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Continuing professional education : a study of geoscientists' participation, attitudes and felt CPE needs.. Yong, Karen Elizabeth 1989

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CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION: A STUDY OF GEOSCIENTISTS' P A R T I C I P A T I O N , ATTITUDES AND FELT CPE NEEDS I N ONE PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION.  By KAREN E L I Z A B E T H YONG B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f W e s t e r n O n t a r i o , 1984. C e r t i f i c a t e o f E d u c a t i o n , Gonzaga U n i v e r s i t y , 1985.  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department  of Administrative,  A d u l t and H i g h e r  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H October ©  COLUMBIA  1989  K a r e n E l i z a b e t h Y o n g , 1989  Education)  In  presenting this  degree  at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this or  thesis for by  his  or  scholarly purposes may be her  representatives.  permission.  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  for  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  It  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not  Date  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  be allowed without my written  ABSTRACT  L i t t l e d a t a e x i s t on (CPE)  continuing  professional  education  p a r t i c i p a t i o n among g e o s c i e n t i s t s . T h i s s t u d y  t o e s t a b l i s h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f CPE  sought  p a r t i c i p a t i o n amongst  g e o s c i e n t i s t s through t h e i r behaviour, a t t i t u d e s toward and  f e l t n e e d o f CPE.  Division o f Canada A mail  (MDD), an  Members i n t h e M i n e r a l  affiliate  of the  (GAC), w e r e u s e d as t h e  survey questionnaire  of the  produced a response r a t e of The  findings revealed  population  Association  f o r the  members o f  survey.  MDD  72%. the  majority  of  held  p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward voluntary  CPE.  The  informal  Deposits  Geological  819  CPE  geoscientists  participation in  respondents p a r t i c i p a t e d i n both i n s t r u c t i o n a l activities  such as,  reading professional  attending  journals.  Eighty  field trips percent of  and  and  the  respondents i n d i c a t e d having p a r t i c i p a t e d i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l CPE  a c t i v i t i e s during  6 activities. the an the  informal  the  p r e v i o u s 12 m o n t h s , w i t h  In a d d i t i o n ,  100%  reported  participating in  a c t i v i t y of reading p r o f e s s i o n a l  average of  0.5  literature,  no  between e d u c a t i o n a l  hours per  week. C o n t r a r y t o f i n d i n g s  attitude, occupational  b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n and participation.  journals  s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were level,  a mean o f  the  extent of  These f i n d i n g s r e f l e c t the  ii  for in  found positions,  CPE  homogeneity of  the  sample's socio-economic  s t a t u s : h i g h e d u c a t i o n l e v e l s (39%  B . A ' s / B . S c ' s , 3 2 % M.A's/M.Sc's a n d 2 7 % P h D ' s ) , w i t h a mean i n c o m e o f $44K. The g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r o f a MDD member i s one who s p e c i a l i z e s i n g e o l o g y  (68%), works f o r i n d u s t r y (60%),  h o l d s an o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n o f e i t h e r p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t o r middle  management ( 5 7 % ) . Few b a r r i e r s t o  p a r t i c i p a t i o n were i d e n t i f i e d :  s c h e d u l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s and  lack of time. The  anticipated  reflected  future of the geoscience  p r o f e s s i o n was  i n t h e p e r c e i v e d CPE n e e d s o f t h e g r o u p .  Geostatistics  (59%), o r a l presentations (49%), mining  (50%), and geochemistry  laws  ( 4 9 % ) , were i t e m s most f r e q u e n t l y  cited. Sixty  f i v e percent  reported t h a t sponsors  o f CPE o t h e r  t h a n t h e i r own i n s t i t u t i o n w e r e b e t t e r p r o v i d e r s o f CPE activities.  Although  frequented  CPE f o r m a t  t h e l e c t u r e format  was t h e m o s t  during the previous year,  were t h e p r e f e r r e d format.  field  trips  T.V a n d v i d e o a s CPE d e l i v e r y  s y s t e m s were n o t f a v o u r e d by g e o s c i e n t i s t s w h i c h c o n t r a s t s t r e n d s amongst o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y in the United States  (Greenburg  & Beidenburg,  These f i n d i n g s a r e o f importance who s p o n s o r ,  1987).  t o those  i n geoscience  p l a n , p r o v i d e , o r e v a l u a t e CPE a c t i v i t i e s , b u t  p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e MDD those  engineers  i n the f i e l d  i n developing  i t s CPE p o l i c y ,  of adult education  and t o  conducting  p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h because d a t a has been  gathered  s p e c i f i c a l l y pertaining t o mineral deposit geoscientists i n  iii  Canada. Recommendations were p r o p o s e d f o r t h e umbrella organization,  the Canadian Geoscience  national Council,  w h i c h h a s t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d i n f l u e n c e t o e s t a b l i s h CPE  as a  p r i o r i t y w i t h i n g e o s c i e n c e i n t h e a r e a s o f programme p l a n n i n g , CPE  p o l i c y development  iv  a n d r e s o u r c e management.  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT  i i  L I S T OF TABLES  viii  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  ix  CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION S c h o o l s o f Thought R e s e a r c h i n CPE G e o s c i e n t i s t s Involvment Purpose D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Design o f t h e Study  1 1 4 5 7 8 9  i n CPE  CHAPTER I I : LITERATURE REVIEW  11  Continuing Professional Education Developing the Learner A v o i d i n g Obsolesence Accountability Participation P a r t i c i p a t i o n Research P r o f e s s i o n a l as Learners P a r t i c i p a t i o n and E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d Age Barriers to Participation A t t i t u d e s t o w a r d CPE F e l t CPE N e e d s  (CPE)  11 13 14 16 20 20 23 28 29 33 36 38  CHAPTER I I I : THE PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATION AND I T S ROLE I N CPE  43 Characteristics Protection Protection The P r o f e s s i o n a l The R o l e o f t h e  of a Profession o f Members of the Public A s s o c i a t i o n as a Network P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n a n d CPE  CHAPTER I V : METHODOLOGY  43 46 51 52 53 57  Population Instrumentation  57 57  v  S e c t i o n A: S e c t i o n B: S e c t i o n C: S e c t i o n D: S e c t i o n E: P i l o t Study Procedure Data A n a l y s i s  Demographics Attitude Participation Barriers to Participation Needs A s s e s s m e n t  CHAPTER V: SURVEY FINDINGS  58 59 60 61 61 62 64 65 67  Response Rate and Demographics Response Rate Geographic Dispersion C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Respondents Age Education Income F i e l d o f Work Years Employed i n G e o s c i e n c e Occupational P o s i t i o n Time i n D i f f e r e n t Work E n v i r o n m e n t s Professional Affiliations P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE F o r m a t o f CPE A c t i v i t i e s Use o f J o u r n a l s O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Employer Professional A f f i l i a t i o n Reasons F o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n M a i n t a i n i n g Knowledge and S k i l l s Perceived Barriers t o P a r t i c i p a t i o n A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d CPE A t t i t i t u d e s Toward P a r t i c i p a t i o n Occupational Position a n d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d CPE F e l t CPE Needs Personal S k i l l s Computer S k i l l s L e g a l and B u s i n e s s P r o f e s s i o n a l and S c i e n t i f i c S k i l l s O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n a n d F e l t CPE Needs Personal S k i l l s Computer S k i l l s L e g a l and B u s i n e s s P r o f e s s i o n a l and S c i e n i t i f i c S k i l l s F o r m a t s o f CPE A c t i v i t i e s P r e f e r r e d S p o n s o r s o f CPE A c t i v i t i e s A n a l y t i c a l D i s c u s s i o n o f Survey Responses Age Education Occupational P o s i t i o n Participation  vi  67 67 67 69 69 70 71 72 73 73 74 76 77 77 77 77 81 82 82 82 83 83 83 86 86 87 87 87 87 88 88 88 89 91 91 92 92 92 93 93 94  97 100  F e l t Needs Attitudes CHAPTER V I : LIMITATIONS,  IMPLICATIONS,  Limitations Implications Technological Impact Recommendations Future research C o n c l u d i n g summary  RECOMMENDATIONS. 104 104 106 106 108 113 114  BIBLIOGRAPHY  117  APPENDICES 128 A 1 P i l o t questionnaire 129 A 2 Survey questionnaire 135 B 1 L e t t e r t o t h e MDD 14 3 B 2 Geolog advertisment 144 B 3 Gangue n o t i c e 144 C 1 Educational characterstics 14 6 C 2 F i e l d o f work 147 C 3 Years employed i n g e o s c i e n c e 148 C 4 Professional a f f i l i a t i o n s 148 C 5 R e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n CPE a c t i v i t e s 149 C 6 P r e f e r r e d ways o f m a i n t a i n g k n o w l e d g e a n d 14 9 skills C 7 B a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE 150 C 8 O c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n a n d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d CPE 151 C 9 F e l t needs 158 C 10 O c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n a n d f e l t n e e d s 160 C 11 P r e f e r r e d s p o n s o r s o f CPE a c t i v i t i e s 172  vii  L I S T OF  TABLES  TABLE  PAGE  1.  Schematic r e l a t i o n s h i p  o f need d e f i n i t i o n s  2.  C o m p a r i s i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l and modern characteristics of a profession  45  3.  Geographic dispersion  68  4.  Age  70  5.  Income  72  6.  Occupational Position  74  7.  Time i n D i f f e r e n t  75  8.  Participation  9.  Format  Work E n v i r o n m e n t s  i n CPE  40  78  o f CPE  79  10. U s e o f J o u r n a l s  80  11. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l e m p l o y e r  81  12. A t t i t u d e s  85  T o w a r d s CPE  viii  ACKNOWLE DGMENT To my t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e : D r . " B i l l " ( W i l l i a m ) G r i f f i t h , a n d D r . Tom S o r k f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n f o r p r o v i d i n g a memorable l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e , Dr. A l i s t e r S i n c l a i r f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , who h a d t h e c o u r a g e t o v e n t u r e i n t o a new a r e a o f r e s e a r c h , a n d my e x t e r n a l examiner, Dr. Mike E a s t o n , from t h e O n t a r i o G e o l o g i c a l Survey. I w i s h t o acknowledge t h e f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n from t h e M i n e r a l D e p o s i t s D i v i s i o n which f a c i l i t a t e d t h e s t u d y . To my many c o l l e a g u e s a t UBC, i n p a r t i c u l a r B r e n d a P e n g e l l y a n d C h a r l e s Wong f o r t h e i r m o r a l s u p p o r t . A n d a s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o my e d i t o r a n d f r i e n d , Sue C o l l a r d , whose p a t i e n c e a n d t e a c h i n g s k i l l s w e r e e x e m p l a r y . Thanks.  ix  1  CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e x t e n t of g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n education  professional  (CPE) a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e g e o s c i e n c e  The r e s e a r c h e r given  i n continuing  believed  t h i s was a f r u i t f u l  the increasing s o c i a l , technological  community.  area t o and  research  political  p r e s s u r e s b r o u g h t t o b e a r on t h e g e o s c i e n c e p r o f e s s i o n i n r e l a t i o n to issues professional  o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , and  competency.  S c h o o l s o f Thought on This  CPE  chapter w i l l provide  CPE i n C a n a d a , t h e s c h o o l s the  t h e r e a d e r w i t h b a c k g r o u n d on  o f t h o u g h t o n CPE, r e s e a r c h  in  a r e a o f CPE, a n d g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' i n v o l v e m e n t i n CPE.  Continuing  p r o f e s s i o n a l education i n North America i s a  w i d e s p r e a d phenomenon. The d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n CPE i n t h e U.S  and Canada i s i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . F o r example,  o c c u p a t i o n s i n t h e U.S  h a v e a d o p t e d m a n d a t o r y CPE f o r t h o s e  p r a c t i c i n g i n the professions, professional organizations contrast, for  a trend  s u p p o r t e d by  and government a g e n c i e s .  i n C a n a d a , CPE i s more f r e q u e n t l y  maintaining  membership  organization,  practice.  of the professional organization  h a v e become more c o m p l e x : d e v e l o p i n g a CPE r e g u l a t i n g programmes;  facilitating  By  a requirement  i n a professional  rather than a requirement f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l The f u n c t i o n s  numerous  i n CPE  philosophy;  programmes;  monitoring  2 members' a t t a i n m e n t s ; a c t i n g a s a d v i s o r s agencies. Carrying confusion  out such d i v e r s e  t o government  functions  can r e s u l t i n  about t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  objectives.  Whose o b j e c t i v e s  a r e b e i n g met: t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l  organization's?;  t h e i r members?; o r s o c i e t y ' s ?  CPE i s u s e d b y p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s members' p r a c t i c e , a n d t o p r o v i d e professional's  Increasingly  to police i t s  legal accountability of  c o m p e t e n c y . CPE o f f e r s some c o n s u m e r  p r o t e c t i o n b u t no g u a r a n t e e t h a t a l l t h o s e b e a r i n g of  the t i t l e  " p r o f e s s i o n a l " are p r a c t i c i n g e t h i c a l l y or competently.  The  g r o w t h i n t h e CPE i n d u s t r y o v e r t h e p a s t t w e n t y  has  also spurred research  i n t o how a n d why  c o n t i n u e t o l e a r n beyond t h e i r i n i t i a l There a r e v a r i o u s  schools  years  professionals  training.  o f t h o u g h t on t h e e x t e n t t o  w h i c h demands f o r CPE r e f l e c t t h e e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l , a n d t e c h n i c a l changes i n s o c i e t y . Most r e s e a r c h e r s i s s u e s and concerns i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p r e s e n t climate.  In recent  professions  examine social  y e a r s t h e p u b l i c ' s demand t h a t t h e  be a c c o u n t a b l e h a s h e l p e d remove t h e v e i l o f  m y s t i c i s m s u r r o u n d i n g m e d i c i n e and l a w . T h i s spurred researchers  i n t u r n , has  t o examine t h e p u b l i c ' s c o n c e r n s t h r o u g h  assessment, p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  and e v a l u a t i o n  o f CPE. The u s e o f  CPE a n d m a n d a t o r y CPE (MCPE) b y t h o s e i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s been s t r o n g l y e n d o r s e d by consumer advocacy Professional associations o f new i n f o r m a t i o n professions,  groups.  concede t h a t g i v e n  and t e c h n o l o g y p e r t i n e n t  has  to the  an i n c r e a s i n g gap e x i s t s between  some  the influx  3 individual professional's individual's skills organizations of coping with obviously  level  o f knowledge and t h a t o f t h e  f o rprofessional practice.  Professional  a n d i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s v i e w CPE a s a way t h e new k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s .  perceived  by both p r o f e s s i o n a l s  a means o f p r e v e n t i n g  professional  CPE i s  and t h e p u b l i c as  obsolescence.  CPE i s s a i d t o a l s o a c t a s a means o f r e g u l a t i n g t h e professions  and o f r e d u c i n g  incompetent p r o f e s s i o n a l s . c o n t e n t c a n be e v a l u a t e d  t h e number o f f r a u d u l e n t F o r example, i f s p e c i f i c  by a p r o f e s s i o n a l  course  organization,  t h e p r o g r e s s o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l c a n be i d e n t i f i e d , professional organization  or  and  then the  h a s a means o f d e m o n s t r a t i n g i t s  members' c o m m i t m e n t t o p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . The k e e p i n g o f s u c h r e c o r d s c a n i d e n t i f y t h o s e members' who h a v e t o keep a b r e a s t o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n  failed  through the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  c o u r s e s deemed a s " s u i t a b l e " b y t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . Maintaining  r e c o r d s on CPE i s b e c o m i n g  increasingly  n e c e s s a r y i n t h e U.S w h e r e t h e amount o f l i t i g a t i o n professionals  continues t o increase  professionals  consider  preservice any  (Phillips,  one p e r i o d  of the  i t i s impossible f o r  of learning to suffice f o r a  e n t i r e work l i f e ,  1 9 8 7 ) . Some  CPE a s a n a t u r a l e x t e n s i o n  t r a i n i n g process. Given that  against  on-going l e a r n i n g provides  professional's opportunities  t o expand one's knowledge, and t o d e v e l o p a p r o f e s s i o n a l n e t w o r k a n d e n c o u r a g e a more a c t i v e m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e profession.  4 P r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s have e a g e r l y jumped o n t o CPE  bandwagon b e c a u s e i t p r o v i d e s an a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e  revenue  ( O h l i g e r , 1984;  be a $90  Atkinson,  1 9 8 7 ) . CPE  m i l l i o n i n d u s t r y i n t h e U.S  continues  contested  of  i s estimated  (Berger,  1989).  on b o t h  most  W h i l e arguments are h o t l y  s i d e s , the p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s  maintain t h e i r m o n o p o l i s t i c c o n t r o l over  Research i n  to  Debate  on w h e t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e t h e  s u i t a b l e p r o v i d e r s o f CPE.  the  CPE  (Seldon,  1981).  CPE  R e s e a r c h i n CPE participation,  has  tended t o f a l l  programme p l a n n i n g and  into three  areas:  evaluation.  The  l a r g e s t number o f s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n c o n d u c t e d i n t h e a r e a participation.  There are s e v e r a l l i m i t i n g  factors to  p a r t i c i p a t i o n research:  1) T h e s e s t u d i e s t e n d t o f o c u s  the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t ;  2) c o m p a r a t i v e  participation  tended to study  3) r e s e a r c h e r s  f a i l e d t o develop  on  than  have  individual variables for a multivariable  p r o b l e m . T h i s s e l e c t i v e a p p r o a c h t o r e s e a r c h has  participation.  on  s t u d i e s of  i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s r a r e l y e x a m i n e more  t h r e e g r o u p s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s ; and  a s i n g l e encompassing theory  thus  far  of  H o w e v e r , t h e g r o w t h i n t h e number o f  studies  i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n s does enhance our u n d e r s t a n d i n g  p a r t i c i p a t i o n which w i l l conceptual  of  eventually formulate  f r a m e w o r k f o r CPE  a  of  general  i n the p r o f e s s i o n s .  R e s e a r c h i n programme p l a n n i n g h a s  been g u i d e d  s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t i n b u s i n e s s management: c o s t  by  the  5  e f f e c t i v e n e s s v e r s u s e f f i c i e n c y i n t r a n s f e r r i n g X amount o f information;  and  understanding the  from a d u l t e d u c a t i o n which f o c u s e s  on  c o m p o n e n t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and  needs  from a l l c o m m u n i t i e s . Thus f a r t h e r e exchange of r e s e a r c h Evaluation researchers  i s an  b e t w e e n b u s i n e s s and  have l o o k e d a t e v a l u a t i o n and  facilitators.  organizations  are  questioning  o f m a n d a t o r y CPE  little  adult  education.  encompassing area of research  participants,  frequently  seems t o be  o f programmes,  Increasingly,  the  professional  effectiveness  and  on p r o f e s s i o n a l s . R e s e a r c h i n CPE  m e d i c i n e o r t h r o u g h i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p s s u c h as  impact is  conducted through i n d i v i d u a l professions  Professional Engineers Association  where  such  the  of B r i t i s h Columbia.  l a c k o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r s professional organizations developing a general  Geoscientists'  prolongs the  as  process  The  and  of  t h e o r e t i c a l framework.  Involvement i n  CPE  There i s a l a c k of l i t e r a t u r e s p e c i f i c to g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE from a p e r u s a l  of p r o f e s s i o n a l  s u r m i s e d t h a t CPE  as an  geoscience. A diverse  activities.  j o u r n a l s the  activity  However,  researcher  is flourishing in  r a n g e o f programmes, f o r m a l  and  formal,  a r e b e i n g o f f e r e d a l l o v e r t h e w o r l d . Some  provide  a calendar of events o c c u r r i n g  a d v a n c e . D e s p i t e t h i s a b u n d a n c e , no e x t e n t o f CPE  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  one  up  t o 2-3  has  non-  journals  years  in  investigated  profession,  the  6  geoscientists  7  CPE n e e d s . T h i s professions and  a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d CPE, o r g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' l a c k o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n on CPE i n t h e  s h o u l d be o f c o n c e r n t o e m p l o y e r s ,  professional organizations  who w i l l  government(s)  need t o a d d r e s s i n  p a r t i c u l a r t h e i s s u e o f an a g i n g C a n a d i a n l a b o u r The  felt  force.  c h a n g i n g s o c i a l demographics r e v e a l t h e work  i n North America i s aging.  This  will  s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s towards t h e o l d e r  necessitate  learner;  force  a change i n  recurrent  t r a i n i n g of workers several times throughout the duration of t h e i r work c a r e e r ;  and r e e d u c a t i n g  notion  and n e c e s s i t y  place.  CPE w i l l  people t o accept the  of continuing  e d u c a t i o n i n t h e work  be t h e p r i m a r y means o f m a i n t a i n i n g  e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l work The  rapid technological  profession  an  force.  changes e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e  of geoscience mirror  the technological  changes  w i t h i n o u r s o c i e t y . Many p r o f e s s i o n a l s h a v e h a d t o  acquire  o n g o i n g t r a i n i n g and development i n t h e i r a r e a s o f work i n order t o maintain a functioning competency and t o a v o i d example, i n s c i e n c e  level  of professional  professional obsolescence. For  and e n g i n e e r i n g ,  the current  estimated  l e v e l o f p r o f e s s i o n a l obsolescence i s seven years  (Stanley  Holmes, 1987). That i s , w i t h i n seven y e a r s o f g r a d u a t i o n from an u n i v e r s i t y e n g i n e e r i n g those students acquired for  programme, t h e k n o w l e d g e  of the profession  will  be  obsolete  p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e . One i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r  used by p r o f e s s i o n a l  associations  vehicle  f o r demonstrating  p r o f e s s i o n a l competency i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n CPE  activities.  &  7 In response associations,  t o these changing  industry,  conditions,  professional  government and e d u c a t i o n a l  i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e o f f e r i n g a p r o f u s i o n o f CPE a c t i v i t i e s t o prevent professional  o b s o l e s c e n c e amongst g e o s c i e n t i s t s .  d a t e , many o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s h a v e b e e n r e a c t i v e t o a p a r t i c u l a r event  measures  (be i t s o c i a l o r e c o n o m i c ) ,  B o t k i n r e f e r s t o as "shock  learning"  (1979, p . 1 7 ) .  what T h e s e CPE  a c t i v i t i e s a r e p r o v i d e d i n a v a r i e t y o f ways, from c r e d i t courses, t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f i e l d professional CPE  journals.  trips,  To  formal  t o reading  Debate c o n t i n u e s as t o t h e s u c c e s s o f  w i t h r e s p e c t t o a) d e m o n s t r a t i n g  c o m p e t e n c y , b) i n c r e a s i n g w o r k e r  professional  performance  developing the individual professionals'  and c)  growth.  In contrast  t o some p r o f e s s i o n s s u c h a s n u r s i n g , t h e l a c k o f l i t e r a t u r e about c o n t i n u i n g education i n  geoscience l i m i t s our  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE. Purpose The  purpose  o f t h i s s t u d y was t o g a i n a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE amongst g e o s c i e n t i s t s . T h i s was achieved through reasons  i d e n t i f y i n g the extent of p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  f o rp a r t i c i p a t i n g , f e l t  needs, a t t i t u d e s toward  CPE  and b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I d e n t i f y i n g s u c h a s p e c t s o f participation will  e n c o u r a g e programme p l a n n e r s b o t h t o  a c k n o w l e d g e t h e s e b a r r i e r s , a n d t o s e a r c h f o r ways t o o v e r c o m e s u c h b a r r i e r s . The d a t a p r o v i d e some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' a t t i t u d e s , b e h a v i o u r and needs r e l a t i n g t o CPE.  T h e s e f i n d i n g s s h o u l d p r o v e u s e f u l t o programme  8 p l a n n e r s , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t p r o v i d e s l e a d e r s h i p on s u c h a s e d u c a t i o n , and  a d u l t e d u c a t o r s who  p a r t i c i p a t i o n across a spectrum complete  understanding  create a potentially  issues  study  o f p r o f e s s i o n s . A more  of the geoscience  l a r g e r audience  community  f o r CPE  may  programmes.  T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t e r m s t o be u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y , and an o u t l i n e o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g  chapters.  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms As  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u f f e r s from ambivalence  m u l t i p l e d e f i n i t i o n s of terms, i t was  on a d v i s e f r o m my  and committee  d e c i d e d t o use t h e g l o s s a r y o f terms developed  U n i t e d N a t i o n s E d u c a t i o n a l S c i e n t i f i c and Organization  (UNESCO) e s p e c i a l l y a s UNESCO's p h i l o s o p h y  f o l l o w i n g terms w i l l  be u s e d t h r o u g h o u t  this  CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION ( C P E ) :  k e e p t h e m up t o d a t e w i t h new t o a c q u i r e new  skills  occupational setting, i n which  t h e y work"  and  The  paper:  "designed  p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n the p r o f e s s i o n s or h i g h - l e v e l  field,  the  Cultural  i n f o r m s much o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e .  to  by  for  occupations  developments i n t h e i r  r e l a t e d to t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n or  to understand  (UNESCO, 1979,  p.  the s o c i e t a l  context  40).  INFORMAL EDUCATION: " S t r u c t u r e d s e q u e n t i a l e d u c a t i o n f o r adults,  s u c c e s s f u l completion of which  i s not intended t o  r e c o g n i z e d by a f o r m a l award, such as a p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n , but which  be  credit...or  i s undertaken  t o meet  9 some o t h e r - u s u a l l y 1979,  immediate- i n t e r e s t o r need"  (UNESCO,  p. 4 9 ) .  NON-FORMAL EDUCATION: " E d u c a t i o n a l require  or involve  programmes w h i c h do n o t  enrollment o r r e g i s t r a t i o n of learners"  (UNESCO, 1 9 7 9 , p. 5 4 ) . P A R T I C I P A N T : A p a r t i c i p a n t i s t h e p e r s o n who u n d e r t a k e s CPE activities. P A R T I C I P A T I O N : T h e a c t o f u n d e r t a k i n g some f o r m o f l e a r n i n g f o r t h e purpose o f personal gain opportunities,  (financial,  or personal s a t i s f a c t i o n ) .  GEOSCIENCE: A c o l l e c t i v e t e r m t o d e s c r i b e o f o c c u p a t i o n s whose common g o a l Earth, 1980,  employment  t h e wide d i v e r s i t y  i st o understand t h e planet  and t h e p r o c e s s e s a c t i n g upon i t ( B a t e s and J a c k s o n , p. 2 6 0 ) .  Design o f t h e Study The  g e n e r a l d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y was a m a i l e d  questionnaire  t o a select population  survey incorporates American studies  survey  o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s . The  i n s t r u m e n t s from a v a r i e t y o f N o r t h  t o measure demographics, p a r t i c i p a t i o n  l e v e l s i n CPE, a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d CPE, a n d g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' CPE  needs. These i n s t r u m e n t s where b a s e d on t h e work by  Houle,  (learning patterns  of professions,  (model o f l e a r n i n g o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s , (professionals  1983); Schon  1983),  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE, 1 9 8 8 ) ;  ( p a r t i c i p a t i o n and n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  1981).  Cervero Cross  felt  10  Chapter 2 w i l l  examine a s e l e c t i o n o f works from  e d u c a t i o n and c o n t i n u i n g discussion CPE w i l l  of the role of the professional  A  association  and  i n c l u d i n g t h e s t u d y d e s i g n and method o f  c o m p r i s e s C h a p t e r 4 . The f i n d i n g s  study w i l l the  education i n the professions.  b e p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r 3 . An o u t l i n e o f t h e  methodology analysis  adult  be p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r 5 .  researcher's interpretations,  recommendations, conclusions.  directions  from t h e main  Chapter 6 w i l l  implications  f o r future  studies  of and  offer  findings,  11  CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW  This  chapter w i l l  developing  discuss  CPE, w i t h  the individual professional,  sub-sections  on:  avoiding  p r o f e s s i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e , and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n on p a r t i c i p a t i o n , CPE  needs. As t h e r e  a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d CPE a n d  i s no l i t t l e m a t e r i a l s p e c i f i c t o  geoscience, t h i s l i t e r a t u r e review w i l l on p r o f e s s i o n s  other  by  incorporate  t h a n g e o s c i e n c e and a d u l t  Continuing The  professions.  material  education.  P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n (CPE)  UNESCO d e f i n i t i o n f o r CPE h a s b e e n w i d e l y  researchers  felt  both i n adult education  accepted  and i n d i v i d u a l  CPE i s :  designed f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n the professions o r h i g h - l e v e l o c c u p a t i o n s t o k e e p them up t o d a t e w i t h new d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e i r f i e l d , t o a c q u i r e new s k i l l s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n o r o c c u p a t i o n a l s e t t i n g , and t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s o c i e t a l c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e y w o r k (The I n t e r n a t i o n a l B u r e a u o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 7 9 , p. 4 0 ) . CPE  i s considered  as "on-going" l e a r n i n g f o r  practitioners i n the professions,  f o r t h e purpose o f  i m p r o v i n g t h e i r knowledge o r s k i l l s , ideas, trends Upp,  and e x p l o r i n g  and developments i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n  (Broski &  1979) . I t i s n o t f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f o b t a i n i n g  additional professional qualifications.  CPE i s r a r e l y  continuous i n nature but i s , rather, episodic. 1983)  new  (Jarvis,  12 Professionals  e n g a g e i n CPE f o r v a r i o u s  reasons  i n c l u d i n g : t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge and s k i l l s  (Johnstone & R i v e r a ,  professional obsolescence  1965); t o avoid  ( S c o t t , 1984); and t o p r o v i d e  measure o f a c c o u n t a b i l i t y t o o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s public  (Cervero,  The  f o r m o f CPE r a n g e s f r o m f o r m a l accredited  c r e d i t courses  i n s t i t u t i o n s t onon-  a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e dependent upon t h e s e l f  directedness  of the individual learner.  maintain that recognition  professionals  deficiencies  Others argue t h a t o f  learners, professionals  capable of assessing  a r e t h e most  a n d r e c t i f y i n g t h e i r own l e a r n i n g  (Cervero,  1988).  i s t h e comprehensive term f o r t h e p r a c t i c e  professionals  t o acquire  enabling  on-going l e a r n i n g f o r t h e purpose  of d e v e l o p i n g t h e m s e l v e s and t h e p r o f e s s i o n ,  and f o r  d e m o n s t r a t i n g a m e a s u r e o f a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . Some utilize  formal  for s a t i s f a c t o r y completion of a p a r t i c u l a r  groups o f a d u l t  CPE  Some  s p o n s o r s o f CPE o u g h t t o p r o v i d e  programme ( B r o s k i & Upp, 1 9 7 9 , p. 2 5 ) . all  and t h e  1988).  o f f e r e d by e d u c a t i o n a l l y formal  a  CPE a s a v o l u n t a r y  a c t and p l a c e  responsibility for  l e a r n i n g on t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l , w h i l e a m a n d a t o r y CPE p o l i c y . C u r r e n t l y ,  professions  o t h e r s employ  the interpretation of the  e x i s t i n g CPE d e f i n i t i o n s a n d t h e d i v e r s i f i e d m e t h o d s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n v a r y from p r o f e s s i o n  t o profession.  The  a r b i t r a r y a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t CPE d e f i n i t i o n s h a v e resulted  i n confusion  for a l l .  "How much CPE i s e n o u g h t o  13 demonstrate p r o f e s s i o n a l competence?,  11  "who s h o u l d  oversee  CPE o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s ? , " a n d "what c a n be done t o e n s u r e participation?",  a r e frequent q u e s t i o n s from  both  p r o f e s s i o n a l s a n d n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s . The f o l l o w i n g sections w i l l  sub-  discuss: developing the individual  p r o f e s s i o n a l ; avoiding p r o f e s s i o n a l obsolescence;  and  accountability. Developing; t h e I n d i v i d u a l P r o f e s s i o n a l In  t h e i r s t u d y o f A m e r i c a n a d u l t s and c o n t i n u i n g  e d u c a t i o n J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r a  (1965) f o u n d  p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l persons  c i t e d upgrading  p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge as t h e p r i m a r y participation. sentiments  (Cervero, M i l l e r  (Zibrik,  their  reason f o r  Other r e s e a r c h e r s have found  among d i e t i t i a n s  that  similar  1983), and e n g i n e e r s  & Dimmock, 1 9 8 6 ) . W h e t h e r o r n o t u p g r a d i n g  one's knowledge i s f o r c a r e e r advancement o r f o r o t h e r reasons, to  the reality  i s t h a t CPE i s i n c r e a s i n g l y  m a i n t a i n an o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n . Cervero  skills  suggests  that w i l l  (Oddi,  necessary  1987).  CPE s h o u l d be a v e h i c l e f o r d e v e l o p i n g  provide the learners with "tools"  for self  assessment and e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e and c o m p e t e n c e . T h i s , he p r o p o s e s ,  would complement t h e  p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g p e r i o d w h e r e t h e e m p h a s i s i s on a c q u i r i n g c o n t e n t knowledge that the a b i l i t y i s a necessary  ( 1 9 8 8 ) . Many r e s e a r c h e r s a s s e r t  t o e v a l u a t e and c r i t i q u e one's performance  skill  f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o which  insufficient  a t t e n t i o n i s devoted  during preservice training  (Schon,  14 1987;  1983;  Wenecour & R e i c h ,  1983). I n a s o c i e t y where  amount o f k n o w l e d g e i s i n c r e a s i n g , t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' knowledge i s o b s o l e t e Avoiding  professional  the  p r a c t i t i o n e r but  the  p u b l i c , and  1987;  Avoiding  (Stanley  associations, & Holmes,  changes have c a t a p u l t e d and  products of such research t e c h n i q u e s and  (Lindsay,  (1979) r e f e r s t o CPE  v i e w CPE  The  means i n d i v i d u a l s  rapid  difficulty obsolescence  Morrison & K e l l y , as  "prevention"  professional obsolescence, unlike Botkin, (1979) who  North  development.  t o o l s . The  expanding knowledge base i s the  o f p r o f e s s i o n a l competence  Maltiza  against  Elmandjin  more p e s s i m i s t i c a l l y as  and a  " r e a c t i v e " measure, where p r a c t i t i o n e r s c o n t i n u a l l y t r y keep pace w i t h  an  by and an  d i f f e r e n c e between the i n d i v i d u a l s at the that of a recent  completion of t h e i r formal  do  not  gain  new  education  are  on  knowledge  seems u n r e a l i s t i c g i v e n  i n p o s i t i o n s where p r o b l e m s o l v i n g  d e c i s i o n making s k i l l s  to  possessed  g r a d u a t e . Knox b a s e s t h i s s t a t e m e n t  from t h e i r d a i l y p r a c t i c e . This are  t o Knox, p o i n t s  knowledge and/or s k i l l  assumption that p r o f e s s i o n a l s  professionals  to  ever expanding knowledge base.  Professional obsolescence, according the  to  Obsolescence  areas of research  h a v e t o l e a r n "new"  1974) . K n o w l e s  only  1988).  A m e r i c a i n t o new  an  increases.  a l s o to the p r o f e s s i o n a l  Rapid technological  with  that  obsolescence i s of concern not  Professional  technological  also  l e g i s l a t i v e agencies  Cervero,  possibility  the  that  and  c e n t r a l components o f t h e i r work.  15 T h e s e s k i l l s w h i c h a r e b a s e d on  the p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' previous  knowledge, are b e i n g c o n t i n u a l l y c h a l l e n g e d meet t h e  demands o f new  more c o r r e c t t o s a y  work problems.  that the  s c i e n t i f i c or engineering  graduation  (Stanley  estimated " h a l f - l i f e "  k n o w l e d g e p o s s e s s e d by obsolete  w i t h i n 5-7  & H o l m e s , 1987;  not c)  to  ( S c h o n , 198 3 ) . I t i s of  be  years.  students  years  Campbell,  T h e r e f o r e , p r o f e s s i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e can f r o m : a)  changed  k n o w l e d g e i s b e t w e e n 5-7  T h i s means t h a t h a l f t h e u p o n g r a d u a t i o n w i l l be  and  of  1983).  said to  occur  a r e s u l t o f a l a c k o f k n o w l e d g e ; b) p r a c t i t i o n e r  possessing  the  knowledge or s k i l l  i n the  a p r a c t i t i o n e r f a i l i n g t o keep a b r e a s t of  technological Associates,  changes i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n  1981;  Knox,  CPE  professional  the  (Grabowski  &  o b s o l e s c e n c e some  as b e i n g a panacea t o  incompetent p r a c t i c e  or  1987).  In attempts to avoid people perceive  f i r s t place;  (Ohliger,  1984;  "cure" a l l  J a r v i s , 1983).  The  p u b l i c i n c r e a s i n g l y demands a c c o u n t a b i l i t y f r o m a l l professionals,  as  i t recognizes  p r o f e s s i o n a l s may  say  practice  1980,  (Loring,  perceptions  o f and  t h e y can  the do  gap  and  p . 1 2 ) . The  between what  what t h e y a c t u a l l y  public's  negative  a t t i t u d e s toward p r o f e s s i o n a l groups  f o s t e r e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among many p r o f e s s i o n a l s 1983,  has  (Caplan,  p.323). P r o f e s s i o n a l s do  obsolete  k n o w l e d g e and  educational  not  d e l i b e r a t e l y choose t o  t h e y may  d e f i c i e n c i e s . This  not  be  possess  aware o f t h e i r  i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e where  the  16 p r o f e s s i o n a l has l i m i t e d c o l l e g i a l  contact  g e o g r a p h i c l o c a l i t y o r an u n d e r d e v e l o p e d organization. required  professional  are increasingly being  t o demonstrate t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l  (Ohliger, U.S.  However, p r o f e s s i o n a l s  due p e r h a p s t o  1 9 8 4 ) , a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e 77 o c c u p a t i o n s i n t h e  w h i c h i n s i s t u p o n CPE o r MCPE ( P h i l l i p s , Failure of professional organizations  to evaluate, clients who  competency  7  d i s c a r d o r a c c e p t new  c h a n g i n g n e e d s may  operate with  obsolete  1987).  and p r a c t i t i o n e r s  information  n o t be s e r v e d b y  will  professionals  knowledge and s k i l l s .  such obsolescence w i l l  h a v e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s on  professionals' ability  t o compete i n a g l o b a l  C o n c e r n among p u b l i c c i t i z e n s g r o u p s ,  mean  In turn,  economy.  professional  associations  a n d t h e g o v e r n m e n t s on t h e i s s u e o f  professional  o b s o l e s c e n c e have n e c e s s i t a t e d  t h e development  o f m e a s u r e s t h a t c a n be r e g a r d e d a s d e m o n s t r a t i v e o f professional  competency.  Accountability M a t t e r s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y and competency have u n t i l  r e c e n t l y been t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h o s e  the professions.  Increasingly  government a g e n c i e s and  consumer advocacy g r o u p s have s t i r r e d t h e p u b l i c ' s for increased professions  within  demand  a c c o u n t a b i l i t y of those p r a c t i c i n g i n the ( S c o t t , 1984). T h i s  action i s the r e s u l t of  c h a n g i n g s o c i e t a l c o n c e r n s a n d demands o f t h e p a s t y e a r s and o f t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e r e between what p r o f e s s i o n a l s  twenty  i s a growing  s a y and what t h e y  do  gap  17 Each p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l  need t o a d d r e s s t h e  i s s u e s o f c o n t r o l and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , g i v e n negative  t h e mounting  p u b l i c f e e l i n g s t o w a r d s p r o f e s s i o n a l s . CPE h a s b e e n  adopted by p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s commitment t o r i d d i n g f r a u d u l e n t p r a c t i t i o n e r s from t h e i r ranks  t o demonstrate  and incompetent  ( H o u l e , 1 9 8 0 ; Oxenham, 1 9 8 4 ) .  R o c k h i l l c o n t e n d s t h a t CPE a n d MCPE w i l l increased  provide  an  p r o b a b i l i t y o f p r o f e s s i o n a l competence, and  s u b s e q u e n t l y a measure o f a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . T h i s the  their  a s s u m p t i o n t h a t e x p o s u r e t o CPE w i l l  information  filtering  i s b a s e d on  r e s u l t i n some  i n t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s even i f t h e y  a r e t a k i n g t h e CPE u n d e r d u r e s s . However, s h e d o e s  question  t h e b e n e f i t s o f MCPE, a n d a d v o c a t e s t h a t CPE b e a  "voluntary  o p e n l e a r n i n g p o l i c y " ( 1 9 8 1 , p. 6 8 ) . D a r k e n w a l d a n d M e r r i a m (1982) a r g u e t h a t much o f w h a t c o n s t i t u t e s CPE t o d a y g o e s against  t h e one m a j o r p r i n c i p l e o f a d u l t  voluntary  education:  p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I l l i c h , i n contrast, objects  t o any  form o f n o r m a t i v e measurement f o r d e m o n s t r a t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l c o m p e t e n c y , s t a t i n g " T h e r e i s no c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n education  f o r a s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n and t h e t e c h n i c a l  competence o f t h e performance o f t h i s e d u c a t i o n "  (1977,  p.7) . There i s , however, a r e l a t i o n s h i p between knowledge and b e i n g knowing t h e theory one  o n how t o a p p l y  professions  possessing  a b l e t o use t h a t knowledge. F o r example, behind a subject  (often)  better  informs  t h a t k n o w l e d g e . On t h i s p r e m i s e some  a r e m o v i n g away f r o m n o r m a t i v e t e s t i n g o f  18 professionals I n B.C,  to t h e i r demonstration of applied  knowledge.  the family p r a c t i t i o n e r s are considering  peer review  o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e a s an a l t e r n a t i v e t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l assessment  (Wainmouth, 1 9 8 9 ) . T h i s i s a p o s i t i v e u s e o f p e e r  r e v i e w as opposed that  t o t h e d i s c i p l i n a r y use o f peer  review  i s sometimes found i n e n g i n e e r i n g o r m e d i c i n e  Wessen, p e r s o n a l communication,  (A.  S e p t e m b e r 15, 1 9 8 8 ) .  The  p u b l i c ' s n e e d t o know t h e r e i s a n " e x p e r t " a n d t h e a t t i t u d e t h a t o n l y " e x p e r t s " become p r o f e s s i o n a l s , may w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c c e p t CPE,  Campbell,  our  and e s p e c i a l l y MCPE a s a q u a l i t y  c o n t r o l measure o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e 1987;  explain  (Manning  &  Petit,  1983).  T h i s i s an age when many t e n d t o e q u a t e e d u c a t i o n w i t h c o m p e t e n c e : t h e more e d u c a t i o n p e o p l e p o s s e s s , t h e more c o m p e t e n t t h e y a r e assumed t o be i n p r a c t i c e . R e l y i n g n o r m a t i v e t e s t i n g forms t o demonstrate  competency c o u l d  d u b i o u s , g i v e n t h e i d i o s y n c r a t i c i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f CPE each p r o f e s s i o n .  D e s p i t e t h i s c o n c e r n , CPE  used as e v i d e n c e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l development litigation  i n t h e U.S  participation  i n CPE  (Ohliger,  upon be in  i s increasingly i n cases of  1984). However, where  i s required  o r mandated f o r  p r o f e s s i o n a l membership o r p r a c t i c e , t h e r e i s g r o w i n g resentment  among p r o f e s s i o n a l s  r e s e n t t h e t i m e consuming  ( C o r b e t t , 1979).  t a s k s o f CPE  People  which r e s u l t i n both  p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e s ( f r o m t h e l o s s o f f e e s a n d t i m e away f r o m p r a c t i c e ) it  p a r t i c u l a r l y as t h e y  as u n n e c e s s a r y merely t o demonstrate  see  their practice to  19 bureaucrats yet, be  (Rockhill,  1983; Manning & P e t i t ,  1987). But as  CPE c o n d u c t e d b y p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s  appears t o  a f e a s i b l e , pragmatic approach t o t h e problem o f  professional accountability. H o u l e s e e s CPE b e i n g firstly,  u s e f u l i n t h r e e m a j o r ways:  a s a power i n s h a p i n g e d u c a t i o n  p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n ; secondly, i n s t r u c t i o n that could thirdly,  inform  policies within a  a s a means o f  and i n f l u e n c e membership;  a s a means o f e n l i g h t e n i n g a n d i n f l u e n c i n g t h e  members t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e vocation  ( 1 9 8 0 , p . 1 6 5 - 1 7 3 ) . When CPE becomes e n t r e n c h e d  a profession, the public's perception  of that  profession  s h i f t s i n a p o s i t i v e way; p r a c t i t i o n e r s a l s o " f e e l  good"  about t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n , t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r d e a l i n g s those outside  the profession.  both physicians  and n u r s e s  into  T h i s has been t h e c a s e  with with  (O'Conner, 1 9 7 9 ) . CPE w i t h i n  a s s o c i a t i o n s operates under t h e s u b j e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l o f i t s members. T h a t i s , w h e r e t h e r e  climate  i s a positive climate,  CPE i s more w i l l i n g l y a c c e p t e d b y members. A t t i t u d e s  toward  CPE h e l d b y p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n f l u e n c e a n d d e t e r m i n e t h e f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a n d i t s CPE (Grotelueschen  & Caulley,  policies  1977).  CPE h a s d e v e l o p e d f u r t h e r b e c a u s e o f t h e s o c i a l c o n c e r n s e x p r e s s e d by t h e p u b l i c , t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , and p r a c t i t i o n e r s toward p r o f e s s i o n a l competency  (Seldon,  197 6 ) . The r a p i d g r o w t h o f k n o w l e d g e a n d  technology w i t h i n the professions  precludes  the  continued  20  l a i s s e z - f a i r e a p p r o a c h t o CPE professional CPE  is  preservice  personal need  ingredient  Others  training,  implications  of  in  include and  CPE  professional understand  in  their or  toward  and  CPE  future,  associations  participate  discussed  the  for  possible  the  their  a  i t  how  other  participate  their  felt  in  needs.  possible  (H.  Menzies,  fruitful CPE  the  providers  to  they  their  These  opt  items  will  be  PARTICIPATION  continues  i s one  aspect of adult education  that  t o d e v e l o p . T h e r e a r e many c o m p o n e n t s t o  u n d e r s t a n d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE. f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n of the p a r t i c i p a t i o n research, participation  literature will  p r o f e s s i o n a l s as  i n education,  The  outline  learners,  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  age,  and  barriers to p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Participation  research  P a r t i c i p a t i o n research CPE  research  research  i n adult education  i n the professions  t e n d s t o f o c u s on t h e  has  (Knowles, 1979).  to  attitudes  below.  Participation  the  for  l e a r n ; why CPE;  of  the  Oddi, 1984). Given  seems  they  competent  restructuring  workplace  1989;  and  clients: not  recipe  f o s t e r i n g a w a r e n e s s on  technology  in  the  the  c o m m u n i c a t i o n , J u n e 1,  for  p r o f e s s i o n a l s or  organizations. one  professional.  by  shaped CPE  active participants, in  attempt to understand t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n behaviour,  an  and  21 t h e i r reasons f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . employed have t r a d i t i o n a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e techniques  research  have not  but m i s l e a d i n g , mostly  due  Data gathered  typically elicit  1987).  to the v a r i e t y of data  through survey  questionnaires  ( G l a s s & H o p k i n s , 1 9 8 9 ) . CPE  r e t u r n v a r y i n g f r o m 28%  (Seymour, C o n n e l l y  1 9 8 7 ) , t o 76%  1983). However,  (Denford,  p r o f e s s i o n a l s per  r e s p o n s e r a t e s o f l e s s t h a n 1% (D. M a c D o n n e l l , p e r s o n a l Chakrabarti,  f o r survey  on  of  & Gardener,  surveying of of  experienced questionnaires  communication, September  14,  "education",  exists  i n t h e use  " p r o f e s s i o n a l " , and  of the  terms  "learning  a c t i v i t y " w h i c h have c o n t r i b u t e d i n t h e wide d i s c r e p a n c y the  literature,  ( I s t a n c e & S c h u l t z , 1987). D e s p i t e  f a i l i n g s researchers  The  f r e q u e n t l y make c o m p a r i s o n s t o  these other  liberally.  dominant approach t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h  been t o study  in  f r e q u e n t l y making d i r e c t comparison between  studies d i f f i c u l t  studies quite  on  1985).  In a d d i t i o n ambiguity "adult",  rates  se does not g u a r a n t e e a h i g h r a t e  (APEBC) h a v e r e p e a t e d l y  the  studies  A s s o c i a t i o n f o r P r o f e s s i o n a l Engineers  B r i t i s h Columbia  1988;  gathering  participation  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p r o f e s s i o n s have r e p o r t e d  CPE  i n scope  r e s p o n s e r a t e s o f between 10%-18% from  general population  r e t u r n . The  of  o n l y been l i m i t e d  a n a l y z i n g procedures used t o conduct  research.  methods  included a multitude  (Istance & Schultz,  These t e c h n i q u e s  and  The  s i n g l e v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s m o t i v a t i o n , age  has or  22  education.  J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r a ' s  t h a t was r e s t r i c t i v e the  questionnaire  excluding  1965 s t u d y p r o d u c e d  f o r many s t a t i s t i c a l  analyses.  Most o f  was r e s t r i c t e d t o a n o r d i n a l s c a l e  most s t a t i s t i c a l  t e s t s . Despite  data  thereby  such problems  d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s have been i n c o r p o r a t e d  i n numerous  p a r t i c i p a t i o n studies i n engineering  1974),  dietitians  (Zibrik,  1983) a n d p h y s i o t h e r a p y  Some a d u l t e d u c a t o r s r e c o g n i z e p a r t i c i p a t i o n research studying  (Wilson,  (Denford,  the complexity  1983).  of  among a d u l t s , a n d h a v e s h i f t e d f r o m  s i n g l e v a r i a b l e s t o m u l t i p l e v a r i a b l e s . Knox a n d  Videbeck suggested studying  m u l t i p l e v a r i a b l e s i n 1963, and  M i l l e r expanded upon t h e i r i d e a  i n h i s force f i e l d  analysis  which examined s o c i a l c l a s s , t e c h n o l o g i c a l change, associational  s t r u c t u r e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o  participation  (Cross,  1981. S i m i l a r l y , Rubenson a d a p t e d an  e x p e c t a n c y - v a l e n c e model t o t h e s t u d y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i c h assessed learners expectations  o f s u c c e s s and t h e v a l u e o f  t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n as seen by t h e l e a r n e r i n r e l a t i o n t o other  factors i n their l i f e  been used i n r e s e a r c h CPE r e s e a r c h  (1976). T h i s model has s i n c e  i n C a n a d a a n d Sweden ( 1 9 7 6 ,  had tended t o d e s c r i b e  1983).  the professions i n  i s o l a t i o n , w h i c h h a s c a u s e d some t o c l a i m t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n research  lacks t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s (Schultz  1987): s t u d i e s a r e n o t g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o other p r o f e s s i o n a l s . However, descriptive research professions  &  Istance,  groups o f  s u c h c r i t i c i s m may b e u n j u s t i f i e d :  i d e n t i f i e s t h e c o m m o n a l i t i e s among t h e  and t h e unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s between t h e  23 professions  (Cervero,  q u a l i t a t i v e and  1988). S t a l k e r  quantitative research  p a r t i c i p a t i o n are not mutually to the  (1989) m a i n t a i n s approaches  e x c l u s i o n , each  explored  i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n research  "deeper" meanings g i v e n  contributes  methods a r e  as a way  to a single  of  q u a n t i t a t i v e and fruitful  q u a l i t a t i v e research  being  uncovering  questionnaire  response. R e s e a r c h e r s have found t h a t u t i l i z i n g  both  a p p r o a c h e s t o be  i n understanding p a r t i c i p a t i o n than using  approach independently.  T h i s has  and  p r o f e s s i o n a l s as  learners  workers  more  either  b e e n shown i n t h e  p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s on m u n i c i p a l 1989)  to  other.  Increasingly q u a l i t a t i v e research  the  that  recent  (Stalker,  (Dahlgren &  Pramling,  1985). D e v e l o p i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e h a v i o u r i n CPE  i s important to a l l p a r t i e s concerned with  t h e n e e d s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s . The e x p a n d t h i s d i s c u s s i o n by  meeting  following sections  examining: p r o f e s s i o n a l s  will as  learners. P r o f e s s i o n a l s as  Learners  R e s e a r c h e r s d i s t i n g u i s h p r o f e s s i o n a l s from the population  of a d u l t s because the  characteristics participation  former possess unique  (Wenecour & R e i c h ,  i n CPE  activities.  f r e q u e n t l y members o f a h i g h e r  1983)  which a f f e c t t h e i r  Professionals  are  socio-economic group.  s a l a r i e s r e f l e c t t h e i r academic attainment, e x p e r t i s e and  general  Their  technical  performance i n a s p e c i a l i z e d area of  work  24 (Houle,  1980;  e d u c a t i o n has rewarding (Wilensky,  Jarvis,  1983). T h e i r formal  instructional  p r o v e n t o be e c o n o m i c a l l y and  f o r t h o s e who 1964;  socially  have e n t e r e d t h e p r o f e s s i o n s  Houle, 1983). Given these rewards f o r  educational attainment  p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e more l i k e l y t o h o l d  p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward  continuing education  ( G r o t e l u e s c h e n , H a r n i s h & Kenny, 1 9 7 7 b ) . I n t u r n , r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h e s o c i a l and  economic b e n e f i t s o b t a i n a b l e w i t h  h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n encourage p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o p a r t i c i p a t e f u r t h e r e d u c a t i v e programmes  (Ibid).  J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r a ' s s t u d y on learners  7  *American a d u l t  revealed t h a t the m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s  w e l l educated,  middle  class,  in  Caucasian  were  (1965) . T w e n t y  five  percent of a l l adult learners p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n adult e d u c a t i o n were c l a s s i f i e d as p r o f e s s i o n a l s . These findings adequately  d e p i c t a d u l t l e a r n e r s a c r o s s Canada i n  t h e 1 9 8 0 s , a s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e 7  study  'One  (Devereaux, 1985). Devereaux found  Canadian p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e d  i n Every o n l y 20%  found  d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h number o f u n i v e r s i t y c l a s s Caucasians  Five of  i n adult education  s i m i l a r t o the e a r l i e r American study,  middle  early  participating  o r i e n t e d e d u c a t i o n programmes. W h i l e  was  underscored.  I t d i d not  c o n t a c t / d i s c u s s i o n groups;  the and,  a educated,  in vocationallythe Devereaux study  f o c u s on s e v e r a l f o r m s o f a d u l t l e a r n i n g o f f e r e d by v a r i e t y of p r o v i d e r s , the importance  7  of non-formal  did  a education  include collegial reading of p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s  25 or a t t e n d i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l meeting.  These  a r e s u b t l e b u t i m p o r t a n t ways f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o a c q u i r e knowledge. Both Johnstone  and R i v e r a , and Devereaux  focused  on t h e d e s c r i p t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h a r e a : How many hours  o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n w e r e s u b j e c t s i n v o l v e d i n ? , Why d i d  t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e ? , What t y p e s o f CPE c o u r s e s w e r e  they  i n v o l v e d i n ? The u s e o f d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s a r e c r u c i a l i n o b t a i n i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g education. T h e i r frequency t o e s t a b l i s h comparisons  of participation i n adult  of use then enables  between d i f f e r e n t  researchers  professional  groups. Research  i s d e v e l o p i n g on p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' c o n c e p t i o n s o f  knowledge. Dahlgren  and P r a m l i n g conducted  study w i t h 70 u n i v e r s i t y students i n three  a longitudinal professional  a r e a s : b u s i n e s s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , e n g i n e e r i n g , and medicine. Dahlgren  and P r a m l i n g h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t p r e s e r v i c e  p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g would shape s t u d e n t s ' f u t u r e c o n c e p t i o n s o f Knowledge They found medicine  (1985).  s t u d e n t s i n b u s i n e s s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  d e c o n t e x t u a l i s e d knowledge: t h e y were a b l e t o  a n a l y z e many c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s o f a p r o b l e m , reassemble  their findings.  F o r example, u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e p o l i t i c a l workers  then  and c u l t u r a l  i n v o l v e s an awareness o f t h e p o l i t i c a l ,  needs o f s o c i a l and  economic p o l i c i e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e c u l t u r a l needs o f a community. These s t u d e n t s were s a i d t o d e a l w i t h knowledge on a h o l i s t i c  level.  This contrasted with  26 e n g i n e e r s who f o c u s e d on  typically  one  c o n t e x t u a l i z e d knowledge, t h a t i s ,  a s p e c t of a problem, f o r example  caused increased  labour  demands. M a r t o n , t h e  Swedish phenomonolgical research, a t o m i s t i c or surface Personal the  founder  would d e s c r i b e  of  t h i s as  l e v e l approach t o a problem  an  (F. M a r t o n ,  c o m m u n i c a t i o n , J u l y 1 1 - 1 2 , 1 9 8 9 ) . As p r a c t i t i o n e r s  n a t u r e o f p r o b l e m s o l v i n g and  physicians  and  knowledge were  business administrators  knowledge i n the  problem s o l v i n g : that  contextualized  t h i s narrow focus approach  i s , t r e a t the disease,  systemmic approach t o understanding the u n l i k e engineers'  knowledge t o  problem s o l v i n g . Researchers continue engineers preservice  as  (Dahlgren & Pramling, that preservice with a general  facilitate  better  1 9 8 5 ) . Few  t r a i n i n g d o e s any  more t h a n e q u i p  aspect of research  on how  their  place  p r o f e s s i o n a l s would  knowledge of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n  o n l y one  learner  maximized i n t h e work  A n a l y s i s o f c o n c e p t i o n s o f k n o w l e d g e h e l d by represents  the  Most p r o f e s s i o n a l s a l s o f e l t not  contend  graduates  (CCPE,  1988).  professionals professionals  learn. The depicted  chain  a  somehow  h o l i s t i c problem s o l v e r s ? , or i s i t the type of  t r a i n i n g was  to  t o answer, i s i t the  t r a i n i n g t h a t makes them  a t t r a c t e d to engineering?  their  opposed t o  cause of  whose t r a i n i n g had  p r e p a r e d them t o d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e  preservice  reversed,  f o r m o f a p p l i e d k n o w l e d g e . Many f e l t  work environment c r e a t e d  disease;  inflation  o f r e s p o n s e m o d e l d e v e l o p e d by  Cross  p a r t i c i p a t i o n o c c u r r i n g as a consequence o f  (1981) a  27 sequence of events.  First  i n d i v i d u a l s e v a l u a t e and  identify  t h e i r l e a r n i n g n e e d s , f o l l o w e d by an a s s e s s m e n t o f a t t i t u d e s toward  e d u c a t i o n b a s e d on p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s .  i n d i v i d u a l s s e t o u t t h e g o a l s and by t h i s new their life The  o b j e c t i v e s t o be  Next  achieved  l e a r n i n g which i s u s u a l l y defined according situation,  next stage  such as r e t u r n i n g t o t h e work f o r c e .  F i n a l l y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n occurs. Cross  m o s t a d u l t s (83%)  participated  a change i n t h e i r l i f e ,  found  i n continuing education  such  s t a t e d t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d due  as a d i v o r c e , w h i l e  t o j o b o r c a r e e r needs.  notion t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s are capable  the  of assessing t h e i r  l e a r n i n g n e e d s . H i s a r g u m e n t i s b a s e d on two professionals' practice:  " k n o w i n g - i n - a c t i o n " , where  a c t i o n ; and  where t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r d e v e l o p s which the i n d i v i d u a l experience  own  modes o f the  p r a c t i t i o n e r performs without being able t o l o g i c a l l y f o r such  due  56%  Schon's model o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e s u p p o r t s  the reasoning  to  i d e n t i f i e s the p o s s i b l e impediments t o  participation.  to  their  define  "reflection-in-action",  a r e p e r t o i r e of knowledge i n  i n t e g r a t e s new  k n o w l e d g e and  previous  (of the p r a c t i t i o n e r or other colleagues)  into  a  p o o l o f r e s o u r c e s , f r o m w h i c h c a n be c o n s t r u c t e d g e n e r a l concepts  for application  (Schon,  1987). R e f e c t i o n - i n - a c t i o n  a l l o w s t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r t o e n t e r new "how  t o " assess  work s i t u a t i o n s  knowing  s i t u a t i o n s , u t i l i z e previous experiences  s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s , and ( e v a l u a t e ) upon t h o s e  implement a c t i o n , then  reflect  implemented a c t i o n s (1987,  S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have used t h i s model t o  1983). analyze  in  28 practice i n other professions  such as teaching  (Munby,  1987). The  literature  i l l u s t r a t e s that professionals' are a  unique group o f people w i t h i n s o c i e t y . P r o f e s s i o n a l s economic s t a t u s  i s a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r which  socio-  favorably  p r e d i s p o s e s t h e m t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE. W o r k i n g f r o m t h e basis  of these favorable  d i s p o s i t i o n s t o w a r d CPE, S c h o n  p r o v i d e s a m o d e l o f how p r o f e s s i o n a l s professionals  a p p l y such l e a r n i n g i n t o t h e i r p r a c t i c e . These  models s t r e s s f i r s t t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s and  l e a r n , a n d how  a r e problem  s e c o n d t h a t p r o b l e m s o l v i n g d i s t i n g u i s h e s them  "other" question  workers. This  solvers, from  d i s t i n c t i o n h a s c a u s e d some p e o p l e t o  t h e w o r t h o f CPE a t t e m p t i n g t o a s s e s s s u c h a h i g h l y  educated group i n s o c i e t y : p r o f e s s i o n a l s  (Nyre & R e i l l y ,  1979). And, s k e p t i c s c o n t i n u e t o debate whether  reflection-  i n - a c t i o n i s a u s e f u l t o o l f o r d e v e l o p i n g CPE f o r t h e f u t u r e b e c a u s e i t assumes a l l p r a c t i t i o n e r s p a r t i c i p a t e e q u a l l y i n t h i s CPE p r o c e s s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n and E d u c a t i o n Educational  level  i s seen a s t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t  factor i n determining p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult (Coombs, 1 9 8 5 ; I s t a n c e  & Schultz,  1987). P r o f e s s i o n a l s , by  d e f i n i t i o n , have t y p i c a l l y completed formal university or professional  education  school,  s o c i a l t h e o r i s t s argue t h a t s o c i a l ,  education a t a  such as law s c h o o l .  Many  economic, and c u l t u r a l  factors predispose i n d i v i d u a l s f o raccess i n t o  higher  29 e d u c a t i o n , and t h u s e n t r a n c e i n t o a p r o f e s s i o n Giroux,  (Aronowitz &  1985).  P r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e f r e q u e n t l y members o f h i g h e r s o c i o economic groups. T h e i r s a l a r i e s r e f l e c t t h e i r  academic  a t t a i n m e n t , t h e i r t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e , and p e r f o r m a n c e s p e c i a l i z e d a r e a o f work. Formal c o n s i d e r e d a s one any p r o f e s s i o n  in a  e d u c a t i o n c a n t h e r e f o r e be  o f t h e main components f o r e n t r a n c e  ( C e r v e r o , 1988;  Burke,  1985).  CPE  into  c o u l d be  s e e n a s a k e y f a c t o r i n m a i n t a i n i n g and d e v e l o p i n g t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s k n o w l e d g e and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s  once i n t h e  w o r k p l a c e , i n b o t h s p e c i f i c and b r o a d e r a r e a s w i t h i n  that  occupation. The  t y p e of employer  i n CPE.  clearly  influences  participation  L a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s a r e more l i k e l y t o h a v e t h e  resources  (physical,  financial  and t h e manpower) t o  accommodate i n - h o u s e t r a i n i n g a n d d e v e l o p m e n t programmes f o r employees. f o r a l l IBM  The  a n n u a l e x p e n d i t u r e on e d u c a t i o n programmes  e m p l o y e e s i s $9 m i l l i o n  V o l v o , the Swedish  car manufacturer,  (Berger, 1989), recently  while  invested  $10  m i l l i o n on an e d u c a t i o n programme f o r i t s e n g i n e e r s ( A t k i n s o n , 1987) . S m a l l e r b u s i n e s s o p e r a t i o n s may employee p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n CPE  p r o v i d e f o r such a c t i v i t i e s unequal  a c c e s s t o CPE  desire  but l a c k the resources t o  (Shelton & Craig,  1983).  The  h a s become u n a c c e p t a b l e t o many  p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , whose i n t e r v e n t i o n i s s e e n a s a way  o f b a l a n c i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l members t o  p a r t i c i p a t e i n CPE  activities.  30  P a r t i c i p a t i o n and  Age  Second t o e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , significant education  age  has  p r o v e n t o be  factor in predicting participation in  (Johnstone & R i v e r a ,  a  adult  1965). Those under t h i r t y  are  t h e m o s t f r e q u e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programmes (Cross, the  1981). This  Canadian survey  c o r r e l a t i o n was  i s consistent 'One  with  recent  i n Every F i v e ' a  f o u n d b e t w e e n age  and  age;  t h o s e 65 y e a r s o r o l d e r had  Professionals  participation in  t h i r t i e s t o mid  the  social  forties  (Rubenson,  a p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e of a c t i v i t i e s between  the  Social work  f a c t o r s w h i c h seem t o i n f l u e n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n 1983). typically  t h e i r l a t e twenties  enter  A few  years  i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n  become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h  the  b e f o r e e n g a g i n g i n CPE  activities.  to achieve career  t h e i r professions  or e a r l y t h i r t i e s .  (sometimes) needed t o s e t t l e  profession's CPE  p r o f e s s i o n a l education of younger the  are  and  to  t h e n becomes a means  goals w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n .  because they consider  in  "working r u l e s "  Employers  h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n more w i l l i n g t o i n v e s t i n  greater  4%.  (Cervero, 1988). T h i s r e f l e c t s  environment w i t h i n a p r o f e s s i o n .  Professionals  continuing  a  with  e n v i r o n m e n t r e f e r s t o b o t h t h e i r w o r k e n v i r o n m e n t and conditions,  adult  study revealed  which decreased  a r e m o s t a c t i v e i n CPE  mid  In  negative  e d u c a t i o n programmes ( D e v e r e a u x , 1 9 8 5 ) . The n a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e o f 19%,  studies.  the  professionals  r a t e of economic r e t u r n t o  than f o r older p r o f e s s i o n a l s . Older  be  professionals,  31 p a s t mid  40's,  g o a l s , and The  a r e assumed t o h a v e s e c u r e d  a r e seen as l e s s m o t i v a t e d  l i t e r a t u r e supports  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE & Schroeder,  career  to participate  s u c h n o t i o n s by  decreases  their  w i t h age  in  indicating ( C r o s s , 1981;  Seaman  1970).  H o w e v e r , some s t u d i e s s u g g e s t t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s who  otherwise, p o i n t i n g out  are a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e i r  t h i r t i e s a r e more l i k e l y t o r e m a i n a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s their sixties. continuity  CPE.  These s t u d i e s a r e s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e t h e o r y  (Neugarten,  & Havighurst,  postulate that childhood experiences a d u l t s ' ways o f l e a r n i n g . One blue c o l l a r workers, c h r o n o l o g i c age  in  1977).  Researchers  o f l e a r n i n g shape  l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y o f 2008  b e g u n i n 1973  a t t e s t s to the claim that  i s l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t than a t t i t u d e s  toward  a d u l t or c o n t i n u i n g education which are formulated  during  childhood years  (Rubenson,  1983).  G i v e n t h e above, Cookson the importance  o f age  (1986) t a k e s t h e s t a n c e  as a v a r i a b l e has  p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h . He  and  that  been o v e r s t a t e d i n  b e l i e v e s r e s e a r c h e r s have  i n c o r r e c t l y e x t r a p o l a t e d c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l study a s age  of  f i n d i n g s such  income. That i s , r e s e a r c h e r s have p r e d i c t e d  i n t e n d e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE from s m a l l s e l e c t groups.  He  b a s e d on  information  gathered  states,  By c o n t r o l l i n g t h e f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n m e n t s , t h e i n d e p e n d e n t e f f e c t s o f n o t o n l y age b u t o t h e r a s c r i b e d and a c h i e v e d s o c i a l p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s , have u s u a l l y been reduced t o n o n s i g n i f i c a n t ( C o o k s o n , 1986: 134).  32 Taken i n i s o l a t i o n , influence  age  may  on p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The  not  be  a significant  traditional positivistic  approach t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n research of analyzing variables  i n i s o l a t i o n may  t h i s multi-dimensional age,  be  hindering  our  one  or  understanding  problem. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s not  or e d u c a t i o n r e l a t e d , but  b o t h q u a n t i t a t i v e and  research approaches, i n the  to l i f e l o n g The age  will  look  and  form of l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s  for  The  a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n as  i t pertains  learning.  c o n c e p t o f one not  period  s u f f i c e i n the  a d d i t i o n , the  increased  of  f o r m a l t r a i n i n g a t a young  twenty-first century.  life  e x p e c t a n c y , and  the  In falling  birth rate  i n C a n a d a mean a c o n t i n u a l l y a g i n g w o r k  population  that  c a n n o t be  totally  T h e r e f o r e a t t i t u d e s commonly h e l d our  of  qualitative  a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE. following section w i l l  of  just  i s r e l a t e d to a spectrum  f a c t o r s . O b v i o u s l y t h e r e i s a need t o s t u d y s i n g l e multiple variables using  two  society w i l l  n e e d t o be  replaced  (Ironside,  toward the  e v a l u a t e d by  1984).  aging worker i n  a l l sectors  in  the  workforce. CPE  i s c o n s i d e r e d a component t o o n e ' s  lifelong  l e a r n i n g regime. In today's workforce, i n both  the  professions  developments  are  and  anticipated to create  job changes only  non-professions, technological the  need f o r f r e q u e n t c a r e e r  ( O d d i , 1986,-1987). L i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g w i l l  become n e c e s s a r y i n m o s t p r o f e s s i o n s  technological  changes i n the  work p l a c e ,  due and  to job  or not  33 reclassification 1,  (H. M e n z i e s ,  1989), b u t w i l l  tool  p e r s o n a l communication, June  be c o n s i d e r e d a v a l u a b l e human  i n the future (Toffler, Examples o f employers'  resource  1980). acknowledging  the benefits of  s u p p o r t i n g CPE programmes a r e b e c o m i n g more e v i d e n t a c r o s s a wide spectrum o f workplaces. manufacturer,  found  Volvo, t h e Swedish c a r  i t s new e n g i n e e r s  had d i f f i c u l t y  c o m m u n i c a t i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i t s more s e n i o r engineers. Rather  Both groups had d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i c a l  language.  t h a n r e p l a c e t h e o l d e r e n g i n e e r s , whose y e a r s o f  p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e w o u l d be l o s t , in-house  t h e company  developed  t r a i n i n g programmes t o meet t h e i r e m p l o y e e s ' n e e d s .  Moody c o n t e n d s t h a t o u r f u t u r e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f p o s t industrial  economies w i l l  d e p e n d on r e t r a i n i n g o f a d u l t s a n d  older workers i n order t o maintain competitiveness world market Both  on a  ( A t k i n s o n , 1987).  s o c i e t a l and t e c h n i c a l changes w i l l  encourage t h e  much n e g l e c t e d a r e a o f l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d a g i n g . Age h a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y  been  considered a s i g n i f i c a n t variable i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n Increasing evidence  i s gathering t h a t suggests  research.  the process  o f e x t r a p o l a t i n g c r o s s s e c t i o n a l age f i n d i n g s i s m i s l e a d i n g . Longitudinal studies indicate participation dependent on c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s se. I n understanding necessary CPE.  i s more  o f e d u c a t i o n t h a t age p e r  p a r t i c i p a t i o n more c o m p l e t e l y  i t is  t o r e v i e w why a d u l t s o p t f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  34 Barriers to Participation We know a d u l t s f r e q u e n t l y u n d e r t a k e a c t i v i t i e s when t h e y  face a personal  educative  crisis,  experience  d i s e n c h a n t m e n t i n t h e i r w o r k p l a c e , o r have a sense o f inadequacy  (Campbell,  1983) . A n d , t h e f o c u s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n  r e s e a r c h h a s u s u a l l y b e e n on a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s , a n d t h e i r barriers to participation.  This i s p r i m a r i l y a matter of  e x p e d i e n c y on t h e p a r t o f e d u c a t o r s  a n d programme  planners.  D a t a f r o m s t u d i e s on b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e f r e q u e n t l y c o n d u c t e d on a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s t h e n extrapolated t o the estimated  p o p u l a t i o n o f non-  participants . The p r e v a l e n t a p p r o a c h e s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h a r e survey  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and p e r s o n a l  m e t h o d s u s e d may a c t a s b a r r i e r s : impersonal Glass  while  interviews. Yet the very questionnaires are often  i n t e r v i e w s a r e time consuming  (Knox, 1 9 8 7 ;  & Hopkins, 1989). There a r e t h r e e r e c o g n i z e d  barriers:  1) s i t u a t i o n a l b a r r i e r s a r i s i n g  i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e t of circumstances  forms o f  from an  s u c h a s c o s t o f programme,  o r l a c k o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; 2) i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a r r i e r s a r e those  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and b u r e a u c r a t i c p r o c e d u r e s t h a t a c t t o  exclude  the individual,  such as formal  requirements;  d i s p o s i t i o n a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s are those  3)  arising  from t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t as a l e a r n e r (Cross, Darkenwald & Merriam,  1981  1982).  The e c o n o m i c c l i m a t e w i t h i n g e o s c i e n c e  can operate  situational barriers to geoscientists' participation  as a  i n CPE.  35 The  c o s t o f a programme may  periods  be  significant barrier  o f e c o n o m i c r e c e s s i o n when u n e m p l o y m e n t i s h i g h e r  the p r o f e s s i o n , whereas the w o r k may  be  greater  during  cost  g e o s c i e n t i s t s who T h e y do  Therefore the  healthy  economic  periods.  increased  for  l i v e and/or work i n g e o g r a p h i c a l l y  not have a c c e s s t o c e n t r e s cost of education  of  remote  education.  f o r such g e o s c i e n t i s t s i s  through t r a n s p o r t a t i o n costs.  nature of the p r o f e s s i o n  in  i n t e r m s o f t i m e away f r o m  I n s t i t u t i o n a l b a r r i e r s a r e more a p p a r e n t  areas.  during  In a d d i t i o n  r e s u l t s i n l a r g e numbers  g e o s c i e n t i s t s working i n i s o l a t i o n without  the  of  collegial  support. D i s p o s i t i o n a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l  barriers to  p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e d i f f i c u l t t o measure. C r o s s current  k n o w l e d g e on  t i p of the potential  iceberg.  d i s p o s i t i o n a l b a r r i e r s may Studies  show o n l y  5-15  learners think these b a r r i e r s  participation  (1981  i n d i v i d u a l s t o say "costs", or  p.106) She  i n CPE,  " i n a b i l i t y t o do  the  of  inhibit i t easier  r a t h e r than "being  a d u l t s might f i n d  for  too  old",  or  inhibitive  to  of  t h e y f o u n d " l a c k o f i n t e r e s t " and  t h e work"  (Peterson  m a i n b a r r i e r s . H o w e v e r , when t h e t o i n d i c a t e how  percent  only  In s t u d i e s which have asked r e s p o n d e n t s  c i t e b a r r i e r s that other participation  believes  be  t h e i r n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a r e s u l t of  " l a c k of time"  "lack of a b i l i t y "  believes  e t a l , 1982)  were  the  same i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e a s k e d  these b a r r i e r s affected t h e i r  own  36 participation,  t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were r a t e d as h a v i n g  minimal e f f e c t  (ibid).  Situational,  i n s t i t u t i o n a l and  t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n may  be  dispositional barriers  i n t e r n a l l y created  i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n , o r be a f f e c t a l l socio-economic l e v e l s , The  cost of education  and  the  by  the  e x t e r n a l . These b a r r i e r s  including professionals.  l a c k of time are the  f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d r e a s o n s f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n by (Rubenson, 1983). A l t h o u g h t h e m a j o r i t y participate  a  i n CPE,  the  question  the p r o f e s s i o n a l association)  adults  of p r o f e s s i o n a l s  i s , "should  be  most  we  do  (the p u b l i c ,  s a t i s f i e d with  only  the  majority participating?" Some i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s h a v e b e e n e a g e r consume "new" others  technologies,  have f e a r e d  them  w i l l i n g l y a c c e p t t h e new professions This  are  f o r example, computers,  (Menzies, 1982).  Those  directions occurring  while  who  in  their  a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n many f o r m s o f  i s consistent with recent  engineering  to  CPE  s t u d i e s and  CPE.  surveys i n  where p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s were low,  but  where  a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o o k more t h a n f o u r a c t i v i t i e s p e r (Cervero,  Miller,  & Dimmock 1986;  c o m m u n i c a t i o n , S e p t e m b e r 15, been r e p o r t e d (Zibrik,  A.  Wessen,  year  personal  1988). S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s have  i n physiotherapy  ( D e n f o r d , 1983)  and  nursing  1983). There i s a need f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l  organizations  and  programme p l a n n e r s t o a c k n o w l e d g e  even p r o f e s s i o n a l s p e r c e i v e  that  b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n . One  37 avenue of r e s e a r c h w h i c h p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t s i n t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a t t i t u d e s toward  Attitudes  Toward  Attitude  CPE.  CPE  i s generally  considered the  f e e l s towards a s p e c i f i c stimulus; stimulus Caulley  w o u l d be ( 1 9 7 7 , p.  25)  suggest that  "why"  groups of l e a r n e r s .  health be  little  professionals  correct  studying  not  CPE.  attitudes  i n saying  t o our  predictor  o f CPE  p.  will  states statements  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what prompts  a t t i t u d e s are  32).  evaluative "why"  T h o u g h she statements,  education  extent of educative behaviour 104),  and  may  people p a r t i c i p a t e  However, a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d c o n t i n u i n g  & S c h r o e d e r , 1970,  worth  among d i f f e r e n t  contrast,  t o p a r t i c i p a t e " (p.  always r e f l e c t the  and  descriptive  discrepancies  t h e y have p r o v i d e d i n s i g h t s as t o in  Grotelueschen  simply descriptive evaluative  which contribute  the  judgement of the  Z i b i r k (1983) by  one  "professional's  people p a r t i c i p a t e unlike  s t a t i s t i c s which merely report  " a t t i t u d e s are  a  h i s or her  o f c o n s e q u e n c e s . " They a s c e r t a i n  disposition  i n t h i s instance  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE.  a t t i t u d e i s d e p e n d e n t on  explain  non-  s h o u l d not  be  u s e d as  p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( G r o t e l e u s c h e n and  do  (Seaman a  Caulley,  1977). Attitudes conditioning. e i t h e r the  are As  p r o d u c t s of our  such, they are  learner  i d e n t i f i e d the  often  unconscious s o c i a l  frequently  difficult  o r r e s e a r c h e r t o i d e n t i f y , and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may  be  for  even i f  a r e f l e c t i o n of  38 researcher's  own b i a s e s . T h u s , m e a s u r i n g , a n d  interpreting  a t t i t u d e s h a s p r o v e n t o be a c h a l l e n g e f o r many r e s e a r c h e r s . To d a t e  t h e r e have been s e v e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l models proposed  f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n b u t i t seems t o o e a r l y t o a c c l a i m a n y one as b e i n g a comprehensive, i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y  framework.  H o w e v e r , t h e r e d o e s seem t o be a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n o n e ' s a t t i t u d e s t o education  and p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r non-  participation . Studies i n physiotherapy, shown p r o f e s s i o n a l s who  e n g i n e e r i n g , and n u r s i n g have  a r e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s have  f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d CPE c o m p a r e d t o t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i n g counterparts  (Curran,  non-  1983; C e r v e r o ,  Miller,  Dimmock, 1986; T i t c h e n , 1 9 8 7 ) . T h e s e a t t i t u d e s h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g one's f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d o f (Rubenson, 1983).  education  I f i t i s t r u e t h a t most p r o f e s s i o n a l s  h o l d p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d e d u c a t i o n , why  should  r e s e a r c h e r s be h e s i t a n t a b o u t s u c h a p r o n o u n c e m e n t ? I n c r e a s i n g l y p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e b e i n g c a l l e d u p o n by t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e p u b l i c and bodies  legislative  t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n CPE f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f m a i n t a i n i n g  p r o f e s s i o n a l membership, m a i n t a i n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l l i c e n s u r e , and  w e l l as f o r p e r s o n a l / p r o f e s s i o n a l growth.  planners  and e d u c a t o r s  attitudinal  Programme  h a v e b e e n known t o u s e r e s u l t s  from  s t u d i e s i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y : as a p r e d i c t o r o f both  participants'  intended  l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n a l  content.  C u r r e n t l y t h e r e a r e no a c c u r a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r e d i c t o r s , and  l e a r n e r s a t t i t u d e s toward education  alone  i s too  39 subjective  a v a r i a b l e t o be u s e d i n i s o l a t i o n .  r e s e a r c h e r s have found t h a t  However,  i d e n t i f y i n g the learners'  needs  t o be a r e a s o n a b l y r e l i a b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r e d i c t o r .  Felt  Needs  R e s e a r c h e r s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n have produced a m y r i a d o f d e f i n i t i o n s f o r t h e t e r m "need" 1986). Bradshaw  (1972) d e f i n e d  (Griffith,  1978; S o r k ,  need as h a v i n g f o u r  aspects:  1) n o r m a t i v e ; w h e r e n e e d i s d i a g n o s e d b y an e x p e r t f o r a s p e c i f i c a u d i e n c e and s i t u a t i o n , s u c h as a t a s k prescribing learning activities; several  s i m i l a r group r e c e i v e  force  2) c o m p a r a t i v e n e e d  where  a similar service their  o u t c o m e s a r e e x a m i n e d , t h e n s t a n d a r d s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d b y an e x t e r n a l group, such as a p r o f e s s i o n a l determining c r i t e r i a  for professional  need, a need p e r c e i v e d  organization r e g i s t r a t i o n ; 3)  by t h e r e c i p i e n t / c l i e n t ; and  felt  4)  e x p r e s s e d need, w h i c h i s a f e l t need t u r n e d i n t o a c t i o n . Beatty  (1981) o f f e r s a s i m p l i f i e d d e f i n i t i o n o f n e e d : " t h e  measurable d i s c r e p a n c y e x i s t i n g between a p r e s e n t s t a t e o f a f f a i r s as a s s e r t e d x  e i t h e r b y an o w n e r ' x  a u t h o r i t y ' on n e e d "  o f n e e d o r b y an  ( p . 4 0 ) . From t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s i t c a n  be s e e n t h a t n e e d comes i n t o two d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s : external  f o r c e , and t h e i n t e r n a l f o r c e . H o u l e  t h e s e d i v i s i o n s as (1986) c a l l s them s t a n d a r d s ) and  x  x  ascribed'  ^prescribed'  motivational'  and  x  felt  the  (1980) t e r m s  need' whereas Sork  ( a s d e n o t e d by s o c i e t a l needs  ( i n d i v i d u a l wants f o r  40 p e r s o n a l g a i n ) . Table 1 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between all  t h e needs d e f i n i t i o n s p r e s e n t e d  Table  here.  1  A s c h e m a t i c Diagram o f t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p  between Needs  Definitions  >  GENERAL  SPECIFIC NORMATIVE  ASCRIBED EXTERNAL  .COMPARATIVE  PRESCRIBED FELT  FELT  MOTIVATIONAL  EXPRESSED  INTERNAL  I n t h e s p e c i f i c g r o u p i n g o f needs s t u d i e s needs corresponded while  & Roelfs,  assess learners organizations,  1974).  organizations 1987)  should,  professional  individual professionals  ( L e B r e t o n , 1979) .  has r e l i e d upon i t s p r o f e s s i o n a l  f o r t h e i r needs assessments  (Manning  w h e r e a s t h e e n g i n e e r i n g and g e o s c i e n c e  have l e f t  (Carp,  D e b a t e c o n t i n u e s a s t o who  needs, e d u c a t o r s ,  medical profession  felt  "would-be-learners",  e x p r e s s e d needs matched a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s  Peterson,  The  t o t h e number o f  found t h a t  &  Petit,  communities  t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with the i n d i v i d u a l  professionals  (APEGGA, 1885;  CGAB,  1985).  I n summary, t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f CPE  adopted  b y many  p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been vague.  41 Professionals all  are  s i t u a t i o n s be  a r e a s . The  assumed t o be  capable problem s o l v e r s  i t i n educational,  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for assessing  d e t e r m i n i n g a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n i n CPE the  s c i e n t i f i c or  i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i t i o n e r . For  for researchers  l e a r n i n g needs,  i s frequently  professionals  w h a t m o t i v a t e s t h e m t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n CPE.  d e t e r m i n e d by  the  to the  The  l i t e r a t u r e appears to  be  age;  education l e v e l ;  p e r f o r m a n c e . The resulted  and  only  as a p r o x y measure o f  as an  the  needs. instrument  to  professional  litigation  has  of  d i s t i n c t i o n between r h e t o r i c  practice. The  literature  i l l u s t r a t e s that professionals  unique group of l e a r n e r s . T h e i r p r e s e r v i c e as  type  accountability  p u b l i c f o c u s and  recognizing  and  professional  demand f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l  from i n c r e a s e d  professionals  i s used not  felt  p r o f e s s i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e by  a s s o c i a t i o n s , but  to  educational  o f l e a r n e r ; b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  guard against  learn, of  f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : age,  more CPE  and  left  level  a t t a i n m e n t , a t t i t u d e t o w a r d CPE;  M o r e and  technical  t h i s reason i t i s important  t o u n d e r s t a n d how  p a r t i c i p a t i o n according  for  an  i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r i n shaping the  k n o w l e d g e h e l d by  professionals.  But  are  t r a i n i n g i s seen  conceptions  experiencing r e v i e w has  are  not  for a discussion  others  immune t o  b a r r i e r s to p a r t i c i p a t i o n . This  p a v e d t h e way  of  within this collective  e x i s t a w i d e v a r i e t y o f l e a r n i n g modes, a s H o u l e and have demonstrated. P r o f e s s i o n a l s  a  literature  of the  r o l e of  the  professional  association,  and  i t s r o l e i n CPE  context of geoscience i n Chapter  3.  within  the  43  CHAPTER 3: THE PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATION AND I T S ROLE I N CPE  Chapter Three p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l associations  a n d t h e i r r o l e i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f CPE f o r  t h e i r members. The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c r i t e r i a into,  and p r a c t i c e i n , t h e p r o f e s s i o n s  f o r entrance  a s w e l l a s t h e common  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h e l d by p r o f e s s i o n s  and p r o f e s s i o n a l s  provide  claim that  are  support t o the researcher's  a "unique" group o f a d u l t s  discussion followed  by t h r e e  providing  chapter w i l l  sections  learners.  n e t w o r k . The f i n a l  section of this  Profession Carr-Saunders  (1928) assumed p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o  l e v e l , possessing  during  be  i n c l u d e t h e r o l e o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n i n CPE.  i n c l u d e : b e i n g male, from a m i d d l e t o upper  providing  will  i t s members; p r o t e c t i n g t h e p u b l i c ;  I n t h e i r e a r l y w o r k on t h e p r o f e s s i o n s Wilson  The  on t h e r o l e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l  a collegial  Characteristics of a  and  professionals  of the characteristics of a profession  association: protecting and  and a d u l t  will  a paid  a liberal service  the intervening  creating a definition  socio-economic  e d u c a t i o n from a u n i v e r s i t y , and  (Becker, 1962). Debate has ensued  years regarding for  11  the u t i l i t y of  a profession"  ( W i l e n s k y , 1964) .  C a r r - S a u n d e r s and W i l s o n ' s p r e d i c t i o n t h a t most o c c u p a t i o n s w o u l d become p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d c o u l d described profession  be more  accurately  as occupations s t r u g g l i n g f o r t h e s t a t u s through the ideology  of professionalism.  of a Their  44 argument h a s been c o n f i r m e d by W i l e n s k y ' s which  found  f e w e r t h a n 40 o c c u p a t i o n s  i n t h e U.S  complied with h i s l a r g e l y s t a t i c c r i t e r i a His  criteria  (19 64)  study, that  of a profession.  f o r an o c c u p a t i o n t o h o l d t h e p o s i t i o n o f a  p r o f e s s i o n i n c l u d e d : members h a v i n g u n i v e r s i t y  training;  members b e l o n g i n g t o a p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i c h o p e r a t e d under codes o f e t h i c s ; and p r o v i d i n g a s e r v i c e t o fee  paying c l i e n t s  the f u l l  criteria  ( p p . 144) O c c u p a t i o n s  that f a i l  t o meet  of these t r a d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n s are  l a b e l e d as s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n s , q u a s i - p r o f e s s i o n s , p a r a p r o f e s s i o n s o r marginal p r o f e s s i o n s . Friedman Wilensky's elements  supports  i n c l u s i o n o f s e r v i c e and knowledge as b e i n g key  i n h i s definition of professionalization:  A p r o c e s s by w h i c h an o r g a n i z e d o c c u p a t i o n , u s u a l l y b u t n o t always by making a c l a i m t o s p e c i a l e s o t e r i c competence and t o c o n c e r n f o r t h e q u a l i t y o f i t s work and i t s b e n e f i t s t o s o c i e t y , obtains the e x c l u s i v e r i g h t t o perform a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f work, c o n t r o l t r a i n i n g f o r and a c c e s s t o i t , and t h e r i g h t o f d e t e r m i n i n g and e v a l u a t i n g t h e way t h e w o r k i s p e r f o r m e d (1979, p.22). This process  i s f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an  association. A professional association provides a service to  a g r o u p o f p e o p l e who h a v e u n d e r t a k e n  specialized  a c a d e m i c a n d t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g a n d s h a r e a common philosophy of practice  (Gross, 1982).  E n g e l and H a l l  p r o v i d e d a c o n c i s e t a b l e o f comparisons  (1973)  of the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t r a d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n s as d e f i n e d i n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s o f t h e l a t e twentieth century  (Table 2 ) .  45  Table 2 Evolving  Professional  Characteristics  Traditional Isolated i n d i v i d u a l provides service. 2. K n o w l e d g e f r o m a s i n g l e d i s c i p l i n e t y p i c a l l y used. 3. R e m u n e r a t i o n p r e d o m i n a n t l y fee-for service. 4. A l t r u i s m : S e l f l e s s s e r v i c e l i m i t e d by e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l service. 5. R e s t r i c t e d c o l l e a g u e e v a l u a t i o n of product.  Modified Team p r o v i d e s  1.  Knowledge from d i v e r s e f i e l d s used. Remuneration p r e d o m i n a n t l y by s a l a r y . Altruism:Increased opportunity f o r s e l f l e s s Increased opportunity f o r colleague evaluation of product. Decreased p r i v a c y i n client-professional relationship.  6. P r i v a c y i n c l i e n t - p r o f e s s i o n a l relationship.  This  t a b l e demonstrates, according  that the professions  service,  t o Engel and H a l l ,  are not s t a t i c or conservative  but  r e s p o n d t o t h e c h a n g e s i n s o c i e t y . However, t h e y h a v e assumed t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s a given,  i g n o r i n g many s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s e s o f d e v e l o p i n g  professions  such a s , t h e s t r u g g l e  professional  status  f o r surgeons t o a t t a i n  (Moore, 1970; Bradshaw, 1978).  Surgeons  won t h e i r c l a i m t o b e p r o f e s s i o n a l s b y d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e i r skills  on t h e b a t t l e f r o n t , t o t h e p u b l i c h u m i l i a t i o n o f  doctors.  The m e d i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n q u i c k l y r e c r u i t e d s u r g e o n s  t o b e members o f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n 1985). A l l occupations s t r i v i n g influenced  for professional  by t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s  (Burke, status are  o f t h e day.  I n t o d a y ' s complex and c o n t i n u a l l y c h a n g i n g s o c i e t y t h e context and r o l e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n s  i s a l s o c h a n g i n g . The  46 apparent f l e x i b i l i t y  of professions  i n t h e i r approach t o  p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n may be a r e s u l t o f t h e n e c e s s i t y t o adapt t o c o n t i n u a l  s o c i e t a l c h a n g e s ( H o u l e , 1980)  The i d e a l s o f a p r o f e s s i o n expectations  are maintained through the  o f i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s , which a r e i n t u r n  f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n Professional associations  a common p u r p o s e . R e c u r r i n g  j o i n t o form a group  themes o c c u r i n d i s c u s s i o n  of p r o f e s s i o n a l  a s s o c i a t i o n s : power, c o n t r o l , and  accountability.  These themes w i l l  discussion  of the three  general  t o p e r f o r m : a) t o p r o v i d e protect  1970)•  operate as a c o l l e c t i v e :  i n d i v i d u a l members w i t h i n a p r o f e s s i o n with  (Moore,  be c o n s i d e r e d  i nthe  r o l e s an a s s o c i a t i o n  i s said  m e m b e r s h i p p r o t e c t i o n ; b) t o  t h e p u b l i c ; and c) t o p r o v i d e  a communication  n e t w o r k f o r i t s members ( J a r v i s , 198 3 ) .  P r o t e c t i o n o f Members Professional associations p a r t i c u l a r occupation  a c t as gatekeepers t o a  ( W i l e n s k y 1964, p . 1 4 2 ) . T h i s  t h e members t o c o n t r o l who e n t e r s establish the educational  the profession  and p r o f e s s i o n a l  t r a i n i n g curriculum  as they  requirements f o r  p e o p l e who a s p i r e t o p r a c t i c e i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n . on p r e s e r v i c e  enables  Influence  occurs through the three  mechanisms o f a c c r e d i t a t i o n , v a l i d a t i o n , and assessment. A c c r e d i t a t i o n i s t h e p r o c e s s whereby t h e a s s o c i a t i o n assesses the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of a granting has  no d i r e c t c o n t r o l o v e r t h e c u r r i c u l u m .  i n s t i t u t i o n but However,  47 a c c r e d i t a t i o n standards are frequently  those  the  p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n deems n e c e s s a r y f o r m e m b e r s h i p i n t o their organization.  F o r e x a m p l e , The  A c c r e d i t a t i o n Board  (Marr, 1985),  umbrella organization (CGC)  during  t h e mid  Canadian  Geoscience  established through  of the Canadian Geoscience 1980's, r e v i e w s  institutions.  i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t s u c c e s s f u l l y meet/pass t h e  board gain  a higher status  profession, its  Council  undergraduate  programmes a t t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l The  and  the  review  o f a p p r o v a l by t h o s e i n t h e  s u b s e q u e n t l y r e c e i v e more a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f  s t u d e n t s and  research.  V a l i d a t i o n i s a procedure  f o r assessing  the  suitability  o f a p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e , n o t t h e e n t i r e programme, w h i c h be c o n d u c t e d  by t h e a s s o c i a t i o n , u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y , t h e  o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e above. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e may  may CGC  association  a s s e s s i n d i v i d u a l g r a d u a t e s upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e i r  formal preservice  t r a i n i n g to ascertain t h e i r content  knowledge of the d i s c i p l i n e .  T h i s i s the case i n law  m e d i c i n e where b o a r d e x a m i n a t i o n s a r e r e q u i r e d educational  t r a i n i n g a n d b e f o r e commencing  and  following  professional  practice. Creating  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r membership i n an  s e r v e s t o e s t a b l i s h a minimum l e v e l o f  association  professional  competency, a t l e a s t a t the time of e n t r a n c e i n t o the profession  ( B l e d s t e i n , 1976).  knowledge and Admission  s k i l l s varies  Demonstration  of  required  from a s s o c i a t i o n t o a s s o c i a t i o n .  into the Geological  Association  o f Canada  requires  48 d o c u m e n t a t i o n i n d i c a t i n g one's e d u c a t i o n experience.  As an a f f i l i a t e  o f t h e GAC, members o f t h e MDD  m u s t a l s o s a t i s f y t h e GAC's c r i t e r i a Traditionally, professions  and work  f o r admission.  t h e r e has been l i m i t e d a c c e s s i n t o t h e  f o r women, e t h n i c g r o u p s , o r t h o s e f r o m l o w  socio-economic l e v e l s ( F o x - K e l l e r , 1985). T h i s c o n t i n u e s t o be has  t h e case i n geoscience.  The A m e r i c a n G e o l o g i c a l  begun a l o n g i t u d i n a l study  w i t h 2 702  Canadian  g e o s c i e n t i s t s f o r t h e purpose o f c o l l e c t i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n on  t h e d e m o g r a p h i c s o f t h i s p r o f e s s i o n . The f i r s t revealed  study  92% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were male, and 96% were  Caucasian  (1988).  Although other professions  medicine and e n g i n e e r i n g  such as  do n o t show t h e same  d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n as geoscience, underrepresentation  by c e r t a i n m i n o r i t i e s  t e c h n i c a l l y women a r e n o t a m i n o r i t y  the  (although  i n number) c o n t i n u e s i n  t h e p r o f e s s i o n s . Some s o c i o l o g i s t s a n d f e m i n i s t s contest  Institute  that access i n t o the professions  associations w i l l  addition, career  and t h e i r  n o t change s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  gender, e t h n i c , and c u l t u r a l b i a s e s  heatedly  given the  of our society. In  selection f o rthe professions  commences i n  t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g . The m a s c u l i n e p o r t r a y a l o f many p r o f e s s i o n s , a n d t h e s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s mothers, have been n e g a t i v e  f o r women t o b e  f a c t o r s i n a t t r a c t i n g females  i n t o t h e professions. Despite  t h e i r equal  academic  skills,  f e w e r women e n t e r t h e p r o f e s s i o n s t h a n men ( F o x - K e l l e r , 1985;  Aronowitz and Giroux,  1985).  Socio-demographic  49 imbalances i n t h e professions associations  are not systemic of  per se, but a r e f l e c t i o n of the biases  inherent  in society at large. Where a s s o c i a t i o n s  m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l o v e r CPE a c t i v i t i e s  o f t h e i r members t h e d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l a n d f o r m o f c o n t r o l v a r y . Some a s s o c i a t i o n s  have r e q u i r e d  CPE u n i t s o r CPE t i m e  i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n membership, w h i c h i s d i f f e r e n t from MCPE w h i c h i s r e q u i r e d the  profession  (Felch,  that  learning  f o rcontinued practice i n  i s frequently  e n a c t e d by l e g i s l a t i o n  1987).  I t w o u l d b e i n c o r r e c t t o assume a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e guardians of excellence t r a d i t i o n a l l y clung  and p u r i t y . P r o f e s s i o n s  t o t h e i r r i g h t t o a s p e c i f i c body o f  knowledge, and have sought t h e a l l e g i a n c e s u n i v e r s i t i e s which have a c t e d t o a c c l a i m worthy o f academic p u r s u i t . A l l o w i n g into a particular field universities to train associations  have  of the  such knowledge as  u n i v e r s i t i e s access  o f s t u d y , and e n t r u s t i n g t h e  f u t u r e p r a c t i t i o n e r s means t h e  l o s e a c e r t a i n amount o f c o n t r o l o v e r t h e  profession. Professional greater  associations  are attempting t o regain  c o n t r o l o f t h e i r members t h r o u g h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  o f a c c r e d i t a t i o n b o a r d s , f o r e x a m p l e t h e APEGGA the  CGAB  (1985), and  ( 1 9 8 5 ) , b o t h o f whom h a v e e s t a b l i s h g u i d e l i n e s f o r  entrance into the profession  as w e l l as f o r p r a c t i c e .  That  the  associations  h a v e b e e n a b l e t o do t h i s i s p a r t l y d u e t o  the  bureaucratic  structures  w i t h i n a u n i v e r s i t y which  50 sometimes f a i l professionals  t o r e a l i z e t h e r a p i d l y changing needs o f i n industry. Accordingly,  many  associations  h a v e become v e n d o r s o f CPE i n a n a t t e m p t t o meet t h e i r members' l e a r n i n g n e e d s . The p r o f e s s i o n a l  associations'  i n v o l v e m e n t i n CPE i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y u n d e r t a k e n f o r u n s e l f i s h r e a s o n s , a s CPE i s p r o v i n g source o f revenue f o r i t s p r o v i d e r s  t o be an a d d i t i o n a l be t h e y  associations,  government, i n d u s t r y o r e n t r e p r e n e u r s . To s u m m a r i z e , many p r o f e s s i o n a l s  a r g u e t h a t CPE i s  n e c e s s a r y t o demonstrate p r o f e s s i o n a l competency t o t h o s e outside and  the profession,  while  others argue t h e n o t i o n  o f CPE  c e r t a i n l y MCPE u n d e r m i n e s t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f b e i n g a  p r o f e s s i o n a l : t h e a b i l i t y t o a s s e s s one's needs, and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o r e c t i f y t h e s e needs i n an manner. L i m i t e d  CPE c o u r s e s e l e c t i o n ,  programmes t h a t meet t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s sources of f r u s t r a t i o n This  appropriate  and t h e l a c k o f r e q u i r e m e n t s have been  f o rprofessionals  (Denford,  lack of course s e l e c t i o n i s a primary reason f o r the  associations  i n v o l v e m e n t i n CPE, t h e y a r e t h e n a b l e t o  m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l o v e r t h e c o u r s e c o n t e n t and Such a s s e r t i v e a c t i o n by t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s ' b o t h i t s members a n d t h e p u b l i c o f t h e commitment t o a c c e p t a b l e p r o f e s s i o n a l The  associations  protecting and  1983).  existence  i n CPE e n s u r e s  organizations standards.  h a v e a l s o b e e n p r e m i s e d on  i t s ' members. P r o f e s s i o n a l s  have a t t a i n e d  economic p o s i t i o n s as a r e s u l t o f l e n g t h y  t r a i n i n g which have a l l o w e d  facilitators.  social  academic  them a c c e s s t o s t a t i o n s o f  51 "power" i n s o c i e t y . T h e r e f o r e ,  i t i snot surprising that  professionals s t r i v e t o maintain entrance c r i t e r i a associations.  t h e i r status through  into a profession,  and through j o i n i n g  P r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and entrance  into the professions  a r e a means o f m o n i t o r i n g  c o n t r o l l i n g access i n t o the professions. t o be a form o f m o n i t o r i n g . of monitoring  rigid  examinations and  Some c o n s i d e r  CPE  A distinguishingcharacteristic  a student during  p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and  e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a n d t h a t o f CPE, i s t h e y  occur  o n c e . By c o n t r a s t CPE i s f r e q u e n t l y e m p l o y e d b y t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , and employers, as an on-going ritual  of control of practitioners. Professionals  maintained a distance  between t h e l a y p e r s o n and t h e m s e l v e s  t h r o u g h l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o t h e i r body o f knowledge, reinforcing the notion  have  thereby  o f "expert."  Protection of the Public P r o f e s s i o n a l associations serve t o protect t h e p u b l i c from incompetent and u n e t h i c a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s . As s e l f governing bodies,  p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s employ a v a r i e t y  o f m e c h a n i s m s t o p o l i c e members, f r o m MCPE t o f o r m a l review boards,  (Manning & P e t i t ,  1987). C r i t i c s argue  peer that  such dominance o f a p r o f e s s i o n by an a s s o c i a t i o n undermines t h e p o w e r a n d c o n t r o l o f i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s t o make informed decisions  regarding  t h e i r own w e l f a r e  (Illich,  1 9 7 7 ) . F o r example, p o l i c i n g by a r e v i e w b o a r d depends upon the p u b l i c making t h e i n i t i a l professional. This  complaint against  a  s u g g e s t s t h e a s s o c i a t i o n assumes t h e  52 p u b l i c t o be against  w e l l informed about i t s recourse t o  incompetent or fraudulent p r a c t i t i o n e r s .  Likewise, are  some a s s o c i a t i o n s  assume t h e i r members,  t r a i n e d problem s o l v e r s , can,  areas of e d u c a t i o n a l / p r o f e s s i o n a l suggested g u i d e l i n e s professional l i b r a r y are 1985, the  p.  procedures  and  rectify their  n e e d . The  APEGGA's  for practice include:  functions; maintaining considered  36)).  will  attending  a current  professional  as d e m o n s t r a t i v e a c t s  However, t h e i r g u i d e l i n e s  o f CPE  imply that  i n d i v i d u a l s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a s s e s s and  (APEGGA, i t is  diagnose t h e i r  p r o f e s s i o n a l needs. Other p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e RNABC, h a v e o p t e d t o p r e s c r i b e The  Professional Association  pp.298-302). This  t h a t can  s u p p o r t . The  becomes a v e h i c l e f o r c o n n e c t i n g n o t p r o f e s s i o n a l s , but  e n c o u n t e r i n the work  ability  strength  case i n geoscience,  not  isolation, offer  the  association only  t h a n t h e y may  or  then  s i m i l a r minded a  otherwise  place.  of a p r o f e s s i o n a l network i s i n i t s  t o s u p p o r t i t s own  provides varying  1928,  also for exposing p r a c t i t i o n e r s to  wider d i v e r s i t y of colleagues  The  for developing t h e i r  work i n g e o g r a p h i c a l  resources for c o l l e g i a l  facilitating  (Carr-Saunders & Wilson,  organizations  as  f o r i t s members.  important i n  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y the  w h e r e i n d i v i d u a l s may work f o r s m a l l  are  n e t w o r k s and  o c c u p a t i o n as a p r o f e s s i o n  such  as a N e t w o r k  Professional associations practitioner's collegial  CPE  who  community. Each  association  degrees of support/protection  depending  53 upon i t s p l a c e  i n a hierarchy  of professional  development  w h i c h i n d i c a t e s i t s p o w e r r e l a t i v e t o any o t h e r Many o c c u p a t i o n s a d o p t t h e t i t l e such as computer s c i e n c e ,  while  of profession  profession. i n name  o t h e r s h a v e some b u t n o t a l l  of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a t r a d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n . administrators,  only,  Business  f o r example, l a c k t h e l e g a l a u t h o r i z a t i o n t o  s e l f g o v e r n f r o m any l e v e l o f government. S e l f government r e f e r s t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s and guidelines  f o r p r a c t i c e by t h o s e e l e c t e d t o t h e  association's  executive,  Professional associations  who  a c t on b e h a l f  o f t h e i r members.  s t r i v e t o a t t a i n autonomy  self-government of, t h e i r profession.  They d e c i d e  t h e m s e l v e s t h e i r own p o l i c i e s , w h i l s t r e m a i n i n g  i n , and amongst  accountable  t o b o t h t h e p u b l i c a n d t h e l e g i s l a t i v e b o d i e s . CPE  policy  s e t t i n g o f t e n becomes t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l association. The R o l e o f t h e P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n  and  CPE  The s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s w h i c h h a v e r e s u l t e d i n t h e n e e d f o r CPE h a s meant t h a t many p r o f e s s i o n a l now  are  i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f , o r a r e b e c o m i n g s p o n s o r s , programme  planners,  providers  and e v a l u a t o r s  (Grabowski & A s s o c i a t e s ,  o f CPE  activities  1981, p . 8 8 ) . H o f f m a n  contends t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s ' may  associations  (1979)  i n v o l v e m e n t i n CPE  h a v e d i r e c t c o n s e q u e n c e s on t h e i r m e m b e r s h i p ,  and f i n a n c e s .  The p r o f e s s i o n a l  seat t o front l i n e opportunity  associations  i n CPE h a s p r o v i d e d  shift  them w i t h  to analyze t h e i r education p o l i c i e s ,  programmes from back an determine  54 f u t u r e p r i o r i t i e s and e x p l o r e  new a v e n u e s i n t h e a r e a o f  CPE. In re-examining educational  p o l i c y , a s s o c i a t i o n s can  a s s e s s t h e i r r o l e i n s o c i e t y . The CCPE a s k e d 7 0  engineering  executives  f o rt h e i r opinions  profession  a n d o b s e r v e d : "The e d u c a t i o n f o r t o m o r r o w i s t h e  single greatest This  challenge  of the future of the  f o rthe profession  emphasis, and t h e consensus by t h e  executives  on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e d u c a t i o n ,  f o c u s e d p r i m a r i l y on p r e s e r v i c e practitioners  (CCPE,  a p p e a r s t o be  t r a i n i n g r a t h e r t h a n CPE f o r  1988). have  side-  s e n s i t i v e i s s u e s , and a v o i d e d t h e i s s u e  o f CPE among p r a c t i t i o n e r s . F i l e r distance  (p.74).  engineering  Traditionally professional associations stepped p o l i t i c a l l y  today"  (1988) d i s a g r e e s  with  such  b e t w e e n s o c i e t y a n d t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n on  t h i s occasion.  He a d v o c a t e s t h a t e v e r y p r o f e s s i o n a l  become a n a c t i v e c i t i z e n , professionals  a s d e c i s i o n s made b y n o n -  such as p o l i t i c i a n s can have p r o f o u n d  on t h e p r o f e s s i o n  should  ( p . 3 0 ) . From t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h e r e  effects appears  t o be a f i n e b a l a n c e between a c k n o w l e d g i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s  as  u n i q u e , h i g h l y t r a i n e d problem s o l v e r s , and t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f any form o f f o r m a l Given t h i s s i t u a t i o n , professional  a c c o u n t a b i l i t y process.  associations  n e e d t o be  c l e a r a b o u t t h e i r r o l e a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o t h e i r members and  the public. The  diverse  role of the professional association and i n f l u e n t i a l .  i n CPE i s b o t h  Puetz notes t h a t t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s  55 are  t h e s e c o n d l a r g e s t s p o n s o r s o f CPE programme a f t e r  educational  institutions  (1985). They o r g a n i z e s p e c i f i c  events such as conferences, provide its'  n e t w o r k o f members, a n d s p o n s o r p r o f e s s i o n a l  journals. This professional  research  associations  acts t o increase  their visibility  their public  visibility  a d d a n e l e m e n t o f q u a l i t y c o n t r o l . The CGC, t h e GAC a n d  t h e MDD  a r e a c t i v e i n many a s p e c t s o f i n f o r m a l  Opposition one  from  t y p e o f a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t i n CPE b y t h e  among t h e i r own c o m m u n i t y , i n c r e a s e and  resource people  exists t o the monopolistic  CPE.  d o m i n a t i o n by any  p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f CPE f o r i t s members.  claims  that vesting control of a profession  a few e n s u r e s d i s c r i m i n a t o r y measures w i l l (1984). A c c o r d i n g l y ,  Ohliger  i n t h e hands o f be  established  Seldon proposes a l t e r n a t i v e r o l e s f o r  t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n . R a t h e r t h a n assuming an a u t o n o m o u s p o s i t i o n t o w a r d CPE, p r o f e s s i o n a l could  e i t h e r abdicate  associations  a l l CPE r e s p o n s i b i l i t y l e a v i n g t h e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e l e g i s l a t i v e bodies, which would not p l e a s e p r a c t i t i o n e r s , o r t h e y c o u l d work c o - o p e r a t i v e l y the  government l e g i s l a t i v e body I n summary, t h e p e r c e i v e d  profession  created  during  with  ( 1 9 7 6 , p. 6 4 - 6 6 ) . s t a t i c d e f i n i t i o n of the  the nineteenth  century i snot  f e a s i b l e f o r t o d a y ' s o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h o p e r a t e u n d e r more fluid  social,  economic and p o l i t i c a l  conditions.  occupations s t r i v e t o obtain professional p o s s e s s i t . By t h e t w e n t y f i r s t c e n t u r y  status  More than  Canadian  g e o s c i e n t i s t s a r e a n t i c i p a t e d t o become r e g i s t e r e d  56 professionals engineering  through a m a r r i a g e between p r o v i n c i a l  and geoscience  In gaining  full  associations.  professional  status  a profession i s  e n t i t l e d t o s e l f government, a p r i v i l e g e t h a t b e s t o w s upon it  d e g r e e s o f power, c o n t r o l o v e r an o c c u p a t i o n ,  position of political  influence within society.  government e n t i t l e s a s s o c i a t i o n s  Self  t o p o l i c e t h e i r members  through e s t a b l i s h i n g entrance c r i t e r i a professional  and a  f o r the profession,  standards o f p r a c t i c e f o r t h e purpose o f  p r o t e c t i n g t h e i r members, a n d t h e p u b l i c . The d e g r e e o f p o l i c i n g v a r i e s . Some a s s o c i a t i o n s p r o f e s s do  little  t o enforce such p o l i c y , as i s t h e c u r r e n t  geoscience; other associations policy,  the rhetoric but case i n  a c t i v e l y i m p l e m e n t t h e i r CPE  such as t h e law p r o f e s s i o n .  CPE a n d MCPE a r e e d u c a t i o n a l  measures  associations  e m p l o y t o p o l i c e t h e i r members' p r o f e s s i o n a l  development.  For  and q u a l i t y  t h e purpose o f e f f i c i e n c y , e f f e c t i v e n e s s  control,  the associations  a r e b e c o m i n g more i n v o l v e d  a s p e c t s o f CPE f r o m p l a n n i n g  t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The MDD,  a l t h o u g h a c t i v e i n s p o n s o r i n g CPE, h a s n o t c o n c e r n e d in  itself  l o n g t e r m CPE d e v e l o p m e n t , u n d e r s t a n d i n g i t s c l i e n t s  participation the  in a l l  i n CPE o r t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d CPE w h i c h i s  i m p e t u s o f t h i s s t u d y . The n e x t c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e  study's methodology f o r o b t a i n i n g questions.  answers t o t h e r e s e a r c h  57  CHAPTER 4: METHODOLOGY This chapter w i l l present t h e procedures r e s e a r c h e r conducted  by which t h e  t h i s study. A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e  p o p u l a t i o n , t h e d e s i g n o f t h e study, both p i l o t and main will  b e p r o v i d e d . The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s f o c u s o n t h r e e  areas: p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n CPE, a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d  needs which a r e t h e c o n t r o l a s p e c t s o f t h i s  CPE a n d f e l t study.  Population The p o p u l a t i o n s t u d i e d i n c l u d e d a l l 819 members o f t h e Mineral Deposits D i v i s i o n  (MDD). The GAC i s t h e p a r e n t  body  o f t h e MDD. The GAC e n c o m p a s s e s many f i e l d s o f g e o s c i e n c e w h e r e a s t h e MDD i s s p e c i f i c t o m i n e r a l  deposits  g e o s c i e n t i s t s . MDD members came f r o m a l l p r o v i n c e s a n d territories Admission  i n Canada, a s w e l l a s from A m e r i c a and o v e r s e a s .  i n t o t h e MDD i s d e p e n d e n t u p o n  m e e t i n g membership c r i t e r i a  geoscientists'  f o r t h e GAC.  Instrumentation The s t u d y was d e s i g n e d understanding  w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f g a i n i n g an  o f MDD members' b e h a v i o u r  continuing professional education. socio-economic attitudes,  and p e r c e p t i o n s o f  Information  regarding  status, professional a f f i l i a t i o n ,  f e l t needs and b a r r i e r s toward  u s e f u l t o t h e MDD a n d c o u l d b e f r u i t f u l  behaviour,  CPE w e r e  thought  as a b a s i s f o r  comparison w i t h s t u d i e s o f other p r o f e s s i o n s .  58 A survey the  m e t h o d was  used f o r t h i s study  to investigate  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l  and  psychological variables influencinggeoscientists' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE w h i c h was  p r e - t e s t e d i n two  A survey  instrument  and  was  used i n the  considered  e f f i c i e n t method o f d a t a  t o be  had  e)  c) p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e x ;  i s attached  S e c t i o n A:  d)  f o r such a  The  index.  A copy of  education  income l e v e l , y e a r s  employed i n g e o s c i e n c e ,  l e v e l , year  of  the  graduation, the type  o r g a n i z a t i o n they worked f o r , c u r r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l  o f r e s p o n d e n t s . Age l e s s t h a n 30,  was  The  position,  divided into five categories  3 0 - 3 9 , 4 0 - 4 9 , 5 0 - 5 9 , 60 o r more. T h i s demographics survey,  a l l o w i n g c o m p a r i s o n o f f i n d i n g s . The was  of  t h e d i v i s i o n o f t i m e a t work were asked  t h e same c a t e g o r i e s a s t h e AGI  attainment  requested  highest  along with the year  l e n g t h o f employment i n g e o s c i e n c e  was  y e a r s ; where r e s p o n d e n t s gave p a r t i a l y e a r s  of: followed thus  educational of  graduation.  requested the  in  researcher  r o u n d e d up  t o t h e n e x t w h o l e number. Income d e r i v e d  geoscience  was  from  d i v i d e d i n t o ten categories i n u n i t s of  thousand d o l l a r s  the  (Appendix A).  Demographics. Q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g  o f w o r k , and  b)  needs assessment  g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' age,  field  most  f i v e c o m p o n e n t s : a) d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a ;  barriers to participation  questionnaire  study.  the  collection  geographically dispersed population.  a t t i t u d e index; index  A descriptive questionnaire  stages  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  e f f e c t i v e and l a r g e and  activities.  ten  ( C a n a d i a n ) f r o m l e s s t h a n $19,000 t o more  59 t h a n $90,000. Such c a t e g o r i e s o f income were u s e d  rather  t h a n an e x a c t income f i g u r e . The t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e m p l o y e r , o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n and f i e l d  o f work were s o l i c i t e d  from c h e c k i n g  b o x e s o f p r e d e t e r m i n e d c h o i c e s . One q u e s t i o n r e q u e s t e d t h e amount o f t i m e s p e n t a t d i f f e r e n t w o r k l o c a t i o n s , a n d t i m e at  e a c h l o c a t i o n was t h e n m e a s u r e d a s a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e  o v e r a l l t i m e s p e n t . The l o c a t i o n s s p e c i f i e d office,  t h e l a b o r a t o r y , an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e  mine, i n t h e f i e l d , Section: items  included: the  (Zibrik,  a n d an " o t h e r " g r o u p .  B Attitudes. A selection of previously 1983) was u s e d t o m e a s u r e  tested  geoscientists'  a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . The original for  s t a t e m e n t s were reworded u s i n g language a p p r o p r i a t e  geoscientists.  The s t a t e m e n t s w e r e t h e n j u d g e d , a n d  s e l e c t i o n s w e r e made f r o m among them. A p a n e l o f f i v e judges from a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and geoscience rated t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the statements t o the i n t e n d e d study group.  This resulted  i n discarding  eight  i t e m s w h e r e t h e i n t e r q u a r t i l e - v a l u e was g r e a t e r t h a n t w o . The j u d g e s a l s o e l i m i n a t e d  four statements t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y  c o n s i d e r e d t o be i r r e l e v a n t t o g e o s c i e n t i s t s . The means o f t h e r e m a i n i n g t h i r t e e n i t e m s w e r e  then  p l o t t e d . This p l o t t i n g revealed t h a t a l l item responses polarized at either  v  were  extremely favourable' or extremely x  u n f a v o r a b l e ' . The i t e m s w e r e t h e n p l a c e d o n a f i v e p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e from  x  s t r o n g l y agree' t o 'strongly disagree'.  60 A f u r t h e r two q u e s t i o n s were i n c l u d e d t o e l i c i t a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d CPE. One q u e s t i o n a s k e d r e s p o n d e n t s t o p r i o r i t i z e t h e i r t h r e e p r e f e r r e d ways o f m a i n t a i n i n g knowledge and s k i l l s .  The s e l e c t i o n o f s k i l l s  included  f o r m a l a n d i n f o r m a l means o f CPE, f r o m " t a k i n g X number o f h o u r s coursework p e r y e a r " t o " r e f l e c t i n g upon one's p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t " . One r e p r e s e n t e d highest p r i o r i t y , solicited  respondents'  t h r e e t h e l o w e s t . The s e c o n d  respondents'  T h i s was s c o r e d  the  question  r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE.  on a L i k e r t s c a l e r a n g i n g  from most o f t e n ' x  (receiving a score of five) t o l e a s t often'  (receiving a  x  score of one). S e c t i o n C: P a r t i c i p a t i o n .  The m e t h o d u s e d t o g a t h e r  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l during the previous  12 m o n t h s was t o a s k f o r t h e number o f  CPE a c t i v i t i e s t h e y h a d e n g a g e d i n . E a c h CPE constituted  i n CPE  activity  " 1 " . A c t i v i t i e s ranged from f i e l d  trips to  lectures. T h i s m e t h o d was s e l e c t e d o v e r  other s p e c i f i c  such as t h e E d u c a t i o n a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e because t h e response from t h e p i l o t t h i s a p p r o a c h was more c o n v e n i e n t  study  indexes  ( B o s h i e r , 1982)  indicated that  f o r respondents;  i t was  e a s i e r f o r t h e m t o remember t h e number o f a c t i v a t e d , r a t h e r t a n t h e number o f h o u r s s p e n t p a r t i c i p a t i n g . other indexes  The l a n g u a g e on  d i d n o t seem a p p r o p r i a t e t o g e o s c i e n t i s t s , a n d  r a t h e r than c r e a t e a d e v i a t i o n from t h e o r i g i n a l the statements,  a simple  intent of  r e p o r t i n g o f t h e number o f  61 a c t i v i t i e s was  sought. In a d d i t i o n the  researcher  p r o m i n e n t g e o s c i e n c e p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s and respondents t o i n d i c a t e the them p e r  week. T h i s  activity. reading  number o f h o u r s s p e n t  activity  B a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The  consistently indicated professionals p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE included  on  the  activities.  questionnaire  g e o s c i e n t i s t s and  practice.  literature  A s e c t i o n on  to  "barriers"  was  f o r comparison between  to  r e p r e s e n t e d t h e m o s t common b a r r i e r s  education.  The  s u c h a way  as t o a v o i d  continuing  p l a c i n g b l a m e on  difficulties"  of  the to  professional  w o r d i n g o f t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s was  "scheduling  other  other groups of p r o f e s s i o n a l s . A panel  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t and  (using  CPE  h a v e some o b s t a c l e s  judges s e l e c t e d t h i r t e e n items t h a t , according literature,  reading  represented a non-formal  sources p e r t a i n i n g to t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l D:  5  asked  Respondents were encouraged t o i n c l u d e  Section  selected  expressed  in  the i n d i v i d u a l ,  r a t h e r t h a n " I c a n ' t make  d a y t i m e / e v e n i n g c l a s s e s " f o r example). These i t e m s were r a t e d on  a five point  "most c o n s i d e r a b l e  s c a l e of which f i v e represented  obstacle"  and  one  r e p r e s e n t e d "not  the an  obstacle." Section 22  Needs a s s e s s m e n t . T h i s  i t e m s w h i c h was  representing skills; and  E:  d)  b)  divided  into four  section consisted subsections  a r e a s o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' w o r k : a)  computer s k i l l s ;  c)  l e g a l and  professional/scientific skills.  to assess the  of  personal  business  skills;  These i t e m s were used  g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' " f e l t needs"  (Sork, 1986).  Each  62 question regarding  required t h e respondents t o r a t e t h e i r s p e c i f i c areas,  word p r o c e s s i n g ,  ( f o r example:, o r a l  not of  (please  presentation,  f r o m 1 ("I n e e d  t r a i n i n g i n t h i s area"),  need t r a i n i n g i n t h i s a r e a " ) . "other  needs  m i n i n g and l a w r e g u l a t i o n ) . Responses were  r a t e d on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e r a n g i n g considerable  felt  explain)  1 1  t o 5 ("I d e f i n i t e l y do  I n each s e c t i o n t h e o p t i o n  was i n c l u d e d .  No p r o v i s i o n was made f o r t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f ascribed/prescribed  needs  (Houle, 1980; Sork, 1986),  some a d u l t e d u c a t o r s m a i n t a i n e s s e n t i a l t o systematic  though  such an assessment i s  needs assessment  (LeBreton e t A l ,  1 9 7 9 ) . A t t e n t i o n was d i r e c t e d e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' own s e n s e o f t h e i r n e e d s . No e f f o r t was made t o i d e n t i f y a r e a s i n w h i c h t h e i r k n o w l e d g e may h a v e b e e n obsolete Pilot  b u t o f w h i c h t h e y were unaware.  Study The  third  stage of the p i l o t  study involved a panel of  e i g h t j u d g e s . F o u r w e r e f a c u l t y members a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : two were g e o s c i e n t i s t s and two were graduate students i n adult In order  education.  t o p i l o t test the questionnaire  f o r the  p r o p o s e d n a t i o n a l s u r v e y , i n S e p t e m b e r 1988 a s a m p l e o f 3 0 g e o s c i e n t i s t s from Vancouver were asked t o v o l u n t e e r p i l o t s t u d y . The v o l u n t e e r s  represented  practitioners  from i n d u s t r y  (26 v o l u n t e e r s )  institutions  (4 v o l u n t e e r s ) .  are  still  " i n the field"  f o r the  a cross-section of and e d u c a t i o n a l  G i v e n t h a t most g e o s c i e n t i s t s  a t that time of t h e year,  63 v o l u n t e e r s w e r e s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f a v a i l a b i l i t y . researcher personally delivered the p i l o t c o n s i s t i n g o f twenty to and  The  questionnaire,  (20) q u e s t i o n s . R e s p o n d e n t s w e r e a s k e d  complete t h e survey,  t o c r i t i q u e i t s format and w o r d i n g ,  t o i n d i c a t e the length o f time taken t o complete the  questionnaire. One week l a t e r ,  t h e r e s e a r c h e r p i c k e d up 17 c o m p l e t e d  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , 5 more w e r e m a i l e d  i n , and 8 were n o t  r e t u r n e d . The 22 c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e analyzed.  then  B a s e d on t h e comments f r o m r e s p o n d e n t s t h e  q u e s t i o n s a s k i n g " g e n d e r " ; " m a r i t a l s t a t u s " , a n d " t h e number o f d e p e n d e n t s " w e r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be t o o p e r s o n a l , a n d i n s i g n i f i c a n t g i v e n t h a t t h e MDD  p o p u l a t i o n was e s t i m a t e d t o  b e 9 5 % men. A f t e r a d i s c u s s i o n w i t h t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e ,  these  items were o m i t t e d .  was  The q u e s t i o n on CPE p a r t i c i p a t i o n  modified, t o ask f o r the t o t a l attended  number o f CPE  because s u b j e c t s o f t h e p i l o t  activities  study, i n  communication w i t h t h e researcher, expressed  difficulty in  remembering " d e t a i l s " , which r e s u l t e d i n t h e i r becoming frustrated,  a n d s t a t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n was " t o o t i m e  c o n s u m i n g " . R e v i s i o n s w e r e made f o l l o w i n g t h e p r e t e s t i n g . Some q u e s t i o n s w e r e o m i t t e d on t h e b a s i s o f b e i n g t o o t h r e a t e n i n g a n d p e r s o n a l , s u c h a s "How many d e p e n d e n t s do you  h a v e ? " ; f o r b e i n g t o o much o f a n i m p o s i t i o n f o r e x a m p l e ,  "Please  i n d i c a t e your gender"; o r f o r being t o o time  consuming, "Please  i n d i c a t e t h e number o f h o u r s s p e n t on  continuing p r o f e s s i o n a l education  a c t i v i t i e s during the  64 previous  year."  T h e s e p e c u l i a r r e a c t i o n s by  caused the researcher  respondents  t o p o s t u l a t e t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s were  u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h i s f o r m a t o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The did  not  indicate similar  r e a c t i o n s t o such  Questions of t h i s nature social  But,  these  similar  within  r e s t r i c t e d any  s t u d i e s i n terms of  the  were not t h o u g h t t o  from the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t of the  omissions  literature  questions.  are q u i t e standard  s c i e n c e s . These o m i s s i o n s  significantly  has  in-depth  detract  questionnaire. comparison  with  demographics.  Procedures The study  researcher  presented  a written proposal  t o t h e members o f t h e M i n e r a l D e p o s i t s  an a f f i l i a t e  of the G e o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n of  to  to the researcher,  study.  published 17,  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  data. A p i l o t survey  the survey  p a r t 4,  first  Canada membership  u s e d a s t h e means conducted. P r i o r  magazine 'Geolog' v o l  ( A p p e n d i x B 2 ) , and  t h e MDD  1988  fall  'Ganque' ( A p p e n d i x B 3 ) . A c o v e r i n g  f o r t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was main survey  was  included  letter  (Appendix B 4 ) .  a c c o m p a n i e d by  a stamped, s e l f -  addressed r e t u r n envelope to the researcher.  T h i s was  t o members o f MDD  newsletter,  l a t e O c t o b e r 1988. the study  and  along with t h e i r f a l l The  cover  to  members, n o t i c e s w e r e  informal geoscience  1988  newsletter the  The  was  q u e s t i o n n a i r e o f t h e MDD i n an  (MDD),  p r o v i d i n g an a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n  A mail survey  to gather  the  Division  ( A p p e n d i x B 1 ) . T h e y a g r e e d t o g i v e t h e i r 1988 list  for  1988  mailed  l e t t e r explained the purpose  s t a t e d t h a t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y would  be  in of  65 maintained.  E a c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  researcher p r i o r to being mailed the master m a i l i n g l i s t .  The  n u m e r i c a l l y c o d e d by  and  cross checked  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were  d u r i n g t h e l a s t week o f O c t o b e r , 1988.  against  mailed  Returned  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were checked o f f the master l i s t  to:  i d e n t i f y the geographic d i s p e r s i o n of responses,  1)  and  2)  r e d u c e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d u p l i c a t i o n , as a f o l l o w - u p m a i l i n g t o n o n - r e s p o n d e n t s was maintained findings.  by n o t  returned  individuals in  f i r s t m a i l i n g r e s p o n s e was  C h r i s t m a s h o l i d a y s e a s o n , and  questionnaires indicated  344  1988,  t h e s e c o n d m a i l i n g was  ( 4 2 % ) . Due  the year  government work r e p o r t s surveys  was  the  the consent of the respondents to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the The  second  proposed. C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y  i d e n t i f y i n g any  C o m p l e t e d and  the  end  to  study.  the  provincial  conducted during  December  postponed u n t i l January  1989.  Data a n a l y s i s The 720  d a t a w e r e n u m e r i c a l l y c o d e d and  personal  III).  c o m p u t e r u s i n g a d - B a s e programme  Random s a m p l i n g  the accuracy  entered  o n t o an (Foxplus  o f t h e r e c o r d s were used i n v e r i f y i n g  of coding.  Frequency counts f o r a l l v a r i a b l e s  w e r e c o n d u c t e d on t h e P.C.  D a t a was  then uploaded onto  U.B.C's m a i n f r a m e w h e r e , u s i n g S.P.S.S ( S t a t i s t i c a l f o r S o c i a l Sciences)  AT  t h e d a t a were a n a l y z e d  condescriptive routine to provide f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : age o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n and  and  using  Package  a  i n f o r m a t i o n about  participation  the  the  rate;  participation rate;  occupational  r a t e a n d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d CPE; o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n f e l t CPE  needs.  and  67  CHAPTER 5; SURVEY FINDINGS  The  f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e f i n d i n g s from t h e  s u r v e y ; c o n d u c t e d i n l a t e 1988. the following sections:  This chapter i s divided  1) t h e g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n  i n c l u d e s r e s p o n s e r a t e s and d e m o g r a p h i c s ;  2) t h e  o f t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n s ; and  into  which  description  3) a  brief  a n a l y t i c summary w h i c h r e l a t e s t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d a t a t o the research questions.  R e s p o n s e R a t e s and  Demographics  Response Rate The  s t u d y had a r e s p o n s e r a t e o f 42%  f i r s t m a i l i n g , and 72%  (342) a f t e r  (589) a f t e r t h e s e c o n d  the  survey  m a i l i n g s . Sixteen respondents returned incomplete q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w h i c h were n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e main  analysis,  r e d u c i n g t h e t o t a l number i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s t o ( 7 0 % ) . The  r a n g e i n r e s p o n s e r a t e s s u g g e s t t h a t some  q u e s t i o n s d e p e n d more h e a v i l y on r e s p o n d e n t s a n s w e r w h i c h may item t o each Geographic  7  choosing to  be b a s e d on t h e r e l e v a n c e o f a  particular  respondent.  Dispersion  Responses overseas  573  w e r e r e c e i v e d f r o m C a n a d a , t h e U.S  ( T a b l e 3 ) . W i t h i n Canada, p r o v i n c i a l  r a n g e d f r o m a h i g h o f 100% o f MDD Territories,  and  from  responses  members i n t h e  Northwest  t o a l o w o f 46% f r o m N e w f o u n d l a n d . N u m e r i c a l l y ,  O n t a r i o h a d t h e m o s t r e s p o n d e n t s 224  o r 3 9% o f t h e t o t a l  MDD  abl e 3  Response  Rate  o f fi DP  Members  by  Geographic  Newfoundland  Questionnaires " irst Wailing Second eturr.ei' Number Nuir> be r Sent Number Sent 26 21 4 15  New  1 9  Geographi c F e g i on  P  Region  l\a i ' l i n ? P-eturnedNumber 8  5]  1 2  63  7  5  43  14  5  36  9  6  15  t)u e b e c  63  23  36  40  2 2. ;  35  Ontario  306  129  42  177  95  51  Manitoba  1 6  7  43  9  Saskatchewan  22  8  36  Alberta  34  38  230  111  Brunswick  Nova  Scotia  British  Columbla  Nor thu e s t Territorles  5  5  31  14  7 -  32  53  1 6  7  21  48  119  66  29  4 . .  80  1  1  20  Yuk on  15  5  33  10  5  33  U.S.A.  40  15  38  25  9  23  Ov e r s e a s  27  5  1 8  22  9  33  Total  817  346  42  473  589  69 population.  A l t h o u g h 60%  they constituted only the only  52% 2%  of  responded  o f t h e MDD  population;  similarly  responded  members a r e  T h i s may  increased  be  the  the  survey i s not  to  an  questionnaire  was  professional  a random s a m p l e ,  other population  would  be  Respondents  According t o the  literature,  p a r t i c i p a t i o n : age,  several  f a c t o r s seem t o  education l e v e l ,  l e v e l , p r i m a r y f i e l d o f w o r k , number o f y e a r s i n profession,  profession  unsound.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  i n f l u e n c e CPE  MDD  issue of p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y i s a  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t o any statistically  a  fact that  relevant  t o p i c of the  c o n c e r n t o b o t h t h e members and a s s o c i a t i o n . As  for  members o f a  l i t e r a t u r e s t a t e s are  r e s p o n s e r a t e . The as t h e  i s high  a t t r i b u t e d t o the  b o t h h i g h l y e d u c a t e d and  f a c t o r s t h a t the  comprised  population.  s u r v e y ' s r e s p o n s e r a t e o f 72%  questionnaire.  relevant  members h a d  i n t e r n a t i o n a l members who  o f t h e MDD  The  4%  o f t h e U.S  occupational  income the  p o s i t i o n , percentage of time  d i f f e r e n t work e n v i r o n m e n t s , p r o f e s s i o n a l r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  perceived  in  affiliations,  barriers  to  participation. Age T a b l e 4 i n d i c a t e s t h a t 41% b e t w e e n 30 The  age  and  39  years o l d , the  g r o u p 40-49 had  the  of the  respondents  single largest  are  grouping.  second l a r g e s t response  (29.6%).  70 I t would t h e r e f o r e  seem t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y  were "baby boomers". G i v e n the Canada, t h e s e f i n d i n g s geoscientists w i l l r e p e r c u s s i o n s on Table  of the  respondents  declining birth rate number o f  "older"  o u t n u m b e r t h o s e u n d e r 35.  T h i s may  the  suggest the  in  p o l i c y o f CPE:  who  gets to  have  participate?  4 The  Age  Demographics of  Geoscientists  R e s p o n d e n t s by Age  Number  Percentage  Less than 3 0  69  12.1  30-39  234  41.0  40-49  171  30.0  50-59  72  13.0  60  27  5.0  573  101.0  o r more  Total  Age  Education Nearly a l l respondents training,  most f r e q u e n t l y  Geoscientists  w i t h M.A.  largest grouping (27%).  Two  subjects  (98.5%) h a v e u n i v e r s i t y  a B.A.  o r M.Sc.  (32%) , f o l l o w e d  geoscientists  obtained from c o l l e g e s / t e c h n i c a l indicated  degree  (39%).  d e g r e e s were t h e  second  by  Ph.D's  those holding  i n d i c a t e d they held diplomas  related to their f i e l d  geoscientists  o r B.Sc.  "other"  e x p l a n a t i o n s ranged from "not  of p r a c t i c e that institutes. on  the  in  were  Eight  questionnaire.  Their  having completed a u n i v e r s i t y  programme", t o " h a v i n g a h i g h s c h o o l  l e v e l of  education."  71 The m a j o r i t y o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s h a d b e e n g r a d u a t e d b e t w e e n 1970 a n d 1979  (38.78%). Those g r a d u a t i n g i n t h e  1980's r e p r e s e n t e d t h e second  l a r g e s t grouping (33.6%). Only  1.6% o f r e s p o n d e n t s h a d g r a d u a t e d p r i o r t o 1950  (Appendix C  1) • Income T a b l e 5 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d i v i s i o n o f income g r o u p s r a n g i n g f r o m $19,000 t o $90,000 o r more. T w e n t y - f o u r o f r e s p o n d e n t s e a r n e d $30,000-39,999, c l o s e l y t h o s e e a r n i n g $40,000-$49,999  percent  followed  by  ( 2 2 % ) . The m a j o r i t y o f  r e s p o n d e n t s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $49,999. The s m a l l e s t c a t e g o r y was  f o r t h o s e g e o s c i e n t i s t s e a r n i n g between  ( 1 . 9 % ) . However,  $80,000-89,999  6.2% o f r e s p o n d e n t s e a r n e d more t h a n  $ 9 0 , 0 0 0 . The mean i n c o m e f o r t h i s g r o u p o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s $  30,000-39,999.  was  72 Table 5 The Demographics of Geoscientists by Income Respondents by income _.  n  Percentage  Less than, 19,000  25  4.4  19,000 - 19,999  34  5.9  20,000 - 29,999  72  12. 6  39,999  138  24.1  40,000 - 49,999  127  22.2  50,000 - 59,999  69  12. 0  60,000 - 69,999  40  7.0  70,000 - 79,999  21  3.7  80,000 - 89,999  11  1.9  90,000 or more  36  6.3  Total  573  30,000  -  100.1  F i e l d of Work The majority of geoscientists worked primarily i n •, y  geology, (67.5% of the respondents). The second largest grouping was geology/geochemistry  (13%) . Four respondents  indicated t h e i r s p e c i a l i t y to be geophysics (0.6%). The category of "other" accounted for 56 (9.8%) responses, which included areas of specialty such as f i n a n c i a l consultants, systems analysts, computer graphics s p e c i a l i s t s , and people who indicated that they worked i n two or more of the previously named categories (Appendix C 2).  73 The  number o f y e a r s e a c h r e s p o n d e n t h a d b e e n e m p l o y e d  i n geoscience ranged  f r o m 0 y e a r s t o 45 y e a r s .  The  r e s e a r c h e r grouped responses i n f i v e - y e a r i n t e r v a l s .  The  g r o u p i n g w i t h t h e l a r g e s t number o f r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e t h o s e e m p l o y e d 11-15  years i n the profession  was  l a r g e s t category (107). While the m a j o r i t y  t h e second  geoscientists  (379 o u t o f 573)  years of  had been employed i n t h e  profession f o r 20 years or less, t h e p r o f e s s i o n f o r 41 t o 45 y e a r s Occupational  ( 1 2 8 ) ; 16-20  seven had been employed i n (Appendix C 3 ) .  Position  Table 6 indicates  ' p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t ' was  frequently cited occupational position,  t h e most  (87 o r 34%  of  r e s p o n d e n t s ) . Second t o p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t were m i d d l e management p o s i t i o n s president  (121 o r 22% o f r e s p o n d e n t s )  (73 o r 13% o f r e s p o n d e n t s ) . No o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s  h a d more t h a n a n 8% r e s p o n s e . The p o s i t i o n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r , c o n s u l t a n t and a b o u t 7% o f t h e r e s p o n s e s . The retirees,  and  " o t h e r " each accounted f o r category of "other" included  a n d n o t w o r k i n g by c h o i c e . O n l y 2  i n d i c t e d t h e y were unemployed  senior  (0.3%).  respondents  74  Table 6 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f G e o s c i e n t i s t s  by O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n  Position  n  President  73  12. 7  Sr.  46  8. 0  Administrator  Percentage  M i d d l e management  121  21. 1  Project  187  32. 6  Junior  geoscientist geoscientist  Consultant Educational  Instructor  Student Unemployed Other Total  17  2. 9  42  7. 3  29  5. 1  18  3. 1  2  0. 3  37  6. 4  572  100. 0  P e r c e n t a g e o f Time i n D i f f e r e n t Work  Environments  The b r e a k d o w n o f t h e g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' w o r k t i m e i n d i f f e r e n t work environments  i n d i c a t e d t h e o f f i c e and  field  t o be t h e p r i m a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y w o r k l o c a t i o n s f o r t h e majority o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s . Although a majority o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s worked i n t h e o f f i c e environment the  f o r some o f  t i m e , few a c t u a l l y worked i n t h e o f f i c e 100% o f t h e t i m e  ( T a b l e 7) . T h e v a s t m a j o r i t y s p e n t 4 0 % o f t h e i r t i m e o r l e s s in the f i e l d ,  a n d no g e o s c i e n t i s t s  in the f i e l d .  The l a b o r a t o r y  the  s p e n t 100% o f t h e i r t i m e  was t h e work s i t e  f o r (13%) o f  r e s p o n d e n t s b u t o n l y 1 respondent worked f u l l  time i n  75  Table 7 PERCENTAGE OF TIME GEOSCIENTISTS SPEND WORKING IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS TIME 100  90  80  70  60  50  40  30  20  10  Office  13  28  46  84  66  89  78  49  35  18 506  Laboratory  1  2  0  0  3  1  7  2  21  12  76  Educational Institution  2  2  7  11  17  5  6  1  6  7  64  Mine  5  2  0  1  1  3  5  ^9  18  25  69  Field  0  2  2  10  20  31  42  81  133  94 415  Other  2  1  0  1  0  1  4  0  4  94 107  %  (n)  76 the  laboratory.  S i m i l a r l y t h e 'mine' a n d t h e  'educational  i n s t i t u t i o n ' were c i t e d r a r e l y . The c a t e g o r y o f ' o t h e r ' reached mandatory r e t i r e m e n t themselves as n o t being still  continued  addition,  included  ( 0 . 2 % ) p e o p l e who  age, and t h e y l a b e l l e d  a c t i v e i n g e o s c i e n c e . However  t o a c t as g e o s c i e n c e c o n s u l t a n t s .  (19%) g e o s c i e n t i s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t r a v e l l i n g t o  Professional  time.  Affiliations  T o t a l m e m b e r s h i p s f r o m t h e 573 r e s p o n d e n t s was 9 6.7%  most  In  w o r k s i t e s o r c o n f e r e n c e s consumed 10% o f t h e i r w o r k  with  had  responding t o t h i s question.  1668  The mean number o f  m e m b e r s h i p s h e l d b y r e s p o n d e n t s was 2.9. The m o s t  frequently  c i t e d memberships were i n t h e G e o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada  (GAC)  Metallurgy  (96.7%),  (CIMM) (63.4%) t h e P r o s p e c t o r s '  A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada Engineering "other"  t h e C a n a d i a n I n s t i t u t e o f M i n i n g and  Geologists  and D e v e l o p e r s '  (PDAC)  (46.8%),  and t h e S o c i e t y  (SEG)  (21.2%).  The c a t e g o r y o f  was c h e c k e d b y 121 ( 2 1 . 2 % ) o f t h e s a m p l e , a n d  of  this  i n c l u d e d m e m b e r s h i p 45 d i f f e r e n t p r o f e s s i o n a l o r s c i e n t i f i c organizations. responses  No i n d i v i d u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n h a d more t h a n 6  ( A p p e n d i x C 4 ) . The f i n d i n g s w i l l  to the research  questions.  now be r e l a t e d  77  P A R T I C I P A T I O N I N CPE  Participation  i n CPE  Table 8 i n d i c a t e s the frequency categories. response eight  t o t h i s q u e s t i o n was 5 3 1 . Two h u n d r e d a n d f o r t y  ( 4 7 % ) i n d i c a t e d t h e y h a d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n 1-5  activities, any  Total  f o l l o w e d b y 103 ( 1 9 % ) who d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n  CPE a c t i v i t i e s a n d t h e 100 (19%) who t o o k  activities.  S l i g h t l y more g e o s c i e n t i s t s  6-10  (4.3%)  t o o k 20 o r  more a c t i v i t i e s t h a n t h e number who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n 16-20 activities  23 v e r s u s 16 ( 3 % ) . The mean number o f CPE  activities geoscientists  p a r t i c i p a t e d d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s 12  m o n t h s was 6. F o r m a t o f CPE  Activities  Based on a f r e q u e n c y c o u n t t h e most p o p u l a r  format  d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s 12 m o n t h s w e r e t h e l e c t u r e s , a n d conferences trips  (766 a n d 716 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , f o l l o w e d b y  (385), s h o r t courses  (196), and s e m i n a r s  field  (193) ( T a b l e  9) Use  of Journals T a b l e 10 shows g e o s c i e n t i s t s  t h e i r reading of professional was t o s p e n d 0.5 h o u r s journals  d i s t r i b u t i o n according to  journals.  The o v e r a l l  o r l e s s p e r week r e a d i n g  and p u b l i c a t i o n s .  professional  The number o f r e a d e r s f o r t h i s  c a t e g o r y was a l m o s t d o u b l e t h e number o f r e s p o n d e n t s next groupings  pattern  (1-2 h o u r s ) . The e x c e p t i o n  i n the  78  Table 8 FORMAT OF CPE ACTIVITIES ATTENDED DURING THE PREVIOUS 12 MONTHS 1  2  3  4  5  40  26  31  17  21  68  Short Course  109  30  5  0  0  2  Conference  153  132  57  3  10  11  117  60  28  1  5  7  53  26  5  5  5  8  Lectures  Field Trip Seminar  5+  79  Table 9 FREQUENCY OF CPE PARTICIPATION BY GEOSCIENTISTS Frequency  •  %  (n)  Frequency  (n)  %  0  103  19.4  11-12  26  4.9  1-2  111  21.1  13-14  17  3.2  3-4  92  17.3  15-16  14  2.7  5-6  47  8.7  17-18  18  3.4  7-8  37  7.1  19-20  3  0.5  9-10  39  7.4  >20  323  4.3  Total  531  100.0  80  Table 10 TABLE NUMBER OF HOURS SPENT READING PROFESSIONAL JOURNALS/PUBLICATIONS PER WEEK HOURS PER WEEK <0.5  1-2  3-4  43  188  10  CANADIAN MINING JOURNAL  173  70  0  0  0  1  244  CIM  305  125  1  0  0  0  432  ECONOMIC GEOLOGY  301  172  20  NORTHERN MINER  151  244  3  2  1  1  402  OTHER  115  29  17  3  4  0  168  CANADIAN JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCE  5-6  7-8  >8  (n)  445  501  81 t o t h i s was did  not  the item Northern  Miner.  Although  the  researcher  s p e c i f y whether t h i s item r e f e r r e d t o the  weekly  newspaper o r monthly j o u r n a l , most r e s p o n d e n t s marked "newspaper." Responses t o t h i s  item i n d i c a t e d t h a t  g e o s c i e n t i s t s r e a d t h e n e w s p a p e r more t h a n any p u b l i c a t i o n by a r a t i o o f a l m o s t 2:1. elicited  168  a l t e r n a t e reading  Organizational The  "other"  sources.  o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l employers were  i n d u s t r y , government, e d u c a t i o n a l  c o n s u l t a n t and  o t h e r . As s e e n i n T a b l e 11 t h e m a j o r i t y  i n s t i t u t i o n s . The  g o v e r n m e n t was  i n c l u d e d p e o p l e who  Table  educational  to the  11 ORGANIZATION EMPLOYED I N CURRENTLY (n) Industry  Percentage  345  60.4  89  15. 6  Government  52  9.1  Consultant  54  9.4  Other  31  5.4  Educational  Total  Institution  "other"  were u n e m p l o y e d o r w o r k i n g f o r  o f t h e above c a t e g o r i e s .  TYPE OR  of  not a major employer f o r  t h i s g r o u p o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s . Those r e s p o n d i n g  more t h a n one  broadly  institution,  r e s p o n d e n t s w o r k e d w i t h i n i n d u s t r y , f o l l o w e d by  category  category  Employer  types  d e f i n e d as  The  other  571  99.9  82 Professional The  Affiliation  573  respondents held  m e m b e r s h i p s i n 57 provincial,  organizations.  n a t i o n a l and  spanning a diverse  a total  of  professional  These i n c l u d e d  international  spectrum of  1668  local,  organizations  i n t e r e s t s (Appendix C  4).  Reasons f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n T h r e e h u n d r e d and "Maintaining for  c o m p e t e n c e i n my  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n CPE  strongly. 21%),  and  o r 22%)  f i e l d " as t h e p r i m a r y  activities.  (145,  or 26%).  rated (111  Maintaining  K n o w l e d g e and  o r 59%)  journals  work per  year  meetings  ( n = 1 3 5 ) , and  s k i l l s (n=378).  80%)  preferred This  2  ( n = 3 2 8 ) , t a k i n g x amount o f professional  r e f l e c t i o n (n=39). "other",  they preferred  or  were l e a s t  (n=344), s u b s c r i p t i o n  (n=287), a t t e n d i n g  geoscientists selected  (115,  activities  c o n f e r e n c e s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e most  b e i n g employed  professional  or  Skills  t o m a i n t a i n k n o w l e d g e and by  (458  r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n CPE  5).  Attending  (338  as  "sometimes"  "Escaping from s t r e s s "  (Appendix C  explained  other item  more r e s p o n s e s i n t h e  "meeting employer's requirements"  followed  No  reason  " b r o a d e n i n g one's knowledge i n t h e i r f i e l d "  o f t e n c i t e d as  way  r e s p o n d e n t s gave  "Expanding one's p r o f e s s i o n a l network"  1  which received  category or  t h i r t y - n i n e (62%)  and  field trips  was  to course  association  Eleven  the m a j o r i t y (Appendix C  of 6).  these  83 Perceived Barriers to Scheduling respondents, time  Participation  d i f f i c u l t i e s w e r e i n d i c a t e d by  f o l l o w e d by  5 1 % who  as a m o d e r a t e / c o n s i d e r a b l e  literature,  (each 7) .  barrier.  Contrary  age,  a 90%  to  fear of  as b a r r i e r s t o  i t e m r e c e i v e d more t h a n  of  perceived the l a c k of  g e o s c i e n t i s t s d i d not see  o r b e i n g v i e w e d as a m b i t i o u s  73%  study  the failure,  participation  response)  (Appendix C  3  GEOSCIENTISTS ATTITUDES TOWARD CPE?  A t t i t u d e s Toward  CPE  S i x t y - f o u r percent  (363)  of respondents agreed  or  s t r o n g l y a g r e e d w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t "a g e o s c i e n t i s t ' s a b i l i t y to  l e a r n remains constant  for a l i f e  s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d . A s k e d i f "CPE education"  486  (86%)  time";  was  as  21% d i s a g r e e d  important  CPE  i n c r e a s e one's c o n f i d e n c e  ( 7 0 % ) ; o n l y 26  by  disagreed w i t h t h i s statement.  444  was  and  153  (46%) (27%)  were undecided.  (4.5%)  i n v e s t more money i n  This contrasted with  f o r w h i c h 451  (80%)  disagreed  the  i n v e s t more money i n  s t r o n g l y a g r e e d . On  w h e t h e r t h e r e s h o u l d be m a n d a t o r y CPE (40%)  to  of the respondents agreed or s t r o n g l y agreed,  statement asking i f i n d u s t r y should CPE,  considered  (8%)  4  When a s k e d i f g o v e r n m e n t ( s ) s h o u l d 260  basic  a g r e e d o r s t r o n g l y a g r e e d w h i l e 45  disagreed or strongly disagreed.  CPE,  as  or  the  issue of  22 6 g e o s c i e n t i s t s  or s t r o n g l y disagreed with the  statement,  84 a l t h o u g h a s i g n i f i c a n t number w e r e u n d e c i d e d  (174  respondents or 31%). Two  h u n d r e d and s i x t y - e i g h t  n e e d f o r CPE  was  g r e a t l y e x a g g e r a t e d by t h o s e who  g a i n t h e most from i t , r e s p o n d e n t s was  (47%) d i s a g r e e d t h a t  the  stand to  a l t h o u g h a g a i n , a l a r g e group of  undecided about t h i s  i t e m (190 o r 3 4 % ) .  The  s t a t e m e n t a s k i n g i f t h e b e n e f i t s o f CPE w e r e t o o o b s c u r e t o justify  i t r e c e i v e d 461  (82%) s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d o r  d i s a g r e e d responses, w h i l e the l a r g e s t remaining group of r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e u n d e c i d e d . The  i t e m a s k i n g i f most  g e o s c i e n c e c o u r s e s w a s t e t i m e on n o n - e s s e n t i a l s f o u n d 2 69 (48%) t h o u g h t n o t , w h i l e 184 s t a t e m e n t i n d i c a t i n g t h a t CPE  (32%) w e r e u n d e c i d e d .  The  i s u n n e c e s s a r y s i n c e you  can  g e t a l l i n f o r m a t i o n you need from a book, had a r e s o u n d i n g 455  (85%) n e g a t i v e r e p l y f r o m r e s p o n d e n t s who  either  strongly disagreed, or disagreed. This item received  the  l a r g e s t number o f n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e s . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e i t e m a s k i n g i f CPE  c o u r s e s were t o o e x p e n s i v e  w e r e b a s i c a l l y e v e n l y d i v i d e d b e t w e e n t h o s e who t h o s e who  d i s a g r e e d (Table 12).  respondents agreed  and  85  Table  12 A t t i t u d e s  Toward  STRONGLY  CPE UNDECIDED  STRONLGY  AGREE  DISAGREE  5 A  4  3 n  GEOSCIENTISTS A B I L I T Y TO LEARN REMAINS CONSTANT A LIFE TIME  2 /  V.  231 (41.1)  132 (23.5)  68 (12.1)  CPE I S J U S T AS IMPORTANT AS B A S I C G E O S C I E N C E 276 EDUCATION . (49.1)  186 (33.1)  55 (9.8)  CPE INCREASES ONES C O N F I D E N C E  219 (39.3)  225 (40.3)  88 (15.6)  GOVERNMENTS(S) SHOULD I N V E S T MORE MONEY I N  146 (26.1)  114 (20.4)  153 (27.4)  77 (13.8)  263 (46.8)  188 (33.5)  77 (13.7)  18 (3.2  FOR  CPE  CANADIAN INDUSTRY SHOULD I N V E S T MORE MONEY I N C P E CPE SHOULD BE . MANDATORY I N THE G E O S C I E N C E S THE NEED FOR C P E IS GREATLY EXAGERATED B Y T H O S E WHO S T A N D TO G A I N T H E MOST FROM IT THE  BENIFITS  ARE TOO JUSTIFY  OF  OBSCURE IT  CPE  67 (12.1)  )  15 (2.67)  69 (12.7)  190 (34.1)  132 (23.7)  136 (24.4)  7  22  11 (1.9)  23 (4.0)  ARE  3 (0.5)  30 (5.4)  88 (15.7)  COURSES  23 (4.1)  132 (23.8)  19 (3.3)  EXPENSIVE  12 (2.1)  94 (16.8)  MOST GEOSCIENCE COURSES WASTE TIME ON N O N - E S S E N T I A L S  CPE  (9.1)  174 (31.1)  (3.9)  TOO  33 (5.9)  51  91 (16.2)  (1.3)  MOST  SO (14.2)  67 (11.9)  TO  CPE IS UNNECESSARY SINCE YOU CAN GET ALL THE INFORMATION YOU N E E D FROM A BOOK  1  66 (11.8)  184 (32.8)  45 (7.9)  73  142  189  (13.0)  (25.3)  (33.7)  192 (34.5)  181 (32.3)  230 (40.8)  107 (19.1)  269 (48.4)  8fi (15.7)  225 (45.1)  49 (8.7)  86 Occupational The "agreed"  P o s i t i o n a n d A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d CPE  overall pattern for this o r " s t r o n g l y agreed"  p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward  i t e m was t h a t  w i t h items t h a t  respondents  favoured  CPE, f o r e x a m p l e , "a  g e o s c i e n t i s t ' s a b i l i t y t o l e a r n remains constant time." Likewise respondents  "disagreed" or "strongly  d i s a g r e e d " w i t h items t h a t were n e g a t i v e toward " t h e b e n e f i t s o f CPE a r e t o o o b s c u r e (Appendix  f o ra l i f e  CPE s u c h a s  to justify i t "  C 8).  FELT CPE NEEDS OF GEOSCIENTISTS?  Felt  Needs G e o s c i e n t i s t s assessed  next  12 m o n t h p e r i o d i n t h e a r e a s o f p e r s o n a l  computer s k i l l s ; and  t h e i r CPE f e l t n e e d s f o r t h e  scientific  as i n d i v i d u a l  l e g a l and b u s i n e s s  skills.  skills;  The f i n d i n g s w i l l  skills;  and p r o f e s s i o n a l  f i r s t be d e s c r i b e d  i t e m s b e f o r e a n o v e r a l l c o m p a r i s o n i s made.  R e s p o n d e n t s s e l e c t e d a s c o r e on a 5 - p o i n t represented  " I d e f i n i t e l y need t r a i n i n g  represented  " I do n o t n e e d t r a i n i n g  s c a l e where 1  i n t h i s a r e a " , and 5  i n t h i s a r e a . " Most o f  t h e f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d an a s y m m e t r i c a l  curve toward  o f " i n need o f t r a i n i n g i n t h i s a r e a . " Items were  the side regrouped  i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : g r o u p one i n c l u d e d s c o r e s 1 a n d 2, g r o u p t w o i n c l u d e d i t e m s s c o r e d a s 3, a n d g r o u p  three  i n c l u d e d s c o r e s 4 a n d 5. The r e s e a r c h e r t h o u g h t i t p r e f e r a b l e t o i n d i c a t e t r e n d s w h i c h w o u l d b e more  apparent  87 in  such regrouping than i ft h e o r i g i n a l  f i v e groups  were  compared. Personal S k i l l s : 269  Interpersonal s k i l l s  were s e l e c t e d by  (36%) r e s p o n d e n t s a s t h e most needed a r e a i n t h e i r  personal s k i l l s  c a t e g o r y , f o l l o w e d by expanding  one's  p r o f e s s i o n a l n e t w o r k w i t h 228 (35%) r e s p o n d e n t s . Two and  fifty-four  (47%) r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t  need t e c h n i c a l w r i t i n g s k i l l s , not need i n t e r p e r s o n a l Computer S k i l l s :  a n d 213 (39%) s a i d t h e y d i d  skills. G e o s t a t i s t i c s was t h e i t e m m o s t  f r e q u e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d as a need,  (336 r e s p o n d e n t s o r 6 2 % ) ,  f o l l o w e d by t h e need f o r an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o computers respondents o r 55%). A bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n appeared the  hundred  (301 with  i t e m on t h e n e e d f o r w o r d p r o c e s s i n g : 241 ( 4 4 % )  r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h e y were n o t i n need,  v e r s u s 2 32 (42%)  who s a i d t h e y w e r e i n n e e d o f w o r d p r o c e s s i n g s k i l l s .  5  L e g a l and B u s i n e s s : Knowledge r e g a r d i n g t a x a t i o n and m i n i n g l a w s was c o n s i d e r e d t o be n e e d e d b y 272 (50%) o f t h e geoscientists,  closely  f o l l o w e d b y f i n a n c i a l management 253  ( 4 7 % ) , m a r k e t i n g 233 (44%) a n d t i m e management 226 Whereas s k i l l s  (43%).  i n t h e a r e a s o f s t a f f s u p e r v i s i o n and  r e c r u i t i n g were c o n s i d e r e d as t h e l e a s t needed s k i l l s f o r t h i s g r o u p w i t h , 244 (46%) a n d 229 (44%) r e s p o n s e s respectively. P r o f e s s i o n a l and S c i e n t i f i c S k i l l s :  Respondents  i n d i c a t e d e q u a l l y t h a t t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l and s c i e n t i f i c  88 skills  required  'considerable'  t o 'some' t r a i n i n g .  Both o f  t h e s e r e s p o n s e s were s e l e c t e d by 48% (Appendix C 9 ) . Occupational  P o s i t i o n and F e l t  Personal  Skills:  Needs  Those i n l o w e r o c c u p a t i o n a l  positions  such as ' p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t ' , ' j u n i o r g e o s c i e n t i s t ' and 'student'  w e r e more l i k e l y t o i n d i c a t e a f e l t  presentations,  need f o r o r a l  t e c h n i c a l w r i t i n g and d e v e l o p i n g  p r o f e s s i o n a l network. Those i n h i g h e r c i t e d developing  a  occupational  positions  a p r o f e s s i o n a l network as t h e only  s i g n i f i c a n t personal  f e l t need. These f i n d i n g s a r e p r e s e n t e d  i n a p p e n d i x C 10. Computer considered  Skills:  as being  occupational  Introductory  computer s k i l l s  were  a n e e d b y 3 6% o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n  p o s i t i o n s o f m i d d l e management, p r o j e c t  geoscientist,  o f j u n i o r g e o s c i e n t i s t , and e d u c a t o r s .  eight percent of presidents  Thirty-  w e r e u n d e c i d e d , a n d 41 p e r c e n t  of senior administrators  i n d i c a t e d t h e y d i d n o t need  skill.  were i n d i c a t e d a s a need by t h e  Computer  majority the  graphics  of respondents i n a l l occupational  exception  positions, with  o f m i d d l e management a n d c o n s u l t a n t s .  senior administrators  this  Only  d i d n o t f e e l t h e need f o r a c q u i r i n g  some c o m p u t e r s t a t i s t i c s a p p l i c a t i o n s : b e t w e e n 44 a n d 5 5 % o f all  other  g r o u p i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h i s n e e d . The f e l t n e e d f o r  word p r o c e s s i n g for  was i n d i c a t e d t o be b e t w e e n 60 t o 70 p e r c e n t  project geoscientists, consultants  and e d u c a t o r s .  was i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e r e s p o n s e s b y t h o s e i n s e n i o r administration  ( 4 7 % ) , m i d d l e management  (46%),  junior  This  89 geoscientist  (56%) a n d s t u d e n t s  word p r o c e s s i n g Legal  ( 5 5 % ) who d i d n o t p e r c e i v e  as a need.  and B u s i n e s s :  Knowledge  and s k i l l s  i n the legal  and b u s i n e s s a r e a s were c i t e d as a need g e n e r a l l y by t h o s e in  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s . K n o w l e d g e o f m i n i n g l a w s was  considered  a need by p r e s i d e n t s  ( 5 5 % ) , m i d d l e management  ( 4 5 % ) , and p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t s ( 4 9 % ) , b u t n o t by  senior  administrators  (53%),  (51%), consultants  (43%), educators  j u n i o r g e o s c i e n t i s t s (43%) and s t u d e n t s  (47%).  researcher  given  considered  this  and economic n e c e s s i t y operating  interesting,  of this  i n mining or mineral  item  The the practical  f o r those g e o s c i e n t i s t s  e x p l o r a t i o n . T h i s may  t h a t few o f t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s have any d e a l i n g s Taxation  r e g u l a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d  need by a g r e a t e r for  a similar  as a need by  e d u c a t o r s and s t u d e n t s .  Administrative  into preservice training  many g e o s c i e n t i s t s assume p o s i t i o n s w h i c h r e q u i r e soon a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n .  presidents,  Forty-nine  skills  although such  percent of  70 p e r c e n t o f p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t s , 42 p e r c e n t  of consultants,  a n d 50 p e r c e n t o f e d u c a t o r s  administrative s k i l l s foreseeable  pattern  m i d d l e management, p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t s ,  rarely incorporated  skills  felt  o f 50% o f t h e  t o t h a t o f t a x a t i o n . M a r k e t i n g was p e r c e i v e d  are  mining.  number a n d r a n g e o f r e s p o n d e n t s . The n e e d  r e s p o n d e n t s . F i n a n c i a l management f o l l o w e d  consultants,  with  t o be more o f a  CPE i n t h i s a r e a a c c o u n t e d f o r a t o t a l  presidents,  reflect  future.  considered  t o be a n a r e a o f CPE n e e d w i t h i n  their  90 Mineral  e c o n o m i c s was m a i n l y c i t e d a s b e i n g  a need f o r  t h o s e i n m i d d l e management ( 5 0 % ) , p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t s a n d (51%), j u n i o r g e o s c i e n t i s t s (46%). administrators  (35%) a n d c o n s u l t a n t s  need t h i s s k i l l  each  evenly  a need by p r o j e c t  ( 6 4 % ) , and s t u d e n t s  contrast t o the opinions (42%),  E d u c a t o r s were  (79%), j u n i o r g e o s c i e n t i s t s (66%),  educators  senior  category.  R e c r u i t i n g was c o n s i d e r e d  (50%)  (37%),  (57%) f e l t t h e y d i d n o t  i n t h e n e x t 12 m o n t h s .  d i s t r i b u t e d across  geoscientists  Presidents  ( 4 7 % ) . T h i s was i n  of those i n president's  and s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  consultants  positions  ( 4 7 % ) . M i d d l e managers  were  e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d b e t w e e n f e e l i n g i n n e e d o f CPE t r a i n i n g i n t h i s a r e a a n d n o t f e e l i n g a n y n e e d o f CPE t r a i n i n g i n this  area. Supervision  by t h e m a j o r i t y  o f s t a f f was n o t c o n s i d e r e d o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n a n y one  Responses were d i v i d e d between b e i n g need, t o n o t b e i n g  category.  statistically  o f 0.0299, i n d i c a t i n g t h e  f i n d i n g s were u n l i k e l y t o have o c c u r r e d  by chance. S t a f f  s u p e r v i s i o n has t r a d i t i o n a l l y n o t been g i v e n amongst were  need  u n s u r e i f t h i s was a  a n e e d . T h e r e was a  significant probability level  a CPE f e l t  professional geoscientists; therefore  a high  priority  these  findings  expected. Time management was a f e l t n e e d f o r m o s t p r o j e c t  geoscientists  (65%):  i n no o t h e r  i n d i c a t e d as t h e s i n g l e g r e a t e s t (51%),  senior administrators  c a t e g o r y was t h i s f e l t need.  item  Presidents  ( 5 7 % ) , m i d d l e managers  (43%),  91 consultants  ( 5 6 % ) , and e d u c a t o r s  management t o be a f e l t CPE  (52%) d i d n o t c o n s i d e r t i m e  n e e d i n t h e f u t u r e 12 m o n t h s .  P r o f e s s i o n a l and S c i e n t i f i c S k i l l s : p r o f e s s i o n a l and  scientific  i n d i c a t e d by r e s p o n d e n t s needs.  Upgrading  administrators  s k i l l s were  The  areas of  consistently  i n each c a t e g o r y as b e i n g  g e o l o g y was  c o n s i d e r e d a n e e d by  ( 4 7 % ) , and p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t s  felt senior  (47%).  E d u c a t o r s were e q u a l l y d i v i d e d between " i n need o f  training  i n t h i s a r e a " and  area."  Geochemistry respondents  was  "not a need f o r t r a i n i n g  a need f o r t h e o v e r a l l m a j o r i t y o f  (48%) w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s  c a t e g o r y i n d i c a t i n g t h i s was taking training was  in this  a area they would  i n each  consider  i n d u r i n g t h e n e x t 12 m o n t h s . T h i s p a t t e r n  r e p e a t e d f o r g e o p h y s i c s , g e o s t a t i s t i c s and  acquiring  knowledge i n o t h e r areas of g e o s c i e n c e . Preferred  Formats  F i e l d t r i p s were s e l e c t e d as t h e most p r e f e r r e d for  CPE  (376 o r 7 6 % ) , f o l l o w e d by s h o r t c o u r s e s  and m e e t i n g s / c o n f e r e n c e s / c o n v e n t i o n s preferred  f o r m a t s were t e l e v i s i o n  (169 o r 3 5 % ) , a n d v i d e o t a p e s Table C  11.  (248 o r  (189 o r 3 6 % ) . The  (197 o r 3 9 % ) ,  (145 o r 29%)  format 47%) least  tutorials  as i n d i c a t e d i n  92 Preferred  Sponsors  S c i e n t i f i c organizations  were s e l e c t e d  a s t h e most  preferred  s p o n s o r b y 408 (78%) o f t h e g e o s c i e n t i s t s .  Technical  organizations,  institutions (63%)  with  359 ( 7 0 % ) ,  were e n t r e p r e n e u r s  a n d 323  s p o n s o r s f o r CPE  (193 o r 3 9 % ) . Q u e s t i o n 13 ( i i )  t h e l o w e s t r e s p o n s e r a t e on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  f r o m 422 t o 521 r e s p o n s e s p e r i t e m  Analytical  Discussion  The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n and  educational  335 ( 6 8 % ) ,  r e s p o n d e n t s . The l e a s t p r e f e r r e d  activities has  followed  i n d u s t r i a l and  possible  contains  (Appendix C 1 2 ) .  o f Survey Responses p r o v i d e s some u n d e r s t a n d i n g  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e f i n d i n g s . The  an a n a l y s i s  of the findings  attainment, occupational  ranging  f o r age,  section  educational  position, participation, felt  n e e d s , a n d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d CPE, a s t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d t h e s e were s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s k n o w l e d g e o f CPE among  i n contributing to the  professionals.  Age The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y r e v e a l e d level  an i n s i g n i f i c a n t  o f c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l  geoscientists'  age a n d t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE a c t i v i t i e s . t h a t g e o s c i e n t i s t s have t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r  This  suggests  professional  s k i l l s t h r o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE o r f a c e o b s o l e s c e n c e . I f geoscientists  are p a r t i c i p a t i n g v o l u n t a r i l y then  f i n d i n g s would support t h e theory o f c o n t i n u i t y H a v i g h u r s t , 1 9 7 7 ) . However, i t c o u l d  these (Neugarten &  be a r g u e d t h a t  these  93 h i g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l s are not picture.  G e o s c i e n t i s t s may  pressure,  or other  c o m p l y i n g w i t h an pressure  be  r e v e a l i n g the  p a r t i c i p a t i n g due  external motivational employer's request.  o r e m p l o y e r ' s was  not  complete to  peer  f o r c e s such  The  as  i n f l u e n c e of  tested i n this  peer  study.  Education Within i n the  a profession, there  education  level,  and  i n c r e a s i n g l y p r e s u m e d . The  is typically  little  variance  u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l education f i n d i n g t h a t 99.8%  r e s p o n d e n t s h e l d u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e s was  not  of  the  unexpected.  However, t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f d o c t o r a l d e g r e e s i n t h i s was  higher  than expected  educational Occupational  study  (27%), which probably m i r r o r s  number o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s who which r e q u i r e such l e v e l  is  hold occupational  of education,  i n s t i t u t i o n s or  the  positions  f o r example,  government.  Position  "Project leader"  and  " m i d d l e management" w e r e t h e  frequently c i t e d occupational  p o s i t i o n s f o r t h i s sample  g e o s c i e n t i s t s . These f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t the professionals w i l l  expectation  commonly h o l d p o s i t i o n s o f  Such p o s i t i o n s p r o v i d e  most  financial  of  that  authority.  r e m u n e r a t i o n as  indicated  w i t h a mean i n c o m e o f $40,000-49,999 f o r t h i s g r o u p . O n l y 2 r e s p o n d e n t s were unemployed, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t e i t h e r economic c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g f o r g e o s c i e n t i s t s , or the  the  l a t e 1980's a r e  favourable  e a r l y 1980's r e c e s s i o n  l o n g - t i m e unemployed g e o s c i e n t i s t s t o seek second jobs  t o w h i c h t h e y a r e now  committed.  the  forced choice  some  94 Due t o t h e n a t u r e o f g e o s c i e n c e , frequently  geoscientists  o p e r a t e i n more t h a n one w o r k e n v i r o n m e n t . M o s t  of t h e g e o s c i e n t i s t s i n t h i s s t u d y r o t a t e d between in the o f f i c e with  40%-60% i n t h e f i e l d ,  which  60%-40%  indicates  t h a t g e o s c i e n c e i s dependent upon "hands-on" work and w o r k . Few g e o s c i e n t i s t s w e r e o c c u p i e d a t institutions. only  This  statistically  scheduling  (Cross,  educational  s p l i t b e t w e e n w o r k s i t e s may  explain the  significant barrier to participation:  difficulties.  participation,  office  The l a c k o f c l a s s i c a l  barriers to  such as c o s t o r f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  1981; Darkenwald & Merriam, 1982),  reinforces  g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' o v e r a l l p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward  CPE.  Participation The r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d interest i n maintaining field  knowledge and s k i l l s  of geoscience. Eighty  participated  p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s had  p r e v i o u s 12 m o n t h s , a n d few p e r c e i v e d i n CPE  t o t h o s e who  hold professional  organization. diverse  This  obstacles  the to  activities.  A t t e n d a n c e a t many CPE a c t i v i t i e s  and  i n the broad  i n some f o r m o f CPE a c t i v i t y d u r i n g  participation  i s often r e s t r i c t e d  a f f i l i a t i o n to a particular  p r o v i d e s an e x p l a n a t i o n  f o r t h e numerous  l i s t i n g s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l memberships h e l d  r e s p o n d e n t s . H o l d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l membership and professional  an  CPE a c t i v i t i e s  reason professionals  attending  s u p p o r t s t h e argument t h a t  participate i s to maintain a  by  one  95 p r o f e s s i o n a l network.  P r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s were a l s o  a s i m p o r t a n t a s t h e y i n f o r m e d members o f CPE  seen  events.  P r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s a r e p r o v i d e d by most a s s o c i a t i o n s . The CJES r e c e i v e d two d i v e r g e n t g r o u p s o f r e s p o n s e s . The f i r s t g r o u p r e c e i v e d t h e m o s t d e r o g a t o r y comments, a n d r e s p o n d e n t s  went t o g r e a t l e n g t h s t o emphasize  t h e s m a l l amounts o f t i m e t h e y d e v o t e d t h e second for  g r o u p h a d moire r e s p o n d e n t s  t o reading i t , but who a c t u a l l y r e a d i t  l o n g e r p e r i o d s o f t i m e t h a n any o t h e r j o u r n a l .  c o n t r a d i c t i o n may  This  s t e m f r o m t h e m y t h h e l d b y some  MDD  members t h a t t h e CJES i s t o o t h e o r e t i c a l a n d r e s e a r c h oriented, thus not appealing t o those i n industry. researcher included the Northern Miner without w h e t h e r i t was r e f e r r i n g t o i t s w e e k l y The r e s u l t s ,  The  specifying  o r monthly  format.  although possibly misleading, indicate a  large  number o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s r e l i e d u p o n t h e N o r t h e r n M i n e r a s a vital  news s o u r c e a b o u t t h e g e o s c i e n c e  industry.  The f o r m a t o f CPE programmes m o s t f r e q u e n t l y a t t e n d e d b y g e o s c i e n t i s t s was " f i e l d conference." Both  trips"  f o l l o w e d by " a t t e n d i n g  formats are t y p i c a l l y  flexible i n  s t r u c t u r e , w i t h m u l t i p l e o p t i o n s , f o r e x a m p l e , 10 c o n c u r r e n t l e c t u r e s a t a conference.  In a d d i t i o n , both  formats  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r n e t w o r k i n g w i t h c o l l e a g u e s . The number o f r e s p o n d e n t s  who h e l d p r o f e s s i o n a l  provide  large  journal  s u b s c r i p t i o n s a n d s p e n t t i m e r e a d i n g them, i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h the responses  t o q u e s t i o n 9, t h e p r e f e r r e d ways o f  m a i n t a i n i n g ones s k i l l s  and k n o w l e d g e , a n d q u e s t i o n 14,  96 p r e f e r r e d CPE  formats, s u p p o r t s arguments t h a t  preferred self-directed The of  respondents  learning.  r e s e a r c h e r a l l o c a t e d e a c h CPE  d u r a t i o n , equal numerical weight.  activity, regardless  From t h e f i n d i n g  the  number o f i n d i v i d u a l s a t t e n d i n g l e c t u r e s e x c e e d e d a l l o t h e r f o r m a t s i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f "5+"  w h i c h c a n be  variously  i n t e r p r e t e d a s : 1) more g e o s c i e n c e l e c t u r e s a r e t h a n o t h e r CPE expensive  f o r m a t s and  2)  The  available  l e c t u r e format  is a  less  f o r b o t h t h e p r o v i d e r and c l i e n t c o m p a r e d t o  conferences or f i e l d overemphasize  trips.  These f a c t o r s t h e r e f o r e  the degree of p o p u l a r i t y of l e c t u r e s .  c o n c l u s i o n was  may This  s u p p o r t e d by t h e q u e s t i o n a s k i n g  g e o s c i e n t i s t s to i n d i c a t e t h e i r p r e f e r r e d formats f o r F i e l d t r i p s and  CPE.  a t t e n d i n g c o n f e r e n c e s were t h e most p o p u l a r ,  w i t h l e c t u r e s i n t h i r d p o s i t i o n o f c h o i c e . The experience of f i e l d  trips  hands-on  seems t o be a c r u c i a l e l e m e n t o f  t h e p r o f e s s i o n a t t h i s t i m e . However, w i t h  increasingly  s o p h i s t i c a t e d software m o d e l l i n g packages,  some may  a g a i n s t t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e abundance o f f i e l d t h e f u t u r e . T h e s e f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t no one adequate f o r t h i s group of g e o s c i e n t i s t s . CPE  dislike  trips in  sponsor  Rather,  a c t i v i t i e s w a r r a n t d i f f e r e n t s p o n s o r s . The  argue  was  different  apparent  f o r e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l s p o n s o r s by t h o s e r e s p o n d i n g  may  i n d i c a t e a m i s t r u s t of those operating outside the traditional The for  forums o f e d u c a t i o n .  c l a s s i c b a r r i e r o f "programme c o s t s "  t h i s group perhaps  because,  i s negligible  as t h e d a t a s u g g e s t s ,  they  97 possess the  e c o n o m i c means t o remove i t , t h e m a j o r i t y  geoscientists 5 9 , 0 0 0 . An  e a r n e d a n n u a l incomes o f between $30,000-  alternative interpretation i s that  educational  subsidies  isolation,  they  receive  from t h e i r employer. G e o s c i e n t i s t s  a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n formal, Whether the  of  informal  and  non-formal  l e a r n i n g occurs w i t h i n a group s e t t i n g or geoscientists  are CPE.  in  appear t o favour s e l f - d i r e c t i o n  in  learning. Felt  Needs The  felt  l e a r n i n g need o f the  reinforced  a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e and  Generally,  respondents  all  items, but  7  needs can  p e o p l e w a n t t o a p p e a r t o be 1981). In the  behaviour toward  noted that be  educationally  lacking  the  i t e m s s u c h as may  n e x t 12 m o n t h s . The  interpersonal  r e f l e c t the  professionals,  required  writing.  l a r g e s t number o f  l e s s by  be  argued t h a t  geoscientists  Geoscience journals  could  be  oral  are  greatest for  presentations with  issue  within  interpersonal  skills  than i s t e c h n i c a l  the  one's p r o f e s s i o n a l  i n d i c a t i v e of the  the  associated  or t h e i r i n s e n s i t i v i t y to the  communication w i t h skills  and  few  (Cross,  l a c k of responses  s e l f confidence often  t h e i r p r a c t i c e . I t may are  skills  for  self  misrepresented, i n that  area of p e r s o n a l s k i l l s ,  need i n the  CPE. scale  respondents  r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t e c h n i c a l w r i t i n g t o be CPE  again  c h o i c e s seemed t o s p a n t h e  i t s h o u l d be  a s s e s s m e n t o f CPE  geoscientists  r e c o g n i z e d forums colleagues.  geoscientist's  for  Personal self  98 assessment  of f e l t  needs based t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f  such  n e e d s i n t h e n e x t 12 m o n t h s . Computer s k i l l s  w e r e s e e n a s a n e e d by many  g e o s c i e n t i s t s . Roughly h a l f of the respondents  required  i n t r o d u c t o r y l e v e l c o u r s e s , and w o r d p r o c e s s i n g , a s w e l l geostatistics.  T h i s may  as  r e f l e c t the r e s t r u c t u r i n g i n the  w o r k p l a c e w h e r e p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m what had p r e v i o u s l y been c o n s i d e r e d c l e r i c a l d u t i e s , writing  first  Menzies  (1982, p e r s o n a l communication,  such as,  d r a f t s o f r e p o r t s on t h e w o r d p r o c e s s o r .  m a i n t a i n s t h a t computer t e c h n o l o g y has  J u n e 1,  1989)  frequently served to  demote and r e d u c e t h e number o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s ,  especially  t h o s e i n m i d d l e management p o s i t i o n s .  (1989)  Stalker,  found  some p a r t i c i p a n t s t o o k c o m p u t e r c o u r s e s a s a means t o k e e p up w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n , acquiring a job s k i l l . o p e r a t o r t o maximize exception.  r a t h e r than f o r the purpose Technology  of  i s r e l i a n t upon t h e  i t s w o r t h , and c o m p u t e r s  are  no  I f t h e computer can r e l i e v e t h e g e o s c i e n t i s t  mundane w o r k t a s k s t h e n CPE w o u l d d i s s e m i n a t i n g new  of  seem a r e a s o n a b l e means o f  a p p l i c a t i o n s t o t h e l a r g e s t number o f  geoscientists. There were fewer r e s p o n d e n t s c o m p l e t i n g t h e b u s i n e s s and  l e g a l s e c t i o n of " f e l t  CPE  needs"  ( 5 2 6 - 5 3 7 ) . T h i s may  a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the f a c t t h a t not a l l g e o s c i e n t i s t s f e e l need f o r such s k i l l s ,  or that geoscientists only plan  needs f o r t h e purpose  of f u l f i l l i n g  CPE  short-term educative  g o a l s . I n t h e l e g a l and b u s i n e s s a r e a , m o s t  respondents  be a  99 wanted p r a c t i c a l courses w i t h d e a l i n g w i t h m i n i n g l a w s and o r i e n t a t i o n r e f l e c t s the competitive and  immediate a p p l i c a t i o n , such taxation regulations.  needs o f t h o s e o p e r a t i n g  i n d u s t r y where n e g l i g e n c e c o u l d  be  as  This in a  both c o s t l y  time consuming. One  longer  possible explanation  for these findings i s that  g e o s c i e n t i s t s work i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n ,  i s t h e i r need f o r p e r s o n a l r e f l e c t the  skills.  inadequate preservice  geoscientists.  I t f o c u s e s on  This  the  less  the  likely  d i s t r i b u t i o n may  training for  s c i e n t i f i c and  technical  content r a t h e r than business or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  skills  which  occupies a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of p r a c t i c i n g g e o s c i e n t i s t s w o r k t i m e , p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t s and managers. I t can p o s i t i o n s are  o n l y be  confident  assumed t h a t t h o s e i n i n e i t h e r t h e i r own  knowledge or of those o p e r a t i n g consultants  knowledge i n t h i s The t h a n was are  CPE  is  i n the  trained scientists,  t o c a r r y out  t h e i r own  current  practitioners' consistent  can  i t be  members? A r e  CPE  level  CPE  a c t u a l l y be  of  educational  know  reflective practitioners, facilitate  d e f i n i t i o n o f CPE  p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n and  needs c o n s i d e r e d  how  needs assessment? I f i t  system i n geoscience  both the  greater  geoscientists  assumed t h e y w i l l  " r e f l e c t i o n " ? Is the  with  Likewise  t h e i r current  findings. Although  assumed t h a t g e o s c i e n t i s t s a r e  does t h e  business  area.  n e e d s o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s may  revealed  senior  u n d e r n e a t h them.  indicated confidence with  middle  needs its  as band a i d s o l u t i o n s  for  100 practitioners' met,  should  enforcer  immediate a p p l i c a t i o n ? I f needs are  t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n assume t h e  f o r the  sake of p r o t e c t i n g the p u b l i c  i n c o m p e t e n t p r a c t i t i o n e r s ? The o r g a n i z a t i o n and  r o l e s of both  the p r o f e s s i o n a l should  t h e n a c o u r s e o f CPE r e f l e c t the  not  a c t i o n c o u l d be  be  role  of  from  the clearly  defined,  implemented t h a t  ever changing nature of the  being  would  geoscience  profession. Attitudes The  cross tabulations indicate that professionals  p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d CPE. important,  beneficial,  c o n s i s t e n t with the  and  They c o n s i d e r e d  CPE  to  literature  This  s u p p o r t f o r CPE,  (Cross,  1981  Cervero,  r a t h e r t h a n government  i s c o n s i s t e n t with the philosophy  The CPE  issue  not  a crucial  w e r e more c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e researcher CPE  s p o n s o r p l a y an  process: the  b e l i e v e s the  was  were  negative  still  sponsorship  f a c t o r . The  c o n t e n t o f CPE.  education  However,  philosophies  h e l d by  i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e programme  Depending upon t h e  for  respondents  s h a p i n g b o t h t h e programme c o n t e n t and  facilitators.  industry,  (31%).  g e o s c i e n t i s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the  a c t i v i t i e s was  to  The  g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' a t t i t u d e t o w a r d m a n d a t o r y CPE (50%), although a s i g n i f i c a n t proportion  1988).  agencies.  w i t h i n the  w h i c h p r e f e r s s e l f - h e l p t o government a i d .  undecided about the  be  a l i f e l o n g endeavor which i s  M o s t members t h o u g h t t h e g e o s c i e n c e i n d u s t r y o u g h t provide  hold  educative  the the  planning  determining philosophies  101 h e l d by  the  s p o n s o r , p r i o r i t i e s may  to philanthropy.  The  range from p r o f i t  negative response i n the  findings,  w h e r e few  r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d e n t r e p r e n e u r s t o be  preferred  s p o n s o r f o r CPE  activities,  may  making  reflect  their the  t r a d i t i o n a l t i e s members h a v e w i t h t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n . The be  met  by  or formal  e d u c a t i v e needs o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l can  organizations educational  outside  the p r o f e s s i o n a l  institution.  association  In a s i m i l a r v e i n ,  u n f a v o r a b l e r e s p o n s e s t o v i d e o and  T.V  formats  may  d e m o n s t r a t e r e s p o n d e n t s ' commitment t o t r a d i t i o n a l of education,  namely f o r m a l / i n f o r m a l  p r o g r a m m e s . I t was found h e r / h i s o t h e r CPE with  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e m p l o y e r t o be  a g e n c y . S u c h s e n t i m e n t s may  formats  instructional  i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t no  respondent  as good as  indicate  the  difficulty  attempting to service a l l sectors The o f CPE  majority  during  participated  of  o f any  diverse  one  agency  CPE.  o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n some f o r m  t h e p r e v i o u s 12  months. However,  few  i n more t h a n 5 i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s  s p e n t more t h a n 1 h o u r r e a d i n g week. G e o s c i e n t i s t s '  professional  journals  t h e y v i e w e d CPE  necessity  i n maintaining  as  a l i f e l o n g endeavor,  professional  skills  i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l . The  a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d CPE  may  experience of  preservice  formal  or per  r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n were  positive:  developing the  any  discontent  t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l employers or r e f l e c t the  n a t u r e o f g e o s c i e n c e and  not  be  attributed to  and  of to  favourable  geoscientists'  t r a i n i n g . The  preferred  ways  102 of maintaining  professional  s k i l l s was t h r o u g h t h e i r w o r k ,  attending  c o n f e r e n c e s , and s u b s c r i b i n g  journals.  Chapter 6 discusses  the  to professional  the possible  implications of  f i n d i n g s , o f f e r recommendations f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l  organization,  and suggest areas o f f u t u r e  research.  End  notes R e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d a d d i t i o n a l comments t o s e v e r a l questions: 1. R e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c l u d e b e i n g a b l e t o s h a r e t h e i r knowledge w i t h o t h e r s ; t o t r a v e l ; t o expand t h e i r s k i l l s ; t o r e s e a r c h ; a n d t o w o r k more e f f i c i e n t l y . 2. P r e f e r e n c e s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g CPE f o r m a t s : s e s s i o n s ; and i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y l e c t u r e s .  poster  3. B a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e c e i v e d t h e m o s t a d d i t i o n a l comments f r o m r e s p o n d e n t s , who c i t e d : i l l n e s s , l a c k o f t i m e , busy e a r n i n g a l i v i n g , geographic l o c a t i o n , and u n s t a b l e income/employment d o e s n ' t a l l o w f o r l o n g t e r m p l a n n i n g o f CPE a s s i t u a t i o n a l b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE. I n s t i t u t i o n a l CPE b a r r i e r s o f a v a i l a b i l i t y , s t a r t i n g t i m e and d u r a t i o n o f c o u r s e s , a c a d e m i c c o u r s e s l a c k i n g a p p l i c a t i o n , and i n s u f f i c i e n t knowledge o f c o u r s e s a v a i l a b l e were a l s o mentioned. 4. Some r e s p o n d e n t s s a i d t h e m a r k e t p l a c e s h o u l d d e t e r m i n e p r o f e s s i o n a l c o m p e t e n c y n o t CPE o r MCPE. A l t h o u g h m o s t r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t CPE programme c o s t s w e r e " r e a s o n a b l e " , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e o f f e r e d by government a g e n c i e s , s e v e r a l r e s p o n d e n t s c o n s i d e r e d t i m e away f r o m w o r k t o o c o s t l y . Some i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o s t was i r r e l e v a n t i f e m p l o y e r was p a y i n g , b u t c o n s i d e r a b l e i t a f a c t o r when t h e y were p a y i n g . t  5. R e q u e s t s f o r c o m p u t e r s o f t w a r e t r a i n i n g w e r e d i v e r s e r a n g i n g f r o m g e o l o g i c a l m o d e l l i n g t o a c c o u n t i n g . One r e s p o n d e n t even i n d i c a t e d a need t o s e l l computer s e r v i c e s . W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o l e g a l and b u s i n e s s s k i l l s , s e v e r a l g e o s c i e n t i s t s i n d i c a t e d a need t o l e a r n t h e r u l e s o f t h e Vancouver S t o c k Exchange, t h e a r t o f n e g o t i a t i o n , and l o n g term f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g . I n t h e a r e a o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and s c i e n t i f i c knowledge r e s p o n d e n t s c i t e d a need f o r i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s u b j e c t s , such as, m i n i n g and waste management. 6 . A number o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e t y p e o f CPE s p o n s o r was i r r e l e v a n t ; t h e c a t e g o r i e s u s e d made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r  103 some r e s p o n d e n t s t o c h o o s e any one s p o n s o r , f o r e x a m p l e n o t a l l government a g e n c i e s were e q u a l i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o s p o n s o r CPE a c t i v i t i e s .  104  CHAPTER 6 : L I M I T A T I O N S , IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS  The  p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o g a i n  some  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n by g e o s c i e n t i s t s i n g e o s c i e n c e CPE. P r e s e n t l y  a w i d e v a r i e t y o f CPE a c t i v i t i e s  i s a v a i l a b l e from l e c t u r e s t o f i e l d has  trips,  b u t no r e s e a r c h  b e e n c o n d u c t e d o n p a r t i c i p a n t s ' o r n o n p a r t i c i p a n t s ' CPE  b e h a v i o u r , t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r non participation or their felt  n e e d s . I t was h o p e d t h a t  s t u d y m i g h t p r o v i d e some u s e f u l CPE  geoscientists'  p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d CPE a n d t h e i r  perceived on  insights into  this  CPE n e e d s . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l  present a  t h e l i m i t a t i o n s of the study, followed  the  possible  for  e n h a n c i n g CPE i n t h e g e o s c i e n c e  discussion  by a d i s c u s s i o n o f  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y and recommendations profession.  Limitations The rather  use o f a s e l f - s e l e c t e d group o f g e o s c i e n t i s t s  t h a n a random s a m p l e i s s u b j e c t  disproportionate and,  representation  from g e o g r a p h i c  such as locations,  g i v e n t h e p r e d o m i n a n c e o f men i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n ,  unequal representation use  t o biases  f r o m one g e n d e r . The d e c i s i o n  not t o  a random s a m p l e was t h o u g h t t o b e s t s e r v e t h e  association  i n providing  opportunity  f o r e v e r y member t o r e s p o n d t o t h e i s s u e  in t h e i r profession.  a study which permitted  However, f i n d i n g s  equal  from t h e study  o f CPE should  105 o n l y be g e n e r a l i z e d t o t h e m e m b e r s h i p o f t h e  MDD  association. In s e l e c t i n g a mail survey,  t h e r e s e a r c h e r assumed e a c h  member r e c e i v e d a c o p y o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s a p p r o a c h r e l i e s on r e s p o n d e n t s ' s e l f administered  had  participated  sponsors  a c t i v i t i e s precluded  numerical  CPE  f o r i n c o m e s t o be  geoscience  12  activities months.  they  In  w e i g h t on a l l CPE  activities.  For the  scope  purpose  r e f e r r e d t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l  reading a c t i v i t i e s .  t h a t t h i s was  o f CPE  to  g a i n i n g knowledge r e g a r d i n g the  depth of s p e c i f i c courses/  of t h i s study  this  on t h e i r a b i l i t y  i n during the previous  a d d i t i o n , p l a c i n g equal  and  honesty i n completing  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and  r e c a l l b o t h t h e number and  survey  Question  4 was  not e x p l i c i t  i n Canadian funds,  n o r was  i n asking  i t explicit  a s k i n g f o r income d e r i v e d s o l e l y  from  their  p r a c t i c e . T h e s e o v e r s i g h t s w e r e i n d i c a t e d by  respondents.  Question  4  8 asked f o r respondents t o ,  " P r i o r i t i z e d preference  o f ways f o r m a i n t a i n i n g s k i l l s  knowledge i n geoscience,"  w h i c h was  construed  by  and  some a s  a  d o u b l e b a r r e l l e d q u e s t i o n , an o v e r s i g h t on t h e p a r t o f  the  researcher. Therefore,  the  the researcher  i s u n c e r t a i n how  respondents i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s question. Question i n d i c a t e t h e number o f CPE the previous CPE  activity,  field  12  a c t i v i t i e s you  attended  "Please during  m o n t h " p l a c e d e q u a l w e i g h t on a l l t y p e s  f o r e x a m p l e , a one  t r i p both  11,  c o u n t e d a s one  method i s n o t c o n g e n i a l  h o u r l e c t u r e and  CPE  activity.  for soliciting  The  a two survey  attitudinal  of week  106 responses. attain  Despite these  limitations,  i t was p o s s i b l e t o  some i n s i g h t s i n t o how t h e MDD members v i e w e d  participation,  a t t i t u d e a n d f e l t n e e d s i n CPE. Implications  The  study revealed a high l e v e l o f v o l u n t a r y  participation  b y MDD members i n CPE a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e  p r e v i o u s 12 m o n t h s ( 8 0 % ) . B u t , t h e e x t e n t o f t h a t v o l u n t a r y participation  r e m a i n s q u e s t i o n a b l e g i v e n t h e g r o u p mean f o r  participation  was s i x CPE a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h may h a v e r a n g e d  f r o m s i x one h o u r l e c t u r e s t o s e v e r a l e x t e n d e d f i e l d Geoscience,  trips.  l i k e many o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s , i s u n d e r g o i n g  a  change due t o r a p i d t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s i n t h e work p l a c e . T h i s r e s t r u c t u r i n g has reduced  o r e l i m i n a t e d mundane  t a s k s , t h u s s h i f t i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l ' s work from b e i n g problem s o l v e r s t o h i g h l y t r a i n e d t e c h n i c i a n s . Geoscientists are currently  faced with having t o assess  t h e i r own p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n n e e d s t o e i t h e r m a i n t a i n o r develop  t h e i r competencies i n o r d e r t o keep a b r e a s t o f such  technologies. Technological The and  Impact  U.S. h a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n a b a r o m e t e r o f s o c i a l  economic t r e n d s . During t h e p a s t decade t h e e f f e c t o f  technology  i n t h e work p l a c e has b o t h c r e a t e d and e l i m i n a t e d  j o b s . J o b c r e a t i o n has occurred mainly sector, while middle  i n the service  management p o s i t i o n s h a v e b e e n  e l i m i n a t e d . T h i s h a s o c c u r r e d a c r o s s numerous  occupations  107 including professions  (H. M e n z i e s , p e r s o n a l  communication,  J u n e 1, 1 9 8 9 ) . A s i g n i f i c a n t proportion  of the survey  i n d i c a t e d t h e i r occupation p o s i t i o n as being management." S e v e r a l geoscientists with  scenarios  "middle  are possible f o r  t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g dependency upon  t e c h n o l o g y i n t h e work p l a c e .  T y p i c a l l y , m i d d l e management  p o s i t i o n s a r e eroded, t h e i r tasks administrators  respondents  a r e d i v i d e d between  senior  a n d j u n i o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s who r e l y o n  c o m p u t e r i z e d s o f t w a r e . The h i e r a r c h y  of the professional  p y r a m i d i s much f l a t t e r a t t h e b o t t o m , w i t h  greater  d i f f e r e n t i a l between s e n i o r and j u n i o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Those in  j u n i o r p o s i t i o n s i n c r e a s i n g l y become s p e c i a l i s t s i n a  small has  area of the technological  system. This s p e c i a l i z a t i o n  t h e e f f e c t o f n a r r o w i n g employment  b e c a u s e many o f t h e n e w l y c r e a t e d little  opportunities,  skills  and knowledge have  transferability.  Given t h e changes i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l ' s to technology, the patterns  work p l a c e  due  r e s u l t i n g from such change i n  t h e U.S, a n d p u b l i c f o c u s o n e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n a n d i t s members s h o u l d a s k : I s g e o s c i e n c e so d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t in technology w i l l training  not a f f e c t i t ?  changes  Is the preservice  f o r g e o s c i e n t i s t s adequate f o r t h e f u t u r e o f t h e  profession?  What w i l l  be t h e r o l e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l  association i n the future, e s p e c i a l l y i f geoscience e x p e r i e n c e s r a p i d demographic s h i f t s ,  eradicating  large  108 numbers o f m i d d l e management p o s i t i o n s ? R e s o l u t i o n questions can only and  come a f t e r t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l  t h e i r members r e c o g n i z e  o f such  organizations  t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f CPE t o t h e  profession. Recommendations f o r t h e P r o f e s s i o n a l The the  i m p e t u s f o r t h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s come i n v i e w o f  c h a n g i n g r o l e o f t h e g e o s c i e n c e s i n Canada, and t h e  changing perception not  Association  believe that  of this profession  b y t h e p u b l i c . I do  l e g i s l a t i o n can e f f e c t i v e l y enforce o r  m o n i t o r t h e CPE o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s . I s u p p o r t F i l e r ' s stance that professionals  s h o u l d be a c t i v e c i t i z e n s i n  s o c i e t y n o t s o l e l y because t h e p r o f e s s i o n by and  non-professionals  may b e c o n t r o l l e d  b u t because p r o f e s s i o n a l s  have a s o c i a l  moral o b l i g a t i o n t o serve s o c i e t y t o the best of t h e i r  ability:  by u t i l i z i n g  t h e i r e x p e r t knowledge and s k i l l s .  Letting the professional associations CPE  (1988)  h a s p r o v e n , i n many i n s t a n c e s ,  disseminating The  accurate,  current  a c t as f a c i l i t a t o r s o f  t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n  information  numerous p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s  t o members. servicing  g e o s c i e n c e o p e r a t e a t l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l , n a t i o n a l and international The  l e v e l s , each a d d r e s s i n g a s p e c i f i c audience.  GAC i s t h e p a r e n t b o d y o f t h e MDD. The GAC e n c o m p a s s e s  many f i e l d s o f g e o s c i e n c e , w h e r e a s t h e MDD r e p r e s e n t s  one,  primarily national, professional association f o r a special i n t e r e s t group, mineral MDD t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l the  executive;  deposits  geoscientists. Within the  s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t s o f : t h e chairman;  a d h o c c o m m i t t e e s ; a n d t h e m e m b e r s h i p . CPE i s  109 p e r i o d i c a l l y r e v i e w e d by a v o l u n t e e r the  ad hoc committee.  Given  i n c r e a s i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e o f CPE i n g e o s c i e n c e  ( d e m o n s t r a t i n g p u b l i c a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , a c t i n g as a measure against  incompetent p r o f e s s i o n a l s ,  and t h e growth i n  t e c h n i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c knowledge) t h e f o l l o w i n g recommendations would, I f e e l , parent organization, The with  be b e s t e x e c u t e d by t h e  t h e CGC.  CGC i s a n a t i o n a l g e o s c i e n c e / e a r t h s c i e n c e  representatives  from a l l s e c t o r s  government and e d u c a t i o n ,  body  of industry,  i t serves the c o l l e c t i v e  o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 16,000 e a r t h  scientists.  The CGC  interests ( F i g . 3)  objectives are: t o p r o v i d e a c e n t r a l forum f o r e a r t h s c i e n c e s o c i e t i e s i n Canada, t o p r o v i d e a d v i c e t o government on g e o s c i e n c e p o l i c y , t o enhance t h e h e a l t h o f t h e g e o s c i e n c e s i n Canada, and t o i n c r e a s e t h e p u b l i c awareness o f t h e v i t a l r o l e which these sciences play i n our country (Garland, 1988, p. 1 ) . To an  carry out these objectives,  i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have  i n f o r m e d membership committed t o t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f  continuing credibility  p r o f e s s i o n a l education:  CPE. The CGC h a s  i n t h e e y e s o f many C a n a d i a n g e o s c i e n t i s t s , a n d  i t has t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  s t r u c t u r e t o i n f l u e n c e CPE i n  g e o s c i e n c e . The r e s e a r c h e r ' s  recommendations  include:  1) A r e v i e w o f CGC's CPE p o l i c y w o u l d p r o v i d e step  i n assessing  the nature of the geoscience  a useful  profession,  i t s r o l e i n s o c i e t y , and t h e c h a n g i n g r o l e o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s . In addressing these points, the r o l e of the a s s o c i a t i o n  110 r e g a r d i n g i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o b o t h i t s members a n d t h e public w i l l  have t o be t a k e n i n t o  consideration.  2) G i v e n t h e c u r r e n t d i v e r s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s u b s c r i p t i o n s w h i c h most r e s p o n d e n t s  journal  i n d i c a t e d spending  less  t h a n 0.5 h o u r s r e a d i n g p e r week, t h e a s s o c i a t i o n c o u l d e x p l o r e a l t e r n a t i v e mediums f o r m a r k e t i n g a n d a d v e r t i s i n g CPE i n f o r m a t i o n . One s u g g e s t i o n w o u l d  be t o form a c e n t r a l  i n f o r m a t i o n c e n t r e on CPE programmes a n d a c t i v i t i e s a t a l l levels  ( l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l n a t i o n a l ) through a computer  communication  system.  T h i s would  enable a speedy  d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o members, i n a n i n c r e a s i n g l y utilized  forum,  computer n e t w o r k i n g .  3) I n a d d i t i o n t o a n i n f o r m a t i o n n e t w o r k , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n c o u l d c o m p i l e a CPE r e s o u r c e l i b r a r y . include l i s t i n g s of providers,  facilitators,  This could  hardware,  p o t e n t i a l s p o n s o r s , s p e a k e r s and f i e l d g u i d e s . Such a listing  c o u l d be e a s i l y m a i n t a i n e d a n d u p d a t e d .  The CGC  s h o u l d c o n s i d e r how t o make CPE a c c e s s i b l e t o a l l geoscientists.  D e v e l o p i n g a l t e r n a t i v e CPE f o r m a t s , s u c h a s  v i d e o o r T.V f o r g e o s c i e n t i s t s who o p e r a t e i n i s o l a t e d r e g i o n s o r h a v e s c h e d u l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s may be one s o l u t i o n . The  n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e s t o e i t h e r t h e u s e o f T.V o r v i d e o f o r  CPE p u r p o s e s  w i t h g e o s c i e n c e s may r e f l e c t  geoscientists  u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e s e modes o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n  f o r CPE.  4) A s t h e c o s t o f p r o v i d i n g CPE c o n t i n u e s t o i n c r e a s e , the f i n a n c i a l burden  to professional associations  also  i n c r e a s e s . R a t h e r than each g e o s c i e n c e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  Ill operating  independently, co-operative  o c c u r i n d e v e l o p i n g and a way  as  of expanding g e o s c i e n t i s t s awareness of c o l l e a g u e s  in  f i e l d s and  research,  r a i s e the  CPE.  This  l i k e l i h o o d of  i n b o t h a c a d e m i c and  applied  5) Members' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE acknowledged, p o s s i b l y i n the awards c o u l d  be  6)  a c t i v i t i e s could  form of annual awards. These  cost  o f CPE  was  not  a s i g n i f i c a n t b a r r i e r to p a r t i c i p a t i o n , become a b a r r i e r g i v e n  the  geoscience organizations.  providing  a learner,  The  l i t e r a t u r e shows  p r o g r a m m e s . The  CPE,  smaller the  employers' funding  were t o t a l l y  but  responsible  were a l s o t h r e a t e n e d  c o s t of education i n terms of t u i t i o n , and  l o s s of  the  a s s o c i a t i o n may  consider  who for  with rising  t i m e away f r o m w o r k  i n c o m e f o r members w o r k i n g i n s m a l l  ( w i t h support from i n d u s t r y )  7)  for  study found g e o s c i e n t i s t s  operations  t h e i r own  small  being  I predict i t w i l l  l o s i n g t h e i r j o b s f o r t a k i n g t i m e o f f work. G i v e n t h e  course  or  i n d i c a t e d as  i n c r e a s i n g number o f  d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n l a r g e and  worked f o r s m a l l  be  CPE.  Although the  educational  interdisciplinary  geoscience.  f o r e i t h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n as  for f a c i l i t a t i n g  may  could  also act  related  providing  undertakings  d e v e l o p i n g an for travel,  operations,  educational  sabbaticals,  fund or  subsidies. The  responsibility  professionals organizations.  for maintaining  r e s t s , t o a degree, w i t h In l i g h t of the  p r o f e s s i o n a l s , the  CGC  the  competent professional  increasing l i t i g a t i o n  should consider  the  against  establishment  of  112 a formal fraud  p e e r r e v i e w c o u n c i l where c l a i m s  o r incompetence could  of  negligence,  be t a k e n t o a r b i t r a t i o n .  8) The p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n h a s i n d i c a t e d i t s a c c r e d i t a t i o n board that maintaining the  professional  profession.  i t i s concerned  the  Thus f a r , t h e r e v i e w o f C a n a d i a n  future prediction of l i t i g a t i o n against  it will  with  s t a n d a r d s amongst t h o s e  i n s t i t u t i o n s b y t h e CGAB h a s b e e n v o l u n t a r y .  become a b u r d e n u p o n t h e a s s o c i a t i o n  through  entering educational  However,  with  geoscientists, (as w e l l as t h e  i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i t i o n e r ) t o i n d i c a t e t h e e f f o r t s i n : a) maintaining  acceptable professional  profession;  b) d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e a s s o c i a t i o n n o t o n l y  provided  standards w i t h i n the  w r i t t e n p o l i c y on p r o f e s s i o n a l  assessed those providing providing  t h e t r a i n i n g f o r g e o s c i e n t i s t s ; c)  up t o d a t e i n f o r m a t i o n  opportunities  standards but  on CPE, d e m o n s t r a t i n g  equal  f o r members t o u n d e r t a k e CPE.  One a d v a n t a g e t o h a v i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l  association  o v e r s e e CPE i s t h e p o t e n t i a l t o e s t a b l i s h s t a n d a r d s f o r p r o g r a m m e s , programme evaluation could  facilitators,  sponsoring  m e a s u r e s , o r any c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e above, w h i c h  t h e n be m o n i t o r e d a c r o s s programmes  Associates,  institutions,  (Grabowski &  1981, p.88). I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s i z e o f t h e  a s s o c i a t i o n ' s membership and t h e p r i o r i t y g i v e n educational  policy frequently  determines the  to  funding  a v a i l a b l e f o r CPE programmes. A s t h e CGC h a s a n e s t i m a t e d membership o f 16,000, t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n d e v e l o p i n g and f u n d i n g  i t s own CPE i s q u i t e f e a s i b l e .  113 If  the  CGC  o p t s t o be  proactive  i n the  a r e a o f CPE  it  stands to reap b e n e f i t s  is  promoted w i t h i n i t s community; t h e p r o f e s s i o n  in  the  p u b l i c arena; the  i n s e v e r a l ways: t h e  An the  (Manning & P e t i t  assertive leadership a r e a o f CPE  r o l e by  also increases  a c t i v e membership. T h i s o f CPE  research  i n the  is  1987;  and Puetz,  1981).  professional associations the p r o b a b i l i t y of  study only  represents  geosciences, given  l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study the  researcher  several p o s s i b l e areas f o r future Future  i s promoted  research  development through i t s p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s p r o f e s s i o n a l meetings  profession  knowledge of the p r o f e s s i o n  advanced; t h e membership i s i n f o r m e d of t h e  then  the  the has  in  larger beginnings  results  and  outlined  research.  research  - Due m i g h t be  to the  l i m i t a t i o n of studying  more i n f o r m a t i v e  as t o the  general  population,  CPE  to e s t a b l i s h the  as a w h o l e . T h i s w o u l d i n f o r m  status  i t  t o c o n d u c t a random s a m p l e o f a l l  Canadian g e o s c i e n t i s t s regarding w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n  one  o f CPE  across the  spectrum  status  the  CGC  of  Canadian g e o s c i e n t i s t s . - Investigate at both the  g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' conceptions of  preservice  stage. I f preservice  t r a i n i n g , and  preservice  full practitioner  t r a i n i n g does i n f l u e n c e  f u t u r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE. t r a i n i n g that w i l l  knowledge  geoscientists'  Is i t possible to instill  t h r o u g h o u t one's y e a r s of p r o f e s s i o n a l  the  develop  necessity  practice?  for  CPE  114 - Establish longitudinal studies  on C a n a d i a n  g e o s c i e n t i s t s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CPE a c t i v i t i e s . provide the professional pertaining  organizations  t o the patterns  with  T h i s would  information  a n d t r e n d s o f CPE i n t h e  geosciences. - I n c o r p o r a t e b o t h q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e x  r e s e a r c h approaches t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t u d i e s .  This  u t i l i z a t i o n o f two d i s t i n c t r e s e a r c h methods w i l l greater  enable a  depth o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p a r t i c i p a n t s and non-  p a r t i c i p a n t s o f CPE. - G i v e n t h e changing s o c i a l and economic demographics i n Canada  (aging  population,  decline  i n b i r t h rate,  e c o n o m i c s ) , p e r h a p s i t m i g h t be f r u i t f u l professional  organizations  global  f o r the  t o analyze t h e i r future  role.  C o n c l u d i n g : Summary The  p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o g a i n  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f CPE p a r t i c i p a t i o n among members o f t h e MDD. q u e s t i o n s were asked r e g a r d i n g  Research  t h e i r behaviour, t h e i r  n e e d s a n d t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d CPE. I n a d d i t i o n , attempted t o i d e n t i f y perceived participation.  The f i n d i n g s  by  t h e study  barriers to their  suggest g e o s c i e n t i s t s  positive attitudes t o voluntary  felt  CPE, w h i c h t h e y  have  demonstrated  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n some f o r m o f CPE a c t i v i t y d u r i n g t h e  p r e v i o u s 12 m o n t h s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e g e o s c i e n t i s t s t h e i r own f e l t diverse,  with  professional  indicated  CPE n e e d s f o r t h e n e x t 12 m o n t h s a s b e i n g a strong  emphasis on d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r  c o n t e n t areas, such as geochemistry, as w e l l as  new  skills  n e c e s s a r y t o meet t h e t e c h n i c a l c h a n g e s i n t h e  profession,  a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e f e l t  need f o r computer  skills. The  profession  of geoscience  t h e b o t h t h e w o r k f o r c e due  i s undergoing  to technological  changes i n  change,  and  s t r u c t u r a l change, i n f o r m i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l a l l i a n c e s w i t h provincial  engineering associations.  professional associations these issues  and  any  s u c h changes upon t h e The  Both the  geoscience  and t h e i r members n e e d t o  subsequent  long term  address  implications  of  profession.  p u b l i c and p o l i t i c i a n s o f C a n a d a seem c o m m i t t e d  making environmental  issues not o n l y a s o c i a l  i s s u e b u t an e c o n o m i c one. industries w i l l ,  T h o s e who  or  political  operate i n the  primary  I b e l i e v e , r a p i d l y come u n d e r p u b l i c  s c r u t i n y . Most g e o s c i e n t i s t s a r e employed i n t h e industry of mining. I t i s therefore profession  to  f o r the associations  primary  i n the i n t e r e s t of  to provide clear  the  guidelines  o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , ones t h a t w i l l  be  defensible.  unprecedented  Litigation will  (I fear)  occur at  legally  l e v e l s f o r those i n geoscience w i t h i n t h e next decade. believe  i t i s the j o i n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of both  professional associations proactive  The  the  and t h e i r members t o become  i n t h e a r e a o f CPE  of the geoscience  I  t o ensure the long term  growth  profession.  m o s t e f f e c t i v e and e x p e d i e n t manner t o e s t a b l i s h a  change i n awareness about,  and  g e o s c i e n t i s t s i s f o r t h e CGC  a t t i t u d e s toward  to take leadership  CPE  among  i n CPE,  and  116 provide direction  f o r Canadian  geoscientists.  This study  a necessary beginning to understanding p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n g e o s c i e n c e . The  F r e q u e n t l y t h e r e s e a r c h e r was  "why?" a r e s p o n d e n t  had  left  be  wondering  a n s w e r e d i n s u c h a manner. I t i s f o r  t h i s reason t h a t a d d i t i o n a l insights  CPE  methodology s e l e c t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r  p l a c e d l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e t y p e o f d a t a t h a t c o u l d gathered.  in  was  research building  on  the  g a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y i n  unravelling  geoscientists'  participation  reasons  f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n or  and t o p r o v i d e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d t o  f a c i l i t a t e e f f e c t i v e programming t o s e r v e t h e  field.  non  117  BIBLIOGRAPHY A l f o r d , H. J . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Power and C o n f l i c t i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n : s u r v i v a l and p r o s p e r i t y f o r a l l ? b y W a d s w o r t h Pub. 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Seymour, R., C o n n e l l y , T., & G a r d e n e r , D. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n : An A t t i t u d i n a l S u r v e y o f P h y s i c a l T h e r a p i s t s . P h y s i c a l T h e r a p y . 59, 339-404. S h e l t o n , H., & C r a i g , R. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . C o n t i n u i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t : The E m p l o y e r ' s P e r s p e c t i v e . I n R . S t e r n ( E d ) . , Power and C o n f l i c t i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n . pp. 150-168. B e l m o n t , Ca: W a d s w o r t h Pub. Co. S l a y t o n , P. & T r e b i l c o c k , M. J . , ( E d s . ) ( 1 9 7 6 ) . The P r o f e s s i o n s and P u b l i c P o l i c y . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y Toronto Press. Sork,  of  T. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Y e l l o w b r i c k r o a d o r g r e a t d i s m a l swamp: pathways t o o b j e c t i v e s i n program p l a n n i n g Proceedings of the twenty-seventh annual A d u l t Education Research C o n f e r e n c e (pp. 2 6 1 - 2 6 6 ) . S y r a c u s e , NY: Syracuse University Printing Services.  S p r i n g a t e , G.L. P r o f e s s i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t . ( 1 9 8 7 , S e p t e m b e r ) . The B.C. P r o f e s s i o n a l E n g i n e e r . 38, 9, 14. S t a l k e r , A. J . ( 1 9 8 9 ) . R e f r a m i n g t h e i s s u e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n : an i n t e r p r e t i v e s t u d y . U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l t h e s i s , the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, V a n c o u v e r , B. C. S t a n l e y , W., & H o l m e s , R. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . C r i s i s i n E d u c a t i o n . N o r t h e r n M i n e r M a g a z i n e 2 ( 9 ) , 13-18.  The  S t e i n , M. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . The P o l i t i c s o f C o n t i n u i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n , A d u l t L e a d e r s h i p . 25, 2 2 6 - 2 5 2 .  127 S t e m , M. R., (Ed) ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Power a n d C o n f l i c t i n C o n t i n u i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n . B e l m o n t : W a d s w o r t h Pub. Co. T i t c h e n , A. C. ( 1 9 8 7 , M a r c h ) . C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n : A S t u d y o f P h y s i o t h e r a p i s t s ' A t t i t u d e s . P h y s i o t h e r a p y . 73 ( 3 ) , 121-124. T o f f l e r , A. & Co.  ( 1 9 8 0 ) . The T h i r d Wave. New Y o r k : W i l l i a m M o r r o w  V e r n e r , C. ( 1 9 6 4 ) . D e f i n i t i o n s o f T e r m s , G a l e J e n s e n , A.A L i v e r i g h t & Wilbur Hallenbeck (Eds.). Adult Education: O u t l i n e s o f an Emerging F i e l d o f U n i v e r s i t y s t u d y , (pp. 2 7 - 3 9 ) . USA: The A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e USA. V o l l m e r , H. M., & M i l l s , D. L, ( E d s . ) ( 1 9 6 6 ) . P r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : Prentice Hall Inc. W e n e c o u r , S. & R e i c h , M. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . The S o c i a l Work P r o f e s s i o n and t h e I d e o l o g y o f P r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n , J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l W e l f a r e , 1 0 ( 4 ) , 684-732. W i l e n s k y , H. L. ( 1 9 6 4 ) . The P r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f E v e r y o n e ? A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y . 7 0 ( 2 ) , 137-158. W i l s o n , D. C. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . F a c t o r s R e l a t e d t o t h e C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n Needs o f a S e l e c t e d Group o f P r o f e s s i o n a l Engineers i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Unpublished masters's t h e s i s , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Z i b i r k , D. (1983) A S u r v e y Of The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f d i e t i t i a n s ' F u t u r e I n t e n t i o n s t o P a r t i c i p a t e And T h e i r Past Continuing Education A c t i v i t y . Unpublished master's t h e s i s , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, V a n c o u v e r , B.C.  128  APPENDIX  A  CONTINUING  PROFESSIONAL E D U C A T I O N FOR GEOSCIENTISTS  •c Mineral Dcpo-its Division of the G . A . C . is sponsoring the following survey regarding continuing professional education in • geoscienccs. T r c resultant data will provide information regarding the altitudes, behaviour and needs of continuing •ifcssional education in geoscience. In addition the data will be used as part of a M . A thesis in the field of A d u l t Education. •J: assistance in comuleiirtg this survey would be most appreciated. A L L R E S P O N S E S WILL BE T R E A T E D IN T H E STRICTEST CONFIDENCE. r  A  PERSONAL INFORMATION  \.  Age in years  2.  Please indicate your level(s) of education and date of graduation.  Less than 30yrs  •  30-39year5 •  Example:  40-49yrs  Number of years of professional employment in geoscience.  4,  Please indicate your income level. ( C H E C K O N E O N L Y )  fl  S20.CC0 - 39.999 540,000 - 49.999  O Q  PROFESSIONAL  •  60 years or  more  •  DATE OF G R A D U A T I O N  3>  • •  50-5Syrs  4/70  B.Sc.  DECREE 1 2_ 3_ OTHERS (PLEASE E X P L A I N ! .  less than S19.999 S:0,C00 • 29,999  •  S30.000 - 59,999 ScO.OOO - 69.999 S70.000 - 79,999  O Q •  SSO.000 - 89,999 S90.000 - 99,999 more than S100.000  • O Q  INFORMATION  S. Please indicate your present employment environment, position and field ( C H E C K O N E F R O M E A C H C A T E C O R Y ) FIELD  POSITION  03CANIZAT10N industry Educational Institutions r.ovcrr.TT.cn:  O Q •  Cthar ( P L E A S E E X P L A I N )  President Senior Administrator M i d d l e Management.. Project Ccoscicntist  • . G Q  Junior Ccoscicntist Not working by choice  • _ . •  Unemployed.._ Educational Instructor Student _ Othcr(PLEASE EXPLAIN)  • • •  Geology Ccophysics Ceochcmistrv Geology/Geophysics  • • S3  Ccology/Ccochcmistry Gcostatistics _  S3 •  CcoEnginecring Other ( P L E A S E E X P L A I N )  S3  6, Please indicate the percentage (7 ) of time spent annually at the following: ( T O T A L S H O U L D E Q U A L 100%). e  Office Laboratory Iducational institution  T. % %  _  Hire  fi  Field Other ( P L E A S E E X P L A I N )  r. r. TOTAL =  100?.  Please indicate your membc.-ship(s) in scientific or professional organizations. { C H E C K A L L A P P L I C A B L E COXES) C.A.C C..M C 5.P.G.  C  • • •  CONTINUING  I.M.M. • A.E.C. • S.E.G D  P.D.A.C D Other Professional Engineer in the province / territory of  P R O F E S S I O N A L E D U C A T I O N (C.P.E.)  8. The following statements represent reasons for participating in a continuing professional education activity. For each -:atement C I R C L E O N E (1) N U M B E R that most often describes your reasons tor p a r t i c i p a t i n g in continuing professional .-iucation activates.  MOST  SOMETIMES  LEAST  OFTtN  To maintain competence in m y field To expand mv professional network. To broaden my knowledge witihn my field ~o escape the stresses of my w o r k / h o m e To meet employers requirements To broaden my career opportunities Other (Please Explain)  _ .  OFTEN  5 5 5 5 5 5 5  4 4 4 4 4 4 4  -. H o w would v o u prefer to maintain vour skills and know] £ 1 * Y O U R H I G H E S T PRIORITY ).  3 3 3 3 3 ,  3 3  2 2 2 2 2 2 2  1 1 1 1 1 1 1  ige in geoscience? ( S E L E C T THREE{3) IN O R D E R O F PRIORITY).  Being employed Attending Conferences Attending professional organization(s) meetings Other ( E X P L A I N }  :Vlf reflection • r-'rriodic refresher courses • Require x number of hours courscwork per year • Mair.tiin professional association(s) mcmbcrship(s)... Q Subscription to geoscience journals •  • O •  *0. Check A L L scientific and professional publications you subscribe to, indicating , on average, the number of hours spent per week reading these publications.  CIM Hcrnomic Geoiocy Canadian Journal oi Earth Sciences Canadian M i n i n g Journal  hors per week .'-  H O U R S PER WEEK Northern Miner  ,  O:hor_  11. P'ca«e indicate vour total number ofcontinuing professional education activities for the past 12 mon:hs, (From September ".?S7 to September 19SS), indicating the format of the activities and the sponsor/organization hosting the activities.  Total number of continuing rroi'essional education activities during the previous 12 months  Sponsor  Format  Lecture Short course Conference Field trip Seminars Other ( P L E A S E E X P L A I N )  • • • • • •  Educational Institution Technical Organization Scientific Organization Professional Engineering Ass Government Entrepreneur Industry-  • • • • D • •  I g . Please indicate your preference in (i) format and (ii) sponsorship of C P E activities.  i) F O R M A T MOST  UNDECIDED  LEAST  PREFERRED  Lcturcs {includes course instruction) 5'nort courses Workshops Seminars Meetings/conferences/conventions Field trips Video tapes Television Tutorials -independent studv Other ( P L E A S E E X P L A I N )  PREFERRED  5 5 S 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4  3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  (ii) S P O N S O R S H I P most  undecided  least  PREFERRED  Educational Institutional Technical organizations Scientific organizations Professional engineering Government Entrepreneur Industry Oihcr ( E X P L A I N )  .'.  5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  PREFERRED  4 .  4 4 4 4 4 4 4  3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  *.3. The scale below is designed to reflect your attitude toward continuing professional education (CPE). Circle one number statement to indicate where y o u think y o u belong.  STRONGLY A C REE  A geoscientists's abilitv to learn remains constant for a life time C P E is just as important as basic geoscience education C P E increases one's confidence Governments) should invest more money in C P E -  5 5 ^ 5  Canadian industry should invest more money in C P E C P E ihould be mandatory in the gcoscicnccs _ The need for C P E is greatly exaggerated by those .-ho stand to rain the most from such activities The benefits of C P E are too obscure lo justify it  5 5  -  Most geoscience courses waste time o n non-essentials _ C P E is unnecessary since one can get all the information from books Most C P E courses arc too expensive  5 5 ^ 5 5  UNDECIDED  STKONCLY CISACREE  133  I4>  Please rate y o u r perceived continuing professional education needs for the following 12 months (September 1SSS - September  1 2 3 4 5  = = = s: =  1 need considerable training in this area. I need some training in this area. I do not know if 1 need training in this area I am quite sure that I do not need training in this area. I definitely do not need any training in this area  P E R S O N A L SKILLS Interpersonal skills „ Oral prcsen:ations Technical Wriring Expanding one's professional network OTHES ( P L E A S E E X P L A I N )  4 4 4 4 4  3 3 3 3 3  2 2 2 2 2  4 4 4  3 3 3  2 2 2  4 4 4 4 4 4 4  3 3 3 3 3 3 3  2 2 2 2 2 2 2  C O M P U T E R SKILLS Computer literacy/Introduction to computer CooCraphics , CccStatistical V.'ord processing..... Other ( P L E A S E E X P L A I N )  LECAL  — .  o | ^ 5 5  A N D BUSINESS  M i n i n g Laws and Regulations income tax/taxation Financial management Mar'-ccting Administrative skills Mineral economics Recruiting Supervising staff Time manaccmcnt Othcr(PLEASE E X P L A I N )  _  P R O F E S S I O N A L A N D SCIENTIFIC SKILLS U r g r a J i n g geology Upgrading geochemistry „ Upgrading geophysics Upgrading gc-ostatistscal A c u i r i n g knowledge of other areas of geoscience.. Others ( P L E A S E E X P L A I N )  ^ 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  15. Please indicate how the following obstacles arc likely to prevent y o u r participation in continuing professional education (CPE) programmes in the next 12 months. CONSIDERABLE  obstacle Cost of programme Scheduling difficulties Not enough rime to studv Friends/family don't like the idea of taking courses H e m e responsibilities Strict attendance requirements T c o old to study Don't enjoy studying Tir^d of school Fc_r of failing Don't want to appear too ambitious Past experience of incompetent C P E instructors Not enoueh enertrv/stamina Others ( P L E A S E EXPLAIN)"  —  5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4  MODERATE  NOT AN  obstacle  obstacle  3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  16. Please write in tbe name of your home town.  T H A N K Y O U F O R Y O U R T I M E , A N D C O - O P E R A T I O N . A N Y A D D I T I O N A L C O M M E N T S O N T H E ISSUE O F C O N T I N U I N G P R O F E S S I O N A L E D U C A T I O N W O U L D BE M O S T W E L C O M E . Please return in the S A E to: Ms. Karen E. Yong University of British C o l u m b i a Adult Education Research Centre 5760 Toronto Road Vancouver V 6 T 1L2 British C o l u m b i a  Appendix  A  -2  CONTINUING  PROFESSIONAL E D U C A T I O N FOR GEOSCIENTISTS  The Mineral Deposits Division of the C . A . C . is sponsoring the following survey regarding continuing professional education in the geoscienees. The resulting data will provide information for your professional association regarding geoscientists attitudes, and current practice of continuing professional education in geoscience. In addition the data will be used as part of a M . A thesis in the field of Adult Education. Your assistance in completing this survey would be most appreciated. A L L RESPONSES WILL BE T R E A T E D IN T H E STRICTEST O F C O N F I D E N C E .  A. P E R S O N A L 1. Age  INFORMATION  Less than 30yrs  •  30-39years •  40-49yrs  •  50-59yrs  •  60 years or more  Q  2. Please indicate your levcHs) of education and date of graduation. Example: B.Sc. 1972 DEGREE YEAR OF G R A D U A T I O N 1 2 3 O T H E R S (PLEASE EXPLAIN)  3. Number of years of professional employment in geoscience.  years  4. Please indicate your income level. ( C H E C K O N E O N L Y ) less than $20,000 $30,000 S40.000  B. P R O F E S S I O N A L  519,999 - 29,999 - 39,999 - 49,999  • • •  $50,000 - 59,999 S60.000 - 69,999 $70,000 - 79,999  D Q •  SSO.000 - 89,999 590,000 - 99,999 more than 5100,000  • (D •  •  INFORMATION  5. Please indicate the type of organization you work for, your position, and your field ( C H E C K O N E F R O M E A C H C A T E G O R Y ) ORGANIZATION  POSITION  FIELD  Industry  •  President  _  Educational institutions Government Other (PLEASE EXPLAIN)  • •  Senior Administrator Middle Management Project Geoscientist Junior Geoscientist Not working by choice Unemployed Educational Instructor Student Other (PLEASE E X P L A I N )  D • „ O D — • • • • •  Geology Geophysics Geochemistry Geology/Geophysics Geology/Geochemistry Ceostatistics GeoEnginecring Other ( P L E A S E EXPLAIN)  • •  '  • JD JD • JD  6. Please indicate the percentage (7.) of time spent annually at the following: ( T O T A L 5 H O U L D E Q U A L 10051). Office Laboratory Educational institution Mine Field Other (PLEASE E X P L A I N ) '  % ^ % -  1 %  TOTAL =  100%  7. Please indicate your membershipfs) in scientific or professional organizations. ( C H E C K A L L A P P L I C A B L E BOXES)  C.A.C C.I.M C.S.P.G  D • •  C. CONTINUING  I.M.M • A.E.G • S.E.G D  P.D.A.C • Other Professional Engineer in the province / territory of  P R O F E S S I O N A L E D U C A T I O N (C.P.E.)  8. The following statements represent reasons for participating in a continuing professional education activity. For each statement C I R C L E O N E (1) N U M B E R that most often describes your reasons for participating in such activities.  SOMETIMES  MOST OFTEN  LEAST OFTEN  To maintain competence in my field 5 To expand my professional network. "5 To broaden my knowledge within my f i e l d . — „ — 5 To escape the stresses of my w o r k / h o m e S To meet my employer's requirements —.. 5 To broaden mv career opportunities 5 Other (PLEASE EXPLAIN) 5  9 H o w would vou prefer to maintain your skills and knowledge in geoscience? (SELECT T H R E E (3) IN O R D E R O F PRIORITY 1 « Y O U R H I G H E S T PRIORITY ).  Reflecting upon ones professional development Taking periodic refresher courses Fulfilling x number of hours courscwork per year Maintaining professional association(s) mcmbcr(s) Subscribing to professional geoscience journals  • • •  Being employed Attending Conferences Attending professional organization(s) meetings (PLEASE EXPLAIN)  • • •  •  10. Check A L L scientific and professional publications you subscribe to, indicating the average number of hours spent per week reading these publications per week.  H O U R S PER W E E K CIM Economic Geology Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences Canadian Mining Journal  HOURS PER WEEK Northern Miner Other  11. Please indicate your total number of continuing professional education activities for the past 12 months, (From September 1987 to September 1988).  12. Of the continuing professional education activities in #11, how many were in the following (i) formats and (ii) who sponsored/organized these activites. Sponsors/ organizers include: educational institutions, professional associations, industry, government, and entrepreneurs.  N U M B E R O F ACTIVITIES Lecture  NAME(S) O F 5PONSOR(S)/ORCAN12ER(S) .  Short course  :  Conference Field trip  —  Seminar  ,  Other (PLEASE E X P L A I N ) . .  -—  13. Please indicate your preferred (i) format and (ii) sponsorship of C P E activities. (i) F O R M A T  MOST PREFERRED  Lctures (includes course instruction) Short courses ~ Workshops „ Seminars ~ Meetings/conferences/con ventions Field trips Video tapes Television « Tutorials Independent studv Other (PLEASE EXPLAIN)  „  UNDECIDED  LEAST PREFERRED  5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  (ii) SPONSORSHIP MOST PREFERRED Educational Institution Technical organizations Scientific organizations Professional engineering Government Entrepreneur Industry Other (EXPLAIN)  —  —  5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  UNDECIDED  LEAST PREFERRED  IS. The scale below is designed to reflect your attitude toward continuing professional education (CPE). Circle one number per statement to indicate where you think you belong.  STRONGLY ACREE A geoscientist's ability to learn remains constant for a life timeC P E is just as important as basic geoscience education— C P E increases ones confidence — Govemment(s) should invest more money in C P E Canadian industry should invest more money in C P E C P E should be mandatory in the geosciences „ _ The need for C P E is greatly exaggerated by those who stand to gain the most from such activities The benefits of C P E are too obscure to justify it _  UNDECIDED  STRONGLY DISAGREE  5 5 5 5 S ... 5 5 5  Most geoscience courses waste time on non-essentials S C P E is unnecessary since one can get all the information from books 5 Most CPE courses are too expensive „ 5  16. Please indicate how the following obstacles arc likely to prevent your participation in continuing professional education (CPE) programmes in the next 12 months. CONSIDERABLE OBSTACLE Cost of programme — Scheduling difficulties — Not enough time to study Friends/family don't like the idea of me taking courses Home responsibilities Strict attendance requirements Too old to study — Don't enjoy studying Tired of school Fear of failing Don't want to appear too ambitious Past experience of incompetent C P E instructors Not enough energy/stamina _ Others (PLEASE EXPLAIN)*  MODERATE OBSTACLE  NOT A N OBSTACLE  5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  17. Please write in the name of your home town.  T H A N K Y O U FOR Y O U R T I M E , A N D C O - O P E R A T I O N . A N Y A D D I T I O N A L C O M M E N T S O N T H E ISSUE O F C O N T I N U I N G PROFESSIONAL E D U C A T I O N W O U L D BE MOST W E L C O M E .  Please return in the S A E to: Ms. Karen E . Yong University of British Columbia Adult Education Research Centre 5760 Toronto Road Vancouver V 6 T 1 L 2 British Columbia  HI  14. Please rate your perceived continuing professional education needs for the following 12 months {Ociobcr 1st, 1958- October 1st, 1939). 1 2 3 4 5  = = = o =  1 need considerable training in this area. 1 need some training in this area. I do not know if i need training tin this area I am quite sure that I do not need training in this area. I definitely do not need any training in this area  P E R S O N A L SKILLS  Interpersonal skills Oral presentations..— Technical Writing Expanding one's professional network... OTHER (PLEASE EXPLAIN)  — ..  5 5 5 5 5  ........  5 5 5 5 5  C O M P U T E R SKILLS Computer literacy/Introduction to computer Geographies...« — Ceostatistical Word processing Other (PLEASE EXPLAIN)  LEGAL Mining laws and regulations Income tax/taxation Financial management Marketing Administrative skills Mineral economics Recruiting Supervising staff Time management Other (PLEASE E X P L A I N )  -  ;  A N D BUSINESS  _  —  5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  _ — -  :  P R O F E S S I O N A L A N D S C I E N T I F I C SKILLS Upgrading geology _ Upgrading geochemistry Upgrading geophysics _ Upgrading geostatistical _ Acquiring knowledge of other areas of geoscience Others (PLEASE EXPLAIN)  _  5 5 5 5 5 5  4 4 4 4 4 4  3 3 3 3 3 3  2 2 2 2 2 2  142  APPENDIX  B  145  APPENDIX C  E d u c a t i o n a l Degree  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  type  n  Diploma  Respondents P e r c e n t a g e  2  0.3  B A / B s c  224  39.1  MA/Msc PhD Other  184 155 8 n= 573  32.1 27.1 1.4  Year Year B e f o r e 1950 1960 1970 1980 -  1950 1959 1969 1979 1989  of  o r a d u a t i o n Percentage  ri 9 35 113 221 192  n=  1. 6. 19. 38. 33. 570  6 1 8 8 7  147  Table  C  2  F i e l d  R°gpnnd°nt.s o f  P r i m a r y  Work  Geology  F i e l d n  o f  Work P e r c e n t a g e  387  67.54  G e o p h y s i c s  4  0 . 6  Geochemistry  5  0 . 8  G e o l o g y / g e o p h y s i c s  13  2. 2  G e o l o g y / g e o c h e m i s t r y  76  13.23  G e o s t a t i c s  20  3 . 5 0  G e o e n g i n e e r i n g  12  2. 2  Other  56  9 . 7 7  r>. =  573  Table  C  3 Number  of  Years  Years  1  -  0  6  -  10  years  -  15 20  21 26  -  25  31  -  30 35  y y y y  36  -  40  y e a r s  41  -  45  y e a r s  ears <=? 3 r S ears ears'  C  G e o s c i e n c e  % 15 39 90  years  11 16  i n  n  5' y e a r s  N  2. 6 6. 8 15. 7 22. 3  128 1.07 89  18. 7 15. 5  44 33  7. 6 5. 8  21 7  3. 7  573  99. 9  y e a r s  T o a l  Table  Employed  1. 2  4  Memberships  in  P r o f e s s i o n a l  or  S c i e n t i f i c  O r g a n i s a t i o n s  n  'A N  GAC CIM CSPG IMM  54 363 19 16  96. 7 63. 4 3. 3 2. 7  AEG BEG PDAC MAC APPGQ  53 121 268 46  9. 21. 46. 8. 2.  TDGD GSA OTHER PEng  11 42 121 39  15  3 1 a 7 6  1. 9 7. 3 21. 0 6. 8  Oraan.i^ations  Table C 5 gfjfa^Ng_FQR. EIHJCAT I ON  PARTICIPATION  IN  CONTINUING  MOST  OFTEN 5  4  SOMETIMES 3 ( p e r c e n t a g e  TO MAINTAIN COMPETENCE IN FIELD TO  PROFESSIONAL  ACT IV I T ITES  EXPAND  MY  MY  333 (61.75) 111  PROFESSIONAL  124 (22.53) 122  LEAST 2 */•)  53 (10.75)  13 (2.37)  172  (20.56)  (22.53)  (1.85)  115 (21.82)  119 (22.58)  145 (27.51)  OFTEN 1  14 (_.55)  70  &5  (12.36)  (12.U4)  45 (8.54)  103 (13.54)  NETWORK TO B R O A D E N KNOWLEDGE FIELD TO  ESCAPE  STRESS OR  MY IN  MY  FROM  AT  WORK.  HOME  3  6  (0.58)  TO M E E T MY EMPLOYERS REQUIREMENTS 7 (1.34)  42  (1.16)  24 (3.84)  53  415  (8.03)  (10.21)  (73.36)  39 (13.00)  88 (16.83)  3U7 (58.33)  Table C 6 P R I O R I T I Z E D P R E F E R E N C E OF WAYS KNOWLEDGE IN GEOSCIENCE 1 ATTENDING  CONFERECES  ATTENDING PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS) MEETINGS BEING  EMPLOYED  REFLECTION REFRESHER  2  (7.)  3  AND  C/.')  72  (13.05)  153  (40.43)  153  (40.43)  17  (12.53)  46  (34.07)  .72  (53.33)  262  (75.16)  38  (11.05)  44  (12.73)  13  (46.15)  10  (25.64)  11  C2S.20)  104  (36.23)  102  (35.54)  SI  (23.22)  74  (22.56)  133  (42.38)  115  (35.05)  6  (54.55)  4  (36.36)  1  COURSES  TAKING X HOURS COURSEWORK PER YEAR SUBSCRIBING TO PROFESSIONAL JOURNALS OTHER  ("/>  FOR MAINTAINING SKILLS (1=HIGHEST FRIORITY)  OF  (3.09)  149  Table C 7  150  BARRIERS  TU  PARTICIPATION  IN  CPE  OBSTACLE 2  4 COST  OF  PROGRAMME  103  94  134  (.17.0)  (13.7)  (35.2)  SCHEDULING DIFFICULTIES  243 (43.8)  160 (28.3)  (20.2)  NOT  85 (15.4)  137 (24.8)  169 (30.67)  TO  ENOUGH  TIME  STUDY  FRIENDS/FAMILY NOT  SUPPORTIVE  HOME  13  (0.3)  (2.3)  (4.1 )  (8.3)  46  RESPONSIBILITIES  STRICT  ATTENDENCE  REQUIREMENTS TOO  5  OLD  DON'T TIRED FEAR  TO  STUDY  ENJOY STUDYING OF SCHOOL OF  48  4 (0.7) 7 (1.3)  PAST EXPERIENCE OF INCOMPETENT INSTRUCTORS NOT ENOUGH ENERGY/STAMINA  44 (7.3) 120  82 (14.S) 24 (4.3) 82 (14.8) 86 (15.5) 156  14 (2.5) 80 (14.1) 403 (73.1) 207 (37.5)  110  (10.5)  (20.0)  11: (20.5)  221 (40.1)  12 (2.1)  32 (5.8)  62 (11.2)  440 (80.0)  83 (16.2)  368 (66.8)  14 (2.5)  73 (13.3)  ( 0.3)  ( 0.6)  (4.2)  (11.6)  0 ( 0. 0 )  1 (0.2)  3 (1.6)  (7.4.)  6  72 (13.0)  (28.2)  64  FAILING  D O N ' T WANT TO APPEAR TOO AMBITIOUS  .  112  1  (21.7)  58  (8.7)  NOT AN OBSTACLE  MODERATE  CONSIDERABLE OBSTACLE  17  75  41  115  457 (83.3) 438 (30.7)  324  (1.1)  (3.1)  (13.3)  (21.8)  (60.1)  (0. 3 )  15 (2.8)  43 (7.3)  112 (20.7)  367 (67.7)  (70.2)  (12.8)  6  OTHER  3 (6.38)  O (0.0)  0 (0.0)  151  Table  C 8  C r o s s T a b u l a t i o n o f R e s p o n d e n t s A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d s CPE a n d t h e i r Occupational Position  KEY Occupational  Position  Attitude  range  1= P r e s i d e n t  1= S t r o n g l y  2= S e n i o r A d m i n i s t r a t o r  2=  3= M i d d l e  3= U n d e c i d e d  Management  Disagree  Disagree  4= P r o j e c t G e o s c i e n t i s t  4= A g r e e  5= J u n i o r G e o s c i e n t i s t  5= S t r o n g l y A g r e e  6=  Consultant  7= U n e m p l o y e d 8=  Student  9=  Other  CPE  i s j u s t as important as geoscience education „ 1|  2|  -..--.- + ._.  3|  +  .  basic  4|  +— .  5|  +— -.— + I  19  ROW TOTAL  1  2 .4  31  70 13.2  21  46 .8.7  10  22  15  25  49  121 22.8  13  28  24  49  70  184 34.7 17 3.2 42 7.9  22  2 .4 1 1  29 5.5 18 3.4  LUMN OTAL '  47 8.9  64 12. 1  72 13.6  A geoscientist's remains constant  128 24 . 1  220 41.4  531 100.0  a b i l i t y to learn fora lifetime 3|  2|  ROW TOTAL 5| 1 .2  12  21  22  15  61 12.3  10  15  41 8.3  52  33  19  114 23.0  81  43  26  178 36.0 16 3.2  21  41 8.3  10  2 .4 26 5.3  10  15 3.0 COLUMN TOTAL  58 11.7  2 12 42.8  124 25. 1  72 14.5  29 5.9  495 100.0  Most  CPE c o u r s e s  | 0  I  1|  ROW TOTAL  are too expensive  2|  3|  4|  5  | 1 .2  1  +  1  30  25  69 13.0  18  22  46 8.7  63  43  121 22.8  83  81  6  10  17 3.2  15  17  42 7.9  186 35.0  11 •  2 .4  2  COLUMN TOTAL  15  8  29 5.5  5  12  18 3.4  C P E . i s  get  42 7.9  2 18 4 1.1  238 44.8  unnecessary  since  2|  3|  books 4|  5|  iROW TOTAL  1  1  2 .4  17  26  10  69 13.1  14  17  12  46 8.7  17  38  43  18  1 19 22.5  30  70  51  30  185 35.0  4  7  2  17 3.2  1 1  14  13  42 8.0  1 14  COLUMN TOTAL  531 100.0 ;  one c a n  a l l i n f o r m a t i o n from 1|  11 2. 1  22 4. 1  84 15.9  176 33.3  •  2 .4  5  29 5.5  6  17 3.2  167 3 1.6  84 15.9  17 3.2  528 100.0  153  CPE  increases 1|  ones  21  ROW TOTAL  confidence 3|  --  4|  5| 2.4  18  33  70 13.2  14  18  45 8.5  10  48  54  121 22.8  12  62  97  185 34.8  11  17 3.2  18  42 7.9  10  14  2 .4  COLUMN TOTAL  The too  15  29 5.5  2  13  18 3.4  174 32.8  53 10.0  32 6.0  1 1 2. 1  1 1  25 I 49 . 2  b e n e _ f i t s o f CPE a r e obscure to j u s t i f y i t 1|  2|  3|  531 100.0  30W TOTAL  4|  2 .4 19  1 1  22  68 13.0  10  10  18  45 8.6  21  34  40  14  53  47  60  19  10  1 19 22. 7 184 35.0 17 3.2  10  12  10  41 7.8 2 .4  10  29 5.5 18 3.4  .UMN OT AL  131 25.0  125 23.8  175 33. 3  66 12.6  28 5.3  525 100.0  154  Most g e o s c i e n c e c o u r s e s w a s t e t i m e on n o n - e s s e n t i a l s 1|  2|  3|  ROW TOTAL 5|  4|  2 .4  30  16  18  17  56  49  12  97  62  18  44 8.4 120 22.9 184 35.0  1 1  17 3.2  15  42 8.0  5  19  68 13.0  15  2  2 .4  16  28 5.3 18 3.4  COLUMN TOTAL  those  252 4 8 . 0  182 34.7  64 12.2  22 4 . 2  525 100.0  5 1.0  THe n e e d f o r C P E i s g r e a t l y e x a g g e r a t e d by who s t a n d t o g a i n f r o m s u c h a c t i v i t i e s ROW TOTAL 1|  2|  3|  4|  1  5|  1  2 .4  23  20  68 12.9  17  18  46 8.7  30  24  38  37  30  58  '•  17  11  120 22.8  32  27  184. 34 . 9 17 3.2  12  12  !  11  42 8.0 2 .4 28 5.3 18 3.4  COLUMN TOTAL  125 23. 7  90 17.1  165 3 1 . 3  83 15.7  64 12. 1  527 100.0  C P E s h o u l d be m a n d a t o r y in the geosciences 11 2| 3| 4|  ROW TOTAL 2 .4  16  36  70 13.2  18  18  46 8.7  13  45  57  121 22.8  26  65  84  ' 183 34. 5  10  7  COLUMN TOTAL  15 2.8  19 3.6  70 13.2  Gov e r n m e n t ( s ) m o r e money 1|  2|  17 3. 2  15  15  42 7.9  1  1  2 .4  4  19  29 5.5  7  10  18 3.4  179 33.8  247 46.6  530 100.0  should i n CPE 3|  invest 4|  5|  ROW TOTAL 2 .4  10  27  26  67 12.7-  10  14  17  45 8.6  18  51  48  121 23.0  28  77  73  185 35. 2  8 10  20  17 3.2 10  42 8.0 2 .4  13  28 5.3 17 3.2  COLUMN TOTAL  3 .6  22 4. 2  84 16.0  213 40. 5  204 38.8  526 100.0  Canadian industry should m o r e money i n C P E 1|  2|  3|  invest 4|  ROW TOTAL 5| 2 .4  15  11  1 1  23  69 13.1 45 8.6  16 15  19  35  23  26  1 18 22.4  18  26  48  41  51  184 35.0  7  2  17 3.2  10  12  42 8.0 2 .4 12  29 5.5 18 3.4  COLUMN TOTAL  66 12.5  75 14.3  14 1 26 . 8  107 20. 3  137 26 .0  526 100.0  158  Table C 9 Geoscientists "perceived  1= I 2= I 3= I 4= I 5=1  CPE n e e d s  f o r the following  12  months  NEED CONSIDERABLE TRAINING I N T H I S AREA \ NEED SOME TRAINING I N THIS AREA DD NOT KNOW I F I NEED TRAINING I N T H I S AREA AM QUTTE SURE THAT I DO NOT NEED TRAINING I N THIS AREA D E F I N E T L Y DO NOT .NEED TRAINING I N THIS AREA v  PERSONAL S K I L L S  5  INTERPERSONAL SKILLS V. ,  4 169 ( 8 . 1 ) (31.3)  ORAL PRESENTATIONS 7.  55 (10.1)  126 (23.2)  91 (1.6.8)  207 (38.2)  62 541 (11.4)  TECHNICAL WRITING •/.  73 (13.4)  181 (33.3)  100 (18.4)  158 (29.1)  30 542 (5.5)  EXPANDING ONE'S PROFESSIONAL NETWORK */.  42 (7.65)  109 (20.4)  156 170 (29.2) (31.8)  58 535 (10.8)  COMPUTER  4  3 134 (24.8)  2  1  r>  155 37 (28.7) ( 6 . 8 )  539  SKILLS  INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS GRAPHICS '/.  5 114 (20.9)  3 2 1 46 150 151 (8.4) (27.5) (27.7)  545  88 (16.7)  109 (20.7)  133 (25.3)  116 (22.1)  525  STATISTICS V.  52 80 ( 9 . 6 ) (14.8)  71 (13.2)  201 (37.3)  135 (25.0)  539  WORD  129 (23. 9 )  114 (21.1)  540  PROCESSING  79 (15.0)  4 84 (15.4)  112 (20.7)  67 (12.4)  118 (21.8)  Table C 9 contd  159  5  FINANCIAL MANA6MENT  51  107  (9.5) MARKETING  124  ( 2 0 . 0 )  78  86  (14.7)  176  ( 2 3 . 2 ) 132  (16.3)  77  ( 3 2 . 9 ) 143  ( 2 5 . 0 )  5 3 5  (14.4) 90  529  ( 2 7 . 0 )  ( 1 7 . 0 )  ADMINISTRATIVE S K I L L S  43  144  (8.1)  127 ( 2 7 . 1 )  171  46  ( 2 3 . S )  531  (32.2)  ( 8 . 7 )  MINERAL ECONOMICS  53  131  (9.9) RECRUITING  115  (24.5)  83  146  (15.3)  191  4 5  ( 2 1 . 5 ) 139  116  (28.0)  5 3 5  3 5 . 7 ) ( 8 . 4 ) 38  ( 2 6 . 6 )  5 2 2  ( 2 2 . 2 )  ( 7 . 3 ) .  SUPERVISING STAFF , TIME  64  ,  180  (12.1) MANAGEMENT (10.8)  PROFESSIONAL  AND  105  145  3 5  529  (34.0)  ( 1 9 . 9 )  57 133 (26.4)  104 165 61 ( 1 3 . 8 ) ( 3 1 . 4 )  S C I E N T I F I C  5  ( 2 7 . 4 )  ( 6 . 6 ) 526 (11.6)  S K I L L S  4  3  UPGRADING GEOLOGY (3.85)  ( 2 4 . 3 )  ( 1 7 . 1 )  (40.5)  ( 7 . 6 )  7.  UPGRADING GEOCHEMISTRY  4 3 (8.0)  122  110  ( 2 2 . 7 )  2 1 6  46  ( 2 0 . 5 )  537 (40.2)  ( 8 . 6 )  UPGRADING GEOPHYSICS  40 (7.6)  UPGRADING GEOSTATISTICS  44 (8.3)  ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE OTHER AREAS UF GEOSCIENCE  3 5  3 3  ( 1 8 . 0 )  31  81  ( 1 7 . 2 )  2 2 3  72  ( 1 8 . 7 )  2 2 5  523 (42.2)  8 3  ( 1 5 . 3 )  (13.6)  530  (42.5)  (16.8)  OF 31 ( 6 . 0 )  7 2  134  ( 1 3 . 9 )  2 2 2  62  ( 2 5 . 8 )  521 (42.6)  (11.3)  160  T a b l e C 10 Cross T a b u l a t i o n of Respondents Occupational P o s i t i o n t h e i r F e l t CPE Needs f o r t h e N e x t 12 m o n t h s  and  KEY Occupational  Position:  1= P r e s i d e n t 2= S e n i o r A d m i n i s t r a t o r 3= M i d d l e  Management  F e l t CPE Need S c a l e : 1= I n e e d c o n s i d e r a b l e t r a i n i n g i n t h i s area 2= I n e e d some i n t h i s area  training  4= P r o j e c t g e o s c i e n t i s t 5= Junior Geoscientist  6=  Consultant  7=  Unemployed  8= E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t r u c t o r 9= S t u d e n t 0= O t h e r  3= I do n o t know i f I need t r a i n i n g i n t h i s area  4= I d o n ' t t h i n k I n e e d t r a i n i n g i n t h i s area  Technical 21  1|  POS  ROW TOTAL  writing 31  41  5| 2 .4  1  other 15  senior  admin  middle  managemen 4  project  60 12.0  18  12  pres ident  10  10  44 8.8  28  25  24  19  20  1 16 23.2  34  58  39  32  17  180 35.5  leader  16 3.2  5 jun i o r 6  13  11  consultant  2 .4  7 not w o r k i n g by c • ••• . 'educator  23 4.6  8  17 3.4  s t uden t COLUMN TOTAL  128 25.5  111 22.2  1|  2|  77 15.4  80 16.0  105 21 .0  Interpersonal POS  3|  4|  1 .2  0  other  1  16  24  10  1 1  12  63 12.4  pres ident 2  45 8. 9  sen i o r adm i n 3  11  32  40  28  19  66  56  29  117 23. 1  managemen 4  project  leader 5  5  6  17  12  182 35.9 16 3.2  jun i o r  39 7. 7  consu1tant  2 .4  7 not  501 100.0  ROW TOTAL  skills  •  middle  41 8.2  work i n g by c  26 5. 1  8 educator  16 3.2  s t uden t COLUMN TOTAL  56 11.0  158 31 .2  154 30.4  100 19.7  39 7.7  507 100.0  Expanding  one's  1|  POS  professional 3|  2|  network 4|  5| 2  .4  other  61 11.9  8  20  18 president  10 senior  admin  middle  managemen 4  project  7  7  10  43 8.4  14  119 23. 3  32  38  15  20  46  77  26  27  184 36.0  leader  . 16 3.1  4 junior 12  41 8.0  2  2 .4  12  educator  25 4.9  s t uden t  18 3.5  14 consu1tant not  work i n g by c 8  COLUMN TOTAL  11  POS  75 14 . 7  69 13.5  186 36 .4  131 25.6  Oral  50 9.8  2|  3|  4|  0  pres ident senior  middle  2 .4  1  18  16  2  1 1  15  3  32  28  55  53'  62 12.0 1 1  admin  project  18  33  1 19 23. 1  30  29  185 35.9  leader  16 3. 1  5 jun i o r 6  10  consu11 an t  10  13  7 not  45 8.7  18  managemen 4  511 100.0  ROW TOTAL  presentations  other ,  HOW TOTAL  41 7.9 2 .4  w o r k i n g by c  26 5.0  8 educa t o r  18 3.5  s t uden t COLUMN TOTAL  14t 27.3  143 27.7  44 8.5  78 15.1  110 21.3  516 100.0  ROW TOTAL  g e o s t a t i s t i c s 21 POS  middle  managemen  10  18  project  4  37  5  1  6  8  38  58 J  consu1tant 1  7 work i n g by c  7  8 educator  4 student COLUMN TOTAL  9  6  5  5  4  158 31 .3  93 18.5  l|  • 0  other pres ident senior  21  2  12  3  24  27  32  45  |  1  3  I I  182 36. 1  40 7.9  1 1 1  4  2  2 .4 25 5.0 16 3.2 504 100.0  53 10. 5  90 17.9  computers  ROW TOTAL 5|  4|  2 .4  13  12  61 11.9  13  10  44 8.6  16  21  30  118 23. 1  19  43  45  184 36.0  leader 5  16 3. 1  jun i o r 6  10  consu1tant 7 work i n g by c  educa t o r  1  3  m i d d l e managemen  not  115 22.8  1  admin  project  7  1  31  1  4  44 8.7  15 3.0  1 1 1  t o  65 12.9  5  3 6  1 10 21.8  I n t r o d u c t i o n POS  j  5  6  1  26  |  leader  I I I " I I I  I  28  2  junior  not  15  5  5 admin  6  1 '1 " I "I "1 «, | ' 1  12  pres ident senior  5|  31  41 . 8.0 2 .4  8  26 ' 5. 1 17 ' 3.3  student COLUMN TOTAL  106 20. 7  1 14 22. 3  63 12.3  105 20.5  123 24. 1  511 100.0  Geographies 2|  1|  POS  3|  5|  4|  64 12.6  17  12  21  1  ROW TOTAL  p r e s ident senior  13  6  44 8.7  16  32  12  118 23.3  36  27  18  182 36.0  2  2  14  3  11  47  18  83  3  6  3  15 3.0  16  13  41 8. 1  admin  m i d d l e managemen 4 'project  leader 5  jun i o r 6 consu1tant  2 .4  7 not  work i n g by c  25 4.9  10  8 educator  15 3.0  9  student COLUMN TOTAL  48 9.5  205 40 . 5  Word  ROW TOTAL  3|  5|  1  20  14  17  65 12.8  2  11  13  15  45 8.9  15  40  27  22  12  116 22.9  31  66  37  30  19  183 36. 1  presIdent senior  admin 3  m i d d l e managemen 4 project  leader 5  4  15 3.0  9  40 7.9  jun ior 6  17  consu1 tan t 7 not  2 .4  work i n g by c  8  25 4.9  9  16 3.2  educa t o r student  ' 506 100.0  55 10.9  processing 21  POS  108 21.3  90 17.8  COLUMN TOTAL  73 14.4  169 33. 3  113 22.3  102 20. 1  50 9.9  507 100.0  164  Mining  Laws  VI  POS  1  11  a n d  r e g u l a t i o n s 4|  3|  2.1  ROW TOTAL 5| 64 12.7  21  14  10  14  6  18  27  30  24  15  1 14 22. 7  37  52  43  21  29  182 36.3  pres ident 2 senior  44 8.8  admin 3  m i d d l e managemen 4 project  I 'i  leader  15 3.0  8  5 jun i o r I  40 8.0  1 1  12  6 consu1tant  2 .4  7 not  w o r k i n g by c  25 5.0  8 educator  16 3.2  student COLUMN TOTAL  POS  87 17.3  124 24.7  80 15.9  Supervising  staff  136 27. 1  ROW TOTAL 5|  21  •  502 100.0  75 14.9  1  0  1  other  .2 1  20  2  13  p r e s iden t senior  admin  3 m i d d l e managemen , )  4  project  leader  19  12  64 12.6  10  •  42 8.3  5  44  22  36  10  117 23. 1  15  84  40  34  9  182 36.0  5  16 3.2  jun i o r 6  19  10  consultant  40 7.9  7 not  work ing by c 25 4.9  8 educator  17 3.4  student COLUMN TOTAL  41 8. 1  203 40. 1  101 20.0  118 23.3  43 8. 5  506 100.0  165  F i n a n c i a l  mamagement  166 BOW TOTAL  1|  POS 1  18  14  21  64 12.6  2  12  1 1  12  45 8.9  3  36  26  37  9  117 23. 1  73  37  40  16  183 36. 1  pres ident senior  middle  admin  managemen 4  project  17  leader  15 3.0  junior 15  consu1tant not  10  4 1 8. 1  10  2 .4  w o r k i n g by c  educator  25 4.9  student  15 3.0  13  8  COLUMN TOTAL  44 8.7  '  179 35.3  107 21.1  125 24 . 7  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  52 10.3  507 100.0  s k i l l s ROW TOTAL  1|  POS  1  11  2| 10  3| 10  4| 19  13  pres ident 21  2 senior  44 8.8  admin 3  34  25  40  10  1 16 23. 1  66  34  6 1  14  18 1 36 . 1  m i d d l e managemen 4 project  leader  5  5  15 3.0  jun i o r 12  6  1 1  consu1tant  4 1 8.2 2 .4  7 not  63 12.5  work ing by c 25 5.0  8 educa t o r student  15 3.0  9 COLUMN TOTAL  33 6.6  139 27. 7  102 20.3  169 33.7  59 11.8  502 100.0  M i n e r a l  economics  1 pres ident  13  10  2 senior  3 middle  1 1  17  admin  5|  4|  21  POS  ROW TOTAL  17  12  63 12.6  14  3  44 8.8  15  35  21  35  16  /1 .  40  39  115 23.0  managemen 4  project  179 35.8  13  leader 15 3.0  5 jun i o r 6  10  41 8.2  .1 1  10  consultant 7 not  2 .4  work ing by c  25 5.0  8 educator  16 3.2  student COLUMN TOTAL  59 11.8  155 31.0  102 20.4  Time 1|  PCS  1 pres ident  middle  55 11.0  ROW TOTAL 5|  2|  1 .2 10  25  13  63 12.5  2  14  3  ' 43  24  29  11  1 16 23. 1  38  30  27  11  180 35.8  admin  10  44 8.7  managemen 4  project  24  leader 5  10  16 3.2  6  17  40 8.0  jun i o r consu11 ant 7 not  500 100.0  management  0  other  senior  129 25 . 8  2 .4  work ing by c 1 1  8  25 5.0  educator  16 3.2  student COLUMN TOTAL  66 13. 1  214 42. 5  93 18.5  91 18. 1  39 7.8  503 100.0  R e c u i t i n g 1|  POS  2!  5| 1 .2  14  62 12.2  12  45 8.8  1  3d  2  13  3  42  18  38  12  117 23.0  13  83  29  46  12  183 36.0  2  8  2  • 3  16 3. 1  8  41 8. 1  pres ident  middle  4|  3|  0  other  senior  ROW TOTAL  admin  1 1  managemen 4  project  leader 5  jun i o r 19  consultant not  2 .4  w o r k i n g by c  educator  25 4.9  student  17 3.3 COLUMN TOTAL  38 7.5  205 40. 3  53 10.4  130 25.5  83 16.3  509 100.0  M a r k e t i n g 1| . POS  12  pres ident sen i o r adm in m i d d l e managemen 4 project  2| 9  I  .  ROW TOTAL  3|  12  4|  I -'•  17  5| 1 1  8  8  14  28  36  32  14  50  49  49  26  43 8.7  leader 5  |  114 23.0 180 36.3 15 3.0  junior 6  1 1  13  41 8. 3  consu1tant 7 not  61 12.3  2 .4  work ing by c  25 5.0  8 educa t o r  15 3.0  s t uden t COLUMN TOTAL  34 6.9  114 23.0  133 26.8  138 27.8  77 15.5  496 100.0  168  Income  t a x / t a x a t i o n 4|  1|  POS  ROW TOTAL  1  17  15  18  63 12.5  2  1 1  14  13  44 8.7  8  38  28  34  117 23.2  16  77  40  40  182 36. 1  5  2  15 3.0  6  14  40 7.9  pres ident senior  admin 3  m i d d l e managemen 4 project  leader  jun i o r consultant 1  7 not work i n g by c  '  2 .4  educator'  25 5.0  student  16 3.2  5  COLUMN TOTAL  43 8.5  166 32.9  122 24.2  130 25.8  43 8.5  504 100.0  Upgrading  11  POS  1  6  2  7  pr es i d e n t senior  2|  I  0  other  admin 3  1 1  22  I I j  28  | |  3  , „ ,  3|  | 5  ROW TOTAL  g e o p h y s i c s 4|  ' I | I r I J  9  19  7  6  |  25  5| 1  2 .4  '31-  70 13.2  •21 '  46 8.7  49  121 22.8  m i d d l e managemen | 4 project  leader 5  4  |  1  6  3  |  6  i  jun i o r consu1tant 7 not  work ing by c 8  1  educator ' student  9 COLUMN TOTAL  3  1  I I |  47 8.9  J  1 ' I 1 1 I 3  4  |  17  70  184 34.7  4  I  8  17 3.2  8  |  22 i  42 7.9  2  72 13.6  64 12.1  J |  : 10 |  6  I  129 24 . 3  10  29 5.5  7  18 3.4  219 41.2  531 100.0  geology 3|  2| 24  2 .4  I  2  2  1| 1  |  1  Upgrading  POS  49  ROW TOTAL 5|  4|  64 12.7  1 1  p r e s ident 2 senior  12  41 8.2  admin 3  12  49  14  30  32  78  32  28  11  m i d d l e managemen 4 project  179 35. 7  leader  16 3.2  5 jun i o r 16  6  41 8.2  consu1tant 7 not  1 16 23. 1  2 .4  work ing by c 14  8  26 5.2  educa t o r  17 3.4  student COLUMN TOTAL  82 16.3  210 4 1.8  78 15.5  89 17.7  43 8.6  502 100.0  Upgrading 1|  now  geochemistry  2|  3| .  TOTAL  4|  5| •-+  POS 0  1 .2  other 1  12  2  5  15  61 12.3  10  15  41 8.3  52  33  19  114 23.0  81  43  26  178 36 .0  pres ident senior  admin 3  middle  managemen 4  project  leader  21  5  3  6  3  16 3.2  3  jun i o r 10  21  41 8.3  consultant  2 .4  7 work i n g by c  not  26 5.3  11  8 i  educator  15 3.0  student COLUMN TOTAL  123 24 .8  213 43.0  58 11.7  Upgrading 1|  'OS 0  !  29 5.9  ROW TOTAL  1  3!  4|  I  I  5| 1  18  33  2  8  14  18  3  10  48  *I4  121 22.8  12  62  97  185 34 . 8  managemen 4 leader 5 14  6  18  42 7.9 2 .4  7 by c  1 1  8 educa tor student COLUMN TOTAL  45 8. 5  17 3.2  consultant  working  70 13.2  1 1  jun i o r  not  2 .4  10  sen i o r adm i n  project  I  1  pres ident  middle  495 100.0  geostatistTcs  2|  other  72 14.5  11 2. 1  32 6.0  53 10.0  174 32. 8  15  29 5.5  13  18 3.4  261 49.2  531 100.0  172  T a b l e C 12 PREFERRED SPONSORS OF CPE A C T I V I T I E S MOST PREFERRED 5 4  UNDECIDED 3  LEAST PREFERRED 2 1 n  EDUCATIONAL  INSTITUTIONS  159 164 137 31 19 5 1 0 (31.8) (32.2) (26.9) (6.1) (3.8)  ENTREPRENEUR  82 163 87 106 489 51 (10.4) (16.8) (33.3) (17.8) (21.7)  GOVERNMENTS  169 157 63 52 514 73 ( 3 2 . 9 ) ( 3 0 . 5 ) ( 1 2 . 2 ) (10.1) (14. 2)  INDUSTRY  154 135 26 18 490 181 (36.9) (31.4) (27.6) (5.3) (3.7)  PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING  89 202 72 65 480 52 (10. 8) ( 1 8 . 5 ) (42. 1 ) . (15. 0) ( 1 3 . 5 )  S C I E N T I F I C ORGANIZATIONS TECHNICAL ORGANIZATIONS  163 94 12 245 ( 3 1 . 3 ) ( 6 . 5 ) ( 2.3) (47.O)  7 521 (1.3)  176 183 129 21 6 515 (34.2) (35.5) (25.1) (4.1) (1.2)  

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