UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Humanities teaching in victorian secondary technical schools: problems and prospects Auer, Peter Rudolf 1978

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HUMANITIES  TEACHING IN VICTORIAN SECONDARY TECHNICAL SCHOOLS:  PROBLEMS AND  PROSPECTS  by PETER RUDOLF AUER B.A. Melbourne U n i v e r s i t y , A u s t r a l i a , 1966 D i p . Ed. Melbourne U n i v e r s i t y , A u s t r a l i a , 1968 B.Ed. Monash U n i v e r s i t y , A u s t r a l i a , 1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f E d u c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n )  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September,  0  1978  P e t e r R u d o l f Auer, 1978  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  at make  that  thesis  it  may It  is  fulfilment  of  of  Columbia,  British  available  by  understood  gain  shall  University  British  September 2 2 , 1978  Columbia  that  not  Educational Administration of  the  requirements I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  permission.  of  for  for extensive  be g r a n t e d  financial  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  freely  permission  purposes  for  in p a r t i a l  the U n i v e r s i t y  representatives.  Department  The  thesis  of  or  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ABSTRACT  Important p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s , i t seems, are f r e q u e n t l y taken w i t h o u t p r i o r and c a r e f u l assessment  of the l i k e l i h o o d of s u c c e s s f u l  implementa-  tion. The t h e o r e t i c a l assumption i m p l i c i t  i n t h i s study i s t h a t both the  ease and f i d e l i t y w i t h which p o l i c y gets f o r m u l a t e d i n t o p r a c t i c e i s dependent  upon some c a r e f u l l y thought through assessment  q u e s t i o n s such as: for  how  receptive w i l l  t h e i r implementation be?  attitudes?  those who  of b a s i c  are t o be  responsible  do such persons have the r e q u i s i t e  i s the s u r r o u n d i n g i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  skills?  adequate?  The study focused upon a number of o v e r a r c h i n g q u e s t i o n s which i n t o two major in  categories.  fall  F i r s t , which are the most important i n f l u e n c e s  c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n areas?  What i n d i v i d u a l s , groups of p e o p l e or  circumstances are seen by Humanities t e a c h e r s themselves to have the greatest influence? are  Second,  the major problems  i n the o p i n i o n of Humanities t e a c h e r s what  they p e r c e i v e to e x i s t  Humanities t e a c h e r s c l e a r l y saw  i n t h e i r teaching  t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s who  same form (or grade) l e v e l s as i n f l u e n c i n g them most. form l e v e l s were seen as next most important c u r r i c u l u m  speciality  t e a c h a t the  Teachers o f o t h e r influencers.  Other i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n s c h o o l s , such as e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i s t s  and  c a r e e r s o f f i c e r s and some c u r r i c u l u m support p e r s o n n e l from o u t s i d e s c h o o l s such as r e g i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t s and method l e c t u r e r s , were not seen as g e n e r a l l y h a v i n g much i n f l u e n c e on c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s .  Groups such  as s u b j e c t a s s o c i a t i o n s and s u b j e c t s t a n d i n g committees  were seen by  t e a c h e r s as h a v i n g r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e  curriculum  decisions.  i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r  iii  The teachers  two  as b e i n g  insufficient for  problems which were i d e n t i f i e d by s e r i o u s are concerned w i t h  the l a c k of time.  time f o r c u r r i c u l u m development, the o t h e r , not  lesson preparation.  teachers  Two  staff  education  Of the problems s t a t e d the two  'turnover'  There i s one upon t h i s study.  from one year  - both i n i t i a l  viewed as b e i n g  least  and  serious  experience'  to the next.  o v e r r i d i n g o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t comes through as one And,  is  enough time  were 'the number of s t a f f members w i t h v e r y l i t t l e t e a c h i n g and  One  o t h e r problems p e r c e i v e d as s e r i o u s by many  concern i n s u f f i c i e n c i e s i n teacher  in-service.  the g r e a t e s t number of  that concerns the v i a b i l i t y  reflects  of d e c e n t r a l i z e d , s c h o o l -  based c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n making i n secondary t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s of V i c t o r i a . School-based c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n processes and  a t t i t u d e s on the p a r t of those  seem: to support t h e i r own,  involved.  However, many.of the f i n d i n g s  the view t h a t Humanities t e a c h e r s  to operate  t r a i n i n g and  r e q u i r e c o l l a b o r a t i v e approaches  as s o l o p r a c t i t i o n e r s .  r e a l l y p r e f e r to work on  Consequently, i n i t i a l  teacher  i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n programmes need to acknowledge and  the s k i l l s and  develop  a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d f o r c o l l e g i a l c u r r i c u l u m development  processes. What t e a c h e r s need most f o r c u r r i c u l u m development i s time - time f o r c o l l a b o r a t i v e c u r r i c u l u m development a c t i v i t i e s and and  for lesson preparation,  increased provisions for appropriate i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s . The  data of t h i s study  key p e r s o n n e l  r a i s e c e r t a i n questions  about how  effective  such as p r i n c i p a l s and heads of department are i n p r o v i d i n g  l e a d e r s h i p i n the c u r r i c u l u m development f i e l d or i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e m i l i e u f o r school-based  curriculum  decision-making.  iv  A f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n r a i s e d i s what r e s o u r c e s willing  to make a v a i l a b l e to ensure s u c c e s s f u l  development?  is  the E d u c a t i o n Department  school-based  curriculum  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  PAGE  LIST OF TABLES  v  1  1  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  1  PURPOSES OF THE STUDY  4  Influencers i n Curriculum Decision-Making.  .  4  Major Problems which Teachers P e r c e i v e E x i s t i n the Humanities Teaching Area.  . . .  DATA GATHERING AND ANALYSIS II  INFLUENCES IN CURRICULUM DECISION MAKING ANALYSIS OF RESULTS  5 7 7  What I n f l u e n c e do D i f f e r e n t I n d i v i d u a l s Have? What I n f l u e n c e Do Groups Have? How F r e q u e n t l y a r e C u r r i c u l u m Agency and S e l f - D e v i s e d M a t e r i a l s Used? What Other F a c t o r s  5  7 9  12  Influence  C u r r i c u l u m Decision-Making? DISCUSSION OF RESULTS  14 15  What I n f l u e n c e do C e r t a i n I n d i v i d u a l s Have?.  15  What I n f l u e n c e do Groups Have?  17  How F r e q u e n t l y a r e C u r r i c u l u m Agency and S e l f - D e v i s e d M a t e r i a l s Used?  17  What Other F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c e C u r r i c u l u m Decision-Making?  18  vi  III  PROBLEMS IN TEACHING THE HUMANITIES  19  ANALYSIS OF RESULTS  19  What a r e the More S e r i o u s Problems F a c i n g H u m a n i t i e s Teachers?  19  What Problems a r e Viewed as B e i n g Less Serious?  .  DISCUSSION OF RESULTS  IV  22 2 4  What a r e the More S e r i o u s Problems F a c i n g H u m a n i t i e s Teachers? What Problems a r e Viewed as  24  Being Less Serious?  27  OBSERVATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS SUGGESTIONS  3 2  3 5  Time  3 5  Teacher E d u c a t i o n  3 7  Q u e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Study REFERENCES  3  9 4  APPENDICES  i  44 A.  PRINCIPLES OF EDUCATION  45  B.  HUMANITIES CURRICULUM QUESTIONNAIRE  46  C.  PRELIMINARY, OPEN ENDED QUESTIONNAIRE  59  D. E.  SAMPLING RATIONALE INFLUENCE WHICH INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS OF PEOPLE OR CIRCUMSTANCES HAVE ON DECISIONS ABOUT WHAT IS TAUGHT  F.  G. H.  INFLUENCE WHICH INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS OF PEOPLE OR CIRCUMSTANCES HAVE ON DECISIONS ABOUT WHAT MATERIALS ARE USED THE EXTENT TO WHICH SOURCES OF DIFFICULTY ARE PERCEIVED AS PROBLEMS IN HUMANITIES TEACHING . . . ALTERNATIVE DESCRIPTIONS OF HUMANITIES CURRICULA IN TECHNICAL SCHOOLS  6 8  7 0  7 2  7 4  7 6  vii  LIST OF TABLES  Table  I. II. III. IV. V.  VI. VII.  Page  Who a r e the I n f l u e n c e r s ?  8  What Degree of I n f l u e n c e do Groups Have on What i s Taught?  10  What Degree of I n f l u e n c e do Groups Have on What M a t e r i a l s are Used?  11  How O f t e n do Teachers Use C u r r i c u l u m Agency and S e l f - D e v i s e d M a t e r i a l s ?  13  What o t h e r F a c t o r s  Influence  Curriculum Decision-Making?  14  Problems P e r c e i v e d t o be S e r i o u s  21  Problems P e r c e i v e d to be Not S e r i o u s  23  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The a u t h o r g r a t e f u l l y r e c o g n i z e s the support and a s s i s t a n c e from a number of p e o p l e :  curriculum consultants  c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y  levels.  and t e a c h e r s a t the s c h o o l ,  The study would not have been p o s s i b l e  w i t h o u t the c o o p e r a t i o n from t h e hundreds of t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l t e a c h e r s who not o n l y completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e but who a l s o v o l u n t e e r e d so many h e l p f u l comments.  The e f f o r t s of Mark and S y l v i a Behan who k i n d l y  a s s i s t e d w i t h the c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a and so a b l y coded q u e s t i o n n a i r e responses are p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r e c i a t e d . s t a g e s of the study most s u p p o r t i v e , the d r a f t was much a p p r e c i a t e d . p r o d u c i n g such an e x c e l l e n t f i n a l  L y n e t t e Auer was, d u r i n g  all  and her e x c e l l e n t p r e p a r a t i o n of  And t o Vangie R a f o l s my thanks f o r draft.  A s p e c i a l word of a p p r e c i a t i o n i s due to the t h e s i s committee members, D r . Ian Housego, a v e r y busy Chairman of the Department, who n e v e r gave the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h i s was j u s t another t h e s i s and D r . Jamie W a l l i n ( s u p e r v i s o r ) to whom I am i n d e b t e d f o r h i s generous a s s i s t a n c e and remarkably wise c o u n s e l .  Thank y o u .  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION  A l l too o f t e n i m p o r t a n t p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s get t a k e n w i t h o u t  first  making a c a r e f u l assessment of c e r t a i n c r i t i c a l m a t t e r s . The t h e o r e t i c a l assumption i m p l i c i t i n t h i s p r e s e n t study i s b o t h the ease and f i d e l i t y w i t h w h i c h p o l i c y gets t r a n s l a t e d  that  into  p r a c t i c e i s dependent upon some c a r e f u l l y thought through assessment of j u s t such b a s i c q u e s t i o n s a s :  how r e c e p t i v e w i l l those who a r e t o be  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n be? requisite skills? supportive?  attitudes?  do such persons have the  i s the s u r r o u n d i n g i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  adequate  does t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n time framework a l l o w s u f f i c i e n t  f o r i n p u t s from key p e r s o n n e l ?  time  i s the scheme f l e x i b l e enough t o a l l o w  f o r m e a n i n g f u l change i n response t o those i n p u t s ? Most o b s e r v e r s i n V i c t o r i a , A u s t r a l i a would agree w i t h t h i s view t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n i n 1968 to d e c e n t r a l i z e c u r r i c u l u m  writer's  responsibility  to t h e i n d i v i d u a l secondary t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l was made w i t h o u t an adequate assessment of many o f the f a c t o r s o u t l i n e d  above.  In t h a t y e a r a l l secondary s c h o o l s were asked by t h e c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to (a)  Accept the p r i n c i p l e s of e d u c a t i o n (see Appendix A) a r r i v e d a t through the work of the C u r r i c u l u m A d v i s o r y Board and t h e S t a t e - w i d e C u r r i c u l u m P r o j e c t .  (b)  Use them as a b a s i s f o r w o r k i n g out t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n a l programmes d u r i n g 1969 f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n by s t a g e s b e g i n n i n g i n 1 9 7 0 . ( C u r r i c u l u m A d v i s o r y B o a r d , 1975:6)  More r e c e n t l y ,  however,  i t has been a l l e g e d t h a t many t e c h n i c a l  s c h o o l ' s H u m a n i t i e s departments l a c k comprehensive c u r r i c u l u m documents  2  and some even l a c k statements o f r a t i o n a l e , and s t a t e m e n t s of aims or b a s i c course o u t l i n e s .  Further,  t h e r e are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t  duplication  of t o p i c s taught from one y e a r to the n e x t , t o t a l or p a r t i a l o m i s s i o n of i m p o r t a n t knowledge and s k i l l a r e a s , and the use of l i m i t e d and i n a p p r o p r i a t e r e s o u r c e s have f r e q u e n t l y shortcomings,  then i t  resulted.  If  t h e r e a c t u a l l y a r e such  i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t these c o n t r i b u t e  substantially  to the r e d u c t i o n of t e a c h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s and the q u a l i t y of learning.  student  I t would not be unexpected t h a t i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n ,  teachers  and s t u d e n t s would tend to l o s e e n t h u s i a s m and e x p e r i e n c e a l o w e r i n g  of  morale. T h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y , w h i l e u n a b l e to t u r n t h e c l o c k back to t h e p e r i o d prior  to the 1968 d e c i s i o n , aims to g a t h e r d a t a on the a t t i t u d e s  which  H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s have today toward the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of the d e c e n t r a l i z e d approach which was s e t i n m o t i o n when t h a t d e c i s i o n became a m a t t e r of p o l i c y of the V i c t o r i a n E d u c a t i o n Department. to a s s e s s the adequacy of the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  The study a l s o a t t e m p t s  f o r s u p p o r t i n g and s u s t a i n i n g  such d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . B u t , f i r s t , what s o r t s of e v i d e n c e e x i s t w h i c h suggest t h a t the 1968 d e c i s i o n was n o t , implemented.  i n f a c t , a sound one and w h i c h has not been s u c c e s s f u l l y  Admittedly,  There i s , however,  the e v i d e n c e i s  sketchy.  one r e c e n t r e p o r t , w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t some s u b m i s s i o n s  to the r e c e n t C u r r i c u l u m S e r v i c e s E n q u i r y  '...  r e v e a l e d t h a t many s c h o o l s  a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n implementing as w e l l as s e l e c t i n g or d e v e l o p i n g new p r o g r a m s . '  ( V i c t o r i a n E d u c a t i o n Department,  1977b:65)  A g a i n , an i m p r e s s i o n of the s t a t e of H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h i n g can be g a i n e d from some i n t r o d u c t o r y  remarks i n a r e c e n t address t i t l e d  and the T o t a l S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m . '  'Humanities  3  At the c o a l - f a c e i n the r e a l w o r l d of the s c h o o l , how a r e the H u m a n i t i e s d e f i n e d t h e r e ? The honest answer to t h a t i s , i t depends where you l o o k ! One g l a n c e a t s c h o o l t i m e - t a b l e s r e v e a l s a b e w i l d e r i n g a r r a y of s u b j e c t s such as S o c i a l E n g l i s h , S o c i a l Studies, S o c i a l Science, Integrated Studies, E n g l i s h , Humanities, Topic Studies, e t c . The H u m a n i t i e s appear to be s u f f e r i n g an i d e n t i t y c r i s i s and t h i s has made i t d i f f i c u l t to say w i t h any c e r t a i n t y j u s t what the H u m a n i t i e s a r e . And so I b e l i e v e the time has come f o r us a l l to t h i n k s e r i o u s l y about what our o b j e c t i v e s a r e i n the H u m a n i t i e s . In saying t h i s I r e a l i s e that " o b j e c t i v e s " i s almost a d i r t y word among H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s . ( S m i t h , 1976:1) Diploma of E d u c a t i o n t r a i n e e s , who t e a c h H u m a n i t i e s two days each week i n t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s and spend t h e o t h e r t h r e e a t the S t a t e C o l l e g e o f V i c t o r i a a t Hawthorn, r e p o r t t h a t they f i n d i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t  to  g a i n from t h e i r s c h o o l any c l e a r statement of t h e i r d e p a r t m e n t ' s aims or o b j e c t i v e s  and o n l y r a r e l y ,  they c l a i m , do c o u r s e o u t l i n e s o r  c u r r i c u l u m documents appear to e x i s t .  other  ( V i c t o r i a n E d u c a t i o n Department,  1977a:356)  These t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t s v e r y f r e q u e n t l y  reiterate  the  observations  c o n c e r n i n g the s t a t e of H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h i n g adumbrated  above. A d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e i s the s e l f - c o n f e s s e d l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g by t r a i n e e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h i n g a t the of t h e i r f i r s t y e a r of t e a c h i n g . The e x e c u t i v e  conclusion  ( A u e r , 1976)  of the V i c t o r i a n A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l S t u d i e s  Teachers  (VASST), an i m p o r t a n t c u r r i c u l u m support agency f o r H u m a n i t i e s  teachers,  appears to be aware of some of these problems and i s p r e s e n t l y  considering  a s e r i e s of  'workshops'  for curriculum developers.  The o b j e c t i v e would be  to produce a range of course o u t l i n e s f o r a t o t a l s c h o o l s o c i a l s t u d i e s programme which would be made a v a i l a b l e t o t e a c h e r s throughout T h i s i s seen by t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n as a s t r a t e g y the s h o r t  term.  the s t a t e .  t o improve c u r r i c u l a  in  4  On the b a s i s a l s o of p e r s o n a l , i n - s c h o o l o b s e r v a t i o n s ,  discussions  and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h many t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t s during recent y e a r s ,  t h e r e appear to be some fundamental problems  r e l a t e d to c u r r i c u l a f a c i n g H u m a n i t i e s ' d e p a r t m e n t s .  PURPOSES OF THE STUDY I m p l i e d i n the above d i s c u s s i o n i s the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the  difficulties  w h i c h seem to e x i s t w i t h H u m a n i t i e s c u r r i c u l a i n t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s , can be a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y overcome.  I n o r d e r t h a t p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n s may be  f o u n d , t h i s study f o c u s e s upon a number of o v e r a r c h i n g q u e s t i o n s f a l l i n t o two major c a t e g o r i e s .  which  F i r s t , w h i c h a r e the most i m p o r t a n t  i n f l u e n c e s i n c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n areas?  What i n d i v i d u a l s , groups  of  p e o p l e or c i r c u m s t a n c e s are seen by H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s themselves to have the g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e ?  Second, i n the o p i n i o n of H u m a n i t i e s  what a r e the major problems they p e r c e i v e , to e x i s t i n t h e i r speciality?  Some f u r t h e r I.  teaching  How c l o s e l y do t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s agree w i t h those  a i r e d or c i t e d by  teachers  frequently  observers? e l a b o r a t i o n of these two major q u e s t i o n s  Influencers  i n curriculum decision-making.  follows.  S p e c i f i c questions  include: (1)  What a r e the r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n f l u e n c e among p r i n c i p a l s /  v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s , department h e a d s , t e a c h e r s , and v a r i o u s o u t s i d e such as r e g i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t s and s p e c i a l method l e c t u r e r s w i t h  personnel  respect  to what i s taught and what m a t e r i a l s are used? (2)  What degree of i n f l u e n c e do groups  (such as s u b j e c t  associations,  s u b j e c t s t a n d i n g committees and m i n i - s c h o o l groups) have upon c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s of t e a c h e r s i n the Humanities?  5  (3)  How o f t e n do t e a c h e r s make use of those m a t e r i a l s produced  by v a r i o u s c u r r i c u l u m support a g e n c i e s (such as the Secondary S o c i a l S c i e n c e P r o j e c t and the S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n M a t e r i a l s P r o j e c t , (4)  etc.)?  What o t h e r f a c t o r s a r e seen to i n f l u e n c e the c u r r i c u l u m  d e c i s i o n s of Humanities t e a c h e r s ?  II.  Major problems w h i c h t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e e x i s t i n the H u m a n i t i e s  teaching area. (1)  What are the more s e r i o u s problems f a c i n g H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s ?  (2)  What problems a r e viewed as b e i n g not s e r i o u s ?  T h i s study would be l e s s than h e l p f u l i f  i t f a i l e d to i n c l u d e a  s e c t i o n on i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the improvement of H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h i n g i n Victorian technical schools.  The f i n a l s e c t i o n proposes a number of  s u g g e s t i o n s f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of such b o d i e s as the T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s D i v i s i o n of the E d u c a t i o n Department, the v a r i o u s c u r r i c u l u m s u p p o r t a g e n c i e s and the T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l ' s A s s o c i a t i o n .  DATA GATHERING AND ANALYSIS B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f the f i n d i n g s , a word about the d a t a g a t h e r i n g p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h were u s e d . The p r i n c i p a l v e h i c l e f o r c o l l e c t i n g d a t a was a t e n - p a g e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . (See Appendix B)  T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was developed u s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and  i d e a s gleaned from an i n i t i a l survey of t w e n t y - e i g h t ended type i n s t r u m e n t was used f o r t h a t p u r p o s e .  teachers.  An o p e n -  (See Appendix C)  In J u l y , 1977 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,500 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent to the 108 secondary t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s i n V i c t o r i a w h i c h o f f e r e d c o u r s e s i n the Humanities.  Appendix D a m p l i f i e s f u r t h e r why t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n r a t h e r  than a sample was used f o r t h i s s t u d y .  Teachers who were not  required  6  to i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s , had the o p t i o n of r e t u r n i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e e i t h e r i n b a t c h or i n d i v i d u a l l y .  W h i l e 803 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were  finally  r e c e i v e d , o n l y 608 were r e c e i v e d i n time to be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s  present  analysis.  C o n s i d e r i n g the l e n g t h and c o m p l e x i t y of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and  the time of y e a r i t was r e c e i v e d i n the s c h o o l s , a response r a t e o f o v e r 50 p e r c e n t i s w e l l above a v e r a g e . The responses were coded and punched on computer cards at R o y a l Melbourne I n s i t u t e of Technology ( R . M . I . T . ) and s e v e r a l S . P . S . S . programmes were a p p l i e d t o the d a t a .  ( N i e , and o t h e r s , 1975)  CHAPTER INFLUENCES  II  IN CURRICULUM DECISION MAKING ANALYSIS OF RESULTS  Teachers were asked t o i n d i c a t e the degree of i n f l u e n c e  that  i n d i v i d u a l s , groups of p e o p l e or c i r c u m s t a n c e s have on d e c i s i o n s about what they t e a c h and what m a t e r i a l s they use i n t h e i r  teaching.  Respondents were r e q u i r e d t o i n d i c a t e the degree of i n f l u e n c e as either deal'.  'none a t a l l ' , ' v e r y l i t t l e ' , The f i r s t  'some', 'a f a i r b i t ' ,  or  ' a great  two s e c t i o n s of t h i s c h a p t e r d e a l w i t h the p e r c e i v e d  degrees o f i n f l u e n c e of i n d i v i d u a l s and of groups of p e o p l e .  A later  s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s o t h e r f a c t o r s (or c i r c u m s t a n c e s ) w h i c h were p e r c e i v e d as i n f l u e n c i n g c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s .  What I n f l u e n c e do D i f f e r e n t I n d i v i d u a l s  Have?  A number of items w i t h i n s e c t i o n s D and F of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e concerned w i t h the p e r c e i v e d degree of i n f l u e n c e of c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s upon Humanities t e a c h e r ' s c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s .  I n o r d e r to g a i n a c l e a r  i m p r e s s i o n of the degree of i n f l u e n c e of c e r t a i n s e l e c t e d p e o p l e , c i t e d (unless otherwide stated)  i n d i c a t e the p e r c e n t a g e of  who f e l t t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l s i n f l u e n c e d them i n t h e i r decisions either  'a f a i r b i t '  or ' a great d e a l ' .  7  figures  respondents  curriculum  (See T a b l e 1)  8  Table Who Are The  I  Influencers?*  On what materials a r e used  On what is taught %  %  2.5  2.3  Department Heads  23.7  20.1  Teachers of Same Form L e v e l  46.4  39.9  Teachers of Other Form L e v e l s  17.6  17.2  Others ( R e g i o n a l C o n s u l t a n t s , School Careers O f f i c e r s , A u d i o v i s u a l O f f i c e r , Method L e c t u r e r s , School L i b r a r i a n s , Educational Technologist)2  15.9  31.9  P r i n c i p a l s and/or V i c e - P r i n c i p a l s  n=608 *Data r e p o r t e d r e f l e c t s the c o l l a p s i n g of two columns: and ' a g r e a t d e a l ' . (See Appendices E and F f o r r e s u l t 1 and 2 -  'a f a i r b i t ' details)  i n c l u d e d o n l y i n column 'On what m a t e r i a l s are u s e d ' .  Only 2 . 5 p e r c e n t of t e a c h e r s surveyed r e p o r t e d t h a t p r i n c i p a l s v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s i n f l u e n c e d them ' a f a i r b i t ' d e c i s i o n s about what they t a u g h t .  or  ' a great d e a l '  Even fewer t e a c h e r s  (2.3  or  in  percent)  i n d i c a t e d t h a t p r i n c i p a l s or v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s were i n f l u e n c e r s i n terms of m a t e r i a l s u s e d .  Department heads were thought to be i n f l u e n c e r s  in  r e l a t i o n to what i s taught by 2 3 . 7 p e r c e n t of respondents and i n r e l a t i o n to what m a t e r i a l s a r e used by 2 0 . 1 p e r c e n t of  respondents.  H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s c l e a r l y saw t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s who t e a c h at the same  9  form (or grade) l e v e l as i n f l u e n c i n g them most.  More than 46 p e r c e n t  of t e a c h e r s c l a i m e d t h a t such c o l l e a g u e s i n f l u e n c e d them i n what they t e a c h w h i l e about 40 p e r c e n t c l a i m e d such c o l l e a g u e s i n f l u e n c e d them i n t h e i r s e l e c t i o n of t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s .  Teachers of o t h e r form l e v e l s  were seen as c u r r i c u l u m i n f l u e n c e r s r e g a r d i n g what i s taught and m a t e r i a l s used by a p p r o x i m a t e l y  27 p e r c e n t of  respondents.  Other i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n s c h o o l s , such as e d u c a t i o n a l  technologists  and c a r e e r s o f f i c e r s and some c u r r i c u l u m support p e r s o n n e l from o u t s i d e s c h o o l s , such as r e g i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t s and method l e c t u r e r s , were not seen as g e n e r a l l y h a v i n g much i n f l u e n c e on c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s .  A l l such  i n d i v i d u a l s t a k e n t o g e t h e r were seen as i n f l u e n c i n g what i s taught by l e s s than 16 p e r c e n t of r e s p o n d e n t s .  On the o t h e r h a n d , the s c h o o l  l i b r a r i a n was p e r c e i v e d to be of c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e i n the of m a t e r i a l s .  selection  Only 1 9 . 2 p e r c e n t of respondents r e p o r t e d her/him as  h a v i n g no i n f l u e n c e at a l l , w h i l e 4 7 . 6 p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d her/him h a v i n g at l e a s t some i n f l u e n c e i n r e l a t i o n to m a t e r i a l s e l e c t i o n . a s u r p r i s i n g r e s u l t i n view of the p e r c e n t of t e a c h e r s that  ' a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s ' had e i t h e r  'a fair bit'  This i s  not  (74) who c l a i m e d  or ' a g r e a t d e a l '  i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r d e c i s i o n as to the substance of t h e i r  of  teaching.  What I n f l u e n c e do Groups Have? M i c r o / M i m i S c h o o l Groups, the Drama Resource C e n t r e ,  Subject  Standing  Committees and S u b j e c t A s s o c i a t i o n s were seen by t e a c h e r s as h a v i n g relatively II  l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s .  and T a b l e  III).  (See  Table  10  Table  II  What Degree of I n f l u e n c e Do Groups Have On What I s  Taught?  None  Very Little  A Fair Bit  A Great Deal  %  %  %  %  Subject A s s o c i a t i o n s ( e . g . , VASST)  37.7  20.6  5.9  1.8  Subject Standing Committees ( e . g . H i s t o r y )  56.9  17.4  3.6  0.7  Drama Resource C e n t r e  70.7  12.7  2.1  0.8  M i c r o / M i n i S c h o o l Groups  69.2  5.8  2.3  1.5  n=608 S u b j e c t a s s o c i a t i o n s , such as t h e V i c t o r i a n A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l S t u d i e s Teachers  (VASST) were seen as b e i n g of no i n f l u e n c e on what i s  taught by 3 7 . 7 p e r c e n t of t e a c h e r s and of v e r y l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e by a further  20.6 percent.  I n terms of m a t e r i a l s u s e d , s u b j e c t a s s o c i a t i o n s  were seen by 4 5 . 6 p e r c e n t of t e a c h e r s as b e i n g of no i n f l u e n c e and by 2 3 . 5 p e r c e n t of t e a c h e r s as b e i n g o n l y of v e r y l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e . (See Table  III)  11  TABLE  III  What Degree of I n f l u e n c e Do Groups Have On What M a t e r i a l s A r e Used?  None  Very Little  A Fair Bit  %  %  %  %  A Great Deal  Subject A s s o c i a t i o n s ( e . g . , VASST)  45.6  23.5  5.6  0.8  Subject Standing Committees ( e . g . ,  65.0  14.6  2.3  0.5  Drama Resource C e n t r e  73.7  9.7  1.2  0.7  M i c r o / M i n i S c h o o l Groups  73.5  4.6  2.3  0.7  History)  n=608  S u b j e c t S t a n d i n g Committees, such as the H i s t o r y  Standing  Committee, were a l l seen as b e i n g a g r e a t d e a l of i n f l u e n c e on what i s taught by l e s s t h a n one p e r c e n t and as to what m a t e r i a l s a r e used by l e s s than one h a l f p e r c e n t of r e s p o n d e n t s .  S i m i l a r l y , the Drama  Resource C e n t r e was p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g a g r e a t d e a l of i n f l u e n c e on the s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t m a t t e r or the s e l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l s by l e s s than one p e r c e n t of H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s .  M i c r o / M i n i School Groups,  a l t h o u g h i n c r e a s i n g i n number, a r e not p r e v a l e n t i n the m a j o r i t y  of  s c h o o l s and i t i s t h e r e f o r e not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 p e r cent of respondents saw these groups h a v i n g no i n f l u e n c e upon c u r r i c u l u m decisions.  12  How F r e q u e n t l y Are C u r r i c u l u m Agency and S e l f - D e v i s e d M a t e r i a l s Used? It  i s noted i n Table I I I  t h a t t e a c h e r s used c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s  produced by s u b j e c t a s s o c i a t i o n s and s u b j e c t s t a n d i n g committees t o a f a r l e s s e r e x t e n t than u n i t s of work d e v i s e d by t h e m s e l v e s .  Nearly  90 p e r c e n t of t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d u s i n g s e l f - p r e p a r e d c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s either  'a fair b i t '  or  ' a great d e a l ' .  In c o n t r a s t , the e q u i v a l e n t  f i g u r e f o r u s i n g m a t e r i a l s from A c c e s s S k i l l s P r o j e c t i s 9 . 7 p e r c e n t ; f o r those of the S t a n d i n g Committee on E n g l i s h i n T e c h n i c a l Schools  -  2 . 3 p e r c e n t ; S t a n d i n g Committee on T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s S o c i a l S t u d i e s  -  5.0 percent; S o c i a l Education M a t e r i a l s Project -  3-8 percent;  Secondary  S o c i a l S c i e n c e P r o j e c t - 6 . 6 p e r c e n t ; V i c t o r i a n A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l S t u d i e s Teachers -  7.9 p e r c e n t ; a n d , V i c t o r i a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r  T e a c h i n g of E n g l i s h - 4 . 2 p e r c e n t .  For each o f these c u r r i c u l u m s u p p o r t  a g e n c i e s at l e a s t 47 p e r c e n t of t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d never u s i n g materials.  (See Table  IV)  the  their  13  Table  IV  How O f t e n Do Teachers Use C u r r i c u l u m Agency and S e l f - D e v i s e d M a t e r i a l s ?  " i a l s p r e p a r e d by  Never  Very l i t t l e & sometimes  A fair bit & a great deal  %  %  %  ASPM  48.2  34.7  9.7  SCETS  63.0  29.6  2.3  SCOTSS  47.5  42.3  5.0  SEMP  55.1  35.2  3.8  SSSP  50.2  38.0  6.6  VASST  49.5  37.3  7.9  VATE  54.4  36.3  4.2  0.3  8.8  87.8  Teachers Themselves  n=608  KEY: ASPM SCETS SCOTSSS SEMP SSSP VASST VATE  Access S k i l l s P r o j e c t M a t e r i a l s S t a n d i n g Committee on E n g l i s h i n T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s S t a n d i n g Committee on T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s S o c i a l S t u d i e s S o c i a l Education M a t e r i a l s Project Secondary S o c i a l S c i e n c e P r o j e c t V i c t o r i a n A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l S t u d i e s Teachers V i c t o r i a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the T e a c h i n g of E n g l i s h  14  What Other F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c e C u r r i c u l u m D e c i s i o n Making? I n a d d i t i o n to i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups of p e o p l e i n f l u e n c i n g c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n m a k i n g , o t h e r f a c t o r s or c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r e deemed important.  As i s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e V, each of the f a c t o r s  (available  r e s o u r c e s , p e r s o n a l academic b a c k g r o u n d , p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s / c o m m i t m e n t s , and s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t s )  was seen as i n f l u e n c i n g c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s by  w e l l over h a l f the respondents to t h i s  survey.  Table V What Other F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c e  Curriculum  D e c i s i o n Making?  None or Very L i t t l e  %  Some  %  A f a i r b i t or a great deal  %  4.4  16.1  74.0  18.5  23.4  53.4  Personal Interests/ Commitment  8.3  27.5  60.3  Student  4.3  22.7  69.0  A v a i l a b l e Resources P e r s o n a l Academic Background  Interests  n=608  N e a r l y t h r e e q u a r t e r s of H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a r e d e f i n i t e l y i n f l u e n c e d i n t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s by the available.  they  resources  Over 60 p e r c e n t c l a i m e d t h a t p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s / c o m m i t m e n t s  and s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t s were a l s o i n f l u e n t i a l .  A l s o , more than one h a l f  15  of t h e respondents s t a t e d t h a t p e r s o n a l academic background  influences  c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s as w e l l .  DISCUSSION OF RESULTS  What I n f l u e n c e Do C e r t a i n I n d i v i d u a l s  Have?  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s i n each t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l , t h e o r e t i c a l l y a t l e a s t , r e s i d e s w i t h the p r i n c i p a l .  I t w i l l be  s u r p r i s i n g to many to see how few t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d p r i n c i p a l s and v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s as h a v i n g  influence.  L i k e w i s e , department heads were not seen by t e a c h e r s to be i m p o r t a n t influencers.  It  i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t heads have  f o r the c u r r i c u l u m i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e department. this responsibility  responsibility  In theory at l e a s t ,  i s d e l e g a t e d to them from the p r i n c i p a l .  Again,  many w i l l be s u r p r i s e d to note how few t e a c h e r s regarded the department head as a key i n f l u e n c e . There a r e , of c o u r s e , a number of f a c t o r s w h i c h w i l l h e l p t o why c o l l e a g u e s , t e a c h i n g at the same form l e v e l were p e r c e i v e d by g r e a t e s t number to be i n f l u e n t i a l .  Colleagues generally  share  the  office  and s t a f f room s p a c e .  Teachers of c l a s s e s at the same form l e v e l  curriculum materials.  Frequently,  share  t e a c h e r s o f f e r c o u r s e s s i m i l a r to  those o f f e r e d by t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s o r even use the same s y l l a b u s curriculum guide.  explain  or  Teachers d i s c u s s problems p e c u l i a r to a form l e v e l .  For these reasons i t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t c o l l e a g u e s t e a c h i n g a t the same form l e v e l s h o u l d be seen as i m p o r t a n t c u r r i c u l u m i n f l u e n c e r s . Not u n e x p e c t e d l y p e r h a p s , the s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n was seen by t h e n e x t l a r g e s t number of t e a c h e r s to be i n f l u e n t i a l i n c u r r i c u l u m m a t t e r s .  16  A l l o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s , who might have been c o n s i d e r e d as c u r r i c u l u m i n f l u e n c e r s were seen by t e a c h e r s as a c t u a l l y h a v i n g v e r y influence.  The i n f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s  s c h o o l s , such as a c a r e e r s o f f i c e r ,  little within  an a u d i o - v i s u a l e d u c a t i o n  officer  or an e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i s t , were i d e n t i f i e d as i n f l u e n c e r s  could  v e r y w e l l be a t t r i b u t a b l e to the f a c t t h a t v e r y few s c h o o l s a t  present  have such persons on t h e i r Individuals  staffs.  l o c a t e d o u t s i d e of the s c h o o l , such as r e g i o n a l  c o n s u l t a n t s and method l e c t u r e r s , were seen by v e r y few t e a c h e r s as b e i n g of i n f l u e n c e . either university  For example, l e c t u r e r s i n Methods of Teaching  at  or t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e were not c o n s i d e r e d i n f l u e n t i a l .  I s t h i s because t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were seen to be p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h p r e - s e r v i c e  teacher-education?  I t may be s u r p r i s i n g ,  e s p e c i a l l y to r e g i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t s t h e m s e l v e s , how i n f r e q u e n t l y  they  were p e r c e i v e d by  this  t e a c h e r s as b e i n g i n f l u e n t i a l .  In a d d i t i o n ,  s t a t i s t i c may be regarded w i t h some d i s a p p o i n t m e n t by department officials,  f o r example.  A r e c e n t department r e p o r t made t h i s  statement:  . . . the c o n s u l t a n c y (at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l ) i s a r e s o u r c e p r i m a r i l y g i v e n to s c h o o l s to improve the p r o f e s s i o n a l competence of s t a f f through the s h a r i n g of i d e a s . ( V i c t o r i a n E d u c a t i o n Department, 1977b:86) There appear to be few i n f l u e n c e r s , e i t h e r i n s i d e o r o u t s i d e school.  C o l l e a g u e s who t e a c h a t the same form l e v e l seem to be by  the far  the most s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e r s as f a r as the t e a c h e r s themselves are concerned.  17  What I n f l u e n c e Do Groups Have? As has been documented i n T a b l e s I I  and I I I ,  support  groups  e x i s t i n g o u t s i d e of s c h o o l s were n o t seen by most t e a c h e r s as b e i n g very i n f l u e n t i a l . The Drama Resource  C e n t r e has too s p e c i a l i s e d a f u n c t i o n t o  a t t r a c t the a t t e n t i o n of many t e a c h e r s .  The d i v i s i o n of s c h o o l s  into  m i c r o o r m i n i s c h o o l g r o u p s , w h i l e an i n c r e a s i n g p r a c t i c e , i s as y e t uncommon. There i s a l r e a d y c o n s i d e r a b l e e v i d e n c e , f o r example, t h a t t e a c h e r s r e g a r d communication between themselves and v a r i o u s c u r r i c u l u m s u p p o r t groups as b e i n g i n a d e q u a t e .  (Adams and A u e r , 1 9 7 6 ; C u r r i c u l u m and  R e s e a r c h B r a n c h , 1976; and V i c t o r i a n E d u c a t i o n Department, 1977b) Isolation  (as a r e s u l t of d i s t a n c e )  from the s e r v i c e s , l i m i t e d hours  when support s e r v i c e s are a v a i l a b l e , and l a c k of t e a c h e r i n f l u e n c e o v e r the n a t u r e of the s e r v i c e s and the s e l e c t i o n of s u p p o r t p e r s o n n e l , have been mentioned as f a c t o r s t h a t e x p l a i n why such s e r v i c e s a r e so i n frequently used.  ( V i c t o r i a n E d u c a t i o n Department, 1 9 7 7 b : 6 8 - 6 9 )  o v e r , the i n f l u e n c e of b o t h s u b j e c t a s s o c i a t i o n s and s u b j e c t  More-  standing  committees c o n s i d e r a b l y d i m i n i s h e d once s c h o o l s a t t a i n e d c u r r i c u l u m autonomy and e x t e r n a l e x a m i n a t i o n s were e l i m i n a t e d .  How F r e q u e n t l y a r e C u r r i c u l u m Agency and S e l f - D e v i s e d M a t e r i a l s Used? I t w i l l be s u r p r i s i n g t o many t h a t t h e r e was so l i t t l e use made of the many c u r r i c u l u m support m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e to t e a c h e r s .  These  m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e p h i l o s o p h i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l p a p e r s , a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s g u i d e s , t o p i c o u t l i n e s and s i n g l e t o p i c f u l l  curriculum  packages w i t h student e x e r c i s e s , a u d i o - v i s u a l and o t h e r r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s ,  18  and e v a l u a t i o n e x e r c i s e s .  Y e t , d e s p i t e such seemingly  relevant  m a t e r i a l s , they were not used v e r y much by H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s . Perhaps the e x p l a n a t i o n s o f f e r e d p r e v i o u s l y  as to why v a r i o u s  groups  e x e r t so l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e are a l s o a p p l i c a b l e h e r e .  What Other F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c e  C u r r i c u l u m D e c i s i o n Making?  A l a r g e number of t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s , as ' p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s and/or commitments' and t h e i r  their  ' p e r s o n a l academic  b a c k g r o u n d ' , were v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s . (See T a b l e V)  In f a c t ,  i n d i v i d u a l o r group.  the number i s g r e a t e r than f o r any s i n g l e  (See Appendix E f o r these c o m p a r a t i v e d a t a )  I n l i g h t of the f a c t t h a t n e a r l y h a l f the H u m a n i t i e s f e l t that  ' g e t t i n g students i n t e r e s t e d i n Humanities' c o n s t i t u t e d  a c o n s i d e r a b l e or a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m , i t 70 p e r c e n t of t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d  comes as no s u r p r i s e t h a t  'student  their curriculum decisions ' a f a i r b i t ' It  teachers  or  interests' ' a great  i s a l s o not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t e a c h e r ' s  commitments f r e q u e n t l y  nearly  as i n f l u e n c i n g deal'.  'personal interests  i n f l u e n c e what i s t a u g h t .  either  I t would appear  t e a c h e r s of the H u m a n i t i e s , s i n c e they a r e not v e r y s p e c i f i c a l l y  or that directed  as to what they ought to t e a c h , seem to be c o n t e n t to 'do t h e i r own thing . 1  An a d d i t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n c o n t r i b u t i n g to t h i s s i t u a t i o n may be  a p e r c e i v e d inadequacy of t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g  ( V i c t o r i a n E d u c a t i o n Department,  1977b:66) • and - of i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s Research A d v i s o r y Committee, S . C . V .  a t Hawthorn,  ( I n g v a r s o n , 1 9 7 5 ; and 1975).  I n the absence of a p p r o p r i a t e i n i t i a l t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n and i n s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n , t e a c h e r s i n s e a r c h i n g f o r c u r r i c u l u m i d e a s and m a t e r i a l s f a l l back on t h e i r p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s and commitments as w e l l as p e r s o n a l academic b a c k g r o u n d .  their  CHAPTER  III  PROBLEMS IN TEACHING THE HUMANITIES  ANALYSIS OF RESULTS  I n o r d e r to g e n e r a t e items f o r t h a t s e c t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e a l i n g w i t h problems f a c i n g H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s , twenty e i g h t  teachers  were asked to i n d i c a t e the problems they p e r s o n a l l y were e x p e r i e n c i n g . An a n a l y s i s of t h e i r responses r e v e a l e d s i x t e e n d i s t i n c t l y problems.  different  These became the items w h i c h the t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y were  asked t o examine, and t o i n d i c a t e whether they regarded each as ' n o t a problem',  ' a s m a l l p r o b l e m ' , ' a c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o b l e m ' , or ' a s e r i o u s  problem. By combining c a t e g o r i e s  ' a c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o b l e m ' and ' a s e r i o u s  p r o b l e m ' and combining the o t h e r two c a t e g o r i e s , t h e r e s u l t a n t  percentage  f i g u r e s y i e l d r a t h e r c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n s as to w h i c h problems were r e g a r d e d as s e r i o u s f o r the g r e a t e s t number of t e a c h e r s . from a h i g h of 6 5 . 8 t o a low of 1 5 . 3 . Appendix G)  The p e r c e n t a g e s range  The mean p e r c e n t i s 3 6 . 5 .  (See  S i x items a r e above the mean, w h i l e t e n are b e l o w .  What Are the More S e r i o u s Problems F a c i n g H u m a n i t i e s Teachers? The s i x problems w h i c h were regarded as s e r i o u s by f o r t y or more p e r c e n t of the respondents a r e as f o l l o w s : 1.  Insufficient  time f o r c u r r i c u l u m development  2.  F i n d i n g time t o p r e p a r e l e s s o n s a d e q u a t e l y  3.  G e t t i n g s t u d e n t s i n t e r e s t e d i n H u m a n i t i e s (49.2%)  19  (65.8%)  (52.6%)  20  4.  G e n e r a l l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g by n o n - H u m a n i t i e s of Humanities t e a c h i n g  5.  Insufficient  teachers  (45.0%)  i n - s e r v i c e education help with  curriculum  teacher t r a i n i n g i n c u r r i c u l u m  (40.0%)  (43.7%)  6.  Insufficient  The two problems which were i d e n t i f i e d by the g r e a t e s t number of t e a c h e r s as b e i n g s e r i o u s a r e concerned w i t h the l a c k of t i m e . i n s u f f i c i e n t time f o r c u r r i c u l u m development, the o t h e r , not  One i s  enough  time f o r l e s s o n p r e p a r a t i o n . H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d the t h i r d most s e r i o u s problem t o be g e t t i n g students i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r subject  area.  The problem which was seen as next most s e r i o u s i s the poor  under-  s t a n d i n g t h a t n o n - H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s have of H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h i n g . The r e m a i n i n g problems w h i c h were thought to be s e r i o u s by a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of t e a c h e r s were concerned w i t h i n a d e q u a t e t r a i n i n g curriculum matters.  in  T h i s p e r t a i n s to i n i t i a l t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g and to  i n - s e r v i c e programmes.  21  Table  VI  Problems P e r c e i v e d To Be S e r i o u s E x t e n t of Problem Not a Problem or S m a l l Problem  C o n s i d e r a b l e Problem or S e r i o u s Problem  %  %  I n s u f f i c i e n t time f o r c u r r i c u l u m development  28.6  65.8  F i n d i n g time to p r e p a r e lessons adequately  41.9  52.6  Getting students i n Humanities  45.4  49.2  G e n e r a l l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g by n o n - H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s of H u m a n i t i e s teaching  49.5  45.0  Insufficient in-service education help with curriculum  48.1  43.7  I n s u f f i c i e n t teacher training in curriculum  52.0  40.0  interested  n=608 Note:  The p e r c e n t s i n each column r e p r e s e n t a c o l l a p s i n g of categories. See Appendix G f o r the f u l l t a b l e .  two  22  What Problems are Viewed as B e i n g L e s s S e r i o u s ? The problems w h i c h most t e a c h e r s regarded as l e s s s e r i o u s a r e as follows: 1.  The number of s t a f f members w i t h v e r y l i t t l e t e a c h i n g experience  (78.8%)  2.  Insufficient  a s s i s t a n c e from c u r r i c u l u m e x p e r t s  3.  L a c k of an o v e r a l l c u r r i c u l u m p l a n (65.3%)  4.  L a c k of v a r i e t y  5.  Inappropriateness  (69.1%)  of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e  (65.2%)  of the c u r r i c u l u m a s s i s t a n c e a v a i l a b l e  (64.8%) 6.  Lack of c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h i n the H u m a n i t i e s department (62.9%)  7.  Insufficient  curriculum materials available  (61.7%)  C l e a r l y , i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s was not p e r c e i v e d by the v a s t m a j o r i t y of H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s as a p r o b l e m .  It  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to  note t h a t o n l y t h i r t y - t w o of the 608 respondents regarded the p r e s e n c e of i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s on a s t a f f as a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m . Two o t h e r  'non-problems' p e r t a i n e d to c u r r i c u l u m a s s i s t a n c e .  One  was concerned w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t t e a c h e r h e l p from c u r r i c u l u m e x p e r t s ( 6 9 . 1 p e r c e n t d i d not r e g a r d t h i s as a problem) w h i l e the o t h e r  focused  upon t h e i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h a t a s s i s t a n c e ( 6 4 . 8 p e r c e n t d i d not see t h i s as a p r o b l e m ) .  23  Table  VII  Problems P e r c e i v e d To Be Not  Serious  E x t e n t of Problem Not a Problem or S m a l l Problem  C o n s i d e r a b l e Problem or S e r i o u s Problem  The number of s t a f f members with very l i t t l e teaching experience  78.8  15.3  I n s u f f i c i e n t a s s i s t a n c e from curriculum experts  69.1  22.4  Lack of an o v e r a l l plan  65.3  28.4  Lack of v a r i e t y of c u r r i c u l u m materials available  65.2  28.7  I n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f the curriculum assistance available  64.8  25.3  Lack of c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h i n H u m a n i t i e s department  62.9  32.0  Insufficient curriculum materials available  61.7  31.4  S t a f f t u r n o v e r from one year to the next  58.4  34.4  Developing teaching ideas and approaches  58.4  34.7  I n s u f f i c i e n t money a v a i l a b l e f o r the purchase of m a t e r i a l s  58.4  35.2  curriculum  the  n=608 Note:  The p e r c e n t s i n each column r e p r e s e n t a c o l l a p s i n g of categories. See Appendix G f o r the f u l l t a b l e .  two  24  A n o t h e r two, not regarded as s e r i o u s problems were concerned w i t h curriculum planning.  One was the l a c k of an o v e r a l l p l a n , the  other  poor c o o r d i n a t i o n i n H u m a n i t i e s d e p a r t m e n t s . The r e m a i n i n g two concerned c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . i n s u f f i c i e n c y of m a t e r i a l s , the o t h e r ,  One was the  the l a c k of v a r i e t y  of m a t e r i a l s .  DISCUSSION OF RESULTS  What a r e the More S e r i o u s Problems F a c i n g H u m a n i t i e s  Teachers?  The problem r e p o r t e d as s e r i o u s by the g r e a t e s t number of H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s i s t h e l a c k of time f o r c u r r i c u l u m development. seen by many to be not s u r p r i s i n g .  T h i s would be  The E d u c a t i o n Department, has  a v e r y l o n g time a l l o w e d each s c h o o l two ' p r o f e s s i o n a l d a y s ' per when s t u d e n t attendance i s not r e q u i r e d .  These days were  for year  frequently  used f o r c o r r e c t i o n of work and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes at the end of an academic t e r m . S i n c e the g r a n t i n g of c u r r i c u l u m autonomy, t h e s e two days have most u s u a l l y been t a k e n f o r t e a c h e r meetings to d i s c u s s s c h o o l aims and objectives, programmes.  to develop c o u r s e s of study or to e v a l u a t e  existing  S i n c e such ' c u r r i c u l u m d a y s ' g e n e r a l l y o c c u r r e d months  a p a r t t h e r e were v e r y few o p p o r t u n i t i e s  a v a i l a b l e f o r any m e a n i n g f u l  curriculum c o n s t r u c t i o n , up-grading or e v a l u a t i o n .  In past decades,  w i t h p r e s c r i b e d and d e t a i l e d c u r r i c u l a r e q u i r i n g o n l y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a t the s c h o o l l e v e l , two p r o f e s s i o n a l days may have been a d e q u a t e . t h a t the e n t i r e c u r r i c u l u m p r o c e s s - R e s e a r c h , Development, and A d o p t i o n -  Now  Diffusion  i s supposed to o c c u r at the s c h o o l l e v e l , v e r y much more  time i s o b v i o u s l y needed f o r c u r r i c u l u m development a c t i v i t i e s .  Aoki  25  ( 1 9 7 7 ) , a Canadian C u r r i c u l u m S c h o l a r , has d i s c u s s e d a t t e m p t s a t such h o l i s t i c c u r r i c u l u m development and has i n d i c a t e d how time consuming such a c t i v i t y  can b e .  The problem o f l a c k of time f o r  curriculum  development h a s , of c o u r s e , been the s u b j e c t of much d i s c u s s i o n Victoria.  in  (See, f o r example, Adams and A u e r , 1 9 7 6 : 9 ; Beeson and Gunstone,  1 9 7 5 : 9 ; C a r l i n and o t h e r s ,  1 9 7 6 : 1 0 ; N i c h o l a s , 1973:98 and V i c t o r i a n  E d u c a t i o n Department 1977b:65) Not l e s s s e r i o u s a problem i s t h a t of f i n d i n g t i m e t o p r e p a r e lessons adequately.  I n a c u r r i c u l u m a r e a l i k e the H u m a n i t i e s which  embrace s e v e r a l d i s c i p l i n e s d e a l i n g w i t h contemporary phenomena, i n d i v i d u a l l e s s o n p r e p a r a t i o n i s of v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e . larly  This i s  particu-  so f o r a s u b j e c t w h i c h r e q u i r e s such t a i l o r i n g a c c o r d i n g to  student's interests.  I t may be r e c a l l e d t h a t a g r e a t number of  Humanities teachers reported being s t r o n g l y  influenced in  their  c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s by t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s expressed by students.  (See Table V)  As one might e x p e c t ,  t h i s problem of  their in-  s u f f i c i e n t time f o r l e s s o n p r e p a r a t i o n i s not unique to H u m a n i t i e s teachers.  Beeson and Gunston (1975) f o r example, found t h a t i t was  a l s o r e g a r d e d by s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s to be a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m . Insufficient  time f o r c u r r i c u l u m c o n s t r u c t i o n and l e s s o n p r e p a r a t i o n  may w e l l r e s u l t i n i n f e r i o r H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h i n g .  There may v e r y w e l l  be a l i n k between the q u a l i t y of t e a c h i n g and the t h i r d most s e r i o u s problem p e r c e i v e d by H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s - g e t t i n g s t u d e n t s i n Humanities.  interested  The w r i t e r has f r e q u e n t l y h e a r d the v i e w a i r e d  t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s t a f f r o o m s t h a t i t i s more d i f f i c u l t  to  in  interest  t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n Humanities than i n most o t h e r a r e a s , especially practical studies.  Students o f t e n q u e s t i o n the  of H u m a n i t i e s to t h e i r f u t u r e j o b a s p i r a t i o n s , f o r example.  relevance  26  Two o t h e r problems p e r c e i v e d as s e r i o u s by many t e a c h e r s  concern  i n s u f f i c i e n c i e s i n teacher education. It  i s l i k e l y t h a t b o t h i n i t i a l t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g and i n - s e r v i c e  e d u c a t i o n f o r t e a c h e r s have not a d j u s t e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y or q u i c k l y enough s i n c e the i n c e p t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m autonomy.  P r e - s e r v i c e courses  c o n t a i n o n l y a s m a l l component d e a l i n g w i t h c u r r i c u l u m development. D e s p i t e p l e a s f o r an i n c r e a s e d c u r r i c u l u m development component i n t e c h n i c a l t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g programmes (Research and A d v i s o r y Committee, S.C.V.  at Hawthorn, 1 9 7 5 ) , the c o m p o s i t i o n of such programmes has  altered l i t t l e .  The s i t u a t i o n i s s t i l l such t h a t the r e c e n t  of the C u r r i c u l u m S e r v i c e s E n q u i r y s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s concern . . .  '...  e x p r e s s e d about the p e r c e i v e d i n a d e q u a c i e s of  t r a i n i n g and i t s e f f e c t s upon the b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r . ' E d u c a t i o n Department, 1 9 7 7 b : 6 8 - 6 9 ) .  report great  teacher  (Victorian  Many s u b m i s s i o n s t o t h a t  enquiry  . . . noted t h a t b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s i n p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i e n c e s p e c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e i r curriculum implementation r o l e , and even more so i n p e r f o r m i n g a c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p ment f u n c t i o n . ( V i c t o r i a n E d u c a t i o n Department, 1977a:66) T h i s need f o r a p p r o p r i a t e t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n i n c u r r i c u l u m extends i n t o y e a r s f a r beyond those of i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g .  There are i n d i c a t i o n s  that t r a d i t i o n a l i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s - u n i v e r s i t y  courses i n c u r r i c u l u m  t h e o r y and e v a l u a t i o n , and c o n f e r e n c e s d u r i n g which ' e x p e r t s '  provide  most of the i n p u t - a r e no l o n g e r s e r v i n g the needs of t e a c h e r s . f o l l o w i n g c i t a t i o n from I n g v a r s o n ,  suggests the n a t u r e of  The  in-service  a c t i v i t i e s i n demand by t e a c h e r s . . . . t e a c h e r s f e e l a s t r o n g need f o r i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n , t h a t i n s e r v i c e courses have caused them t o make changes i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g and t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d p l a y a g r e a t e r p a r t i n c h o o s i n g t h e areas t o be covered and the r u n n i n g of i n - s e r v i c e c o u r s e s . However, when  27  asked to compare i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n w i t h o t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t had i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l development, g r e a t e r importance was g i v e n t o meetings w i t h i n the s c h o o l to d i s c u s s e d u c a t i o n a l t o p i c s , to o r i g i n a l t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g and f o r m a l s t u d y , r e s e a r c h and p r o f e s s i o n a l r e a d i n g . . . . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the most u s e f u l c o u r s e s d e a l t w i t h p r a c t i c a l problems and were d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o the t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n . D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was s t r o n g f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s w h i c h had too many l e c t u r e s w h i c h were too t h e o r e t i c a l and speakers who were i n c o m p e t e n t , b o r i n g , dogmatic and p a t r o n i s i n g . (1975:74) The most u s e f u l i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s t o f o s t e r t e a c h e r  expertise  i n c u r r i c u l u m m a t t e r s seem to be those w h i c h maximise p a r t i c i p a t i o n of teachers i n on-going a c t i v i t i e s .  Matthews (1976) argues t h a t  p r i n c i p a l , and p o s s i b l y a l s o the s c h o o l c o u n c i l , need to cooperative e f f o r t  i n c u r r i c u l u m development.  the  facilitate  The r e s u l t s of  this  p r e s e n t study c o n f i r m the need f o r s i g n i f i c a n t improvement a t b o t h the i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g and i n - s e r v i c e  levels.  What Problems a r e Viewed as B e i n g L e s s S e r i o u s ? A s u b s t a n t i a l number of t e a c h e r s i n t h i s survey d i d not  regard  the number of s t a f f members w i t h v e r y l i t t l e t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e as a problem.  T h i s f i n d i n g i s r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g i n v i e w of the many  s u b m i s s i o n s to the C u r r i c u l u m S e r v i c e s E n q u i r y Department, 1977b) w h i c h s t r o n g l y  argued the  (Victorian  Education  contrary.  One e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n which t e a c h e r s might be i n c l i n e d to o f f e r i s t h a t most of the c o n t r i b u t o r s  t o the  Curriculum  S e r v i c e s E n q u i r y were not c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , but a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , who may have never taught i n the H u m a n i t i e s a r e a , o r , when the e x p e c t a t i o n s were q u i t e  i f s o , many y e a r s  ago  different.  Another problem w h i c h i s o f t e n r e g a r d e d as s e r i o u s by and c u r r i c u l u m commentators i s t h a t of s t a f f  'turnover'  administrators  from one y e a r  to  28  the n e x t .  The C u r r i c u l u m A d v i s o r y B o a r d , f o r example, c l a i m e d t h a t  w i t h the development of unique c u r r i c u l a i n s c h o o l s , the t a s k s of i n c o m i n g t e a c h e r s and of e x i s t i n g s t a f f a r e m a g n i f i e d . '  (1975:8)  Lack of s t a b i l i t y of s t a f f was a l s o p e r c e i v e d to be a problem among science coordinators.  (Beeson and Gunstone, 1975:9)  However, these p r e s e n t d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t most t e a c h e r s themselves do not p e r c e i v e s t a f f  ' t u r n o v e r ' as a p r o b l e m .  R a t h e r , they tend to  see themselves as w o r k i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y of t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s and thus see ' t u r n o v e r ' as h a v i n g l i t t l e e f f e c t upon t h e i r own t e a c h i n g . The l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h i n H u m a n i t i e s departments and the l a c k of o v e r a l l c u r r i c u l a were a l s o not p e r c e i v e d by most t e a c h e r s as problems.  Y e t , more than h a l f the respondents i n d i c a t e d t h a t  s c h o o l d i d not have a w r i t t e n H u m a n i t i e s c u r r i c u l u m .  their  (See Appendix H)  These s t a t i s t i c s t a k e n t o g e t h e r , would seem t o suggest t h a t H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s do n o t see as p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t the e x i s t e n c e of one o v e r a l l s c h o o l Humanities c u r r i c u l u m t o which i n d i v i d u a l s  generally  adhere. Most t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t the number and the v a r i e t y of m a t e r i a l s a r e adequate.  curriculum  S e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r comments on t h e  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , suggested however,  t h a t s u p p l y and v a r i e t y may be more  of a problem f o r t e a c h e r s i n r u r a l areas d i s t a n t from M e l b o u r n e .  In  r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e has been an enormous growth i n b o t h A u s t r a l i a n as w e l l as overseas book and a u d i o - v i s u a l r e s o u r c e s .  A n d , a t the same  t i m e , an i n c r e a s i n g number of c u r r i c u l u m support a g e n c i e s have been created.  Most r e c e n t l y ,  the C u r r i c u l u m Development Centre i n Canberra  has developed a ' c l e a r i n g h o u s e ' f u n c t i o n t h a t s h o u l d h e l p t e a c h e r s keep b e t t e r i n f o r m e d as t o a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s and t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h e s .  29  ( C u r r i c u l u m Development C e n t r e , 1975) Inappropriateness  of c u r r i c u l u m a s s i s t a n c e and i n s u f f i c i e n t  a s s i s t a n c e from c u r r i c u l u m e x p e r t s were not regarded as s e r i o u s by most t e a c h e r s .  I n v i e w of the i n f r e q u e n t use made of  support agency m a t e r i a l s , as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e I I I  curriculum  of Chapter I I ,  would appear t h a t the m a j o r i t y of H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s do not e x t e n s i v e a s s i s t a n c e from o u t s i d e of t h e i r s c h o o l . reports s i m i l a r findings.  it  value  A n s t e e ' s 1976 study  The p o i n t made by Murray more than t e n y e a r s  ago, appears to be s t i l l a p p l i c a b l e  today.  We do not need academics t o t e l l us what and how to t e a c h and examine. We a r e t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y c a p a b l e of w o r k i n g out what our secondary p u p i l s n e e d . (Murray, 1966:20) T h i s v i e w , however,  appears i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o t h a t suggested by  Matthews (1976) t h a t t e a c h e r s l a c k the i n c e n t i v e to be i n v o l v e d p a r t i c i p a t i v e d e c i s i o n making w i t h r e s p e c t to c u r r i c u l u m .  in  Baron (1975)  l e n d s support to t h i s v i e w by i n d i c a t i n g reasons f o r such d i s i n t e r e s t . He c l a i m s t h a t : Some t e a c h e r s c a n ' t g i v e the time to t a l k t o o t h e r s , e . g . those who t r a v e l l o n g d i s t a n c e s ; some m a r r i e d women. Some d o n ' t want to g i v e time to such c o n s u l t a t i o n and o n l y want to be l e f t a l o n e to do t h e i r j o b and be p r o t e c t e d from c o l l e a g u e s by the p r i n c i p a l . Among o t h e r s , the s c h o o l day i s t h a t time when teaching takes p l a c e . (Matthews,  1976:7)  Another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n though, i s t h a t most t e a c h e r s p r e f e r  to  p r a c t i c e as i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s and t a k e p r i d e i n t h e i r a b i l i t y f o r m u l a t e aims and o b j e c t i v e s ,  to develop o r g a t h e r the  to  appropriate  m a t e r i a l s and t o put i n t o p r a c t i c e c l a s s r o o m management s t r a t e g i e s  and  teaching techniques.  'This  A c c o r d i n g t o Massey and o t h e r s  (1977:6), . . .  i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and i s o l a t e d d e c i s i o n making a l l o w s i n d i v i d u a l s to themselves and t h e i r own r e l e v a n c e s . '  develop  To work i n a c o l l e g i a l mode would  30  mean g i v i n g up t h e i r independence a n d , what f o r many would b e , a source of c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . These c o n t e n t i o n s throw some doubt on the v i a b i l i t y z i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  of  decentrali-  f o r c u r r i c u l u m development upon t e a c h e r s .  Summary To sum u p , what has become v e r y c l e a r i s t h a t H u m a n i t i e s p r e f e r to work v e r y much on t h e i r own.  teachers  They are not g e n e r a l l y  influenced  to any g r e a t e x t e n t by i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups w i t h i n or o u t s i d e of school.  P r i n c i p a l s , v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s and department heads  their  apparently  e x e r t l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s of H u m a n i t i e s  teachers.  S i m i l a r l y , o u t s i d e p e r s o n n e l such as r e g i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t s and s p e c i a l method l e c t u r e r s appear to have l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e .  The o n l y p e o p l e who  do seem to s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s '  curriculum  d e c i s i o n s are c o l l e a g u e s who t e a c h at the same form l e v e l . Groups such as s u b j e c t a s s o c i a t i o n s and s u b j e c t s t a n d i n g committees a l s o have l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e upon c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s of t e a c h e r s i n the Humanities. only  Teachers  g e n e r a l l y use m a t e r i a l s produced by such groups  infrequently. F a c t o r s which a r e i m p o r t a n t i n H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s '  d e c i s i o n s i n c l u d e ' t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e s o u r c e s '  curriculum  and ' s t u d e n t  interests'.  The two problems w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d by the g r e a t e s t number of t e a c h e r s as b e i n g s e r i o u s a r e concerned w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t t i m e : time f o r c u r r i c u l u m development and i n s u f f i c i e n t  insufficient  time f o r l e s s o n p r e p a r a t i o n .  On the o t h e r h a n d , problems viewed as b e i n g l e s s s e r i o u s the number of t e a c h e r s w i t h v e r y l i t t l e t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e ,  include insufficient  31  a s s i s t a n c e from c u r r i c u l u m plan.  experts,  and  l a c k of an o v e r a l l  curriculum  CHAPTER IV OBSERVATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS  There i s one o v e r r i d i n g o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t comes through as one r e f l e c t s upon the f i n d i n g s from t h i s s t u d y .  A n d , t h a t concerns  the  v i a b i l i t y of any scheme w h i c h seeks t o d e c e n t r a l i z e c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n making.  C o n n e l l y , a noted c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r i s t i n Canada speaks v e r y  f o r c e f u l l y on the m a t t e r of d e c e n t r a l i z e d c u r r i c u l u m development: W i t h o u t an adequate u n d e r s t a n d i n g of how t e a c h e r s make c u r r i c u l u m c h o i c e s and w i t h o u t adequate mechanisms f o r e d u c a t i n g t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r r o l e s as c h o i c e - m a k e r s , i t i s i r r e s p o n s i b l e romanticism to delegate curriculum-development a u t h o r i t y to t e a c h e r s .  (1972:170) So many of the f i n d i n g s seem t o support the v i e w t h a t H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s , f o r example, r e a l l y p r e f e r to work on t h e i r own, t o o p e r a t e as s o l o p r a c t i t i o n e r s .  For example, most t e a c h e r s d i d not see s u p e r -  v i s o r y p e r s o n n e l as h e l p f u l ; they d i d not u s e , to any g r e a t  extent,  r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e u n i t s of work; they were not t r o u b l e d by the f a c t t h a t t h e r e f r e q u e n t l y was l i t t l e or no c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h i n  their  d e p a r t m e n t s ; they were unconcerned about t e a c h e r ' t u r n o v e r ' and about the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number of i n e x p e r i e n c e d among them. However, s c h o o l - b a s e d c u r r i c u l u m c o n s t r u c t i o n , i f  i t i s t o become  v i t a l and c r e a t i v e , r e q u i r e s c o l l a b o r a t i v e approaches and a t t i t u d e s on the p a r t of those i n v o l v e d .  It  r e q u i r e s some s h a r i n g of knowledge and  t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s ; i t r e q u i r e s s y s t e m a t i c and c o n t i n u o u s a t t e n t i o n t o u p g r a d i n g of o n e ' s knowledge and e x p e r t i s e through i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n . (It  w i l l be remembered t h a t the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m autonomy  32  33  provisions  from the l a t e 1960's and onwards s t r o n g l y  based a p p r o a c h , not an i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r  implied a school  approach.)  Q u i t e a p a r t from t h i s tendency of i n d i v i d u a l H u m a n i t i e s  teachers  toward a s o l o p r a c t i c e , t h e r e are s e v e r a l o t h e r c r i t i c a l f i n d i n g s  that  undoubtedly have an e f f e c t upon the q u a l i t y o f the H u m a n i t i e s programme and i n d i r e c t l y ,  surely,  technical school Firstly,  the amount of i n t e r e s t w h i c h i t h o l d s  for  students.  i t i s d i f f i c u l t not t o c o n c l u d e from t h e d a t a t h a t  the  c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s now r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n the H u m a n i t i e s f i e l d a r e l e s s than adequate. i n Chapter II  T h i s a s s e r t i o n i s based on the e v i d e n c e  outlined  w h i c h i s t h a t a g r e a t many t e a c h e r s do not make much use  of such m a t e r i a l s as produced by S u b j e c t A s s o c i a t i o n s and S t a n d i n g Committees.  It  i s e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s e m a t e r i a l s themselves  are of a very high q u a l i t y .  The f a c t , t h o u g h , t h a t they a r e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  i g n o r e d by so many, suggests some s e r i o u s f a u l t s e i t h e r i n the way the m a t e r i a l s were produced  (i.e.  with l i t t l e direct  involvement of Humanities  t e a c h e r s themselves) o r i n the way the m a t e r i a l s have been i n t r o d u c e d and m a r k e t e d . Secondly,  the s u p e r v i s o r y  p e r s o n n e l who would be expected to be  s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e i r f i e l d , namely, the heads o f H u m a n i t i e s d e p a r t m e n t s , and c u r r i c u l u m c o n s u l t a n t s l o c a t e d i n each of the r e g i o n s , a r e not g e n e r a l l y p e r c e i v e d by the t e a c h e r s themselves as b e i n g s o u r c e s of h e l p . T h i s was a l s o the case w i t h S u b j e c t A s s o c i a t i o n s and S t a n d i n g Committees such as VASST and SCETS. Why i s t h i s the case?  T h i s study does not e x p l o r e the why.  (That  might w e l l be the f o c u s f o r a f o l l o w i n g s t u d y , w h i c h uses a more i n depth i n t e r v i e w a p p r o a c h . )  B u t , the f a c t remains t h a t t h e s e  resources  34  are not b e i n g used by most t e a c h e r s .  And, t h e r e f o r e , one p o t e n t i a l  f o r making s c h o o l based c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g more e f f e c t i v e being s e r i o u s l y  is  under-utilized.  T h i r d l y , t h e evidence as found i n the p e r c e p t i o n s of H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s , s t r o n g l y q u e s t i o n the adequacy of b o t h i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g and i n - s e r v i c e education.  The p r e s e n t s c h o o l - b a s e d approach c e r t a i n l y  r e q u i r e s a much more s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e a c h e r than t h a t of an e a r l i e r e r a . Hence the i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g programme needs to be of a d i f f e r e n t s o r t  -  one w h i c h acknowledges t h a t t h e r e a r e unique s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d f o r a g r e a t e r s e l f s u f f i c i e n c y i n c u r r i c u l u m development p r o c e s s e s and s k i l l s . No l e s s i m p o r t a n t i s an adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r education.  Downey c l a i m s t h a t  in-service  ...  . . . the purposes of modern programs of i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n f o r educators a r e : (1) t o a s s i s t t e a c h e r s to keep i n f o r m e d of and u p - t o - d a t e on the l a t e s t developments i n the f i e l d s of study w h i c h r e l a t e to the s u b s t a n c e of t h e i r t e a c h i n g ; (2) to a s s i s t t e a c h e r s to keep informed of r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s and developments i n the t e c h n i q u e s of t e a c h i n g ; and (3) t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l forum f o r the communication, debate and a n a l y s i s of i d e a s which a r e of c o n c e r n t o e d u c a t o r s . (Ingram and R o b i n s o n , 1963:4) Adequate p r o v i s i o n i s most d e f i n i t e l y l a c k i n g i n V i c t o r i a i f one i s b e l i e v e ther.data p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s Finally,  to  report.  the most s e r i o u s impediment t o a s a t i s f a c t o r y  realization  of the aims of a s c h o o l - b a s e d approach i s the s h o r t a g e of t i m e .  Teachers  overwhelmingly i d e n t i f i e d as a most s e r i o u s problem t h e inadequacy of time f o r c u r r i c u l u m development and f o r l e s s o n p r e p a r a t i o n .  35  SUGGESTIONS  The s e c t i o n w h i c h f o l l o w s makes a number of s u g g e s t i o n s w h i c h d e r i v e from t h e f o r e g o i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s and r a i s e s s e v e r a l a d d i t i o n a l questions.  Time What t e a c h e r s need most i f  they a r e to have g r e a t e r  f o r c u r r i c u l u m development i s t i m e .  responsibility  (While t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s  w i t h H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s , t h e p o i n t s made a r e , u n d o u b t e d l y , v a l i d f o r teachers i n other subject areas.)  concerned  equally  E s s e n t i a l l y , periods  of  perhaps a w e e k ' s d u r a t i o n a r e r e q u i r e d f o r c u r r i c u l u m development w i t h i n Humanities departments.  The p e r i o d j u s t p r i o r t o the b e g i n n i n g of an  academic y e a r would l i k e l y be the most a p p r o p r i a t e .  D u r i n g t h i s time  the s t a f f would undertake u p - d a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s such as r e v i s i o n  of  c o u r s e s , s e l e c t i n g new m a t e r i a l s and c o o p e r a t i v e l y d e v e l o p i n g s c h e d u l e s f o r v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s b o t h w i t h i n and o u t s i d e t h e s c h o o l .  An i m p o r t a n t  t a s k f o r t h i s p e r i o d would s u r e l y be t h a t of h e l p i n g t e a c h e r s who were new to the s c h o o l become f a m i l i a r w i t h the programmes and p r o c e d u r e s . I n a d d i t i o n , time must be p r o v i d e d f o r i n - s e r v i c e o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n of H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s . Among the s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e ways of a c h i e v i n g more time would be s h o r t e n i n g t h e summer v a c a t i o n f o r t e a c h e r s from s i x weeks t o  five  weeks and s h o r t e n i n g by t h r e e days each of the o t h e r two h o l i d a y p e r i o d s . I t w i l l be remembered t h a t some y e a r s back the May v a c a t i o n used to be o n l y one week i n d u r a t i o n .  A second week was added f o r the e x p r e s s e d  36  purpose of p r o v i d i n g time f o r i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s seminars and c u r r i c u l u m workshops.  such as a t t e n d i n g  Another a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o reduce  the l e n g t h of the academic t e r m s , but t h i s i s an u n l i k e l y one i n v i e w of i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c concern over r e t u r n s  on e d u c a t i o n a l s p e n d i n g .  Whatever means a r e used to o b t a i n a d d i t i o n a l t i m e , i t  s h o u l d be remembered  t h a t b l o c k s of time l e s s than t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e days a r e l e s s than u s e f u l t o the types of a c t i v i t i e s r e f e r r e d  to e a r l i e r .  Board i n 1975 i m p l i e d i n one of i t s r e p o r t s  The C u r r i c u l u m  Advisory  t h a t t h e r e was need f o r  such s u s t a i n e d p e r i o d s of t i m e . (are) . . . the demands of day to day t e a c h i n g too g r e a t t o a l l o w t e a c h e r s to r i s e above t h e i r immediate s h o r t term needs t o an o v e r a l l l o n g - t e r m and t o t a l v i e w of the c u r r i c u l u m ? (1.975:28) B e f o r e l e a v i n g t h e v e r y i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r of t i m e , a word about time f o r l e s s o n p r e p a r a t i o n .  A t p r e s e n t , most H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s  on a v e r a g e , a one-hour p e r i o d f o r p r e p a r a t i o n This i s c l e a r l y  inadequate.  (and o t h e r t a s k s ) each day.  I t would seem s e n s i b l e to i n c r e a s e  amount of time t o the e q u i v a l e n t of two hours p e r day. be more e f f e c t i v e l y half  used i f  get,  this  Again, i t  might  i t were i n two b l o c k s of t i m e , each of one  day. To p r o v i d e t h i s i n c r e a s e d time means employing more t e a c h e r s  i n c r e a s i n g the s i z e of c l a s s e s , or some c o m b i n a t i o n of b o t h . likelihood,  i t w i l l c o s t more money.  c r i t i c a l as i t  But, i f  In  or all  the time problem i s as  appears to be t o i m p r o v i n g H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h i n g  in  V i c t o r i a n t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s , then a l a r g e r i n v e s t m e n t of time i s  warranted.  I t was McGaw who r e c e n t l y a s s e r t e d : I n e n s u r i n g t h a t d e v o l u t i o n w o r k s , t h e system s h o u l d not o n l y attempt t o p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h the n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s and r e s o u r c e s , i t s h o u l d c o n t i n u a l l y m o n i t o r the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the p r o c e s s of i d e n t i f y i n g needs f o r s u p p o r t as they emerge. (1977:9)  37  Teacher  Education  As has been p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of t r a i n i n g has been q u e s t i o n e d .  It  initial  i s suggested t h a t t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g  i n s t i t u t i o n s r e v i e w the c o n t e n t of t h e i r programmes - i n p a r t i c u l a r those elements concerned w i t h c u r r i c u l u m development p r o c e s s e s and skills.  Since school-based curriculum decision-making c a l l s f o r  colla-  b o r a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n , then i t would seem d e s i r a b l e t h a t such p r o c e s s e s be not o n l y taught but a l s o p r a c t i c e d d u r i n g the i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g period. If  these changes a r e a l r e a d y under way, then so much the b e t t e r .  I t w i l l mean t h a t the n e x t g e n e r a t i o n of Humanities t e a c h e r s w i l l have the b a s i c p r e p a r a t i o n needed f o r a more s u c c e s f u l e x p e r i e n c e i n c u r r i culum development a t the s c h o o l l e v e l . The a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s needs v e r y c a r e f u l s t u d y . (i.e.,  credit)  for  I d e a l l y , both formal  and i n f o r m a l courses i n c u r r i c u l u m development s h o u l d be  a v a i l a b l e on an a f t e r hours b a s i s as w e l l as d u r i n g v a c a t i o n p e r i o d s . The i n f o r m a l o r s h o r t c o u r s e s c o u l d be developed by  subject  a s s o c i a t i o n s i n c l o s e c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l i s t s a t the c o l l e g e or the u n i v e r s i t y  l e v e l , r e g i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c l a s s r o o m  teachers. It  i s t r u e t h a t some such c o u r s e s a l r e a d y e x i s t , u s u a l l y i n the  form of s e m i n a r s .  However, a c c o r d i n g t o d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s  they a r e not a t t e n d e d by most t e a c h e r s .  study,  T h i s suggests t h a t problems  e x i s t i n e i t h e r t h e i r r e l e v a n c e or i n the t e c h n i q u e s of p r e s e n t a t i o n as was e x p r e s s e d e a r l i e r .  They t y p i c a l l y use the l e c t u r e mode, a r e too  t h e o r e t i c a l , and f r e q u e n t l y the s p e a k e r s are  incompetent, b o r i n g ,  38  dogmatic and p a t r o n i s i n g . "  (Ingvarson,  1975:74)  Of c o u r s e , t e a c h e r s ' c e n t r e s s h o u l d not o n l y c o n t i n u e but a l s o i n c r e a s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s whereby t e a c h e r s may share i d e a s and r e s o u r c e s and c o o p e r a t i v e l y develop some. In view  t h a t d a t a from t h i s s t u d y show t h a t few t e a c h e r s made  use of c o n s u l t a t i o n , t h e r e i s need t o examine why t h i s i s s o . t h a t t h e r e a r e too few c o n s u l t a n t s ?  Is  it  A r e some of the c o n s u l t a n t s out of  touch w i t h the r e a l i t i e s of the Humanities t e a c h e r ' s w o r l d and t h e r e b y regarded as i r r e l e v a n t ?  Other reasons?  Answers to such q u e s t i o n s w i l l  r e q u i r e a r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e w h i c h uses a more i n - d e p t h approach such as i n t e r v i e w s  i n v o l v i n g o n l y a s m a l l sample or a study of a r e l a t i v e l y  s m a l l number of c a s e s . It  goes w i t h o u t s a y i n g t h a t t h e r e needs to be a c o n t i n u a l e x a m i n a -  t i o n of the adequacy of the k i n d s of m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e from such resource centres for teachers.  There s h o u l d be a wide range of  materials very r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e .  In a d d i t i o n to classroom m a t e r i a l s ,  such c e n t r e s s h o u l d have on hand i n f o r m a t i o n about c u r r i c u l a i n o t h e r s c h o o l s , c a t a l o g u e s of a v a i l a b l e community r e s o u r c e s and d e s c r i p t i o n s of r e c e n t c u r r i c u l a i n n o v a t i o n s . One cannot l e a v e the q u e s t i o n of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n w i t h o u t wondering how adequate a r e i n - s e r v i c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r such p e r s o n n e l as p r i n c i p a l s and heads of department.  A g a i n these d a t a r a i s e c e r t a i n  q u e s t i o n s about how e f f e c t i v e t h e s e key p e r s o n n e l a r e i n p r o v i d i n g l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m development f i e l d or i n e s t a b l i s h i n g an appropriate m i l i e u for school-based curriculum decision-making. I n a v e r y r e c e n t B r i t i s h Columbia S t u d y , S t o r e y t h a t p u b l i c s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s were v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n  (1978:211)  found  'developing  39  c u r r i c u l u m at the s c h o o l l e v e l ' and ' s t i m u l a t i n g t e a c h e r ' s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l growth.' ones f o r p r i n c i p a l s '  interest  Such areas of concern seem t o be i m p o r t a n t  c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s f o r example.  It  would seem t h a t those who a r e d e s i g n i n g c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s f o r s c h o o l l e a d e r s s h o u l d keep t h i s f i n d i n g i n m i n d . It  has been c l e a r l y a l l e g e d  that,  The growth of s c h o o l - b a s e d c u r r i c u l u m development r e q u i r e s a r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d concept of s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The development of a whole s c h o o l approach to c u r r i c u l u m r e q u i r e s the involvement of t h e whole s c h o o l : a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t e a c h i n g s t a f f , s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s . ( C u r r i c u l u m A d v i s o r y B o a r d , 1976:5)  Questions R e q u i r i n g Further  Discussion  To c o n c l u d e , here a r e some a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s d e s e r v i n g further  of  thought and e x p l o r a t i o n .  Is i t  too much to expect from b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  to be i n v o l v e d i n the d e v i s i n g of c u r r i c u l u m packages?  Ought i n e x p e -  r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s t o be encouraged to f o l l o w ready made programmes of high quality?  I s i n i t i a l t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n the a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e  for  i n t r o d u c i n g H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s to c u r r i c u l u m b u i l d i n g p r o c e s s e s ?  If  s o , what s h o u l d be o m i t t e d from p r e s e n t i n i t i a l t e a c h e r  preparation?  Would i t be more r e a l i s t i c to see c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n as the mode f o r the development of c u r r i c u l u m c o n s t r u c t i o n s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s ? Finally,  s i n c e few of the s u g g e s t i o n s of the e a r l i e r s e c t i o n w i l l  be a c t e d upon w i t h o u t support b o t h f i n a n c i a l and m o r a l from t h e E d u c a t i o n Department, what p i r o r i t y  does t h a t Department g i v e to the  t o p i c w h i c h t h i s study has a d d r e s s e d , namely H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h i n g t e c h n i c a l schools?  What p r i o r i t y  in  does the Department g i v e to e n s u r i n g  40  t h a t d e v o l u t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s upon the s c h o o l s working s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ?  This w r i t e r  is  agrees w i t h S u l l i v a n who s t a t e d  that D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m development cannot be viewed as a means of p r o d u c i n g c u r r i c u l u m f o r l e s s e x p e n d i t u r e of funds When a s c h o o l system approaches a problem which c a l l s f o r c u s t o m i z e d c u r r i c u l u m development, i t must be c o g n i z a n t t h a t the c o s t s f o r such an approach w i l l be g r e a t e r . (1975:12)  41  REFERENCES Adams, K e v i n J . and P e t e r R. Auer 1976 Submission to the C u r r i c u l u m S e r v i c e s Melbourne: S . C . V . at Hawthorn Anstee, 1976  Enquiry.  J. 'The p r o f e s s i o n a l needs of t e a c h e r s i n the i n i t i a l y e a r s service i n schools.' Report to the A u s t r a l i a n Teachers F e d e r a t i o n Annual Conference (January)  of  A o k i , Ted T. 1977 ' T h e o r e t i c dimensions of c u r r i c u l u m : R e f l e c t i o n s from a micro-perspective' Canadian J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n 2 ( 1 ) : 4 9 - 5 6 A u e r , P e t e r R. 1976 Teacher D e c i s i o n s i n C u r r i c u l u m and the H u m a n i t i e s V i c t o r i a n Secondary T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s . M e l b o u r n e : at Hawthorn (mimeo).  in S.C.V.  B a r o n , G. 1975 'The s c h o o l as a d e c i s i o n making u n i t on c u r r i c u l u m . ' L e c t u r e g i v e n to V i c t o r i a n C o u n c i l f o r E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Beeson, G.W. and R . F . Gunstone 1975 'The t e a c h e r s ' r o l e i n c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s . ' S c i e n c e Teachers J o u r n a l , 2 1 ( 1 ) : 5 - 1 9  The A u s t r a l i a n  C a r l i n , P . , K. P u r c h a l l and I. Robinson 1976 'The s c h o o l - b a s e d c u r r i c u l u m . C u r r i c u l u m and Research B u l l e t i n , Melbourne: E d u c a t i o n Department, V i c t o r i a , 1 1 ( 1 ) : 9-15 1  Connelly, F.M. 1972 'The f u n c t i o n s of c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t . ' 1 6 1 - 1 7 7 , Toronto C u r r i c u l u m A d v i s o r y Board 1975 C u r r i c u l u m Reform i n V i c t o r i a ' s C.A.B. 1976  Interchange,  Secondary S c h o o l s .  Submission From the C u r r i c u l u m A d v i s o r y Board to the Services Enquiry, Melbourne: C.A.B.  3(2):  Melbourne: Curriculum  C u r r i c u l u m and Research B r a n c h , V i c t o r i a 1976 A P r o p o s a l f o r C u r r i c u l u m Support S e r v i c e s i n V i c t o r i a . Melbourne: E d u c a t i o n Department, V i c t o r i a . C u r r i c u l u m Development Centre 1975 F u n c t i o n s and Mode of O p e r a t i o n of the C u r r i c u l u m Development Centre. C a n b e r r a : A u s t r a l i a n Government P r i n t i n g C e n t r e  42  Ingram, E . J . and F . G . Robinson 1963 A T e a c h e r ' s Guide t o Classroom R e s e a r c h . A l b e r t a Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n  Edmonton:  The  I n g v a r s o n , L. 1975 'The V i c t o r i a n i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n e v a l u a t i o n p r o j e c t . ' Paper p r e s e n t e d t o the f i f t h annual c o n f e r e n c e of the South P a c i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Teacher E d u c a t i o n , Sydney ( J u l y ) McGaw, B. 1977 C u r r i c u l u m S e r v i c e s i n a S t a t e E d u c a t i o n a l System. E d u c a t i o n Department, V i c t o r i a  Melbourne:  Massey, D . , E. Osoba and W. Werner 1977 A l b e r t a E d u c a t i o n , M u t u a l i s m , and the Canadian Content Edmonton: U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a  Project.  Matthews, R . J . 1976 S c h o o l - B a s e d C u r r i c u l u m Development: Problems f o r the A d m i n i nistrator. Melbourne: V i c t o r i a n C o u n c i l f o r E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (mimeo) Moser, C A . 1971  and G. K a l t o n  Survey Methods i n S o c i a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n .  London:  Heinemann  Murray, 1966  K.W. 'Secondary e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l . ' The Secondary T e a c h e r : M e l b o u r n e : V . S . T . A . , 112(20), N i c h o l a s , John 1973 'Change i n e d u c a t i o n ' i n C u r r i c u l u m S t a n d i n g Committee, T e c h n i c a l Schools D i v i s i o n . C u r r i c u l u m Development ' 7 3 . Melbourne: E d u c a t i o n Department, V i c t o r i a , 9 6 - 1 0 6 N i e , N . H . , C H . H u l l , J . G . J e n k i n s , K. S t e i n b r e n n e r and H. Bent 1975 S . P . S . S . S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (second edition). New Y o r k : McGraw-Hill. Research and A d v i s o r y Committee, S t a t e C o l l e g e of V i c t o r i a a t Hawthorn. 1975 The R o l e of Teachers i n V i c t o r i a n T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n . Melbourne: S . C . V . at Hawthorn, Smith, Kevin 1976 ' H u m a n i t i e s and the t o t a l s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m ' Exchange, 2 4 . M e l b o u r n e : E d u c a t i o n Department, V i c t o r i a (May) S t o r e y , Vernon J . 1978 W o r k - r e l a t e d L e a r n i n g E f f o r t s of S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s : An E x p l o r a t o r y Study. Unpublished d o c t o r a l t h e s i s , Vancouver, U.B.C.  43  S u l l i v a n , L.M. 1975 'Urban s c h o o l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and c u r r i c u l u m development: views and i m p l i c a t i o n s ' , i n E z r a I. S t a p l e s ( e d . ) , Impact of D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n on C u r r i c u l u m . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : Associat i o n f o r S u p e r v i s i o n and C u r r i c u l u m Development, V i c t o r i a n E d u c a t i o n Department 1977(a) C u r r i c u l u m S e r v i c e s E n q u i r y : 1 : S u b m i s s i o n s of I n d i v i d u a l s . V i c t o r i a (February).  Summaries of W r i t t e n S u b m i s s i o n s , M e l b o u r n e : E d u c a t i o n Department,  1977(b) C u r r i c u l u m S e r v i c e s E n q u i r y D r a f t R e p o r t . E d u c a t i o n Department, V i c t o r i a ( J u l y )  Melbourne:  APPENDIX A PRINCIPLES OF EDUCATION  45  PRINCIPLES OF EDUCATION (a)  The f i r s t f o u r y e a r s of Secondary E d u c a t i o n ( p o s s i b l y the  first  f i v e ) s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d y e a r s of g e n e r a l n o n - s p e c i a l i s t e d u c a t i o n , open t o everyone w i t h o u t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of  sex,  b a c k g r o u n d , a p t i t u d e or means. (b)  Organization should t r y  to ensure c l o s e t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t  and  s t u d e n t - s t u d e n t c o n t a c t and be f l e x i b l e enough t o p e r m i t v a r i e d g r o u p i n g a n d , i f n e c e s s a r y , easy abandonment of subject (c)  traditional  categories.  The b a s i c c u r r i c u l u m o f f e r e d , though i t may be open to wide choice w i t h i n i t ,  s h o u l d embrace at l e a s t the A r t s ,  S c i e n c e s , Mathematics and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . however,  It  Social  i s not s u p p o s e d ,  t h a t a l l o r any of these need be o f f e r e d as s e p a r a t e  " d i s c i p l i n e s " , nor indeed t h a t t h e r e must be any f i x e d p a t t e r n s w i t h i n or between s c h o o l s . ature, (d)  (The A r t s a r e t a k e n t o cover  liter-  the v i s u a l a r t s , m u s i c , f i l m and drama.)  There i s no p l a c e f o r c o m p e t i t i v e assessment i n Secondary S c h o o l . Whatever assessment i s done s h o u l d be seen as a f u n c t i o n of  the  e s s e n t i a l communication between s c h o o l and c h i l d and between s c h o o l and p a r e n t s .  (e)  Methods of t e a c h i n g s h o u l d encourage i n t e l l e c t u a l independence i n students.  L e a r n i n g s h o u l d be thought of as a c o o p e r a t i v e ,  not an a u t h o r i t a r i a n , s i t u a t i o n .  (Curriculum Advisory  Board)  APPENDIX B HUMANITIES CURRICULUM QUESTIONNAIRE  47  P e t e r R.  Auer,  4 August 1977  Dear C o l l e a g u e , The e n c l o s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s an attempt to g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d to C u r r i c u l u m i n the Humanities i n V i c t o r i a n Secondary T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s . I t seeks t o h e l p answer t h r e e fundamental q u e s t i o n s : (i)  What a r e the t r e n d s i n H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h i n g i n V i c t o r i a n Secondary T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s at p r e s e n t ?  (ii)  What are the reasons f o r the p r e s e n t t r e n d s and general s i t u a t i o n ?  (iii)  What a r e the major problems and how might these be overcome?  I am aware t h a t c o m p l e t i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s o f t e n t e d i o u s and time consuming, and f r e q u e n t l y the r e s u l t s of a study a r e never published. I w i s h t o s t r e s s t h a t r e s u l t s from t h i s study w i l l be p u b l i s h e d and t h a t recommendations f o r i m p r o v i n g the C u r r i c u l u m i n Humanities i n V i c t o r i a n Secondary T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e to t e a c h e r s . I w i s h to s t r e s s t h a t your r e p l y w i l l be anonymous, t h a t you as an i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d not be i d e n t i f i e d . Should you have any q u e r i e s , you c o u l d d i r e c t them t o me at the C o l l e g e . Yours  sincerely,  P e t e r R. Enclosure  Auer  48  HUMANITIES CURRICULUM QUESTIONNAIRE  (A)  SOME DETAILS ABOUT YOURSELF Place a t i c k ( 1.  J  ) i n the a p p r o p r i a t e box where a p p l i c a b l e .  Sex 10  Male Female 2.  Age ( y e a r s )  26 - 30 31 - 35 36 - 40 Over 40 3.  11  21 - 25  Y e a r s of T e a c h i n g E x p e r i e n c e  2 3~ 4~ 5~ 12  Less than 1 1 - 3 3 - 8 8-15 More t h a n 15  Are you employed'  Full-time  2 3~ 4~ 5~  13  Part-time 5.  Where d i d you do your i n i t i a l t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g ? La Trobe Melbourne  University University  14  49  Monash U n i v e r s i t y S . C . V . a t Hawthorn S . C . V . a t Melbourne S . C . V . a t Rusden Other (Please s p e c i f y ) What major s t u d i e s d i d you t a k e i n y o u r f i r s t degree o r diploma?  o f f i c e use o n l y  7.  15-16  What were y o u r "method s t u d i e s " d u r i n g t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g ?  17-18 o f f i c e use o n l y  Do you have any f u r t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n E d u c a t i o n ? B.Ed. M.Ed. Ph.D. Other (please s p e c i f y )  19 20 21 22  50  How many hours per week do you p r e s e n t l y  Form I Form  II  Form  III  Form IV Form V If other, s p e c i f y name of s u b j e c t NOTE:  t e a c h a t each form l e v e l ?  23 - 24  33 - 34  43 - 44  53 - 54  25 - 26  35 - 36  45 - 46  55 - 56  27 - 28  37 - 38  47 - 48  57 - 58  29 - 30  39 - 40  49 - 50  59 - 60  31 - 32  41 - 42  51 - 52  61 - 62  63  64  65  66  PLEASE DISREGARD COMPUTER REFERENCE NUMBERS IN BOXES  Are you a s t u d e n t  teacher?  67  Yes No  How many I n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n f u n c t i o n s have you a t t e n d e d d u r i n g the l a s t 12 months? Please  68-69  specify:  2/1-6 Dup  MAJOR AIMS/OBJECTIVES  7[3  F r e q u e n t l y mentioned a i m s / o b j e c t i v e s of H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h i n g a r e l i s t e d b e l o w . P l e a s e rank t h e s e i n o r d e r of importance by p l a c i n g 1 b e s i d e the i t e m you t h i n k i s most i m p o r t a n t , 2 b e s i d e the i t e m you t h i n k n e x t i n importance and so o n . 1.  To develop s t u d e n t ' s b a s i c communication s k i l l s  2.  To develop i n s t u d e n t s a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h e m s e l v e s , t h e i r f a m i l y and the community.  3.  To develop b a s i c r e s e a r c h s k i l l s and t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s  4.  To a l l o w s t u d e n t s to c l a r i f y and develop a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s .  5.  To i n c r e a s e the s t u d e n t ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g him/herself.  2/10 to  2/11 2/12 2/13 2/14  of  6.  To t e a c h f o r m a l E n g l i s h s k i l l s l i k e grammar and s p e l l i n g  7.  To i n c r e a s e the s t u d e n t ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g him/herself.  8.  To enable s t u d e n t s to c r e a t i v e l y themselves.  Others:  F u r t h e r comments:  express  of  52  (C)  LEARNING ACTIVITIES Below i s a l i s t of l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s used by H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s . Rank these a c c o r d i n g t o t h e amount o f time you spend on them a t each form l e v e l you t e a c h . Use 1 f o r the a c t i v i t y t a k i n g most H u m a n i t i e s t i m e , 2 f o r the next most t i m e - c o n s u m i n g a c t i v i t y and so o n . FORMS I  II  III  IV  V  10  24  38  52  66  11  25  39  53  67  12  26  40  54  68  13  27  41  55  69  5 . f o r m a l E n g l i s h e x e r c i s e s 14 ( e . g . s p e l l i n g & grammar) 15 6. w o r k i n g from a b a s i c textbook 16 7. u s i n g audio t a p e s , f i l m s and v i d e o 17 8 . e x c u r s i o n s and/or o u t s i d e room a c t i v i t y 18 9. teacher i n i t i a t e d class lesson 19 10. c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g exercises 20 11. teacher i n i t i a t e d r e s e a r c h assignment 21 12. c l a s s r o o m d i s c u s s i o n  28  42  56  70  29  43  57  71  30  44  58  72  31  45  59  73  32  46  60  74  33  47  61  75  34  48  62  76  35  49  63  77  22  36  50  64  78  23  37  51  65  79  1 . drawing and i n t e r p r e t i n g graphs & maps 2. student i n i t i a t e d r e s e a r c h assignment 3 . guest speaker 4. reading  13. s i m u l a t i o n games and role playing Other:  1  F u r t h e r comments:  53  (D)  INDICATE THE DEGREE OF INFLUENCE WHICH EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PEOPLE, GROUPS OF PEOPLE OR CIRCUMSTANCES HAVE ON YOUR DECISIONS ABOUT WHAT YOU TEACH. W r i t e one of t h e s e numbers i n each box t o i n d i c a t e the degree of i n f l u e n c e you a t t r i b u t e t o each.  NONE AT ALL VERY LITTLE SOME A FAIR BIT A GREAT DEAL  -  WRITE WRITE WRITE WRITE WRITE  1 2 3 4 5  1.  Teachers of the same form l e v e l at your s c h o o l  10  2.  Teachers of o t h e r form l e v e l s a t your s c h o o l  11  3.  Head of department  4.  M i c r o s c h o o l / m i n i s c h o o l group  5.  P r i n c i p a l and/or V i c e - P r i n c i p a l  6.  Teacher t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s  7.  Method l e c t u r e r from a t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g  8.  Subject A s s o c i a t i o n / s  17  9.  Regional consultant  18  10.  S u b j e c t S t a n d i n g Committee  19  11.  Audio V i s u a l E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e r  20  12.  Drama Resource C e n t r e  21  13.  Teachers from o t h e r s c h o o l s  22  14.  School careers  23  15.  Your academic background  24  16.  Your p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s and/or commitments  25  17.  Student  26  18.  A v a i l a b l e resources Other:  13 14 15 institution  officer  interests  Please Specify  Any o t h e r comments:  12  16  28  54  (E)  HOW OFTEN DO YOU USE THE FOLLOWING MATERIALS IN YOUR TEACHING THIS YEAR? Write one of these numbers i n each box to indicate the frequency with which you use these materials.  NEVER VERY LITTLE SOMETIMES A FAIR BIT A GREAT DEAL  1.  Curriculum/course outline (own Department)  2.  Units of work from SCOTSSS  3.  Units of work from SSSP  4.  Materials from SCETS  5.  Materials from SEMP  -  WRITE WRITE WRITE WRITE WRITE  1 2 3 4 5  1  2  3 A  6.  Materials from VASST  7.  Materials from VATE  8.  School l i b r a r y  9.  Ac cess S k i l l s Project Materials  5  references  10.  Class sets (books)  11.  Units of work devised by yourself  12.  Units of work devised by other people  13.  Films, Slides, Video Tapes, Audio Tapes  14.  Detailed Syllabus from own Department  Other: "'SCETS  (please specify) = Standing Committee English i n Technical Schools  SC0TSSS  =  Standing Committee on Technical Schools Social Studies  SSSP  =  Secondary Social Science Project  ^SEMP  =  S o c i a l Education Materials Project  +  VASST  =  V i c t o r i a n Association of Social Studies Teachers  "VATE  =  V i c t o r i a n Association f o r the Teaching of English  L  Any other comments:  55  (F)  INDICATE THE DEGREE OF INFLUENCE WHICH EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PEOPLE, GROUPS OF PEOPLE OR CIRCUMSTANCES HAVE ON YOUR DECISIONS ABOUT WHAT MATERIALS YOU USE IN YOUR TEACHING. W r i t e one o f these numbers i n each box to i n d i c a t e the degree o f i n f l u e n c e you a t t r i b u t e to each.  NOTE AT ALL VERY LITTLE SOME A FAIR BIT A GREAT DEAL  1.  Teachers  o f the same form  level  2.  Teachers  a t o t h e r form l e v e l s a t your s c h o o l  3.  Head o f Department  4.  Micro  5.  P r i n c i p a l and/or V i c e - P r i n c i p a l  6.  P u b l i s h e r s o r Book Shops' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  7.  School  8.  Regional  9.  Subject a s s o c i a t i o n s  s c h o o l / m i n i s c h o o l group  librarian Consultant  10.  Teacher t r a i n i n g  11. 12.  S p e c i a l Method L e c t u r e r from a teacher training instituion Subject Standing Committee  13.  Audio V i s u a l E d u c a t i o n  14.  Drama Resource  15.  Teachers  16.  School Careers  17.  Parents  18.  Educational Technologist  19.  Student  interests  Other:  (please s p e c i f y )  Any  students  Centre  from o t h e r  o t h e r comments:  Officer  schools  Officer  -  WRITE WRITE WRITE WRITE WRITE  1 2 3 4 5  WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS MOST CLOSELY DESCRIBES THE PRESENT SITUATION IN HUMANITIES AT YOUR SCHOOL (INDICATE WITH A TICK) 1.  Teachers follow an o v e r a l l Humanities curriculum outline but not very much consultation takes place.  2.  There i s an o v e r a l l curriculum outline but i t i s mostly ignored by teachers.  3.  There i s no course outline that I know of and teachers do their own thing with their classes  4.  There i s no t o t a l school Humanities curriculum outline at the moment but some discussion has begun with a view to doing something about i t  5.  There i s a t o t a l course outline and teachers adhere pretty well to the suggested sequence of topics  6.  There i s no written Humanities curriculum outline, but teachers consult with each other frequently to plan new units and to avoid r e p e t i t i o n for students.  7.  There i s a t o t a l curriculum outline and teachers consult frequently about i t s ongoing application.  57  (H)  BELOW ARE SEVERAL ISSUES FOUND BY SOME TEACHERS TO BE SOURCES OF DIFFICULTY IN HUMANITIES TEACHING. INDICATE THE EXTENT TO WHICH YOU REGARD EACH OF THESE AS BEING A PROBLEM IN HUMANITIES TEACHING AT THE PRESENT TIME. NOT A PROBLEM A SMALL PROBLEM A CONSIDERABLE PROBLEM A SERIOUS PROBLEM-  W r i t e one o f these numbers i n each box t o i n d i c a t e the extent to which you r e g a r d each i s s u e as a problem.  WRITE WRITE  1 2  WRITE WRITE  3 4  I n s u f f i c i e n t a s s i s t a n c e from c u r r i c u l u m e x p e r t s (at C & R o r i n r e g i o n s ) Lack of v a r i e t y o f c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e F i n d i n g time t o prepare Insufficient  lessons  adequately  time f o r c u r r i c u l u m development  Lack o f c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h i n the Humanities Department Staff  t u r n o v e r from one year t o the next  The number of s t a f f members w i t h very teaching experience  little  G e n e r a l l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g by non-Humanities t e a c h e r s o f Humanities t e a c h i n g Developing  t e a c h i n g ideas and approaches  G e t t i n g students i n t e r e s t e d i n Humanities Lack o f an o v e r a l l  curriculum plan  I n s u f f i c i e n t money a v a i l a b l e f o r the purchase o f materials Insufficient  curriculum materials available  Inappropriateness available  Any  of the c u r r i c u l u m a s s i s t a n c e  Insufficient  teacher t r a i n i n g  Insufficient  i n - s e r v i c e education help with curriculum  o t h e r comments:  i n curriculum  ( I n c l u d e s u g g e s t i o n s as to how problems might be overcome)  58  (J)  (i)  HOW WOULD YOU RATE THE PERFORMANCE OF THE HUMANITIES DEPARTMENT IN RELATION TO THAT OF OTHER TEACHING AREAS AT YOUR SCHOOL?  low ,  1  (ii)  high  2  3  4  HOW DO YOU BELIEVE STUDENTS RATE THE STATUS OF HUMANITIES COMPARED WITH OTHER SUBJECTS IN YOUR SCHOOL?  low (.  1  (iii)  5  ) high  2  3  4  5  HOW DO YOU BELIEVE THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION RATE THE STATUS OF HUMANITIES COMPARED WITH OTHER SUBJECTS IN YOUR SCHOOL?  low ^  1  ->high  2  3  4  5  Any o t h e r comments;  Your e a r l y r e t u r n of  t h i s form would be v e r y much a p p r e c i a t e d . Thank y o u .  12  APPENDIX C PRELIMINARY, OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONNAIRE  NAME  (optional)  For each i t e m below p l a c e a t i c k ( / ) i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e box.  (A)  Some d e t a i l s about  yourself  Sex female  male  21-25  Age  26-30 31-35 36-40 over 40 Y e a r s of T e a c h i n g  l e s s than 1  Experience  1-5 6-10 11-15 m o r e . t h a n 15 f u l l time  Do you p r e s e n t teach?  p a r t time Where d i d you do y o u r i n i t i a l t e a c h e r  training? L a Trobe  University  Melbourne  University  Monash  University  S.C.V. S.C.V.  at Hawthorn a t Melbourne  S.C.V. Other  (please  Rusden  specify)  Do you have any f u r t h e r  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n Education? B.Ed. M.Ed. Ph.D. Other (please  specify)  How many hours per week do you t e a c h at each form l e v e l ? Form I Form Form  II III  Form IV Form V A r e you a s t u d e n t  teacher? Yes No  (B)  What are your major a i m s / o b j e c t i v e s i n H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h i n g ? ( S p e c i f y up to 5)  Other comments:  62  (C)  (a)  L i s t the a c t i v i t i e s (not t e a c h i n g methods) t h a t you use i n y o u r t e a c h i n g ( e . g . mapping e x e r c i s e )  presently  (b)  I n d i c a t e t h e number of hours you would t y p i c a l l y spend i n each a c t i v i t y a t each form l e v e l i f you were l i m i t e d to 100 hours of h u m a n i t i e s t e a c h i n g w i t h each form you t a k e (ensure t h a t the sum of hours a l l o c a t e d to each form i s e x a c t l y 1 0 0 ) .  Forms Activities  Comments:  I  II  in  IV  V  (D)  I n your p r e s e n t t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n w h i c h of the f o l l o w i n g people o r groups of p e o p l e a c t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e your d e c i s i o n s about what you teach? I n d i c a t e t h e degree of i n f l u e n c e you a t t r i b u t e to each. Any Other Comments; Very little (a)  >  \  \ /  Very great  Teachers of t h e same form l e v e l  (b) Head of Department (c)  Micro school/mini s c h o o l group  (d)  P r i n c i p a l and/or Vice-Principal  (e)  Outside school person (please s p e c i f y )  (f)  Other  (please  specify)  ON CO'  How o f t e n do you use the f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l s i n your t e a c h i n g t h i s year? Never (a)  Sometimes  Often  Always  Curriculum/course o u t l i n e (own D e p t . )  (b) U n i t s of work from SCOTSSS (c) U n i t s o f work from SSSP (d) M a t e r i a l s from SEMP 1  2  (e)  School l i b r a r y references  (f) (g)  C l a s s s e t s (books) U n i t s of work d e v i s e d by y o u r s e l f (h) U n i t s of work d e v i s e d w i t h other people ( i ) F i l m s , S l i d e s , Video Tapes, Audio Tapes (j) D e t a i l e d S y l l a b u s from own d e p t .  Other: please specify  SCOTSSS ? SSSP -  1  3  SEMP  -  S t a n d i n g Committee on T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s Secondary S o c i a l S c i e n c e P r o j e c t Social Education'Materials Project  S o c i a l Studies  Any Other Comments;  (F)  I n y o u r p r e s e n t t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n w h i c h of the f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e or groups o f p e o p l e a c t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e your d e c i s i o n s about what m a t e r i a l s you use i n y o u r t e a c h i n g . I n d i c a t e the degree of i n f l u e n c e you a t t r i b u t e to e a c h . Very little (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)  Teachers of the same form l e v e l Head of Deparment Micro school/ m i n i s c h o o l group P r i n c i p a l and/or Vice-Principal P u b l i s h e r s or Book Shop's r e p r e s e n t a tive Other: (Please Specify)  Any Other Comments:  Very great  Ul  Below a r e s e v e r a l i s s u e s found by some t e a c h e r s to be sources of d i f f i c u l t y i n humanities teaching. I n d i c a t e the e x t e n t to which you r e g a r d each of these as b e i n g a problem i n h u m a n i t i e s t e a c h i n g at the p r e s e n t t i m e . Not a problem Insufficient assistance from c u r r i c u l u m experts (at C & R or i n r e g i o n s ) Lack of v a r i e t y of curriculum materials a v a i l a b l e f o r forms I - IV F i n d i n g time to prepare lessons adequately I n s u f f i c i e n t time for curriculum development L a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h i n the h u m a n i t i e s department S t a f f t u r n o v e r from one y e a r to the n e x t The number of s t a f f members w i t h v e r y l i t t l e teaching experience  s \  \ ?  Serious problem  Any Other Comments  (G)  Continued Not a problem  h)  G e n e r a l l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g by . non-humanities teachers of humanities teaching  i)  Developing teaching i d e a s and approaches  j)  Getting students interested in Humanities  k)  L a c k of an o v e r a l l curriculum plan  1)  I n s u f f i c i e n t money a v a i l a b l e f o r the purchase of m a t e rials  Other: (please  specify)  Serious problem  Any Other Comments  APPENDIX D SAMPLING RATIONALE  69  SAMPLING RATIONALE  When t h i s study was f i r s t b e i n g c o n t e m p l a t e d , a random sample was c o n s i d e r e d as b e i n g a p p r o p r i a t e .  As i t became e v i d e n t  t h a t the p o p u -  l a t i o n f o r t h i s study c o n s i s t e d of v a r i o u s s t r a t a , i t was f e l t t h a t a p r o p o r t i o n a t e s t r a t i f i e d sample i n w h i c h v a r i o u s s t r a t a were r e p r e s e n t e d would be even b e t t e r . however,  It  correctly  became apparent v e r y q u i c k l y ,  t h a t t h e r e were q u i t e a number of such s t r a t a to be t a k e n  into account: schools, g i r l s '  school regions; large schools, small schools; schools; co-educational schools; recently  s c h o o l s ; t e a c h e r s from d i f f e r e n t  teacher-training  boys'  established  institutions;  e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s , i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s ; to name some i m p o r t a n t ones. Moser and K a l t o n s u g g e s t : The main j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a complete coverage . . . i s the need f o r adequate numbers f o r a n a l y s i s i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e g i o n s , c o n u r b a t i o n s , towns and r u r a l d i s t r i c t s f o r w h i c h r e s u l t s a r e required. (1971:60) But to have adequate numbers i n each s t r a t u m would r e q u i r e almost as many respondents as t h e r e were i n the whole p o p u l a t i o n .  Thus, w h i l e  t h e r e a r e advantages of s a m p l i n g , as a g a i n s t complete coverage  (savings  i n c o s t , l a b o u r and time) i t was d e c i d e d t o send the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of the  to  study.  Of c o u r s e , a secondary purpose of t h i s study was an e d u c a t i v e one, namely to i n v o l v e H u m a n i t i e s t e a c h e r s i n such a way as t o i n c r e a s e awareness of the v a r i o u s problem a r e a s .  A l s o , because of t h e i r  their  involve-  ment they may be more r e c e p t i v e to and i n t e r e s t e d i n the f i n d i n g s of study.  this  APPENDIX E INFLUENCE WHICH INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS OF PEOPLE OR CIRCUMSTANCES HAVE ON DECISIONS ABOUT WHAT IS TAUGHT  71  INFLUENCE WHICH INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS OF PEOPLE OR CIRCUMSTANCES HAVE ON DECISIONS ABOUT WHAT IS TAUGHT  %  Some  %  %  A Great Deal  %  A Fair Bit  Teachers o f the same form l e v e l at your s c h o o l  Very Little  1.  None At All  No Response  Degree o f I n f l u e n c e  %  %  4.1  3.9  10.7  34.9  29.8  16.6  Teachers o f o t h e r form l e v e l s at your school  4.3  12.8  25.5  39.8  14.5  3.1  3.  Head of Department  4.7  18.9  20.2  29.3  14.8  8.9  4.  M i c r o s c h o o l / m i n i s c h o o l group  16.4  69.2  5.8  4.6  2.3  1.5  5.  P r i n c i p a l and/or V i c e - P r i n c i p a l  4.9  68.6  19.1  4.9  2.0  0.5  6.  Teacher t r a i n i n g  7.1  55.6  18.4  14.0  3.3  1.6  7.  Method l e c t u r e r from a t e a c h e r training institution  7.6  68.9  8.6  8.1  4.9  1.8  8.  Subject A s s o c i a t i o n / s  5.8  37.7  20.6  28.3  5.9  1.8  9.  Regional consultants  6.1  63.0  17.4  10.9  2.3  0.3  10.  S u b j e c t S t a n d i n g Committee  6.4  56.9  17.4  15.0  3.6  0.7  11.  Audio V i s u a l E d u c a t i o n  6.6  61.0  18.8  10.4  2.3  1.0  12.  Drama Resource  7.2  70.7  12.7  6.4  2.1  0.8  13.  Teachers from other  4.9  34.4  28.0  25.7  5.4  1.5  14.  School careers  5.9  59.5  18.4  12.8  2.8  0.5  15.  Your academic background  4.4  5.8  12.7  23.4  34.5  18.9  16.  Your p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s commitments  3.9  2.0  6.3  27.5  38.8  21.5  3.9  0.7  3.6  22.7  38.2  30.8  5.3  1.6  2.8  16.1  34.0  40.0  2.  17.  Student  18.  Available  students  Officer  Centre schools  officers  interests resources  and/or  n = 608  APPENDIX F INFLUENCE WHICH INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS OF PEOPLE OR CIRCUMSTANCES HAVE ON DECISIONS ABOUT WHAT MATERIALS ARE USED  73 INFLUENCE WHICH INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS OF PEOPLE OR CIRCUMSTANCES HAVE ON DECISIONS ABOUT WHAT MATERIALS ARE USED  %  %  %  %  %  A Great  A Fair Bit  Some  Very Little  None At All  No Response  Degree of Influence  %  1.  Teachers of the same form l e v e l  5.6  6.6  12.1  36.6  26.2  13.7  2.  Teachers at other form l e v e l s at your school  6.1  14.8  30.6  31.3  14.1  3.1  8.9  20.2  21.5  29.3  13.0  7.1  15.3  73.5  4.6  3.6  2.3  0.7  6.6  74.0  13.5  3.6  1.6  0.7  3. . Head of Department 4.  Micro school/mini school group  5.  P r i n c i p a l and/or  6.  Publishers or Book Shops' representatives  6.4  46.9  28.6  15.0  2.8  0.3  7.  School l i b r a r i a n  5.9  19.2  27.3  30.8  13.5  3.3  8.  Regional Consultant  7.4  67.3  15.0  9.0  1.3  0  9.  Subject Associations  7.4  45.6  23.5  17.1  5.6  0.8  10.  Teacher t r a i n i n g  7.7  60.2  17.1  11.5  2.6  0.8  11.  Special Method Lecturer from a teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n  8.2  71.4  8.4  7.2  3.6  1.2  12.  Subject Standing Committee  7.6  65.0  14.6  10.0  2.3  0.5  13.  Audio V i s u a l Education O f f i c e r  7-6  58.9  18.1  11.2  3.5  0.8  14.  Drama Resource Centre  8.4  73.7  9.7  -4  1.2  0.7  15.  Teachers from other schools  6.4  39.3  26.8  22.0  4.6  0.8  16.  School Careers  7.2  65.3  15.1.  9.7  2.5  0.2  17.  Parents  6.9  52.8  23.5  13.7  2.0  1.2  18.  Educational Technologist  10.2  76.6  8.1  3.1  1.2  0.8  19.  Student  8.4  3.5  6.4  25.7  35.4  20.7  Vice-Principal  students  Officer  interests  6  n=608  APPENDIX G THE EXTENT TO WHICH SOURCES OF DIFFICULTY ARE PERCEIVED AS PROBLEMS IN HUMANITIES TEACHING  THE EXTENT TO WHICH SOURCES OF DIFFICULTY ARE PERCEIVED AS PROBLEMS IN HUMANITIES TEACHING  Not A Problem  A Considerable Problem  A Serious Problem  I n s u f f i c i e n t a s s i s t a n c e from curriculum experts (at C & R or i n r e g i o n s )  %  %  %  %  %  8.2  36.2  32.9  16.0  6.4  Lack of v a r i e t y of curriculum materials available  6.3  33.9  31.3  20.1  8.6  F i n d i n g time to p r e p a r e adequately  5.4  14.1  27.8  27.6 25.0  5.6  8.4  20.2  34.9 30.9  L a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h i n t h e H u m a n i t i e s department  5.1  28.0  34.9  20.7 11.3  S t a f f t u r n o v e r from one y e a r to t h e n e x t  6.9  23.5  34.9  20.1 14.3  The number o f s t a f f members w i t h very l i t t l e teaching experience  5.9  43.1  35.7  10.1  G e n e r a l l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g by non-Humanities teachers of Humanities teaching  5.4  17.8  31.7  27.1 17.9  D e v e l o p i n g t e a c h i n g i d e a s and approaches  6.7  20.1  38.3  25.2  Getting students i n Humanities  5.4  12.5  32.9  34.2 15.0  Lack o f an o v e r a l l c u r r i c u l u m p l a n  6.1  35.4  29.9  15.6 12.8  I n s u f f i c i e n t money a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e purchase o f m a t e r i a l s  6.3  28.6  29.8  18.6 16.6  Insufficient available  6.6  28.8  32.9  20.7 10.7  Inappropriateness of the c u r r i - ' culum a s s i s t a n c e a v a i l a b l e  9.9  33.7  31.1  17.4  I n s u f f i c i e n t teacher i n curriculum  8.1  25.5  26.5  23.4 16.6  8.2  21.9  26.2  28.6 15.1  Insufficient development  A Small Problem  No Response  E x t e n t o f Problem  lesson  time f o r c u r r i c u l u m  5.3  9.5  interested  curriculum materials  7.9  training  Insufficient in-service help with curriculum  education  n=608  APPENDIX H ALTERNATIVE DESCRIPTIONS OF HUMANITIES CURRICULA IN TECHNICAL SCHOOLS  ALTERNATIVE DESCRIPTIONS OF HUMANITIES CURRICULA IN TECHNICAL SCHOOLS (G) WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS MOST CLOSELY DESCRIBES THE PRESENT SITUATION IN HUMANITIES AT YOUR SCHOOL ( I n d i c a t e w i t h a tick) 1.  Teachers f o l l o w an o v e r a l l Humanities c u r r i c u l u m o u t l i n e but not v e r y much c o n s u l t a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e .  2.  There i s an o v e r a l l c u r r i c u l u m o u t l i n e but i t m o s t l y i g n o r e d by t e a c h e r s .  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  127  is 38  There i s no course o u t l i n e t h a t I know of and t e a c h e r s do t h e i r own t h i n g w i t h t h e i r c l a s s e s .  59  There i s no t o t a l s c h o o l H u m a n i t i e s c u r r i c u l u m o u t l i n e a t the moment but some d i s c u s s i o n has begun w i t h a v i e w to d o i n g something about i t .  112  There i s a t o t a l course o u t l i n e and t e a c h e r s adhere p r e t t y w e l l to the suggested sequence of t o p i c s .  101  There i s no w r i t t e n H u m a n i t i e s c u r r i c u l u m o u t l i n e but t e a c h e r s c o n s u l t w i t h each o t h e r f r e q u e n t l y t o p l a n new u n i t s and to a v o i d r e p e t i t i o n f o r students.  156  There i s a t o t a l c u r r i c u l u m o u t l i n e and t e a c h e r s c o n s u l t f r e q u e n t l y about i t s o n - g o i n g application.  mean:  66  94.1  

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