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Dorothy Clode : community educator Moss, Ricki Carol 1988

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DOROTHY C L O D E :  COMMUNITY E D U C A T O R By  RICKI CAROL MOSS B.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ,  1981  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR T H E D E G R E E O F MASTER OF ARTS in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S (Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e ,  Adult and Higher  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as to the r e q u i r e d  conforming  standard  T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A October ©  1988  R i c k i C a r o l Moss.,  1988  Education)  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  department publication  thesis  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  for  this or of  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and  scholarly  or for  her  The  University  Vancouver,  DE-6  of  (2/88)  of  Canada  British  Columbia  I  further  purposes  gain  the  requirements  1 agree  shall  that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  permission.  Department  study.  of  be  It not  is  that  the  Library  permission  granted  by  understood be  for  allowed  an  advanced  shall for  the that  without  make  it  extensive  head  of  copying my  my or  written  ii  ABSTRACT This thesis will primarily focus on an  adult educator, examining  the c a r e e r of Dorothy  her leadership and  development at Lake Cowichan and Columbia, of  as i n the C o n s o r t i u m  on  her  d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s w i l l be study.  The  regarding  role i n community  i n the broader  context of  Economic Dislocation.  the r o l e of a p r o f e s s i o n a l a d u l t e d u c a t o r  to the  examined, u s i n g Clode's  The  British relationship  community c a r e e r as a  case  i n t e n t i o n i s to examine the n a t u r e of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  p r a c t i c e , i n t e r m s of the d a i l y c o n c e r n s , i s s u e s a n d  p h i l o s o p h y of  a  w o m a n w h o s e 18 y e a r c a r e e r s p a n n e d t h r e e d y n a m i c d e c a d e s i n t h e r e c e n t h i s t o r y of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  as  influence in  professional adult education associations; her advocacy provincial adult education policies; and  Clode  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1  WHO  IS DOROTHY CLODE?  Introduction Definitions Methodology Structure  i i i 1 1 2 6 7  Chapter 2 PERSONAL PROFILE B i o g r a p h i c a l Background Personal C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Feminist Facets. Influences Philosophy  10 10 16 19 21 23  Chapter 3 PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES S e t t i n g The Scene The B r i t i s h Columbia A s s o c i a t i o n o f C o n t i n u i n g Education A d m i n i s t r a t o r s (BCACEA) The Northwest A s s o c i a t i o n On A d u l t E d u c a t o r s (NWAEA) E a r l y Childhood Education A r t i c u l a t i o n E x t e r n a l E v a l u a t i o n Team Summary  28 28 33 .44 47 49 49  CHAPTER 4 COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT - IS IT ADULT EDUCATION? P a r t I - T h e o r e t i c a l Overview P a r t II - Community Programming Introduction S e n i o r s Evergreen C e n t r e Gum, F i s h and U p h o l s t e r y Tacks The Food Bank S t o r y . The P r o v i n c i a l Consortium on Economic D i s l o c a t i o n CHAPTER 5 AND WHY IS SHE IMPORTANT? Recapitulation P l u r a l i t y of Practice  53 53 63 63 70 . 71 72 74 80 80 83  APPENDIX A  Sample Q u e s t i o n s  SOURCES Bibliography Interviews  93 94 94 . . 100  1  CHAPTER 1 WHO IS DOROTHY C L O D E ? lBtracluc_tiojQ Who is D o r o t h y Clode? adult education? i n t e n d s to  These  And why  are the fundamental questions  which this  thesis  answer.  In d o i n g so, a n u m b e r of issues one of the reasons relates  is she important to the field of  a n d themes  emerge.  t h a t t h i s documentation of h e r c a r e e r  But first, is important  to the r e l a t i v e p a u c i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a d u l t e d u c a t o r s ,  d i s t i n c t f r o m the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  This is especially  so i n  case of B r i t i s h Columbia, a n d w i t h respect  to the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of  in the  f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n B.C., w i t h t h e n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n  (1984)  biography  i n t o the l i v e s of a d u l t e d u c a t o r s  potential for the field at large, since it offers  women Kalef s  offers  a means  a  great  not only  to  specifics of a p a r t i c u l a r p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s ,  also to p r o v i d e a context i n w h i c h to analyze  and assess the  civilized consciousness  benefits  from knowing what  by whom, how a n d why, a n d this is especially f i e l d of s t u d y a n d b o d y of k n o w l e d g e  Dorothy Clode's career  offers  battles  relevant  such an opportunity.  In  (eg. i n d i v i d u a l a s p e c t s of h e r w o r k ) ; b u t b e h i n d these  fought,  newly  s u c h as a d u l t  h e r life a n d w o r k , c e r t a i n areas are of p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a n d  n u m b e r of theme a r e a s are  All  were  to a  but  relative  importance a n d applications of theoretical debates a n d issues.  emerging  the  of B e t s y M c D o n a l d .  But research  discover the  as  education. studying importance  activities  a  d i s c o v e r e d , the most c e n t r a l of w h i c h is  her  2  conviction concerning the role of adult education i n relation to community  development.  This relationship has been the subject  of debate f o r many  A g a i n s t a b a c k g r o u n d t r a d i t i o n of adult education as a committed to societal change  a n d improvement, there  which contends that educators Clode's career offers frequently faced  years.  movement  has emerged  must not a n d cannot change  a n exciting example of the  a view  the world.  challenges  d u r i n g the daily dilemmas of a n a d u l t educator.  The  intellectual awareness a n d practical experience of disparate theories, as exemplified a n d s y n t h e s i z e d i n Dorothy Clode's life a n d w o r k , offers example that is compelling a n d u n i q u e i n t h e field. that such an individual exists, who has agreed  an  We a r e f o r t u n a t e  to be the subject  of this  thesis as a case s t u d y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of issues a n d ethics of c o n c e r n to adult educators throughout this province d u r i n g the dynamic which coincided  decades  w i t h t h e most active p e r i o d of h e r career.  DefirjiUons. Discussion of Clode's career a n d c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the field of a d u l t education inevitably deals w i t h the field of community development, a n d t h i s p a p e r will look closely at h e r role as a n a d u l t educator i n the community of L a k e Cowichan as well as i n the p r o v i n c i a l Consortium o n Economic Dislocation as examples of adult education community development needs.  addressing  Within these discussions, "adult  esbAsation" t "ci5mjmmitx„edjacaJtiQn," "GQjMmniteud^&Qpmzmi." a n d " c o m m u n i t y " i t s e l f a r e t e r m s t h a t must be c l a r i f i e d . Adult educators use the terms  have long been aware of a general tendency  "community education" and "community  development"  to  3  almost interchangeably. community-based  There  is a warm, congratulatory  acceptance reflected  glow  i n the a s s o c i a t i o n of  adult  education  w i t h community education, a declaration "that one is  something  inately  p. 60).  desirable, as  Frequently  designed  these terms are confused  to r e s p o n d  reflects  practice"  because  to community needs assessments  c o n t r i b u t e to that community's the confusion,  well as to d e s c r i b e  development"  (Brookfield,  subsequently A n d , to a d d  is a concept  increasing acceptance that a community's educational  usually related  to economic  development,  doing  programmes  growth and development.  "community economic  of  and cannot  to  that needs  be limited to  are  social  development. The word appreciate areas,  "community"  that its definition cannot  or neighbourhoods.  so defined  based  Within any  solely i n terms of  geographical  locale, c o n t e m p o r a r y  communities  o n ethnicity, age,  gender  of  bias, income, or  other  concerns. However, for the  refer  be  will also consist of v a r i o u s , a n d v a r y i n g , communities  interest, whether mutual  is i t s e l f p r o b l e m a t i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y if w e  to the  of the  specific  purpose  of t h i s p a p e r  the term "community:"  community of Lake Cowichan, except i n the  provincial Consortium on Economic Dislocation.  discussion indicates, an astute implications of those  various and often  the communities s/he  (1974) d e c l a r e d  education  is to a s s i s t  context  B u t , as the  above  will fully appreciate  conflicting interest  groups  the within  serves.  The Report of the College  adult educator  will  British Columbia Task ( p . 28) t h a t  Force on The  Community  "One of the prime functions  individuals and groups  to identify, assess  of and  4  meet t h e i r l e a r n i n g n e e d s "  a n d as  p a r t of  that end, "community education workers proposed  as  would have "special status",  out imaginative plans and activities." "be  established  with staff  s t a n d i n g committee of the college Educational Development having a membership residents,  representing  T h a t same "programmes  report  the wider community  These  be o p e r a t i n g  community  of  of school d i s t r i c t s o n  a college  based  as  of  each  schools." this  operation,  defined Adult and Continuing Education  since  as  to p r o v i d e l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s to r e s i d e n t s (i.e. n o t j u s t t h e college  community) a n d to  defined  as  "activities  designed  to a s s i s t  ( p . 8) a p p e a r  to be  subsumed  (1976) ( f a m i l i a r l y k n o w n a s t h e community education as  of  meet  development." people  within  needs."  i n the R e p o r t of  Committee o n C o n t i n u i n g a n d Community E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h  assisted  Community  board member a n d an appointee  r e g i o n to i d e n t i f y , a s s e s s , a n d meet t h e i r ' l e a r n i n g  definitions  expanded  interested  needs identified by community educational  In t u r n , t h i s was a college  to a n  this  employees.  designed  the educational  "carry  that  conceived  community groups,  the i n c l u s i o n of a representative  were college  recommended  T h i s c o u n c i l was  c o u n c i l , it is clear that t h i s CEDS was staff  Service  b o a r d to act as a regional  Council."  "at least one college  It was  to  were  i n o r d e r to  directly responsible  school d i s t r i c t , many of w h i c h may Despite  (social animators)"  p a r t of a Community E d u c a t i o n a l Development  (CEDS) i n w h i c h t h e y  service  "an innovative approach"  the  Columbia  F a r i s R e p o r t ) i n i t s d e f i n i t i o n ( p . 70)  "a process  by  which individuals or groups  to i d e n t i f y , a s s e s s , a n d meet t h e i r l e a r n i n g needs,  and  to  of  are  5  improve the education  quality of t h e i r community life."  definition of community education . . .Comprises  T h e c u r r e n t m i n i s t r y of states that  processes and programmes  individuals or groups  are assisted  to  by  it: which  identify,  a s s e s s a n d meet t h e i r l e a r n i n g needs i n o r d e r improve the  q u a l i t y of community life.  education programmes such issues parent  contribute  Community  to the  r e s o l u t i o n of  as mental illness, pollution, metrication,  education  and  nutrition.  ( M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1980, f o r m It is i n this sense that community education paper;  #CE120)  w i l l be  used  t h a t i s , i m p r o v e m e n t of c o m m u n i t y life is a goal to be  by addressing  special needs and minority  The foregoing community education development  community achieve  will be u s e d i n the  is a "process  goals a n d to influence (emphasis  and  added).  "development"  suggests their qualitative question -  "who  development,  stands  between  are also often  to benefit?"  used  rather than  to  "change,"  i n terms of  proposed  that  as  interchangeably,  c a n be v i e w e d from the  so  colle.ct.iYe.ly  Lotz notes that the terms  differences  L o t z (1977, p p .  individual and collective,  together  of  Community  sense that  enabling people  actions  this  achieved  the concept  to community development.  differentiating  development  individuals" growth"  relates  in  interests.  d i s c u s s i o n indicated how closely  in this paper  8-9) p r o p o s e s ,  or  to  change,  but  he  the growth,  (p. 9).  The concept of d i s c u s s i o n about  of p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d the various views  about  the  i n the  role of a d u l t  context  education  6  and social change,  but for now professionalization will, refer to  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of emphasis  "between  the  a d u l t education as a social  movement a n d as a p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d "  ( S e l m a n a n d K u l i c h , 1980).  The  rise of professionalization c o r r e s p o n d e d i n time to Clode's c a r e e r late 1960's t h r o u g h to t h e m i d 1980's, a n d t h i s p a r t i c u l a r illuminates the larger concerns and issues  both trends are  concept  the  "creative  tensions"  represented, and ultimately balanced.  she was a p r o p o n e n t of the h u m a n p o t e n t i a l movement of the was v e r y at the  effective  the  relevant during that period.  F o r it will be s h o w n that i n Clode's c a r e e r , between  -  While 1960's,  i n professional organizations and i n lobbying  same time t h e f o c u s of h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s was  and  activity,  always  primarily on the community, not the institutions w h i c h s e r v e d  it.  MeJtJm&Qlogy. A d u l t e d u c a t i o n is a f i e l d of s t u d y w h i c h c a n be  approached  t h r o u g h v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s , s u c h as sociology, p h i l o s o p h y , and  history.  psychology  E a c h of these s u g g e s t s a p a r t i c u l a r method of i n q u i r y , b u t  it m u s t be a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t t h i s is not m e r e l y a c h o i c e among  equal  a l t e r n a t i v e s l e a d i n g to t h e same c o n c l u s i o n , b u t t h a t t h e m e t h o d inherently raises  chosen  different fundamental questions a n d directs not o n l y  how., b u t w h i c h i s s u e s  may be a d d r e s s e d  The primary objective  ( S h u l m a n , 1981).  of t h i s p a p e r is to document Clode's  career.  A h i s t o r i c a l case s t u d y a p p r o a c h will be u s e d , w h i c h is a method p a r t i c u l a r l y well suited to s u c h an i n q u i r y . approaches  used in "hard sciences,"  Unlike  quantitative  this qualitative a p p r o a c h is  limited  f o r p r e d i c t i v e p u r p o s e s , b u t c a n be s e e n as a n " i n f e r e n t i a l b r i d g e " ( S h u l m a n , p . 9) s o t h a t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c a n b e m a d e , u s i n g a p a r t i c u l a r  7  case as a n example r e p r e s e n t i n g a class of phenomena.  "Case  are p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d to i n v e s t i g a t i n g p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d to a n d dynamics of a d u l t education p r a c t i c e " study  processes  ( M e r r i a m , 1988, p . 222) a n d  " a n instance of a l a r g e r c o n c e r n , issue, o r problem."  also be selected (p. 217).  studies  It  to  "might  because i t is i n a n d of itself i n t r i n s i c a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g "  Clode's career  qualifies on all three  This study will use a n d , as is f r e q u e n t l y  counts.  data collected mainly from primary  the case i n historical research,  sources,  both internal and  external c r i t i c i s m are considered. In o r d e r to establish v a l i d i t y , not o n l y from Dorothy Clode herself, of colleagues  and associates,  but also views  sought  from a  number  from both colleges a n d school d i s t r i c t s , as  well as m i n i s t r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s familiar with her  were  a n d other members of the  community  work.  .Str.Ug.tU.Efi Chapter 2 will provide biographical information, including Clode's p h i l o s o p h i c a l premises r e l a t i n g to the goals of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , as as p e r s o n a l influences. recent  Chapter 3 will provide a brief overview  of  h i s t o r y of a d u l t education i n B.C., s e t t i n g the stage at the  when Clode entered socio-economic  t h e f i e l d i n 1968, a n d w i l l d e s c r i b e a s p e c t s o f  and political context in which Clode worked.  look at Clode's c o n t r i b u t i o n s a n d l e a d e r s h i p i n p r o f e s s i o n a l particularly  It will  well the time the then  associations,  the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A s s o c i a t i o n of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s (BCACEA), the Northwest Association of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n (NWAEA), a n d i n connection w i t h E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n p r o v i n c i a l articulation  committees.  8  C h a p t e r 4 falls i n t o two p a r t s ; t h e f i r s t p r o v i d i n g a n o v e r v i e w some of t h e t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of a d u l t  of  education  to community development; a n d the s e c o n d p r o c e e d i n g examples  from  C l o d e ' s p r a c t i c e as a n a d u l t e d u c a t o r w h i c h i n v o l v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community development, p r o v i n c i a l community. the development  b o t h i n L a k e C o w i c h a n as well as t h e  P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n w i l l be p a i d to h e r r o l e i n  a n d implementation of the p r o v i n c i a l C o n s o r t i u m o n  Economic Dislocation i n  1982.  G u i d i n g q u e s t i o n s will be: -  (Mial i n H o i b e r g ,  1956)  What a r e t h e r o l e s a n a d u l t e d u c a t o r p l a y s i n t h e i n i t i a t i o n a n d  o p e r a t i o n of community d e v e l o p m e n t -  larger  programmes?  What is t h e n a t u r e of a n a d u l t e d u c a t o r ' s  organization(s)  t h r o u g h which citizens  study  r e l a t i o n s h i p to and take  T h e f i n a l c h a p t e r will summarize a n d s y n t h e s i z e  action? the  v i e w s a b o u t C l o d e ' s c a r e e r a n d h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s to t h e Data was g a t h e r e d Clode, her colleagues interview  questions  p r i m a r i l y from i n t e r v i e w s  collected  field.  w i t h the  a n d a s s o c i a t e s (listed i n S o u r c e s ) . ( A p p e n d i x A) were d e s i g n e d  the  T h e majority  to be o p e n - e n d e d ,  were i n t e n d e d to d i s c o v e r t h e g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s with w h i c h w o r k e d , a n d to d e s c r i b e what she d i d , how, a n d w h y . specific  q u e s t i o n s i n t e n d e d to c l a r i f y  subjects: of  and  Clode  In addition,  discussions about ministry policies  were d i r e c t e d to m i n i s t r y officials, a n d also to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n b o t h college a n d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n .  T h e r e may  some bias a n d r e d u n d a n c y i n those v a r i o u s v i e w s , b u t it is felt t h i s will a d d d e p t h a n d i n d i c a t e s o m e t h i n g of t h e t e x t u r e  of the  be  that times.  9  A w o r d a b o u t s t y l e may also be a p p r o p r i a t e . interviews  P o r t i o n s of  h a v e b e e n e d i t e d , not o n l y to r e l a t e s p e c i f i c  details, but  to t r y to i m p a r t some s e n s e of t h e s p e a k e r i n a r e l a t i v e l y  relaxed and  informal d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t a t o p i c a n d / o r p e r s o n w i t h whom t h e r e personal and professional interest. to those c o n v e r s a t i o n s  Hopefully, quotations a n d  r e l a t i n g to C l o d e ' s  was  references  will a d d v i t a l i t y to t h i s w o r d p o r t r a i t .  r e a d e r may also notice t h a t i n s e c t i o n s  also  The  personal  b a c k g r o u n d , both biographical a n d philosophical, the a p p r o a c h used at times may be a n e c d o t a l a n d j o u r n a l i s t i c . to c h a l l e n g e  " a l l the m a l e - d o m i n a n t c o n v e n t i o n s a b o u t what c a n  t a l k e d a b o u t i n a n academic s e t t i n g , " expectations  T h i s is not i n t e n d e d  and power dynamics"  any scholarly exercise.  determining the  (Rockhill,1986)  story, corroborated by h e r r e a l i t y , a n d of h e r  merely be  " s e r i e s of r u l e s ,  usually  constraining  R a t h e r t h a n t r y to fit Clode i n t o a n y  academic e x e r c i s e , t h e r e s e a r c h e r attempted  confining  to let h e r tell h e r own  h e r p e e r s , so t h a t we may l e a r n s o m e t h i n g of vitality.  may  10  CHAPTER 2 PERSONAL PROFILE  T h e Clode home i s a h o u s e o n a h i l l , d e c e p t i v e l y  small i n  appearance, in a n o t - t o o - a s p i r i n g middle-class neighbourhood where  kids  r i d e b i k e s , t h e i r b i g b r o t h e r s a n d s i s t e r s ' h a n g o u t ' i n muscle c a r s , dogs pant, cats preen, and everyone  knows Dorothy.  A relatively  recent  l a n d s c a p e f e a t u r e o n t h e f r o n t lawn a r e t h r e e cement c u l v e r t s , a b o u t 30" wide f i l l e d w i t h d i r t a n d p l a n t e d to p r o d u c e c r o p s of strawberries,and petunias, or whatever  tomatoes,  else i s f a n c i e d i n t h i s h o u s e h o l d .  T h e e a r l i e r minimalist l a n d s c a p e d e s i g n i n c l u d e s a few low s h r u b s , a small t r e e , a n d a f r o n t lawn t h a t a p p e a r s to be less t h a n  someone's  p r i d e a n d j o y a n d w h i c h e x t e n d s to a s h a d y b a c k y a r d , d e n s e l y e n c l o s e d b y i n d i g e n o u s g r o w t h , b u t w i t h room f o r a b a r b e q u e .  A wood pile is  h a n d y to the e n t r a n c e - t h i s is a h o u s e h o l d t h a t a p p r e c i a t e s a n d c o n v e n i e n c e , a n d does not set g r e a t s t o r e i n k e e p i n g  comfort  up  appearances. L e a v i n g b e h i n d t h e f r o n t e n t r a n c e w h e r e o u t s i d e g e a r c a n be s t o r e d , a n d w h e r e a small c a c h e of wood lies i n wait f o r w o r s t , o n e n t e r i n g t h e f r o n t room, e v i d e n c e of those p l e a s u r e s is e v e r y w h e r e .  weather's  alternative  T h i s room's dominant effect is of comfort; one  c h a i r is next to t h e c o z y wood h e a t e r ; o t h e r s a r e s i t u a t e d so c h a t t i n g is e a s y o r r e a d y f o r r e a d i n g a n y of the i n n u m e r a b l e b o o k s a n d t h a t s t u f f t h e wall c a b i n e t , a n d s t r e w the small t a b l e s .  magazines  H o u s e p l a n t s of  the t y p e t h a t t h r i v e o n n e g l e c t s h a r e s h e l v e s u n d e r windows w i t h a few t h a t may h a v e s e e n b e t t e r d a y s b u t h a n g o n f o r the sake of good  11  c o m p a n y , not to mention t h e newest a r r i v a l s - f l o r a l t o k e n s of f o n d w i s h e s from f r i e n d s a n d family o n some r e c e n t s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n . T h e r e a r e no m i r r o r s h e r e .  Walls a r e d e c o r a t e d w i t h p h o t o s ,  some  c r a c k e d a n d f a d e d , some f r e s h P o l a r o i d p o r t r a i t s , c o n g e n i a l a n d genealogical  records.  P i c t u r e s p r i n t e d b y family a n d f r i e n d s  d e m o c r a t i c a l l y a r r a n g e d a l o n g w i t h famous p a i n t e r s (e.g. Joe  are Plaskett,  who was a l s o a family f r i e n d ) i n c l u d i n g one of C l o d e , ( p o r t r a y e d b y A n n B a t c h e l o r ) w h e n she was e i g h t y e a r s - o l d . s o u v e n i r s from f a r - a w a y efforts  - the painstaking  granddaughter  -  mementoes,  p l a c e s v i s i t e d b y Clode as well as  from c l o s e r to home; N o r t h w e s t  a keyrack  There are other  hand-crafted  native c a r v i n g ; erotic Greek  woodworking efforts  gods;  of a son p e r h a p s , o r a  next to t h e i n t r i c a t e a n d e s o t e r i c w a r e s from the  Far  E a s t a n d the D a r k C o n t i n e n t . Magazines r e p r e s e n t i n g eclectic  interests  (e.g. H a r r o w s m i t h ;  S c i e n t i f i c A m e r i c a n ; Chatelaine; National G e o g r a p h i c ) a r e i n s l i p p e r y slopes a l o n g s i d e a f g h a n - c o s s e t e d  c h a i r s (the r e c l i n i n g k i n d ) .  And there  a r e b o o k s a n d more b o o k s , f o r f u n , as well as f o r s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , visible everywhere,  i n c l u d i n g the bedroom (the l a i r of a n i n s o m n i a c ,  perhaps?) T h e commodious k i t c h e n a n d a d j a c e n t  d i n i n g room a r e well  e q u i p p e d with a table t h a t c a n e a s i l y accommodate hearty appetites.  healthy  numbers and  A l t h o u g h t h e l a y o u t i s o p e n a n d i n v i t i n g , it does  a p p e a r t h a t the c u l i n a r y a r t s a r e t h i s family's f o c u s ; r a t h e r , it is l i v i n g room t h a t i s the a p p a r e n t  h e a r t of t h i s  not  the  household.  I n d e e d , t h i s p l a c e , w i t h i t s s e n s e of l i f e ' s f u l l n e s s a n d simple satisfactions,  i s p e r h a p s the b e s t s e t t i n g  i n w h i c h to c o n j u r e t h e  image  12  of a woman who, f o r o v e r 35 y e a r s , was a close p a r t of h e r community. A n d it was t h i s f o u n d a t i o n of a n i n t e g r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of home a n d community t h a t p r o v i d e d the b a s i s f o r h e r 18 y e a r c a r e e r as a n exceptional adult  educator.  R a t h e r t h a n s e p a r a t e h e r p r i v a t e from h e r p u b l i c a n d o f f i c i a l life, Clode e a r l y l e a r n e d t h a t it was d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e , to t r y categorize  neatly her interests a n d functions i n s u c h a setting.  to How  many of h e r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , to s a y n o t h i n g of t o d a y ' s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , w o u l d c h e e r f u l l y l i s t a home p h o n e n u m b e r a l o n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t p r o g r a m m e s , r e g i s t r a t i o n s , a n d office  hours?  with  For  C l o d e , t h i s was u n q u e s t i o n a b l y t h e way i t was, a n d so h e r l i v i n g room became a n e x t e n s i o n of h e r office, a n d p r e s u m a b l y , v i c e  versa.  T h e r e is also a n u r b a n s e t t i n g i n w h i c h some of the more cosmopolitan a s p e c t s of C l o d e ' s p e r s o n a l i t y a r e h i g h l i g h t e d . E n d V a n c o u v e r a p a r t m e n t , the d e c o r s t i l l r e f l e c t s  I n h e r West  s o m e t h i n g of h e r  i n t e r e s t i n t h e exotic a n d u n i q u e , b u t t h e r e i s a s e n s e of a more s e l e c t i v e d i s p l a y of f a v o u r i t e t h i n g s - a s p e c i a l s h e l l c o l l e c t i o n i n a b e a u t i f u l o r i e n t a l c a b i n e t ; r a k u lamps; a f a b u l o u s l y c a r v e d oak  side  b o a r d , d i s p l a y i n g the w o o d w o r k i n g talent of a n E n g l i s h u n c l e ; o i l p o r t r a i t s of l o n g - d e p a r t e d r e l a t i v e s whose e f f o r t s sombre c a n n o t d e n y t h e same s u g g e s t i o n descendant  still displays.  to a p p e a r  suitably  of a smile t h a t t h e i r  T h i s 'home away from home' h a d e a r l i e r  b e l o n g e d to a b r o t h e r , b u t is now often u s e d b y Clode w h e n she  visits  V a n c o u v e r 'to k e e p u p with t h i n g s , ' t a k e i n a p l a y o r v i s i t f r i e n d s .  It  was i n t h e s e two s e t t i n g s , w i t h g e n e r o u s p o t s of tea, c o o k i e s to c r u m b l e  13  a n d homemade muffins to m u n c h , t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h e r a s k e d Clode to talk a b o u t h e r life a n d w o r k . Clode d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as "one of t h e few V a n c o u v e r " w i t h p e r h a p s a b i t of p r i d e .  people a c t u a l l y  born in  S h e r e c a l l e d t h a t h e r family  l i v e d i n a 17 room h o u s e d i r e c t l y a c r o s s from t h e Hotel V a n c o u v e r o n B u r r a r d S t r e e t , j u s t d o w n t h e s t r e e t from F a r i s ' g a r a g e w h e r e  the  f a t h e r of t w i n b o y s , one of whom would r e - e n t e r  years  l a t e r , took c a r e of t h e family c a r -  " a 1923  h e r life many  Star."  Clode  attended  n e a r b y L o r d R o b e r t s p u b l i c s c h o o l i n t h e West E n d a n d K i n g h i g h - s c h o o l before Columbia.  g o i n g o n i n 1937  George  to the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  S h e w o r k e d at the mental h o s p i t a l at E s s o n d a l e from  1940  u n t i l 1943, w h e n she g r a d u a t e d  as a p s y c h i a t r i c n u r s e with t h e  marks in h e r graduating  While t r a i n i n g at E s s o n d a l e , Clode  year.  e n r o l l e d at the U n i v e r s i t y of M a n i t o b a a n d i n 1944 u n i v e r s i t y , t h i s time g r a d u a t i n g  highest was  she r e t u r n e d to  (1946) i n Home Economics.  Clode w o r k e d between academic s e s s i o n s at s e r v i c e c a n t e e n s a n d h o s p i t a l s as a d i e t i c i a n a i d e , a n d n u r s e d w e e k e n d s i n W i n n i p e g while c o m p l e t i n g h e r B.Sc. d e g r e e , stringent student budget.  w o r k i n g "weird h o u r s " and managing on a  Her early experiences  included three  as a p s y c h i a t r i c n u r s e , i n t h i s o c c u p a t i o n following i n h e r footsteps.  years  mother's  T h i s may i n p a r t e x p l a i n h e r o n g o i n g i n t e r e s t i n mental  h e a l t h a n d i n h e l p i n g people.  Clode r e m e m b e r s t h a t , as a c h i l d d u r i n g  t h e d e p r e s s i o n , i t seemed t h a t t h e i r d o o r "must h a v e b e e n m a r k e d " s i n c e so many came f o r food a n d o t h e r h e l p h e r family c o u l d p r o v i d e . S h e r e c a l l s , " n o one was e v e r t u r n e d away."  14  S h e met h e r h u s b a n d , E r n e s t C l o d e , while he was i n the and they  were m a r r i e d i n 1943, b u t i t was not u n t i l 1948 t h a t he  mobilized a n d r e t u r n e d to C a n a d a .  In o r d e r to do s o m e t h i n g  from h i s r e c e n t b a c k g r o u n d as a n a e r i a l t o r p e d o e x p e r t , a d v a n t a g e of a scheme f o r e x - s e r v i c e m e n  t h e wolves."  " t h r o w n to  T h e y h a d c h o s e n C r a n b r o o k from the a v a i l a b l e  five  options  their first child.  y e a r s a n d two more c h i l d r e n , t h e y  In  moved to L a k e  Cowichan, which had recently opened a well-equipped b i g g e s t i n the  different  he took  1948, he was  s i n c e it h a d a h o s p i t a l a n d Clode was e x p e c t i n g after  de-  t h a t t r a i n e d him as a n  industrial education teacher a n d in September  1953,  R.A.F.  school shop,  the  province.  L a k e C o w i c h a n i s a town o n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d t h a t is a b o u t 30 miles i n l a n d from D u n c a n .  A t t h a t time, as now, t h e r e was a p o p u l a t i o n  i n the town i t s e l f of a b o u t 2,500, w i t h a b o u t 6,500 r e s i d e n t s i n the entire school district catchment area.  Clode r e c a l l e d that t h e r e  few c a r s , b u t it was a b u s t l i n g town i n 1953, m u l t i t u d e of g y p o l o g g i n g started  outfits,  w i t h " t h r e e b i g mills, a  s h a k e c u t t e r s , a n d t h e n a c o p p e r mine  u p , " i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n to a b o u t 6,700 b y  T h e p r i n c i p a l of t h e h i g h s c h o o l , J a c k S a y w e l l S a y well, f u t u r e  1957. (father of B i l l  p r e s i d e n t of Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ) h a d  already  i n i t i a t e d a c i t i z e n s h i p a n d E n g l i s h c l a s s f o r New C a n a d i a n s , b u t thought  i t would be " a g r e a t  he  i d e a " f o r Mr. Clode to offer a m e t a l -  w o r k i n g c l a s s at n i g h t .  In 1953,  do, a n d i t was a t t e n d e d  mainly b y  t h i s somehow became the " i n t h i n g " doctors, lawyers  a n d mill  substitute,  a n d she was soon a s k e d to  to  managers.  In t h a t same y e a r D o r o t h y C l o d e was also d i s c o v e r e d to be a n r e s o u r c e as a t e a c h e r  were  excellent offer  15  sewing and cooking classes attended  b y a somewhat  at n i g h t too.  exclusive  advertised  were  g r o u p , made u p of t h e w i v e s of  d o c t o r s , l a w y e r s , a n d mill m a n a g e r s . generally  Again, these classes  In fact, t h e s e c l a s s e s  to t h e p u b l i c a n d p u b l i c i t y was  were  not  s t r i c t l y b y w o r d of  mouth. Clode also w o r k e d as a s u b s t i t u t e  teacher, often for long  i n t h e d a y s c h o o l as well as w o r k i n g with a d u l t s at n i g h t . to t h e s e p a i d p o s i t i o n s , she took p a r t i n a n u m b e r of activities  volunteer  H e r s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n "what  makes people the  little way  a r e " l e d h e r to w o r k f o r t h e C a n a d i a n Mental Health A s s o c i a t i o n .  Clode e s t a b l i s h e d  a local b r a n c h of t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d s e r v e d  C h a r t e r P r e s i d e n t i n 1957.  as  L a t e r , she became a p r o v i n c i a l b o a r d member  a n d s e r v e d as p r e s i d e n t o n two s e p a r a t e o c c a s i o n s . the  In a d d i t i o n  s u c h as t h e P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n ( t h e r e were f o u r  C l o d e s i n school). they  periods,  Clode also sat o n  n a t i o n a l C a n a d i a n Mental Health A s s o c i a t i o n b o a r d as the B.C.  representative  for ten  In fact, after  years.  many h o u r s i n s e s s i o n s  a s k e d to r e c a l l a n y p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t  with this r e s e a r c h e r ,  i n h e r c a r e e r , it  was  not a n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n e v e n t t h a t was foremost i n C l o d e ' s m i n d , b u t  that  t h r o u g h h e r efforts,  success  when  a f t e r a l o n g p e r i o d of l o b b y i n g , a p s y c h i a t r i c  bed  w a r d was made a v a i l a b l e at the local h o s p i t a l (Clode, J u l y 14/88, interview). In 1966, E r n e s t Clode d e v e l o p e d  serious health problems.  took o v e r h i s d a y s c h o o l d r a f t i n g c l a s s e s , as well as the n i g h t o p e r a t i o n w h i c h was t h e n a h a l f - t i m e p o s i t i o n .  S h o r t l y before  Dorothy school his  death,  E r n e s t Clode s u b m i t t e d a b r i e f w h i c h u r g e d t h e s c h o o l b o a r d to make  16  the night school position full-time.  A l t h o u g h s h e was a n  experienced  i n s t r u c t o r , familiar w i t h t h e s y s t e m , Clode claimed h e r s u c c e s s i n g e t t i n g t h a t p o s i t i o n was i n p a r t b e c a u s e she c o u l d be h i r e d f u l l - t i m e f o r  the  same s a l a r y t h a t h a d b e e n p a i d to h e r h u s b a n d f o r h a l f - t i m e , b e c a u s e of scale  differential. After  her husband's  d e a t h i n M a r c h 1968, Clode w o r k e d  as d i r e c t o r of a d u l t a n d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , a n d c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t e i n h e r o t h e r community i n t e r e s t s .  A s t h e B.C.  having  been granted a long-weekend  t h e n make u p the. time.  to  representative  of the C a n a d i a n Mental Health A s s o c i a t i o n , she w o u l d a t t e n d conferences,  full-time  national  off from w o r k , a n d  A n d of c o u r s e , i n a d d i t i o n to these  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s h e r family of f o u r g r o w i n g c h i l d r e n would r e q u i r e as m u c h time a n d e n e r g y  as a n y s i n g l e p a r e n t c o u l d p r o v i d e .  EexaojaalJlka^ With c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  understatement,  t h a t g i v e s some i d e a of h e r e n e r g y t h a t might h a v e d e t e r r e d o t h e r s .  Clode r e c o u n t e d a n  anecdote  a n d commitment i n the face of T h e w i n t e r of 1969 was  odds  considerably  h a r s h e r t h a n u s u a l i n the C o w i c h a n V a l l e y , a n d b y J a n u a r y t i r e c h a i n s were n e c e s s a r y  to negotiate the h e a v y s n o w - d r i f t s , a n d ice a l o n g  t h i r t y mile s t r e t c h from L a k e C o w i c h a n to L a d y s m i t h . shifted  the  T h e r e , the  b a c k to the w i n t e r y w e t n e s s more often f o u n d a l o n g the  climate east  c o a s t of V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , so t h a t c h a i n s t h e n h a d to be r e m o v e d , o n l y to p r e v e n t ordinance.  damage to t h e t i r e s , b u t to c o m p l y with t h e  town's  T h e n , c h a i n s h a d to be p u t o n a g a i n to negotiate t h e  of r o a d from L a d y s m i t h to Nanaimo w h e r e  not  stretch  she w o u l d c a t c h the f e r r y  downtown V a n c o u v e r , a n d t h e n go b y b u s to U . B . C . f o r a t h r e e  hour  to  17  class i n the adult education graduate  programme.  1  Clode w o u l d r e t u r n  b y t h e l a s t f e r r y l e a v i n g at 2:00 am, d r i v e b a c k to L a k e C o w i c h a n  by  equally hazardous roads, a n d then, after a quick "good morning" check w i t h h e r c h i l d r e n , Clode w o u l d go d i r e c t l y to w o r k . compensate  A g a i n , i n o r d e r to  f o r time away from w o r k , Clode a r r a n g e d to w o r k  at t h e local r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e w h e r e many of the c o n t i n u i n g activities  took  weekends education  place.  When a s k e d how, as a s i n g l e p a r e n t , she managed to r u n a h o u s e h o l d with f o u r c h i l d r e n , complete  her graduate  s t u d i e s , maintain a  r e s p o n s i b l e f u l l - t i m e j o b as well as n u m e r o u s o t h e r r o l e s i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , Clode r e p l i e d " y o u j u s t d i d it, t h a t ' s a l l . " without any suggestion  that she felt s y m p a t h y  is t h i s k i n d of e x p e r i e n c e  This  was w a r r a n t e d .  with  adults  roles.  Clode's characteristic avoidance  of p e r s o n a l a c c o l a d e s  noted b y a n u m b e r of h e r a d m i r i n g colleagues. Douglas College, r e c a l l s t h a t Clode was BCACEA executive.  B u t , it  t h a t no d o u b t e n a b l e d h e r to empathize  familiar p r o b l e m s f a c e d b y o t h e r s i n g l e p a r e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as taking on student  was  She  . . .A g r e a t  has  been  Bill Day, P r e s i d e n t of  " a j o y to w o r k w i t h " o n t h e  was:  p a r t n e r , a n d that of c o u r s e was  k i n d of s k i l l she e v i d e n c e d i n the community.  the If  S i n c e t h e U B C l i b r a r y c l o s e d at 11:00 p.m. a n d the l a s t f e r r y to Nanaimo d i d not leave u n t i l 2:00 a.m., Clode often sat w i t h a coffee a n d s t u d i e d i n some of the l a t e - n i g h t cafes downtown. Her s c h o l a s t i c p u r s u i t s a r o u s e d the c u r i o s i t y of o t h e r women, o r " w o r k i n g g i r l s " as they d e s c r i b e d themselves. Clode w o u l d r e s p o n d to t h e i r q u e r i e s , a n d got to know them; t h e r e was one woman p a r t i c u l a r l y who i m p r e s s e d Clode w h e n she d i v u l g e d t h a t s h e , too was " w o r k i n g " h e r way t h r o u g h college. 1  18  you're a great  p a r t n e r , t h i n g s t e n d to come  way.  she h a d no ego, s h e h a d no n e e d f o r  Because  D o r o t h y to be v i e w e d famous.  your  as t h e p r i m e mover, o r to be  A g a i n , t h a t i s t h e prime n e e d f o r a  community d e v e l o p m e n t  person.  is true:  y o u get c r e d i t , y o u  to the d e g r e e  In fact, the  y o u r s e l f i n community development, never had that  to h e r .  and Dorothy  self-confident  she's v e r y attractive  So h e r c a p a c i t i e s  o n the e x e c u t i v e served  kill  need.  S h e is a m a r v e l o u s l y and therefore  reverse  -  person,  people  that s e r v e d  h e r so well  (of the B C A C E A ) were those  h e r v e r y well i n t h e  swarm  that  community.  (W. Day, J u l y 14/1988,  interview)  B i l l McGown, f o r m e r d i r e c t o r of a d u l t a n d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n N o r t h a n d West V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , commends Clode  as  "thoughtful;  sensible  innovative.  o p i n i o n o n most t h i n g s ; "  Y o u c o u l d c o u n t on h e r to h a v e a  a n d it was a p p a r e n t that she came to  well p r e p a r e d (McGown, J u n e 22, 1988,  for  meetings  interview).  Nick R u b i d g e , f o r m e r l y d i r e c t o r of the D i v i s i o n of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , n o t e d t h a t from a M i n i s t r y perspective, seek  she was s e e n as a v a l u a b l e  h e r i n p u t . . . t r y to get  p u t i n the effort," former Executive  r e s o u r c e , a n d "We. . .would  her i n v o l v e d because  ( R u b i d g e , J u n e 24/1988).  she was p r e p a r e d  to  He also s a i d t h a t Ron F a r i s ,  D i r e c t o r of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f o r the M i n i s t r y of  E d u c a t i o n , r e c o g n i z e d i n Clode a r e a l commitment to a n d r o o t e d n e s s  in  19  h e r community. at the g r a s s r o o t s development.  He saw h e r as a " c l a s s i c example of what c a n be level"  (Rubidge, interview)  i n t e r m s of community  T h i s q u a l i t y of h a r d w o r k a n d p e r s i s t e n t  p u r s u i t of  p o l i c i e s a n d p r o g r a m m e s w h i c h a d d r e s s e d community n e e d s , those of d i s a d v a n t a g e d colleagues  done  particularly  g r o u p s , set h e r a p a r t from some of h e r  who failed to follow t h r o u g h o n t h e i r r h e t o r i c a b o u t  social  development. B u t s h o u l d t h e r e a d e r imagine C l o d e ' s d o g g e d d r e a r y , h e r colleagues her cheerfulness  determination  as  d i d not f i n d it so, f o r many h a v e r e m a r k e d u p o n  a n d good h u m o u r .  J i n d r a K u l i c h , f o r m e r d i r e c t o r of  the C e n t r e f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n at U . B . C . , r e c a l l e d a t o u r he l e d i n 1972  to Y u g o s l a v i a , H u n g a r y , a n d A u s t r i a f o r a g r o u p of 15  a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , of whom C l o d e was one.  Canadian  H e r good h u m o u r was  an  i n v a l u a b l e a i d i n s m o o t h i n g o v e r some of the r o u g h s p o t s o n t h a t t r i p , a n d she  "was v e r y  m u c h i n t u n e with people we were v i s i t i n g a n d  d i s c u s s i n g w i t h , " ( K u l i c h , J u n e 24, 1988, i n t e r v i e w ) .  He r e m e m b e r e d  Clode as " a l w a y s c o n s i d e r a t e a n d k i n d " b u t also saw t h a t " s h e was pushover." refused  no  F o r i n s t a n c e , at a b o r d e r c r o s s i n g , w h e r e a n official  to b u y b a c k t h e i r r e m a i n i n g c u r r e n c y of t h a t p a r t i c u l a r  c o u n t r y , t h i s same v e r y  " m o t h e r l y " - l o o k i n g l a d y c o u l d be seen  the c o u n t e r a n d l o u d l y d e m a n d i n g t h a t t h e i r money be c h a n g e d d i d n ' t work!) a n d K u l i c h d e s c r i b e d h e r as " ' i n c e n s e d ' at a n y  pounding (it  injustice  b e i n g d o n e " ( J u n e 24/1988, i n t e r v i e w ) . Feminist  Facets  Clode g e n e r a l l y  d i d not a p p e a r to h e r c o l l e a g u e s  as a feminist.  One n o t e d " s h e n e v e r p u s h e d f o r feminine r e c o g n i t i o n j u s t  'people'  20  recognition.  S h e w a n t e d h e r ideas a p p r e c i a t e d a n d she stag a p p r e c i a t e d  f o r h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s , " (McGown, J u n e 1988, i n t e r v i e w ) . seem to i n s i s t o n b e i n g h e a r d " j u s t  because"  o t h e r s who were t h e n " j u m p i n g u p because gender  "they  s h e was a woman, u n l i k e  d e m a n d i n g to be h e a r d , " not  h a d s o m e t h i n g w o r t h w h i l e to s a y , "  (McGown, i n t e r v i e w ) .  Clode d i d not  b u t o n t h e b a s i s of  O t h e r s also r e m a r k e d o n h e r  fact, c a p a b l e a p p r o a c h w h i c h f i t t e d well with h e r c o l l e a g u e s , whom were men.  matter-ofmost of  " S h e d i d not s i t b a c k ; she came p r e p a r e d f o r  a n d was as c a p a b l e as a n y o n e "  (Hambrook, J u n e 1988).  meetings  A n d , although  he " t a k e s h i s hat off to a l l of t h e m " C o u l s o n s a i d , " Clode 'was really o u t s t a n d i n g ' among h e r p e e r s ; also she managed to ' p u t them i n t h e i r p l a c e ' if t h e r e were a n y l a p s e s of e t i q u e t t e , were p r e s e n t . "  1  ( J u n e 28, 1988, i n t e r v i e w ) .  r e m i n d i n g them t h a t Bill Day p o i n t e d out  'ladies that  p a r t of C l o d e ' s u n i q u e n e s s was t h a t she j^aa a woman, a n d , more t h a n t h a t , that she was " a woman not j u s t p a s s i n g t h r o u g h " b u t one who became p a r t of t h e  establishment.  G e n e r a l l y , a l t h o u g h she was well aware of the p r o b l e m s p e c u l i a r to women, a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y to s i n g l e p a r e n t s , Clode d i d not t h i n k b e i n g a woman h a d b e e n a n y r e a l d e t r i m e n t i n h e r c a r e e r .  that  However,  s h e c h u c k l e d with some s a t i s f a c t i o n i n r e l a t i n g how h e r nomination f o r p r e s i d e n t of t h e B C A C E A h a d b e e n i n i t i a l l y r e c e i v e d with little more t h a n polite e n t h u s i a s m from the " o l d b o y s ' n e t w o r k . "  T h e y were soon more  t h a n a b i t s u r p r i s e d to f i n d t h a t C l o d e ' s s u p p o r t e r s , many of them women who h a d r e c e n t l y e n t e r e d t h e r a n k s of a d u l t e d u c a t o r s p r o g r a m m e r s , h a d won h e r t h a t office.  I n d e e d , one member of  as that  n e t w o r k r u e f u l l y r e m a r k e d t h a t t h i s s w e l l i n g of the r a n k s with women  21  left him at one p o i n t f e e l i n g (McGown, J u n e 28).  "as i f I h a d l o s t my place at t h e  table"  In a n o t h e r c o n v e r s a t i o n , Clode r e f e r r e d to the  s a t i s f a c t i o n o b t a i n e d i n m a t c h i n g wits w i t h t h o s e who d i d not know h e r , s e e i n g o n l y a r u s t i c from t h e c o u n t r y , u n a w a r e that b e n e a t h  that  matronly exterior lay a s h a r p , i n v e n t i v e , a n d analytical mind. t h a t p e r h a p s h e r academic a c h i e v e m e n t s U . B . C . 1970)  She  felt  ( M . E d . , A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Dept.,  also h e l p e d to a l l e v i a t e a n y d o u b t t h a t might be h a r b o u r e d  about her professional qualifications. Influences When a s k e d who she saw as p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n h e r c a r e e r , Clode r e s p o n d e d w i t h e n t h u s i a s m a b o u t A l C a r t i e r , who h a d b e e n d i r e c t o r of the D e p a r t m e n t of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t most of the  1960s a n d e a r l y 1970s.  as a "man w i t h a d r e a m " ( J u l y 14/1988, i n t e r v i e w ) .  Clode saw him  Early in her career,  C a r t i e r s u g g e s t e d to h e r t h a t p e r h a p s she c o u l d be more i m a g i n a t i v e i n c h o o s i n g titles f o r c o u r s e s i n o r d e r that t h e s e c o u l d t h e n be e l i g i b l e f o r f u n d i n g , a n d s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s w o u l d be c o n s i s t e n t with all t h o s e others' reporting procedures.  F o r i n s t a n c e , one college  found  that  C h i n e s e c o o k i n g as a g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t c o u r s e was not e l i g i b l e f o r f u n d i n g , b u t as F o o d s 403, it c o u l d (and d i d ) r e c e i v e the s u b s i d y as a v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e .  C a r t i e r claimed t h i s p r a c t i c e  w i d e s p r e a d , a n d u r g e d Clode not to let h e r h o n e s t y in her operations.  government  be a  disadvantage  " S o , a l l s o r t s of t h i n g s . . . b e g a n to h a v e  titles t h a t were f u n d a b l e , "  (Clode, J u l y  was  interesting  14).  C a r t i e r was a man " w i t h a s t r o n g social c o n s c i e n c e " a n d a b r o a d v i e w " o n a lot of t h i n g s .  "very  He was one of t h e f i r s t people i n  22  government  to e x p l o r e t h e dimensions of what was  generally  Communications, i n the s e n s e of " e n l a r g i n g h o r i z o n s a n d consciousness,"  called  expanded  w h i c h was p a r t of t h e p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d  self-  a c t u a l i z a t i o n p r o g r a m m i n g that c h a r a c t e r i z e d the late 1960s a n d 1970s. C a r t i e r d i d a lot of Communications w o r k w i t h t h e Catholic c h u r c h a n d he also o c c a s i o n a l l y o f f e r e d  development  s e m i n a r s as p a r t of t h e  C o w i c h a n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programme. event:  Clode r e c a l l e d a p a r t i c u l a r  C a r t i e r a n d a f r i e n d of h i s , t h e n t h e d i r e c t o r of C h i l d  set u p a w e e k e n d school.  "marathon" for delinquent teenagers  h a d to f e e d them all f o r t h r e e d a y s a n d n i g h t s , " soon demanded a n a c c o u n t i n g as to "Why t h e y  e v e n t was s p o n s o r e d b y  Welfare,  i n the l o c a l h i g h -  Clode r e c a l l e d , " T h e y h a d to b r i n g t h e i r s l e e p i n g  bags on a F r i d a y night?"  Lake  bags and I  but school  trustees  were b r i n g i n g i n  sleeping  Clode was d e l i g h t e d to a s s u r e them that such highly placed  officials!  Ultimately, it was h e r a b i d i n g " i n t e r e s t i n people main t h i n g " that b o t h formed a n d formalized h e r own Communications a p p e a r e d as a n o t h e r a s p e c t  (which was)  the  development.  of t h a t o n g o i n g i n t e r e s t i n  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h mental h e a l t h , w h i c h was " a l w a y s i n t h e of h e r w o r k i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  this  background"  S h e " h a d b e e n the p r o v i n c i a l p r e s i d e n t  (of the C a n a d i a n Mental Health A s s o c i a t i o n ) a c o u p l e of times," a n d " o n t h e n a t i o n a l b o a r d f o r a good many y e a r s , too."  F i n a l l y , it was  her  e a r l i e r w o r k i n p s y c h i a t r i c n u r s i n g t h a t Clode d e s c r i b e d as t r a i n i n g w h i c h was  "infinitely. . .valuable"  i n " l e a r n i n g how to cope with a l l  s o r t s of p e o p l e " ; it h a d " p r e p a r e d h e r f o r j u s t a b o u t a n y t h i n g " adult  education!).  (even  23  Ebil&sopJhy C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s a n d new i n t e r e s t s i n h e l p i n g p e o p l e , Clode d e c l a r e d ( J u l y 14/1988) "I g u e s s my p e r s o n a l p h i l o s o p h y i s to t r y (to) do what y o u c o u l d . "  T h e r e a r e "some t h i n g s t h a t y o u c a n ' t  do m u c h a b o u t , a n d o t h e r t h i n g s t h a t y o u c a n do a little b i t a b o u t , a n d some t h i n g s y o u c a n do q u i t e a b i t a b o u t . "  Doing t h e b e s t y o u c a n i s  " r e a l l y what life is a l l about. . . c o p i n g w i t h what y o u h a v e to w o r k w i t h -  t r y i n g to s t r e t c h it, e n l a r g e it, e s s e n t i a l l y w o r k i n g w i t h i n c o n f i n e s ,  a n d d o i n g what y o u c a n , w i t h what y o u c a n . " T h i s r e s e a r c h e r q u e s t i o n e d Clode a b o u t " l i b e r a l " v e r s u s " l i b e r a t i n g " a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y how Clode v i e w e d "greater  g o o d " i n terms of the i n d i v i d u a l v e r s u s t h e c o l l e c t i v e .  to the p o i n t , Clode r e p l i e d , Y o u c a n s p e n d a lot of time w o r k i n g o n the community a n d i t comes to n o t h i n g , b e c a u s e community i s n ' t r e a d y f o r w h a t e v e r they need.  the  it is y o u t h i n k  Y o u h a v e to face t h a t fact t h a t y o u c a n  s p e n d a lot of time a n d e n e r g y a n d it comes to no fruition.  Now y o u c a n o n l y a f f o r d to do t h a t a few  times i n the c o u r s e of a y e a r .  Y o u ' v e got to s p e n d  some time d o i n g t h e t h i n g s y o u ' r e p a i d to do a n d s h o w i n g some s o r t of r e s u l t s so t h a t next y o u ' l l be t h e r e a g a i n . of it.  year  A n d , t h a t ' s the p r a c t i c a l p a r t  Y o u h a v e to do so m u c h of t h i s r e g u l a r  p r o g r a m m i n g i n o r d e r to be able to a f f o r d  the  l u x u r y of d o i n g t h i n g s y o u t h i n k a r e n e c e s s a r y  or  the Always  24  t h e t h i n g s t h a t y o u see as g a p s i n t h e community o r , p a r t i c u l a r n e e d s i n t h e community. I'm r e a l l y a p r a g m a t i s t r a t h e r t h a n a t h e o r i s t , a n d so I've  a l w a y s b e e n i n t e r e s t e d i n something I  c a n l e a r n t o d a y a n d u s e tomorrow.  B u t I also  r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e r e a r e some t h i n g s t h a t y o u  have  to do o n a h i g h e r l e v e l , that won't come to f r u i t i o n for three o r f o u r y e a r s , a n d you c a n work on those as well, b u t f o r t h e h e r e a n d now y o u h a v e to  have  s o m e t h i n g that will w o r k m u c h q u i c k e r . ( J u l y 14,  1988,  interview)  A s a n example of t h i s p r a g m a t i c a p p r o a c h , Clode d e s c r i b e d h e r r e g u l a r c o n s u l t a t i o n s with o t h e r a g e n c i e s particular need.  would sometimes i d e n t i f y  One i n s t a n c e i n v o l v e d a y o u n g man who h a d  s o m e t h i n g of a local p r o b l e m .  how a  been  He h a d b e e n d i a g n o s e d as d y s l e x i c  after  many y e a r s i n s c h o o l ; he l a c k e d l i t e r a c y s k i l l s a n d was c h r o n i c a l l y unemployed.  He w a n t e d to e n t e r the a r m y , b u t was u n a b l e to p a s s  e n t r a n c e exams.  Clode saw t h i s as a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r h e r to do  s o m e t h i n g , "to t u r n a p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m i n t o a t a x p a y e r . "  She a r r a n g e d  w i t h a l o c a l s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r to t u t o r him, s a y i n g , " t h e s e t h i n g s w o r t h p u t t i n g e x t r a money i n t o , b u t of c o u r s e y o u h a d to t h a t e x t r a money to do i t . " army  the  T h e y o u n g man d i d a c h i e v e  were have  h i s goal of a n  career. So, within this seemingly  simple s u c c e s s  story, there is  of many s k i l l s - c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e community f o r o n g o i n g assessment;  knowledge  evidence needs  a b o u t community r e s o u r c e s a n d who c a n h e l p ;  25  r e a l i s t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l f u n d i n g limitations; a n d , a belief i n a n a b i l i t y to a c h i e v e  o u r goals,  fundamentally,  despite apparent  obstacles.  2  At t h a t time, r e s t r i c t i o n s i n c l u d e d t h e fact t h a t m i n i s t r y p o l i c y r e q u i r e d a minimum of t e n s t u d e n t s creative  i n o r d e r to e s t a b l i s h a c l a s s .  p r o g r a m m e r i n Clode a g a i n r o s e to t h e  But  occasion.  the  3  A p r o p o n e n t of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g , Clode t h o u g h t a l l e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d " e q u i p a p e r s o n f o r life" b u t noted t h a t many s k i l l s . "  Even though  "now, we may r e - t r a i n s e v e n  l i f e - t i m e , " it is ultimately a t t i t u d e s  times d u r i n g a  effects of  obsolescence  1988).  When a s k e d if she c o n s i d e r e d h e r role as a n a c t i v i s t as effective  as i n the food b a n k ,  (see p p . 75-77, following)  for  ultimately  example,  Clode r e p l i e d t h a t she saw it as a limited social a c t i o n i n the s e n s e i t was  r e s p o n d i n g to a p r e s e n t n e e d ; n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  (people)  so  t h a t a r e e s s e n t i a l to s u r v i v a l ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y if we a r e to a v o i d t h e d e v a s t a t i n g ( M a r c h 24,  you can "only teach  "you are p r o v i d i n g  with a pjr.Qee.SjS. a n d i t ' s ultimately t h a t p r o c e s s t h e y  People t h u s e n a b l e d c a n move from a p a s s i v e  that  to a n a c t i v e  remember."  role i n  o b t a i n i n g t h e i r r i g h t s , " n o l o n g e r a f r a i d of b u r e a u c r a t s " a n d l e a r n i n g to be effective  i n r e a c h i n g goals  b y e n l i s t i n g s u p p o r t from  others.  A n d , "It also d e m o n s t r a t e d a w i l l i n g n e s s to d e v o t e much time a n d e f f o r t to s o l v i n g a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r o b l e m , " (G. Selman, p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , S e p t e m b e r 1988). 2  Clode r e l a t e d t h a t at one p o i n t i n h e r c a r e e r she h a d i n q u i r e d of Bill Day how to s t a r t a n A B E c l a s s . Day r e p l i e d : " Y o u s t a r t w i t h the first student." Clode followed h i s a d v i c e , b u t a d d e d w r y l y t h a t s h e " d i d n ' t know he h a d money to s t a r t " ( r e f e r r i n g to the s u b s t a n t i a l s u b s i d y a p p r o v e d b y t h e s c h o o l b o a r d i n D a y ' s d i s t r i c t ) "whereas we didn't." 3  26  Did she see h e r s e l f as a r a d i c a l ? o n what g r o u p I'm i n ! " subversive funding  activity,"  Clode l a u g h e d -  B u t s h e d i d see  "That  " a d u l t e d u c a t i o n (as)  which explained why  "we n e v e r h a d v e r y  b e c a u s e t h e y d i d n ' t want to f u n d a c t i v i s t  groups  depends a much  that  p e r s u a d e d people to a s k f o r t h i s - o r t h a t - a l l of w h i c h w o u l d c o s t more money," f o r , " i f y o u a r e i n v o l v e d i n meeting nearly always involves  battling  somebody's  somebody's  n e e d , it  establishment."  In F e b r u a r y 1988, S.D. #66 ( L a k e Cowichan) o f f i c i a l l y o p e n e d Clode  Centre  o n the h i g h - s c h o o l g r o u n d s i n L a k e C o w i c h a n .  c e r e m o n y was a t t e n d e d  as well as to c e l e b r a t e excellent  This  b y family, f r i e n d s , n e i g h b o u r s , colleagues  ministry representatives,  and  a l l of whom were t h e r e to p a y t r i b u t e to C l o d e ,  t h e i r good f o r t u n e at h a v i n g  had s u c h an  r e s o u r c e i n t h a t community f o r so l o n g .  T h e following c i t a t i o n r e a d d u r i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  her  h o n o r a r y life m e m b e r s h i p at t h e a n n u a l g e n e r a l meeting of the Association  the  of Continuing  Education  Pacific  is a s u c c i n c t s u m m a r y of, a n d  t r i b u t e to, Clode a n d h e r c a r e e r . D o r o t h y Clode D o r o t h y Clode i s p e r h a p s t h e b e s t k n o w n a d u l t e d u c a t o r i n B . C . , a t r i b u t e i n p a r t to h e r p e r s o n a l i t y a n d l e a d e r s h i p c a p a c i t y ,  but a result  also of t h e fact t h a t h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s s p a n s u c h a wide s p e c t r u m o f field.  S h e was f o r many y e a r s D i r e c t o r of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e  Cowichan School District. w i t h i n the f i e l d .  T h i s p l a c e d h e r i n two d i f f e r e n t  Lake  streams  O n t h e one h a n d she was a n a d m i n i s t r a t o r w i t h i n  public sector where she exercised  the  e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p a n d among  t h i n g s , s e r v e d as P r e s i d e n t of the B . C . A s s o c i a t i o n of C o n t i n u i n g  the  other  27  Education Administrators.  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , she w o r k e d i n a s c h o o l  d i s t r i c t w h i c h s e r v e d r e l a t i v e l y small communities, w h e r e p r o g r a m a n d services  h a d to fit c l o s e l y w i t h the o t h e r c o n c e r n s of community life.  D o r o t h y e m e r g e d as o n e of o u r most r e m a r k a b l e p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n what c a n a p p r o p r i a t e l y t e r m community e d u c a t i o n , w i t h a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t of t h e f a b r i c of c o m m u n i t y life.  I n the l a s t s e v e r a l y e a r s  we  as  before  h e r r e t i r e m e n t , a n d d r a w i n g o n h e r s t a n d i n g i n b o t h of these a s p e c t s of the f i e l d , D o r o t h y s e r v e d as well as the C h a i r p e r s o n of what was c a l l e d t h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n C o n s o r t i u m of Economic D i s l o c a t i o n , k n o w n to its f r i e n d s as t h e " t o u g h times c o n s o r t i u m . "  With t h e a s s i s t a n c e  of  funds  from g o v e r n m e n t , a c t i v i t i e s a n d s e r v i c e s were o r g a n i z e d of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e to those d i s t r i c t s i n t h e p r o v i n c e w h e r e times were  toughest,  u n e m p l o y m e n t r a t e s the h i g h e s t , a n d the most people i n r e a l d i s t r e s s . D o r o t h y C l o d e ' s o u t s t a n d i n g l e a d e r s h i p of t h a t effort  was i n some w a y s  t h e c a p s t o n e of h e r c a r e e r a n d b u t t h e l a t e s t of many c o n t r i b u t i o n s to a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  outstanding  What must  be  a d d e d i n view of t h e o c c a s i o n of t h i s j o i n t c o n f e r e n c e i s that D o r o t h y i s a P a s t - P r e s i d e n t of t h e NWAEA, h a v i n g s e r v e d i n t h a t c a p a c i t y 83, a n d h a s b e e n e d i t o r of t h e NWAEA n e w s l e t t e r  since  in  1982-  1980.  P A C E is p l e a s e d to a w a r d a n h o n o r a r y life m e m b e r s h i p to D o r o t h y Clode.  (PACE,  1987)  28  CHAPTER 3 PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES  C l o d e ' s c a r e e r b e g a n i n 1952  when she f i r s t taught adults i n n i g h t  s c h o o l c l a s s e s , b u t i t was i n 1968 t h a t s h e became a n a d m i n i s t r a t o r a n d b e g a n to a c t i v e l y  participate in professional organizations.  I n 1968, i n becoming D i r e c t o r of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n h e r c o m m u n i t y , Clode j o i n e d a g r o u p of p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s who a d m i n i s t e r e d n e a r l y 8,000 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t c o u r s e s . T h e sixties h a d been a p e r i o d of " r a p i d g r o w t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e " i n w h i c h B . C . l e d the r e s t o f C a n a d a , l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t of t h e "outstanding" offerings  of s c h o o l b o a r d s (Selman, 1980; p .  319).  E n r o l l m e n t r o s e from 40,000 i n 48 d i s t r i c t s at t h e b e g i n n i n g of decade to 160,000 i n 69 d i s t r i c t s b y  1970.  the  B y 1969, n e a r l y 75% of  e n r o l l e d were i n r u r a l d i s t r i c t s , w h e r e a s at the b e g i n n i n g of the  those decade  t h e majority of e n r o l l m e n t h a d b e e n i n u r b a n c e n t r e s . In the a f t e r m a t h of Sputnik, b u r g e o n i n g of p o s t - s e c o n d a r y 1971,  b y the mid-1960s, t h e r e was a  institutions across North America.  t h e r e were e l e v e n c o l l e g e s i n B . C . ( R e p o r t , 1974,  p . 46).  During  the b r i e f p e r i o d while t h e NDP were i n power, D r . Ron F a r i s was as a c o n s u l t a n t to set u p a T a s k F o r c e  4  By  hired  to s t u d y a n d make  It is i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t o n l y two members of t h i s commission/task force r e p r e s e n t e d school d i s t r i c t adult education, w h e r e a s n i n e were l i n k e d to community colleges; the r e m a i n i n g two members r e p r e s e n t e d u n i v e r s i t i e s i n c l u d i n g t h e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n d e p a r t m e n t at U . B . C . (p. 7). It i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h i s s e l e c t g r o u p w o u l d s h a r e some of F a r i s ' o b s e r v e d p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o w a r d college coordinated adult/continuing education. 4  29  recommendations r e g a r d i n g t h e implementation of a r e g i o n a l system i n B.C.  Faris had previously established  r e g i o n a l college  system  district activities  in Saskatchewan  similar to those i n B.C.  that school board offerings specifically  a very  successful  w h e r e t h e r e h a d b e e n no s c h o o l It was not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e n  s h o u l d be s u b s u m e d , a n d t h a t  w o u l d be g i v e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r " i n n o v a t i v e "  e d u c a t i o n , u s i n g " s o c i a l a n i m a t o r s " whose them to] c a r r y o u t i m a g i n a t i v e  college  "special status.  plans and activities,"  colleges community . .[enabled  (Report, 1974;  p.  28). Despite a statement roles historically played  that r e c o g n i z e d , albeit briefly, the b y school districts"  r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i n a d e q u a t e thrust"  school district  (Report, p. 27), a n d a  f u n d i n g i n the p a s t  g a v e a u t h o r i t y to the colleges  f o r what  (p. 28), t h i s  "new  had previously  been  prerogatives.  T h e T a s k F o r c e was c o n c e r n e d a b o u t the e x i s t i n g services  "essential  p r o v i s i o n of  b y s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , n o t i n g t h a t the p e r m i s s i v e n a t u r e of  P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t d i d not ejausjjucfi  provision in rural and  the  sparsely  p o p u l a t e d a r e a s , a n d t h a t t h e r e was little o r no c o n s i d e r a t i o n of p u b l i c and private organizations' adult education activities. recommended t h a t community colleges  become  The  Report  "the p u b l i c a g e n c y  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f u n d i n g , p r o v i s i o n , a n d (or) c o o r d i n a t i o n of a d u l t a n d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n e a c h college  r e g i o n " ( R e p o r t , p.  27).  A l t h o u g h many of t h e s e recommendations were not implemented, that school districts which wanted  to c o n t i n u e i n a d u l t a n d c o n t i n u i n g  e d u c a t i o n d i d so, t h e o v e r a l l d i r e c t i o n of t h e recommendations  was  t o w a r d a p h a s i n g o u t of s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n t h a t a r e a of p r o g r a m m i n g .  so  30  Needless to s a y , t h i s was v i e w e d  b y many s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  w i t h l e s s t h a n e n t h u s i a s m , a n d p e r h a p s some a n x i e t y a n d m i s t r u s t . One of t h e recommendations made was: Education establish a project  " T h a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t of  f u n d a n d also Community E d u c a t i o n a l  Development C o u n c i l s (CEDC) to a p p l y d i r e c t l y to t h e Department f o r s p e c i a l community e d u c a t i o n a l development basis,"  (Report, 1974, p . 29).  grants on a project  proposal  T h i s was t h e i n c e p t i o n of what l a t e r  became k n o w n as S p e c i a l P r o j e c t G r a n t s , w h i c h were a v a i l a b l e  ultimately  to b o t h c o l l e g e s a n d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . T h e implementation of t h e S p e c i a l P r o j e c t impact o n community development  s y s t e m h a d a dramatic  throughout the province.  g r a n t s made p o s s i b l e a r a n g e of d i v e r s e a n d c r e a t i v e  These  projects  to meet  s p e c i a l n e e d s a n d i n t e r e s t s , u n t i l f u n d i n g was eliminated i n 1981. In 1976, a n o t h e r major r e p o r t was commissioned.  T h e " R e p o r t of  .tJae_£Qmmi.tte.^ CiSlumbia^ (1976) f r e q u e n t l y  t e r m e d as "The_JE aria_Ee^or.t" o r " T h e ,  GtoXd.eji..._lBool5;." T h i s was p e r h a p s a r e s p o n s e i n p a r t to the r e q u e s t adult educators  t h a t t h e e a r l i e r R e p o r t (1974) be c l a r i f i e d .  from  T h e Pacific  A s s o c i a t i o n of C o n t i n u i n g (PACE) a n d t h e B r i t i s h Columbia A s s o c i a t i o n of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t o r s (BCACEA) h a d s u b m i t t e d similar b r i e f s ; t h a t of t h e B C A C E A s u b m i t t e d i n December 1974 (quite l i k e l y i n r e s p o n s e to t h e anxieties  r a i s e d i n t h e 1974 R e p o r t ) .  It was also  "asked  the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n to e s t a b l i s h a commission o n task f o r c e to s t u d y a n d recommend p h i l o s o p h y a n d f u t u r e education i n B.C.," (Cassidy,  1984, p . 40).  directions for continuing  31  Clode was among the t w e n t y - t h r e e s e r v e o n t h e committee.  adult educators  Although only three school districts  r e p r e s e n t e d , t h i s committee h a d a more e c l e c t i c t h e p r e v i o u s one.  consequence, consistent  rate to t h e 630 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  p u b l i c meetings  a n d a total of 147  the committee made 110  to  were  m a k e - u p t h a n t h a t of  T h e r e was a good p u b l i c r e s p o n s e to the  (eg. a 41% r e s p o n s e province-wide  selected  proceedings  d i s t r i b u t e d at  19  briefs submitted).  In  recommendations, a l l of w h i c h  w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h i n g of a life l o n g - s y s t e m  were  of e d u c a t i o n i n  w h i c h a d u l t a n d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n w o u l d move from t h e " m a r g i n " a n d have  greater  priority.  Despite t h e b r a v e subsequent  attempt  beginnings  of the  49).  Report and  to e s t a b l i s h p u b l i c p o l i c i e s , t h e r e were  limitations " p a r t i a l l y as a c o n s e q u e n c e Committee's  1974  A l t h o u g h one of the Committee's recommendations f u n d be c r e a t e d , the limited mandate  the e a r l i e r r e p o r t h a d o n the c o l l e g e s ' development.  In fact,  serious  of the r e s t r i c t i o n of the  mandate to the a r e a of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , "  special projects  (Cassidy,  p.  d i d not f o c u s  a  as  major r o l e i n community  the recommendation r e g a r d i n g r e g i o n a l  adult  at a l l , b u t  " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from a l l p u b l i c a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m i n g p.  Faris  reiterated that  e d u c a t i o n c o o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l s d i d not r e f e r to colleges  ( R e p o r t , 1976,  this  to  agencies,"  13).  H o w e v e r , the ultimate i n a d e q u a c y " T h e committee was a p p a r e n t l y  of the F a r i s R e p o r t was  u n a b l e to d e v e l o p a v i s i o n of how  e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m w o u l d be r e s t r u c t u r e d to accommodate life-long learning perspective  that,  it so h e a v i l y e m p h a s i z e d , "  the  and realize (Cassidy,  the  p. 49).  32  R e s p o n s e from the m i n i s t r y was F a r i s indicated that  "approximately  received a "significant  response,"  "slow a n d u n e v e n " .  In  1981,  33% [of t h e recommendations] ( C a s s i d y , p. 51).  implementation of t h e S p e c i a l P r o j e c t s  had  These included  system, and a provincial A d v i s o r y  Committee o n A d u l t a n d C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n was  established.  Despite the l a c k of c l e a r l y d e f i n e d p u b l i c policies r e g a r d i n g a n d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , F a r i s , as E x e c u t i v e  D i r e c t o r of t h e  dramatic impact o n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e .  Although  w o u l d be among those who welcomed many of h i s p o l i c i e s ,  c o m p o n e n t i n community d e v e l o p m e n t ,  adult  Continuing  E d u c a t i o n D i v i s i o n of t h e M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , f o r many y e a r s  those w h i c h were i n t e n d e d to a d v a n c e  the  had a Clode  especially  a n d s u p p o r t the a d u l t  educational  t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t  differences  i n h e r view as to how those p o l i c i e s s h o u l d be implemented. B r i e f l y , C l o d e ' s view was t h a t  Faris deliberately  eliminate s c h o o l b o a r d s ' a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n p r e f e r r i n g t h a t colleges  h a d been allocated f o r s p e c i f i c elsewhere,  i n c i d e n t s w h i c h she c i t e d  got p r e f e r e n t i a l treatment;  m i n i s t r y officials  programmes. that  for instance, when  programmes o r projects,  g a v e colleges  to  operations,  have p r i m a r y j u r i s d i c t i o n for s u c h  T h e r e were a n u m b e r of s p e c i f i c s u g g e s t e d colleges  set o u t  funds  a n d were  spent  a s y m b o l i c " s l a p o n the  w r i s t , " b u t d i d not monitor a n d e n f o r c e c o l l e g e s '  continuing  education  b u d g e t s i n t h e same way as m i n i s t r y p r o c e d u r e s r e q u i r e d of s c h o o l districts.  Clode also i d e n t i f i e d the c o l l e g e s '  p r a c t i c e of c l a s s i f y i n g  v o c a t i o n a l a c o u r s e t h a t more r e a d i l y w o u l d be c a t e g o r i z e d fundable  general interest activity.  as  as a n o n -  A l t h o u g h s c h o o l s were also p r o n e to  33  t h i s p r a c t i c e , i t seemed to be more p r e v a l e n t a n d l e s s m o n i t o r e d i n t h e college  system.  T h e s e were s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s of what Clode saw as i n f r a c t i o n s , b u t h e r p e r c e p t i o n of g e n e r a l m i n i s t r y bias t o w a r d c o l l e g e s was s h a r e d b y many of h e r colleagues  i n b o t h t h e college a n d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t  systems. TJteJtotisJbi^^ 1B.CACEAJ T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A s s o c i a t i o n of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t o r s (BCAEA) was t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t h r o u g h w h i c h Clode directed h e r efforts  a l o n g w i t h h e r p e e r s , to i n f l u e n c e m i n i s t r y p o l i c i e s .  D o r o t h y Clode was i n v i t e d as a g u e s t s p e a k e r at the i n a u g u r a l c o n v e n t i o n of the B C A C E A at H a r r i s o n Hot S p r i n g s i n 1965; s h e s p o k e as the B.C. representative Health A s s o c i a t i o n . throughout  of t h e national e x e c u t i v e f o r t h e C a n a d i a n Mental  This involvement with the BCACEA continued  h e r c a r e e r as a n a d u l t e d u c a t o r .  Island representative  f o r many y e a r s a n d s h e s e r v e d o n t h e e x e c u t i v e  as the head of t h e c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t r e t i r e m e n t i n 1985. conference  Clode was t h e V a n c o u v e r  committee u n t i l h e r  I n 1975, Clode was t h e B C A C E A delegate at t h e  o n t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n of Economic C o o p e r a t i o n a n d Development  (OECD) i n E d m o n t o n ( B C A C E A m i n u t e s , J u n e 1975). p r e s i d e n t i n 1976-77.  S h e also s e r v e d as  In 1986 Clode r e c e i v e d a n h o n o r a r y  life-time  m e m b e r s h i p a n d s h e c o n t i n u e s t o a t t e n d a n n u a l c o n v e n t i o n s a n d maintain an  interest i n the organization's  affairs.  Clode d e s c r i b e d t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n as one p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d  with  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d f i n a n c i n g of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l context,  34  with a f o c u s o n s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r . essentially  This support  p r a g m a t i c s i n c e members were i n t e r e s t e d  s o m e t h i n g t h e y c o u l d use tomorrow."  was  in "learning  When a s k e d a b o u t t h i s  today  potentially  p a r o c h i a l f o c u s o n p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n c e r n s , Clode r e p l i e d t h a t t h i s ultimately b e n e f i t e d  the adult learner; since without this s u p p o r t for  people i n the " t r e n c h e s , "  t h e r e w o u l d be l e s s f o r those  learners.  the  5  A t i t s i n c e p t i o n i n 1965, t h e B C A C E A was mainly made u p of members from s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s , w h i c h h a d a strong presence  i n the p r o v i n c i a l s y s t e m .  In 1962-63, 68 s c h o o l  d i s t r i c t s p r o v i d e d 3,070 c l a s s e s f o r 70,405 p a r t i c i p a n t s ; of t h e s e , o v e r 59% a t t e n d e d e d u c a t i o n was  classes outside the V a n c o u v e r area.  seen l e s s as " p e r i p h e r a l " a n d i n c r e a s i n g l y  p a r t of (school b o a r d s ' ) e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s " B y 1970,  Evidently,  adult  "as a n i n t e g r a l  ( C a r t i e r , 1964;  pp.  29-30).  " t h e r e were 29 f u l l time a n d 13 half time d i r e c t o r s " i n 69  s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s a n d e n r o l l m e n t has r i s e n to 162,140 ( C a r t i e r , 1971;  p.  80). In d i s c u s s i n g  h e r v a r i o u s r o l e s as a g e n e r a l member, as  Vancouver Island representative,  the  a n d as p r e s i d e n t , Clode i n d i c a t e d a n  o n g o i n g c o n c e r n with the effects of m i n i s t r y policies o n a d u l t a n d continuing education generally, and school districts particularly. of t h e b r i e f s s p o n s o r e d b y B C A C E A were i n r e s p o n s e to what perceived  Many  was  b y the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s as a bias i n f u n d i n g a n d o t h e r  policies  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , "the view from the f i e l d " s u g g e s t s t h a t the B C A C E A was mainly i n t e r e s t e d i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l welfare (G. Selman, p e r s o n a l communication, S e p t e m b e r 1988). 5  35  that d i r e c t l y benefited  colleges,  but which often excluded  school  districts. B y t h e e a r l y 1970s, b e c a u s e of t h e i n c r e a s e d n u m b e r of  colleges,  as well as t h e i r e n l a r g e r o l e i n a d u l t a n d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , m a k e - u p of the B C A C E A m e m b e r s h i p b e g a n to shift.  Despite  i n c r e a s i n g p r e d o m i n a n c e of college a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , the  the  organization  c o n t i n u e d to s u b m i t a n d s u p p o r t b r i e f s t h a t a d v o c a t e d school d i s t r i c t s ' concerns.  the  o n behalf of  T h i s seeming anomaly r e f l e c t e d  t h a t fact t h a t  many of t h e B C A C E A members who were college r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  had  f o r m e r l y w o r k e d w i t h i n ^the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m , were s e n s i t i v e usually  to s c h o o l d i s t r i c t c o n c e r n s .  Consequently,  and  consensus  was  possible.  Nick R u b i d g e , f o r m e r l y with the m i n i s t r y ' s D e p a r t m e n t of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , r e c a l l e d ( J u n e 1988, i n t e r v i e w )  t h a t t h e r e was  a  d i s t i n c t g r o u p of s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w h e n he h a d e n t e r e d f i e l d , some e i g h t e e n  y e a r s ago.  Most o f them h a d come u p t h r o u g h  the the  s c h o o l s y s t e m , a n d as s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , h a d t a k e n o n a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n d u t i e s as t h e "apex" ( r a t h e r t h a n " t e r m i n a l " stage) of a c a r e e r .  Few h a d a n y academic g r o u n d i n g i n a d u l t  Clode was one of t h e few e x c e p t i o n s U . B . C . , 1970).  education;  (i.e. M . E d i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ,  So, as the college s y s t e m  b e g a n to e x p a n d , h i r i n g  p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e r s , it understandable  t h a t t h e o l d g u a r d w o u l d be r e l u c t a n t to admit to  " i n n e r c i r c l e " these inexperienced upstarts.  But, Rubidge pointed  t h a t Clode was a g a i n the e x c e p t i o n i n t h a t " s h e was v e r y  young, was the out  approachable."  36  T h o s e were also a n u m b e r of f o r m e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who went i n t o the  expanding  college  districts  s y s t e m , i n p a r t a r e f l e c t i o n of the n u m b e r of s c h o o l  t h a t o p t e d o u t of a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n as t h e colleges role.  B u t , R u b i d g e i n d i c a t e d that many college  took o n  p r i n c i p a l s d i d not  a n y of t h e i r e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e s e " f r i v o l o u s " a n d " m a r g i n a l " since they  saw t h e e s s e n t i a l role of the college  academic one.  Only because  of t h e l e g i s l a t e d  s u p p o r t f o r t h e s e p r o g r a m m e s at some  a far greater  degree  share  activities  s y s t e m as a t r a d i t i o n a l  mandate was t h e r e  any  colleges.  T h i s academic bias was to some e x t e n t r e f l e c t e d t h a t g a v e colleges  that  i n the  legislation  of autonomy i n the s e n s e  that,  u n l i k e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , t h e r e was little o r no accountability Rubidge  f o r how a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n allocations were  s u g g e s t e d that, i n a d d i t i o n to the t r a d i t i o n of academic  i n i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g , t h i s was also p o l i t i c a l l y a s t u t e ;  spent. freedom when  people c a n ' t get  into the c l a s s r o o m , f o r example, it is the i n s t i t u t i o n , not  the government,  w h i c h the p u b l i c sees as  responsible.  A l t h o u g h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s felt t h a t m i n i s t r y p o l i c i e s f a v o u r e d colleges, specifically  R u b i d g e p o i n t e d o u t that, i n t e r m s of d o l l a r s allocated  f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n f u n c t i o n s , f u n d i n g was v i r t u a l l y  same f o r e a c h s y s t e m .  F u r t h e r m o r e , because  of M i n i s t r y s u p p o r t f o r  small s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s s u c h as L a k e C o w i c h a n , a d d i t i o n a l f u n d s p r o v i d e d when r e d u c e d school budgets threatened a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education programmes. funding  were  to eliminate  A case i n p o i n t was  f o r the C o n s o r t i u m o n Economic Dislocation; R u b i d g e  the said  that  the  37  t h i s was d i r e c t l y a r e s u l t of F a r i s ' attempts to e n s u r e t h a t D o r o t h y C l o d e ' s p o s i t i o n was  maintained.  R u b i d g e p r o p o s e d t h a t t h i s s p l i t , p e r c e i v e d to be between c o l l e g e s a n d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , was a c t u a l l y a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n r u r a l a n d u r b a n districts.  The 'big boys'  (as Clode d e s c r i b e d the lower m a i n l a n d s c h o o l  d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ) , a c c o r d i n g to R u b i d g e , were successful  particularly  at p r o m o t i n g g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t p r o g r a m m e s , b u t h a d  not  a p p e a r e d as committed, o r c a p a b l e , i n t h e a r e a of community  education,  f o r example, p r o g r a m m e s f o r s e n i o r s , s i n g l e p a r e n t s , women's  re-entry  and other minority  interests.  S m a l l e r , r u r a l d i s t r i c t s d i d p r o v i d e s u c h p r o g r a m m e s a n d Clode was p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n t h a t r e g a r d . t h a t F a r i s a n d o t h e r m i n i s t r y officials a b o u t community e d u c a t i o n s  projects;  Consequently,  would f r e q u e n t l y  Rubidge  consult with  she was h i g h l y r e g a r d e d  someone c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d i n h e r community; h e r v i e w s a n d commitment were  said her  as  her  respected.  B i l l Day, t h e p r e s e n t P r e s i d e n t of Douglas College, was one of those who h a d f o r m e r l y b e e n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a d u l t a n d c o n t i n u i n g education administrator. t o w a r d colleges.  He a g r e e d t h a t t h e r e a p p e a r e d to be  He r e i t e r a t e d  6  ( J u l y 1988, i n t e r v i e w )  statement t h a t w h e n he f i r s t knew  bias  an earlier  F a r i s , F a r i s h a d d e c l a r e d t h a t he  i n t e n d e d to eliminate s c h o o l d i s t r i c t c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n H o w e v e r , Day i n d i c a t e d t h a t he t h o u g h t  operations.  F a r i s ' l o g i c was b a s e d o n t h e  S i m i l a r r e m a r k s were p r e v i o u s l y made b y Day at a d i n n e r a n d ' r o a s t ' g i v e n b y the B C A C E A i n the s p r i n g of 1987, a f t e r Ron F a r i s h a d left what r e m a i n e d of t h e c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n d e p a r t m e n t of the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . 6  38  fact t h a t i n a p r o v i n c i a l s e t t i n g i t made s e n s e  to s t e e r colleges  disadvantaged  groups.  i n w h i c h t h e r e were too few into developing  programmes  for  A l t h o u g h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t p r o g r a m m e s were  responsive, vital and freewheeling"  this reflected  more of the  of a m a r k e t economy, r e s u l t i n g i n p r o g r a m m e s h e a v i l y consumer, u s e r - p a y  resources,  interests.  (eg., f a c u l t y - s c a l e  p a r t of a s t u d e n t  support services  associated  wages, h i g h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t s )  s u p p o r t s y s t e m ; he s u g g e s t e d t h a t many  that they  to  Day f a u l t e d t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t  d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s felt t h e s e c o s t s were e x c e s s i v e a n d reflecting  pressures  geared  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f o r f a i l i n g to r e c o g n i z e t h a t the h i g h e r c o s t s with colleges  "very  were  school unnecessary,  were c o n c e r n e d o n l y with the p r o d u c t , not with  r e q u i r e d to e f f e c t i v e l y  deliver and back u p  the  the  product. A l t h o u g h t h e s e v i e w s s u g g e s t e d D a y ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of objectives,  he was c r i t i c a l t h a t the d e p a r t m e n t u n d e r F a r i s '  h a d failed to s y s t e m a t i c a l l y Project  initiate community development.  f u n d i n g was a move i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n ; h o w e v e r ,  Faris'  leadership Special  the t i n y  amount  of money i n v o l v e d (at the local l e v e l ) , a n d the p e r m i s s i v e n a t u r e of l e g i s l a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n many colleges  a n d school districts choosing  the  to  i g n o r e t h a t a r e a of p r o g r a m m i n g . Others view  (eg. Hambrook, McGown) also i n d i c a t e d t h e y  t h a t colleges  28, 1988)  got p r e f e r e n t i a l treatment.  s u g g e s t e d t h a t the m i n i s t r y j e a l o u s l y  shared  Clode's  Coulson (interview,  June  r e t a i n e d i t s power  over  the local s c h o o l s y s t e m , r e q u i r i n g t h a t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s h a d to a s k p e r m i s s i o n to d e v e l o p p r o g r a m m e s , d e s p i t e  general recognition that  a b i l i t y to r e s p o n d q u i c k l y was one of t h a t s y s t e m ' s  virtues.  Also,  for this  39  C o u l s o n n o t e d t h a t t h e e n t r y of colleges courses vastly  r e d u c e d the school system's  from t h e s e p o p u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , subsidies. that  into part-time  vocational  a b i l i t y to g e n e r a t e  funding  w h i c h were also e l i g i b l e f o r m i n i s t r y  It a p p e a r e d t h a t the colleges  had an unfair advantage in  regard. J i n d r a K u l i c h ( i n t e r v i e w , J u n e 24, 1988) was s t i l l of t h e o p i n i o n  t h a t it was u n f o r t u n a t e t h e colleges  t h a t a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n h a d gone  a n d he saw the s t e a d y  e r o s i o n of a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g  b y the s c h o o l b o a r d s as a r e g r e t t a b l e low o p i n i o n of those o p e r a t i o n s .  into  education  r e s u l t of p o l i c i e s r e f l e c t i n g  Faris'  A s a r e s u l t of " f r i e n d l y p e r s u a s i o n "  h a n d o v e r that role to c o l l e g e s ,  approximately  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o v e r to colleges.  When a s k e d if he w o u l d c o n c u r with one  m i n i s t r y official's  view t h a t the p e r c e i v e d  60 b o a r d s g a v e  to  s p l i t between  colleges  s c h o o l b o a r d s was more r e a l i s t i c a l l y one b a s e d o n r u r a l v s .  system which had largely  was p r i m a r i l y the l a r g e r c e n t r e s represented  been destroyed.  rural  He s a i d t h a t  adult/continuing  K u l i c h d i d c o n c u r with a n o t h e r s c h o o l  district  a d m i n i s t r a t o r (Hambrook, i n t e r v i e w J u n e 22/88) t h a t a d u l t s often comfortable  it  of p o p u l a t i o n t h a t c o n t i n u e d to be  b y most of the r e m a i n i n g s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s '  education operations.  and  urban  d i v i s i o n s , K u l i c h was adamant i n p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t it was the school based  that  feel  i n a familiar local s c h o o l s y s t e m , r a t h e r t h a n i n a n i m p o s i n g  college o r u n i v e r s i t y .  A n d , a l t h o u g h all w o u l d a g r e e  that p u t t i n g  people i n little seats s h o u l d be a v o i d e d , K u l i c h w o n d e r e d i f t h e h a l l at U . B . C . , f o r i n s t a n c e , was r e a l l y a n y b e t t e r l e a r n e r s ' needs.  In fact,  many colleges  lecture  s u i t e d to a d u l t  in r u r a l areas actually  o n local s c h o o l facilities f o r c o u r s e o f f e r i n g s .  big  depend  K u l i c h felt that, t h a n k s  to  40  Clode (and o t h e r s )  school district adult/continuing education  " p o i n t i n g o u t how i t c a n be done, a n d s h o u l d be d o n e . " was futile to t r y to " p a r a c h u t e "  continued  He felt t h a t  t h i n g s i n t o a community; r a t h e r ,  it  the  community s u p p o r t base was a n e s s e n t i a l p a r t of a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education  programming.  O n the o t h e r h a n d , Day h a d p o i n t e d o u t ( i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 12, the g r e a t  difficulty  development  t h a t many s c h o o l b o a r d o p e r a t i o n s h a d i n community  programming.  A n d , a l t h o u g h i t was one t h i n g to be  of n e e d s , it was q u i t e a n o t h e r to implement r e s p o n s e s . b o a r d s l a c k e d the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n f o r s u c c e s s f u l projects.  1988)  (He also a g r e e d  that many colleges  aware  Most s c h o o l  community  development  also lack s k i l l s i n  that  area.) T h e r e was some b a s i s f o r F a r i s ' c o n c e r n that s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s not p r o v i d e d c o m p r e h e n s i v e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s province.  throughout  F u n d i n g p o l i c i e s c o u l d p r o v i d e a n impetus f o r b o t h  and school districts.  M i n i s t r y s u b s i d i e s h e l p e d offset  c o s t s of  a n d community i n t e r e s t c o u r s e s , w h i c h were e x p e n s i v e  to r u n ,  particularly i n r u r a l areas. g o - r o u n d w i t h what interview,),  but  (was)  v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s , w h i c h were o f t e n popular user-pay  merry1988,  subsidized  m o n e y - m a k e r s , as well as  g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t c o u r s e s i n o r d e r to offset  minority interest courses.  academic  (McGown, J u n e  t h e y , too, h a d to u s e r e v e n u e from  the  colleges  U r b a n d i s t r i c t s h a d to " p a y f o r the made o n the r a c e t r a c k "  from  losses  B i l l Day, h o w e v e r , a r g u e d t h a t it was a  o u t " f o r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s to d e p e n d o n g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t p r o g r a m m e s s u b s i d i z e A B E / E S L , for i n s t a n c e . o p e r a t i o n s w o u l d be b e t t e r  had  He p r o p o s e d t h a t s c h o o l b o a r d  a d v i s e d to set p r o g r a m m e p r i o r i t i e s a n d  on "copto  41  maintain f u n d i n g to s u p p o r t t h e s e a c c o r d i n g l y . d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , it was n e c e s s a r y to s u b s i d i z e p r o g r a m m e s i n a n o t h e r  B u t f o r many  school  to use r e v e n u e from one a r e a  category.  In d e s c r i b i n g the e v o l u t i o n of the B C A C E A , Clode noted that has a l w a y s b e e n a " m a r g i n a l " a s p e c t  there  to s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g  e d u c a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , s i n c e b u d g e t s h a d to be r e q u e s t e d s c h o o l b o a r d s t h a t o p e r a t e d with a p r o v i n c i a l mandate  yearly  from  for  a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n t h a t was o n l y p e r m i s s i v e , t h a t i s , o p t i o n a l . Consequently,  t h e r e was the c o n s t a n t t h r e a t t h a t t h e i r  adult/continuing  e d u c a t i o n o p e r a t i o n c o u l d be eliminated b y s c h o o l b o a r d s b e c a u s e insufficient  funds.  Despite e v i d e n c e  for these adult services,  (noted above)  this tenuous aspect  policies that later s t r e n g t h e n e d  the c o l l e g e s '  of  of t h e p u b l i c demand  was i n t e n s i f i e d  with  role i n a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g  education. Clode s u g g e s t e d t h a t some colleges interested  in "esoteric,  were o r i g i n a l l y p r i m a r i l y  high-brow" offerings  s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s "take c a r e of the r e s t . "  a n d were c o n t e n t to let  T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e  the lower m a i n l a n d , r e s u l t i n g i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s mainly t h r o u g h N o r t h a n d West V a n c o u v e r , New Westminster,  In o t h e r p a r t s of the p r o v i n c e ,  was more c o m p e t i t i o n  school districts and colleges,  w h e r e colleges  between  had taken over.  Clode noted t h a t o u t of  for  provided  Burnaby,  and Vancouver School Boards. 7  the  there  except  that  o r g a n i z a t i o n a g r o u p of deans a n d d i r e c t o r s was formed w h i c h met to  Clode r e c a l l e d with amusement how some d i r e c t o r s " g u a r d e d t h e i r 'little b l a c k b o o k ' w i t h t h e i r l i v e s " s i n c e t h e s e c o n t a i n e d information about i n s t r u c t o r s and other programme resources. 7  42  d i s c u s s college  r e l a t e d c o n c e r n s a n d a similar i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of  p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t d i r e c t o r s met s e p a r a t e l y Consequently,  basis.  the e n t i r e m e m b e r s h i p met o n l y at a n n u a l c o n v e n t i o n s ,  t h e r e g i o n a l meetings  included representatives  i n s t i t u t i o n s as d i d the e x e c u t i v e . necessity  o n a n a d hoc  but  of b o t h t y p e s of  However, Clode i n s i s t e d o n t h e  f o r r e g u l a r c o n t a c t a n d she v i g o r o u s l y  o p p o r t u n i t y to f i n d o u t what was  pursued  every  g o i n g on t h r o u g h o u t the  province,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e s p o n s e to what was b e i n g f u n d e d f o r the colleges  in  o r d e r to make s u r e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s d i d n ' t miss out. In discussing open-ended"  m i n i s t r y p o l i c i e s , Clode was c r i t i c a l of the  s y s t e m of college  from the m i n i s t r y , the c o l l e g e s '  funding.  C a r t i e r a b o u t some of the " c r e a t i v e "  Clode noted r e m a r k s b y A l  w a y s i n w h i c h colleges  g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t c o u r s e s to a v o c a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y  be e l i g i b l e f o r h i g h e r g o v e r n m e n t project  With little o r no d i r e c t c o n t r o l  r e s p o n s e to a n o c c a s i o n a l " s l a p o n the  w r i s t " was c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y s u p e r f i c i a l .  attribute  grants  "almost  subsidies.  would i n o r d e r to  A l s o , she s a i d  special  were d i v e r t e d ; f o r example, s u b s t a n t i a l g r a n t monies  allocated to one of the colleges f a c i l i t i e s , b u t n o t h i n g was  to set u p Knowledge  Network  resource  done i n that r e g a r d f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s  Clode s u g g e s t e d the g r a n t p r o b a b l y went into g e n e r a l r e v e n u e . contrast, school district adult/continuing education budgets allocated a c c o r d i n g to s p e c i f i c s  identified on budget  d i r e c t l y to the m i n i s t r y , a n d t h e r e was m u c h t i g h t e r  and In  were  forms r e p o r t e d control in  accounting. Clode noted t h a t w h e n t h e " c r u n c h " came (that i s , t h e budget  c u t s i n 1980-1981),  were  major  43  T h e f i r s t t h i n g t h a t c o l l e g e s d i d was c u t c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , c u t t h e i r o u t r e a c h , c u t off t h e i r  services  to a l l the c o n t r i b u t i n g (school) d i s t r i c t s a n d r e t r e a t to t h e i r main c a m p u s e s ,  just  so i f t h e y h a d  handling A L L the c o n t i n u i n g education funds w o u l d h a v e got v e r y little. ( J u l y 14,  vulnerable  l e d some s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s to c o n t i n u e p r o v i s i o n of t h e i r  proposals.  education services  r e s t r a i n t of p r o v i n c i a l f u n d s , s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ' a d u l t e d u c a t i o n will c o n t i n u e to be s t r e n g t h e n e d  re-established  college-based  t h a t with c o n t i n u i n g education/continuing  t h r o u g h local taxation.  She  y e a r s a n u m b e r of s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s  adult education/continuing  Sooke, C a m p b e l l R i v e r ) a n d more a r e  education programmes  p a r o c h i a l i n t e r e s t of the B C A C E A m e m b e r s h i p .  were made to r e l a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s  have  (eg.  anticipated.  U n d e r h e r l e a d e r s h i p , attempts were made to overcome potentially  situation  adult  a n d to r e j e c t the  Clode also s u g g e s t e d t h e r e is e v i d e n c e  p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i n the last few  we  1988)  C l o d e ' s view was t h a t " d i s t r u s t " of t h i s p o t e n t i a l l y  education/continuing  been  the  Approaches  s u c h as t h e A d u l t B a s i c E d u c a t i o n  A s s o c i a t i o n , community s c h o o l s , a n d the T e a c h e r s of E n g l i s h as a n Additional Language  to i n v i t e them u n d e r the B C A C E A " u m b r e l l a . "  efforts  unsuccessful.  were l a r g e l y  H o w e v e r , the more b r o a d l y  Pacific A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n was a l r e a d y successfully  These  based  more  d o i n g the same t h i n g ( Q u i n n , 1988).  Despite the d i v i s i v e f o r c e s  w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , Clode felt  that  the B C A C E A h a d c o n s i d e r a b l e s u c c e s s i n s u p p o r t i n g its members a n d influencing  m i n i s t r y policies.  A s a n example, Clode r e f e r r e d to the  brief  44  p r e p a r e d b y the B C A C E A e x e c u t i v e i n 1981  i n r e s p o n s e to the  major r e d u c t i o n s of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n b u d g e t s . subsequent  Clode a t t e n d e d  the  meeting with the M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n , Bill V a n d e r Zalm  a n d made a s p e c i a l p l e a f o r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s a n d r u r a l a r e a s . thought  ministry's  t h a t those c o n c e r t e d efforts  Clode  h a d b e e n effective i n p e r s u a d i n g  the m i n i s t r y to eliminate the 19% c u t p r o p o s e d f o r the following  year's  budgets. C l o d e ' s a s t u t e p e r c e p t i o n s of the implications of policies a n d h e r willingness and energy  not o n l y to s p e a k o u t b u t also to d e v o t e c o n s i d e r a b l e advocating  e q u i t a b l e policies a n d p r o g r a m m e s ,  undoubtedly contributed significantly the i n s t i t u t i o n s its members  to the s t r e n g t h  time  have  of the B C A C E A a n d  represent.  TJie__jaorikM£&L..Aasa T h e NWAEA is a n o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n of a d u l t e d u c a t o r s Clode p a r t i c i p a t e d for many y e a r s . g r o u p was r e l a t i v e l y  in which  When Clode j o i n e d i n 1968,  new, h a v i n g b e e n s t a r t e d i n 1966.  One of  o r i g i n a t o r s was J o h n Niemi, a p r o f e s s o r of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n at whom Clode h a d met while s h e was u n d e r t a k i n g g r a d u a t e department. development  Niemi e n c o u r a g e d activities,  The geographical  students  s u c h as  that the  U.B.C.,  studies in that  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n p r o f e s s i o n a l  conferences.  r a n g e of the NWAEA m e m b e r s h i p e x t e n d e d  beyond  B.C.'s b o r d e r s to i n c l u d e W a s h i n g t o n , O r e g o n , Idaho, Montana a n d A l a s k a , as well as A l b e r t a , S a s k a t c h e w a n  a n d Manitoba; more r e c e n t l y  N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s was also i n c l u d e d as a member. d e s c r i b e d i n terms of " a d v a n c e m e n t northwest"  the  Its f u n c t i o n Clode  of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n the  a n d its membership included a wider interest g r o u p than  the  45  B C A C E A ; t h a t i s , academics, g r a d u a t e  students,  administrators and others interested  i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s aims a n d  member n e t w o r k s .  practitioners and  T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n f o c u s e d o n t h e a d u l t l e a r n e r more  d i r e c t l y t h a n i n t h e B C A C E A , a n d Clode n o t e d t h a t t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o v i d e d a useful forum for exchange among  of p r a c t i c a l ideas a n d  networking  members. Clode was e l e c t e d  terms.  B.C. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  S h e also s e r v e d as p r e s i d e n t - e l e c t  p r e s i d e n t i n 1981-1982.  o n the e x e c u t i v e  Banff c o n f e r e n c e cases,  i n 1981  T h i s two y e a r term was to e n s u r e c o n t i n u i t y i n  A s s o c i a t i o n a n d the A l a s k a A B E T e a c h e r s  i n 1982.  the  In b o t h  the A l b e r t a Adult Education Association.  m e m b e r s h i p fees were low ($8.00) t h e r e was little o r no  money to p a y f o r t r a v e l c o s t s of e x e c u t i v e Clode was s u c c e s s f u l her trustees  responsible for  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r l i a i s o n w i t h local  s h a r i n g those j o i n t c o n f e r e n c e s :  Because  S h e was  and the Anchorage conference  she was t h e NWAEA officer  groups  for four  d u r i n g 1980-1981, a n d as  the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the a n n u a l c o n v e n t i o n .  in getting  a n d committee members,  that another unfortunate  commitments. r e s u l t of m i n i s t r y  c u t s was t h a t many of the i n s t i t u t i o n s s t o p p e d  representatives  but  the a p p r o v a l a n d f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t of  i n o r d e r to be able to take o n t h e s e  H o w e v e r , Clode o b s e r v e d budget  also  to a t t e n d r e g i o n a l meetings  funding  a n d as a r e s u l t  attendance  dropped. Clode e d i t e d t h e a s s o c i a t i o n ' s 1982 to 1987,  newsletter  f o r the five  t h e n a n e d i t o r i a l b o a r d took o v e r t h i s task.  c o n t i n u e s to p a r t i c i p a t e as a member of t h a t  board.  year period Clode  The publication  46  i t s e l f Clode d e s c r i b e d as " s p o r a d i c " f o r the f i r s t few maintained at five  issues  Her P r e s i d e n t ' s  project  d u r i n g h e r s t i n t as  message i n the Newsletter,  s u m m a r i z e d the s e r v i c e s conference;  per year  search; special project  of c o o p e r a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t  benefits  i n terms of f o c u s ,  geography  to B.C. members were  of a " n o r t h - s o u t h a f f i n i t y , " that r e f l e c t e d  significant.  an e x c h a n g e  affairs;  sometimes  states a n d  were  the  d e s c r i b e d i n terms  of i d e a s , s o l u t i o n s a n d  methods  industry,  characteristically  found  provinces. not much help f o r B.C. funding.  American  i n a p p r o p r i a t e ; f o r i n s t a n c e , Clode o b s e r v e d  the t y p i c a l A m e r i c a n p r a c t i c e of p o l i t i c a l l o b b y i n g representative  awards;  northwest.  T h i s she  o r o t h e r C a n a d i a n members r e g a r d i n g g o v e r n m e n t were  exchanges;  similar social p r o b l e m s often f o u n d i n s i n g l e  the n o r t h w e s t e r n  #51,  a n d p o l i t i c a l contexts,  Despite t h e s e s h a r e d c o n c e r n s , t h e r e was  tactics  editor.  the mandate a n d m e m b e r s h i p  i s o l a t e d , a n d s e m i - r u r a l a r e a s a n d small towns throughout  the  was  an annual  research  information; legislative  Clode s u g g e s t e d that, a l t h o u g h different  student  but  Nov. 1982,  which membership p r o v i d e d :  opportunity for graduate  and general fostering  years  out to l u n c h h a d d i f f e r e n t  by taking a  that  congress  implications i n B.C. a n d i n  Canada. A l t h o u g h he r e t i r e d w i t h i n two o r t h r e e a member i n 1968, Ron Bowcott  y e a r s after  member."  "she was a  who  very  No d o u b t he, a l o n g with o t h e r members, w o u l d  be k e p t i n f o r m e d a b o u t that a s s o c i a t i o n ' s the many n e w s l e t t e r s  became  ( p e r s o n a l communication, J u n e 1988),  also s e r v e d o n the b o a r d of the NWAEA, r e c a l l e d that able a n d a c t i v e  Clode  activities  w h i c h (Clode) p u t t o g e t h e r "  as " a r e c i p i e n t of as J i n d r a K u l i c h  (July  47  1988) n o t e d .  K u l i c h also s h a r e d C l o d e ' s view t h a t the NWAEA was more a  p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n t e r e s t g r o u p t h a n the B C A C E A and,  characteristics,  l i k e the l a t t e r , h a d a r u r a l a n d u r b a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n its  membership. C l o d e ' s message as o u t g o i n g t h a t i n 1980-81 t h e r e were s e v e r e  p r e s i d e n t is w o r t h n o t i n g . cutbacks  Recalling  in education budgets,  t h a t the h a r d e s t hit often were the r u r a l , i s o l a t e d a r e a s a l r e a d y p r e s s e d to p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e  services, Clode's remarks reflected  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e s p o n s e to a d v e r s i t y . must "meet c h a l l e n g e s  She p r o p o s e d that a d u l t  and financial setbacks"  a n d view  and hard-  her educators  those,  C o n s t r a i n t s as o p p o r t u n i t i e s to r e v i e w , r e v i s e a n d r e s t r u c t u r e moderately efficient effective  enterprises.  o p e r a t i o n s into more  In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , we ,  c a n n o t s i n k into the doom a n d gloom f o r e c a s t e d .  We  h a v e to r e t a i n a p o s i t i v e view a n d s e a r c h f o r alternatives.  (NWAEA N_ej£sj^er.,  Clode also noted that " c o n s t r a i n t s education.  One of o u r s t r e n g t h s  meet c h a n g i n g  May  1982)  (were) not new to c o n t i n u i n g i n the p a s t has been o u r a b i l i t y  conditions successfully,"  (NWAEA Newsletter,  In May 1983 C l o d e , r e c e i v e d the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s  the A s s o c i a t i o n as D i r e c t o r , C o n f e r e n c e Newsletter  Editor."  (NWAEA Newsletter,  May 1982).  meritorious  a w a r d " i n r e c o g n i t i o n of c o n s i s t e n t , l o n g t e r m , o u t s t a n d i n g  to  service  service  to  Chairperson, President and #53, May 1983).  JldJbiQOii^d.uc.atiQn. A r t k u i a l i a x i S t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , Clode was not a p r o f e s s i o n a l e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t o r , b u t she took a n a c t i v e  role i n the p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m  48  a r t i c u l a t i o n committee, p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r colleges b e g a n to e x p a n d early childhood education offerings, and  remained involved until  their her  retirement. Clode  p o i n t s o u t t h a t a l t h o u g h i t was  i s s u e d c e r t i f i c a t e s to g r a d u a t e s  the M i n i s t r y of Health t h a t  of e a r l y c h i l d h o o d  education  programmes, the colleges b e g a n to p r e s s u r e the M i n i s t r y of for higher entry qualifications for students entering their childhood education programmes. qualifications, which school d i s t r i c t ECE  Clode  wanted to retain the  were flexible," the  colleges' full-time students tended  to be  childhood education graduates, they for despite the upgrading upgrading  Clode  also noted  younger, and  as  early  of c o l l e g e r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h e r e had  been  " a f t e r lots of d i f f i c u l t i e s and  had  no  been  articulation  lots of  meetings,"  the f r u i t s of t h o s e l a b o u r s (Min. of  Health) so t h a t p a r t - t i m e e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s h a v e t h e same c o r e c u r r i c u l u m t h r o u g h o u t  the province.  Clode  remained a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n that a r t i c u l a t i o n committee u n t i l 1985.  long,  of wages.  the M i n i s t r y of Health d i s t r i b u t e d  retirement in  basic  that  d i d not stay i n the field v e r y  i n v i t e d to participate i n the early childhood education i n 1986,  had  existing  a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a r u r a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , Clode  committee and  existing  p r o g r a m m e s a r g u i n g t h a t , "as l o n g as t h e y  qualifications were sufficient pre-requisites.  As  early  were b e t t e r suited to participants i n part-time  language skills, good attitudes, and  corresponding  Education  would had her  49  A n o t h e r of F a r i s ' i n i t i a t i v e s was the implementation of a n evaluation process for school district continuing education  operations.  S u b s t a n t i a l f u n d i n g was p r o v i d e d b y the M i n i s t r y to c r e a t e i n c e n t i v e  for  d i s t r i c t s to u n d e r t a k e t h i s p r o c e s s .  at  A n I n t e r n a l Team was a p p o i n t e d  t h e d i s t r i c t l e v e l a n d t h e i r f i n d i n g s a n d recommendations were  reviewed  b y the M i n i s t r y ' s E x t e r n a l E v a l u a t i o n Team. I n 1985, Clode was a p p o i n t e d to the M i n i s t r y C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n E x t e r n a l E v a l u a t i o n Team t h a t examined the I n t e r n a l  Committee's  E v a l u a t i o n R e p o r t on t h e c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n o p e r a t i n g of S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #45, Coquitlam.  L a t e r t h a t y e a r , she was a member of  the  E x t e r n a l E d u c a t i o n Team f o r S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s #44 a n d #45 i n N o r t h a n d West V a n c o u v e r .  In 1986, s h e a g a i n a s s i s t e d o n a n E x t e r n a l E v a l u a t i o n  Team f o r S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #46, S u n s h i n e  Despite the e v i d e n c e  Coast.  of s u c c e s s i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t  a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n t h a t was o p e r a t i v e i n 1975  t h r o u g h o u t the  w h e n F a r i s j o i n e d the m i n i s t r y , t h e r e were o b v i o u s  p r o g r a m m e a r e a s r e l a t e d to community d e v e l o p m e n t disenfranchised  groups.  rather than cooperative  province  gaps in  a n d n e e d s of  Admittedly, ministry policies  consumer-oriented course offerings,  based  fostered  a n d also e n c o u r a g e d  competitive  r e l a t i o n s between i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i n b o t h  school  a n d college d e l i v e r y s y s t e m s . A n d , at the same time as F a r i s ' a r r i v a l o n the s c e n e , t h e r e was a d r a m a t i c g r o w t h i n the college s y s t e m from p r e s s u r e s w i t h i n a n d o u t s i d e t h e p r o v i n c i a l system. was a similar p a t t e r n of g r o w t h a c r o s s C a n a d a , r e f l e c t i n g  resulting  That is, there the  federal  50  p o l i c y initiatives that were t r y i n g to keep abreast  of n a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g  needs. It was threatened  i n p a r t an by  unfortunate  coincidence  t h e a p p e a r a n c e of so m a n y new  that the faces on  'old g u a r d ' f e l t the p r o v i n c i a l  scene, e s p e c i a l l y the c o i n c i d e n t a l e m e r g e n c e of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d personnel school  i n the college system, c o n t r a s t e d  d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who And,  the  rose  t h r o u g h the  was  the  e v e n more u n f o r t u n a t e  i s s u e of the  college versus  with the  school  experience  apparent confusion  district split.  Most of  were i n agreement about the  initiated  Faris for college adult/continuing education  exception  was  r u r a l and  u r b a n programmes.  having  R u b i d g e who  b e e n based on  the  Day  i n a b i l i t y of s c h o o l  ladder that  line between c r e d i t and to success,  the  The  between  address  1970's, d e s p i t e the  the  educational  g e n e r a l l y not  even  on  ladder. H o w e v e r , F a r i s was  community education and  policies  F a r i s ' r a t i o n a l e as  c o u r s e s on  c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t was  those  operations.  d i s t r i c t s to  that during  non-credit  around  r e a l d i v i s i o n was  also acknowledged  adequately particular needs, noting blurred  a p p a r e n t bias of  suggested that the  most  ranks.  interviewed by  of  school  and  " u n d e r w h e l m e d , " as  he  put  it, by  the  c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t s of b o t h  d i s t r i c t s w h e n he  a r r i v e d on  the  s c e n e i n t h e e a r l y 1970's  ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , J u l y 10/1988).  He  school  equally but  districts were essentially funded  clarified that colleges differently,  on  a system weighted f o r smaller d i s t r i c t s w h i c h R u b i d g e had  He  d i d not agree w i t h the  to the  perception  ministry than were school  that colleges were less  districts.  colleges  Colleges  and  based  developed. accountable  were required  to  51  develop a f i v e - y e a r  p l a n , a n d to meet a n n u a l l y w i t h the m i n i s t r y , as well  as to s u b m i t a c o p y of t h e i r a n n u a l r e p o r t . ongoing.  Self-evaluation  was  S c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , were s u b j e c t  to  also  less  s c r u t i n y s i n c e t h e r e was o n l y the a p p r o v a l of a n a n n u a l b u d g e t had already  which  been ratified b y t h e i r school board.  Faris defended  h i s p o s i t i o n b y e m p h a s i z i n g that ultimately it  p r o v i s i o n of t h e b e s t , a n d w i d e s t ,  r a n g e of s e r v i c e s  t h a t was at the h e a r t of h i s p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s .  for adult  i n the a r e a of community d e v e l o p m e n t an outstanding  example of g r a s s  learners  A n d the college  was the b e s t r e s o u r c e i n most a r e a s to p r o v i d e t h a t  service,  programmes.  system  particularly  A l t h o u g h Clode  r o o t s community development,  too many of h e r colleagues  and  apparently  u n a b l e o r u n w i l l i n g to make a similar commitment to social j u s t i c e A d m i t t e d l y , most s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o p e r a t i o n s were p o o r l y  Projects  grants  Special  e n a b l e d many to explore t h i s a r e a c r e a t i v e l y ,  of the community at l a r g e , not j u s t f o r the s p e c i a l  groups  served.  "frivolous" adult/continuing education offerings,  to  the  interest  Yet d e s p i t e a mandate i n t h i s a r e a , colleges  u n c o m m i t t e d , a n d community d e v e l o p m e n t  goals.  equipped  s e r v i c e s , e v e n t h o u g h the  benefit  relatively  felt  were more c o n c e r n e d  a b o u t c a r e e r s a n d p e r s o n a l ambitions, F a r i s felt, a n d were  to p r o v i d e community d e v e l o p m e n t  was  Faris  h e r to be a n e x c e p t i o n among many of h e r p e e r s i n b o t h college school d i s t r i c t systems;  was  remained  along with  other  were seen b y  college  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s as m a r g i n a l to t h e i r r e a l p u r p o s e a n d f u n c t i o n as a n a s p i r i n g educational institution. U l t i m a t e l y , it is commitment, o r l a c k of it, to social j u s t i c e t h a t is t h e d i v i d i n g f a c t o r  between  b o t h the v a r y i n g  goals  theories and  p r a c t i c e s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a n d community d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d t h e methods a n d policies of t h e d i f f e r e n t  governing  a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s go b e y o n d r e f l e c t i n g  h e r own p e r s o n a l c h o i c e s a n d  c a r e e r development. within (and around).  bodies.  Clode's  T h e y h e l p illuminate t h a t s t r u c t u r e s she w o r k e d  53  CHAPTER 4 COMMUNITY D E V E L O P M E N T -  IS IT A D U L T E D U C A T I O N ?  Part I. - TheQretkjd-Q^rxiew In t h i s c h a p t e r , the f i r s t s e c t i o n will p r o v i d e a n o v e r v i e w of  t h e i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  community development.  adult education  s u c h as:  the legitimate  aims of  o r committed a c t i v i s m ; p l u r a l i t y v e r s u s  the  area  second of  section  community  e d u c a t o r i n community  of  this  professional  collectivity.  will f o c u s  illustrate  groups  on Clode's  her  role  b o d y of l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h a r g u e s to a d u l t s h a v e  as  work an  because  those most i n n e e d of " r e m e d y "  that  been ineffective  of a f a i l u r e to a p p r e c i a t e  i n t h a t g r o u p a n d its community.  in  adult  remain uninvolved.  unchanged.  In t h i s f i r s t s e c t i o n , the context  development  has e v o l v e d  the  in  inherent  Consequently,  More i m p o r t a n t ,  u n d e r l y i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h a t c r e a t e d those n e e d s a r e u n c h a l l e n g e d  association with adult  to  development.  t r a d i t i o n a l remedial a p p r o a c h e s  conflicting interests  chapter  p r o g r a m m i n g to  T h e r e is a s i g n i f i c a n t  reaching targeted  and  education;  e d u c a t i o n as a s o c i a l c o n t r o l , o r a f o r c e f o r societal c h a n g e ;  The  some  E s s e n t i a l l y , those i s s u e s a n d c o n c e r n s h a v e  do w i t h e t h i c s a n d v a l u e s  objectivity  of  the  and  i n w h i c h community  will be h i g h l i g h t e d to demonstrate  its l o n g  education.  T h e i s s u e s , c o n c e r n s a n d e n s u i n g d e b a t e s a r e complex a n d it may be d i f f i c u l t to a v o i d a c o n f u s i n g  of v a r y i n g  perspectives  a b o u t the r e l a t i o n s h i p of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n to community  development.  F o r t u n a t e l y , R o b e r t s (1982, p. 31) education objectives  patchwork  has p r o p o s e d a model of  that e n c o m p a s s e s  many of the  issues.  adult  54  T h a t model is e s s e n t i a l l y a c o n t i n u u m r a n g i n g from r e m e d i a l , t h r o u g h c o p i n g , p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , social d e v e l o p m e n t to c o u n t e r c u l t u r a l development.  He n o t e d t h a t t h e r e is no c l e a r c u t d i s t i n c t i o n  between t h e s e s t a g e s :  " F o r i n s t a n c e , the movement of  consciousness  r a i s i n g among women is aimed at b o t h i n d i v i d u a l s e l f - k n o w l e d g e growth, and changes in existing  social r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d  structures."  R o b e r t s l i s t s "some of the t e r m s u s e d f o r t h i s k i n d of a c t i v i t y community e d u c a t i o n , community d e v e l o p m e n t , animAtiQn__sojcjale anim^Qn_£omra;u^^  ( R o b e r t s , p. 33).  and  Along with this  [as] and  succinct  s u m m a r y of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p u r p o s e s , R o b e r t s has p r o p o s e d a b r i e f typology every  of f o r c e s c o n s t r a i n i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a n d a d u l t e d u c a t o r s  p a r t of the s p e c t r u m .  at  T h o s e c o n s t r a i n t s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d as:  s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y ; social s t r u c t u r e s ; needs; a n d , r e s o u r c e s  (Roberts,  19982, p. 43). R o b e r t s ' model p r o v i d e s a n e s p e c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e context i n w h i c h to look at t h e v a r i o u s r o l e s Clode took o n i n h e r c a r e e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y as a n a d u l t e d u c a t o r w i t h a d e m o n s t r a t e d commitment to social T h e r e has for  changing  been  a lengthy  social c o n d i t i o n s .  t r a d i t i o n of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n as a A c c o r d i n g to C o t t o n  m o d e r n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n " was  i n t r o d u c e d b y the 1919  Education  British  Committee  of  the  seminal d o c u m e n t was b a s e d  change.  Ministry  of  (1965) the  means " e r a of  R e p o r t of the A d u l t  Reconstruction.  o n " a v i s i o n of a d u l t e d u c t i o n as a way  from s o r d i d materialism, economic d e p r i v a t i o n a n d i n e f f e c t u a l and, A d u l t e d u c a t i o n was seen p r i m a r i l y as a n i n s t r u m e n t f o r b r i n g i n g a b o u t social r e f o r m , social r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , a n d  This out  democracy"  55  s o c i a l p r o g r e s s - to r e a l i z e the i d e a l s of t h e 'good life' a n d the  'good s o c i e t y . '  T h i s 'idealistic' tradition represents  a  r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e from the o r i e n t a t i o n of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n b e f o r e World War I, w i t h its e m p h a s i s o n m a k i n g u p e d u c a t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c i e s of a d u l t s ,  the  (p. 7)  T h i s idealism p e r v a d e d t h e f i e l d u n t i l t h e e a r l y 1930s; C o t t o n t h a t t h e n a "new b r e e d of ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , " against  "naive idealism," rejecting  reformers.  suggests  reacted  the i d e a of e d u c a t o r s as social  " T h e y t h o u g h t of t h e m s e l v e s as e d u c a t o r s r a t h e r t h a n  r e f o r m e r s . . . c o n c e r n e d w i t h the life of the m i n d , . . .not as a n i n s t r u m e n t of p a r t i s a n p o l i c i e s , " (p. 5). While t h e s e new s e l f - p r o c l a i m e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s d i d not r e j e c t the  necessarily  " d e e p social c o n c e r n s o r the m i s s i o n a r y zeal of t h e s o c i a l  r e f o r m e r s " t h e r e was a r e j e c t i o n of the these qualities had been put,"  (p. 5).  " u n d i s c i p l i n e d use to w h i c h Out of t h i s c r i t i c i s m f o r  the  emotional a n d p o t e n t i a l l y p a r t i s a n a s p e c t s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n the s e r v i c e of social r e f o r m g r e w a n i n c r e a s i n g a w a r e n e s s  of t h e need f o r a  s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y ; t h a t i s , a methodology of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . Consequently, professional associations and u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t about adult education began  to a p p e a r (Selman, 1984, p. 13).  courses Closely  a l i g n e d with t h i s d i s c i p l i n e d a p p r o a c h was a r e s u r g e n c e of the l i b e r a l view of e d u c a t i o n .  T h e life of the mind was to be n u r t u r e d ; k n o w l e d g e  was of i n t r i n s i c v a l u e . generated  lengthy  This proposed 'value-free'  d e b a t e among a d u l t e d u c a t o r s  education  has  (eg., P a t e r s o n , 1973).  A n d it is t h i s c o n t r o v e r s y a b o u t t h e legitimate terms o f e d u c a t i o n t h a t  56  is at the h e a r t of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n to community development. E l i a s a n d Meriam (1982, pp. 43-69) characteristic approaches traditional, conservative  have  to a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  summarized a v a r i e t y These included:  of  a  p o s i t i o n w h i c h saw e d u c a t i o n was i n t r i n s i c a l l y  valuable, and which rejected  a l l b u t the e s t a b l i s h e d  o r d e r of  a h u m a n i s t i c p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l development a c t u a l i z a t i o n were p a r a m o u n t ; a p r o g r e s s i v e  and  "knowing";  self-  a p p r o a c h w h i c h saw  that  e d u c a t i o n c o u l d a n d s h o u l d t r y to i m p r o v e , not o n l y the i n d i v i d u a l , b u t also t h e societal context  i n w h i c h that i n d i v i d u a l d e v e l o p e d ; a r a d i c a l  c r i t i q u e that claimed not o n l y was a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n e f f e c t i v e to c h a n g e  the w o r l d , b u t was itself p a r t of the o p p r e s s i v e  maintained the s t a t u s quo b y  r e p r o d u c i n g the v a l u e s  proposes  (1979) also p r o v i d e s a t y p o l o g y  "two s e t s of dimensions:  the  which the  capitalism.  of social p h i l o s o p h i e s .  d i m e n s i o n , " (p. 85).  collectivist and individualistic categories,  F o r example, he d e s c r i b e s  system  He  democratic/authoritarian  dimension a n d the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c / c o l l e c t i v i s t between  attempts  that e n a b l e d  means of p r o d u c t i o n to remain i n c o n t r o l of c o r p o r a t e Roberts  in  In  t h e r e is " p l u r a l i s t i c . "  C a n a d a as a d e m o c r a t i c / p l u r a l i s t i c t y p e of  society. Within practice  of  a r o u n d the whether  each adult  of  these  education  acceptance  positions  and  there  basic  or rejection  are  of the  underlying  assumptions  need for  e d u c a t i o n is an a p p r o p r i a t e tool to c r e a t e  In 1955,  responses  all  theory which  center  societal c h a n g e ,  and  change.  from p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a S y m p o s i u m e n t i t l e d  BQk..o.L..A.dulL.£.d.u.ca.ti!Q.a...i.n .Community Development"  and  ( H o i b e r g , Mial,  "The  57  J o h n s o n , D i c k e r m a n , O l i v e r , 1955)  indicated substantial  a b o u t the c e n t r a l v e h i c l e f o r c r e a t i n g disagreement  disagreement  social c h a n g e , as well as  a b o u t the e x t e n t of p r o f e s s i o n a l detachment.  Consistent  w i t h t h a t e r a of p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n , t h e r e was a n emphasis o n maintaining an objective c o n s e n s u a l community.  v i e w p o i n t , i n o r d e r to facilitate The adult educator  c o n c i l i a t i n g d i f f e r i n g community factions  a holistic,  becomes a n a r b i t r a t o r ,  (p.  41).  This continuing search for professional objectivity  is  potentially  d a n g e r o u s , a c c o r d i n g to L o t z (1977) f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  "has  p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d i t s e l f almost o u t of e x i s t e n c e "  This  to m a r g i n a l i t y is u n d o u b t e d l y  double-edged;  (p. 123).  those who do  tendency  become  immersed i n p u r s u i t of p a r t i c u l a r social goals a r e seen as a c t i v i s t s , i n many c i r c l e s t h e y a r e seen to be o n l y a small s t e p from the  and  lunatic  fringe. In a d d i t i o n to debate  a b o u t extent of i n v o l v e m e n t i n p u r s u i n g  community goals, t h e r e h a s b e e n c o n t r o v e r s y way  to a c h i e v e  societal c h a n g e ,  as to w h e t h e r  ( g i v e n t h a t it is an' a p p r o p r i a t e  e d u c a t i o n goal) is e i t h e r t h r o u g h i n d i v i d u a l o r t h r o u g h educational and learning processes. 1956) they  a r g u e d that  the  best adult  collective  F o r example, P o s t o n (in McGhee,  " b a s i c social p r o b l e m s a r e not i n d i v i d u a l l y c e n t r e d ,  a r e community c e n t r e d , " to w h i c h McGhee (1956) r e s p o n d e d  c o n t r a r i l y t h a t is was  " t h r o u g h the p r o c e s s of community  y o u get at the d e v e l o p m e n t [emphasis  of the i n d i v i d u a l -  not v i c e  development  versa"  added].  P y r c h (1983) has p r o v i d e d a u s e f u l summary of perspectives  about adult education's  changing  role i n r e l a t i o n to community  58  development. significant  He s u g g e s t s t h a t " f e a r of B o l s h e v i s m " may h a v e b e e n a  f a c t o r i n the " m i s s i o n " of e a r l y N o r t h A m e r i c a n  s u c h as at A n t i g o n i s h a n d H i g h l a n d e r . community d e v e l o p m e n t  B u t b y the 1960's t h e c o n c e p t  was f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d  Pyrch suggests  l i k e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , was  e m e r g i n g f i e l d of p r a c t i c e , r a t h e r t h a n a f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d  an  discipline;  b o t h h a d i n common elements t h a t e m p h a s i z e d i m p r o v e m e n t of both i n d i v i d u a l a n d the c o l l e c t i v e , a l t h o u g h t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e emphasis r a t h e r t h a n a n a b s o l u t e  e d u c a t i o n was  "guided social change"  debate  how b e s t to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  ( L a u d e r d a l e , 1971,  p . 418).  in  development  p. 17)  time-limited  a n d , like  goals,  a b o u t the complex p h e n o m e n a of c h a n g e "between  and  a p r o c e s s of community c h a n g e .  . a n d a p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g how to i n s t i g a t e D r a p e r , 1971,  that community  not f o r t u i t o u s , b u t h a d systematic  t h e r e was o n g o i n g  the  difference.  A l t h o u g h t h e r e was g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t was e s s e n t i a l l y  of  in North American  l i t e r a t u r e (p. 13) a n d no l o n g e r seen as e x p e r i m e n t a l . f u r t h e r t h a t community development,  movements  such change,"  M c L u s k e y (1960, p. 420) saw  .  (Verner in  community  d e v e l o p m e n t as a n e d u c a t i o n a l method i n v o l v i n g s e v e r a l s t a g e s , one of w h i c h was  " a combination of s t u d y  and action."  B u t R o b e r t s (1982, p.  60) made d i s t i n c t i o n o n the b a s i s of l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s a n d l e a r n i n g outcomes; t h a t i s , t h e " d i f f e r e n c e observable, concept."  between  performance, which is  a n d l e a r n i n g , w h i c h is a n o n - o b s e r v a b l e ,  hypothetical  He p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e r e a r e two d i s t i n c t r o l e s r e l a t i n g  social change:  that of a n e d u c a t o r , a n d that of a n a c t i v i s t  K i d d (in D r a p e r , 1971,  p. 40), t h i s debate  t h a t the q u e s t i o n f o r a d u l t e d u c a t o r s  to  (p. 38).  For  was a waste of time, d e c l a r i n g  is " n o t , should we p a r t i c i p a t e ,  but  59  how.?" a n d i n what w a y s c a n t h e y  continue that earlier tradition i n  w h i c h " i n v o l v e m e n t , p a r t i c i p a t i o n . . .has b e e n a n a c c e p t e d fundamental  p r i n c i p l e , " (p. 137)  Brookfield  of a d u l t  and  education.  (1983) p r o v i d e d a t y p o l o g y  of s e t t i n g s f o r  l e a r n i n g w i t h i n t h e i r communities, n o t i n g t h a t  adults  "some of t h i s l e a r n i n g will  be the r e s u l t of a c t i o n u n d e r t a k e n b y g r o u p s o r i e n t a t e d t o w a r d s p o l i t i c a l a n d economic o b j e c t i v e s  -  credit unions, neighbourhood  social, action  schemes, t e n a n t s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s , c i t i z e n s ' r i g h t s g r o u p s a n d mutual societies.  A l t h o u g h t h e s e g r o u p s exist f o r o t h e r t h a n e d u c a t i o n a l  nonetheless  their activities  component"  (p. 90).  c o n t a i n w i t h i n them a n a c t i v e  learning  A g a i n , B r o o k f i e l d noted t h a t the common element of  i m p r o v e m e n t is a v a l u e j u d g e m e n t community  development  context  of the d i s t i n c t i o n between  i n b o t h the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a n d  (p. 106).  a n d p r a c t i c e of all a d u l t e d u c a t o r s  How v a l u e s  i n f u s e the  is a c e n t r a l theme i n his  "liberal" and "liberating" adult  Who, a n d what, is the f i n a l a r b i t e r of t h i s improvement? normative transformation  groups in  theory  discussion  education. Is it to be a  (p. 107), o r i s it to be a r e j e c t i o n of  the  c o n s e n s u a l a p p r o a c h , i n r e c o g n i t i o n of deep, i n h e r e n t c o n f l i c t s different  ends,  between  society?  B r o o k f i e l d a g r e e s (p. 198) with those who see a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of community d e v e l o p m e n t fallacy"  (p. 175),  societal contexts  which suggests that educators must, b y i m p l i c a t i o n , a c c e p t  also makes a p o i n t that a n a d u l t e d u c a t o r ' s p r a c t i c e will n e c e s s a r i l y personal values  b u t he r e j e c t s  the  "logical  working within  those  as  existing  dominant v a l u e s .  He  d e c i s i o n s i n community  be c o n s t r a i n e d b y c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s so  that  a n d e t h i c s must c o m b i n e d with a sense of ce.alpi3li.tik if  60  s / h e i s to s u r v i v e (p. 202-203).  T h i s same p e r c e p t i o n is s l i g h t l y v a r i e d  i n K e d d i e ' s (in T h o m p s o n , 1980, p . 45) v i e w t h a t , a l t h o u g h a d u l t e d u c a t i o n is more l i k e t h a n u n l i k e the r e s t of t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m i n its form of c u l t u r a l r e p r o d u c t i o n , it is not t h e i n d i v i d u a l a d u l t e d u c a t o r whose beliefs o r i n t e n t i o n s t h a t a r e q u e s t i o n a b l e .  It i s , r a t h e r , t h a t  " i n d i v i d u a l i s t i d e o l o g y of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ' s f u n c t i o n s - o b s c u r e s  the  the  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n the a d u l t e d u c a t o r ' s r o l e " a n d r e s u l t s i n m i s p l a c e d effort. It is the w o r k of L o v e t t w h i c h is c i t e d b y B r o o k f i e l d as a n example of " l i b e r a t i n g " a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  Lovett rejects  the n o t i o n t h a t  t r a d i t i o n a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n has s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d the s t a t u s quo.  He  sees community d e v e l o p m e n t as a n ejasejatiaLLy. e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s ( L o v e t t , C l a r k e , K i l m u r r a y , 1983, p. 29) a n d one w h i c h r e q u i r e s d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t of a d u l t e d u c a t o r s i n community p l a n n i n g a n d a c t i o n . L o v e t t a s k s a d u l t e d u c a t o r s to " c h a l l e n g e the way t h i n g s a r e , to b r e a k the c u l t u r a l hegemony i n h e r e n t i n e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n " t h a t "merely e x t e n [ d s ] . . .the p r e v a i l i n g l i b e r a l i d e o l o g y i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , (p. 159).  I n d e e d , L o v e t t sees t h e p e r e n n i a l f a i l u r e to a d d r e s s a n d meet  n e e d s of d i s a d v a n t a g e d  g r o u p s as e v i d e n c e t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l a d u l t  education is i n h e r e n t l y ineffective social s y s t e m .  a n d ultimately s u p p o r t s a n o p p r e s s i v e  F o r t h i s w r i t e r , L o v e t t ' s c r i t i q u e assumes  essentially  c l a s s - b a s e d d i v i s i o n s i n s o c i e t y , so it is not c l e a r how a c t i o n g r o u p s r e p r e s e n t i n g a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of a community (eg. o r g a n i z a t i o n s to i m p r o v e f e r r y s c h e d u l e s ; peace a c t i v i s t s ; feminist g r o u p s ) c a n fit i n t o h i s view of c l a s s - b a s e d r e a l i t y .  H o w e v e r , it c a n be s u g g e s t e d t h a t  s h i f t from a r d e n t a m a t e u r s to p r o f e s s i o n a l o b j e c t i v i t y  the  has r e s u l t e d not  61  only i n the increased remoteness r e s u l t i n p o t e n t i a l detachment  from l e a r n e r s ' r e a l i t i e s , b u t may  from r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the  also  circumstances  e n s u i n g from p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i o n , a n d more i m p o r t a n t l y , i n a c t i o n . Lovett's was l a r g e l y  c r i t i q u e of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s e r v i c e of social  based on his experience  i n the U n i t e d K i n g d o m , a l t h o u g h  was well aware of N o r t h A m e r i c a n e x p e r i e n c e s H i g h l a n d e r (pp. 4-6). developers  In C a n a d a , a l t h o u g h  and activists  change  a r e not o v e r t l y  he  s u c h as A n t i g o n i s h a n d  "many of the a c t i v i t i e s  educational,"  "most  of  development  a n d a c t i v i s t i n i t i a t i v e s h a v e a s t r o n g e d u c a t i o n a l component i n that protagonists  e n g a g e i n the d e l i b e r a t e a n d p u r p o s e f u l a c q u i s i t i o n of  knowledge,"  ( B r o o k f i e l d , 1983, p. 9).  their  T h e r e has also b e e n s u b s t a n t i a l c r i t i c i s m a b o u t the f a i l u r e s of those c o m b i n e d efforts especially,  community d e v e l o p m e n t  The Challenge Initiatives  projects  Programme (LIP) g r a n t s  8  and activists  community d i s a f f e c t e d  1960s  proliferated.  programme  i n d i v i d u a l s to " e s c a p e "  These activities  often left  to  a Head (in  that s u c h p r o g r a m s often t r i e d to  from c o n d i t i o n s of p o v e r t y ,  were  but continued  and fundamental problems unresolved.  p p . 20-21) notes  n o t h i n g to c h a n g e  a n d the NewStart  to the A m e r i c a n War On P o v e r t y ,  social n e e d s a c r o s s C a n a d a  D r a p e r , 1971,  T h r o u g h o u t the  f o r C h a n g e , Company of Y o u n g C a n a d i a n s (CYC), L o c a l  initially counterparts address  i n the C a n a d i a n s e t t i n g .  help  for instance, but did  the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t c r e a t e d a n d maintained  that  Clode got s e v e r a l L.I.P. g r a n t s to o p e r a t e a Community S e r v i c e s C e n t r e w h i c h l a t e r became a c h a r t e r e d a s s o c i a t i o n a n d was f u n d e d b y local mill rate assessment. S h e also got a L . I . P . g r a n t to p r o v i d e a n a d v e n t u r e p l a y g r o u n d a n d n u m e r o u s New H o r i z o n s G r a n t s f o r s e n i o r s . 8  62  poverty.  While some of t h e a p p r o a c h e s  i n s e n s i t i v i t y , as  well.  community development  t h a t many of t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s  failed to deal s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  T h e s e piecemeal e f f o r t s  were e s s e n t i a l l y  b y a r d e n t a m a t e u r s , often with few funding.  with  aimed at  structured  a limited u n d e r t a k i n g  skills and dependent on  So, a l t h o u g h t h e s e s o c i a l a n i m a t o r s ' a c t i v i t i e s  government  i n many  p a r a l l e l e d those of a community a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e , remained relatively  was  9  L o t z (1977) also t h o u g h t  change.  were i n n o v a t i v e t h e r e  marginal.  Despite t h e i r o b v i o u s  ways  they  commitment,  i n v o l v e m e n t a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n social c h a n g e , t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s limited.  Indeed, Lotz d e s c r i b e d these development  government  efforts  dependency  on government, thereby  government  wanted  to ' d r y - c l e a n ' the p o o r i n t h e p r o c e s s of  a b o u t community  the  development  agencies  be those of many e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i f a n d w h e n t h e y  be a c c e p t a n c e  creating  becoming amenable to what  i t i s c l e a r t h a t the ' s i n s ' of g o v e r n m e n t  consider alternatives  as  r a t h e r t h a n v i c e v e r s a (pp. 36-37).  Although Lotz spoke generally processes,  programmes  was  to i n s t i t u t i o n a l goals.  could  easily  fail to  A n d , realistically there  must  t h a t t h e goals of the l e a r n e r s may c o n f l i c t w i t h those of  educational or other sponsoring As the p r e c e d i n g  agencies.  d i s c u s s i o n has p o i n t e d out, many a d u l t  educators  (eg. K e d d i e , L o v e t t ) as well as w r i t e r s on community development  (eg.  Some of t h e e a r l y e f f o r t s of the C h a l l e n g e f o r C h a n g e p r o g r a m b r o a d c a s t d o c u m e n t a r y film footage w i t h o u t h a v i n g c o n s u l t e d with the s u b j e c t s a b o u t the r i g h t to do so. G r i e r s o n , f o u n d e r of the National Film B o a r d was also s a i d to be c r i t i c a l of the e t h i c s of u s i n g film c r e w s i n as community c h a n g e a g e n t s (Low, C , 1984 i n T h e J o h n G r i e r s o n £rojfic.t). 9  63  L o t z , Head) a r g u e f o r d i r e c t a c t i o n b y a d u l t e d u c a t o r s  a n d community  organizers.  T h o s e r o l e s a r e not merely to facilitate  community  consensus.  R a t h e r , the e d u c a t o r a n d o r g a n i z e r must p r o v i d e  of a commitment to t h e goals of the l e a r n i n g a n d d e v e l o p m e n t T h e r e may be a c o r o l l a r y t h a t , to the e x t e n t t h a t detachment  evidence group.  professional  is m a i n t a i n e d , (of e i t h e r a d u l t e d u c a t o r s  or other  p r o f e s s i o n a l community o r g a n i z e r s ) , t h e r e will be c o r r e s p o n d i n g of "officials"  b y community members.  g r o u p goals may r e f l e c t  A n d , difficulties  distrust  in achieving  the d e g r e e to w h i c h those o r g a n i z e r s  maintain  t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n c e w h i c h a l i g n s them with t h e i r s p o n s o r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n while a l i e n a t i n g them from p a r t i c u l a r community We c a n now look at C l o d e ' s p r a c t i c e with p e r h a p s  issues.  greater  a p p r e c i a t i o n of the complexity of the social a n d p o l i t i c a l context i n w h i c h she  worked.  Eart II - Co.mmujiJJ;y_^Qgr^mming  IntrftdjActioja In the following s e c t i o n , C l o d e ' s role as a n a d u l t e d u c a t o r i n r e l a t i o n to community d e v e l o p m e n t will be i l l u s t r a t e d b y a n u m b e r of examples of h e r community p r o g r a m m i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  In a d d i t i o n , C l o d e ' s  role i n the p r o v i n c i a l C o n s o r t i u m will be d e s c r i b e d . c u t d i s t i n c t i o n between C l o d e ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s e d u c a t o r a n d h e r i n v o l v e m e n t with o t h e r community activities  originating in her personal  T h e r e is no c l e a r as a n a d u l t development  interests.  When Clode e n t e r e d t h e r a n k s of p r o f e s s i o n a l a d u l t e d u c a t o r s  in  1968, t h e r e may h a v e been w i d e r a c c e p t a n c e t h a n t h e r e is t o d a y of  the  primarily facilitative  and  and consensus-seeking  r o l e of a d u l t e d u c a t o r s  64  o t h e r community o r g a n i z e r s . differing  B u t , t h e r e was t h e n , as now, a w a r e n e s s  communities of i n t e r e s t w i t h i n e v e r y  e d u c a t i o n , community d e v e l o p m e n t d e t e r m i n e whose i n t e r e s t s social  constituency.  Like  adult  was i n a similar q u a n d a r y of how  were b e s t s e r v e d i n attempts  to  of  to  remediate  inequity. F o r Clode, p e r h a p s those i s s u e s were not immediately a p p a r e n t , o r  relevant,  since her personal interests  a r e a of mental h e a l t h .  i n community s e r v i c e  was i n the  T h e s p e c i a l c o n c e r n s of t h i s i n t e r e s t g r o u p a n d  remedies f o r its s p e c i a l n e e d s c o u l d be more r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d .  Perhaps  Clode d i d not o r i g i n a l l y e n v i s i o n how h e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n h e l p i n g i n t h a t a r e a of community s e r v i c e w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y r e l a t e d w i t h much of h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l Obviously, there are significant  become  integrally  career. differences  i n small town,  s e t t i n g s t h a t effect the s t y l e of a n y a d u l t e d u c a t i o n o p e r a t i o n . a d d i t i o n , the p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n e x i s t i n g  in Lake Cowichan in  e a r l y y e a r s of C l o d e ' s c a r e e r were u n i q u e .  handsomely  90% of the tax It was  In those  Because of the l o g g i n g  m i n i n g r e s o u r c e s , the a r e a was r e l a t i v e l y affluent, d i s t r i c t was  a n d the  and  school  s u p p o r t e d by these i n d u s t r i e s which p r o v i d e d  base.  not u s u a l f o r management  p e r s o n n e l of those i n d u s t r i e s  t a k e a n i n t e r e s t i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a f f a i r s , a n d many were  they  to  trustees.  F r e q u e n t l y , those p e r s o n n e l h a d come from l a r g e r , u r b a n c e n t r e s as t r u s t e e s ,  rural  were able to see that f u n d s were available  and,  to p r o v i d e  e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s that e n h a n c e d the c o m m u n i t y ' s q u a l i t y of life. i n s t a n c e , Clode s a i d t h a t at one time t h e r e seemed to be a n  For  abundance  of p i a n o s a n d , as noted e a r l i e r , the h i g h - s c h o o l s h o p was one of  the  65  best i n the p r o v i n c e .  It was u n d e r s t a n d a b l e  u r b a n outlook of t r u s t e e s  t h a t the  well-educated  w o u l d be s u p p o r t i v e of c u l t u r a l a n d  r e c r e a t i o n a l amenities t h a t a n i g h t s c h o o l p r o g r a m c o u l d p r o v i d e . Clode d e s c r i b e d how h e r f i r s t e x p e r i e n c e i n s t r u c t o r was mainly f o r a n elite i n t e r e s t from a p r o f e s s i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d with those c l a s s p a r t i c i p a n t s . a n d the  as a n i g h t  group.  school  Well-educated  and  h e r s e l f , s h e w o u l d h a v e much i n common Clode was also a member of the I.O.D.E.,  Kinettes.  A t t h e same time, Clode maintained h e r i n t e r e s t i n mental h e a l t h . In 1959,  she h a d o r g a n i z e d a local b r a n c h of the C a n a d i a n Mental Health  A s s o c i a t i o n (CMHC); she was the c h a r t e r p r e s i d e n t of t h a t c h a p t e r was  " r e - c y c l e d " as p r e s i d e n t six times.  b o a r d f o r sixteen  and  Clode s e r v e d on the p r o v i n c i a l  y e a r s ; she was p r e s i d e n t of the p r o v i n c i a l c h a p t e r i n  b o t h 1966 a n d 1975.  S h e also s e r v e d o n the n a t i o n a l b o a r d f o r  ten  years.  time.  U n d e r s t a n d a b l y , these personal interests  took u p  B u t what is more i n t e r e s t i n g  i n w h i c h those  interests  is the way  i n h e r community meshed with h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l  Clode a t t e n d e d  concerns.  S h e h a d b e e n i n v i t e d as a g u e s t s p e a k e r  as p r o v i n c i a l p r e s i d e n t of the CMHC. Family L i f e a n d o t h e r c o u r s e s  Her speech  i n h e r role  u r g e d t h e promotion of  r e l a t e d to mental h e a l t h .  Thus,  h e r ' o f f i c i a l ' d e s i g n a t i o n as a n a d u l t e d u c a t o r , some of  professional programming interests U n d e r the a u s p i c e s projects  personal  the i n a u g u r a l meeting of the B C A C E A at H a r r i s o n Hot  S p r i n g s i n 1965.  before  considerable  were  even her  foreshadowed.  of the local CMHS c h a p t e r a n u m b e r of  were l i n k e d to p r o g r a m m e s p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h the  district's  66  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n office.  One of the f i r s t of t h e s e d i d not i n v o l v e  p r o g r a m m i n g , b u t Clode d i d ' e d u c a t e ' children.  a g r o u p of p a r e n t s of h a n d i c a p p e d  A t t h e r e q u e s t of the local h e a l t h n u r s e , Clode set u p a  s u p p o r t g r o u p f o r p a r e n t s of h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n to e n c o u r a g e  them to  let t h e i r c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s p e c i a l s c h o o l s e t t i n g .  Some  parents  were e a g e r f o r s u c h a f a c i l i t y , b u t it was C l o d e ' s efforts  that finally  p e r s u a d e d o t h e r s t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n w o u l d be b e t t e r p r o t e c t e d t h a n i n i s o l a t i o n at home.  T h i s g r o u p of c h i l d r e n was  i n t e g r a t e d into the r e g u l a r s c h o o l s e t t i n g .  there  eventually  T h a t move was  very  i n n o v a t i v e at the time, b u t Clode r e v e a l e d t h a t l a c k of f u n d s was necessity  for that 'invention.'  The projects after  the  of t h e CMHC c h a p t e r c o n t i n u e d to grow,  especially  the a v a i l a b i l i t y of new f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t f u n d i n g ( L o c a l  Initiatives  Projects  -  LIP) e v e n t u a l l y  permitted greatly  expanded  services.  In 1972,  the CMHC g r o u p i n i t i a t e d the L a k e C o w i c h a n  Community S e r v i c e s as a n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n e l i g i b l e f o r L.I.P. grants.  The grants enabled a day-time  d r o p i n service for  ex-mental  p a t i e n t s ; as well, those c u r r e n t l y u n d e r g o i n g treatment c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e in programmes.  Preventative  programmes for s t r e s s e d  mothers, and for  s o c i a l isolates i n the community were among s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e . d e s c r i b e d the e v o l u t i o n of t h o s e  services:  O r i g i n a l l y , the p u r p o s e was p r e v e n t a t i v e  mental  h e a l t h s e r v i c e s f o r y o u n g m o t h e r s , f o r social isolates, a n d f o r p h y s i c a l l y a n d mentally handicapped.  [ T h e r e was a] r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  p r o g r a m f o r e x - m e n t a l p a t i e n t s to  encourage  Clode  them to i n t e g r a t e  with community g r o u p s  than r u n n i n g separate  classes  w o r k w i t h them as e x - p a t i e n t s , further  rather  that continued where they  to  were  stigmatized.  We w o r k e d with P u b l i c Health a n d a l l the school agencies  [to d e v e l o p ]  a programme for  c h i l d r e n [ s u c h as a] d e v e l o p m e n t a l for  programme  preschoolers. The craft programmes offered  to o b t a i n t h e s e goals. attracted  were  vehicles  It w o r k e d well, a n d  members of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c as  as those w i t h s p e c i a l  b o a r d of  d i r e c t o r s , i n c o r p o r a t e d u n d e r the Societies  the one i n 1972  District for funding.  Act  f o r g r a n t s i n a d d i t i o n to  w i t h w h i c h the CMHC  Community S e r v i c e s )  well  problems.  . . .We set u p a n i n d e p e n d e n t  (in o r d e r to q u a l i f y  we  established  a n d a p p l i e d to the  Regional  This involved lobbying  Village a n d r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  as  well as m a k i n g a p l a u s i b l e p r e s e n t a t i o n to  the  Regional D i s t r i c t .  the  We were able to o b t a i n ^ mill  f u n d i n g w h i c h has b e e n i n c r e a s e d to 1 mill now. We were able to o b t a i n use of a n o l d l i q u o r s t o r e from the g o v e r n m e n t  f o r $5 p e r y e a r  moved o u r o p e r a t i o n s t h e r e as w i t h o u t  and  grants  (i.e. - L I P g r a n t s  no l o n g e r available) we c o u l d  not p a y the r e n t o n the Community Hall. In t h e new s e t t i n g , we s t a r t e d  renovating,  u s i n g v o l u n t e e r s to b u i l d a n d p a i n t . offices  We set  up  f o r t h e P r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , f o r the Human  Resources representative  a n d were able  to  c h a r g e r e n t to t h e r e s p o n s i b l e a g e n c i e s to c o v e r o u r operating costs.  We were able to  present  documented briefs. . .and obtained a Youth Counsellor and a part-time Seniors Coordinator. We s t a r t e d u p a f t e r latch-key  school programmes for  c h i l d r e n ; a y o u n g mothers programme;  k i n d e r g y m for k i d s ; s p e c i a l s p o r t s  programmes  f o r k i d s i d e n t i f i e d b y social w o r k e r s as attention—usually  from b r o k e n homes,  extra  single  p a r e n t o r b l e n d e d families. The youth counsellor works with kids in trouble, delinquents on probation, those racial problems.  with  We s t a r t e d a " F u n ' n S u n "  summer p r o g r a m m e f o r d i s a d v a n t a g e d  kids."  T h e S e n i o r s C o o r d i n a t o r s t a r t e d u p a Meals o n Wheels s e r v i c e w h i c h c o n t i n u e s to o p e r a t e e v e n t h o u g h the g o v e r n m e n t w i t h d r e w  services  of the S e n i o r s C o o r d i n a t o r t e n y e a r s ago, a n d we set u p a s e l f - h e l p l u n c h p r o g r a m f o r social  69  isolates.  ( P e r s o n a l communication,  September  1988) A l l of t h e s e p r o g r a m m e s o p e r a t e d u n d e r the a u s p i c e s  of  the  Community S e r v i c e s o r i g i n a l l y s p o n s o r e d b y the CMHC c h a p t e r of w h i c h Clode was a n a c t i v e member.  At the same time Clode was  p r o g r a m m e s i n s u p p o r t of those education responsibilities.  services  as p a r t of h e r official  In a d d i t i o n to a d m i n i s t e r i n g  organizing  v o l u n t e e r s , Clode was also a d m i n i s t e r i n g c o u r s e s i n a r t s ,  interest for that particular  management  courses.  and confidence  a n d o t h e r s u b j e c t s of  were r e l a t i v e l y  for s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s .  conservative,  grew t h e r e were more  It was also due i n p a r t to the i n c r e a s e d s u b s i d y  community e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s  subsidy  crafts,  constituency.  C l o d e ' s e a r l i e s t programme o f f e r i n g s b u t as h e r e x p e r i e n c e  adult  grant  a p p l i c a t i o n s o n behalf of Community S e r v i c e s , l o b b y i n g ,  volunteer training, parenting, stress  providing  experimental  for  t h a t Clode was able to d e v e l o p  courses  C a r t i e r h a d i n i t i a t e d a one d o l l a r p e r h o u r  while he was D i r e c t o r of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n f o r the m i n i s t r y .  successor,  Faris, expanded  t h a t to t h r e e d o l l a r s p e r h o u r .  His  Community  e d u c a t i o n was d e f i n e d i n terms of p r o g r a m m e s a n d l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s special interest  groups.  Examples of s u c h p r o g r a m m e s Clode  offered  i n c l u d e d a s e l f - h e l p o r s u p p o r t g r o u p f o r v i c t i m s of c h i l d h o o d a b u s e a n d a s e r i e s of w o r k s h o p s f o r p a r e n t s of h a n d i c a p p e d about sexuality  issues.  p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r it to be c o s t - r e c o v e r a b l e . Special Projects  sexual  adolescents  S u c h p r o g r a m m i n g was c o s t l y ; it c o u l d be  t i m e - c o n s u m i n g to d e v e l o p a n d seldom w o u l d t h e r e be  of  very  enough  F a r i s ' i n t r o d u c t i o n of  g r a n t was i n t e n d e d to p r o v i d e e v e n g r e a t e r  the  impetus  to  70  developing  s u c h p r o g r a m m e s a n d to enable a more  r e s p o n s e to community  concerns.  Clode d e s c r i b e d a n o t h e r example of t h e between  "symbiotic"  her 'official' and 'unofficial' activities  E v e r g r e e n Seniors Centre. where  comprehensive  relationship  i n the development  T h e r e was a n e v i d e n t  of  n e e d f o r a place  d a y - t i m e c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m i n g c o u l d take p l a c e  as  well as a place f o r a d a y - t i m e a d u l t l e a r n i n g c e n t r e away from the school.  high-  A t the same time, a g r o u p of s e n i o r s w a n t e d a c c e s s to an  u n u s e d c o t t a g e i n the c e n t e r of town, a c r o s s from the p o s t Clode h e l p e d the s e n i o r s form a s o c i e t y  Village  It was a r r a n g e d that  s e n i o r s c o u l d r e n t the c o t t a g e f o r a nominal fee f o r t h r e e h e r a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s "hat,"  office.  a n d t h e n a p p r o a c h e d the  f o r a c c e s s to the c o t t a g e , w h i c h t h e y owned.  wearing  years.  she a r r a n g e d f o r the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t  of t h e b u i l d i n g to a n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f a c i l i t y was also p a i d b y school district.  The r e n t which the society  changes  district  solvent.  ( A l t h o u g h some s e n i o r s complained a b o u t h a v i n g to s h a r e with were not w i l l i n g , o r a b l e , to p a y  Clode s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e V i l l a g e be a p p r o a c h e d s i n c e  the more.)  demographic  p e r h a p s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d ; r a t h e r t h a n s p e n d $30,000 a  o n l y o n p l a y g r o u n d s , f u n d i n g of a s e p a r a t e appropriate.  A request that  p r o v i d i n g operating expenses  next y e a r ' s  s e n i o r s c e n t r e might  village  use  the  c h a r g e d the s c h o o l  for its u s e of the f a c i l i t y e n a b l e d the c e n t r e to r e m a i n  people u s i n g it, t h e y  the  Then,  to p r o v i d e cable f o r e d u c a t i o n a l T . V . p r o g r a m m e s ; r e n t a n d f u e l f o r  younger  the  budget  (i.e.  be  1988-89)  f o r the E v e r g r e e n C e n t r e is c u r r e n t l y  year  71  under consideration.  O b v i o u s l y , Clode has not y e t r e t i r e d from  a n u m b e r of h e r community i n t e r e s t  "hats."  It i s c l e a r t h a t t h r o u g h h e r official a n d ' u n o f f i c i a l ' Clode met with r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and interest groups. specific  wearing  interests,  from o t h e r community s e r v i c e  agencies  In d e s c r i b i n g a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e of p r o g r a m m i n g f o r  community i n t e r e s t s ,  Clode r e c a l l e d h e r e a r l y e f f o r t s  w i t h t h e local N i t i n a h t n a t i v e  band.  working  Prompted by concerns expressed  local a g e n c i e s  a b o u t social p r o b l e m s , Clode set out " o v e r 40 miles of  worst logging  roads you ever  she l e a r n e d t h a t what t h e y two o f f - b e a t  instructors -  r o a d was too b a d . " chew  saw."  wanted  In meetings  with b a n d  (Clode c h u c k l e d at how t h e y  She  "got  b y themselves  the  sometimes all h a d  gum f u r i o u s l y to p l u g holes a n d keep out the r a i n i n a 1946,  riddled jeep i n which they  t r a v e l l e d those r o a d s . )  These  children.  also t a u g h t family management, go with r a i s i n g a family." have  So - t h e y  a n d w h e r e to f i n d  nutrition -  A l t h o u g h she a c k n o w l e d g e d  two s u c h i n s t r u c t o r s , Clode a g r e e d  wanted  taught upholstery,  budgeting,  t h a t she  to rust-  instructors  " c o u l d relate to the p r o b l e m s of the women out t h e r e - one had the o t h e r h a d s e v e n  the  members,  was a n u p h o l s t e r y c o u r s e .  no one would go out t h e r e  by  five,  but  they  all the t h i n g s she was l u c k y  "knew  what  that to  was  them."  When a s k e d a b o u t w h e t h e r  this 'hidden agenda'  p a t r o n i z i n g , o r u n e t h i c a l , Clode r e p l i e d that it was  might be seen  not so.  as  Information  a b o u t h o u s e h o l d s u b j e c t s was p r o v i d e d i n i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s t h r o u g h o u t the d u r a t i o n of the u p h o l s t e r y c o u r s e . exchange  T h e r e was a  genuine  of ideas; o n more t h a n one o c c a s i o n , the i n s t r u c t o r s w o u l d  72  a r r i v e to f i n d no one at the c l a s s .  Rather than r e t u r n , they  o u t what was h a p p e n i n g , a n d take p a r t i n the a l t e r n a t e t h a t way, t h e y  l e a r n e d a b o u t the n a t i v e customs.  were b e i n g c a u g h t ,  information about canning  activity.  In  learned about  d i n n e r to  w h i c h she was i n v i t e d o n the l a s t d a y of the u p h o l s t e r y c o u r s e . took o v e r management  of s u c h e d u c a t i o n a l  t h r e e y e a r s of r u n n i n g w i t h o n l y t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s , t h e y With C l o d e ' s h e l p , t h e y  l o b b y i n g the f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t school.  Native c h i l d r e n no l o n g e r h a d to be b u s s e d  miles of r o u g h l o g g i n g  roads.  After  again  were s u c c e s s f u l  f o r f u n d s to b u i l d a n  The  programmes  from what was t h e n the f e d e r a l D e p a r t m e n t of I n d i a n A f f a i r s .  Clode f o r a s s i s t a n c e .  fish-  methods.  With d e l i g h t , Clode r e m e m b e r e d the f u l l - s p r e a d t u r k e y  band eventually  find  F o r example, if f i s h  they joined in and subsequently  s m o k i n g while o f f e r i n g  would  asked  in  elementary  daily o v e r  sixty  Clode also h e l p e d them set u p a p r e -  s c h o o l , a n d p r o v i d e d E C E t r a i n i n g f o r mothers as  staff.  Clode d e s c r i b e d h e r role as one w h i c h was to show them how access government  a n d o t h e r community r e s o u r c e s , as well as how  d e v e l o p t h e i r own  resources..  In the late  1970s, a p a r t i c u l a r s e r i e s of e v e n t s led to  involvement i n a project  w h i c h is a n excellent  to to  Clode's  i l l u s t r a t i o n of  the  o v e r l a p p i n g r o l e s a n d goals of a n a d u l t e d u c a t o r i n r e l a t i o n to community  development.  In r e s p o n s e to a n economy w h i c h was  spiralling downward,  e n t i r e p r o v i n c e seemed p e r v a d e d w i t h a "doom a n d gloom" L a k e C o w i c h a n h a d a h i s t o r y of w e a t h e r i n g  the  mentality.  economic s t o r m s , a n d  despite  73  technological imperatives for increased production and decreased f o r c e , mill management  h a d a r e c o r d of few c o n f r o n t a t i o n s  work  with labour  s i n c e p e r s o n n e l p r a c t i c e s a n d a t t r i t i o n h a d k e p t i n s t e p with technological innovations.  H o w e v e r , i n 1980, o n l y one week a f t e r  p u b l i c l y a s s u r e d the community t h a t t h e d r a s t i c measures elsewhere  taken  i n the p r o v i n c e " c a n ' t h a p p e n h e r e , " local mills d i d  d o w n , r e s u l t i n g o v e r n i g h t i n 40% unemployment; local p o p u l a t i o n was  having  shut  soon, n e a r l y 70% of  the  unemployed.  It was not l o n g before a meeting was o r g a n i z e d b y local l e a d e r s , to be h e l d at the local r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e , f o r p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n how to deal with t h i s d r a s t i c s i t u a t i o n .  Clode r e c a l l e d that,  unfortunately,  Subsequently,  only a handful attended.  f o r h e l p i n o r g a n i z i n g a s e c o n d meeting. contacted  b y Clode -  u n i o n , management  representatives  a n d local b u s i n e s s  Clode was  T h i s time " k e y  of d i r e c t i n t e r e s t  about  people"  asked were  groups, including  - a n d Clode s p o k e to many more  community members d i r e c t l y , u r g i n g them to a t t e n d a n d e x p l a i n i n g their presence  would be  how  helpful.  A t t h a t s e c o n d community meeting  d i s c u s s i o n of the  current  s i t u a t i o n a n d "what do we do now?" l e d to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the for a food b a n k . of a " f a c i l i t a t o r . "  Clode d e s c r i b e d h e r role i n t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g as In the aftermath  need that  of t h a t meeting, Clode c o n t i n u e d  to  c o n t a c t community members d i r e c t l y , to c l a r i f y t h a t t h i s p r o p o s e d food b a n k would not compete  with e x i s t i n g  small b u s i n e s s e s .  Unemployed  w o r k e r s would h a v e l e s s to s p e n d , b u t what t h e y d i d h a v e would s t i l l s u p p o r t local b u s i n e s s e s  as m u c h as p o s s i b l e .  A s d i r e c t o r of  adult  e d u c a t i o n Clode a r r a n g e d f o r c o u r s e s i n p e e r c o u n s e l l i n g , c a s h i e r i n g ,  74  bookkeeping  a n d g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of food s e r v i c e , to  provide  t r a i n i n g i n a l l a s p e c t s r e q u i r e d f o r o p e r a t i o n of the F o o d B a n k . a d d i t i o n , Clode took r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a u t h o r i z i n g c h e q u e s b e h a l f o f t h a t new community Clode  recalled  an  reply food  to  the  incident  bank,  letter,  Clode  not  only  o p e r a t i o n of the  associated  bank.  An  minister resulted i n "quite a stir"  when  was not at h e r office,  official  inquiry  wrote  from  what  but  Faris  she  with  about  thought in  the  at the  was  role  food  but  also i n c l u d i n g a  bank.  involvement  "a  her  food  local food  her  describing bank,  issued on  service.  u n s c h e d u l e d v i s i t from a d e p u t y he was t o l d Clode  In  very  developing  in  the  persuasive"  skills  "few  In  required  for  suggestions"  for  p r o v i n c i a l action.  X..h)e_J?xoviRc.^ T h a t y e a r , the m i n i s t r y h a d a n n o u n c e d that t h e r e would be a n 80% reduction  of  continuing  over a three further which  year  education  period.  cut  was  Clode  had  submitted  and  expected  programs  in  feasible.  particular Cowichan  Her  were  hardship had  far  available in larger This Deputy  letter  letter  in  next  smaller,  15%  would had  budget  year  developed  pointed  fewer  the  e a r l i e r that  allocations were a n n o u n c e d , Clode be  which  T h e i n i t i a l c u t of  19%  ministry  budgets  had  be  been  year.  been  accordingly.  phased  in  made a n d  a  The  budget  accepted When the  by  the  revised  f e a r e d t h e i r o p e r a t i o n would no l o n g e r out  that  remote  resources  at  the  unilateral  areas. the  cuts  Districts  best  of  times  were  a  like  Lake  than  were  centres. was  passed  on,  and  M i n i s t e r James C a r t e r ' s s p e e c h  at  the  1982  (written by  BCACEA  convention,  Faris) indicated  that:  In o r d e r to a s s i s t  s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s with  education operations acutely economic d i s l o c a t i o n a n d h i g h approximately  effected  adult  by  the  un-employment,  1% of t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a d u l t  e d u c a t i o n p r o v i n c i a l " f u n d i n g was h e l d b a c k d i s t r i b u t i o n to d i s t r i c t s i n g r e a t e s t  need.  S i m u l t a n e o u s l y a c o n s o r t i u m of i n t e r e s t e d D i s t r i c t s a n d Colleges  School  was s o l i c i t e d from those  w i t h unemployment a b o v e 12%.  for  areas  the p r o v i n c i a l a v e r a g e of  ( B C A C E A n . d . (1982)  T h e goals of t h e C o n s o r t i u m were: 1.  T o stimulate s h a r i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n on  possible adult education responses severe 2.  to the impact of  u n e m p l o y m e n t o n communities. T o c o n s i d e r the r e c e s s i o n — a p r o v i n c i a l i s s u e  which extends  b e y o n d mandate of a n y  one  institution or agency. 3.  To a c h i e v e  most effective  u s e of limited  resources. 4.  T o promote i n t e r - i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n a n d  p o o l i n g of r e s o u r c e s , Clode a g r e e d  (p.  1)  to be the C o n s o r t i u m c o n v e n o r a n d w o r k e d  w i t h M i c h a e l Clague who was h i r e d as a c o n s u l t a n t . ( J u l y 12,  1988)  Clague  closely  described  the C o n s o r t i u m a s , i n p a r t , " a t y p i c a l F a r i s s t r a t e g y  to. . . e n c o u r a g e ,  p r o d and entice adult educators  community a c t i v i s t s  a r o u n d local socio-economic  into r e a l l y  i s s u e s - to  becoming challenge  76  (them) to go one s t e p b e y o n d w h a t e v e r  they  were.  c e r t a i n l y Ron a n d D o r o t h y f i t t e d l i k e h a n d a n d  A n d in this  context,  glove."  C l a g u e h a d not p r e v i o u s l y w o r k e d with Clode, b u t he f o u n d i n h e r " a meeting of the m i n d s " as a community w o r k e r . S h e took a n a t u r a l a p p r o a c h to how a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w o r k e d i n communities.  On the one h a n d , y o u  b r i d g e s all o v e r the place - to the  disenfranchised,  a n d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d e v e r y o n e (those)  systems  else.  But  a n d s t r u c t u r e s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  h a v e to be t a i l o r e d to the n e e d around.  build  not the o t h e r  way  In t h i s s e n s e , she c l e a r l y was a n o n -  institutional person.  She s u p p o r t e d any  endeavor  t h a t p r o m o t e d p e o p l e ' s l e a r n i n g . (Clague, J u l y  1988)  F o r two y e a r s , from the fall of 1982 to e a r l y 1985, C l a g u e JjojughJXiw^  (XTJS).  T h i s newsletter  edited  was o r i g i n a l l y d e v e l o p e d i n  c o n n e c t i o n with the C o n s o r t i u m , to k e e p a d u l t e d u c a t o r s a r o u n d the p r o v i n c e in touch, p a r t i c u l a r l y about special projects C o n s o r t i u m , b u t soon it was b e i n g r e q u e s t e d  funded by  b y many more  the  agencies,  o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s who, i n t u r n , p r o v i d e d items of  interest  for publication. During through  the  Clode  described  her  first  and as,  r e - a s s u r e r to the to  accomplish.  responded  with  year,  she  "Not  most  items  continued only  as  recalled  "varying  be  p u b l i c a t i o n were actively  a consultant  consultant" about  Clague  to  for  that  degrees"  the v a l u e other of  to the of what  members  interest.  He  channeled  involved. consultant, they of  the  said  were  Clague but  as  trying  Consortium that  Clode's  77  suggestions,  her  "establishment"  warmth  and  generosity,  her  leadership  with  the  a n d h e r g e n e r a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e i r w o r k was " c r i t i c a l . "  B e c a u s e of the p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e  to TJT.N from a d u l t  a r o u n d the p r o v i n c e a n d o t h e r community d e v e l o p m e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s were p r o d u c e d with C o n s o r t i u m f u n d s .  educators  groups,  other  T h e R e s o u r c e Kit  was a s e l e c t i o n of examples of p r o g r a m m i n g i d e a s methods f o r a d u l t e d u c a t o r s .  M a n y of t h e s e h a d b e e n " b o r r o w e d "  b r o c h u r e s a n d s u g g e s t i o n s from a r o u n d the p r o v i n c e a b o u t what working, and why,  (or w h y  r e s o u r c e g u i d e t h a t was  and  not).  !LhiL_HjpjA.^  was  from was  a  d e s i g n e d as a simple tool to help family, o r  g r o u p of n e i g h b o u r s , i d e n t i f y  t h e i r r e s o u r c e s , i n o r d e r to b e t t e r  handle  r e d u c e d income. In 1984, as the new e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g a n d R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l of B.C. ( S P A R C ) , C l a g u e a r r a n g e d t h a t the  publication  of TIB. w o u l d c o n t i n u e u n d e r those a u s p i c e s , with r e m a i n i n g C o n s o r t i u m f u n d s h e l d i n t r u s t b y L a k e C o w i c h a n , S.D. #66. a n y C o n s o r t i u m (or o t h e r S p e c i a l P r o j e c t s )  T h e r e a r e no l o n g e r  monies, b u t S P A R C , a  grant  from the M i n i s t r y of Small B u s i n e s s a n d I n d u s t r y , p l u s  subscriptions,  c u r r e n t l y s u b s i d i z e the d e s c e n d a n t  T h e Community.  of t h a t newsletter.  XllltJuaJtlS£:fiS-.J2iS.efidt i s p u b l i s h e d q u a r t e r l y b y Community Publications  Initiatives  (CIP), a p u b l i s h i n g s u b s i d i a r y of S P A R C , a n d maintains  o r i g i n a l mandate to i n f o r m a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , b r o a d l y d e f i n e d , a b o u t economic a n d community development  issues.  i n that r e g a r d .  socio-  Clode was made a n  h o n o r a r y member of the CIP e d i t o r i a l b o a r d a n d c o n t i n u e s to her expertise  its  contribute  78  In a d d i t i b n to t h e s e p u b l i c a t i o n s , t h e C o n s o r t i u m d i d s p o n s o r a v a r i e t y of p r o j e c t s  a r o u n d the p r o v i n c e .  One of t h e s e was a t h r e e  day  forum o r g a n i z e d t h r o u g h t h e a d u l t a n d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n office of t h e S u n s h i n e Coast s c h o o l d i s t r i c t (#66). Directions, that forum presented  O r i g i n a l l y c a l l e d New  displays, discussions and a theatrical  p r o d u c t i o n o n the theme of a l t e r n a t e r e s o u r c e management, c o - o p s a n d other positive responses  to c h a l l e n g e .  T h e L a k e C o w i c h a n food  bank  c o n t i n u e d to o p e r a t e a n d was u s e d as a t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t y , h e l p e d Consortium  by  funds.  When a m i n i s t r y official was i n f o r m e d a b o u t the r a n g e of  activities  s p o n s o r e d b y the C o n s o r t i u m he is s a i d to h a v e a s k e d , " B u t is it a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ? " , a g a i n c o n c e r n e d a b o u t the food b a n k s p e c i f i c a l l y .  Clague  was r e m i n d e d a b o u t how he a n d Clode were u n s u c c e s s f u l i n a t t e m p t i n g to h a v e P A C E take o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r T.TN»  He was " i n c r e d u l o u s "  t h a t , " T h e r e were so many h o o p s , a n d p r o c e d u r e s , a n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . . . p u t i n o u r way."  A m o n g those c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , a p p a r e n t l y , was  q u e s t i o n a s k e d b y one of the P A C E b o a r d members -  the  " B u t is it a d u l t  education?" It is t y p i c a l l y t h i s c o n f u s i o n a b o u t the a c t i v i t i e s a n d the  potential  effects of what c a n be c a l l e d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n that t a k e s us back to the c e n t r a l t h r e a d l i n k i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a n d community  development.  When does community e d u c a t i o n f o r a d u l t s become community development?  And why  does it  matter?  There are essential tensions inherent in any change  activity;  d i f f i c u l t e n o u g h f o r a n i n d i v i d u a l to accommodate, b u t e v e n more complex w h e n e n g a g e d  in collective activities.  Who is  empowered?  79  Whose r i g h t s a r e n e g a t e d ?  T h e s e a r e seldom black a n d  white  d i s t i n c t i o n s b u t it is c l e a r t h a t a d u l t e d u c a t o r s a r e " p o l i t i c a l c r e a t u r e s who a r e c o n s t a n t l y f a c e d w i t h t h e n e e d to make c h o i c e s r e g a r d i n g  the  allocation of r e s o u r c e s a n d whose c h o i c e s r e f l e c t p e r s o n a l biases o r institutional preferences"  ( B r o o k f i e l d , 1983, p. 69).  Clode was, i n d e e d , a " p o l i t i c a l c r e a t u r e . "  As Clague  she was good at b u i l d i n g b r i d g e s a n d c r e a t i n g a l l i e s .  10  commented,  Clode was  very  much aware of the need to d e v e l o p a s t r o n g s u p p o r t base, a n d d i d so i n h e r home community t h r o u g h o u t h e r c a r e e r .  She was k e e n l y aware of  b u i l d i n g b o a r d s u p p o r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y as she sometimes h a d to " b e n d  the  rules a bit."  were  (One c o u r s e h a d a d o g a n d cat r e g i s t e r e d ; t h e i r fees  p a i d b y e i g h t o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n o r d e r to c o m p l y with the m i n i s t r y r e q u i r e m e n t of a minimum of t e n p a r t i c i p a n t s . ) board informed:  " H e r e ' s what we d i d t h a t was s u c c e s s f u l ;  we t r i e d a n d f a i l e d ; h e r e ' s what we're successful."  Regular reports kept here's  d o i n g now t h a t ' s g o i n g  T h i s concerted public relations effort  what  to be  was well w o r t h  the  t r o u b l e ; Clode was r e w a r d e d b y a b o a r d that t r u s t e d a n d r e s p e c t e d C l o d e ' s biases were often e v i d e n t a n d it was h e r a d v o c a c y conscientious efforts  o n b e h a l f of h e r community that g a i n e d h e r  a d m i r a t i o n a n d r e s p e c t of h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l colleagues. t a l k e d a b o u t h e l p i n g people to h e l p t h e m s e l v e s — s h e  the  her.  and the  Clode not o n l y d i d it.  H e r l o n g s t a n d i n g i n t e r e s t i n communications s k i l l s h a d been s h a r e d a n d s u p p o r t e d b y C a r t i e r who p r o v i d e d w o r k s h o p s o n t h a t t o p i c a r o u n d the p r o v i n c e i n c l u d i n g L a k e C o w i c h a n i n the 1970s. 1 0  80  CHAPTER 5 AND WHY IS S H E IMPORTANT? Recapitulation When t h i s r e s e a r c h e r f i r s t u n d e r t o o k t h i s p r o j e c t , some a p p r e h e n s i o n t h a t the t o p i c might not w a r r a n t investigation.  it was  extensive  Y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y , Clode h a d b e e n a g e n e r o u s  support and practical advice  with  s o u r c e of  to the r e s e a r c h e r , who at that time  was  newly immersed i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g a n A d u l t a n d C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n programme for a r u r a l school district. honoured by  her peers  C l o d e ' s r e t i r e m e n t h a d been  (eg. the P A C E c i t a t i o n ) , a n d t h e r e was  evidence, t h a t she h a d b e e n h i g h l y r e g a r d e d .  commenting t h a t all those  who a t t e n d e d  other  F o r i n s t a n c e , at a  d i n n e r g i v e n f o r him b y the B C A C E A , Ron F a r i s b e g a n  duly  farewell  his s p e e c h  h o n o u r e d him, e s p e c i a l l y  by Dorothy  Clode. B u t o p p o r t u n i t i e s to meet with c o l l e a g u e s  were  relatively  brief and  i n f r e q u e n t , a n d it was not i n i t i a l l y a p p a r e n t t h a t h e r f r i e n d a n d mentor, C l o d e , was a s o u r c e of i n s p i r a t i o n f o r many, if not a l l , of those  who  knew h e r w o r k .  subject  So, it was w i t h i n c r e a s i n g a p p r e c i a t i o n of h e r  t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r d i s c o v e r e d everyone  the love a n d r e s p e c t  expressed  by  to whom she s p o k e a b o u t C l o d e ' s c a r e e r , i n c l u d i n g those  d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n T o compensate representatives  who  interviews.  f o r a n y p e r s o n a l b i a s , the r e s e a r c h e r  interviewed  of v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the f i e l d of a d u l t a n d  c o n t i n u i n g education, i n c l u d i n g school districts, colleges, officials, a n d o t h e r c o l l e a g u e s . saint; h e r o u t r a g e  Clode was b y  ministry  no means c o n s i d e r e d a  (and h e r f a i l u r e to i m p r e s s customs officials  with her  81  dramatic e x p r e s s i o n of it!) was  noted (Kulich) as was h e r  somewhat  a b r u p t way of d e a l i n g w i t h t h o s e who " f a i l e d to get o n b o a r d " (Day) i n the p r o c e s s of p r o f e s s i o n a l committee "suffer  fools g l a d l y "  d e l i b e r a t i o n s ; n o r would  she  (McGown).  T h i s h i g h r e g a r d i n w h i c h she was h e l d b y h e r p e e r s i n some sense  may be seen as a " m o t h e r h o o d " i s s u e ; t h a t i s , it was e a s y  a d m i r e Clode. represented change  When F a r i s p a i d t r i b u t e to Clode, it was b e c a u s e  the romantic notion of a n a d u l t  d o i n g battle w i t h the f o r c e s of e v i l .  anomaly i n t h i s , d e s p i t e policies a n d d i r e c t i v e s  with  he h a d i n i t i a t e d ; F a r i s b e l i e v e d  in a n d  shared  B u t how those  mutual  p r o v i n c i a l system  and  They had different  inequitable  society.  w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g  was the b a s i s f o r  those w r o n g s .  v e r s i o n s of t a c t i c s  Clode t h o u g h t  a n d r e s o u r c e s to  that with more c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r  life.  redress the  d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s o u r c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n o u t l y i n g a r e a s , more  With similar s u p p o r t s y s t e m s  continuing  and expertise,  (and some s a i d s h o u l d ) be a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of " g r a s s development  no  contention.  s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s would h a v e c o n t i n u e d to offer programmes.  saw  jousting  were to be a c h i e v e d  social context  Faris apparently  the fact that Clode was often  C l o d e ' s v i s i o n of a j u s t a n d e q u i t a b l e goals  she  the f i n e s t t r a d i t i o n of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n as a f o r c e f o r s o c i a l  and justice, and typified  educator  to  differences  schools c o u l d  roots"  s i n c e schools were a l r e a d y c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , those  education  community  to community  may h a v e c l o u d e d the  central  i s s u e , b u t t h e r e is no d o u b t that Clode a n d F a r i s were, a n d r e m a i n , committed to the same v i s i o n of a j u s t  society.  82  F a r i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t Clode was committed to, a n d d e e p l y i n , h e r community. field.  This quality  set h e r a p a r t from many o t h e r s i n t h e  R e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s o u t s t a n d i n g  educator  quality, especially  in an adult  r e p r e s e n t i n g a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , may h a v e a d d e d to his  d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t with o t h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y system,  rooted  those r e p r e s e n t i n g  b y t h e i r f a i l u r e to take u p the community  challenge.  Clode, h o w e v e r ,  thought  the  college  development  t h a t the f a i l u r e lay i n m i n i s t r y  p o l i c i e s to f u l l y s u p p o r t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e i r p o t e n t i a l to community p r o g r a m m e s .  H e r v i e w s were s h a r e d b y o t h e r s  K u l i c h ; C o u l s o n ; McGown; Hambrook). would be c o n s i s t e n t  (for  he s h a r e d F a r i s ' view  of a college  who p o i n t e d out that,  t h a t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s d i d not g e n e r a l l y  f o r community d e v e l o p m e n t ,  the m i n i s t r y to d e v e l o p community development.  example;  One would e x p e c t t h a t h e r v i e w s  with those of o t h e r s i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t  b u t it was a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  resources  provide  system, although  have  the  t h e r e was a f a i l u r e on the p a r t of  i n a n y systematic  way  The Special Project  policies r e l a t i n g  system  to  was i n t e n d e d  promote s u c h p r o g r a m m i n g , b u t Day s a i d t h a t it was too d e p e n d e n t  to on  the i n i t i a t i v e of the p a r t i c u l a r local i n s t i t u t i o n . T h e r e was some d i s p a r i t y among those i n t e r v i e w e d  as to t h e  willingness, ability and resources  (or lack thereof)  promote community development.  B u t , t h e r e was u n a n i m o u s  that Clode d i d , i n fact, l o b b y  successfully  of s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s agreement  o n behalf of s c h o o l  a n d , i n so d o i n g , won the s u p p o r t a n d r e s p e c t of c o l l e a g u e s , those  differing  districts despite  views.  A n o t h e r associate have  to  (Clague)  b e e n like h a d Clode e v e r  mused a b o u t what t h i s p r o v i n c e would  h a d the o p p o r t u n i t y to o c c u p y  a senior  83  p o s i t i o n i n the m i n i s t r y .  H e r r o o t e d n e s s i n a n d commitment to  the  community of L a k e C o w i c h a n , w h i c h was seen as a s t r e n g t h at the time may h a v e i n h i b i t e d h e r c a r e e r .  (It s h o u l d also be r e m e m b e r e d  t h a t k i n d of commitment a n d v i s i o n d i d not ultimately c a r e e r well.)  the benefits  itself,  1988).  has b e e n d e s c r i b e d as " b i g g e r  such an up  (Personal  Despite t h i s p o s s i b l e limitation, Clode t h a n the d i s t r i c t w h i c h she  H e r s t o r y is also b i g g e r  h e r life a n d w o r k , e s p e c i a l l y  that  Faris'  b u t she was not p r e p a r e d to g i v e  of r a i s i n g h e r family i n L a k e C o w i c h a n  communication, S e p t e m b e r  (McGown).  serve  However, Clode h e r s e l f s a i d that, i n fact,  opportunity had presented  same  represented"  t h a n a mere p e r s o n a l c h r o n i c l e , f o r  her professional activities  c o n c e r n s , all relate to, a n d g i v e g r e a t e r  a n d community  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a  p e r i o d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n h i s t o r y i n t h i s  fascinating  province.  Elujralitx...^ T h r o u g h o u t the f o r e g o i n g , we have p r o f e s s i o n a l life c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d helping.  seen how C l o d e ' s p e r s o n a l a n d  her values  and philosophy  A d u l t e d u c a t i o n was a means to that e n d .  about  Her a d v o c a c y  a c t i v i s m was a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n of h e r r o l e as a n a d u l t e d u c a t o r . she h e l p e d people to make t h e i r own c h o i c e s , as R o b e r t s s u g g e s t e d the emphasis c h a n g e d development.  "In o t h e r w o r d s , community d e v e l o p m e n t  (1979)  adds an  outcome  37).  One of t h e c e n t r a l t e n e t s of R o b e r t s ' text (1979) is that w o r k e r s will f i n d it d i f f i c u l t to act w i t h o u t  p a r a d i g m a b o u t the way  As  from that of e d u c a t i o n to community  of a c t i o n to a p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g , " (p.  development  and  community  some model o r  the w o r l d i s , i n o r d e r to u n d e r t a k e  "the  kinds  84  of a c t i o n we c a l l community development." t h e r e a r e b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s i n community  F u r t h e r m o r e , he development.  . . . T h a t people a r e c a p a b l e of b o t h p e r c e i v i n g  and  judging  have  the c o n d i t i o n of t h e i r l i v e s ; t h a t t h e y  the will a n d c a p a c i t y  to p l a n t o g e t h e r  with t h e s e j u d g e m e n t s the b e t t e r ; t h a t t h e y  to c h a n g e  in  accordance  that c o n d i t i o n f o r  c a n act t o g e t h e r  in accordance  with t h e s e p l a n s ; a n d that s u c h a p r o c e s s c a n seen i n terms of c e r t a i n v a l u e s ,  (p.  p r o c e s s is " a c a p a c i t y  place.  be  xv)  T h i s b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n that, i n h e r e n t i n community  rejection  proposes  development  f o r a n d a p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g " (p. 34), implies a  of a m e c h a n i s t i c , b e h a v i o r i s t i c view of how that l e a r n i n g  H o w e v e r , R o b e r t s does s u g g e s t that t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n t  community development;  the f i r s t of t h e s e is the  as the r e s u l t of members' m u t u a l l y i d e n t i f y i n g n e e d s i n t h a t community. development, knowledge  different  stages in  " c r e a t i o n " of community " t e n s i o n s " of  unmet  D u r i n g the s e c o n d stage of community  t y p e s of l e a r n i n g take place  base), but Roberts stresses  (eg. a c q u i s i t i o n of  the i m p o r t a n c e of g r o u p  a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p of self to the g r o u p i n t h a t e m e r g i n g community  (p. 37).  the community d e v e l o p m e n t become a more effective  takes  dynamics newly  S u c h learning is p a r t i c u l a r l y important for w o r k e r , " F i r s t , to enable  the w o r k e r  to  p e r s o n i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the community, a n d  s e c o n d , to be able to u s e , j u d i c i o u s l y a n d a p p r o p r i a t e l y , k n o w l e d g e methods of s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g better  a n d become  to h e l p o t h e r s u n d e r s t a n d  more effective  themselves  a c t o r s i n the community."  (p.  19).  of  85  T h i s a p p r o p r i a t e a n d j u d i c i o u s s e l e c t i o n of methods techniques  f o r w o r k i n g with g r o u p s will a t t e s t to the  development self-learning "artistry"  w o r k e r ' s a c q u i s i t i o n of t h e  (p.88); t h a t i s , the w o r k e r will a c q u i r e  l e a d i n g one to b e h a v e These  "values"  social philosophies.  in specific  community  " c o r r e c t Gestalt",  i n p r o f e s s i o n a l development, o r b e c a u s e  of  either  through  intuitive  " a c l u s t e r of  values  w a y s , " (p. 19).  a r e also r e f l e c t e d  i n Roberts'(1979) t y p o l o g y  we combine R o b e r t s ' h e u r i s t i c " c o n t i n u u m " between i n d i v i d u a l f o c u s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n community development,  be  dimensions.  If  the p r i m a r i l y  and the primarily collective  focus of  (p.35) t h e r e is a much more complex  c o n f i g u r a t i o n f o r an a d u l t e d u c a t o r ' s  values.  the dominant a p p r o a c h of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s t s has b e e n mainly i n terms of the c o g n i t i v e  Also, R o b e r t s notes to community  that  development  l e a r n i n g model; h o w e v e r ,  he  d i f f i c u l t f o r a d u l t s to overcome t h e i r e a r l i e r  educational experiences  in which they  were d i r e c t e d a n d  a n d to r e a d i l y p a r t i c i p a t e as mature, s e l f - d i r e c t e d  learners,  controlled, (pp.77-79).  It is i n the a r e a of a c t i o n on that c o n t i n u u m w h i c h ultimately is means b y w h i c h community development evaluated,  of  A c c o r d i n g to that p r o p o s a l , those c l u s t e r s w o u l d  w i t h i n the d e m o c r a t i c / p l u r a l i s t o r d e m o c r a t i c / c o l l e c t i v i s t  notes t h a t it is often  and  f o r it is c h i e f l y  (and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n )  by observable  the  can  be  a c t i o n s that the s u c c e s s  or  f a i l u r e of b o t h l e a r n i n g a n d community development  objectives  can  be  assessed. What c a n we o b s e r v e  a b o u t Clode i n h e r role as a n a d u l t  i n r e l a t i o n to community development?  educator  In l o o k i n g at C l o d e ' s life a n d  w o r k , it is c l e a r that she took on many t a s k s  a n d executed  them  ably.  86  It is i m p o r t a n t to a p p r e c i a t e the p u r p o s e s that Roberts  that these tasks  were u n d e r t a k e n f o r aH  (1982, p. 31) a s c r i b e s to a d u l t  education,  i n c l u d i n g t h a t p a r t of the c o n t i n u u m w h i c h has to do with c u l t u r a l development; were b e t t e r  t h a t i s , social c h a n g e .  M a n y of h e r official  s u i t e d to t h e community d e v e l o p m e n t  proposed by Roberts.  As a r g u e d above,  p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e life, n o r was  courses.  p a r t of that  divide  h e r role as a n a d u l t e d u c a t o r  young  confined  disparaged:  man, it is e v i d e n t  that  Clode took a n e x c e p t i o n a l i n t e r e s t i n h e l p i n g t h a t i n d i v i d u a l meet p e r s o n a l goals.  his  A n d , C l o d e ' s c o n c e r n about the r a i s i n g of E a r l y  Childhood Education entry awareness  her  and personal  Not t h a t t h e s e p e r s o n a l p u r s u i t s were  i n d e e d , i n the example of t h e d y s l e x i c  tasks  continuum  Clode d i d not n e a t l y  to p r o v i d i n g p r o g r a m m e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s development  counter-  qualifications  clearly demonstrated  her  of the i n d i v i d u a l n a t u r e of programme p a r t i c i p a n t s '  a n d she a r g u e d f o r flexible o n a r b i t r a r y academic  needs,  " r u l e s " t h a t would not exclude a n y o n e  solely  grounds.  B u t it is not t h i s a r e a of e x p e r t i s e  i n h e r role as a n a d u l t  e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e r t h a t won h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l acclaim; r a t h e r , it is r e c o g n i t i o n of h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s to community d e v e l o p m e n t  i n the  Lake  C o w i c h a n a r e a , as well as h e r d e m o n s t r a t e d commitment to p r i n c i p l e s affirming  social a c t i v i s m t h a t r e s u l t e d i n h e r b e i n g called u p o n  community members, c o l l e a g u e s ,  a n d m i n i s t r y officials  a n d p r a c t i c a l r e s o u r c e i n community Clode p r o f e s s e d was i n f l u e n c e d awareness  knowledgeable  development.  a l i f e - l o n g i n t e r e s t i n people; p a r t i c u l a r l y ,  b y h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  courses  as a  by  d u r i n g the  1960's.  growing  t r e n d to  self-  Her childhood, her earlier  she  87  experiences  as a p s y c h i a t r i c n u r s e a n d h e r o n - g o i n g  involvement  community mental h e a l t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l l were f o u n d a t i o n s f o r i n t e r e s t i n social p s y c h o l o g y , p a r t i c i p a t e i n those  self-awareness  activities.  In t u r n , those  for successfully  with  worker, according  A n d , a l t h o u g h t h e r e is n o t h i n g i n those i n t e r e s t s c o u l d do more t h a n i m p l y a democratic v a l u e  were r e p e a t e d  examples  of h e r c o n s u l t a t i v e  community g r o u p s , a n d a complete a b s e n c e her "expert"  system,  style in working  of a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m i n a n y of  differentiated  a c t i o n of community development  and  between  the  un-observable  c l o s e l y a k i n to i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g i n the c o g n i t i v e T h e a r b i t r a r y d i s t i n c t i o n between  a n d it is t h i s c h a n g e  (p. 36) i s  model (pp. 71-74) he  action and learning  not admit that, i n a c q u i r i n g l e a r n i n g , of w h a t e v e r change  there  with  i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g , R o b e r t s ' model of community d e v e l o p m e n t  describes.  that i n  roles.  While R o b e r t s a n d o t h e r s h a v e observable  activities  working  g r o u p s , p r i m e r e q u i s i t e s f o r a community d e v e l o p m e n t  themselves  Clode's  a n d p e r h a p s p r e - d i s p o s e d h e r to  a d d e d to h e r s k i l l s a n d t e c h n i q u e s  to R o b e r t s .  with  type,  does  t h e r e is a  w h i c h may, o r may not , be o b s e r v a b l e .  community development,  t h e r e may be a l o n g p e r i o d i n w h i c h  unobserved, undetected  change  t a k e s place, a n d it may be o n l y as  r e s u l t of a p a r t i c u l a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n of c i r c u m s t a n c e that t h i s c h a n g e o b s e r v e d , d e s c r i b e d as a c t i o n .  F o r example, i n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e  b e e n a community of i n t e r e s t d e v e l o p i n g a r o u n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l  In  the is has  issues.  B u t , t h e r e h a s been a v e r y l o n g p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g a n d collective relatively  efforts  recently  were r e l a t i v e l y  u n k n o w n a n d u n o b s e r v e d , a n d it is  t h a t the c u m u l a t i v e effect of those  individuals'  88  i n t e r e s t s h a v e become d e f i n e d as a r e c o g n i z a b l e community of  interests  w h i c h i n t u r n c o n t i n u e to be d e v e l o p e d i n r e l a t i o n to b r o a d e r societal interests. B r o o k f i e l d has n o t e d t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , a d u l t e d u c a t o r s  have  " c h o s e n to talk of communities of i n t e r e s t . . . o r communities of function"(Brookfield,1983,  p.63) b u t he p r e f e r s a " l o c a t i o n a l " o r  " n e i g h b o u r h o o d b a s i s " of a d u l t l e a r n i n g , (p.65)  H o w e v e r , he p o i n t s  out  t h a t one of t h e r o l e s of b o t h community w o r k e r a n d community a d u l t e d u c a t o r may be to initiate a s e n s e of community.  T h a t t h i s r o l e is  r e l e v a n t to b o t h t h o s e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  "the p l u r a l i t y of  roles reflects  p r a c t i c e a n d c o n c e p t u a l a m b i g u i t y w h i c h falls u n d e r the r u b r i c of community e d u c a t i o n " , (p.66)  It is p r e c i s e l y t h i s a m b i g u i t y t h a t t h i s  w r i t e r s u g g e s t s is a k e y c o n c e p t i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of a d u l t to community development.  education  A n d , as o u t l i n e d a b o v e , Clode moved i n a n d  o u t of v a r i o u s r o l e s f a c i l i t a t i n g t h a t s p e c t r u m , o r c o n t i n u u m , between l e a r n i n g a n d a c t i o n i n the community. Brookfield  goes o n to d e v e l o p a t y p o l o g y  , c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as a  c o n t i n u u m r a n g i n g between " l i b e r a l " a n d " l i b e r a t i n g " a p p r o a c h e s community e d u c a t i o n ( C h a p t e r 4, a b o v e ) . community e d u c a t i o n is e s s e n t i a l l y  to  T h e t r a d i t i o n a l l i b e r a l model of  institutionally based, (rather than  a u t h e n t i c a l l y community b a s e d ) a n d a s s u m e s t h a t community e d u c a t i o n can satisfy  " n e e d s of a l l members of a community at a n y one time"(p.  67); t h a t i s , t h e r e i s a n u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n of the p o t e n t i a l f o r consensus  i n a n " o r g a n i c , h a r m o n i o u s " community.  Consequently,  c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s a r e not r e a l i s t i c a l l y c o n s i d e r e d i n those U t o p i a n goals.  In c o n t r a s t , t h e  " l i b e r a t i n g " model of community  education:  . . . E m p h a s i z e s the i n - e q u a l i t i e s i n terms of income, a c c e s s to e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , a n d p o l i t i c a l power.  Instead  cohesive  of a c k n o w l e d g i n g  t h e existence  a n d h a r m o n i o u s elements  of  i n a community,  w r i t e r s i n t h i s t r a d i t i o n choose to c o n c e n t r a t e differences  and disparities.  Education, including  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , comes to s e r v e as a or readjustment collective  compensatory  mechanism c o n c e r n e d to promote  well-being  of an i d e n t i f i e d  or disenfranchised group.  n e e d s of one s e c t o r  tenants'  T h e community  adult the  (for example, l a n d l o r d s ) i n  the n e e d s of a n o t h e r  associations)  of t h e o r i s t s  the  disadvantaged  e d u c a t o r is seen as b e i n g f o r c e d to i g n o r e  o r d e r to s e r v e  on  Another feature  is the a b s e n c e  distinctions drawn by education, development  (for  of c l e a r l y  such writers  example,  of t h i s  school  immutable between  and action. Education  becomes a p o l i t i c a l act a n d d e v e l o p m e n t  and action  a r e h e l d to be i n t e r w o v e n a n d p a r t of a b r o a d movement to a t t a i n social j u s t i c e .  T h u s , as a  community a d u l t e d u c a t o r i d e n t i f i e d with these v i e w s declares,  " i n the most i m p o r t a n t sense  d e p e n d o n the extent to w h i c h a d u l t  success  education  will  90  c o n t r i b u t e s to t h e p r o c e s s of social c h a n g e " 1971,  p.13)  (Lovett  (p.68-69)  C l e a r l y , Clode would fit t h i s view of a n a d u l t e d u c a t o r ' s r o l e i n r e l a t i o n to community d e v e l o p m e n t a n d social c h a n g e . indicated her awareness viewed  that her activities  b y some to be s u b v e r s i v e .  Clode  has  may at times h a v e  been  E v e n if h e r r o l e were s t r i c t l y limited  to merely f a c i l i t a t i n g o t h e r s ' a c t i o n s i n a t t a i n i n g the goals of  specific  i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , it would be i r r e s p o n s i b l e to s u g g e s t that t h i s  was  ultimately u n c o n n e c t e d to the a c t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from h e r f a c i l i t a t i o n . It has b e e n p o i n t e d o u t t h a t Clode also took o n what might  be  c o n s i d e r e d the t r a d i t i o n a l , c o n s e n s u a l a p p r o a c h to community e d u c a t i o n a n d development. outstanding  C l a g u e saw C l o d e ' s " b r i d g e - b u i l d i n g " as a n  skill; nevertheless,  Clode was k e e n l y aware that when  b e g a n to benefit  from a c c e s s i n g  would inevitably  be some c o s t s to o t h e r p a r t s of the community, o r  social s y s t e m .  resources for identified needs,  A n o t h e r a s p e c t of C l o d e ' s  more t r a d i t i o n a l , l i b e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t is s u g g e s t e d a local n a t i v e b a n d .  people  there  w o r k t h a t seems to r e f l e c t  a  a p p r o a c h to community e d u c a t i o n a n d i n the a c c o u n t of  an upholstery course  F o r some, the " h i d d e n a g e n d a "  r e l a t i n g to  for  needs  i n i t i a l l y i d e n t i f i e d b y o u t s i d e r s may be viewed as p a t r o n i z i n g . Brookfield, however,  d e c l a r e s that it is " n o r m a l a n d i n e v i t a b l e "  a d u l t e d u c a t o r to make moral o r e t h i c a l j u d g e m e n t s be t a u g h t a n d what k i n d of s o c i e t y  "for an  a b o u t what s h o u l d  s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d . "  F u r t h e r , he  s u g g e s t s that the a d u l t e d u c a t o r as a n a n i m a t u e u r s h o u l d promote "awareness knowledge  of community d e f i c i e n c i e s , " necessary  as well as d e v e l o p  "the s k i l l s a n d  [for community members] to take a c t i o n , " (p. 84).  91  F a r i s s h a r e d C l o d e ' s view of the a f f i n i t y of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i t h community development.  More r e c e n t l y , he s t a t e d ,  t h a t l e a r n i n g is a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of a n effective 1988).  "It is no c o i n c i d e n c e  social movement,"  It is c l e a r from e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n ( C h a p t e r 3, above)  (Faris,  that  Faris'  l e a d e r s h i p was aimed at m o v i n g a d u l t a n d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e from m a r g i n a l i t y t o w a r d a n i n t e g r a t e d learning.  system for life-long  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e was limited s u p p o r t from the r e s t of  m i n i s t r y f o r those  the  goals.  T h e o v e r a l l p r o p e n s i t y i n B.C. has b e e n t o w a r d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programming that is market d r i v e n .  Not u n l i k e A l b e r t a , the dominant  social p h i l o s o p h y of B . C . p o l i t i c s has e m p h a s i z e d i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c p e r s o n a l advancement p. 61).  i n the " b r o a d p u r p o s e s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , " ( R o b e r t s ,  It i s , t h e r e f o r e , somewhat  the e f f o r t s  i r o n i c that it has b e e n l a r g e l y  of i n d i v i d u a l s l i k e Clode a n d F a r i s that c o l l e c t i v i s t ,  1982,  due  to  social  d e m o c r a t i c goals have b e e n p r o m o t e d i n B.C. a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programming.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the a c h i e v e m e n t s  of s u c h p e r s o n s  ultimately v u l n e r a b l e to the dominant power s t r u c t u r e .  The  are  significant  l o s s e s at a l l l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e i n B.C. d u r i n g r e c e n t  years  a t t e s t to the d i f f i c u l t y of m a i n t a i n i n g p r o g r a m m e s that a r e m e a s u r e d i n t e r m s of h u m a n p o t e n t i a l r a t h e r t h a n m o n e t a r y Selman (1988, p. 157) to d e v e l o p  has r e f e r r e d to the n e e d f o r a d u l t  judgement alignment.  educators  " p o l i t i c a l c l o u t " b y a l i g n i n g more c l o s e l y with "those  a n d social movements i n o u r s o c i e t y supporters.  expenditure.  forces  w h i c h do command the l o y a l t y  In d o i n g so, t h e r e will be a g a i n a p e r s o n a l bias o r  " of  value  i n e a c h of those p e r s o n a l c h o i c e s r e g a r d i n g p o l i t i c a l We c a n o n l y hope to emulate those v i s i o n a r y i n d i v i d u a l s who,  92  like Clode, recognize  t h a t the a c h i e v e m e n t  of s o c i a l j u s t i c e  p a r a d o x i c a l l y , o n the p o t e n t i a l i n h e r e n t i n c o l l e c t i v e  means.  depends,  A P P E N D I X A: A s k e d of D o r o t h y  SAMPLE QUESTIONS  Clode: -  please  describe  becoming the  e v e n t s t h a t l e d to  d i r e c t o r of A d u l t a n d  you Continuing  Education -  how  would  you  describe  r e l a t i n g to a d u l t -  your  philosophy  education?  have y o u r views about the  role of an  adult  e d u c a t o r i n r e l a t i o n to s o c i a l c h a n g e a l t e r e d during  your  career?  - what is the appropriate  r o l e of an  e d u c a t o r i n t e r m s of c o m m u n i t y - is the  r o l e of an  adult  development?  educator restricted  to  consultation, or is active participation in advocacy activities  appropriate?  A s k e d of Colleagues  and  Professional Associates:  -  how  would  you  describe  the  c o n t r i b u t i o n s of C l o d e to the  major f i e l d of  adult  education? - how  would you  role i n the  d e s c r i b e , c h a r a c t e r i z e Clode's  l e a d e r s h i p of the  Consortium; i n the  BCACEA  community of L a k e  (NWAEA, Cowichan  94  SOURCES  B C A C E A n . d.  (1982).  Displacement. B r o o k f i e l d , S.  Vancouver.  AdultJLeamex  (1984).  Community.. Columbia Cartier, A . L .  Teachers  College  Press,  University. "Public  School  Qf__EduCAfcion, #JLQ, A p r i l .  In  the.  New Y o r k a n d L o n d o n :  (1964).  Cartier, A.L.  TJte^QjQSi^  Memorandum re:  (1971).  "The  Adult  Education."  In Xhs_..jQ.ur.nal  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia; p p . 29-35.  Growth  of Public  #18,  lhe_JaurJ^al^£_Educ.alicixi,,  School  Winter.  Adult  Education."  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia; p p . 7.5-81. Cassidy,  F. (Ed).  (1984).  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U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o  (1982).  and-._Q.ue.b.e.C. R o c k h i l l , K. Halls  C.Qmmunity„.Dey.elQp.me.nfc  Edmonton:  of Academe."  Women's S t u d i e s  "The  A S.fc.u.dy._..oi„.Alb..ejr.ta  U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a  Press.  Chaos  in the  of Subjectivity  Eopjilax„Egmi^ in Education.  No. 5.  Toronto:  Ordered Centre  Ontario Institute  for  for  in Education.  Selman, G. a n d K u l i c k , J . Profession  Press.  Q.ult.ur.e_a.nd..Adu.lt_JEdui:atiQni  n . d . (1986).  Studies  Learning and Action.  (October  - a Historical  In S..tu.difi&„m^  1980).  Perspective  "Between  Social  on Canadian  Vol. 12, No. 2.; p p .  Movement  Adult 109-116.  and  Education."  99  Selman, G. and  (1982). Now;  "Adult  the  B.C.  Adult Education. Selman, G. Adult  Case."  Education."  Proceedings,  -  the  1930s  C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n of  "Stages  in the  Development  of  Canadian  In G.ajmdi&n^  X,  7-15. (1984).  of Active  "Government's  Leadership  Role in Adult  in British  In Cxjeatirj^,Citizen.S, C a s s i d y , Vancouver: Selman, G.  in Two Depressions  Toronto.  ( J a n u a r y 1984).  1; p p . Selman, G.  Education  Columbia F . (Ed.).  An Historical  "Advocacy Overview.  B_ritiskColumbia.  for "  Adult  1933-1939 and PACE Papers  Education  Periods  1976-1983. " 1.  P A C E P a p e r s 3, K u l i c h , J . ( E d . ) .  ( J u n e / J u l y 1981).  An Overview." (1977).  in British  Columbia;  Vancouver:  "Disciplines  Education  of Inquiry  in  and  Community  Education:  23.  Development."  A.d:ultJ&duca.ta^^  CJaall.e.ngje_JtQ.r  C.hang.e/S.ocie..t^  U n p u b l i s h e d T h e s i s Dept. of  Adult Education.  Education  VI, No. 1. p p . 25-32.  In  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  S m i t h , R.M. a n d M c K i n l e y , J . to Adult  .  Education.  In EdMCationaLEsseaxcbiSX; P P . 5-12, "Adult  4-34.  In AdYQC.acxJfor_  T h e Pacific A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C o n t i n u i n g  S p a r k e s , R.G.  Two  Pacific A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n ; p p .  (1988).  Shulman, L.S.  Education:  (Autumn 1955).  in the  Community.  "  "An Institutional  Approach  In Ad.U.lt.J3d.U.Cft.tiQ.n, Volume  T h e A d u l t A s s o c i a t i o n of the U n i t e d States of A m e r i c a ;  100  Thompson, J .  (1980).  "Adult  Education  Ej3uj&yao.^  for  Change."  In  Thompson, J . L . (Ed.).  Adujt  Hutchinson and  Co. ( P u b l i s h e r s ) L t d . ; p p . 219-223. V e r n e r , C.  (1971).  Analysis."  "Community  Action  and  Learning:  In Citi^a_P^.rJaca^  Toronto:  A  Concept  D r a p e r , J . A . (Ed.).  New P r e s s ; p p . 418-429.  LnLte.rvie.wj3 Bowcott, Ron.  (June 23, 1988).  P e r s o n a l communication.  Ron Bowcott was f o r m e r D i r e c t o r of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n ; he also a member of the NWAEA u n t i l h i s r e t i r e m e n t i n the  was  early  1970s. C l a g u e , Michael.  ( J u l y 11,  1988).  Michael Clague was E x e c u t i v e Services  Interviewed. D i r e c t o r of the B r i t a n n i a Community  C e n t r e i n V a n c o u v e r ' s E a s t S i d e from 1974  u n t i l 1978.  He  was h i r e d as a c o n s u l t a n t to the p r o v i n c i a l C o n s o r t i u m on Economic Dislocation i n 1982. has b e e n E x e c u t i v e  F r o m 1985 u n t i l the p r e s e n t ,  D i r e c t o r of the Social P l a n n i n g a n d  Clague  Research  C o u n c i l of B r i t i s h Columbia. C o u l s o n , George  (Al).  (June 28, 1988).  Interviewed.  A l o n g with Clode, A l C o u l s o n was one of the members of the  1976  F a r i s committee on C o n t i n u i n g a n d Community E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Services trustee  A t that time he was head of Community E d u c a t i o n for the V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l D i s t r i c t .  He is p r e s e n t l y  f o r the New Westminster S c h o o l B o a r d .  a  101  Day, William (Bill).  (July  Bill Day was D i s t r i c t #42  12,  1988).  Interviewed.  D i r e c t o r of A d u l t a n d C o n t i n u i n g (Maple Ridge)  D i s t r i c t from 1963  from 1958  to 1970.  In 1975,  E d u c a t i o n at Douglas  College;  i n s t i t u t i o n from 1981  u n t i l the  F a r i s , Ron.  (July  10, 1988).  E d u c a t i o n i n 1973.  E d u c a t i o n i n the  National L i t e r a c y Hambrook, G o r d o n .  President  h i r e d as a c o n s u l t a n t  1987,  Secretariat  to the  his retirement Kulich, Jindra. F r o m 1961  in  Ministry  Continuing  of the M i n i s t r y of  Dr. F a r i s has  been Head of  Secretary  the  of State i n Ottawa.  Interviewed.  G o r d o n Hambrook was D i r e c t o r of A d u l t a n d C o n t i n u i n g f o r New Westminster  Continuing  of t h a t  D i r e c t o r of  department  for the  (June 22, 1988).  School  communication.  He became E x e c u t i v e  Since  School  present.  post-secondary  E d u c a t i o n i n 1974.  and in S u r r e y  he became Dean of  he has been  Personal  Dr. Ron F a r i s was o r i g i n a l l y of  to 1963  Education for  S c h o o l D i s t r i c t for o v e r  Education  twenty years until  1986.  (June 24, 1988).  Interviewed.  to 1964, J i n d r a K u l i c h was  D i r e c t o r of A d u l t a n d  Continuing  E d u c a t i o n f o r S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #70 i n P o r t A l b e r n i .  Since  he has b e e n the D i r e c t o r of C o n t i n u i n g  the  1976,  University  Bill McGown was  ( J u n e 21,  1988).  Interviewed.  D i r e c t o r of A d u l t a n d C o n t i n u i n g  N o r t h a n d West V a n c o u v e r in  for  of B r i t i s h Columbia.  McGown, William (Bill).  retirement  Education  1983.  Education  S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s from 1966  for  u n t i l his  102  R u b i d g e , Nick.  (June 24, 1988).  Nick R u b i d g e  was f o r m e r l y D i r e c t o r of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n the  post-secondary  department  time of the i n t e r v i e w , International  Interviewed.  of the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n .  he was  M a n a g e r of the  Education division.  Ministry's  At  the  

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