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Growing up British in British Columbia : boys in private school, 1900-1950 Barman, Jean 1982

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GROWING UP BRITISH IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: BOYS IN PRIVATE SCHOOL, 1900-1950 by JEAN ALICE BARMAN B.A., Macalester C o l l e g e , 1961 A.M., Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , 1963 M.L.S., U n i v e r s i t y Of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department Of S o c i a l And Educational Studies F a c u l t y Of Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1982 © Jean A l i c e Barman, 1982 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of S o c i a l And Educational Studies,  F a c u l t y Of Education The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1 W 5 Date: i i Abstract During the years 1900-50 about f i f t y non-Catholic p r i v a t e boys' schools e x i s t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Most were small p r i v a t e ventures, a few large i n c o r p o r a t i o n s . Some survived only a few years, f i v e endure to the present day. V i r t u a l l y a l l the schools were premised on the p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s of p r i v a t e education in B r i t a i n . Three f a c t o r s coalesced to bri n g these schools i n t o being. B r i t i s h Columbia possessed from the mid-nineteenth century a heri t a g e of p r i v a t e education. While acquiescing i n the nece s s i t y for common schooling for the mass of the popul a t i o n , some f a m i l i e s continued to educate t h e i r own o f f s p r i n g p r i v a t e l y in the province, in B r i t a i n , or elsewhere i n Canada. The second circumstance behind the c r e a t i o n of boys' schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia was the tremendous p o p u l a r i t y i n l a t e - V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n of a form of class-based p r i v a t e education p a r t i c u l a r l y amenable to r e p l i c a t i o n , the " p u b l i c " school and i t s counterpart for younger boys, the preparatory school. T h i r d l y , B r i t i s h Columbia s o c i e t y fundamentally a l t e r e d as a consequence of the n a t i o n a l immigration p o l i c y i n i t i a t e d in 1896. Over the three decades 1891-1921, about 175,000 B r i t i s h immigrants s e t t l e d in the province, i n c l u d i n g upwards to 24,000 of s u i t a b l e s o c i a l background to have been supporters of p r i v a t e education. Boys' schools on the B r i t i s h model were founded by e n t e r p r i s i n g . B r i t i s h immigrants p r i m a r i l y to educate the o f f s p r i n g of f e l l o w s e t t l e r s . However, schools' c l i e n t e l e g r a d u a l l y extended to encompass e s t a b l i s h e d B r i t i s h Columbia f a m i l i e s of high socio-economic s t a t u s . Such f a m i l i e s were themselves responsible for the i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n Vancouver i n the e a r l y 1930s of the province's l a s t major boys' school, now i t s l a r g e s t . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia's boys' schools extends beyond t h e i r c l i e n t e l e , which d i d not much surpass 7,500 over the years 1900-50. F a m i l i e s supporting p r i v a t e education were already a d i s t i n c t i v e element i n the s o c i e t y . Educating o f f s p r i n g apart from vast bulk of t h e i r contemporaries helped perpetuate that separate i d e n t i t y from generation to generation. Socio-economic d i v i s i o n s i n the s o c i e t y were i n e f f e c t c o n s o l i d a t e d and maintained from the top down. i v Table of Contents Abstract i i L i s t of Tables . . . v Acknowledgement . . . x i i INTRODUCTION . 1 1. THE EDUCATIONAL CONSENSUS OF NINETEENTH-CENTURY BRITISH COLUMBIA 9 2. THE REVIVAL OF A PRIVATE-SCHOOL TRADITION 56 3. THE CREATION OF INSTITUTIONS 110 4. THE ACQUISITION OF CLIENTELE 159 5. THE TRANSFER OF AN EDUCATIONAL IDEAL 217 6. -IMPLEMENTING THE IDEAL ...2 50 7. THE CANADIANIZATION OF CLIENTELE 304 8. THE END OF AN ERA 376 9. LIFE AS AN OLD BOY 417 CONCLUSION 462 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SOURCES CITED IN TEXT 475 Appendix A: BRITISH COLUMBIA NON-CATHOLIC PRIVATE SCHOOLS ADMITTING BOYS, 1860-1950 506 Appendix B: CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS. 518 V L i s t of Tables 1. ESTIMATED PROPORTIONS OF PUPILS IN PRINCIPAL TYPES OF PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN ENGLISH CANADA, 1930-1931 . 3 2. ESTIMATED PROPORTIONS OF PUPILS IN PRINCIPAL TYPES OF PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN ENGLISH CANADA, 1935-1936 4 3. ESTIMATED PROPORTIONS OF PUPILS IN PRINCIPAL TYPES OF PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN ENGLISH CANADA, 1945-1946 5 4. WHITE POPULATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA BY PLACE OF BIRTH, 1881, 1891 AND 1901 45 5. GEOGRAPHIC ORIGIN OF ACADEMIC DEGREES OF TEACHERS IN PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1890-1920 48 6. WHITE POPULATION OF PRINCIPAL REGIONS OF ENGLISH CANADA, 1901, 1911 AND 1921 75 7. WHITE POPULATION OF PRINCIPAL REGIONS OF ENGLISH CANADA, DIFFERENTIATED BY PLACE OF BIRTH, 1901-1921 76 8. WHITE POPULATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA BY PLACE OF BIRTH, 1911, 1921 AND 1931 77 9. BIRTHPLACE OF BRITISH-BORN POPULATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1911 AND 1921 78 10. ESTIMATED ENROLLMENT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA BOYS' SCHOOLS, 1900-192 9, COMPARED WITH TOTAL SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 160 10 (Continued). ESTIMATED ENROLLMENT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA BOYS' SCHOOLS, 1900-192 9, COMPARED WITH TOTAL SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 161 11. GEOGRAPHIC RESIDENCE OF PUPILS ENROLLING AT THE VERNON PREPARATORY SCHOOL, 1914-1930 166 12. GEOGRAPHIC RESIDENCE OF PUPILS ENROLLING AT SHAWNIGAN LAKE SCHOOL, 1916-1930 167 13. PATERNAL BIRTHPLACE OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT THE VERNON PREPARATORY SCHOOL, 1914-1930' 168 14. PATERNAL BIRTHPLACE OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT SHAWNIGAN LAKE SCHOOL, 1916-1930 168 15. RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, 1914-1930 169 16. PATERNAL OCCUPATIONS OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT THE VERNON PREPARATORY SCHOOL, 1914-1930 170 17. PATERNAL OCCUPATIONS OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT SHAWNIGAN LAKE SCHOOL, 1916-1930 171 18. PATERNAL OCCUPATIONS OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, 1914-19.30, DIFFERENTIATED BY PATERNAL BIRTHPLACE 180 19. PATERNAL BIRTHPLACE COMPARED BETWEEN PUPILS FROM VANCOUVER AND PUPILS FROM THE REST OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ENROLLING AT VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, 1914-1930 181 20. RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, 1914-1930, . DIFFERENTIATED BY PATERNAL BIRTHPLACE 181 v i 21. PATERNAL OCCUPATIONS OF AMERICAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT SHAWNIGAN LAKE SCHOOL, 1916-1930 188 22. PATERNAL SECONDARY EDUCATION OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, 1914-1930, DIFFERENTIATED BY PATERNAL BIRTHPLACE 190 23. SPECIFIC OCCUPATIONS OF PROFESSIONAL FATHERS OF ^  CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, 1914-1930, DIFFERENTIATED BY PATERNAL BIRTHPLACE 195 24. YEAR OF ARRIVAL IN BRITISH COLUMBIA OF FATHERS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS ENROLLING AT VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, 1914-1930 196 25. PATERNAL AGE AT BIRTH OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT THE VERNON PREPARATORY SCHOOL, 1914-1930 .. 197 26. PATERNAL AGE AT BIRTH OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT SHAWNIGAN LAKE SCHOOL, 1916-1930 198 27. NUMBER OF SONS IN FAMILIES ENROLLING OFFSPRING AT VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, 1914-1930 198 28. FAMILY STATUS OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT THE VERNON PREPARATORY SCHOOL, 1914-1930 199 29. FAMILY STATUS OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT SHAWNIGAN LAKE SCHOOL, 1916-1930 200 30. GEOGRAPHIC RESIDENCE OF PUPILS ENROLLING AT UNIVERSITY SCHOOL, 1908-1930 201 31. PROBABLE GEOGRAPHIC RESIDENCE OF PUPILS ENROLLING AT BRENTWOOD COLLEGE, 1923-1930 204 32. PATERNAL OCCUPATIONS OF THE MAJORITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS ENROLLING AT BRENTWOOD COLLEGE, 1923-EARLY 1930s 205 33. GEOGRAPHIC RESIDENCE OF BOARDERS ENROLLING AT FOUR BRITISH COLUMBIA BOYS'" SCHOOLS, 1920-1930 206 34. GEOGRAPHIC RESIDENCE OF BOARDERS FROM BRITISH COLUMBIA ENROLLING AT FOUR BRITISH COLUMBIA BOYS' SCHOOLS, 1920-1930, COMPARED WITH THE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA WHITE POPULATION, 1921 AND 1931 ..207 35. WHITE MALE POPULATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AGED 3 5 AND OVER, BY PLACE OF BIRTH, 1921 AND 1931 208 36. PATERNAL BIRTHPLACES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS ENROLLING AT VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, 1920-1930, COMPARED WITH BIRTHPLACES OF WHITE MALE POPULATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AGED 35 AND OVER, 1921 AND 1931 209 37. OCCUPATIONS OF FAMILY HEADS OF PUPILS ATTENDING ONTARIO SECONDARY SCHOOLS, 1915-1931 211 38. OCCUPATIONS OF FAMILY HEADS, COMPARED BETWEEN CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT THREE BRITISH COLUMBIA BOYS' SCHOOLS AND PUPILS ATTENDING ONTARIO PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS, 1914-1930 212 39. OCCUPATIONS OF EMPLOYED MALE POPULATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AGED 35 AND OVER, 1921, 1931 AND 1951 213 40. OCCUPATIONS OF EMPLOYED FATHERS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS AT THREE BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARDING SCHOOLS, 1920-1930, COMPARED WITH OCCUPATIONS OF EMPLOYED. v i i MALE POPULATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AGED 35 AND OVER, 1921 AND 1931 214 41. PROPORTION OF LAWYERS AND PHYSICIANS AMONG EMPLOYED FATHERS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS ENROLLED AT THREE BRITISH COLUMBIA BOYS' SCHOOLS, 1920-1930, COMPARED WITH PROPORTION IN EMPLOYED MALE POPULATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AGED 3 5 AND OVER, 1921 AND 1931 215 42. COMPARISION BETWEEN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS OF PUPILS TAKING JUNIOR MATRICULATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1931 229 43. RANKING OF BRITISH COLUMBIA BOYS' SCHOOLS ON BASIS OF MEAN EXAMINATION SCORES, 1931 230 44. ACADEMIC STRENGTH OF PRINCIPAL BRITISH COLUMBIA BOYS' SCHOOLS, 1931, MEASURED BY PERCENTAGE DEVIATION FROM PROVINCIAL MEAN IN JUNIOR AND SENIOR MATRICULATION 231 45. ESTIMATED ENROLLMENT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA BOYS' SCHOOLS, 1930-1950, COMPARED WITH TOTAL SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 3 05 46. FINANCIAL CONDITION OF BRENTWOOD COLLEGE, 1928-1938 .307 47. GEOGRAPHIC RESIDENCE OF PUPILS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION TO QUALICUM BEACH SCHOOL, 1935-1950 3.15 48. BOARDING PUPILS ENROLLING AT ST. GEORGE'S SCHOOL, 1931-1950 321 49. GEOGRAPHIC RESIDENCE OF PUPILS ENROLLING AT ST. GEORGE'S SCHOOL, 1931-1950 ' 322 50. BOARDING PUPILS FROM GREATER VANCOUVER ENROLLING AT ST. GEORGE'S SCHOOL, 1931-1950 324 51. RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLED AT FIVE BRITISH COLUMBIA BOYS'S SCHOOLS, 1930-1950 .325 52. PREVIOUS EDUCATION OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT ST. GEORGE'S SCHOOL, 1931-1950 326 53. GEOGRAPHIC RESIDENCE OF PUPILS ENROLLING AT KINGSLEY SCHOOL, 1932-1946 327 54. GEOGRAPHIC RESIDENCE OF PUPILS ENROLLING AT UNIVERSITY SCHOOL, 1930-1950 328 55. GEOGRAPHIC RESIDENCE OF PUPILS ENROLLING AT THE VERNON PREPARATORY SCHOOL, 1930-1946 329 56. GEOGRAPHIC RESIDENCE OF PUPILS ENROLLING AT SHAWNIGAN LAKE SCHOOL, 1930-1950 330 57. GEOGRAPHIC RESIDENCE OF BOARDERS ENROLLING AT FIVE BRITISH COLUMBIA BOYS' SCHOOLS, 1930-1950 331 58. GEOGRAPHIC RESIDENCE OF BOARDERS FROM BRITISH COLUMBIA ENROLLING AT FIVE BRITISH COLUMBIA BOYS' SCHOOLS, 1930-1950, COMPARED WITH DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA WHITE POPULATION, 1931, 1941 AND 1951 332 59. PATERNAL BIRTHPLACES OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT THE VERNON PREPARATORY SCHOOL, 1930-1946 333 60. PATERNAL BIRTHPLACES OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT SHAWNIGAN LAKE SCHOOL, 1930-1950 334 61. PATERNAL OCCUPATIONS OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT'THE VERNON PREPARATORY SCHOOL, 1930-1946 335 v i i i 62. PATERNAL OCCUPATIONS OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT SHAWNIGAN LAKE SCHOOL, 1930-1950 63. PATERNAL OCCUPATIONS OF AMERICAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT SHAWNIGAN LAKE SCHOOL, 1930-1950 64. FAMILY STATUS OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT THE VERNON PREPARATORY SCHOOL, 1930-1946 65. FAMILY STATUS OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT SHAWNIGAN LAKE SCHOOL, 1930-1950 66. FAMILY STATUS OF CANADIAN PUPILS APPLYING TO QUALICUM SCHOOL, 1935-1950 67. FAMILY STATUS OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT KINGSLEY SCHOOL, 1932-1946 68. WHITE POPULATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA BY PLACE OF BIRTH, 1 941 AND 1 951 69. WHITE MALE POPULATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AGED 35 AND OVER, BY PLACE OF BIRTH, 1941 AND 1951 70. PATERNAL BIRTHPLACES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS AT VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, 1930"1950, COMPARED WITH BIRTHPLACES OF WHITE MALE POPULATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AGED 35 AND OVER, 1931, 1941 AND 1951 71. YEAR OF ARRIVAL IN BRITISH COLUMBIA OF FATHERS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS ENROLLING AT VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, 1930-1950 363 72. PATERNAL AGE AT BIRTH OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT THE VERNON PREPARATORY SCHOOL, 1930-1946 . .• 364 73. PATERNAL AGE AT BIRTH OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT SHAWNIGAN LAKE SCHOOL, 1930-1950 365 74. NUMBER OF SONS IN FAMILIES ENROLLING OFFSPRING AT VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, 1930-1950 365 75. PATERNAL SECONDARY EDUCATION OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, 1930-1950, DIFFERENTIATED BY PATERNAL BIRTHPLACE 366 76. RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, 1930-1950, DIFFERENTIATED BY PATERNAL BIRTHPLACE 366 77. PATERNAL OCCUPATIONS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS ENROLLING AT KINGSLEY SCHOOL, 1932-1946 367 78. PATERNAL OCCUPATIONS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS APPLYING TO QUALICUM SCHOOL, 1935-1950 368 79. PATERNAL OCCUPATIONS OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, 1930-1950, DIFFERENTIATED BY PATERNAL BIRTHPLACE 369 80. SPECIFIC OCCUPATIONS OF PROFESSIONAL FATHERS OF CANADIAN PUPILS ENROLLING AT VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, 1930-1950, DIFFERENTIATED BY PATERNAL BIRTHPLACE 370 81. OCCUPATIONS OF EMPLOYED FATHERS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS ENROLLED AT VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, 1930-1950, COMPARED WITH OCCUPATIONS OF EMPLOYED MALE POPULATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AGED 35 AND OVER, 1931 AND 1951 371 82. OCCUPATIONS OF EMPLOYED FATHERS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 'PUPILS ENROLLED AT FOUR BRITI'SH COLUMBIA BOARDING 336 337 354 354 355 355 360 361 362 i x SCHOOLS, 1930-1950, COMPARED WITH OCCUPATIONS OF EMPLOYED MALE POPULATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AGED 35 AND OVER, 1931 AND 1951 372 83. PROPORTION OF LAWYERS AND PHYSICIANS AMONG EMPLOYED FATHERS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS ENROLLED AT THREE BRITISH COLUMBIA BOYS' SCHOOLS, 1930-1950, COMPARED WITH PROPORTION IN EMPLOYED MALE POPULATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AGED 35 AND OVER, 1931 AND 1951 373 84. PROPORTION OF PROFESSIONALS, FINANCIERS AND COMPANY MANAGERS AMONG EMPLOYED FATHERS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS ENROLLED AT VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, 1920-1950, COMPARED WITH PROPORTION IN EMPLOYED MALE POPULATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AGED 35 AND OVER 374 85. PREVIOUS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PUPILS ENROLLING AT ST. GEORGE'S SCHOOL, 1935-1950 390 86. CONTACT MAINTAINED BY BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS WITH VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS 418 87. SUBSEQUENT SECONDARY EDUCATION OF CANADIAN PUPILS LEAVING THE VERNON PREPARATORY SCHOOL, 1914-1950 ...427 88. SUBSEQUENT SECONDARY EDUCATION OF CANADIAN PUPILS LEAVING SHAWNIGAN LAKE SCHOOL BEFORE COMPLETION, 1916-1930 428 89. PUPILS COMPLETING THEIR SECONDARY EDUCATION AT SHAWNIGAN LAKE SCHOOL, 1928-1950 429 90. IMMEDIATE POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION OF CANADIAN PUPILS ATTENDING THE VERNON PREPARATORY SCHOOL, 1914-1946 429 91. IMMEDIATE POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION OF CANADIAN PUPILS ATTENDING SHAWNIGAN LAKE SCHOOL, 1916-1950 ..430 92. LEVEL OF POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION OF CANADIAN PUPILS ATTENDING THE VERNON PREPARATORY SCHOOL, 1914-1946 431 93. LEVEL OF POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION OF CANADIAN PUPILS ATTENDING SHAWNIGAN LAKE SCHOOL, 1916-1950 ..432 94. ATTENDANCE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA BY BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS AT THE VERNON PREPARATORY SCHOOL, 1914-1946 433 '95. ATTENDANCE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA BY BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS AT SHAWNIGAN LAKE SCHOOL, 1916-1950 433 96. EDUCATIONAL LEVEL ATTAINED BY BRITISH COLUMBIA POPULATION, 1921-1951 .435 96 (Continued). EDUCATIONAL LEVEL ATTAINED BY BRITISH COLUMBIA POPULATION, 1921-1951 436 97. POST-SECONDARY EDUCATIONAL LEVEL ATTAINED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA BY BRITISH COLUMBIA POPULATION REACHING LAST YEAR OF HIGH SCHOOL, COMPARED WITH LEVEL ATTAINED BY PUPILS AT VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS 437 98. PARENTAL OCCUPATIONS OF STUDENTS ENROLLED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA , 1928-1929, COMPARED WITH OCCUPATIONS OF EMPLOYED MALE X POPULATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AGED 3 5 AND OVER, 1931, AND WITH PATERNAL OCCUPATIONS OF PUPILS AT VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, 1925-1930 438 99. MEAN AGES AT MARRIAGE AND FIRST SON'S BIRTH OF PUPILS ATTENDING THE VERNON PREPARATORY SCHOOL, 1914-1946, COMPARED WITH PATERNAL MEAN AGE AT FIRST SON'S BIRTH 442 99 (Continued). MEAN AGES AT MARRIAGE AND FIRST SON'S BIRTH OF PUPILS ATTENDING THE VERNON PREPARATORY SCHOOL, 1914-1946, COMPARED WITH PATERNAL MEAN AGE AT FIRST SON'S BIRTH 443 100. MEAN AGES AT MARRIAGE AND FIRST SON'S BIRTH OF PUPILS ATTENDING SHAWNIGAN LAKE SCHOOL, 1916-1950, COMPARED WITH PATERNAL MEAN AGE AT FIRST SON'S BIRTH ' 444 101. OCCUPATIONS OF CANADIAN PUPILS ATTENDING THE VERNON PREPARATORY SCHOOL, 1914-1946 445 102. OCCUPATIONS OF CANADIAN PUPILS ATTENDING SHAWNIGAN LAKE SCHOOL, 1916-1950 446 103. BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS ATTENDING VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS FOLLOWING PATERNAL OCCUPATION AS A PROPORTION OF ALL BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS IN THAT OCCUPATION WHOSE PATERNAL OCCUPATION IS KNOWN .447 104. BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS ATTENDING VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS FOLLOWING PATERNAL OCCUPATION AS • A PROPORTION OF ALL BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS IN THAT OCCUPATION WHOSE SON'S OCCUPATION IS KNOWN 448 105. BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS ATTENDING VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS FOLLOWING PATERNAL PROFESSION OF LAWYER OR PHYSICIAN AS A PROPORTION OF ALL BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS IN THAT PROFESSION WHOSE PATERNAL OCCUPATION IS KNOWN 448 106. BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS ATTENDING VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS FOLLOWING PATERNAL PROFESSION OF LAWYER OR PHYSICIAN AS A PROPORTION OF ALL FATHERS IN THAT PROFESSION WHOSE SON'S OCCUPATION IS KNOWN .44 9 107. OCCUPATIONS OF CANADIAN PUPILS ATTENDING VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, DIFFERENTIATED BY PATERNAL BIRTHPLACE 449 108. SPECIFIC PROFESSIONS OF CANADIAN PUPILS ATTENDING VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, DIFFERENTIATED BY PATERNAL BIRTHPLACE 450 109. BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS ATTENDING VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS"FOLLOWING PATERNAL OCCUPATION AS PROPORTION OF ALL BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS IN THAT OCCUPATION WHOSE PATERNAL OCCUPATION IS KNOWN, DIFFERENTIATED BY PATERNAL BIRTHPLACE 451 110. BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS ATTENDING VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS FOLLOWING PATERNAL OCCUPATION AS PROPORTION OF ALL BRITISH COLUMBIA FATHERS IN THAT OCCUPATION WHOSE SON'S OCCUPATION IS KNOWN, DIFFERENTIATED BY PATERNAL BIRTHPLACE 452 111. BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPIL'S ATTENDING VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS WHO LEFT THE PROVINCE TO PURSUE x i THEIR OCCUPATION, DIFFERENTIATED BY OCCUPATION AND DESTINATION 456 112. SPECIFIC OCCUPATIONS OF PROFESSIONALS LEAVING BRITISH COLUMBIA AFTER ATTENDING VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS, 1914-1950 457 113. BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS ATTENDING VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS WHO LEFT THE PROVINCE TO PURSUE THEIR OCCUPATION, DIFFERENTIATED CHRONOLOGICALLY ...458 114. BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS ATTENDING VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS WHO LEFT THE PROVINCE IN ADULTHOOD, BY PATERNAL BIRTHPLACE 458 115. GEOGRAPHICAL MOBILITY WITHIN BRITISH COLUMBIA OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS ATTENDING VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS 459 116. EFFECT OF GEOGRAPHICAL MOBILITY WITHIN BRITISH COLUMBIA BY BRITISH COLUMBIA PUPILS ATTENDING VERNON AND SHAWNIGAN SCHOOLS 460 Acknowledgement A paucity of p r i n t e d records has made t h i s t h e s i s p e c u l i a r l y dependent on human g o o d w i l l . To the many i n d i v i d u a l s who made the study p o s s i b l e through t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to t a l k to me about p r i v a t e education over the past three years goes my greatest a p p r e c i a t i o n . Their names begin the b i b l i o g r a p h y . I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l to three p u p i l s who allowed me to quote from t h e i r school l e t t e r s and to Derek Pethick to use h i s unpublished memoir of the Vernon Preparatory School. B r i t i s h Columbia headmasters have a l l encouraged my research and given open access to relevant records. I am i n debt to John S h a f f t e r of St. Michaels U n i v e r s i t y School, Alan Brown of St. George's School, Hamish Simpson of Glenlyon Preparatory School, W i l l i a m T. Ross of Brentwood Coll e g e , and e s p e c i a l l y to D a r r e l l Farrant of Shawnigan Lake School. Equally h e l p f u l have been former headmasters: Lance C. St o r r of North Shore College (1926-1941), Martin E l l i s and Edward Colchester of Brentwood (1932-1939 and 1947-1948), Robert Ivan Knight of Qualicum College (1935-1970), Charles Twite of the Vernon Preparatory School (1950-1965), and Douglas Harker of St. George's (1963-1971). I was introduced to the subject of the t h e s i s by W i l l i a m Bruneau of the Fac u l t y of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and given much encouragement by P a t r i c k Mackie of Lake House, Coldstream, Vernon. J . Donald Wilson and other x i i i h i s t o r i a n s i n the F a c u l t y of Education have repeatedly f i e l d e d my questions on Canadian s c h o o l i n g , while John Honey of the •Leicester Polytechnic and Donald Leinster-Mackay of the U n i v e r s i t y of Western A u s t r a l i a have helped me understand p r i v a t e education in England. My knowledge of B r i t i s h Columbia h i s t o r y has been increased by Margaret Ormsby, K e i t h Ralston, Robert McDonald, and Peter Ward of UBC. Numerous l i b r a r i e s and a r c h i v e s , but e s p e c i a l l y David M i t c h e l l of the Aural H i s t o r y D i v i s i o n , P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, afforded i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e . A K i l l a m Doctoral F e l l o w s h i p g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d research and t r a v e l . I am a l s o i n debt to' the F i e l d Development O f f i c e and Education Research S e r v i c e , both of the UBC Faculty of Education, for t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e . My husband, Roderick Barman, has been part of the study from i t s i n i t i a t i o n to i t s completion by computer. Our c h i l d r e n , Rodza and Emily, have been both h e l p f u l and understanding, 1 INTRODUCTION Did i t s e f f e c t s — w i t h chalk and pen, with c r i c k e t bat and c a n e - - r e a l l y achieve anything? At f i r s t glance, i t might appear not. The governorship of some remote dependency of the crown never f e l l to my l o t , no g r a t e f u l blacks and browns ever c a l l e d me Bwana, the kings of I s r a e l and Judah remained d i f f i c u l t to introduce i n t o everyday conversation. Yet I undoubtedly acquired a few things that are not too e a s i l y acquired today: some knowledge of both the major treasures of our language and the elements of everyday speech; a b e l i e f that i f a thing i s worth doing at a l l i t i s worth doing w e l l ; and a continu i n g awareness that there i s no r e a l s u b s t i t u t e for knowledge, e f f o r t or character. So perhaps, a f t e r a l l , t h i s i s the i r o n i c point of t h i s s t o r y : that I d i d receive in the end from those r e s o l u t e defenders of a now vanquished and vanished order what they promised I would: a preparation for l i f e . ' Such was, for one i n d i v i d u a l , the consequence of growing up B r i t i s h i n B r i t i s h Columbia. As d i d about 7,500 of h i s p r o v i n c i a l contemporaries i n the f i r s t h a l f of t h i s century, he attended not h i s l o c a l p u b l i c school but a p r i v a t e boys' school founded on the p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s of B r i t a i n . Like the B r i t i s h boarding schools on which they were modelled, the f i f t y some boys' schools e x i s t i n g in B r i t i s h Columbia during the years 1900-50 were con s c i o u s l y intended to provide for a small m i n o r i t y of the popul a t i o n , d i s t i n g u