UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Dorothy Clode : community educator Moss, Ricki Carol 1988

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DOROTHY C L O D E : COMMUNITY EDUCATOR B y RICKI CAROL MOSS B.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1981 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN PARTIAL F U L F I L L M E N T OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R OF ARTS i n T H E F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S (Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t a n d H i g h e r Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1988 © R i c k i C a r o l Moss., 1988 In present ing this thesis in partial fulf i lment of the requ i rements for an advanced d e g r e e at the University of British C o l u m b i a , 1 agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permiss ion for extensive c o p y i n g of this thesis for scholarly pu rposes may b e granted by the head of m y depar tment or by his o r her representat ives. It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g or pub l i ca t ion of this thesis for financial gain shall not b e a l lowed wi thout my written pe rmiss ion . Depa r tmen t of T h e University of British C o l u m b i a Vancouve r , C a n a d a DE-6 (2/88) i i A B S T R A C T T h i s t h e s i s w i l l p r i m a r i l y f o c u s o n t h e c a r e e r o f D o r o t h y C l o d e as a n a d u l t e d u c a t o r , e x a m i n i n g h e r l e a d e r s h i p a n d i n f l u e n c e i n p r o f e s s i o n a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n s ; h e r a d v o c a c y r e g a r d i n g p r o v i n c i a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p o l i c i e s ; a n d h e r r o l e i n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a t L a k e C o w i c h a n a n d i n t h e b r o a d e r c o n t e x t of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , as i n t h e C o n s o r t i u m o n E c o n o m i c D i s l o c a t i o n . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e r o l e of a p r o f e s s i o n a l a d u l t e d u c a t o r t o t h e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s w i l l be e x a m i n e d , u s i n g Clode's c a r e e r as a c a s e s t u d y . T h e i n t e n t i o n i s t o examine t h e n a t u r e of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e , i n t e r m s of t h e d a i l y c o n c e r n s , i s s u e s a n d p h i l o s o p h y of a woman w h o s e 18 y e a r c a r e e r s p a n n e d t h r e e d y n a m i c d e c a d e s i n t h e r e c e n t h i s t o r y of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i Chapter 1 WHO IS DOROTHY CLODE? 1 Introduction 1 D e f i n i t i o n s 2 Methodology 6 Structure 7 Chapter 2 PERSONAL PROFILE 10 Biographical Background 10 Personal C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 16 Feminist Facets. 19 Influences 21 Philosophy 23 Chapter 3 PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES 28 Settin g The Scene 28 The B r i t i s h Columbia Association of Continuing Education Administrators (BCACEA) 33 The Northwest Association On Adult Educators (NWAEA) .44 Early Childhood Education A r t i c u l a t i o n 47 External Evaluation Team 49 Summary 49 CHAPTER 4 COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT - IS IT ADULT EDUCATION? 53 Part I - Theoretical Overview 53 Part II - Community Programming 63 Introduction 63 Seniors Evergreen Centre 70 Gum, Fish and Upholstery Tacks . 71 The Food Bank Story . 72 The P r o v i n c i a l Consortium on Economic D i s l o c a t i o n 74 CHAPTER 5 AND WHY IS SHE IMPORTANT? 80 Recapitulation 80 P l u r a l i t y of Practice 83 APPENDIX A Sample Questions 93 SOURCES 94 Bibliography 94 Interviews . . 100 1 C H A P T E R 1 WHO IS DOROTHY CLODE? lBtracluc_tiojQ W h o i s D o r o t h y C l o d e ? A n d w h y i s s h e i m p o r t a n t t o t h e f i e l d o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ? T h e s e a r e t h e f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n s w h i c h t h i s t h e s i s i n t e n d s t o a n s w e r . I n d o i n g s o , a n u m b e r o f i s s u e s a n d t h e m e s e m e r g e . B u t f i r s t , o n e o f t h e r e a s o n s t h a t t h i s d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f h e r c a r e e r i s i m p o r t a n t r e l a t e s t o t h e r e l a t i v e p a u c i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , a s d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e f i e l d o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y s o i n t h e c a s e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a n d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f w o m e n i n t h e f i e l d o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n B . C . , w i t h t h e n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n K a l e f s (1984) b i o g r a p h y o f B e t s y M c D o n a l d . B u t r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e l i v e s o f a d u l t e d u c a t o r s o f f e r s a g r e a t p o t e n t i a l f o r t h e f i e l d a t l a r g e , s i n c e i t o f f e r s a m e a n s n o t o n l y t o d i s c o v e r t h e s p e c i f i c s o f a p a r t i c u l a r p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s , b u t a l s o t o p r o v i d e a c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t o a n a l y z e a n d a s s e s s t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e a n d a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e o r e t i c a l d e b a t e s a n d i s s u e s . A l l c i v i l i z e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s b e n e f i t s f r o m k n o w i n g w h a t b a t t l e s w e r e f o u g h t , b y w h o m , h o w a n d w h y , a n d t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t t o a n e w l y e m e r g i n g f i e l d o f s t u d y a n d b o d y o f k n o w l e d g e s u c h a s a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . D o r o t h y C l o d e ' s c a r e e r o f f e r s s u c h a n o p p o r t u n i t y . I n s t u d y i n g h e r l i f e a n d w o r k , c e r t a i n a r e a s a r e o f p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a n d i m p o r t a n c e ( e g . i n d i v i d u a l a s p e c t s o f h e r w o r k ) ; b u t b e h i n d t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a n u m b e r o f t h e m e a r e a s a r e d i s c o v e r e d , t h e m o s t c e n t r a l o f w h i c h i s h e r 2 c o n v i c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e r o l e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p h a s b e e n t h e s u b j e c t o f d e b a t e f o r m a n y y e a r s . A g a i n s t a b a c k g r o u n d t r a d i t i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a s a m o v e m e n t c o m m i t t e d t o s o c i e t a l c h a n g e a n d i m p r o v e m e n t , t h e r e h a s e m e r g e d a v i e w w h i c h c o n t e n d s t h a t e d u c a t o r s m u s t n o t a n d c a n n o t c h a n g e t h e w o r l d . C l o d e ' s c a r e e r o f f e r s a n e x c i t i n g e x a m p l e o f t h e c h a l l e n g e s f r e q u e n t l y f a c e d d u r i n g t h e d a i l y d i l e m m a s o f a n a d u l t e d u c a t o r . T h e i n t e l l e c t u a l a w a r e n e s s a n d p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f d i s p a r a t e t h e o r i e s , a s e x e m p l i f i e d a n d s y n t h e s i z e d i n D o r o t h y C l o d e ' s l i f e a n d w o r k , o f f e r s a n e x a m p l e t h a t i s c o m p e l l i n g a n d u n i q u e i n t h e f i e l d . We a r e f o r t u n a t e t h a t s u c h a n i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t s , w h o h a s a g r e e d t o b e t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s t h e s i s as a c a s e s t u d y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f i s s u e s a n d e t h i c s o f c o n c e r n t o a d u l t e d u c a t o r s t h r o u g h o u t t h i s p r o v i n c e d u r i n g t h e d y n a m i c d e c a d e s w h i c h c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e m o s t a c t i v e p e r i o d o f h e r c a r e e r . D e f i r j i U o n s . D i s c u s s i o n of C l o d e ' s c a r e e r a n d c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e f i e l d o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n e v i t a b l y d e a l s w i t h t h e f i e l d o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d t h i s p a p e r w i l l l o o k c l o s e l y a t h e r r o l e a s a n a d u l t e d u c a t o r i n t h e c o m m u n i t y o f L a k e C o w i c h a n a s w e l l a s i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l C o n s o r t i u m o n E c o n o m i c D i s l o c a t i o n a s e x a m p l e s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a d d r e s s i n g c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t n e e d s . W i t h i n t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s , " a d u l t esbAsation" t "ci5mjmmitx„edjacaJtiQn," "GQjMmniteud^&Qpmzmi." a n d " c o m m u n i t y " i t s e l f a r e t e r m s t h a t m u s t b e c l a r i f i e d . A d u l t e d u c a t o r s h a v e l o n g b e e n a w a r e o f a g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y t o u s e t h e t e r m s " c o m m u n i t y e d u c a t i o n " a n d " c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t " 3 a l m o s t i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . T h e r e i s a w a r m , c o n g r a t u l a t o r y g l o w o f c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d a c c e p t a n c e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i t h c o m m u n i t y e d u c a t i o n , a d e c l a r a t i o n " t h a t o n e i s d o i n g s o m e t h i n g i n a t e l y d e s i r a b l e , a s w e l l a s t o d e s c r i b e p r a c t i c e " ( B r o o k f i e l d , p . 6 0 ) . F r e q u e n t l y t h e s e t e r m s a r e c o n f u s e d b e c a u s e p r o g r a m m e s d e s i g n e d t o r e s p o n d t o c o m m u n i t y n e e d s a s s e s s m e n t s s u b s e q u e n t l y c o n t r i b u t e t o t h a t c o m m u n i t y ' s g r o w t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t . A n d , t o a d d t o t h e c o n f u s i o n , " c o m m u n i t y e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t " i s a c o n c e p t t h a t r e f l e c t s i n c r e a s i n g a c c e p t a n c e t h a t a c o m m u n i t y ' s e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s a r e u s u a l l y r e l a t e d t o e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d c a n n o t b e l i m i t e d t o s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e w o r d " c o m m u n i t y " is i t s e l f p r o b l e m a t i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y if w e a p p r e c i a t e t h a t i t s d e f i n i t i o n c a n n o t b e s o l e l y i n t e r m s o f g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s , o r n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . W i t h i n a n y l o c a l e , c o n t e m p o r a r y c o m m u n i t i e s s o d e f i n e d w i l l a l s o c o n s i s t o f v a r i o u s , a n d v a r y i n g , c o m m u n i t i e s o f i n t e r e s t , w h e t h e r b a s e d o n e t h n i c i t y , a g e , g e n d e r b i a s , i n c o m e , o r o t h e r m u t u a l c o n c e r n s . H o w e v e r , f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s p a p e r t h e t e r m " c o m m u n i t y : " w i l l r e f e r t o t h e s p e c i f i c c o m m u n i t y o f L a k e C o w i c h a n , e x c e p t i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l C o n s o r t i u m o n E c o n o m i c D i s l o c a t i o n . B u t , a s t h e a b o v e d i s c u s s i o n i n d i c a t e s , a n a s t u t e a d u l t e d u c a t o r w i l l f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h o s e v a r i o u s a n d o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t i e s s / h e s e r v e s . T h e R e p o r t o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T a s k F o r c e o n T h e C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e (1974) d e c l a r e d ( p . 28) t h a t " O n e o f t h e p r i m e f u n c t i o n s o f e d u c a t i o n i s t o a s s i s t i n d i v i d u a l s a n d g r o u p s t o i d e n t i f y , a s s e s s a n d 4 m e e t t h e i r l e a r n i n g n e e d s " a n d a s p a r t o f " a n i n n o v a t i v e a p p r o a c h " t o t h a t e n d , " c o m m u n i t y e d u c a t i o n w o r k e r s ( s o c i a l a n i m a t o r s ) " w e r e p r o p o s e d a s p a r t o f a C o m m u n i t y E d u c a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t S e r v i c e ( C E D S ) i n w h i c h t h e y w o u l d h a v e " s p e c i a l s t a t u s " , i n o r d e r t o " c a r r y o u t i m a g i n a t i v e p l a n s a n d a c t i v i t i e s . " I t w a s r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t t h i s s e r v i c e " b e e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h s t a f f d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o a n e x p a n d e d s t a n d i n g c o m m i t t e e o f t h e c o l l e g e b o a r d t o a c t a s a r e g i o n a l C o m m u n i t y E d u c a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t C o u n c i l . " T h i s c o u n c i l w a s c o n c e i v e d o f a s h a v i n g a m e m b e r s h i p r e p r e s e n t i n g c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s , i n t e r e s t e d r e s i d e n t s , " a t l e a s t o n e c o l l e g e b o a r d m e m b e r a n d a n a p p o i n t e e o f e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , m a n y o f w h i c h m a y b e o p e r a t i n g c o m m u n i t y s c h o o l s . " D e s p i t e t h e i n c l u s i o n o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s o n t h i s c o u n c i l , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h i s C E D S w a s a c o l l e g e b a s e d o p e r a t i o n , s i n c e s t a f f w e r e c o l l e g e e m p l o y e e s . T h a t s a m e r e p o r t d e f i n e d A d u l t a n d C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n a s " p r o g r a m m e s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o r e s i d e n t s o f t h e w i d e r c o m m u n i t y ( i . e . n o t j u s t t h e c o l l e g e c o m m u n i t y ) a n d t o m e e t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s i d e n t i f i e d b y c o m m u n i t y e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . " I n t u r n , t h i s w a s d e f i n e d a s " a c t i v i t i e s d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t p e o p l e w i t h i n a c o l l e g e r e g i o n t o i d e n t i f y , a s s e s s , a n d m e e t t h e i r ' l e a r n i n g n e e d s . " T h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s ( p . 8) a p p e a r t o b e s u b s u m e d i n t h e R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i t t e e o n C o n t i n u i n g a n d C o m m u n i t y E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (1976) ( f a m i l i a r l y k n o w n a s t h e F a r i s R e p o r t ) i n i t s d e f i n i t i o n ( p . 70) o f c o m m u n i t y e d u c a t i o n a s " a p r o c e s s b y w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s o r g r o u p s a r e a s s i s t e d t o i d e n t i f y , a s s e s s , a n d m e e t t h e i r l e a r n i n g n e e d s , a n d t o 5 i m p r o v e t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e i r c o m m u n i t y l i f e . " T h e c u r r e n t m i n i s t r y o f e d u c a t i o n d e f i n i t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y e d u c a t i o n s t a t e s t h a t i t : . . . C o m p r i s e s p r o c e s s e s a n d p r o g r a m m e s b y w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s o r g r o u p s a r e a s s i s t e d t o i d e n t i f y , a s s e s s a n d m e e t t h e i r l e a r n i n g n e e d s i n o r d e r t o i m p r o v e t h e q u a l i t y o f c o m m u n i t y l i f e . C o m m u n i t y e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f s u c h i s s u e s a s m e n t a l i l l n e s s , p o l l u t i o n , m e t r i c a t i o n , p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n a n d n u t r i t i o n . ( M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 0 , f o r m #CE120) I t i s i n t h i s s e n s e t h a t c o m m u n i t y e d u c a t i o n w i l l b e u s e d i n t h i s p a p e r ; t h a t i s , i m p r o v e m e n t o f c o m m u n i t y l i f e i s a g o a l t o b e a c h i e v e d b y a d d r e s s i n g s p e c i a l n e e d s a n d m i n o r i t y i n t e r e s t s . T h e f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n i n d i c a t e d h o w c l o s e l y t h e c o n c e p t o f c o m m u n i t y e d u c a t i o n r e l a t e s t o c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . C o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h i s p a p e r w i l l b e u s e d i n t h e s e n s e t h a t L o t z (1977, p p . 8 - 9 ) p r o p o s e s , d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l a n d c o l l e c t i v e , s o t h a t c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i s a " p r o c e s s e n a b l i n g p e o p l e colle.ct . iYe. ly t o a c h i e v e g o a l s a n d t o i n f l u e n c e a c t i o n s t o g e t h e r r a t h e r t h a n a s i n d i v i d u a l s " ( e m p h a s i s a d d e d ) . L o t z n o t e s t h a t t h e t e r m s " c h a n g e , " g r o w t h " a n d " d e v e l o p m e n t " a r e a l s o o f t e n u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , b u t h e s u g g e s t s t h e i r q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s c a n b e v i e w e d i n t e r m s o f t h e q u e s t i o n - " w h o s t a n d s t o b e n e f i t ? " f r o m t h e p r o p o s e d c h a n g e , g r o w t h , o r d e v e l o p m e n t , ( p . 9 ) . T h e c o n c e p t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n w i l l b e e l a b o r a t e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t t h e v a r i o u s v i e w s a b o u t t h e r o l e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n 6 a n d s o c i a l c h a n g e , b u t f o r n o w p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n w i l l , r e f e r t o t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f e m p h a s i s " b e t w e e n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a s a s o c i a l m o v e m e n t a n d a s a p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d " ( S e l m a n a n d K u l i c h , 1980) . T h e r i s e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d e d i n t i m e t o C l o d e ' s c a r e e r - t h e l a t e 1 9 6 0 ' s t h r o u g h t o t h e m i d 1 9 8 0 ' s , a n d t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t i l l u m i n a t e s t h e l a r g e r c o n c e r n s a n d i s s u e s r e l e v a n t d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d . F o r i t w i l l b e s h o w n t h a t i n C l o d e ' s c a r e e r , t h e " c r e a t i v e t e n s i o n s " b e t w e e n b o t h t r e n d s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d , a n d u l t i m a t e l y b a l a n c e d . W h i l e s h e w a s a p r o p o n e n t o f t h e h u m a n p o t e n t i a l m o v e m e n t o f t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s , a n d w a s v e r y e f f e c t i v e i n p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d i n l o b b y i n g a c t i v i t y , a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e f o c u s o f h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w a s a l w a y s p r i m a r i l y o n t h e c o m m u n i t y , n o t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h s e r v e d i t . MeJtJm&Qlogy. A d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s a f i e l d o f s t u d y w h i c h c a n b e a p p r o a c h e d t h r o u g h v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s , s u c h a s s o c i o l o g y , p h i l o s o p h y , p s y c h o l o g y a n d h i s t o r y . E a c h o f t h e s e s u g g e s t s a p a r t i c u l a r m e t h o d o f i n q u i r y , b u t i t m u s t b e a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t t h i s i s n o t m e r e l y a c h o i c e a m o n g e q u a l a l t e r n a t i v e s l e a d i n g t o t h e s a m e c o n c l u s i o n , b u t t h a t t h e m e t h o d c h o s e n i n h e r e n t l y r a i s e s d i f f e r e n t f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n s a n d d i r e c t s n o t o n l y how., b u t w h i c h i s s u e s m a y b e a d d r e s s e d ( S h u l m a n , 1981) . T h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s p a p e r i s t o d o c u m e n t C l o d e ' s c a r e e r . A h i s t o r i c a l c a s e s t u d y a p p r o a c h w i l l b e u s e d , w h i c h i s a m e t h o d p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l s u i t e d t o s u c h a n i n q u i r y . U n l i k e q u a n t i t a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s u s e d i n " h a r d s c i e n c e s , " t h i s q u a l i t a t i v e a p p r o a c h i s l i m i t e d f o r p r e d i c t i v e p u r p o s e s , b u t c a n b e s e e n a s a n " i n f e r e n t i a l b r i d g e " ( S h u l m a n , p . 9) s o t h a t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c a n b e m a d e , u s i n g a p a r t i c u l a r 7 c a s e a s a n e x a m p l e r e p r e s e n t i n g a c l a s s o f p h e n o m e n a . " C a s e s t u d i e s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t i n g p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d t o p r o c e s s e s a n d d y n a m i c s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e " ( M e r r i a m , 1988, p . 222) a n d t o s t u d y " a n i n s t a n c e o f a l a r g e r c o n c e r n , i s s u e , o r p r o b l e m . " I t " m i g h t a l s o b e s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e i t i s i n a n d o f i t s e l f i n t r i n s i c a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g " ( p . 217) . C l o d e ' s c a r e e r q u a l i f i e s o n a l l t h r e e c o u n t s . T h i s s t u d y w i l l u s e d a t a c o l l e c t e d m a i n l y f r o m p r i m a r y s o u r c e s , a n d , a s i s f r e q u e n t l y t h e c a s e i n h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h , b o t h i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l c r i t i c i s m a r e c o n s i d e r e d . I n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h v a l i d i t y , n o t o n l y f r o m D o r o t h y C l o d e h e r s e l f , b u t a l s o v i e w s w e r e s o u g h t f r o m a n u m b e r o f c o l l e a g u e s a n d a s s o c i a t e s , f r o m b o t h c o l l e g e s a n d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , a s w e l l a s m i n i s t r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a n d o t h e r m e m b e r s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y f a m i l i a r w i t h h e r w o r k . .Str.Ug.tU.Efi C h a p t e r 2 w i l l p r o v i d e b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g C l o d e ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r e m i s e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e g o a l s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , a s w e l l a s p e r s o n a l i n f l u e n c e s . C h a p t e r 3 w i l l p r o v i d e a b r i e f o v e r v i e w o f t h e r e c e n t h i s t o r y o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n B . C . , s e t t i n g t h e s t a g e a t t h e t i m e w h e n C l o d e e n t e r e d t h e f i e l d i n 1968, a n d w i l l d e s c r i b e a s p e c t s o f t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t i n w h i c h C l o d e w o r k e d . I t w i l l t h e n l o o k a t C l o d e ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s a n d l e a d e r s h i p i n p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A s s o c i a t i o n o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ( B C A C E A ) , t h e N o r t h w e s t A s s o c i a t i o n o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ( N W A E A ) , a n d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n p r o v i n c i a l a r t i c u l a t i o n c o m m i t t e e s . 8 C h a p t e r 4 falls into two p a r t s ; the f i r s t p r o v i d i n g an overview of some of the theoretical i s s u e s about the relat ionship of a d u l t education to community development; a n d the second p r o c e e d i n g examples from Clode's p r a c t i c e as an a d u l t e d u c a t o r w h i c h i n v o l v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community development, both i n L a k e Cowichan as well as the l a r g e r p r o v i n c i a l community. P a r t i c u l a r attention will be paid to h e r role i n the development a n d implementation of the p r o v i n c i a l Consortium o n Economic Dislocation i n 1982. G u i d i n g questions will be: (Mial i n H o i b e r g , 1956) - What are the roles a n a d u l t e d u c a t o r plays i n the init iation a n d operat ion of community development programmes? - What is the n a t u r e of an a d u l t e d u c a t o r ' s relat ionship to the organization(s) t h r o u g h w h i c h cit izens s t u d y a n d take action? The f inal c h a p t e r will summarize a n d s y n t h e s i z e the collected views about Clode's c a r e e r a n d her c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the field. Data was g a t h e r e d p r i m a r i l y from i n t e r v i e w s with the subjects: Clode, h e r colleagues a n d associates (listed i n Sourc es) . T h e majority of interview questions (Appendix A) were d e s i g n e d to be o p e n - e n d e d , a n d were i n t e n d e d to d i s c o v e r the g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s with which Clode w o r k e d , a n d to d e s c r i b e what she d i d , how, a n d why. In a d d i t i o n , specific questions i n t e n d e d to c l a r i f y d i s c u s s i o n s about ministry policies were d i r e c t e d to m i n i s t r y officials, a n d also to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n both college a n d school d i s t r i c t a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education. T h e r e may be some bias a n d r e d u n d a n c y i n those v a r i o u s views, but it is felt that this will a d d d e p t h a n d indicate something of the texture of the times. 9 A w o r d about style may also be a p p r o p r i a t e . Portions of interviews have been edited, not o n l y to relate specific details, b u t also to t r y to impart some sense of the s p e a k e r i n a r e l a t i v e l y relaxed a n d informal d i s c u s s i o n about a topic a n d / o r p e r s o n with whom there was p e r s o n a l a n d professional interest . Hopefully, quotations a n d r e f e r e n c e s to those c o n v e r s a t i o n s will a d d v i t a l i t y to this w o r d p o r t r a i t . T h e r e a d e r may also notice that i n sections r e l a t i n g to Clode's p e r s o n a l b a c k g r o u n d , both b i o g r a p h i c a l a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l , the a p p r o a c h u s e d may at times may be anecdotal a n d j o u r n a l i s t i c . T h i s is not i n t e n d e d merely to challenge "al l the male-dominant c o n v e n t i o n s about what c a n be talked about in an academic sett ing," determining the "series of r u l e s , expectations a n d power dynamics" (Rockhill,1986) u s u a l l y c o n s t r a i n i n g a n y s c h o l a r l y exercise. Rather t h a n t r y to fit Clode into a n y c o n f i n i n g academic exercise, the r e s e a r c h e r attempted to let h e r tell her own s t o r y , c o r r o b o r a t e d b y her p e e r s , so that we may l e a r n something of her real i ty , a n d of her vital i ty. 10 C H A P T E R 2 P E R S O N A L P R O F I L E T h e Clode home is a house o n a h i l l , d e c e p t i v e l y small i n a p p e a r a n c e , i n a n o t - t o o - a s p i r i n g middle-class n e i g h b o u r h o o d where kids r i d e b i k e s , t h e i r b i g b r o t h e r s a n d s i s t e r s ' h a n g out ' i n muscle c a r s , dogs pant, cats p r e e n , a n d e v e r y o n e knows Dorothy. A r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t landscape feature o n the f r o n t lawn a r e t h r e e cement c u l v e r t s , about 30" wide fi l led with d i r t a n d planted to p r o d u c e c r o p s of tomatoes, s t r a w b e r r i e s , a n d petunias, o r whatever else is fancied i n this household. T he e a r l i e r minimalist l a n d s c a p e d e s i g n i n c l u d e s a few low s h r u b s , a small tree, a n d a front lawn that a p p e a r s to be less t h a n someone's p r i d e a n d j o y a n d w h i c h extends to a s h a d y b a c k y a r d , densely e n c l o s e d b y i n d i g e n o u s g r o w t h , b u t with room f o r a b a r b e q u e . A wood pile is h a n d y to the e n t r a n c e - this is a household that appreciates comfort a n d c o n v e n i e n c e , a n d does not set great store i n k e e p i n g u p appearances. L e a v i n g b e h i n d the f r o n t e n t r a n c e where outside gear c a n be s t o r e d , a n d where a small cache of wood lies in wait for weather's worst , o n e n t e r i n g the f r o n t room, e v i d e n c e of those al ternative p l e a s u r e s is e v e r y w h e r e . T h i s room's dominant effect is of comfort; one c h a i r is next to the cozy wood heater; o t h e r s a r e situated so c h a t t i n g is easy o r r e a d y for r e a d i n g a n y of the innumerable books a n d magazines that stuff the wall cabinet, a n d strew the small tables. Houseplants of the type that t h r i v e o n neglect share shelves u n d e r windows with a few that may have seen better d a y s b u t h a n g o n for the sake of good 11 company, not to mention the newest a r r i v a l s - f loral tokens of f o n d wishes from f r i e n d s a n d family on some r e c e n t special occasion. T h e r e are no m i r r o r s here. Walls are decorated with photos, some c r a c k e d a n d faded, some f r e s h Polaroid p o r t r a i t s , congenial a n d genealogical r e c o r d s . P i c t u r e s p r i n t e d b y family a n d f r i e n d s a r e democratically a r r a n g e d along with famous p a i n t e r s (e.g. Joe Plaskett, who was also a family f r i e n d ) i n c l u d i n g one of Clode, ( p o r t r a y e d b y A n n Batchelor) when she was e i g h t y e a r s - o l d . T h e r e are o t h e r mementoes, s o u v e n i r s from f a r - a w a y places v i s i t e d b y Clode as well as h a n d - c r a f t e d efforts from c l o s e r to home; Northwest native c a r v i n g ; erotic Greek gods; a k e y r a c k - the p a i n s t a k i n g woodworking efforts of a son p e r h a p s , or a g r a n d d a u g h t e r - next to the i n t r i c a t e a n d esoteric wares from the F a r East a n d the Dark Continent. Magazines r e p r e s e n t i n g eclectic interests (e.g. Harrowsmith; Scientif ic American; Chatelaine; National Geographic) are in s l i p p e r y slopes alongside a f g h a n - c o s s e t e d c h a i r s (the r e c l i n i n g k i n d ) . A n d there are books a n d more books, for f u n , as well as for serious c o n s i d e r a t i o n , v i s i b l e e v e r y w h e r e , i n c l u d i n g the bedroom (the lair of an insomniac, p e r h a p s ? ) T h e commodious k i t c h e n a n d adjacent d i n i n g room are well e q u i p p e d with a table that c a n easily accommodate healthy n u m b e r s a n d h e a r t y appetites. A l t h o u g h the layout is o p e n a n d i n v i t i n g , it does not a p p e a r that the c u l i n a r y a r t s a r e this family's focus; r a t h e r , it is the l i v i n g room that is the a p p a r e n t heart of this household. Indeed, this place, with i ts sense of l ife's ful lness a n d simple satisfactions, is p e r h a p s the best sett ing i n which to conjure the image 12 of a woman who, for o v e r 35 y e a r s , was a close p a r t of h e r community. A n d it was this foundation of an i n t e g r a l relat ionship of home a n d community that p r o v i d e d the basis for h e r 18 y e a r c a r e e r as an exceptional a d u l t educator. Rather t h a n separate h e r p r i v a t e from h e r p u b l i c a n d official life, Clode e a r l y l e a r n e d that it was difficult, i f not impossible, to t r y to categorize neatly h e r i n t e r e s t s a n d functions i n s u c h a sett ing. How many of h e r contemporaries, to say n o t h i n g of today's ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , would c h e e r f u l l y l ist a home phone number along with information about programmes, r e g i s t r a t i o n s , a n d office h o u r s ? F o r Clode, this was u n q u e s t i o n a b l y the way it was, a n d so her l i v i n g room became an extension of her office, a n d p r e s u m a b l y , vice v e r s a . T h e r e is also an u r b a n sett ing i n which some of the more cosmopolitan aspects of Clode's p e r s o n a l i t y are h i g h l i g h t e d . In h e r West E n d V a n c o u v e r apartment, the decor st i l l reflects something of h e r i n t e r e s t i n the exotic a n d u n i q u e , b u t there is a sense of a more selective d i s p l a y of favou rite t h i n g s - a special shel l collection i n a beautiful o r i e n t a l cabinet; r a k u lamps; a fabulously c a r v e d oak side b o a r d , d i s p l a y i n g the woodworking talent of an E n g l i s h uncle; oil p o r t r a i t s of l o n g - d e p a r t e d re l at ives whose efforts to a p p e a r suitably sombre cannot d e n y the same s u g g e s t i o n of a smile that t h e i r d e s c e n d a n t st i l l d i s p l a y s . T h i s 'home away from home' h a d e a r l i e r belonged to a b r o t h e r , b u t is now often u s e d b y Clode when she v i s i t s V a n c o u v e r 'to keep u p with t h i n g s , ' take i n a play o r v i s i t f r i e n d s . It was i n these two sett ings, with g e n e r o u s pots of tea, cookies to crumble 13 a n d homemade muffins to m u n c h , that this r e s e a r c h e r a s k e d Clode to talk about h e r life a n d work. Clode d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as "one of the few people actual ly b o r n i n V a n c o u v e r " with p e r h a p s a bit of p r i d e . She recal led that h e r family l i v e d i n a 17 room house d i r e c t l y a c r o s s from the Hotel V a n c o u v e r o n B u r r a r d Street, j u s t down the street from F a r i s ' garage where the father of twin b o y s , one of whom would r e - e n t e r her life many y e a r s later, took care of the family c a r - "a 1923 S t a r . " Clode attended n e a r b y L o r d Roberts p u b l i c school i n the West E n d a n d K i n g George h i g h - s c h o o l before going o n i n 1937 to the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. She w o r k e d at the mental hospital at Essondale from 1940 u n t i l 1943, when she g r a d u a t e d as a p s y c h i a t r i c n u r s e with the h i g h e s t marks i n h e r g r a d u a t i n g year. While t r a i n i n g at Essondale, Clode was e n r o l l e d at the U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba a n d i n 1944 she r e t u r n e d to u n i v e r s i t y , this time g r a d u a t i n g (1946) i n Home Economics. Clode w o r k e d between academic sessions at s e r v i c e canteens a n d hospitals as a dietician aide, a n d n u r s e d weekends i n Winnipeg while completing h e r B.Sc. degree, w o r k i n g "weird h o u r s " a n d managing o n a s t r i n g e n t s t u d e n t b u d g e t . Her e a r l y experiences i n c l u d e d t h r e e y e a r s as a p s y c h i a t r i c n u r s e , i n this occupation following i n h e r mother's footsteps. T h i s may i n p a r t explain h e r o n g o i n g i n t e r e s t i n mental health a n d i n h e l p i n g people. Clode remembers that, as a c h i l d d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n , i t seemed that t h e i r door "must have been m a r k e d " since so many came for food a n d o t h e r help h e r family c o u l d p r o v i d e . She recal ls , "no one was e v e r t u r n e d away." 14 She met h e r h u s b a n d , E r n e s t Clode, while he was i n the R.A.F. a n d t h e y were married i n 1943, b u t i t was not u n t i l 1948 that he d e -mobilized a n d r e t u r n e d to Canada. In o r d e r to do something different from h i s r e c e n t b a c k g r o u n d as an aerial t o r p e d o expert, he took advantage of a scheme for e x - s e r v i c e m e n that t r a i n e d him as an i n d u s t r i a l education teacher a n d i n September 1948, he was " t h r o w n to the wolves." T h e y h a d c h o s e n C r a n b r o o k from the available options since it h a d a hospital a n d Clode was expecting t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d . In 1953, after five y e a r s a n d two more c h i l d r e n , t h e y moved to L a k e Cowichan, w h i c h h a d r e c e n t l y opened a w e l l - e q u i p p e d school shop, the b i g g e s t i n the p r o v i n c e . L a k e Cowichan is a town o n V a n c o u v e r Island that is about 30 miles i n l a n d from D u n c a n . At that time, as now, t h e r e was a populat ion in the town itself of about 2,500, with about 6,500 r e s i d e n t s i n the e n t i r e school d i s t r i c t catchment area. Clode recal led that there were few c a r s , but it was a b u s t l i n g town i n 1953, with "three big mills, a multitude of g y p o l o g g i n g outfits, shake c u t t e r s , a n d t h e n a c o p p e r mine s t a r t e d u p , " i n c r e a s i n g population to about 6,700 b y 1957. The p r i n c i p a l of the h i g h school, J a c k Saywell (father of B i l l Say well, f u t u r e p r e s i d e n t of Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ) had a l r e a d y initiated a c i t i z e n s h i p a n d E n g l i s h class f o r New Canadians, b u t he t h o u g h t it would be " a great idea" for Mr. Clode to offer a metal-w o r k i n g class at night. In 1953, this somehow became the " i n t h i n g " to do, a n d it was attended mainly b y doctors, lawyers a n d mill managers. In that same y e a r Dorothy Clode was also d i s c o v e r e d to be an excellent r e s o u r c e as a teacher s u b s t i t u t e , a n d she was soon a s k e d to offer 15 sewing a n d cooking classes at n i g h t too. A g a i n , these classes were attended b y a somewhat exclusive g r o u p , made u p of the wives of doctors, lawyers, a n d mill managers. In fact, these classes were not g e n e r a l l y a d v e r t i s e d to the p u b l i c a n d p u b l i c i t y was s t r i c t l y b y w o r d of mouth. Clode also w o r k e d as a s u b s t i t u t e teacher, often for l o n g p e r i o d s , i n the day school as well as w o r k i n g with a d u l t s at night. In a d d i t i o n to these p a i d posit ions, she took p a r t i n a number of v o l u n t e e r activit ies s u c h as the P a r e n t - T e a c h e r Association (there were f o u r little Clodes i n school). Her special i n t e r e s t in "what makes people the way they a r e " le d h e r to work for the Canadian Mental Health Association. Clode establ ished a local b r a n c h of that o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d s e r v e d as C h a r t e r P r e s i d e n t i n 1957. L a t e r , she became a p r o v i n c i a l b o a r d member a n d s e r v e d as p r e s i d e n t o n two separate occasions. Clode also sat on the national Canadian Mental Health Association b o a r d as the B.C. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e for ten y e a r s . In fact, after many h o u r s i n sessions with this r e s e a r c h e r , when a s k e d to r e c a l l a n y p a r t i c u l a r l y s ignif icant s u c c e s s i n her c a r e e r , it was not an a d u l t education event that was foremost i n Clode's mind, b u t that t h r o u g h h e r efforts, after a long p e r i o d of l o b b y i n g , a p s y c h i a t r i c bed w a r d was made available at the local hospital (Clode, J u l y 14/88, interview). In 1966, E r n e s t Clode developed serious health problems. D o r o t h y took o v e r his day school d r a f t i n g classes, as well as the n i g h t school operation w h i c h was t h e n a half-time position. S h o r t l y before his death, E r n e s t Clode submitted a b r i e f w h i c h u r g e d the school b o a r d to make 16 the n i g h t school posit ion full-t ime. A l t h o u g h she was a n experienced i n s t r u c t o r , familiar with the system, Clode claimed h e r s u c c e s s i n gett ing that position was i n p a r t because she c o u l d be h i r e d full-t ime for the same s a l a r y that had been paid to her h u s b a n d for half-time, because of scale differential . After h e r h u s b a n d ' s death i n M a r c h 1968, Clode w o r k e d full-t ime as d i r e c t o r of adult a n d c o n t i n u i n g education, a n d c o n t i n u e d to part ic ipate i n her other community interests . As the B.C. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Canadian Mental Health Association, she would attend national conferences, h a v i n g been g r a n t e d a l o n g - w e e k e n d off from work, a n d t h e n make u p the. time. A n d of c o u r s e , i n a d d i t i o n to these responsibi l i t ies her family of f o u r growing c h i l d r e n would r e q u i r e as much time a n d e n e r g y as a n y single p a r e n t c o u l d p r o v i d e . EexaojaalJlka^ With c h a r a c t e r i s t i c understatement, Clode r e c o u n t e d an anecdote that gives some idea of her e n e r g y a n d commitment in the face of o d d s that might have d e t e r r e d o t h e r s . The winter of 1969 was c o n s i d e r a b l y h a r s h e r t h a n u s u a l i n the Cowichan Valley, a n d b y J a n u a r y t ire c h a i n s were n e c e s s a r y to negotiate the heavy s n o w - d r i f t s , a n d ice along the t h i r t y mile s t r e t c h from Lake Cowichan to L a d y s m i t h . T h e r e , the climate shifted back to the w i n t e r y wetness more often f o u n d along the east coast of V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , so that c h a i n s t h e n h a d to be r e m o v e d , not o n l y to p r e v e n t damage to the t i r e s , but to comply with the town's o r d i n a n c e . T h e n , c h a i n s h a d to be p u t on again to negotiate the s t r e t c h of r o a d from L a d y s m i t h to Nanaimo where she would c a t c h the f e r r y to downtown V a n c o u v e r , a n d t h e n go b y b u s to U.B.C. for a three h o u r 17 c lass i n the a d u l t education graduate p r o g r a m m e . 1 Clode would r e t u r n b y the last f e r r y l e a v i n g at 2:00 am, d r i v e back to L a k e Cowichan b y equally h a z a r d o u s r o a d s , a n d t h e n , after a q u i c k "good m o r n i n g " check with h e r c h i l d r e n , Clode would go d i r e c t l y to work. A g a i n , i n o r d e r to compensate for time away from work, Clode a r r a n g e d to work weekends at the local recreat ion c e n t r e where many of the c o n t i n u i n g education activit ies took place. When a s k e d how, as a s ingle p a r e n t , she managed to r u n a household with four c h i l d r e n , complete her graduate studies, maintain a r e s p o n s i b l e full-time job as well as numerous o t h e r roles in community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , Clode r e p l i e d " y o u j u s t d i d it, that 's a l l . " T h i s was without a n y s u g g e s t i o n that she felt s y m p a t h y was w a r r a n t e d . But, it is this k i n d of experience that no doubt enabled h e r to empathize with familiar problems faced b y o t h e r single p a r e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as adults t a k i n g on s t u d e n t roles. Clode's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c avoidance of p e r s o n a l accolades has been noted b y a number of h e r a d m i r i n g colleagues. Bil l Day, P r e s i d e n t of Douglas College, recalls that Clode was "a j o y to work with" on the B C A C E A executive. She was: . . .A great p a r t n e r , a n d that of c o u r s e was the k i n d of s k i l l she e v i d e n c e d i n the community. If 1 Since the UBC l i b r a r y c losed at 11:00 p.m. a n d the last f e r r y to Nanaimo d i d not leave u n t i l 2:00 a.m., Clode often sat with a coffee a n d s t u d i e d i n some of the l a t e - n i g h t cafes downtown. Her scholastic p u r s u i t s a r o u s e d the c u r i o s i t y of other women, or " w o r k i n g g i r l s " as they d e s c r i b e d themselves. Clode would r e s p o n d to t h e i r q u e r i e s , a n d got to know them; t h e r e was one woman p a r t i c u l a r l y who i m p r e s s e d Clode when she d i v u l g e d that she, too was " w o r k i n g " h e r way t h r o u g h college. 18 y o u ' r e a great p a r t n e r , t h i n g s t e n d to come y o u r way. Because she h a d no ego, she h a d no need for Dorothy to be viewed as the prime mover, o r to be famous. A g a i n , that is the prime need for a community development p e r s o n . In fact, the r e v e r s e is t r u e : to the degree y o u get c r e d i t , y o u k i l l y o u r s e l f in community development, a n d Dorothy n e v e r had that need. She is a marvelously s e l f - c o n f i d e n t p e r s o n , a n d therefore she's v e r y attract ive - people swarm to her. So h e r capacities that s e r v e d h e r so well on the executive (of the BCACEA) were those that s e r v e d her v e r y well i n the community. (W. Day, J u l y 14/1988, interview) Bil l McGown, former d i r e c t o r of a d u l t a n d c o n t i n u i n g education for N o r t h a n d West V a n c o u v e r school d i s t r i c t s , commends Clode as " thoughtful ; i n n o v a t i v e . You c o u l d count on h e r to have a sensible opinion on most t h i n g s ; " a n d it was a p p a r e n t that she came to meetings well p r e p a r e d (McGown, J u n e 22, 1988, interview). Nick R u b i d g e , formerly d i r e c t o r of the Division of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , noted that from a M i n i s t r y p e r s p e c t i v e , she was seen as a valuable r e s o u r c e , a n d "We. . .would seek h e r i n p u t . . . t r y to get h e r i n v o l v e d because she was p r e p a r e d to p u t i n the effort," (Rubidge, J u n e 24/1988). He also said that Ron F a r i s , former Executive D i r e c t o r of a d u l t education for the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , r e c o g n i z e d i n Clode a real commitment to a n d rootedness i n 19 h e r community. He saw h e r as a "classic example of what c a n be done at the g r a s s r o o t s level" (Rubidge, interview) i n terms of community development. T h i s quality of h a r d work a n d p e r s i s t e n t p u r s u i t of policies a n d programmes w h i c h a d d r e s s e d community needs, p a r t i c u l a r l y those of d i s a d v a n t a g e d g r o u p s , set h e r a p a r t from some of h e r colleagues who failed to follow t h r o u g h on t h e i r r h e t o r i c about social development. B u t s h o u l d the r e a d e r imagine Clode's d o g g e d determination as d r e a r y , h e r colleagues d i d not f i n d it so, for many have r e m a r k e d u p o n h e r c h e e r f u l n e s s a n d good humour. J i n d r a K u l i c h , former d i r e c t o r of the Centre for C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n at U.B.C. , recal led a t o u r he led i n 1972 to Yugoslavia, H u n g a r y , a n d A u s t r i a for a g r o u p of 15 Canadian a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , of whom Clode was one. Her good humour was an i n v a l u a b l e a i d i n smoothing o v e r some of the r o u g h spots on that t r i p , a n d she "was v e r y much i n tune with people we were v i s i t i n g a n d d i s c u s s i n g with," ( K u l i c h , J u n e 24, 1988, interview). He remembered Clode as "always considerate a n d k i n d " b u t also saw that "she was no p u s h o v e r . " F o r instance, at a b o r d e r c r o s s i n g , where an official r e f u s e d to b u y back t h e i r remaining c u r r e n c y of that p a r t i c u l a r c o u n t r y , this same v e r y " m o t h e r l y " - l o o k i n g lady c o u l d be seen p o u n d i n g the c o u n t e r a n d l o u d l y demanding that t h e i r money be c h a n g e d (it d i d n ' t work!) a n d K u l i c h d e s c r i b e d h e r as " ' i n c e n s e d ' at a n y injustice b e i n g done" (June 24/1988, interview). Feminist Facets Clode g e n e r a l l y d i d not a p p e a r to her colleagues as a feminist. One noted "she n e v e r p u s h e d for feminine r e c o g n i t i o n j u s t 'people' 20 r e c o g n i t i o n . She wanted h e r ideas a p p r e c i a t e d a n d she stag a p p r e c i a t e d for h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s , " (McGown, J u n e 1988, interview). Clode d i d not seem to i n s i s t o n being h e a r d " just because" she was a woman, u n l i k e o t h e r s who were t h e n " j u m p i n g u p - demanding to be h e a r d , " not because "they had something worthwhile to say," but on the basis of g e n d e r (McGown, interview). O t h e r s also r e m a r k e d o n her m a t t e r - o f -fact, capable a p p r o a c h which fitted well with her colleagues, most of whom were men. "She d i d not sit back; she came p r e p a r e d for meetings a n d was as capable as a n y o n e " (Hambrook, J u n e 1988). A n d , a l t h o u g h he "takes his hat off to all of them" Coulson s a i d , " Clode 'was really o u t s t a n d i n g ' among h e r peers; also she managed to ' p u t them in t h e i r place' if there were a n y lapses of etiquette, r e m i n d i n g them that ' ladies were p r e s e n t . " 1 (June 28, 1988, interview). Bil l Day pointed out that p a r t of Clode's u n i q u e n e s s was that she j^aa a woman, a n d , more t h a n that, that she was " a woman not j u s t p a s s i n g t h r o u g h " b u t one who became p a r t of the establishment. General ly , a l t h o u g h she was well aware of the problems pecul iar to women, a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y to single p a r e n t s , Clode d i d not t h i n k that being a woman h a d been an y real detriment i n h e r c a r e e r . However, she c h u c k l e d with some satisfaction i n r e l a t i n g how her nomination for p r e s i d e n t of the B C A C E A had been init ial ly r e c e i v e d with little more t h a n polite enthusiasm from the "old b o y s ' network." T h e y were soon more t h a n a bit s u r p r i s e d to f i n d that Clode's s u p p o r t e r s , many of them women who had r e c e n t l y e n t e r e d the r a n k s of a d u l t e d u c a t o r s as p r o g r a m m e r s , h a d won h e r that office. Indeed, one member of that network r u e f u l l y r e m a r k e d that this swelling of the r a n k s with women 21 left him at one point feeling "as if I h a d lost my place at the table" (McGown, J u n e 28). In a n o t h e r c o n v e r s a t i o n , Clode r e f e r r e d to the satisfaction obtained i n matching wits with those who d i d not know h e r , seeing o n l y a r u s t i c from the c o u n t r y , unaware that beneath that matronly exterior lay a s h a r p , i n v e n t i v e , a n d analytical mind. She felt that p e r h a p s her academic achievements ( M . E d . , A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Dept., U.B.C. 1970) also helped to alleviate a n y doubt that might be h a r b o u r e d about h e r professional qualifications. Influences When a s k e d who she saw as p a r t i c u l a r l y inf luential i n h e r c a r e e r , Clode r e s p o n d e d with enthusiasm about Al C a r t i e r , who had been d i r e c t o r of the Department of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n within the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t most of the 1960s a n d e a r l y 1970s. Clode saw him as a "man with a dream" (July 14/1988, interview). E a r l y i n h e r c a r e e r , C a r t i e r s u g g e s t e d to h e r that p e r h a p s she could be more imaginative i n c h o o s i n g titles for c o u r s e s i n o r d e r that these c o u l d t h e n be eligible for f u n d i n g , a n d s u g g e s t e d that this would be c o n s i s t e n t with all those o t h e r s ' r e p o r t i n g p r o c e d u r e s . F o r instance, one college f o u n d that Chinese c o o k i n g as a g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t c o u r s e was not eligible for f u n d i n g , b u t as Foods 403, it c o u l d (and did) receive the government s u b s i d y as a vocational c o u r s e . C a r t i e r claimed this pract ice was w i d e s p r e a d , a n d u r g e d Clode not to let h e r honesty be a disadvantage i n h e r operations. "So, al l sorts of t h i n g s . . .began to have i n t e r e s t i n g titles that were f u n d a b l e , " (Clode, J u l y 14). C a r t i e r was a man "with a s t r o n g social conscience" a n d a " v e r y b r o a d view" o n a lot of t h i n g s . He was one of the f i r s t people i n 22 government to explore the dimensions of what was g e n e r a l l y called Communications, i n the sense of " e n l a r g i n g h o r i z o n s a n d expanded c o n s c i o u s n e s s , " w h i c h was p a r t of the p e r s o n a l development a n d self -actualization programming that c h a r a c t e r i z e d the late 1960s a n d 1970s. C a r t i e r d i d a lot of Communications work with the Catholic c h u r c h a n d he also occasionally offered development seminars as p a r t of the L a k e Cowichan c o n t i n u i n g education programme. Clode recal led a p a r t i c u l a r event: C a r t i e r a n d a f r i e n d of h i s , t h e n the d i r e c t o r of C h i l d Welfare, set u p a weekend "marathon" for d e l i n q u e n t teenagers i n the local h i g h -school. Clode recal led, " T h e y h a d to b r i n g t h e i r s leeping bags a n d I had to feed them all for t h r e e d a y s a n d n i g h t s , " but school t r u s t e e s soon demanded an a c c o u n t i n g as to "Why t h e y were b r i n g i n g in s leeping bags on a F r i d a y n i g h t ? " Clode was del ighted to a s s u r e them that this e v e n t was s p o n s o r e d b y s u c h h i g h l y placed officials! Ultimately, it was h e r a b i d i n g " i n t e r e s t i n people (which was) the main t h i n g " that both formed a n d formalized h e r own development. Communications a p p e a r e d as another aspect of that o n g o i n g i n t e r e s t in c o n j u n c t i o n with mental health, which was "always i n the b a c k g r o u n d " of h e r work i n a d u l t education. She " h a d been the p r o v i n c i a l p r e s i d e n t (of the Canadian Mental Health Association) a couple of times," a n d "on the national b o a r d for a good many y e a r s , too." F i n a l l y , it was h e r e a r l i e r work i n p s y c h i a t r i c n u r s i n g that Clode d e s c r i b e d as t r a i n i n g w h i c h was "infinitely. . .valuable" i n " l e a r n i n g how to cope with al l sorts of people"; it h a d " p r e p a r e d h e r for j u s t about a n y t h i n g " (even a d u l t education!). 23 Ebil&sopJhy Consistent with these influences a n d new i n t e r e s t s i n h e l p i n g people, Clode declared ( J u l y 14/1988) "I guess my p e r s o n a l p h i l o s o p h y is to t r y (to) do what y o u c o u l d . " T h e r e are "some t h i n g s that y o u c a n ' t do much about, a n d o t h e r t h i n g s that y o u can do a little bit about, a n d some t h i n g s y o u c a n do quite a bit about." Doing the best y o u c a n is " r e a l l y what life is all about. . .coping with what y o u have to work with - t r y i n g to s t r e t c h it, enlarge it, essential ly w o r k i n g within confines, a n d doing what y o u c a n , with what y o u c a n . " T h i s r e s e a r c h e r questioned Clode about " l i b e r a l " v e r s u s " l i b e r a t i n g " adult education, a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y how Clode viewed the " g r e a t e r good" i n terms of the i n d i v i d u a l v e r s u s the collective. Always to the point, Clode r e p l i e d , Y o u c a n s p e n d a lot of time w o r k i n g on the community a n d it comes to n o t h i n g , because the community i s n ' t r e a d y for whatever it is y o u t h i n k t h e y need. You have to face that fact that you can s p e n d a lot of time a n d e n e r g y a n d it comes to no f r u i t i o n . Now y o u c a n o n l y afford to do that a few times i n the c o u r s e of a year. Y o u ' v e got to s p e n d some time doing the t h i n g s y o u ' r e paid to do a n d showing some s o r t of r e s u l t s so that next year y o u ' l l be there again. A n d , that 's the p r a c t i c a l p a r t of it. Y o u have to do so much of t h i s r e g u l a r p r o g r a m m i n g i n o r d e r to be able to afford the l u x u r y of d o i n g t h i n g s y o u t h i n k a r e n e c e s s a r y or 24 the t h i n g s that y o u see as gaps i n the community o r , p a r t i c u l a r needs i n the community. I'm real ly a pragmatist r a t h e r t h a n a theorist , a n d so I've always been i n t e r e s t e d i n something I c a n l e a r n today a n d use tomorrow. But I also recognize that t h e r e a r e some t h i n g s that y o u have to do o n a h i g h e r level , that won't come to f r u i t i o n for t h r e e o r f o u r y e a r s , a n d y o u c a n work on those as well, b u t for the here a n d now y o u have to have something that will work much q u i c k e r . (July 14, 1988, interview) A s a n example of this pragmatic a p p r o a c h , Clode d e s c r i b e d how h e r r e g u l a r consultations with o t h e r agencies would sometimes identi fy a p a r t i c u l a r need. One instance i n v o l v e d a y o u n g man who h a d been something of a local problem. He had been diagnosed as dyslexic after many y e a r s i n school; he l a c k e d l i teracy ski l ls a n d was c h r o n i c a l l y unemployed. He wanted to e n t e r the army, b u t was unable to pass the e n t r a n c e exams. Clode saw this as an o p p o r t u n i t y for h e r to do something, "to t u r n a potential problem into a taxpayer." She a r r a n g e d with a local special education teacher to t u t o r him, s a y i n g , "these were t h i n g s w o r t h p u t t i n g extra money into, but of c o u r s e y o u had to have that e x t r a money to do it." T h e y o u n g man d i d achieve his goal of a n army c a r e e r . So, w i t h i n this seemingly simple s u c c e s s s t o r y , there is e v i d e n c e of many s k i l l s - consultat ion within the community for ongoing needs assessment; knowledge about community r e s o u r c e s a n d who can help; 25 real ist ic a p p r e c i a t i o n of potential f u n d i n g limitations; a n d , fundamentally, a belief i n a n abil i ty to achieve o u r goals, despite a p p a r e n t o b s t a c l e s . 2 At that time, r e s t r i c t i o n s i n c l u d e d the fact that m i n i s t r y policy r e q u i r e d a minimum of ten s t u d e n t s i n o r d e r to establ ish a class. But the c r e a t i v e programmer i n Clode a g a i n rose to the o c c a s i o n . 3 A p r o p o n e n t of l i felong l e a r n i n g , Clode t h o u g h t all education s h o u l d " e q u i p a p e r s o n for life" b u t noted that you can " o n l y teach so many s k i l l s . " E v e n t h o u g h "now, we may r e - t r a i n s e v e n times d u r i n g a l ife-time," it is ultimately att i tudes that are essential to s u r v i v a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y if we are to a v o i d the d e v a s t a t i n g effects of obsolescence (March 24, 1988). When a s k e d if she c o n s i d e r e d h e r role as an a c t i v i s t as ultimately effective as in the food bank, (see p p . 75-77, following) for example, Clode r e p l i e d that she saw it as a limited social action i n the sense that i t was r e s p o n d i n g to a p r e s e n t need; n e v e r t h e l e s s , " y o u are p r o v i d i n g (people) with a pjr.Qee.SjS. a n d it 's ultimately that p r o c e s s t h e y remember." People t h u s enabled can move from a passive to an active role i n o b t a i n i n g t h e i r r i g h t s , "no l o n g e r afraid of b u r e a u c r a t s " a n d l e a r n i n g to be effective i n r e a c h i n g goals b y e n l i s t i n g s u p p o r t from others. 2 A n d , "It also demonstrated a wil l ingness to devote much time a n d effort to s o l v i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s problem," (G. Selman, p e r s o n a l communication, September 1988). 3 Clode related that at one point i n h e r c a r e e r she had i n q u i r e d of Bil l Day how to start an A B E class. Day r e p l i e d : "You s t a r t with the f i r s t s tudent." Clode followed his a d v i c e , but a d d e d w r y l y that she " d i d n ' t know he had money to s t a r t " ( r e f e r r i n g to the substantial s u b s i d y a p p r o v e d b y the school b o a r d i n Day's d i s t r i c t ) "whereas we d i d n ' t . " 26 Did she see herself as a radical? Clode l a u g h e d - " T h a t d e p e n d s o n what g r o u p I'm i n ! " B u t she d i d see "adult education (as) a s u b v e r s i v e a c t i v i t y , " w h i c h explained why "we n e v e r had v e r y much f u n d i n g because t h e y d i d n ' t want to f u n d a c t i v i s t g r o u p s that p e r s u a d e d people to ask for this - o r that - al l of w h i c h would cost more money," for, " i f y o u are i n v o l v e d i n meeting somebody's need, it n e a r l y always i n v o l v e s batt l ing somebody's establishment." In F e b r u a r y 1988, S.D. #66 (Lake Cowichan) officially opened the Clode Centre o n the h i g h - s c h o o l g r o u n d s i n Lake Cowichan. T h i s ceremony was attended b y family, f r i e n d s , n e i g h b o u r s , colleagues a n d m i n i s t r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , all of whom were t h e r e to pay t r i b u t e to Clode, as well as to celebrate t h e i r good fortune at h a v i n g had s u c h an excellent r e s o u r c e i n that community for so long. The following citation r e a d d u r i n g the p r e s e n t a t i o n of h e r h o n o r a r y life membership at the a n n u a l g e n e r a l meeting of the Pacific Association of Continuing Education is a s u c c i n c t summary of, a n d t r i b u t e to, Clode a n d h e r c a r e e r . Dorothy Clode Dorothy Clode is p e r h a p s the best known a d u l t educator i n B.C., a t r i b u t e i n p a r t to her p e r s o n a l i t y a n d l e a d e r s h i p capacity , but a r e s u l t also of the fact that her c o n t r i b u t i o n s s p a n s u c h a wide s p e c t r u m of the f ield. She was for many y e a r s D i r e c t o r of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n for the L a k e Cowichan School District . T h i s placed her i n two different streams within the field. On the one h a n d she was an a d m i n i s t r a t o r within the p u b l i c sector where she exercised effective l e a d e r s h i p a n d among o t h e r t h i n g s , s e r v e d as P r e s i d e n t of the B.C. Associat ion of C o n t i n u i n g 27 E d u c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t o r s . On the o t h e r h a n d , she w o r k e d i n a school d i s t r i c t w h i c h s e r v e d r e l a t i v e l y small communities, where p r o g r a m a n d s e r v i c e s h a d to fit c losely with the other c o n c e r n s of community life. D o r o t h y emerged as one of o u r most remarkable p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n what we c a n a p p r o p r i a t e l y term community education, with a d u l t education as p a r t of the f a b r i c of community life. In the last s e v e r a l y e a r s before her ret irement, a n d d r a w i n g on h e r s t a n d i n g i n both of these aspects of the f ie ld, Dorothy s e r v e d as well as the C h a i r p e r s o n of what was called the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Consortium of Economic Dislocation, known to its f r i e n d s as the " t o u g h times consortium." With the assistance of f u n d s from government, activit ies a n d s e r v i c e s were o r g a n i z e d of p a r t i c u l a r relevance to those d i s t r i c t s in the p r o v i n c e where times were toughest, unemployment rates the h i g h e s t , a n d the most people i n real d i s t r e s s . Dorothy Clode's o u t s t a n d i n g l e a d e r s h i p of that effort was in some ways the capstone of h e r c a r e e r a n d b u t the latest of many o u t s t a n d i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n s to a d u l t education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. What must be a d d e d i n view of the occasion of this joint conference is that Dorothy is a P a s t - P r e s i d e n t of the NWAEA, h a v i n g s e r v e d i n that capacity i n 1982-83, a n d has been editor of the NWAEA newsletter since 1980. P A C E is pleased to award an h o n o r a r y life membership to Dorothy Clode. ( P A C E , 1987) 28 C H A P T E R 3 PROFESSIONAL A C T I V I T I E S Clode's c a r e e r began i n 1952 when she f i r s t t a u g h t a d u l t s i n n i g h t school classes, b u t i t was i n 1968 that she became a n administrator a n d began to a c t i v e l y part ic ipate i n professional organizat ions. In 1968, i n becoming Director of a d u l t education in her community, Clode j o i n e d a g r o u p of p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s who administered n e a r l y 8,000 school d i s t r i c t c o u r s e s . T h e sixties h a d been a p e r i o d of " r a p i d g r o w t h a n d development of a d u l t education i n the p r o v i n c e " i n w h i c h B.C. led the r e s t of Canada, l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t of the " o u t s t a n d i n g " offerings of school b o a r d s (Selman, 1980; p. 319). Enrollment rose from 40,000 in 48 d i s t r i c t s at the b e g i n n i n g of the decade to 160,000 i n 69 d i s t r i c t s b y 1970. B y 1969, n e a r l y 75% of those e n r o l l e d were i n r u r a l d i s t r i c t s , whereas at the b e g i n n i n g of the decade the majority of enrollment h a d been i n u r b a n c e n t r e s . In the aftermath of Sputnik, b y the mid-1960s, t h e r e was a b u r g e o n i n g of p o s t - s e c o n d a r y inst i tut ions a c r o s s N o r t h America. B y 1971, there were eleven colleges i n B.C. (Report, 1974, p. 46). D u r i n g the b r i e f p e r i o d while the NDP were i n power, Dr. Ron F a r i s was h i r e d as a c o n s u l t a n t to set u p a T a s k F o r c e 4 to s t u d y a n d make 4 It is i n t e r e s t i n g to note that only two members of this commission/task force r e p r e s e n t e d school d i s t r i c t adult education, whereas nine were l i n k e d to community colleges; the remaining two members r e p r e s e n t e d u n i v e r s i t i e s i n c l u d i n g the a d u l t education department at U.B.C. (p. 7). It is not s u r p r i s i n g that this select g r o u p would share some of F a r i s ' o b s e r v e d p r e d i s p o s i t i o n toward college c o o r d i n a t e d a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education. 29 recommendations r e g a r d i n g the implementation of a r e g i o n a l college system i n B.C. F a r i s h a d p r e v i o u s l y establ ished a v e r y s u c c e s s f u l r e g i o n a l college system i n Saskatchewan where t h e r e h a d been no school d i s t r i c t act ivit ies similar to those i n B.C. It was not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e n that school b o a r d offerings s h o u l d be s u b s u m e d , a n d that colleges specif ical ly would be g i v e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for " i n n o v a t i v e " community education, u s i n g "social animators" whose "special status. . .[enabled them to] c a r r y out imaginative plans a n d activit ies," (Report, 1974; p. 28). Despite a statement that r e c o g n i z e d , albeit b r i e f l y , the "essential roles h i s t o r i c a l l y p l a y e d b y school d i s t r i c t s " (Report, p. 27), a n d a r e c o g n i t i o n of the inadequate f u n d i n g i n the past (p. 28), this "new t h r u s t " gave a u t h o r i t y to the colleges for what had p r e v i o u s l y been school d i s t r i c t p r e r o g a t i v e s . T h e T a s k F o r c e was c o n c e r n e d about the existing p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s b y school d i s t r i c t s , n o t i n g that the permissive nature of the P u b l i c Schools A c t d i d not ejausjjucfi p r o v i s i o n i n r u r a l a n d s p a r s e l y populated areas, a n d that t h e r e was little o r no c o n s i d e r a t i o n of p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ' a d u l t education activit ies. The Report recommended that community colleges become "the p u b l i c a g e n c y r e s p o n s i b l e for the f u n d i n g , p r o v i s i o n , a n d (or) coordination of a d u l t a n d c o n t i n u i n g education i n each college r e g i o n " (Report, p. 27). A l t h o u g h many of these recommendations were not implemented, so that school d i s t r i c t s w h i c h wanted to continue i n a d u l t a n d c o n t i n u i n g education d i d so, the o v e r a l l d i r e c t i o n of the recommendations was toward a p h a s i n g out of school d i s t r i c t s i n that a r e a of p r o g r a m m i n g . 30 Needless to say, t h i s was viewed b y many school d i s t r i c t administrators with less t h a n enthusiasm, a n d p e r h a p s some anxiety a n d mistrust. One of the recommendations made was: " T h a t the Department of E d u c a t i o n establ ish a project f u n d a n d also Community E d u c a t i o n a l Development Councils (CEDC) to a p p l y d i r e c t l y to the Department for special community educational development g r a n t s on a project p r o p o s a l basis," (Report, 1974, p. 29). T h i s was the inception of what later became known as Special Project G r a n t s , w h i c h were available ultimately to both colleges a n d school d i s t r i c t s . The implementation of the Special Project system had a dramatic impact o n community development t h r o u g h o u t the p r o v i n c e . These g r a n t s made possible a range of d i v e r s e a n d creat ive projects to meet special needs a n d i n t e r e s t s , u n t i l f u n d i n g was eliminated i n 1981. In 1976, a n o t h e r major r e p o r t was commissioned. The "Report of .tJae_£Qmmi.tte.^ CiSlumbia^ (1976) f r e q u e n t l y termed as "The_JE,aria_Ee^or.t" o r "The GtoXd.eji..._lBool5;." T h i s was p e r h a p s a r e s p o n s e i n p a r t to the r e q u e s t from a d u l t e d u c a t o r s that the e a r l i e r Report (1974) be clarif ied. The Pacific Association of C o n t i n u i n g (PACE) a n d the B r i t i s h Columbia Association of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t o r s (BCACEA) had submitted similar briefs; that of the B C A C E A submitted i n December 1974 (quite l ikely i n r e s p o n s e to the anxieties r a i s e d i n the 1974 Report). It was also " a s k e d the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n to establ ish a commission on task force to s t u d y a n d recommend p h i l o s o p h y a n d f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s for c o n t i n u i n g education i n B.C.," (Cassidy, 1984, p. 40). 31 Clode was among the t w e n t y - t h r e e a d u l t e d u c a t o r s selected to s e r v e on the committee. A l t h o u g h o n l y three school d i s t r i c t s were r e p r e s e n t e d , this committee h a d a more eclectic m a k e - u p t h a n that of the p r e v i o u s one. T h e r e was a good p u b l i c r e s p o n s e to the p r o c e e d i n g s (eg. a 41% r e s p o n s e rate to the 630 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d i s t r i b u t e d at 19 p r o v i n c e - w i d e p u b l i c meetings a n d a total of 147 briefs submitted). In consequence, the committee made 110 recommendations, all of w h i c h were consistent with the e s t a b l i s h i n g of a life l o n g - s y s t e m of education i n w h i c h a d u l t a n d c o n t i n u i n g education would move from the " m a r g i n " a n d have g r e a t e r p r i o r i t y . Despite the b r a v e b e g i n n i n g s of the 1974 Report a n d this s u b s e q u e n t attempt to e s t a b l i s h p u b l i c policies, t h e r e were serious limitations " p a r t i a l l y as a consequence of the r e s t r i c t i o n of the F a r i s Committee's mandate to the a r e a of c o n t i n u i n g education," (Cassidy, p. 49). A l t h o u g h one of the Committee's recommendations rei terated that a special projects f u n d be c r e a t e d , the limited mandate d i d not focus as the e a r l i e r r e p o r t h a d o n the colleges' major role i n community development. In fact, the recommendation r e g a r d i n g regional adult education c o o r d i n a t i n g counci ls d i d not r e f e r to colleges at a l l , but to " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from all p u b l i c a d u l t education programming agencies," (Report, 1976, p. 13). However, the ultimate i n a d e q u a c y of the F a r i s Report was that, " T h e committee was a p p a r e n t l y unable to develop a v i s i o n of how the educational system would be r e s t r u c t u r e d to accommodate a n d realize the l i f e - l o n g l e a r n i n g p e r s p e c t i v e it so heavi ly emphasized," (Cassidy, p. 49). 32 Response from the m i n i s t r y was "slow a n d u n e v e n " . In 1981, F a r i s i n d i c a t e d that "approximately 33% [of the recommendations] h a d r e c e i v e d a "signif icant r e s p o n s e , " (Cassidy, p. 51). These i n c l u d e d the implementation of the Special Projects system, a n d a p r o v i n c i a l A d v i s o r y Committee o n A d u l t a n d C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n was establ ished. Despite the lack of c l e a r l y defined p u b l i c policies r e g a r d i n g a d u l t a n d c o n t i n u i n g education, F a r i s , as Executive Director of the C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n Divis ion of the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , for many y e a r s had a dramatic impact on a d u l t education i n this p r o v i n c e . A l t h o u g h Clode would be among those who welcomed many of his policies, especial ly those w h i c h were i n t e n d e d to advance a n d s u p p o r t the a d u l t educational component i n community development, t h e r e were s ignif icant differences in h e r view as to how those policies s h o u l d be implemented. B r i e f l y , Clode's view was that F a r i s del iberately set out to eliminate school b o a r d s ' a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education operations, p r e f e r r i n g that colleges have p r i m a r y j u r i s d i c t i o n for s u c h programmes. T h e r e were a number of specific i n c i d e n t s which she ci ted that s u g g e s t e d colleges got p r e f e r e n t i a l treatment; for instance, when f u n d s had been allocated for specific programmes o r projects , a n d were spent elsewhere, m i n i s t r y officials gave colleges a symbolic "slap on the wrist ," b u t d i d not monitor a n d enforce colleges' c o n t i n u i n g education b u d g e t s i n the same way as m i n i s t r y p r o c e d u r e s r e q u i r e d of school d i s t r i c t s . Clode also identi f ied the colleges' p r a c t i c e of c l a s s i f y i n g as vocational a c o u r s e that more r e a d i l y would be categorized as a n o n -fundable general i n t e r e s t act ivi ty . A l t h o u g h schools were also p r o n e to 33 this p r a c t i c e , it seemed to be more p r e v a l e n t a n d less monitored i n the college system. These were specific i n c i d e n t s of what Clode saw as i n f r a c t i o n s , b u t h e r p e r c e p t i o n of g e n e r a l m i n i s t r y bias toward colleges was s h a r e d b y many of h e r colleagues i n both the college a n d school d i s t r i c t systems. T J t e J t o t i s J b i ^ ^ 1B .CACEAJ T h e B r i t i s h Columbia Association of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t o r s (BCAEA) was the organizat ion t h r o u g h w h i c h Clode d i r e c t e d h e r efforts along with h e r p e e r s , to influence m i n i s t r y policies. D o r o t h y Clode was i n v i t e d as a guest s p e a k e r at the i n a u g u r a l c o n v e n t i o n of the B C A C E A at H a r r i s o n Hot S p r i n g s i n 1965; she spoke as the B.C. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the national executive for the Canadian Mental Health Association. T h i s involvement with the B C A C E A c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h o u t h e r c a r e e r as a n a d u l t educator. Clode was the V a n c o u v e r Island r e p r e s e n t a t i v e for many y e a r s a n d she s e r v e d o n the executive as the head of the c u r r i c u l u m development committee u n t i l her retirement i n 1985. In 1975, Clode was the B C A C E A delegate at the conference o n the O r g a n i z a t i o n of Economic Cooperation a n d Development (OECD) i n Edmonton (BCACEA minutes, J u n e 1975). She also s e r v e d as p r e s i d e n t i n 1976-77. In 1986 Clode r e c e i v e d an h o n o r a r y life-time membership a n d she continues to attend a n n u a l conventions a n d maintain an i n t e r e s t i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s affairs. Clode d e s c r i b e d that o r g a n i z a t i o n as one p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d with administrat ion a n d f i n a n c i n g of a d u l t education i n the p r o v i n c i a l context, 34 with a focus on s u p p o r t for the p r a c t i t i o n e r . T h i s s u p p o r t was essential ly pragmatic since members were i n t e r e s t e d i n " l e a r n i n g today something they could use tomorrow." When a s k e d about this potentially p a r o c h i a l focus o n professional c o n c e r n s , Clode r e p l i e d that this ultimately benefited the a d u l t l e a r n e r ; since without this s u p p o r t f o r the people in the " t r e n c h e s , " t h e r e would be less for those l e a r n e r s . 5 At its i n c e p t i o n i n 1965, the B C A C E A was mainly made u p of members from school d i s t r i c t a d u l t education programmes, w h i c h h a d a s t r o n g p r e s e n c e i n the p r o v i n c i a l system. In 1962-63, 68 school d i s t r i c t s p r o v i d e d 3,070 classes f o r 70,405 p a r t i c i p a n t s ; of these, o v e r 59% attended classes outside the V a n c o u v e r area. E v i d e n t l y , a d u l t education was seen less as " p e r i p h e r a l " a n d i n c r e a s i n g l y "as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of (school b o a r d s ' ) educational s e r v i c e s " (Cartier, 1964; p p . 29-30). B y 1970, "there were 29 ful l time a n d 13 half time d i r e c t o r s " i n 69 school d i s t r i c t s a n d enrollment has r i s e n to 162,140 (Cartier, 1971; p. 80). In d i s c u s s i n g her v a r i o u s roles as a g e n e r a l member, as the V a n c o u v e r Island r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , a n d as p r e s i d e n t , Clode indicated an o n g o i n g c o n c e r n with the effects of m i n i s t r y policies on adult a n d c o n t i n u i n g education general ly , a n d school d i s t r i c t s p a r t i c u l a r l y . Many of the briefs s p o n s o r e d b y B C A C E A were i n r e s p o n s e to what was p e r c e i v e d b y the school d i s t r i c t s as a bias i n f u n d i n g a n d o t h e r policies 5 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , "the view from the f ield" s u g g e s t s that the B C A C E A was mainly i n t e r e s t e d i n inst i tut ional welfare (G. Selman, p e r s o n a l communication, September 1988). 35 that d i r e c t l y benefited colleges, b u t w h i c h often excluded school d i s t r i c t s . B y the e a r l y 1970s, because of the i n c r e a s e d number of colleges, as well as t h e i r e nl a rge role i n a d u l t a n d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , the m a k e - u p of the B C A C E A membership b e g a n to shift. Despite the i n c r e a s i n g predominance of college a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , the o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n t i n u e d to submit a n d s u p p o r t briefs that a d v o c a t e d o n behalf of school d i s t r i c t s ' c o n c e r n s . T h i s seeming anomaly reflected that fact that many of the B C A C E A members who were college r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s had f o r m e r l y w o r k e d within ^the school d i s t r i c t a d u l t education system, a n d were sensit ive to school d i s t r i c t c o n c e r n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , c o n s e n s u s was u s u a l l y possible. Nick R u b i d g e , formerly with the m i n i s t r y ' s Department of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , recal led (June 1988, interview) that there was a d i s t i n c t g r o u p of school d i s t r i c t administrators when he h a d e n t e r e d the f ie ld, some eighteen y e a r s ago. Most of them had come u p t h r o u g h the school system, a n d as senior a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , had t a k e n o n a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education duties as the "apex" ( r a t h e r t h a n "terminal" stage) of a c a r e e r . Few had a n y academic g r o u n d i n g i n a d u l t education; Clode was one of the few exceptions (i.e. M . E d i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , U . B . C . , 1970). So, as the college system began to e x p a n d , h i r i n g y o u n g , professional ly t r a i n e d a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education programmers, it was u n d e r s t a n d a b l e that the old g u a r d would be r e l u c t a n t to admit to the " i n n e r c i r c l e " these i n e x p e r i e n c e d u p s t a r t s . But, Rubidge pointed out that Clode was again the exception i n that "she was v e r y a p p r o a c h a b l e . " 36 Those were also a number of former school d i s t r i c t a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who went into the e x p a n d i n g college system, i n p a r t a reflection of the number of school d i s t r i c t s that opted out of a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education as the colleges took o n that role. But, Rubidge i n d i c a t e d that many college p r i n c i p a l s d i d not share a n y of t h e i r enthusiasm for these " f r i v o l o u s " a n d "marginal" activit ies since t h e y saw the essential role of the college system as a t r a d i t i o n a l academic one. Only because of the legislated mandate was there a n y s u p p o r t for these programmes at some colleges. T h i s academic bias was to some extent reflected i n the legislation that gave colleges a far g r e a t e r degree of autonomy i n the sense that, u n l i k e school d i s t r i c t a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education, t h e r e was little o r no accountabi l i ty for how a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education allocations were spent. Rubidge s u g g e s t e d that, in a d d i t i o n to the t r a d i t i o n of academic freedom i n inst i tut ions of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g , this was also polit ically astute; when people can't get into the classroom, for example, it is the i n s t i t u t i o n , not the government, which the p u b l i c sees as r e s p o n s i b l e . A l t h o u g h school d i s t r i c t administrators felt that ministry policies f a v o u r e d colleges, Rubidge p o i n t e d out that, i n terms of dollars allocated specif ically for c o n t i n u i n g education f unct ions, f u n d i n g was v i r t u a l l y the same for each system. F u r t h e r m o r e , because of M i n i s t r y s u p p o r t for small school d i s t r i c t s s u c h as Lake Cowichan, addit ional f u n d s were p r o v i d e d when r e d u c e d school b u d g e t s t h r e a t e n e d to eliminate a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education programmes. A case i n point was the f u n d i n g for the Consortium on Economic Dislocation; Rubidge said that 37 this was d i r e c t l y a r e s u l t of F a r i s ' attempts to e n s u r e that Dorothy Clode's posit ion was maintained. R u b i d g e p r o p o s e d that this split , p e r c e i v e d to be between colleges a n d school d i s t r i c t s , was a c t u a l l y a dist inct ion between r u r a l a n d u r b a n d i s t r i c t s . The ' b i g b o y s ' (as Clode d e s c r i b e d the lower mainland school d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ) , a c c o r d i n g to R u b i d g e , were p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l at promoting g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t programmes, but had not a p p e a r e d as committed, o r capable, i n the a r e a of community e d u c a t i o n , for example, programmes for seniors, single p a r e n t s , women's r e - e n t r y a n d other minority i n t e r e s t s . Smaller, r u r a l d i s t r i c t s d i d p r o v i d e s u c h programmes a n d Clode was p a r t i c u l a r l y effective i n that r e g a r d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , R u b i d g e said that F a r i s a n d other m i n i s t r y officials would f r e q u e n t l y c o n s u l t with h e r about community educations projects; she was h i g h l y r e g a r d e d as someone closely i n v o l v e d i n h e r community; her views a n d her commitment were r e s p e c t e d . Bi l l Day, the p r e s e n t P r e s i d e n t of Douglas College, was one of those who had formerly been a school d i s t r i c t a d u l t a n d c o n t i n u i n g education administrator. He a g r e e d that there a p p e a r e d to be bias toward colleges. He r e i t e r a t e d 6 (July 1988, interview) an earl ier statement that when he f i r s t knew F a r i s , F a r i s had d e c l a r e d that he i n t e n d e d to eliminate school d i s t r i c t c o n t i n u i n g education operations. However, Day i n d i c a t e d that he t h o u g h t F a r i s ' logic was based o n the 6 Similar r e m a r k s were p r e v i o u s l y made b y Day at a d i n n e r a n d 'roast ' g i v e n b y the B C A C E A i n the s p r i n g of 1987, after Ron F a r i s had left what remained of the c o n t i n u i n g education department of the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . 38 fact that i n a p r o v i n c i a l sett ing i n w h i c h t h e r e were too few r e s o u r c e s , i t made sense to steer colleges into d e v e l o p i n g programmes for d i s a d v a n t a g e d g r o u p s . A l t h o u g h school d i s t r i c t programmes were " v e r y r e s p o n s i v e , v i t a l a n d freewheeling" this reflected more of the p r e s s u r e s of a market economy, r e s u l t i n g i n programmes heavi ly geared to consumer, u s e r - p a y i n t e r e s t s . Day faulted the school d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s for fail ing to recognize that the h i g h e r costs associated with colleges (eg., f a c u l t y - s c a l e wages, h i g h e r administrative costs) were p a r t of a s t u d e n t s u p p o r t system; he s u g g e s t e d that many school d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s felt these costs were excessive a n d u n n e c e s s a r y , ref lect ing that t h e y were c o n c e r n e d only with the p r o d u c t , not with the s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d to effectively d e l i v e r a n d back u p the p r o d u c t . A l t h o u g h these views s u g g e s t e d Day's u n d e r s t a n d i n g of F a r i s ' objectives, he was c r i t i c a l that the department u n d e r F a r i s ' l e a d e r s h i p h a d failed to systematically initiate community development. Special Project f u n d i n g was a move i n that d i r e c t i o n ; however, the t i n y amount of money i n v o l v e d (at the local level), a n d the permissive nature of the legislation r e s u l t e d i n many colleges a n d school d i s t r i c t s choosing to i g n o r e that a r e a of programming. Others (eg. Hambrook, McGown) also indicated they s h a r e d Clode's view that colleges got p r e f e r e n t i a l treatment. Coulson (interview, J u n e 28, 1988) s u g g e s t e d that the m i n i s t r y jealously r e t a i n e d its power o v e r the local school system, r e q u i r i n g that school d i s t r i c t s had to ask for p e r m i s s i o n to develop programmes, despite g e n e r a l recognit ion that this abi l i ty to r e s p o n d q u i c k l y was one of that system's v i r t u e s . Also, 39 Coulson noted that the e n t r y of colleges into part- t ime vocational c o u r s e s v a s t l y r e d u c e d the school system's abi l i ty to generate f u n d i n g from these p o p u l a r activit ies, which were also eligible for m i n i s t r y s u b s i d i e s . It a p p e a r e d that the colleges had an u n f a i r advantage i n that r e g a r d . J i n d r a K u l i c h (interview, J u n e 24, 1988) was st i l l of the o p i n i o n that it was u n f o r t u n a t e that a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education had gone into the colleges a n d he saw the steady erosion of a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education b y the school b o a r d s as a regrettable r e s u l t of policies ref lect ing F a r i s ' low o p i n i o n of those operations. As a r e s u l t of " f r i e n d l y p e r s u a s i o n " to h a n d o v e r that role to colleges, approximately 60 b o a r d s gave that r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o v e r to colleges. When a s k e d if he would c o n c u r with one m i n i s t r y official 's view that the p e r c e i v e d split between colleges a n d school b o a r d s was more realist ical ly one based on r u r a l v s . u r b a n d i v i s i o n s , K u l i c h was adamant i n p o i n t i n g out that it was the r u r a l school based system w h i c h had l a r g e l y been d e s t r o y e d . He said that it was p r i m a r i l y the l a r g e r c e n t r e s of population that c o n t i n u e d to be r e p r e s e n t e d b y most of the remaining school d i s t r i c t s ' a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education operations. K u l i c h d i d c o n c u r with another school d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r (Hambrook, interview J u n e 22/88) that adults often feel comfortable in a familiar local school system, r a t h e r t h a n in an imposing college o r u n i v e r s i t y . A n d , a l t h o u g h all would agree that p u t t i n g big people i n little seats s h o u l d be a v o i d e d , K u l i c h wondered if the lecture hall at U . B . C . , for instance, was real ly a n y better suited to a d u l t l e a r n e r s ' needs. In fact, many colleges i n r u r a l areas actually d e p e n d on local school facilities for c o u r s e offerings. K u l i c h felt that, t h a n k s to 40 Clode (and others) school d i s t r i c t a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education c o n t i n u e d " p o i n t i n g out how it can be done, a n d s h o u l d be done." He felt that it was futile to t r y to " p a r a c h u t e " t h i n g s into a community; r a t h e r , the community s u p p o r t base was an essential p a r t of a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education programming. On the other h a n d , Day h a d pointed out (interview, J u l y 12, 1988) the great diff iculty that many school b o a r d operations had i n community development programming. A n d , a l t h o u g h it was one t h i n g to be aware of needs, it was quite another to implement r e s p o n s e s . Most school b o a r d s l a c k e d the sophist icat ion for s u c c e s s f u l community development projects. (He also a g r e e d that many colleges also lack skil ls i n that area.) T h e r e was some basis for F a r i s ' c o n c e r n that school d i s t r i c t s had not p r o v i d e d comprehensive a d u l t education s e r v i c e s t h r o u g h o u t the p r o v i n c e . F u n d i n g policies c o u l d p r o v i d e an impetus for both colleges a n d school d i s t r i c t s . M i n i s t r y s u b s i d i e s helped offset costs of academic a n d community i n t e r e s t c o u r s e s , w h i c h were expensive to r u n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r u r a l areas. U r b a n d i s t r i c t s h a d to "pay for the m e r r y -g o - r o u n d with what (was) made on the r a c e t r a c k " (McGown, J u n e 1988, interview,) , but they, too, had to use r e v e n u e from s u b s i d i z e d vocational c o u r s e s , w h i c h were often money-makers, as well as from p o p u l a r u s e r - p a y g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t c o u r s e s i n o r d e r to offset losses on minority i n t e r e s t c o u r s e s . Bi l l Day, however, a r g u e d that it was a " c o p -out" for school d i s t r i c t s to d e p e n d on g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t programmes to s u b s i d i z e A B E / E S L , for instance. He p r o p o s e d that school b o a r d operations would be better a d v i s e d to set programme p r i o r i t i e s a n d 41 maintain f u n d i n g to s u p p o r t these a c c o r d i n g l y . B u t for many school d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , it was n e c e s s a r y to use r e v e n u e from one a r e a to s u b s i d i z e programmes i n another category. In d e s c r i b i n g the evolution of the B C A C E A , Clode noted that t h e r e has always been a "marginal" aspect to school d i s t r i c t a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education operations, since b u d g e t s had to be r e q u e s t e d y e a r l y from school b o a r d s that o p e r a t e d with a p r o v i n c i a l mandate for a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education that was o n l y p e r m i s s i v e , that is , optional. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e was the constant t h r e a t that t h e i r a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education o p e r a t i o n c o u l d be eliminated b y schoolboards because of insuff ic ient f u n d s . Despite evidence (noted above) of the p u b l i c demand for these adult s e r v i c e s , this tenuous aspect was intensif ied with policies that later s t r e n g t h e n e d the colleges' role i n a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education. Clode s u g g e s t e d that some colleges were o r i g i n a l l y p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n "esoteric, h i g h - b r o w " offerings a n d were content to let the school d i s t r i c t s "take care of the rest ." T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e for the lower mainland, r e s u l t i n g i n c o n t i n u i n g education s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d mainly t h r o u g h North a n d West V a n c o u v e r , New Westminster, B u r n a b y , a n d V a n c o u v e r School Boards. In o t h e r p a r t s of the p r o v i n c e , there was more competit ion 7 between school d i s t r i c t s a n d colleges, except where colleges had taken o v e r . Clode noted that out of that o r g a n i z a t i o n a g r o u p of deans a n d d i r e c t o r s was formed which met to 7 Clode recal led with amusement how some d i r e c t o r s " g u a r d e d t h e i r 'little black book' with t h e i r l ives" since these contained information about i n s t r u c t o r s a n d o t h e r programme r e s o u r c e s . 42 d i s c u s s college related c o n c e r n s a n d a similar informal o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l school d i s t r i c t d i r e c t o r s met separately on an ad hoc basis. C o n s e q u e n t l y , the entire membership met o n l y at a n n u a l c o n v e n t i o n s , but the regional meetings i n c l u d e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of both t y p e s of i n s t i t u t i o n s as d i d the executive. However, Clode i n s i s t e d on the necessity for r e g u l a r contact a n d she v i g o r o u s l y p u r s u e d e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y to f i n d out what was going on t h r o u g h o u t the p r o v i n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e s p o n s e to what was being f u n d e d for the colleges i n o r d e r to make s u r e school d i s t r i c t s d i d n ' t miss out. In d i s c u s s i n g ministry policies, Clode was c r i t i c a l of the "almost o p e n - e n d e d " system of college f u n d i n g . With little o r no d i r e c t c o n t r o l from the ministry, the colleges' r e s p o n s e to an occasional "slap on the w r i s t " was c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y s u p e r f i c i a l . Clode noted remarks by Al C a r t i e r about some of the " c r e a t i v e " ways i n w h i c h colleges would a t t r i b u t e g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t c o u r s e s to a vocational category in o r d e r to be eligible for h i g h e r government s u b s i d i e s . Also, she said special project g r a n t s were d i v e r t e d ; for example, s u b s t a n t i a l g r a n t monies were allocated to one of the colleges to set up Knowledge Network r e s o u r c e facilities, b u t n o t h i n g was done i n that r e g a r d for s e v e r a l y e a r s a n d Clode s u g g e s t e d the g r a n t p r o b a b l y went into g e n e r a l r e v e n u e . In c o n t r a s t , school d i s t r i c t a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education b u d g e t s were allocated a c c o r d i n g to specif ics identif ied on b u d g e t forms r e p o r t e d d i r e c t l y to the m i n i s t r y , a n d there was much t i g h t e r c o n t r o l i n a c c o u n t i n g . Clode noted that when the " c r u n c h " came (that is , the major b u d g e t cuts i n 1980-1981), 43 Th e f i r s t t h i n g that colleges d i d was c u t c o n t i n u i n g education, c u t t h e i r o u t r e a c h , c u t off t h e i r s e r v i c e s to all the c o n t r i b u t i n g (school) d i s t r i c t s a n d j u s t r e t r e a t to t h e i r main campuses, so if t h e y h a d been h a n d l i n g A L L the c o n t i n u i n g education f u n d s we would have got v e r y little. (July 14, 1988) Clode's view was that " d i s t r u s t " of this potentially v u l n e r a b l e situation led some school d i s t r i c t s to continue p r o v i s i o n of t h e i r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n / c o n t i n u i n g education s e r v i c e s a n d to reject the c o l l e g e - b a s e d proposals . Clode also s u g g e s t e d there is evidence that with c o n t i n u i n g r e s t r a i n t of p r o v i n c i a l f u n d s , school d i s t r i c t s ' adult e d u c a t i o n / c o n t i n u i n g education will continue to be s t r e n g t h e n e d t h r o u g h local taxation. She pointed out that i n the last few y e a r s a number of school d i s t r i c t s have r e - e s t a b l i s h e d adult e d u c a t i o n / c o n t i n u i n g education programmes (eg. Sooke, Campbell River) a n d more are anticipated. U n d e r h e r l e a d e r s h i p , attempts were made to overcome the potentially p a r o c h i a l i n t e r e s t of the B C A C E A membership. A p p r o a c h e s were made to related o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h as the A d u l t Basic E d u c a t i o n Association, community schools, a n d the T e a c h e r s of E n g l i s h as an A d d i t i o n a l L a n g u a g e to invite them u n d e r the B C A C E A "umbrel la ." These efforts were l a r g e l y u n s u c c e s s f u l . However, the more b r o a d l y based Pacific Association for C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n was a l r e a d y more s u c c e s s f u l l y doing the same t h i n g (Quinn, 1988). Despite the d i v i s i v e forces within the o r g a n i z a t i o n , Clode felt that the B C A C E A had considerable s u c c e s s in s u p p o r t i n g its members a n d i n f l u e n c i n g ministry policies. As an example, Clode r e f e r r e d to the brief 44 p r e p a r e d b y the B C A C E A executive i n 1981 i n r e s p o n s e to the m i n i s t r y ' s major r e d u c t i o n s of c o n t i n u i n g education budgets . Clode attended the s u b s e q u e n t meeting with the M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n , Bil l Van d e r Zalm a n d made a special plea for school d i s t r i c t s a n d r u r a l areas. Clode t h o u g h t that those c o n c e r t e d efforts had been effective i n p e r s u a d i n g the m i n i s t r y to eliminate the 19% c u t p r o p o s e d for the following y e a r ' s b u d g e t s . Clode's astute p e r c e p t i o n s of the implications of policies a n d h e r wil l ingness not only to speak out b u t also to devote considerable time a n d e n e r g y a d v o c a t i n g equitable policies a n d programmes, have u n d o u b t e d l y c o n t r i b u t e d s ignif icantly to the s t r e n g t h of the B C A C E A a n d the inst i tut ions its members r e p r e s e n t . TJie__jaorikM£&L..Aasa T h e NWAEA is a n o t h e r association of a d u l t e d u c a t o r s i n which Clode p a r t i c i p a t e d for many y e a r s . When Clode joined i n 1968, that g r o u p was relat ively new, h a v i n g been s t a r t e d i n 1966. One of the o r i g i n a t o r s was J o h n Niemi, a p r o f e s s o r of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n at U.B.C. , whom Clode had met while she was u n d e r t a k i n g graduate studies i n that department. Niemi e n c o u r a g e d s t u d e n t s to participate i n professional development activit ies, s u c h as conferences. T h e g e o g r a p h i c a l r a n g e of the NWAEA membership extended b e y o n d B.C.'s b o r d e r s to i n c l u d e Washington, O r e g o n , Idaho, Montana a n d Alaska, as well as A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan a n d Manitoba; more r e c e n t l y the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s was also i n c l u d e d as a member. Its f u n c t i o n Clode d e s c r i b e d i n terms of "advancement of c o n t i n u i n g education i n the northwest" a n d its membership i n c l u d e d a wider i n t e r e s t g r o u p t h a n the 45 B C A C E A ; that is , academics, graduate s t u d e n t s , p r a c t i t i o n e r s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a n d o t h e r s i n t e r e s t e d in the organizat ion's aims a n d member networks. T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n focused o n the adult l e a r n e r more d i r e c t l y t h a n i n the B C A C E A , a n d Clode noted that this organizat ion also p r o v i d e d a useful forum for exchange of p r a c t i c a l ideas a n d n e t w o r k i n g among members. Clode was elected B.C. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o n the executive for f o u r terms. She also s e r v e d as p r e s i d e n t - e l e c t d u r i n g 1980-1981, a n d as p r e s i d e n t i n 1981-1982. T h i s two y e a r term was to e n s u r e c o n t i n u i t y i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the a n n u a l convention. She was r e s p o n s i b l e for the Banff conference i n 1981 a n d the A n c h o r a g e conference i n 1982. In both cases, she was the NWAEA officer r e s p o n s i b l e for l iaison with local g r o u p s s h a r i n g those joint conferences: the A l b e r t a A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Association a n d the A l a s k a A B E T e a c h e r s Association. Because membership fees were low ($8.00) there was little or no money to pay for t r a v e l costs of executive a n d committee members, but Clode was s u c c e s s f u l i n gett ing the a p p r o v a l a n d f inancial s u p p o r t of h e r t r u s t e e s i n o r d e r to be able to take on these commitments. However, Clode o b s e r v e d that another unfortunate r e s u l t of m i n i s t r y b u d g e t cuts was that many of the inst i tutions stopped f u n d i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to attend regional meetings a n d as a r e s u l t attendance d r o p p e d . Clode edited the association's newsletter for the five y e a r p e r i o d 1982 to 1987, t h e n an editorial b o a r d took o v e r this task. Clode continues to participate as a member of that b o a r d . The p u b l i c a t i o n 46 itself Clode d e s c r i b e d as " s p o r a d i c " for the f i r s t few y e a r s but was maintained at five issues p e r y e a r d u r i n g her st int as editor. Her P r e s i d e n t ' s message i n the Newsletter, Nov. 1982, #51, summarized the s e r v i c e s which membership p r o v i d e d : an a n n u a l conference; o p p o r t u n i t y for graduate student r e s e a r c h exchanges; project s e a r c h ; special project information; legislative affairs; awards; a n d g e n e r a l f o s t e r i n g of cooperation t h r o u g h o u t the northwest. Clode suggested that, a l though the mandate a n d membership were different i n terms of focus, g e o g r a p h y a n d political contexts, the benefits to B.C. members were significant. T h i s she d e s c r i b e d i n terms of a " n o r t h - s o u t h affinity," an exchange of ideas, solutions a n d methods that reflected similar social problems often f o u n d in single i n d u s t r y , isolated, a n d s e m i - r u r a l areas a n d small towns c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y found t h r o u g h o u t the n o r t h w e s t e r n states and p r o v i n c e s . Despite these s h a r e d c o n c e r n s , there was not much help for B.C. or other Canadian members r e g a r d i n g government f u n d i n g . American tactics were sometimes i n a p p r o p r i a t e ; for instance, Clode o b s e r v e d that the t y p i c a l American pract ice of political l o b b y i n g b y t a k i n g a c o n g r e s s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e out to l u n c h had different implications in B.C. a n d i n Canada. A l t h o u g h he r e t i r e d within two or three y e a r s after Clode became a member i n 1968, Ron Bowcott (personal communication, June 1988), who also s e r v e d on the b o a r d of the NWAEA, recal led that "she was a v e r y able a n d active member." No doubt he, along with other members, would be k e p t informed about that association's activit ies as " a recipient of the many newsletters which (Clode) p u t together" as J i n d r a K u l i c h (July 47 1988) noted. K u l i c h also s h a r e d Clode's view that the NWAEA was more a p r o f e s s i o n a l development i n t e r e s t g r o u p t h a n the B C A C E A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a n d , l ike the latter, had a r u r a l a n d u r b a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n in its membership. Clode's message as outgoing p r e s i d e n t is worth noting. Recalling that i n 1980-81 there were severe c u t b a c k s i n education b u d g e t s , a n d that the h a r d e s t hit often were the r u r a l , isolated areas a l r e a d y h a r d -p r e s s e d to p r o v i d e adequate s e r v i c e s , Clode's r e m a r k s reflected h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e s p o n s e to a d v e r s i t y . She p r o p o s e d that adult e d u c a t o r s must "meet challenges a n d f inancial s e t b a c k s " a n d view those, C o n s t r a i n t s as o p p o r t u n i t i e s to review, r e v i s e a n d r e s t r u c t u r e moderately efficient operations into more effective e n t e r p r i s e s . In the f inal analysis , we , cannot s ink into the doom a n d gloom forecasted. We have to retain a posit ive view a n d s e a r c h for al ternatives. (NWAEA N_ej£sj^er., May 1982) Clode also noted that " c o n s t r a i n t s (were) not new to c o n t i n u i n g education. One of o u r s t r e n g t h s i n the past has been o u r abil i ty to meet c h a n g i n g condit ions s u c c e s s f u l l y , " (NWAEA Newsletter, May 1982). In May 1983 Clode, r e c e i v e d the association's meritorious s e r v i c e award " i n r e c o g n i t i o n of consistent, long term, o u t s t a n d i n g s e r v i c e to the Association as Director, Conference C h a i r p e r s o n , P r e s i d e n t a n d Newsletter E d i t o r . " (NWAEA Newsletter, #53, May 1983). S t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , Clode was not a professional e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t o r , but she took a n active role i n the p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m JldJbiQOii^d.uc.atiQn. Ar tku ia l iax i 48 a r t i c u l a t i o n committee, p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r c o l l e g e s b e g a n t o e x p a n d t h e i r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n o f f e r i n g s , a n d r e m a i n e d i n v o l v e d u n t i l h e r r e t i r e m e n t . C l o d e p o i n t s o u t t h a t a l t h o u g h i t was t h e M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h t h a t i s s u e d c e r t i f i c a t e s t o g r a d u a t e s of e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s , t h e c o l l e g e s b e g a n to p r e s s u r e t h e M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n f o r h i g h e r e n t r y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r s t u d e n t s e n t e r i n g t h e i r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s . C l o d e w a n t e d t o r e t a i n t h e e x i s t i n g q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , w h i c h w e r e b e t t e r s u i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s i n p a r t - t i m e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t E C E p r o g r a m m e s a r g u i n g t h a t , "as l o n g as t h e y h a d b a s i c l a n g u a g e s k i l l s , g o o d a t t i t u d e s , a n d w e r e f l e x i b l e , " t h e e x i s t i n g q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w e r e s u f f i c i e n t p r e - r e q u i s i t e s . C l o d e a l s o n o t e d t h a t c o l l e g e s ' f u l l - t i m e s t u d e n t s t e n d e d t o be y o u n g e r , a n d as e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n g r a d u a t e s , t h e y d i d n o t s t a y i n t h e f i e l d v e r y l o n g , f o r d e s p i t e t h e u p g r a d i n g of c o l l e g e r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h e r e h a d b e e n no c o r r e s p o n d i n g u p g r a d i n g o f wages. A s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a r u r a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , C l o d e h a d b e e n i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n a r t i c u l a t i o n c ommittee a n d i n 1986, " a f t e r l o t s o f d i f f i c u l t i e s a n d l o t s o f meetings," t h e M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h d i s t r i b u t e d t h e f r u i t s of t h o s e l a b o u r s (Min. of H e a l t h ) so t h a t p a r t - t i m e e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s w o u l d h a v e t h e same c o r e c u r r i c u l u m t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e . C l o d e h a d r e m a i n e d a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h a t a r t i c u l a t i o n committee u n t i l h e r r e t i r e m e n t i n 1985. 49 A n o t h e r of F a r i s ' init iat ives was the implementation of a n evaluation p r o c e s s for school d i s t r i c t c o n t i n u i n g education operations. S u b s t a n t i a l f u n d i n g was p r o v i d e d b y the M i n i s t r y to create i n c e n t i v e for d i s t r i c t s to u n d e r t a k e this p r o c e s s . A n I n t e r n a l Team was appointed at the d i s t r i c t level a n d t h e i r f i n d i n g s a n d recommendations were r e v i e w e d b y the M i n i s t r y ' s E x t e r n a l E v a l u a t i o n Team. In 1985, Clode was appointed to the M i n i s t r y C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n E x t e r n a l E v a l u a t i o n Team that examined the I n t e r n a l Committee's E v a l u a t i o n Report on the c o n t i n u i n g education o p e r a t i n g of School D i s t r i c t #45, Coquitlam. L a t e r that year, she was a member of the E x t e r n a l E d u c a t i o n Team for School Distr icts #44 a n d #45 i n North a n d West V a n c o u v e r . In 1986, she again assisted o n an E x t e r n a l E v a l u a t i o n Team for School D i s t r i c t #46, S u n s h i n e Coast. Despite the evidence of s u c c e s s in the school d i s t r i c t based a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education that was operative t h r o u g h o u t the p r o v i n c e i n 1975 when F a r i s joined the m i n i s t r y , there were o b v i o u s gaps in programme areas related to community development a n d needs of d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d g r o u p s . Admittedly, ministry policies fostered c o n s u m e r - o r i e n t e d c o u r s e offerings, a n d also e n c o u r a g e d competitive r a t h e r t h a n cooperative relations between i n s t i t u t i o n s within both school a n d college d e l i v e r y systems. A n d , at the same time as F a r i s ' a r r i v a l o n the scene, there was a dramatic growth i n the college system r e s u l t i n g from p r e s s u r e s within a n d outside the p r o v i n c i a l system. T h a t i s , t h e r e was a similar p a t t e r n of growth a c r o s s Canada, ref lect ing the federal 50 p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s t h a t w e r e t r y i n g t o k e e p a b r e a s t of n a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g n eeds. I t was i n p a r t a n u n f o r t u n a t e c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t t h e 'old g u a r d ' f e l t t h r e a t e n e d b y t h e a p p e a r a n c e of so many new f a c e s o n t h e p r o v i n c i a l s c e n e , e s p e c i a l l y t h e c o i n c i d e n t a l e m e r g e n c e of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l i n t h e c o l l e g e s y s t e m , c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e of most s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who r o s e t h r o u g h t h e r a n k s . A n d , e v e n more u n f o r t u n a t e was t h e a p p a r e n t c o n f u s i o n a r o u n d t h e i s s u e of t h e c o l l e g e v e r s u s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s p l i t . M o s t of t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d w e r e i n a g r e e m e n t a b o u t t h e a p p a r e n t b i a s of p o l i c i e s i n i t i a t e d b y F a r i s f o r c o l l e g e a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . T h e e x c e p t i o n was R u b i d g e who s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e a l d i v i s i o n was b e t w e e n r u r a l a n d u r b a n p r o g r a m m e s . Day a l s o a c k n o w l e d g e d F a r i s ' r a t i o n a l e as h a v i n g b e e n b a s e d o n t h e i n a b i l i t y of s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t o a d d r e s s a d e q u a t e l y p a r t i c u l a r n e e d s , n o t i n g t h a t d u r i n g t h e 1970's, d e s p i t e t h e b l u r r e d l i n e b e t w e e n c r e d i t a n d n o n - c r e d i t c o u r s e s o n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l a d d e r t o s u c c e s s , c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t was g e n e r a l l y n o t e v e n on t h a t l a d d e r . H o w e v e r , F a r i s was " u n d e r w h e l m e d , " as he p u t i t , b y t h e c o m m u n i t y e d u c a t i o n a n d c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t s of b o t h c o l l e g e s a n d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w h e n he a r r i v e d o n t h e s c e n e i n t h e e a r l y 1970's ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , J u l y 10/1988). He c l a r i f i e d t h a t c o l l e g e s a n d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w e r e e s s e n t i a l l y f u n d e d e q u a l l y b u t d i f f e r e n t l y , b a s e d o n a s y s t e m w e i g h t e d f o r s m a l l e r d i s t r i c t s w h i c h R u b i d g e h a d d e v e l o p e d . He d i d n o t a g r e e w i t h t h e p e r c e p t i o n t h a t c o l l e g e s w e r e l e s s a c c o u n t a b l e t o t h e m i n i s t r y t h a n w e r e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . C o l l e g e s w e r e r e q u i r e d to 51 develop a f i v e - y e a r p l a n , a n d to meet a n n u a l l y with the m i n i s t r y , as well as to submit a c o p y of t h e i r a n n u a l r e p o r t . S e l f - e v a l u a t i o n was also o n g o i n g . School d i s t r i c t s , o n the other h a n d , were subject to less s c r u t i n y since there was only the a p p r o v a l of an a n n u a l b u d g e t w h i c h had a l r e a d y been ratif ied b y t h e i r school b o a r d . F a r i s defended his position b y emphasizing that ultimately it was p r o v i s i o n of the best, a n d widest, range of s e r v i c e s for a d u l t l e a r n e r s that was at the heart of his policy init iatives. A n d the college system was the best r e s o u r c e in most areas to p r o v i d e that s e r v i c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the a r e a of community development programmes. A l t h o u g h Clode was an o u t s t a n d i n g example of g r a s s roots community development, F a r i s felt her to be an exception among many of h e r p e e r s i n both college a n d school d i s t r i c t systems; too many of h e r colleagues were more c o n c e r n e d about c a r e e r s a n d p e r s o n a l ambitions, F a r i s felt, a n d were a p p a r e n t l y unable o r unwil l ing to make a similar commitment to social just ice goals. Admittedly, most school d i s t r i c t operations were poorly e q u i p p e d to p r o v i d e community development s e r v i c e s , e v e n t h o u g h the Special Projects g r a n t s enabled many to explore this a r e a c r e a t i v e l y , to the benefit of the community at l a r g e , not j u s t for the special i n t e r e s t g r o u p s s e r v e d . Yet despite a mandate in this area, colleges remained r e l a t i v e l y uncommitted, a n d community development along with other " f r i v o l o u s " a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education offerings, were seen b y college a d m i n i s t r a t o r s as marginal to t h e i r r e a l p u r p o s e a n d f u n c t i o n as an a s p i r i n g educational i n s t i t u t i o n . Ultimately, it is commitment, o r lack of it, to social just ice goals that is the d i v i d i n g factor between both the v a r y i n g theories a n d p r a c t i c e s of a d u l t education a n d community development, a n d the methods a n d policies of the different g o v e r n i n g bodies. Clode's accomplishments go b e y o n d ref lect ing h e r own p e r s o n a l choices a n d c a r e e r development. T h e y help illuminate that s t r u c t u r e s she w o r k e d within (and a r o u n d ) . 53 C H A P T E R 4 COMMUNITY D E V E L O P M E N T - IS IT A D U L T EDUCATION? Part I. - TheQretkjd-Q^rxiew In this c h a p t e r , the f i r s t section will p r o v i d e an overview of some of the i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g the relat ionship between a d u l t education a n d community development. E s s e n t i a l l y , those issues a n d c o n c e r n s have to do with ethics a n d values s u c h as: the legitimate aims of education; education as a social c o n t r o l , o r a force for societal change; professional o b j e c t i v i t y o r committed activism; p l u r a l i t y v e r s u s collectivity. T h e second section of this c h a p t e r will focus on Clode's work i n the a r e a of community programming to i l lustrate h e r role as a n adult educator i n community development. T h e r e is a s ignif icant b o d y of l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h a r g u e s that the t r a d i t i o n a l remedial a p p r o a c h e s to a d u l t s have been ineffective i n r e a c h i n g t a r g e t e d g r o u p s because of a fai lure to appreciate i n h e r e n t confl ict ing i n t e r e s t s i n that g r o u p a n d its community. C o n s e q u e n t l y , those most in need of "remedy" remain u n i n v o l v e d . More important, the u n d e r l y i n g condit ions that created those needs are u n c h a l l e n g e d a n d u n c h a n g e d . In this f i r s t section, the context i n w h i c h community development has e v o l v e d will be h i g h l i g h t e d to demonstrate its long association with adult education. The i s s u e s , c o n c e r n s a n d e n s u i n g debates are complex a n d it may be difficult to avoid a c o n f u s i n g patchwork of v a r y i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s about the rela t ionsh ip of a d u l t education to community development. F o r t u n a t e l y , Roberts (1982, p. 31) has p r o p o s e d a model of adult education objectives that encompasses many of the issues. 54 T h a t model is essential ly a continuum r a n g i n g from remedial, t h r o u g h c o p i n g , p e r s o n a l development, social development to c o u n t e r -c u l t u r a l development. He noted that t h e r e is no clear c u t d i s t i n c t i o n between these stages: " F o r instance, the movement of c o n s c i o u s n e s s r a i s i n g among women is aimed at both i n d i v i d u a l self -knowledge a n d g r o w t h , a n d changes i n existing social r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d s t r u c t u r e s . " Roberts l ists "some of the terms u s e d for this k i n d of a c t i v i t y [as] community education, community development, animAtiQn__sojcjale a n d anim^Qn_£omra;u^^ (Roberts, p. 33). Along with this s u c c i n c t summary of a d u l t education p u r p o s e s , Roberts has p r o p o s e d a b r i e f t y p o l o g y of forces c o n s t r a i n i n g adult education a n d a d u l t e d u c a t o r s at e v e r y p a r t of the s p e c t r u m . Those c o n s t r a i n t s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d as: social p h i l o s o p h y ; social s t r u c t u r e s ; needs; a n d , r e s o u r c e s (Roberts, 19982, p. 43). R o b e r t s ' model p r o v i d e s an especial ly a p p r o p r i a t e context in which to look at the v a r i o u s roles Clode took o n i n h e r c a r e e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y as an a d u l t educator with a demonstrated commitment to social change. T h e r e has been a l e n g t h y t r a d i t i o n of adult education as a means for c h a n g i n g social condit ions. A c c o r d i n g to Cotton (1965) the " e r a of modern adult education" was i n t r o d u c e d b y the 1919 Report of the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Committee of the B r i t i s h M i n i s t r y of R e c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s seminal document was based on "a v i s i o n of a d u l t e d u c t i o n as a way out from s o r d i d materialism, economic d e p r i v a t i o n a n d ineffectual democracy" a n d , A d u l t education was seen p r i m a r i l y as an i n s t r u m e n t for b r i n g i n g about social reform, social r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , a n d 55 social p r o g r e s s - to realize the ideals of the 'good life' a n d the 'good society. ' T h i s ' idealistic ' t r a d i t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e from the orientation of a d u l t education before World War I, with its emphasis on making u p the educational deficiencies of adults, (p. 7) T h i s idealism p e r v a d e d the f ield u n t i l the e a r l y 1930s; Cotton s u g g e s t s that t h e n a "new b r e e d of ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' adult e d u c a t o r s , " reacted against "naive idealism," r e j e c t i n g the idea of e d u c a t o r s as social reformers. " T h e y t h o u g h t of themselves as e d u c a t o r s r a t h e r than r e f o r m e r s . . . c o n c e r n e d with the life of the mind, . . .not as a n i n s t r u m e n t of p a r t i s a n policies," (p. 5). While these new self -proclaimed professionals d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y reject the "deep social c o n c e r n s o r the missionary zeal of the social r e f o r m e r s " there was a rejection of the " u n d i s c i p l i n e d use to which these qualities h a d been put," (p. 5). Out of this cri t ic ism for the emotional a n d potentially p a r t i s a n aspects of adult education i n the s e r v i c e of social reform grew an i n c r e a s i n g awareness of the need for a scientific s t u d y ; that is , a methodology of a d u l t education. C o n s e q u e n t l y , professional associations a n d u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t c o u r s e s about a d u l t education began to a p p e a r (Selman, 1984, p. 13). Closely a l igned with this d i s c i p l i n e d a p p r o a c h was a r e s u r g e n c e of the l i b e r a l view of education. The life of the mind was to be n u r t u r e d ; knowledge was of i n t r i n s i c value. T h i s p r o p o s e d ' v a l u e - f r e e ' education has generated l e n g t h y debate among adult educators (eg., P a t e r s o n , 1973). A n d it is this c o n t r o v e r s y about the legitimate terms of education that 56 is at the heart of the re l a t ionsh ip of adult education to community development. Elias a n d Meriam (1982, pp. 43-69) have summarized a v a r i e t y of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a p p r o a c h e s to a d u l t education. These i n c l u d e d : a t r a d i t i o n a l , c o n s e r v a t i v e position which saw education was i n t r i n s i c a l l y valuable, a n d which rejected all but the established o r d e r of " k n o w i n g " ; a humanistic position i n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l development a n d self-actualization were paramount; a p r o g r e s s i v e a p p r o a c h which saw that education c o u l d a n d s h o u l d t r y to improve, not only the i n d i v i d u a l , but also the societal context i n which that i n d i v i d u a l developed; a r a d i c a l c r i t i q u e that claimed not only was adult education ineffective i n attempts to change the w o r l d , but was itself p a r t of the o p p r e s s i v e system which maintained the status quo b y r e p r o d u c i n g the values that enabled the means of p r o d u c t i o n to remain in c o n t r o l of corporate capitalism. Roberts (1979) also p r o v i d e s a typology of social philosophies. He p r o p o s e s "two sets of dimensions: the d e m o c r a t i c / a u t h o r i t a r i a n dimension a n d the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c / c o l l e c t i v i s t dimension," (p. 85). In between collectivist a n d i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c categories, t h e r e is " p l u r a l i s t i c . " F o r example, he d e s c r i b e s Canada as a democrat ic/plural ist ic type of society. Within each of these positions a n d u n d e r l y i n g all t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e of adult education there are basic assumptions w h i c h center a r o u n d the acceptance or rejection of the need for societal change, a n d whether education is an a p p r o p r i a t e tool to create change. In 1955, r e s p o n s e s from p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a Symposium entitled "The BQk..o.L..A.dulL.£.d.u.ca.ti!Q.a...i.n .Community Development" (Hoiberg, Mial, 57 J o h n s o n , Dickerman, O l i v e r , 1955) indicated s u b s t a n t i a l disagreement about the c e n t r a l vehicle for c r e a t i n g social change, as well as disagreement about the extent of professional detachment. Consistent with that e r a of professionalization, t h e r e was an emphasis o n maintaining an objective viewpoint, i n o r d e r to facilitate a holistic, c o n s e n s u a l community. Th e a d u l t educator becomes an a r b i t r a t o r , conci l iat ing d i f f e r i n g community factions (p. 41). T h i s c o n t i n u i n g s e a r c h for professional object ivi ty is potentially d a n g e r o u s , a c c o r d i n g to Lotz (1977) for adult education "has professionalized itself almost out of existence" (p. 123). T h i s t e n d e n c y to marginality is u n d o u b t e d l y d o u b l e - e d g e d ; those who do become immersed i n p u r s u i t of p a r t i c u l a r social goals are seen as a c t i v i s t s , a n d i n many c i r c l e s they are seen to be only a small step from the lunatic f r i n g e . In addit ion to debate about extent of involvement i n p u r s u i n g community goals, t h e r e has been c o n t r o v e r s y as to whether the best way to achieve societal change, (given that it is an' a p p r o p r i a t e adult education goal) is e i ther t h r o u g h i n d i v i d u a l o r t h r o u g h collective educational a n d l e a r n i n g processes. F o r example, Poston (in McGhee, 1956) a r g u e d that "basic social problems are not i n d i v i d u a l l y c e n t r e d , they are community c e n t r e d , " to w h i c h McGhee (1956) r e s p o n d e d c o n t r a r i l y that is was " t h r o u g h the p r o c e s s of community development y o u get at the development of the i n d i v i d u a l - not vice v e r s a " [emphasis added]. P y r c h (1983) has p r o v i d e d a useful summary of c h a n g i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s about adult education's role i n relation to community 58 development. He s u g g e s t s that "fear of Bolshevism" may have been a s ignif icant factor i n the "mission" of e a r l y N o r t h American movements s u c h as at A n t i g o n i s h a n d H i g h l a n d e r . B u t b y the 1960's the concept of community development was f irmly establ ished i n N o r t h American l i t e r a t u r e (p. 13) a n d no l o n g e r seen as experimental. P y r c h s u g g e s t s f u r t h e r that community development, l ike a d u l t education, was an emerging f ield of p r a c t i c e , r a t h e r than a f irmly established discipl ine; both had i n common elements that emphasized improvement of both the i n d i v i d u a l a n d the collective, a l t h o u g h there was a difference in emphasis r a t h e r t h a n an absolute difference. A l t h o u g h t h e r e was g e n e r a l agreement that community development was essential ly " g u i d e d social change" (Lauderdale, 1971, p. 17) a n d , l ike education was not f o r t u i t o u s , but had systematic time-limited goals, there was o n g o i n g debate about the complex phenomena of change a n d how best to differentiate "between a p r o c e s s of community change. . .and a p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g how to instigate s u c h change," ( V e r n e r in D r a p e r , 1971, p. 418). M c L u s k e y (1960, p. 420) saw community development as an educational method i n v o l v i n g s e v e r a l stages, one of which was " a combination of s t u d y a n d action." But Roberts (1982, p. 60) made dist inct ion on the basis of l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s a n d l e a r n i n g outcomes; that i s , the "difference between performance, w h i c h is o b s e r v a b l e , a n d l e a r n i n g , w h i c h is a n o n - o b s e r v a b l e , hypothetical concept." He p r o p o s e d that t h e r e are two dist inct roles relat ing to social change: that of an educator, a n d that of an a c t i v i s t (p. 38). F o r K i d d (in D r a p e r , 1971, p. 40), this debate was a waste of time, d e c l a r i n g that the question for a d u l t e d u c a t o r s is "not, should we part ic ipate, but 59 how.?" a n d i n what ways c a n they continue that earl ier t r a d i t i o n i n w h i c h "involvement, p a r t i c i p a t i o n . . .has been an accepted a n d fundamental p r i n c i p l e , " (p. 137) of a d u l t education. Brookfield (1983) p r o v i d e d a t y p o l o g y of sett ings f o r a d u l t s l e a r n i n g within t h e i r communities, noting that "some of this l e a r n i n g will be the r e s u l t of action u n d e r t a k e n b y g r o u p s orientated towards social, polit ical a n d economic objectives - c r e d i t u n i o n s , n e i g h b o u r h o o d action schemes, tenants ' associations, c i t i z e n s ' r i g h t s g r o u p s a n d mutual societies. A l t h o u g h these g r o u p s exist for other t h a n educational e n d s , nonetheless t h e i r activit ies contain within them an active l e a r n i n g component" (p. 90). A g a i n , Brookfield noted that the common element of improvement is a value judgement i n both the adult education a n d community development context (p. 106). How values infuse the t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e of all a d u l t e d u c a t o r s is a c e n t r a l theme i n his d i s c u s s i o n of the dist inct ion between " l i b e r a l " a n d " l i b e r a t i n g " adult education. Who, a n d what, is the final a r b i t e r of this improvement? Is it to be a normative transformation (p. 107), o r is it to be a reject ion of the c o n s e n s u a l a p p r o a c h , i n recognit ion of deep, i n h e r e n t conflicts between different g r o u p s i n society? Brookfield agrees (p. 198) with those who see a d u l t education as a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of community development b u t he rejects the "logical fal lacy" (p. 175), w h i c h s u g g e s t s that e d u c a t o r s w o r k i n g within exist ing societal contexts must, b y implication, accept those dominant values. He also makes a point that an a d u l t e d u c a t o r ' s decisions i n community pract ice will n e c e s s a r i l y be c o n s t r a i n e d by contextual v a r i a b l e s so that p e r s o n a l v a l u e s a n d ethics must combined with a sense of ce.alpi3li.tik if 60 s/he is to s u r v i v e (p. 202-203). T h i s same p e r c e p t i o n is s l i g h t l y v a r i e d i n Keddie's (in Thompson, 1980, p. 45) view that, a l t h o u g h a d u l t education is more like t h a n u n l i k e the r e s t of the educational system i n its form of c u l t u r a l r e p r o d u c t i o n , it is not the i n d i v i d u a l a d u l t educator whose beliefs o r intentions that are questionable. It is , r a t h e r , that the " i n d i v i d u a l i s t ideology of a d u l t education's functions - o b s c u r e s the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n the a d u l t e d u c a t o r ' s role" a n d r e s u l t s i n misplaced effort. It is the work of Lovett which is cited b y Brookfield as an example of " l i b e r a t i n g " a d u l t education. L o v e t t rejects the notion that t r a d i t i o n a l a d u l t education has s ignif icantly a l tered the status quo. He sees community development as an ejasejatiaLLy. educational p r o c e s s (Lovett, C l a r k e , K i l m u r r a y , 1983, p. 29) a n d one which r e q u i r e s d i r e c t involvement of a d u l t e d u c a t o r s i n community p l a n n i n g a n d action. L o v e t t a s k s a d u l t e d u c a t o r s to "challenge the way t h i n g s a r e , to b r e a k the c u l t u r a l hegemony i n h e r e n t i n existing educational p r o v i s i o n " that "merely exten[ds]. . .the p r e v a i l i n g l i b e r a l ideology in adult education, (p. 159). Indeed, L o v e t t sees the p e r e n n i a l fai lure to a d d r e s s a n d meet needs of d i s a d v a n t a g e d g r o u p s as evidence that t r a d i t i o n a l a d u l t education is i n h e r e n t l y ineffective a n d ultimately s u p p o r t s an o p p r e s s i v e social system. F o r this w r i t e r , L o v e t t ' s c r i t i q u e assumes essential ly c l a s s - b a s e d d i v i s i o n s i n society, so it is not clear how action g r o u p s r e p r e s e n t i n g a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of a community (eg. organizat ions to improve f e r r y schedules; peace act iv ists ; feminist g r o u p s ) c a n fit into his view of c l a s s - b a s e d real i ty . However, it can be s u g g e s t e d that the shift from a r d e n t amateurs to professional object ivi ty has r e s u l t e d not 61 only i n the i n c r e a s e d remoteness from l e a r n e r s ' realities, b u t may also r e s u l t i n potential detachment from r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the c i r c u m s t a n c e s e n s u i n g from professional action, a n d more importantly , inaction. L o v e t t ' s c r i t i q u e of a d u l t education i n the s e r v i c e of social c h a n g e was l a r g e l y based on his experience i n the U n i t e d Kingdom, a l t h o u g h he was well aware of N o r t h American experiences s u c h as A n t i g o n i s h a n d H i g h l a n d e r (pp. 4-6). In Canada, a l t h o u g h "many of the activit ies of d e v e l o p e r s a n d a c t i v i s t s are not o v e r t l y educational ," "most development a n d a c t i v i s t init iatives have a s t r o n g educational component i n that t h e i r p r o t a g o n i s t s engage i n the deliberate a n d p u r p o s e f u l a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge," (Brookfield, 1983, p. 9). T h e r e has also been s u b s t a n t i a l c r i t i c i s m about the fai lures of those combined efforts i n the Canadian setting. T h r o u g h o u t the 1960s especial ly, community development projects a n d a c t i v i s t s p r o l i f e r a t e d . The Challenge for Change, Company of Y o u n g Canadians (CYC), Local Initiatives Programme (LIP) g r a n t s 8 a n d the NewStart programme were init ial ly c o u n t e r p a r t s to the American War On P o v e r t y , but c o n t i n u e d to a d d r e s s social needs a c r o s s Canada These activit ies often left a community disaffected a n d fundamental problems u n r e s o l v e d . Head (in D r a p e r , 1971, pp. 20-21) notes that s u c h p r o g r a m s often t r i e d to help i n d i v i d u a l s to "escape" from condit ions of p o v e r t y , for instance, but d i d n o t h i n g to change the condit ions that created a n d maintained that 8 Clode got s e v e r a l L.I.P. g r a n t s to operate a Community S e r v i c e s Centre w h i c h later became a c h a r t e r e d association a n d was f u n d e d b y local mill rate assessment. She also got a L.I.P. g r a n t to p r o v i d e an a d v e n t u r e p l a y g r o u n d a n d numerous New Horizons G r a n t s for seniors. 62 p o v e r t y . While some of the a p p r o a c h e s were i n n o v a t i v e t h e r e was i n s e n s i t i v i t y , as well . 9 Lotz (1977) also t h o u g h t that many of these activit ies aimed at community development failed to deal systematically with s t r u c t u r e d change. These piecemeal efforts were essential ly a limited u n d e r t a k i n g b y a r d e n t amateurs, often with few ski l ls a n d d e p e n d e n t o n government f u n d i n g . So, a l t h o u g h these social animators' act ivit ies i n many ways paral leled those of a community a d u l t education programme, t h e y remained relat ively marginal. Despite t h e i r o b v i o u s commitment, involvement a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n social change, t h e i r effectiveness was limited. Indeed, Lotz d e s c r i b e d these development programmes as government efforts to ' d r y - c l e a n ' the poor i n the p r o c e s s of c r e a t i n g d e p e n d e n c y o n government, t h e r e b y becoming amenable to what the government wanted r a t h e r t h a n vice v e r s a (pp. 36-37). A l t h o u g h Lotz spoke g e n e r a l l y about community development p r o c e s s e s , i t is c lear that the ' s i n s ' of government agencies c o u l d easily be those of many educational inst i tut ions if a n d when t h e y fail to c o n s i d e r al ternatives to inst i tut ional goals. A n d , real ist ical ly there must be acceptance that the goals of the l e a r n e r s may conflict with those of educational or other s p o n s o r i n g agencies. A s the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n has pointed out, many a d u l t e d u c a t o r s (eg. Keddie, Lovett) as well as w r i t e r s on community development (eg. 9 Some of the e a r l y efforts of the Challenge for Change p r o g r a m b r o a d c a s t documentary film footage without h a v i n g c o n s u l t e d with the subjects about the r i g h t to do so. G r i e r s o n , f o u n d e r of the National Film B o a r d was also said to be c r i t i c a l of the ethics of u s i n g film crews i n as community change agents (Low, C , 1984 i n The J o h n G r i e r s o n £rojfic.t). 63 L o t z , Head) a r g u e for d i r e c t action b y a d u l t e d u c a t o r s a n d community o r g a n i z e r s . Those roles are not merely to facilitate community c o n s e n s u s . Rather, the educator a n d o r g a n i z e r must p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e of a commitment to the goals of the l e a r n i n g a n d development g r o u p . T h e r e may be a c o r o l l a r y that, to the extent that professional detachment is maintained, (of e i ther a d u l t e d u c a t o r s o r other professional community o r g a n i z e r s ) , there will be c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i s t r u s t of "officials" b y community members. A n d , difficulties i n a c h i e v i n g g r o u p goals may reflect the degree to which those o r g a n i z e r s maintain t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l stance w h i c h al igns them with t h e i r s p o n s o r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n while al ienating them from p a r t i c u l a r community issues. We can now look at Clode's practice with p e r h a p s g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of the complexity of the social a n d political context in w h i c h she w o r k e d . Eart II - Co.mmujiJJ;y_^Qgr^mming IntrftdjActioja In the following section, Clode's role as an a d u l t educator in relation to community development will be i l l u s t r a t e d b y a number of examples of h e r community programming activit ies. In a d d i t i o n , Clode's role i n the p r o v i n c i a l Consortium will be d e s c r i b e d . T h e r e is no clear c u t d i s t i n c t i o n between Clode's professional activit ies as an a d u l t educator a n d h e r involvement with other community development activit ies o r i g i n a t i n g i n h e r p e r s o n a l interests . When Clode e n t e r e d the r a n k s of professional a d u l t e d u c a t o r s i n 1968, there may have been wider acceptance t h a n there is today of the p r i m a r i l y facilitative a n d c o n s e n s u s - s e e k i n g role of adult e d u c a t o r s a n d 64 o t h e r community o r g a n i z e r s . But, there was t h e n , as now, awareness of d i f f e r i n g communities of i n t e r e s t within e v e r y c o n s t i t u e n c y . L i k e a d u l t education, community development was i n a similar q u a n d a r y of how to determine whose i n t e r e s t s were best s e r v e d i n attempts to remediate social i n e q u i t y . F o r Clode, p e r h a p s those issues were not immediately a p p a r e n t , or relevant, since her p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s i n community s e r v i c e was i n the a r e a of mental health. T h e special c o n c e r n s of this i n t e r e s t g r o u p a n d remedies for its special needs c o u l d be more r e a d i l y identif ied. P e r h a p s Clode d i d not o r i g i n a l l y e n v i s i o n how h e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n h e l p i n g i n that a r e a of community s e r v i c e would e v e n t u a l l y become i n t e g r a l l y related with much of her professional career. O b v i o u s l y , there are signif icant differences i n small town, r u r a l sett ings that effect the style of any adult education operation. In addit ion, the p a r t i c u l a r situation existing i n Lake Cowichan in those e a r l y y e a r s of Clode's c a r e e r were unique. Because of the l o g g i n g a n d mining r e s o u r c e s , the a r e a was relat ively affluent, a n d the school d i s t r i c t was handsomely s u p p o r t e d b y these i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h p r o v i d e d 90% of the tax base. It was not usual for management p e r s o n n e l of those i n d u s t r i e s to take an i n t e r e s t i n school d i s t r i c t affairs, a n d many were trustees. F r e q u e n t l y , those p e r s o n n e l had come from l a r g e r , u r b a n c e n t r e s a n d , as t r u s t e e s , they were able to see that f u n d s were available to p r o v i d e educational r e s o u r c e s that e n h a n c e d the community's quality of life. F o r instance, Clode said that at one time there seemed to be an a b u n d a n c e of pianos a n d , as noted e a r l i e r , the h i g h - s c h o o l shop was one of the 65 best i n the p r o v i n c e . It was u n d e r s t a n d a b l e that the wel l -educ ated u r b a n outlook of t r u s t e e s would be s u p p o r t i v e of c u l t u r a l a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l amenities that a n i g h t school p r o g r a m c o u l d p r o v i d e . Clode d e s c r i b e d how h e r f i r s t experience as a n i g h t school i n s t r u c t o r was mainly for an elite i n t e r e s t g r o u p . Well-educated a n d from a professional b a c k g r o u n d herself , she would have much i n common with those class p a r t i c i p a n t s . Clode was also a member of the I.O.D.E., a n d the Kinettes. At the same time, Clode maintained h e r i n t e r e s t i n mental health. In 1959, she h a d o r g a n i z e d a local b r a n c h of the Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHC); she was the c h a r t e r p r e s i d e n t of that c h a p t e r a n d was " r e - c y c l e d " as p r e s i d e n t six times. Clode s e r v e d on the p r o v i n c i a l b o a r d for sixteen y e a r s ; she was p r e s i d e n t of the p r o v i n c i a l c h a p t e r i n both 1966 a n d 1975. She also s e r v e d on the national b o a r d for ten years. U n d e r s t a n d a b l y , these p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s took u p considerable time. B u t what is more i n t e r e s t i n g is the way i n which those p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s i n her community meshed with her professional c o n c e r n s . Clode attended the i n a u g u r a l meeting of the B C A C E A at H a r r i s o n Hot S p r i n g s i n 1965. She had been i n v i t e d as a guest s p e a k e r in her role as p r o v i n c i a l p r e s i d e n t of the CMHC. Her s p e e c h u r g e d the promotion of Family Life a n d other c o u r s e s related to mental health. T h u s , e v e n before h e r 'official ' designation as an a d u l t educator, some of her p r o f e s s i o n a l programming i n t e r e s t s were foreshadowed. U n d e r the auspices of the local CMHS c h a p t e r a number of projects were l i n k e d to programmes p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h the d i s t r i c t ' s 66 a d u l t education office. One of the f i r s t of these d i d not i n v o l v e p r o g r a m m i n g , but Clode d i d 'educate' a g r o u p of p a r e n t s of h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n . At the r e q u e s t of the local health n u r s e , Clode set u p a s u p p o r t g r o u p for p a r e n t s of h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n to encourage them to let t h e i r c h i l d r e n participate i n a special school sett ing. Some p a r e n t s were eager for s u c h a faci l i ty, but it was Clode's efforts that f inally p e r s u a d e d o t h e r s that t h e i r c h i l d r e n would be better p r o t e c t e d there t h a n in isolation at home. T h i s g r o u p of c h i l d r e n was e v e n t u a l l y i n t e g r a t e d into the r e g u l a r school sett ing. T h a t move was v e r y i n n o v a t i v e at the time, b u t Clode revealed that lack of f u n d s was the necessi ty for that ' i n v e n t i o n . ' The projects of the CMHC c h a p t e r c o n t i n u e d to grow, especial ly after the availabil i ty of new federal government f u n d i n g (Local Initiatives Projects - LIP) eventual ly permitted great ly expanded s e r v i c e s . In 1972, the CMHC g r o u p initiated the Lake Cowichan Community S e r v i c e s as a n o n - p r o f i t organizat ion eligible for L.I.P. g r a n t s . The g r a n t s enabled a day-time d r o p i n s e r v i c e for ex-mental patients; as well, those c u r r e n t l y u n d e r g o i n g treatment could participate i n programmes. P r e v e n t a t i v e programmes for s t r e s s e d mothers, a n d for social isolates i n the community were among s e r v i c e s available. Clode d e s c r i b e d the evolution of those services: O r i g i n a l l y , the p u r p o s e was p r e v e n t a t i v e mental health s e r v i c e s for y o u n g mothers, for social isolates, a n d for p h y s i c a l l y a n d mentally h a n d i c a p p e d . [There was a] rehabil i tation p r o g r a m for ex-mental patients to encourage them to integrate with community g r o u p s r a t h e r t h a n r u n n i n g separate classes that c o n t i n u e d to work with them as ex-patients, where they were f u r t h e r stigmatized. We w o r k e d with P u b l i c Health a n d all the school agencies [to develop] a programme for c h i l d r e n [ s u c h as a] developmental programme for p r e s c h o o l e r s . Th e c r a f t programmes offered were vehicles to obtain these goals. It worked well, a n d we attracted members of the general p u b l i c as well as those with special problems. . . .We set u p an i n d e p e n d e n t b o a r d of d i r e c t o r s , i n c o r p o r a t e d u n d e r the Societies A c t (in o r d e r to qualify for g r a n t s i n a d d i t i o n to the one i n 1972 with which the CMHC establ ished Community S e r v i c e s ) a n d a p p l i e d to the Regional D i s t r i c t for f u n d i n g . T h i s i n v o l v e d l o b b y i n g the Village a n d regional d i s t r i c t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e as well as making a plausible presentat ion to the Regional District . We were able to obtain ^ mill f u n d i n g w h i c h has been i n c r e a s e d to 1 mill now. We were able to obtain use of an old l i q u o r store from the government for $5 p e r y e a r a n d moved o u r operations there as without g r a n t s (i.e. - L I P g r a n t s no longer available) we c o u l d not p a y the r e n t on the Community Hall. In the new sett ing, we s t a r t e d r e n o v a t i n g , u s i n g v o l u n t e e r s to b u i l d a n d paint. We set u p offices for the Probation officers, for the Human Resources r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a n d were able to c h a r g e r e n t to the r e s p o n s i b l e agencies to c o v e r o u r o p e r a t i n g costs. We were able to p r e s e n t documented briefs . . .and obtained a Y o u t h Counsel lor a n d a par t- t ime S e n i o r s C o o r d i n a t o r . We s t a r t e d u p after school programmes for l a t c h - k e y c h i l d r e n ; a y o u n g mothers programme; k i n d e r g y m for k i d s ; special s p o r t s programmes for k i d s identif ied b y social w o r k e r s as extra a t t e n t i o n — u s u a l l y from b r o k e n homes, single p a r e n t o r b l e n d e d families. Th e y o u t h counsel lor w o r k s with k i d s i n t r o u b l e , d e l i n q u e n t s on p r o b a t i o n , those with r a c i a l problems. We s t a r t e d a " F u n ' n S u n " summer programme for d i s a d v a n t a g e d k i d s . " The S e n i o r s Coordinator s t a r t e d u p a Meals o n Wheels s e r v i c e w h i c h continues to operate e v e n t h o u g h the government withdrew s e r v i c e s of the Seniors Coordinator ten y e a r s ago, a n d we set u p a s e l f - h e l p l u n c h p r o g r a m for social 69 isolates. (Personal communication, September 1988) A l l of these programmes operated u n d e r the auspices of the Community S e r v i c e s o r i g i n a l l y s p o n s o r e d b y the CMHC c h a p t e r of w h i c h Clode was a n active member. At the same time Clode was p r o v i d i n g programmes i n s u p p o r t of those s e r v i c e s as p a r t of h e r official a d u l t education responsibi l i t ies . In addit ion to a d m i n i s t e r i n g g r a n t applications on behalf of Community S e r v i c e s , l o b b y i n g , o r g a n i z i n g v o l u n t e e r s , Clode was also a d m i n i s t e r i n g c o u r s e s i n a r t s , c r a f t s , v o l u n t e e r t r a i n i n g , p a r e n t i n g , s t r e s s management a n d other subjects of i n t e r e s t for that p a r t i c u l a r const i tuency. Clode's earliest programme offerings were relat ively c o n s e r v a t i v e , b u t as h e r experience a n d confidence grew there were more experimental c o u r s e s . It was also due i n p a r t to the i n c r e a s e d s u b s i d y for community education activit ies that Clode was able to develop c o u r s e s for special interests . C a r t i e r h a d initiated a one dollar p e r h o u r s u b s i d y while he was Director of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n for the ministry. His s u c c e s s o r , F a r i s , expanded that to t h r e e dollars p e r h o u r . Community education was defined i n terms of programmes a n d l e a r n i n g activit ies of special i n t e r e s t g r o u p s . Examples of s u c h programmes Clode offered i n c l u d e d a s e l f - h e l p o r s u p p o r t g r o u p for victims of chi ldhood sexual abuse a n d a series of w o r k s h o p s for p a r e n t s of h a n d i c a p p e d adolescents about sexuality issues. S u c h programming was costly; it could be v e r y t ime-consuming to develop a n d seldom would there be e n o u g h p a r t i c i p a n t s for it to be c o s t - r e c o v e r a b l e . F a r i s ' i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Special Projects g r a n t was i n t e n d e d to p r o v i d e e v e n greater impetus to 70 d e v e l o p i n g s u c h programmes a n d to enable a more comprehensive r e s p o n s e to community c o n c e r n s . Clode d e s c r i b e d a n o t h e r example of the "symbiotic" relat ions hip between h e r 'official ' a n d 'unofficial ' activit ies i n the development of the E v e r g r e e n S e n i o r s Centre. T h e r e was a n e v i d e n t need for a place where day-t ime c o n t i n u i n g education programming c o u l d take place as well as a place for a day-t ime a d u l t l e a r n i n g c e n t r e away from the h i g h -school. At the same time, a g r o u p of s e n i o r s wanted access to an u n u s e d cottage i n the c e n t e r of town, a c r o s s from the post office. Clode helped the seniors form a society a n d t h e n a p p r o a c h e d the Village for access to the cottage, which they owned. It was a r r a n g e d that the seniors could r e n t the cottage for a nominal fee for three years. T h e n , wearing h e r a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s "hat," she a r r a n g e d for the school d i s t r i c t to p r o v i d e cable for educational T.V. programmes; r e n t a n d fuel for use of the b u i l d i n g to an adult education facil ity was also paid b y the school d i s t r i c t . Th e r e n t w h i c h the society c h a r g e d the school d i s t r i c t for its use of the facility enabled the c e n t r e to remain solvent. (Although some seniors complained about h a v i n g to share with the y o u n g e r people u s i n g it, they were not wil l ing, or able, to pay more.) Clode s u g g e s t e d that the Village be a p p r o a c h e d since demographic changes p e r h a p s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d ; r a t h e r t h a n s p e n d $30,000 a year o n l y on p l a y g r o u n d s , f u n d i n g of a separate s e n i o r s centre might be a p p r o p r i a t e . A r e q u e s t that next y e a r ' s village b u d g e t (i.e. 1988-89) p r o v i d i n g o p e r a t i n g expenses for the E v e r g r e e n Centre is c u r r e n t l y 71 u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . O b v i o u s l y , Clode has not yet r e t i r e d from wearing a number of h e r community i n t e r e s t "hats." It is c lear that t h r o u g h h e r official a n d 'unofficial ' i n t e r e s t s , Clode met with r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from o t h e r community s e r v i c e agencies a n d i n t e r e s t g r o u p s . In d e s c r i b i n g another instance of programming for specific community i n t e r e s t s , Clode recalled her e a r l y efforts w o r k i n g with the local Nitinaht native b a n d . Prompted b y c o n c e r n s e x p r e s s e d by local agencies about social problems, Clode set out "over 40 miles of the worst l o g g i n g roads y o u e v e r saw." In meetings with band members, she l e a r n e d that what t h e y wanted was an u p h o l s t e r y c o u r s e . She "got two off-beat i n s t r u c t o r s - no one would go out there b y themselves the r o a d was too b a d . " (Clode c h u c k l e d at how they sometimes all had to chew gum f u r i o u s l y to p l u g holes a n d keep out the r a i n in a 1946, r u s t -r i d d l e d jeep i n which they t r a v e l l e d those roads.) These i n s t r u c t o r s "could relate to the problems of the women out there - one had five, the other h a d seven c h i l d r e n . So - they t a u g h t u p h o l s t e r y , but they also t a u g h t family management, b u d g e t i n g , n u t r i t i o n - all the t h i n g s that go with r a i s i n g a family." A l t h o u g h she acknowledged she was l u c k y to have two s u c h i n s t r u c t o r s , Clode a g r e e d that she "knew what was wanted a n d where to f i n d them." When a s k e d about whether this ' h i d d e n a g e n d a ' might be seen as p a t r o n i z i n g , o r unethical , Clode r e p l i e d that it was not so. Information about household subjects was p r o v i d e d i n informal d i s c u s s i o n s t h r o u g h o u t the d u r a t i o n of the u p h o l s t e r y c o u r s e . T h e r e was a genuine exchange of ideas; on more t h a n one occasion, the i n s t r u c t o r s would 72 a r r i v e to f i n d no one at the class. Rather t h a n r e t u r n , they would f i n d out what was h a p p e n i n g , a n d take p a r t i n the alternate act ivi ty . In that way, t h e y l e a r n e d about the native customs. F o r example, if f ish were b e i n g c a u g h t , t h e y joined i n a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y l e a r n e d about f i s h -smoking while offering information about c a n n i n g methods. With delight, Clode remembered the f u l l - s p r e a d t u r k e y d i n n e r to which she was i n v i t e d o n the last day of the u p h o l s t e r y c o u r s e . The b a n d e v e n t u a l l y took o v e r management of s u c h educational programmes from what was t h e n the federal Department of Indian Affairs. After t h r e e y e a r s of r u n n i n g with o n l y t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s , t h e y again a s k e d Clode for assistance. With Clode's help, they were s u c c e s s f u l i n l o b b y i n g the federal government for f u n d s to b u i l d an elementary school. Native c h i l d r e n no l o n g e r had to be b u s s e d daily o v e r sixty miles of r o u g h l o g g i n g roads. Clode also helped them set u p a p r e -school, a n d p r o v i d e d E C E t r a i n i n g for mothers as staff. Clode d e s c r i b e d h e r role as one which was to show them how to access government a n d other community r e s o u r c e s , as well as how to develop t h e i r own resources. . In the late 1970s, a p a r t i c u l a r series of events led to Clode's involvement i n a project w h i c h is an excellent i l l u s t r a t i o n of the o v e r l a p p i n g roles a n d goals of an adult educator i n relation to community development. In r e s p o n s e to an economy which was s p i r a l l i n g downward, the entire p r o v i n c e seemed p e r v a d e d with a "doom a n d gloom" mentality. Lake Cowichan had a h i s t o r y of weathering economic storms, a n d despite 73 technological imperatives for i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n a n d decreased work force, mill management had a r e c o r d of few confrontations with l a b o u r since p e r s o n n e l p r a c t i c e s a n d attr i t ion had kept i n step with technological innovations. However, i n 1980, only one week after h a v i n g p u b l i c l y a s s u r e d the community that the d r a s t i c measures taken elsewhere i n the p r o v i n c e "can't h a p p e n here," local mills d i d s h u t down, r e s u l t i n g o v e r n i g h t i n 40% unemployment; soon, n e a r l y 70% of the local population was unemployed. It was not long before a meeting was o r g a n i z e d b y local leaders, to be held at the local r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e , for p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n about how to deal with this d r a s t i c situation. Clode recal led that, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , only a h a n d f u l attended. S u b s e q u e n t l y , Clode was a s k e d for help i n o r g a n i z i n g a second meeting. T h i s time "key people" were contacted b y Clode - r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of d i r e c t i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , i n c l u d i n g u n i o n , management a n d local b u s i n e s s - a n d Clode spoke to many more community members d i r e c t l y , u r g i n g them to attend a n d explaining how t h e i r p r e s e n c e would be helpful . At that second community meeting d i s c u s s i o n of the c u r r e n t situation a n d "what do we do now?" led to the identif ication of the need for a food bank. Clode d e s c r i b e d h e r role i n this u n d e r t a k i n g as that of a "facilitator." In the aftermath of that meeting, Clode c o n t i n u e d to contact community members d i r e c t l y , to c l a r i f y that this p r o p o s e d food bank would not compete with existing small businesses. Unemployed w o r k e r s would have less to s p e n d , but what they d i d have would sti l l s u p p o r t local businesses as much as possible. As d i r e c t o r of adult education Clode a r r a n g e d for c o u r s e s i n peer c o u n s e l l i n g , c a s h i e r i n g , 74 bookkeeping a n d g e n e r a l administration of food s e r v i c e , to p r o v i d e t r a i n i n g i n all aspects r e q u i r e d for operation of the Food Bank. In a d d i t i o n , Clode took r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a u t h o r i z i n g c h e q u e s i s s u e d on behalf of that new community s e r v i c e . Clode recal led an i n c i d e n t associated with the food bank. A n u n s c h e d u l e d v i s i t from a d e p u t y minister r e s u l t e d i n "quite a s t i r " when he was told Clode was not at her office, but at the local food bank. In r e p l y to the official i n q u i r y from F a r i s about h e r involvement in the food b a n k , Clode wrote what she t h o u g h t was " a v e r y p e r s u a s i v e " letter, not o n l y d e s c r i b i n g h e r role i n developing ski l ls r e q u i r e d for operat ion of the food b a n k , b u t also i n c l u d i n g a "few s u g g e s t i o n s " for p r o v i n c i a l action. X..h)e_J?xoviRc.^  T h a t year, the ministry had a n n o u n c e d that there would be an 80% r e d u c t i o n of c o n t i n u i n g education b u d g e t s which would be p h a s e d i n o v e r a three year p e r i o d . Th e init ial cut of 15% had been made a n d a f u r t h e r 19% c u t was expected i n the next b u d g e t year. The b u d g e t which Clode had submitted e a r l i e r that y e a r had been accepted by the ministry a n d p r o g r a m s were developed a c c o r d i n g l y . When the r e v i s e d allocations were a n n o u n c e d , Clode feared t h e i r operation would no l o n g e r be feasible. Her letter pointed out that the unilateral cuts were a p a r t i c u l a r h a r d s h i p i n smaller, remote areas. Distr icts l ike Lake Cowichan had far fewer r e s o u r c e s at the best of times than were available i n l a r g e r centres. T h i s letter was p a s s e d o n , a n d at the 1982 B C A C E A c o n v e n t i o n , Deputy M i n i s t e r James C a r t e r ' s s p e e c h (written b y F a r i s ) indicated that: In o r d e r to assist school d i s t r i c t s with a d u l t education operations acutely effected b y the economic dislocation a n d h i g h un-employment, approximately 1% of the school d i s t r i c t a d u l t education p r o v i n c i a l " f u n d i n g was held back for d i s t r i b u t i o n to d i s t r i c t s i n greatest need. Simultaneously a consortium of i n t e r e s t e d School Distr icts a n d Colleges was solicited from those areas with unemployment above the p r o v i n c i a l average of 12%. (BCACEA n . d . (1982) The goals of the Consortium were: 1. To stimulate s h a r i n g of information on possible adult education r e s p o n s e s to the impact of severe unemployment o n communities. 2. To c o n s i d e r the r e c e s s i o n — a p r o v i n c i a l issue w h i c h extends b e y o n d mandate of a n y one inst i tut ion or agency. 3. To achieve most effective use of limited r e s o u r c e s . 4. To promote i n t e r - i n s t i t u t i o n a l cooperation a n d pooling of r e s o u r c e s , (p. 1) Clode a g r e e d to be the Consortium c o n v e n o r a n d worked closely with Michael Clague who was h i r e d as a consultant. Clague d e s c r i b e d (July 12, 1988) the Consortium as, i n p a r t , "a t y p i c a l F a r i s s t r a t e g y to. . .encourage, p r o d a n d entice adult educators into real ly becoming community act ivists a r o u n d local socio-economic issues - to challenge 76 (them) to go one step b e y o n d whatever they were. A n d i n this context, c e r t a i n l y Ron a n d D o r o t h y f itted like h a n d a n d glove." Clague had not p r e v i o u s l y worked with Clode, but he f o u n d in h e r " a meeting of the minds" as a community w o r k e r . She took a n a t u r a l a p p r o a c h to how adult education w o r k e d in communities. On the one h a n d , y o u b u i l d b r i d g e s all o v e r the place - to the d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d , a n d the establishment a n d e v e r y o n e else. B u t (those) systems a n d s t r u c t u r e s of a d u l t education have to be tailored to the need - not the other way a r o u n d . In this sense, she c l e a r l y was a n o n -insti tutional p e r s o n . She s u p p o r t e d any e n d e a v o r that promoted people's l e a r n i n g . (Clague, J u l y 1988) F o r two y e a r s , from the fall of 1982 to e a r l y 1985, Clague edited JjojughJXiw^ (XTJS). T h i s newsletter was o r i g i n a l l y developed in connection with the Consort ium, to keep adult educators a r o u n d the p r o v i n c e i n t o u c h , p a r t i c u l a r l y about special projects f u n d e d b y the C o n s o r t i u m , but soon it was b e i n g r e q u e s t e d b y many more agencies, organizat ions a n d i n d i v i d u a l s who, i n t u r n , p r o v i d e d items of interest for publ icat ion. D u r i n g the f i r s t y e a r , most items for publ icat ion were c h a n n e l e d t h r o u g h Clode a n d she c o n t i n u e d to be act ively i n v o l v e d . Clague d e s c r i b e d her as, "Not o n l y as a c o n s u l t a n t to the consultant, but as r e - a s s u r e r to the consultant" about the value of what they were t r y i n g to accomplish. Clague recal led that other members of the Consortium r e s p o n d e d with " v a r y i n g d e g r e e s " of interest . He said that Clode's 77 suggest ions, h e r warmth a n d generosity , h e r l e a d e r s h i p with the "establishment" a n d h e r g e n e r a l s u p p o r t for their work was " c r i t i c a l . " Because of the posit ive response to TJT.N from a d u l t e d u c a t o r s a r o u n d the p r o v i n c e a n d other community development g r o u p s , other publicat ions were p r o d u c e d with Consortium f u n d s . T h e Resource Kit was a selection of examples of programming ideas a n d methods for a d u l t e d u c a t o r s . Many of these had been " b o r r o w e d " from b r o c h u r e s a n d suggest ions from a r o u n d the p r o v i n c e about what was w o r k i n g , a n d why, (or why not). !LhiL_HjpjA.^ was a r e s o u r c e guide that was d e s i g n e d as a simple tool to help family, o r g r o u p of n e i g h b o u r s , identify their r e s o u r c e s , i n o r d e r to better handle r e d u c e d income. In 1984, as the new executive d i r e c t o r of the Social P l a n n i n g a n d R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l of B.C. (SPARC), Clague a r r a n g e d that the publ icat ion of TIB. would continue u n d e r those a u s p i c e s , with remaining Consortium f u n d s h e l d in t r u s t b y L a k e Cowichan, S.D. #66. T h e r e are no l o n g e r a n y Consortium (or o t h e r Special Projects) monies, but SPARC, a g r a n t from the M i n i s t r y of Small B u s i n e s s a n d I n d u s t r y , p l u s s u b s c r i p t i o n s , c u r r e n t l y s u b s i d i z e the d e s c e n d a n t of that newsletter. The Community. XllltJuaJtlS£:fiS-.J2iS.efidt is p u b l i s h e d q u a r t e r l y b y Community Initiatives Publicat ions (CIP), a p u b l i s h i n g s u b s i d i a r y of SPARC, a n d maintains its o r i g i n a l mandate to inform adult e d u c a t o r s , b r o a d l y defined, about s o c i o -economic a n d community development issues. Clode was made an h o n o r a r y member of the CIP e d i t o r i a l b o a r d a n d continues to c o n t r i b u t e h e r expertise i n that r e g a r d . 78 In addit ibn to these publ icat ions, the Consortium d i d s p o n s o r a v a r i e t y of projects a r o u n d the p r o v i n c e . One of these was a three day forum o r g a n i z e d t h r o u g h the a d u l t a n d c o n t i n u i n g education office of the S u n s h i n e Coast school d i s t r i c t (#66). O r i g i n a l l y called New Directions, that forum p r e s e n t e d d i s p l a y s , d i s c u s s i o n s a n d a theatrical p r o d u c t i o n o n the theme of alternate r e s o u r c e management, c o - o p s a n d other posit ive r e s p o n s e s to challenge. The Lake Cowichan food bank c o n t i n u e d to operate a n d was u s e d as a t r a i n i n g facil ity, helped b y Consortium funds. When a m i n i s t r y official was informed about the range of activit ies s p o n s o r e d b y the Consortium he is said to have a s k e d , "But is it a d u l t education?", again c o n c e r n e d about the food bank specifically. Clague was reminded about how he a n d Clode were u n s u c c e s s f u l in attempting to have P A C E take o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for T.TN» He was " i n c r e d u l o u s " that, " T h e r e were so many hoops, a n d p r o c e d u r e s , a n d considerat ions. . .put i n o u r way." Among those c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , a p p a r e n t l y , was the quest ion a s k e d b y one of the P A C E b o a r d members - "But is it adult education?" It is t y p i c a l l y this confusion about the activit ies a n d the potential effects of what can be called a d u l t education that takes us back to the c e n t r a l t h r e a d l i n k i n g a d u l t education a n d community development. When does community education for adults become community development? A n d why does it matter? T h e r e are essential tensions i n h e r e n t i n a n y change act ivi ty; diff icult e n o u g h for an i n d i v i d u a l to accommodate, but e v e n more complex when engaged i n collective activit ies. Who is empowered? 79 Whose r i g h t s are negated? These are seldom black a n d white d i s t i n c t i o n s but it is c lear that adult e d u c a t o r s are "polit ical c r e a t u r e s who are constantly faced with the need to make choices r e g a r d i n g the allocation of r e s o u r c e s a n d whose choices reflect p e r s o n a l biases o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s " (Brookfield, 1983, p. 69). Clode was, i n d e e d , a "polit ical c r e a t u r e . " As Clague commented, she was good at b u i l d i n g b r i d g e s a n d c r e a t i n g a l l i e s . 1 0 Clode was v e r y much aware of the need to develop a s t r o n g s u p p o r t base, a n d d i d so in h e r home community t h r o u g h o u t h e r career. She was keenly aware of b u i l d i n g b o a r d s u p p o r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y as she sometimes had to " b e n d the r u l e s a bit ." (One c o u r s e had a dog a n d cat r e g i s t e r e d ; t h e i r fees were paid b y eight other p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n o r d e r to comply with the ministry r e q u i r e m e n t of a minimum of ten part ic ipants .) Regular r e p o r t s k e p t the b o a r d informed: "Here's what we d i d that was successful ; here 's what we t r i e d a n d failed; h e r e ' s what we're doing now that's going to be s u c c e s s f u l . " T h i s c o n c e r t e d p u b l i c relations effort was well worth the t r o u b l e ; Clode was r e w a r d e d b y a b o a r d that t r u s t e d a n d r e s p e c t e d her. Clode's biases were often e v i d e n t a n d it was her advocacy a n d conscientious efforts on behalf of her community that gained h e r the admiration a n d r e s p e c t of h e r professional colleagues. Clode not only talked about h e l p i n g people to help t h e m s e l v e s — s h e d i d it. 1 0 Her l o n g s t a n d i n g i n t e r e s t i n communications ski l ls had been s h a r e d a n d s u p p o r t e d b y C a r t i e r who p r o v i d e d w o r k s h o p s on that topic a r o u n d the p r o v i n c e i n c l u d i n g Lake Cowichan i n the 1970s. 80 C H A P T E R 5 AND WHY IS S H E IMPORTANT? Recapitulation When this r e s e a r c h e r f i r s t u n d e r t o o k this project, it was with some a p p r e h e n s i o n that the topic might not w a r r a n t extensive invest igat ion. Years p r e v i o u s l y , Clode had been a generous source of s u p p o r t a n d p r a c t i c a l advice to the r e s e a r c h e r , who at that time was newly immersed i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g an A d u l t a n d C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n programme for a r u r a l school d i s t r i c t . Clode's retirement had been d u l y h o n o u r e d b y h e r p e e r s (eg. the P A C E citation), a n d there was o t h e r evidence, that she h a d been h i g h l y r e g a r d e d . F o r instance, at a farewell d i n n e r g i v e n for him b y the B C A C E A , Ron F a r i s began his speech b y commenting that all those who attended h o n o u r e d him, especially Dorothy Clode. But o p p o r t u n i t i e s to meet with colleagues were relatively b r i e f a n d i n f r e q u e n t , a n d it was not init ial ly a p p a r e n t that h e r f r i e n d a n d mentor, Clode, was a s o u r c e of i n s p i r a t i o n for many, if not al l , of those who knew h e r work. So, it was with i n c r e a s i n g a p p r e c i a t i o n of h e r subject that the r e s e a r c h e r d i s c o v e r e d the love a n d r e s p e c t e x p r e s s e d b y e v e r y o n e to whom she spoke about Clode's c a r e e r , i n c l u d i n g those who d i d not participate i n interviews. To compensate for a n y p e r s o n a l bias, the r e s e a r c h e r i n t e r v i e w e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of v a r i o u s inst i tut ions in the field of adult a n d c o n t i n u i n g education, i n c l u d i n g school d i s t r i c t s , colleges, ministry officials, a n d o t h e r colleagues. Clode was b y no means c o n s i d e r e d a saint; h e r outrage (and her fai lure to impress customs officials with her 81 dramatic e x p r e s s i o n of it!) was noted (Kulich) as was h e r somewhat a b r u p t way of dealing with those who "failed to get o n b o a r d " (Day) i n the p r o c e s s of professional committee deliberations; n o r would she "suffer fools g l a d l y " (McGown). T h i s h i g h r e g a r d i n w h i c h she was held b y h e r peers in some sense may be seen as a "motherhood" issue; that is , it was easy to admire Clode. When F a r i s paid t r i b u t e to Clode, it was because she r e p r e s e n t e d the finest t r a d i t i o n of adult education as a force for social change a n d j u s t i c e , a n d typif ied the romantic notion of an a d u l t educator doing battle with the forces of evi l . F a r i s a p p a r e n t l y saw no anomaly i n this , despite the fact that Clode was often j o u s t i n g with policies a n d d i r e c t i v e s he had init iated; F a r i s believed in a n d s h a r e d Clode's v i s i o n of a j u s t a n d equitable society. But how those mutual goals were to be a c h i e v e d within the existing p r o v i n c i a l system a n d social context was the basis for contention. T h e y had different v e r s i o n s of tactics a n d r e s o u r c e s to r e d r e s s those wrongs. Clode t h o u g h t that with more c o n s i d e r a t i o n for the inequitable d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s o u r c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n o u t l y i n g areas, more school d i s t r i c t s would have c o n t i n u e d to offer c o n t i n u i n g education programmes. With similar s u p p o r t systems a n d expertise, schools could (and some said should) be an i n t e g r a l p a r t of " g r a s s roots" community development since schools were a l r e a d y closely connected to community life. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , those differences may have c louded the c e n t r a l i s s u e , but there is no doubt that Clode a n d F a r i s were, a n d remain, committed to the same v i s i o n of a j u s t society. 82 F a r i s r e c o g n i z e d that Clode was committed to, a n d deeply rooted i n , h e r community. T h i s quality set h e r a p a r t from many o t h e r s i n the field. Recognition of this o u t s t a n d i n g qual i ty , especial ly in an adult educator r e p r e s e n t i n g a school d i s t r i c t , may have a d d e d to his disi l lusionment with o t h e r s , especial ly those r e p r e s e n t i n g the college system, b y t h e i r fai lure to take u p the community development challenge. Clode, however, t h o u g h t that the fai lure lay i n m i n i s t r y policies to ful ly s u p p o r t school d i s t r i c t s i n t h e i r potential to p r o v i d e community programmes. Her views were s h a r e d b y o t h e r s (for example; K u l i c h ; Coulson; McGown; Hambrook). One would expect that her views would be consistent with those of others i n the school d i s t r i c t system, but it was a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a college who pointed out that, a l t h o u g h he s h a r e d F a r i s ' view that school d i s t r i c t s d i d not general ly have the r e s o u r c e s for community development, there was a fai lure on the p a r t of the m i n i s t r y to develop in a ny systematic way policies relating to community development. Th e Special Project system was i n t e n d e d to promote s u c h p r o g r a m m i n g , but Day said that it was too dependent on the init iative of the p a r t i c u l a r local inst i tut ion. T h e r e was some d i s p a r i t y among those i n t e r v i e w e d as to the wil l ingness, abi l i ty a n d r e s o u r c e s (or lack thereof) of school d i s t r i c t s to promote community development. But, t h e r e was unanimous agreement that Clode d i d , in fact, l o b b y s u c c e s s f u l l y on behalf of school d i s t r i c t s a n d , in so d o i n g , won the s u p p o r t a n d r e s p e c t of colleagues, despite those d i f f e r i n g views. A n o t h e r associate (Clague) mused about what this p r o v i n c e would have been like had Clode e v e r h a d the o p p o r t u n i t y to o c c u p y a senior 83 posit ion i n the ministry. Her rootedness i n a n d commitment to the community of Lake Cowichan, which was seen as a s t r e n g t h at the same time may have i n h i b i t e d her c a r e e r . (It s h o u l d also be remembered that that k i n d of commitment a n d v i s i o n did not ultimately s e r v e F a r i s ' c a r e e r well.) However, Clode herself said that, i n fact, s u c h an o p p o r t u n i t y had p r e s e n t e d itself, b u t she was not p r e p a r e d to give u p the benefits of r a i s i n g her family i n Lake Cowichan (Personal communication, September 1988). Despite this possible limitation, Clode has been d e s c r i b e d as " b i g g e r than the d i s t r i c t which she r e p r e s e n t e d " (McGown). Her s t o r y is also b i g g e r t h a n a mere p e r s o n a l c h r o n i c l e , for her life a n d work, especial ly her professional activit ies a n d community c o n c e r n s , all relate to, a n d give greater u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a fascinating p e r i o d of adult education h i s t o r y i n this p r o v i n c e . Elujral i tx. . .^ T h r o u g h o u t the f o r e g o i n g , we have seen how Clode's p e r s o n a l a n d professional life c l e a r l y demonstrated her values a n d p h i l o s o p h y about h e l p i n g . A d u l t education was a means to that e n d . Her advocacy a n d activism was another dimension of h e r role as an a d u l t educator. As she helped people to make their own choices, as Roberts (1979) s u g g e s t e d the emphasis c h a n g e d from that of education to community development. "In o t h e r words, community development adds an outcome of action to a p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g , " (p. 37). One of the c e n t r a l tenets of R o b e r t s ' text (1979) is that community development w o r k e r s will f i n d it difficult to act without some model or p a r a d i g m about the way the world is, in o r d e r to u n d e r t a k e "the k i n d s 84 of action we cal l community development." F u r t h e r m o r e , he p r o p o s e s t h e r e are basic assumptions i n community development. . . .That people are capable of both p e r c e i v i n g a n d j u d g i n g the c o n d i t i o n of t h e i r l ives; that t h e y have the will a n d capacity to plan together i n accordance with these judgements to change that condit ion for the better; that they can act together in a c c o r d a n c e with these plans; a n d that s u c h a p r o c e s s can be seen in terms of c e r t a i n values, (p. xv) T h i s basic assumption that, i n h e r e n t in community development p r o c e s s is "a capacity for a n d a p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g " (p. 34), implies a rejection of a mechanistic, behaviorist ic view of how that l e a r n i n g takes place. However, Roberts does s u g g e s t that there are different stages in community development; the f i r s t of these is the " c r e a t i o n " of community as the r e s u l t of members' mutually i d e n t i f y i n g "tensions" of unmet needs i n that community. D u r i n g the second stage of community development, different t y p e s of l e a r n i n g take place (eg. acquisi t ion of knowledge base), but Roberts s tresses the importance of g r o u p dynamics a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g the re l a t ionship of self to the g r o u p in that newly emerging community (p. 37). S u c h l e a r n i n g is p a r t i c u l a r l y important for the community development w o r k e r , " F i r s t , to enable the w o r k e r to become a more effective p e r s o n i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the community, a n d s e c o n d , to be able to use, j u d i c i o u s l y a n d a p p r o p r i a t e l y , knowledge of methods of s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g to help o t h e r s u n d e r s t a n d themselves better a n d become more effective actors i n the community." (p. 19). 85 T h i s a p p r o p r i a t e a n d j u d i c i o u s selection of methods a n d t e c h n i q u e s for w o r k i n g with g r o u p s will attest to the community development w o r k e r ' s a c q u i s i t i o n of the " c o r r e c t Gestalt", e i ther t h r o u g h s e l f - l e a r n i n g i n professional development, o r because of i n t u i t i v e " a r t i s t r y " (p.88); that is, the w o r k e r will a c q u i r e "a c l u s t e r of v a l u e s leading one to behave i n specific ways," (p. 19). These "values" are also reflected i n Roberts'(1979) t y p o l o g y of social philosophies. A c c o r d i n g to that p r o p o s a l , those c l u s t e r s would be within the d e m o c r a t i c / p l u r a l i s t or democratic/collectivist dimensions. If we combine Roberts ' h e u r i s t i c "continuum" between the p r i m a r i l y i n d i v i d u a l focus of a d u l t education a n d the p r i m a r i l y collective focus of community development, (p.35) there is a much more complex c o n f i g u r a t i o n for an adult e d u c a t o r ' s values. Also, Roberts notes that the dominant a p p r o a c h of adult educationists to community development has been mainly in terms of the cognit ive l e a r n i n g model; however, he notes that it is often difficult for adults to overcome their earl ier educational experiences i n which they were d i r e c t e d a n d c o n t r o l l e d , a n d to r e a d i l y participate as mature, s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n e r s , (pp.77-79). It is in the a r e a of action on that continuum which ultimately is the means b y which community development (and adult education) can be evaluated, for it is chiefly b y o b s e r v a b l e actions that the success o r fai lure of both l e a r n i n g a n d community development objectives can be assessed. What can we o b s e r v e about Clode i n her role as an adult educator i n relation to community development? In looking at Clode's life a n d work, it is clear that she took on many tasks a n d executed them ably. 86 It is important to appreciate that these tasks were u n d e r t a k e n for aH the p u r p o s e s that Roberts (1982, p. 31) a s c r i b e s to adult education, i n c l u d i n g that p a r t of the continuum which has to do with c o u n t e r -c u l t u r a l development; that is , social change. Many of her official t a s k s were better s u i t e d to the community development p a r t of that continuum p r o p o s e d b y Roberts. As a r g u e d above, Clode d i d not neatly d i v i d e her p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e life, n o r was her role as an adult educator confined to p r o v i d i n g programmes for i n d i v i d u a l interests a n d p e r s o n a l development c o u r s e s . Not that these p e r s o n a l p u r s u i t s were d i s p a r a g e d : i n d e e d , i n the example of the dyslexic y o u n g man, it is e v i d e n t that Clode took an exceptional i n t e r e s t in h e l p i n g that i n d i v i d u a l meet his p e r s o n a l goals. A n d , Clode's c o n c e r n about the r a i s i n g of E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n e n t r y qualifications c l e a r l y demonstrated h e r awareness of the i n d i v i d u a l nature of programme p a r t i c i p a n t s ' needs, a n d she a r g u e d for flexible " r u l e s " that would not exclude anyone solely on a r b i t r a r y academic g r o u n d s . But it is not this area of expertise i n h e r role as an adult education programmer that won h e r professional acclaim; r a t h e r , it is recognit ion of her c o n t r i b u t i o n s to community development i n the Lake Cowichan area, as well as her demonstrated commitment to p r i n c i p l e s affirming social activism that r e s u l t e d in her being called upon b y community members, colleagues, a n d ministry officials as a knowledgeable a n d p r a c t i c a l r e s o u r c e in community development. Clode p r o f e s s e d a l i f e - l o n g i n t e r e s t i n people; p a r t i c u l a r l y , she was inf luenced b y her p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the growing t r e n d to self-awareness c o u r s e s d u r i n g the 1960's. Her c h i l d h o o d , her earl ier 87 experiences as a p s y c h i a t r i c n u r s e a n d h e r o n - g o i n g involvement with community mental health organizations all were foundations for Clode's i n t e r e s t i n social p s y c h o l o g y , a n d p e r h a p s p r e - d i s p o s e d h e r to part ic ipate i n those self -awareness activit ies. In t u r n , those activit ies a d d e d to h e r ski l ls a n d t e c h n i q u e s for s u c c e s s f u l l y w o r k i n g with g r o u p s , prime r e q u i s i t e s for a community development w o r k e r , a c c o r d i n g to Roberts. A n d , a l t h o u g h there is n o t h i n g i n those i n t e r e s t s that in themselves c o u l d do more t h a n imply a democratic value system, there were repeated examples of h e r consultative style i n w o r k i n g with community g r o u p s , a n d a complete absence of authoritarianism in a n y of h e r "expert" roles. While Roberts a n d o t h e r s have differentiated between the o b s e r v a b l e action of community development a n d u n - o b s e r v a b l e i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g , Roberts ' model of community development (p. 36) is closely a k i n to i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g in the cognit ive model (pp. 71-74) he d e s c r i b e s . The a r b i t r a r y dist inct ion between action a n d l e a r n i n g does not admit that, i n a c q u i r i n g l e a r n i n g , of whatever type, there is a c h a n g e a n d it is this change w h i c h may, o r may not , be o b s e r v a b l e . In community development, there may be a long p e r i o d i n which u n o b s e r v e d , undetected change takes place, a n d it may be only as the r e s u l t of a p a r t i c u l a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n of c ircumstance that this change is o b s e r v e d , d e s c r i b e d as action. F o r example, in r e c e n t y e a r s there has been a community of i n t e r e s t d e v e l o p i n g a r o u n d environmental issues. But, t h e r e has been a v e r y l o n g p e r i o d d u r i n g which i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g a n d collective efforts were r e l a t i v e l y u n k n o w n a n d u n o b s e r v e d , a n d it is r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t l y that the cumulative effect of those i n d i v i d u a l s ' 88 i n t e r e s t s have become defined as a recognizable community of i n t e r e s t s w h i c h i n t u r n continue to be developed i n relation to b r o a d e r societal interests . B r o o k f i e l d has noted that, i n g e n e r a l , a d u l t e d u c a t o r s have " c h o s e n to talk of communities of interest . . .or communities of function"(Brookfield,1983, p.63) b u t he p r e f e r s a "locational" o r " n e i g h b o u r h o o d basis" of a d u l t l e a r n i n g , (p.65) However, he points out that one of the roles of both community w o r k e r a n d community a d u l t e d u c a t o r may be to initiate a sense of community. That this role is r e l e v a n t to both those differentiated roles reflects "the p l u r a l i t y of pract ice a n d c o n c e p t u a l ambiguity w h i c h falls u n d e r the r u b r i c of community education", (p.66) It is p r e c i s e l y this ambiguity that this w r i t e r s u g g e s t s is a k e y concept i n the relat ionship of adult education to community development. A n d , as outl ined above, Clode moved i n a n d out of v a r i o u s roles facil itating that s p e c t r u m , or continuum, between l e a r n i n g a n d action i n the community. Brookfield goes on to develop a t y p o l o g y , conceptualized as a continuum r a n g i n g between " l i b e r a l " a n d " l i b e r a t i n g " a p p r o a c h e s to community education (Chapter 4, above). The t r a d i t i o n a l l i b e r a l model of community education is essential ly inst i tutional ly based, (rather than authentical ly community based) a n d assumes that community education can satisfy "needs of all members of a community at any one time"(p. 67); that is, t h e r e is an u n d e r l y i n g assumption of the potential for c o n s e n s u s i n an " o r g a n i c , harmonious" community. C o n s e q u e n t l y , confl ict ing i n t e r e s t s are not real ist ical ly c o n s i d e r e d in those Utopian goals. In c o n t r a s t , the " l i b e r a t i n g " model of community education: . . .Emphasizes the i n - e q u a l i t i e s i n terms of income, access to educational o p p o r t u n i t y , a n d political power. Instead of acknowledging the existence of cohesive a n d harmonious elements i n a community, w r i t e r s i n this t r a d i t i o n choose to concentrate on differences a n d disparit ies . E d u c a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g adult education, comes to s e r v e as a compensatory o r readjustment mechanism c o n c e r n e d to promote the collective w e l l - b e i n g of an identif ied d i s a d v a n t a g e d or d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d g r o u p . The community adult educator is seen as being f o r c e d to ignore the needs of one sector (for example, l a n d l o r d s ) i n o r d e r to s e r v e the needs of another (for example, tenants ' associations) A n o t h e r feature of this school of th e orists is the absence of c l e a r l y immutable dist inct ions d r a w n b y s u c h w r i t e r s between education, development a n d action. E d u c a t i o n becomes a political act a n d development a n d action are held to be i n t e r w o v e n a n d p a r t of a b r o a d movement to attain social justice. T h u s , as a community a d u l t e d u c a t o r identif ied with these views declares, " i n the most important sense success will d e p e n d o n the extent to which adult education 90 c o n t r i b u t e s to the p r o c e s s of social change" (Lovett 1971, p.13) (p.68-69) C l e a r l y , Clode would fit this view of an a d u l t e d u c a t o r ' s role i n relation to community development a n d social change. Clode has i n d i c a t e d her awareness that h e r activit ies may at times have been viewed b y some to be s u b v e r s i v e . E v e n if h e r role were s t r i c t l y limited to merely facil itating o t h e r s ' actions i n attaining the goals of specific i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , it would be i r r e s p o n s i b l e to s u g g e s t that this was ultimately u n c o n n e c t e d to the actions r e s u l t i n g from her facilitation. It has been pointed out that Clode also took on what might be c o n s i d e r e d the tradit ional , c o n s e n s u a l a p p r o a c h to community education a n d development. Clague saw Clode's " b r i d g e - b u i l d i n g " as an o u t s t a n d i n g s k i l l ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , Clode was keenly aware that when people began to benefit from a c c e s s i n g r e s o u r c e s for identif ied needs, there would i n e v i t a b l y be some costs to other p a r t s of the community, o r social system. A n o t h e r aspect of Clode's work that seems to reflect a more t r a d i t i o n a l , l i b e r a l a p p r o a c h to community education a n d development is s u g g e s t e d i n the account of an u p h o l s t e r y c o u r s e for a local native b a n d . F o r some, the " h i d d e n a g e n d a " relat ing to needs init ial ly identif ied b y o u t s i d e r s may be viewed as p a t r o n i z i n g . B r o o k f i e l d , however, declares that it is "normal a n d inevitable" "for an a d u l t e d u c a t o r to make moral o r ethical judgements about what s h o u l d be t a u g h t a n d what k i n d of society s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d . " F u r t h e r , he s u g g e s t s that the adult e d u c a t o r as an animatueur s h o u l d promote "awareness of community deficiencies," as well as develop "the ski l ls a n d knowledge n e c e s s a r y [for community members] to take action," (p. 84). 91 F a r i s s h a r e d Clode's view of the affinity of adult education with community development. More r e c e n t l y , he stated, "It is no coincidence that l e a r n i n g is an i n t e g r a l p a r t of an effective social movement," ( F a r i s , 1988). It is clear from e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n (Chapter 3, above) that F a r i s ' l e a d e r s h i p was aimed at moving a d u l t a n d c o n t i n u i n g education i n this p r o v i n c e from marginality toward an i n t e g r a t e d system for l i f e - l o n g l e a r n i n g . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , there was limited s u p p o r t from the r e s t of the m i n i s t r y for those goals. The o v e r a l l p r o p e n s i t y i n B.C. has been toward a d u l t education programming that is market d r i v e n . Not unlike A l b e r t a , the dominant social p h i l o s o p h y of B.C. politics has emphasized i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c p e r s o n a l advancement i n the " b r o a d p u r p o s e s of a d u l t education," (Roberts, 1982, p. 61). It is , therefore, somewhat ironic that it has been l a r g e l y due to the efforts of i n d i v i d u a l s l ike Clode a n d F a r i s that col lectivist , social democratic goals have been promoted in B.C. adult education programming. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the achievements of s u c h p e r s o n s are ultimately v u l n e r a b l e to the dominant power s t r u c t u r e . The signif icant losses at all levels of education s e r v i c e in B.C. d u r i n g r e c e n t y e a r s attest to the diff iculty of maintaining programmes that are measured i n terms of human potential r a t h e r t h a n monetary expenditure. Selman (1988, p. 157) has r e f e r r e d to the need for adult e d u c a t o r s to develop "polit ical clout" b y a l i g n i n g more closely with "those forces a n d social movements i n o u r society which do command the loyalty " of s u p p o r t e r s . In doing so, t h e r e will be again a p e r s o n a l bias or value judgement i n each of those p e r s o n a l choices r e g a r d i n g political alignment. We can only hope to emulate those v i s i o n a r y i n d i v i d u a l s who, 92 like Clode, recognize that the achievement of social just ice d e p e n d s , paradoxical ly, on the potential i n h e r e n t i n collective means. APPENDIX A: S A M P L E QUESTIONS A s k e d of D o r o t h y Clode: - p l e a s e d e s c r i b e e v e n t s t h a t l e d t o y o u b e c o m i n g t h e d i r e c t o r of A d u l t a n d C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n - how w o u l d y o u d e s c r i b e y o u r p h i l o s o p h y r e l a t i n g t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ? - h a v e y o u r v i e w s a b o u t t h e r o l e of a n a d u l t e d u c a t o r i n r e l a t i o n to s o c i a l c h a n g e a l t e r e d d u r i n g y o u r c a r e e r ? - w h a t i s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e of a n a d u l t e d u c a t o r i n t e r m s of c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t ? - i s t h e r o l e of a n e d u c a t o r r e s t r i c t e d t o c o n s u l t a t i o n , o r i s a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d v o c a c y a c t i v i t i e s a p p r o p r i a t e ? 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"Adult Education and Community Action." In AdultJE.duc.atisn, Volume VI, No. 2. Winter. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Association of the U n i t e d States of America, pp. 67-81. Merriam, S.B. (1988). "Doing Case Study Research in Adult Education." In P„rQ.ce.e-diag^^ Ee..S.ear.cJ^ C..o.n£e.r.enCfi. Calgary: T h e F a c u l t y of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a ; pp. 217-222. Mial, C.H. (1955). In AdulLEducation, Volume VI, No. 1. Autumn. T h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Association of the U n i t e d States of America; p p . 6-9. M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . (1980). EQrm.AC.KUQ, P A C E . (May 1986). Citations Read During the Presentation of Life Memberships at the PACE Annual General Meeting. In GonnectAQ ns• V a n c o u v e r : Pacific Association of C o n t i n u i n g Education. P a t e r s o n , R.W.K. (March 1973). "Social Change as an Educational Aim." In Adult-Education, Volume 45, No. 6. 98 P y r c h , T. (1983). An_ExaMnatio^ Hmted..J3:t^t^ U n p u b l i s h e d doctoral dissertat ion. V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Q u i n n , M.F. (1988). A_.Jiisioxy_of^ Educ_aJaojQ_1.912rl9j32. U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t a n d H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Report T o w a r d s the L e a r n i n g Community. (1974). T h e T a s k force on the Community College i n B r i t i s h Columbia R e s e a r c h a n d Development Division Department of E d u c a t i o n . Report of the Committee on C o n t i n u i n g a n d Community E d u c a t i o n in B r i t i s h Columbia. (1976). M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. R o b e r t s , H. (1979). C.Qmmunity„.Dey.elQp.me.nfc Learning and Action. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press. Roberts, H. (1982). Q.ult.ur.e_a.nd..Adu.lt_JEdui:atiQni A S.fc.u.dy._..oi„.Alb..ejr.ta and-._Q.ue.b.e.C. Edmonton: U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a P r e s s . R o c k h i l l , K. n . d . (1986). "The Chaos of Subjectivity in the Ordered Halls of Academe." Eopjilax„Egmi^ No. 5. Centre for Women's Studies i n E d u c a t i o n . Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies i n E d u c a t i o n . Selman, G. a n d Kulick, J . (October 1980). "Between Social Movement and Profession - a Historical Perspective on Canadian Adult Education." In S..tu.difi&„m^ Vol. 12, No. 2.; p p . 109-116. 99 Selman, G. (1982). "Adult Education in Two Depressions - the 1930s and Now; the B.C. Case." P r o c e e d i n g s , Canadian Association of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . Toronto. Selman, G. ( J a n u a r y 1984). "Stages in the Development of Canadian Adult Education." In G.ajmdi&n^ X , 1; p p . 7-15. Selman, G. (1984). "Government's Role in Adult Education: Two Periods of Active Leadership in British Columbia 1933-1939 and 1976-1983. " In Cxjeatirj^,Citizen.S, C a s s i d y , F. (Ed.). P A C E Papers 1. V a n c o u v e r : Pacific Association for C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n ; p p . 4-34. Selman, G. (1988). "Advocacy for Adult Education in British Columbia; An Historical Overview. " In AdYQC.acxJfor_ B_ritiskColumbia. P A C E Papers 3, K u l i c h , J . (Ed.). V a n c o u v e r : . T h e Pacific Association for C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n . Shulman, L . S . ( J u n e / J u l y 1981). "Disciplines of Inquiry in Education: An Overview." In EdMCationaLEsseaxcbiSX; PP. 5-12, 23. S p a r k e s , R.G. (1977). "Adult Education and Community Development." In A.d:ultJ&duca.ta^^ CJaall.e.ngje_JtQ.r C.hang.e/S.ocie..t^ U n p u b l i s h e d Thesis Dept. of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Smith, R.M. a n d McKinley, J . (Autumn 1955). "An Institutional Approach to Adult Education in the Community. " In Ad.U.lt.J3d.U.Cft.tiQ.n, Volume VI, No. 1. The A d u l t Association of the U n i t e d States of America; p p . 25-32. 100 T h o m p s o n , J . (1980). "Adult Education for Change." In Adujt Ej3uj&yao.^ Thompson, J . L . (Ed.). H u t c h i n s o n a n d Co. ( P u b l i s h e r s ) L t d . ; p p . 219-223. V e r n e r , C. (1971). "Community Action and Learning: A Concept Analysis." In Citi^a_P^.rJaca^ D r a p e r , J.A. (Ed.). Toronto: New P r e s s ; p p . 418-429. LnLte.rvie.wj3 Bowcott, Ron. (June 23, 1988). Personal communication. Ron Bowcott was former Director of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n ; he was also a member of the NWAEA u n t i l his retirement i n the e a r l y 1970s. Clague, Michael. (July 11, 1988). Interviewed. Michael Clague was Executive Director of the B r i t a n n i a Community S e r v i c e s Centre i n V a n c o u v e r ' s East Side from 1974 u n t i l 1978. He was h i r e d as a consultant to the p r o v i n c i a l Consortium on Economic Dislocation i n 1982. From 1985 u n t i l the p r e s e n t , Clague has been Executive Director of the Social P l a n n i n g a n d Research C o u n c i l of B r i t i s h Columbia. Coulson, George (Al). (June 28, 1988). Interviewed. Along with Clode, Al Coulson was one of the members of the 1976 F a r i s committee on C o n t i n u i n g a n d Community E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. At that time he was head of Community E d u c a t i o n S e r v i c e s for the V a n c o u v e r School District . He is p r e s e n t l y a trustee for the New Westminster School B o a r d . 101 Day, William (Bill). (July 12, 1988). Interviewed. Bil l Day was Director of A d u l t a n d C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n for School D i s t r i c t #42 (Maple Ridge) from 1958 to 1963 a n d in S u r r e y School Distr ict from 1963 to 1970. In 1975, he became Dean of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n at Douglas College; he has been P r e s i d e n t of that i n s t i t u t i o n from 1981 u n t i l the present. F a r i s , Ron. (July 10, 1988). P e r s o n a l communication. Dr. Ron F a r i s was o r i g i n a l l y h i r e d as a c o n s u l t a n t to the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n in 1973. He became Executive Director of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n the p o s t - s e c o n d a r y department of the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n i n 1974. Since 1987, Dr. F a r i s has been Head of the National L i t e r a c y Secretariat for the S e c r e t a r y of State in Ottawa. Hambrook, Gordon. (June 22, 1988). Interviewed. G o r d o n Hambrook was Director of A d u l t a n d C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n for New Westminster School District for o v e r twenty y e a r s u n t i l his retirement in 1986. K u l i c h , J i n d r a . (June 24, 1988). Interviewed. From 1961 to 1964, J i n d r a K u l i c h was Director of A d u l t a n d C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n for School Distr ict #70 in Port A l b e r n i . Since 1976, he has been the Director of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n for the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. McGown, William (Bill). (June 21, 1988). Interviewed. Bil l McGown was Director of A d u l t a n d C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n for N o r t h a n d West V a n c o u v e r School Distr icts from 1966 unti l his retirement in 1983. 102 R u b i d g e , Nick. (June 24, 1988). Interviewed. Nick Rubidge was formerly Director of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n in the p o s t - s e c o n d a r y department of the M i n i s t r y of Education. At the time of the interview, he was Manager of the M i n i s t r y ' s International E d u c a t i o n d i v i s i o n . 

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