aging or f u t u r e i l l n e s s .  running  Death  Events  the  death o f an  individual  p<.009)  f o r PREVENTION reasons  Superficialy,  experienced  (r=.17,  i t  appears  personal loss of a close with whom they can  friend  than  that or  identify,  were  also  more  were those  with  adults  who  became aware o f  have the  are o f t e n m o t i v a t e d  78 to  take  also  steps t o i n s u r e t h a t  shows that  b e g i n running had  fewer  they do not meet a s i m i l a r  a d u l t s with  fewer  Residence  f o r PREVENTION reasons  Residence  Events  fate.  Table 9  were more l i k e l y t o  (r=-.14, p<.03) than were those  who  Events.  REMEDIAL Males motives  were  than  slightly  were  more  females  inclined  t o begin  (F=2.78,  .05<p<.09).  No  significant  relationship  anticipated,  a d u l t s who e x p e r i e n c e d more Health Events  to  begin  running  appeared  running  f o r REMEDIAL reasons  (r=.16, p<.01) and F a m i l y Events related  between age  and  f o r REMEDIAL statistically  REMEDIAL.  As  were more  likely  Finance  Events  (r=.33, p<.001).  (r=.13, p<.03) were a l s o  significantly  t o REMEDIAL.  HEALTH There or  were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  age and beginning  and  a l l cohort  such  as  running  groups  health  relationships  f o r HEALTH r e a s o n s .  appeared  maintenance  significant  t o be  or  similarly  improvement  between sex  A d u l t s o f both influenced  and  by  physical  sexes  motives  appearance.  A d u l t s s c o r i n g h i g h i n H e a l t h Events were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d t o begin  running  f o r HEALTH  a-priori  assumption  becoming  more  Significant  aware o f  correlations  p<.001), F i n a n c e and  Social  experiencing  that  Events  reasons  (r=.33,  p<.001).  a d u l t s o f t e n begin age  related  also (r=.19,  Events  (r=.14,  more  changes  i n appearance  between  p<.003), F a m i l y  p<.03) in  and  these  supports  an e x e r c i s e program  changes  appeared  This  Work Events  HEALTH  life  after  or h e a l t h .  Events  (r=.21,  (r=.15, p<.02),  reasons.  event  an  Adults  categories  are  79 significantly improve h e a l t h As shown score  and  score  Life  running Life  of  the  six  significant.  factors  The  i n an attempt  for  Event  Event  to maintain or  beginning  relationships  and SOLITUDE, PERSONAL CHALLENGE, a t the p<.001 l e v e l s c o r e s were a l s o  f o r REMEDIAL motives  related  running  i n T a b l e 9, the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the T o t a l L i f e  were s i g n i f i c a n t Total  to begin  or appearance.  five  statistically Event  more l i k e l y  scores.  run  were  the T o t a l  Life  SOCIALIZATION, and HEALTH  of confidence.  significantly  A d u l t s with  more  inclined  higher  t o begin  (r=.19, p<.003) than those with lower  PREVENTION  t o T o t a l L i f e Event  between  to  was  Event  the o n l y  factor  not  Total  significantly  score.  Two-Way I n t e r a c t i o n Between Sex and Age and IRFRS Scores As i n d i c a t e d useful  in predicting  concerned because  motives  with antecedent a  major  relationships for  i n the preceeding  beginning  purpose  life of  analysis,  f o r beginning  sex and age were not as  running  events and e x t e r n a l the  present  as were  variables  influences.  However,  study  was  to  investigate  between the sex and age o f i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r to r u n , an  analysis  of variance  i n t e r a c t i o n s o f sex and age were examined. for  the 93 males and 112 females  The  significance  of  s c o r e s was determined  the  was  performed  i n which  Mean s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d  and each o f the four  relationship  reasons  between  sex  and  age age  categories. and  IRFRS  by F - r a t i o s c o r e s .  SOLITUDE Table scores  10 shows  when  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  considered  separately  between sex and age and SOLITUDE and  when  analyzed  by  a  two-way  80 interaction.  As i n d i c a t e d ,  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between sex and SOLITUDE  (F=.98), age and SOLITUDE (F=2.42), and the two-way i n t e r a c t i o n were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y For shown between  below  category.  purposes  10.  the sexes  slightly  sexes  during  their  the  and  cohort  interesting  t o SOLITUDE  category  group  sex group  resulting  scores are  differences  scores.  Both  average  i n c r e a s e i n SOLITUDE s c o r e s  then  i n above  appear  sexes  score  i n t h e 19-28 occurs  i n both  average  scores.  SOLITUDE becomes a more s i g n i f i c a n t motive t o begin  i n t h e 29-34  obvious  i n males  age group.  A d e c l i n e i n SOLITUDE  (X=16.59) than  During  important  sex  indicated,  regard  29-34  sexes  mean  respective total  running  ages 35-45.  As  with  A dramatic  Thus, f o r both  less  significant.  illustrative  i n Figure  (F=.79)  this  females  (X=19.04)  period, especially  as a reason  f o r beginning  appears  f o r men,  to run.  s c o r e s , more d u r i n g the  SOLITUDE becomes  Another  significant  d i f f e r e n c e between the sexes  r e g a r d i n g SOLITUDE s c o r e s o c c u r s d u r i n g t h e  46 and o l d e r c o h o r t group.  SOLITUDE s c o r e s  (X=17.32) and d e c l i n e s h a r p l y i n females As shown i n Table and  specific  differences  sex-cohort  "balance-out"  do  However, F i g u r e 10 i l l u s t r a t e s  indeed  groups.  I t must  between  males  between  specific  and  be  females  sex-cohort  correlation.  Thus,  importance  SOLITUDE  of  (X=15.91).  occur  i n SOLITUDE  It appears  that  during  emphasized i n Figure  that  between  differences i n the two-way  the d i f f e r e n c e s  measured  association  groups and SOLITUDE r a t h e r than  significant  motives  simply  that  represent  specific  10  scores  these  when sex and age are analyzed c o l l e c t i v e l y  interaction.  i n males  10, the two-way i n t e r a c t i o n s between sex and age  SOLITUDE were not s i g n i f i c a n t .  significant  increase s l i g h t l y  stages  f o r beginning  of  the  life  cycle  t o run d i f f e r s  the  between  81 TABLE 10 R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Sex and Age and SOLITUDE X Total Population  (205)  Males (93) Females (112)  17.30 18.20  19-28 29-34 25-45 46-  16.72 19.50 17.84 16.80  Age  (age x sex)  F-ratio  17.79  Sex  Two-way i n t e r a c t i o n  Scores  .98  ns  2.42  .06  .79  ns  82 males  and  females.  analyses  i s related  influence  variables  finding  that  exercise and  more than  sex-cohort  program  health  However, t h i s  difference,  t o antecedent  as  life  events  i t i s t o sex or age. differences  appear  f o r SOLITUDE reasons  p r o f e s s i o n a l s who  design  a d u l t s at v a r i o u s stages i n the l i f e  may  shown  i n previous  and e x t e r n a l  Notwithstanding,  i n terms  of initiating  be o f importance  o r manage  the  to  an  fitness  exercise  programs f o r  and  and  cycle.  PERSONAL CHALLENGE Table  11  CHALLENGE (F=3.49)  shows  scores. scored  together  relationships As  indicated,  higher  on  this  i n a two-way i n t e r a c t i o n ,  between  sex  younger  adults  factor.  age  PERSONAL  (F=2.69) and  However,  when  males  considered  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex and age  and PERSONAL CHALLENGE was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Figure  11  shows  mean  sex-cohort  group  scores  i n t e r a c t i o n o f sex and age with PERSONAL CHALLENGE. analysis  of  important  distinctions  motives have  SOLITUDE,  and sex-cohort  identical  total  scores  population.  dramatically  between  in this  However, d u r i n g female  the  appears  ages  indicating  o f PERSONAL  approximate  CHALLENGE both  the average  29-34 male  i n PERSONAL CHALLENGE s c o r e s was noted  sexes o f the  scores- i n c r e a s e  scores d e c l i n e s l i g h t l y .  males c o n t i n u e d  two-way  As i n the p r e v i o u s  In t h e 19-28 age group  (X=15.00) which  i n both  t o score  While  a  sexes i n  slightly  above  factor.  The meaning o f these inclined  pattern  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  variables.  f o l l o w i n g two age groups,  females  less  interesting  (X=17.35) w h i l e  g r a d u a l decrease the  an  in  t o begin  findings  running  i s reasonably c l e a r .  f o r PERSONAL  Both sexes are  CHALLENGE motives  as they  83 TABLE 11 R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Sex and Age and PERSONAL CHALLENGE s c o r e s X T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n (205)  Males (93) Females (112)  15.08 14.13  19-28 29-34 35-45 46-  15.00 15.50 13.80 13.23  Age  (age x sex)  p  3.49  .06  2.69  .04  14.56  Sex  Two-way i n t e r a c t i o n  F-ratio  1 .16  ns  84 age,  with  the  e x c e p t i o n o f males  stage males appear more l i k e l y reasons.  This  descriptions  finding  of  the  i n the  t o begin  i s congruent  "age  behavioural  change  i n an  Levinson,  1978).  The  30  29-34 age running  with  transition"  attempt  to  i n which  this  psychologists'  many males  a new  life  new  goals  attain  During  f o r PERSONAL CHALLENGE  developmental  t o develop  desire  group.  initiate  s t r u c t u r e (see and  compete  s u c c e s s f u l l y a g a i n s t o n e s e l f and o t h e r s i s e v i d e n t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f change.  SOCIALIZATION Relationships Table  12.  When  SOCIALIZATION significant. to  occur  This  between examined  (F=.06)  to  a  similar  supports  e q u a t i o n performed two-way  indicates  a that  specific  age  regarding  age  and  relationships  i n both  males and  interaction  between  relationship  sex-cohort  illustrates  indicated,  sex  average  i n c r e a s e s and  and  shown  between  age  in  sex  and  (F=.47) were  not  females from  group  in  (X=7.52).  and  age  (F=3.32).  scores  significantly  of  appears  a l l ages.  the SOCIALIZATION  are  from  and  SOCIALIZATION  This  association  considered,  females  of  the  males  in  same  age  t o run f o r SOCIALIZATION m o t i v e s .  sex-cohort  group  the  age  19-28  below (X=6.75) the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n average above  are  f o r SOCIALIZATION motives  absence o f sex  groups d i f f e r  As  SOCIALIZATION  i n the m u l t i v a r i a b l e a n a l y s i s .  when  12  and  SOCIALIZATION  running  extent the  age  the l i k e l i h o o d o f beginning  Figure scores.  and  significant  suggests  and  separately,  Thus, beginning  finding  The  sex  SOCIALIZATION  profiles  on  group, males while females  scores of  remain s i m i l a r d u r i n g ages 29-34.  both  SOCIALIZATION score  slightly  score  slightly  sexes  show minor  85 TABLE 12 R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Sex and Age and SOCIALIZATION X  Sex Male (93) Female (112)  7.46 7.38  19-28 29-34 35-45 46-  7.23 7.52 7.65 7.20  Age  9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0  (age x sex)  Female  19-28  F-ratio  7.42  T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n (205)  Two-way i n t e r a c t i o n  Scores  29-34  35-45  46 —  .06  ns  .47  ns  3.32  .02  9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0  Figure 12. Mean SOCIALIZATION Scores of Male and Female Runners in Different Age Groups  86 During gcoup  the  scores  population  35-45  age  appears.  p e r i o d , an  Male  average  while  scores  i n c r e a s e and  female  scores  SOCIALIZATION s c o r e s then decrease again  t o average  35-45 age  group, males  begin running an  i n females  other  hand,  motives  t h e 46+  females  are  tend  t o be motivated  t o be  less  rise  age  to  begin  total  average.  Apart  in their  rise  from  the  likelihood  to  ages 35-45, males show  running  d u r i n g t h i s age p e r i o d than a t any other  the  i n males and  period.  During  sex-cohort  below  by SOCIALIZATION.  likely  in  above  decrease  similar  f o r SOCIALIZATION r e a s o n s .  i n c r e a s e d tendency  change  back below average  during  and  interesting  Females, on  the  f o r SOCIALIZATION  age.  PREVENTION The  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex  significant and  age  of a l l the  sex  factors.  interaction  findings  are  equation  on  also  yielded  c o n s i s t e n t with PREVENTION  b e g i n running  the  i n c r e a s e with  factor  than do younger a d u l t s .  shown  average in  scores  (X=7.61). sharply  results  that  13.  19-28  Both  age  group.  (X=9.61)  occurs  PREVENTION  i n females  results  obtained  are  shown  scores  (X=9.21)  sexes  score  During while  remain i n age  (F=2.59) .  from  to  be  likely  stable  scores  i n males  group 35-45.  The  to  on  total  population  decrease  increase slightly  (X=9.41) and 46+  this  interaction  ages 29-34 a d r a m a t i c female  These  regression  higher  two-way the  The  A l s o , PREVENTION  a d u l t s score  below  the more  than are females.  i s , older  (F=3.70)  t o PREVENTION s c o r e s .  group PREVENTION s c o r e s i n the  in Figure  i n the  male  age,  PREVENTION were the most  shown i n T a b l e 13, sex  significant  i n t h a t males  scores  and  related  f o r P r e v e n t i o n motives  Mean sex-cohort  age  As  (F=7.85) were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  two-way  are  and  age  rise  category  87 TABLE 13 Relationship  Between Sex and Age and PREVENTION X  Total Population  Scores  F-ratio  8.71  (205)  Sex  3.70  .05  7.85  .001  2.59  .05  9.33 8.19  Male (93) Female (112) Age  7.50 8.43 9.31 10.70  19-28 29-34 35-45 46Two-way I n t e r a c t i o n  (age x sex)  12.0  12.0  11.5  11.5  11.0  11.0  10.5  10.5  10.0  10.0 —  9.5  9.5  9.0  9.0  8.5  8.5  8.0 7.5  8.0 <  7.5  7.0  7.0 19-28  29-34  35-45  46 —  Figure 13. Mean PREVENTION Scores of Male and Female Runners in Different Age Groups  88 shows  another  (X=11.58) and  s i g n i f i c a n t increase rather  s t a b l e scores  in  PREVENTION  i n females  scores  in  males  (X=9.18).  REMEDIAL Table  14  scores.  shows the  As  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex  indicated,  (F=1.93) age  and  the  REMEDIAL  relationships  (F=.79), and  and  age  between  the  sex  two-way  and  REMEDIAL  and  REMEDIAL  interaction  (F=.29)  association  between  were not s i g n i f i c a n t . Figure  14  also  clearly  sex-cohort groups and higher on the  REMEDIAL.  t h i s f a c t o r than  REMEDIAL motive.  such  as  to  specific  follow  health  t o be men  illustrates  females, sex  advise  problem, may  be  weak  Although males tended t o score  Thus, a d u l t s who the  the  and  age  were poor p r e d i c t o r s  began to run  of  a  of  any  physician age  and  slightly  f o r REMEDIAL reasons  or are  of  to  help  control  s l i g h t l y more  a  likely  than women.  HEALTH Relationships Consistent  between sex  with the  not  significant.  non-significance The Figure running  lack 15. for  of  Males  and  HEALTH  The  association and  HEALTH are  (F=.01) and  two-way  sex or  between  females o f  HEALTH m o t i v e s .  to the  and  shown i n T a b l e  15.  a n a l y s i s on HEALTH, the age  and  interaction  HEALTH (F=.41)  also  indicated  (F=.89).  appearance, t o m a i n t a i n related  age  f i n d i n g s of the m u l t i v a r i a t e  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex were  and  age  good  any  sex-cohort age  Reasons health,  were e q u a l l y  for or  groups  running  such  a t t a i n optimal  of the i n d i v i d u a l .  is  likely as  to  health  shown to  in  begin  improve were  not  89 TABLE 14 R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Sex and Age and REMEDIAL X Total Population  Scores  F-ratio  6.10  Sex Males Females  6.43 5.84  19-28 29-34 35-45 46-  5.78 6.13 6.09 6.77  Age  Two-way I n t e r a c t i o n  7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 Figure 14.  (age x sex)  -<  19-28  29-34  35-45  46 —  Mean REMEDIAL Scores of Male and Female Runners in Different Age Groups  1 .93  ns  .79  ns  .29  ns  7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0  90 TABLE 15 R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Sex and Age and HEALTH X T o ^ a l P o p u l a t i o n (205)  Scores F-ratio  10.10  Sex  .01  ns  .41  ns  .89  ns  10.09 10.11  Males Females Age 19-28 29-34 35-45 4 5-  10.11 10.25 9.91 10.13  Two-way I n t e r a c t i o n (age x sex)  10.50 10.00 9.50  p  ^c^Ct 1 19-28  29-34  35-45  46 —  Figure 15. Mean HEALTH Scores of Male and Female Runners in Different Age Groups v  10.50 10.00 9.50  91 M u l t i v a r i a t e P r e d i c t o r s o f IRFRS S c o r e s The  foregoing  reasons  for  analysis  running.  showed  While  theoretically  suggestive  results  very powerful  predictors  of  to explain HEALTH. and  more of  But,  external  as  the  the  age,  as  variance A  and  i n each of preliminary  characteristic, intercorrelated. regression PERSONAL reasons. education in  CHALLENGE, With  figures age  and  reasons  event,  of  and  i t was  were  not  They appeared  PREVENTION t h a n  for  the  correlation  i n each i n s t a n c e  life  in  in  events  running,  it  was  association explain  external to  influence enter  variance  them  to  be  personal  into a for  of  and  HEALTH  more  formal  t o begin running than were l e s s educated a d u l t s .  This  as emphasized by  influenced  series  SOLITUDE,  REMEDIAL, having  were  media  and,  likely  each  variables  in running  PREVENTION,  for  the  i s predictable  less  matrices some o f the  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s , adults  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  sex  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , would  decided  predicting  to  and  displayed  t h i s work spoke o f of  sex  variables.  SOCIALIZATION,  regard  their decision  situation  personal  dependent  Thus,  equations  that  age,  reasons f o r r u n n i n g .  correlates  suggested t h a t , life  the  i n SOCIALIZATION and  examination  dependent v a r i a b l e  between  extent to which these v a r i a b l e s ,  other the  of  i t appeared  theory b u t t r e s s i n g  influences  sex,  several  a l l the  variance  necessary to examine the with  relationships  by  Boshier:  i t buttresses arguments c o n c e r n i n g the need t o do multir a t h e r than b i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s . Few phenomena stem from the i n f l u e n c e o f one v a r i a b l e . Most human behaviour stems from i n t e r a c t i o n s of v a r i a b l e s . M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s are used t o disentangle these i n t e r a c t i o n s and show the e x t e n t t o which variance i n a dependent v a r i a b l e stems from the " p a r t i a l " o r ' " j o i n t " e f f e c t o f independent v a r i a b l e s . (1983, p. 124) Sixteen  of  the  e q u a t i o n s designed  independent  variables  to p r e d i c t v a r i a n c e  were entered  i n IRFRS s c o r e s .  into As  regression outlined  by  Boshier  (1983),  regression  the  decision  to  retain  or  discard  a n a l y s e s was based upon the f o l l o w i n g  variable  for  criteria:  1.  I t s simple c o r r e l a t i o n with each o f the IRFRS  2.  Its theoretical significance.  3.  I t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o other  4.  I t s apparent r e l e v a n c e t o a d u l t  independent  a  scores.  variables.  p a r t i c i p a n t s and e x e r c i s e  or h e a l t h  professionals. 5.  A desire The  regression  to eliminate  following  redundant  variables  predictors.  were  e q u a t i o n s used t o e x p l a i n  entered variance  Personal C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  into  each  i n IRFRS Life  the s i x  scores:  Events  - Age  - Health  - Sex  - Family  - Education  -  Death  -  -  Social  Occupation  of  - Education External  Influences  -  Residence  - Model  -  Finance  - Media  - work  - Movie - Participaction  Any o f the above independent equation order five  generated  to e x p l a i n  for a variable  t o enter  percent o f the v a r i a n c e .  each  variables  o f the IRFRS  the e q u a t i o n This  was  t o enter the  scores.  However, i n  i t had t o e x p l a i n  criterion  e q u a t i o n s as parsimonious as p o s s i b l e .  eligible  was a l s o  Two v a r i a b l e s  selected  at l e a s t t o keep  e n t e r e d the f i r s t  equation  and  variables .37  explained  entered  (14 p e r c e n t  percent  of  PREVENTION  REMEDIAL,  three  while  variance  SOCIALIZATION  equation  explained);  percent  of  the v a r i a n c e  t h e PERSONAL CHALLENGE of  the  20  equation  explained);  two  variance;  five  for a multiple r of variables  explained  .56  16  i n SOLITUDE;  for a multiple r of  variables  explained  variables  of  11  entered  (32 p e r c e n t  percent  two  the  of variance  the v a r i a n c e i n  two v a r i a b l e s entered the HEALTH e q u a t i o n  and e x p l a i n e d  13 percent o f the v a r i a n c e .  R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n s P r e d i c t i n g IRFRS Scores  SOLITUDE Table percent  16  shows  the  o f the v a r i a n c e  entry into  next  Events,  variables  i n SOLITUDE  that  combined  scores.  to  variables  .12.  t o enter  and MEDIA i n f l u e n c e s .  explain  At the c u t - o f f  the SOLITUDE e q u a t i o n none o f the 14 remaining  p a r t i a l r ' s g r e a t e r than the  two  20  point for  v a r i a b l e s had  Had a more l i b e r a l c r i t e r i o n been adopted would  have  been  MODEL  influences,  Work  Note the absence o f age and sex from t h e  equation. The  205 a d u l t runners  mean S o c i a l Event sign the  had a mean H e a l t h Event  score o f 2.91.  C o n s i d e r i n g the coding  and a  system and t h e  i n f r o n t o f each beta weight t h i s t a b l e shows t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s with highest  SOLITUDE  scores  were  SOLITUDE s c o r e s t o have experienced to  score o f 6.20  beginning  running.  weight g a i n or decreased reasons  than  those  Thus,  inclined  than  those  with  more H e a l t h and S o c i a l events  a d u l t s having  fitness  not having  more  level  experienced  a  were more m o t i v a t e d  experienced  similar  low prior  significant by SOLITUDE  health events.  This  94 TABLE 16 M u l t i v a r i a t e P r e d i c t o r s o f I n i t i a l Reasons f o r Running S c a l e S c o r e s SOLITUDE Scores Variable  X :  1  S.D.  ,  Multiple r  I  ,  Simple r  Beta (final)  F-ratio (at e n t r y )  :  H e a l t h Events  6.20  2.66  .38  .38  .35  S o c i a l Events  2.91  2.22  _.45  ^29  ^23_  relationship leaders  that  regarding  High  o b s e r v a t i o n s made by  the overweight  their  embarrassed  periods  supports  health  of  reasonable  in  status  exercise  are often and f e e l  for  between  SOLITUDE may  a d u l t s wanting  factor  also  Certainly, assisting  Health  experienced running  fitness  conspicuous or  increased stress or  f o r SOLITUDE  individuals  events  be o f importance  t o modify  and  self-conscious  less  in  their  t e m p o r a r i l y escape d a i l y p r e s s u r e s or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . relationship  _25^.40  alone r a t h e r than i n the presence o f o t h e r s .  this  depression. strategy  "unfit"  or f i t n e s s  when e x e r c i s i n g s c o r e r s on  or  adult  35.15  and  initiating  to health  appears  attempts  a to  Awareness o f the  an e x e r c i s e  professionals  program  counselling  behaviour.  PERSONAL CHALLENGE Table  17  CHALLENGE  shows  t h e two  equation.  experienced  Social  The  variables  most  events  construct deficit  validation  in their  of this  social  powerful  (beta=.32).  between t h e S o c i a l Event v a r i a b l e  that  entered  separate The  the  effect  significant  PERSONAL  was  having  relationship  and PERSONAL CHALLENGE b u t t r e s s e s t h e  factor.  interactions  Individuals  having  were more l i k e l y  t o make new acquaintances or i n c r e a s e t h e i r  social  experienced a  t o begin  running  i n t e r a c t i o n s than are  TABLE 17 M u l t i v a r i a t e P r e d i c t o r s o f I n i t i a l Reasons f o r Running S c a l e Scores PERSONAL CHALLENGE Scores Variable  X  S.D.  Multiple r  S o c i a l events  2.91  2.22  .32  Sex  1.55  .50  .37  having  experienced  interactions. problem in  oriented  the l e a r n i n g  life-space  The group change  or  interest  behaviours 1980), with  o f a new  adopt  a  23.08  -.10  -.20  16.22  .  that  adults  f o r reasons  i t was  their  become  Table  friend  program  new  not  present  with  their  social  are p u r p o r t e d  surprising social  t o be  to p a r t i c i p a t e  consistent  with  to  their  find  that  "condition"  often  i n a new  social  or p a r t i c i p a t i o n  may  "trigger"  behaviour.  motivated  or c u r i o s i t y  "others."  .37  f o r PERSONAL CHALLENGE.  recreational  individuals  running  o f new  influence  or  .32  (see Knowles, 1980), and are motivated  dissatisfied  began running  F-ratio (at entry)  satisfaction  o f the f a c t  (see B o s h i e r ,  individuals  to  i n running  17 a l s o  It  run  seems  because  fostered  shows t h a t  an  adult's  decision  reasonable  that  a  some  newly  developed  by a " s i g n i f i c a n t  other" or  males  of  to  were more  likely  t o begin  f o r PERSONAL CHALLENGE reasons than were females.  Had to  In view  greater  Beta (final)  •  I.. those  Simple r  a more l i b e r a l  enter  influence,  criterion  t h e PERSONAL education,  been adopted  CHALLENGE  and MEDIA  (sex) none o f the remaining  equation  influences.  the next would  three v a r i a b l e s  have  been  However, a f t e r  v a r i a b l e s had a p a r t i a l  MOVIE  s t e p two  r g r e a t e r than .13.  96 SOCIALIZATION Two  variables  scores.  The  generated  beta  weights.  more  i n f l u e n c e d by  finding  multiple  r  of  amount o f v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d on  o f the s i x f a c t o r s .  financial  a  movies  than  suggests  this  featuring  running  and  with  through  lower  the  scores  p i c t u r e s , many a d u l t s have become aware of  the  had on  the  lowest  simple r ' s , and  SOCIALIZATION  those  that  was  highest  of  scores  were  experienced  more  this  factor.  television image and  This  and  motion  social  status  running.  In view o f the SOCIALIZATION  factor  SOCIALIZATION  the  media  a s s o c i a t e d with  for  T a b l e 18 shows the v a r i a b l e s , t h e i r  I n d i v i d u a l s with  events  .33  was  fact  t h a t o n l y about  explained  by  equation, their  effects  should  criterion  adopted,  the  been  the  not  next  11 p e r c e n t  two  be  o f the v a r i a n c e i n  variables  that  exaggerated.  variable  to  Had  enter  the  entered  a more  the  liberal  SOCIALIZATION  e q u a t i o n would have been the i n f l u e n c e o f a model.  PREVENTION Table associated this  19  shows  with  table  the  c o n f i g u r a t i o n of  PREVENTION  indicates  how  is  variables  scores.  It  important  variable  clusters  and  to  most  closely  remember  that  interactions  were  a s s o c i a t e d with PREVENTION s c o r e s . Having beta  regard  weight,  scores  t o the  Table  were more  have e x p e r i e n c e d  19  coding  shows  inclined  that  than  h e a l t h events,  the media, t o have e x p e r i e n c e d most  powerful  single  effect  system  was  and  adults  those to be  with  the  with low  sign the  i n front highest  (PREVENTION)  of  each  PREVENTION scores  to  o l d e r , t o have been i n f l u e n c e d by  fewer work events having  and  experienced  t o be  male.  h e a l t h events  The prior  97 TABLE 18 Multivariate Predictors of I n i t i a l  Reasons f o r Running  SOCIALIZATION Variable  S c a l e Scores  Scores  X  S.D.  Multiple r  Simple r  Movie I n f l u e n c e 3.29  1.64  .24  .24  .25  12.85  F i n a n c e Events  1.30  .33  .22  .22  12.25  1.12  Beta (final)  F-ratio (at e n t r y )  TABLE 19 Multivariate Predictors of I n i t i a l  Reasons f o r Running  Scale Scores  PREVENTION Scores Variable  X  S.D.  Multiple r  Simple r  6.20  2.66  .38  .38  .37  34.70  34.43  10.08  .48  .33  .26  29.89  I n f l u e n c e 9.80  3.50  .51  .20  .21  23.80  H e a l t h Events Age Media  Beta (final)  F-ratio (at e n t r y )  Work Events  1.78  1.92  .53  -.06  .20  19.97  Sex  1.55  .50  .56  -.18  .18  18.38  98 to running  (beta=.38) .  clear  and  would  appear  The meaning of this relationship i s reasonably  contributes to the construct v a l i d i t y that  individuals  becoming  of t h i s  aware of decreased  f i t n e s s through aging or l i f e s t y l e related factors may begin running in an attempt  to prevent unnecessary  death.  increased  As  relationship  a  result  between  of  lifestyle  and  factor.  awareness health  It  health and  be motivated to  i l l n e s s or premature and  interest  status,  many  in  the  adults  are  motivated to take more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for their own health. With  regard  to  PREVENTION,  i t is  also  pertinent  to  influence of media as one of the variables in the equation.  note  the  Many adults  report that they f i r s t became aware of the relationship between regular physical a c t i v i t y  and  the prevention of "hypokinetic disease" through  various media channels.  REMEDIAL The .39  three variables l i s t e d  for REMEDIAL scores.  i n Table 20 generated  Although  the combination  a multiple r of  of variables shown  explained only 16 percent of the variance, the meaning of t h i s equation was  reasonably clear  factor.  and  contributed to the construct v a l i d i t y of the  Adults with the highest REMEDIAL scores had  experienced more  health events prior to running, were in the higher trained occupations, and  were more  likely  REMEDIAL scores.  to be  male  than  female  than  those  with  lower  Individuals scoring high on this factor were motivated  to begin running on the advice of a health professional.  Running  was  recommended  control  and  as  an  activity  which  would  management of a s p e c i f i c health problem disease, or chronic low back pain.  facilitate  the  such as obesity, cardiovascular  99 TABLE 20 M u l t i v a r i a t e P r e d i c t o r s o f I n i t i a l Reasons f o r Running S c a l e REMEDIAL Variable  Scores  Scores  X  S.D.  Multiple r  Simple r  Beta (final)  F-ratio (at e n t r y )  6.20  2.66  .33  .33  .36  25.00  Occupation  2.14  1 .26  .37  .13  .16  16.03  Sex  1.55  .50  .39  -.12  -.14  12.36  Health  Events  Having have  been  liberal  experienced the next  criterion  f i n a n c i a l events p r i o r  variable  into  f o r e n t r y been  t o beginning t o run would  the REMEDIAL  equation  had  a  more  adopted.  HEALTH Table 21 shows the two v a r i a b l e s t h a t e n t e r e d the HEALTH e q u a t i o n . As  i n the other two h e a l t h r e l a t e d  most powerful to r u n n i n g . are  separate e f f e c t was having e x p e r i e n c e d h e a l t h events I t appears  motivated  following than  an attempt  t h a t some i n d i v i d u a l s  to maintain  the e x p e r i e n c e  being  f a c t o r s , PREVENTION and REMEDIAL, the  or  improve  o f an aging  d e f i c i e n c y motivated,  in relatively  their  health  or h e a l t h r e l a t e d  appear  "growth" motivated  s c o r i n g h i g h on the HEALTH f a c t o r  have e x p e r i e n c e d this  equation  or  appearance  event.  i n which b e h a v i o u r a l change  and s t r i v e  o p t i m a l h e a l t h or f i t n e s s s t a t u s and maximum p e r s o n a l  in  good h e a l t h  Rather  represents  t o " l e s s e n the gap" between present and d e s i r e d f u t u r e h e a l t h  s t a t u s , some i n d i v i d u a l s  Adults  prior  been  fulfillment.  are a l s o more l i k e l y t o  numerous work events than are those having  variable. adopted  Had  a more  the next  liberal  criterion  four v a r i a b l e s  to attain  lower  for entry  scores  into the  t o enter would have been  100 TABLE 21 Multivariate Predictors  o f I n i t i a l Reasons f o r Running  S c a l e s Scores  HEALTH Scores Variable  X  S.D.  Multiple r  Simple r  Beta (final)  F-ratio (at e n t r y )  H e a l t h Events  6.20  2.66  .33  .33  .30  24.61  Work Events  1.78  1.92  .36  .21  .14  14.62  influence,  Participaction  Death education.  event, Thus,  inclined  than  the  loss  through  the  media  and  Media  influence,  and  i n d i v i d u a l s with the h i g h e s t HEALTH s c o r e s were more  those with lower death  of  someone  Participaction  more formal e d u c a t i o n .  (HEALTH) s c o r e s t o not have e x p e r i e n c e d "close,"  t o have been  f i t n e s s promotion,  and  influenced  t o have  by  completed  101 CHAPTER  TEN  CONCLUSIONS  The  I n i t i a l Reasons For Running It  was  concluded  psychologically and  Scale  that  sound and may  the  be  recreational settings.  represent running  major  and  factors—SOLITUDE, REMEDIAL, and  HEALTH—all  items  that  appear  PERSONAL  is  psychometr i c a l l y  u s e f u l for a p p l i c a t i o n i n other The  "orientations"  programs,  IRFRS  were  impel  adults  relevant  for  CHALLENGE,  measured  inductively into  both  fitness derived,  self-directed  sexes.  SOCIALIZATION,  f a c t o r s which  and  The  six  PREVENTION,  explained  why  adults  beg i n to r un. The  s o l u t i o n used to generate the  satisfying.  Items  from .46  to  III  ranged  they  V from  .42  .83;  to  pure as no  incorporated  i n Factor from  .70;  item had  .72;  variance. variance, 7.26  Factor  II  8.37  F a c t o r V 4.46  Factors  IV,  V,  i f their  16.00.  from  .45  to  .55 t o  .67.  In  and  I  Factor  percent, are  III  view  for  i n Factor  .74;  i n Factor  The  a l l concerned  the  two  percent  solution The  percent,  was  factors  the  total of  the  Factor  4.28  percent.  with  physical  together,  most  of  20.23 p e r c e n t  7.54  and F a c t o r VI  scores were c o n s i d e r e d this  ranged  .81;  factor.  f o r 52.13  accounted  percent,  VI  that  easy t o i n t e r p r e t .  s i x f a c t o r s accounted  percent,  of  loadings  a high l o a d i n g on more than one  I n d i v i d u a l l y , Factor  motives and total  the  I had  i n F a c t o r IV from  i n F a c t o r VI  were i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t and Together  into Factor  psychometrically  I I l o a d i n g s ranged from .43 t o  .53 t o  and  s i x f a c t o r s was  health  they would y i e l d  significant  IV  a  motivational  102 orientations  of a d u l t  runners  percent  are the p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r ,  explaining  20.23  of variance  and  explaining  16.00 percent o f the v a r i a n c e .  the p h y s i c a l  SOLITUDE,  health  factors  R e l a t i o n s h i p s between IRFRS Scores and P a r t i c i p a n t V a r i a b l e s After for  examining  beginning  study,  the  motives what  a v a r i e t y of conceptual  running"  focus  would  f o r beginning  "motivates"  problem be  on  self-directed  attempts  experiences  i t was  predicted.  That  i n order  hypothesized  time  to  exercise  personal  i s , i n order  run a t a s p e c i f i c  variables  in this as  r u n n i n g , and v a r i a b l e s  t o modify  and e x a m i n i n g  that,  "reasons initial  predictors of  I t was c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l t o understand  a d u l t s to begin  orientations,  decided  participant  to run.  motivational  identifying  i t was  approaches t o the  assist or  associated with  adults  health  in  their  behaviours.  characteristics  and  By  antecedent  t h a t b e h a v i o u r a l consequences might  t o understand  i n the l i f e  why  an i n d i v i d u a l  c y c l e , one must c o n s i d e r  v a r i a b l e s which " p r e c i p i t a t e d " the adoption o f t h i s new  be  began t o  participant  behaviour.  T a b l e 22 shows IRFRS f a c t o r s and p a r t i c i p a n t v a r i a b l e s t h a t e n t e r e d regression personal  equations  generated  characteristics,  eligible  to  enter  each  f o r each  life  events,  equation.  characteristic  variables  the  SOLITUDE,  PERSONAL CHALLENGE,  and  HEALTH  until  less  equations. than  When examining each  accounted  five  factor. and  entered  the  in a  o f the v a r i a n c e was  i n IRFRS  scores  the same  influences four  t o enter REMEDIAL,  stepwise  being  were  personal  three were e l i g i b l e  T a b l e 22 i t must be remembered for variance  of  that  SOCIALIZATION, PREVENTION,  V a r i a b l e s were percent  external  Thus,  (sex, age, e t c . ) ,  Recall  fashion  accounted f o r .  t h a t the v a r i a b l e s when combined  with  listed other  TABLE 22 Type o f V a r i a b l e s E n t e r i n g R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n s t o P r e d i c t I n i t i a l Reasons f o r Running S c a l e Score  Solitude  I. P e r s o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( T o t a l = 4) (No. e l i g i b l e = 3)  I I . L i f e Events ( T o t a l = 8)  I I I . External Influences  II Personal Challenge  IV Prevention  V Remedial  Sex Age  Sex Occupation  Finance Events  Health Events Work Events  Health Events  Movie Influences  Media Influences  III Socialization  Sex  Health Events Social Events  Social Events  VI Health  Health Events Work Events  o  104 variables  already  i n , or  they were not l i s t e d on  IRFRS  because  scores they  independent beta  in this  (such  as  shown  to  enter  a  regression equation.  t a b l e because they had  r e v e a l e d through  contributed  variables.  weights  about  to  the  a  a "separate"  simple  combined  effect  T h e i r separate c o n t r i b u t i o n  in tables  r or  effect  F-ratio)  of  a  related  but  group  i s indicated  containing s t a t i s t i c s  Thus,  of  i n the  t o each  of  the r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s . The  eligible  occupation. Social  p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v a r i a b l e s were sex,  The  eligible  e v e n t s , Finance  influences  were MOVIE  conclusions influence specific  arose  from  life  event  of life  This previous  events,  was  an  Table  antecedent  the  of  new  1978;  the  significant  for  beginning  Readjustment  22.  MEDIA The  Scale  life  run,  as  as  a  a  concerned  significant  the  Having  consistent experienced  the o n l y v a r i a b l e t o  strong  response  use  Holmes  and  during  (Lowenthal From  Life of  findings  relationship  changes  1980).  the  between  the  adulthood  and  et  a l . , 1975;  another p e r s p e c t i v e ,  Event  scales Rahe  of  score and  such  (1974)  as  reasons  the  which  Social  employ  a  s t r e s s score r a t h e r than attempting t o p r o v i d e a  stress  perception of a s p e c i f i c  by  Two  i t supports  between T o t a l the  events,  e l i g i b l e external  influence.  first  developmental  supports  devised life  The  Health  and  regression equation.  finding  behaviour  correlation to  were  IRFRS s c o r e s .  Aslanian & B r i c k e l l ,  quantitative total qualitative  and  indicate  of  Levinson,  Work e v e n t s .  f o r e n t r y i n t o each  which  variables  t o beginning running was  experiencing adoption  and  v a r i a b l e s on  important  studies  events  influence  events p r i o r  meet the c r i t e r i o n  life  age,  score  stressful  which event.  indicates  the  individual's  105 This  finding  study—that  the  also  reasons  configuration  of  Health  were  events  predictor  events  and  were had  events  higher  health  Social  events  thus,  PREVENTION On  of  each  of  t o the  the most  powerful REMEDIAL  the f a c t o r s  than  factor  the b e t a  experienced  d i d those  v a r i a b l e s were  also  health  not  predictor  of  having  significant  events was not a s i g n i f i c a n t  powerful  this  t o running.  (beta=.37),  the  event  prior  I t was  having  Life  the most  individuals  individuals  on  framework  t o run are r e l a t e d  significant.  i n which h e a l t h  was  by  (beta=.30) .  score  theoretical  begin  (beta=.35),  events.  the two f a c t o r s  adults  especially  HEALTH  the  experienced  positive;  a  experienced in  why  o f SOLITUDE  (beta=.36), weights  supports  PERSONAL  factor.  CHALLENGE  (beta=.37) and f i n a n c e events was a powerful p r e d i c t o r o f SOCIALIZATION (beta=.22) . The  second  characteristics  c o n c l u s i o n stemming and e x t e r n a l  p r e d i c t o r s o f motives  from  influences  Table  were  for beginning t o run.  22  i s that  personal  not p a r t i c u l a r l y  powerful  Especially  noteworthy  the r e l a t i v e l y weak r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex and age and IRFRS Sex and  d i d not meet HEALTH.  PERSONAL  It  CHALLENGE  (beta=-.14) . females. meet  the c r i t e r i o n  the  was,  for entry into  however,  (beta=-.20),  Thus, males  a  moderately  PREVENTION  scored  higher  When examined as a p r e d i c t o r entry  SOCIALIZATION,  criterion  REMEDIAL,  and  for HEALTH.  powerful p r e d i c t o r o f PREVENTION had higher s c o r e s on PREVENTION  SOLITUDE, powerful  these  o f IRFRS  SOLITUDE, However,  predictor and  factors  PERSONAL i t was  than d i d to  CHALLENGE, a  moderately  that older  adults.  of  REMEDIAL  s c o r e s , age f a i l e d  (beta=.26) i n d i c a t i n g than d i d younger  factors.  SOCIALIZATION,  (beta=-.18), on  are  adults  106 The of  v a r i a b l e s composing  .45.  As  shown i n T a b l e 16,  20.25 p e r c e n t personal  of  the  variance  support  the  adults  begin  upsetting complete  between  a-priori  a  run  or  provide  r e l a x a t i o n and  daily  s o r t s out  events  held  or  and  The  worry. serve  However,  to  t h a t many  or  as  escape  from  the  some, running  may  the  time p e r i o d  when  decisions.  Thus,  one  variable  were  this  to  p r e d i c t o r s were S o c i a l  events  for  required  to  poor  factor  personal  entered  the  predictors  of  was  .37  (13.69  i n the  other  explained).  i t s best  separate  r  The  appear  period  For  best  variables  from  the  pattern  p r e d i c t o r was  effect Finance  absence o f  on  that  not a l i f e  SOCIALIZATION  events  (beta=.22)  a l l personal  m u l t i p l e r f o r SOCIALIZATION was  variance.  solitude  life  multiple  SOCIALIZATION d e p a r t e d  Note the  events  time  (beta=-.20).  influences  of the v a r i a n c e  predictor.  i s , the  i t may  one  any  f i t n e s s programs i n response  unexpected  and  absence o f  many f i t n e s s l e a d e r s  individual  sex  variable  e q u a t i o n s i n that  life  r  explained  variables.  problems or contemplates f u t u r e  CHALLENGE.  (beta=.25).  That  for o t h e r s  External  powerful  solitary  the  Note the  specific by  S o c i a l events  influences  to PERSONAL CHALLENGE, the  characteristics  PERSONAL  assumption  routine  (beta=.37)  equation.  external and  personal  With regard  The  factor.  SOLITUDE  provides  of  most  in this  crises.  boredom  percent  events and  i n d i v i d u a l i z e d or  events  SOLITUDE e q u a t i o n reached a m u l t i p l e  Health  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or  relationships  one  the  emerged  event v a r i a b l e . was was  MOVIE the  The  influence next  best  characteristics variables.  .33 e x p l a i n i n g  10.89  percent  of  the  107 Table  19  shows  the  PREVENTION e q u a t i o n . explained stemmed  31.36  predictors  The  percent  from  Health  of  configuration variables  PREVENTION  scores were  have  behaviour change and are  required  to  and  interest  i n , the  advocated  age  move the  the  "self-cueing"  an  an  of  reported  t h a t one  initiate  a  the  decision  the  l o s s of p h y s i c a l & Brickell,  new  1982).  &  association  The  pertinent physical  as  the  activity  between  population in  an  attempt  awareness  Davidson, model,  of,  of  the  1980) .  By  the  media  Thus,  by  program  aging.  behaviour  and  i n order  that  with  are t a k i n g  and to  that  the most common events t r i g g e r i n g  aging ages  stages  behaviour.  awareness t h a t poor l i f e s t y l e h a b i t s t h a t had  age.  health  maintenance  initial  associated  appearance at a younger age  the  initial  and  realization  energy and  influences  i n d i v i d u a l i z e d running  exercise  Often  from  premature  f i t n e s s i s the  MEDIA  i n terms o f  exercise  of  and  significant  i n t e r a c t i o n between  an  begin an  i l l n e s s or  Other  the  Davidson  and  .56  (beta=-.18).  adoption  (see  information  i n d i v i d u a l may  to  the  modification  i s often  Aslanian  to  of  sex  population  behaviour  attempt to prevent It  the  problem  relevant  facilitates  target  r  the  most powerful c o n t r i b u t i o n  (beta=.26),  examined  composing  multiple  (beta=.37).  mass media management  a t t i t u d e s or  providing  in  recently  a  The  (beta=.21), Work events (beta=-.20), and Researchers  variables  reached  of the v a r i a n c e . events  of  one  this  to  prevent  i s aging  (see  realization  l i t t l e e f f e c t on one's their  toll  at an  older  PREVENTION becomes even  more  prevent  is  adults  engage  lifestyle  in  more  regular  related  health  problems. It running  was  no  surprise  to  find  that  males were more  f o r PREVENTION motives than were females.  The  likely greater  to  begin  incidence  108 of  heart  challenge  disease  and e a r l i e r  males  to i n i t i a t e  l i f e s t y l e related As events  mortality rates of males in our society action  t o prevent  premature  death  and  were  life  illness.  indicated, two of the variables i n t h i s  equation  v a r i a b l e s , two were personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v a r i a b l e s , and one  was an external influences v a r i a b l e . The  best  occupation  predictors for REMEDIAL were Health  (beta=.16), and sex (beta=-.14).  (15.21 percent  of the variance  explained).  events  (beta=.36),  The multiple r was  A l l external influences  variables f a i l e d to meet the entry c r i t e r i o n for the equation. powerful  c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the HEALTH equation  (beta=.30)  and  Work  events  (beta=.14).  .39  The most  were Health  Note  that  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or external influences variables entered  no  events  personal  the equation.  The multiple r for HEALTH was .36 indicating that 12.96 of the variance had been accounted f o r . The  regression equations  variance,  13.69 percent  explained  20.25 percent  of the variance  of the SOLITUDE  i n PERSONAL CHALLENGE,  10.89  percent of variance i n SOCIALIZATION, 31.36 percent of the variance i n PREVENTION, 15.21 percent of the variance i n REMEDIAL, and 12.96 percent of  the variance in HEALTH.  great  theoretical  interest  Some of these regression equations but  even  for the PREVENTION  percent of the variance was unexplained.  were of  factor,  Had the c r i t e r i o n  69  for entry  into this and the other equations been lowered, more variance could have been explained.  However, each of the new variables would explain only  miniscule amount of variance that, while running  i n IRFRS scores.  on most factors having  Thus, i t was  experienced  appears to be more related to reasons  life  events  for beginning  concluded prior to  to run than  109 other  types  of  variables,  motivational  independent o f the v a r i a b l e s s t u d i e d h e r e . finding  in  literature  the  general  (see Boshier  adult  o r i e n t a t i o n s were  T h i s r e p l i c a t e d the dominant  education  & Collins,  motivational  age  of  an  analysis  to  beginning  112  and  o f v a r i a n c e was  relationships  combined  f u r t h e r examine the  individual  and  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the  reasons  for  between  the  sex  groups  results  by the p l e v e l s  analyzed  i n the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n s o f 93 males in  specific  sex-cohort  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the a s s o c i a t i o n s between sex and indicated  two-way  I n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s appeared  sex-cohort  was  a  for  and  factor  run,  motives  specific  Each  to  and  and  the  performed.  beginning  sex  show  r e s u l t s of age  females  IRFRS Scores  to  between  running.  orientation  1982).  R e l a t i o n s h i p s between Sex-Cohort Groups and In order  largely  age  and  groups.  and The  IRFRS s c o r e s i s  shown i n t a b l e s c o n t a i n i n g s t a t i s t i c s  related  to the two-way a n a l y s e s of v a r i a n c e . In s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s , important a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e between t o t a l specific  sex-cohort  sex-cohort  distinctions  interactions into  cohort  interaction results.  groups.  groups  and  between  sex  than  ages  35-45.  females  evident  adults of  the  factors,  i n the  significant  initial  same sex  and  two-way  were d i v i d e d  For  age  yielded non-significant  and  SOLITUDE  i n s t a n c e , a two-way  i n F i g u r e 10, SOLITUDE was  t o begin running  SOLITUDE  some  females  scores compared.  However, as i n d i c a t e d  much stronger motivator the  and  i s , on  were not  when  their  p o p u l a t i o n s o f males and  That  which  became obvious  d i f f e r e n c e s appeared i n the two-way  scores  were  i n males than  shown to be  i n females  a l s o n o t i c e a b l y higher  i n the 46 and o l d e r c o h o r t group.  a  during  i n males  110 With regard t o PERSONAL CHALLENGE, sex significantly two-way  related  analysis  non-significant. similarly appeared  during  of  i n the  this  considered  variance  stages  of  the  29-34 cohort  the  running  specific  When examined  life  two-way a n a l y s i s o f  variance  important  differences  beginning  to  higher  SOCIALIZATION SOCIALIZATION  older  cohort  females  important  was scored  distinction  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex  and  age  and  However, as shown i n Table  12,  the  indicated a  regarding  for  Also,  relationship  a  Males were shown to be much more  i n t e r a c t i o n between sex  run  in  stage of development.  s e p a r a t e l y the  Thus, an  However,  males and an  (p<.04) were  f o r PERSONAL CHALLENGE m o t i v e s than were females  SOCIALIZATION were n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t .  (p<.02).  combined  cycle,  groups.  age  individually.  F i g u r e 11 shows t h a t although  i n most  l i k e l y t o begin  when  (p<.06) and  SOCIALIZATION  scores  while  in  and  and  age  females  than  i t declined  in  of  in  12  ages  in  during  in  ages  illustrates  during  females  males  resulting  differing  Figure  females  importance  relationship  occurred  motives.  f o r males  increased  group,  males  significant  3 5-45.  the  46  and  same  age  motives  for  the  period. The  strongest  beginning age  running  (p<.001)  results  of  indicate  the  both  Males  than  analysis of  were  younger  scores  sex  and  shown to  related  variance  more  and  to  this  shown  Considering  factor.  sex-cohort  likely  to  begin  ages  13  The also  groups  and  running  for  higher  sex-cohort  d r a m a t i c a l l y during  (p<.05) and  in Figure  A l s o , o l d e r a d u l t s scored  adults.  increased  be  age  I n d i v i d u a l l y , sex  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  were females.  did  male  i n PREVENTION. significantly  two-way  significant  PREVENTION than  (p<.05),  appeared  were  PREVENTION.  factor  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  on  this  differences 29-34,  while  111 females  showed a s i m i l a r  i n c r e a s e d u r i n g ages 35-45.  also increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y remained  46+  stable  i n males i n t h e 46+ c o h o r t group while  they  i n females.  The  dramatic  age  groups  remediation  PREVENTION s c o r e s  i n c r e a s e s i n PREVENTION s c o r e s found i s of  importance  for adults.  These  to  those  stages  i n t h e 29-34 and  providing  education  o f development  may  or  represent  " t e a c h a b l e moments" when male a d u l t s might be most r e c e p t i v e t o programs promoting  the l e a r n i n g o f new h e a l t h o r e x e r c i s e b e h a v i o u r s .  Table between  14 shows  that  both  separate  sex and age and REMEDIAL  were  and i n t e r a c t i o n not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  Although males were shown t o be s l i g h t l y more i n c l i n e d for  REMEDIAL reasons  than  were  females,  were  females  not s i g n i f i c a n t l y o f a l l ages  related  significant.  t o begin running  sex and age were not s t r o n g l y  a s s o c i a t e d with b e g i n i n g t o run f o r REMEDIAL r e a s o n s . age  relationships  t o HEALTH.  are e q u a l l y l i k e l y  t o begin  L i k e w i s e , sex and  That  i s , males and  running  f o r HEALTH  motives. The role  absence o f sex d i f f e r e n c e s may r e f l e c t the more a c t i v e  assumed by females  relatively  recently  approval  t o engage  suggests  that  i n our s o c i e t y d u r i n g  women  have  traditionally  i n strenuous  increased  female  fitness  the past decade. been  denied  activities.  participation  physical  i n sport  Until  the s o c i a l  Cratty  (1983)  and f i t n e s s i s  l a r g e l y due t o a v a r i e t y o f s o c i o c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s which have p r o v i d e d new  "active"  females.  female  Certainly  participating It  r o l e models and p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t f o r a t h l e t i c  was  significantly  more  women  are presently  observed  actively  i n e x e r c i s e programs. concluded related  from  regression  analysis  that  sex  t o PERSONAL CHALLENGE, sex and age were  was  related  112 significantly REMEDIAL.  t o PREVENTION,  and  sex was  s i g n i f i c a n t l y related  to  Hence, the variables sex and age were important predictors of  particular motives for beginning to run.  Two-way analysis of variance  indicated s i g n i f i c a n t differences between s p e c i f i c sex-cohort groups and factor scores.  Unlike the findings from multivariate analysis, however,  two-way interaction findings significant  correlation.  understanding of adult  simply represent  Thus  sex-cohort  motives rather  association  differences  rather  assist  than  i n our  than i n our prediction of adult  motives. Although  some  sociopsychological was unexplained.  factors  variables, Motivational  were  s i g n i f i c a n t l y associated  most variance  i n participant  orientations that  motivation  impel adults  running are not redundant measures of something e l s e .  and, as a consequence,  examined. the  explain  independent  approach was  variables  were  For the author of the IRFRS i t was s a t i s f y i n g to know that  instrument  overlaping  numerous  to other  In t h i s study the  r e s u l t was p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t because an inductive employed  to begin  The IRFRS appears  to measure psychologically d i s t i n c t variables l a r g e l y unrelated variables habitually used in this type of research.  with  measures  "clean"  factors  that  manifestations of some other v a r i a b l e .  a larger  amount of variance  are not redundant or But, the i n a b i l i t y to  i n IRFRS scores leaves open many  questions concerning why adults i n i t i a t e a running program.  Theoretical Considerations The partially  results  suggest  that  reasons  f o r beginning  t o run were  related to i n d i v i d u a l , environment, and l i f e event v a r i a b l e s .  Support for t h i s perspective  i s provided by Hultsch and Deutsch (1981)  113 who  suggest  that  research  into  phenomena o f  intraindividual  emphasis  placed  be  interaction  of  on  many  a d u l t development  should  changes i n b e h a v i o u r .  behaviour  change  antecedents.  order  which  to  life  over  the  events  and  significance. is  to  and  run.  were  individual.  i n f l u e n c e s do  not  was  characteristic, into  portrayed  life  event,  and  r e g r e s s i o n equations age  to  variables.  The  best p r e d i c t o r s o f running Neither  sex nor  equation.  but  age,  by  events  criteria  for  with  not  Social  Finance and  events  into  entered  events.  external  entry  age met  age  HEALTH  accounted where  meaning  or  and  the  for  Health  for  sex  and Sex  influence variables IRFRS  scores,  buried i n l i f e  the  event  for entry into  SOCIALIZATION  and  events  age did  was  When competing failed enter  variance  were  the  i n c o r p o r a t e d both age  and  t o meet the  Health e v e n t s .  amounts o f  Work  When a l l a v a i l a b l e  the c r i t e r i a  equation.  and  or  MOVIE i n f l u e n c e s .  significant  events  22.  for beginning  f o r SOLITUDE were H e a l t h  Running  influences,  Only the PREVENTION e q u a t i o n in  of  and the  the PERSONAL CHALLENGE e q u a t i o n i n  e q u a t i o n , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Occupation nor  uniform  predict  were l a r g e l y masked by  S o c i a l events.  life  have  external  and  explained  sequencing  From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e ,  i n Table  sex  conjunction  adult  o c c u r s or an e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e i s e v i d e n t  of  Sex,  the  as whether i t o c c u r s a t a l l .  situation  entered  effects  external  each  sex were g e n e r a l l y poor p r e d i c t o r s o f reasons  The  personal  span o f  When an event  as important Age  life  the  involve  understand  b e h a v i o u r a l change one must be s e n s i t i v e t o the t i m i n g and events  on  They emphasize t h a t  processes  In  focus  best with the  REMEDIAL  Neither  sex  i n running  for  best  predictors.  sex which e n t e r e d  c o n j u n c t i o n with Health e v e n t s , Work events, and MEDIA i n f l u e n c e .  114 Thus, and  sex.  less Age  the  most  With  the  powerful and  important  e x c e p t i o n o f PREVENTION, age  p r e d i c t o r s of  reasons  age  starting the  or  sex,  that  a running  Thus,  perspective  a  i s most  likely  People  the r e g r e s s i o n  above, they  to y i e l d  have  behavioural  of  sequence  adult  starting may  of  not  to  "explain"  little  than  a  change  i s the  at a  events may  study  or  may  and  response  specific they  The  events.  than  reasons  for  with  their  age  or  "developmental" Although  implications. or  stimulate behavioural  normative  or  time  be  triggering  able to e x p l a i n  the  in their prior  conscious event(s) .  why  the p i e c e s t o g e t h e r " u n t i l  is,  they e i t h e r  he  or  she  lives  one  were  never  to  the  started  clearly  events  intentional  events.  Individuals  decision  running. that  or  to begin.  relationship  In some s i t u a t i o n s  they completed  able  life  that  to their of  the  because o f an event  between  the On  adult  several  they had  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  never c o n s c i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r  they  idiosyncratic,  of  notion  t o antecedent  experienced not  significance  supports  put  or  their  traditional  o c c a s i o n s , s u b j e c t s i n the p r e s e n t study i n d i c a t e d  running  be  f o r running but, w i t h  t o do  "trigger"  or e x t e r n a l ,  behaviours.  this  t o run be  than were l i f e  to  s t i m u l i are u s u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the t i m i n g o f the  new  in  began running  appear  the g r e a t e s t e x p l a n a t o r y power.  probably  internal  more t r i g g e r i n g  identified  The  events  Whether  initiation  sex  age  e q u a t i o n s d i d not e x p l a i n massive amounts o f v a r i a n c e i n  Antecedent  or  influence of  In o t h e r words, i t i s the  the "reasons," t h i s c o n c l u s i o n has t h e o r e t i c a l  change.  and  have reasons  "behavioural" rather  appears  the  (Health event, Work event, e t c . ) r a t h e r  program.  e x c e p t i o n s noted  sex.  for running  sex per se, were not good p r e d i c t o r s .  past e x p e r i e n c e o f runners their  c o n c l u s i o n concerns  "never That  reasons f o r b e g i n n i n g  explain  their  motives.  115 However, once to  they  focused  onto  life  events  they  had  experienced  prior  running, nebulous r e l a t i o n s h i p s became c l e a r . Although  reasons  for  degrees  by  antecedent beginning  external  life  to  experiences  run,  were  the  best  a l l s u b j e c t s were  influences.  Mults  are  affected  immediate  insidiously In  impact;  and  are not  contemporary  continues  others  Canadian  methods  indicated  from  the  results  influence  was  seeing  with  whom they  inspired  them  of  adults  aware or  identify. to  of  begin  be  until  society,  new  Whether  to  acknowledged  and  community.  tend  the  relatively  delivery  your  study, own  running,  others  fitness  reported  older  messages As  external  running  in  the  i n f l u e n c e d by models  identify  one  indicate  c o n t i n u a l o b s e r v a t i o n o f o t h e r s " l i k e themselves"  develop  regularly.  most  or  by  well established.  of  n o t , many a d u l t s are  Some a d u l t s can  They  appear  the  age  various  Some messages have  "chronic."  presentation this  to  c o n s t a n t l y bombarded  messages or ideas t r a n s m i t t e d through v a r i o u s media. an  predictors of  individual  that  it  was  who the  running t h a t "got them  started." As  indicated  different  i n the r e s u l t s , men  reasons  than  p r e d i c t o r of reasons physiological  women.  For  f o r beginning  differences  u s u a l l y d i d not begin running f o r the  t o run.  between  the  most Apart  running. has In  The  and  females  appeared  from  sexes  (PREVENTION, REMEDIAL) or l e v e l of performance was CHALLENGE), males  part  similar  sex  was  factors  were  poor  i n which  significant  considered regarding  a  (PERSONAL  motives  for  weak r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex and m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n  r e c e n t l y been shown i n an a n a l y s i s o f 12,592 a d u l t s ( B o s h i e r , 1984). this  than  sex  study,  age  but  both  was  a better predictor  were  considered  too  of motivational orientations  weak  as  p r e d i c t o r s to  design  116 specific  learning  programs based  on sex and  age d i f f e r e n c e s .  As B o s h i e r  (1984) noted: The data appears t o pose problems f o r program p l a n n i n g t h e o r y which assumes t h a t men or women, young or o l d people are d i f f e r e n t l y motivated. . . . Q u i t e s i m p l y , people who want s o c i a l c o n t a c t simply want s o c i a l c o n t a c t . That i s why they have e n r o l l e d ; i t has l i t t l e t o do with sex or t h e i r p l a c e i n the l i f e c y c l e . . . . The e r o s i o n o f sex d i f f e r e n c e s and the widespread r e j e c t i o n o f the n o t i o n t h a t o l d e r a d u l t s s h o u l d g r a c e f u l l y "disengage" from s o c i e t y are s m a l l p a r t s o f much l a r g e r and profound changes shaping the c h a r a c t e r o f l i f e i n the l a s t p a r t o f t h i s c e n t u r y . (p. 12) The older  increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n  adults during  the  past  i n e x e r c i s e and  decade  r o l e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r these two the  data  collection  were more female observation. did  phase o f  this  sport  s u b s t a n t i a t e s the  females  broadening  segments o f the p o p u l a t i o n . study  i t became apparent  than male r e c r e a t i o n a l  runners  and of  During  that  there  i n the l o c a t i o n s  under  A l s o of i n t e r e s t were those a d u l t s who  indicated that  they  not begin running u n t i l 50 y e a r s o f age or o l d e r . Apart  from  predictor by  of  the  any  Baltes  and  PREVENTION  of  this  Willis  study  chronological variable.  factor,  age  was  not  some age  Although  (1977),  traditional  are m i s l e a d i n g .  behaviours  would  be  sex/age  unexpected  are  distinction  in  views  were not  the  scores  specific  sex-cohort groups i s o f t h e o r e t i c a l  as  high  correlation  females  i n the  running with 46  and  i n which  which  variables  that  older cohort  change with group may  be  to a  less  but  descriptive f o r most between  I t appears  that  behaviours  such  differences time.  results  age,  appeared  interest.  between-cohort  attributing  significant  s e x - c o h o r t d i f f e r e n c e s must be c o n s i d e r e d when examining for  suggested  by the  related  primarily  significant As  of  indicated  indeed  considered interactions  As  factors,  reasons  a  o f the other m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s .  b e h a v i o u r a l change t o age  as  by  For likely  exhibit  a  instance, to  begin  117 running  f o r PERSONAL CHALLENGE than  because of s o c i a l - h i s t o r i c a l influenced certainly males for  by.  Previous  might  i n the  be  29-34 age  specific for  roles  more  a factor  SOLITUDE reasons  particular  events  and  adults  in this  cycle.  are  why  he began r u n n i n g :  the  spot  right  similar  at  sex-cohort  relative  reduction.  the  specific  the  of  interaction  stages of the l i f e  As  one  As  components  shown  divided  or  in this  into  and  the  six factors:  major  prior  and  social.  antecedent  The life  second events.  experienced  within  the  considered.  Obviously,  running the  of  this  year  specific  the c l a i m s  old dentist  answered,  If  future  investigations  of  sex  as  find  of  the  p r e d i c t o r s of m o t i v a t i o n a l  and  age  has  relevance  during  a d u l t s begin running must c o n s i d e r are  reasons  the  why  motivational orientations.  adults  begin  to  run  can  be  SOLITUDE, PERSONAL CHALLENGE, SOCIALIZATION,  and  suggested  characteristic  "movement" and  33  sex  First,  PREVENTION, REMEDIAL, areas  t o have begun  cycle.  forces. study,  Conversely,  i t would c o n f i r m t h a t i n s p i t e  A t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n of why four  expectations  representatives of that  time."  age  were  " I j u s t happened t o h i s t o r i c a l l y be a t  distinctions,  insignificance  orientations,  right  and  or  Perhaps more 29-34 year o l d males run  sex-cohort group t o be exposed t o the running  when asked  groups  c o h o r t groups because o f  which  SOLITUDE because they are the f i r s t  stress  cohort  situation.  be more l i k e l y  expectations  made r e g a r d i n g  roles  particular  a d u l t s i n other  stage of the l i f e  i n other  which o n l y they e x p e r i e n c e d  restrictive  group may  than  are  HEALTH. t o the  These  factors  study;  physiological, psychological  component o f For five events  this  purposes year  theory of  period  represent  i s the  this prior  occurring earlier  the  experience  study,  only  to  running  than  three  this  time  of  events were frame  118 could  still  indicated the  relevant to  earlier  individual's  life of  be  event  life  i n the  the  adult's decision  study,  n e i t h e r the magnitude o f the  p e r c e p t i o n of  the  event  experienced.  The  number  were c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the reasons why third  beginning  consideration  running  life  events,  For  purposes  represent  in  adult  encourage or of  this  examples  final  starts  consequence one's  of  a running to  to  study, major  adhere  only  investigated  continue  the  motives?  useful  event  nor  measure  o f events  of  number  experienced  began r u n n i n g .  providing  a  theory  of  reasons  for  for  or  theory  "forces"  initiate  change.  were  selected  to  which  directly  or  i s the change i n to  experiences, on  individuals  or  drop  involved and  a  for s p e c i f i c  and  those  who  influences,  a  and  adult  Although  study  this  self-planned  to examine  adherence  reasons  as  p a t t e r n s , the  out.  in  behaviour—the  i s interpreted  external  importance  running  than  run  reinforcement  program  beginning  to  influences  Beginning  Depending  drop-out  individual  running.  life  running  begin running running  type  identifiable  program, i t would be of i n t e r e s t  a d u l t s who  one  external  program.  antecedent  will  reasons  and  s t i m u l a t e the  component of t h i s  g e n e t i c makeup.  between  i s a more  As  are the e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s , which i n c o n j u n c t i o n with  i n d i r e c t l y made a d u l t s aware of The  running.  s i g n i f i c a n c e than simply the r e c o r d i n g o f the type and  events  The  t o begin  or  running  relationships drop-out.  Do  have a g r e a t e r tendency began  running  for  to  other  119 CHAPTER ELEVEN  FUTURE RESEARCH  Insight behaviour several  into  motives  should b e n e f i t  fields  lifelong  adult  education.  The  with  adult  counseling  and  identification  of  f o r beginning  why  adults  exercise  t o run w i l l  voluntarily  behaviour but w i l l  o c c u p a t i o n s which  exercise  development: personal  or  attempt  health,  growth,  of relationships  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the i n d i v i d u a l , e x t e r n a l reasons  an  health  p r o f e s s i o n a l s , p o l i c y makers, and academics i n  concerned  learning,  f o r modifying  initiate  a  physical  between  personal  e v e n t s , and  a s s i s t i n the understanding  significant  a l s o p r o v i d e important to foster  and  influences, l i f e  not o n l y  recreation,  and f a c i l i t a t e  change  i n their  information  f o r those  the a d o p t i o n o f new  behaviours. Realizing regarding play Tough  the extent  exercise  an important (1982)  and importance  or h e a l t h role  suggests  intentional  behaviours, p r o f e s s i o n a l  i n promoting seven  of adult  changes  p r a c t i t i o n e r s can  b e n e f i c i a l and e f f e c t i v e changes.  potential  directions  i n which  intentional  changes can be f a c i l i t a t e d : 1.  improve i n d i v i d u a l competence i n managing change  2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  develop b e t t e r h e l p with g o a l s and p l a n n i n g i n c r e a s e i n f o r m a t i o n about o p p o r t u n i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s reduce undue r e s t r i c t i o n s on freedom o f c h o i c e widen the range o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s improve ongoing support from nonprofessionals improve the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p e r s , ( p . 77)  Experimentation mentioned exercise  potential leaders  and a d o p t i o n directions  o f new  are f u t u r e  strategies challenges  i n t h e above for health  i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o promote and f a c i l i t a t e  and  behavioural  120 change. adults  The p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s o f p r o v i d i n g having  difficulty  changes c o u l d be Awareness remarkable  in initiating  greater  and  appreciation  of  changes i n themselves  and  behaviours insight  can  was  the  maintaining  the  adult's  their  lives  ability  fascinating  and  findings.  enlightening.  s e l e c t and  factors  describing  investigation  of  be  of  interest  reasons  the  would be of s p e c i a l and  reasons f o r As  one  achieve f u t u r e  o f reasons why  determine to  examine  for beginning  between the reasons and the independent reliability  as  gains health  changes.  Research  p o p u l a t i o n s and  I t would  achieve  f o r p r e v i o u s changes i n e x e r c i s e or  initial  of d i f f e r e n t  to  provide a personal  to run i t i s important that the study be r e p l i c a t e d results  intentional  The examination o f one's own  more e f f e c t i v e l y  Suggestions f o r F u t u r e this  be  i n t o motives  b e h a v i o u r s , one may  As  or  far-reaching.  w e l l as p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t . changing  a s s i s t a n c e and competence t o  so as t o compare the reliability  of  the  the  consistency of  the  and  variables.  differences  interest.  It i s important  began  the  t o run  sex-cohort  adults  the  relationships  Determination o f the  found  i n the  that  present  study  the IRFRS, and  LES,  the EIS be employed on other p o p u l a t i o n s so t h a t s c o r e s from v a r i o u s  groups  can  consider  be  compared  modification  different  exercise  and  of or  norms  the  developed.  instruments  health  related  to  Future  research  accommodate  behaviours  or  might  studies  of  significantly  different populations. Future subcultures, commonplace  investigations and  countries.  throughout  the  should As  be  adult  world,  performed  i n other  recreational  running  i t would  be  most  regions, has  become  interesting  to  121 compare  reasons  f o r beginning  running.  regarding  reasons  Singapore,  Sydney, P a r i s and Stockholm?  Future running the  research  and reasons  researcher  might  to  run  consider  similar  in  adults  comparing  for continuing running.  suggests  aware o f p h y s i c a l had  f o r beginning  Do  patterns from  reasons  Previous  t h a t as a d u l t s e x p e r i e n c e  running  to lose  weight  regular  running  program  investigation  running,  or improve  stamina.  for a s u f f i c i e n t l y  Yet the person  continues  reasons  why one c o n t i n u e s  factors  such  reflect.  After long  to run.  Thus i t appears  Future  become  which  they begin  participating  in a  p e r i o d o f time one may  When asked  t o run he o r she may  t h a t a d u l t reasons  significantly  investigations  beginning  began running  the d e s i r e d  to describe the  identify psychological  might  examine  t o run and "adherence."  who  investigate  possible relationships  a d u l t began running Future  study  quantitative  relationships  t o drop out from  f o r PREVENTION?  for beginning. between  reasons  Future  between  running  research  who  than an  might  also  sex o r the age a t which the  and adherence or drop-out. might  attempt  differences  i n the  b e h a v i o u r a l change i n r e l a t i o n running  reasons  For example, i s an i n d i v i d u a l  f o r SOLITUDE more l i k e l y began  f o r adhering t o an e x e r c i s e  from the i n i t i a l  individual  beginning  by  as a p l e a s u r a b l e s t a t e o f mind or a chance t o be alone and  program may d i f f e r  for  they  For i n s t a n c e , an i n d i v i d u a l might  no longer have a weight problem and stamina may have reached level.  Vancouver,  f o r beginning  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l consequences o f running  not p r e v i o u s l y e x p e r i e n c e d .  exist  for  to  effect  t o the i n i t i a l  SOCIALIZATION  s i g n i f i c a n c e than beginning  determine or  whether  significance  motive.  different  t o run f o r REMEDIAL?  there  are  of the  Is t h e impact o f i n magnitude  or  Investigations of this  122 type would c o n s i d e r the b e n e f i t or outcome o f running t o the and o t h e r s i n r e l a t i o n to reasons Many q u e s t i o n s self-directed Tough  learning  (1982)  approximately intentional taken  by  exist  suggests  changes.  Future  adult  in  finally  examination  of  the major  initiating  his  indicates  approximately  30  percent  and  receive  about  running that  three  for  to  behaviour  of  the  beginning used  the also  outside  the  behavioural  that  influence  is  percent  of  such the  as  implementing  investigate  planning  a  running  The  beginning  be  possible.  Tough's  account most  for  common  to  television,  for helping  changes.  run  in  with  Future  relation  and  as  posters choosing,  r e s e a r c h might  to  the  specific  Because p r o f e s s i o n a l s have l i m i t e d  performed  Further provide  in  f o r beginning t o run i t i s  areas  where  identification useful  control  and  information  intervention  or  examination  of  concerning  c o n t r o l of the v a r i o u s sources o f i n f o r m a t i o n and  Research  An  i n planning  important.  individual  of  steps  program.  individual  change.  books,  credit  intentional  i n f l u e n c e s might  management and  for  P r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p o n l y c o n t r i b u t e s about s i x  resources  research  running.  responsible  running  be  as  i n the  i s a n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p e r such  over many of the v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o reasons essential  a  by  would  program  r e s o u r c e s used by the a d u l t .  education.  is  running,  stages  such  i s required to  begin  program  implementing  reasons  research  resources  percent  nonhuman  and  external  t a s k s or  individual  resources  a f a m i l y member or f r i e n d .  examine  the  actually  in a self-directed  planning,  actual  exercise  deciding  and  resource  new  the  70 percent of the c h o o s i n g , p l a n n i n g , and  the  research  a  that  strategy,  and  for beginning.  regarding  of  participant  i n t o more e f f e c t i v e m o d e l l i n g  techniques  and  the  public media  123 devices  may  lifestyle As  the  women and  i n the  the  recreation. fitness  techniques  to  central as  theme of the  norm  the  adult  derived  from a r e g u l a r adults  rewards.  and  efforts  in  to  modify  t o be  and  audiences.  from  adult  The  especially  to  participate  required to  to  identify  develop fact  Survery  innovative  thousands  physical recreation  campaigns  society.  so  as  to  E f f o r t s must  establish  be  made  and  substantiated  program o f e x e r c i s e .  The  prospect of a future  segments and  of  Canadian  society  of  should  specific  all  of  adults,  encouraged  promotions  promotion  Canada F i t n e s s  that  is  Canadian  population  the  research  larger  fitness  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to i n i t i a t e physical  continue  o f a l l ages engage i n r e g u l a r  inform  which  private  advocates  Future  policies  influence  Canadian a d u l t s  activity  strongly  e l d e r l y , should  physical  a  and  recommendations o f  investigator  successful  be  government  behaviours.  suggested  (1983),  in  assist  to  benefits  take  in the  p a r t i c i p a t e i n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d programs o f  a c t i v i t y o f f e r s b e n e f i c i a l and  e x c i t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l and  health  124 REFERENCES A l l e n , R.F. (1978). Changing l i f e s t y l e s through changing o r g a n i z a t i o n a l cultures. 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Europe = 7 Asia = 8 Australiasia = 9  11  Living  2 or more a d u l t s = 1 adult & kids = 2 1 adult = 3 Kids = 4 Alone = 5  12  Education  NO f o r m a l = 1 Compl. element. = 2 Compl. g r . 10, 11 = Grade 12 = 4 Diploma = 5 P a r t . u n i v . degree Undergrad. degree = Grad. degree = 8  13  Occupation  Prof./Tech. = 1 Manager./Admin. = 2 Clerical/Sales = 3 Skilled = 4 Unskilled = 5  14-15  Moved t o Lower Main.  Year e.g. 1970  16  Running  Code  arrangements  history  Before = 1 After = 2  = 70  130 APPENDIX A Continued CODING SCHEDULE Code  Column No.  Variable  17  Competitive school  during  No. = 1 Yes = 2  18  Competitive  after  No = 1 Yes = 2  leaving  school A c t u a l no.  19-20  No. o f months running  21-22  Distance r u n  23  L o c a t i o n o f run  Neighbourhood = 1 Park = 2 Track = 3  24-25  Team s p o r t s  A c t u a l no.  26-27  Individual sports  A c t u a l no.  28-44  External influences 01 t o 17  No = 1 Unsure = 2 Yes = 3  45-79  Reasons f o r running 01 t o 35  No i n f l u e n c e = 1 L i t t l e influence = 2 Mod. i n f l u e n c e = 3 Much i n f l u e n c e = 4  80  Card no.  1  7-21  Reasons f o r running 36-50  No i n f l u e n c e = 1 L i t t l e influence = 2 Mod. i n f l u e n c e = 3 Much i n f l u e n c e = 4  23-79  L i f e events H e a l t h 01 t o death 01  Not e x p e r i e n c e d Very negative = Mod. n e g a t i v e = M i l d l y negative No e f f e c t = 24 Mildly positive Mod. p o s i t i v e = Very P o s i t i v e =  No. o f m i l e s  Card  80  Two  Card no.  2  = 10 21 22 = 23 = 25 26 27  APPENDIX A Continued CODING SCHEDULE  L i f e events Death 02 t o Work 06  Not e x p e r i e n c e d Very n e g a t i v e = Mod. n e g a t i v e = M i l d l y negative No e f f e c t = 24 Mildly positive Mod. p o s i t i v e = Very p o s i t i v e =  Card no.  3  L i f e events Work 07 t o Work 12  Not e x p e r i e n c e d Very n e g a t i v e = Mod. n e g a t i v e = M i l d l y negative No e f f e c t = 24 Mildly positive Mod. p o s i t i v e = Very p o s i t i v e =  Card no.  4  = 1 21 22 = 23 = 25 26 27  = 1 21 22 = 23 = 25 26 27  APPENDIX B  THE QUESTIONNAIRE  /3  U.B.C. RUNNING R E S E A R C H PROJECT We are interested in the influence of life events on the decision to begin running. W e would like 15 minutes of your time to complete these questionnaires. We think y o u ' l l find the questions interesting, but please note that you can withdraw at any time. Y o u r cooperation is appreciated, all responses are confidential, and your name is not required. When did you begin running on a regular basis (ie. twice a week)? MONTH  YEAR  T w o years prior to this would have been: MONTH  YEAR  Where d i d you live at this time? CITY/TOWN  K E E P THIS T W O Y E A R P E R I O D IN M I N D ! !  COUNTRY  3  / 3f-  T O W H A T E X T E N T D I D T H E S E R E A S O N S I N F L U E N C E Y O U T O BEGIN  RUNNING?  Think back to the time immediately before you began to run. Indicate the extent to which each of the reasons listed below influenced you to begin running. Circle the category which best reflects the extent to which each reason influenced you to begin running. No reason is any more or less desirable than any other. Circle one category for each reason.  START HERE: 1. T o improve energy level  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  2. T o live longer  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  3. T o escape boredom  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  4. To lose weight  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  5. To compete against myself  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  6. To help alleviate back pain  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  7. To help sort out problems  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  8. To help develop stamina  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  9. T o satisfy curiosity regarding running  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  10. To make new acquaintances  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  11. To compensate for social drinking  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  12. To provide enjoyment  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  13. T o maintain current weight  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  14. T o engage in activity requiring low skill  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  I 3£T  TO W H A T E X T E N T DID THESE REASONS INFLUENCE Y O U T O  BEGIN  RUNNING?  15. To provide a quiet time  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  16. T o maintain good physical health  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  1-7. T o provide relaxation  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  No . influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  19. T o f o l l o w the advice of a physician  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  20. T o develop c o o r d i n a t i o n  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  21. T o provide a personal challenge  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  22. T o compensate for a " b a d " nutritional habit  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  23. T o get tanned  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  24. T o be liked  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  25. T o engage in " c o n v e n i e n t " activity  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  26. T o prevent premature aging  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much ' influence  27. T o improve physical health  No influence  Littje influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  28. T o experience the " r u n n e r ' s h i g h '  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  18. T o provide the o p p o r t u n i t y to buy the " i n " clothes  I 3&  T O W H A T E X T E N T DID T H E S E REASONS I N F L U E N C E Y O U T O BEGIN RUNNING?  29. To escape from routine  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  30. T o help quit smoking  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  31. To gain self-confidence  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  32.  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  33. To conform to the influence of'others  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  34. To serve as transportation  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  35. To get rid of guilt  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  36. T o compete against others  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  37. T o provide a predictable form of exercise  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  38. To improve appearance  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  39. To get social status  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  40.  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  41. T o provide my own block of time  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  42. T o get fit for another sport  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  To increase joint mobility  To prevent heart disease  TO W H A T E X T E N T DID T H E S E REASONS I N F L U E N C E Y O U T O  BEGIN  RUNNING?  43.  To be able to eat more  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  44.  T o provide an aesthetic experience  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  45.  T o help control a specific health problem  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  46. T o help cope with an emotional crisis  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  47.  T o get more "in-touch" with my body  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  48.  To interact with others  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  49.  To avoid confronting a problem  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  50. To provide solitary time  LIFE EVENTS Consider (he two year period prior to when you began to run regularly ( m i n i m u m twice per week). D i d you experience any of the following events? If so, what effect d i d they have? A. H E A L T H 1. Gained weight  NO  2. Experienced traumatic health change  NO  YES-  ?  YES——  1  (cg. heart attack, fracture, low back pain)  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  NO  7  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  'Moderately Positive  Very Positive  5. Experienced mental illness  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  6. Experienced improved health  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  3. Became aware of decreased fitness (eg. less energy, decreased physical capacity)  4. E x p e r i e n c e d o n s e t of d i s e a s e ( e g . diabetes, high blood pressure)  7. Experienced a reminder of the aging process  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  8. Became concerned or alarmed regarding present lifestyle and health  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  9. Experienced increased awareness and interest in physical fitness  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  10. Experienced increased awareness and interest in preventive medicine  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  11. Experienced increase in stress  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  12. Experienced periods of depression  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  Consider the two year period prior to when you began to run regularly ( m i n i m u m twice per week). D i d you experience any of the following events? If so, what effect d i d they have?  13.  Experienced difficulties in sleeping  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  14.  Experienced fear of becoming old  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  15. Experienced fear of dying  Very Positive  B. F A M I L Y NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  3. Became a parent of additional children  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  4. Experienced an abortion (or partner had abortion)  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  5. Son or daughter left home  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  6. Health of family member changed  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  7. Felt "off-time" regarding role in family  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  8. Experienced difficulty in raising child  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  1. Became pregnant or wife/partner became pregnant 2. Became a parent for the first time  uonsmer ine ivvo year period prior to when you Degan to run regularly (minimum twice per week). Did you experience any of the following events? If so, what effect did they have? YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  1. Close family member died  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  2. Friend died  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  3. Death of someone you can identify with  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  4. Pet died  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  1. Acquired a new friend  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  2. Broke up with a friend  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  3. Friend's health changed  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  9. Experienced trouble with inlaws  NO  10. Experienced dissatisfaction with marriage or relationship  NO  11. Experienced change in number of family get-togethers  NO  12. Began living by myself for thefirsttime  ?  C. DEATH  D. SOCIAL  0  Consider the two year period prior to when you began to run regularly (minimum twice per week). Did you experience any of the following events? If so, what effect did they have?  Experienced desire to make new acquaintances  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  5. Experienced significant change in social activities  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  6. Joined a new club or social group  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  7. Took a vacation  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  8. Participated in adult education or recreation program  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  9. Felt "off-time" regarding number or types of friends  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative.  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  1. Began studies at college or university  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  2. Changed college or university  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very  3. Began job training program  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  4. Failed or dropped out of studies  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  5. Graduated from college or university  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  E. EDUCATION  Consider the two year period prior to when you began to run regularly (minimum twice per week). Did you experience any of the following events? If so, what effect did they have?  6. Felt "off-time" regarding expected level of education  NO  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  F. RESIDENCE 1. Purchased house  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  2. Sold house  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  3. Changed residence  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  4. Changed living conditions (for better or worse)  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  5. Remodeled home  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  G. FINANCES 1. Took out mortgage  NO  2. Renewed mortgage  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  3. Experienced mortgage or loan foreclosure  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  4. Experienced a substantial increase in income  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  Consider the two year period prior to when you began to run regularly (minimum twice per week). Did you experience any of the following events? If so, what effect did they have?  5. Experienced a substantial decrease in income  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  7. Experienced financial problems due to cost of living increase  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  8. Experienced a dramatic change in financial state.  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  6. Experienced a substantial increase in rent  H. WORK RELATED 1. Experienced a job change  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  2. Experienced a change in work hours  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  3. Experienced a promotion  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  4. Changed responsibilities at work  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  5. Experienced retirement  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  6. Was fired  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  7. Denied anticipated salary increase  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  8. Was laid off  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  I  Consider the two year period when you began to run regularly (minimum twice per week). Did you experience any of the following events? If so, what effect did they have?  9. Denied anticipated promotion  NO  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  10. Obtained first job  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  11. Experienced reduced working hours  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  12. Experienced a change in working conditions  NO  ?  YES  Very Negative  Moderately Negative  Mildly Negative  No Effect  Mildly Positive  Moderately Positive  Very Positive  1  »  EXTERNAL  INFLUENCES  D u r i n g the two years before you began to run twice a week did you read, see, or hear the following?  Circle Y E S , ? or N O .  1. Television coverage of a running event (eg. marathon, community fun run)  YES  ?  NO  2. A television movie in which running was portrayed  YES  ?  NO  3. A motion picture which featured running  YES  ?  NO  4. Radio promotion or coverage of a running event  YES  ?  NO  5. A newspaper article related to running  YES  ?  NO  6. A magazine article related to running  YES  ?  NO  7. A specific running publication such as Runner's World  YES  ?  NO  8. A book promoting the health benefits of running such a Aerobics  YES  ?  NO  9. A commercial advertisement which employed a running or fitness image  YES  ?  NO  10. Participaction fitness promotion  YES  ?  NO  11. Action B . C . fitness promotion  YES  ?  NO  12. Employee fitness promotion  YES  ?  NO  13. Fitness message comparing a 60 year old Swede to a 30 year old Canadian  YES  ?  NO  14. Adults your age or older running in community  YES  ?  NO  15. A celebrity or public figure who endorsed fitness or running * (eg. John Kennedy, Jane Fonda)  YES  ?  NO  16. A n individual athletic performance having great emotional impact (ie. a blind or wheelchair athlete)  YES  ?  NO  17. Media promotion of "self-growth" (ie. getting in touch with your body)  YES  ?  NO  Please answer these background questions. Remember, your name is not required. 1. A r e you a man or woman? (check)  Woman Man  • •  2. What is your age? . 3. What is your place of birth?  4. W i t h regard to your living arrangements, do you?  .years Town/City  Country  Live with 2 or more adults  •  Live with another adult and a child or children • L i v e w i t h another adult (no children) • Live with a child or children (no other adults) •  5. What is the highest educational qualification you hold (check only one box)  Live alone  •  N o formal qualification . . .  •  Completed elementary school  •  Completed grade 10 or 11 (but not 12) • Grade 12 qualification or overseas>equivalent • Vocational school d i p l o m a , Business School D i p l o m a , or Journeyman's qualification • Part of a university degree or diploma • Completed undergraduate degree or c o l l e g e / t e c h n i c a l school d i p l o m a , eg. B . A . , B.Sc • Completed graduate degree or d i p l o m a , eg. M . A . , P h . D . . •  6. When working, what is your normal occupation?  P r o f e s s i o n a l / T e c h n i c a l , (eg. teacher, accountant, computer p r o g r a m m e r , lab technician, nurse, biologist, surveyor, engineer, social worker, professor) • Managerial/Administrative (eg. supervisor, manager, foreman, school administrator) • Clerical/Sales (eg. clerk, cashier, salesperson, bank teller)  •  Skilled Worker - training required (eg. plumber, carpenter, logger, fisherman, welder, chef, letter carrier, gardener, auto mechanic) . • Unskilled Worker - no training required (eg. labourer, deckhand, cleaner, fruit picker) • 7. What is your a c t u a l occupation? (print)  If you are a student, check here  •  8. When did you move to the Lower Mainland? Check if born here  Month  Year  •  D i d you begin running twice a week  before  or  after  you  moved to the Lower Mainland? 9. Were you a competitive athlete (i.e. participated in organized sport)?  10. For how many months have you been running twice a week? 11. What distance do you run in an average week? 12. Where do you normally run?  Before After  • -  •  D u r i n g school years Yes •  No •  After leaving school Yes •  No •  months miles  Prior to beginning to run twice a week did you participate (one or more times) in any of the following:  Team Sports Baseball  Yes •  No •  Basketball  Yes •  No •  Cricket  Yes •  No •  Field Hockey  _Yes  •  No •  Football  Yes  No. •  Hockey  Yes •  No •  Lacrosse  Yes •  No •  Rugby  Yes •  No •  Softball  Yes •  No •  Volleyball  Yes •  No •  Soccer  Yes •  No •  <~Wher (Winr'!  Yes •  No •  •"Hh^r (prin )  Yes •  No •  Badminton  Yes •  No •  Bowling  Yes •  No •  Canoeing  Yes •  No •  Cycling  Yes •  No •  Dance  Yes •  No •  Golf  Yes •  No •  Gymnastics  Yes •  No •  Handball  Yes •  No •  Hiking  Yes •  No •  Keep F i t Class  Yes •  No •  Racquetball  Yes •  No •  Skiing  Yes •  No •  Squash  Yes •  No •  Swimming  Yes •  No •  Table Tennis  Yes •  No •  . Yes •  No •  Track and Field  Yes •  No •  Yoga  Yes •  No •  O t h e r (print)  Yes •  No •  O t h e r (print)  Yes •  No •  Other (print)  Yes •  No •  f  Individual Sports  Tennis  

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