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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Humanities teaching in victorian secondary technical schools: problems and prospects Auer, Peter Rudolf 1978

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HUMANITIES TEACHING IN VICTORIAN SECONDARY TECHNICAL SCHOOLS: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS by PETER RUDOLF AUER B.A. Melbourne Un i v e r s i t y , A u s t r a l i a , 1966 Dip. Ed. Melbourne University, A u s t r a l i a , 1968 B.Ed. Monash University, A u s t r a l i a , 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Education Administration) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1978 0 Peter Rudolf Auer, 1978 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date September 22, 1978 ABSTRACT Important p o l i c y decisions, i t seems, are frequently taken without p r i o r and c a r e f u l assessment of the l i k e l i h o o d of successful implementa-t i o n . The t h e o r e t i c a l assumption i m p l i c i t i n t h i s study i s that both the ease and f i d e l i t y with which p o l i c y gets formulated into p r a c t i c e i s dependent upon some c a r e f u l l y thought through assessment of basic questions such as: how receptive w i l l those who are to be responsible for t h e i r implementation be? do such persons have the r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s ? attitudes? i s the surrounding i n f r a s t r u c t u r e adequate? The study focused upon a number of overarching questions which f a l l into two major categories. F i r s t , which are the most important influences i n curriculum decision areas? What i n d i v i d u a l s , groups of people or circumstances are seen by Humanities teachers themselves to have the greatest influence? Second, i n the opinion of Humanities teachers what are the major problems they perceive to e x i s t i n t h e i r teaching s p e c i a l i t y Humanities teachers c l e a r l y saw t h e i r colleagues who teach at the same form (or grade) l e v e l s as inf l u e n c i n g them most. Teachers of other form l e v e l s were seen as next most important curriculum i n f l u e n c e r s . Other i n d i v i d u a l s within schools, such as educational technologists and careers o f f i c e r s and some curriculum support personnel from outside schools such as regional consultants and method l e c t u r e r s , were not seen as generally having much influence on curriculum decisions. Groups such as subject associations and subject standing committees were seen by teachers as having r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e influence on t h e i r curriculum decisions. i i i The two problems which were i d e n t i f i e d by the greatest number of teachers as being serious are concerned with the lack of time. One i s i n s u f f i c i e n t time for curriculum development, the other, not enough time for lesson preparation. Two other problems perceived as serious by many teachers concern i n s u f f i c i e n c i e s i n teacher education - both i n i t i a l and i n - s e r v i c e . Of the problems stated the two viewed as being l e a s t serious were 'the number of s t a f f members with very l i t t l e teaching experience' and s t a f f 'turnover' from one year to the next. There i s one overriding observation that comes through as one r e f l e c t s upon t h i s study. And, that concerns the v i a b i l i t y of decentralized, school-based curriculum decision making i n secondary t e c h n i c a l schools of V i c t o r i a . School-based curriculum decision processes require c o l l a b o r a t i v e approaches and a t t i t u d e s on the part of those involved. However, many.of the findings seem: to support the view that Humanities teachers r e a l l y prefer to work on t h e i r own, to operate as solo p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Consequently, i n i t i a l teacher t r a i n i n g and i n - s e r v i c e education programmes need to acknowledge and develop the s k i l l s and attitudes required for c o l l e g i a l curriculum development processes. What teachers need most for curriculum development i s time - time for co l l a b o r a t i v e curriculum development a c t i v i t i e s and for lesson preparation, and increased provisions for appropriate i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s . The data of t h i s study r a i s e c e r t a i n questions about how e f f e c t i v e key personnel such as p r i n c i p a l s and heads of department are i n providing leadership i n the curriculum development f i e l d or i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the appropriate m i l i e u for school-based curriculum decision-making. i v A further quest ion r a i s ed i s what resources i s the Education Department w i l l i n g to make a v a i l a b l e to ensure success ful school-based curr iculum development? V TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE LIST OF TABLES v 1 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 PURPOSES OF THE STUDY 4 Influencers i n Curriculum Decision-Making. . 4 Major Problems which Teachers Perceive E x i s t i n the Humanities Teaching Area. . . . 5 DATA GATHERING AND ANALYSIS 5 II INFLUENCES IN CURRICULUM DECISION MAKING 7 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS 7 What Influence do D i f f e r e n t Individuals Have? 7 What Influence Do Groups Have? 9 How Frequently are Curriculum Agency and Self-Devised Materials Used? 12 What Other Factors Influence Curriculum Decision-Making? 14 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 15 What Influence do Certain Individuals Have?. 15 What Influence do Groups Have? 17 How Frequently are Curriculum Agency and Self-Devised Materials Used? 17 What Other Factors Influence Curriculum Decision-Making? 18 v i I I I PROBLEMS IN TEACHING THE HUMANITIES 19 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS 19 What are the More Ser ious Problems F a c i n g Humanit ies Teachers? 19 What Problems are Viewed as Being Less Ser ious? . 22 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 2 4 What are the More Ser ious Problems F a c i n g Humanit ies Teachers? 24 What Problems are Viewed as Being Less Ser ious? 27 IV OBSERVATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 3 2 SUGGESTIONS 3 5 Time 3 5 Teacher Educat ion 3 7 Quest ions f o r Fu r ther Study 3 9 REFERENCES 4 i APPENDICES 44 A . PRINCIPLES OF EDUCATION 45 B. HUMANITIES CURRICULUM QUESTIONNAIRE 46 C. PRELIMINARY, OPEN ENDED QUESTIONNAIRE 59 D. SAMPLING RATIONALE 6 8 E. INFLUENCE WHICH INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS OF PEOPLE OR CIRCUMSTANCES HAVE ON DECISIONS ABOUT WHAT IS TAUGHT 7 0 F. INFLUENCE WHICH INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS OF PEOPLE OR CIRCUMSTANCES HAVE ON DECISIONS ABOUT WHAT MATERIALS ARE USED 7 2 G. THE EXTENT TO WHICH SOURCES OF DIFFICULTY ARE PERCEIVED AS PROBLEMS IN HUMANITIES TEACHING . . . 7 4 H. ALTERNATIVE DESCRIPTIONS OF HUMANITIES CURRICULA IN TECHNICAL SCHOOLS 7 6 v i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page I. Who are the I n f l u e n c e r s ? 8 I I . What Degree of I n f l u e n c e do Groups Have on What i s Taught? 10 I I I . What Degree of I n f l u e n c e do Groups Have on What M a t e r i a l s are Used? 11 IV. How Often do Teachers Use Cur r i cu lum Agency and S e l f - D e v i s e d M a t e r i a l s ? 13 V. What other Fac to rs I n f l u e n c e C u r r i c u l u m D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g ? 14 V I . Problems P e r c e i v e d to be Ser ious 21 V I I . Problems P e r c e i v e d to be Not Ser ious 23 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author g r a t e f u l l y recogn izes the support and a s s i s t a n c e from a number of p e o p l e : c u r r i c u l u m c o n s u l t a n t s and teachers at the s c h o o l , c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l s . The study would not have been p o s s i b l e w i thout the coopera t ion from the hundreds of t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l teachers who not on ly completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e but who a l s o v o l u n t e e r e d so many h e l p f u l comments. The e f f o r t s of Mark and S y l v i a Behan who k i n d l y a s s i s t e d w i t h the c o l l e c t i o n of data and so ab ly coded q u e s t i o n n a i r e responses are p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r e c i a t e d . Lyne t te Auer was, d u r i n g a l l s tages of the study most s u p p o r t i v e , and her e x c e l l e n t p r e p a r a t i o n of the d r a f t was much a p p r e c i a t e d . And to Vangie R a f o l s my thanks f o r p roduc ing such an e x c e l l e n t f i n a l d r a f t . A s p e c i a l word of a p p r e c i a t i o n i s due to the t h e s i s committee members, D r . Ian Housego, a very busy Chairman of the Department, who never gave the i m p r e s s i o n tha t t h i s was j u s t another t h e s i s and D r . Jamie W a l l i n ( s u p e r v i s o r ) to whom I am indebted f o r h i s generous a s s i s t a n c e and remarkably w ise c o u n s e l . Thank you . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A l l too o f t e n important p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s get taken wi thout f i r s t making a c a r e f u l assessment of c e r t a i n c r i t i c a l m a t t e r s . The t h e o r e t i c a l assumption i m p l i c i t i n t h i s p resent study i s that both the ease and f i d e l i t y w i t h which p o l i c y gets t r a n s l a t e d i n t o p r a c t i c e i s dependent upon some c a r e f u l l y thought through assessment of j u s t such b a s i c quest ions a s : how r e c e p t i v e w i l l those who are to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r implementat ion be? do such persons have the r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s ? a t t i t u d e s ? i s the sur rounding i n f r a s t r u c t u r e adequate suppor t i ve? does the implementat ion t ime framework a l l o w s u f f i c i e n t t ime f o r i n p u t s from key personnel? i s the scheme f l e x i b l e enough to a l l o w f o r meaningfu l change i n response to those i n p u t s ? Most observers i n V i c t o r i a , A u s t r a l i a would agree w i t h t h i s w r i t e r ' s v iew that the d e c i s i o n i n 1968 to d e c e n t r a l i z e c u r r i c u l u m r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the i n d i v i d u a l secondary t e c h n i c a l schoo l was made w i thout an adequate assessment of many of the f a c t o r s o u t l i n e d above. In that year a l l secondary schools were asked by the c e n t r a l adminis t r a t i o n to (a) Accept the p r i n c i p l e s of educat ion (see Appendix A) a r r i v e d at through the work of the C u r r i c u l u m Adv i so ry Board and the S t a t e - w i d e C u r r i c u l u m P r o j e c t . (b) Use them as a b a s i s f o r work ing out t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n a l programmes d u r i n g 1969 f o r implementat ion by stages beg inn ing i n 1970. (Cur r i cu lum Adv i so ry Board , 1975:6) More r e c e n t l y , however, i t has been a l l e g e d that many t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l ' s Humanit ies departments l a c k comprehensive c u r r i c u l u m documents 2 and some even l a c k statements of r a t i o n a l e , and statements of aims or b a s i c course o u t l i n e s . F u r t h e r , there are i n d i c a t i o n s that d u p l i c a t i o n of t o p i c s taught from one year to the n e x t , t o t a l or p a r t i a l omiss ion of important knowledge and s k i l l a r e a s , and the use of l i m i t e d and i n a p p r o -p r i a t e resources have f r e q u e n t l y r e s u l t e d . I f there a c t u a l l y are such shor tcomings , then i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y that these c o n t r i b u t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y to the r e d u c t i o n of teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s and the q u a l i t y of student l e a r n i n g . I t would not be unexpected tha t i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , teachers and s tudents would tend to l o s e enthusiasm and exper ience a l o w e r i n g of mora le . Th is present s t u d y , w h i l e unable to tu rn the c l o c k back to the p e r i o d p r i o r to the 1968 d e c i s i o n , aims to gather data on the a t t i t u d e s which Humanit ies teachers have today toward the v a r i o u s aspects of the d e c e n t r a -l i z e d approach which was se t i n motion when tha t d e c i s i o n became a matter of p o l i c y of the V i c t o r i a n Educat ion Department. The study a l s o attempts to assess the adequacy of the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r s u p p o r t i n g and s u s t a i n i n g such d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . B u t , f i r s t , what s o r t s of ev idence e x i s t which suggest that the 1968 d e c i s i o n was n o t , i n f a c t , a sound one and which has not been s u c c e s s f u l l y implemented. A d m i t t e d l y , the evidence i s ske tchy . There i s , however, one recent r e p o r t , which s t a t e s tha t some submiss ions to the recent C u r r i c u l u m S e r v i c e s Enqui ry ' . . . r e v e a l e d that many schoo ls are e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n implementing as w e l l as s e l e c t i n g or deve lop ing new programs. ' ( V i c t o r i a n Educat ion Department, 1977b:65) A g a i n , an i m p r e s s i o n of the s t a t e of Humanit ies t e a c h i n g can be gained from some i n t r o d u c t o r y remarks i n a recent address t i t l e d 'Humani t ies and the T o t a l School C u r r i c u l u m . ' 3 At the c o a l - f a c e i n the r e a l wor ld of the s c h o o l , how are the Humanit ies de f ined there? The honest answer to that i s , i t depends where you l o o k ! One g lance at s c h o o l t i m e - t a b l e s r e v e a l s a b e w i l d e r i n g a r ray of s u b j e c t s such as S o c i a l E n g l i s h , S o c i a l S t u d i e s , S o c i a l S c i e n c e , I n t e g r a t e d S t u d i e s , E n g l i s h , Humani t ies , Topic S t u d i e s , e t c . The Humanit ies appear to be s u f f e r i n g an i d e n t i t y c r i s i s and t h i s has made i t d i f f i c u l t to say w i t h any c e r t a i n t y j u s t what the Humanit ies a r e . And so I b e l i e v e the t ime has come f o r us a l l to t h i n k s e r i o u s l y about what our o b j e c t i v e s are i n the Humani t ies . In s a y i n g t h i s I r e a l i s e that " o b j e c t i v e s " i s almost a d i r t y word among Humanit ies t e a c h e r s . (Smi th , 1976:1) Diploma of Educat ion t r a i n e e s , who teach Humanit ies two days each week i n t e c h n i c a l schoo ls and spend the other th ree at the S t a t e C o l l e g e of V i c t o r i a a t Hawthorn, r e p o r t tha t they f i n d i t very d i f f i c u l t to ga in from t h e i r s c h o o l any c l e a r statement of t h e i r department 's aims or o b j e c t i v e s and on ly r a r e l y , they c l a i m , do course o u t l i n e s or o ther c u r r i c u l u m documents appear to e x i s t . ( V i c t o r i a n Educat ion Department, 1977a:356) These t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t s very f r e q u e n t l y r e i t e r a t e the o b s e r v a t i o n s concern ing the s t a t e of Humanit ies t e a c h i n g adumbrated above. A d d i t i o n a l ev idence i s the s e l f - c o n f e s s e d l a c k of unders tanding by t r a i n e e s concern ing the nature of Humanit ies t e a c h i n g a t the c o n c l u s i o n of t h e i r f i r s t year of t e a c h i n g . (Auer, 1976) The execut i ve of the V i c t o r i a n A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l S tud ies Teachers (VASST), an important c u r r i c u l u m support agency f o r Humanit ies t e a c h e r s , appears to be aware of some of these problems and i s p r e s e n t l y c o n s i d e r i n g a s e r i e s of 'workshops' f o r c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s . The o b j e c t i v e would be to produce a range of course o u t l i n e s f o r a t o t a l s c h o o l s o c i a l s t u d i e s programme which would be made a v a i l a b l e to teachers throughout the s t a t e . T h i s i s seen by tha t a s s o c i a t i o n as a s t r a t e g y to improve c u r r i c u l a i n the shor t term. 4 On the b a s i s a l s o of p e r s o n a l , i n - s c h o o l o b s e r v a t i o n s , d i s c u s s i o n s and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h many t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t s d u r i n g recent y e a r s , there appear to be some fundamental problems r e l a t e d to c u r r i c u l a f a c i n g Humanit ies ' departments. PURPOSES OF THE STUDY Impl ied i n the above d i s c u s s i o n i s the suggest ion tha t the d i f f i c u l t i e s which seem to e x i s t w i t h Humanit ies c u r r i c u l a i n t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s , can be at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y overcome. In order that p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n s may be found , t h i s study focuses upon a number of ove ra rch ing ques t ions which f a l l i n t o two major c a t e g o r i e s . F i r s t , which are the most important i n f l u e n c e s i n c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n areas? What i n d i v i d u a l s , groups of people or c i rcumstances are seen by Humanit ies teachers themselves to have the g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e ? Second, i n the o p i n i o n of Humanit ies teachers what are the major problems they perce ive , to e x i s t i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g s p e c i a l i t y ? How c l o s e l y do t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s agree w i t h those f r e q u e n t l y a i r e d or c i t e d by observers? Some f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n of these two major quest ions f o l l o w s . I. I n f l u e n c e r s i n c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . S p e c i f i c quest ions i n c l u d e : (1) What are the r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n f l u e n c e among p r i n c i p a l s / v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s , department heads , t e a c h e r s , and v a r i o u s o u t s i d e personne l such as r e g i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t s and s p e c i a l method l e c t u r e r s w i t h respec t to what i s taught and what m a t e r i a l s are used? (2) What degree of i n f l u e n c e do groups (such as sub jec t a s s o c i a t i o n s , s u b j e c t s t a n d i n g committees and m i n i - s c h o o l groups) have upon c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s of teachers i n the Humanit ies? 5 (3) How o f t e n do teachers make use of those m a t e r i a l s produced by v a r i o u s c u r r i c u l u m support agencies (such as the Secondary S o c i a l Sc ience P r o j e c t and the S o c i a l Educat ion M a t e r i a l s P r o j e c t , e t c . ) ? (4) What o ther f a c t o r s are seen to i n f l u e n c e the c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s of Humanit ies teachers? I I . Major problems which teachers p e r c e i v e e x i s t i n the Humanit ies  t e a c h i n g a r e a . (1) What are the more s e r i o u s problems f a c i n g Humanit ies teachers? (2) What problems are viewed as b e i n g not s e r i o u s ? Th is study would be l e s s than h e l p f u l i f i t f a i l e d to i n c l u d e a s e c t i o n on i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the improvement of Humanit ies t e a c h i n g i n V i c t o r i a n t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s . The f i n a l s e c t i o n proposes a number of suggest ions f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of such bod ies as the T e c h n i c a l Schools D i v i s i o n of the Educat ion Department, the v a r i o u s c u r r i c u l u m support agencies and the T e c h n i c a l School P r i n c i p a l ' s A s s o c i a t i o n . DATA GATHERING AND ANALYSIS Before proceeding w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s , a word about the data g a t h e r i n g procedures which were used . The p r i n c i p a l v e h i c l e f o r c o l l e c t i n g data was a ten-page q u e s t i o n n a i r e . (See Appendix B) Th is q u e s t i o n n a i r e was developed u s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and ideas gleaned from an i n i t i a l survey of t w e n t y - e i g h t t e a c h e r s . An open-ended type inst rument was used f o r that purpose . (See Appendix C) In J u l y , 1977 approx imate ly 1,500 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent to the 108 secondary t e c h n i c a l schoo ls i n V i c t o r i a which o f f e r e d courses i n the Humani t ies . Appendix D a m p l i f i e s f u r t h e r why the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n r a t h e r than a sample was used f o r t h i s s tudy . Teachers who were not r e q u i r e d 6 to i d e n t i f y themselves , had the o p t i o n of r e t u r n i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e e i t h e r i n batch or i n d i v i d u a l l y . Whi le 803 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were f i n a l l y r e c e i v e d , on ly 608 were r e c e i v e d i n t ime to be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s p resent a n a l y s i s . C o n s i d e r i n g the l e n g t h and complex i t y of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the t ime of year i t was r e c e i v e d i n the s c h o o l s , a response r a t e o f over 50 percent i s w e l l above average. The responses were coded and punched on computer cards at Royal Melbourne I n s i t u t e of Technology ( R . M . I . T . ) and s e v e r a l S . P . S . S . programmes were a p p l i e d to the d a t a . (N ie , and o t h e r s , 1975) CHAPTER I I INFLUENCES IN CURRICULUM DECISION MAKING ANALYSIS OF RESULTS Teachers were asked to i n d i c a t e the degree of i n f l u e n c e that i n d i v i d u a l s , groups of people or c i rcumstances have on d e c i s i o n s about what they teach and what m a t e r i a l s they use i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g . Respondents were r e q u i r e d to i n d i c a t e the degree of i n f l u e n c e as e i t h e r 'none at a l l ' , ' ve ry l i t t l e ' , ' s o m e ' , ' a f a i r b i t ' , or ' a great d e a l ' . The f i r s t two s e c t i o n s of t h i s chapter d e a l w i t h the p e r c e i v e d degrees of i n f l u e n c e of i n d i v i d u a l s and of groups of p e o p l e . A l a t e r s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s o ther f a c t o r s (or c i rcumstances) which were pe rce i ved as i n f l u e n c i n g c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s . What I n f l u e n c e do D i f f e r e n t I n d i v i d u a l s Have? A number of i tems w i t h i n s e c t i o n s D and F of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e are concerned w i t h the pe rce i ved degree of i n f l u e n c e of c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s upon Humanit ies t e a c h e r ' s c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s . In order to g a i n a c l e a r impress ion of the degree of i n f l u e n c e of c e r t a i n s e l e c t e d p e o p l e , f i g u r e s c i t e d (unless otherwide s ta ted ) i n d i c a t e the percentage of respondents who f e l t that the i n d i v i d u a l s i n f l u e n c e d them i n t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s e i t h e r ' a f a i r b i t ' or ' a great d e a l ' . (See Table 1) 7 8 Table I Who Are The I n f l u e n c e r s ? * On what i s taught On what m a t e r i a l s are used P r i n c i p a l s and/or V i c e - P r i n c i p a l s % 2 .5 % 2.3 Department Heads 23.7 2 0 . 1 Teachers of Same Form L e v e l 46 .4 39.9 Teachers of Other Form L e v e l s 17.6 17 .2 Others (Regional C o n s u l t a n t s , School Careers O f f i c e r s , A u d i o -v i s u a l O f f i c e r , Method L e c t u r e r s , School L i b r a r i a n s , E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g i s t ) 2 15.9 31.9 n=608 *Data repor ted r e f l e c t s the c o l l a p s i n g of two columns: ' a f a i r b i t ' and ' a great d e a l ' . (See Appendices E and F f o r r e s u l t d e t a i l s ) 1 and 2 - i n c l u d e d on ly i n column 'On what m a t e r i a l s are u s e d ' . Only 2 .5 percent of teachers surveyed r e p o r t e d that p r i n c i p a l s or v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s i n f l u e n c e d them ' a f a i r b i t ' or ' a great d e a l ' i n d e c i s i o n s about what they taught . Even fewer teachers (2 .3 percent ) i n d i c a t e d that p r i n c i p a l s or v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s were i n f l u e n c e r s i n terms of m a t e r i a l s used . Department heads were thought to be i n f l u e n c e r s i n r e l a t i o n to what i s taught by 23.7 percent of respondents and i n r e l a t i o n to what m a t e r i a l s are used by 20 .1 percent of respondents . Humanit ies teachers c l e a r l y saw t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s who teach at the same 9 form (or grade) l e v e l as i n f l u e n c i n g them most. More than 46 percent of teachers c la imed that such c o l l e a g u e s i n f l u e n c e d them i n what they teach w h i l e about 40 percent c la imed such c o l l e a g u e s i n f l u e n c e d them i n t h e i r s e l e c t i o n of teach ing m a t e r i a l s . Teachers of other form l e v e l s were seen as c u r r i c u l u m i n f l u e n c e r s r e g a r d i n g what i s taught and m a t e r i a l s used by approx imate ly 27 percent of respondents . Other i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n s c h o o l s , such as e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i s t s and ca reers o f f i c e r s and some c u r r i c u l u m support pe rsonne l from o u t s i d e s c h o o l s , such as r e g i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t s and method l e c t u r e r s , were not seen as g e n e r a l l y hav ing much i n f l u e n c e on c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s . A l l such i n d i v i d u a l s taken together were seen as i n f l u e n c i n g what i s taught by l e s s than 16 percent of respondents . On the other hand, the s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n was p e r c e i v e d to be of c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e i n the s e l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l s . Only 19 .2 percent of respondents repor ted her/him as hav ing no i n f l u e n c e at a l l , w h i l e 47 .6 percent repor ted her/him hav ing at l e a s t some i n f l u e n c e i n r e l a t i o n to m a t e r i a l s e l e c t i o n . Th is i s not a s u r p r i s i n g r e s u l t i n v iew of the percent of teachers (74) who c la imed that ' a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s ' had e i t h e r ' a f a i r b i t ' or ' a g reat d e a l ' of i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r d e c i s i o n as to the substance of t h e i r t e a c h i n g . What I n f l u e n c e do Groups Have? Mic ro/Mimi School Groups, the Drama Resource C e n t r e , Subject Standing Committees and Subject A s s o c i a t i o n s were seen by teachers as hav ing r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s . (See Table I I and Table I I I ) . 10 Table I I What Degree of I n f l u e n c e Do Groups Have On What Is Taught? None Very L i t t l e A F a i r B i t A Great D e a l Subject A s s o c i a t i o n s ( e . g . , VASST) % 37.7 % 20.6 % 5 .9 % 1 .8 Subject Standing Committees ( e . g . H i s t o r y ) 56.9 17 .4 3 .6 0 .7 Drama Resource Centre 70.7 12.7 2 . 1 0 . 8 M i c r o / M i n i School Groups 69.2 5 .8 2 .3 1 .5 n=608 Subject a s s o c i a t i o n s , such as the V i c t o r i a n A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l S tud ies Teachers (VASST) were seen as b e i n g of no i n f l u e n c e on what i s taught by 37.7 percent of teachers and of very l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e by a f u r t h e r 20.6 p e r c e n t . In terms of m a t e r i a l s u s e d , sub jec t a s s o c i a t i o n s were seen by 45.6 percent of teachers as be ing of no i n f l u e n c e and by 23.5 percent of teachers as be ing on ly of very l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e . (See Table I I I ) 11 TABLE I I I What Degree of I n f l u e n c e Do Groups Have On What M a t e r i a l s Are Used? None Very L i t t l e A F a i r B i t A Great D e a l Subject A s s o c i a t i o n s ( e . g . , VASST) % 45 .6 % 23.5 % 5 .6 % 0 . 8 Subject Standing Committees ( e . g . , H i s t o r y ) 65 .0 14.6 2 .3 0 . 5 Drama Resource Centre 73.7 9.7 1.2 0 .7 M i c r o / M i n i School Groups 73.5 4 .6 2 .3 0.7 n=608 Subject Standing Committees, such as the H i s t o r y Standing Committee, were a l l seen as be ing a great d e a l of i n f l u e n c e on what i s taught by l e s s than one percent and as to what m a t e r i a l s are used by l e s s than one h a l f percent of respondents . S i m i l a r l y , the Drama Resource Centre was p e r c e i v e d as be ing a great d e a l of i n f l u e n c e on the s e l e c t i o n of sub jec t matter or the s e l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l s by l e s s than one percent of Humanit ies t e a c h e r s . M i c r o / M i n i School Groups, a l though i n c r e a s i n g i n number, are not p r e v a l e n t i n the m a j o r i t y of schoo ls and i t i s t h e r e f o r e not s u r p r i s i n g tha t approx imate ly 70 p e r -cent of respondents saw these groups hav ing no i n f l u e n c e upon c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s . 12 How F requent l y Are Cur r i cu lum Agency and S e l f - D e v i s e d M a t e r i a l s Used? I t i s noted i n Table I I I that teachers used c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s produced by s u b j e c t a s s o c i a t i o n s and sub jec t s t a n d i n g committees to a f a r l e s s e r ex tent than u n i t s of work dev ised by themselves . Near l y 90 percent of teachers repor ted u s i n g s e l f - p r e p a r e d c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s e i t h e r ' a f a i r b i t ' or ' a great d e a l ' . In c o n t r a s t , the e q u i v a l e n t f i g u r e f o r u s i n g m a t e r i a l s from Access S k i l l s P r o j e c t i s 9 .7 p e r c e n t ; f o r those of the Standing Committee on E n g l i s h i n T e c h n i c a l Schools -2 .3 p e r c e n t ; S tanding Committee on T e c h n i c a l Schools S o c i a l S tud ies -5 . 0 p e r c e n t ; S o c i a l Educat ion M a t e r i a l s P r o j e c t - 3 -8 p e r c e n t ; Secondary S o c i a l Sc ience P r o j e c t - 6 .6 p e r c e n t ; V i c t o r i a n A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l S tud ies Teachers - 7.9 p e r c e n t ; and, V i c t o r i a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Teaching of E n g l i s h - 4 . 2 p e r c e n t . For each of these c u r r i c u l u m support agencies at l e a s t 47 percent of teachers repor ted never u s i n g t h e i r m a t e r i a l s . (See Table IV) 13 Table IV How Often Do Teachers Use C u r r i c u l u m Agency and S e l f - D e v i s e d M a t e r i a l s ? " i a l s prepared by Never Very l i t t l e & sometimes A f a i r b i t & a great d e a l ASPM % 4 8 . 2 % 34.7 % 9.7 SCETS 63 .0 29.6 2 .3 SCOTSS 4 7 . 5 42 .3 5 . 0 SEMP 5 5 . 1 35 .2 3 .8 SSSP 50 .2 38 .0 6 .6 VASST 49.5 3 7 . 3 7.9 VATE 54.4 36.3 4 . 2 Teachers Themselves 0 . 3 8 . 8 87 .8 n=608 KEY: ASPM SCETS SCOTSSS SEMP SSSP VASST VATE Access S k i l l s P r o j e c t M a t e r i a l s Standing Committee on E n g l i s h i n T e c h n i c a l Schools Standing Committee on T e c h n i c a l Schools S o c i a l S tud ies S o c i a l Educat ion M a t e r i a l s P r o j e c t Secondary S o c i a l Sc ience P r o j e c t V i c t o r i a n A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l S tud ies Teachers V i c t o r i a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Teaching of E n g l i s h 14 What Other F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c e C u r r i c u l u m D e c i s i o n Making? In a d d i t i o n to i n d i v i d u a l s or groups of people i n f l u e n c i n g c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n making, o ther f a c t o r s or c i rcumstances are deemed i m p o r t a n t . As i s i n d i c a t e d i n Table V, each of the f a c t o r s ( a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , p e r s o n a l academic background, p e r s o n a l in te res ts/commitments , and student i n t e r e s t s ) was seen as i n f l u e n c i n g c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s by w e l l over h a l f the respondents to t h i s survey . Table V What Other F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c e C u r r i c u l u m D e c i s i o n Making? None or Very L i t t l e Some A f a i r b i t or a great d e a l A v a i l a b l e Resources % 4.4 % 16.1 % 74.0 P e r s o n a l Academic Background 18.5 23.4 53.4 P e r s o n a l I n t e r e s t s / Commitment 8.3 27.5 60.3 Student I n t e r e s t s 4.3 22.7 69.0 n=608 Near l y th ree quar te rs of Humanit ies teachers i n d i c a t e d that they are d e f i n i t e l y i n f l u e n c e d i n t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s by the resources a v a i l a b l e . Over 60 percent c la imed that p e r s o n a l interests/commitments and student i n t e r e s t s were a l s o i n f l u e n t i a l . A l s o , more than one h a l f 15 of the respondents s t a t e d that p e r s o n a l academic background i n f l u e n c e s c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s as w e l l . DISCUSSION OF RESULTS What I n f l u e n c e Do C e r t a i n I n d i v i d u a l s Have? R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s i n each t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l , t h e o r e t i c a l l y a t l e a s t , r e s i d e s w i t h the p r i n c i p a l . I t w i l l be s u r p r i s i n g to many to see how few teachers p e r c e i v e d p r i n c i p a l s and v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s as hav ing i n f l u e n c e . L i k e w i s e , department heads were not seen by teachers to be important i n f l u e n c e r s . I t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted that heads have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c u r r i c u l u m i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e department. In theory at l e a s t , t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s de legated to them from the p r i n c i p a l . A g a i n , many w i l l be s u r p r i s e d to note how few teachers regarded the department head as a key i n f l u e n c e . There a r e , of c o u r s e , a number of f a c t o r s which w i l l he lp to e x p l a i n why c o l l e a g u e s , t e a c h i n g at the same form l e v e l were p e r c e i v e d by the g r e a t e s t number to be i n f l u e n t i a l . Co l leagues g e n e r a l l y share o f f i c e and s t a f f room space. Teachers of c l a s s e s at the same form l e v e l share c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . F r e q u e n t l y , teachers o f f e r courses s i m i l a r to those o f f e r e d by t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s or even use the same s y l l a b u s or c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e . Teachers d i s c u s s problems p e c u l i a r to a form l e v e l . For these reasons i t i s understandable that c o l l e a g u e s t e a c h i n g at the same form l e v e l should be seen as important c u r r i c u l u m i n f l u e n c e r s . Not unexpectedly perhaps , the s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n was seen by the next l a r g e s t number of teachers to be i n f l u e n t i a l i n c u r r i c u l u m m a t t e r s . 16 A l l o ther i n d i v i d u a l s , who might have been cons idered as c u r r i c u l u m i n f l u e n c e r s were seen by teachers as a c t u a l l y hav ing very l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e . The in f requency w i t h which other i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n s c h o o l s , such as a careers o f f i c e r , an a u d i o - v i s u a l educat ion o f f i c e r or an e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i s t , were i d e n t i f i e d as i n f l u e n c e r s could very w e l l be a t t r i b u t a b l e to the f a c t that very few schoo ls at present have such persons on t h e i r s t a f f s . I n d i v i d u a l s l o c a t e d o u t s i d e of the s c h o o l , such as r e g i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t s and method l e c t u r e r s , were seen by ve ry few teachers as be ing of i n f l u e n c e . For example, l e c t u r e r s i n Methods of Teaching at e i t h e r u n i v e r s i t y or teachers c o l l e g e were not cons idered i n f l u e n t i a l . Is t h i s because t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were seen to be p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h p r e - s e r v i c e t e a c h e r - e d u c a t i o n ? I t may be s u r p r i s i n g , e s p e c i a l l y to r e g i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t s themselves , how i n f r e q u e n t l y they were p e r c e i v e d by teachers as be ing i n f l u e n t i a l . In a d d i t i o n , t h i s s t a t i s t i c may be regarded w i t h some disappointment by department o f f i c i a l s , f o r example. A recent department r e p o r t made t h i s s tatement : . . . the consu l tancy (at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l ) i s a resource p r i m a r i l y g iven to schoo ls to improve the p r o f e s s i o n a l competence of s t a f f through the s h a r i n g of i d e a s . ( V i c t o r i a n Educat ion Department, 1977b:86) There appear to be few i n f l u e n c e r s , e i t h e r i n s i d e or o u t s i d e the s c h o o l . Co l leagues who teach a t the same form l e v e l seem to be by f a r the most s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e r s as f a r as the teachers themselves are concerned. 17 What I n f l u e n c e Do Groups Have? As has been documented i n Tables I I and I I I , support groups e x i s t i n g o u t s i d e of schoo ls were not seen by most teachers as b e i n g ve ry i n f l u e n t i a l . The Drama Resource Centre has too s p e c i a l i s e d a f u n c t i o n to a t t r a c t the a t t e n t i o n of many t e a c h e r s . The d i v i s i o n of schoo ls i n t o micro or m i n i s c h o o l groups, w h i l e an i n c r e a s i n g p r a c t i c e , i s as ye t uncommon. There i s a l r e a d y c o n s i d e r a b l e e v i d e n c e , f o r example, tha t teachers regard communication between themselves and v a r i o u s c u r r i c u l u m support groups as b e i n g inadequate . (Adams and Auer , 1976; C u r r i c u l u m and Research Branch , 1976; and V i c t o r i a n Educat ion Department, 1977b) I s o l a t i o n (as a r e s u l t of d i s t a n c e ) from the s e r v i c e s , l i m i t e d hours when support s e r v i c e s are a v a i l a b l e , and l a c k of teacher i n f l u e n c e over the nature of the s e r v i c e s and the s e l e c t i o n of support p e r s o n n e l , have been mentioned as f a c t o r s tha t e x p l a i n why such s e r v i c e s are so i n -f r e q u e n t l y u s e d . ( V i c t o r i a n Educat ion Department, 1977b:68-69) More -ove r , the i n f l u e n c e of both sub jec t a s s o c i a t i o n s and s u b j e c t s t a n d i n g committees c o n s i d e r a b l y d imin ished once schoo ls a t t a i n e d c u r r i c u l u m autonomy and e x t e r n a l examinat ions were e l i m i n a t e d . How F requent l y are C u r r i c u l u m Agency and S e l f - D e v i s e d M a t e r i a l s Used? I t w i l l be s u r p r i s i n g to many t h a t there was so l i t t l e use made of the many c u r r i c u l u m support m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e to t e a c h e r s . These m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e p h i l o s o p h i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l p a p e r s , a v a i l a b l e resources g u i d e s , t o p i c o u t l i n e s and s i n g l e t o p i c f u l l c u r r i c u l u m packages w i t h student e x e r c i s e s , a u d i o - v i s u a l and other resource m a t e r i a l s , 18 and e v a l u a t i o n e x e r c i s e s . Y e t , d e s p i t e such seemingly r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l s , they were not used ve ry much by Humanit ies t e a c h e r s . Perhaps the e x p l a n a t i o n s o f f e r e d p r e v i o u s l y as to why v a r i o u s groups exer t so l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e are a l s o a p p l i c a b l e h e r e . What Other F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c e C u r r i c u l u m D e c i s i o n Making? A l a r g e number of teachers i n d i c a t e d other c i r c u m s t a n c e s , as t h e i r ' p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s and/or commitments' and t h e i r ' p e r s o n a l academic b a c k g r o u n d ' , were very i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s . (See Table V) In f a c t , the number i s g rea te r than f o r any s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l o r group. (See Appendix E f o r these comparat ive data) In l i g h t of the f a c t that n e a r l y h a l f the Humanit ies teachers f e l t that ' g e t t i n g s tudents i n t e r e s t e d i n Humani t ies ' c o n s t i t u t e d e i t h e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e or a s e r i o u s prob lem, i t comes as no s u r p r i s e that n e a r l y 70 percent of teachers p e r c e i v e d ' s tudent i n t e r e s t s ' as i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s ' a f a i r b i t ' or ' a great d e a l ' . I t i s a l s o not s u r p r i s i n g tha t t e a c h e r ' s ' p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s or commitments f r e q u e n t l y i n f l u e n c e what i s taught . I t would appear that teachers of the Humani t ies , s i n c e they are not very s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d as to what they ought to t e a c h , seem to be content to 'do t h e i r own t h i n g 1 . An a d d i t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n c o n t r i b u t i n g to t h i s s i t u a t i o n may be a p e r c e i v e d inadequacy of teacher t r a i n i n g ( V i c t o r i a n Educat ion Department, 1977b:66) • and - of i n - s e r v i c e educat ion p r o v i s i o n s ( Ingvarson , 1975; and Research Adv i so ry Committee, S . C . V . at Hawthorn, 1975) . In the absence of a p p r o p r i a t e i n i t i a l teacher educat ion and i n -s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n , teachers i n s e a r c h i n g f o r c u r r i c u l u m ideas and m a t e r i a l s f a l l back on t h e i r p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s and commitments as w e l l as t h e i r p e r s o n a l academic background. CHAPTER I I I PROBLEMS IN TEACHING THE HUMANITIES ANALYSIS OF RESULTS In order to generate i tems f o r that s e c t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e a l i n g w i t h problems f a c i n g Humanit ies t e a c h e r s , twenty e i g h t teachers were asked to i n d i c a t e the problems they p e r s o n a l l y were e x p e r i e n c i n g . An a n a l y s i s of t h e i r responses r e v e a l e d s i x t e e n d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t problems. These became the i tems which the teachers i n t h i s study were asked to examine, and to i n d i c a t e whether they regarded each as 'not a p r o b l e m ' , ' a s m a l l p r o b l e m ' , ' a c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o b l e m ' , or ' a s e r i o u s problem. By combining c a t e g o r i e s ' a c o n s i d e r a b l e problem' and ' a s e r i o u s problem' and combining the other two c a t e g o r i e s , the r e s u l t a n t percentage f i g u r e s y i e l d r a t h e r c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n s as to which problems were regarded as s e r i o u s f o r the g r e a t e s t number of t e a c h e r s . The percentages range from a h i g h of 65 .8 to a low of 1 5 . 3 . The mean percent i s 3 6 . 5 . (See Appendix G) S i x i tems are above the mean, w h i l e ten are below. What Are the More Ser ious Problems F a c i n g Humanit ies Teachers? The s i x problems which were regarded as s e r i o u s by f o r t y or more percent of the respondents are as f o l l o w s : 1 . I n s u f f i c i e n t t ime f o r c u r r i c u l u m development (65.8%) 2 . F i n d i n g time to prepare lessons adequately (52.6%) 3 . G e t t i n g s tudents i n t e r e s t e d i n Humanit ies (49.2%) 19 20 4. Genera l l a c k of understanding by non-Humanit ies teachers of Humanit ies t e a c h i n g (45.0%) 5 . I n s u f f i c i e n t i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n he lp w i t h c u r r i c u l u m (43.7%) 6. I n s u f f i c i e n t teacher t r a i n i n g i n c u r r i c u l u m (40.0%) The two problems which were i d e n t i f i e d by the g r e a t e s t number of teachers as b e i n g s e r i o u s are concerned w i t h the l a c k of t i m e . One i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t ime f o r c u r r i c u l u m development, the o t h e r , not enough time f o r l e s s o n p r e p a r a t i o n . Humanit ies teachers p e r c e i v e d the t h i r d most s e r i o u s problem to be g e t t i n g s tudents i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r sub jec t a r e a . The problem which was seen as next most s e r i o u s i s the poor under -s t a n d i n g tha t non-Humanit ies teachers have of Humanit ies t e a c h i n g . The remain ing problems which were thought to be s e r i o u s by a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of teachers were concerned w i t h inadequate t r a i n i n g i n c u r r i c u l u m m a t t e r s . Th is p e r t a i n s to i n i t i a l teacher t r a i n i n g and to i n - s e r v i c e programmes. 21 Table VI Problems P e r c e i v e d To Be Ser ious Extent of Problem Not a Problem Cons ide rab le Problem or Smal l Problem or Ser ious Problem I n s u f f i c i e n t t ime f o r c u r r i c u l u m development % 28.6 % 65.8 F i n d i n g t ime to prepare l e s s o n s adequately 41 .9 52 .6 G e t t i n g s tudents i n t e r e s t e d i n Humanit ies 45 .4 49 .2 General l a c k of under -s tand ing by non-Humanit ies teachers of Humanit ies teach ing 49.5 4 5 . 0 I n s u f f i c i e n t i n - s e r v i c e educat ion he lp w i t h c u r r i c u l u m 4 8 . 1 43.7 I n s u f f i c i e n t teacher t r a i n i n g i n c u r r i c u l u m 52 .0 40 .0 n=608 Note: The percents i n each column represent a c o l l a p s i n g of two c a t e g o r i e s . See Appendix G f o r the f u l l t a b l e . 22 What Problems are Viewed as Being Less Ser ious? The problems which most teachers regarded as l e s s s e r i o u s are as f o l l o w s : 1 . The number of s t a f f members w i t h very l i t t l e t e a c h i n g exper ience (78.8%) 2 . I n s u f f i c i e n t a s s i s t a n c e from c u r r i c u l u m exper ts (69.1%) 3 . Lack of an o v e r a l l c u r r i c u l u m p l a n (65.3%) 4. Lack of v a r i e t y of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e (65.2%) 5 . Inappropr ia teness of the c u r r i c u l u m a s s i s t a n c e a v a i l a b l e (64.8%) 6. Lack of c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h i n the Humanit ies department (62.9%) 7. I n s u f f i c i e n t c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e (61.7%) C l e a r l y , i n e x p e r i e n c e d teachers was not pe rce i ved by the v a s t m a j o r i t y of Humanit ies teachers as a problem. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that on ly t h i r t y - t w o of the 608 respondents regarded the presence of i n e x p e r i e n c e d teachers on a s t a f f as a s e r i o u s prob lem. Two other 'non -prob lems ' p e r t a i n e d to c u r r i c u l u m a s s i s t a n c e . One was concerned w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t teacher he lp from c u r r i c u l u m exper ts (69 .1 percent d i d not regard t h i s as a problem) w h i l e the o ther focused upon the i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of that a s s i s t a n c e (64.8 percent d i d not see t h i s as a p rob lem) . 23 Table V I I Problems P e r c e i v e d To Be Not Ser ious Extent of Problem Not a Problem Cons iderab le Problem or Smal l Problem or Ser ious Problem The number of s t a f f members w i t h very l i t t l e teach ing exper ience I n s u f f i c i e n t a s s i s t a n c e from c u r r i c u l u m exper ts Lack of an o v e r a l l c u r r i c u l u m p l a n Lack of v a r i e t y of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e 78 .8 6 9 . 1 65 .3 65 .2 1 5 . 3 22.4 28.4 28.7 Inappropr ia teness of the c u r r i c u l u m a s s i s t a n c e a v a i l a b l e 64 .8 25 .3 Lack of c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h i n the Humanit ies department I n s u f f i c i e n t c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e 62 .9 61.7 32 .0 31.4 S t a f f turnover from one year to the next Developing t e a c h i n g ideas and approaches I n s u f f i c i e n t money a v a i l a b l e f o r the purchase of m a t e r i a l s 58 .4 58.4 58.4 34.4 34.7 35 .2 n=608 Note : The percents i n each column represent a c o l l a p s i n g of two c a t e g o r i e s . See Appendix G f o r the f u l l t a b l e . 24 Another two, not regarded as s e r i o u s problems were concerned w i t h c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g . One was the l a c k of an o v e r a l l p l a n , the other poor c o o r d i n a t i o n i n Humanit ies departments. The remain ing two concerned c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . One was the i n s u f f i c i e n c y of m a t e r i a l s , the o t h e r , the l a c k of v a r i e t y of m a t e r i a l s . DISCUSSION OF RESULTS What are the More Ser ious Problems F a c i n g Humanit ies Teachers? The problem repor ted as s e r i o u s by the g r e a t e s t number of Humanit ies teachers i s the l a c k of t ime f o r c u r r i c u l u m development. Th is would be seen by many to be not s u r p r i s i n g . The Educat ion Department, has f o r a very long t ime a l lowed each schoo l two ' p r o f e s s i o n a l days ' per year when student attendance i s not r e q u i r e d . These days were f r e q u e n t l y used f o r c o r r e c t i o n of work and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes at the end of an academic term. S ince the g r a n t i n g of c u r r i c u l u m autonomy, these two days have most u s u a l l y been taken f o r teacher meetings to d i s c u s s s c h o o l aims and o b j e c t i v e s , to develop courses of study or to eva luate e x i s t i n g programmes. S ince such ' c u r r i c u l u m days ' g e n e r a l l y occur red months apar t there were very few o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r any meaningfu l c u r r i c u l u m c o n s t r u c t i o n , u p - g r a d i n g or e v a l u a t i o n . In past decades, w i t h p r e s c r i b e d and d e t a i l e d c u r r i c u l a r e q u i r i n g on ly implementat ion at the s c h o o l l e v e l , two p r o f e s s i o n a l days may have been adequate. Now that the e n t i r e c u r r i c u l u m process - Research , Development, D i f f u s i o n and Adopt ion - i s supposed to occur at the schoo l l e v e l , very much more t ime i s o b v i o u s l y needed f o r c u r r i c u l u m development a c t i v i t i e s . A o k i 25 (1977) , a Canadian Cur r i cu lum S c h o l a r , has d i s c u s s e d attempts at such h o l i s t i c c u r r i c u l u m development and has i n d i c a t e d how time consuming such a c t i v i t y can b e . The problem of l a c k of time f o r c u r r i c u l u m development h a s , of c o u r s e , been the sub jec t of much d i s c u s s i o n i n V i c t o r i a . (See, f o r example, Adams and Auer , 1 9 7 6 : 9 ; Beeson and Gunstone, 1 9 7 5 : 9 ; C a r l i n and o t h e r s , 1976:10 ; N i c h o l a s , 1973:98 and V i c t o r i a n Educat ion Department 1977b:65) Not l e s s s e r i o u s a problem i s t h a t of f i n d i n g t ime to prepare lessons adequate l y . In a c u r r i c u l u m area l i k e the Humanit ies which embrace s e v e r a l d i s c i p l i n e s d e a l i n g w i t h contemporary phenomena, i n d i v i d u a l l e s s o n p r e p a r a t i o n i s of v i t a l impor tance . Th is i s p a r t i c u -l a r l y so f o r a sub jec t which r e q u i r e s such t a i l o r i n g a c c o r d i n g to s t u d e n t ' s i n t e r e s t s . I t may be r e c a l l e d that a great number of Humanit ies teachers repor ted be ing s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d i n t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s by the i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s expressed by t h e i r s t u d e n t s . (See Table V) As one might expec t , t h i s problem of i n -s u f f i c i e n t t ime f o r l e s s o n p r e p a r a t i o n i s not unique to Humanit ies t e a c h e r s . Beeson and Gunston (1975) f o r example, found that i t was a l s o regarded by s c i e n c e teachers to be a s e r i o u s prob lem. I n s u f f i c i e n t time f o r c u r r i c u l u m c o n s t r u c t i o n and l e s s o n p r e p a r a t i o n may w e l l r e s u l t i n i n f e r i o r Humanit ies t e a c h i n g . There may very w e l l be a l i n k between the q u a l i t y of t e a c h i n g and the t h i r d most s e r i o u s problem p e r c e i v e d by Humanit ies teachers - g e t t i n g s tudents i n t e r e s t e d i n Humani t ies . The w r i t e r has f r e q u e n t l y heard the v iew a i r e d i n t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s ta f f rooms tha t i t i s more d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r e s t t e c h n i c a l schoo l s tudents i n Humanit ies than i n most o ther a r e a s , e s p e c i a l l y p r a c t i c a l s t u d i e s . Students o f t e n q u e s t i o n the re levance of Humanit ies to t h e i r f u t u r e job a s p i r a t i o n s , f o r example. 26 Two other problems p e r c e i v e d as s e r i o u s by many teachers concern i n s u f f i c i e n c i e s i n teacher e d u c a t i o n . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t both i n i t i a l teacher t r a i n i n g and i n - s e r v i c e educat ion f o r teachers have not ad jus ted a p p r o p r i a t e l y or q u i c k l y enough s i n c e the i n c e p t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m autonomy. P r e - s e r v i c e courses c o n t a i n only a s m a l l component d e a l i n g w i t h c u r r i c u l u m development. D e s p i t e p l e a s f o r an i n c r e a s e d c u r r i c u l u m development component i n t e c h n i c a l teacher t r a i n i n g programmes (Research and Adv i so ry Committee, S . C . V . at Hawthorn, 1975) , the compos i t ion of such programmes has a l t e r e d l i t t l e . The s i t u a t i o n i s s t i l l such t h a t the recent r e p o r t of the C u r r i c u l u m S e r v i c e s Enqui ry s t a t e d that there i s ' . . . great concern . . . expressed about the p e r c e i v e d inadequacies of teacher t r a i n i n g and i t s e f f e c t s upon the beg inn ing t e a c h e r . ' ( V i c t o r i a n Educat ion Department, 1977b:68-69) . Many submiss ions to t h a t enqui ry . . . noted that beg inn ing teachers i n p a r t i c u l a r exper ience s p e c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m implementat ion r o l e , and even more so i n per fo rming a c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p -ment f u n c t i o n . ( V i c t o r i a n Educat ion Department, 1977a:66) Th is need f o r a p p r o p r i a t e teacher educat ion i n c u r r i c u l u m extends i n t o years f a r beyond those of i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g . There are i n d i c a t i o n s that t r a d i t i o n a l i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s - u n i v e r s i t y courses i n c u r r i c u l u m theory and e v a l u a t i o n , and conferences d u r i n g which ' e x p e r t s ' p rov ide most of the input - are no longer s e r v i n g the needs of t e a c h e r s . The f o l l o w i n g c i t a t i o n from Ingvarson , suggests the nature of i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s i n demand by t e a c h e r s . . . . teachers f e e l a s t rong need f o r i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n , tha t i n -s e r v i c e courses have caused them to make changes i n t h e i r teach ing and tha t teachers should p l a y a g rea te r par t i n choosing the areas to be covered and the running of i n - s e r v i c e c o u r s e s . However, when 27 asked to compare i n - s e r v i c e educat ion w i t h o ther f a c t o r s t h a t had i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l development, g rea te r importance was g i ven to meetings w i t h i n the s c h o o l to d i s c u s s e d u c a t i o n a l t o p i c s , to o r i g i n a l teacher t r a i n i n g and fo rmal s t u d y , research and p r o f e s s i o n a l r e a d i n g . . . . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the most u s e f u l courses d e a l t w i t h p r a c t i c a l problems and were d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t to the t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n . D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was s t r o n g f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l conferences which had too many l e c t u r e s which were too t h e o r e t i c a l and speakers who were incompetent , b o r i n g , dogmatic and p a t r o n i s i n g . (1975:74) The most u s e f u l i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s to f o s t e r teacher e x p e r t i s e i n c u r r i c u l u m matters seem to be those which maximise p a r t i c i p a t i o n of teachers i n on -go ing a c t i v i t i e s . Matthews (1976) argues that the p r i n c i p a l , and p o s s i b l y a l s o the schoo l c o u n c i l , need to f a c i l i t a t e c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t i n c u r r i c u l u m development. The r e s u l t s of t h i s p resent study c o n f i r m the need f o r s i g n i f i c a n t improvement a t both the i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g and i n - s e r v i c e l e v e l s . What Problems are Viewed as Being Less Ser ious? A s u b s t a n t i a l number of teachers i n t h i s survey d i d not regard the number of s t a f f members w i t h very l i t t l e teach ing exper ience as a problem. Th is f i n d i n g i s r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g i n v iew of the many submiss ions to the C u r r i c u l u m S e r v i c e s Enqui ry ( V i c t o r i a n Educat ion Department, 1977b) which s t r o n g l y argued the c o n t r a r y . One e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n which teachers might be i n c l i n e d to o f f e r i s tha t most of the c o n t r i b u t o r s to the C u r r i c u l u m S e r v i c e s Enqui ry were not c lassroom t e a c h e r s , but a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , who may have never taught i n the Humanit ies a r e a , o r , i f s o , many years ago when the e x p e c t a t i o n s were q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . Another problem which i s o f t e n regarded as s e r i o u s by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and c u r r i c u l u m commentators i s that of s t a f f ' t u r n o v e r ' from one year to 28 the n e x t . The C u r r i c u l u m Adv i so ry Board , f o r example, c la imed that w i t h the development of unique c u r r i c u l a i n s c h o o l s , the tasks of incoming teachers and of e x i s t i n g s t a f f are m a g n i f i e d . ' (1975:8) Lack of s t a b i l i t y of s t a f f was a l s o p e r c e i v e d to be a problem among s c i e n c e c o o r d i n a t o r s . (Beeson and Gunstone, 1975:9) However, these present data i n d i c a t e tha t most teachers themselves do not p e r c e i v e s t a f f ' t u r n o v e r ' as a problem. R a t h e r , they tend to see themselves as work ing independent ly of t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s and thus see ' t u r n o v e r ' as hav ing l i t t l e e f f e c t upon t h e i r own t e a c h i n g . The l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h i n Humanit ies departments and the l a c k of o v e r a l l c u r r i c u l a were a l s o not p e r c e i v e d by most teachers as problems. Y e t , more than h a l f the respondents i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r s c h o o l d i d not have a w r i t t e n Humanit ies c u r r i c u l u m . (See Appendix H) These s t a t i s t i c s taken t o g e t h e r , would seem to suggest that Humanit ies teachers do not see as p a r t i c u l a r l y important the e x i s t e n c e of one o v e r a l l schoo l Humanit ies c u r r i c u l u m to which i n d i v i d u a l s g e n e r a l l y adhere. Most teachers b e l i e v e t h a t the number and the v a r i e t y of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s are adequate. S e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l teacher comments on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , suggested however, that supply and v a r i e t y may be more of a problem f o r teachers i n r u r a l areas d i s t a n t from Melbourne. In recent years there has been an enormous growth i n both A u s t r a l i a n as w e l l as overseas book and a u d i o - v i s u a l r e s o u r c e s . And, at the same t i m e , an i n c r e a s i n g number of c u r r i c u l u m support agencies have been c r e a t e d . Most r e c e n t l y , the C u r r i c u l u m Development Centre i n Canberra has developed a ' c l e a r i n g house' f u n c t i o n that should h e l p teachers keep b e t t e r informed as to a v a i l a b l e resources and t e a c h i n g approaches. 29 (Cur r i cu lum Development C e n t r e , 1975) Inappropr ia teness of c u r r i c u l u m a s s i s t a n c e and i n s u f f i c i e n t a s s i s t a n c e from c u r r i c u l u m exper ts were not regarded as s e r i o u s by most t e a c h e r s . In v iew of the i n f r e q u e n t use made of c u r r i c u l u m support agency m a t e r i a l s , as i n d i c a t e d i n Table I I I of Chapter I I , i t would appear that the m a j o r i t y of Humanit ies teachers do not v a l u e e x t e n s i v e a s s i s t a n c e from o u t s i d e of t h e i r s c h o o l . A n s t e e ' s 1976 study r e p o r t s s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s . The p o i n t made by Murray more than ten years ago, appears to be s t i l l a p p l i c a b l e today. We do not need academics to t e l l us what and how to teach -and examine. We are t r a i n e d teachers and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y capable of work ing out what our secondary p u p i l s need. (Murray, 1966:20) Th is v i e w , however, appears i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n to tha t suggested by Matthews (1976) tha t teachers l a c k the i n c e n t i v e to be i n v o l v e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i v e d e c i s i o n making w i t h respec t to c u r r i c u l u m . Baron (1975) lends support to t h i s v iew by i n d i c a t i n g reasons f o r such d i s i n t e r e s t . He c l a i m s t h a t : Some teachers c a n ' t g i ve the t ime to t a l k to o t h e r s , e . g . those who t r a v e l l o n g d i s t a n c e s ; some mar r ied women. Some d o n ' t want to g ive t ime to such c o n s u l t a t i o n and on ly want to be l e f t a lone to do t h e i r job and be p r o t e c t e d from c o l l e a g u e s by the p r i n c i p a l . Among o t h e r s , the s c h o o l day i s that t ime when t e a c h i n g takes p l a c e . (Matthews, 1976:7) Another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n though, i s that most teachers p r e f e r to p r a c t i c e as i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s and take p r i d e i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to fo rmula te aims and o b j e c t i v e s , to develop or gather the a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l s and to put i n t o p r a c t i c e c lassroom management s t r a t e g i e s and t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s . A c c o r d i n g to Massey and others ( 1 9 7 7 : 6 ) , . . . ' T h i s i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and i s o l a t e d d e c i s i o n making a l l o w s i n d i v i d u a l s to develop themselves and t h e i r own r e l e v a n c e s . ' To work i n a c o l l e g i a l mode would 30 mean g i v i n g up t h e i r independence and, what f o r many would b e , a source of c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . These content ions throw some doubt on the v i a b i l i t y of d e c e n t r a l i -z i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c u r r i c u l u m development upon t e a c h e r s . Summary To sum up, what has become very c l e a r i s that Humanit ies teachers p r e f e r to work very much on t h e i r own. They are not g e n e r a l l y i n f l u e n c e d to any great extent by i n d i v i d u a l s or groups w i t h i n or o u t s i d e of t h e i r s c h o o l . P r i n c i p a l s , v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s and department heads apparent l y exer t l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s of Humanit ies t e a c h e r s . S i m i l a r l y , o u t s i d e personne l such as r e g i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t s and s p e c i a l method l e c t u r e r s appear to have l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e . The only people who do seem to s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e Humanit ies t e a c h e r s ' c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s are c o l l e a g u e s who teach at the same form l e v e l . Groups such as sub jec t a s s o c i a t i o n s and sub jec t s tand ing committees a l s o have l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e upon c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s of teachers i n the Humani t ies . Teachers g e n e r a l l y use m a t e r i a l s produced by such groups on ly i n f r e q u e n t l y . F a c t o r s which are important i n Humanit ies t e a c h e r s ' c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s i n c l u d e ' t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e s o u r c e s ' and ' s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t s ' . The two problems which are cons idered by the g r e a t e s t number of teachers as b e i n g s e r i o u s are concerned w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t t i m e : i n s u f f i c i e n t time f o r c u r r i c u l u m development and i n s u f f i c i e n t t ime f o r l e s s o n p r e p a r a t i o n . On the other hand, problems viewed as be ing l e s s s e r i o u s i n c l u d e the number of teachers w i t h very l i t t l e teach ing e x p e r i e n c e , i n s u f f i c i e n t 31 assistance from curriculum experts, and lack of an o v e r a l l curriculum plan. CHAPTER IV OBSERVATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS There i s one o v e r r i d i n g o b s e r v a t i o n tha t comes through as one r e f l e c t s upon the f i n d i n g s from t h i s s tudy . And, tha t concerns the v i a b i l i t y of any scheme which seeks to d e c e n t r a l i z e c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n making. C o n n e l l y , a noted c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r i s t i n Canada speaks very f o r c e f u l l y on the matter of d e c e n t r a l i z e d c u r r i c u l u m development: Without an adequate understanding of how teachers make c u r r i c u l u m cho ices and wi thout adequate mechanisms f o r educat ing teachers i n t h e i r r o l e s as c h o i c e - m a k e r s , i t i s i r r e s p o n s i b l e romant ic ism to de legate cur r icu lum-deve lopment a u t h o r i t y to t e a c h e r s . (1972:170) So many of the f i n d i n g s seem to support the v iew that Humanit ies t e a c h e r s , f o r example, r e a l l y p r e f e r to work on t h e i r own, to operate as s o l o p r a c t i t i o n e r s . For example, most teachers d i d not see s u p e r -v i s o r y personne l as h e l p f u l ; they d i d not u s e , to any great e x t e n t , r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e u n i t s of work; they were not t r o u b l e d by the f a c t t h a t there f r e q u e n t l y was l i t t l e or no c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h i n t h e i r departments; they were unconcerned about teacher ' t u r n o v e r ' and about the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number of inexper ienced among them. However, s c h o o l - b a s e d c u r r i c u l u m c o n s t r u c t i o n , i f i t i s to become v i t a l and c r e a t i v e , r e q u i r e s c o l l a b o r a t i v e approaches and a t t i t u d e s on the p a r t of those i n v o l v e d . I t r e q u i r e s some s h a r i n g of knowledge and t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s ; i t r e q u i r e s s y s t e m a t i c and cont inuous a t t e n t i o n to upgrading of one's knowledge and e x p e r t i s e through i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n . ( I t w i l l be remembered that the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m autonomy 32 33 p r o v i s i o n s from the l a t e 1960's and onwards s t r o n g l y i m p l i e d a s c h o o l based approach , not an i n d i v i d u a l teacher approach . ) Qu i te apart from t h i s tendency of i n d i v i d u a l Humanit ies teachers toward a s o l o p r a c t i c e , there are s e v e r a l other c r i t i c a l f i n d i n g s that undoubtedly have an e f f e c t upon the q u a l i t y of the Humanit ies programme and i n d i r e c t l y , s u r e l y , the amount of i n t e r e s t which i t ho lds f o r t e c h n i c a l schoo l s t u d e n t s . F i r s t l y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t not to conclude from the data that the c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s now r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n the Humanit ies f i e l d are l e s s than adequate. Th is a s s e r t i o n i s based on the ev idence o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I I which i s that a great many teachers do not make much use of such m a t e r i a l s as produced by Subject A s s o c i a t i o n s and Standing Committees. I t i s e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e that these m a t e r i a l s themselves are of a very h i g h q u a l i t y . The f a c t , though, that they are s y s t e m a t i c a l l y ignored by so many, suggests some s e r i o u s f a u l t s e i t h e r i n the way the m a t e r i a l s were produced ( i . e . w i t h l i t t l e d i r e c t involvement of Humanit ies teachers themselves) or i n the way the m a t e r i a l s have been in t roduced and marketed. Secondly , the s u p e r v i s o r y personnel who would be expected to be s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e i r f i e l d , namely, the heads o f Humanit ies departments , and c u r r i c u l u m c o n s u l t a n t s l o c a t e d i n each of the r e g i o n s , are not g e n e r a l l y pe rce i ved by the teachers themselves as b e i n g sources of h e l p . Th is was a l s o the case w i t h Subject A s s o c i a t i o n s and Stand ing Committees such as VASST and SCETS. Why i s t h i s the case? T h i s study does not exp lo re the why. (That might w e l l be the focus f o r a f o l l o w i n g s t u d y , which uses a more i n -depth i n t e r v i e w approach. ) Bu t , the f a c t remains that these resources 34 are not b e i n g used by most t e a c h e r s . And, t h e r e f o r e , one p o t e n t i a l f o r making s c h o o l based c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g more e f f e c t i v e i s be ing s e r i o u s l y u n d e r - u t i l i z e d . T h i r d l y , the evidence as found i n the p e r c e p t i o n s of Humanit ies t e a c h e r s , s t r o n g l y q u e s t i o n the adequacy of both i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g and i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n . The present s c h o o l - b a s e d approach c e r t a i n l y r e q u i r e s a much more s o p h i s t i c a t e d teacher than that of an e a r l i e r e r a . Hence the i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g programme needs to be of a d i f f e r e n t s o r t -one which acknowledges that there are unique s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d f o r a g rea te r s e l f s u f f i c i e n c y i n c u r r i c u l u m development processes and s k i l l s . No l e s s important i s an adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n . Downey c la ims that . . . . . . the purposes of modern programs of i n - s e r v i c e educat ion f o r educators a r e : (1) to a s s i s t teachers to keep informed of and u p - t o - d a t e on the l a t e s t developments i n the f i e l d s of study which r e l a t e to the substance of t h e i r t e a c h i n g ; (2) to a s s i s t teachers to keep informed of research f i n d i n g s and developments i n the techniques of t e a c h i n g ; and (3) to e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l forum f o r the communicat ion, debate and a n a l y s i s of ideas which are of concern to e d u c a t o r s . (Ingram and Rob inson , 1963:4) Adequate p r o v i s i o n i s most d e f i n i t e l y l a c k i n g i n V i c t o r i a i f one i s to b e l i e v e ther.data presented i n t h i s r e p o r t . F i n a l l y , the most s e r i o u s impediment to a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e a l i z a t i o n of the aims of a s c h o o l - b a s e d approach i s the shortage of t i m e . Teachers overwhelmingly i d e n t i f i e d as a most s e r i o u s problem the inadequacy of t ime f o r c u r r i c u l u m development and f o r l e s s o n p r e p a r a t i o n . 35 SUGGESTIONS The s e c t i o n which f o l l o w s makes a number of suggest ions which d e r i v e from the f o r e g o i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s and r a i s e s s e v e r a l a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s . Time What teachers need most i f they are to have g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c u r r i c u l u m development i s t i m e . (While t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s concerned w i t h Humanit ies t e a c h e r s , the p o i n t s made a r e , undoubtedly , e q u a l l y v a l i d f o r teachers i n o ther s u b j e c t a r e a s . ) E s s e n t i a l l y , pe r iods of perhaps a week's d u r a t i o n are r e q u i r e d f o r c u r r i c u l u m development w i t h i n Humanit ies departments. The p e r i o d j u s t p r i o r to the beg inn ing of an academic year would l i k e l y be the most a p p r o p r i a t e . Dur ing t h i s t ime the s t a f f would undertake u p - d a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s such as r e v i s i o n of c o u r s e s , s e l e c t i n g new m a t e r i a l s and c o o p e r a t i v e l y deve lop ing schedules f o r v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s both w i t h i n and o u t s i d e the s c h o o l . An important task f o r t h i s p e r i o d would s u r e l y be that of h e l p i n g teachers who were new to the s c h o o l become f a m i l i a r w i t h the programmes and p rocedures . In a d d i t i o n , t ime must be p rov ided f o r i n - s e r v i c e or c o n t i n u i n g educat ion of Humanit ies t e a c h e r s . Among the s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e ways of a c h i e v i n g more t ime would be s h o r t e n i n g the summer v a c a t i o n f o r teachers from s i x weeks to f i v e weeks and s h o r t e n i n g by three days each of the other two h o l i d a y p e r i o d s . I t w i l l be remembered that some years back the May v a c a t i o n used to be only one week i n d u r a t i o n . A second week was added f o r the expressed 36 purpose of p r o v i d i n g t ime f o r i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s such as a t t e n d i n g seminars and c u r r i c u l u m workshops. Another a l t e r n a t i v e i s to reduce the l e n g t h of the academic te rms , but t h i s i s an u n l i k e l y one i n v iew of i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c concern over r e t u r n s on e d u c a t i o n a l spend ing . Whatever means are used to o b t a i n a d d i t i o n a l t i m e , i t should be remembered tha t b l o c k s of time l e s s than th ree consecut i ve days are l e s s than u s e f u l to the types of a c t i v i t i e s r e f e r r e d to e a r l i e r . The Cur r i cu lum A d v i s o r y Board i n 1975 i m p l i e d i n one of i t s r e p o r t s that there was need f o r such s u s t a i n e d pe r iods of t i m e . (are) . . . the demands of day to day t e a c h i n g too great to a l l o w teachers to r i s e above t h e i r immediate shor t term needs to an o v e r a l l l o n g - t e r m and t o t a l v iew of the cu r r i cu lum? (1.975:28) Before l e a v i n g the very important matter of t i m e , a word about t ime f o r l e s s o n p r e p a r a t i o n . At p r e s e n t , most Humanit ies teachers g e t , on average , a one-hour p e r i o d f o r p r e p a r a t i o n (and other t a s k s ) each day. Th is i s c l e a r l y inadequate . I t would seem s e n s i b l e to i n c r e a s e t h i s amount of t ime to the e q u i v a l e n t of two hours per day. A g a i n , i t might be more e f f e c t i v e l y used i f i t were i n two b l o c k s of t i m e , each of one h a l f day. To p rov ide t h i s i n c r e a s e d time means employing more teachers or i n c r e a s i n g the s i z e of c l a s s e s , or some combinat ion of b o t h . In a l l l i k e l i h o o d , i t w i l l cos t more money. B u t , i f the t ime problem i s as c r i t i c a l as i t appears to be to improv ing Humanit ies t e a c h i n g i n V i c t o r i a n t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s , then a l a r g e r investment of t ime i s war ranted . I t was McGaw who r e c e n t l y a s s e r t e d : In ensur ing that d e v o l u t i o n works , the system should not on ly attempt to p r o v i d e teachers w i t h the necessary s k i l l s and r e s o u r c e s , i t should c o n t i n u a l l y moni tor the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the process of i d e n t i f y i n g needs f o r support as they emerge. (1977:9) 37 Teacher Educat ion As has been p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , the appropr ia teness of i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g has been q u e s t i o n e d . I t i s suggested that teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s rev iew the content of t h e i r programmes - i n p a r t i c u l a r those elements concerned w i t h c u r r i c u l u m development processes and s k i l l s . S ince s c h o o l - b a s e d c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g c a l l s f o r c o l l a -b o r a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n , then i t would seem d e s i r a b l e that such processes be not on ly taught but a l s o p r a c t i c e d d u r i n g the i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . I f these changes are a l r e a d y under way, then so much the b e t t e r . I t w i l l mean that the next genera t ion of Humanit ies teachers w i l l have the b a s i c p r e p a r a t i o n needed f o r a more s u c c e s f u l exper ience i n c u r r i -culum development at the schoo l l e v e l . The appropr ia teness of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Humanit ies teachers needs very c a r e f u l s tudy . I d e a l l y , both fo rmal ( i . e . , c r e d i t ) and i n f o r m a l courses i n c u r r i c u l u m development should be a v a i l a b l e on an a f t e r hours b a s i s as w e l l as d u r i n g v a c a t i o n p e r i o d s . The i n f o r m a l or shor t courses cou ld be developed by sub jec t a s s o c i a t i o n s i n c l o s e c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l i s t s at the c o l l e g e or the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l , r e g i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c lassroom t e a c h e r s . I t i s t rue that some such courses a l ready e x i s t , u s u a l l y i n the form of seminars . However, a c c o r d i n g to data presented i n t h i s s t u d y , they are not at tended by most t e a c h e r s . Th is suggests tha t problems e x i s t i n e i t h e r t h e i r re levance or i n the techniques of p r e s e n t a t i o n as was expressed e a r l i e r . They t y p i c a l l y use the l e c t u r e mode, are too t h e o r e t i c a l , and f r e q u e n t l y the speakers are incompetent , b o r i n g , 38 dogmatic and p a t r o n i s i n g . " ( Ingvarson, 1975:74) Of course , t e a c h e r s ' cent res should not on ly cont inue but a l s o i n c r e a s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s whereby teachers may share ideas and resources and c o o p e r a t i v e l y develop some. In v iew that data from t h i s study show that few teachers made use of c o n s u l t a t i o n , there i s need to examine why t h i s i s s o . I s i t that there are too few c o n s u l t a n t s ? Are some of the c o n s u l t a n t s out of touch w i t h the r e a l i t i e s of the Humanit ies t e a c h e r ' s wor ld and thereby regarded as i r r e l e v a n t ? Other reasons? Answers to such ques t ions w i l l r e q u i r e a research technique which uses a more i n - d e p t h approach such as i n t e r v i e w s i n v o l v i n g on ly a s m a l l sample or a study of a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of c a s e s . I t goes w i thout say ing that there needs to be a c o n t i n u a l examina-t i o n of the adequacy of the k i n d s of m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e from such resource cent res f o r t e a c h e r s . There should be a wide range of m a t e r i a l s very r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . In a d d i t i o n to c lassroom m a t e r i a l s , such cent res should have on hand i n f o r m a t i o n about c u r r i c u l a i n o ther s c h o o l s , cata logues of a v a i l a b l e community resources and d e s c r i p t i o n s of recent c u r r i c u l a i n n o v a t i o n s . One cannot leave the q u e s t i o n of c o n t i n u i n g educat ion w i thout wondering how adequate are i n - s e r v i c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r such personne l as p r i n c i p a l s and heads of department. Aga in these data r a i s e c e r t a i n ques t ions about how e f f e c t i v e these key p e r s o n n e l are i n p r o v i d i n g l e a d e r s h i p i n the c u r r i c u l u m development f i e l d or i n e s t a b l i s h i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e m i l i e u f o r schoo l -based c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . In a very recent B r i t i s h Columbia Study , Storey (1978:211) found tha t p u b l i c s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s were very i n t e r e s t e d i n ' d e v e l o p i n g 39 c u r r i c u l u m at the s c h o o l l e v e l ' and ' s t i m u l a t i n g t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r e s t i n p r o f e s s i o n a l growth. ' Such areas of concern seem to be important ones f o r p r i n c i p a l s ' c o n t i n u i n g educat ion a c t i v i t i e s f o r example. I t would seem t h a t those who are d e s i g n i n g c o n t i n u i n g educat ion a c t i v i t i e s f o r s c h o o l l e a d e r s should keep t h i s f i n d i n g i n mind . I t has been c l e a r l y a l l e g e d t h a t , The growth of s c h o o l - b a s e d c u r r i c u l u m development r e q u i r e s a r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d concept of schoo l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The development of a whole s c h o o l approach to c u r r i c u l u m r e q u i r e s the involvement of the whole s c h o o l : a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t e a c h i n g s t a f f , s tudents and p a r e n t s . (Cur r i cu lum Adv i so ry Board , 1976:5) Quest ions R e q u i r i n g F u r t h e r D i s c u s s i o n To conc lude , here are some a d d i t i o n a l quest ions d e s e r v i n g of f u r t h e r thought and e x p l o r a t i o n . I s i t too much to expect from beg inn ing teachers i n p a r t i c u l a r , to be i n v o l v e d i n the d e v i s i n g of c u r r i c u l u m packages? Ought i n e x p e -r i e n c e d teachers to be encouraged to f o l l o w ready made programmes of h i g h q u a l i t y ? I s i n i t i a l teacher educat ion the a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e f o r i n t r o d u c i n g Humanit ies teachers to c u r r i c u l u m b u i l d i n g processes? I f s o , what should be omit ted from present i n i t i a l teacher p r e p a r a t i o n ? Would i t be more r e a l i s t i c to see c o n t i n u i n g educat ion as the mode f o r the development of c u r r i c u l u m c o n s t r u c t i o n s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s ? F i n a l l y , s i n c e few of the suggest ions of the e a r l i e r s e c t i o n w i l l be ac ted upon w i thout support both f i n a n c i a l and moral from the Educat ion Department, what p i r o r i t y does that Department g i ve to the t o p i c which t h i s study has addressed , namely Humanit ies t e a c h i n g i n t e c h n i c a l schoo ls? What p r i o r i t y does the Department g i ve to ensur ing 40 tha t d e v o l u t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s upon the schoo ls i s work ing s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ? Th is w r i t e r agrees w i t h S u l l i v a n who s t a t e d that D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m development cannot be viewed as a means of p roduc ing c u r r i c u l u m f o r l e s s expendi ture of funds When a schoo l system approaches a problem which c a l l s f o r customized c u r r i c u l u m development, i t must be cognizant tha t the c o s t s f o r such an approach w i l l be g r e a t e r . (1975:12) 41 REFERENCES Adams, K e v i n J . and P e t e r R. Auer 1976 Submission to the Cur r i cu lum S e r v i c e s Enqu i r y . Melbourne: S . C . V . at Hawthorn A n s t e e , J . 1976 'The p r o f e s s i o n a l needs of teachers i n the i n i t i a l years of s e r v i c e i n s c h o o l s . ' Report to the A u s t r a l i a n Teachers F e d e r a t i o n Annual Conference (January) A o k i , Ted T. 1977 ' T h e o r e t i c dimensions of c u r r i c u l u m : R e f l e c t i o n s from a m i c r o - p e r s p e c t i v e ' Canadian J o u r n a l of Educat ion 2 ( 1 ) : 4 9 - 5 6 Auer , P e t e r R. 1976 Teacher D e c i s i o n s i n C u r r i c u l u m and the Humanit ies i n V i c t o r i a n Secondary T e c h n i c a l Schoo ls . Melbourne: S . C . V . at Hawthorn (mimeo). Baron , G. 1975 'The s c h o o l as a d e c i s i o n making u n i t on c u r r i c u l u m . ' Lec tu re g i ven to V i c t o r i a n C o u n c i l f o r E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Beeson, G.W. and R .F . Gunstone 1975 'The t e a c h e r s ' r o l e i n c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s . ' The A u s t r a l i a n Sc ience Teachers J o u r n a l , 2 1 ( 1 ) : 5 - 1 9 C a r l i n , P . , K. P u r c h a l l and I. Robinson 1976 'The s c h o o l - b a s e d c u r r i c u l u m . 1 Cu r r i cu lum and Research B u l l e t i n , Melbourne: Educat ion Department, V i c t o r i a , 1 1 ( 1 ) : 9 -15 C o n n e l l y , F .M. 1972 'The f u n c t i o n s of c u r r i c u l u m development . ' In terchange , 3 ( 2 ) : 1 6 1 - 1 7 7 , Toronto Cur r i cu lum Adv i so ry Board 1975 Cur r i cu lum Reform i n V i c t o r i a ' s Secondary Schoo ls . Melbourne: C . A . B . 1976 Submission From the Cur r i cu lum Adv i so ry Board to the Cur r i cu lum S e r v i c e s E n q u i r y , Melbourne: C . A . B . Cur r i cu lum and Research Branch , V i c t o r i a 1976 A P r o p o s a l f o r Cur r i cu lum Support S e r v i c e s i n V i c t o r i a . Melbourne: Educat ion Department, V i c t o r i a . Cu r r i cu lum Development Centre 1975 Funct ions and Mode of Operat ion of the Cur r i cu lum Development Cent re . Canberra : A u s t r a l i a n Government P r i n t i n g Centre 42 Ingram, E . J . and F .G . Robinson 1963 A Teacher ' s Guide to Classroom Research . Edmonton: The A l b e r t a Teachers ' A s s o c i a t i o n Ingvarson , L. 1975 'The V i c t o r i a n i n - s e r v i c e educat ion e v a l u a t i o n p r o j e c t . ' Paper presented to the f i f t h annual conference of the South P a c i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Teacher E d u c a t i o n , Sydney ( Ju l y ) McGaw, B. 1977 C u r r i c u l u m S e r v i c e s i n a S ta te E d u c a t i o n a l System. Melbourne: Educat ion Department, V i c t o r i a Massey, D . , E. Osoba and W. Werner 1977 A l b e r t a E d u c a t i o n , M u t u a l i s m , and the Canadian Content P r o j e c t . Edmonton: U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a Matthews, R . J . 1976 Schoo l -Based Cur r i cu lum Development: Problems f o r the A d m i n i -n i s t r a t o r . Melbourne: V i c t o r i a n C o u n c i l f o r E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (mimeo) Moser , C A . and G. K a l t o n 1971 Survey Methods i n S o c i a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n . London: Heinemann Murray , K.W. 1966 'Secondary educat ion f o r a l l . ' The Secondary Teacher : Melbourne: V . S . T . A . , 112(20), N i c h o l a s , John 1973 'Change i n e d u c a t i o n ' i n Cur r i cu lum Standing Committee, T e c h n i c a l Schools D i v i s i o n . Cur r i cu lum Development ' 7 3 . Melbourne: Educat ion Department, V i c t o r i a , 96 -106-N i e , N . H . , C H . H u l l , J . G . J e n k i n s , K. S te inbrenner and H. Bent 1975 S . P . S . S . S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l Sc iences (second e d i t i o n ) . New York : M c G r a w - H i l l . Research and Adv iso ry Committee, S ta te C o l l e g e of V i c t o r i a at Hawthorn. 1975 The Role of Teachers i n V i c t o r i a n T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n . Melbourne: S . C . V . at Hawthorn, Smi th , K e v i n 1976 'Humanit ies and the t o t a l s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m ' Exchange, 24. Melbourne: Educat ion Department, V i c t o r i a (May) S t o r e y , Vernon J . 1978 W o r k - r e l a t e d Learn ing E f f o r t s of School P r i n c i p a l s : An E x p l o r a t o r y Study. Unpubl ished d o c t o r a l t h e s i s , Vancouver , U .B .C . 43 S u l l i v a n , L . M . 1975 'Urban schoo l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and c u r r i c u l u m development: v iews and i m p l i c a t i o n s ' , i n Ez ra I. S tap les ( e d . ) , Impact of D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n on C u r r i c u l u m . Washington, D . C : A s s o c i a -t i o n f o r S u p e r v i s i o n and Cur r i cu lum Development, V i c t o r i a n Educat ion Department 1977(a) Cu r r i cu lum S e r v i c e s E n q u i r y : Summaries of W r i t t e n Submiss ions , 1 :Submiss ions of I n d i v i d u a l s . Melbourne: Educat ion Department, V i c t o r i a (February) . 1977(b) Cu r r i cu lum S e r v i c e s Enqui ry D r a f t Repor t . Educat ion Department, V i c t o r i a ( Ju ly ) Melbourne: APPENDIX A PRINCIPLES OF EDUCATION 45 PRINCIPLES OF EDUCATION (a) The f i r s t four years of Secondary Educat ion ( p o s s i b l y the f i r s t f i v e ) should be cons idered years of g e n e r a l n o n - s p e c i a l i s t e d u c a t i o n , open to everyone w i thout d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of sex , background, a p t i t u d e or means. (b) O r g a n i z a t i o n should t r y to ensure c l o s e t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t and s t u d e n t - s t u d e n t contact and be f l e x i b l e enough to permit v a r i e d grouping and, i f necessary , easy abandonment of t r a d i t i o n a l sub jec t c a t e g o r i e s . (c) The b a s i c c u r r i c u l u m o f f e r e d , though i t may be open to wide cho ice w i t h i n i t , should embrace at l e a s t the A r t s , S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , Mathematics and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . I t i s not supposed, however, that a l l or any of these need be o f f e r e d as separate " d i s c i p l i n e s " , nor indeed that there must be any f i x e d p a t t e r n s w i t h i n or between s c h o o l s . (The A r t s are taken to cover l i t e r -a t u r e , the v i s u a l a r t s , m u s i c , f i l m and drama.) (d) There i s no p l a c e f o r compet i t i ve assessment i n Secondary S c h o o l . Whatever assessment i s done should be seen as a f u n c t i o n of the e s s e n t i a l communication between s c h o o l and c h i l d and between s c h o o l and p a r e n t s . (e) Methods of teach ing should encourage i n t e l l e c t u a l independence i n s t u d e n t s . Learn ing should be thought of as a c o o p e r a t i v e , not an a u t h o r i t a r i a n , s i t u a t i o n . (Cur r i cu lum Adv iso ry Board) APPENDIX B HUMANITIES CURRICULUM QUESTIONNAIRE 47 P e t e r R. Auer , 4 August 1977 Dear C o l l e a g u e , The enc losed q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s an attempt to gather i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d to Cur r i cu lum i n the Humanit ies i n V i c t o r i a n Secondary T e c h n i c a l Schoo ls . I t seeks to he lp answer three fundamental q u e s t i o n s : ( i ) What are the t rends i n Humanit ies t e a c h i n g i n V i c t o r i a n Secondary T e c h n i c a l Schools at p resent? ( i i ) What are the reasons f o r the present t rends and genera l s i t u a t i o n ? ( i i i ) What are the major problems and how might these be overcome? I am aware that complet ing q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s o f t e n ted ious and time consuming, and f r e q u e n t l y the r e s u l t s of a study are never p u b l i s h e d . I w ish to s t r e s s t h a t r e s u l t s from t h i s study w i l l be p u b l i s h e d and that recommendations f o r improv ing the C u r r i c u l u m i n Humanit ies i n V i c t o r i a n Secondary T e c h n i c a l Schools w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e to t e a c h e r s . I w ish to s t r e s s that your r e p l y w i l l be anonymous, that you as an i n d i v i d u a l cou ld not be i d e n t i f i e d . Should you have any q u e r i e s , you cou ld d i r e c t them to me at the C o l l e g e . Yours s i n c e r e l y , P e t e r R. Auer Enc losure 48 HUMANITIES CURRICULUM QUESTIONNAIRE (A) SOME DETAILS ABOUT YOURSELF P l a c e a t i c k ( J ) i n the a p p r o p r i a t e box where a p p l i c a b l e . 1 . Sex Male Female 10 2 . Age (years) 3 . Years of Teaching Exper ience 21 - 25 26 - 30 31 - 35 36 - 40 Over 40 Less than 1 1 - 3 3 - 8 8 - 1 5 More than 15 11 2 3~ 4~ 5~ 2 3~ 4~ 5~ 12 Are you employed' F u l l - t i m e P a r t - t i m e 13 5 . Where d i d you do your i n i t i a l teacher t r a i n i n g ? La Trobe U n i v e r s i t y 14 Melbourne U n i v e r s i t y 49 Monash U n i v e r s i t y S . C . V . a t Hawthorn S . C . V . a t Melbourne S . C . V . at Rusden Other (P lease s p e c i f y ) What major s t u d i e s d i d you take i n your f i r s t degree or diploma? o f f i c e use on ly 15-16 7. What were your "method s t u d i e s " d u r i n g teacher t r a i n i n g ? 17-18 o f f i c e use on ly Do you have any f u r t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n Educat ion? B .Ed . M.Ed. P h . D . Other 19 20 21 22 (p lease s p e c i f y ) 50 How many hours per week do you p r e s e n t l y teach at each form l e v e l ? Form I 23 - 24 33 - 34 43 - 44 53 - 54 Form I I 25 - 26 35 - 36 45 - 46 55 - 56 Form I I I 27 - 28 37 - 38 47 - 48 57 - 58 Form IV 29 - 30 39 - 40 49 - 50 59 - 60 Form V 31 - 32 41 - 42 51 - 52 61 - 62 I f o t h e r , s p e c i f y name of sub jec t 63 64 65 66 NOTE: PLEASE DISREGARD COMPUTER REFERENCE NUMBERS IN BOXES Are you a student teacher? Yes No 67 How many I n - s e r v i c e educat ion f u n c t i o n s have you attended d u r i n g the l a s t 12 months? 68-69 P l e a s e s p e c i f y : MAJOR AIMS/OBJECTIVES 2/1-6 Dup 7 [ 3 Frequent l y mentioned a i m s / o b j e c t i v e s of Humanit ies t e a c h i n g are l i s t e d below. P lease rank these i n order of importance by p l a c i n g 1 bes ide the i tem you t h i n k i s most i m p o r t a n t , 2 bes ide the i tem you t h i n k next i n importance and so on . 1 . To develop s t u d e n t ' s b a s i c communication s k i l l s 2 . To develop i n s tudents a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to themselves , t h e i r f a m i l y and the community. 3 . To develop b a s i c research s k i l l s and those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the S o c i a l Sc iences 4 . To a l l o w s tudents to c l a r i f y and develop a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s . 5 . To i n c r e a s e the s t u d e n t ' s understanding of h i m / h e r s e l f . 2/10 2/11 2/12 2/13 2/14 6. To teach fo rmal E n g l i s h s k i l l s l i k e grammar and s p e l l i n g 7. To i n c r e a s e the s t u d e n t ' s understanding of h i m / h e r s e l f . 8. To enable s tudents to c r e a t i v e l y express themselves . O thers : F u r t h e r comments: 52 (C) LEARNING ACTIVITIES Below i s a l i s t of l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s used by Humanit ies t e a c h e r s . Rank these a c c o r d i n g to the amount of t ime you spend on them at each form l e v e l you t e a c h . Use 1 f o r the a c t i v i t y t a k i n g most Humanit ies t i m e , 2 f o r the next most t ime-consuming a c t i v i t y and so on . FORMS I I I I I I IV V 1 . drawing and i n t e r -p r e t i n g graphs & maps 10 24 38 52 66 2 . s tudent i n i t i a t e d research assignment 11 25 39 53 67 3 . guest speaker 12 26 40 54 68 4 . r e a d i n g 13 27 41 55 69 5 . fo rmal E n g l i s h e x e r c i s e s ( e . g . s p e l l i n g & grammar) 14 28 42 56 70 6. work ing from a b a s i c textbook 15 29 43 57 71 7. u s i n g audio t a p e s , f i l m s and v ideo 16 30 44 58 72 8 . excurs ions and/or o u t s i d e room a c t i v i t y 17 31 45 59 73 9 . teacher i n i t i a t e d c l a s s l e s s o n 18 32 46 60 74 10. c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g e x e r c i s e s 19 33 47 61 75 1 1 . teacher i n i t i a t e d research assignment 20 34 48 62 76 12. c lassroom d i s c u s s i o n 21 35 49 63 77 13. s i m u l a t i o n games and r o l e p l a y i n g 22 36 50 64 78 Other : 23 37 51 65 79 1 F u r t h e r comments: 53 (D) INDICATE THE DEGREE OF INFLUENCE WHICH EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PEOPLE, GROUPS OF PEOPLE OR CIRCUMSTANCES HAVE ON YOUR DECISIONS ABOUT WHAT YOU TEACH. W r i t e one of these numbers i n NONE AT ALL - WRITE 1 each box to i n d i c a t e the degree VERY LITTLE - WRITE 2 of i n f l u e n c e you a t t r i b u t e to SOME - WRITE 3 each . A FAIR BIT - WRITE 4 A GREAT DEAL - WRITE 5 1 . Teachers of the same form l e v e l at your schoo l 2 . Teachers of other form l e v e l s at your s c h o o l 3 . Head of department 4. M i c r o s c h o o l / m i n i s c h o o l group 5 . P r i n c i p a l and/or V i c e - P r i n c i p a l 6. Teacher t r a i n i n g s tudents 7. Method l e c t u r e r from a t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n 8 . Subject A s s o c i a t i o n / s 9 . R e g i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t 10 . Subject Standing Committee 1 1 . Audio V i s u a l Educat ion O f f i c e r 12 . Drama Resource Centre 1 3 . Teachers from other schoo ls 14. School careers o f f i c e r 1 5 . Your academic background 16. Your p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s and/or commitments 17. Student i n t e r e s t s 18. A v a i l a b l e resources Other : P l e a s e S p e c i f y Any o ther comments: 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 28 54 (E) HOW OFTEN DO YOU USE THE FOLLOWING MATERIALS IN YOUR TEACHING THIS YEAR? Write one of these numbers in each box to indicate the frequency with which you use these materials. 1. Curriculum/course outline (own Department) 2. Units of work from SCOTSSS1 2 3. Units of work from SSSP 4. Materials from SCETS 3 5. Materials from SEMP A 6. Materials from VASST 7. Materials from VATE5 8. School library references 9. Ac cess Skills Project Materials 10. Class sets (books) 11. Units of work devised by yourself 12. Units of work devised by other people 13. Films, Slides, Video Tapes, Audio Tapes 14. Detailed Syllabus from own Department Other: (please specify) NEVER - WRITE 1 VERY LITTLE - WRITE 2 SOMETIMES - WRITE 3 A FAIR BIT - WRITE 4 A GREAT DEAL - WRITE 5 "'SCETS = Standing Committee English in Technical Schools LSC0TSSS = Standing Committee on Technical Schools Social Studies SSSP = Secondary Social Science Project S^EMP = Social Education Materials Project +VASST = Victorian Association of Social Studies Teachers "VATE = Victorian Association for the Teaching of English Any other comments: 55 (F) INDICATE THE DEGREE OF INFLUENCE WHICH EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PEOPLE, GROUPS OF PEOPLE OR CIRCUMSTANCES HAVE ON YOUR DECISIONS ABOUT WHAT MATERIALS YOU USE IN YOUR TEACHING. Write one of these numbers NOTE AT ALL - WRITE 1 i n each box to indic a t e the VERY LITTLE - WRITE 2 degree of influence you SOME - WRITE 3 a t t r i b u t e to each. A FAIR BIT - WRITE 4 A GREAT DEAL - WRITE 5 1. Teachers of the same form l e v e l 2. Teachers at other form l e v e l s at your school 3. Head of Department 4. Micro school/mini school group 5. P r i n c i p a l and/or V i c e - P r i n c i p a l 6. Publishers or Book Shops' representatives 7. School l i b r a r i a n 8. Regional Consultant 9. Subject associations 10. Teacher t r a i n i n g students 11. Special Method Lecturer from a teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u i o n 12. Subject Standing Committee 13. Audio V i s u a l Education O f f i c e r 14. Drama Resource Centre 15. Teachers from other schools 16. School Careers O f f i c e r 17. Parents 18. Educational Technologist 19. Student i n t e r e s t s Other: (please specify) Any other comments: WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS MOST CLOSELY DESCRIBES THE  PRESENT SITUATION IN HUMANITIES AT YOUR SCHOOL (INDICATE WITH A TICK) 1. Teachers follow an overall Humanities curriculum outline but not very much consultation takes place. 2 . There is an overall curriculum outline but i t is mostly ignored by teachers. 3 . There is no course outline that I know of and teachers do their own thing with their classes 4 . There is no total school Humanities curriculum outline at the moment but some discussion has begun with a view to doing something about i t 5 . There is a total course outline and teachers adhere pretty well to the suggested sequence of topics 6. There is no written Humanities curriculum outline, but teachers consult with each other frequently to plan new units and to avoid repetition for students. 7. There i s a total curriculum outline and teachers consult frequently about i t s ongoing application. 57 (H) BELOW ARE SEVERAL ISSUES FOUND BY SOME TEACHERS TO BE SOURCES OF  DIFFICULTY IN HUMANITIES TEACHING. INDICATE THE EXTENT TO WHICH  YOU REGARD EACH OF THESE AS BEING A PROBLEM IN HUMANITIES TEACHING AT THE PRESENT TIME. Write one of these numbers NOT A PROBLEM WRITE 1 i n each box to indicate A SMALL PROBLEM - WRITE 2 the extent to which you A CONSIDERABLE regard each issue as a PROBLEM WRITE 3 problem. A SERIOUS PROBLEM- WRITE 4 I n s u f f i c i e n t assistance from curriculum experts (at C & R or i n regions) Lack of v a r i e t y of curriculum materials a v a i l a b l e Finding time to prepare lessons adequately I n s u f f i c i e n t time f o r curriculum development Lack of coordination w i t h i n the Humanities Department Staff turnover from one year to the next The number of s t a f f members with very l i t t l e teaching experience General lack of understanding by non-Humanities teachers of Humanities teaching Developing teaching ideas and approaches Getting students interested i n Humanities Lack of an o v e r a l l curriculum plan I n s u f f i c i e n t money a v a i l a b l e f o r the purchase of materials I n s u f f i c i e n t curriculum materials a v a i l a b l e Inappropriateness of the curriculum assistance a v a i l a b l e I n s u f f i c i e n t teacher t r a i n i n g i n curriculum I n s u f f i c i e n t i n - s e r v i c e education help with curriculum Any other comments: (Include suggestions as to how problems might be overcome) 58 (J) ( i ) HOW WOULD YOU RATE THE PERFORMANCE OF THE HUMANITIES DEPARTMENT IN RELATION TO THAT OF OTHER TEACHING AREAS AT YOUR SCHOOL? low , high 1 2 3 4 5 ( i i ) HOW DO YOU BELIEVE STUDENTS RATE THE STATUS OF HUMANITIES COMPARED WITH OTHER SUBJECTS IN YOUR SCHOOL? low (. ) h igh 1 2 3 4 5 ( i i i ) HOW DO YOU BELIEVE THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION RATE THE STATUS OF HUMANITIES COMPARED WITH OTHER SUBJECTS IN YOUR SCHOOL? low ^ ->high 1 2 3 4 5 12 Any other comments; Your ea r ly re turn of t h i s form would be very much apprec ia ted . Thank you. APPENDIX C PRELIMINARY, OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONNAIRE NAME ( o p t i o n a l ) For each i tem below p l a c e a t i c k ( / ) i n the a p p r o p r i a t e box. (A) Some d e t a i l s about y o u r s e l f Sex Age male Years of Teaching Exper ience Do you present teach? female 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 over 40 l e s s than 1 1-5 6-10 11-15 more . than 15 f u l l t ime p a r t t ime Where d i d you do your i n i t i a l teacher t r a i n i n g ? La Trobe U n i v e r s i t y Melbourne U n i v e r s i t y Monash U n i v e r s i t y S . C . V . at Hawthorn S . C . V . a t Melbourne S . C . V . Rusden Other (p lease s p e c i f y ) Do you have any f u r t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n Educat ion? B . E d . M.Ed. P h . D . Other (p lease s p e c i f y ) How many hours per week do you teach at each form l e v e l ? Form I Form I I Form I I I Form IV Form V Are you a student teacher? Yes No (B) What are your major a i m s / o b j e c t i v e s i n Humanit ies teach ing? ( S p e c i f y up to 5) Other comments: 62 (C) (a) L i s t the a c t i v i t i e s (not t e a c h i n g methods) that you p r e s e n t l y use i n your t e a c h i n g ( e . g . mapping e x e r c i s e ) (b) I n d i c a t e the number of hours you would t y p i c a l l y spend i n each a c t i v i t y at each form l e v e l i f you were l i m i t e d to 100 hours of humani t ies t e a c h i n g w i t h each form you take (ensure tha t the sum of hours a l l o c a t e d to each form i s e x a c t l y 1 0 0 ) . Forms A c t i v i t i e s I I I i n IV V Comments: (D) In your p resent t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n which of the f o l l o w i n g people or groups of people a c t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e your d e c i s i o n s about what  you teach? I n d i c a t e the degree of i n f l u e n c e you a t t r i b u t e to each. (a) Teachers of the same form l e v e l (b) Head of Department (c) M ic ro s c h o o l / m i n i schoo l group (d) P r i n c i p a l and/or V i c e - P r i n c i p a l (e) Outs ide s c h o o l person (p lease s p e c i f y ) ( f ) Other (p lease s p e c i f y ) Very l i t t l e > \ Very great \ / Any Other Comments; ON CO' How o f t e n do you use the f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l s i n your teach ing t h i s year? (a) Cur r i cu lum/course o u t l i n e (own D e p t . ) (b) U n i t s of work from SCOTSSS1 (c) U n i t s of work from SSSP 2 (d) M a t e r i a l s from SEMP (e) School l i b r a r y re fe rences ( f ) C l a s s se ts (books) (g) U n i t s of work dev ised by y o u r s e l f (h) U n i t s of work dev ised w i t h other people ( i ) F i l m s , S l i d e s , V ideo Tapes, Audio Tapes ( j ) D e t a i l e d S y l l a b u s from own dept . Other : p l e a s e s p e c i f y Never Sometimes Often Always Any Other Comments; 1SCOTSSS - S tand ing Committee on T e c h n i c a l Schools S o c i a l S tud ies ? SSSP - Secondary S o c i a l Sc ience P r o j e c t 3 SEMP - S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n ' M a t e r i a l s P r o j e c t (F) In your present t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n which of the f o l l o w i n g people or groups of people a c t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e your d e c i s i o n s about what  m a t e r i a l s you use i n your t e a c h i n g . I n d i c a t e the degree of  i n f l u e n c e you a t t r i b u t e to each . (a) Teachers of the same form l e v e l (b) Head of Deparment (c) M i c r o s c h o o l / m i n i s c h o o l group (d) P r i n c i p a l and/or V i c e - P r i n c i p a l (e) P u b l i s h e r s or Book Shop's r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e ( f ) Other : (P lease Spec i f y ) Very l i t t l e Very great Any Other Comments: Ul Below are s e v e r a l i s s u e s found by some teachers to be sources of  d i f f i c u l t y i n humani t ies t e a c h i n g . I n d i c a t e the extent to which you regard each of these as be ing a problem i n humanit ies teach ing at the p resent t i m e . I n s u f f i c i e n t a s s i s t -ance from c u r r i c u l u m exper ts (at C & R or i n reg ions ) Lack of v a r i e t y of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e f o r forms I - IV F i n d i n g t ime to prepare l e s s o n s adequate ly I n s u f f i c i e n t t ime f o r c u r r i c u l u m development Lack of c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h i n the humani t ies department S t a f f tu rnover from one year to the next The number of s t a f f members w i t h very l i t t l e t e a c h i n g exper ience Not a problem s \ Ser ious \ ? problem Any Other Comments (G) Cont inued h) Genera l l a c k of unders tanding by . non -humani t ies teachers of humani t ies t e a c h i n g i ) Deve lop ing t e a c h i n g ideas and approaches j ) G e t t i n g s tudents i n t e r e s t e d i n Humanit ies k) Lack of an o v e r a l l c u r r i c u l u m p l a n 1) I n s u f f i c i e n t money a v a i l a b l e f o r the purchase of mate -r i a l s Not a problem Ser ious problem Any Other Comments Other : (p lease s p e c i f y ) APPENDIX D SAMPLING RATIONALE 69 SAMPLING RATIONALE When t h i s study was f i r s t b e i n g contemplated , a random sample was cons idered as be ing a p p r o p r i a t e . As i t became ev ident that the popu-l a t i o n f o r t h i s study c o n s i s t e d of v a r i o u s s t r a t a , i t was f e l t that a p r o p o r t i o n a t e s t r a t i f i e d sample i n which v a r i o u s s t r a t a were c o r r e c t l y represented would be even b e t t e r . I t became apparent very q u i c k l y , however, that there were q u i t e a number of such s t r a t a to be taken i n t o account : s c h o o l r e g i o n s ; l a r g e s c h o o l s , s m a l l s c h o o l s ; boys ' s c h o o l s , g i r l s ' s c h o o l s ; c o - e d u c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s ; r e c e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o o l s ; teachers from d i f f e r e n t t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s ; exper ienced t e a c h e r s , i nexper ienced t e a c h e r s ; to name some important ones. Moser and K a l t o n suggest : The main j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a complete coverage . . . i s the need f o r adequate numbers f o r a n a l y s i s i n the i n d i v i d u a l r e g i o n s , c o n u r b a t i o n s , towns and r u r a l d i s t r i c t s f o r which r e s u l t s are r e q u i r e d . (1971:60) But to have adequate numbers i n each s t ratum would r e q u i r e almost as many respondents as there were i n the whole p o p u l a t i o n . Thus, w h i l e there are advantages of s a m p l i n g , as a g a i n s t complete coverage (sav ings i n c o s t , labour and t ime) i t was dec ided to send the q u e s t i o n n a i r e to the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of the s tudy . Of c o u r s e , a secondary purpose of t h i s study was an educat i ve one, namely to i n v o l v e Humanit ies teachers i n such a way as to i n c r e a s e t h e i r awareness of the v a r i o u s problem a r e a s . A l s o , because of t h e i r i n v o l v e -ment they may be more r e c e p t i v e to and i n t e r e s t e d i n the f i n d i n g s of t h i s s tudy . APPENDIX E INFLUENCE WHICH INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS OF PEOPLE OR CIRCUMSTANCES HAVE ON DECISIONS ABOUT WHAT IS TAUGHT 71 INFLUENCE WHICH INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS OF PEOPLE OR CIRCUMSTANCES HAVE ON DECISIONS ABOUT WHAT IS TAUGHT Degree of I n f l u e n c e No Response None At All Very Little Some A Fair Bit A Great Deal 1 . Teachers of the same form l e v e l % % % % % % at your s c h o o l 4 . 1 3 . 9 10.7 34.9 29 .8 16.6 2 . Teachers of other form l e v e l s a t your s c h o o l 4 . 3 12 .8 25 .5 39 .8 14 .5 3 . 1 3 . Head of Department 4 .7 18 .9 20 .2 29 .3 1 4 . 8 8 .9 4 . M i c r o s c h o o l / m i n i s c h o o l group 16.4 69 .2 5 .8 4 .6 2 .3 1.5 5 . P r i n c i p a l and/or V i c e - P r i n c i p a l 4 .9 68 .6 1 9 . 1 4 . 9 2 .0 0 . 5 6 . Teacher t r a i n i n g s tudents 7 . 1 55 .6 18 .4 14 .0 3 .3 1.6 7. Method l e c t u r e r from a t e a c h e r -t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n 7.6 68.9 8 .6 8 . 1 4 . 9 1.8 8 . Subject A s s o c i a t i o n / s 5 . 8 37.7 20.6 28 .3 5 .9 1.8 9 . R e g i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t s 6 . 1 63 .0 17.4 10 .9 2 . 3 0 . 3 1 0 . Subject Standing Committee 6 .4 56 .9 17 .4 1 5 . 0 3 .6 0.7 1 1 . Audio V i s u a l Educat ion O f f i c e r 6 .6 61 .0 18 .8 10 .4 2 . 3 1 .0 1 2 . Drama Resource Centre 7.2 70.7 12.7 6 .4 2 . 1 0 . 8 13 . Teachers from other schoo ls 4 .9 34.4 28 .0 25.7 5 .4 1 .5 1 4 . School ca reers o f f i c e r s 5 .9 5 9 . 5 18 .4 1 2 . 8 2 .8 0 . 5 1 5 . Your academic background 4 .4 5 .8 12.7 23.4 34 .5 18 .9 16. Your p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s and/or commitments 3 .9 2 .0 6 .3 27 .5 38 .8 21.5 1 7 . Student i n t e r e s t s 3 .9 0 .7 3 .6 22.7 38.2 30 .8 1 8 . A v a i l a b l e resources 5 . 3 1.6 2 .8 1 6 . 1 34 .0 40 .0 n = 608 APPENDIX F INFLUENCE WHICH INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS OF PEOPLE OR CIRCUMSTANCES HAVE ON DECISIONS ABOUT WHAT MATERIALS ARE USED 73 INFLUENCE WHICH INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS OF PEOPLE OR CIRCUMSTANCES HAVE ON DECISIONS ABOUT WHAT MATERIALS ARE USED Degree of Influence No Response None At All Very Little Some A Fair Bit A Great 1. Teachers of the same form level % 5.6 % 6.6 % 12.1 % 36.6 % 26.2 % 13.7 2. Teachers at other form levels at your school 6.1 14.8 30.6 31.3 14.1 3.1 3. . Head of Department 8.9 20.2 21.5 29.3 13.0 7.1 4. Micro school/mini school group 15.3 73.5 4.6 3.6 2.3 0.7 5. Principal and/or Vice-Principal 6.6 74.0 13.5 3.6 1.6 0.7 6. Publishers or Book Shops' representatives 6.4 46.9 28.6 15.0 2.8 0.3 7. School librarian 5.9 19.2 27.3 30.8 13.5 3.3 8. Regional Consultant 7.4 67.3 15.0 9.0 1.3 0 9. Subject Associations 7.4 45.6 23.5 17.1 5.6 0.8 10. Teacher training students 7.7 60.2 17.1 11.5 2.6 0.8 11. Special Method Lecturer from a teacher training institution 8.2 71.4 8.4 7.2 3.6 1.2 12. Subject Standing Committee 7.6 65.0 14.6 10.0 2.3 0.5 13. Audio Visual Education Officer 7-6 58.9 18.1 11.2 3.5 0.8 14. Drama Resource Centre 8.4 73.7 9.7 6-4 1.2 0.7 15. Teachers from other schools 6.4 39.3 26.8 22.0 4.6 0.8 16. School Careers Officer 7.2 65.3 15.1. 9.7 2.5 0.2 17. Parents 6.9 52.8 23.5 13.7 2.0 1.2 18. Educational Technologist 10.2 76.6 8.1 3.1 1.2 0.8 19. Student interests 8.4 3.5 6.4 25.7 35.4 20.7 n=608 APPENDIX G THE EXTENT TO WHICH SOURCES OF DIFFICULTY ARE PERCEIVED AS PROBLEMS IN HUMANITIES TEACHING THE EXTENT TO WHICH SOURCES OF DIFFICULTY ARE PERCEIVED AS PROBLEMS IN HUMANITIES TEACHING I n s u f f i c i e n t a s s i s t a n c e from c u r r i c u l u m exper ts (at C & R or i n reg ions ) Lack of v a r i e t y of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e F i n d i n g time to prepare l e s s o n adequate ly I n s u f f i c i e n t time f o r c u r r i c u l u m development Lack of c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h i n the Humanit ies department S t a f f tu rnover from one year to the next The number of s t a f f members w i t h very l i t t l e t e a c h i n g exper ience Genera l l a c k of understanding by non-Humanit ies teachers of Humanit ies teach ing Deve lop ing t e a c h i n g i d e a s and approaches G e t t i n g s tudents i n t e r e s t e d i n Humanit ies Lack of an o v e r a l l c u r r i c u l u m p l a n I n s u f f i c i e n t money a v a i l a b l e f o r the purchase of m a t e r i a l s I n s u f f i c i e n t c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e Inappropr ia teness of the c u r r i - ' culum a s s i s t a n c e a v a i l a b l e I n s u f f i c i e n t teacher t r a i n i n g i n c u r r i c u l u m I n s u f f i c i e n t i n - s e r v i c e educat ion he lp w i t h c u r r i c u l u m Extent of Problem No Response Not A Problem A Small Problem A Consider-able Problem A Serious Problem % 8 .2 % 36.2 % 32.9 % 1 6 . 0 % 6.4 6 . 3 33.9 31 .3 2 0 . 1 8 . 6 5 .4 1 4 . 1 27.8 27.6 25 .0 5 .6 8.4 20 .2 34 .9 30.9 5 . 1 28.0 34.9 20.7 1 1 . 3 6 .9 23.5 34 .9 2 0 . 1 1 4 . 3 5 .9 4 3 . 1 35.7 1 0 . 1 5 . 3 5 .4 17 .8 31.7 2 7 . 1 17 .9 6 .7 2 0 . 1 38 .3 25 .2 9 .5 5 .4 12 .5 32.9 34 .2 1 5 . 0 6 . 1 35 .4 29.9 15.6 1 2 . 8 6 .3 28.6 29 .8 18 .6 16 .6 6 .6 28 .8 32.9 20.7 10.7 9 .9 33.7 3 1 . 1 17 .4 7.9 8 . 1 25.5 26.5 23.4 16 .6 8 . 2 21.9 26.2 28.6 1 5 . 1 n=608 APPENDIX H ALTERNATIVE DESCRIPTIONS OF HUMANITIES CURRICULA IN TECHNICAL SCHOOLS ALTERNATIVE DESCRIPTIONS OF HUMANITIES CURRICULA IN TECHNICAL SCHOOLS (G) WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS MOST CLOSELY DESCRIBES THE  PRESENT SITUATION IN HUMANITIES AT YOUR SCHOOL ( I n d i c a t e w i t h a t i c k ) 1 . Teachers f o l l o w an o v e r a l l Humanit ies c u r r i c u l u m o u t l i n e but not very much c o n s u l t a t i o n takes p l a c e . 2 . There i s an o v e r a l l c u r r i c u l u m o u t l i n e but i t i s most ly ignored by t e a c h e r s . 3 . There i s no course o u t l i n e that I know of and teachers do t h e i r own t h i n g w i t h t h e i r c l a s s e s . 4 . There i s no t o t a l schoo l Humanit ies c u r r i c u l u m o u t l i n e a t the moment but some d i s c u s s i o n has begun w i t h a v iew to doing something about i t . 5 . There i s a t o t a l course o u t l i n e and teachers adhere p r e t t y w e l l to the suggested sequence of t o p i c s . 6. There i s no w r i t t e n Humanit ies c u r r i c u l u m o u t l i n e but teachers c o n s u l t w i t h each other f r e q u e n t l y to p l a n new u n i t s and to avo id r e p e t i t i o n f o r s t u d e n t s . 7. There i s a t o t a l c u r r i c u l u m o u t l i n e and teachers c o n s u l t f r e q u e n t l y about i t s on -go ing a p p l i c a t i o n . 127 38 59 112 101 156 66 mean: 9 4 . 1 

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