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Reasons for running : an investigation of intentional change in exercise behaviour 1984

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REASONS FOR RUNNING: AN INVESTIGATION OF INTENTIONAL CHANGE IN EXERCISE BEHAVIOUR by HARRY LENDVOY M.P.E., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education We accept t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as conforming to jt#fe r$quj*£exi standard} THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1984 © H a r r y Lendvoy, 1984 In presenting t h i s thes is i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ib rary s h a l l make i t f r e e l y ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thes is for scho lar l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representat ives . I t i s understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of t h i s thes is for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department of Adult Education The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date January 3, 1985 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT Running has become the sport of the 1980s. Men and women of a l l ages are r e g u l a r l y seen running throughout the community. The recent Canada Fitness Survey (1983) indicated that jogging i s the f i r s t choice of a c t i v i t i e s which people wish to begin. Most adults who begin running programs take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the s e l e c t i o n , planning, and implementing of personalized exercise programs which represent an important change i n th e i r l i v e s . Instead of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n formal running programs under the supervision of a running or f i t n e s s i n s t r u c t o r , these i n d i v i d u a l s engage in s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning experiences to a t t a i n knowledge and s k i l l s relevant to running. The purpose of the study was to investigate the reasons why adults, at a p a r t i c u l a r time in their l i v e s , decided to begin to run. Tough's (1982) concept of i n t e n t i o n a l change and a l i f e s p a n developmental perspective provided a t h e o r e t i c a l framework. Rather than regarding adulthood as a p e r i o d of s t a b i l i t y or d e c l i n e , t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e emphasizes the p o t e n t i a l for growth and self-improvement. Inherent i n t h i s approach, i s the view that adult l i v e s are characterized by t r a n s i t i o n s defined by l i f e events. In addition to a consideration of l i f e events and environmental influences, r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex and age and reasons for beginning to run were also investigated. Three instruments were developed. The I n i t i a l Reasons For Running Scale i d e n t i f i e d a wide range of reasons for beginning to run and the r e l a t i v e importance of each to the i n d i v i d u a l . The L i f e Event Scale i d e n t i f i e d events experienced by adults and the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t of each. The External Influence Scale i d e n t i f i e d seventeen environmental factors which may have influenced a man or woman to begin running. The 205 subjects were selected while running i n various l o c a t i o n s throughout the Greater Vancouver area. A l l data was c o l l e c t e d on a s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Data from the IRFRS was f a c t o r analyzed. Orthogonal rotation yielded s ix factors—SOLITUDE, PERSONAL CHALLENGE, SOCIALIZATION, PREVENTION, REMEDIAL, and HEALTH. Orthogonal ro t a t i o n of data from the EIS yielded four factors—MODEL, MEDIA, MOVIE, and PARTICIPACTION. An analysis of variance was performed to help explain the variance between the int e r a c t i o n of sex and age with IRFRS scores. This two-way analysis indicated i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n IRFRS factor scores among men and women of d i f f e r e n t age groups. In several instances, important d i s t i n c t i o n s appeared between t o t a l populations of males and females and s p e c i f i c sex-cohort groups. Results of bi v a r i a t e and multivariate analyses indicated that sex and age were not as useful in predicting motives for beginning to run as were v a r i b l e s concerned with l i f e events and external influences. However, men were more l i k e l y than women to be motivated by PERSONAL CHALLENGE, PREVENTION, and REMEDIAL. In terms of age, younger adults were more l i k e l y than older adults to begin running for PERSONAL CHALLENGE and less l i k e l y to begin running for PREVENTION. A series of regression equations were performed to help explain variance i n IRFRS factor scores. The most s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s , the only ones which met the c r i t e r i o n for entry in a l l regression equations, were those concerned with s p e c i f i c l i f e events. The experience of Health events was e s p e c i a l l y important. Although s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was found between c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s and IRFRS fa c t o r s , most variance i n motives for running was unexplained. But of the variance that was explained i t was clear that l i f e events were more i n f l u e n t i a l predictors of reasons for beginning running than age or sex, considered separately or together. This study represents a beginning step in the explanation and pr e d i c t i o n of reasons why adults begin exercise programs. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF FIGURES X AC KNOWLEDGEMENTS X i CHAPTER ONE 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Statement of the Problem 11 CHAPTER TWO 13 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 13 Lifespan Developmental Perspective 13 L i f e Events and L i f e Transitions 14 Reasons for Running 19 Motivational Orientations 22 CHAPTER THREE 24 DEVELOPMENT OF THE INITIAL REASONS FOR RUNNING SCALE 24 Scale Scoring 31 CHAPTER FOUR 33 DEVELOPMENT OF THE LIFE EVENT SCALE 33 CHAPTER FIVE 37 DEVELOPMENT OF THE EXTERNAL INFLUENCE SCALE 37 Scale scoring 44 Individual Background Variables 44 Personal Variables 45 Previous A t h l e t i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n Variables 45 Running Variables 45 v CHAPTER SIX 47 METHOD 47 Preliminary Processes 47 Administering the Questionnaire 48 Coding and Preparation for Analysis 50 CHAPTER SEVEN 51 RESULTS 51 CHAPTER EIGHT 55 INITIAL REASONS FOR RUNNING SCALE SCORES 55 L i f e Event Scale Scores 58 External Influence Scale Scores 65 CHAPTER NINE 73 PREDICTORS OF IRFRS SCORES 73 Single Variable Predictors 73 Solitude 74 Personal Challenge 76 S o c i a l i z a t i o n 76 Prevention 77 Remedial 78 Health 78 Two-way Interaction Between Sex and Age and IRFRS Scores 79 Solitude 79 Personal Challenge 82 S o c i a l i z a t i o n 84 Prevention 86 Remedial 88 Health 88 v i M u l t i v a r i a t e Predictors of IRFRS Scores 91 Regression Equations Predicting IRFRS Scores 93 Solitude 93 Personal Challenge 94 S o c i a l i z a t i o n 96 Prevention 96 Remedial 98 Health 99 CHAPTER TEN 101 CONCLUSIONS 101 The I n i t i a l Reasons for Running Scale 101 Relationships Between IRFRS Factors and Participant 102 Varables Relationships Between Sex-Cohort Groups and IRFRS Scores 109 Theoretical Considerations 112 CHAPTER ELEVEN 119 FUTURE RESEARCH 119 Suggestions for Future Research 120 REFERENCES 124 APPENDICES 128 APPENDIX A: Coding Schedule Used to Extract Data 129 from Questionnaire APPENDIX B: Questionnaire 132 v i i LIST OF TABLES 1. I n i t i a l Reasons for Running Scale: Item Means, S.D.'s, 27 and Factor Loadings 2. External Influence Scale: Item Means, S.D.'s, and Factor 42 Loadings 3. Socio-Demographic and Personal C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of 205 52 Recreational Runners 4. Mean I n i t i a l Reasons for Running Scale Scores for 205 55 Participants 5. Mean L i f e Event Scale Scores for 205 P a r t i c i p a n t s 59 6. Frequency and Mean External Influence Scale Scores for 205 66 Pa r t i c i p a n t s 7. Mean External Influence Scale Scores for 205 P a r t i c i p a n t s 68 8. Relationship Between Sex and I n i t i a l Reasons For Running 73 Scale Scores 9. Relationship Between Age and L i f e Events and I n i t i a l 75 Reasons For Running Scale Scores 10. Relationships Between Sex and Age and SOLITUDE Scores 81 11. Relationships Between Sex and Age and PERSONAL CHALLENGE 83 Scores 12. Relationships Between Sex and Age and SOCIALIZATION 85 Scores 13. Relationships Between Sex and Age and PREVENTION Scores 87 14. Relationships Between Sex and Age and REMEDIAL Scores 89 15. Relationships Between Sex and Age and HEALTH Scores 90 16. M u l t i v a r i a t e Predictors of I n i t i a l Reasons For Running 94 Scale Scores: SOLITUDE Scores 17. Multivariate Predictors of I n i t i a l Reasons For Running 95 Scale Scores: PERSONAL CHALLENGE Scores 18. Multivariate Predictors of I n i t i a l Reasons For Running 97 Scale Scores: SOCIALIZATION Scores 19. Multivariate Predictors of I n i t i a l Reasons For Running 97 Scale Scores: PREVENTION Scores v i i i 20. M u l t i v a r i a t e Predictors of I n i t i a l Reasons For Running 99 Scale Scores: REMEDIAL Scores 21. Multivariate Predictors of I n i t i a l Reasons For Running 100 Scale Scores: HEALTH Scores 22. Type of Variables Entering Regression Equations to 103 Predict I n i t i a l Reasons For Running Scale Scores ix LIST OF FIGURES 1. Relationship Between Independent Variables and Reasons 11 for Running 2. Motivational P r o f i l e s for Three P a r t i c i p a n t s 56 3. Motivational P r o f i l e s for Male and Female P a r t i c i p a n t s 56 4. Mean LES Scores for 205 Par t i c i p a n t s 59 5. L i f e Event P r o f i l e s for Participants A and B 60 6. L i f e Event P r o f i l e s for P a r t i c i p a n t s C and D 60 7. Mean EIS Scores for 205 Par t i c i p a n t s 68 8. External Influence P r o f i l e s for p a r t i c i p a n t s A and B 70 9. External Influence P r o f i l e s for Participants C and D 70 10. Mean SOLITUDE Scores of Male and Female Runners i n 81 Different Age Groups 11. Mean PERSONAL CHALLENGE Scores of Male and Female Runners 83 i n Different Age Groups 12. Mean SOCIALIZATION Scores of Male and Female Runners i n 85 Different Age Groups 13. Mean PREVENTION Scores of Male and Female Runners i n 87 Different Age Groups 14. Mean REMEDIAL Scores of Male and Female Runners i n 89 Different Age Groups 15. Mean HEALTH Scores of Males and Female Runners i n 90 Different Age Groups. x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Four people have c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the s u c c e s s f u l completion of t h i s study. I thank Dr. Stanley Brown and Dr. Doug Clement for their c r i t i c a l advice and encouragement. To Dr. Roger Boshier I owe p a r t i c u l a r gratitude. His insights and understandings have illuminated t h i s study and h i s generosity i n time and enthusiasm for the topic were most appreciated. For her support and patience throughout I am indebted to my wife, C a r o l . x i 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION D u r i n g t h e p a s t 50 y e a r s , r e s e a r c h i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n h a s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e o r y f o c u s i n g on: (1) a d u l t s as l e a r n e r s ; (2) p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; (3) program p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; (4) the impact o f s o c i e t y and l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g ; and (5) s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g . Moreover, s t u d e n t s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s from a wide spectrum i n m e d i c i n e , t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , i n government, and e d u c a t i o n can b e n e f i t from what a d u l t e d u c a t o r s have l e a r n e d about the study o f a d u l t s . H i s t o r i c a l l y , a c e n t r a l r o l e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n has been t o a s s i s t p e o p l e assume c o n t r o l o v e r u n d e s i r a b l e a s p e c t s o f t h e i r l i v e s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l programs t o promote s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e f o r m was a means by which i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d c o l l e c t i v e l y change t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . The A n t i g o n i s h movement i n Canada was a d r a m a t i c example. P a r t i c i p a t o r y l e a r n i n g o c c u r r e d p r i m a r i l y i n response t o u n a c c e p t a b l e p o l i t i c a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l s i t u a t i o n s i n which p e o p l e found t h e m s e l v e s . M u l t e d u c a t i o n h e l p e d b r i d g e the gap between the p r e s e n t d e f i c i t s t a t u s o f an i n d i v i d u a l or community and the d e s i r e d s t a t u s . Improved s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n North America d u r i n g t h e p a s t twenty y e a r s brought a new dimension t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . S e l f - c o n t r o l and sel f - i m p r o v e m e n t became important i s s u e s and g o a l s f o r an i n c r e a s i n g number o f p e o p l e . The f o c u s o f t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n was the r o l e o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n c r e a t i n g t h e i r own c o n d i t i o n s and g u i d e l i n e s f o r s e l f - i m p r o v e m e n t . S e l f - c o n t r o l was regarded as a p r o c e s s through which i n d i v i d u a l s became the p r i n c i p a l agents i n g u i d i n g , d i r e c t i n g , and 2 regulating behaviour that might eventually lead to desired positive consequences. Goldfriend and Merbaum emphasized: A prerequisite of self-control is that i t is the individual himself who determines his own special goal or outcome to be achieved. That is not to say that he may be uninfluenced to adapt a particular goal. In the final analysis, however, the choice remains an i n d i v i d u a l matter. . . . We view self-control as a functionally defined concept. That i s , whether or not one has demonstrated self-control is determined not so much upon procedures employed as i t i s on the consequences of the action taken. (1973, p. 13) Mahoney and Thoresen (1974) suggested that the t r a d i t i o n a l interpretation of self-control as willpower did not contribute to an understanding of intentional behavioural change. They stressed that self-control was a learned behaviour which was integrally related to environmental considerations. An individual's a b i l i t y to change behaviour is dependent on knowledge of and control over significant person-environment r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S e l f - c o n t r o l s k i l l s are those enhanced by one's ability to identify factors that influence behaviour. S e l f - c o n t r o l i s an important component of l i f e l o n g learning. According to Gross (1977), lifelong learning implies self-directed growth. By acquiring new s k i l l s and knowledge, individuals invest in their occupation or personal future. Often referred to as the adult's "second education," lifelong learning has no prescribed curriculum. He stated: The worth to you of any particular subject or f i e l d is for you to decide on your own terms. Virtually, every aspect of your l i f e — w o r k , l e i s u r e , personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s , community act i v i t i e s — h a s the latent power to enhance your "second education" i f you can find or create the ways to learn i t . , (P- 18) For many adults, lifelong learning has involved efforts to promote personal growth and the realization of one's potential. Some undertook self-directed learning projects in order to integrate body and mind. 3 Significant changes in one's behaviour and l i f e s t y l e were characteristic of efforts to realize personal goals. Tough's (1983) analysis of the intentjonal changes that adults achieve through self-directed learning projects, provides c r u c i a l information for research into adult behavioural change. Tough (1971) regarded the adult as a self-directed organism capable of achieving far-reaching cognitive, s o c i a l , psychological, and physical changes. He emphasized that adults, in their attempts to gain knowledge or s k i l l s , conduct projects in which they plan and manage their own learning experiences. He indicated that in advanced nations, as lower order needs are satisfied, adults strive for new goals through continued learning experiences. A central theme in the present study i s s e l f - d i r e c t e d change in adult exercise behaviour. The focus of the investigation is on why adults i n i t i a t e changes. During the past decade millions of adults have become aware of and interested in physical fitness. A steady increase in the number of men and women participating in various forms of recreational exercise during leisure time has been observed. One of the most conspicuous areas of exercise involvement is running. The type of participation ranges from the casual weekend jogger to the highly trained and competitive marathon runner. Estimates concerning the number of recreational runners in North America have grown from two million in 1970 to thirty million in 1979 (Clement & Taunton, 1980). In Canada, running is a significant component of the fitness explosion which involves some seven million people. Recent findings from the Canada Fitness Survey (1983) indicated a general trend among the adult population toward "fitness" activities rather than sports. Perhaps the most significant finding of the survey 4 was that women were as l i k e l y to "exercise" as were men. On previous surveys men had outnumbered women. G i r l s and women, at least up to age 60, were now as p h y s i c a l l y active during t h e i r l e i s u r e hours as boys and men. with both sexes, jogging was i d e n t i f i e d as the f i r s t choice of a c t i v i t i e s which people wish to begin. Many factors have contributed to the dramatic increase i n adult r u n n i n g . The advancement from an a g r i c u l t u r a l to an i n d u s t r i a l computer-based society has been accompanied by sedentary forms o f employment. Describing s o c i o l o g i c a l factors related to the growth i n running, Clement and Taunton (1980) stated: "As automation and computer dominance advance,, the need for physical expression by the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l increase. Recreational o u t l e t s for t h i s appetite are l i k e l y to continue growing in importance." In 1971, P a r t i c i p a c t i o n , a private non-profit organization, was incorporated to employ marketing methods to promote f i t n e s s . Popular publications such as Cooper's Aerobics had an enormous impact. This book described health problems related to a sedentary l i f e s t y l e and provided information and guidance for recommended programs of a c t i v i t y such as running. According to N a i s b i t t (1984), running became a mass movement as a resu l t of an approach which emphasized a s h i f t from i n s t i t u t i o n a l help (the medical establishment) to s e l f - h e l p (personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for health). Three major trends characterized t h i s new emphasis on the i n d i v i d u a l : (1) New habits that actualize our newfound r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for health; (2) Self-care that i l l u s t r a t e s our s e l f - r e l i a n c e i n areas not genuinely requiring professional help; and (3) the triumph of the new paradigm of wellness, preventive m e d i c i n e , and w h o l i s t i c care over the o l d model o f 5 i l l n e s s , drugs, surgery, and treating symptoms rather than the whole person. (p. 147) Several d i s c i p l i n e s have investigated the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n d i v i d u a l behaviour and l i f e s t y l e and h e a l t h outcomes. Heal t h promotion and the prevention of i l l n e s s have received much attention from the behavioural sciences and health education. More and more adults are being encouraged to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e i r health and to l i v e i n a "healthy" manner. This approach p a r t i a l l y r e f l e c t s ' changes in value structures that have encouraged s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n and well being. Dwore and Matarazzo (1981) suggested that recent popular l i t e r a t u r e such as P u l l i n g Your Own S t r i n g s , Looking Out For Number One, and I'm O.K., You're O.K. has assisted i n d i v i d u a l s to assert t h e i r r i g h t s and assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for c e r t a i n decisions regarding health, n u t r i t i o n , physical f i t n e s s , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n sports. Government recognition of the cost effectiveness of the preventive approach toward health problems was highlighted i n Lalonde's (1974) A. New Perspective on the Health of Canadians—A Working Document and H e a l t h y People: The U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention (1979). The former i d e n t i f i e d behavioural or l i f e s t y l e changes as one of four strategies for improving the health of Canadians. The U.S. r e p o r t recommended a s t r a t e g y f o r r e d u c i n g environmental and occupational hazards and encouraged i n d i v i d u a l s to p r a c t i c e health oriented behaviours. The non^medical aspects of health and exercise have attracted much attention from the behavioural sciences and health education. Green (1979) d e f i n e d h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n as any combination o f l e a r n i n g opportunities designed to f a c i l i t a t e voluntary adaptations of behaviour conducive to health. Health education was considered to be a process 6 which helps people maintain or change the i r l i f e s t y l e s i n health enhancing d i r e c t i o n s . A major emphasis i n health education l i t e r a t u r e concerns the v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n health-promoting a c t i v i t i e s . Green, et a l . , (1980) suggested that the d u r a b i l i t y o f health-related cognitive and behavioural changes i s proportional to the degree of active rather than passive p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the learner. Two prominent approaches to health education and health behaviour change are the Health B e l i e f Model and the PRECEDE model. The Health B e l i e f Model has been used by several researchers (Hochbaum 1959, Rosenstock 1966, Becker 1977) i n attempts to explain and predict health- related behaviour in terms of s p e c i f i c b e l i e f patterns. Proponents of health behaviour change i d e n t i f i e d the following sequence of events necessary for behaviour change to occur: (1) The person must believe that h i s or her health i s i n jeopardy. (2) The person must perceive the p o t e n t i a l seriousness of the condition i n terms of pain or discomfort, time l o s t from work, economic d i f f i c u l t i e s , and so f o r t h . (3) On assessing the circumstances, the person must believe that benefits stemming from the healthy behavior outweigh the costs and are indeed possible and within his or her grasp. (4) There must be a "cue to action" or a predisposing force that makes the person f e e l the need to take ac t i o n . (Green et a l . , 1980, p. 73) The PRECEDE model (Green, 1974) proposed that i n addition to predisposing perceptions, "enabling" factors i n the environment w i l l influence the occurrence of prescribed health or exercise behaviour. This model recognized the complexity of behaviour change and emphasized a diagnostic approach employing theory and techniques from four f i e l d s of study: social/behavioural science, education, epidemiology, and administration. Kolbe et a l . (1981) stated that when the Health B e l i e f 7 Model and the PRECEDE model are used to design and evaluate health education programs, the dependent variable of analysis is the occurrence of a specified health behaviour. The Health Belief Model and PRECEDE have been designed to represent our understandings about the nature of, and relationships among, independent variables that influence health behaviors. The ultimate function of these paradigms i s to describe how the component independent variables can be influenced to increase the probability that a given behavior wil l occur (or not occur as the case may be). (1981) Realizing the complexity of factors between a health decision (such as to exercise regularly) and its implementation, Kolbe and associates (1981) suggested that health education alone was not sufficient to bring about behavioural change. They proposed that this broader task was the function of health promotion. They considered health promotion as any combination of health education and related organizational, p o l i t i c a l and economic intervention designed to f a c i l i t a t e behavioural and environmental adaptations that will improve or protect health. Physcial education and fitness researchers have utilized components of social learning theory in investigations of sport participation and fitness promotion (Martens 1975, Yiannakis et a l . 1979, Lauzon & Kier 1981, Parcel & Baranowski 1981, Godin & Shephard 1983). This theory views exercise behaviour in terms of a continuous interaction among cognitive, behavioural and environmental determinants. Parcel and Baranowski (1981) emphasized that health or exercise promoters cannot simply t e l l people what tasks they have to perform (knowledge provision), but must also provide opportunities to observe (so c i a l modelling) and practice (skills training) performing specific complex tasks ... to promote the person's behavioral capability to perform these tasks. Behavior modification should be promoted' in small steps to promote the person's perceived self-efficacy at changing behavior. Appropriate 8 expectations and expectancies must be c l a r i f i e d for learners so that they will not be diverted from achieving a change. (P. 18) Recent attention has been focused on the role of preventive medicine in promoting new perceptions of l i f e s t y l e and health behaviours. Allen (1978) emphasized that health and exercise practices are partially determined by the cultures to which adults belong and that individuals can and will change the groups to which they are a f f i l i a t e d when given an opportunity and assistance. He suggested that adults would replace groups considered as inadequate or unsuitable with groups which encouraged positive health and exercise p r a c t i c e s . Allen contended that there are hundreds of different activities to promote health, but i f health promotion is to become more than a passing fad, i t must become the norm for adults to support positive health practices. A significant change in society's perception of exercise has also occurred as a result of commercial advertisements. Young (1979) stated that the positive social image of being f i t is supported by some $25 b i l l i o n per year in North America for advertising, marketing and public relations by industry where physical activity is featured as being healthy. This trend to use images in promoting fitness is stirring the population out of armchairs, converting the passive spectator into the active participant. Recent expanded investigation of health and exercise behaviour from both the behavioural sciences and health education has generated information which has fostered a greater understanding of adult health behaviour. Recognizing that no one discipline has an exclusive right to investigate the factors and processes involved in human behaviour and 9 health promotion,/ ;Dwore and Matarazzo (1981) c a l l e d for a greater c o l l a b o r a t i o n between f i e l d s involved in the study of health behaviour. Greater c o l l a b o r a t i o n allows each f i e l d to preserve i d e n t i t y while stimulating cross f e r t i l i z a t i o n of ideas among teachers, r e s e a r c h e r s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s . . . The combined e x p e r t i s e brought to bear on a problem viewed as a system of components would e a s i l y surpass the c a p a b i l i t y of any single s p e c i a l t y . (P. 7) T h i s study was concerned with o n l y one aspect o f e x e r c i s e behaviour—why adults s t a r t a running program. It employed an adult education c o n c e p t — s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning, and a l i f e s p a n developmental perspective as a conceptual framework. A c e n t r a l theme of the study was the capacity for behavioural change and self-growth during adulthood. Because the study focused on the adult as a s e l f - d i r e c t e d learner who assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for planning and implementing a personalized exercise program (as opposed to p a r t i c i p a t i n g in an exercise program under the i n s t r u c t i o n or s u p e r v i s i o n o f an e x t e r n a l agent or i n s t r u c t o r ) , Tough's (1982) notion of i n t e n t i o n a l change was selected as the most appropriate t h e o r e t i c a l foundation for the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Although much has been w r i t t e n about the p h y s i o l o g i c a l and psychological benefits of running, l i t t l e i s known about i t s behavioural antecedents. Numerous authors have described adult runners. However, there have been few investigations into why adult runners i n i t i a t e d "** running programs. Ph y s i o l o g i c a l and psychological arguments supporting the role of regular physical a c t i v i t y have become well established. In order to increase understanding of exercise behaviour and eventually predict which adults are more l i k e l y to p a r t i c i p a t e than others, i t i s e s s e n t i a l to consider factors which occur prior to beginning regular p h y s i c a l 10 activity. It was anticipated that personal "characteristics" and "events" were related to reasons for beginning to run. The purpose of this study was to explain why adults ini t i a t e a regular running program. Because most adult runners plan and implement their own programs, Tough's (1971) concept of the adult as a self-directed learner was employed to define "running program." A recent evaluation of the impact of P a r t i c i p a c t i o n on the adult population provided support for this concept. Kier and Lauzon (1980) indicated that contrary to popular belief in sport and fitness c i r c l e s , not everyone who takes up physical activity wants to be managed. They reported that over 75 percent of the members of an adult population who claimed to be active, chose activities that required no leadership, no teams, no set hours, no specific f a c i l i t i e s , and usually no equipment. Running meets these conditions and in the present study, "running program" was considered as the self-directed learning experiences of the adult as he or she develops the s k i l l s and knowledge pertinent to r unning. The investigator was particularly interested in why adults of both sexes and various age groups began to run. An attempt was made to compare results among different sexed cohorts. Motives for beginning a running program were examined from physiological, psychological, and social perspectives. In terms of physiological or health factors, an e f f o r t was made to determine the significance of three separate "orientations": 1. beginning to run to maintain present health status or prevent decline, 11 2. beginning to run to control or remediate a specific health problem, 3. beginning to run to attain optimal or enriched health. The dependent variables were the physiological, psychological and social reasons why adults started a running program. A sufficient number and variety of items appeared under each of the three factors (physiological, psychological, social) in the questionnaire to provide for the widest possible range of reasons which individuals might conceivably have for this important decision. The independent variables were l i f e events experienced by the person one year prior to the onset of running, the external influences from the environment, and personal characteristics. Age (cohort) and sex were of special interest. Behavioural change (beginning to run) was investigated by considering antecedent l i f e events and external influences as well as personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n d i v i d u a l . Figure 1 i s a diagrammatic representation of the study. ^ External Reasons for Running Events Figure 1: Relationship between independent variables and reasons for running. Statement of the Problem The primary aim of t h i s study was to contribute to theory concerning the reasons why adults i n i t i a t e d change in exercise behaviour. The aims of the study were to: 12 1. Create an instrument to e l i c i t and quantify reasons for beginning to r un. 2. Examine re l a t i o n s h i p s between reasons for beginning to run and: a. the experience of l i f e events one year prior to running, b. the external influences of one's environment, c. the personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n d i v i d u a l , 3. On the basis of the data a n a l y s i s , create theory concerning r e l a t i o n s h i p s between reasons for beginning to run and independent v a r i a b l e s . Information and theory obtained from t h i s study may i n t e r e s t : (1) providers of recreation or f i t n e s s programs; (2) health professionals concerned with e x e r c i s e p r e s c r i p t i o n ; (3) a d u l t educators or counsellors; (4) public policymakers; (5) adults considering changing an exercise or health behaviour; and (6) scholars studying behavioural change. In summary, t h i s was an ex post facto study of adult runners. Reasons for beginning to run were dependent variables "explained" by various combinations of personal " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , " l i f e "events" and external "events." It d i d not involve a comparison of runners and non-runners. A l l respondents were runners. It was th e i r reasons for running, and variables associated with them, that were measured and a n a l y z e d . The dependent v a r i a b l e s — " r e a s o n s " f o r r u n n i n g — w e r e conceptually anchored in the motivational o r i e n t a t i o n research t r a d i t i o n (Boshier & C o l l i n s , 1982); the independent variables were l a r g e l y based on theory derived from developmental psychology. 13 CHAPTER TWO CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Lifespan Developmental Perspective T r a d i t i o n a l views of human development have emphasized growth d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d and adolescence, s t a b i l i t y d u r i n g adulthood, and d e c l i n e d u r i n g o l d age. The l i f e s p a n developmental p e r s p e c t i v e emphasizes the po t e n t i a l for growth during adulthood. It has been defined as a perspective "concerned with the d e s c r i p t i o n , explanation, and o p t i m i z a t i o n of i n t r a i n d i v i d u a l changes i n b e h a v i o r , and inter i n d i v i d u a l differences in such changes in behavior, from conception to death" (Hultsch & Deutsch, 1981, p. 15). When examining adult behaviour i t focuses on the questions: What i s changing?, When i s i t changing?, Why i s i t changing?, and How can i t be changed? Lifespan developmental approaches assert that: 1. Development i s m u l t i d i r e c t i o n a l in that changes during adulthood d i f f e r i n terms of onset, d i r e c t i o n , duration, and termination. 2. Development involves both quantitative and q u a l i t a t i v e change. 3. Developmental change may be viewed along multiple time-related dimensions such as c h r o n o l o g i c a l age, b i r t h c ohort and l i f e t r a n s i t i o n s . 4. Development i s produced by a dynamic i n t e r a c t i o n between the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s environment. Three important sources o f influence on behavioural change are: i) normative age-graded events such as b i o l o g i c a l aging and s o c i a l i z a t i o n events such as marriage and c h i l d b i r t h , 14 i i ) normative history-graded influences i n which most members of a cohort experience h i s t o r i c events such as wars, epidemics, economic depression or prosperity or s o c i o c u l t u r a l evolution such as changes in sex-roles, education or l e i s u r e time, i i i ) non-normative l i f e event influences which cannot be d i r e c t l y related to time, since they do not occur for a l l adults. Examples are divorce, promotion and i l l n e s s . 5. Different sources of change are l i k e l y to occur at d i f f e r e n t points in the l i f e c y c l e . 6. The timing and patterning of d i f f e r e n t sources of influence are cr i t i c a l . In order to provide a more e f f e c t i v e explanation of why adults undertake the l e a r n i n g of new s k i l l s or knowledge, Anderson and Darkenwald (1979) emphasize: "Further research needs to employ more sophisticated conceptions of the p a r t i c i p a t i o n process that include personal and s i t u a t i o n a l variables that can reasonably be postulated to a f f e c t the nature and timing of engagement i n f u r t h e r l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . " L i f e Events and L i f e T ransitions Inherent in the l i f e s p a n developmental perspective i s the notion of l i f e events. Adult l i v e s are characterized by t r a n s i t i o n s marked by various l i f e events. When r e c a l l i n g t h e i r personal past, adults focus on c r i t i c a l events (periods of transi t i o n ) rather than on periods of s t a b i l i t y . Hultsch and Deutsch (1981) suggest that: "When l i f e events are viewed as important antecedents of behavior change during adulthood, a p o t e n t i a l l y powerful explanatory framework i s generated" (p. 216). 15 In an attempt to provide a better understanding of why individuals undertake the learning of new s k i l l s or knowledge during adult l i f e , several investigators examined the relationship between transitions and the onset of new behaviour. Knox (1977) suggested that l i f e events require role changes which make some form of adaptation inescapable. When a change event occurs the need for adaptation produces, for many adults, a heightened readiness to engage in learning activity. Lowenthal, Thurnher and Chiriboga (1975) examined four transitional stages in the adult years and found that changes required in each group, whether incremental (role gain) or decremental (role l o s s ) , were p o t e n t i a l l y s t r e s s f u l . The changes often caused a personal reassessment: "The anticipation of an impending transition often serves as a stimulus to examine, possibly to reorient, goals and aspirations, and to reassess personal resources and impediments in the light of the probability of their attainment" (p. x). Gould (1978), in Transformations: Growth and Change in Adult Lif e, said growth is the obligation and opportunity of adulthood. Adulthood is not a plateau; rather i t is a dynamic and changing time for a l l of us. . . . With this in mind, adults may now view their disturbed feelings at particular periods as a possible sign of progress, as part of their attempted movement toward a fuller adult l i f e . (p. 14) In his research on the adult l i f e cycle, Levinson (1978) identified four overlapping developmental periods separated by five transitions. The primary task of the transition periods is to terminate the existing l i f e structure and initiate a new one. This involves the reappraisal of the present l i f e structure, exploration of new directions for change, and a movement toward crucial choices that will provide the basis for a new l i f e structure. Levinson (1978) said the adult moves through the 16 periods in a predictable order and that s p e c i f i c developmental tasks are required for each. He indicates that each period i s characterized by a s p e c i f i c l i f e s t y l e which has b i o l o g i c a l , psychological, and s o c i a l components. Like other researchers, Levinson i d e n t i f i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l i f e events ("marker events"), defined as occasions or extended periods that bring about or s i g n i f y a notable change in the adult's l i f e . Consensus among researchers also e x i s t s regarding the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of l i f e event structures or t r a n s i t i o n s in the adult l i f e c y c l e . Adults i n the age groups 17-22, 28-33, and 40-45 have c o n s i s t e n t l y been observed to undergo s i g n i f i c a n t behavioural.change. Rather than a t t r i b u t e b e h a v i o u r a l change d u r i n g adulthood t o in t e r n a l processes, Neugarten (1968) maintains that a s o c i a l framework i s required to explain the timing of adult development. Because most adults are strongly influenced by the society in which they l i v e , one must consider behavioural change in a s o c i a l context. She states: Age norms and age expectations operate as prods and brakes upon behavior, in some instances hastened an event, in others delaying i t . Men and women are not only aware of the s o c i a l clocks that operate in various areas of their l i v e s , but they are also aware of th e i r own timing and r e a d i l y describe themselves as "early" or " l a t e " or "on time" with regard to family and occupational events. . . . The saliency of age and age-norms in influencing the behavior of adults i s no l e s s than in influencing the behavior of c h i l d r e n . (1968, pp. 143-144) L i f e events are the antecedents of running. Their "separate" and "cumulative" impact on reasons for running were studied. It was anticipated that d i f f e r e n t age and sex cohorts would have d i f f e r e n t reasons for running. Research by Lowenthal, Thurnher and Cheriboga (1975) provided information regarding age and sex differences in exposure to l i f e events. The investigators found that young adults reported more 17 exposure to l i f e events than middle-aged parents and adults about to r e t i r e . The younger tended to report more p o s i t i v e stresses while the older tended to report more negative stresses. Differences were also recorded between males and females in terms of cause of s t r e s s . The most s a l i e n t source of stress for men was work while the most s a l i e n t sources of stress for women were health and the family. Middle-aged women were e s p e c i a l l y s t r e s s e d by events a s s o c i a t e d with t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n , m arriage, and o c c u p a t i o n . The r e s e a r c h e r s emphasized that the c r i t i c a l issue was not the mere occurrence of a l i f e event, but how the adult perceived i t . What one adult may experience as a catastrophe, another may experience as a challenge. Lowenthal and her c o l l e a g u e s made the d i s t i n c t i o n between exposure t o s t r e s s (self-reported incidence of l i f e events) and perceived s t r e s s . Their conclusions suggest that there are both age and sex diff e r e n c e s in l i f e event experiences and that sex differences appear to be more s i g n i f i c a n t than age d i f f e r e n c e s . Hultsch and Deutsch (1981) emphasized that the focus of research into adult development must be on behaviour change processes rather than age-change functions. Because age-change functions only i d e n t i f y what behaviours are related to age, chronological age i s viewed as a de s c r i p t i v e variable only. Thus, age i s considered as an index of ph y s i o l o g i c a l , psychological, s o c i a l , and self-perceived changes that occur over time. Kimmel (1980) argues that age does not cause these changes; ". . . i t i s merely an index of the speed with which the changes take place." Apparent age differences between d i f f e r e n t cohort groups of adults are not caused by age; instead, "they are the re s u l t of s o c i a l , b i o l o g i c a l , and psychological changes i n addition to having 18 l i v e d longer and accumulated more experience" (1980, p. 31). Kimmel s t r e s s e s t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s must look behind "age" t o examine p h y s i o l o g i c a l and psychosocial antecedents responsible for changes i n adults. There are two general factors which must be considered i n order to understand how adults respond to l i f e events. The f i r s t consists of the ph y s i c a l , psychological, and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n d i v i d u a l . When investigating changes in exercise behaviour, the physical health and f i t n e s s status as well as s k i l l l e v e l c e r t a i n l y influence the adoption of a more p h y s i c a l l y active l i f e s t y l e . The mode and extent of exercise which one might engaged i n i s l a r g e l y determined by the physical capacities of the i n d i v i d u a l . Personality also influences how the adult w i l l adapt to l i f e events. Costa and McCrae (1980) i d e n t i f i e d three broad domains of adult p e r s o n a l i t y : neuroticism, extroversion, and openness to experience. Their research suggests that v i r t u a l l y a l l l i f e events over which i n d i v i d u a l s had any control were related to these domains. The impact of l i f e events i s also affected by s o c i a l factors such as ethnic b e l i e f s , socio-economic status, education, income, and interpersonal support systems such as f a m i l y , f r i e n d s , and work a s s o c i a t e s . Interpersonal support providing p h y s i c a l , psychological, or f i n a n c i a l resources has been shown to vary in a v a i l a b i l i t y over the l i f e c y c l e . Thus, i n d i v i d u a l s having marginal interpersonal support may respond le s s e f f e c t i v e l y t o l i f e events than those having more s u p p o r t i v e interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The second general factor associated with how the adult responds to l i f e events i s the mediation of the environment. The type and frequency 19 of external influences vary in d i f f e r e n t socioeconomic or c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s . In some segments of the population the adult runner would be considered "exceptional" or even "odd." However, in other groups the reverse may occur, i n that running i s regarded as a "normal" adult a c t i v i t y . Through v a r i o u s media f i t n e s s promotions such as P a r t i c i p a c t i o n and t e l e v i s i o n coverage of community running events, nearly a l l segments of the Canadian population have been made aware of the i n c r e a s e d a d u l t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n a l r u n n i n g . The influence of these sources of information appears to vary among s p e c i f i c socioeconomic or ethnic groups. Because most of the models appear to be middle c l a s s , l e i s u r e - o r i e n t e d Caucasians, i t seems reasonable to expect that members of s p e c i f i c minority groups might not i d e n t i f y with the i n d i v i d u a l presented. Indeed, some having d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s and perceptions regarding adult p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n running programs might shake their heads in amazement. Reasons for Running Previous research by the investigator and others indicates that reasons why adults i n i t i a t e d a running program can be categorized as b i o l o g i c a l , psychological, and s o c i a l . The most common reasons for beginning are anticipated p h y s i o l o g i c a l adaptations. Some adults run to regain their health and others to maintain i t . Aslanian and B r i c k e l l (1980) regard physical health as a desired status among most adults and suggest that adults learn new exercise behaviours because "they have l o s t their health (a past t r a n s i t i o n ) , because they are losing i t (a current t r a n s i t i o n ) , or because they are a f r a i d they w i l l lose i t (an anticipated t r a n s i t i o n ) " (p. 81). 20 A common triggering event i s the r e a l i z a t i o n that one i s aging. Something happens to make a person r e a l i z e that the years are s l i p p i n g by and that f i t n e s s i s s l i p p i n g away: the a r r i v a l of a t h i r t i e t h birthday, a comment from a friend met after a few years of separation, or the wedding of one's c h i l d are the kinds of clear signals that can trigger the decision to learn how to stay healthy. (Aslanian & B r i c k e l l , 1980, p. 83) The present i n t e r e s t i n p r e v e n t i v e medicine which encourages ind i v i d u a l s to assume more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e i r own health has stimulated some adults to begin running programs. One motivating factor i s the awareness that the poor health habits that had l i t t l e e f f e c t on one's health and appearance at a younger age are now taking t h e i r t o l l . Overeating, smoking and sedentary l i v i n g eventually manifest themselves in an undesirable or even alarming occurrence. Events such as stepping on a scale for the f i r s t time in months or becoming out of breath after climbing a f l i g h t of s t a i r s motivate some adults to engage i n new behaviours in an attempt to prevent further d e t e r i o r a t i o n . Rather than running to prevent d e t e r i o r a t i o n or recover from a health d e f i c i t , some individuals indicate that running was regarded as a means to a t t a i n new i n s i g h t s and degrees of health not previously experienced. For these adults, involvement in regular physical a c t i v i t y serves to improve q u a l i t y of l i f e through the adoption of a healthier l i f e s t y l e . Tough (1971) i d e n t i f i e d a cohort e f f e c t and indicated that a new trend in adult learning i s based on l i f e s t y l e decisions in which the adult i s attempting to gain control over h i s own physical health. Commonly heard phrases such as " l i s t e n to your body," or "free your body" would have been rare twenty years ago. Sedentary l i f e s t y l e s , hypokinetic disease, and an increasingly older population a l l contribute to the decision of adults to engage i n r e c r e a t i o n a l f i t n e s s . Adults 21 years and older c u r r e n t l y account for 21 65 percent of the population and, in the future, w i l l represent an even greater proportion. Gould (1978) has commented that North American society i s entering the "century of the adult." As more adults become aware of the need for regular physical a c t i v i t y throughout the l i f e c ycle one can anticipate an increase in adult p a r t i c i p a t i o n in physical f i t n e s s a c t i v i t i e s . Many adults indicate that they began running for psychological reasons. Although psychological variables are usually investigated as consequences of running, reasons for beginning to run such as running to escape routine, reduce stress, or achieve a personal goal are reported by some adult runners. Recent research into the psychodynamics of running suggests that running can lend i t s e l f to any meaning or s i g n i f i c a n c e the i n d i v i d u a l wishes to project into i t . According to Sacks and Sachs (1981), the a d a p t a b i l i t y of running to each i n d i v i d u a l i s very much in keeping with the psychodynamic theory and i t s emphasis on the p l a s t i c i t y of behavior i n r e p r e s e n t i n g c o n f l i c t s and f a n t a s i e s . C e r t a i n l y t h i s could explain the immense popularity of the sport among so many d i f f e r e n t people, each of them finding in t h e i r running a meaning spec i a l to their own history and character. (p. 68) Behavioural medicine research has attempted to apply psychological techniques to modify health and exercise behaviours. Motivation i s shown to involve both the arousal and d i r e c t i o n of exercise behaviour. In a discussion of motives for p a r t i c i p a t i o n in physical a c t i v i t y , Sharkey (1979) explained: "The d i r e c t i o n of behavior, that i s , where and how one behaves when aroused, i s a complex study involving a multitude of learned behaviors and the i n t e r a c t i o n of these behaviors with ever varying s i t u a t i o n s " (p. 208) . Thus, one would expect that "motives" would vary between individuals and be influenced by the level of arousal and previous exercise experiences. Although few, i f any, previous studies have attempted to investigate the relationship between the reasons why adults begin to run and antecedent variables, research has been conducted to categorize reasons why adults p a r t i c i p a t e i n physical a c t i v i t y . In an investigation of attitudes towards physical activity, Kenyon (1968) categorized the reasons for adult involvement in physical activity into the following: 1. social experience 2. health and fitness 3. pursuit of vertigo ( t h r i l l of speed and change of direction while remaining in control) 4. an aesthetic experience 5. catharsis (reduction in stress or tension) 6. an ascetic experience (discipline or regimentation of training). Motivational Orientations As a major purpose of the present study was to provide an explanation of the reasons why adults began to run i t was necessary to identify major types of "motives." Typologies assume that general patterns of behaviour exist and provide order or structure in considering them. They also f a c i l i t a t e research because general types rather than idiosyncratic individuals can be measured. Because the present investigation involved adult participation in a self-directed exercise program, the concept of motivational orientation was borrowed from the adult education research literature. This concept served the 23 purpose of i d e n t i f y i n g s p e c i f i c " orientations" that "motivated" or influenced adults to i n i t i a t e and p a r t i c i p a t e in i n d i v i d u a l i z e d running programs. The present study has been gr e a t l y influenced by the research findings of Boshier (1971, 1976, 1983, 1984), and Boshier and C o l l i n s (1982, 1984). Boshier's contribution to theory and research methodology concerning adult p a r t i c i p a t i o n in learning a c t i v i t i e s was e s p e c i a l l y important i n the creation of the instrument to measure reasons for beginning running and in the in v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between "or i e n t a t i o n " scores and other v a r i a b l e s . Because of the desire to integrate the study into established conceptual frameworks and psychometric procedures, i t was decided to investigate r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the adult's reasons for beginning to run and a variety of independent v a r i a b l e s . It was anticipated that the reasons why adults begin to run would be related to the personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n d i v i d u a l , l i f e events experienced, and external influences. 24 CHAPTER THREE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INITIAL REASONS FOR RUNNING SCALE As the primary aim of t h i s study was to contribute to theory concerning reasons why adults began running i t was considered e s s e n t i a l to have an instrument which i d e n t i f i e d motives for beginning to run. As a l i t e r a t u r e search f a i l e d to produce an instrument s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to measure i n i t i a l reasons for beginning a regular exercise program i t was necessary to develop the I n i t i a l Reasons For Running Scale (IRFRS). Boshier's (1982) Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale provided a model which i d e n t i f i e d the s t r u c t u r e of motives f o r a d u l t p a r t i c i p a t i o n (motivational orientations) as well as the fun c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s in which the motives for beginning a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y are c o n s i d e r e d as dependent v a r i a b l e s " p r e d i c t e d " by v a r i o u s sociodemographic v a r i a b l e s . Realizing that many reasons motivate adults to begin running, i t was necessary to generate an item pool which encompassed as many relevant "motivators" as possi b l e . I n i t i a l l y , 75 p o t e n t i a l items were obtained from previous research by the investigator, conversations with adult runners, and discussions with f i t n e s s leaders. Each item was typed on a card and sorted into a - p r i o r i f a c t o r s . Even at t h i s stage i t was apparent that some items concerned "Solitude," "Personal Challenge," " S o c i a l i z a t i o n , " "Prevention," "Remedial," and "Health." Twenty-five items were considered redundant and eliminated. The remaining 50 were arranged so that items expected to load on the same factor were systematically d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the instrument. The items were 25 cast on a four-point scale (No Influence, L i t t l e Influence, Moderate Influence, Much Influence). The inst r u c t i o n s and the f i r s t three items were: Think back to the time immediately before you began to run. Indicate the extent to which each of the reasons l i s t e d below influenced you to begin running. C i r c l e the category which best r e f l e c t s the extent to which each reason influenced you to begin running. No reason i s any more or l e s s desirable than any other. C i r c l e the one category for each reason. START HERE: 1. To improve No L i t t l e Moderate Much energy l e v e l influence influence influence influence 2. To l i v e longer No L i t t l e Moderate Much influence influence influence influence 3. To escape No L i t t l e Moderate Much boredom influence influence influence influence IRFRS data provided by 205 subjects were i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d . Next, item means, S.D.'s, minimum and maximum scores were examined and compared with hand c a l c u l a t i o n s on some of the raw d a t a . The c o r r e l a t i o n matrix was then factored. Orthogonal (varimax) r o t a t i o n was performed because of a desire to produce uncorrelated f a c t o r s . This yielded 15 factors with eigenvalues greater than one. The content of each factor was examined and then eight, seven, s i x , f i v e , and four factor solutions were generated. During step two of t h i s a n a l y s i s , i d i o s y n c r a t i c items that f a i l e d to load on major factors were also disregarded. Again a v a r i e t y of solutions was generated. After a t h i r d step during which a d d i t i o n a l items were deleted, the " f i n a l " s o l u t i o n was extracted from the c o r r e l a t i o n matrix. This consisted of six pure, interpretable and psyc h o l o g i c a l l y s a t i s f y i n g f a c t o r s . 26 Items shown in Table 1 are the 34 that remained after successive factor analyses. Sixteen items were deleted during the analyses. For c l a r i f i c a t i o n purposes, items have been renumbered 1 to 34. Table 1 shows item means, standard deviations, and loadings on each of the f a c t o r s . The six factors accounted for 52.13 percent of the t o t a l variance. The f i r s t factor accounted for 20.23 percent of the variance, the second for 8.37, the t h i r d for 7.54, the fourth for 7.26, the f i f t h for 4.45, and the sixth for 4.28. Factor I, SOLITUDE, consisted of nine items whose loadings ranged from .46 to .83. This factor measured the extent to which beginning to run i s related to e f f o r t s to provide s o l i t a r y time and escape from d a i l y routine. Casual observation suggests that many adults consider an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d or s e l f - d i r e c t e d exercise program such as running more appealing than more formal and organized group a c t i v i t y . Individuals who score high on t h i s factor begin running because i t provides the opportunity to be alone and temporarily escape from external pressures or demands. The items and loadings for SOLITUDE are shown below: FACTOR I SOLITUDE 7. To provide a quiet time 34. To provide a s o l i t a r y time 28. To provide my own block of time 9. To provide relaxation 31. To help cope with an emotional c r i s i s 4. To help sort out problems 18. To escape from routine 2. To escape boredom 29. To provide an aesthetic experience .83 .80 .73 .68 .64 .60 .55 .50 .46 TABLE 1: I n i t i a l Reasons For Running Scale Mean 7. To provide a quiet time 2.17 34. To provide a s o l i t a r y time 2.09 28. To provide my own block of time 1.92 9. To provide relaxation 2.64 31 . To help cope with an emotional c r i s i s 1 .72 4. To help sort out problems 1.91 18. To escape from routine 1 .81 2. To escape boredom 1.80 29. To provide an aesthetic experience 1 .74 3. To compete against myself 2.21 24. To compete against others 1 .46 12. To provide a personal challenge 2.65 5. To s a t i s f y c u r i o s i t y regarding running 1 .91 6. To make new acquaintances 1.33 32. To in t e r a c t with others 1 .43 17. To experience the "runner's high" 1.73 20. To gain self-confidence 1 .82 14. To be l i k e d 1.16 26. To get s o c i a l status 1 .25 22. To conform to the influence of others 1.30 10. To provide opportunity to buy " i n " clothes 1.16 23. To get r i d of g u i l t 1.35 33. To avoid confronting a problem 1 .20 1 . To l i v e longer 2.43 27. To prevent heart disease 2.51 15. To prevent premature aging 1.98 21 . To increase j o i n t mobility 1 .78 30. To help control s p e c i f i c health problem 1.64 11 . To follow the advice of a physician 1 .30 19. To help quit smoking 1.49 13. To compensate for bad n u t r i t i o n a l habit 1 .68 8. To maintain good physical health 3.66 16. To improve physical health 3.60 25. To improve appearance 2.83 Variance accounted for (%) Cumulative variance accounted for (%) Item Means, S.D.'s, and Factor Loadings FACTORS S.D. I II III IV V VI 1 .05 .83* .12 .06 .06 -.02 .09 1.11 .80* .10 .07 .07 -.05 .12 1 .06 .78* .14 • 01 .11 -.05 .13 1.02 .68* .11 -.08 .13 -.01 .25 .98 .64* -.08 .24 -.15 .29 -.06 1.02 .60* .03 .08 .04 .26 -.19 .90 .55* .29 .12 .14 -.06 -.07 .87 .50* .19 -.06 .02 .14 -.28 .93 .46* .19 .36 -.03 .09 .28 1.05 .04 .81* -.06 -.02 -.05 .09 .81 - .02 .70* .20 -.06 -.01 -.01 1.06 .18 .68* -.01 -.08 .03 .30 .96 .21 .62* .03 .09 .06 .10 .65 .19 .61* .12 .32 -.02 -.22 .72 .16 .54* .32 .29 -.01 -.15 .95 .26 .48* .15 .08 .32 .23 .97 .22 .43* .27 .09 .38 .13 .50 .11 .20 .72* .22 -.04 -.16 .56 .11 .32 .65* .15 -.08 .01 .67 - .17 .20 .62* -.05 .04 .09 .51 .04 -.07 .60* .17 .07 -.03 .73 .19 .06 .54* -.31 .22 .28 .56 .29 -.05 .53* -.06 .23 -.13 1.07 .01 .02 .12 .74* .02 .15 1.14 .03 -.02 -.03 .72* .24 .31 1.09 .12 .11 .21 .61* .03 .23 .90 .19 .10 .02 .55* .16 .03 1.02 .07 -.02 .18 .14 .70* .10 .79 - .04 -.02 .04 .35 .62* -.20 1.03 .07 .09 -.07 -.03 .58* -.01 .97 - .04 -.03 .38 .08 .42* .27 .59 .08 .18 -.13 .30 -.15 .67* .63 - .03 .11 -.07 .35 .03 .65* .97 .14 .03 .25 .15 .23 .45* 20 .23 8.37 7.54 7.26 4.45 4.28 20 .23 28.60 36.14 43.40 47.85 52.13 28 Factor I I , PERSONAL CHALLENGE, consisted of eight items with loadings that ranged from .43 to .81. This factor measured the extent to which an in d i v i d u a l began running for " c u r i o s i t y " or "challenge." Adults scoring high on t h i s factor are often d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y influenced by other i n d i v i d u a l s and eventually decide to "see what i t i s a l l about." Some indicate that they set a personal goal to run a cert a i n distance or to equal the performance of another. C e r t a i n l y the prevalence of runners i n our society and the media attention given to running stimulate many adults to " j o i n the movement." The items and loadings for Factor II are shown below: FACTOR II PERSONAL CHALLENGE 3. To compete against myself .81 24. To compete against others .70 12. To provide a personal challenge .68 5. To s a t i s f y c u r i o s i t y regarding running .62 6. To make new acquaintances .61 32. To interact with others .54 17. To experience the "runner's high" .48 20. To gain self-confidence .43 Factor I I I , SOCIALIZATION, consisted of six items with loadings ranging from .53 to .72. SOCIALIZATION measures the influence of the image and s o c i a l status of running. Casual observation suggests that some i n d i v i d u a l s begin running to conform to the expectations of s i g n i f i c a n t others or to i d e n t i f y with the f i t n e s s image. C e r t a i n l y some adults f e e l almost compelled to run because of the connotations and values placed on running by c e r t a i n segments of the population. This factor also measured the extent to which i n d i v i d u a l s began running to 29 get r i d of g u i l t or to avoid confronting a problem. Items and loadings for Factor III are shown below: FACTOR III SOCIALIZATION 14. To be l i k e d .72 26. To get s o c i a l status .65 22. To conform to the influence of others .62 10. To provide the opportunity to buy the " i n " clothes .60 23. To get r i d of g u i l t .54 33. To avoid confronting a problem .53 Factors IV, V, and VI were a l l concerned with the physical or health related aspects of running. Together they accounted for 15.99 percent of the t o t a l variance. Because each of the three factors focused on a s p e c i f i c component o f h e a l t h , they were a n a l y z e d separately. Factor IV, PREVENTION, measured the extent to which in d i v i d u a l s began running to l i v e long and prevent premature aging. It consisted of four items ranging from .55 to .74. Adults who score high on t h i s factor consider running as a means of increasing j o i n t m o b i l i t y and preventing heart disease. Items and loadings for PREVENTION are shown below: FACTOR IV PREVENTION 1. To l i v e longer .74 27. To prevent heart disease .72 15. To prevent premature aging .61 21. To increase j o i n t mobility .55 Factor V, REMEDIAL, consisted of four items with loadings that ranged from .42 to .70. High scorers on t h i s factor began running in an 30 attempt to help control a s p e c i f i c health problem. Running was recommended by a physician and was used as an intervention i n a s s i s t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l to quit smoking or to provide compensation for a "bad" n u t r i t i o n a l habit. Many adults regard running as a counterbalance to overeating or consuming a non-nutritious d i e t . For some adults, i t i s preferable to "run o f f " a n u t r i t i o n a l problem rather than to change eating habits. Others support Sheehan's (1980) claim that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to continue smoking after one begins running r e g u l a r l y . They believe that by beginning to run they w i l l reduce or eliminate t h e i r need for c i g a r e t t e s . Items and loadings for REMEDIAL are indicated below: Factor VI, HEALTH, measured the extent•to which i n d i v i d u a l s began running to maintain current health or a t t a i n optimal health. It i s hypothesized that high scorers on t h i s factor are maintenance or growth oriented in terms of health status rather than de f i c i e n c y oriented as indicated i n Factor, v. Running i s not regarded as a means of dealing with a health problem but as a means of s t r i v i n g for optimal f i t n e s s . Factor VI was in many respects related to PREVENTION. However, the emphasis i n HEALTH i s more on present or immediate health and appearance rather than preventing future medical problems. Items and loadings for HEALTH are shown below: FACTOR V REMEDIAL 30. To help control a s p e c i f i c health problem 11. To follow the advice of a physician '. . 19. To help quit smoking 13. To compensate for a bad n u t r i t i o n a l habit .70 .62 .58 .42 31 FACTOR VI HEALTH 8. To maintain good physical health 16. To improve physical health 25. To improve appearance .67 .65 .45 Scale Scoring Factors are often derived by including items with loadings of .40 or greater. In the present analysis the loadings ranged from .42 to .84. Each of the six factors i s composed of "pure" items loading high on . i t s "own" and low on other f a c t o r s . No passenger items (items which f a i l to load on any factor) are included i n the 34 item form of the IRFRS. ; Although the s t r u c t u r a l foundations of motives for beginning to run are of great i n t e r e s t , the procedures described above were p r i m a r i l y designed to y i e l d IRFRS, scores that could be related to selected independent v a r i a b l e s . One outcome of the present study was a desire to construct a psychometrically and conceptually defensible instrument capable of measuring c l u s t e r s of reasons for beginning a running program. As i t i s anticipated that most p o t e n t i a l users of t h i s instrument w i l l not have access to computational f a c i l i t i e s i t was decided to u t i l i z e scale scores rather than factor scores calculated from regression c o e f f i c i e n t s . Scale scores indic a t i n g the r e l a t i v e contribution of each of the six factors in the person's decision to begin running were calculated by summing the "raw" responses to items that constituted each of the f a c t o r s . Because each factor was composed of a d i f f e r e n t number of items, i t i s the scale score mean (derived by d i v i d i n g the t o t a l score by the number of items) which yields significant information. Since this was the f i r s t study using the IRFRS and there were no baseline or comparison groups against which the present data could be compared, l i t t l e significance can be attached to the differences between the mean scores. However, the data now constitutes the IRFRS norms against which other populations can be compared. Table 4, shown in Chapter 8, shows total scale scores, S.D.'s, and scale score means for each of the factors. 33 CHAPTER FOUR DEVELOPMENT OF THE LIFE EVENT SCALE L i f e cycle and developmental researchers have i d e n t i f i e d i n t e r n a l and external l i f e events which are often antecedents to behavioural change. These events may be normative, that i s , experienced by most adults during a p a r t i c u l a r stage of the l i f e c y c l e , or they may be i d i o s y n c r a t i c . Idiosyncratic l i f e events are those unique to an i n d i v i d u a l . The timing of l i f e events has also been i d e n t i f i e d as an important consideration in understanding adult behaviour. Neugarten (1968) emphasizes the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a " s o c i a l clock" which determines whether or not an i n d i v i d u a l i s "on time" in experiencing a s p e c i f i c l i f e event. Researchers i n developmental psychology describe a predictable pattern of l i f e structure in which the adult progresses through a seri e s of alternating stable (structure building) periods and t r a n s i t i o n a l ( s t r u c t u r e changing) p e r i o d s . L i f e events are c o n s i d e r e d as p r e c i p i t a t o r s of t r a n s i t i o n a l periods characterized by behavioural change. These events have been r e f e r r e d to as "marker events" ( L e v i n s o n , 1978), " s t r e s s o r s " (Lowenthal, 1975), and " t r i g g e r s " (Aslanian and B r i c k e l l , 1980). In an attempt to quantify the r e l a t i v e stress of l i f e events, Holmes and Rahe (1967) developed The S o c i a l Readjustment Scale. In t h i s instrument, a l i s t of l i f e events and corresponding stress scores were provided. Items range from Death of Spouse, having a stress score of 100, to Minor V i o l a t i o n of Law, having a stress score of 11. The t o t a l score from the 42 items places the 34 i n d i v i d u a l in one of three ratings: low stress (150 or l e s s ) , moderate stress (151-300), or high stress (300 or higher). Results from the rating scale are then associated with the l i k e l i h o o d of experiencing a str e s s - r e l a t e d i l l n e s s . Although the So c i a l Readjustment Scale c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d and quantified s p e c i f i c l i f e events, i t did not adequately s a t i s f y the conceptual and psychometric purposes of t h i s study. The investigator was p a r t i c u l a r l y interested in the subject's perception or emotional response to a s p e c i f i c l i f e event. That i s , unlike the S o c i a l Readjustment Scale in which r e l a t i v e values are allocated to s p e c i f i c l i f e events (e.g. Divorce = 73, Death of Close Friend = 37), i t was considered important to construct an instrument which measured the e f f e c t of an event on an i n d i v i d u a l . Not only can the same event be p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n t l y i n terms of i n t e n s i t y or magnitude by two in d i v i d u a l s but i t may also be responded to in an ambivalent, p o s i t i v e , or negative manner. It i s possible that a l i f e event such as pregnancy could be perceived very d i f f e r e n t l y among d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . The investigator believed that L i f e Event Scale scores, to be most useful as var i a b l e s that might contribute to the explanation of variance i n the I n i t i a l Reasons for Running Scale scores, should not only measure the incidence of l i f e events but also the e f f e c t of the event on the i n d i v i d u a l . Because no appropriate instrument was av a i l a b l e from previous research i t was decided to construct an instrument for the s p e c i f i c purposes of the present study. The f i r s t form of the L i f e Event Scale (LES) was composed of 100 items d e r i v e d from a l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h , i n t e r v i e w s with s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , and group discussions. Each item was typed on a card and 35 then sorted into a - p r i o r i f a c t o r s . Twenty-nine redundant items were eliminated and the remaining 71 items rearranged into the following c a t e g o r i e s : HEALTH, FAMILY, DEATH, SOCIAL, EDUCATION, RESIDENCE, FINANCES, and WORK. For each item the subject was requested to indicate whether he or she had experienced the event by checking NO, ?, or YES. If the response was YES, the subject then indicated the e f f e c t of the event on a seven-point scale. The scale measured not only magnitude of e f f e c t but also whether i t was perceived as p o s i t i v e or negative. Here are the instr u c t i o n s and the f i r s t three items: LIFE EVENTS Consider (he two year period prior to when you began to run regularly (minimum twice per week). Did you experience any of the following events? If so. what effect did they have? A. H E A L T H 1. Gained weight 2. Experienced traumatic health change (eg. heart attack, fracture, low back pain) 3. Became aware of decreased fitness (eg. less energy, decreased physical capacity) 9 i YES—•> Very Negative Moderately Negalivc Mildly Negalivc No Effect Mildly Positive Moderately Positive Very Positive i Y E S — * Very Negative Moderately Negative Mildly Negative No Effect Mildly Positive Moderately Positive Very Positive YES Vcrv Negative Modcratefy Negative Mildly Negative- No Effect Mildly Positive Moderately Positive Very Positive F r e q u e n c i e s were computed on the LES d a t a p r o v i d e d by 205 respondents. In order to determine whether the perceived e f f e c t of a l i f e event was more s i g n i f i c a n t than simply indic a t i n g an absolute score (whether or not a s p e c i f i c l i f e event was experienced), three d i f f e r e n t systems of coding were employed. SPSS RECODE was used to aggregate l i f e event v a l u e s i n t o three c l a s s e s or systems. The f i r s t was an accumulative absolute score for each category i n which a NO or ? response was measured as zero and a YES score was coded from 1 (Very Negative) to 7 (Very P o s i t i v e ) . For instance, subject 145 received 36 category scores of 8, 2, 0, 5, 2, 2, 3, 3 for a t o t a l l i f e event score of 25. The second coding system measured magnitude of response i n that YES responses o f Very Negative and Very P o s i t i v e were scored as 3, Moderately Negative and Moderately P o s i t i v e were scored as 2, M i l d l y Negative and M i l d l y P o s i t i v e were scored as 1, and No E f f e c t was scored as 0. For instance, subject 145 received category scores of 18, 1, 0, 3, 3, 2, 1, 3 for a t o t a l l i f e event score of 31. The f i n a l coding system measured both the magnitude of response and whether i t was perceived as negative or p o s i t i v e . YES responses of Very Negative were scored -3, Moderately Negative were scored -2, M i l d l y Negative were scored -1, No E f f e c t were scored 0, M i l d l y P o s i t i v e were scored +1, Moderately P o s i t i v e were scored +2, and Very P o s i t i v e were scored +3. For instance, subject 145 received category scores of -14, -1, 0, +3, +1, +2, +1, +3 for a t o t a l l i f e event score of -5. In order to determine which coding system would be u t i l i z e d i n subsequent a n a l y s e s , a Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n was performed to show rela t i o n s h i p s between the s i x IRFRS factors and the LES scores as coded by each of the three coding systems. Because there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d ifferences in the r e s u l t s of the c o r r e l a t i o n s of the three coding systems, i t was decided to u t i l i z e the accumulative absolute system for the analysis of the data. 37 CHAPTER FIVE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EXTERNAL INFLUENCE SCALE During the past decade, a "running e x p l o s i o n " has o c c u r r e d . Increasing numbers of r e c r e a t i o n a l runners of a l l ages are observed throughout the community and a vast amount of public and media attention i s given to running. It i s hypothesized that a s i g n i f i c a n t factor i n the motivation of an i n d i v i d u a l to begin running i s exposure to external s o c i e t a l influences. Research i n behavioural medicine has indicated t h a t e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s are i n t e g r a l components of behaviour modification strategies to encourage a greater personal commitment to increased physical a c t i v i t y . Kier and Lauzon (1980) suggested that many adults have begun to run because of massive marketing and promotion programs as well as the increasingly frequent observation of adult r u n n e r s . O r g a n i z a t i o n s such as P a r t i c i p a c t i o n , a n o n - p r o f i t organization dedicated to promoting health and f i t n e s s in Canada, de l i v e r f i t n e s s messages through extensive public service campaigns as well as corporate involvement. Large numbers of Canadians are exposed to f i t n e s s or running r e l a t e d messages through v a r i o u s media presentations. Mass media are channels of communication through which large numbers of the population are reached. They are used in r e l a t i o n to health or exercise behaviour, to advertise or promote products or practices consistent with p h y s i c a l l y active l i f e s t y l e s . Research has indicated that the message communicated must be r e l a t i v e l y simple and may be delivered through e l e c t r o n i c media such as radio and t e l e v i s i o n 38 or p r i n t medial such as newspapers and b i l l b o a r d s . In a c l a s s i c a r t i c l e , The Role of Mass Media i n Public Health, G r i f f i t h s and Knutson (1960) emphasized three e f f e c t s of the mass media on health behaviour: 1. increase knowledge 2. r e i n f o r c e p r e v i o u s l y h e l d a t t i t u d e s (but not change contrary attitudes) 3. cause behavioral change, provided that a psychological predisposition to such an action already e x i s t s . (p. 516) Tough (1979) suggested t h a t d u r i n g a s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g project, the adult i s greatly assisted by nonhuman resources. In t h e i r attempts to adopt new behaviours, adults most often received relevant information from communication sources such as t e l e v i s i o n , radio, books, newspapers, and magazines. Through increased public i n t e r e s t and expanded vehicles of communication, today's adult i s exposed to much more information regarding physical f i t n e s s and exercise than at any previous time. Green (1975) investigated the e f f e c t s of mass media on the adoption of new health behaviours. His findings regarding the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between communications and the d i f f u s i o n of innovations suggested that the mass media are most e f f e c t i v e in influencing adoption of behaviour during the early stages of the d i f f u s i o n process. Recent advances have been made in the app l i c a t i o n of communication te c h n i q u e s t o f i t n e s s promotion. Communication r e s e a r c h e r s , knowledgeable about the factors in the communication/persuasion matrix, have i d e n t i f i e d e s s e n t i a l components i n the design and d e l i v e r y of f i t n e s s promotion campaigns. Through a seven-step p r o c e s s the communications professional can i d e n t i f y target populations and sel e c t appropriate media techniques. McGuire (1981) suggested that f i t n e s s and health professionals usually do not have the expertise to consider the 39 wide spectrum of issues that a r i s e i n constructing a public health persuasion campaign. He emphasized that through various psychological analyses, the communications professional can show whether a d e f i c i t of motivation or of information underlies a sedentary l i f e s t y l e . Bandura's (1971) s o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h e o r y c o n t r i b u t e s t o a t h e o r e t i c a l framework i n our understanding of external influences. Adoption of new behaviour such as running may be p r e c i p i t a t e d by observing the behaviour of others (modelling) . I n f l u e n t i a l models may be p r o v i d e d through p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t or v a r i o u s a u d i o - v i s u a l presentations such as t e l e v i s i o n and f i l m productions, photographs, and b i l l b o a r d s . In a re c e n t f o r m u l a t i o n , Bandura (1978) suggests a r e c i p r o c a l i n t e r a c t i o n model in which adult behaviour i s regulated by immediate influences and by performance s k i l l s and a n t i c i p a t i o n of the consequences for d i f f e r e n t courses of acti o n . Bandura describes the int e r p l a y between environment and behaviour as a r e c i p r o c a l influence process in which the environment shapes adult behaviour, but i n d i v i d u a l s also shape their environment. Hence, the adult's r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s or her environment i s an "open" system, modifiable by providing the i n d i v i d u a l with appropriate s k i l l s for s e l f - d i r e c t e d behavioural change and motivating him or her to make use of them. R e a l i z i n g t h a t a wide v a r i e t y of e x t e r n a l "messages" are consciously and unconsciously experienced by an i n d i v i d u a l , an item pool which encompassed as many types of external influences as possible was generated. Twenty-five items were derived from a l i t e r a t u r e search and interviews with physical educators and f i t n e s s leaders. Eight were eliminated because of redundancy or not being relevant to a l l adults i n the population. Some of the items were purposely designed to be broad 40 i n their scope such as "A commercial advertisement which employed a running or f i t n e s s image." Others l i k e "Fitness message comparing a 60 year old Swede to a 30 year old Canadian" were intended to measure the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a s p e c i f i c influence. The f i n a l form of the instrument was composed of 17 items. Subjects were requested to indicate YES, ?, or NO for each item. The i n s t r u c t i o n s and the f i r s t three items were: During the two years before you began to run twice a week did you read, see, or hear the following? C i r c l e YES, ?, or NO. 1. Television coverage of a YES ? NO running event (e.g. marathon, community fun run) 2. A t e l e v i s i o n movie in which running was portrayed. YES ? NO 3. A motion picture which featured running. YES ? NO I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of EIS data p r o v i d e d by 205 s u b j e c t s was computed. Items means, S.D.'s, and minimum and maximum scores were then examined and compared with hand c a l c u l a t i o n s of some of the raw data. Next, the c o r r e l a t i o n matrix was factored and orthogonal r o t a t i o n was performed to produce uncorrelated f a c t o r s . This yielded four factors with eigenvalues greater than one. The content of each factor was examined and then four and three factor solutions generated. The four factor solution was selected as the one providing maximum in t e r p r e t a t i o n and psychometric s a t i s f a c t i o n . The f i n a l s olution extracted from the c o r r e l a t i o n matrix consisted of 13 items. Three items (items 14, 8, 12) were eliminated in the analysis because they did not load s i g n i f i c a n t l y 41 (.39 or less) on any fa c t o r . Item nine was eliminated because i t was f a c t o r i a l l y impure, loading on three d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s . Item ten, which had a loading of .56 on Factor I and .57 on Factor IV was only included in Factor IV for purposes of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Table 2 shows item means, standard deviations, and loadings on each of the f a c t o r s . The four factors accounted for 53.04 percent of the t o t a l variance. The f i r s t factor accounted for 29.21 percent of the variance, the second for 9.98 percent, the t h i r d for 7.47 percent and the fourth for 6.37 percent. Factor I, MODEL, consisted of four items with loadings ranging from .61 to .69. This factor measured the extent to which an i n d i v i d u a l i s influenced by a c e l e b r i t y or public figure or a s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l performance. Individuals who score high on t h i s factor are influenced by role models who may be c e l e b r i t i e s or in d i v i d u a l s presented in media promotions with whom they can i d e n t i f y . The items and loadings for MODEL are indicated - below: FACTOR I MODEL 15. A c e l e b r i t y or public figure who endorsed f i t n e s s or running .69 11. Action B.C., f i t n e s s promotion .66 16. Individual a t h l e t i c performance having great emotional impact .62 17. Media promotion of "self-growth" .61 I I , MEDIA, measured the extent t o which an' i n d i v i d u a l was influenced by the media. This factor consisted of f i v e items whose loadings ranged from .53 to .81. C u r i o s i t y and in t e r e s t i n various aspects of running may be stimulated by e l e c t r o n i c and printed mass media communciations. Indeed, r a r e l y does a day go by when one i s not TABLE 2: External Influence Scale: Item Means S.D. 's, and Factor : Loadings FACTORS Mean S.D. I II III IV MODEL 15. A c e l e b r i t y or public figure who endorsed f i t n e s s 1.64 .93 .69* .20 .13 -.24 11. Action B.C. f i t n e s s promotion 1 .55 .89 .66* .13 -.03 .08 16. Individual a t h l e t i c performance having emotional impact 1.79 .97 .63* .08 .39 -.06 17. Media promotion of "self-growth" 1 .82 .98 .61* .23 -.03 .03 MEDIA 6. A magazine a r t i c l e related to running 2.19 .98 .15 .81* .09 -.07 5. A newspaper a r t i c l e related to running 2.12 .99 .19 .75* .18 .07 4. Radio promotion or coverage of a running event 1.71 .95 .21 .59* .28 .14 1. T e l e v i s i o n coverage of a running event 2.22 .97 .19 .59* .46 .07 7. S p e c i f i c running publication such as Runner's World 1.57 .89 .209 .53* .01 -.49 MOVIE 3.'A motion picture which featured running 1.53 .88 .04 .25 .79* -.01 2. T e l e v i s i o n movie in which running was portrayed 1 .75 .96 .01 .29 .79* -.05 PART/ICIPACTIQN 13. Fitness message comparing 60 year old Swede... 2.23 .97 .11 .13 -.03 .70* 10. P a r t i c i p a c t i o n f i t n e s s promotion 2.32 .95 .56 .11 .05 .57* Variance accounted for (%) 29.21 9.98 7.47 6.37 Cumulative variance accounted for (%) 29.21 39.20 46.67 53.04 4> t o 43 exposed to some aspect of running through the media. Because of the increased public awareness and in t e r e s t i n f i t n e s s and recreation, running a r t i c l e s have become commonplace in popular reading sources such as newspapers and magazines as well as s p e c i f i c running publications such as "Runner's World." The items and loadings for MEDIA are shown below: FACTOR II MEDIA 6. A magazine a r t i c l e related to running .81 5. A newspaper a r t i c l e related to running .75 4. Radio promotion or coverage of a running event .59 1. Te l e v i s i o n coverage of a running event (marathon, community fun run) .59 7. A s p e c i f i c running p u b l i c a t i o n such as "Runner's World" .53 Factor I I I , MOVIE, consisted of two items with loadings of .79. This factor measured the extent to which a s p e c i f i c t e l e v i s i o n or motion picture production influenced an i n d i v i d u a l . Adults scoring high on thi s factor can i d e n t i f y a p a r t i c u l a r movie or f i l m which introduced them to running or s i g n i f i c a n t l y increased t h e i r i n t e r e s t . The items and loadings for MOVIE are shown below: FACTOR III MOVIE 3. A motion picture which featured running .79 2. A t e l e v i s i o n movie in which running was portrayed .79 Factor IV, PARTICIPACTION, consisted of two items with loadings of .57 and .70. It i s hypothesized that many adults have been influenced 44 throughout Canada by the f i t n e s s promotion campaigns of P a r t i c i p a c t i o n . Indeed, one of the major functions of P a r t i c i p a c t i o n i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of f i t n e s s information to reach as many Canadians as p o s s i b l e . One p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e message was the comment comparing the f i t n e s s l e v e l s of a mythical Swede to a t y p i c a l Canadian adult. Because t h i s message was i d e n t i f i e d so often by adults i n the community i t was i n c l u d e d i n the present s t u d y . The items and l o a d i n g s f o r PARTICIPACTION are shown below: FACTOR IV PARTICIPACTION 13. Fitness message comparing a 60 year o l d Swede to a 30 year old Canadian 10. P a r t i c i p a c t i o n f i t n e s s promotion Scale Scoring In the present analysis item loadings on the factors ranged from .53 to .81. Scale scores were generated to show the extent to which an i n d i v i d u a l was influenced by each of the four f a c t o r s . Table 7 shows the mean scale scores for each EIS f a c t o r . Item means were ca l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g the mean scale score by the number of items on each f a c t o r . For i l l u s t r a t i v e purposes mean EIS scores for the 205 subjects are shown in Figure 7. Individual Background Variables In addition to IRFRS, LES, and EIS v a r i a b l e s , data on 14 other independent v a r i a b l e s were c o l l e c t e d . As t h i s study was designed to proceed i n a more inductive than deductive manner, i t was considered .70 .57 45 desirable to include variables which, although not necessarily d i r e c t l y related to the dependent v a r i a b l e , might prove useful in l a t e r a n a l y s i s . Individual background variables were of the following three types: 1. Personal Variables Sex Age Place of b i r t h Living arrangements Educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n Occupational status Duration of residence i n the Lower Mainland 2. Previous A t h l e t i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n Variables Competitive athlete during school years Competitive athlete after leaving school P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n team sports p r i o r to running P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n d i v i d u a l sport or exercise program prior to running 3. Running Variables Running before or after moving to Lower Mainland Number of months running twice a week Distance run in an average week Location of run 46 The manner i n which each of the background v a r i a b l e s was operationalized i s shown in Appendix B. where the complete questionnaire i s reproduced. 47 CHAPTER SIX METHOD Preliminary Processes In order to determine p a r t i c i p a n t comprehension of the d i r e c t i o n s and items on the instruments, 24 i n d i v i d u a l s were administered the questionnaire prior to the actual study. Thirteen were r e c r e a t i o n a l adult runners from various locations in the Lower Mainland and eleven were Nursing students who ran r e g u l a r l y as part of t h e i r personal f i t n e s s programs. Next, the researcher v i s i t e d several parks and tracks reported to be popular locations for r e c r e a t i o n a l adult runners. The frequency at which runners appeared and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the runners (age, sex, l e v e l of performance) were recorded at d i f f e r e n t times of the day on each day of the week. This process yielded data concerning locations and times when subjects could be most e f f e c t i v e l y approached to p a r t i c i p a t e in t h i s research project. Popular running locations such as Brockton Oval were not included because of the predominance of more serious competitive runners who did not represent the type of runner under consideration i n the present study. One hundred and seventy subjects were selected while running at p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d parks and t r a c k s l o c a t e d i n d i f f e r e n t socioeconomic areas of Greater Vancouver. The remaining 35 were selected after having been observed running on neighbourhood s t r e e t s . Although considerably more d i f f i c u l t to research, i t was considered n e c e s s a r y t o i n c l u d e s u b j e c t s who ran on s t r e e t s throughout the community as opposed to those who ran in designated r e c r e a t i o n a l areas 48 such as parks and tracks. The researcher was often compelled to accompany the neighbourhood runner on a run as i n most cases the beginning and ending l o c a t i o n of the run was the i n d i v i d u a l ' s residence. This data c o l l e c t i n g procedure soon became the researcher's primary personal exercise program. Administering the Questionnaire Administration of the questionnaire was considerably more e f f i c i e n t at tracks and parks as the researcher could p o s i t i o n himself at s t r a t e g i c locations where most i n d i v i d u a l s began and ended th e i r runs. Indeed, i n three l o c a t i o n s ( S t a n l e y Park Seawall, C e n t r a l Park clubhouse, and Minoru Park pavilion) the researcher was able to set up a table with chairs so several subjects could simultaneously complete the questionnaire. On these occasions the researcher provided written materials on various aspects of running to p a r t i c i p a n t s who had taken time to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. On three occasions subjects were personally unable to complete their questionnaires. One was a b l i n d lady who had a friend write responses to each item. On the other two occasions the researcher recorded the data for one i n d i v i d u a l who was too exhausted after her run to write l e g i b l y , and for another who had both hands bandaged. During the process of selecting subjects and administering the questionnaire, the researcher wore a badge that c l e a r l y indicated he was a researcher from the University of B r i t i s h Columbia conducting a study on adult runners. The i n i t i a l step in subject s e l e c t i o n was to observe an i n d i v i d u a l running or in the process of preparing for a run or having just completed a run. This ensured that each subject a c t u a l l y engaged 49 in the behaviour of i n t e r e s t in the study. Subjects were then approached and asked: "Would you be w i l l i n g to spend approximately 15 to 20 minutes to complete a questionnaire regarding the reasons why you began running?" If the i n d i v i d u a l responded a f f i r m a t i v e l y , i t was then determined whether or not the following c r i t e r i a for s e l e c t i o n were s a t i s f i e d : 1. over 18 years of age 2. run on the average at least twice a week 3. have started runing twice a week within the past f i v e years. Anonymity was assured as subjects were i d e n t i f i e d by a s e r i a l number and were not required to provide t h e i r names. Approximately the same number of subjects completed the questionnaire prior to their run as compared to those who completed i t following t h e i r run. The time taken to complete the questionnaire varied from 15 minutes to 40 minutes. This r e f l e c t e d the range of verbal and reading a b i l i t i e s encountered in the subjects as well as d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of fatigue i n those having just completed a run. Some "took th e i r time" and used the questionnaire to recover from their run. On one occasion seven subjects remained s o c i a l i z i n g f o r two hours a f t e r having completed t h e i r questionnaires. A l l subjects were thanked for their p a r t i c i p a t i o n and given the researcher's o f f i c e phone number where information regarding the r e s u l t s of the study would be available when completed. The researcher was p l e a s a n t l y s u r p r i s e d by the enthusiasm and w i l l i n g n e s s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s to provide information regarding running. 50 Coding and Preparation for Analysis IRFRS, LES, EIS, and background data were coded and transferred onto coding forms. The data was then punched into a f i l e at the Univ e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia computing centre. The FREQUENCIES routine of SPSS was used to check minimum and maximum ranges of a l l variables prior to the substantive a n a l y s i s . Successive factor analyses were then used to refine the IRFRS. PEARSON CORR (Correlation) and ONE-WAY (Analysis of Variance) were performed to show r e l a t i o n s h i p s between IRFRS scale scores and selected background v a r i a b l e s . F i n a l l y , regression equations were generated. In each equation a IRFRS scale score was dependent and various background variables were independent. Similar analytic procedures were conducted on the LES and EIS. CHAPTER SEVEN 51 RESULTS Only ten i n d i v i d u a l s of 215 approached (4.65 percent) declined to complete the questionnaire. Five apologized that they had i n s u f f i c i e n t time, three indicated that they had no i n t e r e s t i n research of any type, and two emphasized that they " f e l t too sick" after t h e i r run to p a r t i c i p a t e . The researcher was appreciative of the keen i n t e r e s t shown by nearly a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s and often surprised at t h e i r desire to discuss personal f e e l i n g s and perceptions. Approximately 15 i n d i v i d u a l s asked i f they could take "spare" questionnaires with them to share with a f r i e n d or family member. On a few occasions the researcher was asked when he would be back again so friends could be informed and arrange to complete the questionnaire. In a l l , 205 adults p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study. Individuals were selected from Stanley Park Seawall (n=48), Central Park (n=46), Minoru Track (n=35), Langara Track (n=30), and B a l a c l a v a Park (n=11). T h i r t y - f i v e i n d i v i d u a l s were chosen while running i n v a r i o u s neighbourhoods in Greater Vancouver. Ninety-three of the p a r t i c i p a n t s were male and 112 were female. Table 3 indicates the age d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The average age was 34.43 (S.D.=10.08 years) with a range from 19 to 71. Table 3 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of subjects by Personal, Previous A t h l e t i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n , and Running v a r i a b l e s . Seventy-seven of the p a r t i c i p a n t s were born in B r i t i s h Columbia, 42 i n Eastern Canada, 32 i n the P r a i r i e s , 21 in the United Kingdom, 12 in the United States, 7 i n TABLE 3 Socio-Demographic and Personal C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of 205 R e c r e a t i o n a l Runners V a r i a b l e s Personal Sex Male Female Age 19-28 29-34 35-45 46-71 Place of B i r t h B r i t i s h Columbia Eastern Canada P r a i r i e s United Kingdom - United States Western Europe A s i a Eastern Europe A u s t r a l a s i a L i v i n g Arrangements With another a d u l t With adult and 1 or more c h i l d r e n With 2 or more a d u l t s 'Alone With 1 or more c h i l d r e n Education Undergraduate degree P a r t i a l degree Grade 12 or e q u i v a l e n t Graduate degree V o c a t i o n a l diploma Grade 10 or 11 No formal education Occupation P r o f e s s i o n a l / T e c h n i c a l M a n a g e r i a l / A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C l e r i c a l / S a l e s S k i l l e d worker U n s k i l l e d worker Previous A t h l e t i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n Competitive a t h l e t e d u r i n g school years Yes No Competitive a t h l e t e a f t e r l e a v i n g s c h o o l Yes No Number of team sports ( p r i o r to running) Number of i n d i v i d u a l sports 93 112 64 56 55 30 77 42 32 21 12 7 7 4 3 66 50 42 39 8 70 39 36 27 21 11 1 93 38 36 29 9 123 82 45 160 45.37 54.63 .31.22 27.32 16.83 14.63 37.56 20.49 15.61 10.24 34.43 10.08 5.85 3.41 3.41 1 .95 1.46 32.20 24.39 20.49 19.02 3.90 34. 15 19.02 17.56 13.17 10.24 5.37 .49 45.37 18.54 17.56 14.15 4.39 60.00 40.00 21.95 78.05 2.37 6.69 2.38 3.73 Running Began running before moving to L.M. Began running a f t e r moving to L.M. Number of months running twice a week Number of miles run i n average week Running l o c a t i o n Neighbourhood Park Track 27 125 50 130 25 17.76 82.24 24.39 63.41 12.20 26.53 17.40 19.83 12.55 <<t4>> TABLE 4 Mean I n i t i a l Reasons f o r Running Scale Scores f o r 205 P a r t i c i p a n t s IRFRS Factor T o t a l Mean Scale S.D. P o s s i b l e Score Item Mean 1. S o l i t u d e I I . Personal Challenge I I I . S o c i a l i z a t i o n IV. Prevention V. Remedial VI. Health 36 32 24 16 16 12 17.79 14.56 7.42 8.71 6. 10 10.10 6.05 4.76 2.30 3. 15 2.49 1.62 1.98 1.82 1.24 2. 18 1 .53 3.37 53 Western Europe, 7 in Asia, 4 in Eastern Europe, and 3 in Australasia. Sixty-six individuals lived with one other adult, 50 with another adult and one or more children, 42 with two or more adults, 39 lived alone and 8 lived as the only adult with a child or children. The average participant had some post-secondary education. Forty-seven percent had completed at least an undergraduate degree. In terms of occupation, 45.37 percent were professionally trained, 18.54 percent had managerial or administrative positions, 17.56 percent were involved in c l e r i c a l or sales positions, 14.15 percent were skilled workers, and 4.39 percent were unskilled. Twenty-six percent of the participants were born in the Lower Mainland. Length of residence for those born elsewhere ranged from one year to 59 years. Of the 151 individuals born elsewhere, 125 (82.24 percent) began running after having moved to the Lower Mainland. One hundred and twenty-three (60 percent) of the subjects competed in organized sport during their school years. After leaving school, only 21.95 percent participated in organized sport. Table 3 indicates the distribution of individuals in relation to participation in team and individual sports prior to beginning to run. Of the 205 subjects, 63 (30.72 percent) did not participate in any team sports, whereas only eight (3.90 percent) did not participate in any individual sport or exercise activity. The relative frequencies of previous participation in organized sport presents a clear profile indicating that the majority of adult recreational runners were involved in significantly fewer organized group sports than individual a c t i v i t i e s . This appears consistent with the rather solitary nature of running. 54 The number of months a p a r t i c i p a n t has been running twice a week ranged from those having recently started running (one month) to those having met the maximum c r i t e r i o n for s e l e c t i o n (60 months). The average period of time an i n d i v i d u a l had run twice a week was 26.53 months (S.D.=19.83) . The average distance run each week was 17.40 miles (S.D.=12.55 m i l e s ) . Distances ranged from two to 80 miles. Eighty percent of the pa r t i c i p a n t s ran 27 or fewer miles per week. This substantiated the recreational nature of running for most p a r t i c i p a n t s and contributed to the v a l i d a t i o n of subject s e l e c t i o n . Of the 205 respondents, 130 (63.41 percent) normally t r a v e l l e d to a park to run, 50 (24.40 percent) ran in their neighbourhood, and 25 (12.20 percent) ran on a track.. Neighbourhood runners included both those who ran on stree t s and those who"utilized parks or schools. 55 CHAPTER EIGHT INITIAL REASONS FOR RUNNING SCALE SCORES Table 4 shows the mean scale scores for each IRFS f a c t o r . Item means were calculated by d i v i d i n g the mean scale score by the number of items on each f a c t o r . Although useful for i l l u s t r a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l m o t i v a t i o n a l p r o f i l e s , d i f f e r e n c e s between IRFRS s c o r e s cannot be considered highly s i g n i f i c a n t because of the absence of other normative groups. TABLE 4 Mean I n i t i a l Reasons for Running Scale Scores for 205 P a r t i c i p a n t s IRFRS Factor Total Mean Scale S.D. Item Possible Score Mean — • . . — — — - - ., „ . — — . „ — . — » - I. Solitude 36 17.79 6.05 1.98 I I . Personal Challenge 32 14.56 4.76 1.82 I I I . S o c i a l i z a t i o n 24 7.42 2.30 1.24 IV. Prevention 16 8.71 3.15 2.18 V. Remedial 16 6.10 2.49 1.53 VI. Health 12 10.10 1.62 3.37 The u t i l i t y of IRFRS scores i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 2 which p l o t s the motivational p r o f i l e s of three i n d i v i d u a l s and compares them to the group mean. Subject A was a 46 year old widow born in the United States who moved to the Lower Mainland i n May, 1980. She was employed as an i n t e r i o r designer and had a college degree. Subject A had never p a r t i c i p a t e d in organized sport and did not s t a r t running u n t i l she was 43 years o l d . She ran f i f t e e n miles a week at a neighbourhood park. PERSONAL CHALLENGE, SOLITUDE, SOCIALIZATION, and REMEDIAL scores were 56 4.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.00 1 \ 1 1 J - \ \ .4 A, » • • • 7 / / / \ \ \ \ i • • • 1 Jl 1 ft B. • • • • • / / \ \ V < • V / A 1 c ' V! N [7 17--' # i > 1.50 Solitude Personal Socialization Prevention Remedial Challenge Figure 2. Motivational profiles for three participants. Health 4.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 4.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 / / / • * / < ft .. _ 4.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 Solitude Personal Socialization Prevention Remedial Health Challenge ————— = Females = Males Figure 3. Motivational profiles for male and female participants. 57 well above the norm and were the major motives in her decision to begin running. PREVENTION and HEALTH scores were below average. Subject B was a 40 year old male who also l i v e d alone. He was born i n Vancouver, completed a graduate degree at the Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and, at the time of the study, managed h i s own business. Subject B was never a c o m p e t i t i v e a t h l e t e but d i d p a r t i c i p a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l l y i n a v a r i e t y of team and i n d i v i d u a l sports. He had been running r e g u l a r l y in his neighbourhood for f i v e years and averaged f i v e miles a week. Subject B's IRFRS scores indicated a SOCIALIZATION score which was s i g n i f i c a n t l y above the average. SOLITUDE and, to a lesser extent, PREVENTION and HEALTH scores were also above the norm. PERSONAL CHALLENGE and REMEDIAL scores were average. Subject C, a 35 year old female registered nurse, was born i n London, England and moved to the Lower Mainland i n May, 1953. She l i v e d with other adults and began running eight months prior to when the study was "started. She usually ran at Central Park and averaged 30 miles a week. Prior to running she pa r t i c i p a t e d in a wide v a r i e t y of i n d i v i d u a l and team sports. In terms of her motives for beginning to run, her scores on PERSONAL CHALLENGE, SOCIALIZATION, PREVENTION, and HEALTH were consistent with group norms. However, SOLITUDE, and REMEDIAL scores were well below average. The motivational p r o f i l e s of male and female subjects are plotted in Figure 3. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n mean IRFRS scores between male and female respondents. 58 L i f e Event Scale Scores As determined during the preliminary analysis of LES scores, no s i g n i f i c a n t q u a l i t a t i v e differences appeared when l i f e events were measured by recording the actual number of events experienced, the perceived magnitude of the events or whether the events were perceived as p o s i t i v e or negative. Therefore the number of events experienced i n each of the eight categories was considered when r e l a t i n g l i f e events to other v a r i a b l e s . Table 5 shows the mean scale scores for t o t a l l i f e events and for each LES category. Item means were calculated by di v i d i n g each mean scale score by the number of items i n each category. L i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e can be attached to differences i n mean LES scores because of the absence of other normative groups at t h i s time. For i l l u s t r a t i v e purposes mean LES scores for the 205 p a r t i c i p a n t s are shown in Figure 4. As indicated above, scores shown here were derived by summing responses to items that comprise each category; the category t o t a l s were then divided by the number of items to get a category mean. LES s c o r e s , l i k e IRFRS s c o r e s , are u s e f u l i n c o n s t r u c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e s . Figures 5 and 6 i l l u s t r a t e the contribution of LES scores in compiling case h i s t o r i e s . The mean scores plotted represent subjects A, B, C, and D. Each subject has been randomly selected to sele c t one of the four cohort groups (age 19-28, 29-34, 35-45, 46 and over) . Subject A was a 21 year old nursing student who, i n the two year period prior to beginning running, experienced a s i g n i f i c a n t number of HEALTH and SOCIAL events. She gained weight, became aware of her decreased f i t n e s s , lacked energy, and experienced a reminder of the 59 TABLE 5 Mean L i f e Event Scale Scores for 205 Part i c i p a n t s LES Category Total Mean Scale S.D. Item Possible Score Mean I. Health 15 6.20 2.66 .41 I I . S o c i a l 9 2.91 2.22 .32 I I I . Residence 5 1.24 1.20 .25 IV. Work 12 1.78 1 .92 .15 V. Finances 8 1.12 1.30 .14 VI. Education 6 .72 1 .03 .12 VII. Family 12 1.32 1.50 .1 1 VIII. Death 4 .31 .59 .08 Figure 4. Health Family Death Social Education Residence Finances Work Mean LES scores for 205 participants 60 Figure 6. Health Family Death Social Education Residence Finances Work Life Event profiles for participants C and D. 61 aging process. She also experienced periods of depression and indicated an increased awareness i n physical f i t n e s s and preventive medicine. From the SOCIAL category subject A acquired a new friend and indicated a change i n the health of a f r i e n d . She also wished to make new acquaintances, joined a new s o c i a l club, and took a vacation. Subject A also began post-secondary study and experienced a change i n the number of interactions with her family. Adult l i f e cycle research describes the 19-28 age period as the stage of entry into the adult world. McCoy (1977) i d e n t i f i e s "leaving the family" and "reaching out" as ce n t r a l developmental tasks. As with many adults in the 19-28 age group, SOCIAL events were s i g n i f i c a n t i n the l i f e of subject A. Acquiring new acquaintances and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s are important aspects of young adulthood. Less d i r e c t contact with one's family and preparing for a career also represent common developmental progression in preparing for a more independent r o l e . Subject A, l i k e many young adults, experienced and was concerned with l i f e events regarding her health and l e s s p h y s i c a l l y active l i f e s t y l e . Her weight gain and decreased f i t n e s s l e v e l are common findings among young adults who have completed secondary school and are beginning careers or advanced study. Subject B has been selected from the 29-34 age group. He was a 31 year old dentist who shared a house with two other adults. His l i f e event scores indicated that during the two year period p r i o r to beginning to run he became concerned about his present l i f e s t y l e and health. Subject B also indicated an increase i n stress and experienced periods of depression. An increased awareness and int e r e s t in physical f i t n e s s and preventive medicine was also experienced. Subject B experienced many major SOCIAL events during the two year period. He divorced his wife after having experienced d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with his marriage. He f e l t "off-time" regarding h i s type of friends and wished to make new acquaintances. S i g n i f i c a n t changes i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and a vacation were also indicated. During t h i s same two year i n t e r v a l he entered a new r e l a t i o n s h i p which resulted i n marriage. Of i n t e r e s t to the researcher, h i s new wife was a devoted r e c r e a t i o n a l runner. Subject B purchased and remodelled a house i n which he and h i s new wife l i v e d . This event p r e c i p i t a t e d two ad d i t i o n a l ones—improved l i v i n g conditions and obtaining a mortgage. Developmental theory suggests that a c r i s i s i s often experienced i n the 29-34 age group. Individuals at t h i s stage often evaluate and reappraise their present status and future prospects. This period of s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n i s often characterized as one of questioning. Levinson (1978) suggests that the essence of the Age 30 Transition i s the growing sense that change must be made soon, otherwise one w i l l become locked i n t o — o r out of—commitment that w i l l be more and more d i f f i c u l t to change. The events experienced by subject B are consistent with those described i n l i f e c ycle research. His concern about present health status and increased stress suggests a questioning of h i s current l i f e s t y l e . His d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with his friends and h i s marriage indicates an evaluation or reappraisal of his r e l a t i o n s h i p s with others. Subject B's divorce could be considered as a c r i s i s and, as suggested by Levinson (1978), subject B appears to have reworked parts of h i s l i f e structure that were t e n t a t i v e l y constructed during entry into the adult 63 world, and created a revised l i f e structure that would form the basis of his next l i f e period. Subject C, selected from the 35-45 age group, was a 42 year o l d associate professor who l i v e d i n a house with other adults. During the two year period before she started running, subject C had experienced numerous s i g n i f i c a n t l i f e events. She gained weight, became " u n f i t , " experienced a reminder of the aging process and became alarmed about her present health and l i f e s t y l e . She experienced a mental health problem, increased s t r e s s , periods of depression, and d i f f i c u l t y i n sleeping. A fear of becoming old was also i d e n t i f i e d . During t h i s time subject C also increased her awareness and in t e r e s t i n physical f i t n e s s and preventive medicine. FAMILY events experienced were becoming pregnant, having an abortion, d i f f i c u l t y in r a i s i n g a c h i l d , and having a c h i l d leave home. She also was affected by a negative change i n the health of a family member, trouble with her in-laws, d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with her marriage, and a feel i n g of being "off-time" regarding her role i n the family. SOCIAL events experienced were a desire to make new acquaintances, a vacation, and p a r t i c i p a t i o n in an adult education program. Subject C also f e l t "off-time" regarding her l e v e l of education at t h i s p a r t i c u l a r stage in her l i f e . She experienced a substantial increase i n her income and renewed a mortgage. Recent empirical research supports the popular concept of a m i d l i f e c r i s i s or "explosion" which often occurs during the 35-45 age period (Gould, 1978). During t h i s stage, the adult often becomes emotionally aware that death w i l l come and time i s running out. Attempts are made to modify unsatisfying aspects of current l i f e structure and tes t 64 elements of a new structure. The intense reexamination of t h i s period often brings emotional upset because one i s challenging the status quo—one's established l i f e structure. Many of the events e x p e r i e n c e d by s u b j e c t C i l l u s t r a t e the turbulence often characterizing t h i s stage of adult development. Her experience of health problems and increased awareness of aging appear to pr e c i p i t a t e both a concern regarding her present l i f e s t y l e and a desire to make necessary changes for improvement. The developmental tasks of re l a t i n g to one's spouse and one's chi l d r e n have been i d e n t i f i e d by l i f e - c y c l e researchers as major challenges during t h i s period. The SOCIAL events experienced by subject C suggest an e f f o r t to rearrange personal p r i o r i t i e s and values and p a r t i c i p a t e i n new s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . Subject D was a 52 year old chemical engineer who l i v e d with h i s c h i l d r e n . He has been selected from the over 45 age group. Like the three other i n d i v i d u a l s described, subject D scored r e l a t i v e l y high i n HEALTH events. During the two year i n t e r v a l before he started running, subject D experienced a weight gain, lacked energy, and became concerned about his present health. At t h i s time he also experienced the onset of a disease, d i f f i c u l t y i n sleeping, fear of aging and dying, and depression. Like the three other subjects, he experienced an increased awareness and interest in physical f i t n e s s and preventive medicine. Subject D's wife died during t h i s time period. He also experienced problems with his in-laws. Events experienced i n the SOCIAL category included a decrease i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and a desire to make new acquaintances. WORK related events were a job change r e s u l t i n g i n d i f f e r e n t working conditions and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . He was also denied an anticipated promotion. L i f e cycle t h e o r i s t s describe the over 45 age period as a time of peak pr o d u c t i v i t y and c r e a t i v i t y . S i g n i f i c a n t developmental tasks during t h i s stage are adjusting to the r e a l i t i e s of work, health problems, and loss of mate. Subject D's p r o f i l e c e r t a i n l y i l l u s t r a t e s the traumatic events of experiencing age related health problems and the l o s s of one's spouse. He also had to accept the r e a l i t y that h i s employment expectations would not be attained. Scores from the LES c o n t r i b u t e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the construction of i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e s . An awareness of the events experienced by an i n d i v i d u a l c e r t a i n l y a s s i s t s i n the development of informative case studies. However, in the present study the purpose of quantifying l i f e events was to examine r e l a t i o n s h i p s between LES scores and motives for beginning to run. Now that the LES i s developed and av a i l a b l e for future use, i t would be useful to further v a l i d a t e the instrument by administering i t to other populations. Investigation of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between scale scores which d i s t i n g u i s h one i n d i v i d u a l from another would also be of i n t e r e s t . External Influences Scale Scores Table 6 shows frequencies of each item on the EIS. As indicated, the most frequent external influence i s the observation of "Adults your own age or older running in the community." One hundred and fo r t y - e i g h t of the 205 subjects (72.20 percent) said they were influenced by t h i s item in the two year period before they began running. The prevalence of adults of a l l ages and l e v e l s of f i t n e s s seen running in public serves as a stimulus or motivator for many to begin running. Although s i g n i f i c a n t , t h i s item as well as item 8, "Employee f i t n e s s promotion," TABLE 6 Frequency and Mean External Influence Scale Scores for 205 P a r t i c i p a n t s External Influence Item Yes Frequency Mean Response 1. Adults your own age or older running in community 148 72.20 2.45 2. P a r t i c i p a t i o n f i t n e s s promotion 135 65.85 2.32 3. Fitness message comparing 60 year old Swede to 30 year o l d Canadian 125 60.98 2.23 4. Te l e v i s i o n coverage of a running event 124 60.49 2.20 5. Magazine a r t i c l e related to running 120 58.54 2.19 6. Commericial advertisement employing running or f i t n e s s image 118 57.56 2.17 7. Newspaper a r t i c l e related to running 114 55.61 2.12 8. Book promoting health benefits of running such as Aerobics 95 46.34 1.94 9. Media promotion of "self-growth" (getting i n touch with your body) 83 40.49 1.82 10. Individual a t h l e t i c performance having great emotional impact 79 38.54 1.79 11 . Te l e v i s i o n movie in which running was portrayed 75 36.59 1.75 12. Radio coverage of a running event 72 35.12 1.71 13. C e l e b r i t y endorsing f i t n e s s or running 64 31.22 1.64 14. S p e c i f i c running publication such as Runner's World 56 27.32 1.56 15. Action B.C. fi t n e s s promotion 55 26.83 1.55 16. Motion picture featuring running 54 26.34 1.53 17. Employee fi t n e s s promotion 33 16.10 1.32 Cfl 67 were not included in any of the four factors because of i n s u f f i c i e n t loadings (.40 or l e s s ) . Item 9, "A commercial advertisement which employed running or f i t n e s s image" was also eliminated because i t was f a c t o r i a l y "impure," that i s , i t loaded on several f a c t o r s . Table 7 shows t o t a l scale scores, scale score means, and S.D.'s for each f a c t o r . Item means, calculated by d i v i d i n g the mean scale score by the number of items on each factor are also indicated. Because of the absence of other groups with which to compare norms, l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e should be attached to the differences between scale score or item means. EIS scores are useful, however, in describing d i f f e r e n c e s i n external influence p r o f i l e s between i n d i v i d u a l s . For i l l u s t r a t i v e purposes, mean EIS scores for the 205 subjects are shown i n Figure 7. More than 60 percent of the adult population were s i g n i f i c a n t l y influenced by the two items regarding P a r t i c i p a t i o n ' s e f f o r t s to i n c r e a s e awareness i n p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . "Par t i c i p a c t i o n f i t n e s s promotion" and "Fitness message comparing a 60 year old Swede to a 30 year o l d Canadian" were the second and t h i r d most frequent external influence. This finding recognizes the effectiveness of t h i s marketing strategy. As expected, many respondents said media coverage of running influenced them. Because t h i s study focused on i n d i v i d u a l s who had started running within the previous f i v e years and attempted to i d e n t i f y external influences which occurred in the two year period prior to t h e i r beginning to run, items such as a t e l e v i s i o n movie or motion picture featuring running did not score as high as they probably would at the present time. Since the research data for t h i s study has been c o l l e c t e d there has been a remarkable increase in running-related movies. 68 TABLE 7 Mean External Influence Scale Scores for 205 Pa r t i c i p a n t s EIS Factor Total Mean Scale Possible Score S.D. Item Mean I. Model I I . Media I I I . Movie IV. P a r t i c i p a c t i o n 12 15 6 6 6.80 9.80 3.28 4.56 2.72 3.50 1.64 1.58 .57 .65 .55 .76 M o d e l M e d i a M o v i e P a r t i c i p a c t i o n F i g u r e 7. M e a n EIS Scores f o r 205 part ic ipants . 69 Likewise, the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of c e l e b r i t i e s and p h y s i c a l l y disabled i n d i v i d u a l s in running and f i t n e s s programs during the past few years has probably influenced more adults and f i t n e s s programs than at any previous time. Public figures such as Terry Fox and Jane Fonda have become models to thousands of adults. The rather low score on item 12, "Employee f i t n e s s promotion," suggests that employee f i t n e s s programs were s t i l l i n t h e i r infancy during the time of the study. As a r e s u l t of growing employee demands for f i t n e s s programs and an increasing awareness by employers regarding the benefits of improved employee f i t n e s s l e v e l s , i t i s expected that more adults are influenced by employee f i t n e s s promotion at the present time. Future study might examine the current frequency of the external influences used in the present study as well as updating items to make them more r e l e v a n t . Items might a l s o be m o d i f i e d f o r v a r i o u s sociodemographic populations in an attempt to i d e n t i f y v a r i a b l e s which influence the person's awareness and in t e r e s t i n exercise or other health behaviour. The u t i l i t y of EIS scores i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figures 8 and 9. EIS mean scores are used to construct external influence p r o f i l e s for four subjects, one selected from each of the four cohort groups considered i n the present study. Subject A was a 22 year old medical stenographer who was also a part-time college student. She has l i v e d in the Lower Mainland a l l her l i f e and at the time of the" study l i v e d with two other - adults. Subject A had been running approximately 12 miles a week for the past two years. She responded p o s i t i v e l y to a l l four external influence items on Factor I, MODEL: a c e l e b r i t y or public figure who endorsed f i t n e s s or running,  71 Action BC f i t n e s s promotion, an i n d i v i d u a l a t h l e t i c performance having great emotional impact, and media promotion of "self-growth." Her Factor I I , MEDIA, scores were also above the norm. She was influenced by magazine, newspaper, radio, and t e l e v i s i o n coverage of running. Subject A was not influenced by either item of Factor I I I : a motion picture or t e l e v i s i o n movie which featured running. She was influenced by one Factor IV item: P a r t i c i p a c t i o n f i t n e s s promotion. Subject B was a 31 year old engineer who moved to Vancouver from Hong Kong i n December, 1967. He l i v e d with other adults and began running four years ago. He ran an average of six miles a week. Subject B was not influenced by any of the MODEL items. He responded p o s i t i v e l y to four of the f i v e MEDIA influences. The only negative score from t h i s category was the item indic a t i n g influence of a s p e c i f i c running p u b l i c a t i o n . He was not influenced by either a t e l e v i s i o n movie or motion picture featuring running. Subject B was influenced by both Factor IV items: P a r t i c i p a c t i o n f i t n e s s promotion and the f i t n e s s message comparing a 60 year o l d Swede to a 30 year old Canadian. Subject C was a 36 year old salesperson who l i v e d with her husband and c h i l d r e n . She moved to the Lower Mainland from London, England i n September, 1946. Subject C, who never p a r t i c i p a t e d i n organized sport, started running f i v e years ago and at the time of the study, ran 14 miles a week at Minoru Park. Prior to beginning to run she said she was influenced by two items from Factor I, MODEL: a c e l e b r i t y or public figure who endorsed f i t n e s s or running and an i n d i v i d u a l a t h l e t i c performance having great emotional impact. She said she was also influenced by one Factor I I , MEDIA, item: radio coverage of a running event. Subject D was a 51 year old security o f f i c e r who moved to Vancouver from Winnipeg in June, 1965. He l i v e d by himself and had been running an average of 13 miles a week for the past two years. Subject D was o n l y i n f l u e n c e d by one item from MODEL: media promotion o f "self-growth." He was influenced, however, by four of the f i v e MEDIA items. His only negative response to t h i s Factor was "a s p e c i f i c running publication such as Runner's World. He was influenced by both MOVIE items: a t e l e v i s i o n movie and a motion picture featuring running. Subject D also responded p o s i t i v e l y to both PARTICIPACTION items: " P a r t i c i p a c t i o n f i t n e s s promotion" and the " f i t n e s s message comparing a 60 year o l d Swede to a 30 year o l d Canadian." As the focus of t h i s study i s to predict variance i n the separate IRFRS v a r i a b l e s , factor scores from the EIS are not analyzed to measure re l a t i o n s h i p s between EIS f a c t o r s . Rather, EIS scores w i l l be used i n further analysis as independent v a r i a b l e s , a s s i s t i n g in the explanation of variance in the reasons why adults begin running. 73 CHAPTER NINE PREDICTORS OF INITIAL REASONS FOR RUNNING SCALE SCORES Single Variable Predictors This study concerned r e l a t i o n s h i p s between independent v a r i a b l e s and reasons why adults begin running. From the onset i t was considered important to examine the multivariate nature of motives for beginning to run. The procedures reported below were used to se l e c t v a r i a b l e s for entry into regression equations used to explain variance i n each IRFRS score. Although some independent variables were measured for purposes other than those of the present study, their r e l a t i o n s h i p to each of the motivational orientations was calculated because of a desire to proceed i n d u c t i v e l y and to explore c o u n t e r - i n t u i t i v e hypotheses (see Boshier & C o l l i n s , 1982). Where the independent va r i a b l e was of a nominal type, a one-way analysis of variance was performed for each of the dependent v a r i a b l e s . Table 8 shows the analysis regarding sex and i n i t i a l reasons for TABLE 8 Relationship Between Sex and I n i t i a l Reasons for Running Scale Scores Men Women F Ratio Mean S.D. Mean S.D. SOLITUDE 17.30 5.62 18.20 6.38 1.12 (ns) PERSONAL CHALLENGE 15.08 4.85 14.13 4.66 2.03 (ns) SOCIALIZATION 7.46 2.67 7.38 1.95 0.06 (ns) PREVENTION 9.33 3.29 8.19 2.94 6.92 (p<.009) REMEDIAL 6.42 2.87 5.84 2.10 2.78 (P<-09) HEALTH 10.09 1 .52 10.11 1 .71 0.01 (ns) 74 beginning running. Mean scores were calculated for the 93 males and 112 females and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex and IRFRS scores determined by a one-way analysis of variance. Independent variables of an i n t e r v a l type were correlated (Pearson product-moment) with each of the IRFRS s c o r e s . Table 9 shows re l a t i o n s h i p s between age and l i f e events and scores on each IRFRS fa c t o r . The following discussion w i l l be based on the presentation of c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s and F-r a t i o s i n d i c a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between each of the variables and IRFRS scores. SOLITUDE Table 8 shows r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex and scores on the IRFRS SOLITUDE fa c t o r . As indicated, there was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex and beginning running for SOLITUDE. Likewise, Table 9 shows that age was also not s i g n i f i c a n t l y associated with t h i s f a c t o r . S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s appeared between several LES scores and SOLITUDE. Individuals with higher Health Events (r=.38, p<.001), Soc i a l Events (r=.29, p<.001), and Work Events (r=.22, p<.001) scores were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d to begin running for SOLITUDE than were low scorers on these v a r i a b l e s . Family Events (r=.19, p<.003) and Education Events (r=.17, p<.009) were also s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . These findings contribute to the construct v a l i d a t i o n of the SOLITUDE factor in that i n d i v i d u a l s with a his t o r y of numerous l i f e events are l i k e l y to be experiencing stress caused by change or di s r u p t i o n i n status quo. This for many necessitates a time to temporarily escape from mounting pressures or demands. TABLE 9: Relationship Between Age and Life Events and I n i t i a l Reasons for Running Scale Scores I II III IV V VI PERSONAL SOLITUDE CHALLENGE SOCIALIZATION PREVENTION REMEDIAL HEALTH Age -.06 - -.14 <.03 .003 - .33 <.001 .09 - -.04 Health Events .38 <C.001 .13 <.04 .16 <.009 .38 <.001 .33 <.001 .33 <.001 Family Events .19 .003 -.001 - .04 - .03 - .13 <.03 .15 <.02 Death Events .10 - .01 - .04 - .17 <.009 .09 - -.09 Social Events .29 <.001 .32 <.001 .14 <.03 -.06 - .02 - .14 <.03 Education Events .17 <.009 .10 - .11 - -.08 - -.09 - .07 Residents Events .05 - .08 - .03 - -.14 <.03 -.02 - .10 Finance Events .11 - .10 - .22 <.001 .01 - .16 <.01 .19 <.003 Work Events .22 <.001 .12 <.05 .14 <.03 -.06 - .05 0 .21 <.001 Total Events .39 <.001 .23 <.001 .22 <.001 .09 - .19 <.003 .31 <.001 Cn 76 PERSONAL CHALLENGE Males were s l i g h t l y more i n c l i n e d to begin running for PERSONAL CHALLENGE reasons than were females (F=2.03). Younger adults had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher scores on t h i s factor than d i d older adults (r=-.14, p<.03). This r e s u l t supports usual findings i n exercise p a r t i c i p a t i o n studies i n which adult p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n regular physical a c t i v i t y declines as one progresses through adulthood. S o c i a l Events showed the strongest r e l a t i o n s h i p to PERSONAL CHALLENGE (r=.32, p<.001). This enhances the construct v a l i d i t y of the PERSONAL CHALLENGE factor i n that l i f e events such as the influence of new friends or changes i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s can be related to motives to begin running as in a personal desire to make new friends or interact with others. Adults who began running for PERSONAL CHALLENGE were also s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d to have experienced more Health (r=.13, p<.04) and Work Events (r=.12, p<.05). The Total L i f e Events score was also s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to PERSONAL CHALLENGE (r=.23, p<.001) supporting the assumption that the motives for i n i t i a t i n g a new exercise behaviour are related to antecedent l i f e events. SOCIALIZATION There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex or age and beginning running for SOCIALIZATION. Suggesting that both sexes and a l l cohort groups respond s i m i l a r l y to s o c i a l influences, t h i s finding may be of spe c i a l i n t e r e s t to those promoting or marketing exercise programs for adults. The c o r r e l a t i o n s between SOCIALIZATION and Finance Events (r=.22, p<.001) and Health Events (r=.16, p<.009) were s i g n i f i c a n t . This 77 finding suggests that i n d i v i d u a l s who have experienced numerous changes i n health or f i n a n c i a l status are l i k e l y to be influenced by s o c i a l motives in their decision to begin running. This r e l a t i o n s h i p appears consistent with the a - p r i o r i assumption held by many f i t n e s s leaders that adults becoming aware of aging or experiencing improved f i n a n c i a l status are often motivated to p a r t i c i p a t e i n exercise programs i n an attempt to interact with others or conform to s o c i e t a l or peer group expectations or r o l e s . S o c i a l Events (r=.14, p<.03) and Work Events (r=.14, p<.03) were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to SOCIALIZATION. Support for these r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s provided by the numerous reports of adults who i d e n t i f y the influence of a " s i g n i f i c a n t other" or p a r t i c i p a t i o n in new adult education or recreation programs as major factors i n th e i r d e c i s i o n to p a r t i c i p a t e in regular f i t n e s s a c t i v i t i e s . PREVENTION Males were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d to begin running f o r PREVENTION motives than were females (F=6.92, p<.009). The c o r r e l a t i o n between age and PREVENTION was also s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (r=.33, p<.001). As the young adult progresses through the l i f e c ycle he or she often becomes more aware of decreased physical f i t n e s s , p o t e n t i a l health problems, and attempts to prevent premature aging or future i l l n e s s . Adults with higher Death Events (r=.17, p<.009) were also more in c l i n e d to begin running for PREVENTION reasons than were those with lower r a t i n g s . S u p e r f i c i a l y , i t appears t h a t a d u l t s who have experienced the personal loss of a close friend or became aware of the death of an i n d i v i d u a l with whom they can i d e n t i f y , are often motivated 78 to take steps to insure that they do not meet a similar f a t e . Table 9 also shows that adults with fewer Residence Events were more l i k e l y to begin running for PREVENTION reasons (r=-.14, p<.03) than were those who had fewer Residence Events. REMEDIAL Males were s l i g h t l y more i n c l i n e d to begin running for REMEDIAL motives than were females (F=2.78, .05<p<.09). No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p appeared between age and REMEDIAL. As anticipated, adults who experienced more Health Events were more l i k e l y to begin running for REMEDIAL reasons (r=.33, p<.001). Finance Events (r=.16, p<.01) and Family Events (r=.13, p<.03) were also s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to REMEDIAL. HEALTH There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex or age and beginning running for HEALTH reasons. Adults of both sexes and a l l cohort groups appeared to be s i m i l a r l y influenced by motives such as health maintenance or improvement and physical appearance. Adults scoring high i n Health Events were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d to begin running for HEALTH reasons (r=.33, p<.001). This supports an a - p r i o r i assumption that adults often begin an exercise program after becoming more aware of age related changes in appearance or health. S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s also appeared between Work Events (r=.21, p<.001), Finance Events (r=.19, p<.003), Family Events (r=.15, p<.02), and S o c i a l Events (r=.14, p<.03) and HEALTH r e a s o n s . A d u l t s e x p e r i e n c i n g more changes i n these l i f e event c a t e g o r i e s are 79 s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y to begin running in an attempt to maintain or improve health or appearance. As shown in Table 9, the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the Total L i f e Event score and f i v e of the s i x f a c t o r s f o r beginning to run were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the Total L i f e Event score and SOLITUDE, PERSONAL CHALLENGE, SOCIALIZATION, and HEALTH were s i g n i f i c a n t at the p<.001 l e v e l of confidence. Adults with higher Total L i f e Event scores were also s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d to begin running for REMEDIAL motives (r=.19, p<.003) than those with lower T o t a l L i f e Event scores. PREVENTION was the only factor not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to Total L i f e Event score. Two-Way Interaction Between Sex and Age and IRFRS Scores As indicated i n the preceeding a n a l y s i s , sex and age were not as useful i n predicting motives for beginning running as were v a r i a b l e s concerned with antecedent l i f e events and external influences. However, because a major purpose of the present study was to investigate r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the sex and age of i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r reasons for beginning to run, an analysis of variance was performed i n which inte r a c t i o n s of sex and age were examined. Mean scores were ca l c u l a t e d for the 93 males and 112 females and each of the four age categories. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex and age and IRFRS scores was determined by F- r a t i o scores. SOLITUDE Table 10 shows the re l a t i o n s h i p s between sex and age and SOLITUDE scores when considered separately and when analyzed by a two-way 80 i n t e r a c t i o n . As indicated, the rel a t i o n s h i p s between sex and SOLITUDE (F=.98), age and SOLITUDE (F=2.42), and the two-way i n t e r a c t i o n (F=.79) were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . For i l l u s t r a t i v e purposes mean sex and cohort group scores are shown i n Figure 10. As indicated, i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s appear between the sexes with regard to SOLITUDE scores. Both sexes score s l i g h t l y below their respective t o t a l sex group average i n the 19-28 category. A dramatic increase i n SOLITUDE scores then occurs i n both sexes during the 29-34 category r e s u l t i n g i n above average scores. Thus, for both sexes SOLITUDE becomes a more s i g n i f i c a n t motive to begin running i n the 29-34 age group. A decline i n SOLITUDE scores, more obvious i n males (X=16.59) than females (X=19.04) appears during the ages 35-45. During t h i s period, e s p e c i a l l y for men, SOLITUDE becomes le s s important as a reason for beginning to run. Another s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the sexes regarding SOLITUDE scores occurs during the 46 and older cohort group. SOLITUDE scores increase s l i g h t l y i n males (X=17.32) and decline sharply in females (X=15.91). As shown in Table 10, the two-way interactions between sex and age and SOLITUDE were not s i g n i f i c a n t . However, Figure 10 i l l u s t r a t e s that s i g n i f i c a n t differences do indeed occur i n SOLITUDE scores between s p e c i f i c sex-cohort groups. It appears t h a t these d i f f e r e n c e s "balance-out" when sex and age are analyzed c o l l e c t i v e l y i n the two-way i n t e r a c t i o n . It must be emphasized that the d i f f e r e n c e s measured between males and females i n Figure 10 simply represent association between s p e c i f i c sex-cohort groups and SOLITUDE rather than s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n . Thus, during s p e c i f i c stages of the l i f e c ycle the importance of SOLITUDE motives for beginning to run d i f f e r s between 81 TABLE 10 Relationships Between Sex and Age and SOLITUDE Scores X F - r a t i o Total Population (205) Sex Males (93) Females (112) Age 19-28 29-34 25-45 46- Two-way i n t e r a c t i o n (age x sex) 17.79 17.30 18.20 16.72 19.50 17.84 16.80 .98 2.42 ns .06 .79 ns 82 males and females. However, t h i s d i f f e r e n c e , as shown i n previous a n a l y s e s i s r e l a t e d more t o antecedent l i f e events and e x t e r n a l influence variables than i t i s to sex or age. Notwithstanding, the finding that sex-cohort differences appear i n terms of i n i t i a t i n g an exercise program for SOLITUDE reasons may be of importance to f i t n e s s and health professionals who design or manage exercise programs for adults at various stages in the l i f e c y c l e . PERSONAL CHALLENGE Table 1 1 shows r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex and age and PERSONAL CHALLENGE scores. As indicated, younger adults (F=2.69) and males (F=3.49) scored higher on t h i s f a c t o r . However, when considered together i n a two-way i n t e r a c t i o n , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex and age and PERSONAL CHALLENGE was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Figure 11 shows mean sex-cohort group scores i n the two-way in t e r a c t i o n of sex and age with PERSONAL CHALLENGE. As i n the previous a n a l y s i s of SOLITUDE, an i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n appears i n d i c a t i n g important d i s t i n c t i o n s between the r e l a t i o n s h i p of PERSONAL CHALLENGE motives and sex-cohort v a r i a b l e s . In the 19-28 age group both sexes have i d e n t i c a l scores (X=15.00) which approximate the average of the t o t a l population. However, during ages 29-34 male scores- increase dramatically (X=17.35) while female scores decline s l i g h t l y . While a gradual decrease i n PERSONAL CHALLENGE scores was noted i n both sexes i n the following two age groups, males continued to score s l i g h t l y above females i n t h i s f a c t o r . The meaning of these findings i s reasonably c l e a r . Both sexes are less i n c l i n e d to begin running for PERSONAL CHALLENGE motives as they 83 TABLE 11 Relationships Between Sex and Age and PERSONAL CHALLENGE scores X F - r a t i o p Total Population (205) Sex Males (93) Females (112) Age 19-28 29-34 35-45 46- 14.56 15.08 14.13 15.00 15.50 13.80 13.23 Two-way i n t e r a c t i o n (age x sex) 3.49 2.69 .06 .04 1 .16 ns 84 age, with the exception of males in the 29-34 age group. During t h i s stage males appear more l i k e l y to begin running for PERSONAL CHALLENGE reasons. This finding i s congruent with developmental psychologists' de s c r i p t i o n s of the "age 30 t r a n s i t i o n " i n which many males i n i t i a t e behavioural change in an attempt to develop a new l i f e structure (see L e v i n s o n , 1978). The d e s i r e t o a t t a i n new g o a l s and compete succ e s s f u l l y against oneself and others i s evident during t h i s period of change. SOCIALIZATION Relationships between sex and age and SOCIALIZATION are shown i n Table 12. When examined separately, r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex and SOCIALIZATION (F=.06) and age and SOCIALIZATION (F=.47) were not s i g n i f i c a n t . Thus, beginning running for SOCIALIZATION motives appears to occur to a similar extent in both males and females of a l l ages. This finding supports the absence of sex and age from the SOCIALIZATION equation performed in the multivariable analysis. The two-way i n t e r a c t i o n between sex and age and SOCIALIZATION i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p (F=3.32). T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n suggests that when sex-cohort group scores are considered, males i n s p e c i f i c age groups d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from females of the same age regarding the l i k e l i h o o d of beginning to run for SOCIALIZATION motives. Figure 12 i l l u s t r a t e s sex-cohort group p r o f i l e s on SOCIALIZATION scores. As indicated, in the 19-28 age group, males score s l i g h t l y below (X=6.75) the t o t a l population average while females score s l i g h t l y above average (X=7.52). SOCIALIZATION scores of both sexes show minor increases and remain similar during ages 29-34. 85 TABLE 12 Relationships Between Sex and Age and SOCIALIZATION Scores X F - r a t i o T o t a l Population (205) Sex Male (93) Female (112) Age 19-28 29-34 35-45 46- 7.42 7.46 7.38 7.23 7.52 7.65 7.20 .06 .47 ns ns Two-way i n t e r a c t i o n (age x sex) 3.32 .02 9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 Female 19-28 29-34 35-45 46 — 9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 Figure 12. Mean SOCIALIZATION Scores of Male and Female Runners in Different Age Groups 86 During the 35-45 age period, an i n t e r e s t i n g change in sex-cohort gcoup scores appears. Male scores increase and r i s e above the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n average while female s c o r e s decrease below average. SOCIALIZATION scores then decrease back below average in males and r i s e again to average in females during the 46+ age period. Apart from the 35-45 age group, males and females are similar i n t h e i r l i k e l i h o o d to begin running for SOCIALIZATION reasons. During ages 35-45, males show an increased tendency to be motivated by SOCIALIZATION. Females, on the other hand, tend to be less l i k e l y to begin running for SOCIALIZATION motives during t h i s age period than at any other age. PREVENTION The re l a t i o n s h i p s between sex and age and PREVENTION were the most s i g n i f i c a n t of a l l the sex f a c t o r s . As shown i n Table 13, sex (F=3.70) and age (F=7.85) were s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to PREVENTION scores. The two-way int e r a c t i o n also yielded s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s (F=2.59) . These findi n g s are consistent with the r e s u l t s obtained from the regression equation on PREVENTION in that males are shown to be more l i k e l y to begin running for Prevention motives than are females. Also, PREVENTION scores increase with age, that i s , older adults score higher on t h i s factor than do younger adults. Mean sex-cohort group PREVENTION scores i n the two-way i n t e r a c t i o n are shown in Figure 13. Both sexes score below the t o t a l population average in the 19-28 age group. During ages 29-34 a dramatic increase in male scores (X=9.61) occurs while female scores decrease s l i g h t l y (X=7.61). PREVENTION scores remain stable i n males (X=9.41) and r i s e sharply in females (X=9.21) in age group 35-45. The 46+ age category 87 TABLE 13 Relationship Between Sex and Age and PREVENTION Scores X F - r a t i o Total Population (205) Sex Male (93) Female (112) Age 19-28 29-34 35-45 46- 8.71 9.33 8.19 7.50 8.43 9.31 10.70 3.70 7.85 .05 .001 Two-way Interaction (age x sex) 2.59 .05 12.0 11.5 11.0 10.5 10.0 9.5 9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 Figure 13. — < 12.0 11.5 11.0 10.5 10.0 9.5 9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 46 — 19-28 29-34 35-45 Mean PREVENTION Scores of Male and Female Runners in Different Age Groups 88 shows another s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n PREVENTION sc o r e s i n males (X=11.58) and rather stable scores in females (X=9.18). REMEDIAL Table 14 shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex and age and REMEDIAL scores. As indicated, the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex and REMEDIAL (F=1.93) age and REMEDIAL (F=.79), and the two-way i n t e r a c t i o n (F=.29) were not s i g n i f i c a n t . Figure 14 also c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s the weak association between sex-cohort groups and REMEDIAL. Although males tended to score s l i g h t l y higher on t h i s factor than females, sex and age were poor predictors of the REMEDIAL motive. Thus, adults who began to run for REMEDIAL reasons such as to follow the advise of a physician or to help c o n t r o l a s p e c i f i c health problem, may be of any age and are s l i g h t l y more l i k e l y to be men than women. HEALTH Relationships between sex and age and HEALTH are shown i n Table 15. Consistent with the findings of the multivariate analysis on HEALTH, the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex and HEALTH (F=.01) and age and HEALTH (F=.41) were not s i g n i f i c a n t . The two-way i n t e r a c t i o n a l s o i n d i c a t e d non-significance (F=.89). The lack of association between sex-cohort groups i s shown i n Figure 15. Males and females of any age were equally l i k e l y to begin running for HEALTH motives. Reasons for running such as to improve appearance, to maintain good health, or a t t a i n optimal health were not related to the sex or age of the i n d i v i d u a l . 89 TABLE 14 Relationships Between Sex and Age and REMEDIAL Scores X F - r a t i o T o t a l Population Sex Males Females Age 19-28 29-34 35-45 46- Two-way Interaction (age x sex) 6.10 6.43 5.84 5.78 6.13 6.09 6.77 1 .93 .79 ns ns .29 ns 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 Figure 14. -< 19-28 29-34 35-45 46 — 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 Mean REMEDIAL Scores of Male and Female Runners in Different Age Groups 90 TABLE 15 Relationships Between Sex and Age and HEALTH Scores X F - r a t i o To^al Population (205) Sex Males Females Age 19-28 29-34 35-45 4 5- Two-way Interaction (age x sex) 10.10 10.09 10.11 10.11 10.25 9.91 10.13 .01 .41 ns ns .89 ns 10.50 10.00 9.50 p ^c^Ct 1 19-28 29-34 35-45 46 — Figure 15. Mean HEALTH Scores of Male and Female Runners in Different Age Groups v 10.50 10.00 9.50 91 M u l t i v a r i a t e Predictors of IRFRS Scores The foregoing analysis showed r e l a t i o n s h i p s between age, sex and reasons for r u n n i n g . While s e v e r a l of the f i g u r e s d i s p l a y e d t h e o r e t i c a l l y suggestive r e s u l t s i t appeared that age and sex were not very powerful predictors of a l l the reasons for running. They appeared to explain more of the variance i n SOCIALIZATION and PREVENTION than i n HEALTH. But, as the theory buttressing t h i s work spoke of l i f e events and external influences as c o r r e l a t e s of reasons for running, i t was necessary to examine the extent to which these v a r i a b l e s , in association with age, sex, and other p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , would e x p l a i n variance in each of the dependent v a r i a b l e s . A preliminary examination of the c o r r e l a t i o n matrices for each dependent variable suggested that, in each instance some of the personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , l i f e event, and e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e v a r i a b l e s were i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d . Thus, i t was decided to enter them into a series of r e g r e s s i o n e quations p r e d i c t i n g v a r i a n c e i n running f o r SOLITUDE, PERSONAL CHALLENGE, SOCIALIZATION, PREVENTION, REMEDIAL, and HEALTH reasons. With regard to i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s , adults having more formal education were s i g n i f i c a n t l y less l i k e l y to be influenced by the media in their decision to begin running than were les s educated adults. This s i t u a t i o n i s predictable and, as emphasized by Boshier: i t buttresses arguments concerning the need to do multi- rather than b i v a r i a t e analyses. Few phenomena stem from the influence of one v a r i a b l e . Most human behaviour stems from interactions of v a r i a b l e s . Multivariate analyses are used to disentangle these in t e r a c t i o n s and show the extent to which variance in a dependent variable stems from the " p a r t i a l " or' " j o i n t " e f f e c t of independent v a r i a b l e s . (1983, p. 124) Sixteen of the independent variables were entered into regression equations designed to predict variance i n IRFRS scores. As outlined by Boshier (1983), the decision to r e t a i n or discard a va r i a b l e for regression analyses was based upon the following c r i t e r i a : 1. I t s simple c o r r e l a t i o n with each of the IRFRS scores. 2. Its t h e o r e t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . 3. I t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to other independent v a r i a b l e s . 4. Its apparent relevance to adult p a r t i c i p a n t s and exercise or health p r o f e s s i o n a l s . 5. A desire to eliminate redundant p r e d i c t o r s . The f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s were entered i n t o each of the s i x regression equations used to explain variance i n IRFRS scores: Personal C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - Age - Sex - Education - Occupation External Influences - Model - Media - Movie - P a r t i c i p a c t i o n L i f e Events - Health - Family - Death - S o c i a l - Education - Residence - Finance - work Any of the above independent v a r i a b l e s was e l i g i b l e to enter the equation generated to explain each of the IRFRS scores. However, i n order for a variable to enter the equation i t had to explain at l e a s t f i v e percent of the variance. This c r i t e r i o n was also selected to keep equations as parsimonious as possible. Two variables entered the f i r s t equation and explained 20 percent of the variance i n SOLITUDE; two var i a b l e s entered the PERSONAL CHALLENGE equation for a multiple r of .37 (14 percent of variance explained); two va r i a b l e s explained 11 percent of the SOCIALIZATION variance; f i v e v a r i a b l e s entered the PREVENTION equation for a multiple r of .56 (32 percent of variance explained); three variables explained 16 percent of the variance i n REMEDIAL, while two variables entered the HEALTH equation and explained 13 percent of the variance. Regression Equations P r e d i c t i n g IRFRS Scores SOLITUDE Table 16 shows the two va r i a b l e s that combined to explain 20 percent of the variance i n SOLITUDE scores. At the cut-off point for entry into the SOLITUDE equation none of the 14 remaining v a r i a b l e s had p a r t i a l r's greater than .12. Had a more l i b e r a l c r i t e r i o n been adopted the next variables to enter would have been MODEL influences, Work Events, and MEDIA influences. Note the absence of age and sex from the equation. The 205 adult runners had a mean Health Event score of 6.20 and a mean So c i a l Event score of 2.91. Considering the coding system and the sign in front of each beta weight t h i s table shows that i n d i v i d u a l s with the highest SOLITUDE scores were more i n c l i n e d than those with low SOLITUDE scores to have experienced more Health and S o c i a l events p r i o r to beginning running. Thus, adults having experienced a s i g n i f i c a n t weight gain or decreased f i t n e s s l e v e l were more motivated by SOLITUDE reasons than those not having experienced similar health events. This 94 TABLE 16 Mu l t i v a r i a t e Predictors of I n i t i a l Reasons for Running Scale Scores SOLITUDE Scores Variable X S.D. Multiple Simple Beta F - r a t i o r r ( f i n a l ) (at entry) 1 : , I , : Health Events 6.20 2.66 .38 .38 .35 35.15 So c i a l Events 2.91 2.22 _.45 ^29 ^23_ _25^.40 re l a t i o n s h i p supports observations made by adult exercise and f i t n e s s l e a d e r s t h a t the overweight or " u n f i t " are o f t e n s e l f - c o n s c i o u s regarding their health or f i t n e s s status and f e e l less conspicuous or embarrassed when exercising alone rather than i n the presence of others. High scorers on t h i s factor also experienced increased stress or periods of depression. C e r t a i n l y , running for SOLITUDE appears a reasonable strategy in a s s i s t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s i n the i r attempts to temporarily escape d a i l y pressures or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . Awareness of the re l a t i o n s h i p between Health events and i n i t i a t i n g an exercise program for SOLITUDE may be of importance to health professionals counselling adults wanting to modify behaviour. PERSONAL CHALLENGE Table 17 shows the two v a r i a b l e s t h a t entered the PERSONAL CHALLENGE equation. The most powerful separate e f f e c t was having experienced S o c i a l events (beta=.32). The s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the So c i a l Event variable and PERSONAL CHALLENGE buttresses the construct v a l i d a t i o n of t h i s f a c t o r . Individuals having experienced a d e f i c i t in their s o c i a l interactions were more l i k e l y to begin running to make new acquaintances or increase th e i r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s than are TABLE 17 Mu l t i v a r i a t e Predictors of I n i t i a l Reasons for Running Scale Scores PERSONAL CHALLENGE Scores Variable X S.D. Mult i p l e Simple Beta F - r a t i o r r ( f i n a l ) (at entry) S o c i a l events 2.91 2.22 .32 .32 .37 23.08 Sex 1.55 .50 .37 -.10 -.20 16.22 I.. • . those having experienced g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . In view of the fact that adults are purported to be problem oriented (see Knowles, 1980), and are motivated to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the learning of new behaviours for reasons consistent with t h e i r l i f e - s p a c e (see Boshier, 1980), i t was not surprising to find that i n d i v i d u a l s d i s s a t i s f i e d with th e i r present s o c i a l "condition" often began running for PERSONAL CHALLENGE. The influence of a new fr i e n d or p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a new s o c i a l group or recre a t i o n a l program may " t r i g g e r " an adult's decision to change or adopt a new behaviour. It seems reasonable that some in d i v i d u a l s become motivated to run because of a newly developed i n t e r e s t or c u r i o s i t y i n running fostered by a " s i g n i f i c a n t other" or "others." Table 17 also shows that males were more l i k e l y to begin running for PERSONAL CHALLENGE reasons than were females. Had a more l i b e r a l c r i t e r i o n been adopted the next three v a r i a b l e s t o enter the PERSONAL CHALLENGE e q u a t i o n would have been MOVIE influence, education, and MEDIA influences. However, after step two (sex) none of the remaining variables had a p a r t i a l r greater than .13. 96 SOCIALIZATION Two variables generated a multiple r of .33 f o r SOCIALIZATION scores. The amount of variance explained on t h i s factor was the lowest of the six f a c t o r s . Table 18 shows the v a r i a b l e s , t h e i r simple r ' s , and beta weights. Individuals with the highest SOCIALIZATION scores were more influenced by movies featuring running and had experienced more f i n a n c i a l events than those with lower scores on t h i s f a c t o r . This finding suggests that through the media of t e l e v i s i o n and motion p i c t u r e s , many adults have become aware of the image and s o c i a l status associated with running. In view of the fact that only about 11 percent of the variance i n SOCIALIZATION was explained by the two v a r i a b l e s that entered the equation, their e f f e c t s should not be exaggerated. Had a more l i b e r a l c r i t e r i o n been adopted, the next variable to enter the SOCIALIZATION equation would have been the influence of a model. PREVENTION Table 19 shows the c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s most c l o s e l y associated with PREVENTION scores. It i s important to remember that t h i s t a b l e i n d i c a t e s how v a r i a b l e c l u s t e r s and i n t e r a c t i o n s were associated with PREVENTION scores. Having regard to the coding system and the sign i n front of each beta weight, Table 19 shows that adults with the highest PREVENTION scores were more i n c l i n e d than those with low (PREVENTION) scores to have experienced health events, to be older, to have been influenced by the media, to have experienced fewer work events and to be male. The most powerful single e f f e c t was having experienced health events prior 97 TABLE 18 Mu l t i v a r i a t e Predictors of I n i t i a l Reasons for Running Scale Scores SOCIALIZATION Scores Variable X S.D. Multiple Simple Beta F - r a t i o r r (f i n a l ) (at entry) Movie Influence 3.29 1.64 .24 .24 .25 12.85 Finance Events 1.12 1.30 .33 .22 .22 12.25 TABLE 19 Mu l t i v a r i a t e Predictors of I n i t i a l Reasons for Running Scale Scores PREVENTION Scores Variable X S.D. Multiple Simple Beta F - r a t i o r r ( f i n a l ) (at entry) Health Events 6.20 2.66 Age 34.43 10.08 Media Influence 9.80 3.50 Work Events 1.78 1.92 Sex 1.55 .50 .38 .48 .51 .53 .56 .38 .33 .20 -.06 -.18 .37 .26 .21 .20 .18 34.70 29.89 23.80 19.97 18.38 98 to running (beta=.38) . The meaning of this relationship is reasonably clear and contributes to the construct validity of this factor. It would appear that individuals becoming aware of decreased health and fitness through aging or l i f e s t y l e related factors may be motivated to begin running in an attempt to prevent unnecessary illness or premature death. As a result of increased awareness and interest in the relationship between l i f e s t y l e and health status, many adults are motivated to take more responsibility for their own health. With regard to PREVENTION, i t is also pertinent to note the influence of media as one of the variables in the equation. Many adults report that they f i r s t became aware of the relationship between regular physical activity and the prevention of "hypokinetic disease" through various media channels. REMEDIAL The three variables listed in Table 20 generated a multiple r of .39 for REMEDIAL scores. Although the combination of variables shown explained only 16 percent of the variance, the meaning of this equation was reasonably clear and contributed to the construct validity of the factor. Adults with the highest REMEDIAL scores had experienced more health events prior to running, were in the higher trained occupations, and were more li k e l y to be male than female than those with lower REMEDIAL scores. Individuals scoring high on this factor were motivated to begin running on the advice of a health professional. Running was recommended as an activity which would f a c i l i t a t e the control and management of a specific health problem such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, or chronic low back pain. 99 TABLE 20 Mu l t i v a r i a t e Predictors of I n i t i a l Reasons for Running Scale Scores REMEDIAL Scores Variable X S.D. Multiple r Simple r Beta (fi n a l ) F - r a t i o (at entry) Health Events 6.20 2.66 .33 .33 .36 25.00 Occupation 2.14 1 .26 .37 .13 .16 16.03 Sex 1.55 .50 .39 -.12 -.14 12.36 Having experienced f i n a n c i a l events p r i o r to beginning to run would have been the next v a r i a b l e into the REMEDIAL equation had a more l i b e r a l c r i t e r i o n for entry been adopted. HEALTH Table 21 shows the two variables that entered the HEALTH equation. As in the other two health related f a c t o r s , PREVENTION and REMEDIAL, the most powerful separate e f f e c t was having experienced health events p r i o r to running. It appears that some ind i v i d u a l s in r e l a t i v e l y good health are motivated to m a i n t a i n or improve t h e i r h e a l t h or appearance following the experience of an aging or health related event. Rather than being d e f i c i e n c y motivated, i n which behavioural change represents an attempt to "lessen the gap" between present and desired future health status, some i n d i v i d u a l s appear "growth" motivated and s t r i v e to a t t a i n optimal health or f i t n e s s status and maximum personal f u l f i l l m e n t . Adults scoring high on the HEALTH factor are also more l i k e l y to have experienced numerous work events than are those having lower scores i n t h i s v a r i a b l e . Had a more l i b e r a l c r i t e r i o n for entry into the equation been adopted the next four variables to enter would have been 100 TABLE 21 Mu l t i v a r i a t e Predictors of I n i t i a l Reasons for Running Scales Scores HEALTH Scores Variable X S.D. Multiple Simple Beta F - r a t i o r r ( f i n a l ) (at entry) Health Events 6.20 2.66 .33 .33 .30 24.61 Work Events 1.78 1.92 .36 .21 .14 14.62 Death event, Media i n f l u e n c e , P a r t i c i p a c t i o n i n f l u e n c e , and education. Thus, in d i v i d u a l s with the highest HEALTH scores were more i n c l i n e d than those with lower (HEALTH) scores to not have experienced the loss through death of someone "close," to have been influenced by the media and P a r t i c i p a c t i o n f i t n e s s promotion, and to have completed more formal education. 101 CHAPTER TEN CONCLUSIONS The I n i t i a l Reasons For Running Scale It was concluded t h a t the IRFRS i s psychometr i c a l l y and psychologically sound and may be useful for application in other f i t n e s s and r e c r e a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . The items were i n d u c t i v e l y d e r i v e d , represent major "orientations" that impel adults into s e l f - d i r e c t e d running programs, and appear r e l e v a n t f o r both sexes. The s i x f a c t o r s — S O L I T U D E , PERSONAL CHALLENGE, SOCIALIZATION, PREVENTION, REMEDIAL, and HEALTH—all measured factors which explained why adults beg in to r un. The solution used to generate the six factors was psychometrically s a t i s f y i n g . Items incorporated into Factor I had loadings that ranged from .46 to .83; i n Factor II loadings ranged from .43 to .81; i n Factor III they ranged from .53 to .72; in Factor IV from .55 to .74; in Factor V from .42 to .70; and in Factor VI from .45 to .67. The solution was pure as no item had a high loading on more than one f a c t o r . The factors were i n t e r n a l l y consistent and easy to i n t e r p r e t . Together the six factors accounted for 52.13 percent of the t o t a l variance. I n d i v i d u a l l y , Factor I accounted for 20.23 percent of the variance, Factor II 8.37 percent, Factor III 7.54 percent, Factor IV 7.26 percent, Factor V 4.46 percent, and Factor VI 4.28 percent. Factors IV, V, and VI are a l l concerned with physical health motives and i f their scores were considered together, they would y i e l d a t o t a l of 16.00. In t h i s view the two most s i g n i f i c a n t motivational 102 orientations of adult runners are the psychological f a c t o r , SOLITUDE, explaining 20.23 percent of variance and the physical health factors explaining 16.00 percent of the variance. Relationships between IRFRS Scores and P a r t i c i p a n t Variables After examining a v a r i e t y of conceptual approaches to the "reasons for beginning running" problem i t was decided that, i n t h i s i n i t i a l study, the focus would be on p a r t i c i p a n t variables as predictors of motives for beginning to run. It was considered e s s e n t i a l to understand what "motivates" adults to begin running, and variables associated with m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , i n order t o a s s i s t a d u l t s i n t h e i r s e l f - d i r e c t e d attempts to modify exercise or health behaviours. By i d e n t i f y i n g and examining p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and antecedent experiences i t was hypothesized that behavioural consequences might be predicted. That i s , in order to understand why an i n d i v i d u a l began to run at a s p e c i f i c time in the l i f e c y c l e , one must consider p a r t i c i p a n t v a r i a b l e s which "p r e c i p i t a t e d " the adoption of t h i s new behaviour. Table 22 shows IRFRS factors and pa r t i c i p a n t v a r i a b l e s that entered regression equations generated for each f a c t o r . Recall that the same personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , l i f e events, and external influences were e l i g i b l e t o enter each e q u a t i o n . Thus, o f the four p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v a r i a b l e s (sex, age, e t c . ) , three were e l i g i b l e to enter the SOLITUDE, PERSONAL CHALLENGE, SOCIALIZATION, PREVENTION, REMEDIAL, and HEALTH equations. Variables were entered i n a stepwise fashion u n t i l l e s s than f i v e percent of the variance was being accounted f o r . When examining Table 22 i t must be remembered that the va r i a b l e s l i s t e d each accounted for variance i n IRFRS scores when combined with other TABLE 22 Type of Variables Entering Regression Equations to Predict I n i t i a l Reasons for Running Scale Score Solitude II Personal Challenge III S o c i a l - i z a t i o n IV Prevention V Remedial VI Health I. Personal C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Total = 4) (No. e l i g i b l e = 3) Sex Sex Age Sex Occupation I I . L i f e Events (Total = 8) Health Events Social Events Social Events Finance Events Health Events Work Events Health Events Health Events Work Events I I I . External Influences Movie Influences Media Influences o 104 variables already i n , or about to enter a regression equation. Thus, they were not l i s t e d i n t h i s table because they had a "separate" e f f e c t on IRFRS scores (such as revealed through a simple r or F-ratio) but because they c o n t r i b u t e d to the combined e f f e c t o f a group o f independent v a r i a b l e s . Their separate contribution i s indicated in the beta weights shown in tables containing s t a t i s t i c s r e l a t e d to each of the regression equations. The e l i g i b l e personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v a r i a b l e s were sex, age, and occupation. The e l i g i b l e l i f e events v a r i a b l e s were Health events, S o c i a l events, Finance events, and Work events. The e l i g i b l e external influences were MOVIE influence and MEDIA influence. Two s i g n i f i c a n t conclusions arose from Table 22. The f i r s t concerned the consistent influence of l i f e event variables on IRFRS scores. Having experienced s p e c i f i c l i f e events prior to beginning running was the only v a r i a b l e to meet the c r i t e r i o n for entry into each regression equation. This was an important finding as i t supports the findings of previous studies which indicate a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p between the experiencing of antecedent developmental changes during adulthood and the adoption of new behaviour as a response (Lowenthal et a l . , 1975; Levinson, 1978; Aslanian & B r i c k e l l , 1980). From another perspective, the s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between Total L i f e Event score and reasons for beginning to run, supports the use of scales such as the S o c i a l Readjustment Scale devised by Holmes and Rahe (1974) which employ a quantitative t o t a l l i f e stress score rather than attempting to provide a q u a l i t a t i v e l i f e s t r e s s score which i n d i c a t e s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s perception of a s p e c i f i c s t r e s s f u l event. 105 This finding also supports the t h e o r e t i c a l framework of t h i s s t u d y — t h a t the reasons why adults begin to run are related to the configuration of events experienced by i n d i v i d u a l s p r i o r to running. Health events were e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . It was the most powerful p r e d i c t o r of SOLITUDE (beta=.35), PREVENTION (beta=.37), REMEDIAL (beta=.36), and HEALTH (beta=.30) . On each of the factors the beta weights were p o s i t i v e ; thus, i n d i v i d u a l s having experienced health events had a higher score on the factor than did those not having experienced health events. L i f e event v a r i a b l e s were also s i g n i f i c a n t in the two factors in which health events was not a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r . S o c i a l events was the most powerful predictor of PERSONAL CHALLENGE (beta=.37) and finance events was a powerful predictor of SOCIALIZATION (beta=.22) . The second conclusion stemming from Table 22 i s that personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and external influences were not p a r t i c u l a r l y powerful predictors of motives for beginning to run. E s p e c i a l l y noteworthy are the r e l a t i v e l y weak re l a t i o n s h i p s between sex and age and IRFRS f a c t o r s . Sex did not meet the c r i t e r i o n for entry into SOLITUDE, SOCIALIZATION, and HEALTH. It was, however, a moderately powerful predictor of PERSONAL CHALLENGE (beta=-.20), PREVENTION (beta=-.18), and REMEDIAL (beta=-.14) . Thus, males scored higher on these factors than d i d females. When examined as a predictor of IRFRS scores, age f a i l e d to meet the e n t r y c r i t e r i o n f o r SOLITUDE, PERSONAL CHALLENGE, SOCIALIZATION, REMEDIAL, and HEALTH. However, i t was a moderately powerful predictor of PREVENTION (beta=.26) indica t i n g that older adults had higher scores on PREVENTION than did younger adults. 106 The variables composing the SOLITUDE equation reached a multiple r of .45. As shown i n Table 16, Health events and Social events explained 20.25 percent of the variance in t h i s f a c t o r . Note the absence of any p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s v a r i a b l e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between SOLITUDE and s p e c i f i c l i f e events appear to support the a - p r i o r i assumption held by many f i t n e s s leaders that many adults begin i n d i v i d u a l i z e d or s o l i t a r y f i t n e s s programs i n response to upsetting events or c r i s e s . That i s , the time period required to complete a run provides the i n d i v i d u a l solitude or escape from the boredom of d a i l y routine or unexpected worry. For some, running may provide relaxation and for others i t may serve as the time period when one sorts out personal problems or contemplates future d e c i s i o n s . With regard to PERSONAL CHALLENGE, the best predictors were S o c i a l events (beta=.37) and sex (beta=-.20). Thus, one p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v a r i a b l e and one l i f e events v a r i a b l e entered the e q u a t i o n . E x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s v a r i a b l e s were poor p r e d i c t o r s of PERSONAL CHALLENGE. The multiple r for t h i s factor was .37 (13.69 percent of the variance explained). SOCIALIZATION departed from the pattern that emerged i n the other equations in that i t s best predictor was not a l i f e event v a r i a b l e . The most powerful separate e f f e c t on SOCIALIZATION was MOVIE influence (beta=.25). However, Finance events (beta=.22) was the next best p r e d i c t o r . Note the absence of a l l personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v a r i a b l e s . The multiple r for SOCIALIZATION was .33 explaining 10.89 percent of the variance. 107 Table 19 shows the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of v a r i a b l e s composing the PREVENTION equation. The variables reached a multiple r of .56 and explained 31.36 percent of the variance. The most powerful contribution stemmed from H e a l t h events s c o r e s (beta=.37). Other s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s o f PREVENTION were age (beta=.26), MEDIA i n f l u e n c e s (beta=.21), Work events (beta=-.20), and sex (beta=-.18). Researchers have recently examined the i n t e r a c t i o n between health behaviour change and mass media management i n terms of the stages that are required to move the target population from i n i t i a l awareness o f , and i n t e r e s t i n , the problem to the adoption and maintenance of the advocated attitudes or behaviour (see Davidson & Davidson, 1980) . By p r o v i d i n g r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n and an i n i t i a l model, the media f a c i l i t a t e s the m o d i f i c a t i o n o f e x e r c i s e b e h a v i o u r . Thus, by "self-cueing" an i n d i v i d u a l may begin an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d running program in an attempt to prevent i l l n e s s or premature aging. It i s often reported that one of the most common events t r i g g e r i n g the decision to i n i t i a t e a new exercise behaviour in order to prevent the loss of physical f i t n e s s i s the r e a l i z a t i o n that one i s aging (see Aslanian & B r i c k e l l , 1982). Often associated with t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n i s the awareness that poor l i f e s t y l e habits that had l i t t l e e f f e c t on one's energy and appearance at a younger age are taking their t o l l at an older age. The association between aging and PREVENTION becomes even more pertinent as the population ages and more adults engage in regular physical a c t i v i t y i n an attempt to prevent l i f e s t y l e r elated health problems. It was no surprise to fin d that males were more l i k e l y to begin running for PREVENTION motives than were females. The greater incidence 108 of heart disease and earlier mortality rates of males in our society challenge males to init i a t e action to prevent premature death and lif e s t y l e related illness. As indicated, two of the variables in this equation were l i f e events variables, two were personal characteristics variables, and one was an external influences variable. The best predictors for REMEDIAL were Health events (beta=.36), occupation (beta=.16), and sex (beta=-.14). The multiple r was .39 (15.21 percent of the variance explained). A l l external influences variables failed to meet the entry criterion for the equation. The most powerful contributions to the HEALTH equation were Health events (beta=.30) and Work events (beta=.14). Note that no personal characteristics or external influences variables entered the equation. The multiple r for HEALTH was .36 indicating that 12.96 of the variance had been accounted for. The regression equations explained 20.25 percent of the SOLITUDE variance, 13.69 percent of the variance in PERSONAL CHALLENGE, 10.89 percent of variance in SOCIALIZATION, 31.36 percent of the variance in PREVENTION, 15.21 percent of the variance in REMEDIAL, and 12.96 percent of the variance in HEALTH. Some of these regression equations were of great theoretical interest but even for the PREVENTION factor, 69 percent of the variance was unexplained. Had the criterion for entry into this and the other equations been lowered, more variance could have been explained. However, each of the new variables would explain only miniscule amount of variance in IRFRS scores. Thus, i t was concluded that, while on most factors having experienced l i f e events prior to running appears to be more related to reasons for beginning to run than 109 other types of v a r i a b l e s , m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s were l a r g e l y independent of the variables studied here. This r e p l i c a t e d the dominant f i n d i n g i n the g e n e r a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e (see Boshier & C o l l i n s , 1982). Relationships between Sex-Cohort Groups and IRFRS Scores In order to further examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the sex and age of an i n d i v i d u a l and reasons for beginning to run, a two-way analysis of variance was performed. Each factor was analyzed to show r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s p e c i f i c sex-cohort groups and motives f o r beginning running. I n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s appeared between the combined re s u l t s of age and sex in the t o t a l populations of 93 males and 112 females and the r e s u l t s i n s p e c i f i c sex-cohort groups. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the associations between sex and age and IRFRS scores i s indicated by the p l e v e l s shown i n tables containing s t a t i s t i c s r e l a t e d to the two-way analyses of variance. In several instances, important differences appeared i n the two-way analysis of variance between t o t a l populations of males and females and s p e c i f i c sex-cohort groups. That i s , on some f a c t o r s , s i g n i f i c a n t sex-cohort d i s t i n c t i o n s which were not evident in the i n i t i a l two-way interactions became obvious when adults of the same sex were divided into cohort groups and their scores compared. For instance, a two-way in t e r a c t i o n between sex and age and SOLITUDE yielded non-significant r e s u l t s . However, as indicated in Figure 10, SOLITUDE was shown to be a much stronger motivator to begin running i n males than i n females during the ages 35-45. SOLITUDE scores were also noticeably higher in males than females in the 46 and older cohort group. 110 With regard to PERSONAL CHALLENGE, sex (p<.06) and age (p<.04) were s i g n i f i c a n t l y related when considered i n d i v i d u a l l y . However, i n a two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e the combined r e l a t i o n s h i p was n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . Figure 11 shows that although males and females scored s i m i l a r l y i n most stages of the l i f e c y c l e , an important d i s t i n c t i o n appeared in the 29-34 cohort groups. Males were shown to be much more l i k e l y to begin running for PERSONAL CHALLENGE motives than were females during t h i s s p e c i f i c stage of development. When examined separately the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex and age and SOCIALIZATION were no n - s i g n i f i c a n t . However, as shown i n Table 12, the two-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p (p<.02). Thus, an i n t e r a c t i o n between sex and age occurred r e s u l t i n g i n important differences regarding males and females of d i f f e r i n g ages beginning to run for SOCIALIZATION motives. Figure 12 i l l u s t r a t e s higher SOCIALIZATION scores for males than females during ages 3 5-45. Also, SOCIALIZATION increased in importance in females in the 46 and older cohort group, while i t declined i n males during the same age period. The strongest r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex and age and motives for beginning running appeared i n PREVENTION. In d i v i d u a l l y , sex (p<.05) and age (p<.001) were both s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to t h i s f a c t o r . The r e s u l t s of the two-way analysis of variance shown in Figure 13 also i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex-cohort groups and PREVENTION. Males were shown to be more l i k e l y to begin running for PREVENTION than were females. Also, older adults scored higher on t h i s factor than d i d younger adults. Considering sex-cohort d i f f e r e n c e s (p<.05), male scores increased dramatically during ages 29-34, while 111 females showed a similar increase during ages 35-45. PREVENTION scores also increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y in males in the 46+ cohort group while they remained stable in females. The dramatic increases i n PREVENTION scores found i n the 29-34 and 46+ age groups i s of importance to those providing education or remediation for adults. These stages of development may represent "teachable moments" when male adults might be most receptive to programs promoting the learning of new health or exercise behaviours. Table 14 shows that both separate and in t e r a c t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex and age and REMEDIAL were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Although males were shown to be s l i g h t l y more i n c l i n e d to begin running for REMEDIAL reasons than were females, sex and age were not strongly associated with begining to run for REMEDIAL reasons. Likewise, sex and age were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to HEALTH. That i s , males and females of a l l ages are equally l i k e l y to begin running for HEALTH motives. The absence of sex differences may r e f l e c t the more active p h y s i c a l role assumed by females in our society during the past decade. U n t i l r e l a t i v e l y recently women have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been denied the s o c i a l approval to engage in strenuous f i t n e s s a c t i v i t i e s . Cratty (1983) suggests that increased female p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n sport and f i t n e s s i s la r g e l y due to a v a r i e t y of s o c i o c u l t u r a l conditions which have provided new " a c t i v e " female role models and p o s i t i v e reinforcement for a t h l e t i c females. C e r t a i n l y more women are p r e s e n t l y observed a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n exercise programs. I t was concluded from r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s t h a t sex was s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to PERSONAL CHALLENGE, sex and age were rel a t e d 112 significantly to PREVENTION, and sex was significantly related to REMEDIAL. Hence, the variables sex and age were important predictors of particular motives for beginning to run. Two-way analysis of variance indicated significant differences between specific sex-cohort groups and factor scores. Unlike the findings from multivariate analysis, however, two-way interaction findings simply represent association rather than significant correlation. Thus sex-cohort differences assist in our understanding of adult motives rather than in our prediction of adult motives. Although some factors were s i g n i f i c a n t l y associated with sociopsychological variables, most variance in participant motivation was unexplained. Motivational orientations that impel adults to begin running are not redundant measures of something else. The IRFRS appears to measure psychologically distinct variables largely unrelated to other variables habitually used in this type of research. In this study the result was particularly significant because an inductive approach was employed and, as a consequence, numerous independent variables were examined. For the author of the IRFRS i t was satisfying to know that the instrument measures "clean" factors that are not redundant or overlaping manifestations of some other variable. But, the inability to explain a larger amount of variance in IRFRS scores leaves open many questions concerning why adults initiate a running program. Theoretical Considerations The results suggest that reasons for beginning to run were partially related to individual, environment, and l i f e event variables. Support for this perspective is provided by Hultsch and Deutsch (1981) 113 who suggest that research into adult development should focus on the phenomena of i n t r a i n d i v i d u a l changes in behaviour. They emphasize that emphasis be placed on behaviour change processes which involve the i n t e r a c t i o n of many ant e c e d e n t s . In order to understand a d u l t behavioural change one must be sen s i t i v e to the timing and sequencing of events over the l i f e span of each i n d i v i d u a l . From t h i s perspective, l i f e events and external influences do not have uniform meaning or s i g n i f i c a n c e . When an event occurs or an external influence i s evident i s as important as whether i t occurs at a l l . Age and sex were generally poor predictors of reasons for beginning to run. The s i t u a t i o n was portrayed i n Table 22. When a l l available personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , l i f e event, and external influence v a r i a b l e s were entered into regression equations to predict IRFRS scores, the e f f e c t s of sex and age were l a r g e l y masked by or buried in l i f e event v a r i a b l e s . The best predictors of running for SOLITUDE were Health and Social events. Neither sex nor age met the c r i t e r i a for entry into the equation. Sex, but not age, entered the PERSONAL CHALLENGE equation i n conjunction with Social events. Running for SOCIALIZATION was best explained by Finance events and MOVIE influences. When competing with l i f e events and external influences, sex and age f a i l e d to meet the c r i t e r i a for entry into the equation. Sex did enter the REMEDIAL equation, in conjunction with Occupation and Health events. Neither sex nor age accounted for s i g n i f i c a n t amounts of variance i n running for HEALTH where Health events and Work events were the best p r e d i c t o r s . Only the PREVENTION equation incorporated both age and sex which entered in conjunction with Health events, Work events, and MEDIA influence. 114 Thus, the most important conclusion concerns the influence of age and sex. With the exception of PREVENTION, age and sex appear to be less powerful predictors of reasons for running than were l i f e events. Age and sex per se, were not good p r e d i c t o r s . In other words, i t i s the past experience of runners (Health event, Work event, etc.) rather than the i r age or sex, that i s most l i k e l y to "explain" t h e i r reasons for s t a r t i n g a running program. People have reasons for running but, with the exceptions noted above, they have l i t t l e to do with t h e i r age or sex. Thus, a "behavioural" rather than a t r a d i t i o n a l "developmental" perspective appears to y i e l d the greatest explanatory power. Although the regression equations did not explain massive amounts of variance in the "reasons," t h i s conclusion has t h e o r e t i c a l implications. Antecedent events p r o b a b l y " t r i g g e r " or s t i m u l a t e b e h a v i o u r a l change. Whether i n t e r n a l or external, normative or i d i o s y n c r a t i c , one or more triggering s t i m u l i are usually responsible for the timing of the i n i t i a t i o n of new behaviours. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the l i f e events i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study supports the n o t i o n t h a t i n t e n t i o n a l behavioural change i s the response to antecedent events. Individuals began running at a s p e c i f i c time in their l i v e s because of an event or sequence of events they experienced prior to th e i r decision to begin. The adult may or may not be conscious of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a r t i n g to run and t r i g g e r i n g event(s) . In some s i t u a t i o n s the adult may not be able to explain why he or she started running. On several occasions, subjects in the present study indicated that they had "never put the pieces together" u n t i l they completed the questionnaire. That i s , they either never consciously considered their reasons for beginning running or they were never able to c l e a r l y explain t h e i r motives. 115 However, once they focused onto l i f e events they had experienced p r i o r to running, nebulous r e l a t i o n s h i p s became c l e a r . Although antecedent l i f e experiences were the best predictors of reasons for beginning to run, a l l subjects were affected to various degrees by external influences. M u l t s are constantly bombarded by messages or ideas transmitted through various media. Some messages have an immediate impact; others tend to be "chronic." They develop i n s i d i o u s l y and are not acknowledged u n t i l r e l a t i v e l y well established. In contemporary Canadian society, the d e l i v e r y of f i t n e s s messages c o n t i n u e s and new methods of p r e s e n t a t i o n appear r e g u l a r l y . As indicated from the r e s u l t s of t h i s study, the most reported external influence was seeing adults your own age or older running i n the community. Whether aware or not, many adults are influenced by models with whom they i d e n t i f y . Some adults can i d e n t i f y one i n d i v i d u a l who inspired them to begin running, others indicate that i t was the continual observation of others " l i k e themselves" running that "got them started." As indicated in the r e s u l t s , men usually did not begin running for d i f f e r e n t reasons than women. For the most part sex was a poor predictor of reasons for beginning to run. Apart from factors in which p h y s i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes were s i g n i f i c a n t (PREVENTION, REMEDIAL) or l e v e l of performance was considered (PERSONAL CHALLENGE), males and females appeared similar regarding motives for running. The weak r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex and motivational o r i e n t a t i o n has recently been shown in an analysis of 12,592 adults (Boshier, 1984). In t h i s study, age was a better predictor of motivational o r i e n t a t i o n s than sex but both were considered too weak as predictors to design 116 s p e c i f i c learning programs based on sex and age d i f f e r e n c e s . As Boshier (1984) noted: The data appears to pose problems for program planning theory which assumes that men or women, young or old people are d i f f e r e n t l y motivated. . . . Quite simply, people who want s o c i a l contact simply want s o c i a l contact. That i s why they have enrolled; i t has l i t t l e to do with sex or th e i r place i n the l i f e c y c l e . . . . The erosion of sex di f f e r e n c e s and the widespread r e j e c t i o n of the notion that older adults should g r a c e f u l l y "disengage" from society are small parts of much larger and profound changes shaping the character of l i f e i n the l a s t part of t h i s century. (p. 12) The increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n exercise and sport by females and older adults during the past decade substantiates the broadening of roles and expectations for these two segments of the population. During the data c o l l e c t i o n phase of t h i s study i t became apparent that there were more female than male r e c r e a t i o n a l runners i n the locati o n s under observation. Also of interest were those adults who indicated that they did not begin running u n t i l 50 years of age or older. Apart from the PREVENTION fac t o r , age was not a s i g n i f i c a n t predictor of any of the other motivational o r i e n t a t i o n s . As suggested by B a l t e s and W i l l i s (1977), t r a d i t i o n a l views o f a t t r i b u t i n g behavioural change to age are misleading. As indicated by the r e s u l t s of t h i s study some behaviours are indeed r e l a t e d to age, but c h r o n o l o g i c a l age would be c o n s i d e r e d p r i m a r i l y as a d e s c r i p t i v e v a r i a b l e . Although sex/age interactions were not s i g n i f i c a n t for most f a c t o r s , the unexpected d i s t i n c t i o n i n scores which appeared between s p e c i f i c sex-cohort groups i s of t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r e s t . It appears that sex-cohort differences must be considered when examining behaviours such as reasons for running in which between-cohort differences e x h i b i t a high c o r r e l a t i o n with variables that change with time. For instance, females in the 46 and older cohort group may be le s s l i k e l y to begin 117 running for PERSONAL CHALLENGE than are adults in other cohort groups because of s o c i a l - h i s t o r i c a l events which only they experienced or were i n f l u e n c e d by. Previous more r e s t r i c t i v e r o l e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s c e r t a i n l y might be a factor i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . Conversely, males in the 29-34 age group may be more l i k e l y to have begun running for SOLITUDE reasons than adults i n other cohort groups because of the p a r t i c u l a r roles and expectations which are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s s p e c i f i c stage of the l i f e c y c l e . Perhaps more 29-34 year old males run for SOLITUDE because they are the f i r s t representatives of that s p e c i f i c sex-cohort group to be exposed to the running "movement" and the claims made regarding stress reduction. As one 33 year old dentist answered, when asked why he began running: "I j u s t happened to h i s t o r i c a l l y be at the r i g h t spot at the righ t time." If future investigations f i n d similar sex-cohort d i s t i n c t i o n s , i t would confirm that i n spite of the r e l a t i v e i n s i g n i f i c a n c e of age and sex as predictors of motivational o r i e n t a t i o n s , the i n t e r a c t i o n of sex and age has relevance during s p e c i f i c stages of the l i f e c y c l e . A t h e o r e t i c a l explanation of why adults begin running must consider four components or forces. F i r s t , are the motivational o r i e n t a t i o n s . As shown in t h i s study, the reasons why adults begin to run can be divided into six f a c t o r s : SOLITUDE, PERSONAL CHALLENGE, SOCIALIZATION, PREVENTION, REMEDIAL, and HEALTH. These factors represent the three major areas suggested prior to the study; p h y s i o l o g i c a l , psychological and s o c i a l . The second component of t h i s theory i s the experience of antecedent l i f e events. For purposes of t h i s study, only events experienced w i t h i n the f i v e year p e r i o d p r i o r t o running were considered. Obviously, events occurring e a r l i e r than t h i s time frame 118 could s t i l l be relevant to the adult's decision to begin running. As indicated e a r l i e r i n the study, neither the magnitude of the event nor the i n d i v i d u a l ' s perception of the event i s a more useful measure of l i f e event s i g n i f i c a n c e than simply the recording of the type and number of l i f e events experienced. The number and type of events experienced were c l o s e l y related to the reasons why one began running. The t h i r d consideration in providing a theory of reasons for beginning running are the external influences, which i n conjunction with l i f e events, encourage or stimulate the i n d i v i d u a l to i n i t i a t e change. For purposes of t h i s study, external influences were selected to represent examples of major i d e n t i f i a b l e "forces" which d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y made adults aware of running. The f i n a l component of t h i s theory i s the change in behaviour—the adult s t a r t s a running program. Beginning to run i s interpreted as a consequence to antecedent l i f e experiences, external influences, and one's genetic makeup. Depending on reinforcement patterns, the adult w i l l adhere to the running program or drop out. Although t h i s study o n l y i n v e s t i g a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n a s e l f - p l a n n e d running program, i t would be of interest and importance to examine r e l a t i o n s h i p s between reasons for beginning running and adherence or drop-out. Do adults who begin running for s p e c i f i c reasons have a greater tendency to continue running or drop-out than those who began running for other motives? 119 CHAPTER ELEVEN FUTURE RESEARCH Insight into adult motives for modifying an exercise or health behaviour should benefit p r o f e s s i o n a l s , p o l i c y makers, and academics i n several f i e l d s concerned with adult development: health, recreation, l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g , c o u n s e l i n g and p e r s o n a l growth, and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n d i v i d u a l , external influences, l i f e events, and reasons for beginning to run w i l l not only a s s i s t in the understanding of why adults v o l u n t a r i l y i n i t i a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h e i r exercise behaviour but w i l l also provide important information for those occupations which attempt to foster and f a c i l i t a t e the adoption of new behaviours. Realizing the extent and importance of adult i n t e n t i o n a l changes regarding exercise or health behaviours, professional p r a c t i t i o n e r s can play an important role in promoting b e n e f i c i a l and e f f e c t i v e changes. Tough (1982) suggests seven p o t e n t i a l d i r e c t i o n s in which i n t e n t i o n a l changes can be f a c i l i t a t e d : 1. improve i n d i v i d u a l competence i n managing change 2. develop better help with goals and planning 3. increase information about opportunities and resources 4. reduce undue r e s t r i c t i o n s on freedom of choice 5. widen the range of opportunities and resources 6. improve ongoing support from nonprofessionals 7. improve the effectiveness of professional helpers, (p. 77) E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and adoption of new s t r a t e g i e s i n the above mentioned p o t e n t i a l d i r e c t i o n s are future challenges for health and exercise leaders in their e f f o r t s to promote and f a c i l i t a t e behavioural 120 change. The possible benefits of providing assistance and competence to a d u l t s having d i f f i c u l t y i n i n i t i a t i n g or m a i n t a i n i n g i n t e n t i o n a l changes could be far-reaching. Awareness and appreciation of the adult's a b i l i t y to achieve remarkable changes in themselves and their l i v e s provide a personal as well as professional i n t e r e s t . The examination of one's own reasons for changing behaviours can be fascinating and enlightening. As one gains greater insight into motives for previous changes i n exercise or health behaviours, one may more e f f e c t i v e l y select and achieve future changes. Suggestions for Future Research As t h i s was the i n i t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of reasons why adults began to run i t i s important that the study be r e p l i c a t e d so as to compare the r e s u l t s of d i f f e r e n t populations and determine the r e l i a b i l i t y of the fin d i n g s . It would be of interest to examine the consistency of the factors describing reasons for beginning to run and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the reasons and the independent v a r i a b l e s . Determination of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the sex-cohort differences found in the present study would be of sp e c i a l i n t e r e s t . It i s important that the IRFRS, and LES, and the EIS be employed on other populations so that scores from various groups can be compared and norms developed. Future research might consider modification of the instruments to accommodate studies of d i f f e r e n t e x e r c i s e or h e a l t h r e l a t e d behaviours or s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t populations. Future i n v e s t i g a t i o n s should be performed i n other r e g i o n s , subcultures, and countries. As adult r e c r e a t i o n a l running has become commonplace throughout the world, i t would be most i n t e r e s t i n g to 121 compare reasons for beginning running. Do s i m i l a r patterns e x i s t regarding reasons for beginning to run in adults from Vancouver, Singapore, Sydney, Paris and Stockholm? Future research might consider comparing reasons for beginning running and reasons for continuing running. Previous i n v e s t i g a t i o n by the researcher suggests that as adults experience running, they become aware of physical and psychological consequences of running which they had not previously experienced. For instance, an i n d i v i d u a l might begin running to lose weight or improve stamina. After p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a regular running program for a s u f f i c i e n t l y long period of time one may no longer have a weight problem and stamina may have reached the desired l e v e l . Yet the person continues to run. When asked to describe the reasons why one continues to run he or she may i d e n t i f y psychological factors such as a pleasurable state of mind or a chance to be alone and r e f l e c t . Thus i t appears that adult reasons for adhering to an exercise program may d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the i n i t i a l reasons for beginning. Future investigations might examine r e l a t i o n s h i p s between reasons for beginning to run and "adherence." For example, i s an i n d i v i d u a l who began running for SOLITUDE more l i k e l y to drop out from running than an i n d i v i d u a l who began for PREVENTION? Future research might also investigate possible r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sex or the age at which the adult began running and adherence or drop-out. Future study might attempt t o determine whether t h e r e are q u a n t i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the e f f e c t or s i g n i f i c a n c e of the behavioural change in r e l a t i o n to the i n i t i a l motive. Is the impact of beginning running f o r SOCIALIZATION d i f f e r e n t i n magnitude or si g n i f i c a n c e than beginning to run for REMEDIAL? Investigations of t h i s 122 type would consider the benefit or outcome of running to the p a r t i c i p a n t and others in r e l a t i o n to reasons for beginning. Many questions exist regarding the actual tasks or stages i n the s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning of a new exercise behaviour such as running. Tough (1982) suggests t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r approximately 70 percent of the choosing, planning, and implementing of i n t e n t i o n a l changes. Future research i s required to investigate steps taken by the adult in deciding to begin running, planning a running s t r a t e g y , and f i n a l l y a c t u a l l y beginning a running program. An examination of the major resources used by the i n d i v i d u a l i n planning and i n i t i a t i n g his running program would also be important. Tough's research indicates that resources outside the i n d i v i d u a l account for approximately 30 percent of the behavioural change. The most common resource in a s e l f - d i r e c t e d program i s a nonprofessional helper such as a family member or f r i e n d . Professional help only contributes about s i x percent and nonhuman resources such as books, t e l e v i s i o n , and posters receive about three percent of the c r e d i t for helping with choosing, planning, and implementing i n t e n t i o n a l changes. Future research might examine reasons for beginning to run i n r e l a t i o n to the s p e c i f i c resources used by the adult. Because professionals have l i m i t e d c o n t r o l over many of the variables related to reasons for beginning to run i t i s e s s e n t i a l that research be performed in areas where intervention or influence i s p o s s i b l e . Further i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and examination of external influences might provide useful information concerning the management and control of the various sources of information and public education. Research into more e f f e c t i v e modelling techniques and media 123 devices may a s s i s t government and private e f f o r t s to modify adult l i f e s t y l e behaviours. As suggested in the recommendations of the Canada Fitness Survery (1983), the investigator strongly advocates that adults, e s p e c i a l l y women and the e l d e r l y , should continue to be encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e in physical recreation. Future research i s required to i d e n t i f y successful f i t n e s s p o l i c i e s and promotions and to develop innovative techniques to influence larger audiences. The fact thousands of Canadian adults of a l l ages engage in regular physical recreation should be a c e n t r a l theme of f i t n e s s promotion campaigns so as to e s t a b l i s h a c t i v i t y as the norm i n Canadian society. E f f o r t s must be made to inform the adult population of s p e c i f i c and substantiated benefits derived from a regular program of exercise. 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The adult's learning p r o j e c t s : A fresh approach to theory and p r a c t i c e i n a d u l t l e a r n i n g (2nd e d . ) . San Diego: University Associates (Learning Concepts), and Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies i n Education. Tough, A. (1982). Intentional changes. Chicago: F o l l e t t . Yiannakis, A., Mclntyre, T.D., Melnick, M.J., & Hart, D.P. (1979). Sport Sociology: Contemporary Themes. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt. Young, S. (1979). Fitness now. F i n a n c i a l Post Magazine, 9, 3-18. 128 APPENDICES APPENDIX A CODING SCHEDULE Card One Column No. 1-3 7 8-9 10 11 12 13 14-15 16 Variable I.D. number Sex Age Country of b i r t h Living arrangements Education Occupation Moved to Lower Main. Running h i s t o r y Code Male = 1 Female = 2 No. of years B.C. = 1 P r a i r i e s = 2 Ont. = 3 U.S. = 4 U.K. = 5 W. Europe = 6 E. Europe = 7 A s i a = 8 A u s t r a l i a s i a = 9 2 or more adults = 1 adult & kids = 2 1 adult = 3 Kids = 4 Alone = 5 NO formal = 1 Compl. element. = 2 Compl. gr. 10, 11 = Grade 12 = 4 Diploma = 5 Part. univ. degree Undergrad. degree = Grad. degree = 8 Prof./Tech. = 1 Manager./Admin. = 2 C l e r i c a l / S a l e s = 3 S k i l l e d = 4 Unskilled = 5 Year e.g. 1970 = 70 Before = 1 After = 2 APPENDIX A Continued CODING SCHEDULE Column No. Variable 17 Competitive during school 18 Competitive after leaving school 19-20 No. of months running 21-22 Distance run 23 Location of run 24-25 Team sports 26-27 Individual sports 28-44 External influences 01 to 17 45-79 Reasons for running 01 to 35 80 Card no. Card Two 7-21 Reasons for running 36-50 23-79 L i f e events Health 01 to death 01 80 Card no. 130 Code No. = 1 Yes = 2 No = 1 Yes = 2 Actual no. No. of miles Neighbourhood = 1 Park = 2 Track = 3 Actual no. Actual no. No = 1 Unsure = 2 Yes = 3 No influence = 1 L i t t l e influence = 2 Mod. influence = 3 Much influence = 4 1 No influence = 1 L i t t l e influence = 2 Mod. influence = 3 Much influence = 4 Not experienced = 10 Very negative = 21 Mod. negative = 22 M i l d l y negative = 23 No e f f e c t = 24 M i l d l y p o s i t i v e = 25 Mod. p o s i t i v e = 26 Very P o s i t i v e = 27 2 APPENDIX A Continued CODING SCHEDULE L i f e events Not experienced = 1 Death 02 to Work 06 Very negative = 21 Mod. negative = 22 Mi l d l y negative = 23 No e f f e c t = 24 Mild l y p o s i t i v e = 25 Mod. p o s i t i v e = 26 Very p o s i t i v e = 27 Card no. 3 L i f e events Not experienced = 1 Work 07 to Work 12 Very negative = 21 Mod. negative = 22 Mi l d l y negative = 23 No e f f e c t = 24 Mi l d l y p o s i t i v e = 25 Mod. p o s i t i v e = 26 Very p o s i t i v e = 27 Card no. 4 APPENDIX B THE QUESTIONNAIRE /3 3 U.B.C. RUNNING RESEARCH PROJECT We are interested in the influence of life events on the decision to begin running. We would like 15 minutes of your time to complete these questionnaires. We think you ' l l find the questions interesting, but please note that you can withdraw at any time. Y o u r cooperation is appreciated, all responses are confidential, and your name is not required. When did you begin running on a regular basis (ie. twice a week)? M O N T H Y E A R T w o years prior to this would have been: M O N T H Y E A R Where d id you live at this time? C I T Y / T O W N C O U N T R Y K E E P T H I S T W O Y E A R P E R I O D I N M I N D ! ! / 3f- TO WHAT EXTENT DID THESE REASONS INFLUENCE YOU TO BEGIN RUNNING? Think back to the time immediately before you began to run. Indicate the extent to which each of the reasons listed below influenced you to begin running. Circle the category which best reflects the extent to which each reason influenced you to begin running. No reason is any more or less desirable than any other. Circle one category for each reason. START HERE: 1. To improve energy level No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 2. To live longer No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 3. To escape boredom No i n f l u e n c e Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 4. To lose weight No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 5. To compete against myself No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 6. To help alleviate back pain No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 7. To help sort out problems No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 8. To help develop stamina No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 9. To satisfy curiosity regarding running No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 10. To make new acquaintances No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 11. To compensate for social drinking No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 12. To provide enjoyment No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 13. To maintain current weight No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 14. To engage in activity requiring low skill No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence I 3£T T O W H A T E X T E N T D I D T H E S E R E A S O N S I N F L U E N C E Y O U T O BEGIN R U N N I N G ? 15. To provide a quiet time No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 16. To maintain good physical health No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 1-7. T o provide relaxation No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 18. T o provide the opportunity to buy the N o Litt le Moderate M u c h " i n " clothes . influence influence influence influence 19. T o fo l low the advice of a physician N o influence Litt le influence Moderate influence M u c h influence 20. T o develop coordination N o influence Little influence Moderate influence M u c h influence 21. T o provide a personal challenge N o influence Little influence Moderate influence M u c h influence 22. T o compensate for a " b a d " nutrit ional N o Little Moderate M u c h habit influence influence influence influence 23. T o get tanned N o influence Little influence Moderate influence M u c h influence 24. T o be liked N o influence Little influence Moderate influence M u c h influence 25. T o engage in "convenient " activity N o influence Little influence Moderate influence M u c h influence 26. T o prevent premature aging N o influence Little influence Moderate influence M u c h ' influence 27. T o improve physical health N o influence Littje influence Moderate influence M u c h influence 28. T o experience the "runner 's h igh ' N o influence Litt le influence Moderate influence M u c h influence I 3& T O W H A T E X T E N T DID T H E S E R E A S O N S I N F L U E N C E Y O U T O BEGIN RUNNING? 29. To escape from routine No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 30. To help quit smoking No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 31. To gain self-confidence No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 32. To increase joint mobility No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 33. To conform to the influence of'others No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 34. To serve as transportation No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 35. To get rid of guilt No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 36. To compete against others No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 37. To provide a predictable form of exercise No Little Moderate Much influence influence influence influence 38. To improve appearance No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 39. To get social status No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 40. To prevent heart disease No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 41. To provide my own block of time No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 42. To get fit for another sport No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence T O W H A T E X T E N T D I D T H E S E R E A S O N S I N F L U E N C E Y O U T O BEGIN R U N N I N G ? 43. To be able to eat more No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 44. To provide an aesthetic experience No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 45. To help control a specific health problem No Little Moderate Much influence influence influence influence 46. To help cope with an emotional crisis No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 47. To get more "in-touch" with my body No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 48. To interact with others No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 49. To avoid confronting a problem No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence 50. To provide solitary time No influence Little influence Moderate influence Much influence L I F E E V E N T S Consider (he two year period prior to when you began to run regularly (minimum twice per week). D i d you experience any of the fol lowing events? If so, what effect did they have? A . H E A L T H 1. Gained weight N O Y E S - Very Moderately M i l d l y N o M i l d l y Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 2. Experienced traumatic health change N O ? Y E S — — Very Moderately M i l d l y N o M i l d l y Moderate ly Very (cg. heart attack, fracture, low back 1 Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Positive Positive 3. pain) Became aware of decreased fitness (eg. N O ? Y E S Very Moderately M i l d l y N o M i l d l y Moderately Very less energy, decreased physical capacity) Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Positive Positive 4. E x p e r i e n c e d onset of d i s e a s e ( e g . N O 7 Y E S Very Moderately M i l d l y N o M i l d l y 'Moderate ly Very diabetes, high blood pressure) Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Positive Positive 5. Experienced mental illness N O ? Y E S Very Moderately M i l d l y N o M i l d l y Moderately Very Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Positive Positive 6. Experienced improved health N O ? Y E S Very Moderately M i l d l y N o M i l d l y Moderately Very - Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Positive Positive 7. Experienced a reminder of the aging process 8. Became concerned or alarmed regarding present lifestyle and health 9. Experienced increased awareness and interest in physical fitness 10. Experienced increased awareness and interest in preventive medicine 11. Experienced increase in stress 12. Experienced periods of depression N O ? Y E S Very Negative N O ? Y E S Very Negative N O ? Y E S Very Negative N O ? Y E S Very Negative N O ? Y E S Very Negative N O ? Y E S Very Negative Moderately M i l d l y N o Negative Negative Effect Moderately M i l d l y N o Negative Negative Effect Moderately M i l d l y N o Negative Negative Effect Moderately M i l d l y N o Negative Negative Effect Moderately M i l d l y N o Negative Negative Effect Moderately M i l d l y N o Negative Negative Effect M i l d l y Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive M i l d l y Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive M i l d l y Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive M i l d l y Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive M i l d l y Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive M i l d l y Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive Consider the two year period prior to when you began to run regularly (min imum twice per week). D i d you experience any of the fol lowing events? If so, what effect did they have? 13. Experienced difficulties in sleeping 14. Experienced fear of becoming old 15. Experienced fear of dying B. FAMILY 1. Became pregnant or wife/partner became pregnant 2. Became a parent for the first time 3. Became a parent of additional children 4. Experienced an abortion (or partner had abortion) 5. Son or daughter left home 6. Health of family member changed 7. Felt "off-time" regarding role in family 8. Experienced difficulty in raising child N O ? Y E S Very Negative N O ? Y E S Very Negative N O ? Y E S Very Negative N O ? Y E S Very Negative N O ? Y E S Very Negative N O ? Y E S Very Negative N O ? Y E S Very Negative N O ? Y E S Very Negative N O ? Y E S Very Negative N O ? Y E S Very Negative N O ? Y E S Very Negative Moderately M i l d l y N o Negative Negative Effect Moderate ly M i l d l y N o Negative Negative Effect Moderately M i l d l y N o Negative Negative Effect Moderately M i l d l y N o Negative Negative Effect Moderately M i l d l y N o Negative Negative Effect Moderately M i l d l y N o Negative Negative Effect Moderately M i l d l y N o Negative Negative Effect Moderately M i l d l y N o Negative Negative Effect Moderate ly M i l d l y N o Negative Negative Effect Moderately M i l d l y N o Negative Negative Effect Moderately M i l d l y N o Negative Negative Effect M i l d l y Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive M i l d l y Moderate ly Very Positive Positive Positive M i l d l y Moderate ly V e r y Positive Positive Posit ive M i l d l y Moderate ly Very Positive Positive Positive M i l d l y Moderate ly Very Positive Positive Positive M i l d l y Moderate ly Very Positive Positive Positive M i l d l y Moderate ly Very Positive Positive Positive M i l d l y Moderate ly Very Positive Positive Positive M i l d l y Moderate ly Very Positive Positive Positive M i l d l y Moderate ly Very Positive Positive Positive M i l d l y Moderate ly Very Positive Positive Positive uonsmer ine ivvo year period prior to when you Degan to run regularly (minimum twice per week). Did you experience any of the following events? If so, what effect did they have? 9. Experienced trouble with inlaws NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 10. Experienced dissatisfaction with marriage or relationship NO YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 11. Experienced change in number of family NO ? YES Very get-togethers Negative Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 12. Began living by myself for the first time NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive C. DEATH 1. Close family member died NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 2. Friend died NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 3. Death of someone you can identify with NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 4. Pet died NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive D. SOCIAL 1. Acquired a new friend NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 2. Broke up with a friend NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 3. Friend's health changed NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 0 Consider the two year period prior to when you began to run regularly (minimum twice per week). Did you experience any of the following events? If so, what effect did they have? Experienced desire to make new NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Moderately Very acquaintances Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Positive Positive 5. Experienced significant change in social activities 6. Joined a new club or social group 7. Took a vacation 8. Participated in adult education or recreation program 9. Felt "off-time" regarding number or types of friends NO ? YES Very Negative NO ? YES Very Negative NO ? YES Very Negative NO ? YES Very Negative NO ? YES Very Negative. Moderately Mildly No Negative Negative Effect Moderately Mildly No Negative Negative Effect Moderately Mildly No Negative Negative Effect Moderately Mildly No Negative Negative Effect Moderately Mildly No Negative Negative Effect Mildly Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive Mildly Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive Mildly Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive Mildly Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive Mildly Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive E. EDUCATION 1. Began studies at college or university NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Negative Negative Negative Effect Mildly Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive 2. Changed college or university NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive 3. Began job training program NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 4. Failed or dropped out of studies NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 5. Graduated from college or university NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive Consider the two year period prior to when you began to run regularly (minimum twice per week). Did you experience any of the following events? If so, what effect did they have? 6. Felt "off-time" regarding expected level of education NO YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive F. RESIDENCE 1. Purchased house NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Negative Negative Negative Effect Mildly Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive 2. Sold house NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 3. Changed residence NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 4. Changed living conditions (for better or NO ? YES Very worse) Negative Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 5. Remodeled home NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive G. FINANCES 1. Took out mortgage NO YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 2. Renewed mortgage NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 3. Experienced mortgage or loan fore- NO ? YES Very closure Negative Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 4. Experienced a substantial increase in NO ? YES Very income Negative Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive Consider the two year period prior to when you began to run regularly (minimum twice per week). Did you experience any of the following events? If so, what effect did they have? 5. Experienced a substantial decrease in income 6 . Experienced a substantial increase in rent 7. Experienced financial problems due to cost of living increase 8. Experienced a dramatic change in financial state. H. WORK RELATED 1. Experienced a job change 2. Experienced a change in work hours 3. Experienced a promotion 4. Changed responsibilities at work 5. Experienced retirement 6 . Was fired 7. Denied anticipated salary increase 8. Was laid off NO ? YES Very Negative NO ? YES Very Negative NO ? YES Very Negative NO ? YES Very Negative NO ? YES Very Negative NO ? YES Very Negative NO ? YES Very Negative NO ? YES Very Negative NO ? YES Very Negative NO ? YES Very Negative NO ? YES Very Negative NO ? YES Very Negative Moderately Mildly No Negative Negative Effect Moderately Mildly No Negative Negative Effect Moderately Mildly No Negative Negative Effect Moderately Mildly No Negative Negative Effect Moderately Mildly No Negative Negative Effect Moderately Mildly No Negative Negative Effect Moderately Mildly No Negative Negative Effect Moderately Mildly No Negative Negative Effect Moderately Mildly No Negative Negative Effect Moderately Mildly No Negative Negative Effect Moderately Mildly No Negative Negative Effect Moderately Mildly No Negative Negative Effect Mildly Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive Mildly Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive Mildly Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive Mildly Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive Mildly Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive Mildly Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive Mildly Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive Mildly Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive Mildly Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive Mildly Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive Mildly Moderately Very Positive Positive Positive Mildly Moderately Very I Positive Positive Positive Consider the two year period when you began to run regularly (minimum twice per week). Did you experience any of the following events? If so, what effect did they have? 9. Denied anticipated promotion NO YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 10. Obtained first job NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 11. Experienced reduced working hours NO ? YES Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 12. Experienced a change in working NO ? YES conditions Very Moderately Mildly No Mildly Negative Negative Negative Effect Positive Moderately Very Positive Positive 1 » EXTERNAL INFLUENCES During the two years before you began to run twice a week did you read, see, or hear the following? Circle Y E S , ? or N O . 1. Television coverage of a running event (eg. marathon, community fun run) Y E S ? N O 2. A television movie in which running was portrayed Y E S ? N O 3. A motion picture which featured running Y E S ? N O 4. Radio promotion or coverage of a running event Y E S ? N O 5. A newspaper article related to running Y E S ? N O 6. A magazine article related to running Y E S ? N O 7. A specific running publication such as Runner's World Y E S ? N O 8. A book promoting the health benefits of running such a Aerobics Y E S ? N O 9. A commercial advertisement which employed a running or fitness image Y E S ? N O 10. Participaction fitness promotion Y E S ? N O 11. Action B . C . fitness promotion Y E S ? N O 12. Employee fitness promotion Y E S ? N O 13. Fitness message comparing a 60 year old Swede to a 30 year old Canadian Y E S ? N O 14. Adults your age or older running in community Y E S ? N O 15. A celebrity or public figure who endorsed fitness or running * (eg. John Kennedy, Jane Fonda) Y E S ? N O 16. A n individual athletic performance having great emotional impact (ie. a blind or wheelchair athlete) Y E S ? N O 17. Media promotion of "self-growth" (ie. getting in touch with your body) Y E S ? N O Please answer these background questions. Remember, your name is not required. 1. Are you a man or woman? (check) 2. What is your age? . 3. What is your place of birth? W o m a n • M a n • .years T o w n / C i t y Country 4. With regard to your living arrangements, do you? 5. What is the highest educational qualification you hold (check only one box) Live with 2 or more adults • Live with another adult and a child or children • L ive with another adult (no children) • Live with a child or children (no other adults) • Live alone • N o formal qualification . . . • Completed elementary school • Completed grade 10 or 11 (but not 12) • Grade 12 qualification or over- seas>equivalent • V o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l d i p l o m a , Business School D i p l o m a , or Journeyman's qualification • Part of a university degree or diploma • Completed undergraduate degree or c o l l e g e / t e c h n i c a l school diploma, eg. B . A . , B.Sc • Completed graduate degree or diploma, eg. M . A . , P h . D . . • 6. When working, what is your normal occupation? 7. What is your a c t u a l occupation? (print) If you are a student, check here • 8. When did you move to the Lower Mainland? Check if born here • Profess ional /Technica l , (eg. teacher, accountant, computer programmer, lab technician, nurse, biologist, surveyor, engineer, social worker, professor) • Managerial/Administrative (eg. supervisor, manager, fore- man, school administrator) • Clerical/Sales (eg. clerk, cashier, salesperson, bank teller) • Skilled Worker - training required (eg. plumber, carpenter, logger, f isherman, welder, chef, letter carrier, gardener, auto mechanic) . • Unskil led Worker - no training required (eg. labourer, deck- hand, cleaner, fruit picker) • Month Year D i d you begin running twice a week b e f o r e or a f t e r you moved to the Lower Mainland? Before • After - • 9. Were you a competitive athlete (i.e. participated in organized sport)? Dur ing school years Yes • N o • After leaving school Yes • N o • 10. For how many months have you been running twice a week? 11. What distance do you run in an average week? months miles 12. Where do you normally run? Prior to beginning to run twice a week did you participate (one or more times) in any of the following: Team Sports Baseball Yes • N o • Basketball Yes • N o • Cricket Yes • N o • Field Hockey _ Y e s • N o • Footbal l Yes N o . • Hockey Yes • N o • Lacrosse Yes • N o • Rugby Yes • N o • Softball Yes • N o • Volleyball Yes • N o • Soccer Yes • N o • <~Wher (Winr'! Yes • N o • •"Hh^r (prinf) Yes • N o • Individual Sports Badminton Yes • N o • Bowling Yes • N o • Canoeing Yes • N o • Cycl ing Yes • N o • Dance Yes • N o • G o l f Yes • N o • Gymnastics Yes • N o • Handbal l Yes • N o • H i k i n g Yes • N o • Keep Fit Class Yes • N o • Racquetball Yes • N o • Skiing Yes • N o • Squash Yes • N o • Swimming Yes • N o • Table Tennis Yes • N o • Tennis . Yes • N o • Track and Field Yes • N o • Yoga Yes • N o • Other (print) Yes • N o • Other (print) Yes • N o • Other (print) Yes • N o •

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