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Development of an ethnocentrism scale for junior high school students in British Columbia Thaler, Carol-Lyn Sakata 1985

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DEVELOPMENT OF AN ETHNOCENTRISM SCALE FOR JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA By C a r o l - L y n S a k a t a T h a l e r B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l and E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1985 (c) C a r o l - L y n S a k a t a T h a l e r , 1985 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f S o c i a l and E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A p r i l 17, 1985 ABSTRACT E t h n o c e n t r i s m i s a c o g n i t i v e b i a s whereby p e o p l e and p r a c t i c e s o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s a r e v i e w e d and j u d g e d a c c o r d i n g t o what i s r i g h t and wrong i n one ' s own c u l t u r a l g r o u p . S o c i a l s t u d i e s t e a c h e r s , when t e a c h i n g a b o u t p e o p l e s and c u l t u r e s , i m p l i c i t y l y , i f n o t e x p l i c i t l y , t r y t o p r e v e n t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f an e t h n o c e n t r i c a t t i t u d e i n t h e i r s t u d e n t s . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e v e l o p a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e f o r use by s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e a c h e r s t o g a i n f e e d b a c k o f how a p a r t i c u l a r u n i t o f s t u d y e f f e c t e d t h e i r s t u d e n t s . The s c a l e c a n be u s e d as a p r e - p o s t t e s t measure b e f o r e and a f t e r a c o u r s e o r u n i t o f s t u d y . The known C a l i f o r n i a E - s c a l e , B r i t i s h E t h n o c e n t r i s m S c a l e , and A u s t r a l i a n E t h n o c e n t r i s m S c a l e became t h e models f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s s c a l e . The d e v e l o p e d e t h n o -c e n t r i s m s c a l e i s a 30 i t e m L i k e r t summated r a t i n g s c a l e u s i n g s i x r e s p o n s e s t e p s r a n g i n g from " a g r e e v e r y much" t o " d i s a g r e e v e r y much". To i n s u r e c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y , t e s t i t e m s were b a s e d on i n t e r v i e w s w i t h members o f s e v e r a l m i n o r i t y g r o u p s i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t p r a c t i c e s and c u s t o m s p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e i r c u l t u r e . The whole s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d u s i n g g r a d e e i g h t and n i n e s t u d e n t s f r o m f o u r j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s i n one Lower M a i n l a n d S c h o o l D i s t r i c t . The p o o l o f t e s t i t e m s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o - i i -a p p r o x i m a t e l y 550 s u b j e c t s t o g a i n d a t a f o r i t e m and f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . Two e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g i t e m s w i t h h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y r a n k i n g s . The two f o r m s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s t o e s t a b l i s h whether t h e f o r m s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y p a r a l l e l . The f o r m s were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y p a r a l l e l . One form u s i n g i t e m s w i t h h i g h i t e m r e l i a b i l i t y r a n k i n g s was c o n s t r u c t e d . An i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d t o c h e c k f o r c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . E i g h t s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s e s i n one s c h o o l were d i v i d e d i n t o e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s were e x p o s e d t o a t h r e e day l e s s o n on e t h n o c e n t r i s m . The d e v e l o p e d s c a l e was u s e d as a p o s t t e s t measure. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two g r o u p s was r e p o r t e d . The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p means were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r (p < ; 0 5 ) , l e s s e t h n o c e n t r i c , t h a n c o n t r o l g r o u p means. F i n a l l y , t h e s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 215 s t u d e n t s t o g a t h e r d a t a f o r t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y . A t t h i s s t a g e t h e s t u d e n t s were a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d a dogmatism s c a l e and a s e l f c o n c e p t s c a l e t o c h e c k f o r c o n c u r r e n t and c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . T e s t - r e t e s t c o e f f i c e n t was h i g h <p = .83) and t h e Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c e n t f o r t e s t c o n s i s t e n c y was h i g h f o r a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f t h e f o r m r a n g i n g from .87 t o .94. Recommendations f o r u s e o f t h e d e v e l o p e d e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e and a r e a s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h were b a s e d on t h e f i n d i n g s . - i i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS L i s t o f T a b l e s v i L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i i I - I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 I I - Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e D e f i n i t i o n o f E t h n o c e n t r i a m 5 E t h n o c e n t r i s m a s an A t t i t u d e 9 A t t i t u d e Measurement - R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y 11 E t h n o c e n t r i s m i n t h e C l a s s r o o m 16 I I I - R e s e a r c h M e t h o d o l o g y and R e s u l t s R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 19 P r o c e d u r e 20 S t a g e 1: C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S c a l e 21 S t a g e 2: S t u d y 1 - F i r s t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Forms A, B and C 24 S t a g e 3: S t u d y 2 - P a r a l l e l Forms 31 S t a g e 4: S t u d y 3 - I n t e r v e n t i o n S t u d y 39 S t a g e 5: S t u d y 4 - T e s t - R e t e s t R e l i a b i l i t y 57 IV - Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s V a l i d i t y o f t h e S c a l e 71 R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e S c a l e 74 - i v -L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S c a l e 78 Use o f t h e S c a l e 79 F u t u r e S t u d y 80 C o n c l u s i o n s 81 B i b l i o g r a p h y 82 A p p e n d i x A 89 A p p e n d i x B 94 A p p e n d i x C 117 A p p e n d i x D 131 A p p e n d i x E 141 v L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e Page 3. 4 . 5. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. S t u d y l : S t u d y 2: S t u d y 2: S t u d y 2: S t u d y 3: S t u d y 3: S t u d y 3: S t u d y 3: S t u d y 3: S t u d y 3: S t u d y 4: S t u d y 4: 13. S t u d y 4: R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s Forms A, B and C R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s Forms D and E C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t Forms D and E T - T e s t R e s u l t s F o r Means Forms D and E R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s F i n a l Form A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e P o s t t e s t U s i n g F i n a l Form Group Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s and N'S A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e D e l a y e d P o s t t e s t U s i n g F i n a l Form C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x F i n a l Form U s i n g Whole Sample C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x F i n a l Form U s i n g O n l y C o n t r o l C l a s s e s C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x - F i n a l Form T - T e s t R e s u l t s f o r Means i n T e s t - R e t e s t R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s F i n a l Form 26 35 36 38 45 48 49 53 54 55 61 63 66 - v i -L I S T OF F I G U R E S F i g u r e P a g e 1 . S t u d y 1 : S c r e e D i a g r a m f o r E i g e n V a l u e s - F o r m B 2 8 2 . S t u d y 3 : S u m m a r y o f R e s e a r c h D e s i g n 4 4 3 . S t u d y 3 : S u m m a r y o f C e l l M e a n s 5 0 4 . S t u d y 3 : D i a g r a m o f L e s s o n B y G r a d e I n t e r a c t i o n 5 1 5 . S t u d y 4 : S c r e e D i a g r a m F o r E i g e n V a l u e s -F i n a l F o r m 6 7 - v i i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Th i s t h e s i s c o u l d not have been completed without the a s s i s t a n c e and c o o p e r a t i o n o f : Dr. J . Kehoe, t h e s i s c h a i r p e r s o n ; Dr. S F o s t e r and Dr. F. E c h o l s , t h e s i s committee; B. Proser, ERSC c o n s u l t a n t ; Richmond School D i s t r i c t , t e a c h e r s and st u d e n t s ; and L. R i s t e who allowed the use of her p r i n t e r . The c o o p e r a t i o n and encouragement of f e l l o w t e a c h i n g c o l l e a g u e s , e s p e c i a l l y R. Beardsley, d u r i n g each phase of the study was most a p p r e c i a t e d . Acknowledgement would not be complete without mentioning Peter whose continued support and p a t i e n c e was i n v a l u a b l e . - v i i i -1 I . INTRODUCTION Grade e i g h t e m p h a s i z e s t h e f a c t t h a t p e o p l e i n s o c i e t i e s d e v e l o p d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e s i n r e s p o n s e t o s i m i l a r and d i f f e r e n t i n f l u e n c e s . T h e s e i n f l u e n c e s i n c l u d e t h e p e o p l e , p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , human and p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , g overnment and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n n e c t i o n s . S t u d e n t s s h o u l d know and u n d e r s t a n d t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h a c u l t u r e and r e c o g -n i z e t h a t b o t h c o o p e r a t i o n and c o n f l i c t o c c u r when d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e s come i n t o c o n t a c t . The e m p h a s i s s h o u l d be upon t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s among c u l t u r e s , n o t m e r e l y t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s , and t h e c o o p e r a t i o n among c u l t u r e s , n o t c o n f l i c t s . C a r e s h o u l d be t a k e n t o a v o i d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f an e t h n o c e n t r i c a t t i t u d e . 1 How can a t e a c h e r o r c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o r t h e p o s s i b l e d e v e l o p m e n t o f "an e t h n o c e n t r i c a t t i t u d e " ? In most c a s e s q u i z z e s and t e s t s e v a l u a t e t h e knowledge component o f c u r r i c u l u m . E v a l u a t i o n o f a f f e c t i v e and a t t i t u d i n a l c h ange i n t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s -room has n o t been common p r a c t i c e . The two main r e a s o n s f o r t h e l a c k o f a f f e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n a r e t h e t h r e a t e n i n g n a t u r e o f u s i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f s u c h an e v a l u a t i o n f o r a s s i g n i n g marks and g r a d e s t o a s t u d e n t and t h e l a c k o f a p p r o p r i a t e measures t o e v a l u a t e t h e s e components. Though t h e use o f e v a l u a t i o n r e s u l t s b a s e d on a f f e c t i v e c h ange f o r s t u d e n t g r a d e s may be q u e s t i o n e d , a s i n s t r u c t i o n a l f e e d b a c k f o r a t e a c h e r s own u s e , 1 T h i s p a r a g r a p h a p p e a r s on page two o f t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e . Grade K - l l . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . D r a f t , May 1982. 2 i t c a n be i n v a l u a b l e . C l e a r l y t e a c h e r s s h o u l d n o t be t e a c h i n g p r o g r a m s w h i c h d e v e l o p e t h n o c e n t r i c a t t i t u d e s . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l f e e d b a c k , a f f e c t i v e m e a s u r e s s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e f o r use by t e a c h e r s s o t h e y c a n g a i n an o b j e c t i v e measure o f how a p a r t i c u l a r u n i t o f s t u d y e f f e c t e d t h e i r s t u d e n t s . A number o f measures t h a t p u r p o r t t o measure e t h n o c e n -t r i s m a r e a v a i l a b l e , however, t h e y a p p e a r t o be o u t d a t e d o r i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use i n j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l c l a s s e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S e v e r a l s c a l e s t o measure e t h n o c e n t r i s m were d e v e l o p e d by Adorno and h i s a s s o c i a t e s ( 1 9 5 0 ) . Of t h e s e s c a l e s t h e C a l i f o r n i a E s c a l e has been w i d e l y u s e d i n t h e p a s t (Shaw and W r i g h t , 1967, pp. 4 0 2 - 4 0 5 ) . The C a l i f o r n i a E s c a l e i s d i v i d e d i n t o c a t e g o r i e s o f Jews, N e g r o e s , o t h e r M i n o r i t i e s and P a t r i o t i s m , w h i c h a r e more d e s c r i p t i v e o f A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y t h a n C a n a d i a n . Terms i n t h e s c a l e s u c h a s " z o o t s u i t e r s " , " t h e Oklahomans f l o o d i n g C a l i f o r n i a " , " t h e A m e r i c a n Way" and " s e c r e t a t o m i c bomb" d a t e t h e s c a l e and d e m o n s t r a t e an A m e r i c a n b i a s . A B r i t i s h E t h n o c e n t r i s m S c a l e (Warr, F a u s t a n d , and H a r r i s o n , 1967) and an A u s t r a l i a n E t h n o c e n t r i s m S c a l e ( B e s w i c k and H i l l s , 1969) have a l s o s i n c e been p r o d u c e d . T h e s e two s c a l e s a r e n o t as o u t d a t e d b u t b o t h show t h e b i a s o f t h e i r own c o u n t r y . The B r i t i s h s c a l e makes r e f e r e n c e t o t h e "Mods and R o c k e r s " and t h e " i n n a t e d i r t i n e s s , l a z i n e s s o f t h e 3 I r i s h " . The A u s t r a l i a n s c a l e makes r e p e a t e d r e f e r e n c e t o " A u s t r a l i a " , " A u s t r a l i a n p o l i c i e s " and " a b o r i g i n e s " . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o d e v e l o p a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e measure o f e t h n o c e n t r i s m f o r u s e by c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t o f t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n when d e a l i n g w i t h v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s i n t h e c o u r s e o f s t u d y . The t e a c h e r c a n use t h i s measure a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a u n i t o r c o u r s e and once a g a i n a f t e r t h e u n i t o r c o u r s e has been t a u g h t . An i n d i c a t i o n o f some change i n t h e s t u d e n t s a t t i t u d e c a n be s e e n by c o m p a r i n g t h e s c o r e s b e f o r e and a f t e r . To p r e v e n t s t u d e n t s f r o m remembering how t h e y r e s p o n d e d i n i t i a l l y , i t would be i d e a l t o have p a r a l l e l f o r m s o f t h e e t h n o c e n t r i s m measure. The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e p r o g r e s s e d i n f i v e s t a g e s . In t h e f i r s t s t a g e members o f s e v e r a l m i n o r i t y g r o u p s were i n t e r v i e w e d t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t p r a c t i c e s p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e i r c u l t u r e . From t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s a p o o l o f t e s t i t e m s were w r i t t e n . In t h e s e c o n d s t a g e t h e i t e m s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o g r o u p s o f g r a d e e i g h t and n i n e s t u d e n t s i n s e v e r a l s c h o o l s . The i t e m s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y a n a l y z e d and two measures were c o n s t r u c t e d from t h e p o o l o f i t e m s . In t h e t h i r d s t a g e t h e two f o r m s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s t o a s c e r t a i n w h ether t h e f o r m s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y p a r a l l e l . An i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d y t o c h e c k f o r c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y was c o n d u c t e d a t t h e f o u r t h s t a g e - do e s t h e s c a l e 4 measure t h e c o n s t r u c t e t h n o c e n t r i s m ? The f i n a l s t a g e i n t h e s t u d y c e n t e r e d on g a t h e r i n g d a t a f o r t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y . I t was c o n d u c t e d i n a d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l t o a v o i d u s i n g t h e same s u b j e c t s . The s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1983 and a l l s u b j e c t s and s c h o o l s were f r o m one Lower M a i n l a n d s u b u r b a n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . C o m p l i a n c e w i t h r e s e a r c h r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e d i s t r i c t p o s e d some l i m i t a t i o n s t o t h e s t u d y . S p e c i f i c g r o u p names were n o t p e r m i t t e d i n t h e w r i t i n g o f i t e m s and c a r e had t o be t a k e n t h a t i t e m s and l e s s o n c o n t e n t were n o t " t o o r a c i s t " . To a v o i d d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l r o u t i n e , c l a s s e s i n t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d y c o u l d n o t be r a n d o m i z e d . I n t a c t c l a s s e s were u s e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f a l l t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s a l l o w e d t h e s t u d y t o p r o g r e s s s m o o t h l y . 5 I I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The g a t h e r i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a measure o f e t h n o c e n t r i s m was prompted by f o u r g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s : 1. What i s e t h n o c e n t r i s m ? 2. Can e t h n o c e n t r i s m be measured? 3. What s t e p s s h o u l d be t a k e n t o d e v e l o p an i m p r o v e d measure o f e t h n o c e n t r i s m f o r s t u d e n t use? 4. Can e t h n o c e n t r i s m be e f f e c t e d i n a c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n ? The f o l l o w i n g r e v i e w w i l l be o r g a n i z e d u s i n g t h e above f o u r q u e s t i o n s . D e f i n i t i o n o f E t h n o c e n t r i s m The answer t o what i s e t h n o c e n t r i s m i s n o t an e a s y one. The t e r m has become w i d e l y u s e d s i n c e 1906 when Sumner f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d and u s e d t h e t e r m d e s c r i p t i v e l y ( L e v i n e and C a m p b e l l , 1 9 72). A c c o r d i n g t o Sumner: e t h n o c e n t r i s m "had t h e g e n e r a l meaning o f " p r o v i n c i a l i s m o r c u l t u r a l n a r r o w n e s s " ; i t meant a t e n d e n c y i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o be " e t h n i c a l l y c e n t e r e d , " t o be r i g i d i n h i s a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e c u l t u r a l l y " a l i k e " and i n h i s r e j e c t i o n o f t h e " u n l i k e " . ( A d o r n o , e t a l . p. 102) In t h e d e f i n i t i v e s t u d y o f t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n p e r s o n a l i t y , L e v i n s o n o f f e r s a n o t h e r d e f i n i t i o n : 6 E t h n o c e n t r i s m i s b a s e d on a p e r v a s i v e and r i g i d i n g r o u p - o u t g r o u p d i s t i n c t i o n : i t i n v o l v e s s t e r e o t y p e d p o s i t i v e i m a g e r y and s u b m i s s i v e a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g i n g r o u p s , and a h i e r a r c h i c a l , a u t h o r i t a r i a n view o f g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n i n w h i c h i n g r o u p s a r e r i g h t l y d o m i n a n t , o u t g r o u p s s u b o r d i n a t e . ( A d o r n o , e t a l . , 1950, p. 150) L e v i n s o n c l a i m e d h i s d e f i n i t i o n d i f f e r s f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f e t h n o c e n t r i s m and p r e j u d i c e . I t was h i s view t h a t many p e o p l e c o n s i d e r e d t h e term synonymous. The t r a d i t i o n a l c o n n o t a t i o n f o r b o t h e t h n o c e n t r i s m and p r e j u d i c e was one o f d i s l i k e o f a s p e c i f i c r a c i a l g r o u p . L e v i n s o n ' s d e f i n i t i o n r e f e r s t o g r o u p s i n any s o c i e t y ; i t i n v o l v e s h a v i n g o p i n i o n s and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s b o t h h o s t i l e g r o u p s and p o s i t i v e l y d i s p o s e d g r o u p s ; and t h e r e i s a s e n s e t h a t one's own g r o u p i s s u p e r i o r and a l l o t h e r s i n f e r i o r . L e v i n e and C a m p b e l l (1972) c o n d u c t e d an e x h a u s t i v e s t u d y t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e many a s p e c t s o f e t h n o c e n t r i s m b u t d i d n o t o f f e r a d e f i n i t i o n w hich v a r i e d f r o m t h a t o f L e v i n s o n ' s . I t was L e v i n s o n ' s d e f i n i t i o n w h i c h was us e d a s a b a s i s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e o r i g i n a l E - s c a l e and t h e more r e c e n t a d a p t a t i o n s ( B e s w i c k and H i l l s , 1969; Hartman and Husband, 1972; and Warr, F a u s t and H a r r i s o n , 1 9 6 7 ) . E d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y and s o c i a l s t u d i e s l i t e r a t u r e o f f e r d e f i n i t i o n s o f e t h n o c e n t r i s m t h a t add t o t h e p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d d e f i n i t i o n s by L e v i n s o n . E t h n o c e n t r i s m i s c o n s i d e r e d a " c o g n i t i v e b i a s " t h a t a f f e c t s t h e way an i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s r e a l i t y ( S t a g n e r , 1977; F r e e h , 1975; Simpson, 1972; and 7 E l k i n d , 1 9 6 7). S t a g n e r summarizes t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f e t h n o c e n t r i s m by c a t e g o r i z i n g t h e term i n r e l a t i o n t o two o t h e r t e r m s , " e g o c e n t r i s m " and " a l t r o c e n t r i s m " . E g o c e n t r i s m i s t h e i n a b i l i t y o f a p e r s o n t o a d o p t t h e p o i n t o f view o f a n o t h e r p e r s o n o r t o s e e t h e f a c t s a s t h e y a p p e a r t o a n o t h e r p e r s o n . An e g o c e n t r i c p e r s o n i s t h e c e n t e r o f h i s own u n i v e r s e and c a n n o t p o s s i b l y u n d e r s t a n d o t h e r s . E t h n o c e n t r i s m i s one s t e p beyond e g o c e n t r i s m . In e t h n o c e n t r i s m , i n s t e a d o f r e a l i t y b e i n g d e f i n e d by p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s , r e a l i t y i s d e f i n e d by t h e g r o u p . Any a s s e r t i o n s by members o f some o t h e r g r o u p t h a t c o n f l i c t s w i t h an e t h n o c e n t r i c p e r s o n ' s r e a l i t y a r e c o n s i d e r e d l i e s o r t r i c k s . T h e r e i s a l s o an o v e r - v a l u a t i o n o f one' s own g r o u p . A l t r o c e n t r i s m i s t h e term c o i n e d by S t a g n e r t o d e s c r i b e "mature p e r c e i v i n g " . The i n d i v i d u a l has g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y , c a n a d o p t t h e v i e w p o i n t o f t h e p e r s o n o r g r o u p b e i n g c o n f r o n t e d , and i s aware t h a t t h e r e a r e many r e a l i t i e s . S t a g n e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n s i m p l y a p r o g r e s s i o n from one s t a t e o f a w a r e n e s s t o t h e n e x t . C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t e t h n o c e n t r i s m i s a " c o g n i t i v e b i a s " , t h e i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t e t h n o c e n t r i s m c a n be a f f e c t e d by knowledge and t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f f a c t s . I m p l i c i t t h e n , i s t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d p l a y a r o l e i n p r o m o t i n g a l t r o c e n t r i s m . D e f i n i t i o n s o f e t h n o c e n t r i s m i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s l i t e r a t u r e add a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n t o t h e t e r m . The f o l l o w i n g a r e t h r e e d e f i n i t i o n s : 8 E t h n o c e n t r i s m i s t h a t p a r o c h i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e t i n which t h e ways and v a l u e s f o r o n e ' s own g r o u p a r e o v e r p r i z e d w h i l e g r o u p s w i t h d i f f e r -i n g p r a c t i c e s and i d e o l o g i e s a r e d e n i g r a t e d and r e j e c t e d . ( P a r k e r , e t a l . , 1976) E t h n o c e n t r i s m - t h e h a b i t o f a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e v a l u e s , b e h a v i o r and p r a c t i c e s o f h i s own c u l t u r e a r e somehow b e t t e r t h a n t h o s e o f any o t h e r and t h a t t h e y c a n t h u s p r o v i d e a p p r o p r i a t e s t a n d a r d s f o r making a r g u m e n t s a b o u t p e o p l e and c u l t u r e s d i f f e r e n t f r o m h i s own. ( O v e r h o l t and M a r t i n , 1973) C o n t i n u e d o b s e r v a t i o n o f p e o p l e s and t h e i r c u stoms t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d l e d him ( H e r o d o t u s ) t o c o n c l u d e t h a t " . . . i f one were t o o f f e r men t o c h o o s e o u t o f a l l t h e c u s t o m s i n t h e w o r l d s u c h a s seemed t o them b e s t , t h e y would examine t h e whole number, and end by p r e f e r r i n g t h e i r own; so c o n v i n c e d a r e t h e y t h a t t h e i r own u s a g e s f a r s u r p a s s t h o s e o f a l l o t h e r . . . " U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t i m e s and p e o p l e a p p e a r t o have changed v e r y l i t t l e ... H e r o d o t u s ' s c o n c l u s i o n s t i l l s e r v e s a s a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d d e f i n i t i o n o f e t h n o c e n t r i s m . ( R o g e r s , 1967) The d e f i n i t i o n s so f a r d i s c u s s e d do n o t make r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s o f d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e s and a r e n o t s u i t a b l e f o r u s e i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s e s . P r e v i o u s use o f t h e term " e t h n o c e n t r i s m " i n v o l v e d p e r c e p t i o n , r e j e c t i o n and a c c e p t a n c e o f whole g r o u p s ; n o t t h e h a b i t s , t h e p r a c t i c e s o r t h e c u s t o m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g r o u p s . In s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s e s , g r o u p s a r e o f t e n s t u d i e d by l e a r n i n g a b o u t t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s among g r o u p s . T h e r e f o r e , a d e f i n i t i o n o f e t h n o c e n t r i s m f o r t h i s s t u d y must a l s o i n c l u d e t h e e v a l u a t i v e , t h e p e r c e p t i v e and t h e c u l t u r a l d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e t e r m . I t was b e s t s t a t e d by a s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e a c h e r i n h i s a r t i c l e 9 d e s c r i b i n g a l e s s o n on e t h n o c e n t r i s m : E t h n o c e n t r i s m r e f e r s t o t h e i d e a o f v i e w i n g and j u d g i n g p e o p l e i n o t h e r c u l t u r a l g r o u p s a c c o r d i n g t o what i s c o n s i d e r e d r i g h t and wrong i n one' s own c u l t u r a l g r o u p . I t i n c l u d e s t h e f e e l i n g t h a t t h e c u s t o m s and p r a c t i c e s o f one' s own c u l t u r e i s t h e s t a n d a r d by wh i c h a l l o t h e r c u l t u r e s a r e j u d g e d . ( L a m b e r t , 1978, p. 408) T h i s d e f i n i t i o n was us e d as a b a s i s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e measure f o r t h i s s t u d y . E t h n o c e n t r i s m i s a c o g n i t i v e b i a s whereby p e o p l e and p r a c t i c e s o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s a r e v i e w e d and j u d g e d a c c o r d i n g t o what i s r i g h t and wrong i n o n e ' s own c u l t u r a l g r o u p . E t h n o c e n t r i s m As An A t t i t u d e Beyond t h e s u b s t a n t i v e d e f i n i t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e t h n o c e n t r i s m , i n o r d e r f o r i t t o be measured o r m a n i p u l a t e d , i t must be assumed e t h n o c e n t r i s m i s an a t t i t u d e . A c c o r d i n g t o Shaw and W r i g h t , " a t t i t u d e s , t h e end p r o d u c t s o f t h e s o c i a l -i z a t i o n p r o c e s s , s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e man's r e s p o n s e s t o c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s , t o o t h e r p e r s o n s , and t o g r o u p s o f p e r s o n s " (Shaw and W r i g h t , 1967, p. 1 ) . E t h n o c e n t r i s m c an be accommodated by t h i s g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n o f an a t t i t u d e . Khan and W e i s s (1973) would a l s o c l a s s i f y p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h as e t h n o c e n t r i s m a s a f f e c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s and hence an a t t i t u d e . 10 Though a v a r i e t y o f t e x t s on a t t i t u d e and a t t i t u d e measurement were e x p l o r e d ( T r i a n d i s , 1971; F i s h b e i n , 1967; Summers, 1970; Wagner and Sherwood, 1969; Z i m b a r d o and E b b e s e n , 1969) t h e d e f i n i t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g p r e s e n t e d by Shaw and W r i g h t (1972, pp. 1-3) a p p e a r e d t o be t h e most c o m p r e h e n s i v e . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , a t t i t u d e s a r e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s o f an i n d i v i d u a l t o a c t a c e r t a i n way t o an o b j e c t ( A l l p o r t , 1958, pp. 1 2 - 1 4 ) . More r e c e n t l y , i n t h e s t u d i e s o f a t t i t u d e , w r i t e r s have c o n c e i v e d t h a t a t t i t u d e s a r e composed o f t h r e e components, c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e , and b e h a v i o u r a l ( R a j e c k i , 1982; T r i a n d i s , 1971; and Wagner and Sherwood, 1 9 6 9 ) . An example t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e t h r e e components o f a t t i t u d e would be t h e f o l l o w i n g : I know t h a t t h e r e i s s c i e n t i f i c e v i d e n c e c i g a r e t t e s moking c a n c a u s e c a n c e r . ( c o g n i t i v e ) I f e e l c i g a r e t t e s moking i s bad. ( a f f e c t i v e ) I d o n ' t smoke c i g a r e t t e s . ( b e h a v i o u r a l ) Shaw and W r i g h t (1967, pp. 1-3) view a t t i t u d e s a s o n l y t h e a f f e c t i v e r e a c t i o n s , however, t h e y s e e a t t i t u d e s as d e r i v e d f r o m c o n c e p t s o r b e l i e f s and t h a t a t t i t u d e s c a n c a u s e an i n d i v i d u a l t o behave i n a c e r t a i n manner t o w a r d t h e o b j e c t . As t h e y c o n t i n u e t o e x p l a i n , t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a t t i t u d e a l l o w s f o r t h e e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t some a t t i t u d e s c a n be changed by c h a n g i n g a p e r s o n ' s c o n c e p t o r b e l i e f . 11 F o r t h e measurement o f an a t t i t u d e t h e s u b j e c t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r a greement o r d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h a s e t o f s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h a t t r i b u t e p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s t o t h e a t t i t u d e o b j e c t . S i n c e i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n , b e h a v i o u r i s n o t p a r t o f an a t t i t u d e b u t a r e s u l t o f t h e a t t i t u d e , a r e s p o n s e on a measurement s c a l e c a n n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d a s i f t h e s u b j e c t would behave a s i n d i c a t e d . Though a p e r s o n may i n d i c a t e d i s l i k e t o w a r d s a c e r t a i n g r o u p o f p e o p l e , i t d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean he w i l l b ehave i n a d i s c r i m i n a t o r y manner t o w a r d s members o f t h a t g r o u p ( T i t t l e and H i l l , 1 9 7 0 ) . In c o n c l u s i o n , e t h n o c e n t r i s m i s an a t t i t u d e and a s an a t t i t u d e i t c a n be measured. A t t i t u d e Measurement - R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y T h e r e a r e s c a l e s t o measure e t h n o c e n t r i s m . The g o a l i n t h e s t u d y i s t o d e v e l o p a s c a l e t o measure e t h n o c e n t r i s m t h a t w i l l a t t e m p t t o overcome t h e p r o b l e m s i n h e r e n t i n p r e v i o u s m easures and one t h a t i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l s t u d e n t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c l a s s r o o m s . The t h r e e most w i d e l y u s e d s c a l e s , t h e E - s c a l e , B r i t i s h and A u s t r a l i a n , b e s i d e s b e i n g c u l t u r a l l y b i a s e d and o u t d a t e d , do n o t s o l i c i t r e s p o n s e s t o c u s t o m s and c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s o f d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c g r o u p s . The i t e m s i n t h e t h r e e e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e s a r e w r i t t e n i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t r e a c t s t o t h e 12 g r o u p s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e i t e m . In s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s e s , t h e s t u d e n t s a r e t a u g h t w i t h t h e g o a l t h a t t h e y g e t t o know and u n d e r s t a n d t h e c u l t u r e o f d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s o f p e o p l e . A s c a l e f o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s must a l l o w t h e s t u d e n t s t o r e a c t t o t h e c u s t o m s and p r a c t i c e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l g r o u p s . The E - s c a l e , B r i t i s h and A u s t r a l i a n a r e b a s e d on t h e L i k e r t summated r a t i n g method. A f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g s e v e r a l t e c h n i q u e s ( T h u r s t o n , L i k e r t , Guttman, and s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l m e t h o d s ) , t h e L i k e r t summated r a t i n g method was a d o p t e d f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s c a l e f o r t h i s s t u d y . The b i - p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s u s e d i n t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l method were s e e n as i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o s o l i c i t r e a c t i o n s t o w a r d s c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s f r o m s u b j e c t s . As f o r t h e Guttman method, h e r e t o o , f o r t h e c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s , i t would be v e r y d i f f i c u l t i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e t o c u m u l a t i v e l y r a n k d e s c r i p t i o n s o f c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s . To r e s o l v e t h e c h o i c e between t h e T h u r s t o n e and L i k e r t methods, t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f S e i l e r and Hough (Summers, 1970, pp. 159-173) i n t h e i r a n a l y s i s o f e i g h t c o m p a r i s o n s t u d i e s o f t h e two methods, were a c c e p t e d . They r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e L i k e r t method o f s c o r i n g an a t t i t u d e s c a l e c o n s i s t e n t l y p r o d u c e s more r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s t h a n t h e T h u r s t o n method. A l s o , L i k e r t s c a l e s d e m o n s t r a t e d c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s t h a n T h u r s t o n e s c a l e s . A l t h o u g h t h e y d i d n o t r e s o l v e t h e c o n t r o v e r s y o f t h e e a s e i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e L i k e r t s c a l e o v e r t h e T h u r s t o n e , f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y 13 t h e L i k e r t s c a l e would be e a s i e r and more e f f i c i e n t . The T h u r s t o n e s c a l e would have r e q u i r e d a much g r e a t e r number o f i t e m s and i t would have been e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o have j u d g e s r a n k c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s and t h e n p l a c e e a c h i t e m i n e q u a l o c c u r r i n g i n t e r v a l s . The method f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e L i k e r t s c a l e as s u g g e s t e d by Edwards (1957) was f o l l o w e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . The E - s c a l e and B r i t i s h E t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e have been c r i t i c i z e d f o r t h e w o r d i n g o f i t e m s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o a r e s p o n s e s t y l e ( S t a c e y , 1970; Chapman and C a m p b e l l , 1 9 5 9 ) . E s p e c i a l l y i n t h e E - s c a l e , i t e m s a r e worded i n a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n so t h a t a greement w i t h t h e i t e m c o n t r i b u t e s t o a h i g h e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c o r e . T o t a l s c o r e s on t e s t s c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h i s f a s h i o n c a n c o n t a i n s y s t e m a t i c v a r i a n c e due n o t t o t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e i t e m s b u t t o t h e s u b j e c t s r e s p o n s e p a t t e r n on t h e t e s t . T h i s " a c q u i e s c e n c e " b i a s c a n g e n e r a t e s i z e a b l e r e l i a b i l i t i e s w i t h i n t e s t s and c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e s t s . To overcome t h i s , i t e m s must be w r i t t e n t o s o l i c i t p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e s . The two p r e v i o u s s c a l e s and a l s o t h e A u s t r a l i a n E t h n o c e n t r i s m S c a l e r e p o r t o n l y s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t i e s . F o r t h i s s t u d y , i n a d d i t i o n t o c h e c k s f o r i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s , a t e s t - r e t e s t was a t t e m p t e d t o g a i n a c o e f f i c i e n t o f s t a b i l i t y ( A r y , J a c o b s , and R a z a v i e h , 1972, pp. 2 0 4 - 2 0 5 ) . 14 In an e f f o r t t o e s t a b l i s h v a l i d i t y o f t h e d e v e l o p e d s c a l e , a t t e m p t s were made t o meet some o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y , c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y and c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . The o r i g i n a l p o o l o f i t e m s were b a s e d on i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d by i n t e r v i e w i n g one o r two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m t h r e e e t h n i c c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d - N a t i v e I n d i a n , C h i n e s e -C a n a d i a n and I n d o - C a n a d i a n . T h e s e t h r e e g r o u p s were c h o s e n b a s e d on p a s t c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s when a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h e B o g a r d u s S o c i a l D i s t a n c e S c a l e (Shaw and W r i g h t , 1967, pp. 407-411) was used i n a minimum o f s i x c l a s s e s and t h e s e t h r e e g r o u p s were c o n s i s t e n t l y r a t e d n e g a t i v e l y by t h e s t u d e n t s (Kehoe and S a k a t a , 1 9 7 9 ) . P e r s o n s i n t e r v i e w e d were a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s w i t h i n t h e i r c u l t u r e t h a t t h e y f e l t were odd o r n e g a t i v e l y p e r c e i v e d by o t h e r g r o u p s . A f t e r t h e i t e m s were w r i t t e n t h e y were c h e c k e d by two p e o p l e w i t h e x t e n s i v e m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n b a c k g r o u n d . 2 E t h n o c e n t r i s m has been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s s u c h as a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m and i n t o l e r a n c e o f a m b i g u i t y and dogmatism ( A d o r n o , e t a l . , 1 9 5 0 ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , b e c a u s e o f S c h o o l D i s t r i c t p o l i c y , t h e o r i g i n a l E - S c a l e c o u l d n o t be u s e d a s a c h e c k f o r c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y . Rokeach u s e d 2 Dr. J o hn Kehoe o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and Sheena S e l k i r k , who has worked f o r t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B o t h have had e x t e n s i v e a c a d e m i c and p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n . 15 c o r r e l a t i o n a l e v i d e n c e between h i a dogmatism s c a l e and t h e C a l i f o r n i a E and F S c a l e s t o v a l i d a t e h i s dogmatism s c a l e ( R o b i n s o n and S h a v e r , 1973, p. 4 2 5 ) . As a c h e c k f o r c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y i n t h i s s t u d y a s h o r t f o r m o f t h e dogmatism s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d a t t h e same t i m e as t h e d e v e l o p e d e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e . A s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e s c a l e s would be an i n d i c a t i o n o f c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y . C o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y was c h e c k e d by s e t t i n g up an i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d y t o promote more t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d o t h e r c u l t u r e s and u s i n g t h e d e v e l o p e d measure a s a d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i n t h e s t u d y . I f t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e between e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p means, and t h e means i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a r e l o w e r and l e s s e t h n o c e n t r i c t h a n t h e s c o r e s i n t h e c o n t r o l , t h e n i t c a n be c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e s c a l e has c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y ( N u n n a l l y , 1979, p. 101 and S t a h l , 1 9 8 2 ) . A s e l f - c o n c e p t s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d as an a d d i t i o n a l c h e c k f o r c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . E n g l i s h ( 1 9 7 1 ) , i n h i s e x t e n s i v e s e a r c h o f l i t e r a t u r e t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e anatomy o f p r e j u d i c e t o w a r d s t h e p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d , r e p o r t e d v a r i o u s c o r r e l a t i o n s between s e l f - c o n c e p t , i n t o l e r -a n c e o f a m b i g u i t y and a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m . P e r s o n s w i t h low s e l f - c o n c e p t , i n t o l e r a n c e o f a m b i g u i t y and a u t h o r i t a r i a n p e r s o n a l i t i e s h e l d p r e j u d i c e v i e w s a g a i n s t d i s a b l e d p e r s o n s . O'Connor (1952) f o u n d a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a -t i o n between e t h n o c e n t r i s m and i n t o l e r a n c e o f a m b i g u i t y . 16 S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s were r e p o r t e d by B l o c k and B l o c k (1951) and Gouch, H a r r i s , M a r t i n and Edwards ( 1 9 7 2 ) . A n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a -t i o n between s e l f c o n c e p t and e t h n o c e n t r i s m a s measured by t h e c o n s t r u c t e d s c a l e would be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s . T h i s c a n be s a i d t o meet N u n n a l l y ' s c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y c r i t e r i o n o f "domain o f o b s e r v a b l e s " and " r e l a t i o n s among o b s e r v a b l e s " ( N u n n a l l y , 1978, pp. 9 8 - 1 0 3 ) . E t h n o c e n t r i s m i n t h e C l a s s r o o m Can e t h n o c e n t r i s m be i n f l u e n c e d i n a c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n ? U n d e r l y i n g t h e need f o r t h e measure f o r e t h n o c e n t r i s m i s t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t s c h o o l s , and s p e c i f i c a l l y s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s e s , c a n t e a c h s t u d e n t s t o become more a c c e p t i n g o f p e o p l e , p r a c t i c e s and c u s t o m s d i f f e r i n g f r o m t h e i r own. In s t u d y i n g t h e e x t e r n a l c o r r e l a t e s o f t h e A u s t r a l i a n E t h n o c e n t r i s m S c a l e , i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t e d u c a t i o n had t h e s t r o n g e s t e f f e c t o f a l l e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s . B o t h u n i v e r s i t y and s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s s c o r e d much l o w e r ( l e s s e t h n o c e n t r i c , p < .001) t h a n o t h e r s i n c l u d i n g w o r k e r s , who d i d n o t c o m p l e t e h i g h s c h o o l , h o u s e w i v e s , and e l d e r l y p e r s o n s ( B e s w i c k and H i l l s , 1 9 6 9). Can t h i s i m p l y t h a t s c h o o l s c a n have some e f f e c t on a p e r s o n ' s e t h n o c e n t r i c a t t i t u d e ? M i t n i c k and M c G i n n i e s (1957) r e p o r t e d mixed r e s u l t s a f t e r t r y i n g t o i n f l u e n c e e t h n o c e n t r i c a t t i t u d e s by h a v i n g h i g h s c h o o l 17 s t u d e n t s view and d i s c u s s f i l m s b a s e d on p r e j u d i c e . F r e e h (1975) t e s t e d a g r a d e f o u r a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l u n i t on c u l t u r e f o r c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e e f f e c t and f o u n d t h a t e t h n o c e n t r i s m was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d . Verma and MacDonald ( 1 9 7 1 ) , c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n t o t h e u n i t on r a c e i n t h e B r i t i s h N u f f i e l d H u m a n i t i e s C u r r i c u l u m P r o j e c t t e s t e d t h e u n i t and f o u n d t h e u n i t t e n d e d t o c r e a t e a s h i f t i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f i n t e r - e t h n i c t o l e r a n c e . W r i t i n g on a s t r a t e g y t o t e a c h t h e " c o n c e p t o f e t h n o c e n t r i s m " t o g r a d e s e v e n s t u d e n t s , Lambert (1978) r e p o r t s s u c c e s s w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s e a s i l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c o n c e p t . F o r t h e p u p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , an a t t e m p t was made t o t e a c h g r a d e e i g h t and n i n e s t u d e n t s t o become more t o l e r a n t and a c c e p t i n g o f c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s o f d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s u s i n g t h e m a t e r i a l s and s u g g e s t i o n s o f Lambert ( 1 9 7 8 ) . The s t u d e n t s were p o s t t e s t e d u s i n g t h e d e v e l o p e d measure t o c h e c k f o r c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y . F o r t h i s s t u d y e t h n o c e n t r i s m was c o n s i d e r e d t o be composed o f two b a s i c components - a c u l t u r a l component and an a c c e p t a n c e o f a c u l t u r a l g r o u p component. The c u l t u r a l component i n v o l v e s t h e judgement o f c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s as good o r bad, r i g h t o r wrong, b a s e d on o n e ' s own c u l t u r a l norms. The a c c e p t a n c e component i n v o l v e s a c c e p t i n g o r r e j e c t i n g g r o u p s o f p e o p l e b e c a u s e t h e y a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m one's own. I t has been a s c e r t a i n e d t h a t e t h n o c e n t r i s m i s an a t t i t u d e and a s an a t t i t u d e i t can be measured. An e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e was 18 c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g t h e L i k e r t summated r a t i n g s c a l e . C o n t e n t v a l i d i t y was c o n t r o l l e d by w r i t i n g i t e m s b a s e d on i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by members o f e t h n i c g r o u p s and by h a v i n g e x p e r t s i n t h e f i e l d j u d g e and comment on t h e i t e m s . As a c h e c k f o r c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y a dogmatism s c a l e was u s e d . C o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d by s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e d e v e l o p e d s c a l e when u s e d a s a p o s t t e s t measure i n an i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d y . As an a d d i t i o n a l c h e c k f o r c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y a s e l f - c o n c e p t s c a l e was a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e r e would be a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between s e l f - c o n c e p t and e t h n o c e n t r i s m . S t u d e n t s w i t h low s e l f - c o n c e p t s would be l e s s a c c e p t i n g o f d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s and p e o p l e s . R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e d e v e l o p e d s c a l e was a s s e s s e d by t h e u s u a l i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y c h e c k s as w e l l a s by t h e t e s t - r e t e s t method. I I I . RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESULTS R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o c o n s t r u c t a measure o f e t h n o c e n t r i s m f o r use i n j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s e s t h a t w i l l be r e l i a b l e and v a l i d . To meet t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s , a t t e m p t s were made t o answer t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s : 1. A f t e r f i e l d t e s t i n g two c o n s t r u c t e d f o r m s , w i l l c o m p a r i s o n o f s c o r e s r e f l e c t a h i g h c o e f f i c i e n t o f e q u i v a l e n c e t o c o n s i d e r t h e f o r m s p a r a l l e l ? 2. When t h e c o n s t r u c t e d f o r m i s us e d a s a d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i n an i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d y , w i l l t h e r e be a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e means between t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p and t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p ? 3. W i l l t h e r e be a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t between e t h n o c e n t r i s m and dogmatism? 20 4. A f t e r t h e s e c o n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e c o n s t r u c t e d f o r m w i t h t h e same s u b j e c t s , w i l l t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f s c o r e s r e f l e c t a h i g h c o e f f i c i e n t o f s t a b i l i t y ? P r o c e d u r e The t o t a l s t u d y p r o c e e d e d i n f i v e s t a g e s . The f i r s t s t a g e c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e w r i t i n g o f s c a l e i t e m s , f o l l o w e d by f o u r s e p a r a t e s t u d i e s t o answer t h e f o u r r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . A l l s t u d i e s were c o n d u c t e d i n one Lower M a i n l a n d S c h o o l D i s t r i c t where p e r m i s s i o n was g r a n t e d t o use s t u d e n t s i n f o u r o f i t s s i x j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . S c h o o l D i s t r i c t p o l i c y imposed some g u i d e l i n e s and l i m i t a t i o n s t o be f o l l o w e d by r e s e a r c h e r s . T h e s e i n c l u d e d m i n i m a l i n t e r u p t i o n t o t h e s c h o o l ; m i n i m a l i n t e r u p t i o n t o r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m r o u t i n e and s t u d i e s ; a n o n y m i t y o f s t u d e n t s ; and r e s t r i c t i o n i n t h e use o f m a t e r i a l s and p r o c e d u r e s t h a t may be c r i t i c i z e d by t h e p a r e n t s and t h e p u b l i c . E a c h o f t h e f o u r s c h o o l s were us e d f o r d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f t h e s t u d y . H e n c e f o r t h , t h e f o u r s c h o o l s w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as s c h o o l s W, X, Y, and 2. E a c h s t a g e i s q u i t e s e p a r a t e from t h e o t h e r and y e t d e p e n d e n t on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e v i o u s s t a g e . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l r e p o r t t h e methods and r e s u l t s f o r e a c h s t a g e s e p a r a t e l y . 21 S t a g e 1; C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S c a l e The g o a l o f t h i s i n i t i a l s t a g e o f t h e s t u d y was t o w r i t e a l a r g e p o o l o f i t e m s and p l a c e them i n t o a f o r m a t f o r p i l o t t e s t i n g o f t h e i t e m s . The i t e m s were w r i t t e n t o r e f l e c t t h e d e f i n i t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e t h n o c e n t r i s m as p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d and o r g a n i z e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : 1. i t e m s t h a t a l l o w s t u d e n t s t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t C a n a d i a n c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s a r e SUPERIOR t o n o n - C a n a d i a n ^ c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s . 2. i t e m s t h a t a l l o w s t u d e n t s t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t n o n - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s a r e WRONG. 3 . i t e m s t h a t a l l o w s t u d e n t s t o i n d i c a t e a c c e p t a n c e o r r e j e c t i o n o f n o n - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s and a c c e p t a n c e o r r e j e c t i o n o f n o n - C a n a d i a n s i n g e n e r a l . A p p r o x i m a t e l y f o r t y i t e m s were w r i t t e n f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s . The w r i t i n g o f i t e m s f o r t h e t h i r d c a t e g o r y c o n c e r n i n g a c c e p t a n c e o r r e j e c t i o n o f n o n - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s and n o n - C a n a d i a n s d i d n o t pose a p r o b l e m . F o r t h i s c a t e g o r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e p r e v i o u s t h r e e e t h n o c e n t r i s m 3 " C a n a d i a n c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s " r e f e r s t o A n g l o -C e l t i c c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s . 22 s c a l e s and s i m i l a r i t e m s g e n e r a t e d i n t h e C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t r a t h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , B r i t a i n o r A u s t r a l i a . S t a t e m e n t s s u c h as " A s i a n s s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o m i g r a t e t o A u s t r a l i a " were c o n v e r t e d t o s u c h s t a t e m e n t s as "Canada i s a m u l t i c u l t u r a l n a t i o n and p e o p l e f r o m a l l p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d s h o u l d be welcome". The w r i t i n g o f i t e m s f o r t h e f i r s t two c a t e g o r i e s d e s c r i b i n g s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s was g e n e r a t e d f r o m i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d i n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h r e e m i n o r i t y g r o u p s i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r . The t h r e e m i n o r i t y g r o u p s were N a t i v e I n d i a n , C h i n e s e - C a n a d i a n , and I n d o - C a n a d i a n . T h e s e t h r e e g r o u p s were p e r c e i v e d t o be t a r g e t s o f n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r . T h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s were v e r i f i e d i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s u s i n g a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h e S o c i a l D i s t a n c e S c a l e a d m i n i s t e r e d t o v a r i o u s g r o u p s o f h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t (Kehoe and S a k a t a , 1 9 7 9 ) . The V a n c o u v e r M u l t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y was a b l e t o p r o v i d e names o f p e o p l e i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e g r o u p s who c o u l d be c o n t a c t e d f o r i n t e r v i e w s . Two p e o p l e f r o m e a c h g r o u p were i n t e r v i e w e d . The i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d a t t h e homes o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s o r t h e e t h n i c g r o u p g a t h e r i n g p l a c e ( t e m p l e , community c e n t e r o r l a n g u a g e s c h o o l ) . A l t h o u g h i n t e r v i e w s were u n s t r u c t u r e d , an i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e ( s e e A p p e n d i x A) and a l i s t o f c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s ( a l s o A p p e n d i x A) were u s e d as g u i d e l i n e s d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s . 23 S c a l e i t e m s were w r i t t e n u s i n g Edward's i n f o r m a l c r i t e r i a f o r a t t i t u d e s t a t e m e n t s ( 1 9 5 7 ) . Though e v e r y e f f o r t was made t o keep s t a t e m e n t s s h o r t and s i m p l e , i t was d i f f i c u l t t o do so when d e s c r i b i n g c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s . T h i s was augmented by t h e f a c t t h a t S c h o o l D i s t r i c t P o l i c y d i d n o t a l l o w use o f s p e c i f i c names o f g r o u p s . O f t e n , l e n g t h i e r s t a t e m e n t s were n e c e s s a r y t o g e t t h e same meaning a c r o s s . An e f f o r t was made t o w r i t e a t l e a s t h a l f t h e i t e m s i n t h e n e g a t i v e d i r e c t i o n t o a v o i d a c q u i e s c e n c e and r e s p o n s e s e t s ( G u i l f o r d , 1 9 6 7 ) . Each i t e m was t y p e d on i n d i v i d u a l i n d e x c a r d s . T h r e e t e a c h e r s were a s k e d t o c a t e g o r i z e them a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s . They were a l s o a s k e d t o comment on e a c h o f t h e i t e m s w i t h r e g a r d t o c o m p r e h e n s i o n and r e a d a b i l i t y f o r j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . Some o f t h e i t e m s were d i s c a r d e d o r r e w r i t t e n . The f i n a l p o o l c o n s i s t e d o f 105 i t e m s . T h i s was c o n s i d e r e d a s u f f i c i e n t number s i n c e t h e g o a l was t o p r o d u c e two f o r m s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 i t e m s e a c h ( N u n n a l l y , 1978, p. 2 6 1 ) . The 105 i t e m s were d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e f o r m s A, B and C. T h i s was done t o m i n i m i z e t i m e t a k e n away from r e g u l a r c l a s s . The i t e m s were d i v i d e d s o t h e r e were a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l numbers o f i t e m s f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s and as many n e g a t i v e worded i t e m s as p o s i t i v e . N u n n a l l y (1978, pp. 295-296) r e p o r t s t h a t 7 would be an optimum number o f s c a l e s t e p s f o r g a i n s i n r e l i a b i l i t y . However, i t was d e c i d e d t o go 24 w i t h S s c a l e s t e p s r a n g i n g f r o m " I a g r e e v e r y much" t o I d i s a g r e e v e r y much". U s i n g an even number o f s t e p s w i l l " f o r c e a c h o i c e " by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s s i n c e t h e r e i s no mid-p o i n t o r n e u t r a l p o i n t . G u i l f o r d and C r o n b a c h ( F i s h b e i n , 1967, pp. 280-281) b o t h recommend a g a i n s t f o r c e d c h o i c e s c a l e s and c l a i m t h e r e a r e b e t t e r ways t o d e a l w i t h t h e p r o b l e m . However, b a s e d on p a s t e x p e r i e n c e i n s c o r i n g a t t i t u d e m e asures, i t was n o t e d t h a t t h e m i d - p o i n t and n e u t r a l c a t e g o r y p r o v i d e d a "way o u t " f o r u n c o - o p e r a t i v e s t u d e n t s o r s t u d e n t s who wanted t o be " s a f e " . A g r a p h i c and n u m e r i c s c a l e was u s e d and s t u d e n t s were i n s t r u c t e d t o c i r c l e t h e number t o a v o i d c o n f u s i o n f o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t s and a l s o f o r t h e s c o r e r . The s c o r e s were t o be summed w i t h t h e p o l a r i t y r e v e r s e d f o r n e g a t i v e l y worded i t e m s . The h i g h e r t o t a l s c o r e s i n d i c a t e more e t h n o c e n t r i c a t t i t u d e . B e f o r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e s c a l e . Forms A, B, and C were i n s p e c t e d by two e x p e r t s i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n as a f u r t h e r c h e c k f o r c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y ( s e e A p p e n d i x B f o r c o p i e s o f Forms A, B and C ) . S t a g e 2: S t u d y 1 - F i r s t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Forms A. B. and C The g o a l o f S t u d y 1 was t o c o l l e c t d a t a u s i n g Forms A, B, and C so i t e m s c o u l d be i t e m and f a c t o r a n a l y z e d f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f i t e m s t o p r o d u c e p a r a l l e l f o r m s . 25 SAMPLE A l l g r a d e 8 s t u d e n t s i n S c h o o l W and S c h o o l X were u s e d . In S c h o o l W t h e s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n E n g l i s h c l a s s e s s i n c e i t was a s e m e s t e r e d s c h o o l and o n l y h a l f t h e g r a d e 8's were e n r o l l e d i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s c l a s s e s a t t h e t i m e . S c h o o l X was a n o n - s e m e s t e r e d s c h o o l s o t h e s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n a l l S o c i a l S t u d i e s 8 c l a s s e s . A t o t a l o f 517 s t u d e n t s were i n v o l v e d . T h i s number was c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t i n o r d e r t o i n t e r p r e t i t e m a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s w h i c h r e q u i r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e t i m e s a s many s u b j e c t s a s i t e m ( N u n n a l l y , 1978, p. 2 7 9 ) . RESULTS The d a t a c o l l e c t e d a f t e r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Forms A, B, and C were i t e m a n a l y z e d u s i n g t h e LERTAP programme. Items were p l a c e d i n t h r e e s u b s c a l e s WRONG, SUPERIOR, and ACCEPT. The Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r a l l t h r e e f o r m s r e v e a l e d t o t a l t e s t c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g i n g f r o m .79 t o .81 ( s e e T a b l e 1 ) . C r o n b a c h ' s a l p h a ' s f r o m c o m p o s i t e s on t h e t h r e e f o r m s r a n g e d f r o m .65 t o .70. T h e s e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were c o n s i d e r e d q u i t e a c c e p t a b l e f o r t h i s i n i t i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e ACCEPT s u b s c a l e s r a n g i n g f r o m .79 t o .84 were v e r y good g i v e n t h a t t h e s c a l e had o n l y 12 i t e m s . Somewhat w o r r i s o m e were t h e r a t h e r low r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s (.40 - .53) o f t h e o t h e r two sub-s c a l e s , WRONG and ACCEPT on a l l t h r e e f o r m s . T h i s may have 26 TABLE 1 STUDY l : FORM A, B, AND C - R E L I A B I L I T Y COEFFICIENTS Form _ No. C r o n b a c h ' a S u b s c a l e X SD Items Se Hoyt A l p h a FORM A: N = 174 Wrong 46.59 8.92 11 6.58 .40 S u p e r i o r 48.45 9.42 12 6.49 .48 A c c e p t 37.11 13.30 12 5.79 .79 TOTAL TEST 132.15 25.33 35 11.40 .79 .69 FORM B: N = 169 Wrong 50.19 9.66 12 6.75 .47 S u p e r i o r 44.88 9.08 11 5.94 .53 A c c e p t 36.60 14.75 12 5.56 .84 TOTAL TEST 131.67 26.33 35 11.19 .81 .65 FORM C: N = 174 Wrong 45.52 8.87 11 6.35 .44 S u p e r i o r 41.89 9.42 12 6.21 .53 A c c e p t 35.65 12.97 12 5.58 .80 TOTAL TEST 123.05 25.02 35 10.99 .80 .70 27 been due t o t h e low number o f i t e m s . However, t h e s e low r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s d i d n o t a p p e a r t o weaken t h e t o t a l t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s t o o much. An e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s may be t h a t a l l t h r e e s u b s c a l e s a r e somewhat i n t e r r e l a t e d . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h C r o n b a c h a l p h a ' s . I f sub-s c a l e s were m e a s u r i n g c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t a t t r i b u t e s , l o w e r C r o n b a c h a l p h a ' s would be e x p e c t e d . To r e s o l v e w h ether t h e c o n s t r u c t e d s c a l e w a r r a n t s t h e t h r e e s u b s c a l e d i v i s i o n , f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was a p p l i e d u s i n g t h e AGFAP programme. A f t e r an i n i t i a l r u n on t h e c o m p u t e r , a s k i n g f o r a l l f a c t o r s , t h e d e c i s i o n f o r t h e p r a c t i c a l number o f f a c t o r s t o e x t r a c t was b a s e d on t h e K a i s e r Guttman r u l e and t h e s c r e e t e s t ( C a t t e l l , 1 9 6 6). W i t h t h e K a i s e r Guttman r u l e , e i g e n v a l u e s f o r f a c t o r s g r e a t e r t h a n 1 a r e c o u n t e d . On t h e t h r e e Forms, c o u n t s were made f r o m 9 t o 13 f o r f a c t o r s w i t h e i g e n v a l u e s g r e a t e r t h a n 1. T h e s e numbers o f f a c t o r s were s t i l l t o o d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t so t h e s c r e e t e s t was a p p l i e d . E i g e n v a l u e s were p l o t t e d a g a i n s t t h e number o f t h e e i g e n c o u n t s . A l i n e was drawn c o n n e c t i n g a l l t h e p o i n t s . The number o f t h e "jump" p o i n t a t w h i c h t h e l i n e l e v e l l e d o f f was c o n s i d e r e d t h e p r o b a b l e number o f f a c t o r s on t h e t e s t . On two o f t h e t h r e e f o r m s t h e "jump" p o i n t was f o u r , a t e n t a t i v e c h o i c e o f w o r k i n g w i t h f o u r f a c t o r s was made ( F i g u r e 1 ) . F o u r f a c t o r s were e x t r a c t e d f o r e a c h o f t h e Forms. Va r i m a x was u s e d t o r o t a t e t h e a x i s so i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e FIGURE 1 Though t h e r e were 35 i t e m s on Form A, f o r t h i s f i g u r e t h e s m a l l e s t 5 e i g e n v a l u e s were o m i t t e d . 29 s o l u t i o n would be e a s i e r w i t h e a c h i t e m l o a d i n g h e a v i l y on one f a c t o r and l e s s t h a n .3 on t h e r e s t . A l l i t e m s h a v i n g v a l u e s g r e a t e r t h a n .3 on any o f t h e f a c t o r s were l o c a t e d and a t a b l e was c o n s t r u c t e d ( s e e A p p e n d i x C) t o s e e whether t h e p a t t e r n c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d . The c l u s t e r i n g o f i t e m s on t h e f o u r f a c t o r s was n o t e a s y t o i n t e r p r e t b u t some g e n e r a l t r e n d s were d e t e c t e d . The ACCEPT s u b s c a l e t e n d e d t o l o a d h e a v i l y on F a c t o r 1 f o r a l l t h r e e Forms. W i t h t h e t o t a l o f 48 i t e m s l e a d i n g on t o F a c t o r 1, 30 were from t h e ACCEPT s u b s c a l e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t o f t h e 18 i t e m s from t h e o t h e r two s u b s c a l e s 11 o f t h e s e i t e m s were w r i t t e n f r o m i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e I n d o - C a n a d i a n e t h n i c g r o u p . Items l o a d i n g on t o F a c t o r 3 o f a l l Forms showed some s i m i l a r i t i e s . On F a c t o r 3, i t e m s f r o m s u b s c a l e SUPERIOR and s u b s c a l e ACCEPT were p r e d o m i n a n t . Of t h e 12 ACCEPT i t e m s , 8 i t e m s were a c c e p t a n c e o f c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s o r i n t e r e s t i n t h e c u l t u r e o f a g r o u p r a t h e r t h a n a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e g r o u p . In F a c t o r 1 t h e ACCEPT i t e m s t e n d e d t o be a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e c u l t u r a l g r o u p as a whole r a t h e r t h a n a c c e p t a n c e o f s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s o f t h e g r o u p . Items l o a d i n g on F a c t o r s 2 and 3 were d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t . Most o f t h e i t e m s l o a d i n g on t o F a c t o r 2 were e x c l u s i v e l y f r o m t h e WRONG (15 i t e m s ) and ACCEPT (7 i t e m s ) s u b s c a l e s . On Form A t h e i t e m s on F a c t o r 2 were r e l a t e d t o r e l i g i o n . On Form B a l l i t e m s 30 seemed t o have some a s p e c t o f f o o d and e a t i n g i n common. On Form C t h e F a c t o r 2 l o a d i n g s c o u l d n o t be l a b e l l e d b u t a l l i t e m s were c u l t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s . Items i n F a c t o r 4 on a l l t h e Forms showed v e r y l i t t l e s i m i l a r i t y w i t h e a c h o t h e r e x c e p t t h a t t h e y a l l were r e l a t e d t o some c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e . Even t h e 4 ACCEPT i t e m s were t h o s e o f a c c e p t a n c e o f some c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e . The o n l y c l e a r f a c t o r i n t e r p r e t a t e d was t h a t o f F a c t o r 1. The ACCEPT s u b s c a l e a p p e a r e d t o be a v i a b l e one. I t was d e c i d e d t o l o o k c a r e f u l l y a t t h e SUPERIOR s u b s c a l e and s o r t t h e i t e m s i n t h e s u b s c a l e i n t o t h e WRONG and ACCEPT s u b s c a l e s . Items d e s c r i b i n g c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s and j u d g i n g them were p l a c e d i n t h e WRONG s u b s c a l e and i t e m s i n d i c a t i n g a c c e p t a n c e o f c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s were p l a c e d i n t h e ACCEPT s u b s c a l e . A f t e r t h e d e c i s i o n was made t o have two s u b s c a l e s , WRONG and ACCEPT, i t e m s had t o be s e l e c t e d t o c o n s t r u c t t h e p a r a l l e l f o r m s . I t was d e c i d e d t o l o o k a t t h e p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n s t o c h o o s e i t e m s . Though Edwards (1957) u s e d t h e Q d i s t r i b u t i o n a s a b a s i s o f i t e m s e l e c t i o n , N u n n a l l y (1978) recommended t h e use o f p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r i t e m s e l e c t i o n . N u n n a l l y c l a i m e d t h a t t h e p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n p r o v i d e d v e r y much t h e same r e s u l t s as o t h e r common t e c h n i q u e s o f i t e m s e l e c t i o n . The LERTAP programme e a s i l y a l l o w e d f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f c o r r e l a t i o n s o f i t e m s w i t h s u b t e s t and t o t a l t e s t . Items were s e l e c t e d by l o o k i n g 31 a t h i g h i t e m s u b t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s . Items w i t h c o r r e l a t i o n s g r e a t e r t h a n .3 were c o n s i d e r e d . O t h e r c r i t e r i a i n i t e m s e l e c t i o n i n c l u d e d a t t e m p t s t o have e q u a l numbers o f i t e m s i n t h e two s u b s c a l e s , as many n e g a t i v e i t e m s as p o s i t i v e and a v a r i e t y o f c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s ( i e . n o t a l l c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e l i g i o n ) . I f a d d i t i o n a l i t e m s w i t h i t e m - s u b t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s l o w e r t h a n .3 had t o be s e l e c t e d , o r i f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s were v e r y c l o s e , t h e i t e m s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n was b a s e d on h i g h e r i t e m - t o t a l t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s . In some c a s e s i t e m s were c h o s e n by l o o k i n g a t t h e p d i s t r i b u t i o n and i t e m s s h o w i n g r e s p o n s e s d i s t r i b u t e d t o b o t h e x t r e m e s were s e l e c t e d . Two new Forms D and E were c o n s t r u c t e d ( s e e A p p e n d i x B ) . Each form c o n t a i n e d 33 i t e m s . T h i s f i g u r e was d e r i v e d by a d d i n g i t e m s and p r o c e s s i n g w i t h t h e computer u n t i l t o t a l t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s were o v e r .85. S t a g e 3: S t u d y 2 - P a r a l l e l Forms B e f o r e u s i n g Forms D and E i n t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d y , t h e two f o r m s were p i l o t e d t o s e e i f i n d e e d t h e f o r m s were p a r a l l e l . Forms D and E c a n be c o n s i d e r e d p a r a l l e l i f s t a t i s -t i c a l l y t h e y have t h e same means, v a r i a n c e and c o r r e l a t e p e r f e c t l y ( H o r s t , 1966, pp. 295-307; and C r o n b a c h , 1960, pp. 174-179). The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n t o be answered i n t h i s s e c t i o n was: 32 A f t e r a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e two f o r m s on s e p a r a t e o c c a s i o n s t o t h e same sample, w i l l s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e two f o r m s have t h e same means, same v a r i a n c e and i n t e r c o r r e l a t e p e r f e c t l y ? The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s e s t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d : 1. T h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s c o r e s o f s u b s c a l e WRONG; between t h e s c o r e s o f s u b s c a l e ACCEPT; and between t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s o f Form D and Form E. Ho: p = 0 2. T h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e means o f s u b s c a l e WRONG i n Form D and E; i n t h e means o f s u b s c a l e ACCEPT i n Form D and E; and between t h e means o f t h e t o t a l t e s t o f Forms D and E. Ho: x D = x E 3. T h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e v a r i a n c e o f s u b s c a l e WRONG i n Form D and E; i n t h e v a r i a n c e o f s u b s c a l e Form D and E; and i n t h e v a r i a n c e o f t h e t o t a l t e s t o f Forms D and E. Ho: s D = s E 3 3 SAMPLE F o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Form D and Form E> t h e sample i n c l u d e d a l l g r a d e 10 s t u d e n t s t a k i n g H i s t o r y i n S c h o o l Y. T h i s s t u d y e n t a i l e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e f o r m s on two s e p a r a t e o c c a s i o n s f o r t h e same c l a s s . S c h o o l Y was c h o s e n s i n c e p e r m i s s i o n was g r a n t e d t o use more c l a s s t i m e t h a n i n t h e o t h e r s c h o o l s . T h i s s c h o o l was a l s o t o be u s e d f o r t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d y f o l l o w i n g , w i t h t h e g r a d e 8's and g r a d e 9's. In o r d e r n o t t o c o n t a m i n a t e t h e s e g r a d e s , a g r a d e 10 sample was c h o s e n . S c h o o l Y i s a s e m e s t e r e d s c h o o l , t h e r e -f o r e , o n l y h a l f t h e g r a d e 10's c o u l d be u s e d . T h e r e were f o u r c l a s s e s w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 125 s t u d e n t s . H a v i n g t o match Forms D and E f u r t h e r r e d u c e d t h e a c t u a l sample s i z e t o 101. PROCEDURE The same s c a l e f o r m a t as Forms A, B, and C was u s e d f o r Forms D and E. S t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o r e s p o n d t o t h e 33 q u e s -t i o n s on a 6 p o i n t s c a l e . To m a i n t a i n s t u d e n t a n o n y m i t y , s t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e an i n f o r m a t i o n s e c t i o n on t h e c o v e r page o f t h e s c a l e b u t t h e y were n o t t o w r i t e t h e i r name. I n s t e a d t h e y were a s k e d t o w r i t e down t h e l a s t f o u r d i g i t s o f t h e i r phone number w h i c h e n a b l e d f o r m s t o be matched l a t e r . Of t h e f o u r c l a s s e s , two c l a s s e s were g i v e n Form D on t h e f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w i t h t h e o t h e r two c l a s s e s r e c e i v i n g Form E. T h i s p a t t e r n was r e v e r s e d f o r t h e t h e s e c o n d a d m i n i s -34 t r a t i o n w h i c h t o o k p l a c e t h e n e x t c l a s s p e r i o d . T e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s were g i v e n t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n s as w i t h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f Form A, B, and C. RESULTS The r e s u l t s were p r o c e s s e d i n t h e same manner a s i n t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d y . Item a n a l y s i s and f a c t o r a n a l y s i s were p e r f o r m e d a s s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e ( s e e A p p e n d i x C f o r t a b l e s and r e s u l t s ) . The Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r b o t h Forms D and E were c o n s i d e r e d good a t .89 and .90 r e s p e c t i v e l y ( T a b l e 2 ) . The s u b s c a l e WRONG on b o t h f o r m s r e s u l t e d i n much h i g h e r c o e f f i c i e n t s o f .78 and .76. Though t h e r e were n o t enough s t u d e n t s ( f i v e t i m e s a s many as i t e m s a r e n e e d e d ) , i t e m s were f a c t o r a n a l y z e d u s i n g t h e f o u r f a c t o r s o l u t i o n . S i m i l a r t r e n d s as i n t h e p r e v i o u s Forms were r e c o g n i z e d . On b o t h Forms a l m o s t a l l t h e ACCEPT i t e m s l o a d e d on t o F a c t o r 1. Most o f t h e WRONG i t e m s l o a d e d on t o F a c t o r s 2 and 3. The matched s c o r e s on Form D and E and t h e s u b s c a l e s o f t h e Forms e n a b l e d t h e t e s t i n g o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e h y p o t h e s e s : 1. Ho: c o r r e l a t i o n between D and E = 0 2. Ho: means o f D = means o f E 3. Ho: v a r i a n c e o f D = v a r i a n c e o f E 35 TABLE 2 STUDY 2: FORM D AND E - R E L I A B I L I T Y COEFFICIENTS Form S u b s c a l e X SD No. I terns Se C r o n b a c h ' s Hoyt A l p h a FORM D: N = 101 Wrong 70 .55 16.56 18 7.51 .78 A c c e p t 49 .37 16.76 15 6.03 .86 TOTAL TEST 119 .92 30.45 33 9.93 .89 .80 FORM E: N = 101 Wrong 61 .93 14 .42 15 6.85 .76 A c c e p t 59 .66 20.55 18 6.59 .89 TOTAL TEST 121 .59 31 .34 33 9.09 .90 .72 36 TABLE 3 STUDY 2: PEARSON CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR SUBSCALES AND TOTAL TEST OF FORM D AND FORM E S c a l e E - A c c e p t E-Wrong E - T o t a l T e s t D - A c c e p t .84 .63 .83 D-Wrong .58 .72 .72 D - T o t a l T e s t .80 .74 .86 a) N = 101 b) A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t , p < .01 37 FINDINGS Ho: c o r r e l a t i o n between D and E = .0. C o r r e l a t i o n a l r e s u l t s ( T a b l e 3) were p r o v i d e d a s p a r t o f t h e LERTAP i t e m a n a l y s i s p r ogram. The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d . A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s were p o s i t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t , r a n g i n g f r o m a h i g h .72 f o r t h e WRONG s u b s c a l e t o a v e r y h i g h .86 f o r t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . 2. Ho: means o f D = means o f E. The d i f f e r e n c e i n means were t e s t e d u s i n g t h e T - t e s t program i n t h e SPSS p a c k a g e . The r e s u l t s a r e shown on T a b l e 4. S i g n i f i c a n t l y s i m i l a r means would i n d i c a t e f u l f i l l i n g one c r i t e r i a f o r p a r a l l e l f o r m s o f t h e t e s t . O n l y t h e ACCEPT s c a l e d e m o n s t r a t e d t h i s . The means i n t h e WRONG s c a l e were so s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t t h a t t h e means o f t h e t o t a l t e s t were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . 3. Ho: v a r i a n c e o f D = v a r i a n c e o f E. The v a r i a n c e s were t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e m a n u a l l y u s i n g t h e f o r m u l a recom-mended by G l a s s and S t a n l e y (1970, pp. 3 0 6 - 3 0 8 ) . The t - v a l u e f o r p > .05 was 1.66. The T o t a l T e s t w i t h t = .77 and WRONG s u b s c a l e w i t h t = .89 were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t , however, i n t h e ACCEPT s u b s c a l e w i t h t = 2.81 t h e v a r i a n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . CONCLUSION Though t h e r e s u l t s f o r t h e c o r r e l a t i o n and v a r i a n c e t e s t s were v e r y e n c o u r a g i n g t h e a s s u m p t i o n f o r n e c e s s i t y o f e q u a l 38 TABLE 4 STUDY 2: t-TEST RESULTS FOR TESTING THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEANS OF SUBSCALES AND TOTAL TEST TO ESTABLISH PARALLEL FORMS V a r i a b l e Mean SD d f t - v a l u e p D - A c c e p t 49.36 16.76 E - A c c e p t 49.73 17.18 100 -0.39 .70 D-Wrong 55.60 14.17 E-Wrong 62.00 14.41 100 -5.97 .00 « D - T o t a l T e s t 104.96 27.92 E - T o t a l T e s t 111.72 28.22 100 -4.61 .00 * a) N = 101 b> » p < .01 39 means f o r p a r a l l e l f o r m s was n o t met. T h i s was an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t Forms D and E were n o t p a r a l l e l . S i n c e t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d y was s c h e d u l e d f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g week one r e v i s e d f o r m w i t h t h e b e s t i t e m s f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s f o r m s was c o n s t r u c t e d . I t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e numbers i n t h e o r i g i n a l p i l o t o f Form A, B, and C were c o n s i d e r e d b e t t e r f o r i t e m a n a l y s i s and f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . Items f o r t h e F i n a l Form were s e l e c t e d by r e f e r r i n g back t o t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d o r i g i n a l l y . The two s u b s c a l e s were r e t a i n e d b u t t h e WRONG s u b s c a l e was renamed CULTURE b e c a u s e whether t h e i t e m s were j u d g i n g c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s as good/bad, s u p e r i o r / i n f e r i o r , a l l i t e m s d e s c r i b e d some t y p e o f c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e . The t o t a l number o f i t e m s were a l s o r e d u c e d t o 30. F o r t h i s t y p e o f s c a l e , 30 i t e m s were c o n s i d e r e d t o p r o d u c e v e r y h i g h r e l i a b i l i t i e s ( N u n n a l l y , 1978, p. 2 7 8 ) . STAGE 4 : STUDY 3 - INTERVENTION STUDY The main p u r p o s e o f t h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d y was t o c h e c k t h e F i n a l Form f o r c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . The o p p o r t u n i t y t o g a t h e r a d d i t i o n a l d a t a was t a k e n and a d e l a y e d p o s t t e s t u s i n g t h e F i n a l Form was s c h e d u l e d as were a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f a s e l f c o n c e p t s c a l e and dogmatism s c a l e . The d e l a y e d p o s t t e s t was u s e d t o c h e c k f o r any change d e t e c t e d on t h e f i r s t t e s t i n g o r t o c h e c k f o r any l a t e n t e f f e c t s . To g a i n a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e 40 o f c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y a s e l f c o n c e p t s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d a t t h e o c c a s i o n o f t h e f i r s t p o s t t e s t . As a measure o f c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y a dogmatism s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d w i t h t h e d e l a y e d p o s t t e s t . F o u r s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s e s were e x p o s e d t o an i n t e r v e n -t i o n w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f a l e s s o n on t h e c o n c e p t o f e t h n o c e n -t r i s m r e i n f o r c e d by l o o k i n g a t o t h e r c u l t u r e s a c c e n t u a t i n g a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t c u s t o m s and p r a c t i c e s o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s . F o u r c l a s s e s a c t e d a s t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . They were t a u g h t an i n t r o d u c t o r y p h y s i c a l g e o p r a p h i c u n i t on A f r i c a and t h e S o v i e t U n i o n . The F i n a l Form was u s e d a s t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i n t h e s t u d y . HYPOTHESES Data c o l l e c t e d i n t h i s s t u d y e n a b l e d t h e t e s t i n g o f t h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r h y p o t h e s e s : 1. T h e r e w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e mean s c o r e s on t h e e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e e t h n o c e n t r i s m u n i t when compared w i t h mean s c o r e s o f t h e c o n t r o l c l a s s e s t h a t s t u d i e d A f r i c a and t h e S o v i e t U n i o n . Ho: x E = x C 2. T h r e e weeks a f t e r t h e f i r s t p o s t t e s t , t h e r e w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s c o r e s on t h e 41 e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p and t h e mean s c o r e s o f t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . Ho: x E = x C 3. T h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on t h e e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e and s e l f c o n c e p t s c a l e . Ho: p = 0 4. T h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on t h e e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e and dogmatism s c a l e . Ho: p = 0 SAMPLE The i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d i n S c h o o l Y. To c a u s e l e a s t i n t e r r u p t i o n t o t h e s c h o o l , c l a s s e s had t o r e m a i n i n t a c t . S i n c e S c h o o l Y was s e m e s t e r e d , a l l f o u r S o c i a l S t u d i e s 8 and a l l f o u r G e ography 9 c l a s s e s were us e d t o e n s u r e h i g h numbers. The sample was composed o f 111 g r a d e 9 s t u d e n t s and 119 g r a d e 8 s t u d e n t s . I n i t i a l l y t h e numbers were s l i g h t l y h i g h e r , however, t e s t p a p e r s f o r s t u d e n t s who d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l l t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l l e s s o n s were d i s c a r d e d . S u b j e c t s were d i s c a r d e d i f t h e y m i s s e d any o f t h e l e s s o n d a y s o r i f t h e y were a b s e n t when any o f t h e s c a l e s were a d m i n i s -t e r e d . C l a s s e s were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l c l a s s e s . T h e r e were two g r a d e 8 c l a s s e s and two 4 2 g r a d e 9 c l a s s e s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s and t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e g r a d e 8 and 9 c l a s s e s a c t e d a s c o n t r o l c l a s s e s . PROCEDURE Two t e a c h e r s were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o t e a c h two e x p e r i -m e n t a l and two c o n t r o l c l a s s e s , one o f e a c h a t t h e g r a d e 8 and g r a d e 9 l e v e l s . A l l e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s were t a u g h t t h e same s e r i e s o f t h r e e one hour l e s s o n s on e t h n o c e n t r i s m . The main o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e l e s s o n s were t o have s t u d e n t s know and u n d e r s t a n d what i s meant by e t h n o c e n t r i s m and t o r e a l i z e t h a t we i n Canada s h o u l d n o t be e t h n o c e n t r i c ( s e e A p p e n d i x D f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l l e s s o n and m a t e r i a l s ) . The s t u d e n t s were n o t t o l d t h e y were t a k i n g p a r t i n an e x p e r i m e n t b u t s i m p l y t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t e a c h e r s were t a k i n g o v e r t h e c l a s s f o r t h e n e x t t h r e e c l a s s p e r i o d s w h i l e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s were r e l e a s e d f r o m c l a s s t o do o t h e r work. In o r d e r t o have s t u d e n t s t a k e l e s s o n s s e r i o u s l y , t h e y were t o l d t h e y would be r e q u i r e d t o w r i t e an i n - c l a s s r e p o r t on t h e t h i r d day and t h e r e p o r t w i l l be b a s e d on m a t e r i a l d i s c u s s e d i n c l a s s . C a r e was t a k e n t o make s u r e a l l h a n d o u t s and m a t e r i a l s u s e d d u r i n g t h e c l a s s p e r i o d were c o l l e c t e d t o a v o i d c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f o t h e r c l a s s e s . C o n t r o l c l a s s e s were a l s o t a u g h t by t h e two e x p e r i -m e n t a l t e a c h e r s . C o n t r o l c l a s s e s i n g r a d e 8 were t a u g h t t h e f i r s t t h r e e l e s s o n s on a u n i t on A f r i c a . C o n t r o l c l a s s e s i n g r a d e 9 were t a u g h t t h e f i r s t t h r e e l e s s o n s o f a u n i t on t h e 43 S o v i e t U n i o n . F i v e d a y s a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i -m e n t a l l e s s o n s , b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l c l a s s e s were p o s t t e s t e d u s i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t e d e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e . The r e s e a r c h d e s i g n was a q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y i n v o l -v i n g two t e a c h e r and o v e r 230 s t u d e n t s i n f o u r S o c i a l S t u d i e s S c l a s s e s and f o u r S o c i a l S t u d i e s 9 c l a s s e s . The d e s i g n i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p o s t t e s t o n l y d e s i g n t o a v o i d p r e t e s t s e n s i t i z a -t i o n . However, a d e l a y e d p o s t t e s t u s i n g t h e same e t h n o c e n -t r i s m s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d t h r e e weeks l a t e r t o c h e c k f o r s t a b i l i t y o f a change o r t o c h e c k f o r l a t e n t e f f e c t s . The d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y i s summarized i n F i g u r e 2. The d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e on t h e f i r s t p o s t t e s t and t h e d e l a y e d p o s t t e s t was t h e s c o r e on t h e d e v e l o p e d F i n a l Form o f t h e e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e . The F i n a l Form was n o t p i l o t e d b e f o r e use a s t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n c e i t was c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g p r e v i o u s l y t e s t e d i t e m s . I t was e x p e c t e d t o have h i g h i n t e r n a l c o n s i s -t e n c y . R e s u l t s o f t h e i t e m a n a l y s i s o f t h e F i n a l Form a f t e r e a c h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a r e shown on T a b l e 5. E x p e c t a t i o n s were c o n f i r m e d . The Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f .87 f o r t h e f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and .94 f o r t h e s e c o n d were c o n s i d e r e d v e r y good. To g a i n a d d i t i o n a l d a t a f o r e v i d e n c e o f c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y a s e l f c o n c e p t s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d a t t h e same t i m e as t h e f i r s t p o s t t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e e t h n o c e n t r i s m 44 FIGURE 2 STUDY 3: SUMMARY OF THE RESEARCH DESIGN FOR THE INTERVENTION STUDY T r e a t m e n t D e l a y e d E x p e r i m e n t a l C o n t r o l P o s t t e s t P o s t t e s t C l a s s GRADE 8 C l a s s 1 and 2 C l a s s 3 and 4 GRADE 9 C l a s s 5 and 6 C l a s s 7 and 8 T l T2 T l T2 T2 T l T2 T l 01 01 01 01 02 02 02 02 a) T l = T e a c h e r One b) T2 = T e a c h e r Two c) 01 = E t h n o c e n t r i s m S c a l e and P i e r s - H a r r i s S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e d) 02 = E t h n o c e n t r i s m S c a l e and Dogmatism S c a l e 45 TABLE 5 STUDY 3: FINAL FORM - MEANS ( X ) , STANDARD DEVIATION (SD) , AND R E L I A B I L I T Y COEFFICIENTS FOR POSTTEST AND DELAYED POSTTEST ADMINISTRATION IN INTERVENTION STUDY Form No. C r o n b a c h ' s S u b s c a l e X SD I terns Se Hoyt A l p h a P o s t t e s t - F i r s t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n FINAL FORM: N = 230 C u l t u r e 59.55 13.91 16 7.63 .68 A c c e p t 43.67 18.96 14 6.22 .88 TOTAL TEST 103.21 29.29 30 10.30 .87 .71 D e l a y e d P o s t t e s t - S e cond A d m i n i s t r a t i o n FINAL FORM: N= 215 C u l t u r e 55.89 21 .07 16 7.10 .88 A c c e p t 42.33 21.50 14 5.77 .92 TOTAL TEST 98.22 40.26 30 9.51 .94 .88 46 s c a l e and a dogmatism s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d a t t h e same t i m e as t h e d e l a y e d p o s t t e s t . The P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e was us e d t o measure s e l f c o n c e p t . The r e p o r t e d Spearman-Brown r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t r a n g e d f r o m .71 t o .93 f o r g r a d e s 3 t h r o u g h 10. F o r t h e g r a d e 10's t h e Spearman-Brown r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g e d f r o m .72 t o .88. C o m m e r c i a l c o p i e s o f t h e t e s t used were t i t l e d " C h i l r e n ' s S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e " . I t was f e l t t h a t s t u d e n t s a t t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l may t a k e o f f e n s e t o b e i n g c l a s s i f i e d a s " c h i l d r e n " . To a v o i d n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n s t o t h e t i t l e by j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , t h e t i t l e page was t o r n o f f t h e c o p i e s o f t e s t s . The dogmatism s c a l e u s e d was a c o n s t r u c t e d s h o r t f o r m o f Rokeach's Dogmatism S c a l e . Items were c h o s e n f r o m R o k e a c h ' s p o o l o f 66 i t e m f o u n d i n R o b i n s o n and S h a v e r (1973, pp. 41 8 - 4 2 5 ) . Rokeach r e p o r t e d r e l i a b i l i t i e s r a n g i n g f r o m .70 t o .91. T r o l d a h l and P o w e l l (1965) c o n s t r u c t e d t h r e e s h o r t e r f o r m s o f t h e Dogmatism s c a l e o f 10, 15 and 20 i t e m s and r e p o r t e d r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f .79, .73 and .94 r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s c a l e s . A s c a l e o f 30 i t e m s was c o n s t r u c e d f o r u s e i n t h e s t u d y ( s e e A p p e n d i x E ) . The s t u d e n t s r e s p o n d e d t o a 6 p o i n t s c a l e r a n g i n g f r o m a g r e e v e r y much t o d i s a g r e e v e r y much. When s c o r i n g t h e dogmatism s c a l e t h e p o l a r i t y was r e v e r s e d , so s c o r e s c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d on t h e dogmatism s c a l e a s c o r r e l a t i n g p o s i t i v e l y w i t h t h e e n t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e . 47 RESULTS F o r t h i s s t u d y t h e main r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n t o be answered was s t a t e d as 1. Ho: E x p e r i m e n t a l means = C o n t r o l means. Comparing p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s , i t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e mean s c o r e on t h e e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r t h a n t h a t f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . D a t a was computed u s i n g t h r e e way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e t h r e e f a c t o r s b e i n g l e s s o n , g r a d e and t e a c h e r . The h y p o t h e s i s b e i n g o n e - d i r e c t i o n a l , a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l o f .05 was r e q u i r e d . The r e s u l t s o f t h e f i r s t p o s t t e s t a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 6. The mean f o r t h e g r o u p a s s i g n e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l l e s s o n on e t h n o c e n t r i s m was l o w e r t h a n t h e mean f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p ( T a b l e 7) i n d i c a t i n g l e s s e t h n o c e n t r i s m f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . T a b l e s & and 7 show a s i g n i f i c a n t (p < .05) t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t and a d i f f e r e n c e i n g r o u p means f a v o u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d . Of c o n c e r n was t h e h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( a t l e a s t p < .01) i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between l e s s o n and g r a d e ( F i g u r e 3 ) . To d i s c o v e r t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n , c e l l means were g r a p h e d ( F i g u r e 3) and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n diagrammed ( F i g u r e 4 ) . F o r t h e g r a d e 9's i t c a n be s e e n t h a t t h e mean f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p was l o w e r t h a n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l ( F i g u r e 3 ) . By dia g r a m m i n g t h e i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e g r a d e 8 means o f 20 p o i n t s o v e r r o a d t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f 4 p o i n t s a t t h e 48 TABLE 6 STUDY 3: ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE - TOTAL BY TEACHER, LESSON AND GRADE FOR INTERVENTION STUDY USING THE ETHNOCENTRISM SCALE AS THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE S o u r c e d f MS F P T e a c h e r 1 446.97 .54 .46 L e s s o n 1 3,588.91 4 .39 .03 • Grade 1 336.56 .41 .52 T e a c h e r x L e s s o n 1 341.44 .41 .51 T e a c h e r x Grade 1 2,258.60 2 .76 .09 L e s s o n x Grade 1 6,725.36 8 .23 .00 »• T e a c h e r x L e s s o n x Grade 1 1,380.34 1 .69 . 19 » P < .05 »« P < .01 49 TABLE 7 STUDY 3*. GROUP MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS AND N'S FOR EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS IN THE INTERVENTION STUDY USING THE ETHNOCENTRISM SCALE AS THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE X SD N E x p e r i m e n t a l 99.20 25.95 116 C o n t r o l 107.27 30.30 114 50 FIGURE 3 SUMMARY OF CELL MEANS RESULTING FROM THE FIRST ADMINISTRATION OF THE ETHNOCENTRISM SCALE USED AS THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE IN THE INTERVENTION STUDY Grade 8 Gr a d e 9 E x p e r i m e n t a l X = 95 X = 104 N = 59 N = 58 C o n t r o l X = 115 X = 100 N = 60 N = 54 51 FIGURE 4 STUDY 3: DIAGRAM OF LESSON BY GRADE INTERACTION IN INTERVENTION STUDY 120 S c o r e s on 110 E t h n o c e n t r i s m S c a l e ( d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ) 100 90 Grade 8 E x p e r i m e n t a l Grade 9 C o n t r o l 52 g r a d e 9 l e v e l . I t would seem t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l l e s s o n s had no e f f e c t on t h e s t u d e n t s a t t h e g r a d e 9 l e v e l . A d e l a y e d p o s t t e s t u s i n g t h e same e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d 3 weeks l a t e r . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t e s t e d was Ho: E x p e r i m e n t means = C o n t r o l means. The d a t a were p r o c e s s e d as b e f o r e . R e s u l t s a r e shown i n T a b l e 8. At t h i s t i m e t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c o u l d n o t be r e j e c t e d . Any g a i n s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l l e s s o n e f f e c t s were no l o n g e r d i s c e r n a b l e . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e s h o r t d u r a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d y and t h e l a c k o f r e i n -f o r c e m e n t , t h e r e s u l t s a r e n o t s u r p r i s i n g . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t s e l f c o n c e p t and dogmatism w i l l c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e . 3. Ho: c o r r e l a t i o n between s e l f c o n c e p t and e t h n o -c e n t r i s m = z e r o . 4. Ho: c o r r e l a t i o n between dogmatism and e t h n o -c e n t r i s m = z e r o . C o r r e l a t i o n s were computed f o r b o t h s u b s c a l e s , t o t a l s c a l e , dogmatism and s e l f c o n c e p t ( s e e T a b l e 9 ) . C o r r e l a t i o n s u s i n g t h e t o t a l s ample may be c o n f o u n d e d by t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d y . To t r y and overcome t h i s , c o r r e l a t i o n s f r o m t h e sample w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s removed was computed ( s e e T a b l e 1 0 ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s i n t h i s s t u d y c o n f i r m t h e low b u t s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s a n t i c i p a t e d between s e l f c o n c e p t and e t h n o c e n t r i s m - low s e l f c o n c e p t , h i g h e t h n o -TABLE 8 STUDY 3: ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE - TOTAL BY TEACHER, LESSON AND GRADE FOR THE DELAYED POSTTEST IN THE INTERVENTION STUDY S o u r c e d f MS F P T e a c h e r 1 505.02 .30 .86 L e s s o n 1 209.65 . 12 .58 Grade 1 444.77 .26 .72 T e a c h e r x L e s s o n 1 173.56 . 11 . 62 T e a c h e r x Grade 1 2 . 15 .00 .74 L e s s o n x Grade 1 822.57 .50 .97 T e a c h e r x L e s s o n x Grade 1 939.42 .57 . 45 A l l p ' s were n o n s i g n i f i c a n t 54 TABLE 9 STUDY 3: CORRELATION MATRIX ILLUSTRATING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SUBSCALES ACCEPT AND CULTURE, TOTAL SCALE, DOGMATISM AND SELF CONCEPT FOR THE 8 CLASSES IN THE INTERVENTION STUDY S c a l e s Sub-scales 1. C u l t u r e 1 2. A c c e p t 1 .59 . 00« 3. T o t a l T e s t 1 .85 .92 ,00» .00* 4. C u l t u r e 2 .67 .57 .69 .00» .00» .00« 5. A c c e p t 2 .51 .74 .72 .70 .00« .00* .00« .O0» 6. T o t a l T e s t 2 .63 .72 .77 .90 .94 .00« .00» .00« .00* .00« 7. Dogmatism .08 .17 .15 .13 .17 .17 .02 .01 .01 .02 .01 .01 8. S e l f C o n c e p t -.13 -.14 -.15 -.09 -.10 -.10 -.10 .02 .02 .01 .08 .06 .06 .06 a) N = 215 b) Numbers on t o p f o r e a c h p a i r i n d i c a t e c o r r e l a t i o n . Numbers on bottom i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f c o r r e l a t i o n . c) C u l t u r e and A c c e p t a r e s u b s c a l e s o f t h e E t h n o c e n t r i s m S c a l e d) T o t a l T e s t r e f e r s t o t h e E t h n o c e n t r i s m S c a l e w i t h s u b s c a l e s i n c l u d e d . e) 1 and 2 i n d i c a t e f i r s t and s e c o n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e s e a l e . f ) » i n d i c a t e p < .001 55 TABLE 10 STUDY 3: CORRELATION MATRIX ILLUSTRATING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SUBSCALES ACCEPT AND CULTURE, TOTAL SCALE, DOGMATISM AND SELF CONCEPT FOR THE 4 CONTROL CLASSES IN THE INTERVENTION STUDY S c a l e s S u b s c a l e s 1. C u l t u r e 1 2. A c c e p t 1 .57 . 00* 3. T o t a l T e s t 1 .84 .93 .00* .00» 4. C u l t u r e 2 .70 .62 .74 .00* .00* .00" 5. A c c e p t 2 .56 .75 .76 .73 .00» .00* .00* .OO* 6. T o t a l T e s t 2 .67 .75 .80 .91 .95 .00* .00* .00* .00* .00* 7. Dogmatism .04 .15 .12 .08 .12 .11 .34 .06 .11 .21 .10 .12 8. S e l f C o n c e p t -.14 -.26 -.24 -.16 -.15 -.16 -.14 .06 .00* .01 .05 .06 .04 .07 a) N = 114 b) Numbers on t o p f o r e a c h p a i r i n d i c a t e c o r r e l a t i o n . Numbers on bottom i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f c o r r e l a t i o n . c) C u l t u r e and A c c e p t a r e s u b s c a l e s o f t h e E t h n o c e n t r i s m S c a l e d) T o t a l T e s t r e f e r s t o t h e E t h n o c e n t r i s m S c a l e w i t h s u b s c a l e s i n c l u d e d . e) 1 and 2 i n d i c a t e f i r s t and s e c o n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e s c a l e . f ) * i n d i c a t e p < .001 56 c e n t r i s m . The s e l f c o n c e p t s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d w i t h t h e f i r s t p o s t t e s t and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o s e l f c o n c e p t and C u l t u r e 1, A c c e p t 1 and T o t a l T e s t 1. I t would f o l l o w t h a t p e r s o n s w i t h low s e l f c o n c e p t s would be l e s s a c c e p t i n g o f d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s as can be i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e low b u t s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n (p < .003, s e e T a b l e 1 0 ) . The c o r r e l a t i o n between s e l f c o n c e p t and C u l t u r e 1 i s l e s s t h a n A c c e p t 1 b u t i t does f o l l o w t h a t i t would n o t make as much d i f f e r e n c e whether a p e r s o n has a low o r h i g h s e l f c o n c e p t when t h e y j u d g e a c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e compared t o t h e a c c e p t a n c e o r r e j e c t i o n o f p e o p l e . S i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s c a n be s e e n w i t h t h e s e l f c o n c e p t u s i n g a l l s u b j e c t s ( T a b l e 9 ) . Though t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t t h e same t r e n d s a r e s e e n i n c o r r e l a t i o n s between s e l f c o n c e p t and t h e s e c o n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e e t h n o c e n -t r i s m f o r m on b o t h T a b l e s 9 and 10. The c l a i m f o r c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y u s i n g t h e dogmatism s c a l e c a n n o t be made ba s e d on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y . C o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e dogmatism s c a l e w i t h t h e c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s showed no s i g n i f i c a n c e b u t a t r e n d t o w a r d s t h e e x p e c t e d p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n c a n be s e e n . However, f o r t h e t o t a l s ample, t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e p < .01 l e v e l . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t d o g m a t i c i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p were b e h a v i n g as e x p e c t e d and s c o r e d h i g h e r on t h e e t h n o c e n t r i s m measure. I t was p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e were more 57 d o g m a t i c i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e c l a s s e s a s s i g n e d t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . On t h e dogmatism s c a l e t h e mean f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p was 99.14 compared t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p mean o f 109.54. T h i s c o u l d e x p l a i n t h e v e r y s h o r t term e f f e c t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l l e s s o n s a s i n d i c a t e d by d e l a y e d p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s . I t i s a l s o q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t most o f t h e d o g m a t i c s t u d e n t s were i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r a d e 9 g r o u p c a u s i n g t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a s shown i n t h e f i r s t p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s . T h e s e a r e o n l y s p e c u l a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s s i n c e g r o u p s were n o t p r e t e s t e d u s i n g t h e dogmatism s c a l e . CONCLUSIONS R e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t a c l a i m can be made f o r t h e d e v e l o p e d e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e h a v i n g some c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . The s c a l e was s e n s i t i v e t o c h a n g e s i n e t h n o c e n t r i s m d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d y . P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s r e p o r t i n g on t h e e x p e c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f c o n c e p t and e t h n o c e n -t r i s m were c o n f i r m e d . The r e s u l t s o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between dogmatism and t h e e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e d i d n o t a l l o w a c l a i m o f c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y . STAGE 5: STUDY 4 - TEST-RETEST R E L I A B I L I T Y F o r t h e f i n a l s t a g e , a s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d t o m a i n l y g a i n a c o e f f i c i e n t o f s t a b i l i t y f o r t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y . F o r 58 t h e f i n a l s t a g e , a s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d t o g a i n a c o e f f i c i e n t o f s t a b i l i t y f o r t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y ( A r y , J a c o b s and R a z a v i e h , 1977, pp. 2 0 4 - 2 0 5 ) . I t was a l s o assumed i f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e s c o r e s between t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f t h e e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e were t h e same, t h e means and t h e v a r i a n c e would a l s o be t h e same a f t e r t h e two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . However, i t was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d an o p p o r t u n e t i m e t o c h e c k r e s u l t s f r o m p r e v i o u s s t a g e s o f t h i s s t u d y . The d a t a c o l l e c t e d were i t e m a n a l y z e d . C o r r e l a t i o n s were computed t o c o n f i r m p r e v i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s between e t h n o c e n t r i s m , s e l f c o n c e p t and dogmatism. HYPOTHESES The d a t a c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h i s s t u d y a l l o w e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s and a s s u m p t i o n s : 1. T h e r e w i l l be no c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f s u b s c a l e C u l t u r e , A c c e p t and T o t a l T e s t o f t h e F i n a l Form. Ho: p = 0 2. I t i s assumed t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e means o f s u b s c a l e s C u l t u r e , A c c e p t an T o t a l T e s t a f t e r t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . To f a c i l i t a t e s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t i n g , t h i s w i l l be s t a t e d i n t h e n u l l 59 h y p o t h e s i s form a s : Ho: x o f T l = x o f T2 3. I t i s assumed t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e v a r i a n c e o f s u b s c a l e s C u l t u r e , A c c e p t and T o t a l T e s t a f t e r t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . To f a c i l i t a t e s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t i n g t h i s w i l l be s t a t e d i n t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s form a s : Ho: s o f T l f s o f T2 4 . T h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on t h e e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e and s e l f c o n c e p t s c a l e . Ho: p = 0 5. T h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on t h e e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e and dogmatism s c a l e . Ho: p = o SAMPLE The s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y were from S c h o o l 2, a s c h o o l n o t p r e v i o u s l y used i n t h i s s t u d y . S c h o o l Y was a s e m e s t e r e d s c h o o l , and i n o r d e r t o have a l l g r a d e 8 s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d , t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o E n g l i s h 8 c l a s s e s which were n o t s e m e s t e r e d i n t h e s c h o o l . The sample i n c l u d e d 213 s t u d e n t s a f t e r unmatched p a p e r s were d i s c a r d e d . 60 PROCEDURE T e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s were g i v e n t h e same i n s t r u c t i o n s and i n f o r m a t i o n as d u r i n g t h e P a r a l l e l Forms s t u d y o f S t a g e 3. The dogmatism s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d a t t h e same t i m e a s t h e f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e . The s e c o n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e same e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e t o o k p l a c e f o u r weeks a f t e r t h e f i r s t , a t which t i m e t h e s e l f c o n c e p t s c a l e was a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d . RESULTS In o r d e r t o c o n f i r m t h e main t h r e e h y p o t h e s e s t o e s t a b l i s h r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e F i n a l Form u s i n g t h e t e s t - r e t e s t method, t h e d a t a were s i m i l a r l y p r o c e s s e d as i n S t u d y 2. F i v e h y p o t h e s e s were t e s t e d : 1. Ho: c o r r e l a t i o n between T l and T2 = 0 2. Ho: mean o f T l mean o f T2 3. Ho: v a r i a n c e o f T l ^ v a r i a n c e o f T2 4 . Ho: c o r r e l a t i o n between s e l f c o n c e p t and e t h n o c e n t r i s m = 0 5. HO: c o r r e l a t i o n between dogmatism and e t h n o c e n t r i s m = 0 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS A f t e r t h e e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e s e c o n d t i m e , c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed and diagrammed 61 TABLE 11 STUDY 3: CORRELATION MATRIX ILLUSTRATING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SUBSCALES ACCEPT AND CULTURE, TOTAL SCALE, DOGMATISM AND SELF CONCEPT FOR ALL GRADE 8 STUDENTS OF SCHOOL 2 IN THE TEST-RETEST STUDY S c a l e s S u b s c a l e s 1. C u l t u r e 1 2. A c c e p t 1 .60 . 00* 3. T o t a l T e s t 1 .88 .91 .00* .00* 4. C u l t u r e 2 .75 .58 .74 .00« .00* .00* 5. A c c e p t 2 .58 .79 .78 .73 .00* .00" .00» .00* 6. T o t a l T e s t 2 .71 .75 .82 .92 .94 .00* .00* .00* .00* .00* 7. Dogmatism .17 .13 .17 .13 .14 .15 .01 .03 .01 .03 .02 .02 8. S e l f C o n c e p t -.14 -.27 -.25 -.16 -.13 -.15 -.12 .05 .OO* .OO* .05 .03 .05 .07 a) N = 213 b) Numbers on t o p f o r e a c h p a i r i n d i c a t e c o r r e l a t i o n . Numbers on bottom i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f c o r r e l a t i o n . c) C u l t u r e and A c c e p t a r e s u b s c a l e s o f t h e E t h n o c e n t r i s m S c a l e d) T o t a l T e s t r e f e r s t o t h e E t h n o c e n t r i s m S c a l e w i t h s u b s c a l e s i n c l u d e d . e) 1 and 2 i n d i c a t e f i r s t and s e c o n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e s c a l e . f ) * i n d i c a t e p < .00 62 ( s e e T a b l e 1 1 ) . HO: c o r r e l a t i o n between T l and T2 = 0 f a i l e d t o be r e j e c t e d . The c o r r e l a t i o n , t h o u g h h i g h was .82 f o r t h e t o t a l t e s t . In r e t r o s p e c t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r Forms D and E were more e n c o u r a g i n g . The t o t a l t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d y was .86, t h e A c c e p t .84 and Wrong ( C u l t u r e ) .72. T hese c o r r e l a t i o n s were h i g h e r ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f W r o n g / C u l t u r e ) . However, t h e d i f f e r e n c e may be a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e f a c t t h a t Forms D and E were a d m i n i s t e r e d a day a p a r t , whereas t h e r e were f o u r weeks between a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e s c a l e i n t h i s s t u d y . With an i n t e r v e n i n g t i m e o f f o u r weeks between t e s t s , i t i s v e r y p o s s i b l e t h a t s t u d e n t ' s a t t i t u d e s c o u l d f l u c t u a t e . I t was n o t e d t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e a c c e p t s u b s c a l e w i t h i t s e l f and t o t a l t e s t have been h i g h e r t h a n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e c u l t u r e s u b s c a l e . I t maybe t h a t s t u d e n t s a r e i n t e r p r e t i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s i n s u b s c a l e C u l t u r e d i f f e r e n t l y . Ho: mean T l ^ mean T2 was r e j e c t e d . The r e s u l t s o f t h e t - t e s t s f o r s u b s c a l e means and t o t a l t e s t means a r e summarized on T a b l e 12. The t o t a l t e s t means were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . The s u b s c a l e means were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . By o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , i t would a p p e a r t h a t t h e f i g u r e s a r e q u i t e c l o s e . A g r e a t e r number o f i t e m s i n each o f t h e s u b s c a l e s may h e l p t o i n c r e a s e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s c a l e . 6 3 TABLE 12 STUDY 4: SUMMARY OF t-TEST RESULTS FOR TEST-RETEST OF THE ETHNOCENTRISM SCALE AND SUBSCALES CULTURE AND ACCEPT V a r i a b l e Mean SD d f t - v a l u e p C u l t u r e 1 60.65 14.53 C u l t u r e 2 58.02 15.44 212 3.64 .01 »« A c c e p t 1 41.18 16.59 A c c e p t 2 42.78 18.07 212 -2.07 .04 « T o t a l T e s t 1 101.84 27.84 T o t a l T e s t 2 100.80 31.16 212 .83 .41 a) N = 213 b) « p < .05 c) »» p < .01 64 Ho: v a r i a n c e o f T l v a r i a n c e o f T2 f a i l e d t o be r e j e c t e d . As i n St u d y 2, t h e t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e was done m a n u a l l y . The t - v a l u e f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e .05 l e v e l was 1.66. F o r t h e T o t a l T e s t a t - v a l u e o f 2.83 was computed. T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e v a r i a n c e s on t h e T o t a l T e s t were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . Computed t - v a l u e f o r s u b s c a l e C u l t u r e was 1.10 and f o r s u b s c a l e A c c e p t was 1.65. The v a r i a n c e s f o r b o t h t h e s u b s c a l e s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . The mixed r e s u l t s i n t h e t h r e e h y p o t h e s e s make i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o c o n c l u s i v e l y s t a t e t h e d e v e l o p e d e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e i s r e l i a b l e b a s e d on t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e s c a l e o v e r a r e p e a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e s c a l e and t h e s e c o n d i n t h i s c a s e c a n be due t o t h r e e t h i n g s . F i r s t l y , t h e a t t i t u d e s may have f l u c t u -a t e d i n t h e f o u r week i n t e r v a l - s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s may have d i s c u s s e d t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e t e s t . S e c o n d l y , s t u d e n t s may n o t be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h i s t y p e o f t e s t f o r m a t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t t e s t i n g b u t may have " c a u g h t on" t o how t o do t h e t e s t on t h e s e c o n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The e r r o r f a c t o r may have been g r e a t e r on t h e f i r s t t e s t i n g due t o c h a n c e r e s p o n s e s o r i n c o r -r e c t r e s p o n s e s s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e s t u d e n t was n o t f a m i l i a r enough w i t h t h e r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r i e s . The s t a n d a r d e r r o r f i g u r e s from i t e m a n a l y s i s o f t h e e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e a d m i n i s t e r e d on t h e two s e p a r a t e o c c a s i o n s t e n d t o s u p p o r t 65 t h i s . On t h e f i r s t o c c a s i o n t h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r f o r C u l t u r e was 7.40 compared t o 6.97 on t h e s e c o n d o c c a s i o n ; f o r A c c e p t i t was 5.98 t h e n 5.72; f o r T o t a l T e s t i t was 9.88 t h e n 9.33 ( s e e T a b l e 1 3 ) . T h i r d l y , t h e i t e m s i n t h e s c a l e may be i n t e r p r e t e d d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m one o c c a s i o n t o t h e n e x t . P e r h a p s t h e o n l y s t a b i l i t y method f o r a s c a l e s u c h as t h i s i s t o have s e v e r a l s e t s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f t h e t e s t t o d i f f e r e n t s a m p l e s . The P i e r s - H a r r i s S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e and t h e s h o r t form dogmatism s c a l e were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t e s t t h e two h y p o t h e s e s . 4. Ho: c o r r e l a t i o n between s e l f c o n c e p t and e t h n o c e n t r i s m = 0 and 5. Ho: c o r r e l a t i o n between dogmatism and e t h n o c e n t r i s m = 0. S i m i l a r t r e n d s as d i s c o v e r e d w i t h t h e d a t a o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d y c a n be s e e n h e r e ( T a b l e 9, 10 and 1 1 ) . The n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between s e l f c o n c e p t and e t h n o c e n t r i s m i n t h i s s t u d y a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s e v e r a l f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d by E n g l i s h (1971) and i t d o e s h e l p t h e c l a i m f o r c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f t h e d e v e l o p e d s c a l e . Though t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between dogmatism and e t h n o c e n t r i s m a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e v e r y low. C o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y can n o t be e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h i s t i m e u s i n g t h e dogmatism s c a l e . To compare t h e F i n a l Form o f t h e d e v e l o p e d e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e w i t h p r e v i o u s Forms (A, B, C, D and E) t h e s c a l e was i t e m and f a c t o r a n a l y z e d . F o r t h i s , t h e d a t a from t h e f i r s t a d m i n s t r a t i o n o f t h e form was used ( s e e A p p e n d i x C ) . T h r e e 66 TABLE 13 STUDY 4: FINAL FORM - MEANS ( X ) , STANDARD DEVIATION (SD) AND RELIABILITY COEFFICIENTS FOR FIRST AND SECOND ADMINISTRATION IN TEST-RETEST STUDY Form _ No. C r o n b a c h ' s S u b s c a l e X SD Items Se Hoyt A l p h a F i r s t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n FINAL FORM: N = 225 C u l t u r e 60.76 A c c e p t 41.49 TOTAL TEST 102.26 Second A d m i n i s t r a t i o n FINAL FORM: N= 213 C u l t u r e 58.02 15.44 16 6.97 .78 A c c e p t 42.78 18.07 14 5.72 .89 TOTAL TEST 100.80 31.16 30 9.33 .91 .84 14.46 16.68 27 . 91 16 14 30 7.40 5.98 9.88 , 72 ,86 ,87 75 67 FIGURE 5 STUDY 4: SCREE DIAGRAM FOR EIGEN VALUES FROM FACTOR ANALYSIS OF THE FINAL FORM OF THE ENTHNOCENTRISM SCALE I 1—I—i 1 1 ! — I 1 i i i i . I i i i i • i , i , i , i i i , i 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 N = 215 68 t a b l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d , an i t e m a n a l y s i s summary, f a c t o r a n a l y s i s t a b l e w i t h l o a d i n g s g r e a t e r t h a n .30 and f a c t o r a n a l y s i s t a b l e s h owing c o r r e l a t i o n s on a l l f o u r f a c t o r s . The f a c t o r a n a l y s i s r e s u l t e d i n s h owing s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s as i n t h e p r e v i o u s f o r m s . When e i g e n v a l u e s were p l o t t e d f o r t h e s c r e e t e s t , t h e r e were c l e a r l y f o u r f a c t o r s ( F i g u r e 5 ) . F a c t o r 1 had l o a d i n g s f r o m e x c l u s i v e l y t h e A c c e p t s u b s c a l e w i t h once a g a i n two e x c e p t i o n s , " c u r r y and s p i c e s make f o o d more t a s t y " and " u n h e a l t h y n o t t o c u t h a i r and b e a r d " . Both t h e s e i t e m s were b a s e d on t h e I n d o - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e and some s t u d e n t s w i t h n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s I n d o - C a n a d i a n s may be e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r p r e j u d i c e by r e j e c t i n g a c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e b e c a u s e o f i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e g r o u p . F a c t o r 2 i t e m s once a g a i n c o n c e r n e d r e l i g i o u s s u b j e c t s . F a c t o r 3 i t e m s seem t o do w i t h " g i v i n g up" f o r e i g n c u s t o m s and h a b i t s when i n Canada. F a c t o r 4, as i n p r e v i o u s f o r m s was a m i x t u r e o f i t e m s f r o m b o t h s c a l e s . The p e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l v a r i a n c e o f o n l y 40.40X i n t h e F i n a l Form was d i s a p p o i n t i n g i n c o m p a r i s o n t o Forms D and E w i t h p e r c e n t a g e s o f 43 and 44. The i t e m a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t e d a need f o r a c l o s e r e x amina-t i o n o f t h e F i n a l Form. S e v e r a l w e aknesses were d e t e c t e d . T h e r e were f a r more s t a t e m e n t s t h a t s o l i c i t e d n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e s t h a n p o s i t i v e . I n i t i a l l y when i t e m s were b e i n g s e l e c t e d f o r t h e F i n a l Form i t was n o t e d t h a t n e g a t i v e l y s t a t e d i t e m s t e n d e d t o have h i g h e r i t e m - s u b t e s t and i t e m - t o t a l 69 t e a t c o r r e l a t i o n s . I t c o u l d be t h a t n e g a t i v e l y s t a t e d i t e m s a r e s t r o n g e r on t h e s e t y p e s o f t e s t s . B o t h t h e C a l i f o r n i a E and t h e Dogmatism S c a l e s a r e composed o f n e g a t i v e l y worded s t a t e m e n t s . In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s p r o b l e m t h e s u b s c a l e C u l t u r e b e a r s two o t h e r a p p a r e n t w e a k n e s s e s . In a s u b s c a l e o f 15 i t e m s 6 a r e r e l i g i o u s i n c o n t e n t ( i t e m s 1, 11, 18, 23, 24 and 2 9 ) . More e f f o r t s h o u l d have been made t o s e l e c t a v a r i e t y o f i t e m s . As s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e F i n a l Form commented, some o f t h e v o c a b u l a r y may be t o o d i f f i c u l t f o r g r a d e 8's. They r e p o r t e d p r o b l e m s w i t h " c e m e t e r y " , " r e i n c a r -n a t i o n " , " c r e m a t i o n " , " h e r i t a g e " , and even " c u l t u r e " . T hese weaknesses made e v i d e n t by t h e i t e m and f a c t o r a n a l y s i s can m a i n l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e h a s t e i n c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e F i n a l Form a f t e r i t was d e c i d e d t o abandon t h e p a r a l l e l f o r m s (D and E ) . CONCLUSIONS Though t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e T o t a l T e s t a f t e r two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f .82 was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a f t e r t e s t i n g i t was h i g h . T a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e p o s s i b l e f l u c t u a t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l c h a n g e s i n a t t i t u d e and t h e n o n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -e n c e s o f t h e means, t h e r e i s more r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h e d e v e l o p e d s c a l e i s s t a b l e o v e r t i m e t h a n n o t . P r o v i d i n g more s u p p o r t f o r t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e s c a l e were t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y t h a t c o n f i r m e d t e n d e n c i e s and f i n d i n g s 70 from t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . The Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f .87 f o r t h e f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and .91 f o r t h e s e c o n d a r e c o m p a r a b l e w i t h t h o s e f o u n d i n S t u d y 3 o r .87 and .94. C r o n b a c h a l p h a ' s o f .75 and .84 a r e a l s o c o m p a r a b l e w i t h t h o s e o f S t u d y 3 a t .71 and .84. Based on t h e p l o t t i n g o f e i g e n v a l u e s from t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , t h e o r i g i n a l d e c i s i o n o f f o u r p r i n c i p a l components was a c o r r e c t one. S i m i l a r t r e n d s i n f a c t o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , one main A c c e p t f a c t o r and t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e f a c t o r s d e s c r i b i n g c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s , r e m a i n e d c o n s i s t e n t . The e x p e c t e d low n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between s e l f c o n c e p t and e t h n o c e n t r i s m was r e a l i z e d . As b e f o r e , dogmatism d i d n o t p r o v e t o be a good measure t o use f o r c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d a t i o n p u r p o s e s . 71 IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The f i v e s t a g e s i n t h i s s t u d y have c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f one F i n a l Form o f t h e e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e f o r use i n t h e measurement o f a t t i t u d e s o f j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . The s c a l e i s a 30 i t e m summated r a t i n g s c a l e u s i n g s i x r e s p o n s e s t e p s r a n g i n g from " a g r e e v e r y much" t o " d i s -a g r e e v e r y much". S c o r e s a r e a r e s u l t o f t o t a l l i n g t h e r e s p o n s e v a l u e o f e a c h i t e m . The p o l a r i t y i s r e v e r s e d f o r i t e m s 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, 13, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 25, 28, and 29. H i g h e r s c o r e s i n d i c a t e more e t h n o c e n t r i c a t t i t u d e s . H i g h e s t p o s s i b l e s c o r e i s 180. In t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t s were made t o c h e c k f o r r e l i a b i l i t y and t o v a l i d a t e t h e c o n s t r u c t e d s c a l e . V a l i d i t y The i s s u e o f v a l i d i t y i s one o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e i n s t r u m e n t i s m e a s u r i n g what i t p u r p o r t s t o measure. T h e r e a r e many f a c e t s t o v a l i d i t y . I t was t h e i n t e n t o f t h i s s t u d y t o e n s u r e t h a t as many f a c e t s as a p p l i c a b l e f o r t h i s t y p e o f measure were c h e c k e d . The main t y p e s o f v a l i d i t y r e l e v a n t f o r t h i s s t u d y i n c l u d e c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y , c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y and c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y . In t h e a t t e m p t t o d e a l w i t h e a c h t y p e o f 72 v a l i d i t y measure s e p a r a t e l y , i t was n o t e d t h a t t h e r e i s o f t e n an o v e r l a p between v a l i d i t y t y p e s . The s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e f o r w h i c h t h i s s c a l e was d e v e l o p e d , was f o r use t o measure e t h n o c e n t r i c a t t i t u d e s i n a s o c i a l s t u -d i e s c l a s s r o o m . To " s p e c i f y t h e domain o f o b s e r v a b l e s " f o r c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y ( N u n n a l l y , 1978, p. 9 8 ) , t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f e t h n o c e n t r i s m was i n v e s t i g a t e d . Beyond t h e s o c i a l p s y c h o l o -g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n o f e t h n o c e n t r i s m as one o f a c c e p t i n g o r r e j e c t i n g o u t - g r o u p s , t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s d e f i n i t i o n must a l l o w s t u d e n t s t o i n d i c a t e a c c e p t a n c e o r r e j e c t i o n o f c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s . To c a p t u r e b o t h n u a n c e s , i t e m s were w r i t t e n and s o r t e d i n t o two main c a t e g o r i e s . D e s c r i p t i o n o f c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s became t h e C u l t u r e s u b s c a l e and s t a t e m e n t s i n d i c a t i n g r e j e c t i o n o r a c c e p t a n c e o f o u t - g r o u p s became t h e A c c e p t s u b s c a l e . To e n s u r e c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y , i t e m s f o r t h e C u l t u r e s u b s c a l e were b a s e d on i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f e t h n i c g r o u p s . The i t e m s and f i n a l t e s t f o r m s were c h e c k e d by two e x p e r t s i n t h e m u l t i c u l t u r a l f i e l d . A f t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a l l f o r m s , i t e m s were f a c t o r a n a l y z e d . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s t e n d e d t o s u p p o r t t h e two s u b s c a l e d i v i s i o n s o f t h e s c a l e . The i t e m s i n t h e A c c e p t s u b s c a l e l o a d e d h e a v i l y on t o one f a c t o r w i t h i t e m s i n t h e C u l t u r e s u b s c a l e l o a d i n g on t o t h e o t h e r two f a c t o r s . C o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y was f u r t h e r p u r s u e d i n two ways. Once t h e s c a l e was c o n s t r u c t e d , an e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y was 73 c o n d u c t e d . E x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s were t a u g h t a u n i t on e t h n o -c e n t r i s m . The d e v e l o p e d measure was t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i n t h e s t u d y and was u s e d t o d e t e c t c h a n g e s i n e t h n o c e n t r i s m . T h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two g r o u p s i n t h e p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n . The c o n s t r u c t e d s c a l e was s e n s i t i v e t o c h a n g e s i n e t h n o c e n t r i c a t t i t u d e s . N u n n a l l y a l s o c l a i m s t h a t t h i s method i s a l s o a t e s t f o r t h e "known g r o u p s " t y p e o f v a l i d i t y . I f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l l e s s o n s a r e s u c c e s s f u l l y t a u g h t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s becomes t h e "known g r o u p " - t h e l e s s e t h n o c e n t r i c g r o u p . A s u c c e s s f u l d e t e c t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t h e g r o u p s can be c o n s i d e r e d p a s s i n g t h e t e s t o f c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y b a s e d on "known g r o u p s " . The s e c o n d way t h e s c a l e was c h e c k e d f o r c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o which s u p p o s e d measures o f t h e c o n s t r u c t p r o d u c e d r e s u l t s w h i c h were p r e d i c t a b l e f r o m h i g h l y a c c e p t e d t h e o r e t i c a l h y p o t h e s e s ( N u n n a l l y , 1978, p. 9 8 ) . The P i e r s - H a r r i s S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e was u s e d t o measure s e l f c o n c e p t w h i c h was p r e d i c t e d t o c o r r e l a t e n e g a t i v e l y w i t h e t h n o c e n t r i s m . P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s d i s c o v e r e d a low n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e two. The same r e s u l t s were f o u n d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h e r e was an u n s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y u s i n g a dogmatism s c a l e . S i n c e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t P o l i c y w ould n o t a l l o w t h e use o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a E S c a l e b e c a u s e o f i t s r a c i s t n a t u r e , i t was c i r c u m s t a n t i a l l y d e c i d e d t o use t h e dogmatism measure. Rokeach u s e d t h e C a l i f o r n i a E S c a l e 74 t o v a l i d a t e h i s Dogmatism S c a l e . He f o u n d a moderate c o r r e l a -t i o n between t h e s c a l e s ( R o b i n s o n and S h a v e r , 1973, pp. 4 2 4 - 4 2 5 ) . I t was d e c i d e d t h a t i f t h e dogmatism s c a l e was used i n t h i s s t u d y , a s i m i l a r c o r r e l a t i o n would r e s u l t between i t and t h e c o n s t r u c t e d e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e . Though t h e r e was a t r e n d i n t h e p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n - h i g h s c o r e i n dogmatism, h i g h s c o r e i n e t h n o c e n t r i s m - t h e c o r r e l a t i o n was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . The i n a b i l i t y t o e s t a b l i s h c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y a t t h i s t i m e l e s s e n s t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e d e v e l o p e d s c a l e . However, i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t a d e q u a t e measures were t a k e n i n t h e a r e a s o f c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y and c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y t o c l a i m t h e d e v e l o p e d s c a l e as a c c e p t a b l y v a l i d . R e l i a b i l i t y Though v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y a r e o f t e n i n v e s t i g a t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , i t i s most i m p o r t a n t t o e s t a b l i s h t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s c a l e a f t e r t h e s c a l e has been v a l i d a t e d . A u t h o r s c i t e e x a m p les o f how t h e r e c a n be i n v a l i d i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t c o n s i s t e n t l y p r o v i d e t h e same measurement. R e l i a b i l i t y i s i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d t o random e r r o r s . E r r o r s c a n be c a u s e d by e x t e r n a l f o r c e s o r i n t e r n a l l y , w i t h i n t h e s c a l e i t s e l f . The g o a l o f making an i n s t r u m e n t r e l i a b l e i s t o t r y and r e d u c e , as much as p o s s i b l e , e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l e r r o r s o u r c e s . 75 E x t e r n a l e r r o r s o u r c e s a r e most d i f f i c u l t t o c o n t r o l . A l l t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r c a n do i s t a k e some s i m p l e b u t l o g i c a l p r e c a u t i o n s . F o r t h i s s t u d y s e v e r a l s i m p l e s t e p s were t a k e n t o t r y and l e s s e n e x t e r n a l e r r o r . C a r e was t a k e n i n t h e p u t t i n g t o g e t h e r o f f o r m s t o t r y and keep t h e f o r m a t c o n s i s t e n t . S t u d e n t s were t o c i r c l e numbers t o f a c i l i t a t e r e s p o n d i n g and s c o r i n g . I n s t r u c t i o n s t o a l l t e s t a d m i n i s t r a -t o r s were t h e same w i t h t h e t e a c h e r r e a d i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s a l o u d . The t e s t s were a l w a y s a d m i n i s t e r e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c l a s s p e r i o d t o a l l o w s t u d e n t s a d e q u a t e t i m e . A l l t e s t s were s c o r e d by t h e same two i n d i v i d u a l s t a k i n g t u r n s c a l l i n g o u t and r e c o r d i n g . T h e s e measures o f c o u r s e , would n o t and d i d n o t , c o n t r o l f o r e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s , t h a t may change i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t ' s a t t i t u d e s s u c h as what was t a k e n up i n c l a s s e s , o r e v e n t s o u t s i d e o f c l a s s between one a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e s c a l e and t h e n e x t . Two main methods were u s e d t o c h e c k t h e c o n s t r u c t e d s c a l e f o r i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y . A f t e r e a c h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e s c a l e , i t e m a n a l y s i s u s i n g t h e LERTAP programme was p e r f o r m e d t o g a i n r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s . The LERTAP programme computed t h e p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r e a c h i t e m and p r o v i d e d a Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t and C r o n b a c h A l p h a ' s f o r t o t a l t e s t c o m p o s i t e . The Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h f o r a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f Forms D and E and t h e F i n a l Form r a n g i n g f r o m .87 t o .94. C r o n b a c h A l p h a ' s were 76 a l s o q u i t e h i g h r a n g i n g from .71 t o .88. The C r o n b a c h A l p h a ' s were l o w e r . However, t h i s was t h o u g h t t o be due t o t h e two s u b s c a l e d i v i s i o n o f t h e Forms. The A c c e p t s u b s c a l e behaved s i m i l a r l y t o t h e T o t a l T e s t w i t h H o y t ' s r a n g i n g f r o m .86 t o .92.' The H o y t ' s , f o r t h e C u l t u r e s u b s c a l e were l o w e r r a n g i n g f r o m .68 t o .88. The p r o b l e m w i t h t h i s s u b s c a l e c a n be s e e n i n t h e l o w e r i t e m - s u b s c a l e c o r r e l a t i o n s , a l s o i n t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n t e r p r e t i n g i t s f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e . To i n c r e a s e r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h i s s u b s c a l e , i t e m s would have t o be c o n s i d e r e d , p e r h a p s be r e w r i t t e n and more i t e m s a d d e d . The s e c o n d method t o c h e c k r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s c a l e was a t t e m p t e d u s i n g t h e t e s t - r e t e s t method. F o r t h e main t e s t - r e t e s t s t u d y t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a f t e r two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f t h e F i n a l Form was .82. A n o t h e r c o r r e l a t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d f o r p o s t t e s t , d e l a y e d p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p i n t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d y . The c o r r e l a t i o n h e r e was .80. T h e s e a r e h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s , b u t n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . The means were a l s o c h e c k e d and f o r b o t h g r o u p s t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g t h e t e s t - r e t e s t method r e s u l t s were n o t t o t a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . P e r h a p s N u n n a l l y i n c o r r e c t i n recommending a g a i n s t t h e use o f t h e t e s t - r e t e s t method f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g r e l i a b i l i t y ( N u n n a l l y , 1978, pp. 2 3 3 - 2 3 4 ) . As he s t a t e s i t would be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e same t e s t a d m i n i s t e r e d t w i c e would be h i g h . S e c o n d l y , he s t a t e s i n t h i s method, even i f t h e 77 t h e i t e m s w i t h i n t h e t e s t d i d n o t c o r r e l a t e w e l l w i t h e a c h o t h e r , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f t h i s u n r e l i a b l e t e s t may show a h i g h t e s t - r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e h i g h i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t and t h e t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s s t a b i l i t y o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e , t h e c o n s t r u c t e d e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e c an be c o n s i d e r e d r e l i a b l e . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S c a l e As t h e s t u d y p r o g r e s s e d s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s c a l e became a p p a r e n t . One o f t h e main weaknesses i n t h e s c a l e r e s u l t s f r o m t h e p r o b l e m s i n h e r e n t i n t h e C u l t u r e s u b s c a l e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e F i n a l Form. As was e a r l i e r n o t e d , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s c an be i n t e r p r e t e d and u n d e r s t o o d d i f f e r e n t l y by i n d i v i d u a l s . T h e r e were a l s o p r o b l e m s w i t h g r a d e 8 s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e v o c a b u l a r y u s e d i n t h e w r i t i n g o f i t e m s . C r i t i c i s m c a n a l s o be made f o r u s i n g t h e c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s o f o n l y t h r e e e t h n i c g r o u p s t o w r i t e i t e m s f o r t h e s u b s c a l e . L o o k i n g a t t h e whole s c a l e , t h e r e a r e t o o many n e g a t i v e l y s t a t e d i t e m s and t h i s may prompt some s t u d e n t s t o r e s p o n d i n a s e t p a t t e r n . I f s t u d e n t a n o n y m i t y i s n o t a s s u r e d , s t u d e n t s may r e s p o n d by p r o v i d i n g a n s w e r s t o p r o d u c e what i s t h o u g h t t o be e x p e c t e d r e s p o n s e s r a t h e r t h a n t h o s e t h a t i n d i c a t e t r u e o p i n i o n s . 7 8 C o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t e d s c a l e i n g e n e r a l , o t h e r l i m i -t a t i o n s a r e a p p a r e n t . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e s c a l e c a n o n l y be u s e d f o r gr o u p a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and means o f t h e g r o u p i n t e r -p r e t e d . Norms have n o t been e s t a b l i s h e d t o s a y a s c o r e i s i n d i c a t i v e o f an i n d i v i d u a l who i s m o d e r a t e l y e t h n o c e n t r i c , h i g h l y e t h n o c e n t r i c o r who i s n o t e t h n o c e n t r i c . T h e r e can be s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s f o r use o f t h e s c a l e i n c l a s s e s w i t h l a r g e numbers o f i m m i g r a n t s t u d e n t s . I t may be t h a t t h e y a r e v e r y t o l e r a n t o f a c c e p t i n g d i v e r s e c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s b a s e d on t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e o r t h e y may be c o n v e r s e l y be l e s s t o l e r a n t b e c a u s e t h e y come from v e r y s t r u c t u r e d c u l t u r e s where v e r y l i t t l e d i v e r s i t y i s t o l e r a t e d . New i m m i g r a n t s may a l s o be v e r y c r i t i c a l o f C a n a d i a n c u s t o m s and v a l u e s and may n o t i n t e r p r e t i t e m s i n t h e e x p e c t e d p a t t e r n s . T e a c h e r s , t o o , who a r e n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h a t t i t u d e measurement s c a l e s may f i n d s c o r i n g and p r o c e s s i n g t h e s c o r e s so t h e y c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d , more t r o u b l e t h a n t h e y a r e w o r t h . F i n a l l y t h e s c a l e has a C a n a d i a n b i a s and i t may a l s o be b i a s e d t o w a r d s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s s i n c e a l l d a t a were g a t h e r e d t h e r e . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y The i n i t i a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e t o t a l s t u d y were t h o s e imposed by S c h o o l D i s t r i c t P o l i c y . The w r i t i n g o f i t e m s was made more d i f f i c u l t s i n c e g r o u p names c o u l d n o t be u s e d . 79 S i n c e t h e r e c o u l d be l i m i t e d use o f c l a s s t i m e , ways had t o be d e v i s e d t o r e d u c e d t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t a k e n i n c l a s s f o r e a c h o f t h e s t a g e s i n t h i s s t u d y . C l a s s e s had t o r e m a i n i n t a c t f o r t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d y . C l a s s e s and t e a c h e r s were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d , however, a p r e t e s t o f some k i n d m i g h t have been used t o c h e c k f o r t h e h o m o g e n e i t y o f a l l c l a s s e s . A l s o , t h e same v a r i a b l e m i g h t have been u s e d as a c o v a r i a n t f o r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a i f t h e c l a s s e s were i n f a c t h e t e r o g e n -e o u s . L a s t l y , s i n c e a l l d a t a was c o l l e c t e d i n one Lower M a i n l a n d S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , more f o r i t s a c c e s s i b i l i t y r a t h e r t h a n random c h o i c e , t h e r e s u l t s o f a l l f i n d i n g s i n t h e s t u d y have l i m i t e d g e n e r a 1 i z e a b i 1 i t y . Use o f t h e S c a l e Based on t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y t h e r e i s r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t a l l Forms D, E, and F i n a l Forms a r e r e l a t i v e l y r e l i a b l e and v a l i d . A f t e r an a t t e m p t t o r e f i n e e a c h o f t h e f o r m s s l i g h t l y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y may a c t as a l t e r n a t e f o r m s . The s u b s c a l e i t e m s i n Forms D and E can be e q u a l i z e d . The i t e m s i n t h e F i n a l Form s h o u l d be r e c h e c k e d and i t e m s 3 and 6 r e p l a c e d b e c a u s e o f t h e i r v e r y weak i t e m - s u b s c a l e c o r r e l a t i o n s . Even i f t h e s e c h a n g e s were n o t made, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o use t h e F i n a l Form as i n t e n d e d . I t can be u s e d i n j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s e s t o c h e c k 80 s t u d e n t s a t t i t u d e s b e f o r e , d u r i n g and a f t e r a c o u r s e o r a u n i t o f s t u d y . F u t u r e S t u d y R e f i n e m e n t s o f Forms D, E, and F i n a l Forms s h o u l d be done i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a s t u d y . They s h o u l d be c h e c k e d t o s e e i f t h e y c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a l t e r n a t e f o r m s . V a l i d a t i o n i n v e s t i g a -t i o n c a n c o n t i n u e by e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y by u s i n g more a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t r u m e n t s t h a n t h e dogmatism s c a l e . Such i n s t u m e n t s might i n c l u d e t h e " I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e " and " E t h n o -c e n t r i s m Q u e s t i o n n a i r e " u s e d by Lambert and K l i n e b e r g (1967) i n t h e i r e x t e n s i v e c r o s s n a t i o n a l s t u d y o f c h i l d r e n ' s v i e w s o f f o r e i g n p e o p l e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s " E t h n o c e n t r i s m Q u e s t i o n -n a i r e " was d i s c o v e r e d t o o l a t e f o r use i n t h i s s t u d y . I t would a l s o be i n t e r e s t i n g t o e s t a b l i s h norms f o r an e t h n o -c e n t r i c s c a l e so i t c a n be u s e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l a p p l i c a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Group means can be m i s l e a d i n g . Group means may n o t show any change even i f t h e r e were d r a m a t i c c h a n g e s w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a l l s t u d e n t s who were h i g h l y e t h n o c e n t r i c a t t h e one a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e measure c h a n g e d a s much i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n as low e t h n o c e n t r i c i n d i v i d u a l s , so t h e mean s c o r e r e m a i n e d unchanged. F o r t h i s r e a s o n i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s would be a b e t t e r measure o f c h a n g e . 81 C o n c l u s i o n s The p r o c e s s o f v a l i d a t i n g an i n s t r u m e n t and c h e c k i n g f o r i t s r e l i a b i l i t y i s a l o n g and t e d i o u s one. I t i s one t h a t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a "good" a t t i t u d e measure-ment s c a l e . I t c a n n o t be c l a i m e d t h a t t h e e t h n o c e n t r i s m s c a l e d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y "good" one c o n s i d e r i n g i t s many l i m i t a t i o n s . However, i t i s b e l i e v e d t h e p r o c e s s and method o f i t s d e v e l o p m e n t i s one t h a t c an p r o d u c e a v i a b l e a t t i t u d e measurement s c a l e . I t i s u n d e r -s t a n d a b l e t h a t c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s do n o t use a t t i t u d e s c a l e s as a r e g u l a r p r a c t i c e . To c o n s t r u c t a s c a l e would be f a r t o o t e d i o u s and o f t e n beyond t h e s c o p e o f a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . However, a t t i t u d e measurement s c a l e s , t o e v a l u a t e c u r r i c u l u m outcomes a r e e s s e n t i a l . I t s h o u l d be t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s t o d e v e l o p measures n o t o n l y t o measure c o g n i t i v e g a i n s as a r e s u l t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s , b u t a l s o a f f e c t i v e change as a r e s u l t o f u s i n g t h e same c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . 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Hayes, M a r g a r e t , and Mary E l i z a b e t h C o n k l i n . " I n t e r g r o u p A t t i t u d e s and E x p e r i m e n t a l Change." J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i  m e ntal E d u c a t i o n , 22 ( 1 9 5 3 ) , 19-36. H o r s t , P a u l . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement and P r e d i c t i o n . Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . , 1966. I n s t r u c t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s E x c h a n g e . A t t i t u d e s R e l a t e d t o  T o l e r a n c e : G r a d e s 9-12. L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a : I n s t r u c t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s E x c h a n g e , 1971• K e e s i n g , F e l i x M., and Roger M. K e e s i n g . C u l t u r a l A n t h r o -p o l o g y : New P e r s p e c t i v e s i n C u l t u r a l A n t h r o p o l o g y . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , I n c . , 1971, p. 355. Kehoe, John W., F r a n k E c h o l s , and C a r o l - L y n S a k a t a . "The E f f e c t s o f R e a d i n g and D i s c u s s i n g H i s t o r i c a l and C o n t e m p o r a r y C a s e s o f D i s c r i m i n a t i o n on S t u d e n t Empathy." U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1978. , and C h a r l e s U n g e r l e i d e r . "The E f f e c t s o f R o l e E xchange Q u e s t i o n i n g on E m p a t h e t i c P e r c e p t i v e n e s s . " The A l b e r t a J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 25, No. 1 ( 1 9 7 9 ) , 48-52. A Handbook f o r E n h a n c i n g t h e M u l t i c u l t u r a l  C l i m a t e o f t h e S c h o o l . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : W e s t ern E d u c a t i o n Development Group, 1984. , and C a r o l - L y n S a k a t a . " M i n o r i t y and M a j o r i t y Views on I n c l u s i o n o f M i n o r i t y H i s t o r y i n Canada". U n p u b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1979. 86 Khan, S.B. and J o e l W e i s s . "The T e a c h i n g o f A f f e c t i v e R e s p o n s e . " S e c o n d Handbook o f R e s e a r c h i n T e a c h i n g . C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s : Rand M c N a l l y C o l l e g e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1973, 759-789. K i r k Roger E. E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n : P r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s . B e lmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1968. L a i , C a l v i n . S t a t i s t i c a l P a ckage f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s .  V e r s i o n 9.00. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1983. Lambert, G l e n n . " T e a c h i n g t h e C o n c e p t o f E t h n o c e n t r i s m . " S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n , 42, No. 5 ( 1 9 7 8 ) , 408-409. Lambert, W a l l a c e E. and O t t o K l i n e b e r g . C h i l d r e n ' s Views o f F o r e i g n P e o p l e s : A C r o s s - N a t i o n a l S t u d y . New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1967. L e V i n e , R o b e r t A. and D o n a l d T. C a m p b e l l . E t h n o c e n t r i s m . New Y o r k : John W i i l e y and Sons, I n c . , 1972. M i l l e r , A r t h u r G. In t h e Eye o f t h e B e h o l d e r : C o n t e m p o r a r y  I s s u e s i n S t e r e o t y p i n g . New Y o r k : P r a e g e r , 1982. M i t n i c k , L e o n a r d L., and E l l i o t t M c G i n n i e s . " I n f l u e n c i n g E t h n o -c e n t r i s m i n S m a l l D i s c u s s i o n G r o u p s T h r o u g h A F i l m Communi-c a t i o n . " J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 63 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 82-90. N e l s o n , L a r r y R i c h a r d . G u i d e t o LERTAP Use and I n t e r p r e t -a t i o n . D u n e d i n , New Z e a l a n d : U n i v e r s i t y o f Otago, 1974 . N u n n a l l y , Jum C. P s y c h o m e t r i c T h e o r y . New Y o r k : McGraw-H i l l Book Co., 1978. O'Connor, P a t r i c i a . " E t h n o c e n t r i s m , ' I n t o l e r a n c e o f A m b i g u i t y ' , and A b s t r a c t R e a s o n i n g A b i l i t y . " J o u r n a l o f Abnormal  S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 47 ( 1 9 5 2 ) , 526-530. One W o r l d , Many C u l t u r e s - The B a s i s o f A n t h r o p o l o g y . F i l m s t r i p by M u l t i - M e d i a P r o d u c t i o n s , I n c . , Box 5097, S t a n f o r d , Ca. 94305. O v e r h o l t , G e orge, and Don M a r t i n . "The V e n d e t t a i n t h e S c h o o l s : An E x e r c i s e i n E t h n o c e n t r i s m " . P h i D e l t a Kappan, Feb. ( 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 409-410. 87 P a r k e r , K e r m i t E. J r . , K e n n e t h N. A n c h o r , Lawrence J . W e i t z , Howard B. Roback. " E x p e r i m e n t a l A p p l i c a t i o n o f B e h a v i o r M o d i f i c a t i o n S t r a t e g e m s Toward C h a n g i n g E t h n o c e n t r i c A t t i t u d e s . " S o c i a l B e h a v i o r and P e r s o n a l i t y . 4, No. 2 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 187-192. P i e r s , E l l e n V. and D a l e B. H a r r i s . The P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e , Manual F o r . R e v i s e d 1977. N a s h v i l l e , T e n n e s s e e : E l l e n V. P i e r s and D a l e B. H a r r i s , 1969. R a j e c k i , D.W. A t t i t u d e s - Them.es and A d v a n c e s . Summerland, M a s s a c h u s e t t s : S i n a u e r A s s o c i a t e s , I n c . , 1982. Red C r o s s S o c i e t y . Tomorrow's W o r l d - An I n t e r n a t i o n a l D evelopment E d u c a t i o n Program f o r S e c o n d a r y S t u d e n t s . C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s S o c i e t y , 1982, pp. 22-25. R o b i n s o n , John P. and P h i l l i p R. S h a v e r . M e a s u r e s o f S o c i a l  P s y c h o l o g i c a l A t t i t u d e s . Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : I n s t i t u t e f o r S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , The U n i v . o f M i c h i g a n , 1973. R o g e r s , V i n c e n t . " E t h n o c e n t r i s m and t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s . " P h i D e l t a Kappan. December 1967, 208-211. S e i l e r , L a u r e n H. and R i c h a r d L. Hough. " E m p e r i c a l C o m p a r i s o n s o f t h e T h u r s t o n e and L i k e r t T e c h n i q u e s . " In A t t i t u d e  Measurement. Ed. Gene F. Summers. C h i c a g o : Rand, M c N a l l y and Company, 1970. Shaw, M a r v i n E. and J a c k M. W r i g h t . S c a l e s f o r t h e M e asure -ment o f A t t i t u d e s . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1967. Simpson, E l i z a b e t h L e o n i e . "An End o f E t h n o c e n t r i s m : A B i l a t e r a l Model f o r T r a i n i n g i n I n t e r c u l t u r a l S t u d i e s . " N o t r e Dame J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n . 3, No. 3 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , 219-234. S p i l k a , B e r n a r d , and E.L. S t r u e n i n g . "A Q u e s t i o n n a i r e S t u d y o f P e r s o n a l i t y and E t h n o c e n t r i s m . " The J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 44 ( 1 9 5 6 ) , 65-71. S t a c e y , B a r r i e G. "An E v a l u a t i o n o f an E t h n o c e n t r i s m S c a l e w i t h R e f e r e n c e t o Item C o n t e n t and R e s p o n s e S t y l e . " P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e p o r t s . 26 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 595-602. S t a g n e r , Ross. " E g o c e n t r i s m , E t h n o c e n t r i s m , and A l t r o c e n t r i s m : F a c t o r s i n I n d i v i d u a l and I n t e r g r o u p V i o l e n c e . " I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f I n t e r c u l t u r a l R e l a t i o n s , 1, No. 3 ( 1 9 7 7 ) , 9-30. 88 S t a h l , R o b e r t J . "The S t a h l M u l t i d e m e n s i o n a l I n v e n t o r y o f A t t i t u d e s and V a l u e s (SMIVA): A R e p o r t on t h e Development o f an I n s t r u m e n t t o Measure t h e E f f e c t s o f t h e A p p r o a c h t o V a l u e E d u c a t i o n . " U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r , A r i z o n a S t a t e U n i v . , May, 1982. Summers, Gene F. ( E d i t o r ) . A t t i t u d e Measurement. C h i c a g o : Rand, M c N a l l y Co., 1970. T i t t l e , C h a r l e s R. and R i c h a r d J . H i l l . " A t t i t u d e Measurement and P r e d i c t i o n o f B e h a v i o r : an E v a l u a t i o n o f C o n d i t i o n s and Measurement T e c h n i q u e s " . In A t t i t u d e Measurement. Ed. Gene F. Summers. C h i c a g o : Rand M c N a l l y and Co., 1970. T r i a n d i s , H a r r y C. A t t i t u d e and A t t i t u d e Change. New Y o r k : John W i l e y and Sons I n c . , 1971. T r o l d a h l , V e r l i n g C. and F r e d r i c k , C. P o w e l l . "A S h o r t - F o r m Dogmatism S c a l e f o r Use i n F i e l d S t u d i e s . " S o c i a l  F o r c e s , 44, No. 2 ( 1 9 6 5 ) , 211-214. T u r i e l , E l l i o t . " S t a g e T r a n s i t i o n i n M o r a l D e v e l o p m e n t . " Second Handbook o f R e s e a r c h on T e a c h i n g . C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s : Rand M c N a l l y C o l l e g e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1973, pp. 732-755. Verma, G a j e n d r a K. and B a r r y M a c d o n a l d . " T e a c h i n g Race i n S c h o o l s : Some E f f e c t s on t h e A t t i t u d i n a l and S o c i o m e t r i c P a t t e r n s o f A d o l e s c e n t s . " Race. 13, No. 2 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , 187-202. Wagner, R i c h a r d V. and John J . Sherwood. The S t u d y o f  A t t i t u d e Change. Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Co. I n c . , 1969. W a r r , . P e t e r ' B . , J u d i t h F a u s t , and G o d f r e y H a r r i s o n . "A B r i t i s h E t h n o c e n t r i s m S c a l e . " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l and  C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y . 6 ( 1 9 6 7 ) , 267-277. W i l s o n , D o n a l d C. e d . T e a c h i n g P u b l i c I s s u e s i n a C a n a d i a n  C o n t e x t . T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e o f S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , 1982. Z i m b a r d o , P h i l i p and Ebbe B. E b b e s e n . I n f l u e n c i n g A t t i t u d e s  and C h a n g i n g B e h a v i o r . R e a d i n g , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : A d d i s o n - W e s l e y P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1969. 89 APPENDIX A INTERVIEW MATERIALS: 1. Interview Schedule « 2. C u l t u r a l P r a c t i c e s •» « Interview Schedule, from Teaching P u b l i c Issues  In A Canadian Context, e d i t e d by Donald C. Wilson, p. 58. «» An a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l summary of c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s was taken from " P e r s i s t e n t Areas of C u l t u r e " i n John W. Kehoe's A Handbook f o r Enhancing the M u l t i c u l t u r a l Climate of  the S c h o o l . pp. 27-28. 90 A SAMPLE INTERVIEW SCHEDULE The purpose of our meeting today i s to l e a r n about the v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s t h a t make up the p o p u l a t i o n of the s c h o o l . We are l o o k i n g f o r ways to make the sch o o l as comfortable and enj o y a b l e f o r your c h i l d r e n as p o s s i b l e and we would a l s o l i k e to know how we might change the school so t h a t i t i s more l i k e the way you would l i k e i t t o be. 1. The sch o o l can p l a c e i t s emphasis to accomplish d i f f e r e n t g o a l s . Which of the f o l l o w i n g g o a l s are most important to you. a. t e a c h i n g your c h i l d r e n s k i l l s necessary to get a job. b. t e a c h i n g your c h i l d t h e i r o l d country h e r i t a g e . c. teach them to t h i n k f o r themselves. d. teach them t o a p p r e c i a t e a r t and music. e. prepare them t o go to U n i v e r s i t y . 2 . What s c h o o l s u b j e c t s do you c o n s i d e r the most important? the l e a s t important? 3 . Would you l i k e your c h i l d r r e n to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a f t e r s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s such as (a) s p o r t s (b) c a s u a l games (c) dances (d) p l a y s . 4. What do you c o n s i d e r a p p r o p r i a t e behavior and dre s s at school? 5. Would you l i k e t o be i n v o l v e d i n s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s ? 6. What hope do you have f o r your c h i l d r e n ? 91 A SAMPLE INTERVIEW SCHEDULE PAGE 2 7. Are th e r e important days i n your c u l t u r e t h a t s c h o o l s might c e l e b r a t e ? Can you suggest how a sc h o o l might best c e l e b r a t e those events? 8. When people from two d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s meet, misunder-s t a n d i n g s can occur. What should o t h e r s know to understand you b e t t e r ? For example, form of g r e e t i n g , ways of showing f r i e n d s h i p , behaviour t h a t i s embarassing. 9. Are keeping c l o s e f a m i l y t i e s important? 10. Would you l i k e t o comment on any of the f o l l o w i n g i d e a s : a. d i f f e r e n t i d e a s about time. b. treatment of o l d e r people. c. l e i s u r e time. d. past, present and f u t u r e . 11. What t h i n g s about your c u l t u r e would you most l i k e to share with the r e s t of the community? 12. What p a r t s of your c u l t u r e seem most d i f f i c u l t f o r o t h e r s t o accept. For example, f a m i l y o r g a n i z a t i o n , d r e s s , language, r e l i g i o n , doing b u s i n e s s . 13. In what ways are th e r e c o n f l i c t , between what the home and sc h o o l teaches your c h i l d ? 14. What changes i n your c h i l d are most d i f f i c u l t t o accept? 15. Do you have d i f f i c u l t y m a i n t a i n i n g your c u l t u r e i n t h i s community? 9 2 PERSISTENT AREAS OF CULTURE A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have been ab l e t o i d e n t i f y those areas of c u l t u r e which are l i k e l y t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y s t a b l e over time and to be r e s i l i e n t to immigration or conquest. I f c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s i n these areas are d i s t u r b e d , s t r e s s and d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n are l i k e l y t o r e s u l t f o r members of the c u l t u r e . Areas of c u l t u r e which are l i k e l y to be p a r t i c u l a r l y s t a b l e i n c l u d e : 1. D i g e s t i n g , e v a c u a t i n g , s l e e p i n g , using energy, and r e l a x i n g , mental s e t s such as f r i e n d l i n e s s , s u s p i c i o n , c u r i o s i t y , enjoyment. 2. S t a p l e foods, medicines, some aspects of c l o t h i n g , t r a n s p o r t and housing. 3. E s s e n t i a l s of communication - v e r b a l and non-verbal. 4. Face to f a c e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of age, g e n e r a t i o n s , sex, c h i l d r e a r i n g group, work o r g a n i z a t i o n . 5. Elements v i t a l to e s t a b l i s h s u p e r i o r s t a t u t e s and r o l e s , 'vested i n t e r e s t s ' , entrenched a u t h o r i t y . 6. V i t a l i n t e r e s t s of l i v i n g space and r e s o u r c e s c o n t r o l , and a s s o c i a t e d in-group l o y a l i t y and p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y 7. B a s i c i n t e l l e c t u a l and r e l i g i o u s assumptions as to e x i s t e n c e , power, providence, m o r t a l i t y , w e l f a r e . The l i s t has been p a r t i a l l y v a l i d a t e d . Murdoch asked Cree teacher t r a i n e e s to d e s c r i b e t h e i r e a r l i e s t remembrances of s c h o o l . Without e x c e p t i o n , t h e i r unhappy memories s p r i n g from a teacher or a s c h o o l ' s i n t r u s i o n i n t o the p e r s i s t e n t areas of c u l t u r e . The teacher t r a i n e e s d e s c r i b e t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to communicate, being embarassed i n group r e l a t i o n s , being unable to eat, s l e e p , or go to the t o i l e t ; Thus c o n f l i c t between the p a t t e r n s of communication and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n s t r e s s f u l l d i s r u p t i o n of b a s i c b o d i l y f u n c t i o n s . THE CONTENT OF CULTURE A CLASSIFICATION OF CULTURE FACTS Speech Languages, w r i t i n g systems, e t c . M a t e r i a l T r a i t s (1) Food h a b i t s ( 2 ) S h e l t e r ( 3 ) T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t r a v e l (4) Dress (5) U t e n s i l s , t o o l s , e t c . (6) Weapons <7) Occupations and i n d u s t r i e s A r t (1) C a r v i n g , p a i n t i n g , drawing, music, e t c . Mythology and S c i e n t i f i c Knowledge R e l i g i o u s P r a c t i c e s (1) R i t u a l i s t i c s forms ( 2 ) Treatment of the s i c k ( 3 ) Treatment of the dead Family and S o c i a l Systems <1> The forms of marriage ( 2 ) Methods of reckoning r e l a t i o n s h i p <3) I n h e r i t a n c e (4) S o c i a l c o n t r o l (5> Sports and games Property (1) Real and pers o n a l <2> Standards of value and exchange ( 3 ) Trade Government (1) P o l i t i c a l forms <2> J u d i c i a l and l e g a l procedures War 9 4 APPENDIX B Copies of Con s t r u c t e d S c a l e Forms: 1. Sample of Test Cover Page 2. Sample of Test Format » 3. Form A - Items 4 . Form B - Items 5. Form C - Items 6 . Form D - Items 7. Form E - Items 8 . F i n a l Forms - Items « For the s c o r i n g of t e s t s , note t h a t some items must have t h e i r p o l a r i t y r e v e r s e d . See the Item A n a l y s i s and Fa c t o r A n a l y s i s summary t a b l e s i n Appendix C. The p o l a r i t y i s r e v e r s e d f o r a l l "<-) negative statements". 95 OPINIONS OF CULTURAL DIVERSITY D i r e c t i o n s : On the f o l l o w i n g pages are a number of statements d e s c r i b i n g many c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s . You are asked to r e a c t to each. The best answer to each statement i s your p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n . You may f i n d y o u r s e l f agreeing s t r o n g l y with some of the s t a t e -ments, d i s a g r e e i n g s t r o n g l y with some of the statements, d i s a g r e e i n g j u s t as s t r o n g l y with o t h e r s , and perhaps u n c e r t a i n about o t h e r s . For each statement, c i r c l e the corresponding number a c c o r d i n g to how much you agree or d i s a g r e e with i t . Please mark every one. 1. I AGREE VERY MUCH 4. I DISAGREE A LITTLE 2. I AGREE ON THE WHOLE 5. I DISAGREE ON THE WHOLE 3. I AGREE A LITTLE 6. I DISAGREE VERY MUCH There are no r i g h t and wrong answers. We are concerned only with your o p i n i o n . Work r a p i d l y and c a r e f u l l y . Give your f i r s t r e a c t i o n . Do not w r i t e your name on any of these pages. Complete the in f o r m a t i o n below. Male / Female ( c i r c l e ) Your Age Number of years you have l i v e d i n B.C. 96 AGREE DISAGREE VERY MUCH VERY MUCH 1. There are some c u l t u r e s t h a t b e l i e v e that a man can d i e and be reborn on t h i s e a r t h over and over again. Maybe there i s some t r u t h to t h i s . 1 2. Canada should only accept people f o r immi-g r a t i o n from c o u n t r i e s such a Sc o t l a n d , England, and the United S t a t e s where the language i s E n g l i s h and where the c u l t u r e i s already very s i m i l a r to Canada. 1 3. Other people who l i v e by the sea eat the f r u i t s of the sea such as sea u r c h i n s , b a r n a c l e s , seaweed, e t c . Canadians who l i v e c l o s e t o the sea should c o n s i d e r e a t i n g the the same t h i n g s as a source of p r o t e i n . 1 4. People who immigrate to Canada should give up t h e i r f o r e i g n ways as soon as p o s s i b l e and t r y to be l i k e a l l other Canadians. 1 5. Immigrants moving to Canada from a l l p a r t s of the world make i t more and more d i f f i c u l t f o r everyone to get along w e l l together. 1 6. A song i s a good way to pass legends and s t o r i e s from one ge n e r a t i o n to the next. 1 7 . Adding c u r r y and s p i c e s makes even p l a i n bland foods l i k e potatoes and c a r r o t s t a s t y and more i n t e r e s t i n g to eat. 1 8. People of some c u l t u r e s b e l i e v e t h a t men should not cut t h e i r h a i r and beard. I would c o n s i d e r t h i s very unhealthy. 1 9 . In some c o u n t r i e s i t i s a common p r a c t i c e to take the r i c e bowl to the mouth and shovel the r i c e i n t o the mouth. T h i s i s bad manners. 1 10. E e l s and snakes are co n s i d e r e d q u i t e the d e l i c a c y i n some c o u n t r i e s . There i s nothing wrong with t h i s . 1 11. I t i s a custom of some f o r e i g n people to gi v e each guest who attends the f u n e r a l some sweets and some money. T h i s i s a c o s t l y and unnecessary custom to continue here i n Canada. 1 97 PAGE 2 AGREE DISAGREE VERY MUCH VERY MUCH 12. I t i s not r e a l l y necessary f o r immigrants of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s to change many of t h e i r customs i n order to get along with other Canadians. 13. In some c o u n t r i e s ants are co n s i d e r e d a d e l i c a c y . I th i n k i t i s wrong to eat ants. 14. Canada i s a m u l t i c u l t u r a l n a t i o n and people from a l l p a r t s of the world should be welcome. 15. Some people carve t h e i r f a m i l y h e r i t a g e on totem p o l e s . I t i s b e t t e r to show f a m i l y h e r i t a g e by drawing your f a m i l y t r e e on a pi e c e of paper. 16. I th i n k i t i s un-Canadian f o r immigrants to wear t h e i r n a t i v e c l o t h i n g on the s t r e e t . 17. I would l i k e to l e a r n more about d i f f e r e n t r a c e s and c u l t u r e s . 18. I t i s r i d i c u l o u s to b e l i e v e a person can d i e and t h e i r s o u l w i l l come back to ear t h over and over again. 19. People i n c u l t u r e s t h a t eat food with t h e i r hands should be taught to use knives and f o r k s . 20. People i n some p a r t s of the world are u n c i v i l i z e d and p r i m i t i v e and we should not accept them i n Canada. 21. I would be embarassed i f some people at a party began to do t h e i r n a t i v e f o l k dances. 22. Many p r a c t i c e s and customs of other c o u n t r i e s are good and Canadians should c o n s i d e r adopting them i n Canada. 23. I t i s a l l r i g h t t o b e l i e v e t h a t a person must be cremated soon a f t e r death so the so u l can be r e l e a s e d from the body. 24. The p r a c t i c e of worshipping i d o l s i n hopes of going to heaven i s wrong. 9 8 AGREE D I S A G R E E VERY MUCH VERY MUCH 25. I j u s t don't l i k e people from some c o u n t r i e s and I don't need a reason. 26. I would i n v i t e a new student from a f o r e i g n country to have lunch with my f r i e n d s and myself. 27. New immigrants to Canada have a r i g h t to form groups so they can maintain the c u l t u r e of t h e i r n a t i v e land. 28. I p e r f e r not to date anyone who i s of a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e than mine. 29. I t i s the p r a c t i c e i n one c u l t u r e to take food to the cemetary and p l a c e i t on the grave. T h i s i s a r i d i c u l o u s p r a c t i c e s i n c e dead people can't eat. 30. S i n c e we are almost a l l immigrants to Canada, or of immigrant descent, we should not o b j e c t to people from other c o u n t r i e s moving here too. 9 9 FORM A - ITEMS 1. There are some c u l t u r e s t h a t b e l i e v e t h a t a man can d i e and be born on t h i s e a r t h over and over a g a i n . Maybe there i s some t r u t h to t h i s . 2. I t i s wrong to t h i n k having twins i s a bad omen. 3. The Chinese New Year occurs i n February. I f the m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n i n a school i s Chinese there should be some c o n s i d e r a t i o n to take one day l e s s from another h o l i d a y and take a day o f f i n February to c e l e b r a t e Chinese New Year. 4. Canadians are the f r i e n d l i e s t people i n the world. 5. Instead of c a r v i n g legends and s t o r i e s on totem p o l e s , a much b e t t e r p r a c t i c e i s to w r i t e i t i n a book so everyone can read and understand i t . 6. In some c o u n t r i e s dog meat i s eaten as a source of p r o t e i n . I see nothing wrong with t h i s . r 7. I t i s the p r a c t i c e i n one c u l t u r e to take food to the cemetery and p i e c e i t on the greve. T h i s i s e r i d i c u l o u s p r a c t i c e s i n c e dead people can't eat. 8. People who do not d r i n k f o r r e l i g i o u s reasons are missing out on a good time. 9. Flimsy long s k i r t s and v e i l s may be a c c e p t a b l e i n some c o u n t r i e s but when people from those c o u n t r i e s immigrate to Canada they should change and wear c l o t h e s l i k e everyone e l s e as soon as p o s s i b l e . 10. A f a m i l y i s composed of parents and t h e i r c h i l d r e n . I t makes i t very c o n f u s i n g when some people d e s c r i b e t h e i r f a m i l i e s and they i n c l u d e grandparents, u n c l e s , aunts and c o u s i n s . 11. I t i s s i l l y to b e l i e v e t h a t i f you broke something on New Years day i t w i l l mean bad luck f o r you f o r the remainder of the year. 12. Canada i s a m u l t i c u l t u r a l n a t i o n and people from a l l p a r t s of the world should be welcome. 13. I t i s not r e a l l y necessary f o r immigrants of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s t o change many of t h e i r customs i n order to get along with other Canadians. 100 Form A - Items Page 2 14. I j u s t don't get l i k e people from some c o u n t r i e s and I don't need a reason. 15. In some c u l t u r e s parents don't b e l i e v e i n paying t h e i r c h i l d r e n f o r doing chores around the house. Since everyone uses the house, everyone should help with chores. I thi n k t h i s i s q u i t e f a i r and c h i l d r e n should not be paid f o r doing chores. 16. I would stand up and defend a f e l l o w student i f he i s being made fun of by other students j u s t because he i s from a f o r e i g n country. 17. I t i s a str o n g b e l i e f of one group of people t h a t we should l i v e i n harmony with nature and a d j u s t to the changes i n nature. Instead of t r y i n g to change nature so much, we should adopt the same b e l i e f . 18. One way f o r a man with long h a i r to appear neat and keep h i s h a i r out of the way i s to wear a turban. I t i s a l l r i g h t to wear a turban f o r t h i s reason. 19. I would not know what to t a l k about with a new student who has j u s t immigrated to Canada from A s i a . 20. In a country t h a t has one of the lowest d i v o r c e r a t e s i n the world marriages are u s u a l l y arranged. Arranged marriages are j u s t as good, i f not b e t t e r than, Canadian marriages. 21. Old Age homes are the best p l a c e f o r o l d people to l i v e s i n c e they can get a l o t of a t t e n t i o n t h e r e . 22. I t i s r i d i c u l o u s to b e l i e v e a person can d i e and t h e i r s o u l w i l l come back to e a r t h over and over a g a i n . 23. Many p r a c t i c e s and customs of other c o u n t r i e s are good and Canadians should c o n s i d e r adopting them i n Canada. 24. I t i s a l l r i g h t to b e l i e v e t h a t a person must be cremated soon a f t e r death so the so u l can be r e l e a s e d from the body. 25. Canada should only accept people f o r immigration from c o u n t r i e s such as S c o t l a n d , England and the United S t a t e s where the language i s E n g l i s h and where the c u l t u r e i s alrea d y very s i m i l a r to Canada. 26. At a Halloween party I do not t h i n k i t i s r i g h t f o r new immigrants to come wearing t h e i r n a t i v e d r e s s . 101 Form A - Items Page 3 27. People who speak i n a d i f f e r e n t language and dress d i f f e r e n t l y than the m a j o r i t y of people i n Canada are t r y i n g t o d i s r u p t our s o c i e t y . 28. F o r e i g n e r s moving i n t o the neighborhood j u s t s t i r up t r o u b l e . 29. Adding c u r r y and s p i c e s makes even p l a i n bland foods l i k e potatoes and c a r r o t s t a s t y and more i n t e r e s t i n g to eat. 30. In some c u l t u r e s each man i s c o n s i d e r e d equal i n s t a t u s and wealth. When a person becomes s l i g h l t wealthy he immediately shares h i s wealth with the poor. T h i s i s a good p r a c t i c e . 31. Canada i s the best country i n the world to l i v e i n . 32. In many c o u n t r i e s the l a r g e s t meal of the day i s eaten at lunch time. T h i s makes a l o t of sense. 33. I t i s wrong to b e l i e v e as some people do t h a t the f i r s t human beings were c h i s e l l e d from wood by the h e l p e r s of su p e r n a t u r a l c a r p e n t e r s . 34. In some c u l t u r e s i t i s the custom to make nois e as you d r i n k your soup. People should not make nois e when d r i n k i n g soup. 35. I would t r y to make f r i e n d s with a new immigrant student. 102 FORM B - ITEMS 1. I f i n d i t i n t e r e s t i n g t o t a l k t o students who have immi-grated from a country t h a t i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from Canada. 2. New immigrants to Canada have a r i g h t to form groups so they can maintain the c u l t u r e of t h e i r n a t i v e l a n d . 3. In one c u l t u r e , a f t e r a f u n e r a l each guest i s given a sweet to take away the b i t t e r n e s s of the o c c a s i o n , and an envelope with some c o i n s as a s i g n of a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r a t t e n d i n g the f u n e r a l . I t h i n k t h i s i s a good custom. 4. One group of people c a t c h only enough f i s h as they need to eat f o r themselves. We should a l s o c o n s i d e r t a k i n g from nature only what we need f o r our use and not to j u s t make us wealthy. 5. The k i l l i n g of cows f o r i t s meat alone can be c o n s i d e r e d wasteful i f we t h i n k of how much more we can continue to gain by the milk and a l l the d a i r y products one cow can p r o v i d e . 6. I j u s t don't l i k e f o r e i g n e r s and I don't need a reason. 7. C h i l d r e n should be p a i d by parents f o r doing chores around the house. 8. Some people b e l i e v e bad luck i s brought on by something bad you or your a n c e s t o r s d i d i n the past. I t h i n k t h i s b e l i e f i s wrong. 9. I t i s wrong to b e l i e v e t h a t s i c k n e s s i s brought on by e v i l s p i r i t s . 10. E e l s and snakes are c o n s i d e r e d q u i t e the d e l i c a c y i n some c o u n t r i e s . There i s nothing wrong with t h i s . 11. I would f e e l s o r r y f o r anyone who was made fun of because of the way they spoke and dressed. 12. Since we are almost a l l immigrants to Canada, or of immi-grant descent, we should not o b j e c t to people from other c o u n t r i e s moving here too. 13. In some c o u n t r i e s i t i s a common p r a c t i c e to take the r i c e bowl to the mouth and shovel the r i c e i n t o the mouth. T h i s i s bad manners. 14. People i n c u l t u r e s t h a t eat food with t h e i r hands should be taught to use knives and f o r k s . 103 Form B - Items Page 2 15. People who immigrate to Canada should g i v e up t h e i r f o r e i g n ways as soon as p o s s i b l e and t r y to be l i k e a l l other Cana-dians . 16. In one c u l t u r e money and m a t e r i a l goods are shared with r e l a t i v e s and p r e s t i g e i s obtained as a reward f o r s h a r i n g and g e n e r o s i t y . I t h i n k t h i s i s b e t t e r than competing f o r money and wealth to gain p r e s t i g e . 17. In some c o u n t r i e s ants are co n s i d e r e d a d e l i c a c y . I t h i n k i t i s wrong to eat ants. 18. We must have one of the best c o u n t r i e s i n the world s i n c e no one has to worry about s t a r v i n g to death. 19. I thi n k i t i s un-Canadian f o r immigrants to wear t h e i r n a t i v e c l o t h i n g on the s t r e e t . 20. I am not i n t e r e s t e d i n s t u d y i n g about f o r e i g n customs and f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s . 21. Through me d i t a t i o n and g e t t i n g to know o n e s e l f everyone can be a god. 22. Canada i s one of the c l e a n e s t c o u n t r i e s i n the world. 23. Canada i s the best country i n the world to be a c i t i z e n o f . 24. Instead of pouring hot tea a g l a s s cup as i n some c o u n t r i e s , i t i s much b e t t e r to put hot tea i n a mug with a handle to hold on t o . 25. Canada should not allow immigration from c o u n t r i e s t h a t have d i f f e r e n t customs and p r a c t i c e s than Canada. 26. When f a m i l i e s immigrate to Canada i t makes good sense to move i n with r e l a t i v e s u n t i l they can a f f o r d to s e t up house f o r themselves. 27. People from some c u l t u r e s b e l i e v e t h a t men should not cut t h e i r h a i r and beard. I would c o n s i d e r t h i s very unhealthy. 28. Though i t may be a l l r i g h t to wear turbans i n some coun-t r i e s , boys should not wear them to s c h o o l . 29. Men should be allowed to have more than one wife and women should be allowed to have more than one husband. 104 Form B - Items Page 3 30. In one c u l t u r e preserved duck eggs are a d e l i c a c y . There i s nothing wrong with e a t i n g duck eggs. 31. I t i s p e r f e c t l y a c c e p t a b l e f o r the e l d e s t i n the f a m i l y to continue to l i v e with the parents even a f t e r he or she marries. 32. Some people carve t h e i r f a m i l y h e r i t a g e on totem p o l e s . I t i s b e t t e r to show f a m i l y h e r i t a g e by drawing your f a m i l y t r e e on a p i e c e of paper. 33. The p r a c t i c e i n one c u l t u r e of e a t i n g sweets throughout the day during New Years to help make the person sweet and have n i c e thoughts at the s t a r t of the New Year i s nonsense. 34. On the whole, new immigrants to Canada are hard working and r e s p o n s i b l e . 35. C o n s i d e r i n g some cheese we eat i s q u i t e s t r o n g s m e l l i n g , people who eat stro n g s m e l l i n g s p i c y foods should not be c r i t i c i z e d . 105 FORM C - ITEMS 1. A group of people b e l i e v e t h a t the most important t h i n g to own i s a strong name. Such a b e l i e f i s f o o l i s h . 2. In some homes or r e s t a u r a n t s when r i c e i s served i n a bowl, i t i s p e r f e c t l y a l l r i g h t to take the bowl to your mouth and shovel the r i c e i n t o your mouth. There i s nothing wrong with t h i s . 3. I t i s wrong to t h i n k every person can be god. 4. The p r a c t i c e of arranged marriages i s a good way f o r s i n g l e people to meet and marry. 5. Immigrants moving to Canada from a l l p a r t s of the world make i t more and more d i f f i c u l t f o r everyone to get along w e l l together 6. In some c u l t u r e s New Years Eve i s a time to spend with f a m i l y and r e l a t i v e s but i t i s much b e t t e r to go out and c e l e b r a t e and have a good time. 7. People i n some p a r t s of the world are u n c i v i l i z e d and p r i m i t i v e and we should not accept them i s Canada. 8. When a person d i e s , i t i s the custom i n one c u l t u r e f o r the people of the community to help pay f o r the f u n e r a l by g i v i n g the f a m i l y donations of money at the f u n e r a l . With the high c o s t of f u n e r a l s these days t h i s makes a l o t of sense. 9. Some Canadians have f o r e i g n names d i f f i c u l t to pronounce. When we meet and t a l k to them we should make every e f f o r t to pronounce t h e i r name p r o p e r l y . 10. The Canadians can be c o n s i d e r e d to have as much of an accent as people from Indian or Hong Kong who speak E n g l i s h . 11. A totem pole i s a good way to show a f a m i l y ' s h e r i t a g e . 12. Acupuncture i s j u s t as good as our Canadian s u r g i c a l method f o r o p e r a t i n g on p a r t s of our body. 13. People moving to Canada from other c o u n t r i e s with d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s help make Canadian c u l t u r e even more i n t e r e s t i n g . 14. People from other c o u n t r i e s are j u s t as f r i e n d l y as Canadians. 106 Form C - Items Page 2 15. People from f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s t h a t have names d i f f i c u l t to pronounce should change t h e i r names when they immigrate to Canada. 16. Perhaps when immigrants dress i n t h e i r n a t i v e c l o t h e s here i n Canada, they do so to express p r i d e of t h e i r n a t i v e land. 17. There i s nothing wrong with people of some c u l t u r e s using t h e i r hands and f i n g e r s to eat. 18. One group of people do not eat beef s i n c e cows are con s i d e r e d u s e f u l because they can p u l l the plough and can be milked f o r d a i r y products. I t h i n k these are good reasons f o r them not to eat beef. 19. I would be embarassed i f some people at a party began to do t h e i r n a t i v e f o l k dances. 20. There are only so many foods t h a t you can eat using chop s t i c k s . I t i s much b e t t e r to use kn i v e s , f o r k s and spoons. 21. People who do not b e l i e v e i n one God but b e l i e v e i n many gods and many s p i r i t s w i l l not go to heaven. 22. Canada has the most democratic government i n the world. 23. Other people who have l i v e d by the sea have eaten the f r u i t s of the sea such as sea u r c h i n s , b a r n a c l e s , seaweed, e t c . Canadians who l i v e c l o s e to the sea should c o n s i d e r e a t i n g the same t h i n g as a source of p r o t e i n . 24. For some groups of people i t i s a s i g n of p r e s t i g e to have a c e l e b r a t i o n and g i v e away personal p o s s e s s i o n s to t h e i r guest. T h i s i s not a good p r a c t i c e s i n c e a person can end up l o s i n g a l l they own. 25. One group of people have much r e s p e c t f o r nature and t r y to d i s t u r b i t as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e t a k i n g only what they can use themselves. We should be more l i k e these people so we can a l s o p r o t e c t our environment. 26. I would l i k e to l e a r n more about d i f f e r e n t r a c e s and c u l t u r e s . 27. A song i s not a good way to pass legends and s t o r i e s from one g e n e r a t i o n to the next s i n c e p a r t s of the legend or s t o r y can be f o r g o t t e n or even added on t o . 107 Form C - Items Page 3 28. Canadians have a l o t to l e a r n from people of other c o u n t r i e s . 29. I am not i n t e r e s t e d i n a s s o c i a t i n g with f o r e i g n s tudents. 30. We should not choose an occupation only because i t pays the best wages but we should choose an occupation because we f e e l we can c o n t r i b u t e the most to s o c i e t y i n th a t p a r t i c u l a r job. 31. I would i n v i t e a new student from a f o r e i g n country to have lunch with my f r i e n d s and myself. 32. The p r a c t i c e of worshipping i d o l s i n hopes of going to heaven i s wrong. 33. I p e r f e r not to date anyone who i s of a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e than mine. 34. Since some students who come from another country are so d i f f e r e n t , they can't be expected to make f r i e n d s r i g n t away . 35. I t i s a custom of some f o r e i g n people t o g i v e each guest who attends the f u n e r a l some sweets and some money. T h i s i s a c o s t l y and unnecessary custom t o continue here i n Canada. 108 FORM D - ITEMS Some people carve t h e i r f a m i l y h e r i t a g e on totem p o l e s . I t i s b e t t e r to show f a m i l y h e r i t a g e by drawing your f a m i l y t r e e on a p i e c e of paper. Immigrants moving to Canada from a l l p a r t s of the world make i t more and more d i f f i c u l t f o r everyone t o get along w e l l . I would t r y to make f r i e n d s with a new immigrant student. In a country t h a t has one of the lowest d i v o r c e r a t e s i n the world, marriages are u s u a l l y arranged. Arranged marriages are j u s t as good, i f not b e t t e r , than Canadian marriages. I would f e e l s o r r y f o r anyone who was made fun of because of the way they spoke and dressed. People who speak i n a d i f f e r e n t language and dr e s s d i f f e r -e n t l y than the m a j o r i t y of people i n Canada are t r y i n g to d i s r u p t our s o c i e t y . One way f o r a man with long h a i r to appear neat and keep h i s h a i r out of the way i s t o wear a turban. There i s nothing wrong with wearing a turban f o r t h i s reason. Canada should only accept people f o r immigration from coun-t r i e s such as S c o t l a n d , England and United S t a t e s where the c u l t u r e s are a l r e a d y very s i m i l a r t o Canada. There are some c u l t u r e s t h a t b e l i e v e t h a t a man can d i e and be reborn on t h i s e a r t h over and over again. Maybe th e r e i s some t r u t h to t h i s . I would be embarassed i f some people a t a part y began to do t h e i r n a t i v e f o l k dances. Flimsy long s k i r t s and v e i l s may be a c c e p t a b l e i n some c o u n t r i e s but when people from those c o u n t r i e s immigrate to Canada they should change and wear c l o t h e s l i k e everyone e l s e as soon as p o s s i b l e . E e l s and snakes are c o n s i d e r e d q u i t e the d e l i c a c y i n some c o u n t r i e s . There i s nothing wrong with e a t i n g e e l s and snakes. I j u s t don't l i k e people from some c o u n t r i e s and I don't need a reason. 109 Form D - Items Page 2 14. People who do not d r i n k f o r r e l i g i o u s reasons are missing out on a good time. 15. I t i s s i l l y t o b e l i e v e t h a t i f you broke something on New Years day i t w i l l mean bad luck t o you f o r the remainder of the year. 16. Some people b e l i e v e bad luck i s brought on by something bad you or your a n c e s t o r s d i d i n the pa s t . I t h i n k t h i s b e l i e f i s wrong. 17. The p r a c t i c e of worshipping i d o l s i n hopes of going to heaven i s wrong. 18. C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t some cheese we eat i s q u i t e s t r o n g s m e l l i n g , people who eat s t r o n g s m e l l i n g s p i c y foods should not be c r i t i c i z e d . 19. In some c o u n t r i e s i t i s a common p r a c t i c e t o take the r i c e bowl to the mouth and shovel the r i c e i n t o the mouth. T h i s i s bad manners. 20. I would not know what t o t a l k about with a new student who had j u s t immigrated t o Canada from A s i a . 21. Some Canadians have f o r e i g n names d i f f i c u l t t o pronounce. When we meet and t a l k t o them we should make every e f f o r t to pronounce t h e i r name p r o p e r l y . 22. A song i s not a good way to pass legends and s t o r i e s from one g e n e r a t i o n to the next s i n c e p a r t s of the legend or s t o r y can be f o r g o t t e n or even added on t o . 23. In one c u l t u r e preserved duck eggs are a d e l i c a c y . There i s nothing wrong with e a t i n g duck eggs. 24. Though i t maybe a l l r i g h t to wear turbans i n some p l a c e s boys should not wear turbans t o s c h o o l . 25. One group of people do not eat beef s i n c e cows are co n s i d e r e d u s e f u l because they can p u l l the plough and can be milked f o r d a i r y p r o d u c t s . I t h i n k these are good reasons f o r them not to eat beef. 26. I am not i n t e r e s t e d i n s t u d y i n g about f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s and f o r e i g n customs. 1 1 0 Form D - Items Page 3 27. Acupuncture i s a good s u r g i c a l method. I would have acupuncture performed on me. 28. I would i n v i t e a new student from a f o r e i g n country to have lunch with my f r i e n d s and myself. 29. People i n some p a r t s of the world are u n c i v i l i z e d and p r i m i t i v e and we should not accept them i n Canada. 30. There are only so many foods t h a t you can eat using chop s t i c k s . I t i s much b e t t e r to use k n i v e s , f o r k s , and spoons. 31. I t i s a custom of some f o r e i g n people t o g i v e each guest who attends the f u n e r a l some sweets and some money. T h i s i s a c o s t l y and unnecessary custom to continue here i n Canada. 32. In many c o u n t r i e s the l a r g e s t meal of the day i s eaten at lunch time. T h i s makes a l o t of sense. 33. People who do not b e l i e v e i n one God but b e l i e v e i n many gods and many s p i r i t s w i l l not go to heaven. FORM E - ITEMS A group of people b e l i e v e t h a t the most important t h i n g to own i s a s t r o n g name. Such a b e l i e f i s f o o l i s h . New immigrants t o Canada have a r i g h t to form groups so they can maintain the c u l t u r e of t h e i r n a t i v e l a n d . Adding c o r i a n d e r and s p i c e s makes even p l a i n bland foods l i k e potatoes and c a r r o t s t a s t y and more i n t e r e s t i n g t o e a t . F o r e i g n e r s moving i n t o the neighbourhood j u s t s t i r up t r o u b l e . People i n c u l t u r e s t h a t eat food with t h e i r hands should be taught to use knives and f o r k s . Many p r a c t i c e s and customs of other c o u n t r i e s are good and Canadians should c o n s i d e r adopting them i n Canada. Canada should not allow immigration from c o u n t r i e s t h a t have d i f f e r e n t customs and p r a c t i c e s than Canada. I t h i n k i t i s un-Canadian f o r immigrants to wear t h e i r n a t i v e c l o t h i n g on the s t r e e t . C h i l d r e n should be p a i d by parents f o r doing chores around the house. People moving to Canada from other c o u n t r i e s with d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s help make Canadian c u l t u r e even more i n t e r e s t i n g . Canadians have a l o t t o l e a r n from people.of other c o u n t r i e s . People of some c u l t u r e s b e l i e v e t h a t men should not cut t h e i r h a i r and beard. I would c o n s i d e r t h i s very unhealthy. In some c u l t u r e s New Years Eve i s a time t o spend with f a m i l y and r e l a t i v e s but i t i s much b e t t e r t o go out and c e l e b r a t e and have a good time. I t i s the p r a c t i c e i n one c u l t u r e t o take food t o the cemetary and p l a c e i t on the grave. T h i s i s a r i d i c u l o u s p r a c t i c e s i n c e dead people can't e a t . I t i s r i d i c u l o u s to b e l i e v e a person can d i e and t h e i r s o u l w i l l come back to e a r t h over and over again. E - Items Page 2 People from other c o u n t r i e s are j u s t as f r i e n d l y as Canadians. Since some students who come from another country are so d i f f e r e n t they can not be expected to make f r i e n d s r i g h t away. Instead of c a r v i n g legends and s t o r i e s on totem pol e s a much b e t t e r p r a c t i c e i s to w r i t e i t i n a book so everyone can read and understand i t . In some c u l t u r e s i t i s the custom to make n o i s e as you d r i n k your soup. People should not make n o i s e when d r i n k i n g soup. There i s nothing wrong with people of some c u l t u r e s using t h e i r hands and f i n g e r s t o e a t . Other people who have l i v e d by the sea have eaten the f r u i t s of the sea such as sea u r c h i n s , b a r n a c l e s , seaweed, e t c . Canadians who l i v e c l o s e to the sea should c o n s i d e r e a t i n g the same t h i n g s as a source of p r o t e i n . I t i s not r e a l l y necessary f o r immigrants of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s to change many of t h e i r customs i n order t o get along with other Canadians. People from f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s t h a t have names d i f f i c u l t to pronounce should change t h e i r names when they immigrate to Canada. In some c o u n t r i e s ants are co n s i d e r e d a d e l i c a c y . I t h i n k i t i s wrong t o eat ants. People who immigrate t o Canada should g i v e up t h e i r f o r e i g n ways as soon as p o s s i b l e and t r y to be l i k e a l l other Canadians. I p r e f e r not to date anyone who i s of a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e than mine. Canada i s a m u l t i c u l t u r a l n a t i o n and people from a l l p a r t s of the world should be welcome. I t i s a l l r i g h t to b e l i e v e t h a t a person must be cremated soon a f t e r death so the s o u l can be r e l e a s e d from the body. I am not i n t e r e s t e d i n a s s o c i a t i n g with f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . 113 Form E - Items Page 3 30. For some groups of people i t i s a s i g n of p r e s t i g e to have a c e l e b r a t i o n and g i v e away pers o n a l p o s s e s s i o n s t o t h e i r guests. T h i s i s not a good p r a c t i c e s i n c e a person can end up l o s i n g a l l they own. 31. At a Halloween par t y I do not t h i n k i t i s r i g h t f o r new immigrants t o come wearing t h e i r n a t i v e d r e s s . 32. Since we are almost a l l immigrants t o Canada, or of immigrant descent, we should not o b j e c t t o people from other c o u n t r i e s moving here too. 33. I would l i k e t o l e a r n more about d i f f e r e n t r a c e s and c u l t u r e s . 114 FINAL FORM - ITEMS 1. There are some c u l t u r e s t h a t b e l i e v e t h a t a man can d i e and be reborn on t h i s e a r t h over and over a g a i n . Maybe th e r e i s some t r u t h t o t h i s . 2. Canada should only accept people f o r i m m i g r a t i o i n from c o u n t r i e s such as S c o t l a n d , England, and the United S t a t e s where the language i s E n g l i s h and where the c u l t u r e i s al r e a d y very s i m i l a r t o Canada. 3. Other people who l i v e by the sea eat the f r u i t s of the sea such as sea u r c h i n s , b a r n a c l e s , seaweed e t c . Canadians who l i v e c l o s e to the sea should c o n s i d e r e a t i n g the same t h i n g s as a source of p r o t e i n . 4. People who immigrate to Canada should g i v e up t h e i r f o r e i g n ways as soon as p o s s i b l e and t r y to be l i k e a l l other Canadians. 5. Immigrants moving to Canada from a l l p a r t s of the world make i t more and more d i f f i c u l t f o r everyone t o get along w e l l t o g e t h e r . 6. A song i s a good way to pass legends and s t o r i e s from one ge n e r a t i o n t o the next. 7. Adding c u r r y and s p i c e s makes even p l a i n bland foods l i k e p otatoes and c a r r o t s t a s t y and more i n t e r e s t i n g t o e a t . 8. People of some c u l t u r e s b e l i e v e t h a t men should not c u t t h e i r h a i r and beard. I would c o n s i d e r t h i s very unhealthy. 9. In some c o u n t r i e s i t i s a common p r a c t i c e t o take the r i c e bowl to the mouth and shovel the r i c e i n t o the mouth. T h i s i s bad manners. 10. E e l s and snakes are c o n s i d e r e d q u i t e the d e l i c a c y i n some c o u n t r i e s . There i s nothing wrong with t h i s . 11. I t i s a custom of some f o r e i g n people t o g i v e each guest who attends the f u n e r a l some sweets and some money. T h i s i s a c o s t l y and unnecessary custom to continue here i n Canada. 12. I t i s not r e a l l y necessary f o r immigrants of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s t o change many of t h e i r customs i n order t o get along with other Canadians. 13. In some c o u n t r i e s ants are c o n s i d e r e d a d e l i c a c y . I t h i n k i t i s wrong t o eat ants. 115 F i n a l Form - Items Page 2 14. Canada i s a m u l t i c u l t u r a l n a t i o n and people from a l l p a r t s of the world should be welcome. 15. Some people carve t h e i r f a m i l y h e r i t a g e on totem p o l e s . I t i s b e t t e r t o show f a m i l y h e r i t a g e by drawing your f a m i l y t r e e on a p i e c e of paper. 16. I t h i n k i t i s un-Canadian f o r immgrants to wear t h e i r n a t i v e c l o t h i n g on the s t r e e t . 17. I would l i k e to l e a r n more about d i f f e r e n t r a c e s and c u l t u r e s . 18. I t i s r i d i c u l o u s t o b e l i e v e a person can d i e and t h e i r s o u l w i l l come back t o e a r t h over and over again. 19. People i n c u l t u r e s t h a t eat food with t h e i r hands should be taught t o use knives and f o r k s . 20. People i n some p a r t s of the world are u n c i v i l i z e d and p r i m i t i v e and we should not accept them i n Canada. 21. I would be embarassed i f some people a t a part y began to do t h e i r n a t i v e f o l k dances. 22. Many p r a c t i c e s and customs of other c o u n t r i e s are good and Canadians should c o n s i d e r adopting them i n Canada. 23. I t i s a l l r i g h t to b e l i e v e t h a t a person must be cremated soon a f t e r death so the s o u l can be r e l e a s e d from the body. 24. The p r a c t i c e of worshipping i d o l s i n hopes of going to heaven i s wrong. 25. I j u s t don't l i k e people from some c o u n t r i e s and I don't need a reason. 26. I would i n v i t e a new student from a f o r e i g n country to have lunch with my f r i e n d s and myself. 27. New immigrants to Canada have a r i g h t to form groups so they can maintain the c u l t u r e of t h e i r n a t i v e l a n d . 28. I p e r f e r not to date anyone who i s of a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e than mine. F i n a l Form - Items Page 29. I t i s the p r a c t i c e i n one c u l t u r e to take food to the cemetery and p l a c e i t on the grave. T h i s i s a r i d i c u l o u s p r a c t i c e s i n c e dead people can't e a t . 30. S i n c e we are almost a l l immigrants to Canada, or of immigrant descent, we should not o b j e c t to people from other c o u n t r i e s moving here too. APPENDIX C Item A n a l y s i s and F a c t o r A n a l y s i s : 1. Form A - Item A n a l y s i s 2. Form A - F a c t o r A n l y s i s 3. Form B - Item A n a l y s i s 4 . Form B - Fa c t o r A n a l y s i s 5. Form C - Item A n a l y s i s 6. Form C - F a c t o r A n a l y s i s 7. Form D - Item A n a l y s i s 8. Form D - F a c t o r A n a l y s i s 9. Form E - Item A n a l y s i s 10. Form E - F a c t o r A n a l y s i s 11. F i n a l Form - Item A n a l y s i s 12. F i n a l Form - F a c t o r A n a l y s i s 13. F i n a l Form - A l l Loadings f o r Four F a c t o r s 118 STUDY l : FORM A - ITEM ANALYSIS OF THREE SUBSCALES RANKED ACCORDING TO SUBTEST-TEST (ST) CORRELATIONS SUMMARY OF ITEMS "-" i n d i c a t e n e g a t i v e statements X SD ST TT WRONG »• 1. Some t r u t h to r e i n c a r n a t i o n . 4 .21 1 .96 0. 37 0 .43 »« 2. - R e i n c a r n a t i o n r i d i c u l o u s i d e a . 3 .71 2 .09 0. 33 0 .31 » • 3. Cremation ok so s o u l r e l e a s e d . 4 .09 1 .99 0. 30 0 .32 « » 4 . Taking food to cemetery r i d i c u l o u s . 4 .45 2 . 18 0. 28 0 .53 5. Good f o r wealthy to share with poor. 3 .44 2 .09 0. 14 0 .33 « 6. -Should not make n o i s e d r i n k i n g soup. 4 .87 2 .04 0. 13 0 .23 • 7. -Breaking something on New Years day bad. 4 .91 2 .33 0. 13 0 .22 « 8. For neat appearance turban ok. 4 .61 1 .96 0. 11 0 .41 9. -Wrong to b e l i e v e f i r s t humans 3 .91 2 .22 0. 11 0 .15 c h i s e l l e d from wood. 3 .91 2 .22 0. 11 0 . 15 10. Nothing wrong with e a t i n g dog meat. 4 .93 2 .05 0. 08 0 . 19 11. -Wrong to t h i n k twins a bad omen. 3 .47 2 .58 -0. 19 -0 .03 SUPERIOR • 1 . -People who don't d r i n k f o r r e l i g i o u s reasons, missing out on good time. 3 .30 2 .05 0. 39 0 .50 2 . -Canadians f r i e n d l i e s t i n world. 4 .27 1 .96 0. 27 0 .32 3. -Canada best country. 4 .97 1 .99 O. 26 o .31 • 4. -Should not be paid f o r chores. 3 .87 2 .26 0. 23 0 .30 » 5. Arranged marriages b e t t e r . 5 .68 1 .81 0. 18 0 .33 « « 6 . Canada adopt some f o r e i g n customs. 4 .53 1 .79 0. 17 0 .39 » 7. -Books b e t t e r than totem p o l e s . 4 .07 2 .01 0. 15 0 .28 8. L i v e i n harmony with nature. 3 . 10 1 .81 0. 15 0 .34 9. -Old age homes best p l a c e f o r o l d . 3 .44 2 . 16 0. 13 0 .26 •10. L a r g e s t meal should be at lunch. 3 .89 2 .00 0. 11 0 .26 11 . -Confusing to d e s c r i b e f a m i l i e s as i n c l u d i n g u n c l e s , aunts, c o u s i n s . 3 .76 2 .00 0. 09 0 . 15 »«12. Food t a s t y with c u r r y and s p i c e . 3 .65 2 .24 0. 08 0 .28 ACCEPT o • • i . -Accept only immigrants from E n g l i s h speaking and c u l t u r a l l y s i m i l a r . 2 .78 2 .02 0. 64 0 .61 • 2. - F o r e i g n e r s i n neighbourhood, t r o u b l e . 2 .56 1 .79 o. 58 0 .61 » 3. - F o r e i g n e r s d i s r u p t our s o c i e t y . 2 .91 1 .93 0. 58 0 .60 « 4. Dress l i k e everyone e l s e i n Canada. 3 .92 2 .34 0. 51 0 .57 * » 5. - D i s l i k e immigrants f o r no reason. 2 .91 2 .13 0. 48 0 .58 » * 6. Canada m u l t i c u l t u r a l , a l l welcome. 2 .67 1 .94 0. 47 0 .43 « 7. Try to make f r i e n d s with immigrants. 2 .76 1 .67 0. 42 0 .50 » » 8. Not necessary to change customs. 3 .31 2 .02 0. 42 0 .40 » 9. -Halloween p a r t y no p l a c e f o r n a t i v e d r e s s . 3 .32 2 .22 0. 39 0 .42 10. Would defend f o r e i g n student. 2 .93 1 .84 0. 31 0 .39 • 11 . -Don't know what to say to new student from A s i a . 3 .86 2 .11 0. 30 0 .39 12. Chinese New Year i n February. Holiday should be d e c l a r e d then. 3 . 18 1 .97 0. 19 0 .22 A l l numbers rounded to 2 decimal p l a c e s Sample S i z e = 174 Grade 8 students » Items to Forms D and E »* Items to F i n a l Form 119 STUDY l : FORM A - FACTOR ANALYSIS OF FOUR FACTORS USING VARIMAX TRANSFORMATIONS SUMMARY OF ITEMS FACTOR LOADINGS • I •• i n d i c a t e n e gative statements 1 2 3 4 1. Some t r u t h to r e i n c a r n a t i o n . - W 61 - -2. Wrong t o t h i n k twins a bad omen. - W-•33 - -3. Chinese New Year i n February. Holiday should be d e c l a r e d i n Feb. A --35 4. -Canadians f r i e n d l i e s t i n world. - - S 62 -5. -Books b e t t e r than totem p o l e s . - - S 46 S 32 6. Nothing wrong with e a t i n g dog meat. - - - W 38 7. -Taking food to cemetary r i d i c u l o u s . - W 42 W 32 -8. -People who don't d r i n k f o r r e l i g i o u s reason, missing out on good time. _ S 31 S 42 _ 9. -Flimsy long s k i r t s and v e i l s ok but i n Canada, dr e s s l i k e everyone e l s e . A 44 A 45 10. -Confusing t o d e s c r i b e f a m i l i e s as i n c l u d i n g u n c l e , aunts, c o u s i n s . _ 11. - S i l l y t o b e l i e v e breaking something on New Years day bad luck f o r year. - W 43 - w--50 12. Canada m u l t i c u l t u r a l , a l l welcome. A 64 - - -13. Not necessary to change customs. A 56 - - -14. - D i s l i k e immigrants f o r no reason. A 48 - A 41 -15. Should not be paid f o r chores. - - - -16. Would defend f o r e i g n student. A 38 - - -17. L i v e i n harmony with nature. S 31 - - -18. For neat appearance turban ok. W 43 - - w 34 19. -Don't know what to say to new student from A s i a . 20. Arranged marriages b e t t e r . S 31 S 32 - -21 . -Old age homes best p l a c e f o r o l d . - - S 37 -22. - R e i n c a r n a t i o n r i d i c u l o u s i d e a . - w 67 - -23. Canada adopt some f o r e i g n customs. S 51 - - -24. Cremation ok so s o u l r e l e a s e d . - w 41 - -25. -Accept only immigrants from E n g l i s h speaking and c u l t u r a l l y s i m i l a r . A 61 A 42 _ 26. -Halloween par t y no p l a c e f o r n a t i v e d r e s s . _ A 41 _ 27. - F o r e i g n e r s d i s r u p t our s o c i e t y . A 53 - A 41 -28. - F o r e i g n e r s i n neighborhood, t r o u b l e . A 52 - A 41 -29. Food t a s t y with c u r r y and s p i c e . S 40 - - -30. Good f o r wealthy t o share with poor. W 54 - - -31. -Canada best country. - - S 63 s -34 32. L a r g e s t meal should be a t lunch. - - - s 58 33. -Wrong t o b e l i e v e f i r s t humans from wood. - w 44 - -34. -Should not make n o i s e d r i n k i n g soup. - w 37 - -35. Try t o make f r i e n d s with new immigrant .A 57 - - -* of t o t a l v a r i a n c e 11 .56 6 .97 8 .05 5 .01 A l l l o a d i n g s rounded to 2 decimal p l a c e s . Decimals omitted. A l l l o a d i n g s l e s s than .30 have been omitted. Sample S i z e - 174 Grade 8 Students. A = Accept Item W = Wrong Item S = S u p e r i o r Item 120 STUDY l : FORM B - ITEM ANALYSIS OF THREE SUBSCALES RANKED ACCORDING TO SUBTEST-TEST (ST) CORRELATIONS SUMMARY OF ITEMS "-" i n d i c a t e n e g a t i v e statements X SD ST TT WRONG « » 1. -Wrong to eat ants. 3 .65 2 .29 0. 45 0. 51 • • 2. E e l s and snakes a d e l i c a c y . 2 .91 2 .19 0. 36 0. 45 »• 3. -Bad manners to shovel r i c e i n t o mouth. 3 .75 2 .28 0. 31 0. 42 » 4. Nothing wrong with e a t i n g duck eggs. 3 .23 2 .21 0. 25 0. 44 5. -Nonsense to eat sweets on New Years day. 4 .08 2 . 14 0. 17 0. 15 6. -Wrong t o b e l i e v e s i c k n e s s from e v i l . 5 . 14 2 .26 0. 16 0. 16 » » 7. -Unhealthy not to cut beard and h a i r . 4 .45 2 .23 0. 15 0. 32 • 8. -Wrong to b e l i e v e bad luck i n h e r i t e d . 5 .23 2 .04 0. 15 0. 16 9. Become god through m e d i t a t i o n . •5 .68 1 .85 0. 11 0. 19 10. Good custom to g i v e f u n e r a l guests sweets and c o i n s a f t e r f u n e r a l . 3 .51 1 .87 0. 10 0. 16 11. Good sense to move i n with r e l a t i v e s when f i r s t a r r i v e i n Canada. 2 .75 1 .90 -0. 05 0. 31 12. Men have more than one wife, women a l s o have more than one husband. 5 .81 1 .95 -0. 09 0. 14 SUPERIOR 1 . - C h i l d r e n p a i d f o r doing chores. 5 .33 1 .96 0. 33 0. 42 2. -Canada best country to be c i t i z e n . 4 .98 1 .94 0. 30 0. 28 • » 3. - B e t t e r to show f a m i l y h e r i t a g e on paper. 3 .60 2 .00 0. 30 0. 36 « • 4 . -Teach people to use knives and f o r k s . 3 .53 2 . 19 0. 28 0. 41 5. -Canada c l e a n e s t country i n world. 4 .86 1 .88 0. 26 0. 18 6. B e t t e r to gain p r e s t i g e by s h a r i n g . 3 .25 1 .96 0. 22 0. 47 7. Take from nature only what we need. 1 .95 1 .52 0. 18 0. 34 8. -Tea i n mugs not g l a s s cups. 4 .95 1 .89 0. 16 0. 25 9. -Canada best country, no s t a r v a t i o n . 4 .79 2 .07 0 . 15 0. 23 10. K i l l i n g cows only f o r meat w a s t e f u l . 3 .35 1 .98 0. 13 0. 18 11 . Ok f o r e l d e s t i n f a m i l y to l i v e with parents even a f t e r marriage. 4 .29 2 .23 0. 12 0. 29 ACCEPT »• 1 . Should not o b j e c t to immigration. 2 .78 2 .05 o. 66 0. 60 « 2. F e e l s o r r y to someone made fun of because of speech or d r e s s . 2 . 18 1 .72 0. 62 0. 58 * » 3. -Un-Canadian to wear n a t i v e c l o t h i n g . 3 .62 2 .34 0. 60 0 . 62 •« 4. -Once i n Canada, immigrants should g i v e up f o r e i g n ways as soon as p o s s i b l e . 3 .62 2 .27 0. 58 0. 66 « « 5. New immigrants r i g h t to form groups. 3 . 10 1 .95 0. 57 0. 52 » 6 . -Not i n t e r e s t e d i n s t u d y i n g about f o r e i g n customs and c o u n t r i e s . 3 .08 2 . 14 0. 50 0. 56 » 7. -No immigration from c o u n t r i e s with d i f f e r e n t customs and p r a c t i c e s . 2 .78 2 .07 0. 49 0. 53 « 8. Don't c r i t i c i z e s t r o n g s m e l l i n g food. 3 .08 2 . 13 0. 46 0. 52 • 9. -Boys should not wear turbans to s c h o o l . 4 . 16 2 .23 0. 46 0. 54 10. L i k e t a l k i n g t o new immigrant student. 2 .64 1 .64 0. 46 0. 54 11 . -Don't l i k e f o r e i g n e r s . No reason. 2 .22 1 .78 0. 40 0. 39 12. New immigrants hard w o r k i n g / r e s p o n s i b l e . 3 .33 1 .81 o. 37 0. 33 A l l numbers rounded to 2 decimal p l a c e s Sample S i z e = 174 Grade 8 students » Items to Forms D and E »» Items to F i n a l Form 121 STUDY l : FORM B - FACTOR ANALYSIS OF FOUR FACTORS USING VARIMAX TRANSFORMATIONS SUMMARY OF ITEMS i n d i c a t e n e g a t i v e statements FACTOR LOADING 1 2 3 A A S S A 56 63 40 37 45 W-35 A A .A S A A 77 72 46 54 56 47 W 64 W 66 S 58 W 70 S 38 W-S S S 38 60 66 40 44 58 36 W 50 S 41 W-42 S-42 W-42 W-30 1. I n t e r e s t i n g t a l k i n g t o new immigrant student. 2. New immigrants r i g h t t o form groups. 3. Good custom to g i v e f u n e r a l guests sweets and c o i n s a f t e r f u n e r a l . 4. Take from nature only want we need. 5. K i l l i n g cows only f o r meat w a s t e f u l . 6. -Don't l i k e f o r e i g n e r s . No reason. 7. - C h i l d r e n p a i d f o r doing chores. 8. -Wrong to b e l i e v e bad luck i n h e r i t e d . 9. -Wrong to b e l i e v e s i c k n e s s from e v i l . 10. E e l s and snakes a d e l i c a c y . 11. F e e l s o r r y f o r someone made fun of because of speech or d r e s s . 12. Should not o b j e c t to immigrantion. 13. -Bad manners to shovel r i c e i n t o mouth. 14. -Teach people to used knives and f o r k s . 15. -Immigrants should g i v e up f o r e i g n ways 16. B e t t e r to g a i n p r e s t i g e by s h a r i n g . 17. -Wrong to eat a n t s . 18. -Canada best country s i n c e no s t a r v a t i o n 19. -Un-Canadian to wear n a t i v e c l o t h i n g . 20. -Not i n t e r e s t e d i n s t u d y i n g about f o r e i g n customs and c o u n t r i e s . 21. Become god throught m e d i t a t i o n . 22. -Canada c l e a n e s t country i n world. 23. -Canada best country to be c i t i z e n . 24. -Tea i n mugs not g l a s s cups. 25. -No immigration from c o u n t r i e s with d i f f e r e n t customs and p r a c t i c e s . A 26. Good sense to move i n with r e l a t i v e s when f i r s t a r r i v e i n Canada. W 27. -Unhealthy not to cut beard and h a i r . 28. -Boys should not wear turbans to school.A 29. Men have more than one wife then women should have more than one husband. 30. Nothing wrong with e a t i n g duck eggs. 31. 0k f o r e l d e s t i n f a m i l y to l i v e with parents even a f t e r marriage. 32. - B e t t e r to show f a m i l y h e r i t a g e on paper. 33. -Nonsense to eat sweets on New Years day. 34. New immigrants hardworking/responsible.A 35. Don't c r i t i c i z e s t r o n g s m e l l i n g food. A A-52 A-34 W-52 A-52 W 51 S-33 60 50 X of t o t a l v a r i a n c e 14.05 8.41 5.58 6.93 A l l l o a d i n g s rounded to 2 decimal p l a c e s . Decimals omitted. A l l l o a d i n g s l e s s than .30 have been omitted Sample S i z e - 174 Grade 8 s t u d e n t s . A = Accept Item W = Wrong Item S = S u p e r i o r Item 122 STUDY l : FORM C - ITEM ANALYSIS OF THREE SUBSCALES RANKED ACCORDING TO SUBTEST-TEST (ST) CORRELATIONS SUMMARY OF ITEMS "-" i n d i c a t e n e g a t i v e statements X SD ST TT WRONG • 1 . Ok not to eat beef s i n c e cows u s e f u l . 3 .76 2 .06 0. 23 0 .43 * 2. -Not a good p r a c t i c e to g i v e away pos s e s s i o n s f o r p r e s t i g e . 4 .61 1 .80 0. 22 0 .40 3. -Wrong to worship i d o l s . 4 .09 2 . 13 0. 22 0 .40 • 4. Ok to use hands and f i n g e r s to eat. 3 .57 2 . 12 0. 21 0 .47 • • 5. -Unnecessary to g i v e sweets and some money to guests a f t e r a f u n e r a l . 3 .98 2 .09 0. 21 0 .32 6. Totem p o l e s good ways to show h e r i t a g e . 3 .55 1 .81 0. 20 0 .31 • 7. F o o l i s h t o b e l i e v e i n s t r o n g name. 4 .36 2 . 18 0. 17 0 .11 • 8. -People who b e l i e v e i n many gods w i l l not go to heaven. 2 .90 2 .87 0. 14 0 .26 * 9. -Wrong to t h i n k everyone can be god. 5 .01 2 .28 0. 72 0 .04 10. Not wrong to shovel r i c e i n t o mouth. 4 .39 2 .36 0. 11 0 . 19 11. Arranged marriages good. 5 .30 1 .88 0. 01 -0 . 14 SUPERIOR • 1 . - B e t t e r to use k n i v e s , f o r k s , and spoons. 4 .40 2 . 18 0. 35 0 .53 • 2. Canadians can l e a r n from f o r e i g n e r s . 2 .69 1 .26 0. 34 0 .50 * 3. 4. F o r e i g n e r s as f r i e n d l y as Canadians. Choose occ u p a t i o n by what you can 2 .76 2 .06 0. 34 0 .55 most c o n t r i b u t e to s o c i e t y . 2 .82 2 . 12 0. 32 0 .43 • * 5. Canadians should eat v a r i e t y sea food. 4 . 18 1 .81 0. 26 0 .32 • • 6. Song not a good way to pass legends. 3 .63 2 .01 0. 23 0 .41 7. - B e t t e r to c e l e b r a t e on New Years eve. 4 .78 2 . 13 0. 19 0 .35 8. Canadians a l s o have a c c e n t s . 3 .45 2 .03 0. 13 0 .25 9. Acupunture good s u r g i c a l method. 4 .25 1 .93 o. 13 0 .24 10. Community should help pay f o r f u n e r a l s . 3 .22 1 .93 0. 09 0 . 15 11 . Take from nature only what i s needed. 1 .95 1 .57 0. 08 0 .09 12 . -Canada most democratic c o u n t r y . 3 .75 1 .89 0. 02 0 .21 ACCEPT * • 1 . I n v i t e new f o r e i g n student to lunch. 2 .66 1 .79 0 . 59 0 .59 • • 2. -Don't accept p r i m i t i v e people i n Canada. 3 .02 2 .11 0. 59 0 .59 • • 3. L i k e to l e a r n more about f o r e i g n e r s . 3 .31 2 .02 0. 56 0 .66 4. -Immigrants make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r everyone i n Canada to get along w e l l . 3 .43 2 .26 0. 55 0 .55 » 5. Not i n t e r e s t e d i n a s s o c i a t i n g with people from other c o u n t r i e s . 2 .45 1 .81 0. 54 0 .59 • 6. Immigrants make Canada i n t e r e s t i n g . 2 .94 1 . 95 0. 52 0 .57 • 7. -Change d i f f i c u l t sounding names. 2 .54 1 .99 0. 42 0 .45 8. -Native dancing at p a r t y embarassing. 3 .66 1 .98 0. 36 0 .42 9. -Not date person of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e . 2 .99 1 .98 0. 36 0 .41 • 10. Make e f f o r t t o pronounce f o r e i g n names. 2 .07 1 .48 0. 33 0 .43 11 . Express p r i d e by wearing n a t i v e d r e s s . 2 .44 1 .63 0. 30 0 .30 12. New immigrant student f i n d d i f f i c u l t y making f r i e n d s . 4 . 16 2 . 16 0. 23 0 .29 A l l numbers rounded to 2 decimal p l a c e s Sample S i z e = 174 Grade 8 students « Items to Forms D and E »» Items to F i n a l Form 123 STUDY l : FORM C - FACTOR ANALYSIS OF FOUR FACTORS USING VARIMAX TRANSFORMATIONS SUMMARY OF ITEMS FACTOR LOADING •• _ i n d i c a t e negative statements 1 2 3 4 1. - F o o l i s h to b e l i e v e i n s t r o n g name. - - w - •39 W 46 2 . Not wrong to shovel r i c e i n t o mouth. - - - W 66 3. -Wrong to t h i n k everyone can be god. - W 57 - -4 . Arranged marriages good. W- •43 - - -5. -Immigrant make g e t t i n g along d i f f i c u l t . A 68 - - -6. - B e t t e r t o go out on New years eve. S 35 - - -7. -Don't accept p r i m i t i v e people i n CanadaA 75 - - -8 . Community should help pay f o r f u n e r a l s . - - S 43 -S. Make e f f o r t t o pronounce f o r e i g n names - - A 49 -10. Canadians a l s o have a c c e n t s . - - S 46 -11 . Totem pol e s good ways to show h e r i t a g e . - - S 46 S 43 12 . Acupuncture good s u r g i c a l method. - - - S 43 13. Immigrant make Canada i n t e r e s t i n g . A 51 - A 32 -14 . F o r e i g n e r s as f r i e n d l y as Canadians. S 61 - - -15. -Change d i f f i c u l t sounding names. A 41 - A 41 -16. Express p r i d e by wearing n a t i v e d r e s s . - - A 53 -17. Ok to use hands and f i n g e r s to e a t . - - W 38 W 34 18 . Ok not to eat beef s i n c e cows u s e f u l . - - - W 36 19. -Native dancing at party an embarassmentA 46 - - -20 . - B e t t e r to use k n i v e s , f o r k s , and spoons than c h o p s t i c k s . S 34 A 41 _ _ 21 . -People who b e l i e v e i n many gods w i l l no go to heaven. W 40 — _ 22. -Canada most democratic c o u n t r y . - A 44 - -23. Canadians should eat sea food such as sea u r c h i n s , seaweed, e t c . _ _ s 34 _ 24. -Not a good p r a c t i c e to g i v e away pos s e s s i o n s f o r p r e s t i g e . W 57 _ 25. Take from nature only what i s needed. - S--31 - -26. L i k e to l e a r n more about f o r e i g n e r s . A 52 - A 37 -27. -Song not a good way to pass legends. S 37 - - S 42 28. Canadians can l e a r n from f o r e i g n e r s . S 47 - S 45 -29. -Not i n t e r e s t e d i n a s s o c i a t i n g with people from other c o u n t r i e s . A 58 _ 30. Choose occupation by what you can most c o n t r i b u t e to s o c i e t y . _ S 44 _ 31. I n v i t e new f o r e i g n student to lunch. A 60 - A 33 -32. -Wrong to worship i d o l s . W 31 - - -33. -Not date person of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e . A 49 - - -34 . -New immigrant student f i n d d i f f i c u l t y making f r i e n d s . A 36 _ _ _ 35. -Unnecessary to g i v e sweets and some money to guests a f t e r a f u n e r a l . W 35 - W 46 -X of t o t a l v a r i a n c e 13 .30 5 .87 8 . 13 5 .36 A l l l o a d i n g s rounded to 2 decimal p l a c e s . Decimals omitted. A l l l o a d i n g s l e s s than .30 have beem omitted. Sample S i z e - 174 Grade 8 s t u d e n t s . A = Accept Items W = Wrong Items S = S u p e r i o r Items 124 STUDY l : FORM D - ITEM ANALYSIS OF THREE SUBSCALES RANKED ACCORDING TO SUBTEST-TEST (ST) CORRELATIONS SUMMARY OF ITEMS "-" i n d i c a t e n e g ative statements X SD ST TT WRONG 1. Nothing wrong with wearing turban. 4 .55 2 .11 0 .60 0 .76 2. - B e t t e r to use knives and f o r k s . 4 .01 1 .98 0 .58 0 .60 « 3. -Unnecessary to g i v e sweets and some money to guest a f t e r f u n e r a l . 3 .92 2 . 10 0 .59 0 .55 4 . -People who don't d r i n k f o r r e l i g i o u s reason miss out on good time. 3 .28 2 . 13 0 .51 0 .61 » 5. - B e t t e r to show f a m i l y h e r i t a g e on paper. 3 .65 1 .77 0 .45 0 . 48 » 6. -Bad manners to shovel r i c e i n t o mouth. 3 .22 2 .06 0 .45 0 .46 7. Acupuncture good s u r g i c a l method. 4 .59 2 .04 0 .44 0 .47 8. Nothing wrong with e a t i n g duck eggs. 2 .62 1 .69 0 .41 0 .48 9. OK not to eat beef s i n c e cows u s e f u l . 4 .01 2 . 15 0 .38 0 .55 • 10. Some t r u t h i n r e i n c a r n a t i o n 4 .04 2 .02 0 .38 0 .42 •11 . OK to eat e e l s and snakes. 3 .35 2 .00 0 .37 0 .40 »12. -Song not good way to pass on legend. 3 .26 1 .83 0 .36 0 . 44 •13. -Worshipping i d o l s i s wrong. 3 .92 2 .03 0 .35 0 .42 14. -Wrong to b e l i e v e i n many gods. 2 .73 1 .87 0 .26 0 .36 15. -Wrong to b e l i e v e bad luck i n h e r i t e d . 5 .34 1 .99 0 .21 0 . 18 16. L a r g e s t meal of day at lunch time. 3 .59 2 .02 0 .20 0 .30 17. -Bad to break something on New Years day. 4 .66 2 .38 0 .02 0 .03 18. Arranged marriages b e t t e r . 5 .80 1 .63 0 .01 0 .03 iCCEPT 1 . Would make f r i e n d s with immigrant student2 . 17 1 .58 0 .72 0 .66 * 2. -Accept immigration from only c o u n t r i e s such as US, England and S c o t l a n d . 3 .36 2 . 15 0 .63 0 .61 3. -Flimsy long s k i r t s and v e i l s OK i n some c o u n t r i e s but not i n Canada. 4 .25 2 .01 0 .59 0 .64 « 4. Would i n v i t e f o r e i g n student to lunch. 3 .21 1 .81 0 .59 0 .54 » 5. -Don't l i k e f o r e i g n e r s . No reason. 3 .25 2 . 10 0 .58 0 .62 « 6. -Should not accept p r i m i t i v e people f o r immigration to Canada. 3 .36 1 .93 o . 56 0 .62 7. - F o r e i g n e r s d i s r u p t Canadian s o c i e t y . 2 .66 1 .68 0 .55 0 .56 » 8. -Immigrants to Canada make g e t t i n g along more d i f f i c u l t . 3 .56 1 .92 0 .52 0 .58 9. -Boys should not wear turbans to s c h o o l . 4 .77 2 . 10 o .51 0 .59 10. Would f e e l s o r r y f o r one made fun of because of speech or d r e s s . 2 .54 1 .72 0 .49 o .46 »11. -People doing n a t i v e dance a t a p a r t y would cause embarassment. 3 .71 2 .06 0 .49 0 .58 12. -Not i n t e r e s t e d i n s t u d y i n g about f o r e i g n customs and c o u n t r i e s . 3 .01 1 .97 0 .45 0 . 46 13. Make e f f o r t to pronounce f o r e i g n names. 2 .34 1 .51 0 .35 0 .40 14. Should not c r i t i c i z e people who eat s t r o n g s m e l l i n g foods. 3 .04 1 .87 0 .31 0 .39 15. -Would not know what to t a l k about to immigrant student from A s i a . 3 .60 2 . 18 0 .25 0 .32 A l l numbers rounded to 2 decimal p l a c e s Sample S i z e = 101 Grade 10 students * Items to F i n a l Form STUDY 2: FORM D - FACTOR ANALYSIS OF FOUR FACTORS USING VARIMAX TRANSFORMATIONS SUMMARY OF ITEMS FACTOR LOADING <• i n d i c a t e n e g a t i v e statements 1 2 3 4 1. - B e t t e r to show f a m i l y h e r i t a g e on paper - - C 51 -2. -Immigrant make g e t t i n g along d i f f i c u l t . A 34 - A 33 A 37 3. Make f r i e n d s with immigrant student. A 65 - - A 54 4. Arranged marriages b e t t e r than Canadian . - C 47 - -5. Would f e e l s o r r y f o r one made fun of because of speech or d r e s s . A 58 _ 6. - F o r e i g n e r s d i s r u p t Canadian s o c i e t y . A 71 - -7. Nothing wrong with wearing turban. A 65 - C 42 -S. -Accept immigration from only c o u n t r i e s such as US, England, and S c o t l a n d . A 73 _ _ 9. Some t r u t h i n r e i n c a r n a t i o n . - C 45 - c 50 10. -Native dancing at party embarassing. A 52 - A 30 -11. -Flimsy long s k i r t s and v e i l s ok i n some c o u n t r i e s but not i n Canada. A 69 - - -12. Ok t o eat e e l s and snakes. - - C 67 -13. -Don't l i k e f o r e i g n e r s . No reason. A 54 - - -14. -People who do't d r i n k f o r r e l i g i o u s reason miss out on good time. _ C 45 C 39 15. -Bad to break something on New Years day - c 56 - -16. -Wrong to b e l i e v e bad luck i n h e r i t e d . - c 76 - -17. -Worhshipping i d o l s i s wrong. - - C 30 C 36 18. Should not c r i t i c i z e people who eat s t r o n g s m e l l i n g foods. _ _ A 37 _ 19. -Bad manners to shovel r i c e i n t o mouth. - - C 57 -20. -Would not know what to t a l k about to immigrant student from A s i a . _ 21 . Pronounce f o r e i g n names p r o p l e r l y . - - - A 60 22. -Song not good way to pass on legend. - - C 49 -23. Nothing wrong with e a t i n g duck eggs. - c--36 C 66 -24. -Boys should not wear turbans to s c h o o l . C 56 - C 39 -25. Ok not to eat beef s i n c e cows u s e f u l . c 51 - - -26. -Not i n t e r e s t e d i n s t u d y i n g about f o r e i g n customs and c o u n t r i e s . A 40 — _ 27. Acupucture good s u r g i c a l method. - - c 51 -28. Would i n v i t e f o r e i g n student to lunch. A 54 - - A 58 29. -Should not accept p r i m i t i v e people f o r immigration to Canada. A 57 c 32 _ 30 . - B e t t e r to use knives and f o r k s than c h o p s t i c k s . — c 51 _ 31 . -Unnecessary to g i v e sweets and some money to guest a f t e r f u n e r a l . c 35 c 55 32. L a r g e s t meal of day at lunch time. - - - C 64 33. -Wrong to b e l i e v e i n many gods. - c -41 c 41 -X of t o t a l v a r i a n c e 15 .93 6 .40 11 .69 8 .59 A l l l o a d i n g s rounded to 2 decimal p l a c e s . Decimals omitted. A l l l o a d i n g s l e s s than .30 have been omitted Sample S i z e - 101 Grade 10 s t u d e n t s . A = Accept Items C = C u l t u r e Items 126 STUDY l : FORM E - ITEM ANALYSIS OF THREE SUBSCALES RANKED ACCORDING TO SUBTEST-TEST (ST) CORRELATIONS SUMMARY OF ITEMS i n d i c a t e n e g a t i v e statements X SD ST TT WRONG « 1. - R i d i c u l o u s t o take food t o cemetery. 4. 42 2 . 12 0. 55 0. 56 • 2. -Unhealthy not to cut h a i r and beard. 5. 12 1 .86 0. 49 0. 49 » 3. -Wrong to eat ants. 3. 95 2 .24 0. 47 0. 49 • 4. - R e i n c a r n a t i o n r i d i c u l o u s b e l i e f . 3. 55 2 . 10 0. 45 0. 46 • 5. -Teach to use k n i v e s / f o r k s i n s t e a d . 4. 42 1 .94 0. 42 0. 51 « 6. Canadians should eat v a r i e t y sea foods. 4. 12 1 .99 0. 38 0. 49 7. -New Years eve, go out and c e l e b r a t e . 5. 19 1 .89 0. 37 0. 41 a. -Not make n o i s e when d r i n k i n g soup. 4 . 67 2 . 10 0. 37 0. 37 9. -Legends and s t o r i e s b e t t e r i n books. 3. 61 2 .01 0. 37 0. 41 10. OK to use hands and f i n g e r s to e a t . 3. 74 2 . 13 0. 36 0. 49 »11. Coriander and s p i c e s make food t a s t y . 2. 64 1 .57 0. 35 0. 40 12. -Not good p r a c t i c e to g i v e away pos s e s s i o n to gain p r e s t i g e . 3. 84 1 .95 0. 31 0. 41 13. - C h i l d r e n p a i d to do chores by p a r e n t s . 4. 60 2 .22 0. 25 0. 27 •14. Cremation a f t e r death so s o u l r e l e a s e d . 3. 77 2 .05 0. 22 0. 27 15. - B e l i e f i n having s t r o n g name f o o l i s h . 4. 28 1 .94 0. 04 0. 08 iCCEPT 1 . Immigrates make Canade more i n t e r e s t i n g . 3. 38 1 .87 0. 74 0. 68 • 2. Not o b j e c t to immigretion to Cenede. 2. 85 1 .86 0. 72 0. 70 • 3. Canada m u l t i c u l t u r a l . A l l welcome. 2. 99 1 .98 0. 69 0. 63 • 4. -Immigrants g i v e up f o r e i g n ways soon. 3. 33 1 .93 0. 67 0. 64 5. Canadians l o t to l e a r n from f o r e i g n e r s . 3. 03 1 .91 0. 63 0. 62 6. -No immigration from c o u n t r i e s heving d i f f e r e n t customs and p r a c t i c e s . 2. 90 1 .92 0. 59 0. 63 7. -Not i n t e r e s t e d i n a s s o c i a t i n g with f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . 2. 52 1 .55 0. 58 0. 59 8. F o r e i g n e r s as f r i e n d l y as Canadiens. 2. 80 1 .82 0. 54 0. 52 • 9. Canadians should adopt customs and p r a c t i c e s of other c o u n t r i e s . 4. 22 2 .00 0. 53 0. 57 10. - F o r e i g n e r s i n neighbourhood t r o u b l e . 3. 19 1 .85 0. 53 0. 58 •11 . L i k e to l e a r n more about other r a c e s . 3. 48 2 .05 0. 53 0. 53 •12. New immigrants r i g h t to form own group. 2. 74 2 . 10 0. 52 0. 54 •13. Not necessary f o r immigrants to change to get along with other Canadians. 3. 69 1 .93 0. 52 0. ,51 •14. -Un-Canadian to wear n a t i v e d r e s s . 4. 08 2 .09 0. 49 0. 56 15. -Names d i f f i c u l t t o pronounce should be changed. 2. 94 1 .93 0. 47 0. 52 •16. -Not to date person of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e . 2. ,78 1 .95 0. 35 0. 41 17. -Halloween pa r t y not p l a c e to wear n a t i v e d r e s s . 3. ,24 1 .97 0. 32 0. ,41 18. -New immigrant student so d i f f e r e n t they have d i f f i c u l t y making f r i e n d s . 4. ,51 1 .93 0. , 15 0. ,31 A l l numbers rounded to 2 decimal p l a c e s Sample S i z e = 101 Grade 10 students » Items to F i n a l Form STUDY 2: FORM E - FACTOR ANALYSIS OF FOUR FACTORS USING VARIMAX TRANSFORMATIONS SUMMARY OF ITEMS FACTOR LOADING II _ II i n d i c a t e n e gative statements 1 2 3 4 1. - B e l i e f i n having s t r o n g name f o o l i s h . - - - -2. New immigrants r i g h t t o form own groups A76 - - -3. Coriander and s p i c e s make food t a s t y . - - C 35 -4 . - F o r e i g n e r s i n neighbourhood t r o u b l e . A 58 A 32 - -5. -Teach t o use k n i v e s / f o r k s i n s t e a d . - - C 70 -6. Canadians should adopt customs and p r a c t i c e s of other c o u n t r i e s . A 66 — -7 . -No immigration from c o u n t r i e s having d i f f e r e n t customs and p r a c t i c e s . A 64 _ A 31 -8. -Un-Canadian t o wear n a t i v e d r e s s . A 56 - A 58 -9. - C h i l d r e n paid to do chores by par e n t s . - C 66 - -10. Immigrate make Canada more i n t e r e s t i n g . A 68 - - A 45 11. Canadians l o t to l e a r n f o r f o r e i g n e r s . A 52 - - A 45 12. -Unhealthy not to cut h a i r and beard. - C 44 C 47 -13. -New Years eve, go out and c e l e b r a t e . - c 43 - -14. - R i d i c u l o u s to take food t o cemetary. - - C 69 -15. - R e i n c a r n a t i o n r i d i c u l o u s b e l i e f . - - C 45 -16. F o r e i g n e r s as f r i e n d l y as Canadians. A 38 - - A 51 17. -New immigrant students so d i f f e r e n t they have d i f f i c u l t y making f r i e n d s . A 58 — 18. -Legends and s t o r i e s b e t t e r i n books. - - C 30 C 31 19. -Not make n o i s e when d r i n k i n g soup. C 32 C 34 C 37 -20. Ok to use hands and f i n g e r s t o e a t . - - C 34 C 51 21 . Canadians should eat v a r i e t y sea foods.C 32 C 44 - -22. Not necessary f o r immigrants to change to get along with other Canadians. A 42 - A 44 A 31 23. -Names d i f f i c u l t to pronounce should be changed. — A 49 24. -Wrong to eat a n t s . - C 59 - -25. -Immigrants g i v e up f o r e i g n ways soon. A 41 - A 39 A 54 26. -Not t o date person of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e . - - - A 54 27. Canada m u l t i c u l t u r a l . Everyone welcome A54 - - A 59 28. Cremation a f t e r death so s o u l r e l e a s e d . - C 37 - -29. -Not i n t e r e s t e d i n a s s o c i a t i n g with f o r e i g n student. _ c 31 _ _ 30. -Not good p r a c t i c e to g i v e away possesion to g a i n p r e s t i g e . _ c 31 - -31 . -Halloween party not p l a c e to wear n a t i v e d r e s s . - - A 48 A 38 32. Not o b j e c t to immigration to Canada from other c o u n t r i e s . A 50 _ _ A 33 33 . L i k e t o l e a r n more about other r a c e s . - - - A 57 * of t o t a l v a r i a n c e 13 .51 8 .23 9 .83 12 .78 A l l l o a d i n g s rounded to 2 decimal p l a c e s . Decimals omitted. A l l l o a d i n g s l e s s than .30 have been omitted. Sample S i z e - 101 Grade 10 s t u d e n t s . A = Accept Items C = C u l t u r e Items 128 STUDY 4: FINAL FORM - ITEM ANALYSIS OF THREE SUBSCALES RANKED ACCORDING TO SUBTEST-TEST (ST) CORRELATIONS SUMMARY OF ITEMS "-" i n d i c a t e n e gative statements X SD ST TT CULTURE 1. -Taught to use knives and f o r k s i n s t e a d of hands to e a t . 4. 07 2, .01 0. 48 0. 53 2 . -Bad manners t o shovel r i c e i n t o mouth. 3. 94 2 . 16 0. 42 0. 46 3. - R i d i c u l o u s to take food to cemetary. 4 . 01 2 .08 0. 41 0. 45 4 . Nothing wrong with e a t i n g e e l s and snakes. 2. 72 1 .94 0. 38 0. 45 5. - B e l i e f i n r e i n c a r n a t i o n r i d i c u l o u s . 3. 57 2 . 18 0. 38 0. 36 6. -Wrong to eat a n t s . 4 . 02 2 .24 0. 37 0. 45 7. B e l i e f i n cremation to r e l e a s e s o u l . 3. 71 2 .04 0. 33 0. 34 8. Curry and s p i c e s make food more t a s t y . 3. 62 2 .21 0. 32 0. 51 9. Canadians should adopt f o r e i g n customs. 3. 64 1 .92 0. 31 0. 43 10. -Wrong to worship i d o l s . 4 . 04 2 .29 0. 29 0. 32 11 . Some t r u t h to b e l i e f i n r e i n c a r n a t i o n . 4. 24 1 .97 0. 29 0. 27 12. -Unnecessary to g i v e sweets and some money to f u n e r a l guests. 4 . 39 2 .08 0. 25 0. 38 13. -Unhealthy not t o cut h a i r and beard. 4 . 41 2 .30 0. 24 0. 40 14. - B e t t e r to show f a m i l y h e r i t a g e on paper. 3. 27 2 .02 0. 23 0. 32 15. Song good way to pass on legend. 2. 44 1 .51 0. 19 0. 31 16. Canadians c l o s e to see should eat sea food such as seaweed, u r c h i n e s , e t c . 4. 68 1 .87 0. 17 0. 19 :CEPT 1. -Don't l i k e f o r e i g n e r s . No reason. 3. 09 2 .25 0. 67 0 . 64 2. -Since Canadians a l l immigrants, no o b j e c t i o n t o immigration. 2. 30 1 .76 0. 61 0. 59 3. Canada m u l t i c u l t u r a l . Everyone welcome. 2. 20 1 .87 0. 57 0. 51 4. -Not accept p r i m i t i v e peoples to immigrate to Canada. 3. 06 1 .97 0. 56 0. ,58 5. L i k e to l e a r n about d i f f e r e n t r a c e s . 3. 19 1 .97 0. 56 0. 61 6 . -Un-Canadian to wear n a t i v e dress on s t r e e t . 3. 62 2 .21 0. 56 0. 58 7. Unnecessary f o r immigrants to change ways to get along with Canadians. 2. 95 1 .92 0. 56 0. 60 8. -Immigrants make i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r everyone to get along. 3. ,41 2 .03 0. 55 0. 57 9. -Immigrants to Canada should g i v e up f o r e i g n ways as soon as p o s s i b l e . 3. ,05 2 . 16 0. 55 0. ,60 10. -Canada only accept immigration from such c o u n t r i e s as US, England and S c o t l a n d . 2. .96 2 . 13 0. , 54 0. .58 11. New immigrants have r i g h t to form own group. 2. .85 1 .84 0. .46 0, .52 12. -Embarassed i f people at party d i d n a t i v e f o l k dance. 3. .38 2 . 10 0. .40 0. .47 13. I n v i t e new f o r e i g n student to lunch. 2. ,51 1 .62 0. .38 0. ,43 14. -Not date person of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e . 2, .92 2 .00 0. . 23 0. .33 A l l numbers rounded to 2 decimal p l a c e s Sample S i z e = 225 Grade 8 students 129 STUDY 4: FINAL FORM - FACTOR ANALYSIS OF FOUR FACTORS USING VARIMAX TRANSFORMATIONS SUMMARY OF ITEMS FACTOR LOADING "-" i n d i c a t e n e gative statements 1 2 3 4 1. Some t r u t h t o b e l i e f i n r e i n c a r n a t i o n . - C 76 2. -Canada only accept immigration from such c o u n t r i e s as US, England and S c o t l a n d . A 67 3. Canadians should eat v a r i e t y sea foods. -4. -Immigrants to Canada should g i v e up f o r e i g n ways as soon as p o s s i b l e . A 67 - A 38 5. -Immigrants make i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r everyone to get along. A 56 -6. Song good way to pass on legend. - - - C 59 7. Curry and s p i c e s make food more t a s t y . C 44 - - C 34 8. -Unhealthy not to cut h a i r and beard. C 36 - C 38 9. -Bad manners to shovel r i c e i n t o mouth. - C 65 10. Nothing wrong with e a t i n g e e l s and snakes.- - C 43 11. -Unnecessary to g i v e sweets and some money to f u n e r a l guests. - - - C 35 12. Unnecessary f o r immigrants to change ways to get along with Canadians. A 66 -13. -Wrong to eat a n t s . - C 58 14. Canada m u l t i c u l t u r a l . Everyone welcome.A 74 -15. - B e t t e r to show f a m i l y h e r i t a g e on paper than on totem p o l e . - C 51 16. -Un-Canadian to wear n a t i v e dress on s t r e e t . A 38 - A 45 A 36 17. L i k e to l e a r n about d i f f e r e n t r a c e s . A 45 - A 38 18. - B e l i e f i n r e i n c a r n a t i o n r i d i c u l o u s . - C 70 19. -Taught to use knives and f o r k s i n s t e a d of hands to e a t . - C 60 20. -Not accept p r i m i t i v e peoples to immigrate to Canada. A 56 - A 30 21. -Embarassed i f people at p a r t y d i d n a t i v e f o l k dance. - C 30 A 58 22. Canadians should adopt f o r e i g n customs. - - - A 38 23. B e l i e f i n cremation to r e l e a s e s o u l . - C 51 24. -Wrong t o worship i d o l s . - C 60 25. -Don't l i k e f o r e i g n e r s . No reason. A 56 - - A 45 26. I n v i t e new f o r e i g n student to lunch. - - - A 54 27. New immigrants have r i g h t t o form own groups. A 43 - - A 40 28. -Not date person of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e . - - - C 45 29. - R i d i c u l o u s to take food to cemetary. - C 31 C 32 30. S i n c e Canadians a l l immigrants, no o b j e c t i o n to immigration. A 70 * of t o t a l v a r i a n c e 14.84 7.54 9.05 9.05 A l l l o a d i n g s rounded to 2 decimal p l a c e s . Decimals omitted. A l l l o a d i n g s l e s s than .30 have been omitted. Sample S i z e - 225 Grade 8 s t u d e n t s . A = Accept Items C = C u l t u r e Items 130 STUDY 4: FINAL FORM - FACTOR ANALYSIS OF FOUR FACTORS USING VARIMAX TRANSFORMATIONS FACTOR LOADING SUMMARY OF ITEMS 1 2 3 4 1. Some t r u t h to b e l i e f i n r e i n c a r n a t i o n . -05 76 -07 15 2. Canada only accept immigration from such c o u n t r i e s as US, England, and S c o t l a n d . 67 17 08 09 3. Canadians c l o s e to sea should eat sea food such as seaweed, u r c h i n s , e t c . 10 28 12 -11 4. Immigrants to Canada should g i v e up f o r e i g n ways as soon as p o s s i b l e . 67 10 38 -10 5. Immigrants make i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r everyone to get along. 56 07 27 14 6. Song good way to pass on legend. 13 06 -17 59 7. Curry and s p i c e s make food more t a s t y . 44 07 05 34 8 . Unhealthy not to cut h a i r and beard. 36 01 38 -11 9. Bad manners to shovel r i c e i n t o mouth. 17 12 65 -01 10. Nothing wrong with e a t i n g e e l s and snakes. 07 26 43 24 11. Unnecessary t o g i v e sweets and some money to f u n e r a l guests. 20 07 12 35 12. Unnecessary f o r immigrants to change ways t o get along with Canadians. 66 25 10 09 13. Wrong to eat a n t s . 06 03 58 23 14. Canada m u l t i c u l t u r a l . Everyone welcome. 74 -07 -03 17 15. B e t t e r to show f a m i l y h e r i t a g e on paper than on totem p o l e . 04 03 51 03 16. Un-Canadian to wear n a t i v e dress on s t r e e t . 38 -12 45 36 17 . L i k e to l e a r n about d i f f e r e n t r a c e s . 45 02 29 38 18. B e l i e f i n r e i n c a r n a t i o n r i d i c u l o u s . -03 70 04 24 19. Taught to use knives and f o r k s i n s t e a d of hands to eat. 21 19 60 11 20. Not accept p r i m i t i v e peoples to immigrate to Canada. 56 -03 30 18 21 . Embarassed i f people a t p a r t y d i d n a t i v e f o l k dance. 14 11 30 58 22. Canadians should adopt f o r e i g n customs. 24 16 04 38 23. B e l i e f i n cremation to r e l e a s e s o u l . 07 51 10 11 24. Wrong to worship i d o l s . 12 60 16 -12 25. Don't l i k e f o r e i g n e r s . No reason. 56 -07 18 45 26. I n v i t e new f o r e i g n student to lunch. 17 08 08 54 27. New immigrants have r i g h t t o form own groups. 43 27 -06 40 28. Not date person of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e . -05 05 24 45 29. R i d i c u l o u s to take food to cemetary. 10 31 32 28 30. Since Canadians a l l immigrants, no o b j e c t i o n to immigration. 70 00 05 26 X of t o t a l v a r i a n c e 14 .84 7.54 9.05 9.05 A l l l o a d i n g s rounded to 2 decimal p l a c e s . Decimals omitted. Sample S i z e - 225 Grade 8 s t u d e n t s . APPENDIX D I n t e r v e n t i o n Study Lesson M a t e r i a l s : 1. Lesson O u t l i n e 2. Handout - "Nodnelds" « 3. Handout - Questions on "Nodnelds" 4. F i l m s t r i p S c r i p t - "One World, Many C u l t u r e s 5. Handout - "Name the Savage Country" »** » The l e s s o n on the "Nodnelds" was taken from the a r t i c l e by Glenn Lambert, "Teaching the Concept of Ethno-c e n t r i s m " . «» The f i l m s t r i p s c r i p t was t r a n s c r i b e d from the k i t tape c a s s e t t e . »«* The handout i s from the Red Cross Teacher Resource book Tomorrow's World - An I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development  Education Program f o r Secondary Student, p. 24. 132 INTERVENTION STUDY LESSON MATERIALS LESSON TOPIC: CONCEPT OF ETHNOCENTRISM OBJECTIVE: To have students know and understand ethnocentrism and to r e a l i z e t h a t we not be e t h n o c e n t r i c . LENGTH OF TIME: 3 c l a s s e s of one hour each. SUBTOPICS: 1. Define "ethnocentrism". 2. E x p l a i n the job of the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t and how they can help us become l e s s e t h n o c e n t r i c . 3. Recognize when people are e t h n o c e n t r i c . 4. D i s p e l l two common types of e t h n o c e n t r i c a t t i t u d e s o f t e n expressed by Canadians: a) other c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s are wrong. b) Canada i s s u p e r i o r to other c o u n t r i e s . 5. R e a l i z e t h a t Canada i s a m u l t i c u l t u r a l country where everyone should accept and r e s p e c t each o t h e r . MATERIALS: 1. Handout with q u e s t i o n s - "Nodnelds". The handout and q u e s t i o n s were w r i t t e n by Glen LAMBERT, "Teaching the Concept of Ethnocentrism" i n S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n . V o l . 42 No. 5, pp. 408-409, 1978 2. F i l m s t r i p - "One World, Many C u l t u r e s - The B a s i s of Anthropology". Multi-Media P r o d u c t i o n s , Inc., P.O. Box 5097, S t a n f o r d , Ca 94305. 3. Handout - "Name the Savage Country", People: A c t i v i t y F i v e . Tomorrow's World, Red Cross Canada. 4. F i l m s t r i p - "No. 5001B, C u l t u r e : The Process of I n t e g r a t i o n and A s s i m i l a t i o n " w r i t t e n by Joanne and David F l i n t . Canadian Folk C u l t u r e d i s t r i b u t e d by Ethos L t d . , 1979. EVALUATION: On the t h i r d day, have students w r i t e a s h o r t r e p o r t i n c l a s s d e f i n i n g ethnocentrism, p r o v i d i n g s e v e r a l examples of ethnocentrism and then e x p l a i n why Canadians should or should not be e t h n o c e n t r i c . what i s meant by i n Canada should 133 I n t e r v e n t i o n Study Lesson M a t e r i a l s Page 2 LESSON 1 - What i s ethnocentrism? 1. Have students read handout "Nodnelds". 2. A f t e r g i v i n g them a few minutes to read on t h e i r own, go through and read the handout with them. 3. D i s c u s s the handout i n terms of comprehension and with the c l a s s t e n t a t i v e l y go over the 6 q u e s t i o n s . 4. Hand out the 6 q u e s t i o n s and have students work on them i n d i v i d u a l l y . 5. During the l a s t 15 minutes of the c l a s s go over q u e s t i o n s and provided the d e f i n i t i o n f o r ethnocentrism. LESSON 2 - A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s can help make us l e s s e t h n o c e n t r i c . 1. Have students read handout "Name the Savage Country". 2. D i s c u s s whether students would l i k e t o l i v e i n the "savage country". Guess what, country? 3. Review term ethnocentrism. 4. Show f i l m s t r i p "One World - Many C u l t u r e s " and ask students to c o n s i d e r : a) What i s an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t ? b) What do they do? c) How might they help us become l e s s e t h n o c e n t r i c . 5. D i s c u s s f i l m s t r i p i n terms of the 3 q u e s t i o n s . 6. Handout "Nodnelds" rea d i n g and have students answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s i n t h e i r notebook: a) As an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , what would you t e l l us about some t h i n g s we can l e a r n from the Nodnelds? b) E x p l a i n how the Nodnelds are themselves e t h n o c e n t r i c by d e s c r i b i n g at l e a s t 2 examples. 134 I n t e r v e n t i o n Study Lesson M a t e r i a l s Page 3 LESSON 3 - Canada as a m u l t i c u l t u r a l country. 1. Begin with a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n asking students why they f e e l Canadians should not be e t h n o c e n t r i c . 2. Show f i l m s t r i p " C u l t u r e : The Process of I n t e g r a t i o n and A s s i m i l a t i o n " . 3 . Have students w r i t e a s h o r t i n - c l a s s r e p o r t i n the time remaining. I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the r e p o r t a r e : Write a s h o r t r e p o r t on "ethnocentrism". In your r e p o r t d e f i n e ethnocentrism, p r o v i d e at l e a s t two examples to show you understand what i s meant by the term and e x p l a i n why you think Canadians should or should not be e t h n o c e n t r i c . THE NODNELDS 135 The Nodnelds are a small group of people who l i v e on a very large i s l a n d near the equator. They are a f r i e n d l y and peaceful people. They have no wars and do not believe i n f i g h t i n g other t r i b e s . Honesty, r e l i g i o n , and cooperation are the three most important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i r c u l t u r e . They believe i n honesty so much that they punish anyone who l i e s , s t e a l s , and cheats by put t i n g him or her to death. ( I f a person i s accused of l y i n g , s t e a l i n g , or cheating he or she i s taken to the Ragna, the head man. The Pagna prays to the f i r e - g o d and the god t e l l s him i f the person i s g u i l t y . I f he or she i s g u i l t y , the god v r i l l shoot flames out of the mountain. The name of the f i r e - g o d i s Krono. The Nodnelds; believe that Krono i s the maker of a l l humans and that the Nodnelds are h i s f a v o r i t e people. Krono, thoy believe, made them the p e r f e c t typo of people. They show t h e i r b e l i e f i n cooperation by helping each other and other people on the i s l a n d gather f r u i t s , nuts, and b e r r i e s , and hunt wild animals. Because they do not know how to plant and grow crops, they spend most of t h e i r time looking f o r food. The men do a l l the hunting and are considered superior to women. The women have very few r i g h t s . They ha.ve to follow orders from the men. I f any woman does not f o l l o w orders, she i s not allowed tc eat f o r two days. I t i s the women's job to gather f r u i t s , nuts, and b e r r i e s to carry home the wild animals which the men have k i l l e d , and to prepare the meals-i The Nodnelds have only one meal a day. That meal begins at sundown and l a s t s f o r several hours. Sometime before sundown the women begin to prepare t h i s meal. They throw everything i n t o a "big pot and l e t i t cook f o r an hour. When the food i s cooked, i t i s put into the "eating pot" and a l l the people i n the family eat out of t h i s pot. They have no f o r k s or spoons. They use t h e i r hands and f i n g e r s . To show that the meal i s good, they chew loudly, burp, and belch. L i c k i n g t h e i r f i n g e r s i s also a common p r a c t i c e . I f an o u t s i d e r ate 3. meal with a Nodneld family and ate very q u i e t l y and made no noise, the fajnily would f e e l i n s u l t e d . In a d d i t i o n to e a t i n g out of the same pot, everyone drinks out of the same water container. The Nodnelds have several problems In t h e i r way of l i f e . They do not always get the r i g h t foods and sometimes they s u f f e r from an improper d i e t . When they get sick, they go to a medicine man who t e l l s them to f a s t and pray to the f i r e - g o d f o r help. Soaps and deodorants are unheard of i n the Nodneld cul t u r e , and t h i s causes some problems. The people are u s u a l l y d i r t y and sweaty and the only time they wash i s when they swim i n a r i v e r . Sometimes they wait so long between swims that t h e i r skin gets i n f e c t e d . There are more women than men In t h i s c u l t u r e and t h i s has l e d to the p r a c t i c e o f polygamy. Polygamy means one man can have more than one wife. To the Nodnelds t h i s i s very normal; and i f someone t o l d them that a man was supposed to have only one wife, he would laugh at him and t e l l him t h a t he was crazy. To make sure that the t r i b e never gets too large f o r the l i m i t e d food supply, the Nod.ields p r a c t i c e two things. One, they leave unwanted babies out i n the f o r e s t to d i e and say that they are sending them back to Krono, who w i l l take care of them u n t i l a l a t e r time. Two, when an e l d person i s no longer useful, to the t r i b e , they send hira o r her away to f a s t , pray to Krono, and d i e . x136 THE NODNELDS: QUESTIONS FOH DISCUSSION You are an anthropologist. You have been sent into this area to help these people. Write a report in vrhich you ansvrer the following questions: 1. HOK i.-ould you help the Nodnelds? 2. What would you do? 3 . What changes, i f any, vrould you make in the vray they live? Why vrould you make these changes? 5 . If you v;ould not make these changes, explain your reasons for this. 6, If you tried to make changes in the vay they li v e and they did not want to gc along uith those changes, what vrould you do? ONE WORLD, MANY CULTURES - THE BASIS OF ANTHROPOLOGY, s c r i p t of filmstrip/tapfc Humans have always boon fascinated by t h e i r own species, i n recent years we have developed the science of anthropology to help us explain ourselves. Anthropology i s the study of human behaviour, culture and h i s t o r i c a l development wherever i t appears on the globe. Some anthropolgists attempt to understand ancient people by f i n d i n g remains of t h e i r c u l t u r e s . These scholo.rs interested i n human beings from an h i s t o r i c a l perspective are c a l l e d archcologists. They have contributed much to our know-ledge of forgotten cultures. P h y s i c a l anthropologists study human evolution. They seek to understand how huraans became what they are and to pred i c t where they are going. They may help humans to become the f i r s t animals to control t h e i r own evolution. The s o c i a l anthropologist studies human behaviour i n contemporary s o c i e t y . To gain a more complete understanding of man he leaves h i s own. sooiety and studies a strange exotic culture whether i t be i n a New Guinea jungle or i n a bar across the s t r e e t . The technique used by the s o c i a l anthropologist i s ethnology or f i e l d work. The ethnologist l i v e s with the people he i s studying and learns t h e i r language and observes t h e i r society. He must then t r a n s l a t e t h i s i n t o h i s own language. The ethnologist must t r y and see other cultures o b j e c t i v e l y . He must understand that what may be a strange custom f o r him i s an everyday pr a c t i c e f o r others. Every human a c t i v i t y t e l l s us something about ourselves. Ethnologists usually study what we might c a l l p r i m i t i v e society. By going outside h i s own c u l t u r a l conditioning the anthropologist can gain a more complete understanding of human behaviour. D i f f e r e n t s o c i e t i e s o f f e r a much wider range of human behaviour than we see around us. People i n B a l i often experience the withdrawn hypnotib state shorn .here. This type of behaviour i s encouraged by the culture and i s seen as nothin unusual. D i f f e r e n t peoples experience the sane problems a l l over the world and deal with them i n d i f f e r e n t ways. The anthropologist shows us that our way i s not the only way, perhaps not even the best nay. Can we learn from simpler l e s s complicated l i f e s t y l e s . The p r i m i t i v e people do not have the technology we do but they may have much to teach us about s p i r i t u a l values, basic contentment and l i v i r g i n harmony with the environment. The anthropologist teaches us to repect the culture of others not. to destroy -or rid i c u * ! them. He teaches us how to help other people i n non des t r u c t i v e ways, while respecting t h e i r need f o r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . Anthropologists have long attempted to combat racism. Ethnologists have noted that there i s a wide range of behaviour and achievements i n every c u l t u r a l group. They have found no evidence that one group i s superior to another. Tiie anthropologist l e a r n haw s o c i e t i e s shape personality and t r i e s to see how our own does so. Some groups l i k e the New Guinea tribesmen encourage the development of a war l i k e character. These t r i b e s , wore u n t i l r e c e n t l y engaged i n constant warfare. The anthropologist also notes how s o c i e t i e s change and t i y to discover laws of change that work f o r a l l s o c i e t i e s . Srithropologists have taken nuch i n t e r e s t in the cla s h of p r i m i t i v e and western c u l t u r e s . When the anthropologist goes i n t o the f i e l d he has a number of topics to explore. One important concern i s how people are s o c i a l i z e d , how ch i l d r e n are taught the ways of t h e i r elders. The a t t i t u d e of parents towards chi l d r e n varies greatly throughout the world. In some cultures c h i l d r e n have much freedom, i n other they are treated harshly. The way children are treated has much to do with t h e i r conduct as adu l t s . . Learning i s d i f f e r e n t i n ottier c u l t u r e s . In the is l a n d s of B a l i , the c h i l d r e n learn by observing not by hearing. This lack of verbal l e a r n i n g means that adults have a hard time understanding spoken i n s t r u c t i o n s but i t gives them _o s p e c i a l talent f o r a r t . The anthropologist a r . K n how boys and g i r l s are taught t h e i r respective r o l e s and what ih'::->e roles i're. In many cultures young people arc. separated into age arid sex groups and go through a formal learning process. Boyc and g i r l s usually learn d i f f e r e n t tasks. What does i t mean to become a man or woman? Many s o c i e t i e s have elaborate coming of age ceremonies. This South African boy dressed i n the i n i t i a t i o n costume of h i s t r i b e i s being tested i n the t r i b a l customs by ciders Anthropologists often study kinship,or systems of family r e l a t i o n s . They want to know who i s considered a r e l a t i v e or ancestor and what ro l e s and r e s p o n s i b l l i t i e various r e l a t i v e s play. The study of kinship can scr.etlraes become very complex. The structure of a family i s an important aspect of kinship. In most cultures one f i n d s one husband, one wife r_-)d c h i l d r e n , but not always. In many A f r i c a n t r i b e s a man may take several wives. This p r a c t i c e i s c a l l e d polygamy. A few cultures such as the Eskimo, sometimes p r a c t i c e polyandry, i n which a wife might take two husbands. This p r a c t i c e i s believed to be r e l a t i v e l y rare. What ro l e s do married men and women play? What are t h e i r r i g h t s and r e c p o n s i b i l i t What kinds of sexual conduct are permitted? As our society undergoes change, anthropologist draw i n s i g h t s from the t r a d i t i o n s of others. Anthropologists are interested i n s o c i a l grouping. Almost a l l s o c i e t i e s seem to have some system of rank, c l a s s or caste. The most severe system of rank i s i n India, where persons of a d i f f e r e n t caste do not associate with one and other. Our own society has many systems of grouping. We have whites and blacks, professionals and r.or.-professionals, r i c h and poor, establishment and outcast. How can ><e l e a m to accept those cn a d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l l e v e l ? Anthropologists study the language, a r t and drama of the people to lea r n how they see the world. Ethnologists who must lea r n unusual languages have noted that language e f f e c t s culture and per s o n a l i t y . Language may be soft,harsh, boisterous, or l i l t i n g ;,;uch l i k e the people i n the society. D i f f e r e n t people have d i f f e r e n t wards f o r grouping colour. Does t h i s mean that they see colour d i f f e r e n t l y ? The Japanese, have one word f o r green and blue. The Welsh have one word f o r blue and grey. The T i v , an A f r i c a n t r i b e have one word l i g h t blue and grey, and another word f o r dark blue, dark grey,and green. Art i s a r e f l e c t i o n c f how people see themselves and t h e i r s o c i e t y . An a r t i s t i s a commentator on the world looking through h i s c u l t u r a l conditioning. South African tribesmen paint geometric designs on t h e i r houses which may reveal somethin about t h e i r way of seeing the world. Many people use -drama as a t o d f o r a c t i n g out s o c i a l r o l e s o r expressing c e r t a i n emotions. These East A f r i c a n dancers who might have been warriors a generation ago are ac t i n g out a war with another t r i b e . Anthropologists study very p r a c t i c a l questions too, such as how a community survives on a day to day basis. This Afghani a g r i c u l t u r a l community demonstrates one means of s u r v i v a l . Other s o c i e t i e s l i v e by hunting and gathering, herding or i n d u s t r i a l i s m . In providing for Its needs how does a society relate to i t s environment? Does the society harm Its environment? The balance of nature i s c r i t i c a l and can be altered by careless humans. 139 All over the world, humans have had to cope with harsh environments. Often they use ingenious ways to do so.Mongolian tribesmen on the Gobi desert b u i l d Yerts out of anir.al skins which gives them protection from the elements. Hong Kong residents have developed an unique way of deal with an overcrowded environment. They have l e f t land completely. Thousands of people l i v e on boats i n the c i t i e s harbour. Basic physical needs can be met by a wide variety c f materials around us. Difi'ent s o c i e t i e s have d i f f e r e n t ways of ex t r a c t i n g and forming materials i n t o goods. S o c i e t i e s usually develop some d i v i s i o n of labour and means of exchange. Not a l l society use money as we know i t or would understand what i t mea.ns. This Guatemalan marketplace combines barter with money, and i s also a forum f o r community gossip. The ethnologists pays attention to the systems of law and authority developed by other people. He must not assume that systems are s i m i l a r to h i s own. When missionaries f i r s t reached A f r i c a , they made the mistake of looking f o r t r i b a l a u t h o r i t i e s . Only to f i n d that i n many cases there weren't any. Usually a group w i l l develop ways of punishing or c o n t r o l l i n g deviant behaviour. Our society separates offenders of society and t r i e s tc r e h a b i l i t a t e thorn. P r i m i t i v e cultures often use degrading ceremonies or banishment to punish offenders. War and violence have d i f f e r e n t meanings i n d i f f e r e n t cultures. These Cheyenne warriors l i v e d to f i g h t i n the l a s t century,a thousand miles away C a l i f o r n i a mission Indians had never heard of war and could not understand i t •when missionaries described i t . Every society developes some form of r e l i g i o n c r ways of explaining the world. Anthropologists study the r e l i g i o n s of people, along with myths, f o l k l o r e and magic. Rel i g i o n plays a c r u c i a l r o l e i n our society. The anthropologists ask what r e l i g i o n does f o r people and how i t r e l a t e s to other s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . He t r i e s to analyze r e l i g i o u s change and c o n f l i c t . Tribes with p r i m i t i v e r e l i g i o n s reveal much about the human character that may be supressed i n our own society. A l l over the world people at one time shared a number of common b e l i e f s . One i s a b e l i e f i n many d i e t i e s . Another i s the concept of animism which a t t r i b u t e s a soul to cjiimais, plants and objects. Witchcraft and sorcery e x i s t s i n most cul t u r e s . The power of sorcery i s n e u t r a l . I t may be used f o r good or e v i l . This A f r i c a n witch doctor uses sorcery to heal h i s people. This Siberian woman i s a shaman, or a r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i t i o n e r . In p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s throughout the world, shamans p r a c t i c e sorcery healing, d i v i n a t i o n •and p r o t e c t i v e r i t u a l s . Often then use hypnotic trances and r i t u a l dancing. The study of f o l k l o r e or o r a l t r a d i t i o n has almost become a separate branch cf s o c i a l anthropology. Students of f o l k l o r e c o l l e c t songs, myths, s t o r i e s , and fables from people a l l over the world. They help us become aware of our own f o l k l o r e . By gaining an understanding of others anthropologists work to create a family of man. Ignorance breeds intolerance and c o s t l y s o c i a l mistakes. S o c i a l anthropologists help us l e a r n from others and make us see ourselves i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . 140 Name The Savage Country Tomorrow's World PEOPLE: Activity Five C a n y o u ident i fy th is d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y ? T h e fo l l ow ing d e s c r i p t i o n g ives the c l ues . Education: I l l i teracy is w i d e s p r e a d ; most c h i l d r e n qui t s c h o o l be fo re g r a d e eight . T h e y have to d r o p ou t to work o n the land or at o d d jobs . C h i l d r e n are e c o n o m i c uni ts , essen t ia l to their fami l ies ' su rv iva l . T h e r e is no t ime for them to g o t o s c h o o l o r to t ra in for p r o f e s s i o n s . Disease and Health Care: T h e infant mor ta l i ty rate is h i gh . D e a t h in ch i l db i r t h is r i sked by every mother . T h e san i ta t ion d i s e a s e s — d y s e n t e r y , t yphus , t y p h o i d , d ia r rhea—k i l l y o u n g a n d o ld a l i ke . C h i l d r e n are af f l ic ted wi th paras i tes and w o r m s , the c u r e s for w h i c h are few and di f f icul t to ob ta in . T u b e r c u l o s i s is ano ther major ki l ler. Hosp i t a l s are few a n d hard to r e a c h . V e d i c i n e is just e m e r g i n g f rom its med ieva l t rad i t ions. T h e r e are no pub l i c l y f u n d e d m e d i c a i p lans : heal th c a r e : even if it is ava i lab le , is too e x p e n s i v e for the ave rage p e r s o n . Den ta l ca re c o n s i s t s ma in ly of ex t rac t i ons . B y the t ime a pe r son reaches thirty, c h a n c e s are h e h a s f ew tee th left. T h e 3 0 - y e a r - o l d has a life e x p e c t a n c y of 25 more years . L i fe is "so l i ta ry , poor , nasty , b ru t ish and shor t " . Aren't ycu glad you don't live in this place? What continent do you think these people inhabit? Bi r th R a i e : P e o p l e have m a n y bab ies . Pa ren ts want to be taken care of w h e n they get s ick or too o ld to work , a n d they must have, at least six ch i l d ren tc e n s u r e that o n e s o n wi l l surv ive to a d u l t h o o d . (There are no o ld age p e n s i o n s , we l fare benef i ts o r e x t e n d e d ca re fac i l i t ies f o r t h e e lder ly . ) Work: T h e major i ty of p e o p i e are e n g a g e d in s u b s i s t e n c e f a rm ing and f i sh ing . Work is end less . Every hand is n e e d e d b e c a u s e there are so few m a c h i n e s . C o n d i t i o n s in the m i n i n g a n d l o g g i n g indus t r ies are par t i cu la r l y ha r sh . In the c i t ies , fac tory w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s are te r r i b le—low wages , l ong h o u r s , no ho l i days , a s i x -day week , no e m p l o y e e benef i ts . T h e few mercan t i l e a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l jobs are l imi ted to tnose w i th a d v a n c e d e d u c a t i o n a n d fami ly c o n n e c t i o n s . Quest ions 1. A t what po in t d i d y o u ident i fy the " s a v a g e c o u n t r y " ? 2. What is the po in t that th is exo rc i se is m a k i n g ? 3. G o t h r o u g h the ar t ic le aga in a n d ident i fy the ways 'o f j udg ing whe ther the coun t r y is d e v e l o p e d or not. F o r e x a m p l e , in p a r a g r a p h 1, " E d u c a t i o n " , two m e a s u r e m e n t s are used : l i teracy and the length of t ime a s tudent s tays in s c h o o l . M a k e a list of al l s u c h m e a s u r e m e n t s . D o y o u think it is va l id to j udge a coun t r y ' s level of deve lopmen t u s i n g these fac to rs? W h a t cr i ter ia w o u l d y o u add or sub t rac t? 24 Canadian Red Cross Society These people are in poor shape! Movement: Mob i l i t y is l im i ted and expens i ve . T rue , there is a g o o d nat iona l ra i lway s y s t e m , but it m i sses many c o m m u n i t i e s . B e y o n d the ra i lways , the on ly w a y to travel is by ho rse , by boat or o n foot. S o m e tr ips that w o u l d take two h o u r s by car take three days . M o s t p e o p l e are b o m , g row up a n d die in the s a m e v i l lage. Money: S u b s i s t e n c e fa rmers and w a g e - e a r n e r s c a n rarely acqu i re any th ing b e y o n d the b a s i c s . Up - t o -da te c o n s u m e r p roduc t s are ava i lab le , but most p e o p l e have no m o n e y to p u r c h a s e t hem. Energy: Fue l is a p r e c i o u s c o m m o d i t y . W o o d and coa l are the pr imary fue ls for hea t i ng , c o o k i n g and indust ry . L a b o u r on farms is d o n e mos t l y by m u s c l e s — a n i m a l and h u m a n . P r e c i o u s c o a l o i l is saved for the l amps at night. Y o u have just read a desc r i p t i on of a na t ion thirty years after it a c h i e v e d i n d e p e n d e n c e . S i n c e i n d e p e n d e n c e day (the nat ives ca l l it D o m i n i o n Day) , ' these peop le have thrust as ide c o l o n i a l s t a t u s — b e i n g ru led by another c o u n t r y — a n d n o w gove rn themse lves . Th i s coun t r y has a long way to go, but s u c c e s s is cer ta in ly p o s s i b l e . It takes a l ong t ime to improve hea l th care , t ranspor ta t ion , e d u c a t i o n and w o r k i n g c o n d i -t ions. Th i r ty years is not l ong at a l l ! 141 APPENDIX E Dogmatism S c a l e r 142 PART TWO: OPINION SURVEY Read the f o l l o w i n g 30 statements and respond i n the same way you have done on the p r e v i o u s pages. AGREE VERY MUCH The h i g h e s t form of government i s a democracy and the h i g h e s t form of democracy i s a government run by those who are most i n t e l l i g e n t . Even though freedom of speech f o r a l l groups i s a worthwhile g o a l , i t i s unfor-t u n a t e l y necessary to r e s t r i c t the freedom of c e r t a i n p o l i t i c a l groups. DISAGREE VERY MUCH 3. Fundamentally, the world we l i v e i n i s a p r e t t y lonesome p l a c e . 4. Most people don't g i v e a "damn" f o r others, 5. I'd l i k e i t i f I cou l d f i n d someone who would t e l l me how to s o l v e my pe r s o n a l problems. 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 I t i s only n a t u r a l f o r a person to be r a t h e r f e a r f u l of the f u t u r e . 7. There i s so much t o be done and so l i t t l e time to do i t . 1 8. Once I get wound up i n a heated d i s c u s s i o n , I j u s t can't stop. 1 9. In a d i s c u s s i o n I o f t e n f i n d i t necessary t o repeat myself s e v e r a l times t o make sure I am being understood. 1 10. I t i s b e t t e r t o be a dead hero than a l i v e coward. 1 11. The main t h i n g i n l i f e i s f o r a person t o want t o do something important. 1 12. I f given the chance I would do something of great b e n e f i t t o the world. 1 13. There are a number of people I have come t o hate because of the t h i n g s they stand f o r . 1 143 AGREE VERY MUCH DISAGREE VERY MUCH 14. A man who does not b e l i e v e i n some gre a t cause has not r e a l l y l i v e d . 1 15. I t i s only when a person devotes h i m s e l f to an i d e a l or cause t h a t l i f e become-.n meaningful. 1 16. Of a l l the d i f f e r e n t p h i l o s o p h i e s which e x i s t i n t h i s world, t h e r e i s probably only one which i s c o r r e c t . 1 17. A person who gets e n t h u s i a s t i c about too many causes i s l i k e l y t o be a p r e t t y "wishy-washy" s o r t of person. 1 18. When i t comes to d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n i n r e l i g i o n we must be c a r e f u l not to compro-mise with those who b e l i e v e d i f f e r e n t l y from the way we do. 1 19. In times l i k e these, a person must be p r e t t y s e l f i s h i f he c o n s i d e r s p r i m a r i l y h i s own happiness. 1 20. The worst crime a person c o u l d commit i s to a t t a c k p u b l i c a l l y the people who b e l i e v e i n the same t h i n g s he does. 1 21. A group which t o l e r a t e s too many d i f f e r -ences of o p i n i o n among i t s own members cannot e x i s t too long. 1 22. My blood b o i l s whenever a person s t u b b o r n l y r e f u s e s t o admit he's wrong. 1 23. A person who t h i n k s p r i m a r i l y of h i s own happiness i s beneath contempt. 1 24. Most of the ideas which get p r i n t e d nowadays aren't worth the paper they are p r i n t e d on. 1 25. In t h i s c omplicated world of ours the only way we can know what's going on i s to r e l y on l e a d e r s or experts who can be t r u s t e d . 1 26. I t i s o f t e n d e s i r a b l e t o r e s e r v e judgement about what's going on u n t i l one has had a chance to hear the o p i n i o n s of those one r e s p e c t s . 1 144 AGREE VERY MUCH DISAGREE VERY MUCH 27. In the long run the best way to l i v e i s to pi c k f r i e n d s and a s s o c i a t e s whose t a s t e s and b e l i e f s are the same as one's own. 4 5 28. The present i s a l l t o o f t e n f u l l of unhappiness. I t i s only the f u t u r e t h a t counts. 4 5 29. I f a man i s to accomplish h i s mission i n l i f e i t i s sometimes necessary t o gamble " a l l or nothing a t a l l . " 30. Most people j u s t don't know what's good f o r them. 4 5 4 5 

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