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Continuing professional education : a study of geoscientists' participation, attitudes and felt CPE needs.. 1989

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CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION: A STUDY OF GEOSCIENTISTS' PARTICIPATION, ATTITUDES AND FELT CPE NEEDS IN ONE PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION. By KAREN ELIZABETH YONG B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f Western O n t a r i o , 1984. C e r t i f i c a t e o f E d u c a t i o n , Gonzaga U n i v e r s i t y , 1985. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t and H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1989 © Karen E l i z a b e t h Yong, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT L i t t l e d a t a e x i s t on c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n (CPE) p a r t i c i p a t i o n among g e o s c i e n t i s t s . T h i s s t u d y sought t o e s t a b l i s h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f CPE p a r t i c i p a t i o n amongst g e o s c i e n t i s t s t h r o u g h t h e i r b e h a v i o u r , a t t i t u d e s t oward CPE and f e l t need o f CPE. Members i n t h e M i n e r a l D e p o s i t s D i v i s i o n (MDD), an a f f i l i a t e o f t h e G e o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada (GAC), were used as t h e p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h e s u r v e y . A m a i l s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e o f t h e 819 members o f MDD p r oduced a r e s p o n s e r a t e o f 72%. The f i n d i n g s r e v e a l e d t h e m a j o r i t y o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s h e l d p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE. The r e s p o n d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n b o t h i n s t r u c t i o n a l and i n f o r m a l a c t i v i t i e s such a s , a t t e n d i n g f i e l d t r i p s and r e a d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s . E i g h t y p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d h a v i n g p a r t i c i p a t e d i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l CPE a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s 12 months, w i t h a mean o f 6 a c t i v i t i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , 100% r e p o r t e d p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e i n f o r m a l a c t i v i t y o f r e a d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s f o r an average o f 0.5 h o u r s p e r week. C o n t r a r y t o f i n d i n g s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found between e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , a t t i t u d e , o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s , b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e e x t e n t o f CPE p a r t i c i p a t i o n . These f i n d i n g s r e f l e c t t h e homogeneity o f t h e i i sample's s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s : h i g h e d u c a t i o n l e v e l s (39% B.A's/B.Sc's, 32% M.A's/M.Sc's and 27% PhD's), w i t h a mean income o f $44K. The g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r o f a MDD member i s one who s p e c i a l i z e s i n g e o l o g y ( 6 8 % ) , works f o r i n d u s t r y ( 6 0 % ) , h o l d s an o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n o f e i t h e r p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t o r m i d d l e management ( 5 7 % ) . Few b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n were i d e n t i f i e d : s c h e d u l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s and l a c k o f t i m e . The a n t i c i p a t e d f u t u r e o f t h e g e o s c i e n c e p r o f e s s i o n was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e p e r c e i v e d CPE needs o f t h e group. G e o s t a t i s t i c s ( 5 9 % ) , o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s ( 4 9 % ) , m i n i n g laws ( 5 0 % ) , and g e o c h e m i s t r y ( 4 9 % ) , were it e m s most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d . S i x t y f i v e p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t s p o n s o r s o f CPE o t h e r t h a n t h e i r own i n s t i t u t i o n were b e t t e r p r o v i d e r s o f CPE a c t i v i t i e s . A l t h o u g h t h e l e c t u r e format was t h e most f r e q u e n t e d CPE format d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r , f i e l d t r i p s were t h e p r e f e r r e d format. T.V and v i d e o as CPE d e l i v e r y systems were not f a v o u r e d by g e o s c i e n t i s t s w h i c h c o n t r a s t s t r e n d s amongst o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y e n g i n e e r s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s (Greenburg & B e i d e n b u r g , 1987). These f i n d i n g s a r e o f imp o r t a n c e t o t h o s e i n g e o s c i e n c e who s p o n s o r , p l a n , p r o v i d e , o r e v a l u a t e CPE a c t i v i t i e s , b ut p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e MDD i n d e v e l o p i n g i t s CPE p o l i c y , and t o t h o s e i n t h e f i e l d o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o n d u c t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h because d a t a has been g a t h e r e d s p e c i f i c a l l y p e r t a i n i n g t o m i n e r a l d e p o s i t g e o s c i e n t i s t s i n i i i Canada. Recommendations were proposed f o r t h e n a t i o n a l u m b r e l l a o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e Canadian G e o s c i e n c e C o u n c i l , w h i c h has t h e s t r u c t u r e and i n f l u e n c e t o e s t a b l i s h CPE as a p r i o r i t y w i t h i n g e o s c i e n c e i n t h e a r e a s o f programme p l a n n i n g , CPE p o l i c y development and r e s o u r c e management. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS i x CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1 S c h o o l s o f Thought 1 R e s e a r c h i n CPE 4 G e o s c i e n t i s t s Involvment i n CPE 5 Purpose 7 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 8 De s i g n o f t h e Study 9 CHAPTER I I : LITERATURE REVIEW 11 C o n t i n u i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n (CPE) 11 D e v e l o p i n g t h e L e a r n e r 13 A v o i d i n g Obsolesence 14 A c c o u n t a b i l i t y 16 P a r t i c i p a t i o n 2 0 P a r t i c i p a t i o n R e s e a r c h 2 0 P r o f e s s i o n a l as L e a r n e r s 2 3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n and E d u c a t i o n 28 P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Age 29 B a r r i e r s t o P a r t i c i p a t i o n 3 3 A t t i t u d e s t oward CPE 3 6 F e l t CPE Needs 38 CHAPTER I I I : THE PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATION AND ITS ROLE IN CPE 4 3 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a P r o f e s s i o n 43 P r o t e c t i o n o f Members 4 6 P r o t e c t i o n o f t h e P u b l i c 51 The P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n as a Network 52 The R o l e o f t h e P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n and CPE 53 CHAPTER IV: METHODOLOGY 57 P o p u l a t i o n 57 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n 57 v S e c t i o n A: Demographics 58 S e c t i o n B: A t t i t u d e 59 S e c t i o n C: P a r t i c i p a t i o n 60 S e c t i o n D: B a r r i e r s t o P a r t i c i p a t i o n 61 S e c t i o n E: Needs Assessment 61 P i l o t Study 62 P r o c e d u r e 64 Data A n a l y s i s 65 CHAPTER V: SURVEY FINDINGS 67 Response Rate and Demographics 67 Response Rate 67 Ge o g r a p h i c D i s p e r s i o n 67 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Respondents 69 Age 69 E d u c a t i o n 70 Income 71 F i e l d o f Work 72 Years Employed i n G e o s c i e n c e 7 3 O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n 7 3 Time i n D i f f e r e n t Work Environments 74 P r o f e s s i o n a l A f f i l i a t i o n s 76 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE 77 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE 77 Format o f CPE A c t i v i t i e s 77 Use o f J o u r n a l s 77 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Employer 81 P r o f e s s i o n a l A f f i l i a t i o n 82 Reasons F o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n 82 M a i n t a i n i n g Knowledge and S k i l l s 82 P e r c e i v e d B a r r i e r s t o P a r t i c i p a t i o n 83 A t t i t u d e s Toward CPE 8 3 A t t i t i t u d e s Toward P a r t i c i p a t i o n 83 O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n and a t t i t u d e s toward CPE 8 6 F e l t CPE Needs 8 6 P e r s o n a l S k i l l s 87 Computer S k i l l s 87 L e g a l and B u s i n e s s 87 P r o f e s s i o n a l and S c i e n t i f i c S k i l l s 87 O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n and F e l t CPE Needs 88 P e r s o n a l S k i l l s 88 Computer S k i l l s 88 L e g a l and B u s i n e s s 89 P r o f e s s i o n a l and S c i e n i t i f i c S k i l l s 91 Formats o f CPE A c t i v i t i e s 91 P r e f e r r e d Sponsors o f CPE A c t i v i t i e s 92 A n a l y t i c a l D i s c u s s i o n o f Survey Responses 92 Age 92 E d u c a t i o n 93 O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n 93 P a r t i c i p a t i o n 94 v i F e l t Needs A t t i t u d e s 97 100 CHAPTER V I : LIMITATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS. 104 L i m i t a t i o n s 104 I m p l i c a t i o n s 106 T e c h n o l o g i c a l Impact 106 Recommendations 108 F u t u r e r e s e a r c h 113 C o n c l u d i n g summary 114 BIBLIOGRAPHY 117 APPENDICES 128 A 1 P i l o t q u e s t i o n n a i r e 129 A 2 Survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e 135 B 1 L e t t e r t o t h e MDD 14 3 B 2 Geolog a d v e r t i s m e n t 144 B 3 Gangue n o t i c e 144 C 1 E d u c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r s t i c s 14 6 C 2 F i e l d o f work 147 C 3 Ye a r s employed i n g e o s c i e n c e 148 C 4 P r o f e s s i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n s 148 C 5 Reasons f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n CPE a c t i v i t e s 149 C 6 P r e f e r r e d ways o f m a i n t a i n g knowledge and 14 9 s k i l l s C 7 B a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE 150 C 8 O c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d CPE 151 C 9 F e l t needs 158 C 10 O c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n and f e l t needs 160 C 11 P r e f e r r e d s p o n s o r s o f CPE a c t i v i t i e s 172 v i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1. Sc h e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p o f need d e f i n i t i o n s 4 0 2. C o m p a r i s i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l and modern c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a p r o f e s s i o n 45 3. G e o g r a p h i c d i s p e r s i o n 68 4. Age 7 0 5. Income 72 6. O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n 74 7. Time i n D i f f e r e n t Work Environments 75 8. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE 78 9. Format o f CPE 7 9 10. Use o f J o u r n a l s 80 11. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l employer 81 12. A t t i t u d e s Towards CPE 85 v i i i ACKNOWLE DGMENT To my t h e s i s committee: Dr. " B i l l " ( W i l l i a m ) G r i f f i t h , and Dr. Tom So r k from t h e Department o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n f o r p r o v i d i n g a memorable l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e , Dr. A l i s t e r S i n c l a i r from t h e Department o f G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , who had t h e courage t o v e n t u r e i n t o a new a r e a o f r e s e a r c h , and my e x t e r n a l examiner, Dr. Mike E a s t o n , from t h e O n t a r i o G e o l o g i c a l Survey. I w i s h t o acknowledge t h e f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n from t h e M i n e r a l D e p o s i t s D i v i s i o n w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e d t h e s t u d y . To my many c o l l e a g u e s a t UBC, i n p a r t i c u l a r Brenda P e n g e l l y and C h a r l e s Wong f o r t h e i r m o r a l s u p p o r t . And a s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o my e d i t o r and f r i e n d , Sue C o l l a r d , whose p a t i e n c e and t e a c h i n g s k i l l s were exemplary. Thanks. i x 1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e x t e n t o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n (CPE) a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e g e o s c i e n c e community. The r e s e a r c h e r b e l i e v e d t h i s was a f r u i t f u l a r e a t o r e s e a r c h g i v e n t h e i n c r e a s i n g s o c i a l , t e c h n o l o g i c a l and p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s b r o u g h t t o b e a r on t h e g e o s c i e n c e p r o f e s s i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o i s s u e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , and p r o f e s s i o n a l competency. S c h o o l s o f Thought on CPE T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l p r o v i d e t h e r e a d e r w i t h background on CPE i n Canada, t h e s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t on CPE, r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a o f CPE, and g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' i n v o l v e m e n t i n CPE. C o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a i s a w i d e s p r e a d phenomenon. The d i s t i n c t i o n between CPE i n t h e U.S and Canada i s i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . F o r example, numerous o c c u p a t i o n s i n t h e U.S have adopted mandatory CPE f o r t h o s e p r a c t i c i n g i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s , a t r e n d s u p p o r t e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and government a g e n c i e s . By c o n t r a s t , i n Canada, CPE i s more f r e q u e n t l y a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r m a i n t a i n i n g membership i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e . The f u n c t i o n s o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n CPE have become more complex: d e v e l o p i n g a CPE p h i l o s o p h y ; r e g u l a t i n g programmes; f a c i l i t a t i n g programmes; m o n i t o r i n g 2 members' a t t a i n m e n t s ; a c t i n g as a d v i s o r s t o government a g e n c i e s . C a r r y i n g o u t such d i v e r s e f u n c t i o n s can r e s u l t i n c o n f u s i o n about t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s o b j e c t i v e s . Whose o b j e c t i v e s a r e b e i n g met: t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s ? ; t h e i r members?; o r s o c i e t y ' s ? I n c r e a s i n g l y CPE i s used by p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s t o p o l i c e i t s members' p r a c t i c e , and t o p r o v i d e l e g a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y o f p r o f e s s i o n a l ' s competency. CPE o f f e r s some consumer p r o t e c t i o n b u t no g u a r a n t e e t h a t a l l t h o s e b e a r i n g t h e t i t l e o f " p r o f e s s i o n a l " a r e p r a c t i c i n g e t h i c a l l y o r c o m p e t e n t l y . The growth i n t h e CPE i n d u s t r y o v e r t h e p a s t t w e n t y y e a r s has a l s o s p u r r e d r e s e a r c h i n t o how and why p r o f e s s i o n a l s c o n t i n u e t o l e a r n beyond t h e i r i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g . There a r e v a r i o u s s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t on t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h demands f o r CPE r e f l e c t t h e economic, s o c i a l , and t e c h n i c a l changes i n s o c i e t y . Most r e s e a r c h e r s examine i s s u e s and c o n c e r n s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p r e s e n t s o c i a l c l i m a t e . I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e p u b l i c ' s demand t h a t t h e p r o f e s s i o n s be a c c o u n t a b l e has h e l p e d remove t h e v e i l o f m y s t i c i s m s u r r o u n d i n g m e d i c i n e and law. T h i s i n t u r n , has s p u r r e d r e s e a r c h e r s t o examine t h e p u b l i c ' s c o n c e r n s t h r o u g h assessment, p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and e v a l u a t i o n o f CPE. The use o f CPE and mandatory CPE (MCPE) by t h o s e i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s has been s t r o n g l y endorsed by consumer advocacy groups. P r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s concede t h a t g i v e n t h e i n f l u x o f new i n f o r m a t i o n and t e c h n o l o g y p e r t i n e n t t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n s , an i n c r e a s i n g gap e x i s t s between some 3 i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l ' s l e v e l o f knowledge and t h a t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s k i l l s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e . P r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s v i e w CPE as a way o f c o p i n g w i t h t h e new knowledge and s k i l l s . CPE i s o b v i o u s l y p e r c e i v e d by b o t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s and t h e p u b l i c as a means o f p r e v e n t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e . CPE i s s a i d t o a l s o a c t as a means o f r e g u l a t i n g t h e p r o f e s s i o n s and o f r e d u c i n g t h e number o f f r a u d u l e n t o r incompetent p r o f e s s i o n a l s . F o r example, i f s p e c i f i c c o u r s e c o n t e n t can be e v a l u a t e d by a p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and t h e p r o g r e s s o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l can be i d e n t i f i e d , t h e n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n has a means o f d e m o n s t r a t i n g i t s members' commitment t o p r o f e s s i o n a l development. The k e e p i n g o f s uch r e c o r d s can i d e n t i f y t h o s e members' who have f a i l e d t o keep a b r e a s t o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n t h r o u g h t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o u r s e s deemed as " s u i t a b l e " by t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . M a i n t a i n i n g r e c o r d s on CPE i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y n e c e s s a r y i n t h e U.S where t h e amount o f l i t i g a t i o n a g a i n s t p r o f e s s i o n a l s c o n t i n u e s t o i n c r e a s e ( P h i l l i p s , 1987). Some p r o f e s s i o n a l s c o n s i d e r CPE as a n a t u r a l e x t e n s i o n o f t h e p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g p r o c e s s . G i v e n t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r any one p e r i o d o f l e a r n i n g t o s u f f i c e f o r a p r o f e s s i o n a l ' s e n t i r e work l i f e , o n - g o i ng l e a r n i n g p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o expand one's knowledge, and t o d e v e l o p a p r o f e s s i o n a l network and encourage a more a c t i v e membership i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n . 4 P r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s have e a g e r l y jumped onto t h e CPE bandwagon because i t p r o v i d e s an a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e o f revenue ( O h l i g e r , 1984; A t k i n s o n , 1987). CPE i s e s t i m a t e d t o be a $90 m i l l i o n i n d u s t r y i n t h e U.S ( B e r g e r , 1989). Debate c o n t i n u e s on whether p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e t h e most s u i t a b l e p r o v i d e r s o f CPE. W h i l e arguments a r e h o t l y c o n t e s t e d on b o t h s i d e s , t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s m a i n t a i n t h e i r m o n o p o l i s t i c c o n t r o l o v e r CPE ( S e l d o n , 1981). R e s e a r c h i n CPE R e s e a r c h i n CPE has tended t o f a l l i n t o t h r e e a r e a s : p a r t i c i p a t i o n , programme p l a n n i n g and e v a l u a t i o n . The l a r g e s t number o f s t u d i e s have been conducted i n t h e a r e a o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . There a r e s e v e r a l l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h : 1) These s t u d i e s t e n d t o f o c u s on t h e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t ; 2) c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s r a r e l y examine more t h a n t h r e e groups o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s ; and 3) r e s e a r c h e r s have t e n d e d t o s t u d y i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s f o r a m u l t i v a r i a b l e problem. T h i s s e l e c t i v e approach t o r e s e a r c h has t h u s f a r f a i l e d t o d e v e l o p a s i n g l e encompassing t h e o r y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . However, t h e growth i n t h e number o f s t u d i e s on i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n s does enhance our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i c h w i l l e v e n t u a l l y f o r m u l a t e a g e n e r a l c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r CPE i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s . R e s e a r c h i n programme p l a n n i n g has been g u i d e d by t h e s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t i n b u s i n e s s management: c o s t 5 e f f e c t i v e n e s s v e r s u s e f f i c i e n c y i n t r a n s f e r r i n g X amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n ; and from a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w h i c h f o c u s e s on u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e components o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and needs from a l l communities. Thus f a r t h e r e seems t o be l i t t l e exchange o f r e s e a r c h between b u s i n e s s and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . E v a l u a t i o n i s an encompassing a r e a o f r e s e a r c h where r e s e a r c h e r s have l o o k e d a t e v a l u a t i o n o f programmes, p a r t i c i p a n t s , and f a c i l i t a t o r s . I n c r e a s i n g l y , p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e q u e s t i o n i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s and impact o f mandatory CPE on p r o f e s s i o n a l s . R e s e a r c h i n CPE i s f r e q u e n t l y c o n d u c t e d t h r o u g h i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n s such as m e d i c i n e o r t h r o u g h i n d i v i d u a l groups such as t h e P r o f e s s i o n a l E n g i n e e r s A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C olumbia. The l a c k o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r s and p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o l o n g s t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g a g e n e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l framework. G e o s c i e n t i s t s ' Involvement i n CPE There i s a l a c k o f l i t e r a t u r e s p e c i f i c t o g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE a c t i v i t i e s . However, from a p e r u s a l o f p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s t h e r e s e a r c h e r s u r m i s e d t h a t CPE as an a c t i v i t y i s f l o u r i s h i n g i n g e o s c i e n c e . A d i v e r s e range o f programmes, f o r m a l and non- f o r m a l , a r e b e i n g o f f e r e d a l l o v e r t h e w o r l d . Some j o u r n a l s p r o v i d e a c a l e n d a r o f e v e n t s o c c u r r i n g up t o 2-3 y e a r s i n advance. D e s p i t e t h i s abundance, no one has i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e x t e n t o f CPE p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n , 6 g e o s c i e n t i s t s 7 a t t i t u d e s toward CPE, o r g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' f e l t CPE needs. T h i s l a c k o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n on CPE i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s s h o u l d be o f c o n c e r n t o employers, government(s) and p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s who w i l l need t o a d d r e s s i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e i s s u e o f an a g i n g Canadian l a b o u r f o r c e . The c h a n g i n g s o c i a l demographics r e v e a l t h e work f o r c e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a i s a g i n g . T h i s w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e a change i n s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s towards t h e o l d e r l e a r n e r ; r e c u r r e n t t r a i n i n g o f w o r k e r s s e v e r a l t i m e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e i r work c a r e e r ; and r e e d u c a t i n g p e o p l e t o a c c e p t t h e n o t i o n and n e c e s s i t y o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n t h e work p l a c e . CPE w i l l be t h e p r i m a r y means o f m a i n t a i n i n g an e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l work f o r c e . The r a p i d t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n o f g e o s c i e n c e m i r r o r t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes w i t h i n o ur s o c i e t y . Many p r o f e s s i o n a l s have had t o a c q u i r e o n g oing t r a i n i n g and development i n t h e i r a r e a s o f work i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n a f u n c t i o n i n g l e v e l o f p r o f e s s i o n a l competency and t o a v o i d p r o f e s s i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e . F o r example, i n s c i e n c e and e n g i n e e r i n g , t h e c u r r e n t e s t i m a t e d l e v e l o f p r o f e s s i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e i s seven y e a r s ( S t a n l e y & Holmes, 1987). That i s , w i t h i n seven y e a r s o f g r a d u a t i o n from an u n i v e r s i t y e n g i n e e r i n g programme, t h e knowledge t h o s e s t u d e n t s a c q u i r e d o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n w i l l be o b s o l e t e f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e . One i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r v e h i c l e used by p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r d e m o n s t r a t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l competency i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE a c t i v i t i e s . 7 I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e s e c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s , p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , i n d u s t r y , government and e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e o f f e r i n g a p r o f u s i o n o f CPE a c t i v i t i e s t o p r e v e n t p r o f e s s i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e amongst g e o s c i e n t i s t s . To d a t e , many o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s have been r e a c t i v e measures t o a p a r t i c u l a r e vent (be i t s o c i a l o r econo m i c ) , what B o t k i n r e f e r s t o as "shock l e a r n i n g " (1979, p . 1 7 ) . These CPE a c t i v i t i e s a r e p r o v i d e d i n a v a r i e t y o f ways, from f o r m a l c r e d i t c o u r s e s , t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f i e l d t r i p s , t o r e a d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s . Debate c o n t i n u e s as t o t h e s u c c e s s o f CPE w i t h r e s p e c t t o a) d e m o n s t r a t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l competency, b) i n c r e a s i n g worker performance and c) d e v e l o p i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' growth. I n c o n t r a s t t o some p r o f e s s i o n s such as n u r s i n g , t h e l a c k o f l i t e r a t u r e about c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n g e o s c i e n c e l i m i t s o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE. Purpose The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE amongst g e o s c i e n t i s t s . T h i s was a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h i d e n t i f y i n g t h e e x t e n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g , f e l t needs, a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d CPE and b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I d e n t i f y i n g such a s p e c t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l encourage programme p l a n n e r s b o t h t o acknowledge t h e s e b a r r i e r s , and t o s e a r c h f o r ways t o overcome such b a r r i e r s . The d a t a p r o v i d e some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' a t t i t u d e s , b e h a v i o u r and needs r e l a t i n g t o CPE. These f i n d i n g s s h o u l d prove u s e f u l t o programme 8 p l a n n e r s , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t p r o v i d e s l e a d e r s h i p on i s s u e s such as e d u c a t i o n , and a d u l t e d u c a t o r s who s t u d y p a r t i c i p a t i o n a c r o s s a spectrum o f p r o f e s s i o n s . A more complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e g e o s c i e n c e community may c r e a t e a p o t e n t i a l l y l a r g e r a u d i e n c e f o r CPE programmes. T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f terms t o be used i n t h i s s t u d y , and an o u t l i n e o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g c h a p t e r s . D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms As a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u f f e r s from a m b i v a l e n c e and m u l t i p l e d e f i n i t i o n s o f terms, on a d v i s e from my committee i t was d e c i d e d t o use t h e g l o s s a r y o f terms d e v e l o p e d by t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s E d u c a t i o n a l S c i e n t i f i c and C u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n (UNESCO) e s p e c i a l l y as UNESCO's p h i l o s o p h y i n f o r m s much o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . The f o l l o w i n g terms w i l l be used t h r o u g h o u t t h i s paper: CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION (CPE): " d e s i g n e d f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s o r h i g h - l e v e l o c c u p a t i o n s t o keep them up t o d a t e w i t h new developments i n t h e i r f i e l d , t o a c q u i r e new s k i l l s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n o r o c c u p a t i o n a l s e t t i n g , and t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s o c i e t a l c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e y work" (UNESCO, 1979, p. 4 0 ) . INFORMAL EDUCATION: " S t r u c t u r e d s e q u e n t i a l e d u c a t i o n f o r a d u l t s , s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n o f w h i c h i s not i n t e n d e d t o be r e c o g n i z e d by a f o r m a l award, such as a c r e d i t . . . o r p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n , b u t w h i c h i s u n d e r t a k e n t o meet 9 some o t h e r - u s u a l l y immediate- i n t e r e s t o r need" (UNESCO, 1979, p. 4 9 ) . NON-FORMAL EDUCATION: " E d u c a t i o n a l programmes wh i c h do not r e q u i r e o r i n v o l v e e n r o l l m e n t o r r e g i s t r a t i o n o f l e a r n e r s " (UNESCO, 1979, p. 5 4 ) . PARTICIPANT: A p a r t i c i p a n t i s t h e p e r s o n who u n d e r t a k e s CPE a c t i v i t i e s . PARTICIPATION: The a c t o f u n d e r t a k i n g some form o f l e a r n i n g f o r t h e purpose o f p e r s o n a l g a i n ( f i n a n c i a l , employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , o r p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n ) . GEOSCIENCE: A c o l l e c t i v e t e rm t o d e s c r i b e t h e wide d i v e r s i t y o f o c c u p a t i o n s whose common g o a l i s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p l a n e t E a r t h , and t h e p r o c e s s e s a c t i n g upon i t ( B a t e s and J a c k s o n , 1980, p. 260). De s i g n o f t h e Study The g e n e r a l d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y was a m a i l e d s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o a s e l e c t p o p u l a t i o n o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s . The s u r v e y i n c o r p o r a t e s i n s t r u m e n t s from a v a r i e t y o f N o r t h A m erican s t u d i e s t o measure demographics, p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l s i n CPE, a t t i t u d e s toward CPE, and g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' f e l t CPE needs. These i n s t r u m e n t s where based on t h e work by Houl e , ( l e a r n i n g p a t t e r n s o f p r o f e s s i o n s , 1983); Schon (model o f l e a r n i n g o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s , 1983), C e r v e r o ( p r o f e s s i o n a l s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE, 1988); C r o s s ( p a r t i c i p a t i o n and n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n , 1981). 10 C h a p t e r 2 w i l l examine a s e l e c t i o n o f works from a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s . A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r o l e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n and CPE w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r 3 . An o u t l i n e o f t h e methodology i n c l u d i n g t h e s t u d y d e s i g n and method o f a n a l y s i s c o m p r i s e s C h a p t e r 4 . The f i n d i n g s from t h e main s t u d y w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r 5 . C h a p t e r 6 w i l l o f f e r t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , i m p l i c a t i o n s o f f i n d i n g s , recommendations, d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u t u r e s t u d i e s and c o n c l u s i o n s . 11 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l d i s c u s s CPE, w i t h s u b - s e c t i o n s on: d e v e l o p i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l , a v o i d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e , and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n on p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d CPE and f e l t CPE needs. As t h e r e i s no l i t t l e m a t e r i a l s p e c i f i c t o g e o s c i e n c e , t h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w w i l l i n c o r p o r a t e m a t e r i a l on p r o f e s s i o n s o t h e r t h a n g e o s c i e n c e and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . C o n t i n u i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n (CPE) The UNESCO d e f i n i t i o n f o r CPE has been w i d e l y a c c e p t e d by r e s e a r c h e r s b o t h i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n s . CPE i s : d e s i g n e d f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s o r h i g h - l e v e l o c c u p a t i o n s t o keep them up t o d a t e w i t h new developments i n t h e i r f i e l d , t o a c q u i r e new s k i l l s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n o r o c c u p a t i o n a l s e t t i n g , and t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s o c i e t a l c o n t e x t i n wh i c h t h e y work (The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bureau o f E d u c a t i o n , 1979, p. 4 0 ) . CPE i s c o n s i d e r e d as "on-going" l e a r n i n g f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s , f o r t h e purpose o f i m p r o v i n g t h e i r knowledge o r s k i l l s , and e x p l o r i n g new i d e a s , t r e n d s and developments i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n ( B r o s k i & Upp, 1979) . I t i s not f o r t h e purpose o f o b t a i n i n g a d d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . CPE i s r a r e l y c o n t i n u o u s i n n a t u r e b u t i s , r a t h e r , e p i s o d i c . ( J a r v i s , 1983) 12 P r o f e s s i o n a l s engage i n CPE f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s i n c l u d i n g : t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge and s k i l l s ( Johnstone & R i v e r a , 1965); t o a v o i d p r o f e s s i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e ( S c o t t , 1984); and t o p r o v i d e a measure o f a c c o u n t a b i l i t y t o o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s and t h e p u b l i c ( C e r v e r o , 1988). The form o f CPE ranges from f o r m a l c r e d i t c o u r s e s o f f e r e d by e d u c a t i o n a l l y a c c r e d i t e d i n s t i t u t i o n s t o non- f o r m a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e dependent upon t h e s e l f d i r e c t e d n e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n e r . Some p r o f e s s i o n a l s m a i n t a i n t h a t s p o n s o r s o f CPE ought t o p r o v i d e f o r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y c o m p l e t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r programme ( B r o s k i & Upp, 1979, p. 25 ) . O t h e r s argue t h a t o f a l l groups o f a d u l t l e a r n e r s , p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e t h e most c a p a b l e o f a s s e s s i n g and r e c t i f y i n g t h e i r own l e a r n i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s ( C e r v e r o , 1988). CPE i s t h e comprehensive term f o r t h e p r a c t i c e e n a b l i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o a c q u i r e on-going l e a r n i n g f o r t h e purpose o f d e v e l o p i n g t h e m s e l v e s and t h e p r o f e s s i o n , and f o r d e m o n s t r a t i n g a measure o f a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . Some p r o f e s s i o n s u t i l i z e CPE as a v o l u n t a r y a c t and p l a c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l e a r n i n g on t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l , w h i l e o t h e r s employ a mandatory CPE p o l i c y . C u r r e n t l y , t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g CPE d e f i n i t i o n s and t h e d i v e r s i f i e d methods o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n v a r y from p r o f e s s i o n t o p r o f e s s i o n . The a r b i t r a r y a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t CPE d e f i n i t i o n s have r e s u l t e d i n c o n f u s i o n f o r a l l . "How much CPE i s enough t o 13 d e monstrate p r o f e s s i o n a l competence?, 1 1 "who s h o u l d o v e r s e e CPE o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s ? , " and "what can be done t o en s u r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? " , a r e f r e q u e n t q u e s t i o n s from b o t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s . The f o l l o w i n g sub- s e c t i o n s w i l l d i s c u s s : d e v e l o p i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l ; a v o i d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e ; and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . Developing; t h e I n d i v i d u a l P r o f e s s i o n a l I n t h e i r s t u d y o f American a d u l t s and c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r a (1965) found t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l p e r s o n s c i t e d u p g r a d i n g t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge as t h e p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Other r e s e a r c h e r s have found s i m i l a r s e n t i m e n t s among d i e t i t i a n s ( Z i b r i k , 1983), and e n g i n e e r s ( C e r v e r o , M i l l e r & Dimmock, 1986). Whether o r n o t u p g r a d i n g one's knowledge i s f o r c a r e e r advancement o r f o r o t h e r r e a s o n s , t h e r e a l i t y i s t h a t CPE i s i n c r e a s i n g l y n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n an o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n . (Oddi, 1987). C e r v e r o s u g g e s t s CPE s h o u l d be a v e h i c l e f o r d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l s t h a t w i l l p r o v i d e t h e l e a r n e r s w i t h " t o o l s " f o r s e l f assessment and e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r performance and competence. T h i s , he p r o p o s e s , would complement t h e p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g p e r i o d where t h e emphasis i s on a c q u i r i n g c o n t e n t knowledge (1988). Many r e s e a r c h e r s a s s e r t t h a t t h e a b i l i t y t o e v a l u a t e and c r i t i q u e one's performance i s a n e c e s s a r y s k i l l f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o w h i c h i n s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n i s de v o t e d d u r i n g p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g (Schon, 14 1987; 1983; Wenecour & R e i c h , 1983). I n a s o c i e t y where t h e amount o f knowledge i s i n c r e a s i n g , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' knowledge i s o b s o l e t e a l s o i n c r e a s e s . A v o i d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e i s o f c o n c e r n n o t o n l y t o t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r b u t a l s o t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e p u b l i c , and l e g i s l a t i v e a g e n c i e s ( S t a n l e y & Holmes, 1987; C e r v e r o , 1988). A v o i d i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l O b s o l e s c e n c e R a p i d t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes have c a t a p u l t e d N o r t h A m e r i c a i n t o new a r e a s o f r e s e a r c h and development. The t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t s o f such r e s e a r c h means i n d i v i d u a l s have t o l e a r n "new" t e c h n i q u e s and t o o l s . The d i f f i c u l t y w i t h an e x p a n d i n g knowledge base i s t h e r a p i d o b s o l e s c e n c e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l competence ( L i n d s a y , M o r r i s o n & K e l l y , 1974) . Knowles (1979) r e f e r s t o CPE as " p r e v e n t i o n " a g a i n s t p r o f e s s i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e , u n l i k e B o t k i n , E l m a n d j i n and M a l t i z a (1979) who v i e w CPE more p e s s i m i s t i c a l l y as a " r e a c t i v e " measure, where p r a c t i t i o n e r s c o n t i n u a l l y t r y t o keep pace w i t h an e v e r expanding knowledge base. P r o f e s s i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e , a c c o r d i n g t o Knox, p o i n t s t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e knowledge and/or s k i l l p o s s e s s e d by i n d i v i d u a l s a t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e i r f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n and t h a t o f a r e c e n t g r a d u a t e . Knox bases t h i s s t a t e m e n t on an a s s u m p t i o n t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s do not g a i n new knowledge from t h e i r d a i l y p r a c t i c e . T h i s seems u n r e a l i s t i c g i v e n t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e i n p o s i t i o n s where problem s o l v i n g and d e c i s i o n making s k i l l s a r e c e n t r a l components o f t h e i r work. 15 These s k i l l s w h i c h a r e based on t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' p r e v i o u s knowledge, a r e b e i n g c o n t i n u a l l y c h a l l e n g e d and changed t o meet t h e demands o f new work problems. (Schon, 198 3 ) . I t i s more c o r r e c t t o say t h a t t h e e s t i m a t e d " h a l f - l i f e " o f s c i e n t i f i c o r e n g i n e e r i n g knowledge i s between 5-7 y e a r s . T h i s means t h a t h a l f t h e knowledge p o s s e s s e d by s t u d e n t s upon g r a d u a t i o n w i l l be o b s o l e t e w i t h i n 5-7 y e a r s o f g r a d u a t i o n ( S t a n l e y & Holmes, 1987; C a m p b e l l , 1983). T h e r e f o r e , p r o f e s s i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e can be s a i d t o o c c u r from: a) a r e s u l t o f a l a c k o f knowledge; b) p r a c t i t i o n e r n o t p o s s e s s i n g t h e knowledge o r s k i l l i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e ; o r c) a p r a c t i t i o n e r f a i l i n g t o keep a b r e a s t o f t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n (Grabowski & A s s o c i a t e s , 1981; Knox, 1987). I n a t t e m p t s t o a v o i d p r o f e s s i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e some p e o p l e p e r c e i v e CPE as b e i n g a panacea t o " c u r e " a l l i n c o mpetent p r a c t i c e ( O h l i g e r , 1984; J a r v i s , 1983). The p u b l i c i n c r e a s i n g l y demands a c c o u n t a b i l i t y from a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l s , as i t r e c o g n i z e s t h e gap between what p r o f e s s i o n a l s may say t h e y can do and what t h e y a c t u a l l y p r a c t i c e ( L o r i n g , 1980, p.12). The p u b l i c ' s n e g a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s o f and a t t i t u d e s t oward p r o f e s s i o n a l groups has f o s t e r e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among many p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( C a p l a n , 1983, p.323). P r o f e s s i o n a l s do not d e l i b e r a t e l y choose t o p o s s e s s o b s o l e t e knowledge and t h e y may not be aware o f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c i e s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e where t h e 16 p r o f e s s i o n a l has l i m i t e d c o l l e g i a l c o n t a c t due perhaps t o g e o g r a p h i c l o c a l i t y o r an u n d e r d e v e l o p e d p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . However, p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y b e i n g r e q u i r e d t o demonstrate t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l competency ( O h l i g e r , 1984), as i n d i c a t e d by t h e 77 o c c u p a t i o n s i n t h e U.S. w h i c h i n s i s t upon CPE o r MCPE ( P h i l l i p s , 1987). F a i l u r e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o e v a l u a t e , d i s c a r d o r a c c e p t new i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l mean c l i e n t s 7 c h a n g i n g needs may not be s e r v e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l s who o p e r a t e w i t h o b s o l e t e knowledge and s k i l l s . I n t u r n , s u ch o b s o l e s c e n c e w i l l have n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s on p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' a b i l i t y t o compete i n a g l o b a l economy. Concern among p u b l i c c i t i z e n s g roups, p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and t h e governments on t h e i s s u e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e have n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e development o f measures t h a t can be r e g a r d e d as d e m o n s t r a t i v e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l competency. A c c o u n t a b i l i t y M a t t e r s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y and competency have u n t i l r e c e n t l y been t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h o s e w i t h i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s . I n c r e a s i n g l y government a g e n c i e s and consumer advocacy groups have s t i r r e d t h e p u b l i c ' s demand f o r i n c r e a s e d a c c o u n t a b i l i t y o f t h o s e p r a c t i c i n g i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s ( S c o t t , 1984). T h i s a c t i o n i s t h e r e s u l t o f c h a n g i n g s o c i e t a l c o n c e r n s and demands o f t h e p a s t twenty y e a r s and o f t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a g r o w i n g gap between what p r o f e s s i o n a l s say and what t h e y do 17 Each p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l need t o a d d r e s s t h e i s s u e s o f c o n t r o l and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , g i v e n t h e mounting n e g a t i v e p u b l i c f e e l i n g s towards p r o f e s s i o n a l s . CPE has been adopted by p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o demo n s t r a t e t h e i r commitment t o r i d d i n g f r a u d u l e n t and incompetent p r a c t i t i o n e r s from t h e i r r a n k s (Houle, 1980; Oxenham, 1984). R o c k h i l l c ontends t h a t CPE and MCPE w i l l p r o v i d e an i n c r e a s e d p r o b a b i l i t y o f p r o f e s s i o n a l competence, and s u b s e q u e n t l y a measure o f a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . T h i s i s based on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t exposure t o CPE w i l l r e s u l t i n some i n f o r m a t i o n f i l t e r i n g i n t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s even i f t h e y a r e t a k i n g t h e CPE under d u r e s s . However, she does q u e s t i o n t h e b e n e f i t s o f MCPE, and a d v o c a t e s t h a t CPE be a " v o l u n t a r y open l e a r n i n g p o l i c y " (1981, p. 6 8 ) . Darkenwald and Merriam (1982) argue t h a t much o f what c o n s t i t u t e s CPE t o d a y goes a g a i n s t t h e one major p r i n c i p l e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n : v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I l l i c h , i n c o n t r a s t , o b j e c t s t o any form o f n o r m a t i v e measurement f o r d e m o n s t r a t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l competency, s t a t i n g "There i s no c o r r e l a t i o n between e d u c a t i o n f o r a s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n and t h e t e c h n i c a l competence o f t h e performance o f t h i s e d u c a t i o n " (1977, p.7) . There i s , however, a r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o s s e s s i n g knowledge and b e i n g a b l e t o use t h a t knowledge. F o r example, knowing t h e t h e o r y b e h i n d a s u b j e c t ( o f t e n ) b e t t e r i n f o r m s one on how t o a p p l y t h a t knowledge. On t h i s p r e m i s e some p r o f e s s i o n s a r e moving away from n o r m a t i v e t e s t i n g o f 18 p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o t h e i r d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f a p p l i e d knowledge. I n B.C, t h e f a m i l y p r a c t i t i o n e r s a r e c o n s i d e r i n g p e e r r e v i e w o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l assessment (Wainmouth, 1989). T h i s i s a p o s i t i v e use o f p e e r r e v i e w as opposed t o t h e d i s c i p l i n a r y use o f p e e r r e v i e w t h a t i s sometimes found i n e n g i n e e r i n g o r m e d i c i n e (A. Wessen, p e r s o n a l communication, September 15, 1988). The p u b l i c ' s need t o know t h e r e i s an " e x p e r t " and t h e a t t i t u d e t h a t o n l y " e x p e r t s " become p r o f e s s i o n a l s , may e x p l a i n our w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c c e p t CPE, and e s p e c i a l l y MCPE as a q u a l i t y c o n t r o l measure o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e (Manning & P e t i t , 1987; C a m p b e l l , 1983). T h i s i s an age when many t e n d t o equate e d u c a t i o n w i t h competence: t h e more e d u c a t i o n p e o p l e p o s s e s s , t h e more competent t h e y a r e assumed t o be i n p r a c t i c e . R e l y i n g upon n o r m a t i v e t e s t i n g forms t o demonstrate competency c o u l d be d u b i o u s , g i v e n t h e i d i o s y n c r a t i c i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f CPE i n each p r o f e s s i o n . D e s p i t e t h i s c o n c e r n , CPE i s i n c r e a s i n g l y used as e v i d e n c e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l development i n c a s e s o f l i t i g a t i o n i n t h e U.S ( O h l i g e r , 1984). However, where p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE i s r e q u i r e d o r mandated f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l membership o r p r a c t i c e , t h e r e i s g r o w i n g resentment among p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( C o r b e t t , 1979). P e o p l e r e s e n t t h e t i m e consuming t a s k s o f CPE w h i c h r e s u l t i n b o t h p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e s (from t h e l o s s o f f e e s and t i m e away from p r a c t i c e ) p a r t i c u l a r l y as t h e y see i t as u n n e c e s s a r y m e r e l y t o demonstrate t h e i r p r a c t i c e t o 19 b u r e a u c r a t s ( R o c k h i l l , 1983; Manning & P e t i t , 1987). But as y e t , CPE co n d u c t e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s appears t o be a f e a s i b l e , p r a g m a t i c approach t o t h e problem o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . H oule sees CPE b e i n g u s e f u l i n t h r e e major ways: f i r s t l y , as a power i n s h a p i n g e d u c a t i o n p o l i c i e s w i t h i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n ; s e c o n d l y , as a means o f i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t c o u l d i n f o r m and i n f l u e n c e membership; t h i r d l y , as a means o f e n l i g h t e n i n g and i n f l u e n c i n g t h e members t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e v o c a t i o n (1980, p.165-173). When CPE becomes e n t r e n c h e d i n t o a p r o f e s s i o n , t h e p u b l i c ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h a t p r o f e s s i o n s h i f t s i n a p o s i t i v e way; p r a c t i t i o n e r s a l s o " f e e l good" about t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n , t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r d e a l i n g s w i t h t h o s e o u t s i d e t h e p r o f e s s i o n . T h i s has been t h e c a s e w i t h b o t h p h y s i c i a n s and n u r s e s (O'Conner, 1979). CPE w i t h i n a s s o c i a t i o n s o p e r a t e s under t h e s u b j e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e o f i t s members. That i s , where t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e c l i m a t e , CPE i s more w i l l i n g l y a c c e p t e d by members. A t t i t u d e s t oward CPE h e l d by p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n f l u e n c e and d e t e r m i n e t h e f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n and i t s CPE p o l i c i e s ( G r o t e l u e s c h e n & C a u l l e y , 1977). CPE has d e v e l o p e d f u r t h e r because o f t h e s o c i a l c o n c e r n s e x p r e s s e d by t h e p u b l i c , t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , and p r a c t i t i o n e r s t oward p r o f e s s i o n a l competency ( S e l d o n , 197 6 ) . The r a p i d growth o f knowledge and t e c h n o l o g y w i t h i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s p r e c l u d e s t h e c o n t i n u e d 20 l a i s s e z - f a i r e approach t o CPE by p r o f e s s i o n a l s o r t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . CPE i s one i n g r e d i e n t i n t h e r e c i p e f o r a competent p r o f e s s i o n a l . O t h e r s i n c l u d e t h e p o s s i b l e r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , and f o s t e r i n g awareness on t h e p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t e c h n o l o g y i n t h e w o r k p l a c e (H. M e n z i e s , p e r s o n a l communication, June 1, 1989; O d di, 1984). G i v e n t h e need f o r CPE i n t h e f u t u r e , i t seems f r u i t f u l f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and o t h e r CPE p r o v i d e r s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r c l i e n t s : how t h e y l e a r n ; why t h e y opt t o p a r t i c i p a t e o r n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n CPE; t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o ward CPE and t h e i r f e l t needs. These i t e m s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below. PARTICIPATION P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s one a s p e c t o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t h a t c o n t i n u e s t o d e v e l o p . There a r e many components t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e w i l l o u t l i n e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h , p r o f e s s i o n a l s as l e a r n e r s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n and age, and b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h P a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n has shaped CPE r e s e a r c h i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s (Knowles, 1979). CPE r e s e a r c h t e n d s t o f o c u s on t h e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n an a t t e m p t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e h a v i o u r , and 21 t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The r e s e a r c h methods employed have t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n c l u d e d a m u l t i t u d e o f d e s c r i p t i v e t e c h n i q u e s ( I s t a n c e & S c h u l t z , 1987). These t e c h n i q u e s have not o n l y been l i m i t e d i n scope b u t m i s l e a d i n g , m o s t l y due t o t h e v a r i e t y o f d a t a g a t h e r i n g and a n a l y z i n g p r o c e d u r e s used t o c onduct p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h . Data g a t h e r e d t h r o u g h s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t y p i c a l l y e l i c i t r e s p onse r a t e s o f between 10%-18% from t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n ( G l a s s & H o p k i n s , 1989). CPE s t u d i e s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s have r e p o r t e d r a t e s o f r e t u r n v a r y i n g from 28% (Seymour, C o n n e l l y & Gardener, 1987), t o 76% (Denford, 1983). However, s u r v e y i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s p e r se does not g u a r a n t e e a h i g h r a t e o f r e t u r n . The A s s o c i a t i o n f o r P r o f e s s i o n a l E n g i n e e r s o f B r i t i s h Columbia (APEBC) have r e p e a t e d l y e x p e r i e n c e d r e s p o n s e r a t e s o f l e s s t h a n 1% f o r s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on CPE (D. M a c D o n n e l l , p e r s o n a l communication, September 14, 1988; C h a k r a b a r t i , 1985). I n a d d i t i o n a m b i g u i t y e x i s t s i n t h e use o f t h e terms " a d u l t " , " e d u c a t i o n " , " p r o f e s s i o n a l " , and " l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y " w h i c h have c o n t r i b u t e d i n t h e wide d i s c r e p a n c y i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , f r e q u e n t l y making d i r e c t c o m parison between s t u d i e s d i f f i c u l t ( I s t a n c e & S c h u l t z , 1987). D e s p i t e t h e s e f a i l i n g s r e s e a r c h e r s f r e q u e n t l y make comparisons t o o t h e r s t u d i e s q u i t e l i b e r a l l y . The dominant approach t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h has been t o s t u d y s i n g l e v a r i a b l e s such as m o t i v a t i o n , age o r 22 e d u c a t i o n . J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r a ' s 1965 s t u d y produced d a t a t h a t was r e s t r i c t i v e f o r many s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s . Most o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e s t r i c t e d t o an o r d i n a l s c a l e t h e r e b y e x c l u d i n g most s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s . D e s p i t e such problems d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s have been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n numerous p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t u d i e s i n e n g i n e e r i n g ( W i l s o n , 1974), d i e t i t i a n s ( Z i b r i k , 1983) and p h y s i o t h e r a p y ( D e n f o r d , 1983). Some a d u l t e d u c a t o r s r e c o g n i z e t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h among a d u l t s , and have s h i f t e d from s t u d y i n g s i n g l e v a r i a b l e s t o m u l t i p l e v a r i a b l e s . Knox and V i d e b e c k s u g g e s t e d s t u d y i n g m u l t i p l e v a r i a b l e s i n 1963, and M i l l e r expanded upon t h e i r i d e a i n h i s f o r c e f i e l d a n a l y s i s w h i c h examined s o c i a l c l a s s , t e c h n o l o g i c a l change, a s s o c i a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( C r o s s , 1981. S i m i l a r l y , Rubenson adapted an e x p e c t a n c y - v a l e n c e model t o t h e s t u d y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i c h a s s e s s e d l e a r n e r s e x p e c t a t i o n s o f s u c c e s s and t h e v a l u e o f t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n as seen by t h e l e a r n e r i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r f a c t o r s i n t h e i r l i f e (1976). T h i s model has s i n c e been used i n r e s e a r c h i n Canada and Sweden (1976, 1983). CPE r e s e a r c h had tended t o d e s c r i b e t h e p r o f e s s i o n s i n i s o l a t i o n , w h i c h has caused some t o c l a i m t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h l a c k s t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s ( S c h u l t z & I s t a n c e , 1987): s t u d i e s a r e not g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o o t h e r groups o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s . However, such c r i t i c i s m may be u n j u s t i f i e d : d e s c r i p t i v e r e s e a r c h i d e n t i f i e s t h e c o m m o n a l i t i e s among t h e p r o f e s s i o n s and t h e unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s between t h e 23 p r o f e s s i o n s ( C e r v e r o , 1988). S t a l k e r (1989) m a i n t a i n s t h a t q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h approaches t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e n o t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i o n , each c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e o t h e r . I n c r e a s i n g l y q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h methods a r e b e i n g e x p l o r e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h as a way o f u n c o v e r i n g t h e "deeper" meanings g i v e n t o a s i n g l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e . R e s e a r c h e r s have found t h a t u t i l i z i n g b o t h q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h approaches t o be more f r u i t f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a n u s i n g e i t h e r approach i n d e p e n d e n t l y . T h i s has been shown i n t h e r e c e n t p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s on m u n i c i p a l w o r kers ( S t a l k e r , 1989) and p r o f e s s i o n a l s as l e a r n e r s ( D a h l g r e n & P r a m l i n g , 1985). D e v e l o p i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e h a v i o u r i n CPE i s i m p o r t a n t t o a l l p a r t i e s c o n cerned w i t h m e e t i n g t h e needs o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s w i l l expand t h i s d i s c u s s i o n by e x a m i n i n g : p r o f e s s i o n a l s as l e a r n e r s . P r o f e s s i o n a l s as L e a r n e r s R e s e a r c h e r s d i s t i n g u i s h p r o f e s s i o n a l s from t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n o f a d u l t s because t h e former p o s s e s s u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Wenecour & R e i c h , 1983) w h i c h a f f e c t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE a c t i v i t i e s . P r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e f r e q u e n t l y members o f a h i g h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c group. T h e i r s a l a r i e s r e f l e c t t h e i r academic a t t a i n m e n t , t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e and performance i n a s p e c i a l i z e d a r e a o f work 24 (Houle, 1980; J a r v i s , 1983). T h e i r f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n has p r o v e n t o be e c o n o m i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y r e w a r d i n g f o r t h o s e who have e n t e r e d t h e p r o f e s s i o n s ( W i l e n s k y , 1964; Houle, 1983). G i v e n t h e s e rewards f o r e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e more l i k e l y t o h o l d p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n ( G r o t e l u e s c h e n , H a r n i s h & Kenny, 1977b). I n t u r n , r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h e s o c i a l and economic b e n e f i t s o b t a i n a b l e w i t h h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n encourage p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i v e programmes ( I b i d ) . J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r a ' s s t u d y on *American a d u l t l e a r n e r s 7 r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f p a r t i c i p a n t s were w e l l e d u c a t e d , m i d d l e c l a s s , C a u c a s i a n (1965) . Twenty f i v e p e r c e n t o f a l l a d u l t l e a r n e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n were c l a s s i f i e d as p r o f e s s i o n a l s . These e a r l y f i n d i n g s a d e q u a t e l y d e p i c t a d u l t l e a r n e r s a c r o s s Canada i n t h e 1 9 8 0 7 s , as i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e 'One i n E v e r y F i v e 7 s t u d y (Devereaux, 1985). Devereaux found o n l y 20% o f t h e C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and, s i m i l a r t o t h e e a r l i e r American s t u d y , found a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h number o f u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t e d , m i d d l e c l a s s C a u c a s i a n s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n v o c a t i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d e d u c a t i o n programmes. W h i l e t h e Devereaux s t u d y d i d f o c u s on s e v e r a l forms o f a d u l t l e a r n i n g o f f e r e d by a v a r i e t y o f p r o v i d e r s , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f n o n - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n was u n d e r s c o r e d . I t d i d not i n c l u d e c o l l e g i a l c o n t a c t / d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p s ; r e a d i n g o f p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s 25 o r a t t e n d i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m e e t i n g . These a r e s u b t l e b u t i m p o r t a n t ways f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o a c q u i r e knowledge. Both J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r a , and Devereaux f o c u s e d on t h e d e s c r i p t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h a r e a : How many hou r s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n were s u b j e c t s i n v o l v e d i n ? , Why d i d t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e ? , What t y p e s o f CPE c o u r s e s were t h e y i n v o l v e d i n ? The use o f d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s a r e c r u c i a l i n o b t a i n i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . T h e i r f r e q u e n c y o f use t h e n e n a b l e s r e s e a r c h e r s t o e s t a b l i s h comparisons between d i f f e r e n t p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p s . R e s e a r c h i s d e v e l o p i n g on p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' c o n c e p t i o n s o f knowledge. D a h l g r e n and P r a m l i n g conducted a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y w i t h 7 0 u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s i n t h r e e p r o f e s s i o n a l a r e a s : b u s i n e s s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , e n g i n e e r i n g , and m e d i c i n e . D a h l g r e n and P r a m l i n g h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t p r e s e r v i c e p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g would shape s t u d e n t s ' f u t u r e c o n c e p t i o n s o f Knowledge (1985). They found s t u d e n t s i n b u s i n e s s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and m e d i c i n e d e c o n t e x t u a l i s e d knowledge: t h e y were a b l e t o a n a l y z e many c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s o f a problem, t h e n r e a s s e m b l e t h e i r f i n d i n g s . F o r example, u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l needs o f wo r k e r s i n v o l v e s an awareness o f t h e p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and economic p o l i c i e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e c u l t u r a l needs o f a community. These s t u d e n t s were s a i d t o d e a l w i t h knowledge on a h o l i s t i c l e v e l . T h i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h 26 e n g i n e e r s who t y p i c a l l y c o n t e x t u a l i z e d knowledge, t h a t i s , f o c u s e d on one a s p e c t o f a problem, f o r example i n f l a t i o n c a used i n c r e a s e d l a b o u r demands. Marton, t h e f o u n d e r o f Swedish p h e n o m o n o l g i c a l r e s e a r c h , would d e s c r i b e t h i s as an a t o m i s t i c o r s u r f a c e l e v e l approach t o a p r o blem (F. Marton, P e r s o n a l communication, J u l y 11-12, 1989). As p r a c t i t i o n e r s t h e n a t u r e o f problem s o l v i n g and knowledge were r e v e r s e d , p h y s i c i a n s and b u s i n e s s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s c o n t e x t u a l i z e d knowledge i n t h e form o f a p p l i e d knowledge. Many f e l t t h e i r work environment c r e a t e d t h i s narrow f o c u s approach t o p r o b lem s o l v i n g : t h a t i s , t r e a t t h e d i s e a s e , as opposed t o a systemmic approach t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e cause o f t h e d i s e a s e ; u n l i k e e n g i n e e r s ' whose t r a i n i n g had somehow p r e p a r e d them t o d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e knowledge t o f a c i l i t a t e p r o b l em s o l v i n g . R e s e a r c h e r s c o n t i n u e t o answer, i s i t t h e e n g i n e e r s p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g t h a t makes them b e t t e r h o l i s t i c p r o b lem s o l v e r s ? , o r i s i t t h e t y p e o f l e a r n e r a t t r a c t e d t o e n g i n e e r i n g ? Most p r o f e s s i o n a l s a l s o f e l t t h e i r p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g was not maximized i n t h e work p l a c e ( D a h l g r e n & P r a m l i n g , 1985). Few p r o f e s s i o n a l s would contend t h a t p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g does any more t h a n e q u i p g r a d u a t e s w i t h a g e n e r a l knowledge o f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n (CCPE, 1988). A n a l y s i s o f c o n c e p t i o n s o f knowledge h e l d by p r o f e s s i o n a l s r e p r e s e n t s o n l y one a s p e c t o f r e s e a r c h on how p r o f e s s i o n a l s l e a r n . The c h a i n o f r e s p o n s e model d e v e l o p e d by C r o s s (1981) d e p i c t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n o c c u r r i n g as a consequence o f a 27 sequence o f e v e n t s . F i r s t i n d i v i d u a l s e v a l u a t e and i d e n t i f y t h e i r l e a r n i n g needs, f o l l o w e d by an assessment o f t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward e d u c a t i o n based on p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s . Next i n d i v i d u a l s s e t out t h e g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s t o be a c h i e v e d by t h i s new l e a r n i n g w h i c h i s u s u a l l y d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r l i f e s i t u a t i o n , such as r e t u r n i n g t o t h e work f o r c e . The n e x t s t a g e i d e n t i f i e s t h e p o s s i b l e impediments t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F i n a l l y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n o c c u r s . C r o s s found most a d u l t s (83%) p a r t i c i p a t e d i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n due t o a change i n t h e i r l i f e , such as a d i v o r c e , w h i l e 56% s t a t e d t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d due t o j o b o r c a r e e r needs. Schon's model o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e s u p p o r t s t h e n o t i o n t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e c a p a b l e o f a s s e s s i n g t h e i r own l e a r n i n g needs. H i s argument i s based on two modes o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' p r a c t i c e : " k n o w i n g - i n - a c t i o n " , where t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r p e r f o r m s w i t h o u t b e i n g a b l e t o l o g i c a l l y d e f i n e t h e r e a s o n i n g f o r such a c t i o n ; and " r e f l e c t i o n - i n - a c t i o n " , where t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r d e v e l o p s a r e p e r t o i r e o f knowledge i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t e g r a t e s new knowledge and p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e ( o f t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r o r o t h e r c o l l e a g u e s ) i n t o a p o o l o f r e s o u r c e s , from which can be c o n s t r u c t e d g e n e r a l c o n c e p t s f o r a p p l i c a t i o n (Schon, 1987). R e f e c t i o n - i n - a c t i o n a l l o w s t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r t o e n t e r new work s i t u a t i o n s knowing "how t o " a s s e s s s i t u a t i o n s , u t i l i z e p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s , and implement a c t i o n , t h e n r e f l e c t ( e v a l u a t e ) upon t h o s e implemented a c t i o n s (1987, 1983). S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have used t h i s model t o a n a l y z e 28 p r a c t i c e i n o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s such as t e a c h i n g (Munby, 1987). The l i t e r a t u r e i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' a r e a u n i q u e group o f p e o p l e w i t h i n s o c i e t y . P r o f e s s i o n a l s s o c i o - economic s t a t u s i s a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r w h i c h f a v o r a b l y p r e d i s p o s e s them t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE. Working from t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e f a v o r a b l e d i s p o s i t i o n s toward CPE, Schon p r o v i d e s a model o f how p r o f e s s i o n a l s l e a r n , and how p r o f e s s i o n a l s a p p l y such l e a r n i n g i n t o t h e i r p r a c t i c e . These models s t r e s s f i r s t t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e problem s o l v e r s , and second t h a t problem s o l v i n g d i s t i n g u i s h e s them from " o t h e r " w o r k e r s . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n has caused some p e o p l e t o q u e s t i o n t h e w o r t h o f CPE a t t e m p t i n g t o a s s e s s such a h i g h l y e d u c a t e d group i n s o c i e t y : p r o f e s s i o n a l s (Nyre & R e i l l y , 1979). And, s k e p t i c s c o n t i n u e t o debate whether r e f l e c t i o n - i n - a c t i o n i s a u s e f u l t o o l f o r d e v e l o p i n g CPE f o r t h e f u t u r e because i t assumes a l l p r a c t i t i o n e r s p a r t i c i p a t e e q u a l l y i n t h i s CPE p r o c e s s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n and E d u c a t i o n E d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l i s seen as t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n (Coombs, 1985; I s t a n c e & S c h u l t z , 1987). P r o f e s s i o n a l s , by d e f i n i t i o n , have t y p i c a l l y c ompleted f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a t a u n i v e r s i t y o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l , such as law s c h o o l . Many s o c i a l t h e o r i s t s argue t h a t s o c i a l , economic, and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s p r e d i s p o s e i n d i v i d u a l s f o r a c c e s s i n t o h i g h e r 29 e d u c a t i o n , and t h u s e n t r a n c e i n t o a p r o f e s s i o n ( A r o n o w i t z & G i r o u x , 1985). P r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e f r e q u e n t l y members o f h i g h e r s o c i o - economic groups. T h e i r s a l a r i e s r e f l e c t t h e i r academic a t t a i n m e n t , t h e i r t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e , and performance i n a s p e c i a l i z e d a r e a o f work. Formal e d u c a t i o n can t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i d e r e d as one o f t h e main components f o r e n t r a n c e i n t o any p r o f e s s i o n ( C e r v e r o , 1988; Burke, 1985). CPE c o u l d be seen as a key f a c t o r i n m a i n t a i n i n g and d e v e l o p i n g t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s knowledge and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s once i n t h e work p l a c e , i n b o t h s p e c i f i c and b r o a d e r a r e a s w i t h i n t h a t o c c u p a t i o n . The t y p e o f employer c l e a r l y i n f l u e n c e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE. Large c o r p o r a t i o n s a r e more l i k e l y t o have t h e r e s o u r c e s ( p h y s i c a l , f i n a n c i a l and t h e manpower) t o accommodate i n - h o u s e t r a i n i n g and development programmes f o r employees. The a n n u a l e x p e n d i t u r e on e d u c a t i o n programmes f o r a l l IBM employees i s $9 m i l l i o n ( B e r g e r , 1989), w h i l e V o l v o , t h e Swedish c a r m a n u f a c t u r e r , r e c e n t l y i n v e s t e d $10 m i l l i o n on an e d u c a t i o n programme f o r i t s e n g i n e e r s ( A t k i n s o n , 1987) . S m a l l e r b u s i n e s s o p e r a t i o n s may d e s i r e employee p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE b u t l a c k t h e r e s o u r c e s t o p r o v i d e f o r such a c t i v i t i e s ( S h e l t o n & C r a i g , 1983). The u n e q u a l a c c e s s t o CPE has become u n a c c e p t a b l e t o many p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , whose i n t e r v e n t i o n i s seen as a way o f b a l a n c i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l members t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n CPE a c t i v i t i e s . 30 P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Age Second t o e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , age has p r o v e n t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n p r e d i c t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n (Johnstone & R i v e r a , 1965). Those under t h i r t y a r e t h e most f r e q u e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programmes ( C r o s s , 1981). T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e c e n t s t u d i e s . I n t h e C anadian s u r v e y 'One i n E v e r y F i v e ' a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was found between age and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programmes (Devereaux, 1985). The s t u d y r e v e a l e d a n a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e o f 19%, w h i c h d e c r e a s e d w i t h age; t h o s e 65 y e a r s o r o l d e r had a p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e o f 4%. P r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e most a c t i v e i n CPE a c t i v i t i e s between t h e mid t h i r t i e s t o mid f o r t i e s ( C e r v e r o , 1988). T h i s r e f l e c t s t h e s o c i a l environment w i t h i n a p r o f e s s i o n . S o c i a l e n vironment r e f e r s t o b o t h t h e i r work environment and work c o n d i t i o n s , f a c t o r s w h i c h seem t o i n f l u e n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n (Rubenson, 1983). P r o f e s s i o n a l s t y p i c a l l y e n t e r t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n s i n t h e i r l a t e t w e n t i e s o r e a r l y t h i r t i e s . A few y e a r s a r e (sometimes) needed t o s e t t l e i n t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n and t o become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e p r o f e s s i o n ' s " w o r k i n g r u l e s " b e f o r e e n gaging i n CPE a c t i v i t i e s . CPE t h e n becomes a means t o a c h i e v e c a r e e r g o a l s w i t h i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n . Employers have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been more w i l l i n g t o i n v e s t i n t h e c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n o f younger p r o f e s s i o n a l s because t h e y c o n s i d e r t h e r a t e o f economic r e t u r n t o be g r e a t e r t h a n f o r o l d e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s . O l d e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s , 31 p a s t mid 40's, a r e assumed t o have s e c u r e d t h e i r c a r e e r g o a l s , and a r e seen as l e s s m o t i v a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n CPE. The l i t e r a t u r e s u p p o r t s such n o t i o n s by i n d i c a t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE d e c r e a s e s w i t h age ( C r o s s , 1981; Seaman & S c h r o e d e r , 1970). However, some s t u d i e s s u g g e s t o t h e r w i s e , p o i n t i n g out t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s who a r e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e i r t h i r t i e s a r e more l i k e l y t o remain a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e i r s i x t i e s . These s t u d i e s a r e s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e t h e o r y o f c o n t i n u i t y (Neugarten, & H a v i g h u r s t , 1977). R e s e a r c h e r s p o s t u l a t e t h a t c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s o f l e a r n i n g shape a d u l t s ' ways o f l e a r n i n g . One l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y o f 2008 b l u e c o l l a r w o r k e r s , begun i n 1973 a t t e s t s t o t h e c l a i m t h a t c h r o n o l o g i c age i s l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n a t t i t u d e s toward a d u l t o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n w h i c h a r e f o r m u l a t e d d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d y e a r s (Rubenson, 1983). G i v e n t h e above, Cookson (1986) t a k e s t h e s t a n c e t h a t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f age as a v a r i a b l e has been o v e r s t a t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h . He b e l i e v e s r e s e a r c h e r s have i n c o r r e c t l y e x t r a p o l a t e d c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d y f i n d i n g s such as age and income. That i s , r e s e a r c h e r s have p r e d i c t e d i n t e n d e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE based on i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d from s m a l l s e l e c t groups. He s t a t e s , By c o n t r o l l i n g t h e f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n m e n t s , t h e independent e f f e c t s o f not o n l y age b u t o t h e r a s c r i b e d and a c h i e v e d s o c i a l p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s , have u s u a l l y been reduced t o n o n s i g n i f i c a n t (Cookson, 1986: 134). 32 Taken i n i s o l a t i o n , age may not be a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The t r a d i t i o n a l p o s i t i v i s t i c a pproach t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h o f a n a l y z i n g one o r two v a r i a b l e s i n i s o l a t i o n may be h i n d e r i n g our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l problem. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s n o t j u s t age, o r e d u c a t i o n r e l a t e d , b u t i s r e l a t e d t o a spectrum o f f a c t o r s . O b v i o u s l y t h e r e i s a need t o s t u d y s i n g l e and m u l t i p l e v a r i a b l e s u s i n g b o t h q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h approaches, i n t h e form o f l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s f o r a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE. The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w i l l l o o k a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n as i t p e r t a i n s t o l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g . The c o n c e p t o f one p e r i o d o f f o r m a l t r a i n i n g a t a young age w i l l n o t s u f f i c e i n t h e t w e n t y - f i r s t c e n t u r y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e i n c r e a s e d l i f e e x p e c t a n c y , and t h e f a l l i n g b i r t h r a t e i n Canada mean a c o n t i n u a l l y a g i n g work p o p u l a t i o n t h a t cannot be t o t a l l y r e p l a c e d ( I r o n s i d e , 1984). T h e r e f o r e a t t i t u d e s commonly h e l d toward t h e a g i n g worker i n o u r s o c i e t y w i l l need t o be e v a l u a t e d by a l l s e c t o r s i n t h e w o r k f o r c e . CPE i s c o n s i d e r e d a component t o one's l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g regime. I n t o d a y ' s w o r k f o r c e , i n b o t h t h e p r o f e s s i o n s and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n s , t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments a r e a n t i c i p a t e d t o c r e a t e t h e need f o r f r e q u e n t c a r e e r o r j o b changes (Oddi, 1986,-1987). L i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g w i l l not o n l y become n e c e s s a r y i n most p r o f e s s i o n s due t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes i n t h e work p l a c e , and j o b 33 r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (H. M e n z i e s , p e r s o n a l communication, June 1, 1989), b u t w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d a v a l u a b l e human r e s o u r c e t o o l i n t h e f u t u r e ( T o f f l e r , 1980). Examples o f employers' a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e b e n e f i t s o f s u p p o r t i n g CPE programmes a r e becoming more e v i d e n t a c r o s s a wide spectrum o f w o r k p l a c e s . V o l v o , t h e Swedish c a r m a n u f a c t u r e r , found i t s new e n g i n e e r s had d i f f i c u l t y c ommunicating t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i t s more s e n i o r e n g i n e e r s . Both groups had d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i c a l language. R a t h e r t h a n r e p l a c e t h e o l d e r e n g i n e e r s , whose y e a r s o f p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e would be l o s t , t h e company d e v e l o p e d i n - h o u s e t r a i n i n g programmes t o meet t h e i r employees' needs. Moody contends t h a t our f u t u r e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l economies w i l l depend on r e t r a i n i n g o f a d u l t s and o l d e r w o r k e r s i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s on a w o r l d market ( A t k i n s o n , 1987). Both s o c i e t a l and t e c h n i c a l changes w i l l encourage t h e much n e g l e c t e d a r e a o f l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a g i n g . Age has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h . I n c r e a s i n g e v i d e n c e i s g a t h e r i n g t h a t s u g g e s t s t h e p r o c e s s o f e x t r a p o l a t i n g c r o s s s e c t i o n a l age f i n d i n g s i s m i s l e a d i n g . L o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s more dependent on c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s o f e d u c a t i o n t h a t age p e r se. I n u n d e r s t a n d i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n more c o m p l e t e l y i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e v i e w why a d u l t s o p t f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE. 34 B a r r i e r s t o P a r t i c i p a t i o n We know a d u l t s f r e q u e n t l y u n d e r t a k e e d u c a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s when t h e y f a c e a p e r s o n a l c r i s i s , e x p e r i e n c e d i s e n c h a n t m e n t i n t h e i r w o r k p l a c e , o r have a sense o f inadequacy (Campbell, 1983) . And, t h e f o c u s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h has u s u a l l y been on a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s , and t h e i r b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s i s p r i m a r i l y a m a t t e r o f e x p e d i e n c y on t h e p a r t o f e d u c a t o r s and programme p l a n n e r s . Data from s t u d i e s on b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e f r e q u e n t l y c o n ducted on a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s t h e n e x t r a p o l a t e d t o t h e e s t i m a t e d p o p u l a t i o n o f non- p a r t i c i p a n t s . The p r e v a l e n t approaches t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h a r e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s . Y et t h e v e r y methods used may a c t as b a r r i e r s : q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e o f t e n i m p e r s o n a l w h i l e i n t e r v i e w s a r e t i m e consuming (Knox, 1987; G l a s s & H o p k i n s , 1989). There a r e t h r e e r e c o g n i z e d forms o f b a r r i e r s : 1) s i t u a t i o n a l b a r r i e r s a r i s i n g from an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s such as c o s t o f programme, o r l a c k o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; 2) i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a r r i e r s a r e t h o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and b u r e a u c r a t i c p r o c e d u r e s t h a t a c t t o e x c l u d e t h e i n d i v i d u a l , such as f o r m a l r e q u i r e m e n t s ; 3) d i s p o s i t i o n a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s a r e t h o s e a r i s i n g from t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t as a l e a r n e r ( C r o s s , 1981 Darkenwald & Merriam, 1982). The economic c l i m a t e w i t h i n g e o s c i e n c e can o p e r a t e as a s i t u a t i o n a l b a r r i e r s t o g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE. 35 The c o s t o f a programme may be s i g n i f i c a n t b a r r i e r d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f economic r e c e s s i o n when unemployment i s h i g h e r i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n , whereas t h e c o s t i n terms o f t i m e away from work may be g r e a t e r d u r i n g h e a l t h y economic p e r i o d s . I n s t i t u t i o n a l b a r r i e r s a r e more a p p a r e n t f o r g e o s c i e n t i s t s who l i v e and/or work i n g e o g r a p h i c a l l y remote a r e a s . They do n o t have a c c e s s t o c e n t r e s o f e d u c a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e t h e c o s t o f e d u c a t i o n f o r such g e o s c i e n t i s t s i s i n c r e a s e d t h r o u g h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s . I n a d d i t i o n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n r e s u l t s i n l a r g e numbers o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s w o r k i n g i n i s o l a t i o n w i t h o u t c o l l e g i a l s u p p o r t . D i s p o s i t i o n a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e d i f f i c u l t t o measure. C r o s s b e l i e v e s c u r r e n t knowledge on d i s p o s i t i o n a l b a r r i e r s may be o n l y t h e t i p o f t h e i c e b e r g . S t u d i e s show o n l y 5-15 p e r c e n t o f p o t e n t i a l l e a r n e r s t h i n k t h e s e b a r r i e r s i n h i b i t p a r t i c i p a t i o n (1981 p.106) She b e l i e v e s i t e a s i e r f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o say t h e i r n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a r e s u l t o f " c o s t s " , o r " l a c k o f t i m e " r a t h e r t h a n " b e i n g t o o o l d " , o r " l a c k o f a b i l i t y " I n s t u d i e s w h i c h have asked r e s p o n d e n t s t o c i t e b a r r i e r s t h a t o t h e r a d u l t s might f i n d i n h i b i t i v e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE, t h e y found " l a c k o f i n t e r e s t " and " i n a b i l i t y t o do t h e work" ( P e t e r s o n e t a l , 1982) were t h e main b a r r i e r s . However, when t h e same i n d i v i d u a l s were asked t o i n d i c a t e how t h e s e b a r r i e r s a f f e c t e d t h e i r own 36 p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were r a t e d as h a v i n g a m i n i m a l e f f e c t ( i b i d ) . S i t u a t i o n a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l and d i s p o s i t i o n a l b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n may be i n t e r n a l l y c r e a t e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n , o r be e x t e r n a l . These b a r r i e r s a f f e c t a l l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s , i n c l u d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s . The c o s t o f e d u c a t i o n and t h e l a c k o f t i m e a r e t h e most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d r e a s o n s f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a d u l t s (Rubenson, 1983). A l t h o u g h t h e m a j o r i t y o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s do p a r t i c i p a t e i n CPE, t h e q u e s t i o n i s , " s h o u l d we ( t h e p u b l i c , t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n ) be s a t i s f i e d w i t h o n l y t h e m a j o r i t y p a r t i c i p a t i n g ? " Some i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s have been eager t o consume "new" t e c h n o l o g i e s , f o r example, computers, w h i l e o t h e r s have f e a r e d them (Menzies, 1982). Those who w i l l i n g l y a c c e p t t h e new d i r e c t i o n s o c c u r r i n g i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n s a r e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n many forms o f CPE. T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e c e n t CPE s t u d i e s and s u r v e y s i n e n g i n e e r i n g where p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s were low, b u t where a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o o k more t h a n f o u r a c t i v i t i e s p e r y e a r ( C e r v e r o , M i l l e r , & Dimmock 1986; A. Wessen, p e r s o n a l communication, September 15, 1988). S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s have been r e p o r t e d i n p h y s i o t h e r a p y (Denford, 1983) and n u r s i n g ( Z i b r i k , 1983). There i s a need f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and programme p l a n n e r s t o acknowledge t h a t even p r o f e s s i o n a l s p e r c e i v e b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n . One 37 avenue o f r e s e a r c h w h i c h p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t s i n t o non- p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a t t i t u d e s t oward CPE. A t t i t u d e s Toward CPE A t t i t u d e i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t h e d i s p o s i t i o n one f e e l s towards a s p e c i f i c s t i m u l u s ; i n t h i s i n s t a n c e t h e s t i m u l u s would be p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE. G r o t e l u e s c h e n and C a u l l e y (1977, p. 25) s u g g e s t t h a t a " p r o f e s s i o n a l ' s a t t i t u d e i s dependent on h i s o r h e r judgement o f t h e w o r t h o f consequences." They a s c e r t a i n s t u d y i n g a t t i t u d e s w i l l e x p l a i n "why" p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t e u n l i k e d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s w h i c h m e r e l y r e p o r t d i s c r e p a n c i e s among d i f f e r e n t g roups o f l e a r n e r s . Z i b i r k (1983) by c o n t r a s t , s t a t e s " a t t i t u d e s a r e s i m p l y d e s c r i p t i v e e v a l u a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e l i t t l e t o our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what prompts h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o p a r t i c i p a t e " (p. 3 2 ) . Though she may be c o r r e c t i n s a y i n g a t t i t u d e s a r e e v a l u a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s , t h e y have p r o v i d e d i n s i g h t s as t o "why" p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t e i n CPE. However, a t t i t u d e s t oward c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n do n o t a l w a y s r e f l e c t t h e e x t e n t o f e d u c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r (Seaman & S c h r o e d e r , 1970, p. 104), and s h o u l d not be used as a p r e d i c t o r o f CPE p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( G r o t e l e u s c h e n and C a u l l e y , 1977). A t t i t u d e s a r e o f t e n p r o d u c t s o f our u n c o n s c i o u s s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n i n g . As such, t h e y a r e f r e q u e n t l y d i f f i c u l t f o r e i t h e r t h e l e a r n e r o r r e s e a r c h e r t o i d e n t i f y , and even i f i d e n t i f i e d t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may be a r e f l e c t i o n o f 38 r e s e a r c h e r ' s own b i a s e s . Thus, measuring, and i n t e r p r e t i n g a t t i t u d e s has p r o v e n t o be a c h a l l e n g e f o r many r e s e a r c h e r s . To d a t e t h e r e have been s e v e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l models proposed f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n b u t i t seems t o o e a r l y t o a c c l a i m any one as b e i n g a comprehensive, i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y framework. However, t h e r e does seem t o be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between one's a t t i t u d e s t o e d u c a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r non- p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S t u d i e s i n p h y s i o t h e r a p y , e n g i n e e r i n g , and n u r s i n g have shown p r o f e s s i o n a l s who a r e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s have f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e s toward CPE compared t o t h e i r non- p a r t i c i p a t i n g c o u n t e r p a r t s ( C u r r a n , 1983; C e r v e r o , M i l l e r , Dimmock, 1986; T i t c h e n , 1987). These a t t i t u d e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g one's f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d o f e d u c a t i o n (Rubenson, 1983). I f i t i s t r u e t h a t most p r o f e s s i o n a l s h o l d p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward e d u c a t i o n , why s h o u l d r e s e a r c h e r s be h e s i t a n t about such a pronouncement? I n c r e a s i n g l y p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e b e i n g c a l l e d upon by t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e p u b l i c and l e g i s l a t i v e b o d i e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n CPE f o r t h e purpose o f m a i n t a i n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l membership, m a i n t a i n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l l i c e n s u r e , and w e l l as f o r p e r s o n a l / p r o f e s s i o n a l growth. Programme p l a n n e r s and e d u c a t o r s have been known t o use r e s u l t s from a t t i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y : as a p r e d i c t o r o f b o t h p a r t i c i p a n t s ' i n t e n d e d l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n t e n t . C u r r e n t l y t h e r e a r e no a c c u r a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r e d i c t o r s , and l e a r n e r s a t t i t u d e s toward e d u c a t i o n a l o n e i s t o o 39 s u b j e c t i v e a v a r i a b l e t o be used i n i s o l a t i o n . However, r e s e a r c h e r s have found t h a t i d e n t i f y i n g t h e l e a r n e r s ' needs t o be a r e a s o n a b l y r e l i a b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r e d i c t o r . F e l t Needs R e s e a r c h e r s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n have produced a m y r i a d o f d e f i n i t i o n s f o r t h e term "need" ( G r i f f i t h , 1978; Sork, 1986). Bradshaw (1972) d e f i n e d need as h a v i n g f o u r a s p e c t s : 1) n o r m a t i v e ; where need i s d i a g n o s e d by an e x p e r t f o r a s p e c i f i c a u d i e n c e and s i t u a t i o n , such as a t a s k f o r c e p r e s c r i b i n g l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s ; 2) c o m p a r a t i v e need where s e v e r a l s i m i l a r group r e c e i v e a s i m i l a r s e r v i c e t h e i r outcomes a r e examined, t h e n s t a n d a r d s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d by an e x t e r n a l group, such as a p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n d e t e r m i n i n g c r i t e r i a f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l r e g i s t r a t i o n ; 3) f e l t need, a need p e r c e i v e d by t h e r e c i p i e n t / c l i e n t ; and 4) e x p r e s s e d need, w h i c h i s a f e l t need t u r n e d i n t o a c t i o n . B e a t t y (1981) o f f e r s a s i m p l i f i e d d e f i n i t i o n o f need: " t h e measurable d i s c r e p a n c y e x i s t i n g between a p r e s e n t s t a t e o f a f f a i r s as a s s e r t e d e i t h e r by an xowner' o f need o r by an x a u t h o r i t y ' on need" (p.40). From t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s i t can be seen t h a t need comes i n t o two d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s : t h e e x t e r n a l f o r c e , and t h e i n t e r n a l f o r c e . Houle (1980) terms t h e s e d i v i s i o n s as x a s c r i b e d ' and x f e l t need' whereas Sork (1986) c a l l s them ^ p r e s c r i b e d ' (as denoted by s o c i e t a l s t a n d a r d s ) and x m o t i v a t i o n a l ' needs ( i n d i v i d u a l wants f o r 40 p e r s o n a l g a i n ) . T a b l e 1 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l l t h e needs d e f i n i t i o n s p r e s e n t e d h e r e . T a b l e 1 A s c h e m a t i c Diagram o f t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p between Needs D e f i n i t i o n s GENERAL > SPECIFIC ASCRIBED NORMATIVE EXTERNAL PRESCRIBED .COMPARATIVE INTERNAL FELT MOTIVATIONAL FELT EXPRESSED I n t h e s p e c i f i c g r o u p i n g o f needs s t u d i e s found t h a t f e l t needs c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e number o f " w o u l d - b e - l e a r n e r s " , w h i l e e x p r e s s e d needs matched a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s (Carp, P e t e r s o n , & R o e l f s , 1974). Debate c o n t i n u e s as t o who s h o u l d , a s s e s s l e a r n e r s needs, e d u c a t o r s , p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( L e B r e t o n , 1979) . The m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n has r e l i e d upon i t s p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r t h e i r needs assessments (Manning & P e t i t , 1987) whereas t h e e n g i n e e r i n g and g e o s c i e n c e communities have l e f t t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s (APEGGA, 1885; CGAB, 1985). I n summary, t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f CPE adopted by many p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been vague. 41 P r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e assumed t o be c a p a b l e problem s o l v e r s f o r a l l s i t u a t i o n s be i t i n e d u c a t i o n a l , s c i e n t i f i c o r t e c h n i c a l a r e a s . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a s s e s s i n g l e a r n i n g needs, and d e t e r m i n i n g a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n i n CPE i s f r e q u e n t l y l e f t t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i t i o n e r . F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r r e s e a r c h e r s t o u n d e r s t a n d how p r o f e s s i o n a l s l e a r n , and what m o t i v a t e s them t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n CPE. The l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e a ppears t o be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : age, e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t , a t t i t u d e toward CPE; age; e d u c a t i o n l e v e l ; t y p e o f l e a r n e r ; b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n and f e l t needs. More and more CPE i s used not o n l y as an i n s t r u m e n t t o g u a r d a g a i n s t p r o f e s s i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e by p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , b u t as a p r o x y measure o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r f o r m a n c e . The demand f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y has r e s u l t e d from i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c f o c u s and l i t i g a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s r e c o g n i z i n g t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between r h e t o r i c and p r a c t i c e . The l i t e r a t u r e i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e a u n i q u e group o f l e a r n e r s . T h e i r p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i s seen as an i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r i n s h a p i n g t h e c o n c e p t i o n s o f knowledge h e l d by p r o f e s s i o n a l s . But w i t h i n t h i s c o l l e c t i v e e x i s t a wide v a r i e t y o f l e a r n i n g modes, as Houle and o t h e r s have dem o n s t r a t e d . P r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e not immune t o e x p e r i e n c i n g b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w has paved t h e way f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r o l e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n , and i t s r o l e i n CPE w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f g e o s c i e n c e i n C h a p t e r 3. 43 CHAPTER 3: THE PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATION AND ITS ROLE IN CPE C h a p t e r Three p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and t h e i r r o l e i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f CPE f o r t h e i r members. The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c r i t e r i a f o r e n t r a n c e i n t o , and p r a c t i c e i n , t h e p r o f e s s i o n s as w e l l as t h e common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h e l d by p r o f e s s i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s w i l l p r o v i d e s u p p o r t t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s c l a i m t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e a " u n i q u e " group o f a d u l t s and a d u l t l e a r n e r s . The d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a p r o f e s s i o n w i l l be f o l l o w e d by t h r e e s e c t i o n s on t h e r o l e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n : p r o t e c t i n g i t s members; p r o t e c t i n g t h e p u b l i c ; and p r o v i d i n g a c o l l e g i a l network. The f i n a l s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l i n c l u d e t h e r o l e o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n i n CPE. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a P r o f e s s i o n I n t h e i r e a r l y work on t h e p r o f e s s i o n s C a r r - S a u n d e r s and W i l s o n (1928) assumed p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o i n c l u d e : b e i n g male, from a m i d d l e t o upper s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l , p o s s e s s i n g a l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n from a u n i v e r s i t y , and p r o v i d i n g a p a i d s e r v i c e ( B ecker, 1962). Debate has ensued d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s r e g a r d i n g t h e u t i l i t y o f c r e a t i n g a d e f i n i t i o n f o r 11 a p r o f e s s i o n " ( W i l e n s k y , 1964) . C a r r - S a u n d e r s and W i l s o n ' s p r e d i c t i o n t h a t most o c c u p a t i o n s would become p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d c o u l d be more a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d as o c c u p a t i o n s s t r u g g l i n g f o r t h e s t a t u s o f a p r o f e s s i o n t h r o u g h t h e i d e o l o g y o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . T h e i r 44 argument has been c o n f i r m e d by W i l e n s k y ' s (19 64) s t u d y , w h i c h found fewer t h a n 40 o c c u p a t i o n s i n t h e U.S t h a t c o m p l i e d w i t h h i s l a r g e l y s t a t i c c r i t e r i a o f a p r o f e s s i o n . H i s c r i t e r i a f o r an o c c u p a t i o n t o h o l d t h e p o s i t i o n o f a p r o f e s s i o n i n c l u d e d : members h a v i n g u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g ; members b e l o n g i n g t o a p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i c h o p e r a t e d under codes o f e t h i c s ; and p r o v i d i n g a s e r v i c e t o f e e p a y i n g c l i e n t s (pp. 144) O c c u p a t i o n s t h a t f a i l t o meet t h e f u l l c r i t e r i a o f t h e s e t r a d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n s a r e l a b e l e d as s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n s , q u a s i - p r o f e s s i o n s , p a r a p r o f e s s i o n s o r m a r g i n a l p r o f e s s i o n s . Friedman s u p p o r t s W i l e n s k y ' s i n c l u s i o n o f s e r v i c e and knowledge as b e i n g key elements i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n : A p r o c e s s by whi c h an o r g a n i z e d o c c u p a t i o n , u s u a l l y b u t not always by making a c l a i m t o s p e c i a l e s o t e r i c competence and t o c o n c e r n f o r t h e q u a l i t y o f i t s work and i t s b e n e f i t s t o s o c i e t y , o b t a i n s t h e e x c l u s i v e r i g h t t o p e r f o r m a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f work, c o n t r o l t r a i n i n g f o r and a c c e s s t o i t , and t h e r i g h t o f d e t e r m i n i n g and e v a l u a t i n g t h e way t h e work i s performed (1979, p.22). T h i s p r o c e s s i s f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an a s s o c i a t i o n . A p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n p r o v i d e s a s e r v i c e t o a group o f p e o p l e who have u n d e r t a k e n s p e c i a l i z e d academic and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g and s h a r e a common p h i l o s o p h y o f p r a c t i c e ( G r o s s , 1982). E n g e l and H a l l (1973) p r o v i d e d a c o n c i s e t a b l e o f comparisons o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t r a d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n s as d e f i n e d i n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s o f t h e l a t e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y ( T a b l e 2 ) . 45 T a b l e 2 E v o l v i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s T r a d i t i o n a l M o d i f i e d 1. I s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l p r o v i d e s Team p r o v i d e s s e r v i c e , s e r v i c e . 2. Knowledge from a s i n g l e Knowledge from d i v e r s e d i s c i p l i n e t y p i c a l l y used. f i e l d s used. 3. R emuneration p r e d o m i n a n t l y Remuneration f e e - f o r s e r v i c e . p r e d o m i n a n t l y by s a l a r y . 4. A l t r u i s m : S e l f l e s s s e r v i c e A l t r u i s m : I n c r e a s e d l i m i t e d by e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f l e s s s e r v i c e . 5. R e s t r i c t e d c o l l e a g u e e v a l u a t i o n I n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r o f p r o d u c t . c o l l e a g u e e v a l u a t i o n o f p r o d u c t . 6. P r i v a c y i n c l i e n t - p r o f e s s i o n a l Decreased p r i v a c y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p . c l i e n t - p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s t a b l e d e m o n s t r a t e s , a c c o r d i n g t o E n g e l and H a l l , t h a t t h e p r o f e s s i o n s a r e not s t a t i c o r c o n s e r v a t i v e b u t re s p o n d t o t h e changes i n s o c i e t y . However, t h e y have assumed t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as a g i v e n , i g n o r i n g many s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s e s o f d e v e l o p i n g p r o f e s s i o n s such a s , t h e s t r u g g l e f o r surgeons t o a t t a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s (Moore, 1970; Bradshaw, 1978). Surgeons won t h e i r c l a i m t o be p r o f e s s i o n a l s by d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e i r s k i l l s on t h e b a t t l e f r o n t , t o t h e p u b l i c h u m i l i a t i o n o f d o c t o r s . The m e d i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n q u i c k l y r e c r u i t e d surgeons t o be members o f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n (Burke, 1985). A l l o c c u p a t i o n s s t r i v i n g f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s a r e i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e day. I n t o d a y ' s complex and c o n t i n u a l l y c h a n g i n g s o c i e t y t h e c o n t e x t and r o l e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n s i s a l s o c h a n g i n g . The 46 a p p a r e n t f l e x i b i l i t y o f p r o f e s s i o n s i n t h e i r approach t o p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n may be a r e s u l t o f t h e n e c e s s i t y t o adapt t o c o n t i n u a l s o c i e t a l changes (Houle, 1980) The i d e a l s o f a p r o f e s s i o n a r e m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s , w h i c h a r e i n t u r n f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n (Moore, 1970)• P r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s o p e r a t e as a c o l l e c t i v e : i n d i v i d u a l members w i t h i n a p r o f e s s i o n j o i n t o form a group w i t h a common purpose. R e c u r r i n g themes o c c u r i n d i s c u s s i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s : power, c o n t r o l , and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . These themes w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t h r e e g e n e r a l r o l e s an a s s o c i a t i o n i s s a i d t o p e r f o r m : a) t o p r o v i d e membership p r o t e c t i o n ; b) t o p r o t e c t t h e p u b l i c ; and c) t o p r o v i d e a communication network f o r i t s members ( J a r v i s , 198 3 ) . P r o t e c t i o n o f Members P r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a c t as g a t e k e e p e r s t o a p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n ( W i l e n s k y 1964, p.142). T h i s e n a b l e s t h e members t o c o n t r o l who e n t e r s t h e p r o f e s s i o n as t h e y e s t a b l i s h t h e e d u c a t i o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p e o p l e who a s p i r e t o p r a c t i c e i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n . I n f l u e n c e on p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g c u r r i c u l u m o c c u r s t h r o u g h t h e t h r e e mechanisms o f a c c r e d i t a t i o n , v a l i d a t i o n , and assessment. A c c r e d i t a t i o n i s t h e p r o c e s s whereby t h e a s s o c i a t i o n a s s e s s e s t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f a g r a n t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n b u t has no d i r e c t c o n t r o l o v e r t h e c u r r i c u l u m . However, 47 a c c r e d i t a t i o n s t a n d a r d s a r e f r e q u e n t l y t h o s e t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n deems n e c e s s a r y f o r membership i n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n . F o r example, The Canadian G e o s c i e n c e A c c r e d i t a t i o n Board (Marr, 1985), e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e u m b r e l l a o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e Canadian G e o s c i e n c e C o u n c i l (CGC) d u r i n g t h e mid 1980's, r e v i e w s u n d e r g r a d u a t e programmes a t t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t s u c c e s s f u l l y meet/pass t h e r e v i e w b o a r d g a i n a h i g h e r s t a t u s o f a p p r o v a l by t h o s e i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n , and s u b s e q u e n t l y r e c e i v e more acknowledgement o f i t s s t u d e n t s and r e s e a r c h . V a l i d a t i o n i s a p r o c e d u r e f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f a p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e , not t h e e n t i r e programme, wh i c h may be c o n d u c t e d by t h e a s s o c i a t i o n , u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y , t h e CGC o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e above. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n may a s s e s s i n d i v i d u a l g r a d u a t e s upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e i r f o r m a l p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g t o a s c e r t a i n t h e i r c o n t e n t knowledge o f t h e d i s c i p l i n e . T h i s i s t h e case i n law and m e d i c i n e where b o a r d e x a m i n a t i o n s a r e r e q u i r e d f o l l o w i n g e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and b e f o r e commencing p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e . C r e a t i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r membership i n an a s s o c i a t i o n s e r v e s t o e s t a b l i s h a minimum l e v e l o f p r o f e s s i o n a l competency, a t l e a s t a t t h e t i m e o f e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n ( B l e d s t e i n , 1976). D e m o n s t r a t i o n o f r e q u i r e d knowledge and s k i l l s v a r i e s from a s s o c i a t i o n t o a s s o c i a t i o n . A d m i s s i o n i n t o t h e G e o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada r e q u i r e s 48 d o c u m e n t a t i o n i n d i c a t i n g one's e d u c a t i o n and work e x p e r i e n c e . As an a f f i l i a t e o f t h e GAC, members o f t h e MDD must a l s o s a t i s f y t h e GAC's c r i t e r i a f o r a d m i s s i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h e r e has been l i m i t e d a c c e s s i n t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n s f o r women, e t h n i c groups, o r t h o s e from low s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s ( F o x - K e l l e r , 1985). T h i s c o n t i n u e s t o be t h e c a s e i n g e o s c i e n c e . The American G e o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e has begun a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y w i t h 2 702 Canadian g e o s c i e n t i s t s f o r t h e purpose o f c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e demographics o f t h i s p r o f e s s i o n . The f i r s t s t u d y r e v e a l e d 92% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were male, and 96% were C a u c a s i a n (1988). A l t h o u g h o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s such as m e d i c i n e and e n g i n e e r i n g do not show t h e same d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n as g e o s c i e n c e , t h e u n d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by c e r t a i n m i n o r i t i e s ( a l t h o u g h t e c h n i c a l l y women a r e not a m i n o r i t y i n number) c o n t i n u e s i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s . Some s o c i o l o g i s t s and f e m i n i s t s h e a t e d l y c o n t e s t t h a t a c c e s s i n t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n s and t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n s w i l l n o t change s i g n i f i c a n t l y , g i v e n t h e gender, e t h n i c , and c u l t u r a l b i a s e s o f our s o c i e t y . I n a d d i t i o n , c a r e e r s e l e c t i o n f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n s commences i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g . The m a s c u l i n e p o r t r a y a l o f many p r o f e s s i o n s , and t h e s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s f o r women t o be mothers, have been n e g a t i v e f a c t o r s i n a t t r a c t i n g f e males i n t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n s . D e s p i t e t h e i r e q u a l academic s k i l l s , f ewer women e n t e r t h e p r o f e s s i o n s t h a n men ( F o x - K e l l e r , 1985; A r o n o w i t z and G i r o u x , 1985). S o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c 49 i m b a l a n c e s i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s a r e n o t s y s t e m i c o f a s s o c i a t i o n s p e r se, b u t a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e b i a s e s i n h e r e n t i n s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . Where a s s o c i a t i o n s m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l o v e r CPE a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e i r members t h e degree o f c o n t r o l and form o f c o n t r o l v a r y . Some a s s o c i a t i o n s have r e q u i r e d CPE u n i t s o r CPE t i m e i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n membership, w h i c h i s d i f f e r e n t from MCPE w h i c h i s r e q u i r e d l e a r n i n g f o r c o n t i n u e d p r a c t i c e i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n t h a t i s f r e q u e n t l y e n a c t e d by l e g i s l a t i o n ( F e l c h , 1987). I t would be i n c o r r e c t t o assume a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e g u a r d i a n s o f e x c e l l e n c e and p u r i t y . P r o f e s s i o n s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y c l u n g t o t h e i r r i g h t t o a s p e c i f i c body o f knowledge, and have sought t h e a l l e g i a n c e s o f t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s w h i c h have a c t e d t o a c c l a i m such knowledge as worthy o f academic p u r s u i t . A l l o w i n g u n i v e r s i t i e s a c c e s s i n t o a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d o f s t u d y , and e n t r u s t i n g t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s t o t r a i n f u t u r e p r a c t i t i o n e r s means t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s l o s e a c e r t a i n amount o f c o n t r o l o v e r t h e p r o f e s s i o n . P r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o r e g a i n g r e a t e r c o n t r o l o f t h e i r members t h r o u g h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a c c r e d i t a t i o n b o a r d s , f o r example t h e APEGGA (1985), and t h e CGAB (1985), b o t h o f whom have e s t a b l i s h g u i d e l i n e s f o r e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n as w e l l as f o r p r a c t i c e . That t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s have been a b l e t o do t h i s i s p a r t l y due t o t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n a u n i v e r s i t y w h i c h 50 sometimes f a i l t o r e a l i z e t h e r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g needs o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n i n d u s t r y . A c c o r d i n g l y , many a s s o c i a t i o n s have become ven d o r s o f CPE i n an at t e m p t t o meet t h e i r members' l e a r n i n g needs. The p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s ' i n v o l v e m e n t i n CPE i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y u n d e r t a k e n f o r u n s e l f i s h r e a s o n s , as CPE i s p r o v i n g t o be an a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e o f revenue f o r i t s p r o v i d e r s be t h e y a s s o c i a t i o n s , government, i n d u s t r y o r e n t r e p r e n e u r s . To summarize, many p r o f e s s i o n a l s argue t h a t CPE i s n e c e s s a r y t o demonstrate p r o f e s s i o n a l competency t o t h o s e o u t s i d e t h e p r o f e s s i o n , w h i l e o t h e r s argue t h e n o t i o n o f CPE and c e r t a i n l y MCPE undermines t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f b e i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l : t h e a b i l i t y t o a s s e s s one's needs, and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o r e c t i f y t h e s e needs i n an a p p r o p r i a t e manner. L i m i t e d CPE c o u r s e s e l e c t i o n , and t h e l a c k o f programmes t h a t meet t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s r e q u i r e m e n t s have been s o u r c e s o f f r u s t r a t i o n f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( D e n f o r d , 1983). T h i s l a c k o f c o u r s e s e l e c t i o n i s a p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s i n v o l v e m e n t i n CPE, t h e y a r e t h e n a b l e t o m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l o v e r t h e c o u r s e c o n t e n t and f a c i l i t a t o r s . Such a s s e r t i v e a c t i o n by t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s ' i n CPE e n s u r e s b o t h i t s members and t h e p u b l i c o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s commitment t o a c c e p t a b l e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s . The a s s o c i a t i o n s e x i s t e n c e have a l s o been p r e m i s e d on p r o t e c t i n g i t s ' members. P r o f e s s i o n a l s have a t t a i n e d s o c i a l and economic p o s i t i o n s as a r e s u l t o f l e n g t h y academic t r a i n i n g w h i c h have a l l o w e d them a c c e s s t o s t a t i o n s o f 51 "power" i n s o c i e t y . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s s t r i v e t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r s t a t u s t h r o u g h r i g i d e n t r a n c e c r i t e r i a i n t o a p r o f e s s i o n , and t h r o u g h j o i n i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s . P r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and e n t r a n c e e x a m i n a t i o n s i n t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n s a r e a means o f m o n i t o r i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g a c c e s s i n t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n s . Some c o n s i d e r CPE t o be a form o f m o n i t o r i n g . A d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f m o n i t o r i n g a s t u d e n t d u r i n g p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n and t h a t o f CPE, i s t h e y o c c u r once. By c o n t r a s t CPE i s f r e q u e n t l y employed by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , and employers, as an on - g o i n g r i t u a l o f c o n t r o l o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s . P r o f e s s i o n a l s have m a i n t a i n e d a d i s t a n c e between t h e l a y p e r s o n and t h e m s e l v e s t h r o u g h l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o t h e i r body o f knowledge, t h e r e b y r e i n f o r c i n g t h e n o t i o n o f " e x p e r t . " P r o t e c t i o n o f t h e P u b l i c P r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s s e r v e t o p r o t e c t t h e p u b l i c from incompetent and u n e t h i c a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s . As s e l f - g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s , p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s employ a v a r i e t y o f mechanisms t o p o l i c e members, from MCPE t o f o r m a l p e e r r e v i e w b o a r d s , (Manning & P e t i t , 1987). C r i t i c s argue t h a t s u ch dominance o f a p r o f e s s i o n by an a s s o c i a t i o n undermines t h e power and c o n t r o l o f i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s t o make i n f o r m e d d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r own w e l f a r e ( I l l i c h , 1977). F o r example, p o l i c i n g by a r e v i e w b o a r d depends upon t h e p u b l i c making t h e i n i t i a l c o m p l a i n t a g a i n s t a p r o f e s s i o n a l . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h e a s s o c i a t i o n assumes t h e 52 p u b l i c t o be w e l l i n f o r m e d about i t s r e c o u r s e t o p r o c e d u r e s a g a i n s t incompetent o r f r a u d u l e n t p r a c t i t i o n e r s . L i k e w i s e , some a s s o c i a t i o n s assume t h e i r members, who a r e t r a i n e d problem s o l v e r s , can, and w i l l r e c t i f y t h e i r a r e a s o f e d u c a t i o n a l / p r o f e s s i o n a l need. The APEGGA's s u g g e s t e d g u i d e l i n e s f o r p r a c t i c e i n c l u d e : a t t e n d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l f u n c t i o n s ; m a i n t a i n i n g a c u r r e n t p r o f e s s i o n a l l i b r a r y a r e c o n s i d e r e d as d e m o n s t r a t i v e a c t s o f CPE (APEGGA, 1985, p. 3 6 ) ) . However, t h e i r g u i d e l i n e s i m p l y t h a t i t i s t h e i n d i v i d u a l s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a s s e s s and d i a g n o s e t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l needs. Other p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , such as t h e RNABC, have o p t e d t o p r e s c r i b e CPE f o r i t s members. The P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n as a Network P r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e i m p o r t a n t i n f a c i l i t a t i n g p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s c o l l e g i a l networks and f o r d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n as a p r o f e s s i o n ( C a r r - S a u n d e r s & W i l s o n , 1928, pp.298-302). T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e c a s e i n g e o s c i e n c e , where i n d i v i d u a l s may work i n g e o g r a p h i c a l i s o l a t i o n , o r work f o r s m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t can not o f f e r t h e r e s o u r c e s f o r c o l l e g i a l s u p p o r t . The a s s o c i a t i o n t h e n becomes a v e h i c l e f o r c o n n e c t i n g not o n l y s i m i l a r minded p r o f e s s i o n a l s , b u t a l s o f o r e x p o s i n g p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o a w i d e r d i v e r s i t y o f c o l l e a g u e s t h a n t h e y may o t h e r w i s e e n c o u n t e r i n t h e work p l a c e . The s t r e n g t h o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l network i s i n i t s a b i l i t y t o s u p p o r t i t s own community. Each a s s o c i a t i o n p r o v i d e s v a r y i n g degrees o f s u p p o r t / p r o t e c t i o n depending 53 upon i t s p l a c e i n a h i e r a r c h y o f p r o f e s s i o n a l development w h i c h i n d i c a t e s i t s power r e l a t i v e t o any o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n . Many o c c u p a t i o n s adopt t h e t i t l e o f p r o f e s s i o n i n name o n l y , s u ch as computer s c i e n c e , w h i l e o t h e r s have some b u t not a l l o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a t r a d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n . B u s i n e s s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , f o r example, l a c k t h e l e g a l a u t h o r i z a t i o n t o s e l f g o v e r n from any l e v e l o f government. S e l f government r e f e r s t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s and g u i d e l i n e s f o r p r a c t i c e by t h o s e e l e c t e d t o t h e a s s o c i a t i o n ' s e x e c u t i v e , who a c t on b e h a l f o f t h e i r members. P r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s s t r i v e t o a t t a i n autonomy i n , and s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t o f , t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n . They d e c i d e amongst t h e m s e l v e s t h e i r own p o l i c i e s , w h i l s t r e m a i n i n g a c c o u n t a b l e t o b o t h t h e p u b l i c and t h e l e g i s l a t i v e b o d i e s . CPE p o l i c y s e t t i n g o f t e n becomes t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n . The R o l e o f t h e P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n and CPE The s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s w h i c h have r e s u l t e d i n t h e need f o r CPE has meant t h a t many p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e now i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f , o r a r e becoming s p o n s o r s , programme p l a n n e r s , p r o v i d e r s and e v a l u a t o r s o f CPE a c t i v i t i e s (Grabowski & A s s o c i a t e s , 1981, p.88). Hoffman (1979) contends t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s ' i n v o l v e m e n t i n CPE may have d i r e c t consequences on t h e i r membership, programmes and f i n a n c e s . The p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s s h i f t from back s e a t t o f r o n t l i n e i n CPE has p r o v i d e d them w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o a n a l y z e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n p o l i c i e s , d e t e r m i n e 54 f u t u r e p r i o r i t i e s and e x p l o r e new avenues i n t h e a r e a o f CPE. I n r e - e x a m i n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y , a s s o c i a t i o n s can a s s e s s t h e i r r o l e i n s o c i e t y . The CCPE asked 7 0 e n g i n e e r i n g e x e c u t i v e s f o r t h e i r o p i n i o n s o f t h e f u t u r e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n and o b s e r v e d : "The e d u c a t i o n f o r tomorrow i s t h e s i n g l e g r e a t e s t c h a l l e n g e f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n t o d a y " (p.74). T h i s emphasis, and t h e consensus by t h e e n g i n e e r i n g e x e c u t i v e s on t h e im p o r t a n c e o f e d u c a t i o n , appears t o be f o c u s e d p r i m a r i l y on p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g r a t h e r t h a n CPE f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s (CCPE, 1988). T r a d i t i o n a l l y p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s have s i d e - s t e p p e d p o l i t i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e i s s u e s , and a v o i d e d t h e i s s u e o f CPE among p r a c t i t i o n e r s . F i l e r (1988) d i s a g r e e s w i t h such d i s t a n c e between s o c i e t y and t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n on t h i s o c c a s i o n . He a d v o c a t e s t h a t e v e r y p r o f e s s i o n a l s h o u l d become an a c t i v e c i t i z e n , as d e c i s i o n s made by non- p r o f e s s i o n a l s such as p o l i t i c i a n s can have p r o f o u n d e f f e c t s on t h e p r o f e s s i o n (p.30). From t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h e r e appears t o be a f i n e b a l a n c e between a c k n o w l e d g i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s as u n i q u e , h i g h l y t r a i n e d problem s o l v e r s , and t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f any form o f f o r m a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y p r o c e s s . G i v e n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s need t o be c l e a r about t h e i r r o l e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o t h e i r members and t h e p u b l i c . The r o l e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n i n CPE i s b o t h d i v e r s e and i n f l u e n t i a l . P uetz n o t e s t h a t t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s 55 a r e t h e second l a r g e s t s p o n s o r s o f CPE programme a f t e r e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s (1985). They o r g a n i z e s p e c i f i c e v e n t s such as c o n f e r e n c e s , p r o v i d e r e s o u r c e p e o p l e from i t s ' network o f members, and spon s o r p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s e a r c h j o u r n a l s . T h i s t y p e o f a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t i n CPE by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a c t s t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r v i s i b i l i t y among t h e i r own community, i n c r e a s e t h e i r p u b l i c v i s i b i l i t y and add an element o f q u a l i t y c o n t r o l . The CGC, t h e GAC and t h e MDD a r e a c t i v e i n many a s p e c t s o f i n f o r m a l CPE. O p p o s i t i o n e x i s t s t o t h e m o n o p o l i s t i c d o m i n a t i o n by any one p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f CPE f o r i t s members. O h l i g e r c l a i m s t h a t v e s t i n g c o n t r o l o f a p r o f e s s i o n i n t h e hands o f a few e n s u r e s d i s c r i m i n a t o r y measures w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d (1984). A c c o r d i n g l y , S e l d o n proposes a l t e r n a t i v e r o l e s f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n . R a t h e r t h a n assuming an autonomous p o s i t i o n toward CPE, p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s c o u l d e i t h e r a b d i c a t e a l l CPE r e s p o n s i b i l i t y l e a v i n g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e l e g i s l a t i v e b o d i e s , w h i c h would n ot p l e a s e p r a c t i t i o n e r s , o r t h e y c o u l d work c o - o p e r a t i v e l y w i t h t h e government l e g i s l a t i v e body (1976, p. 64-66). I n summary, t h e p e r c e i v e d s t a t i c d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n c r e a t e d d u r i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s n o t f e a s i b l e f o r t o d a y ' s o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h o p e r a t e under more f l u i d s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . More o c c u p a t i o n s s t r i v e t o o b t a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s t h a n p o s s e s s i t . By t h e twenty f i r s t c e n t u r y Canadian g e o s c i e n t i s t s a r e a n t i c i p a t e d t o become r e g i s t e r e d 56 p r o f e s s i o n a l s t h r o u g h a m a r r i a g e between p r o v i n c i a l e n g i n e e r i n g and g e o s c i e n c e a s s o c i a t i o n s . I n g a i n i n g f u l l p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s a p r o f e s s i o n i s e n t i t l e d t o s e l f government, a p r i v i l e g e t h a t bestows upon i t d e g r e e s o f power, c o n t r o l o v e r an o c c u p a t i o n , and a p o s i t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n s o c i e t y . S e l f government e n t i t l e s a s s o c i a t i o n s t o p o l i c e t h e i r members t h r o u g h e s t a b l i s h i n g e n t r a n c e c r i t e r i a f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n , p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s o f p r a c t i c e f o r t h e purpose o f p r o t e c t i n g t h e i r members, and t h e p u b l i c . The degree o f p o l i c i n g v a r i e s . Some a s s o c i a t i o n s p r o f e s s t h e r h e t o r i c b u t do l i t t l e t o e n f o r c e such p o l i c y , as i s t h e c u r r e n t c a s e i n g e o s c i e n c e ; o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s a c t i v e l y implement t h e i r CPE p o l i c y , such as t h e law p r o f e s s i o n . CPE and MCPE a r e e d u c a t i o n a l measures a s s o c i a t i o n s employ t o p o l i c e t h e i r members' p r o f e s s i o n a l development. F o r t h e purpose o f e f f i c i e n c y , e f f e c t i v e n e s s and q u a l i t y c o n t r o l , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e becoming more i n v o l v e d i n a l l a s p e c t s o f CPE from p l a n n i n g t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The MDD, a l t h o u g h a c t i v e i n s p o n s o r i n g CPE, has not con c e r n e d i t s e l f i n l o n g t e rm CPE development, u n d e r s t a n d i n g i t s c l i e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE o r t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward CPE whi c h i s t h e impetus o f t h i s s t u d y . The n e x t c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e s t u d y ' s methodology f o r o b t a i n i n g answers t o t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . 57 CHAPTER 4: METHODOLOGY T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t t h e p r o c e d u r e s by w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h e r c o n d u c t e d t h i s s t u d y . A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , t h e d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y , b o t h p i l o t and main w i l l be p r o v i d e d . The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s f o c u s on t h r e e a r e a s : p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE, a t t i t u d e s toward CPE and f e l t needs w h i c h a r e t h e c o n t r o l a s p e c t s o f t h i s s t u d y . P o p u l a t i o n The p o p u l a t i o n s t u d i e d i n c l u d e d a l l 819 members o f t h e M i n e r a l D e p o s i t s D i v i s i o n (MDD). The GAC i s t h e p a r e n t body o f t h e MDD. The GAC encompasses many f i e l d s o f g e o s c i e n c e whereas t h e MDD i s s p e c i f i c t o m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s g e o s c i e n t i s t s . MDD members came from a l l p r o v i n c e s and t e r r i t o r i e s i n Canada, as w e l l as from A m e r i c a and o v e r s e a s . A d m i s s i o n i n t o t h e MDD i s dependent upon g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' m e e t i n g membership c r i t e r i a f o r t h e GAC. I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n The s t u d y was d e s i g n e d w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f g a i n i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f MDD members' b e h a v i o u r and p e r c e p t i o n s o f c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . I n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , p r o f e s s i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n , b e h a v i o u r , a t t i t u d e s , f e l t needs and b a r r i e r s toward CPE were t h o u g h t u s e f u l t o t h e MDD and c o u l d be f r u i t f u l as a b a s i s f o r comparison w i t h s t u d i e s o f o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s . 58 A s u r v e y method was used f o r t h i s s t u d y t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c i n g g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE a c t i v i t i e s . A d e s c r i p t i v e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h was p r e - t e s t e d i n two s t a g e s was used i n t h e s t u d y . A s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e most e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n f o r such a l a r g e and g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i s p e r s e d p o p u l a t i o n . The i n s t r u m e n t had f i v e components: a) demographic d a t a ; b) a t t i t u d e i n d e x ; c) p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e x ; d) needs assessment i n d e x and e) b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e x . A copy o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s a t t a c h e d (Appendix A ) . S e c t i o n A: Demographics. Q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' age, e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , y e a r o f g r a d u a t i o n , income l e v e l , y e a r s employed i n g e o s c i e n c e , t h e t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e y worked f o r , c u r r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n , f i e l d o f work, and t h e d i v i s i o n o f t i m e a t work were asked o f r e s p o n d e n t s . Age was d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s o f : l e s s t h a n 30, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60 o r more. T h i s f o l l o w e d t h e same c a t e g o r i e s as t h e AGI demographics s u r v e y , t h u s a l l o w i n g c o mparison o f f i n d i n g s . The h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t was r e q u e s t e d a l o n g w i t h t h e y e a r o f g r a d u a t i o n . The l e n g t h o f employment i n g e o s c i e n c e was r e q u e s t e d i n y e a r s ; where r e s p o n d e n t s gave p a r t i a l y e a r s t h e r e s e a r c h e r rounded up t o t h e n e x t whole number. Income d e r i v e d from g e o s c i e n c e was d i v i d e d i n t o t e n c a t e g o r i e s i n u n i t s o f t e n t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s (Canadian) from l e s s t h a n $19,000 t o more 59 t h a n $90,000. Such c a t e g o r i e s o f income were used r a t h e r t h a n an e x a c t income f i g u r e . The t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l employer, o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n and f i e l d o f work were s o l i c i t e d from c h e c k i n g boxes o f p r e d e t e r m i n e d c h o i c e s . One q u e s t i o n r e q u e s t e d t h e amount o f t i m e s p e n t a t d i f f e r e n t work l o c a t i o n s , and t i m e a t each l o c a t i o n was t h e n measured as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e o v e r a l l t i m e s p e n t . The l o c a t i o n s s p e c i f i e d i n c l u d e d : t h e o f f i c e , t h e l a b o r a t o r y , an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e mine, i n t h e f i e l d , and an " o t h e r " group. S e c t i o n : B A t t i t u d e s . A s e l e c t i o n o f p r e v i o u s l y t e s t e d i t e m s ( Z i b r i k , 1983) was used t o measure g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' a t t i t u d e s t oward c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . The o r i g i n a l s t a t e m e n t s were reworded u s i n g language a p p r o p r i a t e f o r g e o s c i e n t i s t s . The s t a t e m e n t s were t h e n j u d g e d , and s e l e c t i o n s were made from among them. A p a n e l o f f i v e j u d g e s from a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and g e o s c i e n c e r a t e d t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s t o t h e i n t e n d e d s t u d y group. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n d i s c a r d i n g e i g h t i t e m s where t h e i n t e r q u a r t i l e - v a l u e was g r e a t e r t h a n two. The j u d g e s a l s o e l i m i n a t e d f o u r s t a t e m e n t s t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y c o n s i d e r e d t o be i r r e l e v a n t t o g e o s c i e n t i s t s . The means o f t h e r e m a i n i n g t h i r t e e n i t e m s were t h e n p l o t t e d . T h i s p l o t t i n g r e v e a l e d t h a t a l l i t e m r e s p o n s e s were p o l a r i z e d a t e i t h e r v e x t r e m e l y f a v o u r a b l e ' o r x e x t r e m e l y u n f a v o r a b l e ' . The it e m s were t h e n p l a c e d on a f i v e p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e from x s t r o n g l y a g r e e ' t o ' s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e ' . 60 A f u r t h e r two q u e s t i o n s were i n c l u d e d t o e l i c i t a t t i t u d e s t oward CPE. One q u e s t i o n asked r e s p o n d e n t s t o p r i o r i t i z e t h e i r t h r e e p r e f e r r e d ways o f m a i n t a i n i n g knowledge and s k i l l s . The s e l e c t i o n o f s k i l l s i n c l u d e d f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l means o f CPE, from " t a k i n g X number o f ho u r s coursework p e r y e a r " t o " r e f l e c t i n g upon one's p r o f e s s i o n a l development". One r e p r e s e n t e d t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y , t h r e e t h e l o w e s t . The second q u e s t i o n s o l i c i t e d r e s p o n d e n t s ' r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE. T h i s was s c o r e d on a L i k e r t s c a l e r a n g i n g from xmost o f t e n ' ( r e c e i v i n g a s c o r e o f f i v e ) t o x l e a s t o f t e n ' ( r e c e i v i n g a s c o r e o f o n e ) . S e c t i o n C: P a r t i c i p a t i o n . The method used t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l i n CPE d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s 12 months was t o ask f o r t h e number o f CPE a c t i v i t i e s t h e y had engaged i n . Each CPE a c t i v i t y c o n s t i t u t e d " 1 " . A c t i v i t i e s ranged from f i e l d t r i p s t o l e c t u r e s . T h i s method was s e l e c t e d o v e r o t h e r s p e c i f i c i n d e x e s such as t h e E d u c a t i o n a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e ( B o s h i e r , 1982) because t h e re s p o n s e from t h e p i l o t s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s approach was more c o n v e n i e n t f o r r e s p o n d e n t s ; i t was e a s i e r f o r them t o remember t h e number o f a c t i v a t e d , r a t h e r t a n t h e number o f hour s spent p a r t i c i p a t i n g . The language on o t h e r i n d e x e s d i d not seem a p p r o p r i a t e t o g e o s c i e n t i s t s , and r a t h e r t h a n c r e a t e a d e v i a t i o n from t h e o r i g i n a l i n t e n t o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s , a s i m p l e r e p o r t i n g o f t h e number o f 61 a c t i v i t i e s was sought. I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e s e a r c h e r s e l e c t e d 5 p r o m i n e n t g e o s c i e n c e p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s and a s k ed r e s p o n d e n t s t o i n d i c a t e t h e number o f h o u r s s p e n t r e a d i n g them p e r week. T h i s a c t i v i t y r e p r e s e n t e d a n o n - f o r m a l CPE a c t i v i t y . Respondents were encouraged t o i n c l u d e o t h e r r e a d i n g s o u r c e s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e . S e c t i o n D: B a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The l i t e r a t u r e c o n s i s t e n t l y i n d i c a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s have some o b s t a c l e s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE a c t i v i t i e s . A s e c t i o n on " b a r r i e r s " was i n c l u d e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r c o m parison between g e o s c i e n t i s t s and o t h e r groups o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s . A p a n e l o f j u d g e s s e l e c t e d t h i r t e e n i t e m s t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e , r e p r e s e n t e d t h e most common b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t and c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . The w o r d i n g o f t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s was e x p r e s s e d i n s u ch a way as t o a v o i d p l a c i n g blame on t h e i n d i v i d u a l , ( u s i n g " s c h e d u l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s " r a t h e r t h a n " I c a n ' t make d a y t i m e / e v e n i n g c l a s s e s " f o r example). These i t e m s were r a t e d on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e o f w h i c h f i v e r e p r e s e n t e d t h e "most c o n s i d e r a b l e o b s t a c l e " and one r e p r e s e n t e d "not an o b s t a c l e . " S e c t i o n E: Needs assessment. T h i s s e c t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f 22 i t e m s w h i c h was d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s u b s e c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g a r e a s o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' work: a) p e r s o n a l s k i l l s ; b) computer s k i l l s ; c) l e g a l and b u s i n e s s s k i l l s ; and d) p r o f e s s i o n a l / s c i e n t i f i c s k i l l s . These i t e m s were used t o a s s e s s t h e g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' " f e l t needs" (Sork, 1986). Each 62 q u e s t i o n r e q u i r e d t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o r a t e t h e i r f e l t needs r e g a r d i n g s p e c i f i c a r e a s , ( f o r example:, o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n , word p r o c e s s i n g , m i n i n g and law r e g u l a t i o n ) . Responses were r a t e d on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e r a n g i n g from 1 ("I need c o n s i d e r a b l e t r a i n i n g i n t h i s a r e a " ) , t o 5 ("I d e f i n i t e l y do no t need t r a i n i n g i n t h i s a r e a " ) . I n each s e c t i o n t h e o p t i o n o f " o t h e r ( p l e a s e e x p l a i n ) 1 1 was i n c l u d e d . No p r o v i s i o n was made f o r t h e assessment o f a s c r i b e d / p r e s c r i b e d needs (Houle, 1980; Sork, 1986), though some a d u l t e d u c a t o r s m a i n t a i n such an assessment i s e s s e n t i a l t o s y s t e m a t i c needs assessment ( L e B r e t o n e t A l , 1979). A t t e n t i o n was d i r e c t e d e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' own sense o f t h e i r needs. No e f f o r t was made t o i d e n t i f y a r e a s i n which t h e i r knowledge may have been o b s o l e t e b u t o f whi c h t h e y were unaware. P i l o t Study The t h i r d s t a g e o f t h e p i l o t s t u d y i n v o l v e d a p a n e l o f e i g h t j u d g e s . Four were f a c u l t y members a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia: two were g e o s c i e n t i s t s and two were g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . I n o r d e r t o p i l o t t e s t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r t h e pro p o s e d n a t i o n a l s u r v e y , i n September 1988 a sample o f 3 0 g e o s c i e n t i s t s from Vancouver were asked t o v o l u n t e e r f o r t h e p i l o t s t u d y . The v o l u n t e e r s r e p r e s e n t e d a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s from i n d u s t r y (26 v o l u n t e e r s ) and e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s (4 v o l u n t e e r s ) . G i v e n t h a t most g e o s c i e n t i s t s a r e s t i l l " i n t h e f i e l d " a t t h a t t i m e o f t h e y e a r , 63 v o l u n t e e r s were s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f a v a i l a b i l i t y . The r e s e a r c h e r p e r s o n a l l y d e l i v e r e d t h e p i l o t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , c o n s i s t i n g o f twenty (20) q u e s t i o n s . Respondents were asked t o c o mplete t h e s u r v e y , t o c r i t i q u e i t s f o r m a t and w o r d i n g , and t o i n d i c a t e t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t a k e n t o complete t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . One week l a t e r , t h e r e s e a r c h e r p i c k e d up 17 completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , 5 more were m a i l e d i n , and 8 were n o t r e t u r n e d . The 22 completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were t h e n a n a l y z e d . Based on t h e comments from r e s p o n d e n t s t h e q u e s t i o n s a s k i n g "gender"; " m a r i t a l s t a t u s " , and " t h e number o f dependents" were c o n s i d e r e d t o be t o o p e r s o n a l , and i n s i g n i f i c a n t g i v e n t h a t t h e MDD p o p u l a t i o n was e s t i m a t e d t o be 95% men. A f t e r a d i s c u s s i o n w i t h t h e s i s committee, t h e s e i t e m s were o m i t t e d . The q u e s t i o n on CPE p a r t i c i p a t i o n was m o d i f i e d , t o ask f o r t h e t o t a l number o f CPE a c t i v i t i e s a t t e n d e d because s u b j e c t s o f t h e p i l o t s t u d y , i n communication w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r , e x p r e s s e d d i f f i c u l t y i n remembering " d e t a i l s " , w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n t h e i r becoming f r u s t r a t e d , and s t a t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n was " t o o t i m e consuming". R e v i s i o n s were made f o l l o w i n g t h e p r e t e s t i n g . Some q u e s t i o n s were o m i t t e d on t h e b a s i s o f b e i n g t o o t h r e a t e n i n g and p e r s o n a l , such as "How many dependents do you have?"; f o r b e i n g t o o much o f an i m p o s i t i o n f o r example, " P l e a s e i n d i c a t e y o u r gender"; o r f o r b e i n g t o o t i m e consuming, " P l e a s e i n d i c a t e t h e number o f hour s s p e n t on c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e 64 p r e v i o u s y e a r . " These p e c u l i a r r e a c t i o n s by r e s p o n d e n t s has c a u s ed t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o p o s t u l a t e t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s were u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h i s f ormat o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The l i t e r a t u r e d i d n o t i n d i c a t e s i m i l a r r e a c t i o n s t o such q u e s t i o n s . Q u e s t i o n s o f t h i s n a t u r e a r e q u i t e s t a n d a r d w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . These o m i s s i o n s were n o t t h o u g h t t o d e t r a c t s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h e o r i g i n a l i n t e n t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . But, t h e s e o m i s s i o n s r e s t r i c t e d any i n - d e p t h c o m p a r i s o n w i t h s i m i l a r s t u d i e s i n terms o f demographics. P r o c e d u r e s The r e s e a r c h e r p r e s e n t e d a w r i t t e n p r o p o s a l f o r t h e s t u d y t o t h e members o f t h e M i n e r a l D e p o s i t s D i v i s i o n (MDD), an a f f i l i a t e o f t h e G e o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada (Appendix B 1 ) . They agreed t o g i v e t h e i r 1988 membership l i s t t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r , p r o v i d i n g an a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n t o s t u d y . A m a i l s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e was used as t h e means t o g a t h e r d a t a . A p i l o t s u r v e y was f i r s t c o n d u c t e d . P r i o r t o t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e o f t h e MDD members, n o t i c e s were p u b l i s h e d i n an i n f o r m a l g e o s c i e n c e magazine 'Geolog' v o l 17, p a r t 4, 1988 (Appendix B 2 ) , and t h e MDD 1988 f a l l n e w s l e t t e r t h e 'Ganque' (Appendix B 3 ) . A c o v e r i n g l e t t e r f o r t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was i n c l u d e d (Appendix B 4 ) . The main s u r v e y was accompanied by a stamped, s e l f - a d d r e s s e d r e t u r n e n v e l o p e t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r . T h i s was m a i l e d t o members o f MDD a l o n g w i t h t h e i r f a l l 1988 n e w s l e t t e r , i n l a t e O c t o b e r 1988. The c o v e r l e t t e r e x p l a i n e d t h e purpose o f t h e s t u d y and s t a t e d t h a t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y would be 65 m a i n t a i n e d . Each q u e s t i o n n a i r e was n u m e r i c a l l y coded by t h e r e s e a r c h e r p r i o r t o b e i n g m a i l e d and c r o s s checked a g a i n s t t h e master m a i l i n g l i s t . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were m a i l e d d u r i n g t h e l a s t week o f O c t o b e r , 1988. R e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were checked o f f t h e master l i s t t o : 1) i d e n t i f y t h e g e o g r a p h i c d i s p e r s i o n o f r e s p o n s e s , and 2) r e d uce t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d u p l i c a t i o n , as a f o l l o w - u p second m a i l i n g t o non-respondents was proposed. C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y was m a i n t a i n e d by n o t i d e n t i f y i n g any i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e f i n d i n g s . Completed and r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n d i c a t e d t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . The f i r s t m a i l i n g r e sponse was 344 ( 4 2 % ) . Due t o t h e C h r i s t m a s h o l i d a y season, and t h e y e a r end p r o v i n c i a l government work r e p o r t s s u r v e y s c o n d u c t e d d u r i n g December 1988, t h e second m a i l i n g was postponed u n t i l J a n u a r y 1989. Data a n a l y s i s The d a t a were n u m e r i c a l l y coded and e n t e r e d o n t o an AT 720 p e r s o n a l computer u s i n g a d-Base programme ( F o x p l u s I I I ) . Random s a m p l i n g o f t h e r e c o r d s were used i n v e r i f y i n g t h e a c c u r a c y o f c o d i n g . Frequency c o u n t s f o r a l l v a r i a b l e s were c o n d u c t e d on t h e P.C. Data was t h e n u p l o a d e d onto t h e U.B.C's mainframe where, u s i n g S.P.S.S ( S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ) t h e d a t a were a n a l y z e d u s i n g a c o n d e s c r i p t i v e r o u t i n e t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : age and p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e ; o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e ; o c c u p a t i o n a l r a t e and a t t i t u d e s t o ward CPE; o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n and f e l t CPE needs. 67 CHAPTER 5; SURVEY FINDINGS The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e f i n d i n g s from t h e s u r v e y ; c o n d u c t e d i n l a t e 1988. T h i s c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s : 1) t h e g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h i n c l u d e s r e s p o n s e r a t e s and demographics; 2) t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n s ; and 3) a b r i e f a n a l y t i c summary w h i c h r e l a t e s t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d a t a t o t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . Response Rates and Demographics Response Rate The s t u d y had a response r a t e o f 42% (342) a f t e r t h e f i r s t m a i l i n g , and 72% (589) a f t e r t h e second s u r v e y m a i l i n g s . S i x t e e n r e s p o n d e n t s r e t u r n e d i n c o m p l e t e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w h i c h were not i n c l u d e d i n t h e main a n a l y s i s , r e d u c i n g t h e t o t a l number i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s t o 573 ( 7 0 % ) . The range i n r e s p o n s e r a t e s s u g g e s t t h a t some q u e s t i o n s depend more h e a v i l y on r e s p o n d e n t s 7 c h o o s i n g t o answer w h i c h may be based on t h e r e l e v a n c e o f a p a r t i c u l a r i t e m t o each r e s p o n d e n t . G e o g r a p h i c D i s p e r s i o n Responses were r e c e i v e d from Canada, t h e U.S and from o v e r s e a s ( T a b l e 3 ) . W i t h i n Canada, p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s e s ranged from a h i g h o f 100% o f MDD members i n t h e Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , t o a low o f 46% from Newfoundland. N u m e r i c a l l y , O n t a r i o had t h e most r e s p o n d e n t s 224 o r 3 9% o f t h e t o t a l MDD abl e 3 R e s p o n s e R a t e of fi DP Members by G e o g r a p h i c R e g i o n G e o g r a p h i c Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s F e g i on " i r s t Number S e n t W a i l i n g P e t u r r . e i ' Number Second Nuir> be r Sent l\a i ' l i n? P-eturned- Number N e w f o u n d l a n d 26 4 15 21 8 5 ] New B r u n s w i c k 1 9 1 2 63 7 5 43 Nova S c o t i a 14 5 36 9 6 1 5 t)u ebec 63 23 36 40 2 2. ; 35 O n t a r i o 306 129 42 177 95 51 M a n i t o b a 1 6 7 43 9 5 31 S a s k a t c h e w a n 22 8 36 14 7 - 32 A l b e r t a 34 3 8 53 1 6 7 21 B r i t i s h C o l u m b l a 230 111 48 119 66 29 Nor thu e s t T e r r i t o r l e s 5 4 . . 80 1 1 20 Yuk on 15 5 33 1 0 5 33 U.S.A. 40 15 38 2 5 9 23 Ov e r s e a s 27 5 1 8 22 9 33 T o t a l 817 346 42 473 589 69 p o p u l a t i o n . A l t h o u g h 60% o f t h e U.S members had responded t h e y c o n s t i t u t e d o n l y 4% o f t h e MDD p o p u l a t i o n ; s i m i l a r l y t h e 52% o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l members who responded c o m p r i s e d o n l y 2% o f t h e MDD p o p u l a t i o n . The s u r v e y ' s r e s p o n s e r a t e o f 72% i s h i g h f o r a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t MDD members a r e b o t h h i g h l y e d u c a t e d and members o f a p r o f e s s i o n f a c t o r s t h a t t h e l i t e r a t u r e s t a t e s a r e r e l e v a n t t o an i n c r e a s e d r e s p o n s e r a t e . The t o p i c o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e l e v a n t as t h e i s s u e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y i s a c o n c e r n t o b o t h t h e members and t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n . As t h e s u r v e y i s n o t a random sample, g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t o any o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n would be s t a t i s t i c a l l y unsound. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Respondents A c c o r d i n g t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e , s e v e r a l f a c t o r s seem t o i n f l u e n c e CPE p a r t i c i p a t i o n : age, e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , income l e v e l , p r i m a r y f i e l d o f work, number o f y e a r s i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n , p e r c e n t a g e o f t i m e i n d i f f e r e n t work e n v i r o n m e n t s , p r o f e s s i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n s , r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Age T a b l e 4 i n d i c a t e s t h a t 41% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e between 30 and 39 y e a r s o l d , t h e s i n g l e l a r g e s t g r o u p i n g . The age group 40-49 had t h e second l a r g e s t r e s p o n s e ( 2 9 . 6 % ) . 70 I t would t h e r e f o r e seem t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were "baby boomers". G i v e n t h e d e c l i n i n g b i r t h r a t e i n Canada, t h e s e f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h e number o f " o l d e r " g e o s c i e n t i s t s w i l l outnumber t h o s e under 35. T h i s may have r e p e r c u s s i o n s on t h e p o l i c y o f CPE: who g e t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e ? T a b l e 4 The Age Demographics o f G e o s c i e n t i s t s Respondents by Age Age Number Per c e n t a g e L e s s t h a n 3 0 69 12.1 30-39 234 41.0 40-49 171 30.0 50-59 72 13.0 60 o r more 27 5.0 T o t a l 573 101.0 E d u c a t i o n N e a r l y a l l r e s p o n d e n t s (98.5%) have u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g , most f r e q u e n t l y a B.A. o r B.Sc. degree ( 3 9 % ) . G e o s c i e n t i s t s w i t h M.A. o r M.Sc. degrees were t h e second l a r g e s t g r o u p i n g (32%) , f o l l o w e d by t h o s e h o l d i n g Ph.D's ( 2 7 % ) . Two g e o s c i e n t i s t s i n d i c a t e d t h e y h e l d d i p l o m a s i n s u b j e c t s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e t h a t were o b t a i n e d f r o m c o l l e g e s / t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e s . E i g h t g e o s c i e n t i s t s i n d i c a t e d " o t h e r " on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n s ranged from "not h a v i n g completed a u n i v e r s i t y programme", t o " h a v i n g a h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . " 71 The m a j o r i t y o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s had been g r a d u a t e d between 1970 and 1979 (38.78%). Those g r a d u a t i n g i n t h e 1980's r e p r e s e n t e d t h e second l a r g e s t g r o u p i n g ( 3 3 . 6 % ) . Only 1.6% o f r e s p o n d e n t s had g r a d u a t e d p r i o r t o 1950 (Appendix C 1) • Income T a b l e 5 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d i v i s i o n o f income groups r a n g i n g from $19,000 t o $90,000 o r more. Twe n t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f r e s p o n d e n t s earned $30,000-39,999, c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d by t h o s e e a r n i n g $40,000-$49,999 ( 2 2 % ) . The m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $49,999. The s m a l l e s t c a t e g o r y was f o r t h o s e g e o s c i e n t i s t s e a r n i n g between $80,000-89,999 ( 1 . 9 % ) . However, 6.2% o f r e s p o n d e n t s earned more t h a n $90,000. The mean income f o r t h i s group o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s was $ 30,000-39,999. 72 Table 5 The Demographics of Geoscientists by Income Respondents by income _. n Percentage Less than , 19,000 25 4.4 19,000 - 19,999 34 5.9 20,000 - 29,999 72 12. 6 30,000 - 39,999 138 24.1 40,000 - 49,999 127 22.2 50,000 - 59,999 69 12. 0 60,000 - 69,999 40 7.0 70,000 - 79,999 21 3.7 80,000 - 89,999 11 1.9 90,000 or more 36 6.3 Total 573 100.1 Field of Work The majority of geoscientists worked primarily in •, y geology, (67.5% of the respondents). The second largest grouping was geology/geochemistry (13%) . Four respondents indicated their speciality to be geophysics (0.6%). The category of "other" accounted for 56 (9.8%) responses, which included areas of specialty such as financial consultants, systems analysts, computer graphics specialists, and people who indicated that they worked in two or more of the previously named categories (Appendix C 2). 73 The number o f y e a r s each respondent had been employed i n g e o s c i e n c e ranged from 0 y e a r s t o 45 y e a r s . The r e s e a r c h e r grouped r e s p o n s e s i n f i v e - y e a r i n t e r v a l s . The g r o u p i n g w i t h t h e l a r g e s t number o f r e s p o n d e n t s were t h o s e employed 11-15 y e a r s i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n ( 1 2 8 ) ; 16-20 y e a r s was t h e second l a r g e s t c a t e g o r y (107). W h i l e t h e m a j o r i t y o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s (379 out o f 573) had been employed i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n f o r 2 0 y e a r s o r l e s s , seven had been employed i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n f o r 41 t o 45 y e a r s (Appendix C 3 ) . O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n T a b l e 6 i n d i c a t e s ' p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t ' was t h e most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n , (87 o r 34% o f r e s p o n d e n t s ) . Second t o p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t were m i d d l e management p o s i t i o n s (121 o r 22% o f r e s p o n d e n t s ) and p r e s i d e n t (73 o r 13% o f r e s p o n d e n t s ) . No o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s had more t h a n an 8% r e s p o n s e . The p o s i t i o n s o f s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r , c o n s u l t a n t and " o t h e r " each a c c o u n t e d f o r about 7% o f t h e r e s p o n s e s . The c a t e g o r y o f " o t h e r " i n c l u d e d r e t i r e e s , and n o t w o r k i n g by c h o i c e . Only 2 r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c t e d t h e y were unemployed ( 0 . 3 % ) . 74 T a b l e 6 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f G e o s c i e n t i s t s by O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n P o s i t i o n n Pe r c e n t a g e P r e s i d e n t 73 12. 7 S r . A d m i n i s t r a t o r 46 8. 0 M i d d l e management 121 21. 1 P r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t 187 32. 6 J u n i o r g e o s c i e n t i s t 17 2. 9 C o n s u l t a n t 42 7. 3 E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t r u c t o r 29 5. 1 S t u d e n t 18 3. 1 Unemployed 2 0. 3 O t h e r 37 6. 4 T o t a l 572 100. 0 P e r c e n t a g e o f Time i n D i f f e r e n t Work Environments The breakdown o f t h e g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' work t i m e i n d i f f e r e n t work en v i r o n m e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e o f f i c e and f i e l d t o be t h e p r i m a r y and secondary work l o c a t i o n s f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s . A l t h o u g h a m a j o r i t y o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s worked i n t h e o f f i c e environment f o r some o f t h e t i m e , few a c t u a l l y worked i n t h e o f f i c e 100% o f t h e t i m e ( T a b l e 7) . The v a s t m a j o r i t y spent 40% o f t h e i r t i m e o r l e s s i n t h e f i e l d , and no g e o s c i e n t i s t s spent 100% o f t h e i r t i m e i n t h e f i e l d . The l a b o r a t o r y was t h e work s i t e f o r (13%) o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s b u t o n l y 1 respondent worked f u l l t i m e i n 7 5 Table 7 PERCENTAGE OF TIME GEOSCIENTISTS SPEND WORKING IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS TIME % 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 (n) Office 13 28 46 84 66 89 78 49 35 18 506 Laboratory 1 2 0 0 3 1 7 2 21 12 76 Educational Institution 2 2 7 11 17 5 6 1 6 7 64 Mine 5 2 0 1 1 3 5 ^ 9 18 25 69 Field 0 2 2 10 20 31 42 81 133 94 415 Other 2 1 0 1 0 1 4 0 4 94 107 76 t h e l a b o r a t o r y . S i m i l a r l y t h e 'mine' and t h e ' e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n ' were c i t e d r a r e l y . The c a t e g o r y o f ' o t h e r ' i n c l u d e d (0.2%) p e o p l e who had r e a c h e d mandatory r e t i r e m e n t age, and t h e y l a b e l l e d t h e m s e l v e s as n o t b e i n g a c t i v e i n g e o s c i e n c e . However most s t i l l c o n t i n u e d t o a c t as g e o s c i e n c e c o n s u l t a n t s . I n a d d i t i o n , (19%) g e o s c i e n t i s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t r a v e l l i n g t o work s i t e s o r c o n f e r e n c e s consumed 10% o f t h e i r work t i m e . P r o f e s s i o n a l A f f i l i a t i o n s T o t a l memberships from t h e 573 r e s p o n d e n t s was 1668 w i t h 9 6.7% r e s p o n d i n g t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . The mean number o f memberships h e l d by r e s p o n d e n t s was 2.9. The most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d memberships were i n t h e G e o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada (GAC) ( 9 6 . 7 % ) , t h e Canadian I n s t i t u t e o f M i n i n g and M e t a l l u r g y (CIMM) (63.4%) t h e P r o s p e c t o r s ' and D e v e l o p e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada (PDAC) ( 4 6 . 8 % ) , and t h e S o c i e t y o f E n g i n e e r i n g G e o l o g i s t s (SEG) ( 2 1 . 2 % ) . The c a t e g o r y o f " o t h e r " was checked by 121 (21.2%) o f t h e sample, and t h i s i n c l u d e d membership 45 d i f f e r e n t p r o f e s s i o n a l o r s c i e n t i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . No i n d i v i d u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n had more t h a n 6 r e s p o n s e s (Appendix C 4 ) . The f i n d i n g s w i l l now be r e l a t e d t o t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . 77 PARTICIPATION IN CPE P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE T a b l e 8 i n d i c a t e s t h e f r e q u e n c y c a t e g o r i e s . T o t a l r e s p o n s e t o t h i s q u e s t i o n was 531. Two hundred and f o r t y e i g h t (47%) i n d i c a t e d t h e y had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n 1-5 a c t i v i t i e s , f o l l o w e d by 103 (19%) who d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n any CPE a c t i v i t i e s and t h e 100 (19%) who t o o k 6-10 a c t i v i t i e s . S l i g h t l y more g e o s c i e n t i s t s (4.3%) t o o k 20 o r more a c t i v i t i e s t h a n t h e number who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n 16-20 a c t i v i t i e s 23 v e r s u s 16 ( 3 % ) . The mean number o f CPE a c t i v i t i e s g e o s c i e n t i s t s p a r t i c i p a t e d d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s 12 months was 6. Format o f CPE A c t i v i t i e s Based on a f r e q u e n c y count t h e most p o p u l a r format d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s 12 months were t h e l e c t u r e s , and c o n f e r e n c e s (766 and 716 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , f o l l o w e d by f i e l d t r i p s ( 3 8 5), s h o r t c o u r s e s (196), and se m i n a r s (193) (T a b l e 9) Use o f J o u r n a l s T a b l e 10 shows g e o s c i e n t i s t s d i s t r i b u t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r r e a d i n g o f p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s . The o v e r a l l p a t t e r n was t o spend 0.5 hours o r l e s s p e r week r e a d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s and p u b l i c a t i o n s . The number o f r e a d e r s f o r t h i s c a t e g o r y was a l m o s t d o u b l e t h e number o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e n e x t g r o u p i n g s (1-2 h o u r s ) . The e x c e p t i o n 78 Table 8 FORMAT OF CPE ACTIVITIES ATTENDED DURING THE PREVIOUS 12 MONTHS 1 2 3 4 5 5+ Lectures 40 26 31 17 21 68 Short Course 109 30 5 0 0 2 Conference 153 132 57 3 10 11 Field Trip 117 60 28 1 5 7 Seminar 53 26 5 5 5 8 79 Table 9 FREQUENCY OF CPE PARTICIPATION BY GEOSCIENTISTS Frequency (n) % Frequency (n) % 0 103 19.4 11-12 26 4.9 1-2 111 21.1 13-14 17 3.2 3-4 92 17.3 15-16 14 2.7 5-6 47 8.7 17-18 18 3.4 7-8 37 7.1 19-20 3 0.5 • 9-10 39 7.4 >20 323 4.3 Total 531 100.0 80 Table 10 TABLE NUMBER OF HOURS SPENT READING PROFESSIONAL JOURNALS/PUBLICATIONS PER WEEK HOURS PER WEEK CANADIAN JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCE CANADIAN MINING JOURNAL CIM ECONOMIC GEOLOGY NORTHERN MINER OTHER <0.5 1-2 3-4 43 188 173 70 305 125 301 172 151 244 115 29 10 0 1 20 3 17 5-6 7-8 0 0 2 3 0 0 1 4 >8 1 0 1 0 (n) 445 244 432 501 402 168 81 t o t h i s was t h e i t e m N o r t h e r n M i n e r . A l t h o u g h t h e r e s e a r c h e r d i d n o t s p e c i f y whether t h i s i t e m r e f e r r e d t o t h e w e e k l y newspaper o r monthly j o u r n a l , most respon d e n t s marked "newspaper." Responses t o t h i s i t e m i n d i c a t e d t h a t g e o s c i e n t i s t s r e a d t h e newspaper more th a n any o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n by a r a t i o of almost 2:1. The " o t h e r " c a t e g o r y e l i c i t e d 168 a l t e r n a t e r e a d i n g s o u r c e s . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Employer The t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l employers were b r o a d l y d e f i n e d as i n d u s t r y , government, e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n , c o n s u l t a n t and o t h e r . As seen i n T a b l e 11 t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s worked w i t h i n i n d u s t r y , f o l l o w e d by e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The government was not a major employer f o r t h i s group o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s . Those r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e " o t h e r " c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e d p e o p l e who were unemployed o r w o r k i n g f o r more t h a n one o f t h e above c a t e g o r i e s . T a b l e 11 TYPE OR ORGANIZATION EMPLOYED IN CURRENTLY (n) Percentage I n d u s t r y 345 60.4 E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n 89 15. 6 Government 52 9.1 C o n s u l t a n t 54 9.4 O t h e r 31 5.4 T o t a l 571 99.9 82 P r o f e s s i o n a l A f f i l i a t i o n The 573 r e s p o n d e n t s h e l d a t o t a l o f 1668 p r o f e s s i o n a l memberships i n 57 o r g a n i z a t i o n s . These i n c l u d e d l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s s p a n n i n g a d i v e r s e spectrum o f i n t e r e s t s (Appendix C 4 ) . Reasons f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n Three hundred and t h i r t y - n i n e (62%) r e s p o n d e n t s gave " M a i n t a i n i n g competence i n my f i e l d " as t h e p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n CPE a c t i v i t i e s . No o t h e r i t e m r a t e d as s t r o n g l y . 1 "Expanding one's p r o f e s s i o n a l network" (111 o r 2 1 % ) , and " b r o a d e n i n g one's knowledge i n t h e i r f i e l d " (115, o r 22%) w h i c h r e c e i v e d more r e s p o n s e s i n t h e "sometimes" c a t e g o r y (145, o r 2 6 % ) . " E s c a p i n g from s t r e s s " (458 o r 80%) o r "meeting employer's r e q u i r e m e n t s " (338 o r 59%) were l e a s t o f t e n c i t e d as r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n CPE a c t i v i t i e s (Appendix C 5 ) . M a i n t a i n i n g Knowledge and S k i l l s A t t e n d i n g c o n f e r e n c e s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e most p r e f e r r e d way t o m a i n t a i n knowledge and s k i l l s (n=378). 2 T h i s was f o l l o w e d by b e i n g employed (n=344), s u b s c r i p t i o n t o p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s (n=328), t a k i n g x amount o f c o u r s e work p e r y e a r (n=287), a t t e n d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n m e e t i ngs (n=135), and r e f l e c t i o n (n=39). E l e v e n g e o s c i e n t i s t s s e l e c t e d " o t h e r " , and t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e e x p l a i n e d t h e y p r e f e r r e d f i e l d t r i p s (Appendix C 6 ) . 83 P e r c e i v e d B a r r i e r s t o P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c h e d u l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s were i n d i c a t e d by 73% o f r e s p o n d e n t s , f o l l o w e d by 51% who p e r c e i v e d t h e l a c k o f s t u d y t i m e as a m o d e r a t e / c o n s i d e r a b l e b a r r i e r . C o n t r a r y t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e , g e o s c i e n t i s t s d i d n o t see age, f e a r o f f a i l u r e , o r b e i n g v i e w e d as a m b i t i o u s as b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n (each i t e m r e c e i v e d more t h a n a 90% response) (Appendix C 7) . 3 GEOSCIENTISTS ATTITUDES TOWARD CPE? A t t i t u d e s Toward CPE S i x t y - f o u r p e r c e n t (363) o f r e s p o n d e n t s agreed o r s t r o n g l y a greed w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t "a g e o s c i e n t i s t ' s a b i l i t y t o l e a r n remains c o n s t a n t f o r a l i f e t i m e " ; 21% d i s a g r e e d o r s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d . Asked i f "CPE was as i m p o r t a n t as b a s i c e d u c a t i o n " 486 (86%) agreed o r s t r o n g l y agreed w h i l e 45 (8%) d i s a g r e e d o r s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d . CPE was c o n s i d e r e d t o i n c r e a s e one's c o n f i d e n c e by 444 ( 7 0 % ) ; o n l y 26 (4.5%) d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t . 4 When asked i f government(s) s h o u l d i n v e s t more money i n CPE, 260 (46%) o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s agreed o r s t r o n g l y agreed, and 153 (27%) were u n d e c i d e d . T h i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t a s k i n g i f i n d u s t r y s h o u l d i n v e s t more money i n CPE, f o r w h i c h 451 (80%) s t r o n g l y agreed. On t h e i s s u e o f whether t h e r e s h o u l d be mandatory CPE 22 6 g e o s c i e n t i s t s (40%) d i s a g r e e d o r s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t , 84 a l t h o u g h a s i g n i f i c a n t number were u n d e c i d e d (174 r e s p o n d e n t s o r 3 1 % ) . Two hundred and s i x t y - e i g h t (47%) d i s a g r e e d t h a t t h e need f o r CPE was g r e a t l y e x a g g e r a t e d by t h o s e who s t a n d t o g a i n t h e most from i t , a l t h o u g h a g a i n , a l a r g e group o f r e s p o n d e n t s was u n d e c i d e d about t h i s i t e m (190 o r 3 4 % ) . The s t a t e m e n t a s k i n g i f t h e b e n e f i t s o f CPE were t o o o b s c u r e t o j u s t i f y i t r e c e i v e d 461 (82%) s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d o r d i s a g r e e d r e s p o n s e s , w h i l e t h e l a r g e s t r e m a i n i n g group o f r e s p o n d e n t s were u n d e c i d e d . The i t e m a s k i n g i f most g e o s c i e n c e c o u r s e s waste t i m e on n o n - e s s e n t i a l s found 2 69 (48%) t h o u g h t n o t , w h i l e 184 (32%) were u n d e c i d e d . The s t a t e m e n t i n d i c a t i n g t h a t CPE i s u n n e c e s s a r y s i n c e you can g e t a l l i n f o r m a t i o n you need from a book, had a r e s o u n d i n g 455 (85%) n e g a t i v e r e p l y from r e s p o n d e n t s who e i t h e r s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d , o r d i s a g r e e d . T h i s i t e m r e c e i v e d t h e l a r g e s t number o f n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e s . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e i t e m a s k i n g i f CPE c o u r s e s were t o o e x p e n s i v e r e s p o n d e n t s were b a s i c a l l y e v e n l y d i v i d e d between t h o s e who a g r e e d and t h o s e who d i s a g r e e d ( T a b l e 12). 85 T a b l e 1 2 A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d C P E S T R O N G L Y U N D E C I D E D S T R O N L G Y A G R E E D I S A G R E E 5 4 3 2 1 n / V. A G E O S C I E N T I S T S A B I L I T Y T O L E A R N 2 3 1 1 3 2 6 8 S O 5 1 R E M A I N S C O N S T A N T F O R ( 4 1 . 1 ) ( 2 3 . 5 ) ( 1 2 . 1 ) ( 1 4 . 2 ) ( 9 . 1 ) A L I F E T I M E C P E I S J U S T A S I M P O R T A N T A S B A S I C G E O S C I E N C E 2 7 6 1 8 6 5 5 3 3 1 2 E D U C A T I O N . ( 4 9 . 1 ) ( 3 3 . 1 ) ( 9 . 8 ) ( 5 . 9 ) ( 2 . 1 ) C P E I N C R E A S E S 2 1 9 2 2 5 8 8 2 3 3 O N E S C O N F I D E N C E ( 3 9 . 3 ) ( 4 0 . 3 ) ( 1 5 . 6 ) ( 4 . 1 ) ( 0 . 5 ) G O V E R N M E N T S ( S ) S H O U L D I N V E S T 1 4 6 1 1 4 1 5 3 77 6 7 M O R E M O N E Y I N C P E ( 2 6 . 1 ) ( 2 0 . 4 ) ( 2 7 . 4 ) ( 1 3 . 8 ) ( 1 2 . 1 ) C A N A D I A N I N D U S T R Y S H O U L D I N V E S T M O R E 2 6 3 1 8 8 7 7 1 8 1 5 M O N E Y I N C P E ( 4 6 . 8 ) ( 3 3 . 5 ) ( 1 3 . 7 ) ( 3 . 2 ) ( 2 . 6 7 ) C P E S H O U L D B E . M A N D A T O R Y I N 6 7 9 1 1 7 4 9 4 1 3 2 T H E G E O S C I E N C E S ( 1 1 . 9 ) ( 1 6 . 2 ) ( 3 1 . 1 ) ( 1 6 . 8 ) ( 2 3 . 8 ) T H E N E E D F O R C P E I S G R E A T L Y E X A G E R A T E D 3 0 6 9 1 9 0 1 3 2 1 3 6 B Y T H O S E WHO S T A N D ( 5 . 4 ) ( 1 2 . 7 ) ( 3 4 . 1 ) ( 2 3 . 7 ) ( 2 4 . 4 ) T O G A I N T H E M O S T F R O M I T T H E B E N I F I T S O F C P E 7 2 2 6 6 1 9 2 2 6 9 A R E T O O O B S C U R E T O ( 1 . 3 ) ( 3 . 9 ) ( 1 1 . 8 ) ( 3 4 . 5 ) ( 4 8 . 4 ) J U S T I F Y I T M O S T G E O S C I E N C E C O U R S E S W A S T E T I M E 1 9 8 8 1 8 4 1 8 1 8 f i O N N O N - E S S E N T I A L S ( 3 . 3 ) ( 1 5 . 7 ) ( 3 2 . 8 ) ( 3 2 . 3 ) ( 1 5 . 7 ) C P E I S U N N E C E S S A R Y S I N C E Y O U C A N G E T 1 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 0 2 2 5 A L L T H E I N F O R M A T I O N ( 1 . 9 ) ( 4 . 0 ) ( 7 . 9 ) ( 4 0 . 8 ) ( 4 5 . 1 ) Y O U N E E D F R O M A B O O K M O S T C P E C O U R S E S A R E 7 3 1 4 2 1 8 9 1 0 7 4 9 T O O E X P E N S I V E ( 1 3 . 0 ) ( 2 5 . 3 ) ( 3 3 . 7 ) ( 1 9 . 1 ) ( 8 . 7 ) 86 O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n and A t t i t u d e s Toward CPE The o v e r a l l p a t t e r n f o r t h i s i t e m was t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s "agreed" o r " s t r o n g l y a g r e e d " w i t h i t e m s t h a t f a v o u r e d p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward CPE, f o r example, "a g e o s c i e n t i s t ' s a b i l i t y t o l e a r n remains c o n s t a n t f o r a l i f e t i m e . " L i k e w i s e r e s p o n d e n t s " d i s a g r e e d " o r " s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d " w i t h i t e m s t h a t were n e g a t i v e t o w a r d CPE such as "t h e b e n e f i t s o f CPE a r e t o o ob s c u r e t o j u s t i f y i t " (Appendix C 8 ) . FELT CPE NEEDS OF GEOSCIENTISTS? F e l t Needs G e o s c i e n t i s t s a s s e s s e d t h e i r CPE f e l t needs f o r t h e n e x t 12 month p e r i o d i n t h e a r e a s o f p e r s o n a l s k i l l s ; computer s k i l l s ; l e g a l and b u s i n e s s s k i l l s ; and p r o f e s s i o n a l and s c i e n t i f i c s k i l l s . The f i n d i n g s w i l l f i r s t be d e s c r i b e d as i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s b e f o r e an o v e r a l l c o m parison i s made. Respondents s e l e c t e d a s c o r e on a 5 - p o i n t s c a l e where 1 r e p r e s e n t e d " I d e f i n i t e l y need t r a i n i n g i n t h i s a r e a " , and 5 r e p r e s e n t e d " I do not need t r a i n i n g i n t h i s a r e a . " Most o f t h e f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d an a s y m m e t r i c a l c u r v e toward t h e s i d e o f " i n need o f t r a i n i n g i n t h i s a r e a . " Items were re g r o u p e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : group one i n c l u d e d s c o r e s 1 and 2, group two i n c l u d e d i t e m s s c o r e d as 3, and group t h r e e i n c l u d e d s c o r e s 4 and 5. The r e s e a r c h e r t h o u g h t i t p r e f e r a b l e t o i n d i c a t e t r e n d s w h i c h would be more a p p a r e n t 87 i n s uch r e g r o u p i n g t h a n i f t h e o r i g i n a l f i v e groups were compared. P e r s o n a l S k i l l s : I n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s were s e l e c t e d by 269 (36%) r e s p o n d e n t s as t h e most needed a r e a i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s c a t e g o r y , f o l l o w e d by exp a n d i n g one's p r o f e s s i o n a l network w i t h 228 (35%) r e s p o n d e n t s . Two hundred and f i f t y - f o u r (47%) r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y d i d not need t e c h n i c a l w r i t i n g s k i l l s , and 213 (39%) s a i d t h e y d i d no t need i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s . Computer S k i l l s : G e o s t a t i s t i c s was t h e i t e m most f r e q u e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d as a need, (336 r e s p o n d e n t s o r 6 2 % ) , f o l l o w e d by t h e need f o r an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o computers (301 r e s p o n d e n t s o r 5 5 % ) . A b i m o d a l d i s t r i b u t i o n appeared w i t h t h e i t e m on t h e need f o r word p r o c e s s i n g : 241 (44%) r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h e y were not i n need, v e r s u s 2 32 (42%) who s a i d t h e y were i n need o f word p r o c e s s i n g s k i l l s . 5 L e g a l and B u s i n e s s : Knowledge r e g a r d i n g t a x a t i o n and m i n i n g laws was c o n s i d e r e d t o be needed by 272 (50%) o f t h e g e o s c i e n t i s t s , c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d by f i n a n c i a l management 253 ( 4 7 % ) , m a r k e t i n g 233 (44%) and t i m e management 226 ( 4 3 % ) . Whereas s k i l l s i n t h e a r e a s o f s t a f f s u p e r v i s i o n and r e c r u i t i n g were c o n s i d e r e d as t h e l e a s t needed s k i l l s f o r t h i s group w i t h , 244 (46%) and 229 (44%) r e s p o n s e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . P r o f e s s i o n a l and S c i e n t i f i c S k i l l s : Respondents i n d i c a t e d e q u a l l y t h a t t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l and s c i e n t i f i c 88 s k i l l s r e q u i r e d ' c o n s i d e r a b l e ' t o 'some' t r a i n i n g . B oth o f t h e s e r e s p o n s e s were s e l e c t e d by 48% (Appendix C 9 ) . O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n and F e l t Needs P e r s o n a l S k i l l s : Those i n l o w e r o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s s u ch as ' p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t ' , ' j u n i o r g e o s c i e n t i s t ' and ' s t u d e n t ' were more l i k e l y t o i n d i c a t e a f e l t need f o r o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s , t e c h n i c a l w r i t i n g and d e v e l o p i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l network. Those i n h i g h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s c i t e d d e v e l o p i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l network as t h e o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t p e r s o n a l f e l t need. These f i n d i n g s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n a p p e n d i x C 10. Computer S k i l l s : I n t r o d u c t o r y computer s k i l l s were c o n s i d e r e d as b e i n g a need by 3 6% o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s o f m i d d l e management, p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t , o f j u n i o r g e o s c i e n t i s t , and e d u c a t o r s . T h i r t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f p r e s i d e n t s were u n d e c i d e d , and 41 p e r c e n t o f s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n d i c a t e d t h e y d i d n o t need t h i s s k i l l . Computer g r a p h i c s were i n d i c a t e d as a need by t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n a l l o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f m i d d l e management and c o n s u l t a n t s . Only s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s d i d not f e e l t h e need f o r a c q u i r i n g some computer s t a t i s t i c s a p p l i c a t i o n s : between 44 and 55% o f a l l o t h e r g r o u p i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h i s need. The f e l t need f o r word p r o c e s s i n g was i n d i c a t e d t o be between 60 t o 70 p e r c e n t f o r p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t s , c o n s u l t a n t s and e d u c a t o r s . T h i s was i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e r e s p o n s e s by t h o s e i n s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( 4 7 % ) , m i d d l e management ( 4 6 % ) , j u n i o r 89 g e o s c i e n t i s t (56%) and s t u d e n t s (55%) who d i d n o t p e r c e i v e word p r o c e s s i n g as a need. L e g a l and B u s i n e s s : Knowledge and s k i l l s i n t h e l e g a l and b u s i n e s s a r e a s were c i t e d as a need g e n e r a l l y by t h o s e i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s . Knowledge o f m i n i n g laws was c o n s i d e r e d a need by p r e s i d e n t s ( 5 5 % ) , m i d d l e management ( 4 5 % ) , and p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t s ( 4 9 % ) , b u t not by s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ( 5 1 % ) , c o n s u l t a n t s ( 4 3 % ) , e d u c a t o r s ( 5 3 % ) , j u n i o r g e o s c i e n t i s t s (43%) and s t u d e n t s ( 4 7 % ) . The r e s e a r c h e r c o n s i d e r e d t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g , g i v e n t h e p r a c t i c a l and economic n e c e s s i t y o f t h i s i t e m f o r t h o s e g e o s c i e n t i s t s o p e r a t i n g i n m i n i n g o r m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n . T h i s may r e f l e c t t h a t few o f t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s have any d e a l i n g s w i t h m i n i n g . T a x a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d t o be more o f a f e l t need by a g r e a t e r number and range o f r e s p o n d e n t s . The need f o r CPE i n t h i s a r e a a c c o u n t e d f o r a t o t a l o f 50% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . F i n a n c i a l management f o l l o w e d a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n t o t h a t o f t a x a t i o n . M a r k e t i n g was p e r c e i v e d as a need by p r e s i d e n t s , m i d d l e management, p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t s , c o n s u l t a n t s , e d u c a t o r s and s t u d e n t s . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e s k i l l s a r e r a r e l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g a l t h o u g h many g e o s c i e n t i s t s assume p o s i t i o n s w hich r e q u i r e such s k i l l s soon a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n . F o r t y - n i n e p e r c e n t o f p r e s i d e n t s , 70 p e r c e n t o f p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t s , 42 p e r c e n t o f c o n s u l t a n t s , and 50 p e r c e n t o f e d u c a t o r s c o n s i d e r e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s k i l l s t o be an a r e a o f CPE need w i t h i n t h e i r f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e . 90 M i n e r a l economics was m a i n l y c i t e d as b e i n g a need f o r t h o s e i n m i d d l e management ( 5 0 % ) , p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t s and ( 5 1 % ) , j u n i o r g e o s c i e n t i s t s ( 4 6 % ) . P r e s i d e n t s ( 3 7 % ) , s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s (35%) and c o n s u l t a n t s (57%) f e l t t h e y d i d not need t h i s s k i l l i n t h e n e x t 12 months. E d u c a t o r s were e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d a c r o s s each c a t e g o r y . R e c r u i t i n g was c o n s i d e r e d a need by p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t s ( 7 9 % ) , j u n i o r g e o s c i e n t i s t s ( 6 6 % ) , c o n s u l t a n t s (50%) e d u c a t o r s ( 6 4 % ) , and s t u d e n t s ( 4 7 % ) . T h i s was i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h o s e i n p r e s i d e n t ' s p o s i t i o n s ( 4 2 % ) , and s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ( 4 7 % ) . M i d d l e managers were e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d between f e e l i n g i n need o f CPE t r a i n i n g i n t h i s a r e a and not f e e l i n g any need o f CPE t r a i n i n g i n t h i s a r e a . S u p e r v i s i o n o f s t a f f was not c o n s i d e r e d a CPE f e l t need by t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n any one c a t e g o r y . Responses were d i v i d e d between b e i n g unsure i f t h i s was a need, t o not b e i n g a need. There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l o f 0.0299, i n d i c a t i n g t h e f i n d i n g s were u n l i k e l y t o have o c c u r r e d by chance. S t a f f s u p e r v i s i o n has t r a d i t i o n a l l y n o t been g i v e n a h i g h p r i o r i t y amongst p r o f e s s i o n a l g e o s c i e n t i s t s ; t h e r e f o r e t h e s e f i n d i n g s were e x p e c t e d . Time management was a f e l t need f o r most p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t s ( 6 5 % ) : i n no o t h e r c a t e g o r y was t h i s i t e m i n d i c a t e d as t h e s i n g l e g r e a t e s t f e l t need. P r e s i d e n t s ( 5 1 % ) , s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ( 5 7 % ) , m i d d l e managers ( 4 3 % ) , 91 c o n s u l t a n t s ( 5 6 % ) , and e d u c a t o r s (52%) d i d n o t c o n s i d e r t i m e management t o be a f e l t CPE need i n t h e f u t u r e 12 months. P r o f e s s i o n a l and S c i e n t i f i c S k i l l s : The a r e a s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and s c i e n t i f i c s k i l l s were c o n s i s t e n t l y i n d i c a t e d by r e s p o n d e n t s i n each c a t e g o r y as b e i n g f e l t needs. U p g r a d i n g g e o l o g y was c o n s i d e r e d a need by s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ( 4 7 % ) , and p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t s ( 4 7 % ) . E d u c a t o r s were e q u a l l y d i v i d e d between " i n need o f t r a i n i n g i n t h i s a r e a " and "not a need f o r t r a i n i n g i n t h i s a r e a . " G e o c h e m i s t r y was a need f o r t h e o v e r a l l m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s (48%) w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n each c a t e g o r y i n d i c a t i n g t h i s was a a r e a t h e y would c o n s i d e r t a k i n g t r a i n i n g i n d u r i n g t h e n e x t 12 months. T h i s p a t t e r n was r e p e a t e d f o r g e o p h y s i c s , g e o s t a t i s t i c s and a c q u i r i n g knowledge i n o t h e r a r e a s o f g e o s c i e n c e . P r e f e r r e d Formats F i e l d t r i p s were s e l e c t e d as t h e most p r e f e r r e d format f o r CPE (376 o r 7 6 % ) , f o l l o w e d by s h o r t c o u r s e s (248 o r 47%) and m e e t i n g s / c o n f e r e n c e s / c o n v e n t i o n s (189 o r 3 6%). The l e a s t p r e f e r r e d f o r m a t s were t e l e v i s i o n (197 o r 3 9 % ) , t u t o r i a l s (169 o r 3 5 % ) , and v i d e o t a p e s (145 o r 29%) as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e C 11. 92 P r e f e r r e d Sponsors S c i e n t i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s were s e l e c t e d as t h e most p r e f e r r e d s p o n s o r by 408 (78%) o f t h e g e o s c i e n t i s t s . T e c h n i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n d u s t r i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o l l o w e d w i t h 359 ( 7 0 % ) , 335 ( 6 8 % ) , and 323 (63%) r e s p o n d e n t s . The l e a s t p r e f e r r e d s p o n s o r s f o r CPE a c t i v i t i e s were e n t r e p r e n e u r s (193 o r 3 9 % ) . Q u e s t i o n 13 ( i i ) has t h e l o w e s t r e s p o n s e r a t e on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , r a n g i n g from 422 t o 521 r e s p o n s e s p e r i t e m (Appendix C 1 2 ) . A n a l y t i c a l D i s c u s s i o n o f Survey Responses The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n p r o v i d e s some u n d e r s t a n d i n g and p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e f i n d i n g s . The s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e f i n d i n g s f o r age, e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t , o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n , f e l t needs, and a t t i t u d e s toward CPE, as t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d t h e s e were s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e knowledge o f CPE among p r o f e s s i o n a l s . Age The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y r e v e a l e d an i n s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l o f c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' age and t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t g e o s c i e n t i s t s have t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s t h r o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE o r f a c e o b s o l e s c e n c e . I f g e o s c i e n t i s t s a r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g v o l u n t a r i l y t h e n t h e s e f i n d i n g s would s u p p o r t t h e t h e o r y o f c o n t i n u i t y (Neugarten & H a v i g h u r s t , 1977). However, i t c o u l d be argued t h a t t h e s e 93 h i g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l s a r e not r e v e a l i n g t h e complete p i c t u r e . G e o s c i e n t i s t s may be p a r t i c i p a t i n g due t o p e e r p r e s s u r e , o r o t h e r e x t e r n a l m o t i v a t i o n a l f o r c e s such as c o m p l y i n g w i t h an employer's r e q u e s t . The i n f l u e n c e o f p e e r p r e s s u r e o r employer's was not t e s t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . E d u c a t i o n W i t h i n a p r o f e s s i o n , t h e r e i s t y p i c a l l y l i t t l e v a r i a n c e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , and u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l e d u c a t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g l y presumed. The f i n d i n g t h a t 99.8% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s h e l d u n i v e r s i t y degrees was not u n e x p e c t e d . However, t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f d o c t o r a l degrees i n t h i s s t u d y was h i g h e r t h a n e x p e c t e d ( 2 7 % ) , w h i c h p r o b a b l y m i r r o r s t h e number o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s who h o l d o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s w h i c h r e q u i r e such l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , f o r example, e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o r government. O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n " P r o j e c t l e a d e r " and " middle management" were t h e most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s f o r t h i s sample o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s . These f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s w i l l commonly h o l d p o s i t i o n s o f a u t h o r i t y . Such p o s i t i o n s p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l r e m u n e r a t i o n as i n d i c a t e d w i t h a mean income o f $40,000-49,999 f o r t h i s group. Only 2 r e s p o n d e n t s were unemployed, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t e i t h e r t h e economic c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g t h e l a t e 1980's a r e f a v o u r a b l e f o r g e o s c i e n t i s t s , o r t h e e a r l y 1980's r e c e s s i o n f o r c e d some l o n g - t i m e unemployed g e o s c i e n t i s t s t o seek second c h o i c e j o b s t o w h i c h t h e y a r e now committed. 94 Due t o t h e n a t u r e o f g e o s c i e n c e , g e o s c i e n t i s t s f r e q u e n t l y o p e r a t e i n more t h a n one work environment. Most o f t h e g e o s c i e n t i s t s i n t h i s s t u d y r o t a t e d between 60%-40% i n t h e o f f i c e w i t h 40%-60% i n t h e f i e l d , w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t g e o s c i e n c e i s dependent upon "hands-on" work and o f f i c e work. Few g e o s c i e n t i s t s were o c c u p i e d a t e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . T h i s s p l i t between work s i t e s may e x p l a i n t h e o n l y s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t b a r r i e r t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n : s c h e d u l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . The l a c k o f c l a s s i c a l b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n , such as c o s t o r f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ( C r o s s , 1981; Darkenwald & Merriam, 1982), r e i n f o r c e s g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' o v e r a l l p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t oward CPE. P a r t i c i p a t i o n The r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n m a i n t a i n i n g knowledge and s k i l l s i n t h e b r o a d f i e l d o f g e o s c i e n c e . E i g h t y p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n some form o f CPE a c t i v i t y d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s 12 months, and few p e r c e i v e d o b s t a c l e s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE a c t i v i t i e s . A t t e n d a n c e a t many CPE a c t i v i t i e s i s o f t e n r e s t r i c t e d t o t h o s e who h o l d p r o f e s s i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n t o a p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s p r o v i d e s an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e numerous and d i v e r s e l i s t i n g s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l memberships h e l d by r e s p o n d e n t s . H o l d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l membership and a t t e n d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l CPE a c t i v i t i e s s u p p o r t s t h e argument t h a t one r e a s o n p r o f e s s i o n a l s p a r t i c i p a t e i s t o m a i n t a i n a 95 p r o f e s s i o n a l network. P r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s were a l s o seen as i m p o r t a n t as t h e y i n f o r m e d members o f CPE e v e n t s . P r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s a r e p r o v i d e d by most a s s o c i a t i o n s . The CJES r e c e i v e d two d i v e r g e n t groups o f r e s p o n s e s . The f i r s t group r e c e i v e d t h e most d e r o g a t o r y comments, and r e s p o n d e n t s went t o g r e a t l e n g t h s t o emphasize t h e s m a l l amounts o f t i m e t h e y d e v o t e d t o r e a d i n g i t , b u t t h e second group had moire r e s p o n d e n t s who a c t u a l l y r e a d i t f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s o f t i m e t h a n any o t h e r j o u r n a l . T h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n may stem from t h e myth h e l d by some MDD members t h a t t h e CJES i s t o o t h e o r e t i c a l and r e s e a r c h o r i e n t e d , t h u s n ot a p p e a l i n g t o t h o s e i n i n d u s t r y . The r e s e a r c h e r i n c l u d e d t h e N o r t h e r n M i n e r w i t h o u t s p e c i f y i n g whether i t was r e f e r r i n g t o i t s weekly o r monthly f o r m a t . The r e s u l t s , a l t h o u g h p o s s i b l y m i s l e a d i n g , i n d i c a t e a l a r g e number o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s r e l i e d upon t h e N o r t h e r n M i n e r as a v i t a l news s o u r c e about t h e g e o s c i e n c e i n d u s t r y . The format o f CPE programmes most f r e q u e n t l y a t t e n d e d by g e o s c i e n t i s t s was " f i e l d t r i p s " f o l l o w e d by " a t t e n d i n g c o n f e r e n c e . " Both f o r m a t s a r e t y p i c a l l y f l e x i b l e i n s t r u c t u r e , w i t h m u l t i p l e o p t i o n s , f o r example, 10 c o n c u r r e n t l e c t u r e s a t a c o n f e r e n c e . I n a d d i t i o n , b o t h f o r m a t s p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r n e t w o r k i n g w i t h c o l l e a g u e s . The l a r g e number o f r e s p o n d e n t s who h e l d p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s u b s c r i p t i o n s and spe n t t i m e r e a d i n g them, i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t h e r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n 9, t h e p r e f e r r e d ways o f m a i n t a i n i n g ones s k i l l s and knowledge, and q u e s t i o n 14, 96 p r e f e r r e d CPE f o r m a t s , s u p p o r t s arguments t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s p r e f e r r e d s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g . The r e s e a r c h e r a l l o c a t e d each CPE a c t i v i t y , r e g a r d l e s s o f d u r a t i o n , e q u a l n u m e r i c a l w e i g h t . From t h e f i n d i n g t h e number o f i n d i v i d u a l s a t t e n d i n g l e c t u r e s exceeded a l l o t h e r f o r m a t s i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f "5+" w h i c h can be v a r i o u s l y i n t e r p r e t e d a s : 1) more g e o s c i e n c e l e c t u r e s a r e a v a i l a b l e t h a n o t h e r CPE f o r m a t s and 2) The l e c t u r e f o r m a t i s a l e s s e x p e n s i v e f o r b o t h t h e p r o v i d e r and c l i e n t compared t o c o n f e r e n c e s o r f i e l d t r i p s . These f a c t o r s t h e r e f o r e may overemphasize t h e degree o f p o p u l a r i t y o f l e c t u r e s . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n was s u p p o r t e d by t h e q u e s t i o n a s k i n g g e o s c i e n t i s t s t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r p r e f e r r e d f o r m a t s f o r CPE. F i e l d t r i p s and a t t e n d i n g c o n f e r e n c e s were t h e most p o p u l a r , w i t h l e c t u r e s i n t h i r d p o s i t i o n o f c h o i c e . The hands-on e x p e r i e n c e o f f i e l d t r i p s seems t o be a c r u c i a l element o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a t t h i s t i m e . However, w i t h i n c r e a s i n g l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d s o f t w a r e m o d e l l i n g packages, some may argue a g a i n s t t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e abundance o f f i e l d t r i p s i n t h e f u t u r e . These f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t no one s p o n s o r was adequate f o r t h i s group o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s . R a t h e r , d i f f e r e n t CPE a c t i v i t i e s w a r r a n t d i f f e r e n t s p o n s o r s . The a p p a r e n t d i s l i k e f o r e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l s p o n s o r s by t h o s e r e s p o n d i n g may i n d i c a t e a m i s t r u s t o f t h o s e o p e r a t i n g o u t s i d e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l forums o f e d u c a t i o n . The c l a s s i c b a r r i e r o f "programme c o s t s " i s n e g l i g i b l e f o r t h i s group perhaps because, as t h e d a t a s u g g e s t s , t h e y 97 p o s s e s s t h e economic means t o remove i t , t h e m a j o r i t y o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s earned a n n u a l incomes o f between $30,000- 59,000. An a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t t h e y r e c e i v e e d u c a t i o n a l s u b s i d i e s from t h e i r employer. G e o s c i e n t i s t s a r e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n f o r m a l , i n f o r m a l and n o n - f o r m a l CPE. Whether t h e l e a r n i n g o c c u r s w i t h i n a group s e t t i n g o r i n i s o l a t i o n , g e o s c i e n t i s t s appear t o f a v o u r s e l f - d i r e c t i o n i n l e a r n i n g . F e l t Needs The f e l t l e a r n i n g need o f t h e g e o s c i e n t i s t s a g a i n r e i n f o r c e d a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o u r t o w a r d CPE. G e n e r a l l y , r e s p o n d e n t s 7 c h o i c e s seemed t o span t h e s c a l e f o r a l l i t e m s , b u t i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s s e l f assessment o f CPE needs can be m i s r e p r e s e n t e d , i n t h a t few p e o p l e want t o appear t o be e d u c a t i o n a l l y l a c k i n g ( C r o s s , 1981). I n t h e a r e a o f p e r s o n a l s k i l l s , t h e l a r g e s t number o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t e c h n i c a l w r i t i n g t o be t h e g r e a t e s t CPE need i n t h e n e x t 12 months. The l a c k o f r e s p o n s e s f o r i t e m s such as i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s and o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s may r e f l e c t t h e s e l f c o n f i d e n c e o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s , o r t h e i r i n s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e i s s u e w i t h i n t h e i r p r a c t i c e . I t may be argued t h a t i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s a r e r e q u i r e d l e s s by g e o s c i e n t i s t s t h a n i s t e c h n i c a l w r i t i n g . G e o s c i e n c e j o u r n a l s a r e t h e r e c o g n i z e d forums f o r communication w i t h one's p r o f e s s i o n a l c o l l e a g u e s . P e r s o n a l s k i l l s c o u l d be i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e g e o s c i e n t i s t ' s s e l f 98 assessment o f f e l t needs based t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f such needs i n t h e n e x t 12 months. Computer s k i l l s were seen as a need by many g e o s c i e n t i s t s . Roughly h a l f o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s r e q u i r e d i n t r o d u c t o r y l e v e l c o u r s e s , and word p r o c e s s i n g , as w e l l as g e o s t a t i s t i c s . T h i s may r e f l e c t t h e r e s t r u c t u r i n g i n t h e work p l a c e where p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m what had p r e v i o u s l y been c o n s i d e r e d c l e r i c a l d u t i e s , such a s , w r i t i n g f i r s t d r a f t s o f r e p o r t s on t h e word p r o c e s s o r . M e n z i e s (1982, p e r s o n a l communication, June 1, 1989) m a i n t a i n s t h a t computer t e c h n o l o g y has f r e q u e n t l y s e r v e d t o demote and reduce t h e number o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e i n m i d d l e management p o s i t i o n s . S t a l k e r , (1989) found some p a r t i c i p a n t s t o o k computer c o u r s e s as a means t o keep up w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n , r a t h e r t h a n f o r t h e purpose o f a c q u i r i n g a j o b s k i l l . Technology i s r e l i a n t upon t h e o p e r a t o r t o maximize i t s w o r t h , and computers a r e no e x c e p t i o n . I f t h e computer can r e l i e v e t h e g e o s c i e n t i s t o f mundane work t a s k s t h e n CPE would seem a r e a s o n a b l e means o f d i s s e m i n a t i n g new a p p l i c a t i o n s t o t h e l a r g e s t number o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s . There were fewer r e s p o n d e n t s c o m p l e t i n g t h e b u s i n e s s and l e g a l s e c t i o n o f " f e l t CPE needs" (526-537). T h i s may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e f a c t t h a t not a l l g e o s c i e n t i s t s f e e l a need f o r such s k i l l s , o r t h a t g e o s c i e n t i s t s o n l y p l a n CPE needs f o r t h e purpose o f f u l f i l l i n g s h o r t - t e r m e d u c a t i v e g o a l s . I n t h e l e g a l and b u s i n e s s a r e a , most r e s p o n d e n t s 99 wanted p r a c t i c a l c o u r s e s w i t h immediate a p p l i c a t i o n , such as d e a l i n g w i t h m i n i n g laws and t a x a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s . T h i s o r i e n t a t i o n r e f l e c t s t h e needs o f t h o s e o p e r a t i n g i n a c o m p e t i t i v e i n d u s t r y where n e g l i g e n c e c o u l d be b o t h c o s t l y and t i m e consuming. One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e s e f i n d i n g s i s t h a t t h e l o n g e r g e o s c i e n t i s t s work i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n , t h e l e s s l i k e l y i s t h e i r need f o r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s . T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n may r e f l e c t t h e i n a d e q u a t e p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g f o r g e o s c i e n t i s t s . I t f o c u s e s on s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l c o n t e n t r a t h e r t h a n b u s i n e s s o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s k i l l s w h i c h o c c u p i e s a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f p r a c t i c i n g g e o s c i e n t i s t s work t i m e , p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t s and m i d d l e managers. I t can o n l y be assumed t h a t t h o s e i n s e n i o r p o s i t i o n s a r e c o n f i d e n t i n e i t h e r t h e i r own b u s i n e s s knowledge o r o f t h o s e o p e r a t i n g u n d e r n e a t h them. L i k e w i s e c o n s u l t a n t s i n d i c a t e d c o n f i d e n c e w i t h t h e i r c u r r e n t l e v e l o f knowledge i n t h i s a r e a . The CPE needs o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s may a c t u a l l y be g r e a t e r t h a n was r e v e a l e d i n t h e f i n d i n g s . A l t h o u g h g e o s c i e n t i s t s a r e t r a i n e d s c i e n t i s t s , can i t be assumed t h e y w i l l know how t o c a r r y out t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n a l needs assessment? I f i t i s assumed t h a t g e o s c i e n t i s t s a r e r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i t i o n e r s , does t h e c u r r e n t CPE system i n g e o s c i e n c e f a c i l i t a t e p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' " r e f l e c t i o n " ? I s t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f CPE needs c o n s i s t e n t w i t h b o t h t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n and i t s members? Are CPE needs c o n s i d e r e d as band a i d s o l u t i o n s f o r 100 p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' immediate a p p l i c a t i o n ? I f needs a r e not b e i n g met, s h o u l d t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n assume t h e r o l e o f e n f o r c e r f o r t h e sake o f p r o t e c t i n g t h e p u b l i c from i n c o m p e t e n t p r a c t i t i o n e r s ? The r o l e s o f b o t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s h o u l d be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , t h e n a c o u r s e o f CPE a c t i o n c o u l d be implemented t h a t would r e f l e c t t h e e v e r c h a n g i n g n a t u r e o f t h e g e o s c i e n c e p r o f e s s i o n . A t t i t u d e s The c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s h o l d p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward CPE. They c o n s i d e r e d CPE t o be i m p o r t a n t , b e n e f i c i a l , and a l i f e l o n g endeavor w h i c h i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( C r o s s , 1981 C e r v e r o , 1988). Most members t h o u g h t t h e g e o s c i e n c e i n d u s t r y ought t o p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r CPE, r a t h e r t h a n government a g e n c i e s . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h y w i t h i n t h e i n d u s t r y , w h i c h p r e f e r s s e l f - h e l p t o government a i d . The g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' a t t i t u d e toward mandatory CPE was n e g a t i v e ( 5 0 % ) , a l t h o u g h a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n were s t i l l u n d e c i d e d about t h e i s s u e ( 3 1 % ) . The g e o s c i e n t i s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s p o n s o r s h i p f o r CPE a c t i v i t i e s was not a c r u c i a l f a c t o r . The r e s p o n d e n t s were more concerned w i t h t h e c o n t e n t o f CPE. However, t h e r e s e a r c h e r b e l i e v e s t h e e d u c a t i o n p h i l o s o p h i e s h e l d by t h e CPE s p o n s o r p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e programme p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s : s h a p i n g b o t h t h e programme c o n t e n t and d e t e r m i n i n g t h e f a c i l i t a t o r s . Depending upon t h e e d u c a t i v e p h i l o s o p h i e s 101 h e l d by t h e s p o n s o r , p r i o r i t i e s may range from p r o f i t making t o p h i l a n t h r o p y . The n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e i n t h e f i n d i n g s , where few r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d e n t r e p r e n e u r s t o be t h e i r p r e f e r r e d s p o n s o r f o r CPE a c t i v i t i e s , may r e f l e c t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t i e s members have w i t h t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n . The e d u c a t i v e needs o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l can not be met by o r g a n i z a t i o n s o u t s i d e t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n o r f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . I n a s i m i l a r v e i n , u n f a v o r a b l e r e s p o n s e s t o v i d e o and T.V f o r m a t s may d e monstrate r e s p o n d e n t s ' commitment t o t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m a t s o f e d u c a t i o n , namely f o r m a l / i n f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l programmes. I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t no r e s p o n d e n t found h e r / h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l employer t o be as good as any o t h e r CPE agency. Such s e n t i m e n t s may i n d i c a t e d i s c o n t e n t w i t h t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l employers o r r e f l e c t t h e d i v e r s e n a t u r e o f g e o s c i e n c e and t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f any one agency a t t e m p t i n g t o s e r v i c e a l l s e c t o r s o f CPE. The m a j o r i t y o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n some form o f CPE d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s 12 months. However, few p a r t i c i p a t e d i n more t h a n 5 i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o r s p e n t more t h a n 1 hour r e a d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s p e r week. G e o s c i e n t i s t s ' r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n were p o s i t i v e : t h e y v i e w e d CPE as a l i f e l o n g endeavor, o f n e c e s s i t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s and t o d e v e l o p i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l . The f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e s t oward CPE may be a t t r i b u t e d t o g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' e x p e r i e n c e o f f o r m a l p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . The p r e f e r r e d ways 102 o f m a i n t a i n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s was t h r o u g h t h e i r work, a t t e n d i n g c o n f e r e n c e s , and s u b s c r i b i n g t o p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s . C h a p t e r 6 d i s c u s s e s t h e p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e f i n d i n g s , o f f e r recommendations f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and su g g e s t a r e a s o f f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . End n o t e s Respondents i n d i c a t e d a d d i t i o n a l comments t o s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s : 1. Reasons f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c l u d e b e i n g a b l e t o s h a r e t h e i r knowledge w i t h o t h e r s ; t o t r a v e l ; t o expand t h e i r s k i l l s ; t o r e s e a r c h ; and t o work more e f f i c i e n t l y . 2. P r e f e r e n c e s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g CPE f o r m a t s : p o s t e r s e s s i o n s ; and i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y l e c t u r e s . 3. B a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e c e i v e d t h e most a d d i t i o n a l comments from r e s p o n d e n t s , who c i t e d : i l l n e s s , l a c k o f t i m e , busy e a r n i n g a l i v i n g , g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n , and u n s t a b l e income/employment doesn't a l l o w f o r l o n g t e rm p l a n n i n g o f CPE as s i t u a t i o n a l b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE. I n s t i t u t i o n a l CPE b a r r i e r s o f a v a i l a b i l i t y , s t a r t i n g t i m e and d u r a t i o n o f c o u r s e s , academic c o u r s e s l a c k i n g a p p l i c a t i o n , and i n s u f f i c i e n t knowledge o f c o u r s e s a v a i l a b l e were a l s o mentioned. 4. Some r e s p o n d e n t s s a i d t h e market p l a c e s h o u l d d e t e r m i n e p r o f e s s i o n a l competency n ot CPE o r MCPE. A l t h o u g h most r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t CPE programme c o s t s were " r e a s o n a b l e " , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e o f f e r e d by government a g e n c i e s , s e v e r a l r e s p o n d e n t s c o n s i d e r e d t i m e away from work t o o c o s t l y . Some i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o s t was i r r e l e v a n t i f employer was p a y i n g , b u t c o n s i d e r a b l e i t a f a c t o r when t h e y were p a y i n g . t 5. R equests f o r computer s o f t w a r e t r a i n i n g were d i v e r s e r a n g i n g from g e o l o g i c a l m o d e l l i n g t o a c c o u n t i n g . One res p o n d e n t even i n d i c a t e d a need t o s e l l computer s e r v i c e s . W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o l e g a l and b u s i n e s s s k i l l s , s e v e r a l g e o s c i e n t i s t s i n d i c a t e d a need t o l e a r n t h e r u l e s o f t h e Vancouver S t o c k Exchange, t h e a r t o f n e g o t i a t i o n , and l o n g t e r m f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g . I n t h e a r e a o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and s c i e n t i f i c knowledge r e s p o n d e n t s c i t e d a need f o r i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s u b j e c t s , such as, m i n i n g and waste management. 6 . A number o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e t y p e o f CPE spons o r was i r r e l e v a n t ; t h e c a t e g o r i e s used made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r 103 some r e s p o n d e n t s t o choose any one s p o n s o r , f o r example not a l l government a g e n c i e s were e q u a l i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o s p o n s o r CPE a c t i v i t i e s . 104 CHAPTER 6 : LIMITATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS The p u rpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o g a i n some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n by g e o s c i e n t i s t s i n g e o s c i e n c e CPE. P r e s e n t l y a wide v a r i e t y o f CPE a c t i v i t i e s i s a v a i l a b l e from l e c t u r e s t o f i e l d t r i p s , b u t no r e s e a r c h has been c o n d u c t e d on p a r t i c i p a n t s ' o r non p a r t i c i p a n t s ' CPE b e h a v i o u r , t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r non p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r t h e i r f e l t needs. I t was hoped t h a t t h i s s t u d y might p r o v i d e some u s e f u l i n s i g h t s i n t o g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' CPE p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t oward CPE and t h e i r p e r c e i v e d CPE needs. T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t a d i s c u s s i o n on t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y , f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y and recommendations f o r e n h a n c i n g CPE i n t h e g e o s c i e n c e p r o f e s s i o n . L i m i t a t i o n s The use o f a s e l f - s e l e c t e d group o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s r a t h e r t h a n a random sample i s s u b j e c t t o b i a s e s such as d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n s , and, g i v e n t h e predominance o f men i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n , u n e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from one gender. The d e c i s i o n n o t t o use a random sample was t h o u g h t t o b e s t s e r v e t h e a s s o c i a t i o n i n p r o v i d i n g a s t u d y w h i c h p e r m i t t e d e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e v e r y member t o respond t o t h e i s s u e o f CPE i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n . However, f i n d i n g s from t h e s t u d y s h o u l d 105 o n l y be g e n e r a l i z e d t o t h e membership o f t h e MDD a s s o c i a t i o n . I n s e l e c t i n g a m a i l s u r v e y , t h e r e s e a r c h e r assumed each member r e c e i v e d a copy o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s s u r v e y a pproach r e l i e s on r e s p o n d e n t s ' h o n e s t y i n c o m p l e t i n g t h i s s e l f a d m i n i s t e r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and on t h e i r a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l b o t h t h e number and s p o n s o r s o f CPE a c t i v i t i e s t h e y had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s 12 months. I n a d d i t i o n , p l a c i n g e q u a l n u m e r i c a l w e i g h t on a l l CPE a c t i v i t i e s p r e c l u d e d g a i n i n g knowledge r e g a r d i n g t h e scope and d e p t h o f s p e c i f i c c o u r s e s / a c t i v i t i e s . F o r t h e purpose o f t h i s s t u d y CPE r e f e r r e d t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l r e a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Q u e s t i o n 4 was n o t e x p l i c i t i n a s k i n g f o r incomes t o be i n Canadian f u n d s , nor was i t e x p l i c i t t h a t t h i s was a s k i n g f o r income d e r i v e d s o l e l y from t h e i r g e o s c i e n c e p r a c t i c e . These o v e r s i g h t s were i n d i c a t e d by 4 r e s p o n d e n t s . Q u e s t i o n 8 asked f o r r e s p o n d e n t s t o , " P r i o r i t i z e d p r e f e r e n c e o f ways f o r m a i n t a i n i n g s k i l l s and knowledge i n g e o s c i e n c e , " w h i c h was c o n s t r u e d by some as a d o u b l e b a r r e l l e d q u e s t i o n , an o v e r s i g h t on t h e p a r t o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s u n c e r t a i n how t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s q u e s t i o n . Q u e s t i o n 11, " P l e a s e i n d i c a t e t h e number o f CPE a c t i v i t i e s you a t t e n d e d d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s 12 month" p l a c e d e q u a l w e i g h t on a l l t y p e s o f CPE a c t i v i t y , f o r example, a one hour l e c t u r e and a two week f i e l d t r i p b o t h counted as one CPE a c t i v i t y . The s u r v e y method i s n o t c o n g e n i a l f o r s o l i c i t i n g a t t i t u d i n a l 106 r e s p o n s e s . D e s p i t e t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , i t was p o s s i b l e t o a t t a i n some i n s i g h t s i n t o how t h e MDD members v i e w e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a t t i t u d e and f e l t needs i n CPE. I m p l i c a t i o n s The s t u d y r e v e a l e d a h i g h l e v e l o f v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n by MDD members i n CPE a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s 12 months ( 8 0 % ) . But, t h e e x t e n t o f t h a t v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n remains q u e s t i o n a b l e g i v e n t h e group mean f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n was s i x CPE a c t i v i t i e s w hich may have ranged from s i x one hour l e c t u r e s t o s e v e r a l extended f i e l d t r i p s . G e o s c i e n c e , l i k e many o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s , i s u n d e r g o i n g a change due t o r a p i d t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances i n t h e work p l a c e . T h i s r e s t r u c t u r i n g has reduced o r e l i m i n a t e d mundane t a s k s , t h u s s h i f t i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l ' s work from b e i n g problem s o l v e r s t o h i g h l y t r a i n e d t e c h n i c i a n s . G e o s c i e n t i s t s a r e c u r r e n t l y f a c e d w i t h h a v i n g t o a s s e s s t h e i r own p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n needs t o e i t h e r m a i n t a i n o r d e v e l o p t h e i r c ompetencies i n o r d e r t o keep a b r e a s t o f such t e c h n o l o g i e s . T e c h n o l o g i c a l Impact The U.S. has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a barometer o f s o c i a l and economic t r e n d s . D u r i n g t h e p a s t decade t h e e f f e c t o f t e c h n o l o g y i n t h e work p l a c e has b o t h c r e a t e d and e l i m i n a t e d j o b s . J o b c r e a t i o n has o c c u r r e d m a i n l y i n t h e s e r v i c e s e c t o r , w h i l e m i d d l e management p o s i t i o n s have been e l i m i n a t e d . T h i s has o c c u r r e d a c r o s s numerous o c c u p a t i o n s 107 i n c l u d i n g p r o f e s s i o n s (H. M e n z i e s , p e r s o n a l communication, June 1, 1989). A s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s u r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n p o s i t i o n as b e i n g " m i d d l e management." S e v e r a l s c e n a r i o s a r e p o s s i b l e f o r g e o s c i e n t i s t s w i t h t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g dependency upon t e c h n o l o g y i n t h e work p l a c e . T y p i c a l l y , m i d d l e management p o s i t i o n s a r e eroded, t h e i r t a s k s a r e d i v i d e d between s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and j u n i o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s who r e l y on c o m p u t e r i z e d s o f t w a r e . The h i e r a r c h y o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p y r a m i d i s much f l a t t e r a t t h e bottom, w i t h g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n t i a l between s e n i o r and j u n i o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Those i n j u n i o r p o s i t i o n s i n c r e a s i n g l y become s p e c i a l i s t s i n a s m a l l a r e a o f t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l system. T h i s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n has t h e e f f e c t o f n a r r o w i n g employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , because many o f t h e newly c r e a t e d s k i l l s and knowledge have l i t t l e t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y . G i v e n t h e changes i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l ' s work p l a c e due t o t e c h n o l o g y , t h e p a t t e r n s r e s u l t i n g from such change i n t h e U.S, and p u b l i c f o c u s on e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n and i t s members s h o u l d ask: I s g e o s c i e n c e so d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t changes i n t e c h n o l o g y w i l l not a f f e c t i t ? I s t h e p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g f o r g e o s c i e n t i s t s adequate f o r t h e f u t u r e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n ? What w i l l be t h e r o l e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n i n t h e f u t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y i f g e o s c i e n c e e x p e r i e n c e s r a p i d demographic s h i f t s , e r a d i c a t i n g l a r g e 108 numbers o f m i d d l e management p o s i t i o n s ? R e s o l u t i o n o f such q u e s t i o n s can o n l y come a f t e r t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e i r members r e c o g n i z e t h e im p o r t a n c e o f CPE t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n . Recommendations f o r t h e P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n The impetus f o r t h e s e recommendations come i n v i e w o f t h e c h a n g i n g r o l e o f t h e g e o s c i e n c e s i n Canada, and t h e c h a n g i n g p e r c e p t i o n o f t h i s p r o f e s s i o n by t h e p u b l i c . I do not b e l i e v e t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n can e f f e c t i v e l y e n f o r c e o r m o n i t o r t h e CPE o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s . I s u p p o r t F i l e r ' s (1988) s t a n c e t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s s h o u l d be a c t i v e c i t i z e n s i n s o c i e t y n o t s o l e l y because t h e p r o f e s s i o n may be c o n t r o l l e d by n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s b u t because p r o f e s s i o n a l s have a s o c i a l and m o r a l o b l i g a t i o n t o s e r v e s o c i e t y t o t h e b e s t o f t h e i r a b i l i t y : by u t i l i z i n g t h e i r e x p e r t knowledge and s k i l l s . L e t t i n g t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a c t as f a c i l i t a t o r s o f CPE has p r o v e n , i n many i n s t a n c e s , t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n d i s s e m i n a t i n g a c c u r a t e , c u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o members. The numerous p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s s e r v i c i n g g e o s c i e n c e o p e r a t e a t l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l s , each a d d r e s s i n g a s p e c i f i c a u d i e n c e . The GAC i s t h e p a r e n t body o f t h e MDD. The GAC encompasses many f i e l d s o f g e o s c i e n c e , whereas t h e MDD r e p r e s e n t s one, p r i m a r i l y n a t i o n a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n f o r a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t group, m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s g e o s c i e n t i s t s . W i t h i n t h e MDD t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t s o f : t h e ch a i r m a n ; t h e e x e c u t i v e ; ad hoc committees; and t h e membership. CPE i s 109 p e r i o d i c a l l y r e v i e w e d by a v o l u n t e e r ad hoc committee. G i v e n t h e i n c r e a s i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e o f CPE i n g e o s c i e n c e ( d e m o n s t r a t i n g p u b l i c a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , a c t i n g as a measure a g a i n s t incompetent p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and t h e growth i n t e c h n i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c knowledge) t h e f o l l o w i n g recommendations would, I f e e l , be b e s t e x e c u t e d by t h e p a r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e CGC. The CGC i s a n a t i o n a l g e o s c i e n c e / e a r t h s c i e n c e body w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from a l l s e c t o r s o f i n d u s t r y , government and e d u c a t i o n , i t s e r v e s t h e c o l l e c t i v e i n t e r e s t s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 16,000 e a r t h s c i e n t i s t s . The CGC ( F i g . 3) o b j e c t i v e s a r e : t o p r o v i d e a c e n t r a l forum f o r e a r t h s c i e n c e s o c i e t i e s i n Canada, t o p r o v i d e a d v i c e t o government on g e o s c i e n c e p o l i c y , t o enhance t h e h e a l t h o f t h e g e o s c i e n c e s i n Canada, and t o i n c r e a s e t h e p u b l i c awareness o f t h e v i t a l r o l e w h i c h t h e s e s c i e n c e s p l a y i n our c o u n t r y ( G a r l a n d , 1988, p. 1 ) . To c a r r y out t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have an i n f o r m e d membership committed t o t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n : CPE. The CGC has c r e d i b i l i t y i n t h e eyes o f many Canadian g e o s c i e n t i s t s , and i t has t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e t o i n f l u e n c e CPE i n g e o s c i e n c e . The r e s e a r c h e r ' s recommendations i n c l u d e : 1) A r e v i e w o f CGC's CPE p o l i c y would p r o v i d e a u s e f u l s t e p i n a s s e s s i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e g e o s c i e n c e p r o f e s s i o n , i t s r o l e i n s o c i e t y , and t h e c h a n g i n g r o l e o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s . I n a d d r e s s i n g t h e s e p o i n t s , t h e r o l e o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n 110 r e g a r d i n g i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o b o t h i t s members and t h e p u b l i c w i l l have t o be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 2) G i v e n t h e c u r r e n t d i v e r s e p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s u b s c r i p t i o n s w h i c h most r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d s p e n d i n g l e s s t h a n 0.5 h o u r s r e a d i n g p e r week, t h e a s s o c i a t i o n c o u l d e x p l o r e a l t e r n a t i v e mediums f o r m a r k e t i n g and a d v e r t i s i n g CPE i n f o r m a t i o n . One s u g g e s t i o n would be t o form a c e n t r a l i n f o r m a t i o n c e n t r e on CPE programmes and a c t i v i t i e s a t a l l l e v e l s ( l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l n a t i o n a l ) t h r o u g h a computer communication system. T h i s would e n a b l e a speedy d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o members, i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y u t i l i z e d forum, computer n e t w o r k i n g . 3) I n a d d i t i o n t o an i n f o r m a t i o n network, t h e a s s o c i a t i o n c o u l d c o m p i l e a CPE r e s o u r c e l i b r a r y . T h i s c o u l d i n c l u d e l i s t i n g s o f p r o v i d e r s , f a c i l i t a t o r s , hardware, p o t e n t i a l s p o n s o r s , s p e a k e r s and f i e l d g u i d e s . Such a l i s t i n g c o u l d be e a s i l y m a i n t a i n e d and updated. The CGC s h o u l d c o n s i d e r how t o make CPE a c c e s s i b l e t o a l l g e o s c i e n t i s t s . D e v e l o p i n g a l t e r n a t i v e CPE f o r m a t s , such as v i d e o o r T.V f o r g e o s c i e n t i s t s who o p e r a t e i n i s o l a t e d r e g i o n s o r have s c h e d u l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s may be one s o l u t i o n . The n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e s t o e i t h e r t h e use o f T.V o r v i d e o f o r CPE pur p o s e s w i t h g e o s c i e n c e s may r e f l e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t s u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e s e modes o f communication f o r CPE. 4) As t h e c o s t o f p r o v i d i n g CPE c o n t i n u e s t o i n c r e a s e , t h e f i n a n c i a l burden t o p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a l s o i n c r e a s e s . R a t h e r t h a n each g e o s c i e n c e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s I l l o p e r a t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y , c o - o p e r a t i v e u n d e r t a k i n g s c o u l d o c c u r i n d e v e l o p i n g and p r o v i d i n g CPE. T h i s may a l s o a c t as a way o f e x p a n d i n g g e o s c i e n t i s t s awareness o f c o l l e a g u e s i n r e l a t e d f i e l d s and r a i s e t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y r e s e a r c h , i n b o t h academic and a p p l i e d g e o s c i e n c e . 5) Members' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d be acknowledged, p o s s i b l y i n t h e form o f a n n u a l awards. These awards c o u l d be f o r e i t h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a l e a r n e r , o r f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g CPE. 6) A l t h o u g h t h e c o s t o f CPE was not i n d i c a t e d as b e i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t b a r r i e r t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n , I p r e d i c t i t w i l l become a b a r r i e r g i v e n t h e i n c r e a s i n g number o f s m a l l e r g e o s c i e n c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The l i t e r a t u r e shows t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between l a r g e and s m a l l e m p l o y e r s ' f u n d i n g f o r e d u c a t i o n a l programmes. The s t u d y found g e o s c i e n t i s t s who worked f o r s m a l l o p e r a t i o n s were t o t a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e i r own CPE, b u t were a l s o t h r e a t e n e d w i t h l o s i n g t h e i r j o b s f o r t a k i n g t i m e o f f work. G i v e n t h e r i s i n g c o s t o f e d u c a t i o n i n terms o f t u i t i o n , t i m e away from work and l o s s o f income f o r members w o r k i n g i n s m a l l o p e r a t i o n s , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n may c o n s i d e r d e v e l o p i n g an e d u c a t i o n a l fund ( w i t h s u p p o r t from i n d u s t r y ) f o r t r a v e l , s a b b a t i c a l s , o r c o u r s e s u b s i d i e s . 7) The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r m a i n t a i n i n g competent p r o f e s s i o n a l s r e s t s , t o a degree, w i t h t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I n l i g h t o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g l i t i g a t i o n a g a i n s t p r o f e s s i o n a l s , t h e CGC s h o u l d c o n s i d e r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f 112 a f o r m a l p e e r r e v i e w c o u n c i l where c l a i m s o f n e g l i g e n c e , f r a u d o r incompetence c o u l d be t a k e n t o a r b i t r a t i o n . 8) The p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n has i n d i c a t e d t h r o u g h i t s a c c r e d i t a t i o n b o a r d t h a t i t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h m a i n t a i n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s amongst t h o s e e n t e r i n g t h e p r o f e s s i o n . Thus f a r , t h e r e v i e w o f Canadian e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s by t h e CGAB has been v o l u n t a r y . However, w i t h t h e f u t u r e p r e d i c t i o n o f l i t i g a t i o n a g a i n s t g e o s c i e n t i s t s , i t w i l l become a burden upon t h e a s s o c i a t i o n (as w e l l as t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i t i o n e r ) t o i n d i c a t e t h e e f f o r t s i n : a) m a i n t a i n i n g a c c e p t a b l e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s w i t h i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n ; b) d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e a s s o c i a t i o n n ot o n l y p r o v i d e d w r i t t e n p o l i c y on p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s b u t a s s e s s e d t h o s e p r o v i d i n g t h e t r a i n i n g f o r g e o s c i e n t i s t s ; c) p r o v i d i n g up t o d a t e i n f o r m a t i o n on CPE, d e m o n s t r a t i n g e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r members t o u n d e r t a k e CPE. One advantage t o h a v i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n o v e r s e e CPE i s t h e p o t e n t i a l t o e s t a b l i s h s t a n d a r d s f o r programmes, programme f a c i l i t a t o r s , s p o n s o r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , e v a l u a t i o n measures, o r any c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e above, w h i c h c o u l d t h e n be m o n i t o r e d a c r o s s programmes (Grabowski & A s s o c i a t e s , 1981, p.88). I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s i z e o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n ' s membership and t h e p r i o r i t y g i v e n t o e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y f r e q u e n t l y d e t e r m i n e s t h e f u n d i n g a v a i l a b l e f o r CPE programmes. As t h e CGC has an e s t i m a t e d membership o f 16,000, t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n d e v e l o p i n g and f u n d i n g i t s own CPE i s q u i t e f e a s i b l e . 113 I f t h e CGC o p t s t o be p r o a c t i v e i n t h e a r e a o f CPE t h e n i t s t a n d s t o r e a p b e n e f i t s i n s e v e r a l ways: t h e p r o f e s s i o n i s promoted w i t h i n i t s community; t h e p r o f e s s i o n i s promoted i n t h e p u b l i c a r e n a ; t h e knowledge o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n i s advanced; t h e membership i s i n f o r m e d o f t h e r e s e a r c h development t h r o u g h i t s p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s and p r o f e s s i o n a l meetings (Manning & P e t i t 1987; P u e t z , 1981). An a s s e r t i v e l e a d e r s h i p r o l e by p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t h e a r e a o f CPE a l s o i n c r e a s e s t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f l a r g e r a c t i v e membership. T h i s s t u d y o n l y r e p r e s e n t s t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f CPE r e s e a r c h i n t h e g e o s c i e n c e s , g i v e n t h e r e s u l t s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y t h e r e s e a r c h e r has o u t l i n e d s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e a r e a s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h - Due t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f s t u d y i n g one p o p u l a t i o n , i t m i ght be more i n f o r m a t i v e t o conduct a random sample o f a l l C a nadian g e o s c i e n t i s t s r e g a r d i n g CPE t o e s t a b l i s h t h e s t a t u s w i t h i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n as a whole. T h i s would i n f o r m t h e CGC as t o t h e g e n e r a l s t a t u s o f CPE a c r o s s t h e spectrum o f C anadian g e o s c i e n t i s t s . - I n v e s t i g a t e g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' c o n c e p t i o n s o f knowledge a t b o t h t h e p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , and f u l l p r a c t i t i o n e r s t a g e . I f p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g does i n f l u e n c e g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' f u t u r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE. I s i t p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g t h a t w i l l i n s t i l l t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r CPE t h r o u g h o u t one's y e a r s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e ? 114 - E s t a b l i s h l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s on Canadian g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s would p r o v i d e t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e p a t t e r n s and t r e n d s o f CPE i n t h e g e o s c i e n c e s . - I n c o r p o r a t e b o t h q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e x r e s e a r c h approaches t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t u d i e s . T h i s u t i l i z a t i o n o f two d i s t i n c t r e s e a r c h methods w i l l e n a b l e a g r e a t e r d e p t h o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p a r t i c i p a n t s and non- p a r t i c i p a n t s o f CPE. - G i v e n t h e c h a n g i n g s o c i a l and economic demographics i n Canada ( a g i n g p o p u l a t i o n , d e c l i n e i n b i r t h r a t e , g l o b a l e c o n o m i c s ) , perhaps i t might be f r u i t f u l f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o a n a l y z e t h e i r f u t u r e r o l e . Concluding: Summary The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f CPE p a r t i c i p a t i o n among members o f t h e MDD. R e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were asked r e g a r d i n g t h e i r b e h a v i o u r , t h e i r f e l t needs and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward CPE. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o i d e n t i f y p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s t o t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t g e o s c i e n t i s t s have p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o v o l u n t a r y CPE, wh i c h t h e y demonstrated by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n some form o f CPE a c t i v i t y d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s 12 months. S i m i l a r l y , t h e g e o s c i e n t i s t s i n d i c a t e d t h e i r own f e l t CPE needs f o r t h e n e x t 12 months as b e i n g d i v e r s e , w i t h a s t r o n g emphasis on d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t e n t a r e a s , such as g e o c h e m i s t r y , as w e l l as new s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o meet t h e t e c h n i c a l changes i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n , as i n d i c a t e d by t h e f e l t need f o r computer s k i l l s . The p r o f e s s i o n o f g e o s c i e n c e i s u n d e r g o i n g changes i n t h e b o t h t h e work f o r c e due t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l change, and s t r u c t u r a l change, i n f o r m i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l a l l i a n c e s w i t h p r o v i n c i a l e n g i n e e r i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s . Both t h e g e o s c i e n c e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and t h e i r members need t o a d d r e s s t h e s e i s s u e s and any subsequent l o n g term i m p l i c a t i o n s o f such changes upon t h e p r o f e s s i o n . The p u b l i c and p o l i t i c i a n s o f Canada seem committed t o making e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s not o n l y a s o c i a l o r p o l i t i c a l i s s u e b u t an economic one. Those who o p e r a t e i n t h e p r i m a r y i n d u s t r i e s w i l l , I b e l i e v e , r a p i d l y come under p u b l i c s c r u t i n y . Most g e o s c i e n t i s t s a r e employed i n t h e p r i m a r y i n d u s t r y o f m i n i n g . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n f o r t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s t o p r o v i d e c l e a r g u i d e l i n e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , ones t h a t w i l l be l e g a l l y d e f e n s i b l e . L i t i g a t i o n w i l l ( I f e a r ) o c c u r a t u n p r e c e d e n t e d l e v e l s f o r t h o s e i n g e o s c i e n c e w i t h i n t h e n e x t decade. I b e l i e v e i t i s t h e j o i n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f b o t h t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and t h e i r members t o become p r o a c t i v e i n t h e a r e a o f CPE t o ensure t h e l o n g term growth o f t h e g e o s c i e n c e p r o f e s s i o n . The most e f f e c t i v e and e x p e d i e n t manner t o e s t a b l i s h a change i n awareness about, and a t t i t u d e s t oward CPE among g e o s c i e n t i s t s i s f o r t h e CGC t o t a k e l e a d e r s h i p i n CPE, and 116 p r o v i d e d i r e c t i o n f o r Canadian g e o s c i e n t i s t s . T h i s s t u d y was a n e c e s s a r y b e g i n n i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE i n g e o s c i e n c e . 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Mandatory Continuing; P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n : The why's and w h e r e f o r e ' s . U n p u b l i s h e d term paper, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, Vancouver: B.C. Seaman, D. F., & S c h r o e d e r , W. L. (1970). The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between E x t e n t o f E d u c a t i v e B e h a v i o r By A d u l t s and t h e i r A t t i t u d e s Towards C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . 2 0 ( 2 ) , 99-105. S e l d o n , W.K. (1976). P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a n d a r d s , Competency and C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n : R o l e s and R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n s . D.E. Moore, ( E d ) . Mandatory C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n P r o s p e c t s and Dilemmas f o r P r o f e s s i o n a l s . I l l i n o i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s . Seymour, R., C o n n e l l y , T., & Gardener, D. (1987). C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n : An A t t i t u d i n a l Survey o f P h y s i c a l T h e r a p i s t s . P h y s i c a l Therapy. 59, 339-404. S h e l t o n , H., & C r a i g , R. (1983). C o n t i n u i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n development: The Employer's P e r s p e c t i v e . I n R . S t e r n ( E d ) . , Power and C o n f l i c t i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n . pp. 150-168. Belmont, Ca: Wadsworth Pub. Co. S l a y t o n , P. & T r e b i l c o c k , M. J . , (Eds.) (1976). The P r o f e s s i o n s and P u b l i c P o l i c y . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s . Sork, T. (1986). Y e l l o w b r i c k r o a d o r g r e a t d i s m a l swamp: pathways t o o b j e c t i v e s i n program p l a n n i n g P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e t w e n t y - s e v e n t h a n n u a l A d u l t E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h C o n f e r e n c e (pp. 261-266). S y r a c u s e , NY: S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y P r i n t i n g S e r v i c e s . S p r i n g a t e , G.L. P r o f e s s i o n a l Development. (1987, September). The B.C. P r o f e s s i o n a l E n g i n e e r . 38, 9, 14. S t a l k e r , A. J . (1989). R e f r a m i n g t h e i s s u e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n : an i n t e r p r e t i v e s t u d y . U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l t h e s i s , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, Vancouver, B. C. S t a n l e y , W., & Holmes, R. (1987). C r i s i s i n E d u c a t i o n . The N o r t h e r n M i n e r Magazine 2 ( 9 ) , 13-18. S t e i n , M. (1977). The P o l i t i c s o f C o n t i n u i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n , A d u l t L e a d e r s h i p . 25, 226-252. 127 S t e m , M. R., (Ed) (1983). Power and C o n f l i c t i n C o n t i n u i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n . Belmont: Wadsworth Pub. Co. T i t c h e n , A. C. (1987, March). C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n : A Study o f P h y s i o t h e r a p i s t s ' A t t i t u d e s . P h y s i o t h e r a p y . 73 ( 3 ) , 121-124. T o f f l e r , A. (1980). The T h i r d Wave. New York: W i l l i a m Morrow & Co. V e r n e r , C. (1964). D e f i n i t i o n s o f Terms, G a l e J e n s e n , A.A L i v e r i g h t & W i l b u r H a l l e n b e c k ( E d s . ) . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n : O u t l i n e s o f an Emerging F i e l d o f U n i v e r s i t y s t u d y , (pp. 27-39). USA: The A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e USA. V o l l m e r , H. M., & M i l l s , D. L, (Eds.) (1966). P r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n . Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l I n c . Wenecour, S. & R e i c h , M. (1983). The S o c i a l Work P r o f e s s i o n and t h e I d e o l o g y o f P r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n , J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l W e l f a r e , 1 0 ( 4 ) , 684-732. W i l e n s k y , H. L. (1964). The P r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f Everyone? American J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y . 7 0 ( 2 ) , 137-158. W i l s o n , D. C. (1974). F a c t o r s R e l a t e d t o t h e C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n Needs o f a S e l e c t e d Group o f P r o f e s s i o n a l E n g i n e e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. U n p u b l i s h e d m a s t e r s ' s t h e s i s , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Z i b i r k , D. (1983) A Survey Of The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f d i e t i t i a n s ' F u t u r e I n t e n t i o n s t o P a r t i c i p a t e And T h e i r P a s t C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n A c t i v i t y . U n p u b l i s h e d m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. 128 APPENDIX A C O N T I N U I N G P R O F E S S I O N A L E D U C A T I O N FOR GEOSCIENTISTS •c Mineral Dcpo-its Division of the G . A . C . is sponsoring the following survey regarding continuing professional education in • geoscienccs. T r c resultant data will provide information regarding the altitudes, behaviour and needs of continuing •ifcssional education in geoscience. In addition the data will be used as part of a M . A thesis in the field of Adult Education. •J: assistance in comuleiirtg this survey would be most appreciated. A L L RESPONSES WILL BE T R E A T E D IN T H E STRICTEST r C O N F I D E N C E . A P E R S O N A L I N F O R M A T I O N \ . Age in years Less than 30yrs • 30-39year5 • 40-49yrs • 50-5Syrs • 60 years or more • 2. Please indicate your level(s) of education and date of graduation. Example: B.Sc. DECREE 1 4/70 DATE OF G R A D U A T I O N 2_ 3 _ O T H E R S ( P L E A S E E X P L A I N ! . 3> Number of years of professional employment in geoscience. 4, Please indicate your income level. ( C H E C K O N E O N L Y ) less than S19.999 • S:0,C00 • 29,999 • S20.CC0 - 39.999 O 540,000 - 49.999 Q S30.000 - 59,999 O ScO.OOO - 69.999 Q S70.000 - 79,999 • SSO.000 - 89,999 • S90.000 - 99,999 O more than S100.000 Q fl P R O F E S S I O N A L I N F O R M A T I O N S. Please indicate your present employment environment, position and field ( C H E C K O N E F R O M E A C H C A T E C O R Y ) 0 3 C A N I Z A T 1 0 N POSITION F I E L D industry O President • Geology • Educational Institutions Q Senior Administrator Ccophysics • r.ovcrr.TT.cn: • Midd le Management.. Cthar (PLEASE EXPLAIN) . G Ceochcmistrv Project Ccoscicntist Q Geology/Geophysics S3 Junior Ccoscicntist • Ccology/Ccochcmistry S3 Not working by choice _ . • Gcostatistics _ • Unemployed. ._ • CcoEnginecring S3 Educational Instructor • Other (PLEASE EXPLAIN) Student _ • Othcr(PLEASE EXPLAIN) 6, Please indicate the percentage (7e) of time spent annually at the following: ( T O T A L S H O U L D E Q U A L 100%). Office T. Laboratory _ % Iducational institution % Hire fi Field r. Other (PLEASE EXPLAIN) r. T O T A L = 100?. Please indicate your membc.-ship(s) in scientific or professional organizations. { C H E C K A L L A P P L I C A B L E COXES) C . A . C • I . M . M . • P . D . A . C D C . . M • A . E . C . • Other C 5.P.G. • S.E.G D Professional Engineer in the province / territory of C C O N T I N U I N G P R O F E S S I O N A L E D U C A T I O N (C.P.E.) 8. The following statements represent reasons for participating in a continuing professional education activity. For each -:atement C I R C L E O N E (1) N U M B E R that most often describes your reasons tor part ic ipat ing in continuing professional .-iucation activates. M O S T S O M E T I M E S L E A S T O F T t N O F T E N To maintain competence in my field 5 4 3 2 1 To expand mv professional network. _ 5 4 3 2 1 To broaden my knowledge witihn my field . 5 4 3 2 1 ~o escape the stresses of my work/home 5 4 3 2 1 To meet employers requirements 5 4 3 2 1 To broaden my career opportunities 5 4 , 3 2 1 Other (Please Explain) 5 4 3 2 1 - . How would vou prefer to maintain vour skills and know] £ 1 * Y O U R H I G H E S T PRIORITY ). :Vlf reflection • r-'rriodic refresher courses • Require x number of hours courscwork per year • Mair.ti in professional association(s) mcmbcrship(s)... Q Subscription to geoscience journals • ige in geoscience? ( S E L E C T THREE{3) IN O R D E R O F PRIORITY). Being employed • Attending Conferences O Attending professional organization(s) meetings • Other (EXPLAIN} *0. Check A L L scientific and professional publications you subscribe to, indicating , on average, the number of hours spent per week reading these publications. hors per week HOURS PER WEEK C I M .'- Northern Miner , Hcrnomic Geoiocy Canadian Journal O:hor_ oi Earth Sciences Canadian Mining Journal 11. P'ca«e indicate vour total number ofcontinuing professional education activities for the past 12 mon:hs, (From September ".?S7 to September 19SS), indicating the format of the activities and the sponsor/organization hosting the activities. Total number of continuing Format rroi'essional education activities during the previous 12 months Lecture • Short course • Conference • Field trip • Seminars • Other (PLEASE E X P L A I N ) • Sponsor Educational Institution • Technical Organization • Scientific Organization • Professional Engineering Ass • Government D Entrepreneur • Industry- • Ig. Please indicate your preference in (i) format and (ii) sponsorship of C P E activities. i) F O R M A T M O S T U N D E C I D E D L E A S T P R E F E R R E D P R E F E R R E D Lcturcs {includes course instruction) 5 4 3 2 5'nort courses 5 4 3 2 Workshops S 4 3 2 Seminars 5 4 3 2 Meetings/conferences/conventions 5 4 3 2 Field trips 5 4 3 2 Video tapes 5 4 3 2 Television 5 4 3 - Tutorials -- 5 4 3 - independent studv 5 4 3 2 Other (PLEASE EXPLAIN) 5 4 3 2 (ii) SPONSORSHIP most undecided least P R E F E R R E D P R E F E R R E D Educational Institutional 5 4 3 2 Technical organizations 5 . 4 3 2 Scientific organizations 5 4 3 2 Professional engineering 5 4 3 2 Government .'. 5 4 3 2 Entrepreneur 5 4 3 2 Industry 5 4 3 2 Oihcr (EXPLAIN) 5 4 3 2 *.3. The scale below is designed to reflect your attitude toward continuing professional education (CPE). Circle one number statement to indicate where you think you belong. S T R O N G L Y A C REE U N D E C I D E D S T K O N C L Y C I S A C R E E A geoscientists's abilitv to learn remains constant for a life time 5 C P E is just as important as basic geoscience education 5 C P E increases one's confidence ^ Governments) should invest more money in C P E - - 5 Canadian industry should invest more money in C P E - 5 C P E ihould be mandatory in the gcoscicnccs _ - 5 The need for C P E is greatly exaggerated by those .-ho stand to rain the most from such activities 5 The benefits of C P E are too obscure lo justify it 5 Most geoscience courses waste time on non-essentials _ ^ C P E is unnecessary since one can get all the information from books 5 Most C P E courses arc too expensive 5 133 I4> Please rate your perceived continuing professional education needs for the following 12 months (September 1SSS - September 1 = 1 need considerable training in this area. 2 = I need some training in this area. 3 = I do not know if 1 need training in this area 4 s: I am quite sure that I do not need training in this area. 5 = I definitely do not need any training in this area P E R S O N A L SKILLS Interpersonal skills „ Oral prcsen:ations Technical Wriring Expanding one's professional network OTHES (PLEASE EXPLAIN) 4 3 2 4 3 2 4 3 2 4 3 2 4 3 2 C O M P U T E R SKILLS Computer literacy/Introduction to computer o CooCraphics , - | CccStatistical - — ^ V.'ord processing..... 5 Other (PLEASE EXPLAIN) . 5 L E C A L A N D BUSINESS 4 3 2 4 3 2 4 3 2 Mining Laws and Regulations ^ income tax/taxation 5 Financial management 5 Mar'-ccting 5 4 3 2 Administrative skills 5 4 3 2 Mineral economics 5 4 3 2 Recruiting - 5 4 3 2 Supervising staff - 5 4 3 2 Time manaccmcnt 5 4 3 2 Othcr(PLEASE EXPLAIN) _ 5 4 3 2 P R O F E S S I O N A L A N D SCIENTIFIC SKILLS UrgraJing geology Upgrading geochemistry „ Upgrading geophysics Upgrading gc-ostatistscal Acuiring knowledge of other areas of geoscience.. Others (PLEASE EXPLAIN) 15. Please indicate how the following obstacles arc likely to prevent your participation in continuing professional education (CPE) programmes in the next 12 months. C O N S I D E R A B L E obstacle M O D E R A T E obstacle N O T A N obstacle Cost of programme 5 4 3 2 Scheduling difficulties 5 4 3 2 Not enough rime to studv 5 4 3 2 Friends/family don't like the idea of taking courses 5 4 3 2 Heme responsibilities 5 4 3 2 Strict attendance requirements 5 4 3 2 T c o old to study 5 4 3 2 Don't enjoy studying 5 4 3 2 Tir^d of school 5 4 3 2 Fc_r of failing 5 4 3 2 Don't want to appear too ambitious - 5 4 3 2 Past experience of incompetent C P E instructors — 5 4 3 2 Not enoueh enertrv/stamina 5 4 3 2 Others (PLEASE EXPLAIN)" 5 4 3 2 16. Please write in tbe name of your home town. T H A N K Y O U FOR Y O U R T I M E , A N D C O - O P E R A T I O N . A N Y A D D I T I O N A L C O M M E N T S O N T H E ISSUE O F C O N T I N U I N G P R O F E S S I O N A L E D U C A T I O N W O U L D BE M O S T W E L C O M E . Please return in the S A E to: Ms. Karen E. Yong University of British Columbia Adult Education Research Centre 5760 Toronto Road Vancouver V6T 1L2 British Columbia A p p e n d i x A -2 C O N T I N U I N G PROFESSIONAL E D U C A T I O N FOR GEOSCIENTISTS The Mineral Deposits Division of the C . A . C . is sponsoring the following survey regarding continuing professional education in the geoscienees. The resulting data will provide information for your professional association regarding geoscientists attitudes, and current practice of continuing professional education in geoscience. In addition the data will be used as part of a M . A thesis in the field of Adult Education. Your assistance in completing this survey would be most appreciated. A L L RESPONSES WILL BE T R E A T E D IN T H E STRICTEST O F C O N F I D E N C E . A. P E R S O N A L I N F O R M A T I O N 1. Age Less than 30yrs • 30-39years • 40-49yrs • 50-59yrs • 60 years or more Q 2. Please indicate your levcHs) of education and date of graduation. Example: B.Sc. 1972 D E G R E E Y E A R O F G R A D U A T I O N 1 2 3 O T H E R S (PLEASE EXPLAIN) 3. Number of years of professional employment in geoscience. years 4. Please indicate your income level. ( C H E C K O N E O N L Y ) less than 519,999 • $50,000 - 59,999 D SSO.000 - 89,999 • $20,000 - 29,999 • S60.000 - 69,999 Q 590,000 - 99,999 (D $30,000 - 39,999 • $70,000 - 79,999 • more than 5100,000 • S40.000 - 49,999 • B. PROFESSIONAL I N F O R M A T I O N 5. Please indicate the type of organization you work for, your position, and your field ( C H E C K O N E FROM E A C H CATEGORY) O R G A N I Z A T I O N P O S I T I O N FIELD Industry • President _ D Geology • Educational institutions • Senior Administrator • Geophysics • ' Government • Middle Management „ O Geochemistry • Project Geoscientist D Geology/Geophysics JD Junior Geoscientist — • Geology/Geochemistry JD Not working by choice • Ceostatistics • Unemployed • GeoEnginecring JD Educational Instructor • Other (PLEASE EXPLAIN) Student • Other (PLEASE EXPLAIN) Other (PLEASE EXPLAIN) 6. Please indicate the percentage (7.) of time spent annually at the following: ( T O T A L 5 H O U L D E Q U A L 10051). Office % Laboratory ^ Educational institution % Mine Field - 1 Other (PLEASE EXPLAIN)' % T O T A L = 100% 7. Please indicate your membershipfs) in scientific or professional organizations. ( C H E C K A L L A P P L I C A B L E BOXES) C . A . C D I . M . M • P . D . A . C • C . I . M • A . E . G • Other C.S.P.G • S.E.G D Professional Engineer in the province / territory of C . C O N T I N U I N G PROFESSIONAL E D U C A T I O N (C.P.E.) 8. The following statements represent reasons for participating in a continuing professional education activity. For each statement C I R C L E O N E (1) N U M B E R that most often describes your reasons for participating in such activities. M O S T O F T E N To maintain competence in my field 5 To expand my professional network. "5 To broaden my knowledge within my f i e l d . — „ — 5 To escape the stresses of my work/home S To meet my employer's requirements —.. 5 To broaden mv career opportunities 5 Other (PLEASE EXPLAIN) 5 S O M E T I M E S L E A S T O F T E N 9 How would vou prefer to maintain your skills and knowledge in geoscience? (SELECT T H R E E (3) IN O R D E R O F PRIORITY 1 « Y O U R HIGHEST PRIORITY ). Reflecting upon ones professional development • Taking periodic refresher courses • Fulfilling x number of hours courscwork per year • Maintaining professional association(s) mcmbcr(s) Subscribing to professional geoscience journals • Being employed • Attending Conferences • Attending professional organization(s) meetings • (PLEASE EXPLAIN) 10. Check A L L scientific and professional publications you subscribe to, indicating the average number of hours spent per week reading these publications per week. H O U R S PER W E E K H O U R S PER W E E K C I M Northern Miner Economic Geology Canadian Journal Other of Earth Sciences Canadian Mining Journal 11. Please indicate your total number of continuing professional education activities for the past 12 months, (From September 1987 to September 1988). 12. Of the continuing professional education activities in #11, how many were in the following (i) formats and (ii) who sponsored/organized these activites. Sponsors/ organizers include: educational institutions, professional associations, industry, government, and entrepreneurs. N U M B E R O F ACTIVITIES NAME(S) O F 5PONSOR(S)/ORCAN12ER(S) Lecture . Short course : Conference Field trip — Seminar , Other (PLEASE EXPLAIN). . - — 13. Please indicate your preferred (i) format and (ii) sponsorship of C P E activities. (i) F O R M A T M O S T P R E F E R R E D Lctures (includes course instruction) „ 5 Short courses ~ 5 Workshops „ 5 Seminars ~ - 5 Meetings/conferences/con ventions 5 Field trips 5 Video tapes 5 Television « 5 Tutorials - - 5 Independent studv 5 Other (PLEASE EXPLAIN) 5 U N D E C I D E D LEAST P R E F E R R E D (ii) SPONSORSHIP M O S T P R E F E R R E D Educational Institution 5 Technical organizations - 5 Scientific organizations — 5 Professional engineering 5 Government 5 Entrepreneur - 5 Industry — 5 Other (EXPLAIN) 5 U N D E C I D E D LEAST P R E F E R R E D IS. The scale below is designed to reflect your attitude toward continuing professional education (CPE). Circle one number per statement to indicate where you think you belong. STRONGLY A C R E E U N D E C I D E D S T R O N G L Y DISAGREE A geoscientist's ability to learn remains constant for a life time- 5 CPE is just as important as basic geoscience education— 5 CPE increases ones confidence — - 5 Govemment(s) should invest more money in C P E 5 Canadian industry should invest more money in C P E S C P E should be mandatory in the geosciences „ _ ... 5 The need for CPE is greatly exaggerated by those who stand to gain the most from such activities 5 The benefits of CPE are too obscure to justify it _ 5 Most geoscience courses waste time on non-essentials S C P E is unnecessary since one can get all the information from books 5 Most CPE courses are too expensive „ 5 16. Please indicate how the following obstacles arc likely to prevent your participation in continuing professional education (CPE) programmes in the next 12 months. C O N S I D E R A B L E O B S T A C L E M O D E R A T E O B S T A C L E N O T A N O B S T A C L E Cost of programme — 5 Scheduling difficulties — 5 Not enough time to study 5 Friends/family don't like the idea of me taking courses 5 Home responsibilities - 5 Strict attendance requirements 5 Too old to study — 5 Don't enjoy studying 5 Tired of school 5 Fear of failing 5 Don't want to appear too ambitious 5 Past experience of incompetent C P E instructors 5 Not enough energy/stamina _ 5 Others (PLEASE EXPLAIN)* 5 17. Please write in the name of your home town. T H A N K Y O U FOR Y O U R TIME, A N D C O - O P E R A T I O N . A N Y A D D I T I O N A L C O M M E N T S O N T H E ISSUE O F C O N T I N U I N G PROFESSIONAL E D U C A T I O N W O U L D BE M O S T W E L C O M E . Please return in the SAE to: Ms. Karen E. Yong University of British Columbia Adult Education Research Centre 5760 Toronto Road Vancouver V6T1L2 British Columbia H I 14. Please rate your perceived continuing professional education needs for the following 12 months {Ociobcr 1st, 1958- October 1st, 1939). 1 = 1 need considerable training in this area. 2 = 1 need some training in this area. 3 = I do not know if i need training tin this area 4 o I am quite sure that I do not need training in this area. 5 = I definitely do not need any training in this area P E R S O N A L SKILLS Interpersonal skills — 5 Oral presentations..- — - 5 Technical Writing .. 5 Expanding one's professional network... 5 OTHER (PLEASE EXPLAIN) 5 C O M P U T E R SKILLS Computer literacy/Introduction to computer . . . . . . . . 5 Geographies...- « — 5 Ceostatistical 5 Word processing - ; 5 Other (PLEASE EXPLAIN) 5 L E G A L A N D BUSINESS Mining laws and regulations _ — 5 Income tax/taxation _ 5 Financial management 5 Marketing — 5 Administrative skills 5 Mineral economics - 5 Recruiting 5 Supervising staff 5 Time management 5 Other (PLEASE EXPLAIN) : 5 P R O F E S S I O N A L A N D SCIENTIFIC SKILLS Upgrading geology _ 5 4 3 2 Upgrading geochemistry 5 4 3 2 Upgrading geophysics _ 5 4 3 2 Upgrading geostatistical _ 5 4 3 2 Acquiring knowledge of other areas of geoscience _ 5 4 3 2 Others (PLEASE EXPLAIN) 5 4 3 2 142 A P P E N D I X B 145 APPENDIX C E d u c a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f R e s p o n d e n t s D e g r e e t y p e n P e r c e n t a g e D i p l o m a 2 0 . 3 B A / B s c 2 2 4 3 9 . 1 M A / M s c 1 8 4 3 2 . 1 P h D 1 5 5 2 7 . 1 O t h e r 8 1 . 4 n = 5 7 3 Y e a r o f o r a d u a t i o n Y e a r ri P e r c e n t a g e B e f o r e 1 9 5 0 9 1 . 6 1 9 5 0 - 1 9 5 9 3 5 6 . 1 1 9 6 0 - 1 9 6 9 1 1 3 1 9 . 8 1 9 7 0 - 1 9 7 9 2 2 1 3 8 . 8 1 9 8 0 - 1 9 8 9 1 9 2 3 3 . 7 n= 5 7 0 147 T a b l e C 2 R ° g p n n d ° n t . s P r i m a r y F i e l d o f W o r k F i e l d o f W o r k n P e r c e n t a g e G e o l o g y 3 8 7 6 7 . 5 4 G e o p h y s i c s 4 0 . 6 G e o c h e m i s t r y 5 0 . 8 G e o l o g y / g e o p h y s i c s 1 3 2 . 2 G e o l o g y / g e o c h e m i s t r y 7 6 1 3 . 2 3 G e o s t a t i c s 2 0 3 . 5 0 G e o e n g i n e e r i n g 1 2 2 . 2 O t h e r 5 6 9 . 7 7 r>. = 5 7 3 T a b l e C 3 N u m b e r o f Y e a r s E m p l o y e d i n G e o s c i e n c e Y e a r s n % N 0 y e a r s 1 5 2 . 6 1 - 5' y e a r s 3 9 6 . 8 6 - 1 0 y e a r s 9 0 1 5 . 7 1 1 - 1 5 y e a r s 1 2 8 2 2 . 3 1 6 - 2 0 y <=? 3 r S 1.07 1 8 . 7 2 1 - 2 5 y e a r s 8 9 1 5 . 5 2 6 - 3 0 y e a r s ' 4 4 7 . 6 3 1 - 3 5 y e a r s 3 3 5 . 8 3 6 - 4 0 y e a r s 2 1 3 . 7 4 1 - 4 5 y e a r s 7 1 . 2 T o a l 5 7 3 9 9 . 9 T a b l e C 4 M e m b e r s h i p s i n P r o f e s s i o n a l o r S c i e n t i f i c O r a a n . i ^ a t i o n s O r g a n i s a t i o n s n 'A N G A C 5 4 9 6 . 7 C I M 3 6 3 6 3 . 4 C S P G 1 9 3 . 3 I M M 1 6 2 . 7 A E G 5 3 9 . 3 B E G 1 2 1 2 1 . 1 P D A C 2 6 8 4 6 . a M A C 4 6 8 . 7 A P P G Q 1 5 2 . 6 T D G D 1 1 1 . 9 G S A 4 2 7 . 3 O T H E R 1 2 1 2 1 . 0 P E n g 3 9 6 . 8 Table C 5 g f j f a ^ N g _ F Q R . P A R T I C I P A T I O N I N C O N T I N U I N G P R O F E S S I O N A L 1 4 9 E I H J C A T I O N A C T I V I T I T E S M O S T O F T E N S O M E T I M E S L E A S T O F T E N 5 4 3 2 1 ( p e r c e n t a g e */•) TO M A I N T A I N C O M P E T E N C E I N M Y 3 3 3 1 2 4 5 3 1 3 1 4 FIELD ( 6 1 . 7 5 ) ( 2 2 . 5 3 ) ( 1 0 . 7 5 ) ( 2 . 3 7 ) ( _ . 5 5 ) T O E X P A N D M Y 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 7 2 7 0 & 5 P R O F E S S I O N A L ( 2 0 . 5 6 ) ( 2 2 . 5 3 ) ( 1 . 8 5 ) ( 1 2 . 3 6 ) ( 1 2 . U 4 ) N E T W O R K T O B R O A D E N M Y K N O W L E D G E I N M Y 1 1 5 1 1 9 1 4 5 4 5 1 0 3 F I E L D ( 2 1 . 8 2 ) ( 2 2 . 5 8 ) ( 2 7 . 5 1 ) ( 8 . 5 4 ) ( 1 3 . 5 4 ) T O E S C A P E F R O M S T R E S S A T WORK. O R H O M E 3 6 4 2 5 3 4 1 5 ( 0 . 5 8 ) ( 1 . 1 6 ) ( 8 . 0 3 ) ( 1 0 . 2 1 ) ( 7 3 . 3 6 ) T O M E E T M Y E M P L O Y E R S R E Q U I R E M E N T S 7 2 4 3 9 8 8 3 U 7 ( 1 . 3 4 ) ( 3 . 8 4 ) ( 1 3 . 0 0 ) ( 1 6 . 8 3 ) ( 5 8 . 3 3 ) T a b l e C 6 P R I O R I T I Z E D P R E F E R E N C E O F W A Y S F O R M A I N T A I N I N G S K I L L S A N D K N O W L E D G E I N G E O S C I E N C E ( 1 = H I G H E S T F R I O R I T Y ) 1 ("/> 2 (7 . ) 3 C/.') A T T E N D I N G C O N F E R E C E S 7 2 ( 1 3 . 0 5 ) 1 5 3 ( 4 0 . 4 3 ) 1 5 3 ( 4 0 . 4 3 ) A T T E N D I N G P R O F E S S I O N A L 1 7 ( 1 2 . 5 3 ) 4 6 ( 3 4 . 0 7 ) . 7 2 ( 5 3 . 3 3 ) O R G A N I Z A T I O N S ) M E E T I N G S B E I N G E M P L O Y E D 2 6 2 ( 7 5 . 1 6 ) 3 8 ( 1 1 . 0 5 ) 4 4 ( 1 2 . 7 3 ) R E F L E C T I O N 1 3 ( 4 6 . 1 5 ) 1 0 ( 2 5 . 6 4 ) 1 1 C 2 S . 2 0 ) R E F R E S H E R C O U R S E S T A K I N G X H O U R S O F 1 0 4 ( 3 6 . 2 3 ) 1 0 2 ( 3 5 . 5 4 ) S I ( 2 3 . 2 2 ) C O U R S E W O R K P E R Y E A R S U B S C R I B I N G T O 7 4 ( 2 2 . 5 6 ) 1 3 3 ( 4 2 . 3 8 ) 1 1 5 ( 3 5 . 0 5 ) P R O F E S S I O N A L J O U R N A L S O T H E R 6 ( 5 4 . 5 5 ) 4 ( 3 6 . 3 6 ) 1 ( 3 . 0 9 ) T a b l e C 7 B A R R I E R S T U P A R T I C I P A T I O N I N C P E 150 C O N S I D E R A B L E O B S T A C L E M O D E R A T E O B S T A C L E N O T A N O B S T A C L E C O S T O F P R O G R A M M E 9 4 (.17.0) 4 1 0 3 ( 1 3 . 7 ) 1 3 4 ( 3 5 . 2 ) 2 1 8 2 7 2 ( 1 4 . S ) ( 1 3 . 0 ) S C H E D U L I N G D I F F I C U L T I E S 2 4 3 ( 4 3 . 8 ) 1 6 0 ( 2 8 . 3 ) 1 1 2 ( 2 0 . 2 ) 2 4 1 4 ( 4 . 3 ) ( 2 . 5 ) N O T E N O U G H T I M E T O S T U D Y 8 5 ( 1 5 . 4 ) 1 3 7 ( 2 4 . 8 ) 1 6 9 ( 3 0 . 6 7 ) 8 2 8 0 ( 1 4 . 8 ) ( 1 4 . 1 ) F R I E N D S / F A M I L Y N O T S U P P O R T I V E 5 1 3 4 4 8 6 4 0 3 ( 0 . 3 ) ( 2 . 3 ) ( 7 . 3 ) ( 1 5 . 5 ) ( 7 3 . 1 ) H O M E R E S P O N S I B I L I T I E S ( 4 . 1 ) 4 6 1 2 0 1 5 6 2 0 7 ( 8 . 3 ) ( 2 1 . 7 ) ( 2 8 . 2 ) ( 3 7 . 5 ) S T R I C T A T T E N D E N C E 4 8 R E Q U I R E M E N T S ( 8 . 7 ) 5 8 ( 1 0 . 5 ) 1 1 0 ( 2 0 . 0 ) 1 1 : 2 2 1 ( 2 0 . 5 ) ( 4 0 . 1 ) T O O O L D T O S T U D Y 4 1 2 3 2 6 2 4 4 0 ( 0 . 7 ) ( 2 . 1 ) ( 5 . 8 ) ( 1 1 . 2 ) ( 8 0 . 0 ) D O N ' T E N J O Y S T U D Y I N G 7 1 4 7 3 T I R E D O F S C H O O L ( 1 . 3 ) . ( 2 . 5 ) ( 1 3 . 3 ) 8 3 3 6 8 ( 1 6 . 2 ) ( 6 6 . 8 ) F E A R O F F A I L I N G ( 0 . 3 ) ( 0 . 6 ) ( 4 . 2 ) 6 4 4 5 7 ( 1 1 . 6 ) ( 8 3 . 3 ) D O N ' T W A N T T O A P P E A R T O O A M B I T I O U S 0 ( 0 . 0 ) 1 ( 0 . 2 ) 3 ( 1 . 6 ) 4 1 ( 7 . 4 . ) 4 3 8 ( 3 0 . 7 ) P A S T E X P E R I E N C E O F I N C O M P E T E N T I N S T R U C T O R S 6 1 7 7 5 1 1 5 3 2 4 ( 1 . 1 ) ( 3 . 1 ) ( 1 3 . 3 ) ( 2 1 . 8 ) ( 6 0 . 1 ) N O T E N O U G H E N E R G Y / S T A M I N A ( 0 . 3 ) 1 5 4 3 1 1 2 3 6 7 ( 2 . 8 ) ( 7 . 3 ) ( 2 0 . 7 ) ( 6 7 . 7 ) O T H E R ( 7 0 . 2 ) 6 3 O 0 ( 1 2 . 8 ) ( 6 . 3 8 ) ( 0 . 0 ) ( 0 . 0 ) 151 T a b l e C 8 C r o s s T a b u l a t i o n o f Respondents A t t i t u d e s Towards CPE and t h e i r O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n KEY O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n 1= P r e s i d e n t 2= S e n i o r A d m i n i s t r a t o r 3= M i d d l e Management 4= P r o j e c t G e o s c i e n t i s t 5= J u n i o r G e o s c i e n t i s t 6 = C o n s u l t a n t 7= Unemployed 8= S t u d e n t 9= Other A t t i t u d e range 1= S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e 2= D i s a g r e e 3= Undecided 4= Agree 5= S t r o n g l y Agree CPE i s j u s t as i m p o r t a n t as b a s i c g e o s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n „ 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| -..--.- + ._. + . + — . + — - . — + I 1 LUMN OTAL ' 10 13 47 8.9 22 28 72 13.6 15 24 64 12. 1 19 25 49 128 24 . 1 ROW TOTAL 31 21 49 70 22 1 1 220 41.4 2 . 4 70 13.2 46 .8.7 121 22.8 184 34.7 17 3.2 42 7.9 2 .4 29 5.5 18 3.4 531 100.0 A g e o s c i e n t i s t ' s a b i l i t y t o l e a r n r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t f o r a l i f e t i m e COLUMN TOTAL 12 21 2| 3| 58 11.7 22 10 52 81 21 10 2 12 42.8 15 15 33 43 10 124 25. 1 19 26 72 14.5 5| 29 5.9 ROW TOTAL 1 .2 6 1 12.3 4 1 8.3 114 23.0 178 36.0 16 3.2 41 8.3 2 . 4 26 5.3 15 3.0 495 100.0 0 1 Most CPE c o u r s e s a r e t o o e x p e n s i v e | 1| 2| 3| 4| 5 | I 1 + 30 COLUMN TOTAL 1 8 63 83 6 15 2 15 5 238 44.8 25 22 43 8 1 1 0 1 7 8 1 2 2 18 4 1.1 1 1 • 42 7.9 22 4. 1 11 2. 1 ROW TOTAL 1 .2 69 13.0 46 8.7 121 22.8 186 35.0 17 3.2 42 7.9 2 .4 29 5.5 18 3.4 531 100.0 ; 153 C P E . i s u n n e c e s s a r y s i n c e one can g e t a l l i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m books 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| COLUMN TOTAL 1 1 1 17 30 4 14 84 15.9 17 14 38 70 7 14 176 33.3 1 26 17 43 51 13 1 5 6 167 3 1.6 10 12 18 30 2 84 15.9 17 3.2 iROW TOTAL 2 .4 69 13.1 46 8.7 1 19 22.5 185 35.0 17 3.2 42 8.0 • 2 .4 29 5.5 17 3.2 528 100.0 CPE i n c r e a s e s ones c o n f i d e n c e 1| 21 3| -- 4| 5| COLUMN TOTAL 1 1 2. 1 32 6.0 10 10 12 53 10.0 18 14 48 62 14 1 1 2 174 32.8 33 18 54 97 11 18 15 13 25 I 49 . 2 ROW TOTAL 2- .4 70 13.2 45 8.5 121 22.8 185 34.8 17 3.2 42 7.9 2 .4 29 5.5 18 3.4 531 100.0 154 The b e n e _ f i t s of CPE a r e t o o o b s c u r e t o j u s t i f y i t 1| 2| 3| 4| 19 10 21 53 10 .UMN 131 OT AL 25.0 1 1 10 34 47 10 125 23.8 22 18 40 60 12 175 33. 3 14 19 10 66 12.6 10 28 5.3 30W TOTAL 2 .4 68 13.0 45 8.6 1 19 22. 7 184 35.0 17 3.2 4 1 7.8 2 .4 29 5.5 18 3.4 525 100.0 Most g e o s c i e n c e c o u r s e s w a s t e t i m e on n o n - e s s e n t i a l s 1 | 2 | 3 | 4| 5 | 30 18 56 9 7 5 1 9 2 1 6 1 6 1 7 49 6 2 1 1 1 5 1 5 1 2 1 8 C O L U M N 2 5 2 1 8 2 6 4 2 2 5 T O T A L 4 8 . 0 3 4 . 7 1 2 . 2 4 . 2 1 . 0 ROW TOTAL 2 . 4 6 8 1 3 . 0 4 4 8 . 4 1 2 0 2 2 . 9 1 8 4 3 5 . 0 1 7 3 . 2 4 2 8 . 0 2 . 4 2 8 5 . 3 1 8 3 . 4 5 2 5 1 0 0 . 0 THe need f o r CPE i s g r e a t l y e x a g g e r a t e d by t h o s e who s t a n d t o g a i n from s u c h a c t i v i t i e s ROW T O T A L 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | C O L U M N T O T A L 1 2 3 1 7 30 3 7 1 2 1 2 5 2 3 . 7 2 0 1 8 2 4 3 8 '• 3 0 5 8 1 2 ! 1 1 9 0 1 6 5 1 7 . 1 3 1 . 3 1 1 7 3 2 8 3 1 5 . 7 1 1 2 7 6 4 1 2 . 1 2 . 4 6 8 1 2 . 9 4 6 8 . 7 1 2 0 2 2 . 8 1 8 4 . 3 4 . 9 1 7 3 . 2 4 2 8 . 0 2 . 4 2 8 5 . 3 1 8 3 . 4 5 2 7 1 0 0 . 0 COLUMN TOTAL CPE s h o u l d be m a n d a t o r y i n t h e g e o s c i e n c e s 11 2| 3| 4| 15 2.8 10 19 3.6 13 26 16 18 45 65 7 15 1 4 7 70 13.2 179 33.8 36 18 57 84 15 1 19 10 247 46.6 ROW TOTAL 2 . 4 70 13.2 46 8.7 121 22.8 ' 183 34. 5 17 3 . 2 42 7.9 2 .4 29 5.5 18 3.4 530 100.0 COLUMN TOTAL Gov e r n m e n t ( s ) s h o u l d i n v e s t more money i n CPE 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 3 .6 22 4 . 2 10 10 18 28 10 84 16.0 27 14 51 77 8 20 213 40. 5 26 17 48 73 10 13 204 38.8 ROW TOTAL 2 . 4 67 12.7- 45 8.6 121 23.0 185 35. 2 17 3.2 42 8.0 2 . 4 28 5.3 17 3.2 526 100.0 COLUMN TOTAL C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r y s h o u l d i n v e s t more money i n CPE 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 11 15 18 66 12.5 15 16 19 35 26 48 7 10 75 14.3 14 1 26 . 8 1 1 23 41 2 12 107 20. 3 23 26 51 12 137 26 .0 ROW TOTAL 2 .4 69 13.1 4 5 8.6 1 18 22.4 184 35.0 17 3.2 42 8.0 2 .4 29 5.5 18 3.4 526 100.0 158 T a b l e C 9 G e o s c i e n t i s t s " p e r c e i v e d CPE needs f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g 12 months 1= I NEED CONSIDERABLE TRAINING IN THIS AREA v \ 2 = I NEED SOME TRAINING IN THIS AREA 3= I DD NOT KNOW IF I NEED TRAINING IN THIS AREA 4= I AM QUTTE SURE THAT I DO NOT NEED TRAINING IN THIS AREA 5 = 1 DEFINETLY DO NOT .NEED TRAINING IN THIS AREA PERSONAL SKILLS 5 4 3 2 1 r> INTERPERSONAL SKILLS 4 169 134 155 37 539 V. , (8.1) (31.3) (24.8) (28.7) (6.8) ORAL PRESENTATIONS 55 126 91 207 62 541 7. (10.1) (23.2) (1.6.8) (38.2) (11.4) TECHNICAL WRITING 73 181 100 158 30 542 •/. (13.4) (33.3) (18.4) (29.1) (5.5) EXPANDING ONE'S PROFESSIONAL 42 109 156 170 58 535 NETWORK */. (7.65) (20.4) (29.2) (31.8) (10.8) COMPUTER SKILLS 5 4 3 2 1 INTRODUCTION TO 114 84 46 150 151 545 COMPUTERS (20.9) (15.4) (8.4) (27.5) (27.7) GRAPHICS 79 88 109 133 116 525 '/. (15.0) (16.7) (20.7) (25.3) (22.1) STATISTICS 52 80 71 201 135 539 V. (9.6) (14.8) (13.2) (37.3) (25.0) WORD PROCESSING 129 (23. 9) 112 67 118 114 540 (20.7) (12.4) (21.8) (21.1) Table C 9 contd 5 159 F I N A N C I A L M A N A 6 M E N T 5 1 1 0 7 1 2 4 1 7 6 7 7 5 3 5 ( 9 . 5 ) ( 2 0 . 0 ) ( 2 3 . 2 ) ( 3 2 . 9 ) ( 1 4 . 4 ) M A R K E T I N G 7 8 8 6 1 3 2 1 4 3 9 0 5 2 9 ( 1 4 . 7 ) ( 1 6 . 3 ) ( 2 5 . 0 ) ( 2 7 . 0 ) ( 1 7 . 0 ) A D M I N I S T R A T I V E S K I L L S 4 3 1 4 4 1 2 7 1 7 1 4 6 5 3 1 ( 8 . 1 ) ( 2 7 . 1 ) ( 2 3 . S ) ( 3 2 . 2 ) ( 8 . 7 ) M I N E R A L E C O N O M I C S 5 3 1 3 1 1 1 5 1 9 1 4 5 5 3 5 ( 9 . 9 ) ( 2 4 . 5 ) ( 2 1 . 5 ) 3 5 . 7 ) ( 8 . 4 ) R E C R U I T I N G 8 3 1 4 6 1 3 9 1 1 6 3 8 5 2 2 ( 1 5 . 3 ) ( 2 8 . 0 ) ( 2 6 . 6 ) ( 2 2 . 2 ) ( 7 . 3 ) . S U P E R V I S I N G S T A F F 6 4 1 8 0 1 0 5 1 4 5 3 5 5 2 9 , , ( 1 2 . 1 ) ( 3 4 . 0 ) ( 1 9 . 9 ) ( 2 7 . 4 ) ( 6 . 6 ) T I M E M A N A G E M E N T 5 7 1 3 3 1 0 4 1 6 5 6 1 5 2 6 ( 1 0 . 8 ) ( 2 6 . 4 ) ( 1 3 . 8 ) ( 3 1 . 4 ) ( 1 1 . 6 ) P R O F E S S I O N A L A N D S C I E N T I F I C S K I L L S 5 4 3 U P G R A D I N G G E O L O G Y ( 3 . 8 5 ) ( 2 4 . 3 ) ( 1 7 . 1 ) ( 4 0 . 5 ) ( 7 . 6 ) 7. U P G R A D I N G G E O C H E M I S T R Y 4 3 1 2 2 1 1 0 2 1 6 4 6 5 3 7 ( 8 . 0 ) ( 2 2 . 7 ) ( 2 0 . 5 ) ( 4 0 . 2 ) ( 8 . 6 ) U P G R A D I N G G E O P H Y S I C S 4 0 3 5 3 3 2 2 3 7 2 5 2 3 ( 7 . 6 ) ( 1 8 . 0 ) ( 1 8 . 7 ) ( 4 2 . 2 ) ( 1 3 . 6 ) U P G R A D I N G G E O S T A T I S T I C S 4 4 3 1 8 1 2 2 5 8 3 5 3 0 ( 8 . 3 ) ( 1 7 . 2 ) ( 1 5 . 3 ) ( 4 2 . 5 ) ( 1 6 . 8 ) A C Q U I R I N G K N O W L E D G E O F O T H E R 3 1 7 2 1 3 4 2 2 2 6 2 5 2 1 A R E A S U F G E O S C I E N C E ( 6 . 0 ) ( 1 3 . 9 ) ( 2 5 . 8 ) ( 4 2 . 6 ) ( 1 1 . 3 ) 160 T a b l e C 10 C r o s s T a b u l a t i o n o f Respondents O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n and t h e i r F e l t CPE Needs f o r t h e Next 12 months KEY O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n : 1= P r e s i d e n t 2= S e n i o r A d m i n i s t r a t o r 3= M i d d l e Management 4= P r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t 5 = J u n i o r G e o s c i e n t i s t 6= C o n s u l t a n t 7= Unemployed 8= E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t r u c t o r 9= S t u d e n t 0= O t h e r F e l t CPE Need S c a l e : 1= I need c o n s i d e r a b l e t r a i n i n g i n t h i s a r e a 2= I need some t r a i n i n g i n t h i s a r e a 3= I do not know i f I need t r a i n i n g i n t h i s a r e a 4= I don't t h i n k I need t r a i n i n g i n t h i s a r e a POS other pres ident s e n i o r admin middle managemen 4 p r o j e c t leader 5 jun i o r 6 co n s u l t a n t 7 not working by c • ••• . 8 'educator s t uden t 1| T e c h n i c a l w r i t i n g 21 31 41 15 28 34 11 COLUMN 111 TOTAL 22.2 1 12 25 58 128 25.5 18 24 39 105 21 .0 10 19 32 80 16.0 5| 10 20 17 13 ROW TOTAL 2 . 4 60 12.0 44 8.8 1 16 23.2 180 35.5 16 3.2 41 8.2 2 .4 23 4.6 17 3.4 77 501 15.4 100.0 POS • 0 other 1 pres ident 2 sen i o r adm in 3 middle managemen 4 p r o j e c t leader 5 jun i o r 6 consu1tant 7 not work ing by c 8 educator s t uden t I n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s 1| 2| 3| 4| 11 19 COLUMN 56 TOTAL 11.0 16 32 66 5 17 158 31 .2 24 1 1 40 56 154 30.4 10 12 28 29 100 19.7 12 39 7.7 ROW TOTAL 1 .2 63 12.4 45 8 . 9 117 23. 1 182 35.9 16 3.2 39 7 . 7 2 .4 26 5. 1 16 3.2 507 100.0 E x p a n d i n g one's p r o f e s s i o n a l n e t w o r k 3| 4| POS other p r e s i d e n t s e n i o r admin middle managemen 4 p r o j e c t leader j u n i o r consu1tant not work ing by c 8 educator s t uden t 1| 2| 18 32 46 4 14 COLUMN 131 TOTAL 25.6 20 10 3 8 77 12 2 12 186 36 .4 7 15 26 69 13.5 8 7 20 27 75 14 . 7 5| 10 14 50 9.8 HOW TOTAL 2 .4 61 11.9 43 8.4 119 23. 3 184 36.0 . 16 3.1 41 8.0 2 .4 25 4.9 18 3.5 511 100.0 POS 0 other , 1 pres ident 2 senior admin 3 middle managemen 4 p r o j e c t leader 5 jun ior 6 consu11 an t 7 not working by c 8 educa tor s t uden t O r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s 11 2| 3| 4| 18 1 1 32 55 10 16 15 28 53' 10 18 18 30 1 1 33 29 13 COLUMN 14t 143 44 78 110 TOTAL 27.3 27.7 8.5 15.1 21.3 ROW TOTAL 2 .4 62 12.0 45 8.7 1 19 23. 1 185 35.9 16 3. 1 41 7.9 2 . 4 26 5.0 18 3.5 516 100.0 POS pres ident senior admin middle managemen 4 p r o j e c t leader 5 j u n i o r 6 consu1tant 7 not work ing by c educator student 8 COLUMN TOTAL g e o s t a t i s t i c s 21 31 5| ROW TOTAL 12 " I '5 1 15 1 6 1 65 12.9 5 " I " 1 10 I 5 44 8.7 18 «, | 2' 1 28 7 115 22.8 37 58 J 38 | 26 1 182 36. 1 1 I 6 I 5 j 3 15 3.0 8 I " 9 1 6 3 40 7.9 1 I 1 1 1 2 .4 7 I 6 5 1 3 I 4 1 25 5.0 4 I 5 4 | 1 I 2 1 16 3.2 93 18.5 158 31 .3 1 10 21.8 90 17.9 53 10. 5 504 100.0 POS • 0 other 1 pres ident 2 senior admin 3 middle managemen 4 p r o j e c t leader 5 jun i o r 6 consu1tant 7 not work ing by c educa tor student 8 COLUMN TOTAL I n t r o d u c t i o n t o c o m p u t e r s l | 31 2 1 1 2 24 32 106 20. 7 1 13 27 45 1 14 22. 3 16 19 63 12.3 4| 13 21 43 105 20.5 5| ROW TOTAL 12 10 30 45 10 123 24. 1 2 .4 61 11.9 44 8.6 118 23. 1 184 36.0 16 3. 1 4 1 . 8.0 2 . 4 26 ' 5. 1 17 ' 3.3 511 100.0 POS 1 pres ident 2 seni o r admin 3 middle managemen 4 'pr o j e c t leader 5 jun i o r 6 consu1tant 7 not work ing by c 8 educator 9 student COLUMN TOTAL 1| G e o g r a p h i e s 2| 3| 2 11 18 3 48 9.5 21 14 47 83 6 16 10 205 40 . 5 12 16 36 90 17.8 4| 17 13 32 27 3 13 108 21.3 5| 6 12 18 55 10.9 ROW TOTAL 64 12.6 44 8.7 118 23.3 182 36.0 15 3.0 41 8 . 1 2 .4 25 4.9 15 3.0 ' 506 100.0 164 POS 1 presIdent 2 senior admin 3 middle managemen 4 p r o j e c t leader 5 jun ior 6 consu1 tan t 7 not work ing by c 8 educa tor 9 student COLUMN TOTAL Word p r o c e s s i n g 21 3| 15 31 73 14.4 20 11 40 66 17 169 33. 3 14 13 27 37 4 9 113 22.3 17 15 22 30 102 20. 1 5| 12 19 50 9.9 ROW TOTAL 65 12.8 45 8.9 116 22.9 183 36. 1 15 3.0 40 7.9 2 .4 25 4.9 16 3.2 507 100.0 POS 1 pres ident 2 seni o r admin 3 middle managemen 4 p r o j e c t leader 5 jun i o r I 6 consu1tant 7 not working by c 8 educator student M i n i n g L a w s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s VI 2.1 3| 11 18 37 COLUMN 87 TOTAL 17.3 21 14 10 14 27 30 52 I 43 'i 8 12 136 27. 1 124 24.7 4 | 6 24 2 1 1 1 80 15.9 5| 15 29 75 14.9 ROW TOTAL 64 12.7 44 8.8 1 14 22. 7 182 36.3 15 3.0 40 8.0 2 .4 25 5.0 16 3.2 502 100.0 165 POS • 0 other 1 pres iden t 2 senior admin 3 middle managemen , ) 4 p r o j e c t leader 5 jun ior 6 consultant 7 not work ing by c 8 educator student COLUMN TOTAL S u p e r v i s i n g s t a f f 21 5 15 41 8 . 1 1 20 19 13 44 22 84 40 19 203 40. 1 101 20.0 12 10 36 34 10 118 23.3 5| 10 9 43 8 . 5 ROW TOTAL 1 . 2 64 12.6 • 42 8.3 117 23. 1 182 36.0 16 3.2 40 7.9 25 4.9 17 3.4 506 100.0 POS 1 pres ident 2 se n i o r admin 3 middle managemen 4 p r o j e c t leader j u n i o r consu1tant not working by c 8 educator student COLUMN TOTAL F i n a n c i a l m a m a g e m e n t 1| 17 44 8.7 18 14 12 1 1 36 73 26 3 7 15 10 1 3 ' 179 35.3 107 21.1 21 12 37 40 10 125 24 . 7 9 16 BOW TOTAL 64 12.6 45 8.9 117 23. 1 183 36. 1 15 3.0 4 1 8. 1 2 .4 25 4.9 15 3.0 52 507 10.3 100.0 166 POS 1 pres ident 2 seni o r admin 3 middle managemen 4 p r o j e c t leader 5 jun i o r 6 consu1tant 7 not work ing by c 8 educa tor 9 student COLUMN TOTAL A d m i n i s t r a t i v e s k i l l s 1| 2| 3| 4| 11 33 6 . 6 10 34 66 139 27. 7 10 25 34 5 102 20.3 19 2 1 40 6 1 1 2 169 33.7 1 3 10 14 1 1 ROW TOTAL 63 12.5 44 8.8 1 16 23. 1 18 1 36 . 1 15 3.0 4 1 8.2 2 . 4 25 5.0 15 3.0 59 502 11.8 100.0 POS 1 pres ident 2 senior admin 3 middle managemen 4 p r o j e c t leader 5 jun ior 6 consultant 7 not work ing by c 8 educator student M i n e r a l e c o n o m i c s 21 13 15 16 COLUMN 59 TOTAL 11.8 10 17 35 /1 . 10 155 31.0 1 1 21 40 10 102 20.4 4| 17 14 35 39 .1 1 129 25 . 8 5| 12 3 13 55 11.0 ROW TOTAL 63 12.6 44 8.8 115 23.0 179 35.8 15 3.0 4 1 8.2 2 .4 25 5.0 16 3.2 500 100.0 PCS 0 other 1 pres ident 2 senior admin 3 middle managemen 4 p r o j e c t leader 5 jun i o r 6 consu11 ant 7 not work ing by c 8 educator student COLUMN TOTAL 1| T i m e m a n a g e m e n t 2| 10 24 66 13. 1 25 13 14 ' 43 24 38 30 10 17 1 1 214 42. 5 93 18.5 10 29 27 9 1 18. 1 5| 11 11 39 7.8 ROW TOTAL 1 .2 63 12.5 44 8.7 1 16 23. 1 180 35.8 16 3.2 40 8.0 2 . 4 25 5.0 16 3.2 503 100.0 POS 0 other 1 pres ident 2 senior admin 3 middle managemen 4 pr o j e c t leader 5 jun ior 168 consultant not working by c educator student COLUMN TOTAL 1| R e c u i t i n g 2! 3| 13 2 38 7.5 3d 13 42 83 8 19 205 40. 3 1 1 18 29 2 83 16.3 4| 14 12 38 46 • 3 8 130 25.5 5| 12 12 ROW TOTAL 1 .2 62 12.2 45 8.8 117 23.0 183 36.0 16 3. 1 41 8. 1 2 .4 25 4.9 17 3.3 53 509 10.4 100.0 POS pres ident sen ior adm in middle managemen 4 pr o j e c t leader 5 junior 6 consu1tant 7 not work ing by c 8 educa tor s t uden t COLUMN TOTAL 12 M a r k e t i n g 1| . 2| . 3| 4| 9 I 12 I -'• 17 8 28 50 8 36 49 1 1 14 32 49 13 5| 1 1 ROW TOTAL 61 12.3 43 8.7 14 | 114 23.0 26 180 36.3 15 3.0 4 1 8 . 3 2 . 4 25 5.0 15 3.0 34 114 133 138 77 496 6.9 23.0 26.8 27.8 15.5 100.0 I n c o m e t a x / t a x a t i o n POS 1 pres ident 2 senior admin 3 middle managemen 4 p r o j e c t leader 5 jun ior 6 consultant 7 not work ing by c educator' student 1| 8 16 17 1 1 38 77 15 14 28 40 4| 18 13 34 40 2 14 1 5 COLUMN 43 166 122 130 43 TOTAL 8.5 32.9 24.2 25.8 8.5 ROW TOTAL 63 12.5 44 8.7 117 23.2 182 36. 1 15 3.0 40 7.9 2 ' . 4 25 5.0 16 3.2 504 100.0 POS 0 other 1 pr es iden t 2 s e n i o r admin 3 middle managemen | 4 p r o j e c t leader 5 jun i o r 6 consu1tant 7 not work ing by c 8 educator 1 ' 9 student COLUMN TOTAL 11 U p g r a d i n g g e o p h y s i c s 2| 3| 4| 5| I | ' I | 1 6 1 5 I 9 I 19 | '31- 7 1 3 I 7 r 6 I •21 ' , „ , 22 j 25 J 49 28 | 49 | 70 4 | 1 | i 4 I 8 3 | 6 J 3 1 8 | 22 i I ' I 1 1 I 3 I 4 | 2 1 : 10 J | 10 1 | 2 I 2 | 6 I 7 47 8.9 72 13.6 64 12.1 129 24 . 3 219 41.2 ROW TOTAL 2 .4 70 13.2 46 8.7 121 22.8 184 34.7 17 3.2 42 7.9 2 .4 29 5.5 18 3.4 531 100.0 POS 1 pres ident 2 s e n i o r admin 3 middle managemen 4 p r o j e c t leader 5 jun ior 6 consu1tant 7 not work ing by c 8 educa tor student COLUMN TOTAL U p g r a d i n g g e o l o g y 1| 2| 3| 17 12 32 82 16.3 24 12 49 78 16 14 210 4 1.8 1 1 14 32 78 15.5 4| 30 28 89 17.7 5| 11 ROW TOTAL 64 12.7 41 8.2 1 16 23. 1 179 35. 7 16 3.2 4 1 8.2 2 .4 26 5.2 17 3.4 43 502 8.6 100.0 POS 0 other 1 pres ident 2 s e n i o r admin 3 middle managemen 4 p r o j e c t leader 5 jun i o r 6 c o n s u l t a n t 7 not work ing by c i educator student 8 C O L U M N T O T A L U p g r a d i n g g e o c h e m i s t r y 1| 2| 3| . 4| 12 5 21 3 3 58 11.7 10 52 81 21 11 213 43.0 15 15 33 43 3 1 0 123 24 .8 19 26 72 14.5 5| • - + now TOTAL 29 5.9 1 .2 61 12.3 41 8.3 114 23.0 178 36 .0 16 3.2 41 8.3 2 .4 26 5.3 15 3.0 495 100.0 'OS 0 other 1 pres ident 2 sen i o r adm i n 3 middle managemen 4 p r o j e c t leader 5 jun i o r 6 c o n s u l t a n t 7 not working by c 8 educa tor student COLUMN TOTAL U p g r a d i n g g e o s t a t i s t T c s 1| 2| 3! 4| 5| ! 1 I I 1 I 11 2. 1 32 6.0 10 8 10 12 53 10.0 18 14 48 62 14 1 1 174 32. 8 33 18 *I4 97 1 1 18 15 13 ROW TOTAL 2 .4 70 13.2 45 8 . 5 121 22.8 185 34 . 8 17 3.2 42 7.9 2 . 4 29 5.5 18 3.4 261 531 49.2 100.0 172 T a b l e C 12 PREFERRED SPONSORS OF CPE ACTIVITIES MOST UNDECIDED LEAST PREFERRED PREFERRED 5 4 3 2 1 n EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 159 164 137 31 19 510 (31.8) (32.2) (26.9) (6.1) (3.8) ENTREPRENEUR 51 (10.4) GOVERNMENTS 73 (14. 2) INDUSTRY 181 (36.9) PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING 52 (10. 8) SCIENTIFIC ORGANIZATIONS 245 (47.O) 82 163 87 106 489 (16.8) (33.3) (17.8) (21.7) 169 157 63 52 514 (32.9) (30.5) (12.2) (10.1) 154 135 26 18 490 (31.4) (27.6) (5.3) (3.7) 89 202 72 65 480 (18.5) (42. 1). (15. 0) (13.5) 163 94 12 7 521 (31.3) (6.5) (2.3) (1.3) TECHNICAL ORGANIZATIONS 176 183 129 21 6 515 (34.2) (35.5) (25.1) (4.1) (1.2)

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