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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Preactive teaching practice of female elementary teachers Ballhorn, Barbara Jean 1983

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PREACTIVE TEACHING PRACTICE OF FEMALE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS By BARBARA JEAN BALLHORN B . S c , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of S o c i a l and E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as co n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1983 © B a r b a r a Jean B a l l h o r n In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e s of t h i s g e n e r a l , s p e c u l a t i v e s t u d y were t o d e s c r i b e how t e a c h e r s t h i n k about t h e d e c i s i o n s t h e y make d u r i n g p r e a c t i v e p l a n n i n g ; a n d t o d e s c r i b e t h e b a s e s t e a c h e r s use i n a r r i v i n g a t t h e d e c i s i o n s they make. The t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n was b a s e d on t h r e e methods t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e t h o u g h t t o use when th e y f i x b e l i e f . They were t h e method o f a u t h o r i t y , t h e method of s c i e n c e , and the method o f p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . The s t u d y i n v o l v e d i n t e r v i e w i n g 20 f u l l t i m e , f e m a l e , G r a d e 4 t e a c h e r s s e l e c t e d f r o m a l a r g e , m e t r o p o l i t a n d i s t r i c t i n a W e s t e r n C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c e . The s a m p l e i n c l u d e d t e a c h e r s who h e l d a B . E d , d e g r e e f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; p o s s e s s e d a p e r m a n e n t t e a c h i n g c o n t r a c t o r a t l e a s t a t h r e e y e a r t e m p o r a r y c o n t r a c t i n t h e d i s t r i c t ; and had a t l e a s t t h r e e y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . The m a j o r f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s s t u d y were: 1 . T e a c h e r s u s e d t h e method o f p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g i n b a s i n g t h e i r p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s when they f e l t c o n f i d e n t a b o u t t h e k n o w l e d g e l e v e l o f t h e s u b j e c t ; 2 . T e a c h e r s r e l i e d m o d e r a t e l y t o h e a v i l y on m a t e r i a l s and/or programs d e v e l o p e d by o t h e r s but f e l t t h a t t h e s e m a t e r i a l s needed t o i i i be p r e v i e w e d a n d a d a p t e d t o t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h i n g s t y l e s and p e r s p e c t i v e s ; 3. Teacher p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o r was i n f l u e n c e d t o a l a r g e d e g r e e by two e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s -s t u d e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t i m e a n d m a t e r i a l s . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s on f o r m u l a t i n g d i s t r i c t program p o l i c y a r e s i g n i f i c a n t . By h o l d i n g t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t w hat t e a c h e r s do i s a f f e c t e d by what t h e y t h i n k , t h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e i n t e r i m s t e p s t h a t may h e l p e d u c a t o r s u n d e r s t a n d more a b o u t t h e p r e a c t i v e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A l t h o u g h i t i s u n r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t a l l t e a c h e r s p l a n t h e same way, m e a s u r e s m i g h t be t a k e n i n a g e n e r a l way t o recommend i m p r o v e m e n t s i n p r e s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n of t e a c h e r s . S u p e r v i s o r i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e of C o n t e n t s . . i v Acknowledgements v i CHAPTER 1 1 Statement of t h e Pr o b l e m 2 Purpose of t h e Study 3 T h e o r e t i c a l Framework o f t h e S t u d y 4 F o r m a t i o n of B e l i e f s 5 Method of A u t h o r i t y 6 Method of S c i e n c e . . 6 Method of P r a c t i c a l R e a s o n i n g 6 Format of the Study 7 CHAPTER I I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 8 I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g Model 8 D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g Model. 9 Comparing R e s e a r c h Models t o S p e c i f i c S t u d i e s . 10 Re s e a r c h about T e a c h e r s * I m p l i c i t T h e o r i e s 10 R e s e a r c h about Teacher P l a n n i n g 13 R e s e a r c h about Teacher Judgment 16 Summary 19 Summary of L i t e r a t u r e on Teacher P l a n n i n g . . 21 CHAPTER I I I . METHOD 22 R e s e a r c h D e s i g n 22 I n s t r u m e n t s 23 The I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e . 23 R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e . . 23 S u b j e c t s 25 S e l e c t i o n of S u b j e c t s 26 R a t i o n a l e f o r S e l e c t i o n C r i t e r i a . . . . 27 P r o c e d u r e 28 C o n t a c t w i t h S u b j e c t s 28 Data C o l l e c t i o n 29 Data A n a l y s i s 30 V TABLE OF CONTENTS ( C o n t i n u e d ) B i b l i o g r a p h y Page CHAPTER IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 32 R e s u l t s 32 Teacher E x p e r i e n c e . 32 Teacher C o n f i d e n c e 32 Teacher P l a n n i n g Time. 34 P e r s o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e i n P l a n n i n g . . . . 35 S t u d e n t I n f l u e n c e 39 A v a i l a b i l i t y of M a t e r i a l s and Time . . . 40 D i s c u s s i o n 42 I s o l a t i o n w i t h i n t h e C l a s s r o o m 43 I n d i v i d u a l i s m w i t h i n t h e C l a s s r o o m . . . 44 I n f l u e n c e s on C l a s s r o o m T e a c h i n g . . . . 45 I m p l i c a t i o n s 47 CHAPTER V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 50 P r i n c i p a l F i n d i n g s and C o n c l u s i o n s 50 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study 52 Recommendations 53 P r e s e r v i c e Programs 53 I n s e r v i c e Programs 56 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 59 62 APPENDIX I . I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e 6 8 APPENDIX I I . I n i t i a l C o n t a c t L e t t e r 69 APPENDIX I I I . D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms 73 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many p e o p l e must be th a n k e d f o r g i v i n g me h e l p , s u p p o r t and encouragement i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . F i r s t , I w o u l d l i k e t o a c k n o w l e d g e m e m b e r s o f my c o m m i t t e e . I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l f o r the c o u n s e l of my c o m m i t t e e - c h a i r m a n , C h a r l e s U n g e r l e i d e r , who h e l p e d me f o r m u l a t e t h e o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h p r o p o s a l and o f f e r e d h i s e x p e r t i s e i n t h e e d i t i n g o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t . I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o R o i D a n i e l s who gave a d v i c e on c o n c e p t u a l m a t t e r s . F r a n k E c h o l s h e l p e d me a n t i c i p a t e p r o b l e m s i n c o n d u c t i n g f i e l d w o r k as w e l l as gave a d v i c e on t h e r e s e a r c h methodology. An a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f t h a n k s must be g i v e n t o a l l t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h e s t u d y . C o n v e n t i o n s o f a n o n y m i t y p r e v e n t me f r o m n a m i n g t h e many t e a c h e r s who so w i l l i n g l y gave of t h e i r t i m e and a s s i s t e d i n g i v i n g me d a t a t h a t o n l y they c o u l d have p r o v i d e d . F i n a l l y , ERIBC must be acknowledged. F i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h i s p r o j e c t was p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h a g r a n t f r o m t h e E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e of B.C. 1. CHAPTER 1 I n s p i t e o f t h e l a r g e number o f s t u d i e s d e v o t e d t o t e a c h i n g , l i t t l e i s known a b o u t how t e a c h e r s t h i n k . For the most p a r t , s t u d i e s of t e a c h i n g have c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e v i s i b l e e v e n t s i n c l a s s r o o m s and i n o t h e r s e t t i n g s where t e a c h i n g t a k e s p l a c e . The b i a s t o w a r d what i s i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t h as meant t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s have been more i n t e r -e s t e d i n what happens d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f t e a c h i n g t h a n t h e y a r e i n what happens b e f o r e t h e t e a c h i n g o c c u r s . The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g i s i m p o r t a n t f o r u n d e r -s t a n d i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f e d u c a t i o n . I t would be a m i s t a k e t o assume, h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t e a c h e r and t h e s t u d e n t r e p r e s e n t e d a l l or even t h e most i m p o r t a n t phase of t e a c h i n g . T e a c h e r s do many t h i n g s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r i n t e r -a c t i o n s w i t h s t u d e n t s . The l e s s e r known a s p e c t s o f t e a c h e r s ' work a r e b o t h l e g i t i m a t e p a r t s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t y and d e s e r v i n g of c a r e f u l s t u d y . The a n a l y s i s o f what J a c k s o n (1965) c a l l s t h e "empty c l a s s r o o m " of t e a c h i n g may i n c r e a s e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e l e s s v i s i b l e f e a t u r e s o f the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . Statement o f t h e P r o b l e m There i s a s t a r t l i n g l a c k o f r e s e a r c h a b o u t t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s . A r e v i e w of t h e l i t e r a t u r e about the ways t h a t t e a c h e r s t h i n k a b o u t w h a t t h e y do d u r i n g t h e " p r e a c t i v e " ( J a c k s o n , 1965) s t a g e of t e a c h i n g y i e l d s l i t t l e u s e f u l m a t e r i a l . In view of the w i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e v i r t u e o f p l a n n i n g , t h e absence of e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e about how t e a c h e r s t h i n k about p l a n n i n g i s s u r p r i s i n g . T h r e e r e a s o n s may a c c o u n t f o r t h e absence of r e s e a r c h a b o u t t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s . F i r s t l y , " t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s " a r e n o t o b s e r v a b l e . P e o p l e must be q u e s t i o n e d about t h e i r t h i n k i n g or t h e i r t h o u g h t must be i n f e r r e d f r om t h e way t h e y b e h a v e . A n o t h e r r e a s o n i s t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s have n o t t y p i c a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d between t h e ways t e a c h e r s behave and the ways t e a c h e r s t h i n k . L a s t l y , r e s e a r c h about t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g may be c o n s i d e r e d an i n t r u s i o n i n t o t h e p r i v a t e a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l l i v e s o f t e a c h e r s . Q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e way p r o f e s s i o n a l s a p p l y t h e o r e t i c a l k n o w l e d g e t o p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s , p r o b l e m s and s i t u a t i o n s may be r e g a r d e d as i n a p p r o p r i a t e , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r t e a c h e r s have a c q u i r e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d i n g . There i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , the common a s s u m p t i o n r u n n i n g through t h e l i t e r a t u r e about t e a c h i n g t h a t t h e way t e a c h e r s p l a n i s g u i d e d by s e t s of o r g a n i z e d b e l i e f s . I t has b e e n 3 . a s s u m e d t h a t t e a c h e r s l e a r n f r o m t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n and s e l e c t i v e i m i t a t i o n of o t h e r t e a c h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y t e a c h e r s t h e y had d u r i n g t h e i r y e a r s of s t u d e n t s h i p ( L o r t i e , 1 9 7 5 ) . In o t h e r words, i t i s assumed t h a t t e a c h e r s d e v e l o p b e l i e f s a b o u t t e a c h i n g f r o m t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n o f o t h e r s . These b e l i e f s s e r v e as p r i n c i p l e s o f c o n d u c t f o r t h e i r own t e a c h i n g . S c h e f f l e r ( 1 9 6 5 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , b e l i e v e s t h a t t e a c h e r s * p e r s o n a l b e l i e f s a b o u t how l e a r n i n g o c c u r s and how l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s s h o u l d be o r g a n i z e d i n f l u e n c e how t e a c h e r s p l a n and how th e y t e a c h . E i s n e r and V a l l a n c e (1974) s p e c u l a t e t h a t p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s have a major impact on how t e a c h e r s p l a n and c a r r y o u t t h e i r p l a n s . The l i t e r a t u r e d o es n o t make c l e a r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t e a c h e r b e l i e f s and t h e way t e a c h e r s p l a n a n d t e a c h . I f e d u c a t o r s w i s h t o use i n f o r m a t i o n about t e a c h i n g as a b a s i s f o r i m p r o v i n g t e a c h i n g , t h e y n e ed s y s t e m a t i c i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t how and why t e a c h e r s t h i n k as they do. As J a c k s o n (1968) p u t s i t "the e s s e n c e o f l e a r n i n g i s n o t m e r e l y d o i n g , b u t t h i n k i n g a b o u t w h a t one i s d o i n g " (p. 12) . P u r p o s e o f t h e Study U n d e r s t a n d i n g how t e a c h e r s t h i n k d u r i n g t h e p r e a c t i v e p h a s e o f t e a c h i n g i s s e e n a s t h e f i r s t o f many s t e p s l e a d i n g t o recommendations about how t e a c h e r s s h o u l d p l a n . The purposes of t h i s s t u d y a r e : 1. t o d e s c r i b e how t e a c h e r s t h i n k a b o u t t h e d e c i s i o n s they make d u r i n g p l a n n i n g ; and 2. t o d e s c r i b e the bases t e a c h e r s use i n a r r i v i n g a t the d e c i s i o n s t h e y make. T h e o r e t i c a l Framework o f t h e S t u d y To d a t e , few s t u d i e s have l o o k e d a t why t e a c h e r s use or do not use grounds of b e l i e f as a b a s i s f o r t h e i r s p e c i f i c c u r r i c u l a r and i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . L o o k i n g a t t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s when p l a n n i n g may e n a b l e r e s e a r c h e r s t o r e c o g n i z e and u n d e r s t a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e o v e r t and c o v e r t d i s p o s i t i o n s of t e a c h e r s . R e s e a r c h a b o u t p l a n n i n g may p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l l i v e s o f t e a c h e r s , e n a b l i n g r e s e a r c h e r s t o u n d e r s t a n d how t e a c h e r s make d e c i s i o n s about t e a c h i n g . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a ssumes t h a t w h a t t e a c h e r s do i s a f f e c t e d by what t h e y t h i n k . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e p u r p o s e s of the st u d y a r e t o seek answers t o two q u e s t i o n s : 1. On w h a t g r o u n d s do t e a c h e r s b a s e t h e i r d e c i s i o n s about p l a n n i n g ? 2. Why do t e a c h e r s base t h e i r d e c i s i o n s on t h e s e grounds? 5. F o r m a t i o n o f B e l i e f s " T e a c h i n g h a s t o d o , i n p a r t a t l e a s t , w i t h t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f b e l i e f s , and t h a t means t h a t i t h a s t o do not s i m p l y w i t h what we s h a l l b e l i e v e b u t w i t h how we s h a l l b e l i e v e i t " ( G r e e n , 1 9 7 1 , p. 4 8 ) . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e n g t h o f b e l i e f s a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r om t h e grounds or r e a s o n s on w h i c h p e o p l e base t h e i r b e l i e f s . B e l i e f s do n o t e x i s t i n i s o l a t i o n . They e x i s t i n s y s t e m s , r e l a t e d t o one a n o t h e r i n c o m p l e x ways ( G r e e n , 1 9 7 1 ) . G r e e n s a y s t h a t t e a c h i n g i s an a c t i v i t y aimed a t d e v e l o p i n g b e l i e f s y s t e m s o f a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d ( p . 5 2 ) . T e a c h i n g m i g h t be d e s c r i b e d as t h e c o n t i n u i n g e f f o r t t o r e o r g a n i z e a n d r e s t r u c t u r e o u r s y s t e m s o f b e l i e f . E d u c a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t r a n s m i t t i n g n o t o n l y what we know, b u t o u r manner o f k n o w i n g , t h a t i s , o u r a p p r o v e d s t a n d a r d s o f competence i n p e r f o r m a n c e , i n i n q u i r y , and i n i n t e l l e c t u a l c r i t i c i s m " ( S c h e f f l e r , 1965, p. 2) . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f b e l i e f s w h i c h a l l o w p e o p l e t o e x p e d i t e and d e s c r i b e t h e i r d e a l i n g w i t h e x p e r i e n c e h a v e been g i v e n many p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s s t u d y , t h r e e methods of f i x i n g b e l i e f a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d t o form a framework based on t h e w r i t i n g s of P e i r c e ( 1 8 9 0 ) , S c h e f f l e r (1965) and Green ( 1 9 7 1 ) . They a r e the "method of a u t h o r i t y " , t h e "method o f s c i e n c e " , and the 6. "method of p r a c t i c a l reasoning". Method of" Authority The method of a u t h o r i t y might be adopted by teachers who turn to some a u t h o r i t a t i v e person for the answer to any p e d a g o g i c a l q u e s t i o n . In an e d u c a t i o n a l context, t h i s might be the a u t h o r i t y a teacher p e r c e i v e s a p r i n c i p a l , parent, colleague and/or a curriculum s p e c i a l i s t to hold. Method of Science Teachers who base t h e i r decisions on research evidence systematically gathered and p u b l i c l y evaluated can be s a i d to have used the "method of science". Method of P r a c t i c a l Reasoning The method of p r a c t i c a l reasoning involves a kind of p r a c t i c a l wisdom, a s o r t of " s i x t h sense" on the p a r t of the t e a c h e r (Green, 1971; S c h e f f l e r , 1965). A teacher might manifest a kind of wisdom based upon i n s i g h t or i n t u i t i o n and a considerable body of past experience. For example, a t e a c h e r might "know" what works w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s based on past experience. (Despite the use of terms such as " i n s i g h t " , " i n t u i t i o n " , "sixth sense", and " f e e l i n g s " , the researcher does not construe these as p r e c l u d i n g i n v o l v e m e n t of l o g i c . ) Format o f t h e S t u d y I n t h e c h a p t e r t h a t f o l l o w s t h e l i t e r a t u r e a b o u t t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g i s r e v i e w e d . I n t h e t h i r d c h a p t e r , t h e m e t h o d o l o g y o f t h e s t u d y i s p r e s e n t e d i n d e t a i l . The r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , t h e i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e s u b j e c t s , t h e p r o -c e d u r e and t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s a r e d e s c r i b e d . C h a p t e r IV i s devoted t o the a n a l y s i s and d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y . The f i n a l c h a p t e r opens w i t h a summary of t h e p r i n c i p a l f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s . Recommendations b a s e d on t h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e then made. The c h a p t e r c l o s e s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y and a number o f s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . 8. CHAPTER I I Review of t h e L i t e r a t u r e Two m o d e l s seem t o dominate th e r e s e a r c h about t e a c h e r m ental p r o c e s s e s . They a r e an i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g model and a d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g m o d e l ( C l a r k & Y i n g e r , 1 9 7 7 ) . The d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n them a r e m e r e l y m a t t e r s o f e m p h a s i s ( C l a r k , 1 9 7 8 ) . I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g Model The i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g model p o r t r a y s t h e t e a c h e r as one who p r o c e s s e s i n f o r m a t i o n s e l e c t e d f rom th e e n v i r o n -m e n t . The i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g m o d e l f o c u s e s on how t e a c h e r s l i m i t and s t r u c t u r e the e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h t h e y a c t . I t p a y s more a t t e n t i o n t o t h e t e a c h e r s and t h e s e t t i n g s i n w h i c h t h e y work t h a n i t d o e s t o t h e a c t u a l d e c i s i o n s t h a t t e a c h e r s m u s t make. The i n f o r m a t i o n -p r o c e s s i n g model seeks t o p r o v i d e an a c c o u n t o f how p e o p l e a c t u a l l y t h i n k and r e a c h d e c i s i o n s — n o t how t h e y ought t o . The c o g n i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g a p p r o a c h t o r e s e a r c h a b o u t t e a c h i n g i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s t h a t a r e t h o u g h t t o u n d e r l i e b e h a v i o r d u r i n g c l a s s r o o m i n t e r a c t i o n . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t e a c h e r s ' s e l f -r e p o r t s of t h e i r thought processes o f t e n c o n s t i t u t e the main source of data ( B u s s i s , Chittenden & Amarel, 1976; Clark & Joyce, 1975; Morine & Vallance,' -1975; Peterson & Clark, 1978). Teachers' s e l f - r e p o r t s are o b t a i n e d by i n t e r v i e w s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e methods, journal keeping and "thinking a l oud" procedures where teachers are asked to v e r b a l i z e a l l of t h e i r thoughts and decisions as they take place. Another technique i s "stimulated r e c a l l " , i n which teachers are shown a videotape of th e i r behavior and asked to both r e c a l l and recreate the mental processes that were taking place at the time the record was made. Ethnographic approaches are also used for gathering information. D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g M o d e l Research about teaching that i s guided by the decision-making model seems to focus on explaining and understanding d e l i b e r a t e teacher a c t i v i t y . Jackson (1968) and Shavelson (1976) indicate that t h i s research model i s most s u i t a b l e for looking at "empty classroom" behavior where the teacher has time to make decisions or judgments about what to do. Work by Borko, Cone, Russo and Shavelson (1979); Cadwell, Izu and Shavelson (1977) r e f l e c t s the use of the d e c i s i o n -making model i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g the psychology of teacher planning. 10. Comparing R e s e a r c h Models t o S p e c i f i c S t u d i e s R e s e a r c h about t e a c h e r s ' i m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s . A l l human b e i n g s make p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t t h e f u t u r e on t h e b a s i s of t h e i r p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s . Many o f t h e j u d g m e n t s a n d d e c i s i o n s t h a t t e a c h e r s make a r e based i n t h e i r b e l i e f s and c o n c e p t i o n s a b o u t w h a t t h e y t e a c h . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p o r t a n t - t o s t u d y how t e a c h e r s make sense of t h e i r w o r l d . J a n e s i c k (1977) used an e t h n o g r a p h i c a p p r o a c h t o s t u d y -i n g how t e a c h e r s make sense of t h e i r w o r l d . I n J a n e s i c k ' s s t u d y , e x t e n s i v e f i e l d n o t e s b a s e d on c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a -t i o n s and t e a c h e r i n t e r v i e w s were a n a l y z e d w e e k l y t o b u i l d , d e f i n e and v a l i d a t e an a c c o u n t o f t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f a s i n g l e t e a c h e r . The t e a c h e r J a n e s i c k d e s c r i b e d was con-c e r n e d about how t h e l e s s o n s w h i c h were p l a n n e d i n f l u e n c e d t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c l a s s r o o m . The t e a c h e r e x p r e s s e d h i s r o l e a s a l e a d e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h a t f o s t e r e d group e f f o r t . D u f f y ' s c o n t i n u i n g r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a o f t e a c h e r s * b e l i e f s and t h e t e a c h i n g o f r e a d i n g ( 1 9 7 7 , 1 9 7 9 , 1 9 8 0 , 1981) has g i v e n us l i t t l e c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e t h a t t e a c h e r s do c o n s i s t e n t l y e m p l o y p r a c t i c e s w h i c h r e f l e c t t h e i r p e r s o n a l b e l i e f s . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s l a c k o f c o n s i s t e n t e v i d e n c e may be due t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y of o b t a i n i n g e v i d e n c e about what t e a c h e r s (and anyone) t h i n k s . I t may a l s o be t h e 11. f a c t t h a t t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e q u e s t i o n i n g a b o u t how t h e y a p p l y t h e o r e t i c a l k n o w l e d g e t o p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s a s i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r r o l e a s an e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r . They may be g i v i n g t h e r e s e a r c h e r s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e r e s p o n s e s r a t h e r than p e r s o n a l l y h e l d b e l i e f s . Brophy and Good (1974) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y a b o u t t e a c h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s by t r a c k i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s as t h e y i n t e r a c t e d w i t h t e a c h e r s . I t w a s f o u n d t h a t h i g h a c h i e v e r s , s t u d e n t s w i t h p e r s o n a l i t i e s t h a t a p p e a l t o t e a c h e r s , and s t u d e n t s who a r e p h y s i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e , t e n d t o be t h e o b j e c t s o f h i g h t e a c h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s and more p o s i t i v e t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s . These s t u d e n t s * c h a r a c t e r i s t -i c s and o t h e r s , a f f e c t t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f s t u d e n t s . They a f f e c t t e a c h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g s t u d e n t s w h i c h i n t u r n a f f e c t s t h e way t h e t e a c h e r s p l a n f o r and d e a l w i t h s t u d e n t s . Toomey (1977) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e p e r c e p t i o n s t e a c h e r s have o f t h e key e l e m e n t s i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s m a r kedly i n f l u e n c e how t h e y p l a n f o r i n s t r u c t i o n . He found t h a t p l a n n i n g , l i k e t e a c h i n g , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i d i o -s y n c r a t i c b e h a v i o r . P e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n s o f what i s a p p r o -p r i a t e f o r s t u d e n t s t e n d t o be d i s s i m i l a r . F o r i n s t a n c e , one p i e c e o f m a t e r i a l was r e j e c t e d by one t e a c h e r on t h e grounds o f i t s b e i n g s e x i s t , w h e r e a s a n o t h e r r e j e c t e d i t 12. b e c a u s e t h e s t u d e n t s would n o t e n j o y i t . T h e r e f o r e i t was d i f f i c u l t t o c o n s t r u c t a c o n c e p t u a l framework i l l u s t r a t i n g what s p e c i f i c t h i n g s t h e s e t e a c h e r s c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i n s t r u c t i o n o r how t h e s e s p e c i f i c t h i n g s c o u l d be o r d e r e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . F l o d e n , P o r t e r , S c h m i d t , Freeman and S c h w i l l e (1980) f o u n d t h a t , t e a c h e r s ' d e c i s i o n s a b o u t f o u r t h . g r a d e math c o n t e n t were i n f l u e n c e d by t h e a c t i o n s o f o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l system, as w e l l as by the t e a c h e r s * own b e l i e f s about math. They p r e s e n t e d 66 t e a c h e r s w i t h h y p o -t h e t i c a l v i g n e t t e s w h i c h d e s c r i b e d s p e c i f i c c u r r i c u l u m s i t -u a t i o n s . I t was f o u n d t h a t e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s s u c h a s d i r e c t i v e s f r o m c e n t r a l o f f i c e , a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t e x t b o o k s , and t h e p u b l i c a t i o n i n t h e l o c a l p a p e r o f t e s t r e s u l t s a f f e c t e d c o n t e n t d e c i s i o n s . They a l s o f o u n d t h a t t h e s e t e a c h e r s d i d a v o i d t e a c h i n g c o n t e n t w h i c h t h e y p e r s o n a l l y found d i f f i c u l t . B u s s i s e t a l . ( 1 9 7 6 ) u s e d an i n - d e p t h i n t e r v i e w a p p r o a c h t o p r o d u c e a c o d i f i e d scheme o f t e a c h e r s * p e r c e p t i o n s o f c l a s s r o o m e v e n t s . They used t h e scheme t o c o n f i r m the p e r c e p t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y g i v e n i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s and t e a c h e r s ' b e h a v i o r was a r e l a t i v e l y l o o s e one w h i c h was g u i d e d by a s e t o f o r g a n i z e d b e l i e f s o f t e n 13. o p e r a t i n g u n c o n s c i o u s l y . I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e s e a r c h r e v i e w e d a b o u t t e a c h e r s ' i m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s has u s e d d i v e r s e m e t h o d o l o g i e s b u t has s i m i l a r r e s u l t s — t e a c h e r s * b e h a v i o r i s g u i d e d by t h e i r p e r s o n a l d i s p o s i t i o n s . R e s e a r c h e r s h a v e known f o r y e a r s t h a t t e a c h e r s draw upon t h e ' k n o w l e d g e ' t h e y have g a i n e d from t h e i r p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s r O v e r a l l , t h e r e s e a r c h about t e a c h e r s ' i m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s has r a i s e d more q u e s t i o n s t h e n i t h a s a n s w e r e d a b o u t m e t h o d a s w e l l a s a b o u t s u b s t a n c e . R e s e a r c h a b o u t t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g . T e a c h i n g h a s been d e p i c t e d a s a d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s ( S h a v e l s o n , 1973, 1 9 7 6 ; S h u l m a n & E l s t e i n , 1 9 7 5 ) . D e c i s i o n s made w h i l e p l a n n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n may be t h e b e s t o n e s t e a c h e r s make. U n l i k e d e c i s i o n s d u r i n g i n t e r a c t i v e t e a c h i n g , d e c i s i o n s made i n p l a n n i n g c a n be c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d . They c a n have the advantage of d e l i b e r a t i o n . P l a n n i n g i s a d i r e c t o u t g r o w t h of the g e n e r a l t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n ( Y i n g e r , 1 9 7 8). The u n i q u e n e s s and c o m p l e x i t y of e a c h c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e s some d e g r e e o f t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g . A t l e a s t f i v e s t u d i e s ( A n d e r s o n & E v e r t s o n , 1978; B u c k l e y & Cooper, 19 7 8 ; C l a r k and E l m o r e , 1 9 7 9 ; S c h u l t z & F l o r i o , 1 9 7 9 ; T i c h u n o f f & Ward, 1978) 14. s u p p o r t t h e n o t i o n t h a t e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e b a s i c c l a s s r o o m o r g a n i z a t i o n , r u l e s , p r o c e d u r e s , and r o u t i n e s c o n s t i t u t e t h e b u s i n e s s o f t h e f i r s t week of s c h o o l and f o r m a frame-work w i t h i n w h i c h t h e work of t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r i s p l a n n e d , o r g a n i z e d , e x p e r i e n c e d and e v a l u a t e d . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h e l i t e r a t u r e a b o u t t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g has been m a i n l y p r e s c r i p t i v e . The most p r e v a l e n t of t h e s e , over the p a s t t h i r t y y e a r s , has been th e model p r o p o s e d by T y l e r ( 1 9 5 0 ) . B r i e f l y , t h e model r e q u i r e s t h e p l a n n e r t o s t a t e o b j e c t i v e s , s e l e c t e x p e r i e n c e s , t e a c h t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s , a n d e v a l u a t e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s m o d e l h a s b e e n t h e o b j e c t o f much c r i t i c i s m . The d i s a f f e c t i o n o f t h e l i n e a r a p p r o a c h t o p l a n n i n g has l e d t o a s e a r c h f o r a l t e r n a t i v e m o d e l s . F o r e x a m p l e , M a c D o n a l d (1965) and E i s n e r (1967) p o i n t e d t o another model by d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t t e a c h e r s , i n p r a c t i c e , do n o t a l w a y s p l a n i n a l i n e a r f a s h i o n . They showed t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s a r i s e and e x i s t o n l y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f an a c t i v i t y . S t u d e n t s c h o o s e t h e i r own l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s and pursue t h e i r own o b j e c t i v e s . T a y l o r ' s ( 1 9 7 0 ) r e s e a r c h was c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n t h e B r i t i s h s e c o n d a r y system. A l t h o u g h t h i s s t u d y was more one o f c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g , e v i d e n c e seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t when t e a c h e r s p l a n n e d t h e y t e n d e d t o u s e d i s t r i c t 15. o b j e c t i v e s as g u i d e l i n e s f o r s e l e c t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s . The t e a c h e r s ' i n t e r e s t i n m a t e r i a l s , a c t i v i t i e s a n d p u p i l i n t e r a c t i o n t o o k p r e c e d e n c e o v e r what t h e T y l e r ' m o d e l presumes must be paramount - i . e . , t h e g o a l s . Z a h o r i k ( 1 9 7 0 ) e x a m i n e d t h e e f f e c t s o f s t r u c t u r e d p l a n n i n g on t e a c h e r c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o r . Z a h o r i k n o t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s who used T y l e r ' s model were i n s e n s i t i v e t o p u p i l s i n the c l a s s r o o m . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s a p p e a r e d t o be t h a t t h e t y p i c a l p l a n n i n g m o d e l made t h e t e a c h e r ' s t h i n k i n g r i g i d and p u t him on a " t r a c k t h a t was n e a r l y d e r a i l - p r o o f " (p. 1 4 9 ) . Once t h e t e a c h e r d e c i d e d what outcomes he wanted from t h e l e s s o n and how. he wou l d a c h i e v e them, he s e t o u t t o p r o d u c e t h e s e o u t c o m e s r e g a r d l e s s o f w h a t p u p i l s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . He c o n -c l u d e d f r o m t h i s t h a t t h e t y p i c a l p l a n n i n g model — g o a l s , a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n -- r e s u l t i n i n s e n s i t i v i t y t o p u p i l s on t h e p a r t of the t e a c h e r . In a l a t e r s t u d y , Z a h o r i k (1975) c o n t i n u e d h i s i n q u i r y i n t o t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g . He f o u n d t h a t t e a c h e r s d i f f e r e d i n the v i e w s t h a t t h e y h e l d c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e k e y e l e m e n t s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Some t e a c h e r s , f o r i n s t a n c e , e m p h a s i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s e t t i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . O t h e r s were more c o n c e r n e d about t h e scope and p a r t i c u l a r s o f s u b j e c t 16. m a t t e r c o n t e n t b e f o r e t h e y p l a n n e d a l e s s o n o r u n i t and v e r y l i t t l e t i m e was spent on o b j e c t i v e s . T h e s e f i n d i n g s were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h o s e of G o o d l a d , K l e i n and a s s o c i a t e s (1970), M o r i n e (1976) and P e t e r s o n , Marx and C l a r k (1978). R e s e a r c h a b o u t t e a c h e r j u d g m e n t . R e s e a r c h s t u d i e s about t e a c h e r judgments a r e v e r y l i m i t e d i n s c o p e and i n number. The most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d method o f s t u d y i n g and r e p r e s e n t i n g j u d g m e n t p r o c e s s e s i s a p o l i c y - c a p t u r i n g a p p r o a c h ( S h u l m a n & E l s t e i n , 1975; S l o v i c & L i c h t e n s t e i n , 1 9 7 1 ) . T h i s a p p r o a c h b e g i n s w i t h a s i m p l e m o d e l a n d a t t e m p t s t o r e p r o d u c e t h e i n f e r e n t i a l r e s p o n s e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h e r - j u d g e . Of c e n t r a l i n t e r e s t i n t h i s m e t h o d o l o g y i s how j u d g e s w e i g h and c o m b i n e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by d i s c e r n i b l e cues i n t h e judgment t a s k . A n d e r s o n (1977) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or "cues" t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e d were i m p o r t a n t t o them i n m a k i n g judgment " p o l i c i e s " . She f o u n d t h a t t h e cues t h a t t e a c h e r s s a i d w ere i m p o r t a n t were n o t t h e same c u e s t h e y u s e d t o judge a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n s . For example, e n t h u s i a s m was a cue r a t e d a n d r a n k e d by t e a c h e r s a s a n i m p o r t a n t t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , h o w e v e r , i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as knowledge o f s u b j e c t a n d f a i r n e s s i n g r a d i n g w e r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t more s t r o n g l y t h a n 17. e n t h u s i a s m . T h i s f i n d i n g seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t when m a k i n g j u d g m e n t s , t e a c h e r s may a c t u a l l y make d e c i s i o n s d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n t h e way th e y say t h e y i n t e n d t o make t h e d e c i s i o n s . S h a v e l s o n e t a l . (1977) l o o k e d a t t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f t e a c h e r s t o t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d as w e l l as t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o r e v i s e i n i t i a l judgments when p r e -s e n t e d w i t h a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e y f o u n d t h a t t e a c h e r s * e s t i m a t e s o f s t u d e n t a p t i t u d e a f f e c t e d t h e way t e a c h e r s t a u g h t s t u d e n t s and t h a t t e a c h e r s were r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e i n e s t i m a t i n g t h e i r own s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y , a t l e a s t on a g e n e r a l l e v e l . E v i d e n c e i s mixed on t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t e a c h e r s ' judgments a r e f l e x i b l e and r e s p o n s i v e t o new i n f o r m a t i o n . C l a r k , W i l d f o n g and Y i n g e r (1978) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y a b o u t t e a c h e r j u d g m e n t i n t h e u s e o f s p e c i f i c t e a c h e r a c t i v i t i e s and m a t e r i a l s . The r e s e a r c h e r s c o m p i l e d and c a t e g o r i z e d 26 d e s c r i p t i o n s o f language a r t s a c t i v i t i e s on w r i t i n g s e l e c t e d f r o m a c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e i n s t r u c t i o n a l c a t a l o g u e . I n t h i s j u d g m e n t e x e r c i s e , t h e t e a c h e r s were a s k e d t o d e c i d e w h i c h of t h e s e m a t e r i a l s t h e y w o u l d p r e f e r f o r u s e i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s a n d why t h e y s e l e c t e d w h a t t h e y d i d . F o r e x a m p l e , s t u d e n t m o t i v a t i o n and i n v o l v e m e n t were mentioned most f r e q u e n t l y a s a b a s i s 18. f o r a c c e p t i n g o r r e j e c t i n g a l a n g u a g e a r t s a c t i v i t y . S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s were o b t a i n e d by Marx (1978) i n h i s work on t e a c h e r judgment. We have now c o n s i d e r e d s e v e r a l e x a m p l e s of what some p e o p l e c a l l p o l i c y - c a p t u r i n g s t u d i e s . I n s u c h s t u d i e s i n i t i a l o b s e r v a t i o n s o f , f o r example, t e a c h e r c h o i c e s , a r e c l a s s i f i e d and somewhat f o r m a l i z e d . Then t h e s e f o r m a l i z e d i t e m s a r e used f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s . W h i l e i n some s t u d i e s a c c u r a t e cue i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t , i t i s an e v e n m ore m a j o r p r o b l e m i n n a t u r a l i s t i c s t u d i e s . T h e r e i s always the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e j u d g e can p e r c e i v e and use cues not o b s e r v e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . W i t h t h i s i n mind th e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d p r o v i d e s l i t t l e g u i d a n c e f o r i d e n t i f y i n g , s e l e c t i n g and d e f i n i n g cues t o be j u d g e d . The s m a l l number of s t u d i e s on t e a c h e r j u d g m e n t y i e l d r e s u l t s t h a t a r e o f t e n v e r y r i c h i n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n they p r o v i d e about a s p e c i f i c judgment t a s k , however, th e u n i q u e n e s s o f t h e s e t a s k s p r e v e n t s us f r o m m a k i n g g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s about t e a c h e r judgment a t t h i s t i m e . To s u m m a r i z e , m o s t o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w a b o u t t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s f o c u s e s on t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g i n h i g h l y c o n t r o l l e d s e t t i n g s . E d u c a t o r s i n g e n e r a l , and t e a c h e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y , have g l e a n e d v e r y l i t t l e a b o u t how t e a c h e r s p l a n i n a r e a l i s t i c s e t t i n g . L i t t l e i s known 19. about how t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o r changes w i t h e x p e r i e n c e a n d w h e t h e r i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r d i f f e r e n c e s s u c h a s p e r s o n a l i t y i n f l u e n c e t h e s t y l e o f t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g . In g e n e r a l , t h e s m a l l number of s t u d i e s y i e l d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s w h i c h a r e so vague and g e n e r a l as t o be o f l i t t l e h e l p . B e f o r e e d u c a t o r s may or may n o t a g r e e on t h e meaning o f any o f t h i s e v i d e n c e , r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e w i l l have t o be v i e w e d as b e i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f " i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n " . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e r e i s l i t t l e consensus i n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of why t e a c h e r s d e c i d e as t h e y do. Summary In summary, when p l a n n i n g i s done w e l l , i t r e q u i r e s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e l l e c t u a l e f f o r t , d r a w i n g on p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge ( Y i n g e r , 1977). P l a n n i n g i n v o l v e s a w i d e r a n g e of m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s s u c h as j u d g m e n t a l t a s k s ( M a r x , 1 9 7 8 ; S h a v e l s o n e t a l . , 1 9 7 7 ; Y i n g e r , 1 9 7 8 ) , d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ( C l a r k & J o y c e , 1975; S h a v e l s o n , 1973) and t h e u s e o f i m p l i c i t k n o w l e d g e ( B r o p h y & G o o d , 1 9 7 4 ; J a n e s i c k , 1 9 7 7 ) . T e a c h e r p l a n n i n g i s v i t a l t o be w e l l o r g a n i z e d t e a c h i n g ( A n d e r s o n & E v e r t s o n , 1 9 7 8 ; B u c k l e y & C o o p e r , 19 7 8 ; C l a r k & E l m o r e , 1979; C l a r k & Y i n g e r , 1977, 1979; S h u l t z and F l o r i o , 1 9 7 9 ; T i c h u n o f f & Ward, 1 9 7 8 ) . I n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s t u d e n t c h a r a c t e r -20. i s t i c s , and c u r r i c u l u m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s combine t o a f f e c t t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g ( A n d e r s o n , 1970; C l a r k e t a l . , 1 9 7 8 ; E i s n e r & V a l l a n c e , 1974; S h a v e l s o n e t a l . , 1 9 7 7 ) . P l a n n i n g i s a p r o c e s s o r i e n t e d t o w a r d a c t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m and i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r p e r s o n s (team t e a c h e r s , s u p p o r t s t a f f , s p e c i a l i s t s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ) ( F l o d e n e t a l . , 1 9 8 0 ) . E x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s such as c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s , c l a s s r o o m and s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y s y s t e m s a f f e c t p l a n n i n g ( A n d e r s o n , 1970; T a y l o r , 1970; Toomey, 1977). 21. Summary of L i t e r a t u r e on Teacher P l a n n i n g G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s P l a n n i n g draws upon p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge. P l a n n i n g i n v o l v e s : - d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g - j u d g m e n t a l t a s k s - i m p l i c i t knowledge P l a n n i n g i s v i t a l t o w e l l o r g a n i z e d t e a c h i n g . P l a n n i n g i s a f f e c t e d by: - t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - s t u d e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - c u r r i c u l u m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s P l a n n i n g i s a f f e c t e d by e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s . R e s e a r c h Y i n g e r , 1977 C l a r k and J o y c e , 1975; S h a v e l s o n , 1973 Marx, 1978; S h a v e l s o n e t a l . , 1977; Y i n g e r , 1978 Brophy and Good, 1974; B u s s i s e t a l . , 1976; D u f f y , 1977 A n d e r s o n and E v e r t s o n , 1978; B u c k l e y and Cooper, 1978; C l a r k and E l m o r e , 1979; C l a r k and Y i n g e r , 1977, 1979; S h u l t z and F l o r i o , 1979; T i c h u n o f f and Ward, 1978 A n d e r s o n , 1977; E i s n e r and V a l l a n c e , 1974 S h a v e l s o n e t a l . , 1977 C l a r k e t a l . , 1978 A n d e r s o n , 1977; F l o d e n e t a l . , 1980; T a y l o r , 1970; Toomey, 1977 2 2 . CHAPTER I I I Method The p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e of t h i s s t u d y was t o d e s c r i b e how and why t e a c h e r s go about making c e r t a i n t y p e s o f p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . The o b j e c t i v e was a p p r o a c h e d by means o f a d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d y i n v o l v i n g i n t e r v i e w s w i t h 20 G r a d e 4 t e a c h e r s . R e search D e s i g n T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d why and how t e a c h e r s made p a r -t i c u l a r c u r r i c u l a r and i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s d u r i n g t h e p r e - a c t i v e phase of t e a c h i n g . G i v e n t h e complex n a t u r e of the p r e a c t i v e phase o f t e a c h i n g i t was d e c i d e d t o use an i n t e r v i e w i n g p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v i n g a s e t of s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n s ( s e e A p p e n d i x I ) . T h i s t e c h n i q u e e n a b l e s a t e a c h e r t o o p e n l y e x p r e s s h e r f e e l i n g s a b o u t c o m p l e x t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s . O p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s a l l o w t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o d e s c r i b e i n - d e p t h how she t h i n k s about her p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . The f l e x i b i l i t y a nd a d a p t a b i l i t y o f t h i s d e s i g n a l s o e n a b l e s t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o probe i n t o t h e meaning(s) of spontaneous r e s p o n s e s . 23. I n s t r u m e n t s The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e was based upon a framework d e r i v e d from t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l work of P e i r c e (1890) and S c h e f f l e r (1965) . For the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h , t h r e e methods o f f i x i n g b e l i e f w e r e t h o u g h t t o be t h e b a s e s upon w h i c h t e a c h e r s made c u r r i c u l a r and i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . They w e r e : method o f a u t h o r i t y ( P e i r c e , 1890) , method o f p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g ( S c h e f f l e r , 1965) a n d m e t h o d o f s c i e n c e ( S c h e f f l e r a n d P e i r c e ) . I n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s were s t r u c t u r e d a r o u n d t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework. R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . I n q u e s t i o n 1 t e a c h e r s were a s k e d how many y e a r s t h e y had t a u g h t . The r e a s o n f o r a s k i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n was based on how t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e might a f f e c t p l a n n i n g . Q u e s t i o n 2 e n c o m p a s s e d t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f b e l i e f s t e a c h e r s a r e th o u g h t t o use when making p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s , i n q u e s t i o n 2a t e a c h e r s w e r e a s k e d , i n g e n e r a l terms, t o i n d i c a t e i f r e l i a n c e on o t h e r s ( c o l l e a g u e , p r i n c i p a l , p a r e n t a n d / o r r e s o u r c e s p e c i a l i s t ) a f f e c t e d how t h e y p l a n n e d . Q u e s t i o n 2b r e f e r r e d t o t h e use o f r e a s o n i n g o r l o g i c ; q u e s t i o n 2 c , r e l i a n c e on r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e ; and, q u e s t i o n 2d, r e l i a n c e on p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s . P r o b e s w e r e u s e d t o c l a r i f y what t e a c h e r s meant when t h e y used terms s u c h as r e a s o n , l o g i c and f e e l i n g s ; a l s o , t o i n v e s t i g a t e why they chose the one t h a t t h e y d i d . Q u e s t i o n 3 was an o b j e c t i v e q u e s t i o n a s k i n g t e a c h e r s how much time they s p e n t p l a n n i n g each day. The r e a s o n f o r a s k i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n was b a s e d on how t h e amount of time might a f f e c t how t e a c h e r s make p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . Q u e s t i o n 4 was a q u e s t i o n w h i c h a s k e d t e a c h e r s t o i n d i c a t e how h e a v i l y t h e y r e l i e d on p r e p a r e d m a t e r i a l s when t h e y p l a n n e d . P r o b e s were n e c e s s a r y t o f i n d o u t what t h e res p o n d e n t meant when she s a i d " h e a v i l y " , "sometimes", e t c . Q u e s t i o n 5 p r e s e n t e d t e a c h e r s w i t h a h y p o t h e t i c a l t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n w h e r e f o r c e d - c h o i c e s i t u a t i o n s w e r e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y p r e s e n t e d t o them. Respondents were probed f o r an e l a b o r a t i o n on t h e i r c h o i c e . The f o r c e d - c h o i c e s i t u a t i o n s were: Q u e s t i o n 5a 5b p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g ( f e e l i n g s and l o g i c ) v e r s u s peer a u t h o r i t y p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g v e r s u s p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y 5c p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g v e r s u s d i s t r i c t r e s o u r c e s p e c i a l i s t t h e o r y 5d p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g v e r s u s p r i n c i -p a l a u t h o r i t y 25. I n q u e s t i o n 6 t e a c h e r s were a s k e d t o r e s p o n d t o t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y r e l i e d on r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e when m a k i n g a p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n . P r o b e s w e r e n e c e s s a r y t o e l i c i t an e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e i r a n s wers. I n q u e s t i o n 7 t e a c h e r s were a s k e d i f t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f c o n f i d e n c e about s u b j e c t m a t t e r m i g h t i n f l u e n c e how t h e y p l a n n e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e y were a s k e d t o compare t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l i n t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e c o n t e n t v e r s u s s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o n t e n t . P r o b e s w e r e n e c e s s a r y t o encourage t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o e x p l a i n why " s c i e n c e p l a n n i n g " m i g h t be d i f f e r e n t t h a n " s o c i a l s t u d i e s p l a n n i n g " . Q u e s t i o n 8 was t h e l a s t on t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . I t was d e s i g n e d t o s u m m a r i z e t h e e n t i r e i n t e r v i e w . I t was a l s o i n t e n d e d t o g i v e r e s p o n d e n t s a f u r t h e r c h a n c e t o e l a b o r a t e on a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y m i g h t use when t h i n k i n g a bout t h e i r p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . S u b j e c t s A l l s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s s t u d y were t e a c h e r s s e l e c t e d from a l a r g e , m e t r o p o l i t a n d i s t r i c t i n a W e s t e r n C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c e . From t h e 1981-82 e l e m e n t a r y s t a f f l i s t , t h e r e s e a r c h e r chose o n l y t e a c h e r s who were p r e s e n t l y t e a c h i n g G r a d e 4. The f o u r t h g r a d e l e v e l was c h o s e n b e c a u s e i t t y p i c a l l y i n c l u d e s a f u l l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t 26. a r e a s t a u g h t i n a s i n g l e c l a s s r o o m by one t e a c h e r . The c o n t e n t a r e a of s o c i a l s t u d i e s was s e l e c t e d f o r t h e s t u d y because i t a l l o w e d a g r e a t d e a l of l a t i t u d e i n how t e a c h e r s d e c i d e d t o p l a n t h e c o n t e n t . B e c a u s e t h e r e w e r e f e w c l a s s e s o f o n l y G r a d e 4 s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s who t a u g h t a Grade 3-4 s p l i t c l a s s o r G r a d e 4-5 s p l i t c l a s s w e r e a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y . O n l y f e m a l e s were i n t e r v i e w e d s i n c e they r e p r e s e n t the t y p i c a l Grade 4 t e a c h e r . A t t h e t i m e o f t h i s s t u d y 85% o f G r a d e 4 t e a c h e r s i n t h e d i s t r i c t were f e m a l e . S e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t s . An i n i t i a l c o n t a c t l e t t e r (See A p p e n d i x I I ) was s e n t t o a l l o f t h e 63 f e m a l e G r a d e 4 t e a c h e r s . O n l y t e a c h e r s m e e t i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a w e r e c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h e s t u d y . The s a m p l e i n c l u d e d t e a c h e r s who: 1. h e l d a B.Ed, d e g r e e f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia 2. p o s s e s s e d a permanent t e a c h i n g c o n t r a c t or a t l e a s t a t h r e e y e a r t e m p o r a r y c o n t r a c t i n t h e d i s t r i c t 3. were c u r r e n t l y t e a c h i n g f u l l - t i m e 4. had a t l e a s t t h r e e y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e 2 7 . R a t i o n a l e f o r s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a . The f i r s t f a c t o r t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n s e l e c t i n g a t e a c h e r s u b j e c t was one h o l d i n g a f o u r y e a r B a c h e l o r o f E d u c a t i o n degree from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s was t h e need f o r a c e r t a i n u n i f o r m i t y o f p r e s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t s . E d u c a t i o n a n d t y p e o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g may i n f l u e n c e how t e a c h e r s t h i n k and i n t h i s i n i t i a l s t u d y t h e hope was t o be a b l e t o f i n d w h e t h e r o r not p a t t e r n s of r e a s o n i n g c o u l d be d i s c o v e r e d . The s e c o n d c r i t e r i o n f o r t e a c h e r s e l e c t i o n w a s p e r m a n e n t t e a c h e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . T e a c h e r s h o l d i n g a p e r m a n e n t t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n w e r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be l e s s l i k e l y i n an i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n t o g i v e s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e r e s p o n s e s . A t e m p o r a r y t e a c h e r i n s e c u r e a b o u t j o b p e r m a n e n c y may f e e l t h e n e e d t o g i v e t h e i n t e r v i e w e r r e s p o n s e s she t h i n k s a r e d e s i r e d . T h i s may be t h e r e s u l t . _ o f t h e s u b j e c t p e r c e i v i n g t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o have some k i n d o f a u t h o r i t y o f i n f l u e n c e . F u l l - t i m e employment was t h e t h i r d f a c t o r c o n s i d e r e d when s e l e c t i n g s u b j e c t s . F u l l - t i m e e m ployment i n c l u d e d t e a c h e r s who t a u g h t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m a l l day or combined c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s . T h r e e t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d w e r e h e a d t e a c h e r s ( e q u i v a l e n t t o a v i c e - p r i n c i p a l ) . P a r t - t i m e t e a c h e r s were n o t s e l e c t e d f o r 28. two r e a s o n s : f i r s t l y , t h e y may n o t h a v e t a u g h t G r a d e 4 s o c i a l s t u d i e s , and s e c o n d l y , p a r t - t i m e t e a c h e r s may be c o n s i d e r e d t o have more t i m e t o p l a n , p r e p a r e and mark l e s s o n s . O v e r a l l , p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s may d i f f e r when p l a n n i n g t i m e i s i n c r e a s e d . The f o u r t h f a c t o r t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n s e l e c t i n g a t e a c h e r s u b j e c t was e x p e r i e n c e . T e a c h e r s w i t h a t l e a s t t h r e e y e a r s of t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e were c o n s i d e r e d t o have f o r m a l i z e d a method of e x p l a i n i n g how and why t h e y p l a n t h e way t h e y do. R e q u i r i n g a sample w i t h more t h a n t h r e e y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n s u r e d wide v a r i a t i o n s o f e x p e r i e n c e . The mean number of y e a r s of t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e was 12.9. P r o c e d u r e C o n t a c t w i t h s u b j e c t s . One week a f t e r t e a c h e r s were m a i l e d t h e i n i t i a l c o n t a c t l e t t e r , e a c h p o t e n t i a l i n t e r v i e w e e was g i v e n a t e l e p h o n e c a l l a t h e r s c h o o l , t o ask f o r s u p p o r t i n h e l p i n g t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y . I t was f o u n d t h a t 27 t e a c h e r s met t h e s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a and 20 were p r e p a r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y — a 74% p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e o f t h e s u b j e c t s who met t h e s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a . A t t h e same t i m e , s p e c i f i c i n t e r v i e w a p p o i n t m e n t s w e r e s c h e d u l e d a t t h e c o n v e n i e n c e o f t h e t e a c h e r . 29. D a t a c o l l e c t i o n . A s e r a i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w g u i d e (See A p p e n d i x I ) was u s e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n t i a l p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o r . The i n t e r v i e w c o n s i s t e d of a s e r i e s of e i g h t q u e s t i o n s most o f w h i c h were o p e n - e n d e d a n d r e q u i r e d t e a c h e r s t o d e s c r i b e and g i v e r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . The r e s e a r c h e r p r e s e n t e d each q u e s t i o n i n o r d e r a n d u s e d t h e same w o r d i n g f o r e a c h r e s p o n d e n t . The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e was p i l o t e d p r i o r t o t h e s t u d y . A tape r e c o r d e r t o tape i n t e r v i e w s f a c i l i t a t e d t h e accumu-l a t i o n of a p r e c i s e r e c o r d o f the e x i g e n c i e s w h i c h a r o s e i n each i n t e r v i e w . In t h i s s t u d y , 20 i n t e r v i e w s w e r e t a p e d . I n t e r v i e w i n g t i m e ranged i n l e n g t h from 20 - 40 m i n u t e s . A l l i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n a f i v e - w e e k p e r i o d d u r i n g May a n d J u n e o f t h e 1 9 8 1 - 8 2 s c h o o l y e a r . A l l i n t e r v i e w s , e x c e p t one, were c o n d u c t e d i n v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l — t h e t e a c h e r ' s empty c l a s s r o o m , t h e s t a f f room, the n u r s e ' s room, t h e l i b r a r y o r a s m a l l q u i e t c u b b y h o l e i n t h e s c h o o l . A l l i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d a t t h e t e a c h e r ' s c o n v e n i e n c e . E l e v e n i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o n d u c t e d a f t e r s c h o o . l , f o u r b e f o r e s c h o o l , f o u r d u r i n g l u n c h and one d u r i n g a t e a c h e r ' s p r e p a r a t i o n t i m e . The t e a c h e r s seemed v e r y r e s p o n s i v e and c o - o p e r a t i v e d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w . T h e f a c t t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w e r w a s a n 30. e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r seemed t o o f f e r more c r e d i b i l i t y t o t h e e n t i r e s t u d y . I t was f o u n d t h a t t e a c h e r s g e n e r a l l y r e s p o n d e d t o the i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s i n r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r l a n g u a g e . F o r e x a m p l e , t e a c h e r s f r e q u e n t l y s a i d t h e y " n e v e r t e a c h t h e same t h i n g , t h e same way t w i c e " and t h e y " p l a n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e n e e d s o f t h e c l a s s " . T h e s e r e s p o n s e s l e a d one t o s u s p e c t - t h a t - t h e i r r e s p o n s e s r e p r e s e n t s i m i l a r p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o r . D a t a a n a l y s i s . Two t y p e s o f d a t a were g e n e r a t e d and a n a l y z e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T e a c h e r s were a s k e d f o r o b j e c t i v e d a t a a b o u t t h e i r t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , t i m e s p e n t p l a n n i n g , a n d t h e i r u s e o f p r e p a r e d p r o g r a m s a n d m a t e r i a l s . R e s p o n d e n t s w e r e a l s o g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o make s u b j e c t i v e r e s p o n s e s i n d e s c r i b i n g and d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r own p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o r . They were a s k e d t o make d e c i s i o n s about h y p o t h e t i c a l p l a n n i n g s i t u a t i o n s b a s e d on a t h e o r e t i c a l framework (see pp. 4-6). I t was t h o u g h t t h a t a t l e a s t 20 i n t e r v i e w s w e r e n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r f o r p a t t e r n s o f p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o r t o become a p p a r e n t . A t t h e end o f e a c h i n t e r v i e w , v e r b a t i m r e s p o n s e s f o r each q u e s t i o n w e r e t r a n s c r i b e d . T h i s p r o -c e d u r e was f o l l o w e d f o r each i n t e r v i e w . F i e l d n o t e s were a l s o r e c o r d e d on f i l e c a r d s . T h e s e n o t e s and t r a n s c r i p -31. t i o n s w e r e a n a l y z e d f o r m odal p a t t e r n s o f r e s p o n s e . A g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r e i n a n a l y s i s a d v o c a t e d by L o f l a n d (1971) was f o l l o w e d . The s t e p s i n t h e p r o c e d u r e i n c l u d e d : 1. E x p l i c i t r e n d e r i n g of the s t r u c t u r e , o r d e r and p a t t e r n s f o u n d i n p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o r 2 . S o r t i n g and o r d e r i n g of phenomena 3. C o n s t r u c t i o n of g l o b a l d e s i g n 4. F i n a l a n a l y s i s and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s I n o r d e r t o a s c e r t a i n t y p i c a l r e s p o n s e s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r drew up a c h a r t where r e s p o n s e s t o a l l i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s c o u l d be v i s u a l l y i n s p e c t e d . T h i s c h a r t e n a b l e d phenomena t o be s o r t e d i n s u c h a way a s t o f a c i l i t a t e a n a l y s i s o f r e s u l t s . S i x m a j o r h e a d i n g s w e r e u s e d t o h e l p c l a s s i f y d a t a . They w e r e : t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e , t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g t i m e , t e a c h e r r e l i a n c e on p r e p a r e d m a t e r i a l s , t e a c h e r r e l i a n c e on o t h e r s , t e a c h e r r e l i a n c e on e v i d e n c e a n d t e a c h e r c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l i n s c i e n c e . The d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a c l a s s i f i e d under each h e a d i n g was n o t e a s i l y s u m m a r i z e d i n t a b u l a r f o r m . 32. CHAPTER IV R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e f i e l d s t u d y d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r . The c h a p t e r w i l l c o n c l u d e w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s . R e s u l t s T e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e . The l e n g t h of t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e d i d not a p p e a r t o a f f e c t p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e o f t e a c h e r s . Whether a t e a c h e r t a u g h t f o u r y e a r s or 24 y e a r s i t d i d n o t seem t o a f f e c t how d e c i s i o n s were b a s e d . H o w e v e r t i t was f o u n d t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s were a b l e t o base s o c i a l s t u d i e s and s c i e n c e c o n t e n t d e c i s i o n s on t h e i r p e r s o n a l l y t e s t e d p r a c t i c e s g a i n e d t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e . T y p i c a l comments were: "You s o r t o u t w hat i s i m p o r t a n t w i t h more e x p e r i e n c e " ; and "A l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r needs t o p l a n more". I t was not p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n whether e x p e r i e n c e was a f a c t o r w h i c h a f f e c t e d p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o r . O n l y e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y . Teacher c o n f i d e n c e . The l e v e l o f t e a c h e r c o n f i d e n c e s e e m e d t o a f f e c t how t e a c h e r s p l a n n e d . C o n f i d e n c e , h o w e v e r , was not a p r o d u c t of e x p e r i e n c e . A h i g h l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e seemed t o be b a s e d on a h i g h l e v e l o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r knowledge of the t e a c h e r . For example, i f a t e a c h e r was a s c i e n c e s p e c i a l i s t s h e h e l d a h i g h e r l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e when p l a n n i n g s c i e n c e c o n t e n t t h a n a t e a c h e r who was n o t a s p e c i a l i s t . A t y p i c a l comment was: The s t r e n g t h you f e e l i n y o u r s e l f i s p r o b a b l y where y o u ' d f e e l m o s t c o n f i d e n t . S c i e n c e p l a n n i n g i s d i f f e r e n t . I'm a s c i e n c e s p e c i a l i s t . I f I was i n s e c u r e , I ' d r e l y on o t h e r c o l l e a g u e s . T e a c h e r s s e e m e d t o u s e t h e m e t h o d o f p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g when m a k i n g c o n t e n t p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s a b o u t s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n w h i c h they f e l t - s e c u r e ^ The re a s o n f o r t h i s was p r o b a b l y based on a t e a c h e r ' s e x p e r t i s e of knowing how t o e x p l a i n and "do" e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n . Teachers seemed t o use the method o f a u t h o r i t y i f t h e y f e l t l e s s c o n f i d e n t about the c o n t e n t m a t t e r of t h e s u b j e c t a r e a . T y p i c a l l y t e a c h e r s s a i d : My own l a c k of knowledge [ i n s c i e n c e ] h o l d s me back. I t e n d t o t e a c h t h e same u n i t s over and over a g a i n . In s o c i a l s t u d i e s I don't do t h a t n e c e s s a r i l y . Of the 20 t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d , f i v e t e a c h e r s s a i d t h e y l i k e d t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e ; 15 s a i d t h e y d i d n o t . The f i v e who 3 4 . l i k e d t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e r e g a r d e d t h e m s e l v e s a s s c i e n c e s p e c i a l i s t s and had f e e l i n g s o f h i g h c o n f i d e n c e a b o u t t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r ; t h e 15 who d i d not e n j o y t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e as much as s o c i a l s t u d i e s s a i d t h e y w e r e n o t as c o n f i d e n t a b o u t t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r . W i t h i n t h e 15 who d i d not l i k e t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e t h e r e was a range o f r e s p o n s e s — 11 s a i d t h e y f e l t " s h a k y " and "a l i t t l e f r i g h t e n e d " because they were "unsure about how e x p e r i m e n t s w o r k e d " and "the s u b j e c t c o n t e n t was so b r o a d " ; t h r e e s a i d t h e y " t r a d e d o f f " s c i e n c e whenever p o s s i b l e ; a n d one s a i d she " n e v e r r e a l l y t a u g h t s c i e n c e t o her c l a s s " . T e a c h e r p l a n n i n g t i m e . I n t h i s s t u d y , t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y i n v o l v e d f r o m one h a l f t o t h r e e h o u r s o f p r e p a r a t i o n p e r day. There was no ev i d e n c e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e amount o f t e a c h e r t i m e s p e n t p l a n n i n g was r e l a t e d t o t h e k i n d s o f p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s t e a c h e r s made. T e a c h e r s d i d d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n d a i l y a n d u n i t p l a n n i n g . D a i l y p l a n n i n g i n v o l v e d k e e p i n g a daybook and m a r k i n g . U n i t p l a n n i n g i n c l u d e d u n i t p r e v i e w s , y e a r l y p r e v i e w s and l e s s o n s f o r a new u n i t . T e a c h e r s s a i d t h i s t y p e of p l a n n i n g was f r e q u e n t l y done i n an e x t e n d e d b l o c k of time on t h e weekends. I n t h e s t u d y i t was f o u n d t h a t u n m a r r i e d f e m a l e 3 5 . t e a c h e r s seemed t o s p e n d more t i m e p l a n n i n g t h a n t e a c h e r s who were m a r r i e d or c o - h a b i t a t i n g . A l t h o u g h m a r i t a l s t a t u s was n o t a f a c t o r c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e s e l e c t i o n - of s u b j e c t s , f u t u r e r e s e a r c h m i g h t i n v e s t i g a t e how i t a f f e c t s t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o r . 0 P e r s o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n p l a n n i n g . I n t h i s s t u d y a l l t e a c h e r s r e f e r r e d t o f e e l i n g s and r e a s o n s as g r o u n d s on w h i c h t h e y b a s e d t h e i r p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . I m p l i c i t i n t h i s i s the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t f e e l i n g s a b o u t t e a c h i n g come f r o m t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . T e a c h e r s r e f e r r e d t o f e e l i n g s and r e a s o n s as meaning a l m o s t the same t h i n g . For example: I see l o g i c and f e e l i n g s as b e i n g v e r y c l o s e t o each o t h e r b e c a u s e i f y o u t r u s t y o u r own f e e l i n g s y o u ' r e h o p e f u l l y l o g i c a l l y coming t o t h a t d e c i s i o n . I r e a l l y do r e a s o n o u t a l o t o f t h i n g s f o r m y s e l f a b o u t what I t h i n k k i d s c a n g e t t h e most b e n e f i t f r o m . I b a s i c a l l y t r u s t my own f e e l i n g s about i t . What l o g i c a l l y i s b e s t f o r your group depends on t h e f e e l i n g s you have about t h a t g r o u p . You t e a c h what y o u ' r e i n t e r e s t e d i n . A l t h o u g h p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o r was f r e q u e n t l y grounded i n p e r s o n a l l y t e s t e d p r a c t i c e s o f t e a c h e r s , w o r k i n g w i t h o t h e r s seemed t o a f f e c t t h e j u d g m e n t and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g 36. p r o c e s s as w e l l . The g e n e r a l t r e n d o f t h e r e s p o n s e s seemed t o v i e w i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s i n a p o s i t i v e w ay. I n f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h c o l l e a g u e s i n t h e s t a f f r o o m , b e f o r e and a f t e r s c h o o l , i n t h e e v e n i n g s or on w e e k e n d s , p r o v i d e d t e a c h e r s w i t h p r a c t i c a l t e a c h i n g i d e a s and s t r a t e g i e s . S o c i a l i z i n g a t w o r k s h o p s and c o n f e r e n c e s was a n o t h e r avenue where t e a c h e r s came i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r peer group and c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i a l i s t s . D u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w , t e a c h e r s were s p e c i f i c a l l y asked how t h e y m i g h t make a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o n t e n t d e c i s i o n based on i n p u t from a c o l l e a g u e , p a r e n t s , r e s o u r c e s p e c i a l i s t or p r i n c i p a l . Of t h e f o u r p o s s i b l e r e s p o n s e s , s e v e n t e a c h e r s f e l t t h e y w o u l d be m o s t l i k e l y t o b a s e d e c i s i o n s on c o l l e a g u e i n f l u e n c e ; s i x f e l t r e s o u r c e s p e c i a l i s t i n f l u e n c e c o u l d be s t r o n g ; f i v e f e l t t h e p r i n c i p a l c o u l d h a v e a n i n f l u e n c e ; a n d t h e t w o r e m a i n i n g f e l t a c o m b i n a t i o n o f p e o p l e c o u l d i n f l u e n c e t h e i r d e c i s i o n s (one f e l t p a r e n t - c o l l e a g u e i n f l u e n c e ; a n o t h e r f e l t c o l l e a g u e - r e s o u r c e s p e c i a l i s t ) . Two t e a c h e r s f e l t s t u d e n t i n f l u e n c e m i g h t be a f a c t o r t o make them c h a n g e t h e i r p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . They f e l t they might be i n f l u e n c e d by s t u d e n t s who i n d i c a t e d a p r e f e r e n c e o f one t o p i c o ver a n o t h e r . I n g e n e r a l , c o l l e a g u e s seemed t o p r o v i d e t h e g r e a t e s t 3 7 . i n f l u e n c e on t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o r . T h e i r i n f l u e n c e was g r e a t e s t when t e a c h e r s f e l t t h e c o l l e a g u e ' s t e a c h i n g s t y l e was c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e i r own-. A t y p i c a l r e s p o n s e t o the q u e s t i o n of whether a t e a c h e r m i g h t s t a y w i t h h e r own p l a n s or go w i t h p l a n s d e v e l o p e d by a " t r u s t e d f r i e n d and a good t e a c h e r n e x t d o o r " , was: I t w o u l d d e p e n d on how l o n g I h a v e b e e n t e a c h i n g E s k i m o s . You m i g h t be r e a d y f o r a c h a n g e . I f I f e l t I was on t h e same wave l e n g t h - l i k e t o do the same k i n d s o f t h i n g s , I m i g h t c o n s i d e r i t . I, m i g h t t r y i t f o r a y e a r ... d e f i n i t e l y s t i m u l a t i n g t o w ork w i t h o t h e r s . I t can drum up y o ur e n t h u s i a s m . T e a c h e r s a l s o seemed t o i n t e r a c t w i t h c o l l e a g u e s a t workshops and c o n f e r e n c e s where new t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and i d e a s w e r e s h a r e d . I t was a t w o r k s h o p s an d c o n f e r e n c e s t h a t t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t s c h o l a r l y e v i d e n c e had l i k e l y b een u s e d i n t h e c o n c e p t u a l a n d c o n t e x t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t of i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e f i v e t e a c h e r s who f e l t t h e p r i n c i p a l m i g h t i n f l u e n c e t h e i r p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s s a i d t h e y w o u l d do so o n l y i f t h e p r i n c i p a l had a s c h o o l - w i d e g o a l i n mind — f o r example, i f the p r i n c i p a l wanted th e e n t i r e s c h o o l i n v o l v e d i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t . They f e l t t h e p r i n c i p a l was more c o n c e r n e d w i t h g e n e r a l s c h o o l a f f a i r s t h a n i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g . A t y p i c a l r e s ponse was: 38. I h a v e n e v e r worked f o r a p r i n c i p a l who t e l l s you what t o do. You can always go and a s k . I n t h i s s t u d y , n o t e a c h e r f e l t t h a t p a r e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t a f f e c t e d how t h e y p l a n n e d . T e a c h e r s u n a n i m o u s l y s a i d t h a t i f a p a r e n t v o l u n t e e r e d t o b r i n g m a t e r i a l s and t o t a l k t o t h e c l a s s a b o u t a s p e c i f i c t o p i c r e l a t e d t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m , t h a t p a r e n t i n v o l v e m e n t was e n c o u r a g e d f o r t h e " c h i l d r e n ' s s a k e " a s w e l l a s t h e " s c h o o l ' s sake". T y p i c a l comments were: S u p e r ! G r e a t ! Y o u ' d be c r a z y n o t t o use a r e s o u r c e l i k e t h i s s i n c e i t ' s t h e k i n d o f t h i n g t h a t k i d s remember s e e i n g and h e a r i n g . I t g i v e s t h e k i d s a r e a l i t y base. I w o u l d n ' t l e t t h e p a r e n t g e t away. The more p e o p l e c oming i n f r o m t h e c o m m u n i t y the b e t t e r the s c h o o l i s f o r i t . The k i d s a r e b e t t e r f o r i t t o o . A m a j o r i t y o f t h e t e a c h e r s s a i d t h e y p r e f e r r e d t o i n v o l v e the p a r e n t s when i t was c o n v e n i e n t f o r t h e c l a s s . T hey f e l t i t was b e t t e r t o " p l a n t h e p a r e n t a r o u n d t h e program" r a t h e r t h a n " p l a n a r o u n d t h e p a r e n t " . T e a c h e r s d i d s a y , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e y w o u l d accommodate a p a r e n t coming i n t o t h e c l a s s r o o m , a t t h e p a r e n t ' s c o n v e n i e n c e , i f no o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e was a v a i l a b l e . I n t h a t r e s p e c t 3 9 . t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s w e r e a f f e c t e d by p a r e n t s . I n g e n e r a l , p a r e n t s were seen t o have l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on how t e a c h e r s b a s e d t h e i r p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . T e a c h e r s s t i l l f e l t t h a t t h e y were t h e f i n a l a r b i t e r s o f c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s . S t u d e n t i n f l u e n c e . I n t h i s s t u d y , t e a c h e r s t y p i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d p l a n n i n g a s a p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g a n d o r g a n i z i n g c o n t e n t a n d a c t i v i t i e s . U l t i m a t e l y , t h i s p r o c e s s of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w o u l d be e l a b o r a t e d and a d a p t e d t o f i t t h e needs o f s t u d e n t s . E x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d and/or i m p l i e d t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s was t h e n o t i o n t h a t t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o r was i n t e n d e d t o o p t i m i z e t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n of s t u d e n t s . Modal r e s p o n s e s were: I ' d c h a n g e my d e c i s i o n i f i t was f o r t h e b e n e f i t of the c l a s s . I p l a n a c c o r d i n g t o what the c h i l d r e n need. T e a c h e r s d i d s a y t h a t s t u d e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s g u i d e d t h e i r p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T e a c h e r s m e n t i o n e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h a s s t u d e n t n e e d s , s t u d e n t a b i l i t i e s and s t u d e n t m a t u r i t y . T y p i c a l comments by t e a c h e r s were: K n o w i n g y o u r c h i l d r e n , what t h e y c a n cope w i t h , how you change t h i n g s t o h e l p them ... 40. I'd s i f t t h r o u g h and p u l l o u t what I'd f i n d my k i d s c o u l d work a t . I n e v e r t e a c h t h i n g s t h e same way t w i c e . I t depends on the k i d s I t e a c h . I d o n ' t want t o s t r u g g l e a y e a r , so I want t o t e a c h t o t h e group. ... more p l a n n i n g when y o u h a v e b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s . I go on my f e e l i n g s and t h o s e I h a v e o f my c l a s s . I h a v e a f a i r l y g o o d f e e l i n g a f t e r [the f i r s t ] t h r e e weeks; a p r e t t y good f e e l i n g by the end of O c t o b e r . My u n i t s a r e based on need. By t h a t I mean, I make my own d e c i s i o n s on w h i c h p a r t s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m a r e most a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e k i d s a t the t i m e . A v a i l a b i l i t y o f m a t e r i a l s a n d t i m e , i n t h e s t u d y , t e a c h e r s w e r e a s k e d a b o u t how h e a v i l y t h e y r e l i e d on m a t e r i a l s a n d / o r p r o g r a m s d e v e l o p e d by o t h e r s . When t e a c h e r s answered t h i s q u e s t i o n t h e y d i d i n c l u d e r e s o u r c e s ( b o o k s , f i l m s t r i p s , f i l m s , e t c . ) . R e s p o n d e n t s f e l t t h ey d i d use m a t e r i a l s and/or programs d e v e l o p e d by o t h e r s . I n a l l i n s t a n c e s but one, t e a c h e r s s a i d t h e y r e l i e d m o d e r a t e l y t o h e a v i l y on t h e m . The m a t e r i a l s u s e d r a n g e d f r o m p r o v i n c i a l l y d e v e l o p e d l e s s o n a i d s t o r e s o u r c e s and i d e a s c o l l e c t e d f r om l o c a l w o r k s h o p s and c o n f e r e n c e s a t t e n d e d . Whenever m a t e r i a l s , p r o g r a m s or i d e a s were used, t e a c h e r s s a i d they a d a p t e d them t o t h e i r p e r s o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . A 41. t y p i c a l comment was: I f t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g a v a i l a b l e and i t f i t s my purpc'ce, I'd use i t v e r y d e f i n i t e l y . I f i t i s a v a i l a b l e , I ' d u s e i t ; b u t I c a n ' t s a y a n y t h i n g 100% f i t s my s p e c i f i c n e e d s - y o u have t o m o d i f y i t i n some way. When t e a c h e r s w e r e a s k e d a b o u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p l a n n i n g a s c i e n c e u n i t v e r s u s a s o c i a l s t u d i e s u n i t , t h e y s a i d t h e a c c e s s t o m a t e r i a l s a n d e q u i p m e n t was v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o p l a n n i n g s c i e n c e . I f anyone has m a t e r i a l s , I'm more th a n g l a d t o l o o k a t them; b u t a c c e s s has t o be t h e r e . T e a c h e r s do d i n o s a u r s , s e a l i f e and a n i m a l s s i n c e t h e y d o n ' t h a v e t o r e l y on e q u i p m e n t . When you h a v e t o hunt around f o r [ l a b ] e q u i p -ment, i t ' s a h a s s l e ! T e a c h e r s s a i d e x p e r i m e n t s w e r e t i m e - c o n s u m i n g a n d d i s r u p t i v e . I m p l i c i t i n t h i s comment i s t h e f a c t t h a t e x p e r i e n t i a l s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g may make c l a s s management and c o n t r o l more d i f f i c u l t . T eachers a l s o s a i d t h a t s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o n t e n t was more s u b j e c t i v e t h a n s c i e n c e c o n t e n t , t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e was a g r e a t e r l a t i t u d e f o r m a k i n g p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s . S c i e n c e c o n t e n t was tho u g h t t o be more o b j e c t i v e and f a c t u a l . 42. Time was a n o t h e r f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g p l a n n i n g . I n t h i s s t u d y , a l l t e a c h e r s s a i d t h e y had t o h a v e s u f f i c i e n t t i m e t o p r e v i e w m a t e r i a l s and programs d e v e l o p e d by o t h e r s . A modal r e s p o n s e was: How f a r i n a d v a n c e o f g e t t i n g w i n d o f new r e s o u r c e s would be t h e m a i n f a c t o r f o r u s i n g t h e s e m a t e r i a l s . One t e a c h e r , when a s k e d w h e t h e r she w o u l d use h e r own p l a n n e d s o c i a l s t u d i e s u n i t or one p l a n n e d by a c o l l e a g u e s a i d her d e c i s i o n s were based on "What was most e x p e d i e n t -t i m e i s o f m a j o r i m p o r t a n c e " . As f a r as u s i n g o t h e r s ' m a t e r i a l s s h e s a i d , " I f I ' d t a u g h t i t b e f o r e and t h e m a t e r i a l s were p r e p a r e d , I ' d c o n t i n u e o n . B u t , i f I was u n p r e p a r e d and she o f f e r e d me t h e u n i t - a s h o r t c u t i n t i m e , I ' d c e r t a i n l y be i n f l u e n c e d t o c h a n g e " . I n t h i s c a s e , t i m e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p r e - e m p t e d p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . In g e n e r a l , t h e time needed f o r p l a n n i n g d i d n o t a p p e a r t o i n f l u e n c e p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s as much as t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of m a t e r i a l s . p j s c u s s j o n I n t h i s s t u d y , t e a c h e r s ' p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o r was found t o be grounded i n p e r s o n a l l y t e s t e d p r a c t i c e s . I t was a l s o f o u n d t h a t t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r may be t o a l a r g e d e g r e e 4 3 . " p l a n n e d " by t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . These two themes w i l l be c e n t r a l t o t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n . I s o l a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s t y p i c a l l y work a l l day i n r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n f r o m o t h e r a d u l t s . The r e a s o n f o r t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n may l i e i n the f a c t t h a t " t h o s e w i t h t h e i n t i m a t e knowledge a b o u t t h e work and i t s p r o b l e m s , and w i t h t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t o j u d g e i t , a r e a f f o r d e d few o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o come t o g e t h e r because o f t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e w o r k p l a c e " (Dreeben, 1970, p. 5 2 ) . The n a t u r e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s r o o m e f f e c t i v e l y m i n i m i z e s t h e i m p a c t o f o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s . The f o r m a l r e g u l a t o r y m e c h a n i s m s i n s c h o o l s a s t h e y a f f e c t t h e i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s r o o m a r e u n s y s t e m a t i c . There i s no a g e n c y w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m t h a t c a n t o t a l l y p e n e t r a t e t h e p r i v a c y and i s o l a t i o n o f t h e c l o s e d - d o o r c l a s s r o o m . I n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g i s a l s o an i s o l a t e d a c t i v i t y . W i t h i n t h e s c h o o l s e t t i n g t e a c h e r s u s u a l l y become aware of new m a t e r i a l s and i d e a s by " t a l k i n g shop" o u t s i d e of s c h o o l - t i m e . In t h i s s t u d y , t e a c h e r s d e s c r i b e d p l a n n i n g a s a p r o c e s s o f i n f o r m a l l y g a t h e r i n g a n d c o l l e c t i n g i d e a s and m a t e r i a l s from o t h e r s , w i t h t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n o f w hat t o use b a s e d on t h e i r own o p i n i o n . The 4 4 . f i n d i n g was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h D r e e b e n ' s work (1970) where t e a c h e r s f e l t c o n f i d e n t a b o u t m a k i n g p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s w i t h o u t a c t u a l l y s e e i n g t h e d i r e c t c l a s s r o o m i j s e of new i d e a s and m a t e r i a l s . T h e y p l a n n e d t h e i r w o r k a r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s and c o n t e n t w h i c h were c o n g r u e n t w i t h p e r s o n a l p r i o r i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e . I n d i v i d u a l i s m w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . A l t h o u g h s c h o o l s resemble b u r e a u c r a c i e s , t e a c h e r s a r e s i m p l y n o t s u b j e c t t o b u r e a u c r a t i c r o l e i n t h e s u b s t a n c e of t h e i r work (Dreeben, 1973; L o r t i e , 1 9 7 5 ) . W i t h i n t h e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e l i e s r e l a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l i s m and autonomy. Much of t h e t e a c h e r ' s work d e r i v e s i t s c h a r a c t e r f r o m t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f c l a s s -room, s c h o o l and c o m m u n i t y e v e n t s ( J a c k s o n , 1968) r a t h e r than from a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i r e c t i v e s . I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m m e n t s w e r e i l l u s t r a t i v e o f how t e a c h e r s d e s c r i b e d t h e i r p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e : I t h i n k I know how k i d s l e a r n , w h a t ' s b e s t , the o r d e r t h e y l e a r n , when, how ... B e c a u s e I ' v e t a u g h t l o n g e n o u g h , I f e e l o u t what I want t o do and l o g i c a l l y i t seems o n l y s e n s i b l e t o do t h i n g s a c e r t a i n way. I n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e i r e x p e r t i s e was i n k n o w i n g t h e b e s t way t o p l a n a n d t e a c h . T h e i r s o l e 45. r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was t o promote l e a r n i n g i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . A t y p i c a l r e s p o n s e was, " A n y t h i n g t o g e t the k i d s t o l e a r n " . Work by J a c k s o n ( 1 9 6 8 ) and L o r t i e (1975) s u p p o r t t h i s f i n d i n g . B o t h r e s e a r c h e r s f o u n d t h a t when t h e y a s k e d t e a c h e r s how t h e y w o u l d c h o o s e t o s p e n d a d d i t i o n a l work-t i m e , t e a c h e r s o v e r w h e l m i n g l y s e l e c t e d t e a c h i n g - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s r a t h e r than s c h o o l - w i d e m a t t e r s . L o r t i e (1975) found t h a t 90% o f t e a c h e r s i n h i s s t u d y c h o s e i n d i v i d u a l -i s t i c c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s r a t h e r t h a n w o r k i n g w i t h t h e s c h o o l a t l a r g e (p. 164). B o t h J a c k s o n (1968) and L o r t i e ( 1 9 7 5 ) f o u n d t h a t t e a c h e r s * a l l e g i a n c e was t o t h e c l a s s r o o m . I n t h e a r e a o f t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o r , numerous s t u d i e s ( G o o d l a d e t a l . , 1 9 7 0 ; J a c k s o n , 1 9 6 8 ; P e t e r s o n , Marx and C l a r k , 1 9 7 8 ; T a y l o r , 1 9 7 0 ; Z a h o r i k , 1975) have shown t h a t t e a c h e r s s i m p l y do n o t c o n f o r m t o t h e h i g h l y i d e a l i z e d m o d e l o f " r a t i o n a l " p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o r where t e a c h e r s a r e p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t e a c h i n g o b j e c t i v e s . T e a c h e r s use a v a r i e t y of n o r m a t i v e and p r a g m a t i c c r i t e r i a i n s e l e c t i n g c l a s s r o o m p r o c e d u r e s . Y i n g e r (1978) r e f e r s t o t h i s t y p e o f p l a n n i n g a s " p u r p o s e f u l " o r i m p o r t a n t a c t i v i t y . I n f l u e n c e s on c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g . T e a c h e r s i n t h i s 46. s t u d y a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t e x t e r n a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e d p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . A l t h o u g h g u i d e d b y c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s , a d v i c e f r o m p e o p l e i n c o n s u l t i n g r o l e s , i n f o r m a l s t a f f r o o m c h a t t e r , and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s , t e a c h e r s i m p l i e d t h a t no e d u c a t i o n a l agent had as much d i r e c t c o n t a c t and i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h s t u d e n t s a s t h e y d i d . They f e l t t h a t t h e i r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h s t u d e n t s was an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t e a c h i n g . They a l s o f e l t t h a t s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g was a r e s u l t o f i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g and t e a c h i n g s t y l e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s i n making p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s i s m i n i m a l ( L o r t i e , 1 9 7 5 ) . I n t h i s s t u d y , t e a c h e r s s a i d p r i n c i p a l s seemed c a p a b l e of e n c o u r a g i n g s c h o o l - w i d e c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s , b u t d i d n o t seem t o e x e r c i s e d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o r . E x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s a l s o s a i d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t see t h e a r e a o f p l a n n i n g as n e e d i n g the i n v o l v e m e n t of the p r i n c i p a l . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s l i k e l y o r i g i n a t e s i n t h e p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s of the t e a c h e r s . S i n c e most p r i n c i p a l s have n o t b e e n v e r y i n v o l v e d i n c u r r i c u l a r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t e a c h e r s do n o t see i t as b e i n g an i m p o r t a n t p a r t of a p r i n c i p a l ' s r o l e . The i n f l u e n c e s o f d i s t r i c t c u r r i c u l u m p e r s o n n e l on i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o r i s a l s o n e g l i g i b l e 4 7 . ( L o r t i e , 1 9 7 5 ) . T e a c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y s a i d t hey f o l l o w e d d i s t r i c t and p r o v i n c i a l g u i d e l i n e s as f a r as d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f g e n e r a l c u r r i c u l a r c o n t e n t . They f e l t no c o m p u l s i o n t o adopt new i d e a s and m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e a t t h e r e s o u r c e c e n t r e , w o rkshops and c o n f e r e n c e s . I n a l l c a s e s , t e a c h e r s s a i d t hey v a l u e d o u t s i d e i d e a s b u t gave s e c o n d a r y p o s i t i o n t o o f f i c i a l l y d e s i g n a t e d ( c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i a l i s t s ) s o u r c e s of h e l p . They s a i d t h e y p r e f e r r e d t o a d apt m a t e r i a l s f r o m c o l l e a g u e s . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s was not e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d , however, i t may l i e i n t h e f a c t t h a t c o l l e a g u e s a r e t h o u g h t t o h ave f i r s t - h a n d c l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e w i t h "what w o r k s " or w i t h "what the k i d s l i k e " . A l s o , i t i s g e n e r a l l y more e x p e d i e n t t o borrow i d e a s f r o m t h e t e a c h e r - n e x t - d o o r . I m p l i c a t i o n s The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s on f o r m u l a t i n g d i s t r i c t program p o l i c y a r e s i g n i f i c a n t . I f t e a c h e r s a r e " l a r g e l y s e l f - d i r e c t e d " (Dreeben, 1973 , p. 4 5 8 ) , i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t t o implement a p o l i c y o r i n n o v a t i o n on a s c h o o l , d i s t r i c t o r p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s . F o r e x a m p l e , i f a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t w a n t s t o i m p l e m e n t a new e l e m e n t a r y r e a d i n g p r o g r a m , i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s may r e s i s t d i s t r i c t - w i d e e f f o r t s o f i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n . F i n d i n g s f r o m t h i s s t u d y w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r 4 8 . p e r s p e c t i v e s m i g h t u l t i m a t e l y d e t e r m i n e t h e f a t e of a new s c h o o l - w i d e or d i s t r i c t - w i d e p r o j e c t . F u l l a n (1972) i n h i s work on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n found t h a t u s e r i n p u t or commitment was n e c e s s a r y i n i m p l e m e n t i n g a new c h a n g e . He f o u n d t h a t i f t e a c h e r s w e r e n o t a b l e t o c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r p e r s o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e t o an i n n o v a t i o n f a i l u r e o f t h e p r o g r a m was l i k e l y . W i t h t h i s i n m i n d , program i n n o v a t o r s w i l l have t o c o n s i d e r t h e v a l u e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r i n p u t . The e n v i r o n m e n t of t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l i s m i s d i s r u p t e d f u n d a m e n t a l l y when a s c h o o l i n n o v a t i o n i s i n i t i a t e d . A new p r o j e c t w o u l d l i k e l y e x t e n d beyond t h e scope of i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s r o o m s and r e q u i r e t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f g r o u p s o f t e a c h e r s . I t w o u l d l i k e l y g e n e r a t e p a r e n t i n t e r e s t and some t y p e o f f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n . T o g e t h e r t h e s e f a c t o r s w o u l d combine t o i n c r e a s e v i s i b i l i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . W i t h i n c r e a s e d v i s i b i l i t y c o m e s a r e d u c t i o n o f t h e i s o l a t i o n a n d a u t o n o m y o f i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s and an i n c r e a s e i n e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l o v e r them. Such m e c h a n i s m s may c a u s e t e a c h e r d e c i s i o n -making t o remain dormant. T e a c h e r s may f i n d l i t t l e p u r p ose i n e x e r c i s i n g t h e i r p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r a c t i c e s i n program development i f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n made. Lack o f t e a c h e r i n v o l v e -4 9 . ment may be one o f t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s why s c h o o l s t y p i c a l l y r e v e r t t o p a s t p r a c t i c e s a s i n t e r e s t i n t h e i n n o v a t i o n p r o j e c t b e g i n s t o d e c l i n e . B e c a u s e t h i s s t u d y i s a p r e l i m i n a r y a n d s p e c u l a t i v e a c c o u n t o f t e a c h e r s ' c o g n i t i v e p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o r , i t w o u l d be p r e m a t u r e t o p o s i t t h a t t h e r e i s a " b e s t way" t o p l a n and i n s t r u c t . I n s t e a d , t h e s e f i n d i n g s m i g h t b e s t be i n t e r -p r e t e d a s i n t e r i m s t e p s t h a t h e l p e d u c a t o r s and t e a c h e r s b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d how v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s a f f e c t t h e i r p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e . CHAPTER V Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s The p u r p o s e o f t h i s f i n a l c h a p t e r i s t o summarize t h e p r i n c i p a l f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e s t u d y . I t w i l l a l s o i n c l u d e a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y , a p r o p o s a l o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a n d t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a r e a s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . P r i n c i p a l F i n d i n g s and C o n c l u s i o n s I n t h i s s t u d y t h r e e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s of t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e were f o u n d t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s ( s e e _ Summary- of., L i t e r a t u r e . , _ p.. 21)... . I t . , was f o u n d t h a t t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g i n v o l v e d t h e m a k i n g o f j u d g m e n t s a n d d e c i s i o n s , t h a t p l a n n i n g i n v o l v e d d r a w i n g upon p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l k n o w l e d g e , and p l a n n i n g was a f f e c t e d by v a r i o u s f a c t o r s o u t s i d e t h e c o n t r o l of the t e a c h e r . The g o a l of t h i s s t u d y was t o a t t e m p t t o f i n d o u t w h a t was g o i n g on i n t h e minds of e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s when t h e y made p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s of a c u r r i c u l a r and i n s t r u c t i o n a l n a t u r e . On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s l i m i t e d s t u d y s e v e r a l f i n d i n g s were documented: 51. 1. T e a c h e r s used the method o f p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g i n b a s i n g t h e i r p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s when t h e y f e l t c o n f i d e n t a b o u t t h e k n o w l e d g e l e v e l of t h e s u b j e c t . The methods of a u t h o r i t y and s c i e n c e were u s e d when t e a c h e r s f e l t l e s s c o n f i d e n t about t h e i r s u b j e c t m a t t e r knowledge. 2. T e a c h e r s r e l i e d m o d e r a t e l y t o h e a v i l y on m a t e r i a l s a n d / o r p r o g r a m s d e v e l o p e d by o t h e r s . T e a c h e r s u s e d m a t e r i a l s d e v e l o p e d by c o l l e a g u e s most f r e q u e n t l y b u t f e l t t h a t t h e s e m a t e r i a l s needed t o be p r e v i e w e d and a d a p t e d t o t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h i n g s t y l e s and p e r s p e c t i v e s . 3. Teacher p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o r was i n f l u e n c e d t o a l a r g e degree by two e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s — s t u d e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a v a i l a b i l i t y of time and m a t e r i a l s . 4. L e n g t h o f t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e d i d n o t a f f e c t how t e a c h e r s made p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . 5. T e a c h e r s saw p l a n n i n g a s an i m p o r t a n t a c t i v i t y . T e a c h e r s s p e n t f r o m o n e - h a l f t o t h r e e h o u r s d a i l y on c u r r i c u l a r p l a n n i n g . 5 2 . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u dy The g e n e r a l , d e s c r i p t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e s t u d y l i m i t e d the g e n e f a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e s t u d y . The s t u d y i n c l u d e d a s m a l l s a m p l e of t e a c h e r s i n one s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o n l y . The sample i n c l u d e d o n l y f e m a l e t e a c h e r s who t a u g h t G r a d e 4 f u l l - t i m e , had a t l e a s t t h r e e y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , p o s s e s s e d a permanent t e a c h i n g c o n t r a c t or a t l e a s t a t h r e e y e a r t e m p o r a r y c o n t r a c t i n t h e d i s t r i c t , and h e l d a B.Ed, degree from t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s e t t i n g s v a r i e d t o some d e g r e e . The g e n e r a l n o i s e l e v e l i n t h e s c h o o l w h i l e t a p i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w , t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w , t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w i n t h e s c h o o l and t h e t i m e o f day o f t h e i n t e r v i e w v a r i e d d u r i n g t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . The p o t e n t i a l f o r s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e r e s p o n s e s may have a f f e c t e d t h e v a l i d i t y o f d a t a . For example, i n t h e s t u d y , t e a c h e r s d e s c r i b e d t h e i r p e r s o n a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s a s i n v o l v i n g o n e - h a l f t o t h r e e h o u r s of d a i l y p l a n n i n g . They a l s o t y p i c a l l y s t a t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t n e e d s w e r e i m p o r t a n t i n p l a n n i n g s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o n t e n t . The degree t o which t e a c h e r s gave s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e r e s p o n s e s was n o t a s c e r t a i n e d . B e c a u s e o f t h e g e n e r a l s u r v e y n a t u r e of t h e s t u d y , the r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d was n o t t e s t e d . 5 3 . Recommendations A n a l y z i n g t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d y , i t becomes a p p a r e n t t h a t t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g i s b a s e d on' -how t e a c h e r s p e r s o n a l i z e m e a n i n g — a s p i n - o f f f r o m one's unique e x p e r i e n c e . A l t h o u g h i t i s u n r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t a l l t e a c h e r s p l a n t h e same way, m e a s u r e s m i g h t be t a k e n i n a g e n e r a l - w a y t o recommend i m p r o v e m e n t s i n p r e -s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s . These recom-mendations may s e r v e a s a g u i d e t o s t r a t e g i c r e s e a r c h on how t e a c h e r s go about p l a n n i n g . P r e s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s . S i n c e t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s , v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s a r e so i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , t e a c h e r s s h o u l d be t r a i n e d t o b e c o m e aware of t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s about t e a c h i n g . T h i s m i g h t mean s h a r i n g and e x p o s i n g unique b e l i e f s and p r e f e r e n c e s a b o u t p l a n n i n g t o o ne's p e e r g r o u p . T h i s m i g h t be a c c o m p l i s h e d by o f f e r i n g c o u r s e s and s e m i n a r s f o r s t u d e n t s t o s h a r e how t h e i r t h i n k i n g a f f e c t s how t h e y t h i n k a b o u t t e a c h i n g . A l t h o u g h i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods, use of p r o g r ams, e q u i p m e n t and m a t e r i a l s a r e i m p o r t a n t t o new t e a c h e r s , t h e i r v a l u e i n t h e l o n g r u n i s d e t e r m i n e d by t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and use of them. L e a r n i n g how t o a n a l y z e and adapt new c u r r i c u l a t o t h e 54. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t u d e n t s as w e l l as t o p e r s o n a l l y h e l d b e l i e f s i s v a l u a b l e . T h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h o f B e n - P e r e t z ( 1 9 7 5) who a r g u e s t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d be t r a i n e d and s u p p o r t e d t o a n a l y z e , t a k e a p a r t , r e o r g a n i z e and r e a s s e m b l e c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s , b o t h t o p e r m i t a d a p t a t i o n t o f i t t h e i r own u n i q u e c i r c u m s t a n c e s and t o g i v e them a f e e l i n g of c u r r i c u l u m o w n e r s h i p , r a t h e r then t h e f e e l i n g t h a t t h e y a r e s i m p l y t e c h n i c i a n s e x e c u t i n g someone e l s e ' s p l a n . S t u d e n t t e a c h e r s m i g h t b e n e f i t f r o m w o r k i n g w i t h a m a s t e r t e a c h e r f o r an e x t e n d e d t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c u m . E x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s may be a b l e t o show s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s how p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g i s t h e b a s i s f o r m a k i n g most d a i l y c l a s s r o o m d e c i s i o n s . The s u c c e s s e s o f s u c h i n d i v i d u a l s t e n d t o be b o r n and t o d i e . w i t h , them; b e n e f icial„.conse-q u e n c e s e x t e n d o n l y t o t h o s e p u p i l s who have p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h such g i f t e d t e a c h e r s ... t h e o n l y way by w h i c h we c a n p r e v e n t s u c h w aste i n t h e f u t u r e i s by methods w h i c h e n a b l e us t o make an a n a l y s i s o f w hat t h e g i f t e d t e a c h e r d o e s i n t u i t i v e l y so t h a t s o m e t h i n g a c c r u i n g f r o m h i s work can be communicated t o o t h e r s . (Dewey, 1929, pp. 10-11) T h i s m i g h t e ncourage th e i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r t o view t h e e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r as a mentor - a h e l p e r who g i v e s m o r a l s u p p o r t and o f f e r s e x p e r t i s e i n t e a c h i n g methodology. The 55. a p p r e c i a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s , i d e a s and programs d e v e l o p e d by a t e a c h e r o f a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e t h a n o n e ' s own, i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t i n t h e development of a t e a c h e r . From t h i s s t u d y , t h e e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d f r o m t e a c h i n g was seen as i m p o r t a n t i n knowing "how" and "what" t o p l a n . The e x p o s u r e o f an i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r t o a t e a c h i n g s t y l e t h a t " w o r k s " i s i m p o r t a n t and c r e d i b l e t o a t h e o r y -l a d e n s t u d e n t . How a t e a c h e r a c t u a l l y makes d e c i s i o n s a b o u t c o n t e n t , a c t i v i t i e s , e q u i p m e n t , e t c . , may p r o v i d e a s t u d e n t t e a c h e r w i t h e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t a r e r e a l i s t i c a n d t e n a b l e . S t u d e n t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d become more a c q u a i n t e d w i t h s k i l l s i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s u n i q u e t o s c h o o l s . D e c i s i o n s made w h i l e p l a n n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n may be the b e s t ones t e a c h e r s make. They can be made w i t h c a r e f u l c o n s i -d e r a t i o n and d e l i b e r a t i o n . Hands-on e x p e r i e n c e s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e t o s t u d e n t s d u r i n g p r a c t i c u m . Not o n l y s h o u l d i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s g e t i n v o l v e d i n c l a s s r o o m p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s b u t t h e y s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o o b s e r v e a n d p a r t i c i p a t e i n g r o u p d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n a c t i o n c a n be s e e n d u r i n g m o s t s t a f f o r d e p a r t m e n t m e e t i n g s . W i t h t h e i n c r e a s e d v a r i e t y o f new m a t e r i a l s a n d programs a v a i l a b l e f o r a g i v e n s u b j e c t and g r a d e l e v e l , 56. e f f i c i e n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s k i l l s a r e i n v a l u a b l e . These s k i l l s w i l l b e t t e r e q u i p s t u d e n t s t o d e a l w i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g number of judgments one must make i n t e a c h i n g . A l t h o u g h L o r t i e (1975) and M c G r e g o r (1978) p o s i t t h a t t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s c a n be v i e w e d as o n l y p a r t i a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e r i g o r o u s d e m a n d s o f c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n , t e a c h e r s can o n l y b e n e f i t f r o m more a t t e n t i o n f o c u s e d on the t a c i t d i m e n s i o n o f t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g . We l e a r n how t o t e a c h a n d how t o v a l u e t e a c h i n g and t e a c h e r s f r o m o u r e a r l i e s t d a y s and a l l our d a y s t h e r e a f t e r . I f we acknow-l e d g e t h e power and p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f t h e s e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l p r o c e s s e s t h a t mould u s , t h e n we m u s t v i e w t h e f u t u r e t e a c h e r a s someone who i s a l r e a d y f a r a l o n g i n h i s p r o -f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . B u t t h e f l y i n t h e o i n t m e n t i s o b v i o u s : t h e m o d e l s o f t e a c h i n g he has l e a r n e d so w e l l ... must i n l a r g e p a r t be u n l e a r n e d . . . . S t r a t e g i e s f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n of t e a c h e r s must t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e p s y c h o -l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s o f p r o v i d i n g c o n t i n u i n g s u p p o r t i f t h e s t u d e n t i s t o c h a n g e s u c h f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d b e h a v i o r . ( C o g a n , 1976, pp. 7-8). I n s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s . Due t o t h e l e n g t h e n i n g a v e r a g e p e r i o d o f s e r v i c e among t e a c h e r s , i n s e r v i c e w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o i n c r e a s e t h e a d a p t a b i l i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y of t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s . There i s a n e e d f o r s t a f f d e v e l o p m e n t i n r e d u c i n g t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l n arrowness 57. o f t h e i s o l a t e d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . T h i s m i g h t be a c c o m p l i s h e d by e n c o u r a g i n g t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t of d i s t r i c t - w i d e p r o g r a m s and m a t e r i a l s . V a l u e d p r a c t i t i o n e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n -n i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d be encouraged. User i n p u t g u a r a n t e e s a h i g h e r commitment t o the p r o j e c t ( F u l l a n , 1 9 7 2 ) . T e a c h e r s f r e e l y engage i n much t a l k a bout t h e i r e v e r y -day c u r r i c u l a r and i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s , b u t t h e y do so i n an u n c r i t i c a l and u n r e f l e c t i v e way (Mackay and M a r l a n d , 1978) . I f t e a c h e r s do what t h e y s a y t h e y do, by b a s i n g t h e i r t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e on p e r s o n a l l y t e s t e d p r a c t i c e s , then i n s e r v i c i n g t e a c h e r s e f f e c t i v e l y m i g h t be d i f f i c u l t . T e a c h e r s ' p r i n c i p l e s o f pedagogy a r e grounded i n i d i o s y n -c r a t i c e x p e r i e n c e . C o g a n ( 1 9 7 3 ) f e e l s w h a t i s n e e d e d i s an i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t y d e s i g n e d t o h e l p t e a c h e r s c r i t i c a l l y l o o k a t t h e i r own p l a n n i n g and t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r . Cogan (1973) r e f e r s t o t h i s p r o c e s s a s c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e e m p h a s i s i s on t h e a n a l y s i s o f t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s a n d p r a c t i c e s b a s e d on t h e v i e w t h a t " t h e a n a l y s i s o f t e a c h i n g c a n be r i g o r o u s and s y s t e m a t i c , t h a t i t s h o u l d be o n g o i n g , t h a t i t r e q u i r e s s p e c i f i c a n a l y t i c a l s k i l l s and t h a t t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l t e a c h e r s h o u l d be a c a r e -f u l c r i t i c o f h i s own p r a c t i c e " ( M o s h e r & P u r p e l , 1 9 7 2 , 58. p. 7 9 ) . I f new t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s , s k i l l s , and c o m p e t e n c i e s a r e t o be p a s s e d on e f f e c t i v e l y t o t e a c h e r s , t h e n i t w o u l d appear t h a t t h e o n - t h e - j o b c o a c h i n g and s u p p o r t p r o v i d e d by the c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s o r w o u l d h e l p . T eachers who d i f f e r i n e x p e r i e n c e and e x p e r t i s e can, by t h i s means, make c o n t r i b u -t i o n s - and o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e by p r o v i d i n g f e e d b a c k t o e a c h o t h e r . T e a c h e r s w h o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l b e h a v i o r s w o u l d n o t be c o m p e l l e d by a d m i n i -s t r a t i v e d i r e c t i v e s t o conform t o a s t a n d a r d i z e d method of t e a c h i n g . There w o u l d be a much more c o l l e g i a l a p p r o a c h t o t e a c h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o w t h . T h i s p r o c e s s s h o u l d be a t l e a s t recommended and e n c o u r a g e d a t t h e p l a n n i n g s t a g e o f t e a c h i n g where t e a c h e r s o p e n l y admit they s h a r e and borrow i d e a s f r o m one a n o t h e r . I t m i g h t a l s o h e l p p r o m o t e a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f s u b j e c t s w h e r e t e a c h e r s f e e l u n sure about th e c o n t e n t . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t m ight h e l p promote a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e i n t h e minds of e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s who o p e n l y a d m i t they f e e l u n c o n f i d e n t about the t e a c h i n g of s u b j e c t s l i k e s c i e n c e . P l a n n i n g i s an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t e a c h e r s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l l i v e s , t h e r e f o r e , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t more time be g r a n t e d f o r p l a n n i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n . More time f o r p l a n n i n g m i g h t mean more d e l i b e r a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g , w h i c h means t h a t 59. t e a c h e r s a r e l i k e l y t o make b e t t e r d e c i s i o n s and judgments. They a r e more l i k e l y t o adapt c u r r i c u l a a nd i n s t r u c t i o n a l m ethods t o f i t t h e u n i q u e needs and c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e i r , c l a s s r o o m s . I f s u f f i c i e n t t i m e i s n e e d e d t o p r e v i e w m a t e r i a l s and d e v e l o p programs, t h e n t h e r e w i l l have t o be more o r g a n i z e d p r e s s u r e t o i n c l u d e p r e p a r a t i o n t i m e i n t e a c h e r c o n t r a c t s . C l a r k and Elmore (1979) found t h a t more t i m e and s u p p o r t f o r p l a n n i n g p a i d d i v i d e n d s i n m o r e e f f e c t i v e and b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d t e a c h i n g and b e t t e r use of e x p e n s i v e c u r r i c u l u m r e s o u r c e s and m a t e r i a l s . W i t h t h e s e recommendations i n mind, a type o f p o l i c y o r model f o r t h e use o f p r e s e r v i c e a n d i n s e r v i c e t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n m i g h t be c o n s t r u c t e d a r o u n d a t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how t e a c h e r s t h i n k . I f p r e s e r v i c e a n d i n s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s a r e e f f e c t i v e , one m i g h t e x p e c t t h a t some o f t h e e f f e c t s w i l l be r e p r e s e n t e d - i n t e a c h e r s ' t h o u g h t s , a s w e l l a s a c t i o n s . B y u n d e r s t a n d i n g how t e a c h e r s make p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s , l o c a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s may c o n s t r u c t m a t e r i a l s a n d p r o g r a m s , w o r k s h o p s and c o n f e r e n c e s w h i c h w i l l h a v e a g r e a t e r a f f e c t on t e a c h e r p r a c t i c e and u l t i m a t e l y c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h F u r t h e r f i e l d work i s needed by l o o k i n g deeper i n t o t h e p s y c h o l o g y of p l a n n i n g . For example, what do t e a c h e r s mean when they say " I see l o g i c and f e e l i n g s v e r y c l o s e t o e a c h o t h e r . " What do t e a c h e r s mean when t h e y s a y t h e y j u s t "know" t h a t i t [a c u r r i c u l a r p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n a b o u t c o n t e n t or m a t e r i a l s ] w i l l "work". S t u d i e s a r e needed t h a t i n v e s t i g a t e t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g s and c o n s t r u c t s o f t e a c h e r s . P r a c t i t i o n e r s o v er a b r o a d e r e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s h o u l d be s t u d i e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r f a c t o r s s u c h a s g r a d e l e v e l , s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o n t e n t , s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s and t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g h a v e a n y e f f e c t on t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . Another s t u d y might i n v o l v e o b s e r v i n g t e a c h e r s w i t h i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t t h a t has a g e n e r o u s a l l o t m e n t o f t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s , r e s o u r c e s and t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n t i m e , t o see i f they base p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s on d i f f e r e n t g r o u n d s t h a n t e a c h e r s f r o m a more d e p r i v e d e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s r e s e a r c h would be p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e i n t h e d e s i g n i n g o f i n s e r -v i c e p r o g r a m s f o r t e a c h e r s . I f t e a c h e r s do, i n f a c t , r e l y m o d e r a t e l y t o h e a v i l y on programs and m a t e r i a l s d e v e l o p e d by o t h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y c o l l e a g u e s , t h e n d i s t r i c t - w i d e i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g s h o u l d i n c l u d e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r - b a s e d m a t e r i a l s . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h c a n n o t h e l p but p r o f i t from a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f r e c o g n i z e d and complementary ways o f 61. s t u d y i n g t e a c h i n g . B e s i d e s s t r e s s i n g t h e need f o r s o l e l y e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , perhaps a c o m b i n a t i o n of r e s e a r c h approaches a r e needed t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e g e n e r a l e f f e c t s o f p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o r on s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g . By c o m b i n i n g i n -d e p t h e t h n o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s w i t h e m p i r i c a l p r o c e s s - p r o d u c t a p p r o a c h e s r e l a t i n g t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o r t o l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s , r e s e a r c h m i g h t a c t u a l l y t a p t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s u b j e c t i v e w o r l d o f t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g a b o u t p l a n n i n g . U n d e r s t a n d i n g w h e r e t e a c h e r s a r e "coming f r o m " i s e s s e n t i a l i n a p p r e c i a t i n g how and why t e a c h e r s do w h a t they do. S u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h t o p i c s may b e g i n t o o p e n up t h e i n v i s i b l e d i m e n s i o n o f t e a c h e r m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s and l i n k them t o p r a c t i c a l e d u c a t i o n a l c o n c e r n s . BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, B. L. 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How Tea c h e r s P l a n T h e i r C o u r s e s . S l o u g h , B u c k s . : N a t i o n a l F o u n d a t i o n f o r E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 1970. T i c k u n o f f , W. J . and Ward, R. A. A n a t u r a l i s t i c s t u d y o f th e i n i t i a t i o n of s t u d e n t s i n t o t h r e e c l a s s r o o m s o c i a l  s y s t e m s . San F r a n c i s c o : F a r West L a b o r a t o r y f o r E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h and Development R e p o r t A-78-11, 1978. Toomey, R. Teachers a p p r o a c h e s t o c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g : an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y . C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 1977, 2, 121-129. T y l e r , R. W. B a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n . 111.: U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1950. Y i n g e r , R. J . A s t u d y o f t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g : d e s c r i p t i o n and t h e o r y development u s i n g e t h n o g r a p h i c and i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g methods. U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1977. (Res. S e r i e s No. 18) E a s t L a n s i n g , MI: I n s t i t u t e f o r R e s e a r c h on T e a c h i n g , M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1978. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 160605). Z a h o r i k , J . A. The e f f e c t of p l a n n i n g on t e a c h i n g . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l . 1970, 21(3), 143-151. Z a h o r i k , J . A. T e a c h e r s ' p l a n n i n g models. E d u c a t i o n a l  L e a d e r s h i p . 1975, 3_3_(2), 134-139. 68. APPENDIX I A p r i l 21, 1982 Dear C o l l e a g u e : The p u r p o s e of t h i s l e t t e r i s t o ask f o r y o u r s u p p o r t i n h e l p i n g me g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h w i l l be u s e d i n w r i t i n g my t h e s i s on t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s . I hope t h i s r e s e a r c h may h e l p o t h e r s u n d e r s t a n d how t e a c h e r s t h i n k and i n t u r n a s s i s t i n d e s i g n i n g more m e a n i n g f u l p r o f e s s i o n -a l i n s e r v i c e f o r t e a c h e r s i n t h e f u t u r e . I w o u l d l i k e t o conduct a 30-40 minute t a p e d i n t e r v i e w w i t h y o u i n o r d e r t o a s k how y o u make c u r r i c u l a r a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . A l l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be k e p t c o n f i d e n t i a l and i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be u s e d i n s u c h a way t h a t anonymity w i l l be a s s u r e d . As an e x p e r i e n c e d B u r n a b y t e a c h e r on a l e a v e o f a b s e n c e , a t t e n d i n g UBC, I am v e r y aware of y e a r - e n d s c h o o l p r e s s u r e s , t h e r e f o r e I am i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n d u c t i n g i n t e r -v i e w s j u s t a s soon as p o s s i b l e . I w i l l c o n t a c t you by t h e end of A p r i l . A l t h o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s i n t e r v i e w i s v o l u n t a r y , I would g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e i f you w o u l d v o l u n t e e r t o t a k e p a r t i n my s t u d y . Thank you, B a r b a r a B a l l h o r n 69. APPENDIX I I INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR RESEARCHER The p u r p o s e of t h i s i n t e r v i e w i s t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n about how t e a c h e r s make p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . I hope t h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l h e l p us b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d how t e a c h e r s t h i n k a n d i n t u r n a s s i s t i n d e s i g n i n g m o r e m e a n i n g f u l p r o f e s s i o n a l i n s e r v i c e f o r t e a c h e r s i n t h e f u t u r e . 1. I am i n t e r e s t e d i n k n o w i n g how l o n g y o u h a v e been t e a c h i n g . How many y e a r s have you t a u g h t ? 2. S i n c e y o u a r e an e x p e r i e n c e t e a c h e r I am i n t e r e s t e d i n knowing how you go about m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s . I f I w e r e t o ask y o u w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g b e s t d e s c r i b e s your u s u a l p r a c t i c e when i t comes t o making d e c i s i o n s a b o u t w h a t y o u do i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , w h i c h one w o u l d y o u choose? a. I u s u a l l y seek o p i n i o n s from p e o p l e I r e s p e c t p r o -f e s s i o n a l l y , d e c i d i n g on t h e b a s i s o f w hat t h e y r e c o m m e n d . ( F o r e x a m p l e , a w e l l r e s p e c t e d c o l l e a g u e , your p r i n c i p a l , a p a r e n t ' s s u g g e s t i o n , and/or the d i s t r i c t r e s o u r c e s p e c i a l i s t . ) b. I u s u a l l y r e a s o n t h i n g s o u t f o r m y s e l f , d e c i d i n g on t h e b a s i s of what seems t o be most l o g i c a l . ( L o g i c r e f e r s t o m a k i n g a j u d g m e n t o f one s o l u t i o n o v e r a n o t h e r b a s e d on some k i n d o f r e a s o n . Take f o r example, t e a c h i n g a u n i t a b o u t E s k i m o s m i g h t be a b e t t e r way t o t e a c h c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y t h a n t e a c h i n g a u n i t on t h e C o a s t I n d i a n s because Eskimo l i f e i s so c o m p l e t e l y d i f e r e n t f r o m o u r way o f l i f e . c. I u s u a l l y r e a d t h e c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e , d e c i d i n g on the b a s i s o f what the e v i d e n c e seems t o s u g g e s t . d. I u s u a l l y t r u s t my own f e e l i n g s , d e c i d i n g on t h e b a s i s o f what f e e l s r i g h t f o r me and my s t u d e n t s . ( F o r e x a m p l e , k i d s m i g h t e n j o y s t u d y i n g about th e Eskimo more th a n t h e C o a s t I n d i a n s . ) PROBE: Why d i d you choose the one t h a t you d i d ? I n t h i s i n t e r v i e w I am s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n knowing how you make p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . Can y o u t e l l me a b o u t what amount o f t i m e y o u sp e n d p l a n n i n g each day? PROBE: What do you i n c l u d e as p l a n n i n g ? How h e a v i l y do y o u r e l y on m a t e r i a l s a n d / o r p r o g r a m s t h a t have been d e v e l o p e d by o t h e r s ? PROBE: What does " h e a v i l y " mean t o you? Now l e t us l o o k a t a s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g s i t u a t i o n and see how you m i g h t make a d e c i s i o n b a s e d on d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s : You a r e a b o u t t o p l a n a S o c i a l S t u d i e s u n i t on a s p e c i f i c a b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e w i t h i n C a n a d a . You h a v e n a r r o w e d down y o u r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o e i t h e r t h e Coa s t I n d i a n s or t h e Es k i m o s . You f a v o r t e a c h i n g t h e u n i t on t h e E s k i m o s b e c a u s e i n t h e p a s t t h e k i d s have r e a l l y l i k e d i t . You have f o u n d t h a t by t e a c h i n g t h e E s k i m o c u l t u r e y o u a r e b e t t e r a b l e t o t e a c h t h e c o n c e p t of c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y because e v e r y t h i n g about Eskimo l i f e i s s o r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m o u r way o f l i f e . A nother r e a s o n you have f o r p r e f e r r i n g t h e Eskimos o v e r t h e I n d i a n s i s t h e s i m p l e f a c t t h a t you have a l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l s a l r e a d y p r e p a r e d . However ... a. A f t e r s c h o o l t h e Grade 4 t e a c h e r n e x t d o o r , who i s a t r u s t e d f r i e n d and a good t e a c h e r t e l l s y o u t h a t s h e h a s a w h o l e u n i t p l a n n e d on t h e West C o a s t I n d i a n s and adds t h a t t h e k i d s j u s t l o v e t h i s u n i t . How w o u l d t h i s s i t u a t i o n a f f e c t y o u r p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . PROBE: How w o u l d a f r i e n d a n d a g o o d t e a c h e r i n f l u e n c e your p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n ? b. One o f y o u r s t u d e n t ' s p a r e n t s who knows a g r e a t d e a l about t h e West C o a s t I n d i a n s , v o l u n t e e r s t o b r i n g m a t e r i a l s a nd t o t a l k t o t h e c l a s s a b o u t them. How w o u l d t h i s s i t u a t i o n a f f e c t y o u r p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s ? PROBE: How w o u l d a p a r e n t i n f l u e n c e your p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n ? c. The i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s o u r c e s p e c i a l i s t from t h e PRO-D C e n t r e d r o p s i n t o y o u r c l a s s and i n c o n v e r s a t i o n m e n t i o n s t h a t a l a r g e n u m b e r o f new r e s o u r c e s (games, p i c t u r e s , l e s s o n p l a n s , f i l m s t r i p s , e t c . ) h a v e j u s t a r r i v e d d e a l i n g w i t h t h e t o p i c o f W e s t Co a s t I n d i a n s . How w o u l d t h i s s i t u a t i o n a f f e c t y o u r p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s ? PROBE: How w o u l d a s p e c i a l i s t i n f l u e n c e y o u r p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n ? d. Your p r i n c i p a l m e n t i o n s a t a s t a f f m e e t i n g t h a t a l l s t a f f s h o u l d be more aware o f t h e m u l t i c u l t u r a l n a t u r e of y o u r s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , she s u g g e s t s t h a t because o f t h e l a r g e number o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s t u d e n t s i n t h e s c h o o l , s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s i f p o s s i b l e , s p e c i f i c a l l y S o c i a l S t u d i e s p r o j e c t s , s h o u l d r e f l e c t t h e d i v e r s i t y o f t h e Coas t I n d i a n c u l t u r e . How w o u l d t h i s s i t u a t i o n a f f e c t y o u r p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s ? P R O B E : How w o u l d a p r i n c i p a l i n f l u e n c e y o u r p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n ? A f t e r l o o k i n g a t t h e s e f o u r s i t u a t i o n s , w h i c h one w o u l d be most c o m p e l l i n g i n h e l p i n g y o u make a d e c i s i o n ? PROBE: Why would one i n f l u e n c e be s t r o n g e r t h a n the o t h e r s ? We a l l know t h a t t e a c h e r s have v e r y l i t t l e t i m e t o base p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s on r e c e n t r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e . Can y o u r e c a l l any t i m e when y o u h a v e u s e d r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e as a b a s i s f o r m a k i n g a d e c i s i o n no m a t t e r what the s u b j e c t m a t t e r ? PROBE: What a b o u t t h e use o f e v i d e n c e when i t r u n s c o n t r a r y t o what you b e l i e v e ? PROBE: What a b o u t t h e use o f e v i d e n c e when y o u a r e p l a n n i n g s o c i a l s t u d i e s o r s c i e n c e c o n t e n t ? (a) C o n s i d e r i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n we w e r e l o o k i n g a t i n q u e s t i o n 4 , would you go about p l a n n i n g a s c i e n c e u n i t any d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n a s o c i a l s t u d i e s u n i t ? (b) Wo u l d y o u r f e e l i n g s o f c o n f i d e n c e a b o u t t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n f l u e n c e your p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s ? P R O B E : What i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n " s c i e n c e p l a n n i n g " and " s o c i a l s t u d i e s p l a n n i n g " ? 7 2 . I n c o n c l u s i o n , i f you w e r e t o i n d i c a t e how y o u make p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s most f r e q u e n t l y , w h i c h one w o u l d b e s t r e p r e s e n t your b a s i s f o r judgment? a. o p i n i o n s o f : w e l l - r e s p e c t e d c o l l e a g u e s your p r i n c i p a l d i s t r i c t r e s o u r c e s p e c i a l i s t p a r e n t ( s ) o f your s t u d e n t s b. r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e c. l o g i c d. f e e l i n g s e. any o t h e r Can y o u t h i n k o f any o t h e r f a c t o r w h i c h m i g h t a f f e c t how you go about making a d e c i s i o n ? 7 3 . APPENDIX I I I D e f i n i t i o n s o f Terms The f o l l o w i n g terms a r e used t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s t u d y . 1 . C u r r i c u l u m ; r e f e r s t o t h e c o u r s e of s t u d i e s w i t h i n t h e B. C. s c h o o l system. 2 . I n t e r a c t i v e t e a c h i n g : i s d e f i n e d a s t h e f a c e - t o - f a c e e n c o u n t e r s between t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s w h i l e t e a c h i n g i n t h e c l a s s r o o m ( J a c k s o n , 1 9 6 5 ) . 3 . I n t u i t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g : r e f e r s t o t h e u n c o n s c i o u s or s u b l i m i n a l grounds f o r b e l i e f . For example, " I have a f e e l i n g or b e l i e f t h a t s u c h and s u c h i s t h e c a s e . " I t i s t h e a b s e n c e o f e v i d e n c e w h i c h m a r k s i t a s s u s p e c t . 4. J u d g m e n t : i s a c o n c e p t w h i c h r e f e r s t o a t r u t h c l a i m made i n the absence of c o n c l u s i v e grounds ( G r e e n , 1 9 7 1 , p. 1 7 7 ) . J u d g m e n t s a r e o b j e c t i v e i n t h e s e n s e t h a t they r e s t upon r e a s o n s , g r o u n d s , r u l e s o r p r i n c i p l e s . S i n c e t h e grounds o f judgment a r e never c o n c l u s i v e , i t i s p e r f e c t l y p o s s i b l e f o r d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n s t o g i v e d i f f e r e n t j u d g m e n t s on t h e same m a t t e r and e v e n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e same g r o u n d s ; and i t may a l s o be t h e c a s e t h a t s u c h d i f f e r e n t judgments a r e e q u a l l y r e a s o n -a b l e . T h i s p o i n t i s i m p o r t a n t i n e d u c a t i o n i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s no one " r i g h t " body o f knowledge about t e a c h e r c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s b u t r a t h e r p o i n t s o f v i e w which a r e open t o d i s c e r n i n g judgment (Green, 1971 , pp. 1 7 0 - 1 7 8 ) . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e t e r m s j u d g m e n t and d e c i s i o n -making are used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . 5 . P r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g ; r e f e r s t o t h e t y p e of r e a s o n i n g t h a t t e a c h e r s l i k e l y u s e . A t t h e h e a r t o f p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g i s an i n t e r e s t i n s o l v i n g a g i v e n p r o b l e m — s o l v i n g a p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t y . 74. 6. K n o w ! e d g e ; i s a c o m p l e x c o n c e p t . I n e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s , k n o w l e d g e m a r k s t h e w h o l e c o n t e n t o f o u r i n t e l l e c t u a l h e r i t a g e w h i c h t e a c h e r s a r e c o n c e r n e d t o pass on t o s t u d e n t s ( S c h e f f l e r , 1 9 6 5). 7. P r e a c t i v e t e a c h i n g ; i s d e f i n e d as what t a k e s p l a c e b e f o r e and a f t e r s c h o o l , d u r i n g r e c e s s and a t o t h e r t i m e s when t h e t e a c h e r i s n o t e n g a g e d i n i n t e r a c t i v e t e a c h i n g b u t t h i n k i n g a b o u t h i s o r h e r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n ( J a c k s o n , 1 9 6 5 ) . For example, i t i n c l u d e s such t h i n g s as p r e p a r i n g and p l a n n i n g l e s s o n s , m a r k i n g p a p e r s , s e t t i n g up e q u i p m e n t , m a k i n g and r u n n i n g o f f d i t t o s , p h o t o c o p y i n g m a t e r i a l s , a n d / o r t h i n k i n g a b o u t how t o d e a l w i t h c e r t a i n b e h a v i o r or l e a r n i n g p r o b l e m s . I n t h i s s t u d y p r e a c t i v e t e a c h i n g and p r e a c t i v e p l a n n i n g a r e used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . 8. T e a c h e r p l a n n i n g ; r e f e r s t o t h e p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g , d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and j u d g m e n t . I t i s a l l t h a t a t e a c h e r m i g h t do i n a d v a n c e of t h e i n t e r -a c t i v e phase of t e a c h i n g . A3 l o n g as what a t e a c h e r i s . d o i n g a i d s i n p r e p a r i n g a g u i d e l i n e f o r f u t u r e i n t e r a c t i v e t e a c h i n g i t c o u n t s as p l a n n i n g . 

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