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UBC Theses and Dissertations

W.P. Weston, educator and artist : the development of British ideas in the art curriculum of B.C. public… Rogers, Anthony William 1987

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W.P. WESTON, EDUCATOR AND A R T I S T : THE DEVELOPMENT OF B R I T I S H I D E A S I N THE ART C U R R I C U L U M OF B.C. P U B L I C SCHOOLS b y ANTHONY W I L L I A M ROGERS B . E d . T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 8 M.A. ( E d . ) , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 8 3 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF P H I L O S O P H Y i n THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S ( D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l a n d E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A J u n e 1 9 8 7 0 ANTHONY W I L L I A M ROGERS In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department o f 3 0 0 ^ ! a n c * E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e August 15, 1987 A b s t r a c t Using the b i o g r a p h i c a l approach, t h i s t h e s i s examines the t r a n s f e r of B r i t i s h a r t education methodology to B.C. s c h o o l s . E a r l y chapters make a c l o s e study of the school a r t c u r r i c u l u m i n B r i t a i n and i t s comprehensive r e s t r u c t u r i n g between 1890 and 1910. L a t e r chapters analyse the t r a n s f e r of these B r i t i s h ideas to B.C., showing how they e v e n t u a l l y formed the b a s i s of the B r i t i s h Columbia a r t c u r r i c u l u m . As a B r i t i s h immigrant i n 1909, W i l l i a m Percy Weston belonged to the dominant e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l group then s e t t l i n g i n B.C.. With B r i t i s h t r a i n i n g and te a c h i n g experience, he brought with him the b e l i e f , fundamental to B r i t i s h a r t educatio n , that n a t u r a l form was the b a s i s of design and beauty. Never abandoning t h i s n o t i o n , he spread h i s ideas w e l l beyond the P r o v i n c i a l Normal School, where he was A r t Master from 1914 to 1946. Apart from p l a y i n g a major r o l e i n the a r t t r a i n i n g of teachers he was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r w r i t i n g the o f f i c i a l p r o v i n c i a l a r t text i n 1924 and completely r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s 1933 r e v i s i o n . He dominated the 1936 r e w r i t i n g of elementary and secondary a r t programmes which became a part of the province's complete overhaul of c u r r i c u l a . Weston a l s o became a prominent a r t i s t . Among the f i r s t to develop a new v i s i o n of the western Canadian landscape, he was an important member of the l o c a l a r t i s t i c community. He f i n a l l y i i r e c e i v e d n a t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n , becoming a c h a r t e r member of the Canadian Group of P a i n t e r s i n 1933 and the f i r s t B.C. A s s o c i a t e of the Royal Canadian Academy i n 1936. Throughout the n i n e t e e n - t h i r t i e s he e x h i b i t e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n n a t i o n a l e x h i b i t i o n s and h i s work was chosen to r e p r e s e n t Canada abroad. This t h e s i s shows how B r i t i s h e d u c a t i o n a l ideas were s u s t a i n e d i n B.C. by the predominantly B r i t i s h e d u c a t i o n a l establishment long a f t e r they were r e j e c t e d i n B r i t a i n . I n v e s t i g a t i n g reasons, o f t e n unforeseen, f o r c u r r i c u l a r change, the t h e s i s r a i s e s important questions about the inadequacy of much c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r y with i t s emphasis on o f f i c i a l p o l i c y and d i s r e g a r d f o r classroom p r a c t i c e . In e l u c i d a t i n g Weston's thought and p r a c t i c e c o n t e x t u a l l y , the t h e s i s p o i n t s out the c o n d i t i o n s which allowed Weston to have such wide i n f l u e n c e , c o n t r a s t i n g h i s e d u c a t i o n a l c o n s e r v a t i s m with h i s a r t i s t i c e xperimentation. Furthermore, i t o f f e r s an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the way i n which s c h o o l a r t education p o l i c y developed i n B.C. and underscores the complex of reasons which encourages, or impedes, change i n e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . Although u l t i m a t e l y Weston's predominance may have held up e d u c a t i o n a l change i n a r t w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e , he n e v e r t h e l e s s brought a coherent and p l a u s i b l e philosophy of a r t education to B.C. s c h o o l s , one that served the province w e l l f o r three or more decades. His e n t h u s i a s t i c and able championing of that p h i l o s o p h y d i d much to encourage t e a c h i n g of the s u b j e c t . TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of Tables v L i s t of F i g u r e s v i Acknowledgement v i i CHAPTER ONE - " E s s e n t i a l l y Imperial and B r i t i s h " : the ro o t s of B.C. a r t education i n the schools . 1 CHAPTER TWO - "Gently comes the world to those/ That are ca s t i n g e n t l e mould": Weston's e a r l y l i f e and s c h o o l i n g 23 CHAPTER THREE - "To e x e r c i s e a v a l u a b l e a e s t h e t i c i n f l u e n c e upon the working c l a s s e s " : the beginnings of r e v o l u t i o n i n a r t education 49 CHAPTER FOUR - " I t f i l l s a l a d with the s p i r i t of the a r t i s t d e l i g h t i n g i n h i s work": the r e v o l u t i o n completed 91 CHAPTER FIVE - "Thoroughly capable teachers - well-equipped, e a r n e s t , f a i r - m i n d e d C h r i s t i a n men": e a r l y years as a teacher 129 CHAPTER SIX - "To r e l y a b s o l u t e l y on o u r s e l v e s f o r what we f e l t l i k e d o i ng": e a r l y years i n Vancouver . 155 CHAPTER SEVEN - "The very essence of good t e a c h i n g and good l e a d e r s h i p " : a f e e l i n g of succ e s s . . . . . . 191 CHAPTER EIGHT - "Art . . . man's supreme r e t o r t to the u g l i n e s s of l i f e " : a mature i n f l u e n c e . . . . 232 CHAPTER NINE - "The very essence of the land of h i s c h o i c e " : c o n c l u s i o n s 273 BIBLIOGRAPHY 290 i v LIST OF TABLES i Table I. Per C a p i t a Costs of B.C. E d u c a t i o n : 1921 to 1939 gi v e n i n A c t u a l D o l l a r s and i n 1913 D o l l a r s 215 I I . Annual Budget f o r Vancouver Normal School and Annual S a l a r y f o r W.P. Weston, 1924 to 1940 gi v e n i n A c t u a l D o l l a r s and i n 1913 D o l l a r s 215 v LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1. Room G, Brandlehow Road School 138 2. Camp at Granthams Landing, 1923: On the C o r n i s h Coast, 1910 182 3. I l l u s t r a t i o n s from A Teacher's Manual of Drawing 197 4. L i f e Force, 1937 256 5. The Weston home a t 1419 Dogwood Ave 260 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I was tempted to omit the acknowledgements page f o r f e a r t h a t I would leave out someone who gave me h e l p . There were so many. However, among them a l l there were some without whose help the t h e s i s would never have been completed. These I must mention here. Dr. John Calam, perhaps the f i r s t to encourage me in the present e n t e r p r i s e , acted as chairman of my committee u n t i l h i s r e t i r e m e n t . Dr. J . Donald Wilson became chairman on John Calam's de p a r t u r e . He gave me the courage and the c h a l l e n g e to go ahead. His advice was always good and he pushed me to give of my b e s t . Drs. Graeme Chalmers and W i l l i a m Bruneau a l s o served on my committee and they made i t a t r i u m v i r a t e of s t r e n g t h . Without the help of W.P. Weston's daughters, D o r i s Wood and Bette Parson, the t h e s i s would probably have been i m p o s s i b l e . They provided me with a wealth of m a t e r i a l , i n f o r m a t i o n and a d v i c e . Acknowledgements o f t e n have a paragraph p r a i s i n g the w r i t e r ' s wife f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n t y p i n g , p r o o f r e a d i n g and other chores. My wife, G i l l i a n Weiss, d i d none of these t h i n g s . Her help was f a r more v i t a l . A f i n e h i s t o r i a n of education h e r s e l f , she gave me u n s t i n t i n g l y of her a d v i c e , encouraged me when the going was rough and never allowed me to lose h e a r t . v i i CHAPTER ONE " E s s e n t i a l l y I m p e r i a l and B r i t i s h " : the r o o t s of B.C. a r t e d u c a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s . The B r i t i s h have been a p e r v a s i v e i n f l u e n c e throughout the h i s t o r y of Canadian e d u c a t i o n whether we speak of i n d i v i d u a l s from B r i t a i n or the t r a n s f e r to Canada of B r i t i s h e d u c a t i o n a l 2 s t r u c t u r e s or p o l i c i e s . In 1979 George Tomkins c a l l e d f o r "systematic s t u d i e s of how v a r i e d B r i t i s h i n f l u e n c e s have a f f e c t e d our c u r r i c u l a , " c l a i m i n g t h a t "the whole ce n t u r y 3 beginning with the Ryerson e r a . . .was B r i t i s h - o r i e n t e d . " In h i s r e c e n t monumental work, A Common Countenance, Tomkins makes the more s p e c i f i c c l a i m t h a t "the c u l t u r a l content of the c u r r i c u l u m d u r i n g the inter-war p e r i o d remained e s s e n t i a l l y 4 i m p e r i a l and B r i t i s h . " He p o i n t s out too the "unconscious i r o n y " t h a t while Canadians p e r c e i v e d the B r i t i s h as "a model of r i g o r o u s academic s c h o o l i n g " and something to be emulated, B r i t i s h observers remarked on the "excessive academism and 5 formalism of the Canadian c u r r i c u l u m . " In other words, what was seen as B r i t i s h n e s s i n the Canadian c u r r i c u l u m was sometimes a d e v i a n t form of B r i t i s h e d u c a t i o n a l n o t i o n s . 1 T h i s study uses the d e v i c e of a c o n t e x t u a l biography to ex p l o r e the B r i t i s h i n f l u e n c e , d e s c r i b e d by Tomkins, as i t a f f e c t e d a r t education c u r r i c u l a i n the s c h o o l s of B r i t i s h 6 Columbia d u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f of the t w e n t i e t h century. A d i f f i c u l t y when speaking of i n f l u e n c e i s t h a t i t can be seen o n l y through i t s e f f e c t s . The q u e s t i o n must then be asked whether those e f f e c t s r e s u l t e d from a proposed cause. While the answer can never be completely c e r t a i n , a c l o s e study of both the cause and the claimed e f f e c t can provide s u f f i c i e n t c o r r e l a t i o n to be c o n v i n c i n g . T h i s work, through an examination of the l i f e of one man, W i l l i a m Percy Weston, seeks to show how he brought h i s B r i t i s h t r a i n i n g and experience to B.C. I t looks c l o s e l y a t the nature of t h a t t r a i n i n g and shows i t s p l a c e i n the broader f i e l d of a r t e d u c a t i o n i n E n g l i s h board s c h o o l s . In B r i t i s h Columbia, Weston soon found h i m s e l f i n a p o s i t i o n from which he c o u l d spread h i s ideas widely. The ease with which these B r i t i s h ideas were accepted i s e x p l a i n e d by the nature of the B r i t i s h Columbian 7 p o p u l a t i o n a t t h a t time. The study a l s o e x p l a i n s how and why the B.C. a r t c u r r i c u l u m d e v i a t e d from the contemporary B r i t i s h one. While t h i s t h e s i s i s a study of one man and one s u b j e c t i n one plac e at one time, i t n e v e r t h e l e s s allows f o r some broader understandings of e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia and perhaps even i n Canada. At the v e r y l e a s t the questions and answers provided here suggest new q u e s t i o n s t h a t may be asked of other c u r r i c u l a elsewhere. 2 A problem with any study of t h i s nature is the paucity of secondary h i s t o r i c a l sources in several key areas. The sc a r c i t y , in Tomkins' impressive bibliography, of h i s t o r i c a l a r t i c l e s and books in Canadian curriculum h i s t o r y confirms t h i s 8 lack. Tomkins himself complains of "the neglect of curriculum history" adding that not even the prior studies which would allow 9 "a full-blown history" have been done. Moreover, there are few well-researched h i s t o r i e s of twentieth century Canadian a r t , and there is almost nothing at a l l on art education in Canada. Looking overseas to Great B r i t a i n , to investigate sources of influence, one finds that the history of art education there has been a l i t t l e better served, but c e r t a i n l y not recently. The search for books on the history of Canadian curriculum, l e t alone those which have some concern for art education, begins and ends with Tomkins' recent book, A Common Countenance. As Neil Sutherland says in his Foreword to the history, " I t is not an exaggeration to say that [Tomkins] has put the f i e l d together into a coherent whole for the f i r s t time, and 10 that later work w i l l be written in his very long shadow." Sutherland points out that u n t i l Tomkins* work historians of education had ignored curriculum while curriculum theorists had ignored history. Such disregard by both historians and theorists seems odd when o f f i c i a l c u r r i c u l a play such an important role in the implementation of government p o l i c i e s r e l a t i n g to schools. Tomkins' work provides a synthesis of what has been written on 3 the h i s t o r y of c u r r i c u l u m . For s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t s i n s p e c i f i c p l a c e s , such as a r t e d u c a t i o n i n B.C., he has sometimes been 11 f o r c e d to r e l y on a very s m a l l body of work. My M.A. t h e s i s , "The B e a u t i f u l i n Form and Colour: A r t E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m i n B r i t i s h Columbia between the Wars," t r a c e s the development of the a r t c u r r i c u l u m f o r the s c h o o l s 12 between 1923 and 1937. I t t r e a t s the c u r r i c u l u m i n three ways: as i t was w r i t t e n i n the o f f i c i a l Programme of S t u d i e s , as i t was taught a t the two Normal Schools, and as i t was taught i n the s c h o o l s . My r e s e a r c h f o r t h a t t h e s i s found l i t t l e w r i t t e n on the h i s t o r y of a r t e d u c a t i o n i n B.C. a p a r t from one r e l e v a n t t h e s i s and a very few unpublished papers which resembled g o s s i p y anecdotes. The s i t u a t i o n has improved l i t t l e s i n c e , although 13 some c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h promises u s e f u l f u t u r e r e s u l t s . George H.E. Green's t h e s i s , "Development of C u r r i c u l u m i n Elementary 14 Schools of B.C. p r i o r to 1936," proved of some use. I t i s a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d account of the s u b j e c t matter of i t s t i t l e . P r o v i d i n g l i t t l e a n a l y s i s , i t r e l i e s c h i e f l y on o f f i c i a l Programmes of Study. Turning to Great B r i t a i n one f i n d s a l i t t l e more on the h i s t o r y of c u r r i c u l u m with w r i t e r s such as Ivor Goodson doing some r e c e n t work i n the f i e l d . None, however, has d e a l t with a r t c u r r i c u l u m to any e x t e n t . Goodson prov i d e s a u s e f u l overview of c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r y i n B r i t a i n i n P a r t One of h i s 1983 book 4 15 School Subjects and C u r r i c u l u m Change. A ge n e r a l h i s t o r y of edu c a t i o n which he p a r t i c u l a r l y recommends as d e a l i n g with c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r y t o some extent i s Lawson and S i l v e r ' s A S o c i a l 16 H i s t o r y of Educat i o n i n England. C o n t a i n i n g , however, no a n a l y s i s a t a l l of a r t educa t i o n i n any form, i t serves as an example of a common problem f o r those w r i t i n g about the h i s t o r y of a r t e d u c a t i o n . Such n e g l e c t of the s u b j e c t i s common i n h i s t o r i e s of edu c a t i o n , as i t i s i n c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r i e s , so secondary sources of i n f o r m a t i o n are very l i m i t e d . In the narrower f i e l d of the h i s t o r y of a r t education there i s ve r y l i t t l e to be found s i n c e 1970. At t h a t time S t u a r t Macdonald's The H i s t o r y and Ph i l o s o p h y of A r t Education 17 appeared. I t fo l l o w e d hard on the h e e l s of two other books on the same s u b j e c t , Gordon Sutton's A r t i s a n or A r t i s t and Richard 18 C a r l i n e ' s Draw They Must. A r t i s a n or A r t i s t p r o v i d e s a p i c t u r e of the development of a r t educa t i o n i n B r i t a i n d u r i n g the ni n e t e e n t h and tw e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s . Sutton emphasizes the long t r a d i t i o n of B r i t i s h a r t educa t i o n and e l u c i d a t e s some of the str a n d s t h a t were interwoven to c r e a t e t h a t t r a d i t i o n . C a r l i n e takes a somewhat s i m i l a r approach, but a l s o looks a t a r t t e a c h i n g elsewhere i n the B r i t i s h Commonwealth. U n f o r t u n a t e l y he says nothing about a r t educa t i o n i n Canada. Macdonald's book has probably been the most i n f l u e n t i a l and w i d e l y read of the t h r e e . I t too s t r e s s e s the importance of 5 developments i n the n i n e t e e n t h century. However, i t i s s e r i o u s l y flawed i n t h a t i t v i r t u a l l y ignores a r t e d u c a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s at the end of the n i n e t e e n t h century. As w i l l become c l e a r i n l a t e r c hapters of t h i s study, the c l o s i n g of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was a time when the nature of a r t e d u c a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s changed d r a m a t i c a l l y from being a t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t to being an a e s t h e t i c one. Overlooking t h i s , Macdonald simply l e a p f r o g s m e n t a l l y over about t h i r t y c r u c i a l y e a r s . A l l three of these books do d e a l a t some len g t h with the a r t c u r r i c u l u m . A weakness, however, i s t h a t t h e i r authors are a r t educators r a t h e r than h i s t o r i a n s . Adopting a p r e s e n t i s t stance they f a i l to see the past as a n y t h i n g other than as a prelude to the g l o r i o u s p r e s e n t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y those i n B r i t a i n w r i t i n g i n the f i e l d of a r t e d u c a t i o n h i s t o r y b r i n g an i n t e r e s t i n h i s t o r y to t h e i r p a s s i o n f o r a r t r a t h e r than an i n t e r e s t i n a r t e d u c a t i o n to t h e i r p a s s i o n f o r h i s t o r y . A second weakness, which may a r i s e out of the f i r s t , i s the authors' common tendency to assume t h a t o f f i c i a l l y p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l a r e p r e s e n t what a c t u a l l y was taught i n the classroom. T h i s study w i l l show, as have others before i t , t h a t such an assumption cannot be j u s t i f i e d . J o u r n a l a r t i c l e s which d e a l with the h i s t o r y of a r t e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t a i n or with a r t education c u r r i c u l u m a l s o tend t o - r e l y on o f f i c i a l documents f o r any p e r i o d o u t s i d e of the 6 author's own e x p e r i e n c e . T y p i c a l of such a r t i c l e s i s E . J . M i l t o n Smith's "Art Teacher T r a i n i n g i n B r i t a i n (1852-1985) with S p e c i a l 19 Reference to Leeds." U l t i m a t e l y the a r t i c l e seems to have the d u a l aims of c a s t i g a t i n g present government p o l i c y and e x t o l l i n g the author's r o l e i n a r t teacher t r a i n i n g . The beginning of the a r t i c l e r e p o r t s o f f i c i a l government p o l i c y , assuming that i t was f o l l o w e d s l a v i s h l y , while the l a t t e r p a r t r e l a t e s what was a c t u a l l y being taught and how v a r i o u s people i n v o l v e d r e a c t e d to both p r a c t i c e and p o l i c y . Muddled i n the r e c o u n t i n g of o f f i c i a l p o l i c y and p a r t i s a n i n the view of r e c e n t h i s t o r y , Smith's a r t i c l e i s c h i e f l y notable f o r i t s c r e a t i v e use of s p e l l i n g and p u n c t u a t i o n . E q u a l l y muddled, though grammatically b e t t e r , i s David T h i s t l e w o o d 1 s " S o c i a l S i g n i f i c a n c e i n B r i t i s h A r t E d u c a t i o n 20 1850-1950." Here Thistlewood f a i l s to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the p o l i c i e s which r e l a t e d to elementary s c h o o l s , to p r i v a t e s c h o o l s , to a r t s c h o o l s or to s c h o o l s of d e s i g n . Even worse he i s c l e a r l y unaware of important changes i n p o l i c y t h a t o c c u r r e d i n the l a s t p a r t of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . These changes w i l l be d e a l t with at l e n g t h l a t e r i n the t h e s i s . Two should be mentioned here. He overlooks the f a c t t h a t p r i o r to l e g i s l a t i o n i n 1890, which made drawing compulsory f o r boys, very few s c h o o l s a c t u a l l y taught the s u b j e c t . T h i s leads him to the erroneous assumption t h a t most c h i l d r e n were exposed to the p r e s c r i b e d s y l l a b u s throughout the e i g h t e e n - s e v e n t i e s and e i g h t i e s . In a c t u a l f a c t they weren't. He does not even mention the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s of 1895, or the 7 f u r o r which preceded i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n , yet t h i s c u r r i c u l u m was the o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n of a major change i n the approach to a r t e d u c a t i o n . In s i m i l a r l y i n e x p l i c a b l e f a s h i o n he ignores a number of i n f l u e n t i a l a r t educators to juxtapose Thomas A b l e t t , who l e f t the p u b l i c s c h o o l system i n 1888, with Marion Richardson, who wasn't even born u n t i l 1892. Perhaps an e x p l a n a t i o n of Thistlewood's approach to h i s t o r y can be found i n an e a r l i e r a r t i c l e of h i s i n which he says, "Much [ a r t h i s t o r y ] . . . has been passed on i n the form of reminiscence, and i t has been l e g i t i m a t e f o r s c h o l a r s to add reminiscences or s p e c u l a t i o n of 21 t h e i r own." ( I t a l i c s mine.) I have found t h a t s c h o l a r s p r e f e r evidence to unsupported s p e c u l a t i o n . While i t may be that there are a number of u s e f u l unpublished B r i t i s h theses on the h i s t o r y of a r t e d u c a t i o n i n the United Kingdom, the lack of any d e t a i l e d c e n t r a l r e g i s t r y of graduate theses coupled with the u n c e r t a i n c a t a l o g u i n g systems of B r i t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s makes them of l i m i t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y a t 22 best. However, two have proven u s e f u l to t h i s study. P.A. Evans' d i s s e r t a t i o n on the l i f e of Thomas A b l e t t sheds some l i g h t on the e a r l y l i f e of the f i r s t drawing i n s t r u c t o r employed by the 23 School Board f o r London. Lucy Burroughs' " A r t i n E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n 1834-1902" prov i d e s an u n c r i t i c a l n a r r a t i v e account of 24 t h a t p e r i o d . The a r t e d u c a t i o n department of L e i c e s t e r P o l y t e c h n i c i s i n the process of d e s i g n i n g a computerized r e g i s t r y of theses and papers connected with a r t e d u c a t i o n . In 8 the s p r i n g of 1985 they were e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s with t h e i r computer programme which made i t hard to r e t r i e v e and s o r t 25 i n f o r m a t i o n , so t h i s source was not a v a i l a b l e to me. A r t h i s t o r y i s o f t e n not concerned with h i s t o r y , d e s p i t e the name. As Douglas Cole p o i n t e d out i n a u s e f u l survey of Canadian a r t h i s t o r y , w r i t e r s i n the f i e l d , " u s u a l l y come from backgrounds and concern themselves with q u e s t i o n s d i f f e r e n t --26 o f t e n f a r d i f f e r e n t — from those of the h i s t o r i a n . " T h i s can l i m i t the u s e f u l n e s s of h i s t o r i e s of a r t to a study such as t h i s . A f u r t h e r l i m i t i n g f a c t o r when the s u b j e c t i s a western Canadian one i s t h a t w r i t e r s on the h i s t o r y of a r t i n Canada have u s u a l l y been from Toronto or Montreal. The dominance of the Group of Seven i n e a s t e r n Canada d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t of the c e n t u r y has o f t e n l e d these w r i t e r s to look at other developments i n a r t 27 as outgrowths of t h a t group. Western Canadian a r t i s t s have long complained t h a t t h e i r work has been ignored or misunderstood, r e s e n t i n g t h e i r t a r r i n g as mere c o p y i s t s of some d i s t a n t c l i q u e . With government, book p u b l i s h i n g and the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y a l l c e n t r e d i n O n t a r i o i t has always been d i f f i c u l t , and remains so, to counter such lac k of i n t e r e s t i n the west. One book has managed to provide a B r i t i s h Columbian c o u n t e r p o i n t , namely From 28 D e s o l a t i o n to Splendour by Maria T i p p e t t and Douglas Cole. T i p p e t t and Cole d i s c l a i m t h a t they are w r i t i n g a r t h i s t o r y , but 29 r a t h e r "an essay i n t o c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l h i s t o r y . " N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e i r book prov i d e s the s o l e balance to other 9 n a t i o n a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d h i s t o r i e s . C h i e f among unpublished works i s W.W. Thorn's m a g i s t r a l t h e s i s , "Fine A r t s i n Vancouver 1886-1930," u s e f u l as a compendium of i n f o r m a t i o n l a r g e l y garnered from newspaper a r t i c l e s , but p r o v i d i n g l i t t l e or no 30 a n a l y s i s . C h a r l e s H i l l ' s Canadian P a i n t i n g i n the T h i r t i e s views a l l development i n p a i n t i n g as r e s u l t i n g from the Group of Seven's i n f l u e n c e , p i c t u r i n g B r i t i s h Columbian a r t i s t s as s e i z i n g 31 upon the work of t h a t group f o r t h e i r i n s p i r a t i o n . As c u r a t o r of Canadian a r t a t the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , H i l l has a powerful p o s i t i o n from which to spread such a narrow view. Denis Reid i n A Concise H i s t o r y of Canadian P a i n t i n g p r o v i d e s a s l i g h t l y l e s s extreme view, but s t i l l p o r t r a y s B.C. a r t i s t s as f a i l i n g to develop t h e i r p o t e n t i a l u n t i l F r e d e r i c k V a r l e y ' s a r r i v a l i n l a t e 32 1926. In h i s enthusiasm to p o r t r a y V a r l e y as some e a s t e r n seer he overlooks much e l s e t h a t was happening. Perhaps h i s w i l d e s t statement i s to d e s c r i b e the B.C. C o l l e g e of A r t s as "the 33 e f f e c t i v e c e n t r e of Vancouver's c u l t u r a l l i f e . " T h i s s c h o o l , the product of pique on the p a r t of V a r l e y and h i s c o l l e a g u e , Macdonald, l a s t e d l e s s than two y e a r s . Although i t s impact was f e l t w i t h i n B.C. a r t c i r c l e s , i t d i d not i n s t a n t l y become the f o c a l p o i n t f o r B.C. a r t i s t s , l e t alone the musicians, w r i t e r s and others concerned with the v a r i e d c u l t u r a l l i f e of the c i t y . J . R u s s e l l Harper takes a f a i r l y sympathetic approach to western p a i n t e r s i n P a i n t i n g i n Canada: a H i s t o r y , r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t they 10 34 were working to develop t h e i r own v i s i o n . Paul D u v a l l i n Four Decades s i m i l a r l y shows some understanding of western p a i n t e r s . Despite t h e i r e f f o r t s to a p p r e c i a t e the development of B.C. p a i n t i n g as a response to western c o n d i t i o n s , both Harper and D u v a l l n e v e r t h e l e s s see such change as being p e r i p h e r a l to the important t h i n g s happening on the Toronto-Montreal a r t c i r c u i t . In Canadian A r t ; I t s O r i g i n and Development, W i l l i a m Colgate made a s e r i o u s attempt i n 1943 to look at a r t i n Canada with a 35 n a t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . However, the work was s e r i o u s l y hampered by h i s r e l i a n c e on correspondents f o r d e t a i l s of what was happening o u t s i d e of O n t a r i o . The book i s i n t e r e s t i n g n e v e r t h e l e s s f o r the way i n which he r e l a t e s the Group of Seven to other a r t i s t s c o n s i d e r e d to be important a t the time of h i s 36 w r i t i n g . The removal of the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y to new premises i n l a t e 1983 was accompanied by the p u b l i c a t i o n of a comprehensive catalogue e n t i t l e d Vancouver A r t and A r t i s t s : 37 1931-1983. U s e f u l f o r i t s s h o r t b i o g r a p h i c a l notes on Canadian a r t i s t s i t i s otherwise noteworthy f o r an essay by Lorna F a r r e l l - W a r d , " T r a d i t i o n / T r a n s i t i o n : the Keys to Change," which p i c k s and chooses to provide an incomplete impression of a r t 38 h i s t o r y i n Vancouver from the nineteen-twenties on. Inadequately f o o t n o t e d , i t r e l i e s h e a v i l y on newspaper c l i p p i n g s , p o s s i b l y picked up without acknowledgement from the Thorn t h e s i s , mentioned e a r l i e r . Some other a r t i c l e s , such as Joan Lowndes' 11 "The S p i r i t of the S i x t i e s by a Witness" or Jack Shadbolt's "A Pers o n a l R e c o l l e c t i o n " , are too p e r s o n a l , a n e c d o t a l and unbalanced to be co n s i d e r e d s e r i o u s l y from a s c h o l a r l y 39 v i ewpoint. As i s common with such fond remembrances, they are 40 not even a c c u r a t e . Most of the four hundred and f o r t y pages are giv e n over to s e l f - l a u d a t o r y exclamations about the re c e n t past. Thus T i p p e t t and Cole's From D e s o l a t i o n to Splendour remains the only s c h o l a r l y overview of the development of p a i n t i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A s t r e n g t h of From D e s o l a t i o n t o Splendour i s the authors' r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t s i m i l a r i t i e s i n s t y l e between the work of a r t i s t s i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of Canada o f t e n arose as a r e s u l t of a complex of s i m i l a r i n f l u e n c e s , r a t h e r than the i n f l u e n c e of one group of a r t i s t s on another. They go f u r t h e r , f i n d i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s of s t y l e to the work of B.C. a r t i s t s i n t h a t of a r t i s t s i n New Zealand, B r i t a i n and the United S t a t e s . From a common r e a c t i o n " a g a i n s t E n g l i s h t r a d i t i o n a l i s m . . .evolved an o b j e c t i v e s t y l e . " I f i t was d e r i v a t i v e then i t "was no more 41 d e r i v a t i v e than the Group tof Seven] i t s e l f . " Given the anger of B.C. a r t i s t s a t being fobbed o f f as c o p y i s t s of the Group of Seven and giv e n the r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n of a r t i s t s i n the west durin g the ninete e n - t w e n t i e s and t h i r t i e s , T i p p e t t and Cole's argument i s reasonable. T i p p e t t has r e c e n t l y r e i t e r a t e d her e a r l i e r stand, c a l l i n g f o r a re-examination of the h i s t o r y of Canadian p a i n t i n g i n the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y from a 12 42 p e r s p e c t i v e other than t h a t of the Group of Seven. She suggests a l s o t h a t the whole of English-Canada's c u l t u r a l experience should be looked a t i n r e l a t i o n to that of other c o u n t r i e s such 43 as A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand. Cole has p o i n t e d out t h a t one common i n f l u e n c e f o r Canadian a r t i s t s , and not j u s t the Group of Seven, was t h a t they were "converted to w i l d e r n e s s . " T h i s r e s u l t e d from: the phenomenal growth of Canadian c i t i e s and the r e s u l t i n g urban c o n d i t i o n which, more than a n y t h i n g e l s e , caused Canadians to seek w i l d l a n d s c a p e . 4 4 I w i l l argue l a t e r t h a t one must a l s o take i n t o account commonalities i n a r t t r a i n i n g . I w i l l contend t h a t these very commonalities l e d to somewhat s i m i l a r r e a c t i o n s to the new s t i m u l i of the Canadian scenery. A b i o g r a p h i c a l study of t h i s nature r e q u i r e s t h a t one look a t the s u b j e c t i n h i s v a r i o u s r o l e s as a r t i s t , a r t teacher and f a m i l y man both i n Canada and England. P u b l i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n about W i l l i a m P. Weston as an a r t i s t has been r e l a t i v e l y easy to o b t a i n . He became a prominent a r t i s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g h i s l i f e t i m e and had a n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n . Many newspaper and magazine a r t i c l e s r e f e r to h i s p a i n t i n g . S e r i o u s p u b l i s h e d h i s t o r i e s of Canadian a r t d e a l with h i s p l a c e i n t h a t h i s t o r y . There are the catalogues of the shows where he e x h i b i t e d and the evidence of the p a i n t i n g s themselves. Interviews with h i s c o l l e a g u e s and f r i e n d s have been u s e f u l , although with the 1 3 l i m i t a t i o n t h a t t h e i r s was the evidence of much younger acquaintances r a t h e r than of peers. Of h i s l i f e as a teacher we have much l e s s w r i t t e n evidence. From h i s e a r l y years i n B.C. there are Weston's own o f f i c i a l r e p o r t s to the Vancouver School Board. L a t e r , the o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s are much b r i e f e r and more i n d i r e c t . Most u s e f u l of a l l have been a s e r i e s of i n t e r v i e w s with h i s st u d e n t s , a l l of whom remembered him v i v i d l y . Even when t h e i r other memories of the Normal School had faded, they were g e n e r a l l y anxious to r e m i n i s c e on Weston. Of Weston as a f a m i l y man, there i s sparse w r i t t e n evidence. Few p e r s o n a l papers have been prese r v e d , but those few t h a t do remain were made a v a i l a b l e to me. Among them were many photographs which have been most u s e f u l . T h e i r u s e f u l n e s s has been g r e a t l y enhanced by h i s daughters, D o r i s Wood and Bette Parson, who spent many hours p u t t i n g them i n t o c o n t e x t . Indeed, Weston's daughters have c o r r o b o r a t e d much of the pe r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n about him. Other r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s of the f a m i l y , both i n Canada and the United Kingdom, provided a d d i t i o n a l p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Although i t i s more than a century s i n c e Weston was born, the suburb of London, where he spent most of h i s e a r l y l i f e , i s remarkably l i t t l e changed. Two of h i s c h i l d h o o d homes remain, as does h i s s c h o o l and the a r t s c h o o l which he attended. Many of the o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s f o r the area are s t i l l a v a i l a b l e i n the h i s t o r i c a l d i v i s i o n of B a t t e r s e a P u b l i c L i b r a r y as are l o c a l 45 newspapers and other l o c a l p u b l i c a t i o n s . A l l the minutes of the 14 School Board for London are available at the Greater London Record Library which also has many other records for the Board such as architect's drawings for the school at which Weston taught and even a photograph of his classroom. For information on Weston's teacher-training, the archives of Borough Road College proved invaluable, even though some records were destroyed by bombing during the Second World War. This source yielded Weston's o r i g i n a l a p plication, annual reports, student magazines, timetables, and a wealth of other d e t a i l . The history of the college, A History of Borough Road College, written by the 4 6 a r c h i v i s t , George Bartle, provided additional material. Although the l a s t decade of the nineteenth century proved to be one of great change for art education in the elementary schools, researchers have paid scant attention to t h i s period. My research revealed that not only was there change but there was considerable controversy about i t . As that controversy coloured the way in which teachers approached the subject, and th i s in turn led to o f f i c i a l change in the curriculum, i t was necessary to explore in some d e t a i l the developments in the teaching of art and in attitudes to the subject from 1890 to 1905. As w i l l be seen l a t e r , ideas in the r e s u l t i n g curriculum were brought to B r i t i s h Columbia and propounded here over a period of years. The records of the School Board for London again proved valuable and, in p a r t i c u l a r , the minutes of the Sub-Committee for Special Subjects. There can be found, in some 15 d e t a i l , how changes in the subject affected the schools. For d e t a i l s on much of the controversy i t s e l f , and p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t affected teachers, the l i b r a r y of the National Union of Teachers was invaluable. The union's annual reports recount at length th e i r fight with the government about the teaching of a r t . Their ar c h i v a l records suffered from bombing and so are of more limited use. Very useful, however, are the complete sets of journals, such as The Teacher's Aid and The Schoolmaster, for they give an understanding of approaches that were then popular. The national l i b r a r y of the Department of Education and Science is a treasure trove of anything printed about education, whether published or unpublished. Unfortunately, the cataloguing is so i l l o g i c a l that, even with a complete reference, the l i b r a r y i s often unable 47 to r e trieve a requested item except by chance. Once that item has been found then r e f i l e d , a researcher i s u n l i k e l y to see i t again as i t w i l l then be v i r t u a l l y untraceable. For a l l aspects of Weston's l i f e , a most important resource has been a five-hour interview which Weston gave in 1962 to a friend and free-lance broadcaster, Margery Dallas. The o r i g i n a l tape recording, which provided the material for a CBC 48 broadcast, has been preserved by the Glenbow/Alberta I n s t i t u t e . While t h i s free-ranging discussion v e r i f i e d many facts of Weston's l i f e , i t was e s p e c i a l l y valuable in providing Weston's feelings and opinions on many subjects. 16 The r e s o u r c e s mentioned above by no means exhaust the l i s t of those used. Those given here were u s e f u l g e n e r a l l y as w e l l as s p e c i f i c a l l y . S p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s are footnoted throughout the t h e s i s . A person's l i f e cannot be separated i n t o i t s component p a r t s even though some may be i n d i v i d u a l l y i d e n t i f i a b l e or d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . Three d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of Weston's l i f e are h i s f a m i l y , h i s a r t and h i s t e a c h i n g . The i n t e n t here i s to put emphasis on h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e w i t h i n the context of h i s times. The p e r s o n a l i s not ignored, but forms the backdrop f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l , which I wish to put a t c e n t r e stage. I do indeed wish to show Weston "as an a c t o r i n the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s , " as Robert C r a i g Brown has put i t i n h i s t h o u g h t f u l 49 assessment of biography i n Canadian h i s t o r y . However, my purpose i s not so wide as Brown might wish, f o r he goes on to d e c l a r e t h a t the biographer should " d i s c l o s e . . . as much as he 50 can d i s c o v e r of h i s s u b j e c t ' s p r i v a t e and p u b l i c l i f e . " In t h i s t h e s i s , I c o n c e n t r a t e more on the educator, and the i n f l u e n c e Weston had on a r t e d u c a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e . I conclude d e t a i l e d examination of Weston i n 1941, some twenty-six years before h i s death. T h i s i s not because he ceased to be important a f t e r t h a t date. Rather, he had reached a p i n n a c l e i n h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e . As a p a i n t e r , he would achieve no g r e a t e r popular acceptance than he d i d i n t h a t year; 17 and as a teacher he was beginning to look toward r e t i r e m e n t . A l t e r n a t i v e dates might be e q u a l l y j u s t i f i a b l e . As a study of c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r y , the r e - i s s u e , unchanged, of the 1936-37 c u r r i c u l u m i n 1941, marked a p l a t e a u which would extend i n t o the n i n e t e e n - f i f t i e s . The changes t h a t would come i n both the o f f i c i a l c u r r i c u l u m then and i n the a c t u a l c u r r i c u l u m of the classroom even before t h a t time would not be of Weston's making. T h i s study of one man enables us to see something of the world i n which he l i v e d . In g i v i n g us one example of how B r i t i s h ways i n e d u c a t i o n were brought to the pr o v i n c e of B.C. and e x p l a i n i n g why such ideas were so e a s i l y accepted, i t supports Tomkins' c l a i m , quoted e a r l i e r , t h a t the inter-war 51 c u r r i c u l u m was " e s s e n t i a l l y i m p e r i a l and B r i t i s h . " In no way does i t support what has sometimes been d e s c r i b e d as "the great man theory." Weston was not the s o l e person who c o u l d w i e l d a s p e c i a l power. Rather he was a competent man who happened to be i n the r i g h t p l a c e a t the r i g h t time. In the long run, as w e l l as i n the s h o r t , he d i d a gr e a t d e a l f o r the t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e of a r t e d u c a t i o n i n B.C. and f o r the t r a i n i n g of i t s te a c h e r s , although the b e n e f i t s were not always those t h a t he would have envisaged. In f a c t i t i s d o u b t f u l i f he even r e a l i s e d the long term e f f e c t s h i s work would have. A f t e r a l l , as one of h i s 52 f r i e n d s s a i d , "He was always a very modest man." 18 NOTES 1. G.S. Tomkins, A Common Countenance (Scarborough: P r e n t i c e - H a l l Canada, Inc., 1986), p. 171. 2. For a wider view of B r i t i s h and other c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s i n Canada see Ramsay Cook, " C u l t u r a l N a t i o n a l i s m i n Canada: An H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e , " i n J a n i c e L. Murray (ed.), Canadian  C u l t u r a l N a t i o n a l i s m (New York: New york U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977), pp. 15-44. 3. G.S. Tomkins, "Towards a H i s t o r y of C u r r i c u l u m Development i n Canada," G.S. Tomkins, ed., The C u r r i c u l u m i n Canada i n  H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e (Vancouver:CSSE, 1979), p. 10. 4. G.S. Tomkins, A Common Countenance, p. 171. 5. I b i d . , p. 253. 6. For a d i s c u s s i o n of " c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e " biography see W.A. Bruneau, "An Apo l o g i a f o r Biography i n French H i s t o r y , " Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Western S o c i e t y f o r  French H i s t o r y , v o l . 8 (1980), pp. 568-76. 7. A. Ross McCormack speaks of "networks among B r i t i s h immigrants" which helped them maintain dominance. See "Networks among B r i t i s h Immigrants and Accommodation t o Canadian S o c i e t y : Winnipeg, 1900-1914," S o c i a l H i s t o r y , v o l . XVII (No. 34), Nov. 1984, p 357. 8. I b i d . , pp.443-481. 9. I b i d . , p. 4. 10. I b i d . , p. x - x i v . 11. For a r t c u r r i c u l u m i n B. C. Tomkins draws upon a s i n g l e paper of mine, l a t e r the b a s i s of a chapter i n my m a g i s t r a l t h e s i s . See A.W. Rogers, "The B e a u t i f u l i n Form and Colo u r : A r t Educati o n C u r r i c u l u m i n B r i t i s h Columbia between the Wars," M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1983. 12. I b i d . 13. Graeme Chalmers i s c u r r e n t l y (1987) i n v e s t i g a t i n g the l i f e of David B l a i r , the f i r s t A r t Master at the Vancouver Normal School. L e t i a Richardson i s w r i t i n g a h i s t o r y of the Vancouver School of 19 A r t . My own r e s e a r c h has been a s s i s t e d by t h e i r a d v i c e . 14. George H.E. Green, "Development of C u r r i c u l u m i n Elementary Schools of B.C. p r i o r to 1936," M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1938. 15. Ivor Goodson, School Subjects and C u r r i c u l u m Change. (London: Croom Helm, 1983): see a l s o "Developing a H i s t o r y of C u r r i c u l u m , " CHEA B u l l e t i n v o l IV, No. 1, March 1987, pp. 27-35, i n which Goodson updates h i s view. 16. John Lawson and Harold S i l v e r , A S o c i a l H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n  i n England (London: Methuen and Co., 1973). 17. S t u a r t Macdonald, The H i s t o r y and P h i l o s o p h y of A r t E d u c a t i o n (London: U n i v e r s i t y of London P r e s s , 1970). 18. Gordon Sutton, A r t i s a n or A r t i s t (London: Pergamon Press, 1967): R i c h a r d C a r l i n e , Draw They Must (London: Edward Arnold P u b l i s h e r s , 1968). 19. E . J . M i l t o n Smith, "Art Teacher T r a i n i n g i n B r i t a i n (1852-1985) with S p e c i a l Reference to Leeds," J o u r n a l of A r t and  Design Education, v o l . 4, no. 2, 1985, pp.103-146. 20. David Thistlewood, " S o c i a l S i g n i f i c a n c e i n B r i t i s h A r t E d u c a t i o n 1850-1950," J o u r n a l of A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n , V o l . 20, No. 1, S p r i n g 1986, pp.71-83. 21. David Thistlewood, "'Imagination need not d i e ' : Alexander B a r c l a y - R u s s e l l ' s Work on Edu c a t i o n i n A r t , " J o u r n a l of A r t and  Design Education, v o l . 2, no. 2, 1983, p. 171. 22. The H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n S o c i e t y puts out a n n u a l l y a " L i s t of Theses f o r Higher Degrees i n B r i t i s h U n i v e r s i t i e s , " but i t p r o v i d e s l i t t l e n ecessary d e t a i l . 23. P.A. Evans, "Thomas Robert A b l e t t 1848-1945: A Biography of His E a r l y L i f e , 1848-1888" (Dip. A r t Ed. D i s s e r t a t i o n , C o l l e g e of A r t and Design and the U n i v e r s i t y of Birmingham, 1968). 24. L.D. Burroughs, "Art i n E n g l i s h Education 1834-1902" (Dip. A r t Ed. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Brimingham, 1960). 25. Index of B r i t i s h S t u d i e s i n A r t and Design E d u c a t i o n ( A l d e r s h o t : Gower P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1986) has r e c e n t l y become a v a i l a b l e . 26. Douglas Cole, "The H i s t o r y of A r t i n Canada," A c a d i e n s i s . v o l . X, No. 1, Autumn 1980, p. 171. 20 2 7 . While i n the past i t has been common p r a c t i c e to c o n s i d e r " e a s t e r n Canada" as meaning anywhere east of Manitoba, there has been a r e c e n t p r a c t i c e of r e f e r r i n g to O n t a r i o and Quebec as " c e n t r a l Canada." Throughout t h i s t h e s i s I w i l l use the term "e a s t e r n Canada." 2 8 . Maria T i p p e t t and Douglas Cole, From D e s o l a t i o n to Splendour (Toronto: C l a r k e , Irwin and Company, 1 9 7 7 ) . 2 9 . I b i d . , p p . 9 - 1 0 . 3 0 . W.W. Thorn, "Fine A r t s i n Vancouver 1 8 8 6 - 1 9 3 0 , " (M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 9 . ) 3 1 . C h a r l e s H i l l , Canadian P a i n t i n g i n the T h i r t i e s (Ottawa: N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Canada, 1 9 7 5 . ) 3 2 . Denis Reid, A Concise H i s t o r y of Canadian P a i n t i n g (Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) . 3 3 . I b i d . , p. 1 9 0 . 3 4 . J . R u s s e l l Harper, P a i n t i n g i n Canada: a H i s t o r y (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ) . •35. W i l l i a m C o l g a t e , C a n a d i a n A r t : I t s O r i g i n s and Development (Toronto: The Ryerson P r e s s , 1 9 4 3 ) . 3 6 . I have omitted any d i s c u s s i o n of B a r r y Lord, The H i s t o r y of  P a i n t i n g i n Canada: Towards a People's A r t (Toronto: N C Press, 1 9 7 4 ) as i t seems to be l i t t l e more than a p o l i t i c a l r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of whatever Lord remembers of h i s t o r y of Canadian a r t courses he has taken. 3 7 . Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y , (Vancouver A r t and A r t i s t s : 1 9 3 1 - 1 9 8 3 (Vancouver: Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y , 1 9 8 3 ) . 3 8 . I b i d . , pp. 1 4 - 3 3 . 3 9 . I b i d . , pp. 1 4 2 - 5 1 ; pp. 3 4 - 4 1 . 4 0 . For example, Shadbolt r e c a l l s d i s c u s s i n g communism with Charles S c o t t and Weston on the t r a i n East i n 1 9 4 1 . In f a c t , Weston d i d not take the t r a i n , but flew. I b i d . , p. 4 1 . 4 1 . T i p p e t t and Cole, From D e s o l a t i o n to Splendour, p p . 1 1 9 - 1 2 0 . 4 2 . Maria T i p p e t t , "The W r i t i n g s of E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n C u l t u r a l H i s t o r y , " The Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, v o l . LXVII, No. 4 , Dec. 1 9 8 6 . , p. 5 5 9 . 2 1 43. I b i d . , p. 560. 44. Douglas Cole, " A r t i s t s , Patrons and P u b l i c : An E n q u i r y i n t o the Success of the Group of Seven," J o u r n a l of Canadian S t u d i e s , 13 (Summer 1978), p. 69. 45. For example, I v e r i f i e d the date of c o n s t r u c t i o n of Putney A r t School by i n s p e c t i o n of the s c h o o l ' s a p p l i c a t i o n f o r sewer connect i o n i n 1894. 46. G.F. B a r t l e , A H i s t o r y of Borough Road C o l l e g e ( I s l e w o r t h : Borough Road C o l l e g e , 1975). 47. The i l l o g i c c o u l d work to the r e s e a r c h e r ' s advantage o c c a s i o n a l l y . The l i b r a r y h a p p i l y photocopied a g r e a t d e a l of m a t e r i a l without charge s a y i n g , "Because we have no photocopying s e r v i c e , we have no way of c h a r g i n g . " 48. W.P. Weston i n c o n v e r s a t i o n with Margery D a l l a s i n A p r i l , 1962. Tape r e c o r d i n g from c o l l e c t i o n of Glenbow/Alberta I n s t i t u t e , Calgary, A l t a . ( H e r e a f t e r c a l l e d D a l l a s t a p e s . ) : CBC r a d i o broadcast, P o r t r a i t of an A r t i s t . June 24, 1962, 10.30 p.m. 49. Robert C r a i g Brown, "Biography i n Canadian H i s t o r y , " Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , H i s t o r i c a l Papers, 1980. p. 7. 50. I b i d . , p. 8. 51. See note 3. 52. B e t t y Marsh. Inte r v i e w with C a l Opre, 1974. 22 CHAPTER TWO "Gently comes the world to those/ That are c a s t i n g e n t l e mould": Weston's e a r l y l i f e and s c h o o l i n g Throughout the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y London grew r a p i d l y . I t s p o p u l a t i o n almost doubled i n the f i r s t h a l f of the c e n t u r y 2 and almost doubled a g a i n d u r i n g the second. By 1900 the c i t y supported some four m i l l i o n people. As p a r t of the development of a complex i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , t h i s growth l e d to great s o c i a l and economic change. The b u i l d i n g of r a i l w a y s , new highways and new dockyards r e s u l t e d i n c o n s i d e r a b l e displacement of l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n s i n the c i t y c e n t r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the poorer 3 areas. I t was not, however, a p a t t e r n of constant growth; r a t h e r i t was growth i n f i t s and s t a r t s with slumps f o l l o w i n g boom 4 p e r i o d s . As people were d i s p l a c e d i n the c e n t r e of the c i t y new suburbs grew up around the o l d e r s e t t l e d a r e a s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , London remained a crowded mass of people. The f a i l u r e to develop mass p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t with low f a r e s u n t i l c l o s e t o the end of the c e n t u r y meant t h a t workers 5 c o u l d not a f f o r d to l i v e too f a r from t h e i r jobs i n the c e n t r e . The growth of the c i t y as the c a p i t a l of a g r e a t i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n brought p r o s p e r i t y to an i n c r e a s i n g number, but f o r many 23 others i t brought l i t t l e b e n e f i t . As the c i t y grew the problems of the poorer c l a s s e s became harder and harder f o r any s e c t o r of s o c i e t y to ign o r e . One area immediately to the south of the inner c i t y was B a t t e r s e a and i t was here that the Weston f a m i l y was l i v i n g i n 6 1870. Located a t 20 Pearson S t r e e t W i l l i a m Weston supported a growing f a m i l y by work as a teacher a t C h r i s t Church School i n the same neighbourhood. B a t t e r s e a was a working c l a s s area of 7 the c i t y . However, l o c a t i o n on the southern boundary of Ba-ttersea d i d at l e a s t have the advantage of a d j o i n i n g the northern boundary of the borough of Wandsworth, which was g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a b e t t e r c l a s s of neighbourhood. The most spacious homes i n Wandsworth bordered Wandsworth Common, which was a t the top of a h i l l , while a t the bottom of the h i l l were mean houses. In l a t e r y e a r s , one s c h o o l i n s p e c t o r would d e s c r i b e Wandsworth as being d i v i d e d i n t o c l a s s e s a c c o r d i n g to how f a r up 8 the h i l l one l i v e d . Pearson S t r e e t was d e f i n i t e l y a t the ve r y bottom and t h i s symbolised, p r e t t y e x a c t l y the s t a t u s of teachers at t h a t time. As time went by, the Weston f a m i l y d i d move higher up the h i l l and i n t o Wandsworth, but i n 1870 they probably b e l i e v e d t h a t they were lu c k y to l i v e c l o s e to t h a t borough. A teacher a t C h r i s t Church School, a v o l u n t a r y s c h o o l i n the N a t i o n a l system, d i d not earn a good s a l a r y , so i n 1875 W i l l i a m Weston moved i n t o the new system of Board schools with a 24 c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n pay. His new s c h o o l was a l i t t l e f u r t h e r from home, but the t w e n t y - f i v e per cent s a l a r y i n c r e a s e presumably made the move worthwhile. The Board s c h o o l s had been se t up by the E d u c a t i o n Act of 1870 and the subsequent i n c r e a s e i n the number of s c h o o l s i n t u r n c r e a t e d a g r e a t demand for t e a c h e r s . The E d u c a t i o n Act of 1870 r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the system of v o l u n t a r y schools was f a i l i n g to educate a l a r g e p a r t of the p o p u l a t i o n . The Act n e i t h e r enforced s c h o o l i n g nor d i d i t seek to r e p l a c e p r i v a t e l y - f u n d e d by p u b l i c l y - f u n d e d e d u c a t i o n . Rather, the i n t e n t i o n was to supplement the v o l u n t a r y system, where necessary, and to provide the means whereby l o c a l boards might enforce s c h o o l attendance, i f they wished. As e l e c t e d bodies which d i d not d i s c r i m i n a t e between men and women, the s c h o o l boards represented the f i r s t d i r e c t involvement of women i n the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . In London, the f i r s t School Board brought a m i s s i o n a r y z e a l to t h e i r work. They estimated that there was an immediate need f o r 100,000 new s c h o o l p l a c e s but soon r e a l i s e d t h a t they 9 had underestimated by almost f i f t y per cent. As the Board moved to p r o v i d e these p l a c e s , teachers such as W i l l i a m Weston were the b e n e f i c i a r i e s of the expansion. In 1870 teachers of the poor were themselves members of the poorer c l a s s e s , but the c r e a t i o n of the Board system with the purpose of educating the p r e v i o u s l y 25 uneducated, the poorest of the poor, gave teachers the o p p o r t u n i t y to r i s e above t h e i r o r i g i n s . A new career ladder emerged. A teacher i n a Board s c h o o l had the p o s s i b i l i t y of becoming a Head teacher and might even move beyond t h i s to become an i n s p e c t o r f o r the School Board. Even without advancement the demand f o r s t a f f c r e a t e d by the new l a r g e Boards such as London 10 l e d to higher r e a l wages. The improved s a l a r y must have been p a r t i c u l a r l y welcome to W i l l i a m Weston. In 1875 he was t h i r t y - s i x years o l d with a wife and f i v e l i v i n g c h i l d r e n . In 1861 he had married Jane Smith, a farmer's daughter from Westbury i n W i l t s h i r e , j u s t a year and a h a l f a f t e r he had gained h i s t e a c h i n g c e r t i f i c a t e . T h e i r f i r s t c h i l d was born, and d i e d , on t h e i r f i r s t wedding a n n i v e r s a r y and a second c h i l d , born the f o l l o w i n g year, d i e d at ten months of dropsy f o l l o w i n g measles. N e v e r t h e l e s s , a f t e r the disappointments of these two i n f a n t s ' deaths, there had been s u c c e s s f u l a d d i t i o n s to the Weston f a m i l y every two or three years s t a r t i n g with Henry, born i n 1865. As a teacher i n a v o l u n t a r y s c h o o l , W i l l i a m Weston's income would have been h a r d l y enough f o r two people to l i v e on, l e t alone f o r a f a m i l y of seven. The l a s t c h i l d , W i l l i a m Percy, was born on November 30, 1879 and was commonly c a l l e d Percy by h i s f a m i l y . I t was W i l l i a m Percy Weston, the s u b j e c t of t h i s study, who would e v e n t u a l l y 26 move to B r i t i s h Columbia. Although the year of h i s b i r t h i n 1879 c o i n c i d e d with the onset of an e i g h t - y e a r d e p r e s s i o n i n B r i t a i n , i t was not a time of f i n a n c i a l d e p r e s s i o n f o r the Weston f a m i l y . In f a c t , f o r W i l l i a m Weston Sr., with a r e g u l a r s a l a r y from the School Board f o r London and the job s e c u r i t y brought by an expanding system, the d e p r e s s i o n may w e l l have brought advantages. In Wandsworth there was a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of house c o n s t r u c t i o n as s p e c u l a t i v e b u i l d e r s envisaged a great movement of people from the c i t y c e n t r e . However, t h i s movement d i d not happen, d e s p i t e the development of the tramway system, and by 1882 one c i t y surveyor r e p o r t e d t h a t "there are an enormous 11 number of houses empty a t . . .Wandsworth." Such an oversupply of housing kept r e n t s low i n the suburbs and by 1882 the Weston f a m i l y had moved up the h i l l i n t o Wandsworth proper to occupy a s u b s t a n t i a l new t h r e e - s t o r e y t e r r a c e d home at 16 Alma Road. While the move had probably been p r e c i p i t a t e d by the d e m o l i t i o n of Pearson Road to make way f o r a new r a i l w a y l i n e , the low r e n t s would have helped make i t p o s s i b l e . Added to t h i s , the general d e p r e s s i o n l e d to a r e d u c t i o n i n the o v e r a l l c o s t of l i v i n g , 12 which, f o r the Westons, meant a r i s e i n r e a l wages. The move c e r t a i n l y meant a r i s e i n r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , f o r the new house was only a few minutes walk from the f i n e v i l l a s b o r d e r i n g Wandsworth Common. Compared to B a t t e r s e a , i t would have been an i d e a l p l a c e i n which to b r i n g up a f a m i l y of s i x c h i l d r e n . 27 I t i s u n c e r t a i n how many years the Weston f a m i l y stayed i n the house at 16 Alma Road, but, when they moved again they maintained t h e i r p o s i t i o n on the h i l l . By 1892 they had taken a s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r but b e t t e r - s i t u a t e d house on the next s t r e e t at 20 Dempster Road. Given the s e n s i t i v i t y of the B r i t i s h working and middle c l a s s e s to the s l i g h t e s t nuances denoting s t a t u s , the new house would have been c o n s i d e r e d another step up i n p o s i t i o n . I t was a semi-detached, r a t h e r than t e r r a c e d , house with a corner p o s i t i o n a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of F u l l e r t o n and Dempster Roads. There was a bay window at the f r o n t and a c o n s e r v a t o r y a t the r e a r . I t would remain the f a m i l y home u n t i l 13 a f t e r Jane Weston's death i n 1918. The Weston f a m i l y p r o v i d e s a good example of how a teacher i n the Board Schools could achieve and r e i n f o r c e a p o s i t i o n as a r e s p e c t a b l e member of the middle c l a s s . While the houses were v i s i b l e symbols of t h i s r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , i t was the success of the c h i l d r e n which provided more important evidence. Percy's f i v e b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s a l l had some s c h o o l i n g at the secondary or t e r t i a r y l e v e l , e a rning s c h o l a r s h i p s to make i t f i n a n c i a l l y f e a s i b l e , and went on to hold jobs of higher s t a t u s than t h e i r f a t h e r ' s . W i l l i a m Weston never rose above the p o s i t i o n of classroom teacher i n h i s n e a r l y f i f t y years of t e a c h i n g , but h i s c h i l d r e n went f u r t h e r . The e l d e s t , Henry, became a p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i s t and c h o i r m a s t e r . He went to 28 Toronto to o b t a i n a Mus.B. i n 1887 at the age of twenty-two and ten years l a t e r read f o r a degree at Durham U n i v e r s i t y . Frank, two years younger than Henry, had a B.Sc. and became a r e s e a r c h chemist. Fred followed i n h i s f a t h e r ' s f o o t s t e p s , as d i d h i s younger brother and s i s t e r s , and became a s c h o o l t e a c h e r . He was l a t e r a department head i n S c o t l a n d . L i l l i a n was the e l d e r of the two g i r l s and s i x years s e n i o r to Percy. She became the head m i s t r e s s of a p r i v a t e g i r l s ' s c h o o l i n London. Margaret, e x a c t l y two years younger than her s i s t e r , taught f o r s e v e r a l years i n a London Board School and i n l a t e r years would become a J u s t i c e of the Peace. Percy's c a r e e r we s h a l l f o l l o w i n more d e t a i l . The c h i l d r e n ' s success suggests t h a t they made a c l o s e - k n i t f a m i l y . Although i n some ways they may have been c l o s e , i n others they d e f i n i t e l y weren't. As a d u l t s they e x h i b i t e d few of the t r a i t s t h a t i n d i c a t e warm c h i l d h o o d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . W i l l i a m Weston, f o r i n s t a n c e , d i d not a p p r e c i a t e Henry's musical t a l e n t s and had given him very l i t t l e encouragement. The e l d e r Weston co n s i d e r e d Henry had " b r a i n f e v e r " and so allowed i t , but that was about a l l . Frank, with h i s B.Sc. and p u b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h papers, was encouraged more. The f a c t t h a t i n l a t e r years he a l s o had a f i n e v i l l a f a c i n g Clapham Common i n which to e n t e r t a i n h i s f a m i l y may have c o n t r i b u t e d to h i s p o p u l a r i t y as an a d u l t . Fred married a S c o t t i s h g i r l and went to Glasgow where he seems to have had a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p with her f a m i l y . L i l was looked down on 29 because she never married and dark h i n t s were made when she s e t up house with a woman f r i e n d . Margaret moved away a f t e r her marriage i n 1902. W i l l i a m Weston was a Sergeant-Major i n the army r e s e r v e s and t h i s provided h i s main s o c i a l o u t l e t i n h i s spare time. His w i f e , Jane, f e e l i n g somewhat n e g l e c t e d , complained that he spent too much time a t the mess p l a y i n g cards with h i s f e l l o w r e s e r v i s t s . G e n e r a l l y considered a r a t h e r c o l d woman em o t i o n a l l y , she n e v e r t h e l e s s provided the emotional cohesion w i t h i n the f a m i l y . I t was probably she who encouraged t h e i r v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s . What i s c e r t a i n i s t h a t she doted on her youngest, Percy, and t h a t he r e t u r n e d the a f f e c t i o n . In l a t e r years he always remembered her with fondness and a s c r i b e d any of h i s own good t r a i t s to her i n f l u e n c e , r e f u s i n g to a l l o w t h a t h i s 14 f a t h e r had played any c e n t r a l r o l e i n h i s u p b r i n g i n g . Apart from a bout of b r o n c h i t i s i n i n f a n c y , Percy was a h e a l t h y c h i l d and s u f f e r e d none of the usual c h i l d h o o d d i s e a s e s . He must have been uncommonly f o r t u n a t e i n t h i s r e s p e c t f o r almost every year the managers of h i s s c h o o l r e p o r t e d the onslaught of some c h i l d h o o d malady. Yet, when he f i n a l l y l e f t the s c h o o l at age eighteen the head c o u l d only r e p o r t h i s absence on two occasions - once f o r two weeks with i n f l u e n z a and once for a week 15 with a c o l d . School f o r Percy s t a r t e d at E l t r i n g h a m S t r e e t Board 30 School, probably i n January 1886, and would be a part of h i s l i f e f o r the next twelve y e a r s . . The s c h o o l , one of many being b u i l t at t h a t time, had opened on l y i n 1885. I t was a two-storey b u i l d i n g designed f o r nine hundred to a thousand students, i n c l a s s e s t h a t would have averaged about f i f t y s t u d e n t s . The i n f a n t s , t h a t i s c h i l d r e n to about age e i g h t , were on the main f l o o r , the g i r l s ' and boys' d i v i s i o n s had separate c l a s s e s on the upper f l o o r . During Weston's time as a p u p i l a separate one-storey b u i l d i n g was c o n s t r u c t e d at the f a r end of the playground to house the i n f a n t s ' c l a s s e s . I t opened i n 1892 and presumably l e d to some r e o r g a n i s a t i o n i n the main b u i l d i n g . Each of the three d i v i s i o n s operated more or l e s s independently with a separate head teacher f o r the i n f a n t s , g i r l s and boys. There was a l a r g e h a l l f o r assemblies or f o r gym and adequate fenced playgrounds. The E l t r i n g h a m S t r e e t s c h o o l was a t the bottom of the h i l l i n Wandsworth, probably because land was cheaper t h e r e , and was q u i t e c l o s e to a r a i l w a y l i n e which caused some d i s t r a c t i o n . Surrounding the s c h o o l were humble workers' cottages and a s m a l l f a c t o r y . I t was not the best of l o c a t i o n s . However, the s c h o o l was modern with a s t a f f d e d i c a t e d to g i v i n g the best p o s s i b l e s e r v i c e to t h e i r charges. E l t r i n g h a m S t r e e t School was t y p i c a l of the new Board schools t h a t were being b u i l t around g r e a t e r London. A l l followed a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n and were designed to provide an environment t h a t was conducive to l e a r n i n g . They were c o n s i d e r e d at the time 31 to have "a b r i g h t , c h e e r f u l appearance. The rooms are l o f t y , 16 w e l l v e n t i l a t e d and. . .well l i g h t e d . " Today, one hundred years l a t e r , E l t r i n g h a m S t r e e t School presents a drab face to the world, with i t s smoke-dulled b r i c k w a l l s , but once one goes i n s i d e i t does indeed seem c h e e r f u l . I t has changed v e r y l i t t l e over the years, and the many l a r g e windows make the most o£ the n a t u r a l l i g h t . At the time when Percy Weston was there the Board made a conscious e f f o r t to keep the b u i l d i n g s w e l l - p a i n t e d and w e l l - s u p p l i e d with p i c t u r e s , maps and diagrams and other 17 requirements of the t e a c h e r s . Coming as he d i d from a house towards the top of the h i l l , Percy Weston probably represented the best c l a s s of c h i l d a t t e n d i n g the s c h o o l . The Board s c h o o l s had been s e t up to provide education to those not reached by the v o l u n t a r y system and E l t r i n g h a m S t r e e t Board School had many poor c h i l d r e n . The teachers r e g u l a r l y provided boots and c l o t h i n g f o r needy c h i l d r e n and c o n t r i b u t e d money to buy food f o r the " s t a r v i n g l i t t l e ones." Some c h i l d r e n came to sch o o l a f t e r completing e a r l y morning jobs and as a r e s u l t were i n c l i n e d to s l e e p i n t h e i r desks. With so many undernourished and o v e r t i r e d c h i l d r e n , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t almost every year the s c h o o l managers re p o r t e d epidemics of ch i l d h o o d d i s e a s e s . I t might be measles, or s c a r l e t f e v e r , or whooping cough or d i p h t h e r i a , on some occasions i t was necessary to c l o s e the sch o o l and d i s i n f e c t 18 classrooms. 32 Despite these d i f f i c u l t i e s the s c h o o l q u i c k l y developed a sound r e p u t a t i o n . "The o r g a n i s a t i o n i s good and the work i s well-planned. The t e a c h i n g i s vigorous and s u c c e s s f u l , " claimed 19 the I n s p e c t o r s . In a d d i t i o n to the usual s u b j e c t s taught i n a l l s c h o o l s E l t r i n g h a m S t r e e t was designated as a s c h o o l with a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n Woodwork and A r t , a teacher being h i r e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to i n s t r u c t i n these s u b j e c t s . The headmaster, W i l l i a m C o r s i e , a l s o had an a r t teacher's c e r t i f i c a t e , so i t seems reasonable that i t was h i s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t that may have le d to the school d e v e l o p i n g t h i s s u b j e c t . When Percy Weston s t a r t e d s c h o o l i n the Infants * d i v i s i o n he had the advantage of an e d u c a t i o n a l system which had become w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g i t s s i x t e e n y e a r s ' e x i s t e n c e and which was s t i l l expanding. In comparison to the v o l u n t a r y s c h o o l s , the board s c h o o l s had much more adequate funding, could pay b e t t e r wages to t h e i r teachers and provide modern b u i l d i n g s . From time to time throughout i t s e x i s t e n c e the London Board was accused of extravagance by those who b e l i e v e d the working c l a s s e s deserved or needed only the minimum of edu c a t i o n , but the Board 20 never s u b s c r i b e d to such a viewpoint. I f Percy was to b e n e f i t i n h i s l a t e r s chool l i f e from the d e s i g n a t i o n of E l t r i n g h a m S t r e e t School as one with a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n a r t , he a l s o b e n e f i t t e d at the beginning from the Board's p r o g r e s s i v e approach to i n f a n t education. While F r o e b e l i a n p r i n c i p l e s were not new i n 33 the k i n d e r g a r t e n , the g e n e r a l e x t e n s i o n of these ideas to the Board's i n f a n t s c h ools was c o n s i d e r e d i n n o v a t i v e and 21 success f u l . I f achievement at s c h o o l i s i n d i c a t i v e of a happy sc h o o l experience then Percy Weston was a contented schoolboy. He stayed at E l t r i n g h a m S t r e e t School u n t i l J u l y 1898, f i r s t as a student and then as a p u p i l - t e a c h e r . While there he gained r e c o g n i t i o n f o r h i s a r t on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s . When he was ten he won the p a i n t i n g p r i z e , a book c a l l e d From Powder Monkey to  Admiral, and three years l a t e r one of h i s p i c t u r e s was chosen to be p a r t of a London School Board e x h i b i t at the world f a i r i n Chicago. This success may have brought him to the a t t e n t i o n of Mr. Joseph Vaughan f o r the f i r s t time. Mr. Vaughan, an A s s i s t a n t Drawing I n s t r u c t o r with the London School Board, had the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p r e p a r i n g such e x h i b i t s . In l a t e r years he would p l a y a sma l l but s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n Percy Weston's l i f e and t h e i r paths would c r o s s s e v e r a l times before t h a t . If he d i d not get to know of Percy Weston when p r e p a r i n g the world f a i r e x h i b i t , Vaughan must almost c e r t a i n l y have got to know him the f o l l o w i n g year, when E l t r i n g h a m S t r e e t School submitted some of young Weston's work to the e x h i b i t i o n of School Board a r t which was held a n n u a l l y at Hugh Myddelton School. T h i s e x h i b i t i o n had been s t a r t e d i n 1877 as a showcase f o r the work of London 34 elementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . To some extent i t might be c o n s i d e r e d an a r t i c l e of f a i t h i n the a b i l i t y of the c h i l d r e n . Faced with so many c r i t i c s of the system, the School Board f o r London had found i t necessary from the beginning to j u s t i f y t h e i r expenditure on the education of the working c l a s s e s . Here the Board t a n g i b l y demonstrated t h e i r s u c c e s s . That a few c l e v e r boys or g i r l s should produce drawings or p a i n t i n g s of great merit would not be p a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy; the s i g n i f i c a n t t h i n g i s the demonstration of what whole c l a s s e s , under proper i n s t r u c t i o n can accomplish.22 At t h i s e x h i b i t i o n , which was a l s o Vaughan's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the f o u r t e e n - y e a r - o l d Weston won two p r i z e s . One was a second f o r a s t i l l l i f e , but the other was a S p e c i a l M e r i t Award f o r "Drawing from the P l a n t . " The S p e c i a l M e r i t Award was indeed s p e c i a l , being b e t t e r than a F i r s t , and was intended to draw a t t e n t i o n to e x c e p t i o n a l work. The e x h i b i t i o n ' s focus might be to show what was being achieved throughout the s c h o o l system, but there was s t i l l room to draw a t t e n t i o n to the very best work. As the o v e r a l l standard was d e s c r i b e d as "admirable i n a l l 23 r e s p e c t s , " Weston's work must have been memorable. The f o l l o w i n g year Percy again won a p r i z e , t h i s time a commendation for an " O u t l i n e from Nature," but he d i d not repeat h i s great s u c c e s s . To f i n d s e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s to one p a r t i c u l a r boy i n the o f f i c i a l records of a School Board as l a r g e as London suggests 35 that h i s performance was much above the average i n a r t . To a great extent t h i s must have been the r e s u l t of h i s own a b i l i t y , but some c r e d i t should a l s o go to the s c h o o l . In 1894 the sch o o l i n s p e c t o r r e p o r t e d t h a t the boys' drawing was " e x c e l l e n t " a t El t r i n g h a m S t r e e t School, and on s e v e r a l occasions i t was mentioned t h a t the s c h o o l had a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n a r t and 24 woodwork. In other s u b j e c t s i t i s much harder to f i n d r e f e r e n c e s to Percy Weston, with the ex c e p t i o n of Her Majesty's Inspector's r e p o r t f o r October 1896, where i t was re p o r t e d t h a t he had passed w e l l . C e r t a i n l y he f i n i s h e d h i s sch o o l c a r e e r " w e l l " as he obtained a Queen's S c h o l a r s h i p with f i r s t c l a s s s t a n d i n g . The Queen's S c h o l a r s h i p exam was that taken by a l l p u p i l - t e a c h e r s at the end of t h e i r a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , a high f i r s t c l a s s s t a n d i n g making e n t r y i n t o a good t e a c h e r s ' c o l l e g e p o s s i b l e . When Percy Weston f i r s t became a p u p i l - t e a c h e r i t would have been as a " p r o b a t i o n e r " u n t i l he was f i f t e e n , at which time he and h i s parents would have signed a "Memorandum of Agreement" with the School Board f o r London. Under terms of the agreement he r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g at a p u p i l - t e a c h e r c e n t r e f o r pa r t of the week and worked under the d i r e c t i o n of the head teacher, Mr. W i l l i a m C o r s i e , f o r the remainder. While the agreement i t s e l f o nly c a l l e d f o r f i v e hours per week of s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n , i n a c t u a l f a c t p u p i l s of the School Board f o r London spent h a l f of 36 each day at the p u p i l - t e a c h e r c e n t r e . The Board paid the p u p i l - t e a c h e r s three s h i l l i n g s per week f o r the f i r s t year and e i g h t s h i l l i n g s per week t h e r e a f t e r . T h i s was about o n e - s i x t h of what a beginning teacher would earn, so was probably a f a i r r e t u r n f o r labour, given t h e i r i n e x p e r i e n c e and part-time work. For the student a great advantage was that t r a i n i n g as a p u p i l - t e a c h e r gave a quasi-secondary e d u c a t i o n at a time when there was no p r o v i s i o n f o r any secondary e d u c a t i o n under the 25 Education Act. By the time t h a t Percy Weston became a p u p i l - t e a c h e r t h i s method of t r a i n i n g teachers was coming under a t t a c k . Throughout the e i g h t e e n - n i n e t i e s "the g e n e r a l d r i f t of e d u c a t i o n a l o p i n i o n s e t s t r o n g l y i n the d i r e c t i o n of. . . 26 growing s c e p t i c i s m [about the p u p i l - t e a c h e r system]." While c r i t i c s of the system gave a number of reasons f o r t h e i r s c e p t i c i s m , not a l l t h e i r complaints could be j u s t i f i e d i n the case of the School Board f o r London. Two p a r t i c u l a r c l aims were that the p u p i l - t e a c h e r s were given too much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and 27 that the t r a i n i n g was too narrow. In -London, both these c r i t i c i s m s were met, as f a r as was p o s s i b l e , by the system of P u p i l - T e a c h e r Centres, which the Board had pioneered. Despite these improvements i t was s t i l l f e l t t h a t the education a v a i l a b l e to p r o s p e c t i v e elementary teachers might be too narrow, but there was l i t t l e t h a t c o u l d be done o f f i c i a l l y on t h a t score u n t i l the 28 law was changed. 37 U n o f f i c i a l l y the School Board f o r London provided i t s p u p i l - t e a c h e r s with as wide a t r a i n i n g as was p o s s i b l e . Some Pupil- T e a c h e r Centres, such as the one Percy Weston attended, were s p e c i a l l y b u i l t f o r the purpose and at a l l of them the School Board appointed as teachers "men and women of e x c e p t i o n a l l y high q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , the m a j o r i t y of them being 29 U n i v e r s i t y graduates." A student, f o r t u n a t e to have a competent and sympathetic head teacher as w e l l , had an o p p o r t u n i t y to g a i n a b e t t e r grounding i n both pedagogy and knowledge. C e r t a i n l y the t r a i n i n g provided by the Board compared more than f a v o u r a b l y with t h a t given by the v o l u n t a r y s c h o o l s where the p u p i l - t e a c h e r s "have to count as p a r t of the s t a f f of the s c h o o l , and they 30 cannot be spared [ f o r t r a i n i n g a t a C e n t r e . ] " Once the Memorandum of Agreement had been signed, Percy Weston attended the B a t t e r s e a Pupil-Teacher Centre on a three year programme. C l a s s e s ran from nine to twelve or two to f i v e on Mondays to F r i d a y s . Percy would have gone to e i t h e r the morning or the a f t e r n o o n s e s s i o n . On Saturdays a l l students were i n attendance i n the morning f o r a p r i n c i p a l ' s assembly, followed by r e g u l a r c l a s s e s . For these, a d d i t i o n a l t e a c h e r s were brought i n as i t was the one day on which a l l two hundred and f i f t y s tudents attended at the same time. On Saturday afternoons the students took p a r t i n s o c i a l or s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s and, on some Saturday evenings, debates, entertainments or s o i r e e s were h e l d . I t must have been a v e r y busy l i f e f o r the p u p i l - t e a c h e r s who 31 a l s o had t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a t t h e i r s c h o o l s . The busy l i f e , the s p o r t s , the s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , the o c c a s i o n a l p a r t i e s were a l l p a r t of a conscious e f f o r t on the p a r t of Mr. T.H. H u i t t , the p r i n c i p a l , and h i s s t a f f to f o s t e r the f e e l i n g among students t h a t i t was a s c h o o l of which they should be proud. In t h i s e f f o r t , whether c o n s c i o u s l y or not, the 32 c e n t r e was promoting a t t i t u d e s of the P u b l i c s c h o o l s . I t was not, i n t h e i r view, an i n s t i t u t i o n to provide a cheap source of elementary t e a c h e r s , but r a t h e r a c e n t r e which would produce w e l l - t r a i n e d teachers who c o u l d go on to continue t h e i r t r a i n i n g at an advanced t e a c h e r s ' c o l l e g e or even at u n i v e r s i t y . Such aims were not unreasonable as the c e n t r e had the s t a f f and f a c i l i t i e s to achieve them. There was a student-teacher r a t i o of about f o u r t e e n to one. The modern b u i l d i n g , s p e c i a l l y designed as a p u p i l - t e a c h e r c e n t r e , had been i n use f o r o n l y two years when Percy Weston f i r s t attended t h e r e . In a d d i t i o n to the usual general-purpose classrooms i t a l s o had a s c i e n c e classroom, a chemical l a b o r a t o r y and a l a r g e a r t room. The a d j o i n i n g elementary s c h o o l made t h e i r p h y s i c s l a b o r a t o r y a v a i l a b l e to the c e n t r e . A number of o p t i o n a l courses was a v a i l a b l e to s t u d e n t s . French was taken by almost a l l of them. I t was c e r t a i n l y not a p l a c e p r o v i d i n g o n l y the narrow t r a i n i n g complained of by c r i t i c s 39 33 of the p u p i l - t e a c h e r system. Percy Weston would appear to have been f o r t u n a t e i n h i s s c h o o l i n g . He s t a r t e d s c h o o l at a time when the School Board f o r London had become w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d , but was s t i l l expanding a g g r e s s i v e l y and i d e a l i s t i c a l l y . His s c h o o l was brand-new, with a head teacher who had a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n a r t and who would do u b t l e s s have encouraged Weston to develop h i s own i n t e r e s t i n the s u b j e c t . When he became a p u p i l - t e a c h e r he had the o p p o r t u n i t y to attend a modern centre where the s t a f f was d e d i c a t e d to d e v e l o p i n g students to t h e i r f u l l e s t p o t e n t i a l . He was perhaps f o r t u n a t e , too, t h a t he was not a year or so o l d e r . As t h i n g s were, he was a student a t the p u p i l - t e a c h e r centre d u r i n g a p e r i o d when the School Board for London was a c t i v e l y encouraging e d u c a t i o n beyond the seven standards of the elementary s c h o o l . He may a l s o have been f o r t u n a t e not to be a year or two younger, f o r , i n 1900, the Cockerton judgement t e m p o r a r i l y put a stop to the School Board's e f f o r t s . In 1899, T.B. Cockerton, the a u d i t o r f o r the T e c h n i c a l Education Board of the London County C o u n c i l d i s a l l o w e d c e r t a i n School Board exp e n d i t u r e s . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n c o u r t a c t i o n and the judgement i n the f o l l o w i n g year made i t very c l e a r t h at s c h o o l boards had no 34 l e g a l mandate to provide more than elementary e d u c a t i o n . When Percy Weston was approaching the l a s t year of h i s t r a i n i n g at the P u p i l - T e a c h e r Centre he a p p l i e d to Borough Road 40 C o l l e g e f o r a place i n t h e i r two year t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g programme. Acceptance i n t o t h i s programme depended on h i s a c h i e v i n g a f i r s t c l a s s mark i n the Queen's S c h o l a r s h i p examination. This he d u l y d i d . His a p p l i c a t i o n was accompanied by t e s t i m o n i a l s from h i s s c h o o l , h i s m i n i s t e r and h i s d o c t o r . These showed him to be a h e a l t h y young man who was well-thought-of a t s c h o o l and who had showed a p t i t u d e as a t e a c h e r . Once he was accepted, a supplementary a p p l i c a t i o n form i n d i c a t e d t hat he had had advanced i n s t r u c t i o n a t the p u p i l - t e a c h e r c e n t r e i n Science and Math, had s t u d i e d French and 35 that he had a l r e a d y obtained h i s drawing c e r t i f i c a t e . In g r a n t i n g t h i s c e r t i f i c a t e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Mr. J . Vaughan again came across Percy as among h i s tasks Vaughan had the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to a c t as v i s i t i n g a r t teacher to the 36 p u p i l - t e a c h e r c e n t r e s . The l i f e of a p u p i l - t e a c h e r was g e n e r a l l y considered to be a very busy one and Weston's can have been no e x c e p t i o n . There may have been a d d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r Weston. In 1895 the Boys' Department of the s c h o o l had s t a r t e d a monthly magazine which "has a l a r g e c i r c u l a t i o n and i s e a g e r l y looked forward t o : i t forms a v a l u a b l e bond of i n t e r e s t between parents 37 and s c h o o l . " I t seems l i k e l y t h a t as a t a l e n t e d p u p i l - t e a c h e r Weston would have had to accept some r o l e i n i t s p r o d u c t i o n . Even i f he d i d not, h i s l e i s u r e time must have been l i m i t e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s he found time to indulge i n s e v e r a l hobbies. 41 One hobby of which he was very proud was the b u i l d i n g of model boats. By the time he was f i f t e e n he had b u i l t a d e t a i l e d three foot model of a gaff-headed c u t t e r . T h i s was no clumsily-made model, but an exact m i n i a t u r e . The h u l l had k e e l and r i b s , covered with p l a n k i n g and the s a i l s were c o r r e c t l y r i g g e d . I t was a f i n e example of the model-maker's c r a f t . Percy used to s a i l h i s completed model i n a pond on Wimbledon Common some three m i l e s from h i s home. Perhaps as he s a i l e d h i s model he dreamed of being i n h i s own f u l l - s i z e d boat on the open sea. If he d i d , then i t was a dream t h a t would come t r u e , f o r i n l a t e r years s a i l i n g would become a l i f e l o n g p a s s i o n . Another hobby which he would keep up f o r most of h i s l i f e was photography. As a hobby he shared with h i s three o l d e r b r o t h e r s , he may have learned the i n t r i c a c i e s of dev e l o p i n g h i s own p i c t u r e s from one of them. I f he d i d , then i t was probably Fred who taught him, as t h i s was the brother to whom he was c l o s e s t i n age and i n t e r e s t s and with whom he f e l t the most empathy. I t may a l s o have been that Percy was i n f l u e n c e d by Fred i n h i s choice of c a r e e r , f o r Fred, too, became a teacher with a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n a r t . More than anything e l s e , Percy took p i c t u r e s of h i s model boat, both d u r i n g and a f t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n . I f he a l s o took p i c t u r e s of h i s f a m i l y , however, few of them have s u r v i v e d . It may have been d u r i n g h i s time as a p u p i l - t e a c h e r 42 that Percy Weston met h i s f u t u r e w ife, J e s s i e Bennett. The Bennett f a m i l y l i v e d on G e r a l d i n e Road which was not f a r from the Weston home on Dempster Road. Dempster Road was a t u r n i n g to the north o f f East H i l l , the main road to Clapham J u n c t i o n , while G e r a l d i n e Road was a t u r n i n g to the south o f f the same road. The Bennett f a m i l y l i v e d a l i t t l e c l o s e r to Wandsworth Common than d i d the Westons and t h e i r house was a l i t t l e more imposing. J e s s i e ' s f a t h e r , John Bennett, was d e s c r i b e d by h i s f a m i l y as a book-keeper and by h i m s e l f as an accountant. J e s s i e d i d not atte n d the same sc h o o l as Percy but, l i k e him, she became a p u p i l - t e a c h e r , so i t i s most l i k e l y t h a t they both went to the same Pu p i l - T e a c h e r Centre. They d e f i n i t e l y knew each other as teenagers and, as they d i d not att e n d the same church, the most l i k e l y p l a c e f o r them to meet was a t the Centre. By the time t h a t Percy Weston l e f t s c h o o l to att e n d Borough Road C o l l e g e he had a l r e a d y met the person who was to be h i s f u t u r e wife and had decided on h i s c a r e e r . One may agree that Percy Weston was an able young man and assume that t h i s e x p l a i n s h i s success, but there were other reasons, too. His ch i l d h o o d had been marked by good h e a l t h , reasonable comfort at home and success at s c h o o l . In other times and i n other circumstances i t i s of course p o s s i b l e that he might have found h i m s e l f i n an e q u a l l y good s i t u a t i o n , but, f o r someone of h i s p o s i t i o n i n l i f e , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h at he would have fared as w e l l at an e a r l i e r time. 43 At the end of the nine t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n B r i t a i n there was s t i l l much poverty and d i s t r e s s , but e q u a l l y there were many fo r whom the i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n of the country had o f f e r e d great advantages. Government l e g i s l a t i o n and other major changes i n s o c i e t y are u s u a l l y d i s c u s s e d i n terms of that s o c i e t y r a t h e r than i n terms of the i n d i v i d u a l , but they may a l s o be con s i d e r e d at the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l . The Education Act of 1870, the development of mass p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and the s p e c u l a t i v e b u i l d i n g of the e i g h t e e n - e i g h t i e s a l l a f f e c t e d Percy Weston s u r e l y and d i r e c t l y a t the pe r s o n a l l e v e l . The Education Act inc r e a s e d the demand f o r teachers d r a m a t i c a l l y and so made i t p o s s i b l e f o r Percy's f a t h e r to improve h i s f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n . T h i s same Act made i t p o s s i b l e f o r Percy to have a b e t t e r education and to develop h i s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n a r t . The growth of tramway systems l e d to s p e c u l a t i v e b u i l d i n g , while the lack of cheap f a r e s prevented the expected move to the suburbs. Consequently, suburban r e n t s remained low, e n a b l i n g Percy to grow up i n much more ple a s a n t surroundings. He was as much a product of h i s times as he was the r e s u l t of h i s own a b i l i t i e s . T h i s we must remember when l a t e r we look back on h i s l i f e . At the personal l e v e l , the development of p u b l i c education towards the end of the ni n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y provided new 44 o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r many c h i l d r e n of the lower c l a s s e s . One London student, a t any r a t e , was enabled to pursue h i s education i n gene r a l and h i s i n t e r e s t i n a r t i n p a r t i c u l a r . Did t h i s same development provide as much o p p o r t u n i t y at the o f f i c i a l l e v e l f o r change i n a r t education? T h i s we w i l l see i n the coming c h a p t e r s . 45 NOTES 1. "Blackboard e x e r c i s e s ; Gems from Tennyson; Sentences f o r A n a l y s i s and P a r s i n g , " The Teachers' A i d , v o l . XXVIII, August 26, 1899, p. 514. 2. Gareth Stedman Jones, Outcast London (London: P e r e g r i n e Books, 1976), p. 160. 3. I b i d . , pp. 160-1. 4. I b i d . , p. 207. 5. I b i d . , p. 323. 6. Information on the Weston f a m i l y has been gathered from many sources. In p a r t i c u l a r , there have been a number of i n t e r v i e w s with W.P. Weston's daughters, Doris Wood and Bette Parson, h i s sons-in-law Bob Wood and Mike Parson, h i s n i e c e , Margaret Lea, and her husband, C y r i l Lea, and h i s nephew's widow, Minnie Weston. The inte r v i e w e e s have a l s o made a v a i l a b l e to me the l i m i t e d number of f a m i l y papers i n t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n . E q u a l l y v a l u a b l e have been W.P. Weston's own reminiscences i n the f i v e hour taped i n t e r v i e w with Margery D a l l a s made i n A p r i l 1962. ( D a l l a s tape.) Other sources have i n c l u d e d the B r i t i s h census, v o t e r s ' l i s t s , b i r t h and death c e r t i f i c a t e s , s t r e e t d i r e c t o r i e s , photographs and sc h o o l board r e c o r d s . 7. St. George's-in-the-East, of which B a t t e r s e a was p a r t , was d e s c r i b e d as working c l a s s i n a Board of Trade survey i n 1887. Quoted i n Jones, Outcast London, p. 215. 8. His Majesty's I n s p e c t o r ' s Annual Report on E l t r i n g h a m S t r e e t School, October 12, 1932. 9. P h i l p o t t , London a t School, (London: T. F i s h e r Unwin, 1904), pp. 31-2. 10. I b i d . , p. 47. 11. Quoted i n Jones, Outcast London, pp.207-8. 12. George H. Wood, "Real Wages and the Standard of Comfort s i n c e 1850," J o u r n a l of the Royal S t a t i s t i c a l S o c i e t y , LXXII (March 1909), p. 103. 13. The houses on Alma and Dempster Roads may s t i l l be seen, as may the houses of the Bennett f a m i l y on G e r a l d i n e and Melody 46 Roads, r e f e r r e d to l a t e r . 14. Interview with D o r i s Wood, at Port Moody, A p r i l 1983. 15. T e s t i m o n i a l by Wm. C o r s i e accompanying W.P. Weston's a p p l i c a t i o n to Borough Road C o l l e g e , May 1897. 16. P h i l p o t t , London at School, p. 50. 17. I b i d . 18. School Managers' Annual Reports, 1895, 1896, 1897, 1898. These r e p o r t s were made each October f o l l o w i n g the end of the s c h o o l year. 19. A comment i n a review of the f i r s t years of the s c h o o l ' s o p e r a t i o n . I n s p e c t o r s ' Report, October 13, 1910. 20. P h i l p o t t , London at School, pp. 35-6, 311-12. 21. P h i l p o t t , London at School, pp. 68-9. 22. I b i d . , p. 57. 23. "Report on E x h i b i t i o n of Drawings h e l d at Hugh Myddelton School, J u l y 1894." Unpublished pamphlet, School Board f o r London, 1894, p. 2. 24. Annual Report of Her Majesty's Inspector, October 1894. 25. The T e c h n i c a l I n s t r u c t i o n Act (1889) d i d lead to the p r o v i s i o n of a s m a l l number of s c h o l a r s h i p s f o r t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n a t the end of elementary s c h o o l . T h i s a c t made t e c h n i c a l education a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of l o c a l county c o u n c i l s and q u i t e separate from the system of Board s c h o o l s . 26. Board of E d u c a t i o n , C i r c u l a r 573 (1907), "Memorandum on the H i s t o r y and Prospects of the Pupil-Teacher System," p. 10. 27. Department of Education,Report of the Departmental Committee  on the P u p i l - T e a c h e r System (London: Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1898), pp. 11-12. 28. I b i d . , p. 12. 29. P h i l p o t t , L o n d o n at School, p.180. 30. I b i d . , p . l l l . 31. "The P u p i l Teacher Centres. I . - - B a t t e r s e a . " The Schoolmaster, LXVII (May 13, 1905), pp. 977-9. 47 32. See, f o r example, Lawson and S i l v e r , S o c i a l H i s t o r y of  Education, p. 345, f o r a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of P u b l i c school a t t i t u d e s . 33. I b i d . 34. D e t a i l s of t h i s important judgement may be found i n most h i s t o r i e s of B r i t i s h e d u c a t i o n . See, f o r example, W.H.G. Armytage, Four Hundred Years of E n g l i s h Education,(Cambridge, Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), pp. 182-4. 35. W.P. Weston's a p p l i c a t i o n , with s u p p o r t i n g documents, may s t i l l be found i n the a r c h i v e s of Borough Road C o l l e g e , I s l e w o r t h , London. 36. Minutes of the School Board f o r London, v o l . X L I I I , p. J u l y 4, 1895. 37. School Manager's Annual Report, October 1895. 48 CHAPTER THREE "To e x e r c i s e a v a l u a b l e a e s t h e t i c i n f l u e n c e upon the working c l a s s e s " : the beginnings of r e v o l u t i o n i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . 1 During much of the time that Percy Weston was at s c h o o l , and afterwards, a r t education was changing and developing so completely that i t became an almost t o t a l l y new s u b j e c t . T h i s p e r i o d of change has been ignored by e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s . I t was, however, of such importance to the conduct of the s u b j e c t , to the sc h o o l s of the time and to Percy Weston himself that I propose to d e s c r i b e the change and i t s u n d e r l y i n g causes i n some d e t a i l . I t i s not enough simply to c h r o n i c l e the r e s u l t s f o r , to understand the new approach t h a t developed, i t i s necessary to a p p r e c i a t e the nature of the v a r i e d r e a c t i o n s . The Education Act of 1870 recognized t h a t the v o l u n t a r y , government-assisted system of p u b l i c education had f a i l e d to provide an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s c h o o l i n g to a l l the c h i l d r e n of the E n g l i s h n a t i o n . As we have seen, a major aim of the Act was to provide t h a t o p p o r t u n i t y by supplementing e x i s t i n g v o l u n t a r y s c h o o l s . T h i s movement towards mass p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g i n England was intended to c r e a t e and develop an e d u c a t i o n a l system f o r the lower c l a s s e s which would f i t them f o r a c e r t a i n 49 s t a t i o n i n l i f e . S c h o o l i n g f o r the middle c l a s s e s and upper c l a s s e s was, and had been f o r many yea r s , a v a i l a b l e i n one form or another; i t was s c h o o l i n g f o r the masses t h a t had not. More than a hundred years l a t e r i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t our western s o c i e t y would t o l e r a t e a system so openly intended to educate c h i l d r e n f o r a p a r t i c u l a r r o l e i n s o c i e t y . Late V i c t o r i a n England, however, saw i t as necessary f o r the happiness of the lower c l a s s e s t h a t they should be so educated. T h i s i s not the place to c o n s i d e r whether or not such t h i n k i n g was r i g h t or j u s t i f i e d , but i t i s important to r e c o g n i z e t h a t such t h i n k i n g was p r e v a l e n t . Because the system of s t a t e s c h o o l i n g c r e a t e d under the 1870 E d u c a t i o n Act was designed f o r the e d u c a t i o n of the lower c l a s s e s , the c u r r i c u l a developed f o r the Board s c h o o l s were cr e a t e d to f i t these lower c l a s s e s f o r t h e i r r o l e i n l i f e . The drawing s y l l a b u s , f o r example, was designed to be u s e f u l to students i n p r e p a r i n g them to be a r t i s a n s or s k i l l e d tradesmen. 2 I t was t e c h n i c a l and not concerned a t a l l with the a e s t h e t i c . In p r a c t i c e i t was not w i d e l y taught d u r i n g the f i r s t twenty years a f t e r the 1870 a c t . In 1887, f o r example, i t was taught i n o n l y 505 out of 19,154 s c h o o l s and i n the previous year o n l y 240 3 s c h o o l s taught the s u b j e c t . There were a number of reasons why the s u b j e c t was not w i d e l y taught. Not a l l s c h o o l s c o n s i d e r e d i t important, or at 50 l e a s t b e l i e v e d other s u b j e c t s were of more d i r e c t use. "Is a g r i c u l t u r e or drawing more important f o r a farmer's son?" was one s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n asked by school managers. Furthermore the grant p a i d to s c h o o l s f o r t e a c h i n g drawing was not only c o n s i d e r e d too s m a l l by s c h o o l managers f o r the expenditure r e q u i r e d , but the amount of t h a t inadequate grant depended on the 4 examination r e s u l t s of each i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l . To make th i n g s worse, the grant was g i v e n a c c o r d i n g to the o v e r a l l standard of the c l a s s i n some s u b j e c t s , but not i n drawing. In most s u b j e c t s students c o u l d be "got up" f o r the exam but, s i n c e drawing r e l i e d so much on manual d e x t e r i t y and so l i t t l e on f a c t s , cramming was not p r a c t i c a l . T h i s d i d l i t t l e to make drawing an a t t r a c t i v e s u b j e c t f o r s c h o o l s . As i f the f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were not enough, there was a p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t y f o r schools wishing to teach the s u b j e c t . In order to teach drawing an elementary teacher was r e q u i r e d to hold a D c e r t i f i c a t e which could be obtained o n l y by t a k i n g s p e c i a l c l a s s e s i n drawing s u b j e c t s and g a i n i n g a f i r s t c l a s s s t a n d i n g i n the exams. Regular teachers c o u l d not,* under any circumstances, teach drawing. This l e d to a c i r c u l a r r e s u l t . Few s c h o o l s taught drawing and so there was a s m a l l demand for teachers of drawing. With l i t t l e demand teachers had no i n c e n t i v e to o b t a i n the D c e r t i f i c a t e ; thus few s c h o o l s had teachers a v a i l a b l e who could teach drawing even i f the s c h o o l was i n t e r e s t e d i n t e a c h i n g i t . In 1890, however, a dramatic change l e d to drawing 51 becoming a widely taught s u b j e c t - The immediate cause was a simple one, but the e f f e c t s were f a r from simple. G i v i n g the reason t h a t i t was u s e f u l f o r boys i n a l l trades to be able to draw, the Department of Ed u c a t i o n made drawing a compulsory s u b j e c t f o r boys. The i n e v i t a b l e expected r e s u l t was a huge in c r e a s e i n the number of s c h o o l s o f f e r i n g the s u b j e c t . I t would be easy to assume t h a t t h i s i n c r e a s e was the o n l y e f f e c t , but there were other r e s u l t s which were even more important. Reactions to the l e g i s l a t i o n were complex, v a r i e d and a p p a r e n t l y unforeseen. Within t e n y e a r s , t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n pushed drawing from a t e c h n i c a l to an a e s t h e t i c o r i e n t a t i o n . These v a r i e d r e a c t i o n s might be l i k e n e d to the s t r a n d s of a rope t w i s t e d t i g h t l y t o g e t h e r . The whole can be seen but the p a r t s are obscured. U n r a v e l l i n g the rope to r e v e a l the separate str a n d s enables us to a p p r e c i a t e each i n d i v i d u a l p a r t while d e s t r o y i n g the rope i t s e l f . I s h a l l t r a c e the more important s t r a n d s , then r e u n i t e them, to show how they l e d to change and i n f l u e n c e d the nature of what would become, i n e f f e c t , a new s u b j e c t . Important i n themselves, the e f f e c t s of the l e g i s l a t i o n were a l s o important f o r Percy Weston. As a student i n a London Board School, he was c e r t a i n l y a f f e c t e d by the changes which were then o c c u r r i n g . Then, as a teacher, he was l a t e r t r a i n e d i n the ways of the new s y l l a b u s . Subsequently, i t was these new ideas 52 which he brought to B r i t i s h Columbia. The i n i t i a l problems schools faced when the order came into e f f e c t in September 1891 were those of f a c i l i t i e s , supp l ies , and teachers . There were no art rooms. Regular classrooms did not always provide enough space for drawing. Small schools lacked the funds to buy suppl ies and in some cases attempted to solve that pa r t i cu la r problem by simply reducing the teacher 's 5 s a l a r y . Problems of f a c i l i t i e s and suppl ies could be solved in one way or another, but schools did not have teachers who were q u a l i f i e d to teach drawing. Furthermore, there were too few places where teachers could t r a i n to q u a l i f y for the D c e r t i f i c a t e . The r e s u l t i n g attempts to solve the problem led to a f i ve - year bat t le between the National Union of Teachers (NUT) and the government, a l te red r a d i c a l l y the c a l i b r e of teacher who was teaching drawing and emphasised weaknesses in the t r a d i t i o n a l techn ica l approach. When the new regulat ion was publ ished, the NUT leadership le t out a howl of p rotest . In several ser ies of l e t t e r s to the appropriate government a u t h o r i t i e s , in meetings with the v i ce -p res ident of the Counci l on Education and with the Secretary of the Department of Art and Science, the executive of 6 the NUT pressed i t s case. At the annual conference of the union the matter was discussed in d e t a i l with great fervour and many reso lut ions made. The correspondence was published in the annual 53 r e p o r t s , which a l s o c a r r i e d verbatim r e p o r t s of the v a r i o u s meetings with the government.. L o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d the matter, b r i n g i n g t h e i r own r e s o l u t i o n s to the annual conference. I n d i v i d u a l teachers wrote to the NUT. The Twenty-Second Annual Report (1892) c a r r i e d 386 excerpts from t e a c h e r s ' l e t t e r s and 34 d i f f e r e n t r e s o l u t i o n s of the conference and l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s 7 which a l l concerned drawing. Other annual r e p o r t s d i d not devote q u i t e as much space to the matter, but n e v e r t h e l e s s , drawing was d i s c u s s e d at some l e n g t h i n a l l annual r e p o r t s from 1890 to 1895. Teachers around the country, i t was a s s e r t e d , were being v i c t i m i z e d , were f r i g h t e n e d and demoralized. There was c e r t a i n l y some reason f o r concern, but whether teachers urged the NUT to p r o t e s t or whether the NUT encouraged t e a c h e r s t o complain, the r e s u l t was the same. The NUT had a cause t h a t i t thought i t cou l d win and which consequently i t may have f e l t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y would f u r t h e r i t s a g g r e s s i v e e f f o r t s to i n c r e a s e i t s membership. Teachers were f i r e d i f they d i d not have the D c e r t i f i c a t e , claimed the NUT. Teachers without the D co u l d not f i n d j o b s . The requirements f o r o b t a i n i n g a D were so onerous t h a t many teachers c o u l d not q u a l i f y . Teachers d i d not have time fo r the hours of study anyway and, i n many cases, c l a s s e s i n drawing were not a v a i l a b l e . Teachers were going b l i n d p r a c t i s i n g t h e i r drawing s k i l l s a t n i g h t . Family l i f e was being r u i n e d because teachers s t u d y i n g f o r a D had no spare time. The l i s t of complaints was almost e n d l e s s . 54 The problem of the teacher without a c e r t i f i c a t e to teach drawing was exacerbated by the f a c t t h a t i f an u n q u a l i f i e d teacher taught drawing the s c h o o l was unable to c l a i m any g r a n t . Consequently there was nothing to be gained by bending the r e g u l a t i o n s . The government's r e a c t i o n was to a l l o w teachers to teach drawing t e m p o r a r i l y without a D c e r t i f i c a t e , thus a l l o w i n g 8 s c h o o l s employing them to c l a i m a g r a n t . However, t h i s d i d l i t t l e to l e s s e n the f e a r s of t e a c h e r s . In p r a c t i c e they found t h a t s c h o o l managers h i r e d teachers with the D r a t h e r than some otherwise e q u a l l y q u a l i f i e d teacher without. At the present moment, almost the f i r s t q u e s t i o n put to a candidate f o r a post i s : "Have you got the • D ' ? " -not, as i t should be, "What are your g e n e r a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ? What experience and success have you had i n school-work g e n e r a l l y ? 9 As the NUT r i g h t l y s a i d , the d i f f i c u l t y was t h a t the government's temporary c o n c e s s i o n might be r e s c i n d e d a t any time. They pointed t h i s out to the government at every o p p o r t u n i t y and e v e n t u a l l y the Education Department undertook to adopt more s p e c i f i c r e g u l a t i o n s . F i r s t , they agreed i n J u l y 1892 that should the r e g u l a t i o n s be changed at a l a t e r date any teachers who were t e a c h i n g drawing on or before January 1, 1893, would be 10 exempt from such new r e g u l a t i o n s . Then i n May 1894, a s p e c i a l drawing c e r t i f i c a t e f o r o l d e r teachers was i n t r o d u c e d . Those who had s t a r t e d t e a c h i n g on or before September 1884 might o b t a i n such a c e r t i f i c a t e without examination i f t h e i r s chool had two 55 11 s a t i s f a c t o r y r e p o r t s i n drawing before the end of 1896. These two amendments to the r e g u l a t i o n s represented a c o n s i d e r a b l e triumph f o r the NUT. For a r t education they meant a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the approach to t e a c h i n g the s u b j e c t . For the f i r s t time drawing was being taught by teachers who had not been t r a i n e d i n t e c h n i c a l drawing and who, given the s m a l l number of sch o o l s t e a c h i n g drawing before 1891, had probably had no formal drawing i n s t r u c t i o n themselves as st u d e n t s . They brought to the s u b j e c t t h e i r own impressions of. what drawing ought to be, impressions e n t i r e l y untrammelled by formal t r a i n i n g . C e r t a i n l y , they were r e q u i r e d to f o l l o w a q u i t e s p e c i f i c s y l l a b u s , but, as we s h a l l see l a t e r i n the chapter, the s y l l a b u s i t s e l f was to change and be made more f l e x i b l e . The pressure from the NUT f o r changes i n the c e r t i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e d to teach drawing was by no means i t s o n l y concern. I t was i n f a c t o n l y one aspect of i t s t o t a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the n o t i o n of the s u b j e c t being made compulsory. This d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n arose i n p a r t because the NUT saw compulsion as connected with "payment by r e s u l t s , " a system 12 which was i n i t s death t h r o e s . "Payment by r e s u l t s " r e q u i r e d good work before paying f o r i t , they claimed, yet i t was the lack of funds that o f t e n prevented good work being done. As f a r as drawing was concerned: The r a t i o n a l method of o b t a i n i n g the t e a c h i n g of drawing i n a l l s c h o o l s would be to equip a l l schools with the means of t e a c h i n g drawing before demanding 56 t h a t drawing s h a l l be taught. But, by the t o p s y - t u r v e y system s t i l l i n vogue, t h a t process i s r e v e r s e d : drawing i s made o b l i g a t o r y as a means of c o m p e l l i n g the s c h o o l s to equip themselves f o r t e a c h i n g i t . The drawing grant paid to the s m a l l s c h o o l s , which form a m a j o r i t y of a l l the s c h o o l s , i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to provide the means of t e a c h i n g drawing, and hardships without number are the r e s u l t . 1 3 D i r e c t l y connected to the argument over "payment by r e s u l t s " was the NUT's concern about the lack of f l e x i b i l i t y i n programmes. The need to pass an exam i n order to g a i n a grant l e d to complete s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m . Teachers taught c h i l d r e n to pass the examination r a t h e r than c o n s i d e r i n g the best way to teach a r t . A grant t h a t was not r e l i a n t on r e s u l t s would encourage a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of programmes, i t f e l t . "The Department f i x e s i t s t e s t s , and v a r i e s i t s g r a n t s ; we say to the Department, "'Vary your t e s t s and f i x your g r a n t s , ' " argued the 14 NUT. The broader i n t e n t of the NUT's arguments would tend to get l o s t i n the immediate arguments over a r t e d u c a t i o n , but the push f o r more f l e x i b i l i t y i n both the t e s t i n g of drawing and i n the s y l l a b u s would f i n a l l y be e f f e c t i v e . The NUT was not alone i n seeking a v a r i e d s y l l a b u s and a change i n t e s t i n g . In f a c t , i t s v o i c e may not have been the most e f f e c t i v e one i n a c h i e v i n g t h i s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t s high p r o f i l e arguments must have helped to c r e a t e the atmosphere i n favour of change. In a d d i t i o n to the argument about the c e r t i f i c a t i o n of teachers of drawing the NUT had other c o n t e n t i o n s a l l of which 57 a f f e c t e d t h a t atmosphere. Drawing should be an o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t i n a l l s c h o o l s , an elementary t e a c h i n g c e r t i f i c a t e should cover a l l s u b j e c t s , the grant f o r drawing should not be based upon the standard achieved i n the s c h o o l and the grant should i n any case be higher, i n s p e c t o r s of drawing should be competent (the NUT s t a t e d u n e q u i v o c a l l y t h a t "as a r u l e " they were not) and the requirements f o r an a r t teacher's c e r t i f i c a t i o n should be much 15 l e s s r i g o r o u s . T h i s l a s t p o i n t would seem a t f i r s t glance to gainsay the argument t h a t a "D" should not be r e q u i r e d , but the NUT's p o i n t may have been t h a t there was no o b j e c t i o n to o p t i o n a l a d d i t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y they may have been simply hedging t h e i r b e t s . The concern over teacher q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r the D c e r t i f i c a t e was complicated by the f a c t t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n was d i v i d e d . The Department of A r t and Science c o n t r o l l e d the examinations and the g r a n t i n g of c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r a r t teachers while the Educat i o n Department was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r teacher c e r t i f i c a t i o n and the c u r r i c u l u m i n the s c h o o l s . I t was an uneasy a l l i a n c e . The Department of A r t and Science had long had a r e p u t a t i o n f o r r i g i d i t y and co n s e r v a t i s m while the Education Department was the spearhead of an a g g r e s s i v e l y expanding system. The problem would not r e a l l y begin to be so l v e d u n t i l 1898 when the Education Department took over r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l aspects of a r t education i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system. 58 The government's argument f o r drawing as a compulsory s u b j e c t was simply t h a t , when i t was o p t i o n a l , i t was not taught except i n a very few s c h o o l s . Two Royal Commissions (Samuelson, 1884 and Cross, 1888) had recommended t h a t drawing be made compulsory and i t was seen by the government as being a " u s e f u l " s u b j e c t f o r a l l boys. The NUT's p o s i t i o n was t h a t while drawing might be " u s e f u l " f o r some boys (and f o r g i r l s , i f i t came to that ) there were other s u b j e c t s t h a t would be more " u s e f u l " i n many cases. As one teacher wrote when asked i f drawing should be o p t i o n a l r a t h e r than compulsory: "In a l l s c h o o l s , Yes; as a l s o 16 Carpentry, Farming, Cookery, Laundrywork." There seemed to be ge n e r a l agreement among r u r a l s c h o o l s , i f we can judge from t e a c h e r s ' l e t t e r s to the NUT and r e s o l u t i o n s to the annual conference, t h a t some form of A g r i c u l t u r e course would be f a r more " u s e f u l " to country boys. The government, on the other hand, thought d i f f e r e n t l y . A c i r c u l a r to Her Majesty's I n s p e c t o r s , dated June 2, 1891, s t a t e d : My Lords are not prepared to admit t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n Drawing i s u n s u i t a b l e f o r boys to be employed i n A g r i c u l t u r e . I t i s admitted to be u s e f u l to those who are to be Mechanics ( e s p e c i a l l y C a r p e n t e r s ) , and an a g r i c u l t u r a l worker would c o n s t a n t l y f i n d an advantage i n being able to tu r n h i s hand to c a r p e n t r y , or other work r e q u i r i n g s k i l l beyond h i s o r d i n a r y a v o c a t i o n . Moreover, the t r a i n i n g of the hand and eye which Drawing secures cannot f a i l to be.of use i n many of the ope r a t i o n s of husbandry. 1 7 Apart from i t s s t r o n g stand on the u s e f u l n e s s of drawing, the c i r c u l a r i s i n t e r e s t i n g f o r the i m p l i c i t assumption that the 59 c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g the elementary schools would i n e v i t a b l y be working c l a s s and menial manual l a b o u r e r s , a f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n of the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e of E n g l i s h s c h o o l i n g . Concerns about the competence of i n s p e c t o r s were i n t e r c o n n e c t e d with concerns about examinations, with the type of examination and with the whole r o l e of the Department of A r t and Scie n c e . Examinations were the order of the day d u r i n g the l a t t e r p a r t of the ni n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and these exams were conducted by the i n s p e c t o r s . I t was t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d most important t h a t the i n s p e c t o r s should have some knowledge of drawing. In the NUT's o p i n i o n t h i s was not always so, f o r , they s a i d : The E d u c a t i o n Department maintains I n s p e c t o r s of Teaching who cannot teach, the Science and A r t Department appoints I n s p e c t o r s of Drawing who cannot draw. 1 8 In meetings with the Education Department the NUT backed up i t s complaint with s p e c i f i c examples, but recog n i z e d that the problem was mostly the r e s u l t of the s t r e n g t h and i n t r a n s i g e n c e of the Department of A r t and Sci e n c e . That department's response to complaints was t h a t the lack of knowledge of c e r t a i n i n s p e c t o r s wasn't r e a l l y important as a l l examination papers were marked again by an independent and knowledgeable examiner i n London. The counter argument to t h i s was t h a t the independent d i s t a n t examiner d i d not take i n t o account s p e c i a l problems a sc h o o l might have and d i d not know how the examination had been conducted. Examples could be found to support t h i s counter 60 argument. In one London s c h o o l which a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n of high e d u c a t i o n o f f i c i a l s because of the success of i t s i n n o v a t i v e programme, the independent examiner c r i t i c i s e d the sch o o l f o r not having covered an aspect of the s y l l a b u s , then was fo r c e d to withdraw the c r i t i c i s m when i t was poin t e d out t h a t the r e a l problem had been t h a t the i n s p e c t o r had f a i l e d to conduct the 19 a p p r o p r i a t e t e s t . Lack of communication seemed o f t e n to be a problem when d e a l i n g with the Department of A r t and Science. The E d u c a t i o n Department was sympathetic to some of the concerns of the NUT and, as we have seen, they conceded t h a t teachers need not n e c e s s a r i l y hold a D c e r t i f i c a t e i n order to teach drawing. On the other p o i n t s the Department was not so forthcoming although i n time most of the NUT's concerns would be met i n one way or another. However, that would take some ye a r s . As f a r as making drawing a compulsory s u b j e c t the Department had no qualms. As the V i c e - P r e s i d e n t of the C o u n c i l s a i d : There was very great d i f f i c u l t y i n immediately making drawing compulsory. . . .We, however, are so s a t i s f i e d with what has a l r e a d y been brought about t h a t we intend to adhere to the policy.-'- 0 Although the V i c e - P r e s i d e n t went on to assure the NUT that no hardship would be s u f f e r e d by any sc h o o l s that had d i f f i c u l t y i n i n t r o d u c i n g the s u b j e c t , there can be no doubt that many sc h o o l s and teachers d i d f e e l pressured by the requirement. However, by 1895 p r a c t i c a l l y every s c h o o l had complied with the r e g u l a t i o n and, as a r e s u l t of the concession about 61 c e r t i f i c a t i o n , most of the teachers of drawing were unt r a i n e d i n the s u b j e c t . Without some s o r t of c o n c e s s i o n about c e r t i f i c a t i o n i t would have been d i f f i c u l t to implement the r e g u l a t i o n . The NUT's campaign helped to determine the p a r t i c u l a r nature of t h a t c o n c e s s i o n . That p a r t i c u l a r nature would prove to be a key f a c t o r i n changing the whole approach to the s u b j e c t , thus emphasising the importance of the NUT's r o l e . With thousands of teachers now t e a c h i n g drawing f o r the f i r s t time, i t i s perhaps p e r t i n e n t to pause and c o n s i d e r how t h e i r a t t i t u d e s to the s u b j e c t may have d i f f e r e d from those of the s p e c i a l i s t s who had taught drawing p r e v i o u s l y . A very important reason to suspect t h a t these teachers had a d i f f e r e n t approach i s that now f o r the f i r s t time drawing was being taught by many women t e a c h e r s . When the s u b j e c t was o p t i o n a l i t was taught o n l y by teachers t r a i n e d i n drawing as a t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t and only boys and men were taught t e c h n i c a l drawing. But as soon as drawing become a g e n e r a l s u b j e c t i t ceased to be the preserve of male t e a c h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the s m a l l r u r a l s c h ools which made up the m a j o r i t y . Women had t r a d i t i o n a l l y been brought up to b e l i e v e t h a t drawing was an a e s t h e t i c s u b j e c t and so i t seems almost i n e v i t a b l e t h a t they would have taken t h i s p e r c e p t i o n i n t o 21 the s c h o o l s with them. A second reason why teachers may have brought a d i f f e r e n t approach to drawing i n t o the schools at t h i s time 62 r e s u l t e d from the changing a s p i r a t i o n s and s o c i a l s t a t u s of 22 t e a c h e r s . As Harold S i l v e r has p o i n t e d out, t e a c h e r s "had c r o s s e d the d i v i d e which separated the [working] c l a s s from which they came and the f i r s t l e v e l s of the c l a s s e s where power and 23 a u t h o r i t y l a y . " The growth of p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s , such as the NUT, the improved t r a i n i n g at c o l l e g e s or even u n i v e r s i t i e s , and perhaps most of a l l the improved f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s of teachers i n c i t y Board s c h o o l s , a l l combined to j u s t i f y t e achers i n f e e l i n g t h a t as a group they had r i s e n above t h e i r working c l a s s o r i g i n s . W.P. Weston's f a t h e r , W i l l i a m Weston, provi d e s a s p e c i f i c example. As we have seen, h i s move from a v o l u n t a r y s c h o o l to a London Board School i n 1875 gave him an immediate i n c r e a s e i n s a l a r y of b e t t e r than 25%. By the end of the c e n t u r y h i s s a l a r y had almost doubled again to 165 pounds per annum without any i n c r e a s e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T h i s was by no means a l a r g e amount but was, n e v e r t h e l e s s , c o n s i d e r a b l y more than even 24 a s k i l l e d a r t i s a n might earn. When one c o n s i d e r s , i n a d d i t i o n , t h a t the c o s t - o f - l i v i n g i n 1900 was twenty per cent l e s s than i n 1880, i t i s c l e a r t h a t W i l l i a m Weston would have been j u s t i f i e d 25 i n t h i n k i n g t h a t h i s s t a t u s had improved. I f W i l l i a m Weston had r i s e n i n the ranks of teachers to become a headmaster, or even an a s s i s t a n t , h i s s a l a r y might have doubled a g a i n . T h i s leads to the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t , by the l a s t decades of the n i n e t e e n t h century, t e a c h i n g had become an a v o c a t i o n which could be a c a r e e r . Neither was the post of 63 headmaster the l i m i t f o r the a s p i r a t i o n s of an ambitious t e a c h e r . While the Ed u c a t i o n Department's i n s p e c t o r s had f o r most of the century been a patronage appointment, t h i s changed i n the e i g h t e e n - n i n e t i e s , l a r g e l y due to the e f f o r t s of the NUT. In 1893 the Exe c u t i v e of the NUT was able to r e p o r t : "The prolonged e f f o r t s of the Union to secure a system of j u s t l y promoting c e r t i f i c a t e d teachers to the Insp e c t o r a t e have at l a s t met with 26 some measure of su c c e s s . " Much e a r l i e r than t h i s the l a r g e l o c a l Boards, such as London, had been a p p o i n t i n g t h e i r own i n s p e c t o r s and these had always come from w i t h i n the system. Such o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r advancement helped to make teachers f e e l t h a t they were members of the middle c l a s s . The middle c l a s s may have had some d i f f i c u l t y i n a c c e p t i n g t e a c h e r s , but teachers had l i t t l e t r o u b l e i n attempting to embrace the middle c l a s s . S t u d i e s have shown that upwardly-mobile people, such as teachers were i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century, tend to adopt the tr a p p i n g s of the c l a s s to which they a s p i r e more r i g i d l y than do those who 2 7 are c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r s t a t u s . As drawing had always been an a e s t h e t i c s u b j e c t f o r the middle c l a s s , i t i s reasonable to suppose t h a t teachers would tend to adopt t h i s view along with other middle c l a s s v a l u e s . C e r t a i n l y the Westons provide an example of a f a m i l y which had moved i n t o the middle c l a s s . Whether or not i t was a conscious symbol of a change i n c l a s s s t a t u s when W i l l i a m Weston moved h i s f a m i l y up the h i l l i n t o Wandsworth, h i s c h i l d r e n seemed secure p l a y i n g a middle c l a s s 64 r o l e . I t would be going too f a r to suggest t h a t the middle c l a s s a s p i r a t i o n s of teachers were a cause of c u r r i c u l a r change, but they may have helped to c r e a t e a c l i m a t e which would welcome such change when i t d i d come. The i n t r o d u c t i o n of women as teachers of drawing and the middle c l a s s a s p i r a t i o n s of teachers were two of the most important i n d i r e c t s t r a n d s i n the development of a r t e d u c a t i o n . Another way i n which a new view of a r t education was brought i n t o the s c h o o l s was through the use of p e r i p a t e t i c a r t t e a c h e r s . T h e i r use was o f f i c i a l l y suggested as one way i n which a s m a l l s c h o o l might o b t a i n the s e r v i c e s of a q u a l i f i e d drawing te a c h e r . Given the s m a l l amount of the drawing grant, however, small s c h o o l s c o u l d not a f f o r d to pay such a teacher and i t was l a r g e r Boards which d i d appoint p e r i p a t e t i c a r t t e a c h e r s . In London p e r i p a t e t i c teachers were appointed to give a r t i n s t r u c t i o n to students who were adjudged by t h e i r s c h o o l s to be p a r t i c u l a r l y t a l e n t e d . Although these teachers a c t u a l l y taught very few of the students i n each s c h o o l , i n a d d i t i o n to t h e i r t e a c h i n g they brought i n new ideas and provided m o t i v a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e to the r e g u l a r teachers as a p a r t of t h e i r r o l e . In the s c h o o l a t which W.P. Weston taught, Brandlehow Road School, a 28 Miss L.G. Wells was appointed a t the end of 1901. She gave " s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n drawing" to 25 g i r l p u p i l s on Thursday 29 mornings and to 22 boy p u p i l s on Thursday a f t e r n o o n s . As there were some 700 students a t Brandlehow Road, not counting the 55 in fants , i t is c lear that her d i r e c t influence on students was l i m i t e d . However, i t is l i k e l y that Miss Wells did have some influence on the school as a whole. Considered by the inspector to have "very good" teaching s k i l l s , i t is l i k e l y that her 30 i n d i r e c t influence was just what the Board intended. The use of p e r i p a t e t i c art teachers in the London Board Schools was just one aspect of the whole approach to art education in the c a p i t a l . Because London's was the largest school system in the country with a dynamic aggressive Board i t had considerable influence in shaping publ ic education countrywide. Other large Boards also had inf luence , but none more so than London's. As one of the chron ic l ers of the School Board's h i s t o r y sa id in 1904: Moreover, th i s was a case in which i t might t r u l y be sa id that , "what London does today England w i l l do tomorrow." Hundreds of smaller Boards have modelled t h e i r bye-laws c h i e f l y on those of the London Board and have been influenced consciously or unconsciously by the l i b e r a l s p i r i t of the f i r s t B o a r d . 3 1 The way in which drawing developed in London is therefore another strand in the web that was woven to create the new approach to art education. A d iscuss ion here of drawing in London explains an important set of developments in i t s own r i g h t , i l l u s t r a t e s the kind of influence that a number of large Boards had, and shows the d i r e c t influences on W.P. Weston, who was both student and 66 teacher w i t h i n the London system. By 1900 the a r t master at one of the foremost " P u b l i c Schools," Harrow, d e s c r i b e d h i m s e l f as " h u m i l i a t e d . . .by the a l t o g e t h e r wonderful r e s u l t s which art-work i n our P u b l i c Elementary Schools has a l r e a d y 32 produced." He f e l t t h i s h u m i l i a t i o n because he b e l i e v e d t h a t the Board schools had surpassed the p r i v a t e s c h o o l s . He found that the a r t education was p a r t i c u l a r l y notable " i n the great towns - Birmingham and London, f o r example" and he was sure of the reason too. The p r i n c i p a l cause of t h i s success i n our P u b l i c Elementary Schools i s the e n l i g h t e n e d c h a r a c t e r of the t e a c h i n g which r e c o g n i s e s t h a t c h i l d r e n d e s i r e something i n work which i s e n t i r e l y enjoyable and b e a u t i f u l , a wise admixture of p l a y with work, the two going h a p p i l y together hand i n hand. 3 3 I made the p o i n t e a r l i e r t h a t the Department of Science and Art s t r o n g l y r e s i s t e d change and development i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . Despite such a view on the p a r t of the Department, the School Board f o r London had, from i t s very beginning, encouraged t e a c h i n g of "an e n l i g h t e n e d c h a r a c t e r , " adopting a c u r r i c u l u m " s e t t i n g f o r t h what i s u l t i m a t e l y d e s i r a b l e r a t h e r 34 than what i s a t present a t t a i n a b l e . " Such high aims may w e l l have been l a r g e l y due to P r o f e s s o r T.H. Huxley, the e d u c a t i o n a l reformer and s c i e n t i s t , who c h a i r e d the f i r s t c u r r i c u l u m committee soon a f t e r the f i r s t Board's e l e c t i o n i n November 35 1870. The School Board f o r London never d i d b e l i e v e that o n l y 36 very b a s i c s c h o o l i n g was s u f f i c i e n t f o r the working c l a s s e s . 67 For a r t education, which i s our i n t e r e s t , the l i b e r a l c u r r i c u l u m provided the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the s u b j e c t to be taught. In the country g e n e r a l l y , drawing, i n any form, was c o m p a r a t i v e l y r a r e l y taught u n t i l a f t e r the 1890 l e g i s l a t i o n e nforced the s u b j e c t . The e x c e p t i o n was London, where drawing was seen as a d e s i r a b l e p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m from the very beginning of the Board. The c u r r i c u l u m committee may have had t e c h n i c a l drawing i n mind when they i n c l u d e d the s u b j e c t , but, g i v e n Huxley's concern f o r the beauty of nature and a r t , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t they meant more. In any event, we s h a l l see t h a t as drawing developed i n the London s c h o o l s , i t became f a r more than t e c h n i c a l drawing. I t was a l s o important t h a t the Board l e f t i t open f o r " e x t r a s u b j e c t s " to be taught "at the d i s c r e t i o n of the managers." Towards the end of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r t i n e n t f o r a r t education as the government-imposed r e g u l a t i o n s became l e s s onerous and the Board co u l d press f o r more f l e x i b i l i t y . I n d i c a t i v e of the Board's i n t e r e s t i n drawing as a separate s u b j e c t was the appointment i n 1882 of T.R. A b l e t t as the f i r s t drawing i n s t r u c t o r . A b l e t t held t h i s p o s i t i o n u n t i l 1887 and s e t precedents t h a t would i n f l u e n c e the whole course of a r t education i n London. These formed the beginnings of another s t r a n d which would s t r e t c h to the changes at the end of the century. A b l e t t came to the London School Board with a r e p u t a t i o n as a p r o g r e s s i v e a r t teacher. Although only 34 years 68 of age he was a l r e a d y c o n s i d e r e d to be at the f o r e f r o n t of a r t t e a c h i n g . With a background e n t i r e l y i n p r i v a t e s c h o o l s , he looked a t drawing, as d i d Huxley, as an a e s t h e t i c s u b j e c t b e l i e v i n g t h a t a r t e d u c a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n should " i n c r e a s e the c a p a c i t y f o r enjoyment and c u l t u r e i n the realms of n a t u r a l 37 beauty and of a r t . " The f a c t that the London School Board chose such a man suggests the d i r e c t i o n i n which they wished drawing to 38 develop. As A b l e t t ' s work had a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n of no l e s s a personage than A.J. Mundella, the V i c e - P r e s i d e n t of the Committee of C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n , i t may have been through Mundella's i n f l u e n c e t h a t he was appointed as the f i r s t Drawing I n s t r u c t o r of the London School Board. A b l e t t ' s views on a r t educ a t i o n i n the London s c h o o l s can be summarized from a speech he gave i n 1884. He c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the t e a c h i n g of a r t i n the past had been something of a f a i l u r e and t h a t those who had r e c e i v e d a r t t r a i n i n g i n schools found: t h a t our system succeeded only i n r e a r i n g a race of a r t i s t i c pygmies. Some who have had the t r a i n i n g we give speak of i t as a g r i n d , and to p r o f e s s themselves q u i t e unable to recommend t h e i r f r i e n d s to t r y i t . . . There can be no doubt but t h a t the vast m a j o r i t y who l e a r n under our present system lose t h e i r z e a l . . . . I t seems as though the art-workers' genius were a d e l i c a t e p l a n t which seldom s u r v i v e d our well-meant attempts at c u l t i v a t i o n .39 I f the o l d ways were a f a i l u r e then how might a r t be taught? As other s u b j e c t s should be taught, thought A b l e t t , through the 69 c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t s . If i t be true t h a t nothing i s of the l e a s t use to young c h i l d r e n but what i n t e r e s t s them, should we not leave the development of t e c h n i c a l s k i l l to a r i s e n a t u r a l l y from a d e l i g h t i n the p r a c t i c e of p a i n t i n g ? . . -Let care be.taken t h a t advance i n t e c h n i c a l s k i l l be not gained a t the expense of enthusiasm, and a l l the p o s s i b i l i t i e s i t b r i n g s with i t , or by r e d u c i n g the i n t e l l e c t to a stagnant s t a t e . 4 0 "A d e l i g h t i n the p r a c t i c e of p a i n t i n g " was d e f i n i t e l y not the t e c h n i c a l approach to drawing t h a t was being taught to teachers who sought the D c e r t i f i c a t e . A b l e t t stayed as Drawing I n s t r u c t o r f o r f i v e y e a r s . A f t e r h i s r e s i g n a t i o n there was a gap of n e a r l y two years, then two Drawing I n s t r u c t o r s were appointed to r e p l a c e him. A b l e t t h i m s e l f founded the Royal Drawing S o c i e t y , and continued to promote the t e a c h i n g of a r t . The Drawing S o c i e t y h e l d annual e x h i b i t i o n s of c h i l d r e n ' s a r t work and conducted drawing examinations f o r s c h o o l s . The s c h o o l s which took these examinations were p r i v a t e s c h o o l s , but the i n f l u e n c e of the Drawing S o c i e t y was much wider than t h i s . A b l e t t h i m s e l f continued to have a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on the London Board Schools by h o l d i n g s h o r t courses f o r t e a c h e r s . It should not be supposed that A b l e t t was the i n s t i g a t o r of the Board's p o l i c y . When the School Board f o r London sought him out and gave him the o p p o r t u n i t y to promulgate h i s i deas, the p o l i c y was a l r e a d y formed. However, i t was 70 d e f i n i t e l y A b l e t t who, given the o p p o r t u n i t y , e s t a b l i s h e d the p a t t e r n for the development of drawing as a a e s t h e t i c s u b j e c t . That drawing tended to be thought of as an a e s t h e t i c s u b j e c t i n London was not only due to the d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e of A b l e t t and h i s s u c c e s s o r s . There were a number of i n d i r e c t f a c t o r s . Manual T r a i n i n g was taken as a separate s u b j e c t as e a r l y as 1885 and separate Manual T r a i n i n g Centres were s e t up at 41 s c h o o l s . T h i s helped to p o i n t up the d i f f e r e n c e between drawing as a t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t and drawing as an a e s t h e t i c s u b j e c t . Furthermore, i t took some of the pressure o f f the teacher i n the classroom as he or she had no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Manual T r a i n i n g . Another i n d i r e c t f a c t o r was t h a t s t a r t i n g i n 1877 the Board h e l d an annual e x h i b i t i o n of work done by school c h i l d r e n i n London. By the e i g h t e e n - n i n e t i e s there was the separate annual e x h i b i t i o n of a r t work at which W.P. Weston had won awards as a student. P r o v i d i n g examples of what was c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e , i t drew work from a l l the London s c h o o l s . A t o t a l of 130 p r i z e s were awarded i n a number of c a t e g o r i e s and the e x h i b i t i o n drew t e a c h e r s , parents and c h i l d r e n - some ten to f i f t e e n thousand of them, i t 42 was r e p o r t e d i n 1894. The t h r u s t of t h i s e x h i b i t i o n was that drawing was an a e s t h e t i c s u b j e c t . I t must have reassured any teachers who were u n c e r t a i n t h a t they were on the r i g h t t r a c k i n not t h i n k i n g of drawing as a t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t . In 1890, George R i c k s , an a s s i s t a n t to A b l e t t ' s two s u c c e s s o r s , had t o l d the managers of the London Board Schools, "We want [students'] minds 71 imbued with a love f o r a l l t h i n g s b e a u t i f u l , whether i n form or 43 c o l o u r , " and t h i s was what these e x h i b i t i o n s showed. By the m i d - e i g h t e e n - n i n e t i e s the two drawing i n s t r u c t o r s who had been appointed a f t e r Thomas A b l e t t , D.W.F. Langman and A. W i l k i n s o n , had been j o i n e d by two a s s i s t a n t s , George R i c k s , mentioned above, and Joseph Vaughan. Langman and W i l k i n s o n were a l s o the I n s p e c t o r s f o r Drawing, so had c o n s i d e r a b l e power to i n f l u e n c e what went on i n the classroom. T h e i r i n f l u e n c e became even stronger at the very end of the c e n t u r y when a l t e r n a t i v e s were allowed to the o f f i c i a l c u r r i c u l u m . In the meantime the drawing i n s t r u c t o r s were a c t i v e promoting a r t . They pressed r e g u l a r l y to expand the system of p e r i p a t e t i c a r t t e a c h e r s , encouraged the d e s i g n a t i o n of s p e c i f i c s c h o ols as ones having a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n a r t and supported the appointment of p u p i l - t e a c h e r s as p u p i 1 - t e a c h e r s i n a r t . C e r t a i n l y at the Board committee l e v e l they were e n t h u s i a s t i c advocates of a r t as an a e s t h e t i c s u b j e c t while i n the schools they seem to have been e q u a l l y e n t h u s i a s t i c and h e l p f u l . To t h i s p o i n t I have been d i s c u s s i n g a t t i t u d e s , i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e f s and the q u a l i t i e s d e s i r e d or r e q u i r e d of t e a c h e r s . I have shown how there was growing f e e l i n g t h a t a r t should be t r e a t e d as an a e s t h e t i c s u b j e c t . However, except i n a few p l a c e s such as London, the s u b j e c t was not widely taught i n any form u n t i l the Code r e q u i r e d i t . Consequently, s e r i o u s 72 d i s c u s s i o n about the nature of the s u b j e c t was l i m i t e d u n t i l t h a t time. I have ignored u n t i l now what was i n f a c t r e q u i r e d to be taught as a r t , or drawing. In other words, I have ignored the p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l u m . A problem with drawing as a s u b j e c t was th a t i t alone continued to be " c o n t r o l l e d " by the Science and A r t Department. T h i s was not so important before the s u b j e c t was made o b l i g a t o r y i n 1890 as those a f f e c t e d by the Department's d i c t a t e s were few i n number. However, as the number of those t e a c h i n g the s u b j e c t grew d r a m a t i c a l l y i n number, so too d i d the complaints. The s y l l a b u s and examinations p r e s c r i b e d by the Science and A rt Department changed l i t t l e over the years and many f e l t t h a t t h i s was i n l a r g e p a r t due to the S e c r e t a r y of the Department, Major-General J.F.D. Donnelly. R i g i d and i n t r a n s i g e n t , he accepted change g r u d g i n g l y and the s y l l a b u s remained e q u a l l y 44 r i g i d . The Department of Science and A r t r e p l a c e d the Department of P r a c t i c a l A r t . I t s o r i g i n a l r o l e was to promote s c i e n c e and a r t i n order to in c r e a s e the competitiveness of B r i t i s h i n d u s t r y . I t operated s e p a r a t e l y from, but i n concert with, the Education Department. The r e l a t i o n s h i p has been 45 d e s c r i b e d as th a t which e x i s t s between Siamese twins. While there c o u l d be good c o - o p e r a t i o n between the two o r g a n i s a t i o n s , there c o u l d a l s o be s t r i f e and t h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y so i n the 73 l a t t e r y e a r s . Formed i n 1853, the A r t and Science Department's o f f i c e s were s i t u a t e d on a country e s t a t e i n South Kensington, then a suburb of London. The e s t a t e was one of three purchased with the p r o f i t from the Great E x h i b i t i o n of 1851. Because of i t s l o c a t i o n the Department was o f t e n known commonly as "South Kensington" and the methods of a r t e d u c a t i o n i t propounded were sometimes r e f e r r e d to as the "South Kensington system." In 1856 L i e u t e n a n t J.F.D. Donnelly, a Royal Engineer, was seconded to the Department to be i n charge of c u t t i n g down t r e e s on the e s t a t e s . Donnelly was a young v e t e r a n of the Crimean war, but a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l a t South Kensington he was to spend the r e s t of h i s working l i f e t h e r e , i n time becoming i t s dominant p e r s o n a l i t y . He f i n a l l y r e t i r e d 43 years l a t e r when the Department ceased to e x i s t i n 1899. E a r l y on i n h i s c a r e e r Donnelly was i n v o l v e d with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the system of "payment by r e s u l t s " and remained a keen advocate of the system. In 1874 he became D i r e c t o r of Science and by 1882 he was S e c r e t a r y and permanent head of the Department. As he rose through the Department's ranks he was a l s o promoted by the army, f i n a l l y becoming a major-general. He was knighted by Queen V i c t o r i a . Whether or not he was always of a c o n s e r v a t i v e nature Donnelly c e r t a i n l y r e s i s t e d suggestions f o r change i n the e i g h t e e n - n i n e t i e s , making i t c l e a r t h a t he d i d not favour any l o o s e n i n g of the r e g u l a t i o n s 46 r e g a r d i n g drawing. The o l d e r ways were q u i t e s a t i s f a c t o r y i n h i s view. His c o n s e r v a t i s m must have been a r e s t r i c t i n g f o r c e i n 7 4 the development of a r t e d u c a t i o n . However, i t was not only with r e s p e c t to drawing t h a t he would be out of sympathy with c u r r e n t views , f o r the Education Department i t s e l f found him d i f f i c u l t 47 i n h i s l a t e r y e a r s . The needs of commerce f o r an educated work f o r c e was one reason given f o r making s c h o o l i n g compulsory and the drawing s y l l a b u s had o r i g i n a l l y been w r i t t e n with t h i s i n mind. Schools of d e s i g n , which were intended to supply i n d u s t r y with d e s i g n e r s and craftsmen who c o u l d compete with c o n t i n e n t a l manufacturers, had s i m i l a r l y been developed with such an aim. T h e i r f a i l u r e may 48 have s h i f t e d the argument to the elementary s c h o o l s . As Quentin B e l l p o i n t e d out, the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m f o l l o w e d a system which had been introduced by Henry Cole i n the e i g h t e e n - f i f t i e s with a c u r r i c u l u m t h a t : had nothing to do with a e s t h e t i c f e e l i n g , nothing to do with nature or the imagination; i t was e s t a b l i s h e d not f o r the b e n e f i t of the p u p i l s but f o r t h a t of t h e i r p r o s p e c t i v e employers.49 The s y l l a b u s d i d change a l i t t l e i n d e t a i l over the years, but by and l a r g e i t remained the same, while e d u c a t i o n changed around i t . By the 1890's i t was as out-of-date as "payment by r e s u l t s " , the much maligned system of grants to which drawing continued to be t i e d . Because a s c h o o l ' s grant depended d i r e c t l y on the r e s u l t s of exams, schools followed the s y l l a b u s s l a v i s h l y . The s y l l a b u s d i d suggest t h a t teachers might go beyond what was l a i d down, but i t seems d o u b t f u l t h a t many d i d . "Payment by r e s u l t s " 75 l e d i n e v i t a b l y to t e a c h i n g to exams. The drawing s y l l a b u s was d i v i d e d i n t o seven s e c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to the seven Standards. U n t i l 1894 i t was not allowed to group students of d i f f e r e n t Standards together as c o u l d be done i n other s u b j e c t s . T h i s made i t extremely d i f f i c u l t f o r smal l s c h o o l s to teach drawing. I t was v i r t u a l l y impossible f o r one or two teachers to teach seven d i f f e r e n t groups a t the same time f o l l o w i n g a r i g i d c u r r i c u l u m , or even more than seven groups i n s c h o o l s where g i r l s d i d not take drawing. The seven Standards were roughly e q u i v a l e n t to the seven Grades of Canadian s c h o o l s except t h a t , as p a s s i n g each Standard depended on exam r e s u l t s , a wider age range of c h i l d r e n at the lower Standards might be found i n V i c t o r i a n E n g l i s h s c h o o l s . In the e a r l y days of compulsory education i n London, f o r example, as many as e i g h t y per cent of a l l the students of a l l ages i n some sc h o o l s were below Standard 50 I. Looking at the s y l l a b u s f o r 1895, the l a s t e d i t i o n before major changes took p l a c e , one f i n d s i t l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t f o r 1886. Standards I and II were r e s t r i c t e d to drawing of geometric f i g u r e s , with and without the r u l e r , of " l i n e s , 51 angles, p a r a l l e l s and the s i m p l e s t r i g h t - l i n e d forms." T h i s was a l l . With an hour and a h a l f of drawing weekly, drawing must have become r a t h e r t e d i o u s f o r seven and e i g h t year o l d s . Standard I I I continued the drawing of geometric f i g u r e s with 76 r u l e r s , and introduced "freehand drawing of r e g u l a r forms and curved f i g u r e s from the f l a t . " Freehand i n t h i s context d i d not mean drawing f r e e l y , but copying e x a c t l y without the use of r u l e r s or other drawing a i d s . Standard IV added drawing to s c a l e and continued the type of drawing from e a r l i e r y e a r s , but at a more advanced l e v e l , while Standard V added "drawing from 52 r e c t a n g u l a r and c i r c u l a r models and from easy common o b j e c t s . " Standard VI continued the work done i n Standard V and Standard VII continued the same work except that a l t e r n a t i v e l y the drawing of common o b j e c t s , drawing of c a s t s , or drawing i n l i g h t and shade were allowed. A l s o i t was allowed to draw "plans and e l e v a t i o n s of plane f i g u r e s and r e c t a n g u l a r s o l i d s i n simple 53 p o s i t i o n s , with s e c t i o n s . " O b viously the framers of the s y l l a b u s saw drawing as a t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t . The thousands of teachers who were faced with t h i s s y l l a b u s a f t e r the s u b j e c t became compulsory may w e l l have groaned a t the thought of t e a c h i n g i t . Those schools which c o u l d a f f o r d i t would almost c e r t a i n l y have purchased s e t s of l a r g e cards on which the r e q u i r e d e x e r c i s e s were d i s p l a y e d . This made the t e a c h i n g e a s i e r . There was a t h r i v i n g market i n t h i s s o r t of teacher's a i d , but teachers recognized t h a t t h i s d i d not give c h i l d r e n any grounding i n a r t . However, as a reviewer of such sheets noted i n the E d u c a t i o n a l Times: [Drawing s h e e t s ] . . .supply a d i s t i n c t need. . .and w i l l r e s u l t at l a s t i n the s a t i s f a c t i o n of examiners. [They] w i l l prove to be a very convenient and s u c c e s s f u l 77 way of teaching--not, of course drawing, but--how to do a lower-grade South Kensington copy, which i s an a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t t h i n g . . . . Our s c h o o l drawing i s , at present, a mere a b o r t i v e beginning of design, and we waste the time of thousands of c h i l d r e n , and n e g l e c t our duty to t h e i r p o s s i b i l i t i e s , to give the B r i t i s h manufacturer one t h i r d - g r a d e c e r t i f i c a t e d designer of v e r y d o u b t f u l capacity.54 So the teachers used a i d s they d i d not l i k e to teach drawing i n a way that they d i d not l i k e , to students who d i d not l i k e i t . The t e a c h e r s ' resentment at having to teach such a c u r r i c u l u m was yet another s t r a n d i n the development of a r t e d u c a t i o n . There were, of course, s t i l l other s t r a n d s which i n f l u e n c e d the development of a r t e d u c a t i o n . I have demonstrated to t h i s p o i n t t h a t drawing was i n f a c t not a t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t , d e s p i t e the view of the Department of Science and Art and d e s p i t e the s y l l a b u s being w r i t t e n from t h a t stance. I t was the movement away from such a view towards an a e s t h e t i c one, and the pressures i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n , which c o n t r a d i c t e d the o f f i c i a l view. The d e v e l o p i n g a e s t h e t i c view was a c t u a l l y helped by the s t r o n g push to s t r e n g t h e n t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The promotion of t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n emphasised the d i f f e r e n c e between the two s u b j e c t areas and perhaps reduced the pressure on a r t education to t r a i n a r t i s a n s . The r e p o r t of the Royal Commission on T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n (Samuelson Commission) l e d to the T e c h n i c a l I n s t r u c t i o n Act of 1889 and was a l s o i n f l u e n t i a l i n b r i n g i n g about the p r o v i s i o n of the Revised Code f o r 1890 which made drawing an o b l i g a t o r y s u b j e c t . So even the impetus f o r o b l i g a t o r y drawing 78 was not because i t was an aesthetic subject, or at least not e n t i r e l y so. However, as we have seen, the change was a c r u c i a l one in the development of art education. While pointing out that technical education was developing along d i f f e r e n t l i n e s , I must re-emphasise that drawing (or art education generally) could not be disentangled from technical education. The drawing syllabus was almost e n t i r e l y structured as a technical subject, yet the emphasis was changing despite the syllabus, despite the inspectors, despite the exams, despite, in other words, the Department of Science and Art. The change was abetted by the more enlightened within the technical education movement, not least by Sir P h i l i p Magnus. Magnus, a member of the Samuelson Commission, and with his finger in every technical education pie, saw compelling reasons for teaching drawing to a l l children. Certainly i t would provide industry with a wider choice of candidates for further t r a i n i n g , but he saw drawing as an educational d i s c i p l i n e in i t s e l f and as important to society in general, for: i t is in r a i s i n g the standard of taste, in making people d i s s a t i s f i e d with ugly shapes, and with tawdry arrangements of colour, that the teaching of drawing may help to exercise a valuable aesthetic influence upon the working classes. A general elevation of taste cannot f a i l to work an improvement in the s o c i a l condition of the people.55 So Magnus supported drawing as an aesthetic subject for s o c i a l reasons. Nevertheless he supported i t , as did others connected 79 with t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n . We have looked at i n d i v i d u a l s t r a n d s , a view which to some extent i s a r t i f i c i a l f o r the rope they form ceases to e x i s t when untwisted. While we have not looked a t a l l the s t r a n d s , s u f f i c i e n t have been presented to i n d i c a t e the nature and s t r e n g t h of the c o r d . I t i s now time to reform the rope and to i d e n t i f y some threads t h a t have been impl i e d r a t h e r than d i s c u s s e d . By the middle of the e i g h t e e n - n i n e t i e s p r a c t i c a l l y a l l schools were t e a c h i n g drawing and pressures were mounting to change the s y l l a b u s . The n o t i o n of an a l t e r n a t i v e s y l l a b u s was being mooted and there was pressure from s m a l l s c h o o l s f o r the e x i s t i n g s y l l a b u s to be mo d i f i e d so t h a t students might be grouped more simply. The Department of Science and A r t moved 56 s l o w l y and g r u d g i n g l y towards a l l o w i n g some change. A new s y l l a b u s c o n s i s t i n g of three p a r t s appeared i n December 1895. The o l d s y l l a b u s , which continued v i r t u a l l y unchanged, made up the f i r s t p a r t . Then there was a "scheme of i n s t r u c t i o n i n s m a l l s c h o o l s " which allowed the o l d s y l l a b u s to be very much s i m p l i f i e d . L a s t l y , and most important of a l l , there was the " A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s of I n s t r u c t i o n i n Elementary 57 Schools." R e a c t i o n to the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s was immediate and e n t h u s i a s t i c . The te a c h e r s ' journal,The Schoolmaster, p e r c e i v e d i t as being r e v o l u t i o n a r y and e x t o l l e d i t s v i r t u e s i n 80 an a r t i c l e s u b t i t l e d "the A r t Studio a t School", s a y i n g : T h i s i s the i n t e r e s t i n g p a r t of the s y l l a b u s . I t proposes a complete r e v o l u t i o n i n the methods of t e a c h i n g drawing, and, i f at a l l g e n e r a l l y i n t r o d u c e d , the drawing l e s s o n w i l l suggest the a r t s t u d i o more than the elementary class-room.58 In r e t r o s p e c t the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s was not q u i t e as r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n i t s e l f as The Schoolmaster suggested, but i t was r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n that i t accepted drawing as an a e s t h e t i c s u b j e c t and i t embraced the p r i n c i p l e t h a t i t was not necessary f o r a l l s c h o o l s to f o l l o w e x a c t l y the same s y l l a b u s of work. T h i s i n i t s e l f undermined the system of r i g i d examinations beloved of the Department of Science and A r t - a s i n g l e exam for each Standard would no longer s u f f i c e - and i n time i t opened the way to f u r t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e s . I t was the impetus f o r change f o r which some, such as A b l e t t , had been see k i n g . In f a c t i t was the beginning of the end f o r the Science and A r t Department. The A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s was the work i n l a r g e part of Ebenezer Cooke. He was one of the o l d e r a r t educators i n the country, but t h i s d i d not prevent him from having what were cons i d e r e d to be very modern id e a s . His views were well-known to teachers and i n order to f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e the impact of the new s y l l a b u s i t i s necessary to know a l i t t l e of h i s background. Cooke was the son of a v i l l a g e schoolmaster. Having taken drawing c l a s s e s from John Ruskin at Workingmen's C o l l e g e , he became a l i f e l o n g admirer of Ruskin's views on the teaching of 81 drawing. In 1875 he became a founding member of the S o c i e t y f o r the Development of the Science of E d u c a t i o n . A teacher i n a boys' s c h o o l , he a l s o taught drawing to a d u l t students of the F r o e b e l i a n method at Camden House School. Whether t h i s experience developed h i s i n t e r e s t i n F r o e b e l i a n t e a c h i n g or whether the i n t e r e s t was a l r e a d y t h e r e , i t matters not; what i s important i s t h a t he was a keen F r o e b e l i a n i n g e n e r a l , though r e j e c t i n g F r o e b e l ' s emphasis on the s t r a i g h t l i n e . S c h o o l i n g could be improved, he b e l i e v e d , by c a r r y i n g F r o e b e l ' s methods beyond the K i n d e r g a r t e n . Cooke's i n t e r e s t s i n the s c i e n c e of education and i n F r o e b e l ' s methods might be d e s c r i b e d as symptoms of h i s e d u c a t i o n a l approach. He was a l s o a f r i e n d of the p h i l o s o p h e r and p s y c h o l o g i s t , James S u l l y . He provided the c h i l d a r t work th a t S u l l y used f o r h i s book The Human Mind i n 1892, which analysed the nature of p e r c e p t i o n . Long b e f o r e , Cooke and S u l l y had discussed, the nature of c h i l d development, the use of 59 imagination and "the u n f o l d i n g of a l l the c h i l d ' s powers." In 1894 Cooke t r a n s l a t e d P e s t a l o z z i ' s How Gertrude Teaches Her  C h i l d r e n , an assignment that may well.have grown out of h i s a s s o c i a t i o n with S u l l y . Cooke had much i n common with T.R. A b l e t t and at the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Health Conference of 1884, r e f e r r e d to e a r l i e r , h i s r e a c t i o n to A b l e t t ' paper showed an empathy of views. C e r t a i n l y 82 they were u n i t e d i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n to South Kensington and the a t t i t u d e of the Department of Science and A r t . It i s an i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n why Cooke was chosen to wr i t e the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s , given h i s p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n to South Kensington and given h i s well-known views on a r t education, which were t o t a l l y a g a i n s t the p r i n c i p l e s of the Department of Science and A r t . One suspects t h a t he may have been assigned to the task over Major-General Donnelly's o b j e c t i o n s . However, i t i s not a q u e s t i o n t h a t need be answered here; t h a t Cooke d i d wri t e the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s i s enough. A f t e r h i s re t i r e m e n t Donnelly made somewhat waspish comments about Cooke's work sugg e s t i n g t h a t Cooke was not r e a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s y l l a b u s . R e i n f o r c i n g the n o t i o n t h a t Donnelly may have ob j e c t e d at the time, i t seems to have been a case of sour grapes given the success of Cooke's work. Cooke's other contemporaries seem to have had no doubt that he was the author of the s y l l a b u s and he was so i d e n t i f i e d p u b l i c l y . What i n f a c t was so d i f f e r e n t about t h i s c u r r i c u l u m t h a t i t was thought to be r e v o l u t i o n a r y ? I t s f i r s t and most obvious f e a t u r e was th a t the s t r a i g h t l i n e was v i r t u a l l y banished. The o l d s y l l a b u s had been based i n la r g e part upon geometric drawing, as we have seen. The A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s was based upon Ebenezer Cooke's system of drawing curves, on brushwork, on memory drawing, and on a l i m i t e d amount of 83 geometric or t e c h n i c a l drawing. Perhaps most important of a l l , the s y l l a b u s was based on the p r i n c i p l e s of the i n f a n t s * school "adapted to the needs of o l d e r s c h o l a r s , " which r e f l e c t e d Cooke's 60 keen i n t e r e s t i n F r o e b e l i a n theory. In p a r t i c u l a r , Cooke quoted from an Education Department c i r c u l a r on the s u b j e c t so t h a t there would be no doubt what he meant. I t was so important to h i s approach to a r t education t h a t I repeat i t here: The f o l l o w i n g passages i n a C i r c u l a r on the s u b j e c t (Education Department c i r c u l a r 262, 6th February 1893) may be noted:- Two l e a d i n g p r i n c i p l e s should be regarded as a sound b a s i s f o r the education of e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . (1) The r e c o g n i t i o n of the c h i l d ' s spontaneous a c t i v i t y , and the s t i m u l a t i o n of t h i s a c t i v i t y i n c e r t a i n w e l l - d e f i n e d d i r e c t i o n s by the t e a c h e r s . (2) The harmonious and complete development of the whole of a c h i l d ' s f a c u l t i e s . The teacher should pay e s p e c i a l regard to the love of movement, which can alone secure h e a l t h y p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s ; to the observant use of the organs of sense, e s p e c i a l l y those of s i g h t and touch; and to that eager d e s i r e of q u e s t i o n i n g which i n t e l l i g e n t c h i l d r e n e x h i b i t . A l l these should be encouraged under due l i m i t a t i o n s , and should be developed s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , so t h a t each stage of development may be complete i n i t s e l f . * * * * * * You should d i r e c t the a t t e n t i o n of teachers to the c h i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n which u n d e r l i e s true methods of i n f a n t t e a c h i n g , v i z . , the a s s o c i a t i o n of one l e s s o n with another through some l e a d i n g idea or ideas.61 For drawing,the e x t e n s i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s of e a r l y c h i l d h o o d education i n t o l a t e r years was a r a d i c a l departure and would not have been overlooked by t e a c h e r s . To r e i n f o r c e the 84 p o i n t Cooke a l s o s p e c i f i c a l l y made the s u g g e s t i o n that drawing might be c o o r d i n a t e d with other s u b j e c t s . For teachers g e n e r a l l y i t must have seemed as though they had suddenly been set f r e e . Another aspect of the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s that must have given the appearance of more freedom was Cooke's system of "free-arm" drawing. Today, l a t e i n the t w e n t i e t h century, we might f i n d h i s system very s t r u c t u r e d , but, when i t was i n t r o d u c e d , i t was f a r f r e e r than what had been r e q u i r e d up to t h a t time. For one t h i n g , i t was open-ended with Cooke sug g e s t i n g a number of times how the e x e r c i s e s might be developed beyond the ideas presented i n the s y l l a b u s . Free-arm drawing a l s o r e q u i r e d t h a t , where p o s s i b l e , the students should get out of t h e i r desks and work sta n d i n g and with b i g arm movements. Th i s too was i n c o n t r a s t to the c l o s e and f u s s y work of the o l d s y l l a b u s and i n l i n e with Cooke's F r o e b e l i a n b e l i e f s . The f a c t of the matter was t h a t the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s was seen as being new i n almost every way. Brushwork had not played any part i n the o l d system and c o l o u r had had no place at a l l . Drawing from memory had been mentioned but almost i n p a s s i n g . Now i t was an important p a r t of the work of every Standard. The drawing of "common o b j e c t s " had been suggested before, but now i t was suggested much more s t r o n g l y as w e l l as drawing from nature. The A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s was indeed a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n 85 a r t e ducation i n B r i t a i n both f o r what i t suggested d i r e c t l y and for what i t i m p l i e d . Perhaps most of a l l i t was important because i t showed t h a t the o l d ways were not n e c e s s a r i l y w r i t t e n in stone. I t may have seemed that they were, f o r there had been very l i t t l e change i n the requirements s i n c e s c h o o l i n g became compulsory. One co u l d argue t h a t d u r i n g the p e r i o d of great expansion, when i t was remarkable i n i t s e l f t h a t so many c h i l d r e n were g e t t i n g some educa t i o n at a l l , i t had been enough to have a s y l l a b u s and t h a t change had not been necessary. The e f f o r t had been to teach the c h i l d r e n ; what was taught may not have been seen as so important, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a s u b j e c t which wasn't much taught anyway. Once the s u b j e c t became o b l i g a t o r y - and at a time when the pressures of expansion of the system were l e s s -the o l d ways were seen as d i f f i c u l t , or even i m p o s s i b l e . I t was then t h a t the v a r i o u s s t r a n d s we have examined i n t h i s chapter came together to draw f o r t h a new approach. The new approach was Cooke's A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s . I t was not to l a s t long i n i t s o r i g i n a l form but t h i s was not to l e s s e n I t s importance e i t h e r . It proved to be the c a t a l y s t f o r a new order i n a r t education and i n the r e a c t i o n , the o l d s y l l a b u s disappeared f o r e v e r . 86 NOTES 1. P h i l i p Magnus, E d u c a t i o n a l Aims and E f f o r t s (London: Longman, Green and Co., 1910), p.36. 2. I use the terms " t e c h n i c a l " and " a e s t h e t i c " as they were commonly used by n i n e t e e n t h century educators. T e c h n i c a l : p e r t a i n i n g to mechanical or i n d u s t r i a l a r t s . A e s t h e t i c : p e r t a i n i n g to an a p p r e c i a t i o n of beauty, and, by e x t e n s i o n , the s k i l l s needed to d e p i c t t h a t a p p r e c i a t i o n . 3. M.E. S a d l e r , ed., S p e c i a l Reports on E d u c a t i o n a l Subjects, v . l (London: Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1897), pp. 48 and 70. 4. S a d l e r , S p e c i a l Reports, v . l , p.70. The years 1885 and 1886 were exc e p t i o n s to t h i s , but except f o r these two years drawing was always examined as a s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t . 5. Twenty-Second Annual Report of the N a t i o n a l Union of  T e a c h e r s ( h e r e a f t e r NUT Annual Report), pp. c c x x x i - i i . 6. In p a r t i c u l a r , meetings were he l d with the Department of Educ a t i o n on March 5, 1892 and with the Department of Science and A r t on J u l y 22, 1892 and February 15, 1896. 7. 22nd NUT Annual Report, 1892, pp. c l x x x v i - c c l v i . 8. 22nd NUT Annual Report, 1892, p. c c x v i i . 9. I b i d . , p. c c x x v i . 10. 23rd NUT Annual Report, 1893, p. c l i . 11. 25th NUT Annual Report, 1895, p. c l x x v i i . 12. F i r s t i n t roduced i n 1862, "payment-by-results" t i e d the amount a s c h o o l c o u l d earn i n grants to the s t u d e n t s ' r e s u l t s i n annual examinations. M o d i f i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n 1882, the system was a b o l i s h e d i n 1890 except f o r those s u b j e c t s under the c o n t r o l of the Science and A r t Department. 13. 22nd NUT Annual Report, 1892, p. x x x v i i . 14. I b i d . 15. I b i d . , p . c c x i x . 87 16. I b i d . , p. c c x l i . 17. Department of Education, " C i r c u l a r to Her Majesty's I n s p e c t o r s , Drawing." C i r c u l a r no. 304, June 2, 1891. 18. 22nd NUT Annual Report, 1892, p. x x x v i i . 19. School Board f o r London, Minutes of the Sub-Committee f o r S p e c i a l Subjects ( h e r e a f t e r SCSS), November 30, 1896, pp. 216-7. 20. 22nd NUT Annual Report, p. c c x x x i i i . 21. For a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of women and drawing i n the ni n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y see Linda N o c h l i n "Why Have There Been No Great Women A r t i s t s " i n Thomas B. Hess and E l i z a b e t h C. Baker (eds.) A r t and  Sexual P o l i t i c s (New York: Macmillan, 1971), pp. 28-9. See a l s o A l i c i a C. P e r c i v a l , The E n g l i s h Miss Today and Yesterday (London: George C. Harrap, 1939) where the po i n t i s made s e v e r a l times t h a t f o r g i r l s a r t and drawing were a e s t h e t i c s u b j e c t s . In p a r t i c u l a r she quotes evidence to the Cross Commission by a Board teacher, Miss Burgwin, who. spoke of the l i k i n g of g i r l s f o r " p r e t t y t h i n g s " i n drawing, p. 270. For a more g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n of the r i s i n g s t a t u s of teachers g e n e r a l l y , and of women i n p a r t i c u l a r , and of the a t t i t u d e s of women i n the nin e t e e n t h century see Frances Widdowson, Going Up i n t o the Next  C l a s s (London: Hutchinson, 1980). 22. For an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n of the s o c i a l s t a t u s of teachers see David Wardle, E n g l i s h Popular Education, 1780-1970, (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1970) Ch. 6, pp. 99-115 23. Harold S i l v e r , E d u c a t i o n and the S o c i a l Condition,(London: Methuen and Co., 1980) p.172. See a l s o Lawson and S i l v e r , S o c i a l  H i s t o r y of Education i n England, p. 288 . 24. For average wages of v a r i o u s c l a s s e s of workers see Jones, Outcast London, p.216. 25. I b i d . , p. 326. Also see Great B r i t a i n . P a r l i a m e n t a r y Papers, 1905 v. l x x x i v , p. 32. 26. 23rd NUT Annual Report, p . l i . 27. See, John Goldthorpe, S o c i a l M o b i l i t y and C l a s s S t r u c t u r e i n Modern B r i t a i n , (Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1980), pp. 212-250, and R.J. M o r r i s , C l a s s and C l a s s Consciousness i n the I n d u s t r i a l  R e v o l u t i o n , 1780-1850 (London: Macmillan, 1979), pp. 62-5 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of " s t a t u s ambition." 28. SCSS, December 20, 1901, p. 137. 88 29. SCSS, October 26, 1903, p.299. 30. SCSS, March 30, 1903, p. 258. 31. P h i l p o t t , London at School, p. 24. 32. W. Egerton Hine, "Art Teaching i n P r e p a r a t o r y Schools,"M.E. S a d l e r , e d . , S p e c i a l Reports on E d u c a t i o n a l S u b j e c t s , (London: Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1900) v o l . 6, p. 281. 33. I b i d . 34. Minutes of School Board f o r London quoted i n P h i l p o t t , London  at School, p. 36. Date not g i v e n . 35. P h i l p o t t , London at School, pp. 33-5. 36. For a b e t t e r understanding of Huxley's views which were r e f l e c t e d i n the London c u r r i c u l u m see T.H. Huxley, "Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews," quoted i n R. U l i c h , H i s t o r y of  E d u c a t i o n a l Thought, (New York: American Book Co., 1945), p. 210 and T.H. Huxley, "Address to South London Working Men's C o l l e g e , " Macmillan's Magazine XVII:101 (March 1868): 368-71. 37. Sutton, A r t i s a n or A r t i s t , p. 161. 38. For d e t a i l s of A b l e t t ' s e a r l y l i f e see P.A. Evans, "Thomas Robert A b l e t t 1848-1945: A Biography of His E a r l y L i f e , 1848-1888" (Dip. A r t Ed. d i s s e r t a t i o n , C o l l e g e of A r t and Design and the U n i v e r s i t y of Birmingham, 1968.) 39. The Health E x h i b i t i o n L i t e r a t u r e , 14: "Conference on E d u c a t i o n " (London: E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Health E x h i b i t i o n and C o u n c i l of the S o c i e t y of A r t s , 1884), pp. 226-7. 40. I b i d . , p. 227-8. 41. P h i l p o t t , London at School, p. 58. 42. School Board f o r London, " E x h i b i t i o n of Drawings, J u l y 1895." Unpublished pamphlet. 43. George R i c k s , "Hand and Eye T r a i n i n g , " Elementary Schools and  How to Increase t h e i r U t i l i t y , (London: P e r c i v a l and Co., 1890), p. 109. 44. For a d i s c u s s i o n of Donnelly's r o l e and h i s army connections see Sutton, A r t i s a n or A r t i s t , p.117. 45. Armytage Four Hundred Years of E n g l i s h E d ucation, p . 119. 89 46. F o r e v i d e n c e o f h i s v i e w p o i n t s e e , f o r example, h i s two m e e t i n g s w i t h t h e NUT i n J u l y 1892 and F e b r u a r y 1896. 23rd NUT  A n n u a l R e p o r t , pp. c l - c l v i ; The S c h o o l m a s t e r XLIX: 1262 (March 7, 1896 ), pp. 413-6. 47. Armytage, F o u r Hundred Y e a r s o f E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n , p. 177. 48. F o r a d e t a i l e d h i s t o r y o f t h e s c h o o l s o f d e s i g n see Q u e n t i n B e l l , S c h o o l s o f D e s i g n , (London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1963) 49. I b i d . , p. 261. 50. P h i l p o t t , London a t S c h o o l , p. 44. 51. 1895 S y l l a b u s , p. 4. 52. I b i d . 53. I b i d . 54. "Drawing and S c h o o l D r a w i n g - a R e v i e w o f Some Drawing C o p i e s , " E d u c a t i o n a l T i m e s , q u o t e d i n S u t t o n , A r t i s a n or A r t i s t , p. 247. Date o f j o u r n a l n o t g i v e n . 55. Magnus, E d u c a t i o n a l Aims and E f f o r t s , p.278. 56. T h a t t h i s movement was w i t h o u t D o n n e l l y ' s a p p r o v a l he made c l e a r i n h i s l e t t e r of March 3, 1894 t o NUT, q u o t e d i n 2 5 t h NUT  A n n u a l R e p o r t , p p . c l x x i i - c l x x i i i . 57. 1895 S y l l a b u s . , pp. 16-29. 58. The S c h o o l m a s t e r , X L V I I I : 1 2 4 9 (December 7, 189 5 ) , p. 963. 59. J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n , (December 1 8 8 4 - J a n u a r y 1885) q u o t e d i n M a c d o n a l d , The H i s t o r y and P h i l o s o p h y of A r t E d u c a t i o n , p. 326. 6 0. 1895 S y l l a b u s , p. 16. 61. I b i d . 90 CHAPTER FOUR " I t f i l l s a l a d with the s p i r i t of the a r t i s t d e l i g h t i n g i n h i s work": the r e v o l u t i o n completed )• The new A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s may have been seen as r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n i t s e l f , but i t would be wrong to assume that i t caused an i n s t a n t r e v o l u t i o n . I t was greeted with i n i t i a l s u r p r i s e and p l e a s u r e , then with c r i t i c i s m . I t i s d o u b t f u l whether many sch o o l s were using i t some s i x months l a t e r . I f teachers d i d not begin to use i t immediately, the date of i t s p u b l i c a t i o n , when the s c h o o l year was a l r e a d y underway, must have been at l e a s t p a r t l y to blame. In the long run, however, i t was used with v a r y i n g success. I t s most enduring importance was th a t i t showed that there c o u l d , a f t e r a l l , be change i n drawing and i t e s t a b l i s h e d the s u b j e c t as an a e s t h e t i c one. In t h i s chapter I w i l l t r a c e some of the i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s to the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s , show how i t was put to use in London, and how i t l e d to f u r t h e r development of drawing as an a e s t h e t i c s u b j e c t , some of i t i n e v i t a b l e and some the r e s u l t , of new a t t i t u d e s . I w i l l show how the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s was i t s e l f r e p l a c e d and why. I t w i l l be seen t h a t the i n t r o d u c t i o n of an a l t e r n a t i v e , a g a i n s t the wishes of S i r John Donnelly, 91 e f f e c t i v e l y weakened the s t r a n g l e h o l d of the Department of Science and A r t by undermining the r i g i d system of examinations. The c u l m i n a t i o n of years of pressure from v a r i o u s groups, i t enabled a swing to a new o f f i c i a l l y - s a n c t i o n e d view of a r t e d u c a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s , a l l w i t h i n a remarkably sho r t time. While these developments are important i n themselves, they have added importance here f o r they t e l l us something of the e d u c a t i o n a l c l i m a t e of the s c h o o l system w i t h i n which Percy Weston was being t r a i n e d to be a teacher. In London, i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n to the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s was immediate and p o s i t i v e . The Drawing I n s t r u c t o r s , i n a r e p o r t to the Sub-Committee on S p e c i a l Subjects on December 2, 1895, 2 d e s c r i b e d i t as "undoubtedly a very good one." They suggested i t might be b e t t e r f o r s c h o o l s to continue u s i n g the o l d s y l l a b u s u n t i l the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s had been t r i e d out i n one s c h o o l . However,they recommended t h a t the method of drawing suggested i n the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s should be used widely even though schools continued with the o l d s y l l a b u s . The Drawing I n s t r u c t o r s l o s t no time i n f i n d i n g a s c h o o l to t e s t the new s y l l a b u s . Within days of i.ts o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n a t the beginning of December they had a London sc h o o l which would t r y i t out. T h i s was the boys' d i v i s i o n of Alma School i n Bermondsey where "the Headmaster and a l l the Teachers on the s t a f f are w i s h f u l to give 3 i t a t r i a l . " . 92 There i s evidence that Alma School was a school with a headmaster and s t a f f who were keen to t r y out i n n o v a t i v e i d e a s . In the same year as they t r i e d out the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s the s c h o o l a l s o became i n v o l v e d with another experiment, t h i s time i n "Domestic Economy to combine t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l i n Domestic Economy, Cookery, Housewifery and Laundry work," 4 s u b j e c t s which had p r e v i o u s l y been t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y . The s c h o o l ' s name came up r e g u l a r l y i n r e p o r t s to the Board about i n t e r e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the system, and always i n a p o s i t i v e way. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the f i r s t s c h o o l to use the new s y l l a b u s may have had an above-average r e p u t a t i o n . There i s l i t t l e p o i n t i n running a p i l o t p r o j e c t where other f a c t o r s may make f a i l u r e l i k e l y . So the success, or otherwise, of the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s at Alma School should not be taken to mean tha t i t would n e c e s s a r i l y be s u c c e s s f u l g e n e r a l l y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s worth l o o k i n g c l o s e l y at the Alma School experience as i t g i v e s a good p i c t u r e of the programme i n p r a c t i c e . I f Alma School was a p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l s c h o o l , t h i s was not because i t was s i t u a t e d i n a good socio-economic area. In f a c t i t was i n a very poor area of the c i t y . Bermondsey was a d i s t r i c t south of the Thames con s i d e r e d to be a part of Inner London. I t s p o p u l a t i o n r e l i e d on the dockyards and the l e a t h e r tanning trade f o r employment. With both these 93 i n d u s t r i e s having been i n a s t a t e of c h r o n i c d e c l i n e s i n c e the 1880's, f a m i l y incomes were aided by the wives undertaking low grade home employments such as fur p u l l i n g and paper bag making. There was some c a s u a l seasonal work i n jam f a c t o r i e s as w e l l , but t h i s d i d not amount to much. From the p o i n t of view of a v a i l a b l e work, t h e r e f o r e , i t was not a p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e place to l i v e . At the same time there were problems caused by road widening schemes and the b u i l d i n g of new warehouses which l e d to the displacement of many r e s i d e n t s and the d i s r u p t i o n of the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s of the community. Bermondsey could h a r d l y be 5 d e s c r i b e d as a d e s i r a b l e urban community. Yet i t s school provided a model f o r o t h e r s . T h i s s a i d much both f o r the sch o o l and f o r the dynamism of the School Board f o r London. The s t a f f a t Alma School decided to introduce the new s y l l a b u s because they were of the o p i n i o n t h a t the o l d " S y l l a b u s of the Science and A r t Department d i d not evoke the h i g h e s t powers of the boys, and that i t d i d not c r e a t e or f o s t e r the love 6 of a r t . " There was some d i s c u s s i o n as to whether the s y l l a b u s should be introduced g r a d u a l l y or a l l at once and i t was with some p r i d e t h a t the Headmaster r e p o r t e d : A f t e r c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of my r e s o u r c e s , I decided to a t once take up ( s i c ) the system throughout the sc h o o l i n i t s e n t i r e t y . . . i n a s c h o o l to which any boy i n the neighbourhood may l e g a l l y c l a i m admission while there i s room, and each boy i n the s c h o o l has been taug h t . 7 The d e c i s i o n was made e a s i e r by "the e n t h u s i a s t i c and hearty 94 c o - o p e r a t i o n of my s t a f f " and d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the new m a t e r i a l s needed d i d not a r r i v e u n t i l s i x months a f t e r the 8 experiment had been s t a r t e d . Because c l a s s s i z e s were l a r g e , ranging from 50 to 70 boys, i t was found necessary to introduce the v a r i o u s forms suggested by the s y l l a b u s to the whole c l a s s , who copied them, before the c h i l d r e n moved on to produce t h e i r own work. Copying, however, was always seen "not as the end but the beginning of the 9 s c h o l a r ' s own work." Leaves, p l a n t s and flowers were brought i n t o the s c h o o l from time to time f o r the c h i l d r e n to use as models, but there were d i f f i c u l t i e s i n doing t h i s . Bermondsey j u s t d i d not have such t h i n g s i n anything l i k e the q u a n t i t y needed f o r a c l a s s . Working c l a s s London of the n i n e t e e n t h century possessed no parks, no green spaces. I t was a wholly urban, b u i l t - u p environment. The s c h o o l saw the new s y l l a b u s as being e s s e n t i a l l y a course i n d e s i g n . Teachers found great advantages over the o l d s y l l a b u s i n the much wider range of a c t i v i t i e s p o s s i b l e and the wider range of m a t e r i a l s used. Observing that the c h i l d r e n c a r r i e d over what they had l e a r n t i n t o other s u b j e c t s , they b e l i e v e d t h a t the students' success i n a r t work gave them a gr e a t e r confidence t h a t they could achieve w e l l . The Headmaster was pleased with the intense i n t e r e s t that the boys d i s p l a y e d and summed up h i s impressions: 95 I t a f f o r d s what has been l a c k i n g i n our elementary system of educat i o n , an e f f e c t i v e means of c u l t i v a t i n g the i m a g i n a t i o n , both a r t i s t i c and s c i e n t i f i c . I t t r a i n s the eye to behold beauty, the mind to conceive beauty, and the hand to produce i t . I t f i l l s a l a d with the s p i r i t of the a r t i s t , d e l i g h t i n g i n h i s work i n s t e a d of t h a t of the workman performing h i s t a s k . 1 0 The t e s t of whether the enthusiasm of the s t a f f of Alma School was j u s t i f i e d came i n November 1896 when the p u p i l s had t h e i r drawing examination. As the f i r s t exam to be given to students t a k i n g the new s y l l a b u s , i t drew a number of i n f l u e n t i a l o b s ervers. Mr. Armstrong, the D i r e c t o r of A r t a t the Department of Science and A r t , attended i n person, b r i n g i n g three department heads with him. General S i r John Donnelly, however, d i d not a t t e n d . The examination took place from 9 to 12 i n the morning and, d e s p i t e the daunting number of d i g n i t a r i e s o bserving, the p u p i l s performed w e l l . The sc h o o l r e c e i v e d an " E x c e l l e n t " r a t i n g . Armstrong h i m s e l f made p u b l i c comment as to the high standard as soon as the examination was completed and, as i t 11 turned out, t h i s was j u s t as w e l l . In the l a s t chapter, a common complaint about the system of examinations enforced by the Department of Science and Ar t was d i s c u s s e d . With the i n t e n t i o n of ensuring a common standard, a l l exams were sent to the Department where they were re-marked by an independent examiner. However, i t was claimed that i n p r a c t i c e more problems were caused than were s o l v e d . An example was given of the independent examiner c r i t i c i s i n g one 96 school's r e s u l t s because, he s a i d , that s c h o o l had f a i l e d to cover a l l s e c t i o n s of the course. The school i n q u e s t i o n was Alma School. The examiner proposed to lower the r a t i n g . The school r e a c t e d a n g r i l y , p o i n t i n g out t h a t the whole course had been covered. I t was simply t h a t the l o c a l examiner had not t e s t e d c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s and that was the Department's problem. The independent examiner was r e f e r r e d to Mr. Armstrong. The c r i t i c i s m was withdrawn u n e q u i v o c a l l y and the " E x c e l l e n t " r a t i n g remained. A good example of something about which the NUT had long complained, the i n c i d e n t i s a l s o an i n d i c a t o r t h a t London s c h o o l s , and the Board a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , were w i l l i n g to stand up 12 to the Department bureaucracy. In A p r i l 1896, once the experiment with the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s was underway at Alma School, the School Board for London a u t h o r i s e d any London sc h o o l to apply f o r p e r m i s s i o n to use the new c u r r i c u l u m . In time a number of schools d i d make the change and i t seems l i k e l y t h a t a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n was f o l l o w e d 13 throughout the country. There was slow growth i n the number of l a r g e r s c hools g i v i n g up the o l d ways. The A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s was not so a p p e a l i n g to s m a l l e r s c h o o l s , however, as, at the same time as i t was p u b l i s h e d , the Board of Education brought i n new r e g u l a t i o n s f o r s m a l l s c h o o l s . These gave the o p p o r t u n i t y to modify the o l d s y l l a b u s s i g n i f i c a n t l y so that i t might be taught to only two groups i n s t e a d of seven. This was a great advantage which, i n e f f e c t , provided a second a l t e r n a t i v e . 97 However, even for l a r g e s c h o o l s , t h e new s y l l a b u s d i d not meet with u n i v e r s a l a p p r o v a l . The P r i n c i p a l of t h e B a t t e r s e a P u p i l - T e a c h e r Centre f o r v o l u n t a r y s c h o o l s , f o r example, 14 r e g r e t t e d the move away from g e o m e t r i c a l drawing , At l e a s t one member of the NUT e x e c u t i v e found i t too d i f f i c u l t . On February 15, 1896, a d e p u t a t i o n from the N a t i o n a l Union of Teachers waited upon Major-General S i r John Donnelly, at South Kensington, with r e f e r e n c e to the r e g u l a t i o n s r e s p e c t i n g drawing i n the elementary s c h o o l s . 1 5 T h i s meeting was not p r i m a r i l y concerned with the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s , but r a t h e r ranged over a l l aspects of the newly p u b l i s h e d s y l l a b u s . With r e s p e c t to the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s one NUT e x e c u t i v e member suggested: t h a t they were pleased to f i n d the department o f f e r i n g them a l t e r n a t i v e courses, but the new a l t e r n a t i v e s y l l a b u s was one which he would l i k e to see the Department i t s e l f t r y on an average s c h o o l . I t was a b s o l u t e l y beyond the c o n d i t i o n s of s c h o o l l i f e . They wanted an a l t e r n a t i v e course which would s u i t the d i f f e r e n t l o c a l i t i e s of the country. There was no reason why i t should be cut and c r y s t a l l i s e d , but they d i d want a scheme which was reasonable, and the new scheme was not. . . .Mr. Waddington thought the case might be met by an arrangement s i m i l a r to t h a t adopted by the Education Department, that i s by a c c e p t i n g schemes suggested by the t e a c h e r s . He thought t h a t l g might give a l i t t l e p l a y to i n g e n u i t y among teachers. x The comment about the d i f f i c u l t y of the a l t e r n a t i v e course a l s o had other i m p l i c a t i o n s . As was seen i n the l a s t chapter, there had been grumbling i n some q u a r t e r s about making drawing compulsory i n 1890. Some teachers thought that other 98 s u b j e c t s would be more u s e f u l . For r u r a l areas a g r i c u l t u r e had o f t e n been suggested as the a l t e r n a t i v e . Once the s u b j e c t was compulsory, however, the argument had s h i f t e d to c a l l i n g f o r d i f f e r e n t drawing c l a s s e s f o r i n d u s t r i a l areas and so on. T h i s argument was being put forward here. The comments about the "arrangement s i m i l a r to t h a t adopted by the Education Department" may w e l l have been a c a r e f u l c r i t i c i s m of the Department of Science and A r t ' s r e f u s a l to move with the times as q u i c k l y as d i d the E d u c a t i o n Department. In other words the argument a g a i n s t the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s may have been l a r g e l y a s t r a t e g i c p l o y to enable these other comments to be made. Donnelly h i m s e l f c l e a r l y d i d not understand the t h e o r e t i c a l approach behind the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s ; n e i t h e r d i d he approve of i t . His i n t e r j e c t i o n i n response to the comment quoted above made t h i s c l e a r : "the Department would be very glad i f anyone could suggest 17 a s a t i s f a c t o r y a l t e r n a t i v e scheme." He went on to d e s c r i b e what he f e l t should be the b a s i s of a drawing course and, i n e f f e c t , gave a thumbnail sketch of the o l d s y l l a b u s . Yet again Donnelly was r e s i s t i n g change. This meeting of the NUT executive with Donnelly, and the p u b l i c i t y i t r e c e i v e d , i n d i c a t e s the importance of the d i s c u s s i o n about drawing at t h i s time. Given t h a t E l t r i n g h a m S t r e e t School had a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n a r t , o p p o s i t i o n to drawing as a compulsory s u b j e c t there was u n l i k e l y . However, i t seems probable t h a t , as a p u p i l - t e a c h e r , Percy Weston heard the 9 9 arguments for and a g a i n s t the s u b j e c t and formed h i s own o p i n i o n . He would hear s i m i l a r arguments about the relevance of a r t i n the school c u r r i c u l u m f o r the r e s t of h i s t e a c h i n g l i f e . While the meeting with S i r John d i s c u s s e d the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s the main reason was to ask f o r change i n the system of i n s p e c t i o n , examination and f i n a n c i a l grant. The NUT d i d not want a f i x e d examination on a c e r t a i n day, but wanted i n t e r m i t t e n t i n s p e c t i o n and an i n s p e c t o r ' s r e p o r t . Concomitant with t h i s change they wanted a l l schools to get a s i n g l e l e v e l of grant r a t h e r than one based on achievement. In a d d i t i o n they sought some s p e c i a l f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r s m a l l r u r a l s c h o o l s . These had d i f f i c u l t y " e a r n i n g " s u f f i c i e n t grant, given the s m a l l number of stu d e n t s , and had i n s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f to teach many d i f f e r e n t groups at the same time. As u s u a l the d e p u t a t i o n got l i t t l e s a t i s f a c t i o n from S i r John. A f t e r two hours they 1 8 thanked him f o r r e c e i v i n g them, then l e f t . There were no t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s from t h i s meeting, but the NUT had expressed concerns that were widely h e l d . Change would e v e n t u a l l y come. One wonders whether the NUT executive d i s c u s s e d the age of the S e c r e t a r y of the Department of Science and A r t and s p e c u l a t e d on h i s p o s s i b l e r e t i r e m e n t l e a d i n g to a more open approach to problems. If they d i d , then f u t u r e events would show them to have been j u s t i f i e d i n so doing, but f o r the next year or so t h i n g s went on i n the same way. 1 0 0 The change f i n a l l y came on March 31, 1398 when the E d u c a t i o n Department took over the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of grants f o r Drawing and r e p l a c e d the annual examination by a system of 19 p e r i o d i c i n s p e c t i o n . T h i s was e x a c t l y what the NUT had been seeking f o r so long. Major-General S i r John Donnelly's r e t i r e m e n t occurred the f o l l o w i n g year. In the two years between the NUT meeting with Donnelly and March 1898 the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s was adopted by a number of s c h o o l s i n London but the m a j o r i t y were discouraged by the r i g i d examination system. The exams were based upon the o l d s y l l a b u s and the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s d i d not cover the same m a t e r i a l ; so adopting the new was a r i s k y business when the grant depended on exam r e s u l t s . As soon as i n s p e c t i o n was s u b s t i t u t e d for exams, however, there was a f l u r r y of a c t i v i t y and the Sub-Committee f o r S p e c i a l Subjects of the School Board for London reviewed a p p l i c a t i o n s from s c h o o l s to adopt the A l t e r n a t i v e 20 S y l l a b u s at almost every meeting. In June 1898, W i l k i n s o n , one of the Drawing I n s t r u c t o r s , commented that e x c e l l e n t r e s u l t s had been obtained i n every s c h o o l i n which the A l t e r n a t i v e ' S y l l a b u s had been i n t r o d u c e d . He went on to say t h a t the e x h i b i t s by Alma School at the annual e x h i b i t i o n of school work i n London "were, 21 i n themselves, worth a long journey to see." The p a s s i n g of c o n t r o l of Drawing to the Education Department a l s o opened up the p o s s i b i l i t y of f u r t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e 101 s y l l a b i . W ilkinson made i t c l e a r t h a t t h i s was i n h i s mind when he added, "Now that I n s p e c t i o n i s t a k i n g the place of examination i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e to adopt e i t h e r the A l t e r n a t i v e or any other 22 s y s t e m a t i c Drawing S y l l a b u s . " If the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s was the hinge which allowed the door to open to new ways i n a r t e d u c a t i o n , the p a s s i n g of c o n t r o l from Donnelly and the Department of Science and A r t removed the doorstop. With the door wide open the Drawing I n s t r u c t o r s l e a p t to take advantage of the o p p o r t u n i t y . Schools were encouraged to take up the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s , but, at the same time, Langman and W i l k i n s o n had f u r t h e r i d e a s . W i l k i n s o n was quick to d e v i s e a s y l l a b u s of h i s own f o r the London schools and a year l a t e r 23 Langman too had w r i t t e n one. These d i d not come i n t o use immediately, but e v e n t u a l l y both would be widely used i n London. F o l l o w i n g the course of a r t education i n London giv e s a impression of j u s t how the s u b j e c t , and a t t i t u d e s to i t , were changing. When Wi l k i n s o n p r a i s e d the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s i n June 1398, he commented a l s o on what he b e l i e v e d was needed i n a drawing s y l l a b u s and on what he considered weaknesses in the London s c h o o l s . Drawing from n a t u r a l l e a f forms and Memory drawing are very much n e g l e c t e d . I am hoping more time and a t t e n t i o n w i l l be given to these s u b j e c t s i n f u t u r e . . . [ t h e y are] of immense value ....Memory drawing i s of immense value i n t r a i n i n g both hand and b r a i n . ^ Wilkinson's own s y l l a b u s , which appeared before 102 November 1898, presumably s t r e s s e d these " n e g l e c t e d " areas, as had the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s before i t . At about the same time sc h o o l Heads were questioned about drawing. They responded t h a t the drawing programme should not be t i e d so c l o s e l y to the seven Standards. T h i s would a l l o w more f l e x i b i l i t y both i n the c u r r i c u l u m and i n the amount of time t h a t was devoted to the 25 s u b j e c t . Such o p i n i o n s would seem to be i n tune with c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g i n London. Four months l a t e r , however, W i l k i n s o n seemed l e s s keen on such s u g g e s t i o n s . Coming down s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t any p r o l i f e r a t i o n of drawing s y l l a b i i n the s c h o o l s , he complained about "our present order of go-as-you-please, and the many vague 26 amateur-drawing schemes a f l o a t . " Perhaps t h i s new wish f o r a s i n g l e s y l l a b u s had been encouraged by a b e l i e f t h a t h i s own new s y l l a b u s was the l o g i c a l c h o i c e . At the same time h i s c o l l e a g u e , Langman, supported him, advocating a standard course f o r the School Board f o r London which would s t r e s s memory drawing and nature drawing. While W i l k i n s o n was advocating h i s own programme the Board had been having some correspondence with the Education Department about the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s . I t developed t h a t , when the Education Department took over from the Department of Science and A r t , the Board should not have assumed that approval for the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s i n any school would be automatic. Toward the end of March 1899, however, i t was r e p o r t e d that the matter was r e s o l v e d and that the "Board 103 w i l l be at l i b e r t y to a l l o w the scheme to be taken i n any sch o o l 27 they may deem s u i t a b l e . " The Board now had blanket approval to introduce the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s . They a p p a r e n t l y assumed a l s o t h a t they could o b t a i n approval f o r any other scheme that they thought s u i t a b l e . In f a c t , a t the very same meeting, there was a request from a sc h o o l to use Wilkinson's drawing scheme. Once the Board began to approve the Wilkinson s y l l a b u s f o r use i n the s c h o o l s , they submitted i t to the Education Department f o r o f f i c i a l a p p r o v a l . In June 1899 the Department responded, with some r e s e r v a t i o n s as the s y l l a b u s went beyond what was g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d drawing to i n c l u d e hand and eye 28 t r a i n i n g . . W i l k i n s o n r e p l i e d t h a t i t was indeed h i s i n t e n t i o n to i n c l u d e hand and eye t r a i n i n g because the schools p e r c e i v e d t h a t i t was needed. This may w e l l have been a response to concerns of some schools about the e c l i p s e of drawing as a t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t . I t was a l s o an i n d i c a t i o n of a very d i f f e r e n t approach to c u r r i c u l u m . No longer simply imposed r i g i d l y from above, the s y l l a b u s could now be modified from below. This was a most important development. Resubmitting the s y l l a b u s for ap p r o v a l , W i l k i n s o n gave an undertaking that at l e a s t one and a h a l f hours a week, the minimum requirement, would be devoted to the drawing p o r t i o n of the course. The Department agreed and there was no f u r t h e r mention of the problem. As some tw e n t y - f i v e schools had a l r e a d y adopted the Wi l k i n s o n s y l l a b u s by June, t h i s was probably j u s t as w e l l . 104 In the days of the Department of Science and A r t , such d e v i a t i o n from an approved s y l l a b u s would not have happened. As the 1898-9 sc h o o l year drew to a c l o s e the Drawing I n s t r u c t o r s were e n t h u s i a s t i c about what had been achieved under the new r e g u l a t i o n s . They r e p o r t e d t h a t i t had been "a memorable year" 29 because there had been no examinations. The standard of drawing they found was high with both the " o l d " and the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s being used. The o l d s y l l a b u s continued to be the most wid e l y f o l l o w e d , but teachers were i n t e r p r e t i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n s for e i t h e r course more l i b e r a l l y and were i n t r o d u c i n g m o d i f i c a t i o n s of t h e i r own. No doubt, the replacement of examinations by i n s p e c t i o n allowed the Department of Education to take a much more encouraging view of teacher i n n o v a t i o n . The Drawing I n s t r u c t o r s a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t the Royal Parks i n London had agreed to supply " f l o w e r s , l e a v e s , e t c . " to schools on a r e g u l a r b a s i s f o r use i n drawing and botany c l a s s e s . When the o f f e r was passed on to the s c h o o l s 253 of them immediately 30 responded. T h i s was s u r e l y an i n d i c a t i o n of an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n drawing from nature, e x e r c i s e s which the Drawing I n s t r u c t o r s and the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s were emphasising. Looking a t developments dur i n g the l a s t decade of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i t can be seen how the i n t r o d u c t i o n of compulsory drawing i n the Revised Code of 1890 l e d to i n e x o r a b l e pressures on the e x i s t i n g system. These were lessened to some 105 e x t e n t by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s i n December 1895. However, t h e A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s i t s e l f c a u s e d p r e s s u r e s by r e - e m p h a s i s i n g t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s and i n e q u i t i e s of t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s y s t e m and by s h owing t h a t t h e r e c o u l d be a n o t h e r v i e w p o i n t a b o u t t h e d r a w i n g s y l l a b u s . The l o n g o v e r d u e r e m o v a l of d r a w i n g f r o m t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e D epartment of S c i e n c e and A r t a u t o m a t i c a l l y meant t h e d emise o f b o t h e x a m i n a t i o n s and "payment by r e s u l t s " s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e E d u c a t i o n Department d i d n o t work i n t h a t manner. The l a c k of e x a m i n a t i o n s a l s o opened t h e way t o i n n o v a t i o n and e n a b l e d t h e E d u c a t i o n Department t o be more f l e x i b l e . I n London, W i l k i n s o n ' s " d r a w i n g scheme" was t a k e n up by 31 an i n c r e a s i n g number o f s c h o o l s . I n December 1899 Langman, t h e o t h e r D r a w i n g I n s t r u c t o r , w rote a " S u g g e s t e d New D r a wing 32 S y l l a b u s " and, by t h e summer of 1900, i t t o o was a p p r o v e d . From now on London s c h o o l s were d i v i d e d between t h o s e who f o l l o w e d W i l k i n s o n ' s , t h o s e who f o l l o w e d Langman's and t h o s e who f o l l o w e d t h e o f f i c i a l s y l l a b u s . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e s c h o o l s w h i c h f o l l o w e d W i l k i n s o n ' s were i n t h e a r e a of t h e c i t y he s u p e r v i s e d , w h i l e t h o s e f o l l o w i n g t h e Langman s y l l a b u s were s u p e r v i s e d by him. W i t h t h e e m p h a s i s on n a t u r a l forms and memory d r a w i n g t h e s e two c u r r i c u l a had much more i n common w i t h t h e A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s t h a n w i t h t h e o l d e r one. , They were i n t u n e w i t h t h e 106 popular t h r u s t i n a r t education at t h i s time as was evidenced by the many books and w r i t i n g s . Wilkinson's was the f r e e r of the two s y l l a b i and i t was the one that W.P. Weston followed as a tea c h e r . In December 1901 the Board of Educat i o n issued a new 33 s y l l a b u s f o r drawing. In London i t was r e c e i v e d with something l e s s than enthusiasm d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t an unbiassed observer might th i n k i t r e s o l v e d many of the c r i t i c i s m s d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the o l d s y l l a b u s while c a r r y i n g forward the ideas of the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s . C e r t a i n l y i t made very c l e a r t h a t the o l d idea of drawing as a t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t was now o f f i c i a l l y dead. Langman was l e s s c r i t i c a l than W i l k i n s o n but he s a i d t h a t he 34 could not recommend the new s y l l a b u s o v e r a l l . He d i d p r a i s e the a t t e n t i o n given to mass forms as opposed to o u t l i n e and he l i k e d the examples of l e t t e r i n g and the p l a n t drawing from nature. W i l k i n s o n , on the other hand, c a l l e d i t : . . . i n d e f i n i t e , incomplete and f a u l t y . There i s not enough i n i t f o r a l l the standards of c l a s s e s f o r one year's work. . . . I can s c a r c e l y b e l i e v e that t h i s s y l l a b u s i s is s u e d with any idea of the s e r i o u s n e s s , improvement i n and importance of the s u b j e c t of Drawing as i t has been taken f o r many years i n sc h o o l s under the London Board and I might s a f e l y add i n sc h o o l s under the Birmingham, Leeds and other School Boards The drawing i n s t r u c t o r s decided t h a t they would not a c t i v e l y encourage schools to take up the new s y l l a b u s . They l e f t i t up 36 to the schools to request i t . Meanwhile they continued to 107 promote their own s y l l a b i and kept careful count of the schools using them. Between the time they issued their opinion in February 1902 and the end of the summer term thirteen schools applied to take up the Wilkinson syllabus and sixteen to use the Langman. By the end of 1903 there were 172 school departments following the Wilkinson syllabus and 151 following the Langman 37 syllabus. Even so, t h i s s t i l l l e f t 186 schools to follow the o f f i c i a l syllabus, but the Drawing Instructors kept no t a l l y of 38 them. In London the pattern of art education was set for the remainder of the decade. At about the time that the Drawing Instructors were c r i t i c i s i n g the 1901 syllabus they and the Superintendent of Method issued a memo on the co-ordination of drawing and 39 design. This summed up in b r i e f form the aims of the drawing programme in the London schools, whichever syllabus was followed. There was to be an emphasis on drawing, which included painting we must remember, and students should be led to an appreciation of mass as opposed to outline. It was p a r t i c u l a r l y recommended that students should be drawing the simple familiar objects, rather than formal geometric ones. At a l l le v e l s , memory drawing was to be stressed. While the London Drawing Instructors were somewhat c r i t i c a l of the 1901 syllabus, possibly for competitive reasons, i t should not be assumed that such a negative opinion was 103 common. Despite t h e i r comments i t was used i n London and throughout the country. Despite the freedom Boards were now allowed i n w r i t i n g t h e i r own c u r r i c u l a , few took advantage of the op p o r t u n i t y . This was made c l e a r i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to the s y l l a b u s , which was iss u e d as a separate c i r c u l a r and signed by G.W. Kekewich, the S e c r e t a r y of the Board of Ed u c a t i o n . He lamented: I t i s to be r e g r e t t e d t h a t so l i t t l e has been made of the l i b e r t y accorded to [school] managers f o r su b m i t t i n g , f o r a p p r o v a l , courses of i n s t r u c t i o n i n Drawing which are s u i t a b l e f o r t h e i r s c h o o l s . 4 0 The new s y l l a b u s grew out of what had gone be f o r e , and was intended to r e f l e c t the changing r e a l i t i e s of the beginning of the new cen t u r y . I t was accepted without any great c o n t r o v e r s y . The reason f o r t e a c h i n g drawing was made c l e a r i n the v e r y f i r s t paragraph: The Board regard i n s t r u c t i o n i n Drawing as an important means of c u l t i v a t i n g i n c h i l d r e n a f a c u l t y of observing, comparing, r e c o l l e c t i n g , and t h i n k i n g about a l l s o r t s of o b j e c t s with a view to re p r e s e n t them i n an i n t e l l i g e n t and c a r e f u l manner; and of de v e l o p i n g a sense of b e a u t y . 4 1 T h i s was a f a r c r y from the o l d s y l l a b u s which was now abandoned e n t i r e l y . I t s i n t r o d u c t i o n had s t a r t e d , "The Standards of examination i n Drawing f o r Scholars are as f o l l o w s : " and beauty or a p p r e c i a t i o n of beauty had never been mentioned. The 1901 s y l l a b u s went to some lengths to make i t c l e a r that i t was not p r o v i d i n g m a t e r i a l s to be copied by students. I t was made e q u a l l y c l e a r t h a t the s y l l a b u s s h o u l d n o t be s e e n as l i m i t i n g t e a c h e r s t o c o v e r i n g i t s c o n t e n t s . I t was b e t t e r t o t e a c h f r o m one's own e x p e r i e n c e and " T e a c h e r s s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o t e a c h what t h e y t h e m s e l v e s know and c a n do." But, wh a t e v e r was t a u g h t , t h e y s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e s t u d e n t s t o o b s e r v e 43 more a c c u r a t e l y , t o compare and t o r e c o l l e c t . F o r a young t e a c h e r , s u c h as P e r c y Weston, t h i s f r e e d o m must have seemed l i k e an e x c i t i n g c h a l l e n g e . C e r t a i n l y he would l a t e r r e f l e c t s i m i l a r v a l u e s i n h i s own p r a c t i c e . The new s y l l a b u s p u t emphasis on d r a w i n g w i t h a v a r i e t y o f i n s t r u m e n t s , w i t h b o t h f i r m and f l e x i b l e p o i n t s . Brushwork was recommended, b u t c o l o u r work was s u g g e s t e d w i t h o u t b e i n g s t r e s s e d . D r a wing f r o m n a t u r e and d r a w i n g f r o m " a c t u a l o b j e c t s " was r e p e a t e d l y m e n t i o n e d and c h i l d r e n were t o be e n c o u r a g e d t o c h o o s e what t h e y w i s h e d t o draw. W h i l e t h e r e was no d o u b t t h a t t h e a u t h o r s wanted a c c u r a t e d r a w i n g , t h e y went beyond t h i s , e n c o u r a g i n g c h i l d r e n t o d e v e l o p a b s t r a c t d e s i g n s and t o go beyond r e a l i t y t o " i n v e n t i v e n e s s . " Some s i m p l e p e r s p e c t i v e was a d v o c a t e d and some d i s p l a y l e t t e r i n g was e n c o u r a g e d . Memory d r a w i n g was s e e n as a p a r t o f e v e r y l e s s o n . T h e r e was no emphasis p u t on what was t o be t a u g h t t o e a c h S t a n d a r d . In f a c t , t h e s y l l a b u s was n o t d i v i d e d up i n t h i s way a t a l l . I t was l e f t t o t h e t e a c h e r s 44 t o " d e v i s e g r a d u a t e d and p r o g r e s s i v e methods of i n s t r u c t i o n . " The c o m p a r a t i v e f r e e d o m o f t h e 1901 s y l l a b u s r e f l e c t e d i t s a e s t h e t i c n a t u r e . A c t i v i t i e s were d e s i g n e d t o l e a d c h i l d r e n t o 110 an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f b e a u t y r a t h e r t h a n m e r e l y t o t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a m e c h a n i c a l s k i l l . I t may t o o have been a t a c i t a c knowledgement o f t h e b e t t e r t r a i n i n g and g r e a t e r c o n f i d e n c e o f t e a c h e r s . I n 1905 t h e B o a r d of E d u c a t i o n p u b l i s h e d a book d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t t e a c h e r s i n p l a n n i n g t h e i r c o u r s e s . T i t l e d S u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s i t i n c l u d e d a s h o r t c h a p t e r on Drawing i n w h i c h t h e s u g g e s t i o n s o f t h e 1901 s y l l a b u s 45 were c l a r i f i e d and expanded upon. The g r e a t e s t emphasis was p l a c e d on " t h e i m p o r t a n t a i m o f c u l t i v a t i n g t h e a e s t h e t i c s i d e of t h e s c h o l a r ' s n a t u r e . The s c h o l a r s h o u l d be t a u g h t t o p e r c e i v e 46 and a p p r e c i a t e b e a u t y o f f o r m and c o l o u r . " In so d o i n g t h e c h a p t e r c o r r e c t e d what may have been s e e n as a l a c k of emphasis i n t h e e a r l i e r work. T h e r e was a l s o some emphasis on e n c o u r a g i n g t h e c h i l d ' s " i n v e n t i v e n e s s " and as a p a r t o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n t h e t e a c h e r was e n c o u r a g e d t o c o r r e l a t e d r a w i n g w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t s . In one r e s p e c t t h e c u r r i c u l u m c o n t i n u e d t o l o o k back t o t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y methods i n i t s a d v o c a c y of t h e c l a s s i c f o r m s . The a u t h o r ' s e f f o r t s t o j u s t i f y t h i s a d v o c a c y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e was some c r i t i c i s m by o t h e r s of t h e n o t i o n t h a t " t h e p r o p e r s t u d y o f t h e c l a s s i c models i s e s s e n t i a l t o a r i g h t c o n c e p t i o n of t h e 47 p r i n c i p l e s o f b e a u t y . " However, i n t h e a p p r o a c h t o c o l o u r work and t h e en c o u r a g e m e n t o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n t h e s u g g e s t i o n s were more i n tune- w i t h u p - t o - d a t e i d e a s . C o l o u r t h e o r y was t o be d e a l t w i t h d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y i n an e l e m e n t a r y way and v a r i o u s 111 t i n t s , c o l o u r h a r m o n i e s and c o l o u r c o n t r a s t s were t o be e x p l o r e d . I m a g i n a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n was t o be s e e n as d e v e l o p i n g a l o n g w i t h s k i l l s and n o t i n a d v a n c e of them, b u t t h e t e a c h e r was r e m i n d e d t h a t t h e c h i l d ' s i m m a t u r i t y was t o be r e s p e c t e d and t h a t e x p e c t a t i o n s w h i c h were t o o h i g h would be c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e . T aken t o g e t h e r t h e 1301 s y l l a b u s and t h e 1905 S u g g e s t i o n s g i v e a p i c t u r e o f a c u r r i c u l u m w h i c h was based on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e o r d e r l y g r o w t h o f s k i l l s and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n . The w o r l d a r o u n d was t o be used f o r models w h i l e n a t u r a l forms s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as t h e b a s i s f o r a l l d e s i g n . C o l o u r use was t o be s t u d i e d . D r a wing f r o m memory had a c e n t r a l r o l e . T h e r e s h o u l d be a c o r r e l a t i o n between a r t and o t h e r s u b j e c t s . C o p y i n g was an e l e m e n t o f t h e c o u r s e , but o n l y as a l i m i t e d e x e r c i s e , and i t was s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e c h i l d s h o u l d move beyond t h i s t o more c r e a t i v e work. Was t h i s c u r r i c u l u m a c t u a l l y t a u g h t i n t h e s c h o o l s ? Up u n t i l 1398 t h e r e c o u l d have been l i t t l e d o u b t a b o u t whether the p r e s c r i b e d s y l l a b u s was t a u g h t . The r i g i d s y s t e m of e x a m i n a t i o n s e n s u r e d t h a t t h e c u r r i c u l u m was f o l l o w e d . However, once the s y s t e m o f i n s p e c t i o n was s u b s t i t u t e d i t was much e a s i e r f o r s c h o o l s t o d e v i a t e f r o m t h e c u r r i c u l u m i f t h e i n s p e c t o r c o n c u r r e d . A l s o , as we have s e e n , t h e r e was o f f i c i a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of o t h e r s y l l a b i by i n d i v i d u a l B o a r d s or s c h o o l s . So i t c a n n o t be assumed t h a t a l l s c h o o l s 112 followed the s y l l a b u s put out by the Board of E d u c a t i o n . Nevertheless the system of i n s p e c t i o n d i d put pressure on teachers to f o l l o w some formal s y l l a b u s and i n most cases t h i s would undoubtedly have been the o f f i c i a l one.. Even in London the Wilkinson and Langman s y l l a b i were more v a r i a t i o n s on the o f f i c i a l theme r a t h e r than s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l a . If one looks o u t s i d e the s y l l a b u s at books and a r t i c l e s on a r t e d u c a t i o n t h a t were intended f o r a r e a d i n g audience of teachers one f i n d s t h a t the p h i l o s o p h y they espoused and the p r a c t i c a l suggestions they put forward were i n tune with the o f f i c i a l s y l l a b u s . I f one reads the r e p o r t s on a r t education presented at conferences and s u c h l i k e one f i n d s t h a t the o p i n i o n s expressed are not fundamentally opposed to the o f f i c i a l view. A good i n d i c a t i o n of the popular view may be found i n The Teachers'  A i d . S u b t i t l e d "A P r a c t i c a l J o u r n a l f o r A s s i s t i n g Teachers i n the Work of t h e i r Schools and i n t h e i r P r i v a t e Study" t h i s popular magazine appeared weekly. I t was f u l l of h i n t s f o r t e a c h e r s , e x e r c i s e s t h at c o u l d be used i n v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s , s h o r t anecdotes, and even r e c i p e s f o r teachers too busy to cook p r o p e r l y . Every week there would be drawing lessons suggested. It i s e v i d e n t t h a t , as the s y l l a b u s changed, these lessons r e f l e c t e d the change i n approach. I w i l l take examples of a r t i c l e s from 1898-9 and from 1908-9 which i l l u s t r a t e how the popular view r e f l e c t e d the o f f i c i a l . 113 During the s p r i n g of 1398 the magazine c a r r i e d a s e r i e s 48 of four a r t i c l e s on brushwork. The author introduced v a r i o u s brush s t r o k e s and then i l l u s t r a t e d how they could be combined i n v a r i o u s ways. I t was s t r e s s e d t h a t the examples given were no more than that and the c l a s s should go beyond them. A l l the examples were based on n a t u r a l forms with the e x c e p t i o n of some geometric borders given i n the f i r s t a r t i c l e . The a r t i c l e s were f i r m l y grounded i n the method suggested by the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s and expanded on the brushwork given t h e r e i n without d e p a r t i n g from i t s approach. The f o l l o w i n g year a s e r i e s began t i t l e d "Designs i n 49 Geometric F i g u r e s " which ran i r r e g u l a r l y throughout the year. The unnamed author's i n t e n t was to take advantage of the "numerous e d u c a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n s r e c e n t l y i n t r o d u c e d " and i n p a r t i c u l a r those concerned with d e s i g n . He f e l t t h a t "no s u b j e c t g i v e s equal scope to the d a r i n g o r i g i n a l i t y and keen powers of o b s e r v a t i o n so inherent i n most c h i l d minds." As with the other s e r i e s the work suggested was an outgrowth of the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s . T h i s b l e n d i n g of s k i l l development with the growth of c r e a t i v i t y , with the e x p r e s s i o n of c r e a t i v i t y r e l y i n g on some very exact and formal drawing, represented an approach t h a t began with the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s and which would be popular r i g h t through the f i r s t decade of the t w e n t i e t h century. Perhaps i n d i c a t i v e of the great growth in the viewpoint 114 represented by the Al ternat ive Syllabus was an a r t i c l e in August 1899 running counter to that viewpoint and e n t i t l e d " A 50 Warning." While the author praised the "great change that has taken place in the teaching of drawing," he feared that technica l drawing would be forgotten. He drew at tent ion to a paper given at the NUT annual conference by George Ricks of the London School Board, which gave the.same warning. They did not wish to return to the old ways, but, at the same time, they f e l t the s k i l l of t echn ica l drawing could be useful to a c h i l d in la ter l i f e . However, t echnica l drawing disappeared from the syl labus two years l a t e r . The majority would seem to have been in favour of the change. Moving on to 1908 we again f ind an emphasis in The Teachers' Aid on brushwork and on design, but at a more sophis t icated l e v e l than was seen ten years e a r l i e r . A conventional ized i r i s , for example, was used as the basis for a 51 repeating t i l e des ign. It was used in a repeating border also and f i n a l l y in a formalised plaque. There was no accompanying text at a l l , so the assumption must have been that teachers would understand the impl icat ions and complexities of the patterning without any verbal ass i s tance . Such v i s u a l aids were not uncommon by 1908 and were not r e s t r i c t e d to formalised designs. 52 A d i f f erent approach to the drawing lesson was to be 115 f o u n d i n t h e m a g a z i n e o f e a r l y 1909 when a s e r i e s o f a r t i c l e s e n t i t l e d " N o t e s on a L e s s o n " a p p e a r e d w h i c h s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e c -> d r a w i n g l e s s o n s h o u l d be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h n a t u r e s t u d y . The a u t h o r ' s i n t e n t i o n was t h a t c h i l d r e n w o u l d o b s e r v e and s t u d y t h e p l a n t , t h e n use i t f o r a number o f b r u s h w o r k e x e r c i s e s i n w h i c h t h e p l a n t , o r p a r t s o f i t , w o u l d be d r a w n b o t h n a t u r a l l y and i n t h e s t y l i s e d f o r m p o p u l a r a t t h e t i m e . The a u t h o r d i d n o t l e a v e t h i n g s t h e r e , h o w e v e r , a s he s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s e l e s s o n s c o u l d be f o l l o w e d up by o r a l a nd w r i t t e n c o m p o s i t i o n s . T h i s was a much more s o p h i s t i c a t e d a p p r o a c h t o t e a c h i n g and t h e a r t i c l e s were n o t a b l e i n t h a t a l l t h r e e s u b j e c t s h e l d t h e i r own w i t h o u t b e c o m i n g o v e r s h a d o w e d by t h e o t h e r s . F rom t h e v i e w p o i n t o f t h e a r t l e s s o n i t was i n t h e p a t t e r n o f c a r e f u l and a c c u r a t e o b s e r v a t i o n f o l l o w e d by e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and c r e a t i v e d e s i g n a s recommended by t h e o f f i c i a l s y l l a b u s . W h i l e a r t i c l e s s u c h as t h e s e c a n n o t be t a k e n a s a p o d i c t i c p r o o f s t h a t t e a c h e r s were f o l l o w i n g t h e o f f i c i a l s y l l a b u s , t h e y do p r o v i d e a c o n v i n c i n g i n d i c a t i o n . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t The T e a c h e r s ' A i d was a p o p u l a r m a g a z i n e and a s s u c h w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o g i v e i t s r e a d e r s what t h e y w i s h e d t o r e a d r a t h e r t h a n m a k i n g some e s o t e r i c a r g u m e n t . I t i s one t h i n g t o a r g u e t h a t t h e r e was p r e s s u r e on t e a c h e r s t o f o l l o w t h e o f f i c i a l l y a p p r o v e d s y l l a b u s . What t h e s e a r t i c l e s show i s t h a t t e a c h e r s w a n t e d t o . 116 I a l l u d e d e a r l i e r t o an a r t i c l e whose a u t h o r w o r r i e d t h a t t e c h n i c a l d r a w i n g was i n d a n g e r of b e i n g o v e r l o o k e d and I p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i n f a c t t e c h n i c a l d r a w i n g d i s a p p e a r e d f r o m th e s y l l a b u s . T h e r e a r e two o b s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t t e c h n i c a l d r a w i n g t h a t s h o u l d be made h e r e . F i r s t , i t was t h i s p e r i o d t h a t saw g r e a t g r o w t h i n s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . T h i s meant t h a t t h e r e was much l e s s p r e s s u r e on e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n t o p r o v i d e a l l t h e s k i l l s t h a t a c h i l d m i g h t need i n o r d e r t o e n t e r t h e a d u l t w o r l d . Thus t h e r e were o t h e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a t t a i n t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s . . S e c o n d , t h e r e was a movement w i t h i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t o p r o v i d e manual t r a i n i n g as a s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t and t e c h n i c a l d r a w i n g c o u l d s u r v i v e under t h i s u m b r e l l a . I t was n o t t h a t t h o s e a r g u i n g f o r t e c h n i c a l d r a w i n g l o s t t h e argument; t h e p r o b l e m was s o l v e d i n a d i f f e r e n t way and t h i s made i t much e a s i e r f o r d r a w i n g t o d e v e l o p as an a e s t h e t i c s u b j e c t . W h i l e a p o p u l a r magazine f o r t e a c h e r s p r o v i d e s an immediate and v a l i d i m p r e s s i o n o f c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t s i n e d u c a t i o n , i t i s a l i t t l e h a r d e r t o gauge t h e p o p u l a r i t y or i n f l u e n c e o f i d e a s f r o m b o o k s . C i r c u l a t i o n f i g u r e s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e and t h e r e i s s u c h a wide r a n g e of books a v a i l a b l e t h a t a l m o s t any v i e w p o i n t c o u l d be a r g u e d . However, t h e r e a r e some i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t c a n be g l e a n e d . As s o o n as t h e A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s was p u b l i s h e d t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p u b l i s h e r s swung i n t o a c t i o n . W i t h i n a week, f o r example, George P h i l i p and Son had an a d v e r t i s e m e n t i n The S c h o o l m a s t e r headed "BRUSHWORK i n E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s . As 117 r e c o m m e n d e d i n t h e A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s . . . j u s t i s s u e d " i n w h i c h t w o b o o k s w e r e a n n o u n c e d . T h e r e was a " R e v i s e d a n d E n l a r g e d " e d i t i o n o f W a t e r - c o l o u r 3 r u s h w o r k b y W.H. W i l s o n a n d W i l l i a m N e l s o n , w h i l e " P r e p a r i n g f o r I m m e d i a t e P u b l i c a t i o n " was B r u s h w o r k 54 b y E . C . Y e a t s . S i n c e b r u s h w o r k a n d t h e u s e o f c o l o u r w e r e t w o a r e a s new t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m , t h e s e b o o k s a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n t i m e l y . No d o u b t , p u b l i s h e r s w e r e p r e p a r e d t o c a s h i n o n t h e new a p p r o a c h . J u s t l o o k i n g a t t i t l e s o f o t h e r b o o k s p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e n e x t t e n y e a r s o n e f i n d s A B o o k o f S t u d i e s i n P l a n t F o r m , T h e  A n a t o m y o f P a t t e r n , N a t u r e i n O r n a m e n t , L e s s o n s o n D e c o r a t i v e  D e s i q n , D e c o r a t i v e B r u s h - w o r k a n d E l e m e n t a r y D e s i g n , L i n e a n d  F o r m a n d s o o n . B o o k s w h i c h r e f e r r e d t o b r u s h w o r k o r d e s i g n o r n a t u r a l f o r m s i n t h e i r t i t l e s s e e m e d t o be f a v o u r e d b y p u b l i s h e r s . T h i s c o n f i r m s t h e a p p r o a c h o f T h e T e a c h e r s ' A i d . We f i n d a s i m i l a r r a n g e o f i n t e r e s t s a t a r t e d u c a t i o n c o n f e r e n c e s . I n p a r t i c u l a r t h e r e was t h e T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l D r a w i n g C o n f e r e n c e w h i c h was h e l d i n L o n d o n i n A u g u s t , 1 9 0 8 . T h e f i r s t s u c h c o n f e r e n c e h a d b e e n h e l d i n P a r i s i n 1 9 0 0 a n d t h e s e c o n d i n B e r n e f o u r y e a r s l a t e r . W h i l e t h e s e c o n f e r e n c e s b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r a r t e d u c a t o r s f r o m a c r o s s E u r o p e , t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e 1 9 0 8 c o n f e r e n c e l e d t o B r i t i s h d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e d i s p l a y s . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e c o n f e r e n c e t h e r e was a n e x h i b i t i o n o f a r t w o r k f r o m s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y w h i c h g a v e a c o m p r e h e n s i v e i m p r e s s i o n o f how a r t e d u c a t i o n h a d b e e n d e v e l o p i n g i n B r i t a i n . I n a l e a d i n g a r t i c l e T h e S c h o o l m a s t e r 55 d i s c u s s e d t h i s e x h i b i t i o n . The w r i t e r ' s d e c l a r e d purpose i n h i review was "to throw some l i g h t on the p o s i t i o n of Drawing i n th B r i t i s h elementary s c h o o l s of to-day." W r i t t e n by an o u t s i d e r i p r o v i d e s a good countercheck of what those w i t h i n the school system were c l a i m i n g . By and l a r g e , the a r t i c l e confirmed that "there i s ample evidence of progress, remarkable p r o g r e s s . " The o l d methods had almost disappeared to be r e p l a c e d by a view of drawing as a means of e x p r e s s i o n and c r e a t i v i t y . The o l d method of copying had been r e p l a c e d by: t r a i n i n g f a c u l t y i n s t e a d . P u r e l y i m i t a t i v e work i s used but s p a r i n g l y . N a t u r a l o b j e c t s are s t u d i e d and the hand i s t r a i n e d to reproduce what the eye observes, with a l l the a d v e n t i t i o u s a i d s of c o l o u r . . . . I t i s q u i t e c l e a r t h at the governing idea of the Drawing course i s now the g a i n i n g of f r e e command of whatever medium i s employed — p e n c i l , brush, or c h a l k , . . . Numberless e x h i b i t s from wide l y - s e p a r a t e d p a r t s of England show, .attempts to reproduce the appearance of n a t u r a l o b j e c t s . . . .Teachers everywhere are broad awake to the immense e d u c a t i o n a l value of elementary d e s i g n as a p a r t of the Drawing course, and i n s a y i n g t h i s we speak of elementary s c h o o l s pure and simple. . . . the Drawing e x h i b i t s . . .point to a r e v o l u t i o n i n ideas, and a b e n e f i c e n t r e v o l u t i o n . 5 5 In c i t y and country schools throughout the n a t i o n i t would seem that n a t u r a l forms, c o l o u r , and design had taken over. There were some who had not been "converted" but they were in the minor i t y . During the s p r i n g and e a r l y summer of 1903 the London County C o u n c i l a l s o held a conference on drawing. This conference took a somewhat d i f f e r e n t form from the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e a s i t i n v o l v e d t h e v i s i t i n g o f a r t c l a s s e s i n L o n d o n s c h o o l s a n d t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t s c h e m e s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l s . R a t h e r t h a n a c o n f e r e n c e i n t h e a c c e p t e d s e n s e , i t was a n o v e r v i e w o f how d r a w i n g was t a u g h t i n t h e L o n d o n s c h o o l s . A n i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s a r t e d u c a t i o n i n 1 9 0 8 was t h a t n o s u g g e s t e d s y l l a b u s was g i v e n i n t h e c o n f e r e n c e r e p o r t l e s t i t " m i g h t t e n d t o c r i p p l e t h e t e a c h e r , a n d 57 t o p r o d u c e a v e r y u n d e s i r a b l e u n i f o r m i t y o f w o r k . " A l t h o u g h t h e r e p o r t w a s d e l i b e r a t e l y n o n - d i r e c t i v e , t h e s i x I n f a n t S c h o o l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a n d E b e n e z e r C o o k e w e r e u n a b l e t o a g r e e w i t h t h e o t h e r f o r t y - e i g h t m e m b e r s o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e , s o b o t h a m a j o r i t y a n d a m i n o r i t y r e p o r t w e r e i s s u e d . T h e d i s a g r e e m e n t a r o s e b e c a u s e t h e m i n o r i t y f e l t t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y r e p o r t " n e g l e c t e d o r 58 i g n o r e d c e r t a i n i m p o r t a n t e d u c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . " P r i n c i p a l l y t h e y a r g u e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y i g n o r e d t h e w a y t h e c h i l d d e v e l o p s h i s p e r c e p t i o n s , t h e v i e w o f d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s e d f o r some y e a r s b y E b e n e z e r C o o k e , h i m s e l f o n e o f t h e m i n o r i t y . H o w e v e r , t h e r e d o e s n o t s e e m t o h a v e b e e n b r o a d d i s a g r e e m e n t a b o u t w h a t was i n f a c t b e i n g d o n e i n t h e L o n d o n s c h o o l s . P e r h a p s m o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e f o u n d a n d p r a i s e d a w i d e v a r i e t y o f p r a c t i c e s a n d t h o u g h t a m o n g t e a c h e r s . D e s p i t e t h i s d i v e r g e n c y , o r p e r h a p s b e c a u s e o f i t , t h e y a l s o f o u n d t h a t "many o b j e c t i o n a b l e f e a t u r e s o f t h e d r a w i n g l e s s o n h a v e a l m o s t d i s a p p e a r e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s a m o n g w h i c h . 59 . t h e m u c h a b u s e d o l d d r a w i n g c o p y . " 120 A g r e e i n g t h a t " t h e t e a c h i n g of d r a w i n g s h o u l d f o l l o w t h e c o u r s e o f t h e c h i l d ' s n a t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t , " a l l t h e c o n f e r e n c e members b e l i e v e d t h a t d r a w i n g must be c o n s i d e r e d as a p a r t of g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n as a s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g . The r e p o r t s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e were t h r e e p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e s i n the t e a c h i n g o f d r a w i n g : (1) t o t r a i n t h e eye and hand o f t h e p u p i l ; (2) t o d e v e l o p a f a c u l t y o f c l e a r and d e f i n i t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; and (3) t o c u l t i v a t e t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f b e a u t y of f o r m , l i n e , c o l o u r and p r o p o r t i o n . 6 0 However, t h e r e p o r t went beyond t h e s e t h r e e aims t o d i s c u s s and a d v o c a t e i m a g i n a t i v e d r a w i n g s w h i c h , i t f e l t , " s h o u l d be j u d g e d n o t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s t r i c t a c c u r a c y , b u t r a t h e r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t i s shown of o r i g i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n and 61 t h o u g h t . " Remembering t h a t " d r a w i n g i s t o t h e c h i l d a n a t u r a l means o f e x p r e s s i n g i t s i d e a s , " s u c h i m a g i n a t i v e d r a w i n g s h o u l d 62 be a c c e p t e d " w i t h o u t d i s c o u r a g e m e n t " . I t was c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be a b a l a n c e between t h e f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l d r a w i n g o f c h i l d r e n . T h i s a p p r o a c h i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s a r t e d u c a t i o n compared t o t h a t w h i c h was c u r r e n t f i f t e e n or so y e a r s e a r l i e r . We have t r a c e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s t h a t b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e change and we have s e e n how t h e n o t i o n s e x p r e s s e d i n t h i s r e p o r t were not n e c e s s a r i l y new t o London t e a c h e r s . However, t h e r e p o r t b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r i d e a s t h a t had been e x p r e s s e d w i t h i n t h e s y s t e m , o r g a n i s e d them and gave them t h e f o r c e of f o r m a l i t y . I t p r o v i d e d 121 a s y n t h e s i s of a r t e d u c a t i o n i n London and i t e n a b l e s us t o d a y t o g a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how t h e s u b j e c t was p e r c e i v e d . The f o r m a l t r a i n i n g e n v i s a g e d by t h e r e p o r t was a b l e n d i n g o f o l d e r and newer i d e a s . " C o p y i n g has been a b u s e d , " t h e c o n f e r e n c e members s a i d , " [ b u t ] i f i n t e l l i g e n t l y done has 63 g r e a t v a l u e . " A t t h e same t i m e t h e y a p p r o v e d o f d r a w i n g f r o m 64 n a t u r e , f o u n d t h a t " c o l o u r i s n a t u r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f o r m , " a d v o c a t e d a s t u d y of c o l o u r t h e o r y and were keen t o see some 65 i n t e g r a t i o n o f d r a w i n g w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t s . G e o m e t r i c a l d r a w i n g t h e y l i k e d , n o t o n l y f o r t h e o l d e r i d e a o f i t s b e i n g u s e f u l f o r a t r a d e s m a n , b ut a l s o f o r t h e newer one t h a t i t was a u s e f u l a i d i n 66 d e s i g n . Memory d r a w i n g c o n t i n u e d t o be t h o u g h t of v e r y 67 f a v o u r a b l y . The r e p o r t went beyond d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s y l l a b u s t o make a s t r o n g p l e a f o r p r o v i d i n g a s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h would g i v e c h i l d r e n an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f b e a u t y and c o l o u r . S c h o o l s s h o u l d have c o l l e c t i o n s o f b e a u t i f u l o b j e c t s , t h e r e s h o u l d be good c o p i e s o f a p p r o p r i a t e p i c t u r e s on t h e w a l l s and t h o s e w a l l s s h o u l d be p a i n t e d so as t o enhance t h e a r t work. The c o n g r u e n c y between t h e 1901 S y l l a b u s , t h e 1905 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r T e a c h e r s , t h e j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s , t h e books newly p u b l i s h e d or r e p u b l i s h e d , and t h e o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d a t c o n f e r e n c e s , • s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o l l o w e d i n the s c h o o l s was i n f a c t c l o s e t o t h a t l a i d down by t h e B o a r d of 122 E d u c a t i o n . I t was a plan f o r a r t education t h a t was f a r d i v o r c e d from t h a t p e r t a i n i n g before the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s was p u b l i s h e d and one which had progressed some way beyond the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s i t s e l f , although i t remained true to the s p i r i t of the A l t e r n a t i v e . The Schoolmaster had been r i g h t i n 1895 when i t had d e s c r i b e d the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s as something of a r e v o l u t i o n . However, i t was a r e v o l u t i o n w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g system. I t d i d not t o t a l l y r e j e c t what had gone be f o r e , but i t adapted and changed the o l d p r a c t i c e s and, through a 68 s e r i e s of compromises, achieved a new v i s i o n of a r t e d u c a t i o n . Those s i t t i n g down at the 1908 London County C o u n c i l Conference c o u l d not have foreseen that t h i s r e v o l u t i o n would soon be overtaken by another which would be f a r more fundamental. I t would r e j e c t t o t a l l y the idea t h a t s k i l l s should precede c r e a t i v e endeavour and would focus on the imaginative e x p r e s s i o n of the c h i l d . T h i s new r e v o l u t i o n would be so f a r - r e a c h i n g t h a t i t would l a r g e l y overshadow t h a t which followed the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s . Consequently, the d i v i s i o n between the o l d and the new ways would be placed much l a t e r c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y by some w r i t e r s . However, i t i s important to r e c o g n i z e t h a t there were two r e v o l u t i o n s : the f i r s t brought about change w i t h i n the system and the second r e j e c t e d the system i t s e l f . Our main concern i s with the f i r s t r e v o l u t i o n , f o r i t was the r e s u l t s of that one which would have t h e i r e f f e c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia at a l a t e r date. But i t should not be f o r g o t t e n 123 for i t s own sake either. It led to a fundamentally d i f f e r e n t approach to art education without abandoning what were perceived as the more successful elements of the old. By advocating a d i v e r s i t y of thought and practice, i t may well have provided the breeding ground for the ideas that would later destroy i t . 124 NOTES 1. Seth Coward, "Brushwork i n an Elementary S c h o o l , " S p e c i a l  Reports, v o l . 1, 1897, p. 101. 2. SCSS, December 2, 1895, pp.72-3. 3 . I b i d . . 4. Minutes of the School Board f o r London, vol.XLV, p. 1061, October 15, 1896. 5. For i n f o r m a t i o n on Bermondsey and Inner London g e n e r a l l y at t h i s time see Jones, Outcast London, p a r t i c u l a r l y pp. 27, 40, 86, 166, 169. 6. Seth Coward, "Brushwork i n an Elementary S c h o o l , " S p e c i a l  Reports, v o l . 1, 1897, p. 101. 7. I b i d . , p. 102. 3. I b i d . p. 104. 9. I b i d . , p. 103. 10. I b i d . , p. 114. 11. SCSS, November 30, 1896, pp. 216-7. 12. I b i d . . See a l s o The Board Teacher, January 1, 1397, p. 20. 13. SCSS, A p r i l 20, 1896, p.200. 14. Rev. E. Hammonds quoted i n Report on the Pupi1-Teacher  System, "Minutes of Evidence," p. 111. 15. The Schoolmaster, XLIX:1262, March 7, 1896, p. 413. 16. I b i d . , p. 415. 17. I b i d . 13. I b i d . , p. 416. 125 19. SCSS, F e b r u a r y 7, 1898, p. 156. 20. F o r example, May 9, 1898 - M i c h a e l F a r a d a y S c h o o l ; May 23, 1398 - Conway Rd. and L o l l a r d S c h o o l ; June 27, 1893 - N e t l e y S t . S c h o o l ; J u l y 11, 1893 - L a v e n d e r H i l l S c h o o l . 21. SCSS, June 27, 1898, p. 236. 22. I b i d . 23. SCSS, November 2, 1898, p. 210; SCSS, May 28, 1900, 24. SCSS , June 27, 1898, p. 236. 25. cy r* <"* b l o o , November 2, 1898, pp. 210- 13. 26 . SCSS, March 3, 1899, p.252. 27. SCSS, March 20, 1399, p. 360. 28 . SCSS, June 26, 1899, p. 271. 29. " I n s t r u c t o r s ' A n n u a l R e p o r t , " pp. s u p p l e m e n t t o SCSS, J u l y 10, 1899. 4-5, i s s u e d as a 30 . SCSS, J u l y 10, 1899, p. 381. 31. The W i l k i n s o n s y l l a b u s , as a p a r t i c u l a r document, was n o t f o u n d . However, a good i d e a o f i t may be f o u n d i n r e f e r e n c e s t o i t and t o Mr. W i l k i n s o n ' s i d e a s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n . See SCSS, June 27, 1898, p. 236; SCSS, March 3, 1899, p. 252; SCSS, June 26, 1899, p. 271. 32. SCSS, December 11, 1899, p. 37; SCSS, A u g u s t 14, 1900, p. 50: "A New S y l l a b u s i n D r a w i n g , " The S c h o o l m a s t e r L V I I : 1 5 1 4 , (September 8, 1 9 0 0 ) , p. 400. 33. The Department o f E d u c a t i o n had become t h e B o a r d of E d u c a t i o n i n 1899 by v i r t u e o f t h e B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n A c t : 1901 S y l l a b u s . 34. SCSS, F e b r u a r y 3, 1902, p. 336. 35. SCSS, F e b r u a r y 3, 1902, p. 334. 36. I b i d . 37. SCSS, May 25, 1903, p. 23. 38. In March 1903 t h e r e were 509 B o a r d S c h o o l s i n London w i t h an e n r o l m e n t of 549,677. P h i l p o t t , London a t S c h o o l , p. 49. 126 39. SCSS, March 17, 1902, p. 113. 40. B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , C i r c u l a r 514, " P r i m a r y D r a w i n g , " December 1901, p. 1. 41. I b i d . . 42. 1895 S y l l a b u s . 43. B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , C i r c u l a r 514, p. 2. 44. I b i d . , p. 1. 45. 1905 S u g g e s t i o n s , pp. 65-9. 46. I b i d . , p. 66. 47. I b i d . , p. 67. 48- J e a n i e J . Cameron, " B r u s h D r awing - P r a c t i c a l H i n t s f o r T e a c h e r s , " The T e a c h e r s ' A i d , v o l . XXV, F e b r u a r y 19, 1898 (pp. 4 8 4 - 5 ) , F e b r u a r y 26, 1398 (p. 5 0 3 ) , March 5, 1898 (p. 531), March 12, 1893 ( p . 5 5 5 ) . 49. The T e a c h e r s ' A i d , v o l . X X V I I I , A p r i l 29, 1899 (pp. 1 0 2 - 3 ) , June 10, 1899 (pp. 2 5 6 - 7 ) , September 2, 1899 ( p . 5 3 7 ) . 50. R.H. R i l e y , "A W a r n i n g , " The T e a c h e r s ' A i d , 1 X X V I I I , A u g u s t 26, 1899 (p. 5 1 5 ) . 51. "Brushwork Based on t h e I r i s , " The T e a c h e r s ' A i d , v o l . XLVI, June 20, 1908 (p. 2 8 5 ) . 52. F o r example, s e e a l s o " F o r t h e D r a w i n g L e s s o n - A S t u d y i n Wash," The T e a c h e r s ' A i d , v o l . X L V I I , November 4, 1903 (p. 1 6 7 ) . 53. John W. G o r t o n , "Notes on a L e s s o n , " The T e a c h e r s ' A i d , v o l . X L V I I , F e b r u a r y 3, 1909 (pp. 472-3), March 6, 1909 (pp. 5 7 0 - 1 ) . 54. The S c h o o l m a s t e r , v o l . X L V I I I , December 7, 1895, p. 9S0. 55. The S c h o o l m a s t e r . L X I V ( J u l y 18, 1908), p. 125. 56 . I b i d . , p. 126. 57. R e p o r t o f a C o n f e r e n c e on t h e T e a c h i n g of D r awing i n  E l e m e n t a r y and S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , (London: London C o u n t y C o u n c i l , n . d . ) , p.9. 53. I b i d . , p. 3. 127 59 . I b i d ., p. 6. 60. I b i d . , p. 11. 61. I b i d . 62 . I b i d . / p.12. 63 . I b i d . / p.13. 64 . I b i d . / p. 14. 65. I b i d . / pp. 14-16 66 . I b i d . p. 19 . 67. I b i d . pp.16-19. 68. Some p a r a l l e l s can be drawn with the "stubborn c o n t i n u i t y " i n Canadian c u r r i c u l u m of which George Tomkins speaks. See George Tomkins, " S t a b i l i t y and Change i n the Canadian C u r r i c u l u m , " i n J . Donald Wilson(ed.) Canadian Education i n the 1980s(Calgary: D e t s e l i g E n t e r p r i s e s , 1981), p. 154. 69. See, f o r example, Macdonald, The H i s t o r y and Ph i l o s o p h y of  A r t E d u c a t i o n , throughout which Macdonald b a r e l y mentions the A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s . 123 CHAPTER FIVE "Thoroughly capable teachers - well-equipped, e a r n e s t , f a i r - m i n d e d C h r i s t i a n men": e a r l y years as a t e a c h e r . 1 While change was o c c u r r i n g i n the a r t education c u r r i c u l u m and indeed i n the whole approach to the t e a c h i n g of the s u b j e c t , Percy Weston was pursuing h i s own c a r e e r . Having been accepted as a student by Borough Road T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e , he 2 s t a r t e d there i n September 1838. So popular was t h i s c o l l e g e t h a t he had a c t u a l l y a p p l i e d f o r e n t r y more than a year p r e v i o u s l y , w r i t i n g i n h i s best c o p p e r p l a t e hand on May 10, 1897: I beg leave to ask p e r m i s s i o n to s i t at the ensuing S c h o l a r s h i p Examination at your c o l l e g e with a view to e n t e r i n g f o r two years t r a i n i n g . 3 The response to t h i s l e t t e r had been a package c o n t a i n i n g an a p p l i c a t i o n form to be completed by Percy Weston, and t e s t i m o n i a l forms f o r h i s s c h o o l , h i s doctor and h i s m i n i s t e r . Percy completed the a p p l i c a t i o n form as soon as he r e c e i v e d i t while the other forms were completed d u r i n g the next s i x weeks. The t h r u s t of the questions was to ensure that the candidate was a h e a l t h y C h r i s t i a n of good c h a r a c t e r . 129 C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e f i r s t two q u e s t i o n s of t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r m r e q u i r e d P e r c y t o a g r e e t h a t he would engage i n t e a c h i n g as "Chr i s t i a n s e r v i c e " and t h a t he would " a c q u a i n t " c h i l d r e n w i t h the S c r i p t u r e s " w i t h o u t u s i n g y o u r i n f l u e n c e i n f a v o u r of one 4 s e c t o f C h r i s t i a n s or a n o t h e r . " T h i s s t r o n g n o n - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l , y e t C h r i s t i a n , emphasis was due t o t h e Borough Road T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e ' s r o l e as a t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e o f t h e B r i t i s h and F o r e i g n S c h o o l S o c i e t y . The C o l l e g e had d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e m o n i t o r i a l s c h o o l f o r t h e poor o r i g i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d by J o s e p h L a n c a s t e r i n 1793 on the Borough Road i n London, hence i t s name. By t h e time t h a t P e r c y Weston a p p l i e d t o e n t e r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , i t had moved t o th e p l e a s a n t o u t e r London s u b u r b of I s l e w o r t h . So w e l l - k n o w n and r e s p e c t e d was t h e c o l l e g e , however, t h a t i t had r e t a i n e d t h e o l d 5 name a f t e r t h e move i n 1890. As may be e x p e c t e d w i t h any i n s t i t u t i o n , n e a r l y a c e n t u r y o l d , t h e r e had been some p e r i o d s when i t f a r e d b e t t e r t h a n a t o t h e r s . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e g r e a t e x p a n s i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a f t e r t h e 1870 E d u c a t i o n A c t had e n a b l e d t h e s c h o o l t o grow and p r o s p e r . By t h e time t h a t P e r c y Weston a p p l i e d , Borough Road T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e was a b l e t o t u r n away any a p p l i c a n t s who d i d n o t o b t a i n a f i r s t c l a s s s t a n d i n g i n t h e Queen's S c h o l a r s h i p exam and c o u l d c h o o s e f r o m among t h o s e who d i d . So as i n h i s p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g , b e c a u s e P e r c y Weston was b o r n t o w a r d s t h e end of t h e 130 n i n e t e e n t h century, he had o p p o r t u n i t i e s that would not have been a v a i l a b l e to someone of h i s c l a s s at an e a r l i e r time. The f a c i l i t i e s at Is l e w o r t h were e x c e l l e n t . The c e n t r a l b u i l d i n g was a handsome neo-gothic p i l e surrounded by e i g h t acres of l a n d . The b u i l d i n g was approached along a 6 h a l f - m i l e chestnut d r i v e through the p l a y i n g f i e l d s . I t looked l i k e an i n s t i t u t e of higher l e a r n i n g and i t t r i e d to l i v e up to i t s appearance. When the new b u i l d i n g s were o f f i c i a l l y opened on June 13, 1890, the Vice-Chairman of the London School Board s a i d t h a t he "would not r e s t content t i l l the students were admitted so w e l l grounded as to be prepared to enter upon something i n the 7 nature of a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . " By the time Weston entered the C o l l e g e i n September 1898, students were a c t i v e l y encouraged to take e x t e r n a l degrees of London U n i v e r s i t y . Each year a few, though not Weston, d i d . Probably the l e a s t a t t r a c t i v e aspect of the f a c i l i t i e s 8 of t h i s r e s i d e n t i a l c o l l e g e was the qu a r t e r s f o r the students. N e v e r t h e l e s s , each young man had h i s own s l e e p i n g c u b i c l e complete with a bed, c h a i r and a chest of drawers, while at the end of each hallway were communal showers. Although there were no l i g h t s i n the c u b i c l e s i t was common p r a c t i c e f o r students to 9 s t i c k a candle i n t o a bar of y e l l o w soap. On the other hand f a c i l i t i e s were being r e g u l a r l y improved at the c o l l e g e and the s t a r t of Weston's two years of study c o i n c i d e d with the opening 131 of improved s c i e n c e l a b o r a t o r i e s and of a " p r a c t i c e s c h o o l " nearby. Weston was one of seventy-one new e n t r a n t s i n t o the C o l l e g e , two of whom came from Egypt. I t was usual at Borough Road C o l l e g e f o r one or two students each year to come from e i t h e r Egypt or Siam (now Thailand) and f o r one or two of the E n g l i s h graduates to go and work i n those c o u n t r i e s a f t e r completion of t h e i r c o urses. Percy Weston c e r t a i n l y c o n s i d e r e d so doing i n l a t e r y e a r s . When Percy s t a r t e d at Borough Road he chose Chemistry, Mathematics and French from among the l i s t of " s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s " which he would l i k e to study. The l i s t d i d not i n c l u d e drawing or a r t . His t u t o r , however, l a t e r noted i n 11 the margin "French weak e s p e c i a l l y pronouns." At the end of h i s f i r s t year Percy Weston gained f i r s t c l a s s marks, coming twenty-eighth out of s i x t y - f i v e students i n the f i r s t p a r t of h i s exams and e i g h t h out of s i x t e e n i n the second p a r t . At the end of h i s second year, however, he gained only second c l a s s s t a n d i n g , coming f o r t y - e i g h t h out of s i x t y - o n e i n the f i r s t p art and twenty-fourth out of t h i r t y i n the 12 second. I t i s p o s s i b l e that the drop i n s t a n d i n g i n h i s s e n i o r year may have been due to h i s involvement i n t h e a t r i c a l s as he and another student designed and b u i l t the se t s f o r The School 13 fo r Scandal,the C o l l e g e ' s annual p l a y . Or i t may have been due to an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n h i s drawing c l a s s e s . In the 132 1399-1900 year Mr. J . Vaughan, the A s s i s t a n t Drawing I n s t r u c t o r with the School Board f o r London, became the v i s i t i n g drawing master f o r that year. Mr. Vaughan and Percy Weston were a l r e a d y acquainted, as we have seen, so t h i s f u r t h e r c r o s s i n g of paths. provided another o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the one to i n f l u e n c e the 14 other. I f Drawing d i d occupy more of Weston's time i n h i s s e n i o r year, and l a t e r events would suggest t h i s may have been so, i t d i d not make up a major p a r t of h i s formal t i m e t a b l e . His two years gave him a thorough grounding i n pedagogical theory and p r a c t i c e . The P r i n c i p a l at t h i s time was Mr. H.L. Withers and " f o r f r e s h ideas that stood up to the t e s t of the classroom. . . 15 [he] had a keen enthusiasm." He emphasised t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e and, i n a d d i t i o n to t e a c h i n g i n l o c a l s c h o o l s , students gave " c r i t i c i s m l e s s o n s " to c l a s s e s of c h i l d r e n who were brought i n t o the C o l l e g e or who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n f i e l d t r i p s . These " c r i t i c i s m l e s s o n s " were q u i t e e l a b o r a t e with the designated teacher p l a n n i n g and d i s c u s s i n g h i s l e s s o n with f e l l o w s before the event 16 then a n a l y s i n g i t afterwards with groups of peers. H e r b a r t i a n psychology and F r o e b e l i a n k i n d e r g a r t e n methods were s t u d i e d and a woodworking,workshop had been equipped i n 1395. The t i m e t a b l e was p u b l i s h e d as part of the annual r e p o r t . Regular c l a s s e s were from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. and i n a d d i t i o n there were some c l a s s e s i n the evenings between 6 and 9 133 p.m.,. a t i m e w h i c h was o t h e r w i s e r e s e r v e d f o r p r i v a t e s t u d y . Seven t o e i g h t a.m. was a l s o shown as b e i n g a t i m e f o r e i t h e r p r i v a t e s t u d y , e x e r c i s e or d r i l l and t h e a f t e r n o o n s were l e f t open f o r games or o t h e r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . The emphasis on p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s was b a s e d i n p a r t on a p e r c e i v e d need t o improve the o v e r a l l h e a l t h o f t h e s t u d e n t s and i n p a r t on a b e l i e f i n t h e m o r a l and c h a r a c t e r t r a i n i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f games 17 and s p o r t s m a n s h i p . S t r e s s i n g t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s i n h i s r e p o r t e a c h y e a r , t h e P r i n c i p a l p r o v i d e d a c h a r t w h i c h gave t h e a v e r a g e age, h e i g h t , w e i g h t , c h e s t , b i c e p s and c a l f measurements o f s t u d e n t s , c o r r e c t t o two d e c i m a l p l a c e s , as e v i d e n c e of t h e 18 e f f i c a c y o f e x e r c i s e . P e r c y Weston c a n h a r d l y have h e l p e d any improvement i n t h e s e f i g u r e s d u r i n g h i s s t a y a t Borough Road. He was q u i t e t h i n . I n t h e m e d i c a l f o r m t h a t had a c c o m p a n i e d h i s a p p l i c a t i o n , t h e d o c t o r had d e s c r i b e d him as " g r o w i n g much i n l a s t few y e a r s b u t I have no d o u b t w i l l t u r n o u t s t r o n g and w e l l 19 as s o o n as he s t o p s g r o w i n g . " In l a t e r y e a r s , however, he c o n t i n u e d t o be d e s c r i b e d as t a l l and v e r y t h i n . The games and s p o r t s had y e t a n o t h e r a s p e c t . They h e l p e d t o f o s t e r a team s p i r i t w i t h i n t h e C o l l e g e i t s e l f , t o make th e s t u d e n t s f e e l t h a t t h e y b e l o n g e d t o an o r g a n i s a t i o n w o r t h y o f t h e i r s u p p o r t . T h i s f e e l i n g was f u r t h e r e n c o u r a g e d i n t h e y e a r t h a t Weston s t a r t e d a t B o r o ugh Road by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e f i r s t a n n u a l • i n t e r - c o l l e g i a t e s p o r t s . C e r t a i n l y t h e a t t i t u d e s d i s p l a y e d by s t u d e n t s w r i t i n g i n t h e C o l l e g e m a g a z i n e , The B's 134 Hum, would suggest that there was a s t r o n g sense of i d e n t i t y with the C o l l e g e . A l l - i n - a l l , 3orough Road T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e provided students with a s t r o n g grounding i n t e a c h i n g procedures, a sense of group i d e n t i t y , p r i d e i n t h e i r c o l l e g e and t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n and c o n s i d e r a b l e development of academic s k i l l s . By the end of the n i n e t e e n t h century the s t a f f of the C o l l e g e saw themselves p l a y i n g an important r o l e i n t e r t i a r y e d u c a t i o n . T h e i r encouragement of students to take e x t e r n a l u n i v e r s i t y degrees a t t e s t s to t h i s view. The great expansion i n popular education s i n c e 1870, the improvement i n teacher s t a t u s which made i t worthwhile fo r a young man to contemplate t e a c h i n g as a c a r e e r , and the growing r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t a l l c l a s s e s were e n t i t l e d to a decent educa t i o n , a l l combined to give an o p p o r t u n i t y to Percy Weston t h a t i t i s most u n l i k e l y he could have had at an e a r l i e r time. This s o r t of o p p o r t u n i t y was n e v e r t h e l e s s s t i l l l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d to those of Percy Weston's c l a s s who were w i l l i n g to become t e a c h e r s . There had long been some who foresaw: a great e d u c a t i o n a l ladder, the bottom of which should be i n the g u t t e r and the top i n the U n i v e r s i t y , and by which every c h i l d who had the s t r e n g t h to climb might, by using t h a t s t r e n g t h , reach the place f o r which nature intended him. 2 0 In p r a c t i c e , however, access to the ladder was d i f f i c u l t except i n those few.areas where the need for t r a i n e d people could not be ignored. On J u l y 6, 1900 Percy Weston completed h i s t r a i n i n g at Borough Road T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e . The same year o l d e r brother Frank gained a B . S c , with f i r s t c l a s s honours, from the U n i v e r s i t y of London. Perhaps Frank's degree d e t r a c t e d a l i t t l e from r e c o g n i t i o n of Percy's own e f f o r t s , but, as Frank had been away from the f a m i l y home f o r some years, i t probably d i d not. As with Percy, Frank's progress could be a s c r i b e d i n part to the new o p p o r t u n i t i e s opening up i n e d u c a t i o n . Frank had j o i n e d the s t a f f of the Regent S t r e e t P o l y t e c h n i c , London, i n 1893 as a chemistry i n s t r u c t o r and had s t u d i e d f o r h i s degree on a part-time b a s i s . He would l a t e r become head of the Chemistry Department and become known for h i s o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h , but i n 1900 i t was h i s degree t h a t was another source of p r i d e for the 21 Weston f a m i l y . Percy was one of s i x t y - n i n e "well-equipped, earnest, f a i r - m i n d e d C h r i s t i a n men" to graduate from Borough Road that 22 year. Not one of Percy's f e l l o w - s t u d e n t s had f a i l e d . T h i s was not because the examination standards were low but r a t h e r because Borough Road T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e was among the best i n the country. In the t e a c h e r s ' c e r t i f i c a t i o n exams, Percy Weston's c l a s s had obtained the h i g h e s t percentage marks i n the n a t i o n f o r Theory of 23 Teaching, Geometry, P o l i t i c a l Economy and Drawing. Given Percy Weston's l a t e r importance as an a r t educator, t h i s l a s t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y • i n t e r e s t i n g . As the C o l l e g e students had not obtained a s i m i l a r high mark i n Drawing the previous year, i t i s 136 a r e a s o n a b l e s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t Mr. Vaughan's i n t r o d u c t i o n as Drawing M a s t e r may have c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o w a r d s t h i s r e s u l t . The exams had been t a k e n i n June and P e r c y Weston may w e l l have a l r e a d y been i n t e r v i e w e d f o r a t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n w i t h th e S c h o o l B o a r d f o r London. H i s h i r i n g was o f f i c i a l l y n o t e d i n a r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e S c h o o l B o a r d i n w h i c h he was a s s i g n e d t o B r a n d l e h o w Road B o a r d S c h o o l ( B o y s ' D e p artment) as a p r o b a t i o n a r y 24 t e a c h e r a t a s a l a r y o f 90 pounds per y e a r . As t h e a v e r a g e s a l a r y o b t a i n e d by P e r c y Weston's c l a s s a t B orough Road was 85 pounds a y e a r he p r o b a b l y f e l t q u i t e s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i s 25 s u c c e s s . He may a l s o have been p l e a s e d t h a t B r a n d l e h o w Road B o a r d S c h o o l was i n P u t n e y , a s u b u r b a d j o i n i n g Wandsworth, w i t h i n an e a s y h a l f - h o u r ' s walk o f h i s home. The s c h o o l was a brand-new one and i n a c t u a l f a c t was s t i l l under c o n s t r u c t i o n a t t h e t i m e he was a s s i g n e d t o i t . F o r h i s f i r s t y e a r t h e B o y s ' Department o p e r a t e d o u t o f t h r e e t e m p o r a r y i r o n b u i l d i n g s i n n e i g h b o u r i n g Deodar Road. T e m p o r a r y i r o n b u i l d i n g s were q u i t e w i d e l y used i n V i c t o r i a n London and were p a r t i c u l a r l y p o p u l a r w i t h t h e S c h o o l B o a r d f o r London i n s i t u a t i o n s s u c h as t h i s one. They were moved 26 f r o m s i t e t o s i t e as n e e d e d . W i t h accommodation 1 3 7 F i g u r e 1. Room G, B r a n d l e h o w Road S c h o o l . Weston s p e n t h i s f i r s t y e a r t e a c h i n g i n a t e m p o r a r y i r o n b u i l d i n g w h i l e t h e new s c h o o l was b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d . T h i s was h i s f i r s t p r o p e r c l a s s r o o m . T h i s p h o t o was t a k e n i n 1908. A l t h o u g h Weston was s t i l l a t t h e s c h o o l , t h e t e a c h e r shown i s n o t h i m . 138 f o r 212 i n t h e t h r e e rooms, an a v e r a g e e n r o l m e n t of 221 and a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e o f 210, w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s c a n n o t have 27 been v e r y good. No d o u b t t h e s i g h t o f t h e new s c h o o l b e i n g b u i l t j u s t a c r o s s t h e way e n c o u r a g e d t h e t e a c h i n g s t a f f . The b u i l d i n g was o c c u p i e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . The new s c h o o l had a l a y o u t w h i c h had become f a i r l y s t a n d a r d w i t h t h e S c h o o l B o a r d . I t was a t h r e e s t o r e y s t r u c t u r e h o u s i n g I n f a n t s on t h e main f l o o r , g i r l s on t h e s e c o n d and boys on t h e t h i r d . The b u i l d i n g was t h o r o u g h l y u p - t o - d a t e w i t h b o t h 28 c e n t r a l h e a t i n g and e l e c t r i c l i g h t . P e r c y Weston was a s s i g n e d t o Room G on t h e t h i r d f l o o r . (See F i g u r e 1.) T h i s room was i n th e N o r t h - E a s t c o r n e r o f t h e b u i l d i n g and had l a r g e windows w h i c h gave a v i e w o v e r t h e hou s e s on P u t n e y B r i d g e Road t o Wandsworth Pa r k b e s i d e t h e r i v e r Thames and beyond t o H u r l i n g h a m House. The room i t s e l f had accommodation f o r 56 boys and, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e u s u a l c l a s s r o o m e q u i p m e n t , was s e t up f o r s c i e n c e e x p e r i m e n t s . W h i l e t h e o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s do n o t show t h e age o f c h i l d r e n t h a t P e r c y Weston was a s s i g n e d t o t e a c h , t h e headmaster t a u g h t i n Room A and a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y t a u g h t t h e e l d e s t b o y s . Weston's c l a s s r o o m , Room G, was t h e f a r t h e s t i n l e t t e r and p h y s i c a l p o s i t i o n f r o m t h e h e a d ' s , so i t i s l i k e l y t h a t he was t e a c h i n g t h e y o u n g e s t boys who had j u s t moved up f r o m t h e I n f a n t s ' d e p a r t m e n t a t age e i g h t . As he was t h e o n l y i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r on s t a f f , t h i s would a l s o s u g g e s t t h a t he 1 3 9 enrolled the youngest children. In addition to the main building the Brandlehow Road Board School complex included separate buildings housing Woodworking shops, laundry rooms and other f a c i l i t i e s for the teaching of Domestic Science. The school acted as a centre for the teaching of Manual Training and Domestic Science and children from neighbouring schools were brought in 29 for these subjects. The move into the new building led to an increase in enrolment, which f i l l e d the 358 boys'spaces available, and to an increase in s t a f f from fiv e to eight teachers. As one teacher r e t i r e d at thi s time, four new people were brought i n . Three were well-experienced teachers while the fourth, Phineas H. Phillimore, graduated from Borough Road Training College the year 30 after Percy Weston. The headmaster, Mr. Frank W. Parker, had himself graduated from Borough Road some twenty years e a r l i e r and so he may have had a preference for teachers from there. At any rate he seems to have been s u f f i c i e n t l y s a t i s f i e d with Percy Weston's a b i l i t i e s to take on a second teacher with similar t r a i n i n g . At the time that the teachers had been working with the limited f a c i l i t i e s offered by temporary buildings, the school inspector had remarked on "the excellent tone of this school" and 31 "the cheerful working aspect of the boys." His good impression 140 o f t h e s c h o o l was r e i n f o r c e d a f t e r t h e move. The s c h o o l i s b e i n g v e r y s u c c e s s f u l l y c a r r i e d on i n t h e new b u i l d i n g s . The u s u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s o f o r g a n i s a t i o n a r e w e l l met, and much p r o g r e s s has been made w i t h a v e r y s u i t a b l e s y l l a b u s of work. The keen i n t e r e s t t h e boys t a k e i n t h e i r work and l e s s o n s , and t h e r e g u l a r i t y and p u n c t u a l i t y of t h e a t t e n d a n c e a r e marked f e a t u r e s of t h e e x c e l l e n t d i s c i p l i n e . 32 The f o l l o w i n g y e a r he f o u n d , "The s c h o o l i s making most c r e d i t a b l e p r o g r e s s under c a p a b l e o r g a n i s a t i o n , w a t c h f u l 33 s u p e r v i s i o n and sound methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n . " Such p o s i t i v e comments g i v e a v e r y good i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e s c h o o l . P e r h a p s e v e n more s i g n i f i c a n t i s t h e l a c k o f any c r i t i c a l comments, f o r s c h o o l i n s p e c t o r s were r a r e l y r e t i c e n t a b o u t p o i n t i n g o u t s h o r t c o m i n g s . The o f f i c i a l r e p o r t s g i v e no h i n t o f t h e i n t e r n a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l . As F r a n k P a r k e r had a B a c h e l o r o f A r t s d e g r e e , P h i n e a s P h i l l i m o r e had a S c i e n c e d e g r e e and P e r c y Weston was p u r s u i n g h i s i n t e r e s t i n a r t , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e was some p l a t o o n i n g a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s . P e r c y Weston s t a r t e d t a k i n g n i g h t s c h o o l c l a s s e s i n a r t a t t h e same t i m e as he s t a r t e d t e a c h i n g , c o n t i n u i n g t h e s e c l a s s e s t h r o u g h o u t most o f h i s t e a c h i n g c a r e e r a t B r a n d l e h o w Road S c h o o l . About h a l f w a y t h r o u g h h i s n i g h t s c h o o l s t u d i e s he was g r a n t e d " A r t C l a s s T e a c h e r ' s C e r t i f i c a t e , " number 6810, on December 14, 1904. I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t he would have p u r s u e d t h e s e s t u d i e s so a s s i d u o u s l y i f he had n o t had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o make p r a c t i c a l use of them. T h e r e was a v i s i t i n g a r t t e a c h e r who gave " s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n d r a w i n g " t o a few boys on T h u r s d a y a f t e r n o o n s , as was d e t a i l e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r , b u t her i n f l u e n c e was q u i t e l i m i t e d . 141 Weston began h i s e v e n i n g s t u d i e s a t t h e P u t n e y S c h o o l of A r t i n September 1900. The s c h o o l had s t a r t e d as an o f f s h o o t of t h e S o u t h K e n s i n g t o n S c h o o l of A r t i n 1383 and had moved i n t o brand-new p r e m i s e s on O x f o r d Road, P u t n e y , i n 1895. I t was s i t u a t e d no more t h a n f i v e m i n u t e s walk f r o m B r a n d l e h o w Road Bo a r d S c h o o l . E v e n i n g c l a s s e s were h e l d f r o m 7.30 t o 9.30 p.m. on Mondays t o F r i d a y s and t h e c u r r i c u l u m was a d v e r t i s e d as 34 i n c l u d i n g t h e a r t s y l l a b u s o f t h e B o a r d of E d u c a t i o n . In f a c t t h e e v e n i n g c l a s s e s were a l l c l e a r l y d e s i g n e d w i t h t h e needs o f t e a c h e r s i n mind. They s t a r t e d a week or so a f t e r t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n September and f i n i s h e d a few weeks b e f o r e t h e end of t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l y e a r . E a c h y e a r P e r c y t o o k two c o u r s e s . He s t a r t e d w i t h F r e e h a n d D r a w i n g o f Ornament and D r awing i n L i g h t and Shade f r o m a C a s t , o b t a i n i n g a f i r s t c l a s s s t a n d i n g i n b o t h . U n t i l 1903 he t o o k two s u b j e c t s e a c h y e a r . He n e v e r f a i l e d a c o u r s e , b u t , i f he d i d n o t g e t a f i r s t c l a s s p a s s , he would r e p e a t t h e e x a m i n a t i o n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . As he had o b t a i n e d h i s A r t T e a c h e r ' s c e r t i f i c a t e i n 1904, h i s s t u d i e s a f t e r t h a t d a t e must have been f o r p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t and b e t t e r m e n t . By 1903 he had t a k e n e x a m i n a t i o n s i n s i x t e e n a r t - r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s and had r e c e i v e d a f i r s t c l a s s mark i n e l e v e n . W h i l e t h e r e was some c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n the p e r c e n t a g e of f i r s t - c l a s s marks g i v e n i n e a c h s u b j e c t or i n e a c h y e a r , some i d e a of t h e s t a n d a r d may be g l e a n e d f r o m t h e 142 e x a m i n a t i o n r e s u l t s f o r o n e y e a r . I n 1 9 0 6 , f o r e x a m p l e , a t o t a l o f 5 1 , 3 7 9 p a p e r s w e r e w r i t t e n a t t h e e v e n i n g a r t e x a m i n a t i o n s . Of t h e s e , 1 0 , 0 6 3 w e r e f i r s t c l a s s p a p e r s w h i l e 2 0 , 2 3 7 w e r e 35 f a i l u r e s . I n t h a t y e a r P e r c y W e s t o n g a i n e d a F i r s t C l a s s i n A n a t o m y a n d t h e e x a m i n e r s r e p o r t e d : "On no p r e v i o u s o c c a s i o n , w i t h i n o u r e x p e r i e n c e , h a v e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n b e e n 36 s o g o o d . " W i t h a f o r t y p e r c e n t f a i l u r e r a t e e v e n a s e c o n d c l a s s p a s s was w o r t h w h i l e a n d W e s t o n ' s h i g h n u m b e r o f f i r s t c l a s s m a r k s i s n o t e w o r t h y . H o w e v e r , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t h i s f i r s t c l a s s m a r k s t e n d e d t o be i n t h e f i r s t y e a r s o f h i s s t u d i e s a n d t h a t he d i d n o t r e c e i v e a S e c o n d u n t i l 1 9 0 4 , w h i l e a f t e r t h a t d a t e he r e c e i v e d o n l y t w o F i r s t s . C e r t a i n l y he was w o r k i n g a t a m o r e a d v a n c e d l e v e l a s t h e y e a r s w e n t b y , b u t t h i s d r o p i n a c h i e v e m e n t a l s o f i t t e d a p a t t e r n t h a t c a n be s e e n e a r l i e r . A t B o r o u g h R o a d he h a d h i g h f i r s t c l a s s m a r k s i n h i s f i r s t y e a r a n d s l i p p e d t o a l o w s e c o n d c l a s s t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . A t s c h o o l he h a d a c h i e v e d e x t r e m e l y w e l l i n h i s f i r s t s u b m i s s i o n s t o t h e e x h i b i t i o n a t H u g h M y d d e l t o n S c h o o l , b u t h i s w o r k h a d b e e n u n e x c e p t i o n a l t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . W h e t h e r t h i s i n d i c a t e d a l a c k o f s t a y i n g p o w e r , o r w h e t h e r , o n c e he h a d p r o v e d t o h i m s e l f t h a t he c o u l d d o s o m e t h i n g , he h a d no d e s i r e t o i m p r e s s t h e w o r l d , o r w h e t h e r t h e r e was some o t h e r r e a s o n , we c a n n o t t e l i . H o w e v e r , i n l a t e r y e a r s t h e r e w o u l d c o n t i n u e t o be i n t e r e s t s t h a t he w o u l d p e r s i s t i n d o g g e d l y , w h i l e i n o t h e r s he w o u l d a p p e a r t o l o s e i n t e r e s t . One u n f l a g g i n g i n t e r e s t of h i s was p a i n t i n g . Many y e a r s l a t e r he l a m e n t e d t h a t he had n o t had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y to t a k e more p a i n t i n g c l a s s e s a t n i g h t s c h o o l and t h a t t h i s i n t e r e s t 37 he had had t o d e v e l o p on h i s own l a t e r . I n d e e d o n l y two of the e x a m i n a t i o n s he t o o k i n v o l v e d p a i n t i n g . What h i s a r t s t u d i e s d i d g i v e him was a s t r o n g b a c k g r o u n d i n D r a wing and D e s i g n . They a l s o gave him t h e e s s e n t i a l s k i l l s he would l a t e r need t o be c o n s i d e r e d f o r a t e a c h i n g j o b i n V a n c o u v e r . O u t s i d e o f s c h o o l and h i s e v e n i n g s t u d i e s , P e r c y Weston's l i f e f i t t e d i n t o a p l e a s a n t p a t t e r n . He moved back home to 20 Dempster Road a f t e r h i s two y e a r s ' r e s i d e n c e a t Borough Road T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e and i n t o a h o u s e h o l d of t e a c h e r s . H i s b r o t h e r s were m a r r i e d by t h i s t i m e and had moved away, b u t h i s two s i s t e r s , L i l l i a n and M a r g a r e t , were s t i l l a t home. L i l l i a n was a t e a c h e r o f i n f a n t s a t S w a f f i e l d Road B o a r d S c h o o l i n E a r l s f i e l d w h i l e M a r g a r e t was a t e a c h e r of g i r l s a t B e l l e v i l l e 38 Road B o a r d S c h o o l i n Wandsworth. T h e i r f a t h e r was s t i l l 39 t e a c h i n g boys a t Harwood Road B o a r d S c h o o l i n Fulham. These s c h o o l s were a l l w i t h i n e a s y d i s t a n c e f o r a d e t e r m i n e d w a l k e r b u t i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . One c a n i m a g i n e them- f a n n i n g out e a c h m o r n i n g , N o r t h , S o u t h , E a s t and West, t o b r i n g e d u c a t i o n t o t h e i r c h a r g e s . Was i t w i t h a s e n s e o f d e d i c a t i o n or m i s s i o n a r y z e a l , or was i t m e r e l y a j o b ? We c a n n o t know, b u t we do know t h a t P e r c y came f r o m a f a m i l y of t e a c h e r s and t h a t f o r much of h i s l i f e h i s c l o s e s t c o l l e a g u e s and f r i e n d s were t e a c h e r s . 144 He c e r t a i n l y c o n t i n u e d h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h J e s s i e B e n n e t t who w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y b e c o m e h i s w i f e . A l s o a t e a c h e r , s h e h a d r e c e i v e d h e r t r a i n i n g a t a n o t h e r o f t h e B r i t i s h a n d F o r e i g n S c h o o l S o c i e t y c o l l e g e s , t h a t a t N o r w i c h . G r a d u a t i n g i n 1 8 9 9 , t h e y e a r b e f o r e P e r c y , s h e a l s o w e n t t o w o r k i n a L o n d o n S c h o o l . S h e was a s s i g n e d t o t h e i n f a n t s ' c l a s s a t M e r t o n R o a d B o a r d S c h o o l , S o u t h f i e l d s . W i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e o f h e r home, t h i s s c h o o l , l i k e P e r c y ' s , was a new o n e . S h e t o o h a d t o c o n t e n d w i t h w o r k i n g i n t e m p o r a r y b u i l d i n g s a n d , w h e n t h e new b u i l d i n g was f i n i s h e d , t o a c c e p t a f l o o d o f new e n t r a n t s , f r o m f i v e t o s e v e n y e a r s o f a g e , who w e r e a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e s i m p l y b e c a u s e p r e v i o u s l y t h e r e h a d b e e n n o s c h o o l a c c o m m o d a t i o n 40 f o r t h e m . I t was c o n s i d e r e d s o m e t h i n g o f a t r a d i t i o n t h a t P e r c y W e s t o n w o u l d g o f o r t e a a t t h e B e n n e t t home o n S u n d a y s . A s J e s s i e h a d s e v e n s i s t e r s a n d t w o b r o t h e r s , t h i s w as u n d o u b t e d l y a l i v e l y t i m e . I n g o o d w e a t h e r t e a w o u l d b e p r e c e d e d b y a c y c l e r i d e , f o r P e r c y a n d J e s s i e w e r e b o t h k e e n c y c l i s t s . D u r i n g t h e summer h o l i d a y s o f 1 9 0 1 t h e y j o i n e d a g r o u p o f o t h e r y o u n g p e o p l e f o r a c y c l i n g h o l i d a y i n t h e L a k e D i s t r i c t . I n c l u d e d i n t h e g r o u p w e r e P e r c y ' s s i s t e r M a r g a r e t a n d h e r f r i e n d , E d w a r d H a w o r t h . E d w a r d was a l s o h e r b r o t h e r - i n - l a w , f o r h i s s i s t e r was m a r r i e d t o F r e d e r i c k W e s t o n . T h e y a l l s t a y e d a t F a r m E n d C o t t a g e s i n C o n i s t o n i n a n a r e a w h i c h p r o v i d e d g o o d 145 o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c y c l i n g . T h e r e w e r e t h e r e l a t i v e l y l e v e l r o a d s a l o n g t h e v a l l e y f l o o r o r t h e m o r e c h a l l e n g i n g h i l l s o v e r t h e f e l l s . T h e h o l i d a y was g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be a g r e a t s u c c e s s a n d s o o n a f t e r M a r g a r e t a n d E d w a r d a n n o u n c e d t h e i r e n g a g e m e n t . F o r P e r c y t h e h o l i d a y g a v e h i m t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d o some p a i n t i n g . H i s M o o n r i s e , L a k e D i s t r i c t , C u m b e r l a n d d a t e s f r o m t h i s t i m e . T h i s i s t h e o l d e s t W e s t o n l a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g k n o w n a n d i t s e e m s l i k e l y t h a t , i f n o t h i s f i r s t , i t was t h e f i r s t w i t h w h i c h he f e l t s a t i s f i e d . I t i s c e r t a i n l y t h e o l d e s t l a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g t h a t he k e p t . M o o n r i s e d e p i c t s a t y p i c a l L a k e D i s t r i c t s c e n e w i t h a s t o n e b r i d g e o v e r a s m a l l t a r n a n d t h e f e l l s r i s i n g up b e h i n d . T r e e s o v e r h a n g t h e b r i d g e . T h e p a i n t i n g may b e s t be d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g i n t h e p r e t t y t r a d i t i o n o f E n g l i s h l a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g . T h e c o l o u r s e n s e i s g o o d a n d t h e d e s i g n i s c o m p e t e n t . T h e e y e i s l e d up t o w a r d s t h e m o o n l i t s k y a n d c o m p o s i t i o n h o l d s t o g e t h e r w e l l . T h e r e a r e no f i g u r e s i n t h e p i c t u r e a n d t h e o n l y e v i d e n c e o f h u m a n i t y i s t h e man-made b r i d g e . A s a p a i n t i n g t h e r e i s l i t t l e e x c e p t i o n a l a b o u t i t i n i t s e l f , b u t , a s a n e a r l y W e s t o n , i t d o e s g i v e some h i n t o f h i s s t r o n g s e n s e o f c o l o u r a n d d e s i g n u s e d t o d e p i c t u n s p o i l e d n a t u r e . T h e s e w o u l d a l l be d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s o f h i s l a t e r w o r k . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r M a r g a r e t a n d E d w a r d ' s r o m a n c e c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e i r w e d d i n g a t W a n d s w o r t h P a r i s h C h u r c h o n J u n e 146 2 5 t h , 1 9 0 2 . A f t e r t h e w e d d i n g a f a m i l y r e c e p t i o n was h e l d a t b r o t h e r F r a n k ' s h o u s e i n n e a r b y C l a p h a m . F i n a n c i a l l y F r a n k was t h e m o s t s u c c e s s f u l o f t h e f a m i l y a n d h a d t h e l a r g e s t home. C o n s e q u e n t l y f a m i l y p a r t i e s w e r e u s u a l l y h e l d t h e r e . P e r c y , a w i t n e s s a t t h e w e d d i n g , s k e t c h e d t h e m a r r i a g e s c e n e o n a s c r a p o f p a p e r f r o m h i s v a n t a g e p o i n t i n t h e o r g a n l o f t . He was i n t h e l o f t b e c a u s e i t was h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o pump t h e o r g a n w h e n e v e r o l d e r b r o t h e r , H e n r y , who was a p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i s t a n d p l a y e d f o r t h e c e r e m o n y , was a t t h e P a r i s h C h u r c h . P e r c y s a i d he d i d n o t e n j o y t h e t a s k , b u t i t m u s t h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e r e g u l a r c h u r c h a t t e n d a n c e w h i c h h a d g a i n e d c o m m e n t f r o m t h e m i n i s t e r o n t h e t e s t i m o n i a l a c c o m p a n y i n g h i s a p p l i c a t i o n t o B o r o u g h R o a d some y e a r s b e f o r e . S u c h c o m m e n t h a d u n d o u b t e d l y b e e n i n h i s f a v o u r . I n l a t e r y e a r s he was n o t k n o w n f o r h i s c h u r c h a t t e n d a n c e . He may a l s o h a v e e n j o y e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s i t g a v e h i m t o s e e h i s b r o t h e r who was s o m e w h a t e s t r a n g e d f r o m t h e f a m i l y . P e r c y a n d H e n r y e n j o y e d a n u m b e r o f s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n p a i n t i n g a n d p h o t o g r a p h y , a n d H e n r y may w e l l h a v e e n c o u r a g e d h i s y o u n g e r b r o t h e r t o p u r s u e h i s own i n t e r e s t s , w i t h o r w i t h o u t f a m i l y e n c o u r a g e m e n t . Th e o l d e r b r o t h e r may w e l l h a v e f u e l l e d P e r c y ' s own l u k e w a r m f e e l i n g s t o w a r d s t h e i r f a t h e r f o r H e n r y h i m s e l f u n d o u b t e d l y f e l t t h a t h i s A T 1 -L own m u s i c a l s u c c e s s h a d come a b o u t d e s p i t e p a t e r n a l o p p o s i t i o n . M a r g a r e t ' s m a r r i a g e t o o k h e r a w a y f r o m t h e f a m i l y home, 14 7 b u t , when s c h o o l s t a r t e d a g a i n i n t h e autumn o f 1902, t h e r e were two fewer t e a c h e r s , r a t h e r t h a n one, l e a v i n g home i n t h e m o r n i n g s . T h i s was t h e y e a r i n w h i c h W i l l i a m Weston, P e r c y ' s .42 f a t h e r , r e t i r e d . He had been a t e a c h e r s i n c e 1359 and had s e e n g r e a t c h a n g e s i n B r i t i s h e d u c a t i o n . He had j o i n e d t h e S c h o o l B o a r d f o r London i n 1875 and, w i t h o u t a c c e p t i n g any g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , f o r he r e m a i n e d a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r a l l h i s l i f e , he had s e e n h i s s a l a r y improve r e m a r k a b l y and had been e n a b l e d t o g i v e h i s c h i l d r e n a good e d u c a t i o n t h e m s e l v e s . He r e t i r e d on what he l i k e l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be an a d e q u a t e p e n s i o n and l i v e d t o e n j o y i t f o r a n o t h e r twenty-two y e a r s . P e r h a p s M a r g a r e t ' s m a r r i a g e gave P e r c y i d e a s . At any r a t e he and J e s s i e B e n n e t t became engaged t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . However, i t would be a n o t h e r f i v e y e a r s b e f o r e t h e y m a r r i e d . T h e r e was no c o m p e l l i n g r e a s o n f o r t h e l o n g engagement o t h e r t h a n f i n a n c i a l . W h i l e t h e S c h o o l B o a r d f o r London employed m a r r i e d women, t h e y may have had r e s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t e m p l o y i n g b o t h p a r t n e r s i n a m a r r i a g e . A l s o m a r r i e d p e o p l e o f t e n have c h i l d r e n w h i c h r e s t r i c t s one p a r t n e r f r o m w o r k i n g . T hey had a l r e a d y d e c i d e d t h a t t h e y would l i k e t o e m i g r a t e and t h a t t h e y s h o u l d s a v e f o r t h a t p u r p o s e . P e r c y hoped t h a t t h e y would be a b l e t o go t o Siam. T h i s a p p a r e n t l y e x o t i c c h o i c e of d e s t i n a t i o n would have r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e t i e s between Borough Road T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e and t h a t c o u n t r y so i t may have been P e r c y ' s dream t o go t h e r e s i n c e h i s s t u d e n t d a y s . I n ' t h e meantime t h e y c o n t i n u e d t h e i r 148 e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n o f l i f e . D u r i n g t h e i r summer h o l i d a y s t h e y made s e v e r a l t r i p s t o C o r n w a l l , w i t h P e r r a n p o r t h , o n t h e c o u n t y ' s n o r t h e r n c o a s t , b e c o m i n g a f a v o u r e d d e s t i n a t i o n . A p e a c e f u l w a t e r c o l OUr 3/16 L C I ! o f n e a r b y H o l y w e l l B a y was p a i n t e d i n 1 9 0 3 . T h e s k y i s h a z y a n d t h e s e a i s c a l m . J u s t o f f s h o r e l i e t h e G u l l R o c k s a t t h e e n d o f P e n h a l e P o i n t . I n t h i s s m a l l l a n d s c a p e , a s i n s o many o f h i s l a t e r o n e s , t h e r e i s no h i n t o f human i n f l u e n c e . H o w e v e r , t h e p l e a s a n t s a n d s o f H o l y w e l l B a y he f o u n d l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a n t h e r u g g e d C o r n i s h c l i f f s a n d i t was i n p a i n t i n g t h e s e t h a t he p r a c t i s e d h i s p a i n t i n g s k i l l s . One he l i k e d s o m u c h a t t h e t i m e t h a t h e h a d h i m s e l f p h o t o g r a p h e d i n f r o n t o f i t i n 1 9 0 7 a n d a g a i n i n 1 9 0 9 , b u t t o d a y n o n e o f t h e s e o t h e r p a i n t i n g s s u r v i v e . He l o o k e d b a c k t o h i s h o l i d a y s i n C o r n w a l l w i t h t h e f i r s t p a i n t i n g 43 he made i n C a n a d a , b u t t h i s was l a t e r . I n 1 9 0 7 P e r c y W e s t o n was s h o w n o n t h e V o t e r s ' L i s t a s 44 r e n t i n g t w o r o o m s i n t h e f a m i l y home. T h i s move t o w a r d s i n d e p e n d e n c e was p r o m p t e d b y t h o u g h t s o f m a r r i a g e a n d , o n A p r i l 1 1 , 1 9 0 8 , P e r c y W e s t o n a n d J e s s i e B e n n e t t w e r e f i n a l l y w e d . S i a m was s t i l l b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d a s t h e i r e v e n t u a l d e s t i n a t i o n , b u t i n t h e m e a n t i m e t h e i r h o n e y m o o n was s p e n t i n C o r n w a l l . T h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d , B e t t e , was b o r n o n May 3 1 , 1 9 0 9 . D u r i n g t h e y e a r s t h a t P e r c y a n d J e s s i e w e r e p l a n n i n g t h e i r f u t u r e s a n u m b e r o f a p p a r e n t l y d i s c o n n e c t e d e v e n t s w e r e 1 4 9 coming t o g e t h e r t o change w h a t e v e r p l a n s t h e y had. P e r c y ' s b r o t h e r F r e d had moved t o Glasgow so t h a t h i s w i f e c o u l d l i v e c l o s e r t o her f a m i l y . He was t e a c h i n g a r t i n a Glasgow s c h o o l . In 1904, J o s e p h Vaughan had l e f t h i s p o s i t i o n as A s s i s t a n t D r a w ing I n s t r u c t o r w i t h t h e S c h o o l B o a r d f o r London t o become th e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of Drawing and Manual I n s t r u c t i o n w i t h t h e Glasgow S c h o o l B o a r d . M e a n w h i l e , Reeves and Sons, t h e w e l l - k n o w n s u p p l i e r s o f a r t i s t s ' m a t e r i a l s , had a d o p t e d a p o l i c y of o c c a s i o n a l l y s e n d i n g o u t r e s p e c t e d e d u c a t o r s t o r e p r e s e n t them, t o g i v e t a l k s and t o promote t h e i r p r o d u c t s . In 1903, Vaughan went t o V a n c o u v e r on b e h a l f of Reeves and Sons and, w h i l e t h e r e , was a s k e d i f he c o u l d recommend someone t o f i l l a p o s i t i o n a t t h e 45 H i g h S c h o o l . When Vaughan went back t o Glasgow he s u g g e s t e d t o F r e d e r i c k Weston t h a t he m i g h t be i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e j o b , but F r e d ' s w i f e was u n w i l l i n g t o go so f a r f r o m her f a m i l y . F r e d t h e n s u g g e s t e d h i s y o u n g e r b r o t h e r i n London as a c a n d i d a t e . Vaughan, o f c o u r s e , knew P e r c y Weston and made t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t o t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s i n V a n c o u v e r t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n 46 be o f f e r e d t o him. T h i s was d u l y done, t h e p o s t was a c c e p t e d and Siam was- f o r g o t t e n . The move was h a r d e r on J e s s i e t h a n on P e r c y even t h o u g h b o t h were i n f a v o u r of i t . H i s f a m i l y d i d n o t have v e r y c l o s e t i e s and he had an e x c i t i n g new j o b t o go t o . J e s s i e , on t h e o t h e r hand, was c l o s e t o her f a m i l y and i n t h e l a s t few days b e f o r e l e a v i n g t h e r e were t e a r f u l f a m i l y p a r t i e s of f a r e w e l l . P e r c y ' s p a r e n t s t r a v e l l e d w i t h them t o L i v e r p o o l t o s a y goodbye and p o s e d c h e e r f u l l y on t h e b o a t deck f o r a f i n a l p h o t o . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r b e l o n g i n g s , a new baby and, one must assume, a v e r i t a b l e m o u n t a i n of d i a p e r s f o r t h e two week j o u r n e y , what e l s e were t h e y t a k i n g w i t h them and what m i g h t t h e y f e e l t h a t t h e y were l e a v i n g b e h i n d ? J e s s i e B e n n e t t was l e a v i n g her t e a c h i n g c a r e e r b e h i n d h e r , f o r she would n o t t e a c h i n Canada. She was a l s o l e a v i n g a l a r g e f a m i l y t h a t she would a l w a y s m i s s , b u t was t a k i n g w i t h h e r a s t r o n g s e n s e o f d u t y t o her husband and t h e i r baby. P e r c y was l e a v i n g few t i e s b e h i n d him. W i t h him went a t h o r o u g h t r a i n i n g i n what was c o n s i d e r e d one of t h e b e t t e r t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e s and e i g h t y e a r s f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n . He had n i n e y e a r s ' e x p e r i e n c e as a t e a c h e r i n a l a r g e s c h o o l s y s t e m . He was t h e p r o d u c t of a time when new i d e a s were d e v e l o p i n g i n e d u c a t i o n and when a r t e d u c a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n had undergone p r o f o u n d c h a n ges i n an o r d e r l y manner. He a l r e a d y had a s p i r a t i o n s as a p a i n t e r . B o t h p r e s u m a b l y took hopes and dreams f o r t h e i r new l i f e i n a new c o u n t r y . P e r h a p s t o o t h e y t o o k a few f e a r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , on J u l y 29, 1909, P e r c y and J e s s i e Weston, a c c o m p a n i e d by e i g h t week o l d B e t t e , s e t s a i l f o r Canada. 151 NOTES 1. A n n u a l R e p o r t o f B o r o u g h R o a d T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e , 1 3 9 9 - 1 9 0 0 , i n E d u c a t i o n a l R e c o r d , F e b . 1 9 0 1 , p . 5 7 . 2. T h e name " B o r o u g h R o a d T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e " was t h a t u s e d a t t h e e n d o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h e name was l a t e r c o n t r a c t e d t o " B o r o u g h R o a d C o l l e g e " a n d i t was o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o s i m p l y a s " B o r o u g h R o a d . " 3. O r i g i n a l l e t t e r i n a r c h i v e s o f B o r o u g h R o a d C o l l e g e , I s l e w o r t h , L o n d o n . 4-. B o r o u g h R o a d T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e . A p p l i c a t i o n F o r m f o r W i l l i a m P e r c y W e s t o n . A r c h i v e s o f B o r o u g h R o a d C o l l e g e , I s l e w o r t h , L o n d o n . 5. G e n e r a l d e t a i l s a b o u t B o r o u g h R o a d T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e , u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i d e n t i f i e d , a r e t a k e n f r o m G.F. B a r t l e , A H i s t o r y o f  B o r o u g h R o a d C o l l e g e , ( I s l e w o r t h : B o r o u g h R o a d C o l l e g e , 1 9 7 6 ) . 6. J . B . P i c k l e s , " The F i r s t A r c a d i a n s , " B ' s Hum, May 1 9 4 3 , p . 7. B's Hum was t h e c o l l e g e m a g a z i n e . Q u o t e d i n B a r t l e , A H i s t o r y o f  B o r o u g h R o a d C o l l e g e , p . 4 3. 7. I b i d . 8. I b i d . 9. F.H. S p e n c e r , A n I n s p e c t o r ' s T e s t a m e n t , ( L o n d o n : 1 9 3 3 ) p p . 1 2 3 - 4 . Q u o t e d i n B a r t l e , - H i s t o r y o f B o r o u g h R o a d C o l l e g e , p . 4 3 . 1 0 . S e e " L i s t o f S t u d e n t s M e n , " i s s u e d b y B r i t i s h a n d F o r e i g n S c h o o l S o c i e t y i n 1 9 2 4 a n d c o v e r i n g t h e y e a r s 1 3 6 9 t o 1 9 2 4 . 1 1 . " F o r m t o be f i l l e d u p b y F r e s h m e n e n t e r i n g C o l l e g e . " C o m p l e t e d b y P e r c y W e s t o n o n S e p t e m b e r 1 4 , 1 3 9 8 . T u t o r ' s n o t e d a t e d N o v 9, 1 3 9 9 . B o r o u g h R o a d C o l l e g e A r c h i v e s . 1 2 . A n n u a l R e p o r t o f B r i t i s h a n d F o r e i g n S c h o o l S o c i e t y , E d u c a t i o n a l R e c o r d O c t o b e r 1 3 9 9 , p p . 1 9 4 - 5 a n d J u n e 1 9 G C , p . 3 7 0 . 1 3 . T h e B ' s Hum, J a n u a r y 1 9 0 0 , p . 2 9 . 1 4 . E d u c a t i o n a l R e c o r d , F e b r u a r y 1 9 0 1 , p . 5 0 . 1 5 2 15. B a r t l e , A H i s t o r y o f B o r o u g h R o a d C o l l e g e , p. 54. I S . I b i d . , p . 56 . 17. B e l i e f i n t r a i n i n g o f t h e c h a r a c t e r t h r o u g h g a m e s was w i d e s p r e a d i n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , N. V a n c e "The I d e a l o f M a n l i n e s s , " o r J . A . M a n g a n , " A t h l e t i c i s m , a C a s e S t u d y o f t h e E v o l u t i o n o f a n E d u c a t i o n a l I d e o l o g y , " i n B r i a n S i m o n a n d I a n B r a d l e y , e d s . , T h e V i c t o r i a n P u b l i c S c h o o l ( D u b l i n : G i l l a n d M a c m i l l a n , 1975), pp.115-128; 147-167. 18. A n n u a l R e p o r t o f B o r o u g h R o a d T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e , 1899-1900, p . 61. 19. Comment o f D r . F.R. Howse made i n m e d i c a l r e p o r t f o r P e r c y W e s t o n , d a t e d J u l y 1, 1897. B o r o u g h R o a d C o l l e g e A r c h i v e s , I s l e w o r t h , L o n d o n . 20. P r o f e s s o r T.H. H u x l e y a t a m e e t i n g o f t h e S c h o o l B o a r d f o r L o n d o n , F e b r u a r y 15, 1871. Q u o t e d i n P h i l p o t t , L o n d o n a t S c h o o l , p . 154. 21. O r i g i n a l m a n u s c r i p t t o o b i t u a r y n o t i c e w r i t t e n b y P e r c i v a l J . F r y e r a n d p u b l i s h e d i n T h e J o u r n a l o f t h e C h e m i c a l S o c i e t y , A p r i l 1923. M r . F r y e r s e n t h i s o r i g i n a l m a n u s c r i p t t o t h e f a m i l y a s a m a r k o f r e s p e c t a n d i t h a s b e e n k e p t b y F r a n k W e s t o n ' s d a u g h t e r - i n - l a w , M i n n i e W e s t o n . 22. A n n u a l R e p o r t o f B o r o u g h R o a d T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e , 1399-1300, p . 57. 23. I b i d . , p p . 66-7. 24. S c h o o l B o a r d f o r L o n d o n , M i n u t e s o f P r o c e e d i n g s , v o l . L I I I , p . 972. 25. A n n u a l R e p o r t o f B o r o u g h R o a d T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e , 1399-1900, p . 64. 26. Some i d e a o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s e b u i l d i n g s may be o b t a i n e d b y i n s p e c t i n g w h a t may be t h e s o l e r e m a i n i n g e x a m p l e o f i t s t y p e , a men's p u b l i c u r i n a l i n S t a r Y a r d , o f f L i n c o l n ' s I n n F i e l d , i n t h e C i t y o f L o n d o n . 27. A n n u a l R e p o r t o f D e o d a r R o a d T e m p o r a r y B o a r d S c h o o l , A p r i l 2 0 , 1901. 28. A r c h i t e c t ' s d r a w i n g s f o r t h i s b u i l d i n g may be s e e n a t t h e G r e a t e r L o n d o n R e c o r d L i b r a r y . 1 5 3 29. B r a n d l e h o w Road S c h o o l was d e s t r o y e d by bombing d u r i n g World War I I . Today l i t t l e r e m a i n s of t h e s t r u c t u r e and t h e r e i s a s m a l l p r i m a r y s c h o o l on t h e s i t e . 30. B r i t i s h and F o r e i g n S c h o o l S o c i e t y , - L i s t of S t u d e n t s p. 40. 31. S c h o o l B o a r d f o r London, "Summary of I n s p e c t o r ' s R e p o r t , " A p r i l 20, 1901. 32. S c h o o l B o a r d f o r London, "Summary of I n s p e c t o r ' s R e p o r t , " A p r i l 30, 1902 33. S c h o o l B o a r d f o r London, "Summary of I n s p e c t o r ' s R e p o r t , " A p r i l 30, 1903. 34. See t h e P r o s p e c t u s o f P u t n e y A r t S c h o o l , i s s u e d a n n u a l l y . G r e a t e r London R e c o r d O f f i c e . 35. B o a r d of E d u c a t i o n , A r t E x a m i n a t i o n s , 1906. R e p o r t s , &c. (London: H i s M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1 9 0 6 ) . P. 50. 36. I b i d . , p. 27. The names o f t h e e x a m i n e r s were g i v e n as P r o f e s s o r A. Thomson, M.A. M.B., and P r o f e s s o r R. Howden, M.A.., M.B. 37. W.P. Weston, D a l l a s T a p e s . 33. S c h o o l B o a r d f o r London, " R e p o r t of t h e S c h o o l Management Committee, 1901," pp.135 and 160. 39. S c h o o l B o a r d f o r London, " R e p o r t of S c h o o l Management Committee, 1903," p. 11. 40. S c h o o l B o a r d f o r London, " R e p o r t o f S c h o o l Management Committee, 1903," p. 161; " A p pendix t o S i x t h R e p o r t of S c h o o l Management Committee, 1902." No page number. 41. "Death of Mr. H.W. Weston. G r e a t L o s s t o t h e M u s i c a l W o r l d . " Wandsworth Borough News, June 13, 1914, p. 4. 42. S c h o o l B o a r d f o r London, " R e p o r t of S c h o o l Management Committee," 1903, p. 11. 43. C o r n i s h C o a s t , 1909. 44. V o t e r s ' L i s t , 1907, B a t t e r s e a D i v i s i o n , v o t e r ' s r e g i s t r a t i o n number 13976. 45. D a l l a s T a p e s . 45. L e t t e r f r o m Dr. W i l l i a m Gunn t o Dr. R o b i n s o n , d a t e d A u g ust 2, 1910. B.C. P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . R e f e r e n c e GR457. 154 CHAPTER SIX "To r e l y a b s o l u t e l y on o u r s e l v e s f o r w h a t we 1 f e l t l i k e d o i n g " : e a r l y y e a r s i n V a n c o u v e r . When t h e W e s t o n f a m i l y s t e p p e d o f f t h e t r a i n i n V a n c o u v e r t o w a r d s t h e e n d o f t h e s e c o n d week i n A u g u s t 1 3 0 3 t h e y w e r e s t e p p i n g i n t o w h a t was a l m o s t l i t e r a l l y a new w o r l d . V a n c o u v e r was n e a r i n g t h e e n d of a d e c a d e o f u n p r e c e d e n t e d g r o w t h . F r o m a s m a l l t o w n i t h a d g r o w n i n t o a c i t y o f a l m o s t a h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d p e o p l e a n d t h e b o o m s h o w e d f e w s i g n s o f e n d i n g . When o n e e m e r g e d f r o m t h e s o l i d , b r i c k C.P.R. r a i l w a y s t a t i o n a t t h e f o o t o f G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t , o n e f a c e d a n u r b a n l a n d s c a p e t h a t s e e m e d d e s i g n e d t o i m p r e s s , w h i l e b e h i n d was a b u s t l i n g p o r t . I t was n o t t h e m e t r o p o l i s o f L o n d o n b y a n y m e a n s , n o r was i t t h e a l r e a d y a g i n g s u b u r b s o f W a n d s w o r t h a n d P u t n e y , b u t i t was n e w a n d e x c i t i n g . W h e t h e r o r n o t i t was a c o n s c i o u s s y m b o l , P e r c y W e s t o n made a c h a n g e t h a t d i d i n f a c t s y m b o l i s e h i s new l i f e i n a new l a n d . He c h a n g e d h i s name f r o m P e r c y W e s t o n t o 3 i l l W e s t o n . He h a d n e v e r l i k e d t h e name P e r c y , o r P e r c e a s he was o f t e n c a l l e d w i t h i n h i s f a m i l y . A s W i l l i a m was h i s f i r s t name, t h e c h a n g e was q u i t e l e g i t i m a t e . I n E n g l a n d , h o w e v e r , h i s f a t h e r h a d t h e same name, s o t o h a v e made t h e c h a n g e t h e r e w o u l d h a v e c a u s e d c o n f u s i o n . O n c e he was i n C a n a d a t h e r e was no s u c h p r o b l e m a n d h e n c e f o r t h he was a l w a y s k n o w n a s B i l l , e x c e p t t o h i s w i f e who was u s e d t o t h e o l d name, h a b i t u a l l y c a l l i n g h i m P e r c y . B i l l W e s t o n a n d h i s f a m i l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e m s e l v e s i n a r e n t e d h o u s e o n t h e e d g e o f t h e b u s h n e a r K i n g E d w a r d H i g h S c h o o l a n d a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y l o o k e d a r o u n d f o r a l o t o n w h i c h t o h a v e . t h e i r own h o u s e b u i l t . When t h e y l e f t E n g l a n d t h e i r s a v i n g s h a d b e e n a u g m e n t e d b y a g i f t o f m o n e y f r o m B i l l ' s f a t h e r , a n d , w h i l e i t s e e m e d t h a t i n V a n c o u v e r " e v e r y o n e was o u t m a k i n g m o n e y o n r e a l 2 e s t a t e , " t h e W e s t o n s p r u d e n t l y e n s u r e d t h e i r f u t u r e . A s t h e name B i l l s y m b o l i s e d a new l i f e , s o p e r h a p s t h i s new h o u s e s y m b o l i s e d a n i n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e i r s was no t e m p o r a r y move a n d t h a t t h e y s a w t h e m s e l v e s a s p a r t o f V a n c o u v e r ' s f u t u r e . T h e new h o u s e a t 356 W e s t T h i r t e e n t h was n o t f a r f r o m t h e i r f i r s t r e n t e d h o u s e i n V a n c o u v e r a n d , l i k e i t , l o o k e d o u t o n o p e n l a n d . A l t h o u g h t h e f o r e s t h a d b e e n c l e a r e d some y e a r s b e f o r e , now t h e a s p e n s w e r e g r o w i n g up a g a i n . T h u s t o t h e n o r t h t h e W e s t o n s c o u l d l o o k o u t o n a n u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t a n d i n t h e 3 o t h e r d i r e c t i o n o n o p e n c o u n t r y . T h i s w o u l d be B i l l W e s t o n ' s f u t u r e a s a n a r t i s t . A p r o d u c t o f a n u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t , he w o u l d a l w a y s l i v e i n a n u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t , y e t w o u l d a l w a y s l o o k o u t t o t h e c o u n t r y s i d e w i t h a p p r e c i a t i o n . A s t h e W e s t o n h o u s e was b e i n g b u i l t , t h e f i n i s h i n g 1 5 6 t o u c h e s were b e i n g p u t t o a n o t h e r new, but g r a n d e r , b u i l d i n g l e s t h a n f o u r b l o c k s away. D e s c r i b e d by t h e P r o v i n c e newspaper as 4 "an a r c h i t e c t u r a l gem. . .of O x f o r d d e s i g n " , t h i s was the new P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l . The s c h o o l had opened i n 1901 i n b o r r o w e d q u a r t e r s and moved i n t o i t s new home i n O c t o b e r 1909, 5 t h e o f f i c i a l o p e n i n g b e i n g i n J a n u a r y 1910. I t o c c u p i e d an i m p o s i n g p o s i t i o n on F a i r v i e w S l o p e s n e x t t o t h e Model S c h o o l , c o m p l e t e d i n 1906. I t was n o t f a r f r o m K i n g Edward H i g h S c h o o l and t o g e t h e r t h e s e e d u c a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s d o m i n a t e d t h e s o u t h e r n s k y l i n e as s e e n f r o m downtown. The Westons u n d o u b t e d l y p a s s e d t h e Normal S c h o o l many t i m e s and w i t h i n f i v e y e a r s i t would t a k e up as d o m i n a n t a p o s i t i o n i n B i l l Weston's l i f e as t h a t i t o c c u p i e d i n 1909 on t h e s k y l i n e . As had happened w i t h t h e move of B o r o u g h Road C o l l e g e to I s l e w o r t h i n 1890, t h e new b u i l d i n g of t h e P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l had b r o u g h t f o r t h c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h more p r e s t i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . In t h i s c a s e i t was w i t h O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y . Today we m i g h t t h i n k i t p resumptuous t o compare a n o r m a l s c h o o l w i t h a famous u n i v e r s i t y , b u t i n 1909 the P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l was t h e p r o v i n c e ' s o n l y s c h o o l of t e r t i a r y e d u c a t i o n . T h e r e was s t i l l no u n i v e r s i t y e s t a b l i s h e d i B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and i n f a c t w r a n g l i n g c o n t i n u e d a b o u t i t s 6 p r o p o s e d l o c a t i o n . To be s u r e t h e r e was t h e U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e of B.C., b u t t h i s was p r o v i d i n g o n l y a l i m i t e d programme under the a u s p i c e s of M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y i n M o n t r e a l . I t was n o t a B.C. 157 i n s t i t u t i o n . B i l l Weston came to B.C. t o work f o r t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d as an a r t t e a c h e r . In 1909 t h e S c h o o l B o a r d s e r v e d 3,345 s t u d e n t s w i t h a s t a f f of 216 i n f i f t e e n s c h o o l s . I t had d o u b l e d i t s s i z e w i t h i n t h e p a s t f i v e y e a r s and would c o n t i n u e t c 7 expand i n l i k e f a s h i o n . The A n n u a l R e p o r t s of t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d showed a c o n c e r n w i t h p r o v i d i n g a good e d u c a t i o n w h i c h m i g h t be f a v o u r a b l y compared w i t h t h a t p r o v i d e d e l s e w h e r e 3 i n Canada. A t t h e same t i m e t h e c a s u a l r e a d e r o f t h e s e r e p o r t s m i g h t be f o r g i v e n f o r t h i n k i n g t h a t t h e main p r e o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e B o a r d was w i t h t h e i r new modern b u i l d i n g s , f o r t h e r e p o r t s were p e p p e r e d w i t h d i s c u s s i o n s a b o u t and p i c t u r e s of t h e p h y s i c a l p l a n t . Methods o f h e a t i n g and l i g h t i n g t h e s c h o o l s were e x p l a i n e d . T h e r e was e v e n a p h o t o g r a p h of t h e new t o i l e t s w h i c h 9 f l u s h e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y when a u s e r s t o o d up. A c l o s e r p e r u s a l shows a keen i n t e r e s t i n a l l t h e a s p e c t s o f r u n n i n g an e x p a n d i n g s y s t e m , w i t h m a t t e r s o f c u r r i c u l u m , s t a f f i n g , q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n , c l a s s s i z e s , m e d i c a l h e a l t h , and so on, a l l h a v i n g t h e i r p l a c e . The b u i l d i n g s were the symbol f o r "the. p r e s e n t m a g n i f i c e n t modern s c h o o l s y s t e m [whose] b e g i n n i n g was t h i r t y 10 y e a r s a g o . " A t t a c h e d t o t h e Manual T r a i n i n g D e partment of t h e S c h o o l B o a r d , Weston was a s s i g n e d t o K i n g Edward H i g h S c h o o l t o 11 t e a c h A r t . As s t u d e n t s took A r t o n l y i n t h e i r f i r s t y e a r a t 153 h i g h s c h o o l , he a l s o d i d some t e a c h i n g a t elementary s c h o o l s i n 12 the c i t y . The year passed smoothly and he enjoyed h i s t e a c h i n g assignment. He began to develop good, f r i e n d s h i p s with s e v e r a l members, of the Manual T r a i n i n g . Department and got to know John K y l e , the Drawing S u p e r v i s o r f o r the Vancouver School Board. He must have en t e r e d h i s second, year of t e a c h i n g e x p e c t i n g another s u c c e s s f u l year of the same. However, i n November the unforeseen r e s i g n a t i o n of. the Drawing Master at the P r o v i n c i a l . Normal School led. to John K y l e ' s o b t a i n i n g t h a t post and Weston moving i n t o the 13 p o s i t i o n of Drawing S u p e r v i s o r . The p o s i t i o n l e d to s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s i n s a l a r y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t was a c h a l l e n g e he 14 a ccepted c o n f i d e n t l y . Outside s c h o o l he found h i m s e l f with f u r t h e r new o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Almost as soon as he a r r i v e d i n Vancouver he j o i n e d the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i e t y of F i n e Arts(BCSFA), l a t e r known as the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i e t y of A r t i s t s , and he remained a member a l l h i s l i f e . The s o c i e t y had been formed i n the s p r i n g 15 of 1909 with the i n t e n t i o n of b r i n g i n g a r t i s t s t o g e t h e r . T h i s was j u s t a few months bef o r e the Westons a r r i v e d , so B i l l Weston c o u l d not q u i t e c l a i m to be a founding member. The members of t h i s s m a l l new group h u r r i e d to ask him to j o i n as soon as they 16 r e a l i s e d t h a t here was a new a r t i s t i n the c i t y . As John Kyle was a founder member i t i s most probable t h a t i t was he who suggested B i l l Weston. A major aim of the s o c i e t y was to hold r e g u l a r e x h i b i t i o n s and they went so f a r as to r e q u i r e members to 1 5 9 1 n a. / e x h i b i t o r l o s e t h e i r m e m b e r s h i p . W i t h n o n - m e m b e r s b e i n g p e r m i t t e d t o e x h i b i t a l s o , f o r many y e a r s t h e B C 3 F A p r o v i d e d t h e c h i e f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r V a n c o u v e r a r t i s t s t o s h o w t h e i r w o r k . T h e s e a r t i s t s w e r e , i n t h e m a i n , a m a t e u r p a i n t e r s i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e y w e r e u n a b l e t o make a n a d e q u a t e l i v i n g f r o m p a i n t i n g . W i t h s o m e , s u c h a s E m i l y C a r r a n d W e s t o n h i m s e l f , t o d a y b e i n g t h o u g h t o f a s i m p o r t a n t i n t h e h i s t o r y o f B.C. a r t , i t i s e a s y t o f o r g e t t h a t t h e i r p a i n t i n g was p e r f o r c e a p a r t - t i m e a c t i v i t y . " I t was a q u e e r s o c i e t y r e a l l y , " s a i d W e s t o n , " b e c a u s e t h e m e m b e r s w e r e d o i n g e v e r y t h i n g e x c e p t p a i n t , e x c e p t f o r Tom 18 F r i p p . " I n f a c t T h o m a s F r i p p was t h e o n l y a r t i s t i n t h e c i t y i n 1 9 1 0 who made h i s l i v i n g f r o m p a i n t i n g . F r i p p r e a l i s e d t h a t he m u s t p a i n t t h e C a n a d i a n l a n d s c a p e i n a n E n g l i s h s t y l e i f he w a n t e d t o s e l l ; s o t h i s he d i d . E n g l i s h t r a i n e d , i t was n o t d i f f i c u l t f o r h i m , b u t he f r e e l y a d m i t t e d t h a t he was n o t i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e l a n d s c a p e a s he w a n t e d . W e s t o n a d m i r e d t h i s h o n e s t y w h i l e r e g r e t t i n g t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r s u c h " p r e t t y " 19 p i c t u r e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e s e p a i n t i n g s w e r e i n f l u e n t i a l i n W e s t o n ' s d e v e l o p m e n t . Tom i n s p i r e d me w i t h h i s m o u n t a i n p i c t u r e s . [ I ] d e c i d e d t h a t I w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y be a b l e t o k n o w t h e m a n d p a i n t t h e m . T e a c h i n g wa s k e e p i n g me s o I c o u l d p a i n t a s I p l e a s e d . i 0 W e s t o n ' s r e s p e c t f o r Tom F r i p p d i d n o t e x t e n d t o t h e o t h e r s i n t h e B C 3 F A who w e r e p r o d u c i n g s o m e w h a t s i m i l a r w o r k a n d h a d a s i m i l a r E n g l i s h t r a i n i n g . I n l a t e r y e a r s , i n f a c t , he h a d some 1G0 v e r y h a r s h words t o s a y a b o u t them. F o r him t h e d i f f e r e n c e between F r i p p and t h e o t h e r B C 3 F A members was a m a t t e r of h o n e s t y . He f e l t t h a t most o f t h e a r t i s t s were p r e t e n d i n g t o do 21 g r e a t work whereas F r i p p a d m i t t e d he was n o t . On the o t h e r hand i t was h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e y were p a i n t i n g i n t h e E n g l i s h s t y l e , f o r t h e a u d i e n c e was i t s e l f l a r g e l y B r i t i s h . More t h a n 75 n o p e r c e n t o f t h e c i t i z e n s o f V a n c o u v e r were o f B r i t i s h s t o c k . The a r t i s t s t o o were m a i n l y B r i t i s h or had B r i t i s h t r a i n i n g . F o r example, among t h e e a r l y members were: E m i l y C a r r , V i c t o r i a - b o r n b u t j u s t back f r o m t r a i n i n g i n London and P a r i s ; S.P. J u d g e , an E n g l i s h c o m m e r c i a l a r t i s t who gave a r t l e s s o n s p r i v a t e l y ; S t a n l e y T y t l e r , now s e l l i n g i n s u r a n c e , who had been b o r n i n I n d i a b u t had t r a i n e d i n t h e B r i t i s h manner i n A u s t r a l i a ; J o h n K y l e f r o m Glasgow. So i t went on. P e r h a p s t h e o n l y one who was f r e e f r o m any d i r e c t B r i t i s h i n f l u e n c e was S t a t i r a Frame. W i t h no f o r m a l t r a i n i n g , she was a b l e t o d e v e l o p her v i s i o n i n her own way. Ev e n s h e , t h o u g h , must have been a f f e c t e d by t h e work o f h e r f e l l o w a r t i s t s and c e r t a i n l y she was i m p r e s s e d by t h e work of her f r i e n d , E m i l y C a r r . I t was t h r o u g h S t a t i r a Frame t h a t B i l l Weston met E m i l y C a r r when he was i n v i t e d f o r t e a . From a l l a c c o u n t s C a r r and Weston e n j o y e d e a c h o t h e r ' s company and t h e y would a l w a y s r e m a i n on f r i e n d l y t e r m s . E m i l y C a r r was n o t one of t h o s e f o r whom Weston e v e r had h a r s h words. In f a c t , he r a n k e d h e r w i t h Tom 161 F r i p p as one of V a n c o u v e r ' s two a r t i s t i c a l l y h o n e s t p a i n t e r s . W h i l e F r i p p p a i n t e d t r i t e l y and a d m i t t e d i t , E m i l y C a r r was a l o n e i n p a i n t i n g u n c o m p r o m i s i n g l y w i t h no c o n c e s s i o n s to p o p u l a r i t y or -> ~> f a s h i o n . One wonders what was Weston's o p i n i o n of h i s own e a r l y work, b u t a t l e a s t f o r h i s f i r s t s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e BC3FA e x h i b i t i o n i n 1910, he c o u l d n o t be a c c u s e d of p a i n t i n g B.C. i n t h e E n g l i s h s t y l e . R e t u r n i n g t o h i s s k e t c h e s , h i s f i r s t " C a n a d i a n " p a i n t i n g s were on E n g l i s h themes. O n l y one of t h e 2 4 f o u r p i c t u r e s t h a t he e x h i b i t e d r e m a i n s . P a i n t i n g s w i t h w h i c h he was n o t c o n t e n t he would u s u a l l y d e s t r o y , b u t On t h e C o r n i s h 25 C o a s t he k e p t . The s c e n e i s c l e a r l y a v i e w o f t h e c l i f f s a t P e r r a n p o r t h . The p a i n t i n g i s b o l d , b u t i t i s c l o s e r t o b e i n g a p i c t u r e p o s t c a r d t h a n i t i s t o b e i n g a d r a m a t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . P e r h a p s t h e r e i s some h i n t of t h e mature Weston i n t h e t r e a t m e n t of t h e r u g g e d c l i f f s , b u t i f so i t i s no more t h a n t h a t . As h i s f i r s t e x h i b i t w i t h t h e BC3FA, t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r and the c o m p e tent t e c h n i q u e no d o u b t a s s i s t e d h i s a c c e p t a n c e as a w o r t h y member. However, he was n o t o n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h a c c e p t a n c e as a BCSFA member. He a l s o f e l t t h a t as he was now an a r t t e a c h e r , p a i n t i n g must become more t h a n a p a s t i m e f o r him. I t had t o 2 6 become a p a r t of h i s l i f e . E ven i f p a i n t i n g was becoming more i m p o r t a n t t o him i t was n o t h i s o n l y l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y . S e t t i n g up h i s d a r k r o o m a t 1 5 2 home, as he had i n E n g l a n d , he c o n t i n u e d h i s hobby of p h o t o g r a p h y . He b u i l t h i m s e l f a s m a l l s a i l b o a t and began what would r e m a i n a l i f e l o n g i n t e r e s t . To some e x t e n t t h e s e two p a s t i m e s o v e r l a p p e d , f o r many o f h i s p h o t o s were of b o a t s and of t h e s e a . T h e r e a r e no p a i n t i n g s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m t h e s e e a r l i e s t y e a r s , b u t t h e r e a r e p h o t o s . A good number of them a r e of t h e s e a and of t h e c o a s t a l m o u n t a i n s t h a t he would p a i n t so o f t e n i n t h e f u t u r e . The p h o t o s a r e i n t e r e s t i n g b e c a u s e he b r o u g h t a p a i n t e r ' s eye t o t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n and some of them f o r e s h a d o w t h e p a i n t i n g s t o come. In p a r t i c u l a r t h e r e a r e some t h a t he t o o k on a memorable t r i p i n A u g u s t 1313 when he went w i t h some f r i e n d s i n a r e n t e d motor b o a t up t h e S e c h e l t P e n i n s u l a . He to o k p i c t u r e s o f c l o u d - s h r o u d e d m o u n t a i n s r i s i n g up f r o m t h e s e a , sometimes w i t h d a r k i s l a n d s f o r m i n g a c l o s e r b a r r i e r . One he t o o k o f t h e t r u n k s o f dead t r e e s s t i l l s t a n d i n g above t h e u n d e r b r u s h , b ut i n t h i s he c o u l d n o t i s o l a t e t h e image f r o m t h e b a c k g r o u n d as he would l a t e r be a b l e t o do i n h i s p a i n t i n g s . The most o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p h o t o g r a p h s and t h e l a t e r p a i n t i n g s was t h a t p e o p l e o f t e n f i g u r e d i n t h e p h o t o s . In h i s p a i n t i n g s he would d e l i b e r a t e l y omit t h e human e l e m e n t , b ut t h i s d i d n o t mean t h a t he was i n s e n s i t i v e t o h i s f e l l o w - m a n . The t r i p i n t h e motor b o a t , "The Wynot," was an i n d i c a t i o n of h i s enjoyment of h i s f r i e n d s . I t was a g l o r i o u s 163 a d v e n t u r e t h a t t h e t e n f r i e n d s r e c o r d e d i n a ' f i n e l e a t h e r - b o u n d d i a r y t i t l e d " The C r u i s e o f t h e W y n o t . " T h e y l e f t f r o m V a n c o u v e r o n A u g u s t 2 n d . , r e t u r n i n g o n A u g u s t 3 t h . I n b e t w e e n t h e y h a d t r a v e l l e d up t h e l e n g t h o f t h e S e c h e l t P e n i n s u l a a n d t h e n o n up P r i n c e o f W a l e s R e a c h , P r i n c e s s R o y a l R e a c h a n d t o t h e h e a d o f Q u e e n ' s R e a c h w h e r e t h e y h a d p e r f o r c e t o t u r n r o u n d . T h e m o t o r g a v e c o n s t a n t p r o b l e m s , b u t s e e m i n g l y t h i s a d d e d t o t h e a d v e n t u r e . A s f i v e o f t h e a d v e n t u r e r s w e r e f r o m t h e M a n u a l T r a i n i n g d e p a r t m e n t o f t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d t h e y w e r e no d o u b t c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e y c o u l d r e p a i r a n y b r e a k d o w n . T h e f r i e n d s g a v e e a c h o t h e r n i c k n a m e s f o r t h e j o u r n e y a n d B i l l W e s t o n was " T h e P a i n t S l i n g e r , S i x F o o t o f S m i l e . " T h e t r i p was i m p o r t a n t f o r W e s t o n b e c a u s e i t t o o k h i m i n t o a l m o s t v i r g i n c o u n t r y f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e a n d g a v e h i m t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s k e t c h t h e c o a s t a l m o u n t a i n s . I t may a l s o h a v e b e e n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e S e c h e l t P e n i n s u l a . L a t e r t h e W e s t o n s w o u l d h a v e a camp a t t h e s o u t h e r n e n d o f t h e p e n i n s u l a n e a r G i b s o n s . V i e w s f r o m t h e r e w o u l d p r o v i d e a m a j o r i n s p i r a t i o n f o r B i l l W e s t o n ' s p a i n t i n g s . W h e t h e r o r n o t t h e s k e t c h e s he made o n t h i s t r i p l e d t o l a t e r p a i n t i n g s i s u n k n o w n , a t a n y r a t e n o n e s u r v i v e . He s a i d i n l a t e r y e a r s t h a t w h e n he s a w t h e n a t u r a l 27 g r a n d e u r o f B.C. he was d e t e r m i n e d t o l e a r n t o p o r t r a y i t . A s t h e f i r s t k n o w n W e s t o n p a i n t i n g s o f t h e m o u n t a i n s d a t e f r o m 1 9 2 3 a n d he s a i d t h a t he h a d b e e n d e s t r o y i n g h i s w o r k a s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r " f i v e o r s i x y e a r s " b e f o r e he k e p t a n y , i t 164 s e e m s l i k e l y t h a t h e h a d s t i l l t o b e g i n r e c o r d i n g w h a t w o u l d b e c o m e h i s e x c l u s i v e s u b j e c t , t h e n a t u r a l b e a u t y o f t h e 23 p r o v i n c e . T h e f r i e n d s came b a c k f r o m t h e i r t r i p d e t e r m i n e d t o r e p e a t i t . H o w e v e r , e x a c t l y a y e a r l a t e r t h e w o r l d was p l u n g e d i n t o w a r . Some o f t h e g r o u p r e t u r n e d t o E n g l a n d t o f i g h t o r d i e , b u t , e x c e p t f o r i t s s t a r t , t h e w a r w o u l d p a s s W e s t o n b y . When W o r l d War One b e g a n t h e B i l l W e s t o n f a m i l y was i n E n g l a n d p a y i n g w h a t w o u l d b e t h e i r o n l y t r i p "home" t o s e e t h e i r f a m i l i e s . T h e w a r c u t s h o r t t h e v i s i t a n d s e n t t h e m h u r r y i n g b a c k t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . E x c e p t f o r t h i s d i s r u p t i o n o f h o l i d a y p l a n s t h e w a r h a d l i t t l e , i f a n y , e f f e c t o n t h e W e s t o n f a m i l y . U n l i k e many o f h i s B r i t i s h c o m p a t r i o t s , B i l l W e s t o n d i d n o t e n l i s t . P e r h a p s he f e l t t h a t a t a g e t h i r t y - f i v e a n d w i t h a y o u n g f a m i l y h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w e r e a t home. He d i d n o t t a l k a b o u t h i s r e a s o n i n g . T h e v i s i t t o E n g l a n d h a d f r o m s e v e r a l c a u s e s . T h e y h a d b e e n i n C a n a d a f o r f i v e y e a r s a n d J e s s i e W e s t o n was h o m e s i c k f o r h e r f a m i l y . T h e y h a d h a d a s e c o n d d a u g h t e r , D o r i s , i n F e b r u a r y 1 9 1 2 a n d w e r e a n x i o u s t o s h o w o f f t h e i r f a m i l y t o r e l a t i v e s . A s B i l l W e s t o n h a d j u s t o b t a i n e d a new a n d e v e n b e t t e r j o b , t h e y c o u l d a f f o r d t o g o . T h e new p o s i t i o n a l s o g a v e t h e m t h e t i m e t o g o , f o r W e s t o n was a b l e t o l e a v e t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l 3 o a r d a t t h e e n d o f M a y a n d s o h a v e t h e summer f r e e . When Weston became Drawing S u p e r v i s o r f o r t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l 3 o a r d he was f o l l o w i n g i n John K y l e ' s f o o t s t e p s . Now John K y l e l e f t the P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l t o work f o r the. Department of E d u c a t i o n and Weston a g a i n f o l l o w e d i n h i s f o o t s t e p s becoming A r t M a s t e r a t t h e Normal S c h o o l i n V a n c o u v e r . The move was a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n Weston's c a r e e r . He would keep t h e p o s t u n t i l he r e t i r e d i n 1946. I t gave him a r e s p o n s i b l e and i n f l u e n t i a l p o s i t i o n , f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y and s u f f i c i e n t t i m e o f f t o p a i n t . W i t h i t s p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f f e m a l e s t u d e n t s t h e Normal S c h o o l a l s o put him c o n s t a n t l y among young women. Many o f h i s f r i e n d s have a t t e s t e d t h a t , i n a v e r y c o r r e c t way, t h i s was h i s f a v o u r i t e 29 e n v i r o n m e n t . But b e f o r e t h e j o b w i t h t h e Normal S c h o o l s t a r t e d , t h e Westons went t o E n g l a n d . T h e i r v i s i t was u p s e t a l i t t l e a t t h e end by t h e s t a r t o f W o r l d War One, b u t n o t s e r i o u s l y s o . The b e g i n n i n g was marred by t h e u n e x p e c t e d d e a t h o f h i s b r o t h e r , Henry, who d i e d s u d d e n l y a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of June 1914 j u s t b e f o r e t h e B i l l Westons a r r i v e d home. I t was p e r h a p s t y p i c a l o f t h e f a m i l y t h a t t h e d e a t h d i d n o t seem t o s p o i l t h e v i s i t u n d u l y . Henry had a l w a y s been t h e odd b r o t h e r who d i d n ' t q u i t e f i t i n and h i s d e a t h was t r e a t e d as c o o l l y as he had been t r e a t e d 30 i n l i f e . W i t h m a i l and t r a v e l b e i n g r e l a t i v e l y s l o w , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e B i l l Westons d i d n o t l e a r n of t h e d e a t h u n t i l t h e y a r r i v e d i n E n g l a n d , by w h i c h t i m e t h e f a m i l y had g o t o v e r 166 the s h o c k . They l e f t V a n c o u v e r on F r i d a y , June 12, 1914, and a r r i v e d i n E n g l a n d a b o u t two weeks l a t e r . "Wot 0," wrote Weston, 31 won't we av some f u n . " And f u n t h e y d i d have. B r o t h e r F r e d came down f r o m Glasgow f o r a f a m i l y r e u n i o n . F r e d was t h e b r o t h e r t o whom B i l l f e l t c l o s e s t and h i s a t t e n d a n c e was a p a r t i c u l a r p l e a s u r e . I f B i l l ' s f a m i l y was a d m i r e d and h i s good f o r t u n e i n Canada p r a i s e d , no d o u b t he was e x p e c t e d i n h i s t u r n t o be i m p r e s s e d w i t h the r e s t of t h e f a m i l y ' s s u c c e s s . M a r g a r e t had her own c h i l d r e n t o d i s p l a y . L i l l i a n was h e a d m i s t r e s s of a g i r l ' s s c h o o l and F r a n k was a s u c c e s s f u l r e s e a r c h c h e m i s t w i t h s e v e r a l p u b l i c a t i o n s t o h i s name. The summer was a happy one b u t B i l l Weston had no d e s i r e t o s t a y . The west c o a s t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was now h i s home. I n f a c t a f t e r t h e a s s a s s i n a t i o n o f t h e A r c h d u k e F e r d i n a n d s e n t B i l l and h i s f a m i l y h u r r y i n g back t o w e s t e r n Canada, he n e v e r wanted t o r e t u r n t o E n g l a n d . He n e v e r t o o k a n o t h e r t r i p o u t s i d e o f Canada and i n d e e d d i d n o t even l e a v e t h e p r o v i n c e f o r 32 a n o t h e r t w e n t y - s e v e n y e a r s . J e s s i e would have b o u t s of h o m e s i c k n e s s a l l h e r l i f e and would have l i k e d v e r y much t o v i s i t h e r f a m i l y a g a i n . B u t , even t h o u g h she was t o o n e r v o u s t o make th e j o u r n e y on her own, B i l l Weston would n o t go w i t h h e r . A l t h o u g h h i s r e f u s a l t o accommodate h i s w i f e ' s w i s h f o r a n o t h e r v i s i t s u g g e s t s some d e e p l y f e l t d i s i n c l i n a t i o n , he n e v e r a d m i t t e d t o a n y t h i n g more t h a n a l a c k of i n t e r e s t . He r a r e l y t a l k e d of h i s l i f e i n E n g l a n d e i t h e r . I t was no l o n g e r "home". 157 In p a r t , h i s contentment came from h i s love f o r t h e n a t u r a l grandeur of B.C. I t a l s o came from h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with h i s work. At the time of h i s t r i p to England he looked t o t h e Normal School post o n l y as promising an e x c i t i n g f u t u r e , but he could look back to almost f i v e s u c c e s s f u l years as Drawing Supe r v i s o r f o r Vancouver School Board. I t had been a good promotion f o r him i n 1910. I n i t i a l l y s u p e r v i s i n g a t e a c h i n g s t a f f of some 250 t e a c h e r s , most of whom taught a r t , h i s 33 r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s grew r a p i d l y as the system expanded. Within a year and a h a l f the chairman of the Management Committee was 34 s u g g e s t i n g that Weston needed an a s s i s t a n t . While the a s s i s t a n t never m a t e r i a l i s e d , the job continued to grow. Although the Vancouver School Board covered a smaller area of the c i t y than than i t does today, i t was n e v e r t h e l e s s the l a r g e s t board i n the 35 province and was probably the most i n f l u e n t i a l . The r o l e of Drawing Supervisor was l a r g e l y concerned with the t r a i n i n g of teachers to teach a r t , s i n c e i t was o f f i c i a l Board p o l i c y t h a t drawing should be taught by the classroom teacher r a t h e r than by a s p e c i a l i s t . We wish i t to be c l e a r l y understood that we do not favor having a l l the t e a c h i n g i n any c l a s s room done by s p e c i a l i s t s i n [drawing]. I n t e l l i g e n t teachers can l e a r n to teach drawing as w e l l as they can l e a r n to teach w r i t i n g or a r i t h m e t i c , and they should do so. S u p e r v i s o r s d i s c h a r g e t h e i r d u t i e s when they teach the untutored teacher to teach t h e i r s p e c i a l s u b j e c t , and then see t h a t they do i t . 3 5 168 As D r a w i n g S u p e r v i s o r , W e s t o n was a b l e t o u s e h i s B r i t i s h t r a i n i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e . He s h o w e d h i s c o m m i t m e n t t o t h e t e n e t s o f t h e B r i t i s h d r a w i n g c u r r i c u l u m i n h i s w r i t i n g s . I n h i s v e r y f i r s t r e p o r t a s S u p e r v i s o r , he w r o t e : M o r e a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d b e g i v e n t o o r i g i n a l w o r k . T h e s t u d e n t s c a n d r a w f r o m o b j e c t s o r c o p i e s w i t h s u c c e s s , b u t t h e y s h o u l d be a b l e t o u s e w h a t t h e y h a v e s o l e a r n e d . M e m o r y d r a w i n g o r d e s i g n g i v e s t h e s t u d e n t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x e r c i s e h i s own j u d g m e n t a n d a l s o t h e p o w e r t o c r e a t e f o r h i m s e l f , a n d t h e r e f o r e , i t s h o u l d f o l l o w t h e c o p y i n g a n d o b j e c t w o r k . - 1 7 He e x p r e s s e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e c o l o u r w o r k a n d w i t h g e o m e t r i c d r a w i n g . A l l o f t h e s e c o m m e n t s w o u l d h a v e f i t t e d h a p p i l y i n t o a n y d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e a r t w o r k i n B r i t i s h s c h o o l s . T h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r h e d r e w a t t e n t i o n t o t h e t w o a i m s o f t e a c h i n g d r a w i n g : " f o r t h e p r a c t i c a l w o r k o f c o m m e r c i a l l i f e , a n d t o c u l t i v a t e g o o d t a s t e a n d a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e b e a u t i f u l . " He 33 w e n t o n t o w r i t e o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f " n a t u r a l f o r m s . " S u c h s t a t e m e n t s c o u l d h a v e a s e a s i l y come f r o m e i t h e r t h e B r i t i s h 1 9 0 1 S y 1 l a b u s o r t h e 1 9 0 5 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s . A s t h e S u g g e s t i o n s h a d p u t i t , i t w o u l d be " a s a f e f o u n d a t i o n f o r e i t h e r u t i l i t a r i a n o r a e s t h e t i c a f t e r g r o w t h , " a n d i t w e n t o n , " S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be p a i d t o i n s t r u c t i o n i n 39 t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f b e a u t y . " B y t h e t i m e o f h i s t h i r d r e p o r t h e f e l t a b l e t o p r a i s e t h e p r o g r e s s t h a t h a d b e e n made i n m e m o r y d r a w i n g , t h i s " h i t h e r t o s o m e w h a t n e g l e c t e d b r a n c h o f o u r w o r k , " a n d t o c o m m e n t on 40 d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d b y s t a f f i n t e a c h i n g n a t u r e d r a w i n g . He a l s o p r a i s e d : D e s i g n w o r k [ w h i c h ] s h o w s t h e m o s t s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s , s ome o f l a s t t e r m ' s w o r k b e i n g r e a l l y e x c e l l e n t a n d s h o w i n g a g r e a t advance^ in f r e e d o m o f t r e a t m e n t , a r r a n g e m e n t a n d c o l o u r . ^ A g a i n t h i s s u g g e s t s a n e m p h a s i s o n B r i t i s h p r a c t i c e a n d h a s much i n common w i t h t h e 1 9 0 5 S u g g e s t i o n s . W e s t o n may n o t h a v e b e e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n t r o d u c i n g a B r i t i s h f l a v o u r t o t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d ' s D r a w i n g c u r r i c u l u m , b u t he e n c o u r a g e d i t . H i s p r e d e c e s s o r , J o h n K y l e , was a l s o B r i t i s h a n d many o f t h e t e a c h e r s w o u l d h a v e b e e n B r i t i s h . K y l e i n f a c t h a d g i v e n a p a p e r a t t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e D o m i n i o n E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1 9 0 9 e n t i t l e d "The A d a p t a t i o n o f N a t u r e S t u d y t o D e s i g n , " w h i c h was a f a i r 42 r e p r o d u c t i o n o f B r i t i s h t h o u g h t i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . K y l e h a d come t o B.C. i n 1 9 0 6 , o n l y t h r e e y e a r s b e f o r e W e s t o n b u t h a d b r o u g h t w i t h h i m t h e r e s u l t s o f a B r i t i s h t r a i n i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h w e r e f r o m a s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r p e r i o d . T h i s was p r o b a b l y d u e q u i t e s i m p l y t o t h e f a c t t h a t he was e i g h t y e a r s o l d e r t h a n W e s t o n a n d i n h i s t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g h a d m i s s e d t h e r e v o l u t i o n i n a r t e d u c a t i o n t h a t h a d b e e n s y m b o l i s e d b y t h e 1 3 9 5 A l t e r n a t i v e S y l l a b u s . B o t h h a d h a d a f i n e a r t s t r a i n i n g , b u t W e s t o n was b r i n g i n g a m o r e u p - t o - d a t e v i e w . 1 7 0 So when K y l e moved t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l he b r o u g h t t o t h a t p o s i t i o n a v i e w of a r t e d u c a t i o n t h a t was c o m p a t i b l e t o Weston's. R e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s was shown by Weston i n h i s l a s t r e p o r t as D r a w i n g S u p e r v i s o r when he e x p r e s s e d t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e new t e a c h e r s coming f r o m t h e Normal S c h o o l "know b e t t e r what i s e x p e c t e d i n t h i s s u b j e c t [ d r a w i n g ] and 43 c o n s e q u e n t l y a r e a b l e t o t a k e h o l d of t h e work more r e a d i l y . " The A r t M a s t e r who p r e c e d e d K y l e a t t h e Normal S c h o o l had b r o u g h t a c o p y book a p p r o a c h t o t h e t e a c h i n g of a r t and i n f a c t wrote a s e r i e s of a r t c o p y b o o k s . A l t h o u g h t h a t s e r i e s r e m a i n e d an o f f i c i a l t e x t i n B.C. u n t i l 1924, under th e i n f l u e n c e of e d u c a t o r s s u c h as K y l e and Weston t h i s a p p r o a c h t o a r t e d u c a t i o n 44 had begun t o change l o n g b e f o r e . Weston's a s s u m p t i o n of t h e p o s t of A r t M a s t e r a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l was t h e r e f o r e a c o n t i n u a t i o n of B r i t i s h i n f l u e n c e i n s c h o o l a r t e d u c a t i o n . He s t a y e d a t t h e Normal S c h o o l f o r t h e r e s t of h i s w o r k i n g l i f e . H i s was a p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h he would be a b l e t o e x e r c i s e g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on a r t t e a c h i n g i n t h e s c h o o l s . I t gave him g r e a t p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . H i s d a u g h t e r r e c a l l e d : He l o v e d t h e whole t h i r t y - t w o y e a r s t h a t he worked. He s a i d t h a t w h a t e v e r you do you s h o u l d d e c i d e what you want t o do f o r y o u r s e l v e s b e c a u s e you've g o t t o be happy. He s a i d , "I d o n ' t g e t a l o t of money, b u t I'm h a p p y . " 4 5 In p a r t h i s h a p p i n e s s i n t h e j o b must have r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e c o n f i d e n c e b r o u g h t b y h i s e x c e l l e n t q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . I n f i v e y e a r s w i t h V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d he h a d g a i n e d e x p e r i e n c e o f a l l l e v e l s o f p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g a n d he k n e w b o t h t h e s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e s y s t e m . H a v i n g h a d a t h o r o u g h t r a i n i n g b o t h a s a t e a c h e r a n d a s a n a r t i s t , h e was c o n f i d e n t i n h i s own a b i l i t i e s . He b e l i e v e d s t r o n g l y t h a t t h e s u c c e s s o f a r t i n t h e s c h o o l s l a y i n a g o o d g r o u n d i n g i n t e c h n i q u e , b u t w i t h a v a r i e t y o f e x p r e s s i o n . He was now i n a p o s i t i o n t o e n s u r e t h a t new t e a c h e r s i n B.C. o b t a i n e d t h a t g r o u n d i n g . When he e n r o l l e d h i s f i r s t c l a s s i n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 1 4 t h e N o r m a l S c h o o l i n V a n c o u v e r was t h e o n l y t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n t h e p r o v i n c e . W h i l e t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r a s e c o n d N o r m a l S c h o o l was o p e n e d i n V i c t o r i a , t h e V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l a l w a y s h a d a b o u t d o u b l e t h e e n r o l m e n t . W e s t o n c o n t i n u e d t o h a v e a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o n t h e m a j o r i t y o f new t e a c h e r s i n B.C. W h i l e o b t a i n i n g t h e p o s t a t t h e N o r m a l S c h o o l was a s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t i n W e s t o n ' s l i f e , t h e j o b i t s e l f c o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a n e v e n t o r s e r i e s o f e v e n t s s o m u c h a s a c o n t i n u u m i n w h i c h t h e r e was g e n t l e c h a n g e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t . A l w a y s r e m a i n i n g t r u e t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s a n d t h e o r i e s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n w i t h w h i c h he s t a r t e d , W e s t o n a l w a y s i n s i s t e d t h a t a n e d u c a t i o n i n a r t s h o u l d b e b a s e d o n l e a r n i n g t h e b a s i c s k i l l s o f d r a w i n g a n d d e s i g n . I t w o u l d be t o o h a r s h a c r i t i c i s m t o s a y t h a t W e s t o n ' s t e a c h i n g was u n c h a n g i n g , b u t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l a p p r o a c h was d e f i n i t e l y c o n s i s t e n t . A s e t o f n o t e b o o k s made b y a s t u d e n t i n 172 1 9 2 0 w e r e t r u e t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e 1 9 0 1 S y l l a b u s a n d t h e 1 9 0 5 S u g g e s t i o n s a n d s h o w e d a r e m a r k a b l e s i m i l a r i t y t o a s e t o f n o t e b o o k s made b y a n o t h e r s t u d e n t i n 1 9 3 4 . When t h e s e same n o t e b o o k s w e r e s h o w n t o a s t u d e n t f r o m 1 9 4 2 t h e y e l i c i t e d t h e 4G c o m m e n t , "Oh y e s , t h a t i s t h e s o r t o f t h i n g we d i d . " T h i s c e r t a i n l y s u g g e s t s t h a t h i s t e a c h i n g was s t u c k i n some s o r t o f r u t f o r many y e a r s , b u t h i s s t u d e n t s e a c h y e a r e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y a c c e p t e d h i s t e a c h i n g a s new a n d e x c i t i n g . W h e t h e r o r n o t h i s c o n s i s t e n c y was a g o o d t h i n g , i t d i d much t o k e e p a l i v e i n t h e s c h o o l s t h e B r i t i s h i d e a s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n w h i c h W e s t o n b r o u g h t w i t h h i m . H i s p o s i t i o n a t t h e l a r g e r o f t h e t w o N o r m a l S c h o o l s was a n i n f l u e n t i a l o n e a n d f o r many y e a r s t h e r e w e r e f e w s t r o n g c o u n t e r - i d e a s t o p r o v i d e a c h a l l e n g e . B e s i d e s , t h e p r e d o m i n a n t ! B r i t i s h e d u c a t i o n a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n a p r e d o m i n a n t l y B r i t i s h p r o v i n c e p r o v i d e d f e r t i l e g r o u n d i n w h i c h t h e s e B r i t i s h i d e a s c o u l d g r o w . The summer t h a t t h e W e s t o n s w e r e i n E n g l a n d s a w t h e s t a r t o f a summer s c h o o l f o r t e a c h e r s i n V i c t o r i a . I t was o r g a n i s e d u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f J o h n K y l e who h a d j u s t m o v e d o v e t o V i c t o r i a t o b e c o m e d i r e c t o r o f t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The summer s c h o o l was h e l d a g a i n i n 1 9 1 5 , b u t t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r was c a n c e l l e d b e c a u s e o f w a r t i m e r e s t r i c t i o n s . H o w e v e r , i t was r e s u m e d i n 1 9 1 7 , t h e r e a f t e r i t b e c o m i n g a n a n n u a l e v e n t . W e s t o n w e n t o v e r t o t e a c h a r t t h a t y e a r a n d d u r i n g t h e n e x t t w e n t y - t w o y e a r s he w o u l d m i s s o n l y t w o summer s e s s i o n s . Summer s c h o o l 1 7 3 b e c a m e p a r t o f t h e r e g u l a r p a t t e r n o f h i s l i f e , p r o v i d i n g h i m w i t h y e t a n o t h e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o s p r e a d h i s i d e a s , t h i s t i m e t c p r a c t i s i n g r a t h e r t h a n new t e a c h e r s . A s h i s t e a c h i n g l i f e was f a l l i n g i n t o r e g u l a r p a t t e r n s s o was h i s l i f e o u t s i d e o f s c h o o l . He b o u g h t a n o t h e r s a i l b o a t , "The P a t h f i n d e r " , ' i n 1 9 1 5 t o r e p l a c e o n e he h a d s o l d i n 1 3 1 3 a n d f r o m now o n he w o u l d a l w a y s own a s a i l b o a t u n t i l w e l l a f t e r h i s r e t i r e m e n t . He j o i n e d t h e R o y a l V a n c o u v e r Y a c h t C l u b . H i s w i f e w o u l d s o m e t i m e s c r e w f o r h i m b u t s h e was n o t g r e a t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n s a i l i n g . When h i s e l d e r d a u g h t e r , B e t t e , b e c a m e o l d e n o u g h s h e t o o k o v e r a s h i s r e g u l a r s a i l i n g p a r t n e r a n d t h e y s p e n t man,} h a p p y h o u r s o n t h e b o a t t o g e t h e r . B i l l W e s t o n e n j o y e d t h e s a i l i n g r a c e s o r g a n i s e d b y t h e y a c h t c l u b b u t t h e b o a t was a l s o a g o o d e x c u s e f o r a f a m i l y o u t i n g o r a p i c n i c w i t h f r i e n d s . T h e s e f r i e n d s came f r o m w i t h i n h i s e x i s t i n g c i r c l e o f a c q u a i n t a n c e s , s h a r i n g h i s t e a c h i n g a n d a r t i s t i c i n t e r e s t s . I n p a r t i c u l a r t h e y w e r e C h a r l e s S c o t t , who h a d r e p l a c e d W e s t o n a s D r a w i n g S u p e r v i s o r a n d who w o u l d l a t e r b e c o m e t h e P r i n c i p a l o f t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l o f A r t , a n d S.P. J u d g e a n d h i s w i f e . J u d g e was t h e c o m m e r c i a l a r t i s t W e s t o n h a d met w h e n he f i r s t a r r i v e d a n d w o u l d , i n t h e s m a l l c l o s e d w o r l d o V a n c o u v e r a r t e d u c a t i o n , be S c o t t ' s r e p l a c e m e n t a t t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d w h e n S c o t t m o v e d o n . T h e J u d g e s w e r e n o t f a v o u r i t e w i t h t h e W e s t o n c h i l d r e n a s t h e y t h o u g h t t h e m " t o f f e e E n g l i s h " 1 7 4 w i t h a n i n f l a t e d v i e w o f t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e . B i l l W e s t o n h a d a l o w o p i n i o n o f J u d g e a s a n a r t i s t ; n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e f r i e n d s h i p 47 p e r s i s t e d . A t a b o u t t h e same t i m e a s he b o u g h t " T h e P a t h f i n d e r " W e s t o n a l s o b o u g h t some l a n d a t G r a n t h a m s L a n d i n g o n t h e S e c h e l t P e n i n s u l a j u s t n o r t h o f G i b s o n s . T h e f a m i l y u s e d t h i s p r o p e r t y a s a w e e k e n d a n d h o l i d a y r e t r e a t a n d i t b e c a m e a f a v o u r i t e s a i l i n g d e s t i n a t i o n . I n i t i a l l y t h e y c a m p e d o n t h e l a n d , b u t i n t i m e t h e y b u i l t a c a b i n . W i t h i t s v i e w o f K e a t s I s l a n d a n d Howe S o u n d , t h i s summer home w o u l d l a t e r p r o v i d e i n s p i r a t i o n f o r many o f W e s t o n ' s p a i n t i n g s . T h e W e s t o n f a m i l y ' s t r i p t o E n g l a n d i n 1 9 1 4 m a r k e d a d i v i s i o n i n t h e i r l i v e s . T h e f i r s t f i v e y e a r s i n C a n a d a h a d b e e n a t i m e o f f a m i l y a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o w t h a n d t h e p u t t i n g d o wn o f r o o t s . J e s s i e a n d B i l l W e s t o n h a d c o m p l e t e d t h e i r f a m i l y b y t h e a d d i t i o n o f a s e c o n d d a u g h t e r , h a d b u i l t a h o u s e , a n d h a d e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r p a t t e r n s o f f a m i l y l i f e . P r o f e s s i o n a l l y , W e s t o n h a d r i s e n q u i c k l y t o g a i n a p o s i t i o n o f i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n t h e V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l s y s t e m a s D r a w i n g S u p e r v i s o r , t h e n h a d r i s e n a g a i n t o a p o s i t i o n w h i c h o f f e r e d h i m t h e p o t e n t i a l t o i n f l u e n c e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t e a c h i n g o f a r t i n s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e . T h e h o l i d a y i n E n g l a n d h a d c o n f i r m e d W e s t o n i n t h e v i e w t h a t h i s f u t u r e d i d n o t l i e t h e r e . I f he r e t a i n e d a n y h a n k e r i n g s t o v i s i t E n g l a n d a g a i n , t h e s e w e r e e f f e c t i v e l y l o s t 175 w i t h t h e d e a t h o f h i s m o t h e r j u s t s i x weeks a f t e r t h e e n d o f t h e war. She had p r o v i d e d h i m w i t h h i s c l o s e s t e m o t i o n a l t i e w i t h t h e p a s t . A f t e r t h e E n g l i s h v i s i t we f i n d t h e W e s t o n s ' f a m i l y -l i f e c h a n g i n g s l o w l y w i t h t i m e r a t h e r t h a n d r a m a t i c a l l y . E i i l W eston had h i s work a t t h e N o r m a l S c h o o l . From 1 9 1 7 he had t h e summer s c h o o l a t V i c t o r i a . He had s a i l i n g t o g i v e h i m a h o b b y and a p h y s i c a l o u t l e t . H i s a c t i v e m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e BCSFA p u t h i m c l o s e t o t h e c e n t r e o f V a n c o u v e r a r t i s t i c l i f e . The f a m i l y was f i n a n c i a l l y s e c u r e . I t was a p l e a s a n t p a t t e r n o f l i f e , b u t i t was a p a t t e r n e s t a b l i s h e d by W e s t o n . J e s s i e W eston was f i e r c e l y l o y a l t o h e r h u s b a n d , b u t t h e l i f e e s t a b l i s h e d was n o t r e a l l y t h e one she m i g h t have c h o s e n . She had t o f i t i n . T h e i r e l d e r d a u g h t e r B e t t e r e c o g n i z e d t h i s . W e l l t h e y d i d n ' t r e a l l y l i k e t h e same t h i n g s . She w a s n ' t a n a r t i s t a n d t h a t was h a r d . She l i k e d p l a y i n g b r i d g e and he d i d n ' t . She d i d n ' t l i k e b o a t s and he d i d . . . . He had a l l t h e s e i n t e r e s t s and j u s t k e p t d o i n g them. She'd c o m p l a i n b u t he j u s t d i d n ' t pay a n y a t t e n t i o n . He was a v e r y d e t e r m i n e d p e r s o n . 4 8 I n l a t e r y e a r s some o f t h e i r f r i e n d s t h o u g h t t h a t t h e comments became i n c r e a s i n g l y c r i t i c a l , b u t she n e v e r a l l o w e d o t h e r s t o s a y 49 a n y t h i n g a g a i n s t h e r h u s b a n d . To c o m p l a i n was h e r p r i v i l e g e f o r a l l t h e y e a r s o f s u p p o r t . W i t h i t s r e g u l a r i t y and r o u t i n e B i l l W e s t o n's l i f e m i g h t have become i n e f f a b l y d u l l . T h a t i t d i d n ' t may w e l l have 1 7 G b e e n b e c a u s e t h e s e s m o o t h p a t t e r n s i n much o f h i s l i f e e n a b l e d h i m t o be d a r i n g i n o t h e r s . A s a n a r t i s t he w o u l d w o r k t o d e v e l o p new w a y s o f i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e l a n d s c a p e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d a s a n e d u c a t o r t o b r i n g a c o o r d i n a t e d c o h e s i v e v i e w t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m . T h e t e n y e a r s a f t e r 1 9 1 4 w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t f o r W e s t o n a s a n a r t i s t . I t was d u r i n g t h i s t i m e t h a t he came t o g r i p s w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f d e p i c t i n g t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l a n d s c a p e i n a w a y t h a t he f e l t w o u l d d o i t j u s t i c e . He was d i s s a t i s f i e d ' w i t h t h e E n g l i s h m a n n e r o f l a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g u s e d b y h i m s e l f a n d h i s p e e r s , b u t he h a d l i t t l e i d e a o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e . So he s e t t o w o r k " t o s t u d y a n d k n o w t h e s e t h i n g s a n d t h e b e s t w a y was b y 50 d r a w i n g a n d p a i n t i n g t h e m c o n s t a n t l y . " B e c a u s e he d i d n o t k e e p w o r k w i t h w h i c h h e was d i s s a t i s f i e d o r w h i c h he f e l t was t r a n s i t o r y i n s t y l e , t h e r e a r e f e w p a i n t i n g s b e f o r e 1 3 2 3 . H o w e v e r , s u f f i c i e n t r e m a i n t o s h o w h i s d e v e l o p m e n t a s a n a r t i s t a n d i n l a t e r y e a r s he w r o t e a n d s p o k e t o h i s f r i e n d s a b o u t t h i s p e r i o d . He f o u n d i t was a n a d v a n t a g e t h a t B.C. was r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e r e s t o f t h e c o u n t r y . "We w e r e c u t o f f , a s t h e y s a y , b y t h e R o c k i e s f r o m t h e e a s t a n d we h a d t o r e l y a b s o l u t e l y 51 o n o u r s e l v e s f o r w h a t we f e l t l i k e d o i n g . " C o n s e q u e n t l y i n h i s a r t he was r e l a t i v e l y u n a f f e c t e d b y o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s . I n p a r t i c u l a r W e s t o n f e l t t h a t he h a d a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d h i s d i s t i n c t i v e s t y l e b y t h e t i m e t h a t t h e f i r s t G r o u p o f S e v e n 17 7 e x h i b i t i o n was h e l d i n V a n c o u v e r a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t w e n t i e s . W e s t o n was v e r y s e n s i t i v e t o l a t e r c o m p a r i s o n s of h i s w o r k w i t h t h a t o f t h e G r o u p o f S e v e n . He h i m s e l f a d m i r e d t h e work o f t h e G r o u p , b u t he f e l t t h a t w h a t t h e y w e r e d o i n g was s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t f r o m w h a t was b e i n g d o n e i n B.C. I t s e e m s t o me t h a t t h e w e s t c a n n o t b e p a i n t e d i n t h e same m a n n e r a s t h e e a s t a n d t h a t t h e o u t l o o k i n t h e w e s t c a n n o t b e j u d g e d b y t h e same s t a n d a r d s a s t h a t i n t h e e a s t . F o r i n s t a n c e I h a v e h e a r d c r i t i c i s m t h a t w e s t e r n l a n d s c a p e p a i n t e r s o m i t h u m a n i n t e r e s t . T h i s i s o f t e n t r u e b u t t h e r e i s a r e a s o n . T h e e a s t i s much o l d e r i n s e t t l e m e n t t h a n t h e w e s t a n d t h e c o u n t r y c a r r i e s t h e m a r k o f man's h a n d i w o r k . T h e w e s t i s m u c h l e s s t o u c h e d b y man's wo r k . . ^ 3 W e s t e r n a r t i s t s d i d i n d e e d come t o f e e l i g n o r e d b y t h e a r t e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n O n t a r i o a n d Q u e b e c , o r m e r e l y f o b b e d o f f a s c o p i e r s o f t h e G r o u p o f S e v e n s t y l e . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p o r t a n t t o a p p r e c i a t e t h a t a t t h e t i m e w h e n W e s t o n was e x p e r i m e n t i n g f o r w a y s t o d e p i c t t h e g r a n d e u r o f B.C., t h e e a s t e r n G r o u p d i d n o t h a v e t h e s t a t u s i t w o u l d l a t e r a c h i e v e a n d was r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e k n o w n o n t h e w e s t c o a s t . I t was t h e n a t u r a l b e a u t y o f B.C. t h a t W e s t o n w a n t e d t o p a i n t f o r "man s e e m s p u n y a n d h i s s l i g h t i n r o a d s a r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t , " s o he c o n s c i o u s l y o m i t t e d t h e human 54 e l e m e n t . B.C. w i t h i t s r u g g e d m o u n t a i n s , t u m b l e d b e a c h e s , h u g e f o r e s t g i a n t s a n d b e a u t i f u l t r e e f o r m s . . . a p p e a l e d t o me s t r o n g l y . . . . A l l t h e s e f o r m s h a v e b e e n a f f a c t e d b y a n d m o u l d e d b y t h e e l e m e n t s -- w i n d , r a i n , f r o s t a n d 1 7 3 snow i n one way or another. E.g. e r o s i o n i n mountain forms, changes in s t r u c t u r e i n l i v i n g forms. The study of t h i s i s most i n t e r e s t i n g and has been the main f o r c e behind a l l my drawings and paintings.-'-' When Weston was asked by an i n t e r v i e w e r whether he f e l t t h a t h i s mature s t y l e had been developed by 1926, he r e p l i e d , "I had got what I wanted by 1925 although I wasn't always sure how I 56 would do i t . I was s t i l l l e a r n i n g and I s t i l l am." He cautioned h i s q u e s t i o n e r about assuming that there had been any sudden change i n h i s s t y l e and the year 1926 was not a date chosen by Weston as r e p r e s e n t i n g any t u r n i n g p o i n t i n h i s a r t i s t i c l i f e . Looking at h i s p i c t u r e s , the year 1923 i n f a c t seems to have been a more c r u c i a l one. P a i n t i n g s that he kept from that year were i n a v a r i e t y of s t y l e s . There was the E n g l i s h landscape s t y l e , there was a yacht race i n a somewhat bolder s t y l e (Round the Mark, Dinghy Race land there was a q u i t e new s t y l e which seemed to be a l r e a d y w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d . Given that Weston had destroyed other p a i n t i n g s which were t r a n s i t i o n a l i n s t y l e and with which he was d i s s a t i s f i e d , these "new" p a i n t i n g s were probably the r e s u l t of e a r l i e r experimentation and the f i r s t not to be d e s t r o y e d . In t h i s s e r i e s , p ainted at Granthams Landing, he i s c l e a r l y f o r c i n g h i s way towards a new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the B.C. c o a s t . In 1923 he took the summer o f f from t e a c h i n g summer s c h o o l at V i c t o r i a , something he d i d on only one other o c c a s i o n when he was very s i c k , and he painted at Granthams Landing. I t seems reasonable that he d e l i b e r a t e l y devoted this'summer to extending h i s i n s i g h t s . 179 T h e p a i n t i n g s i m p l y t i t l e d G r a n t h a m Camp p e r h a p s g i v e s u s a n e x a m p l e o f t h e " o l d " a n d t h e "new" W e s t o n i n t h e o n e w o r k . I t d e p i c t s a s m a l l s h a c k n e s t l i n g i n t o t h e c o u n t r y s i d e a n d s e t b e f o r e a l o w e r i n g s k y . T h e d a r k c l o u d s b l o t t i n g o u t t h e l a s t p e r s i s t e n t r a y s o f s u n l i g h t c o u l d b e l o n g i n many a n E n g l i s h l a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g . T h e s h a c k , h o w e v e r , h a s b e e n e f f e c t i v e l y p l a c e d i n t h e s c e n e w i t h a f e w c o a r s e b r u s h s t r o k e s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e w i l d g r o w t h o f t h e f o r e g r o u n d h a s b e e n d e p i c t e d w i t h a n e c o n o m y o f b r u s h . B e t w e e n t h e s h a c k a n d t h e s t o r m y s k y a f i r t r e e s e e m s u n c e r t a i n w h e t h e r i t i s a n O l d o r New W o r l d t r e e . T h e s o f t l i n e a n d g e n t l e b l e n d i n g o f c o l o u r a r e u n d o u b t e d l y E n g l i s h , w h e r e a s t h e u n f u s s y t r e a t m e n t o f t h e f o l i a g e i s n o t . I n c o m p l e t e c o n t r a s t t o G r a n t h a m Camp i s A f t e r g l o w - G r a n t h a m s L a n d i n g . W i t h i t s a l m o s t m o n o c h r o m a t i c u s e o f c o l o u r , c o n f i d e n t b r u s h w o r k a n d h a r d e d g e s , i t h e r a l d s W e s t o n ' s new a p p r o a c h . A s a p i c t u r e i t i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t e w o r t h y , f o r i t l a c k s W e s t o n ' s u s u a l l y t i g h t c o m p o s i t i o n . I t i s s i m p l y t h e m o u n t a i n s a c r o s s t h e s o u n d c a t c h i n g t h e l a s t o f t h e e v e n i n g s u n . I t i s t h e b o l d a p p r o a c h w h i c h i s i n t e r e s t i n g a n d t h e a t t e m p t t o c a p t u r e t h e r u g g e d g r a n d e u r o f t h e m o u n t a i n s . Camp a t G r a n t h a m s L a n d i n g , a m u ch m o r e t i g h t l y c o n t r o l l e d d e s i g n w i t h i t s c l o s e d e p i c t i o n o f a c a b i n among t h e t r e e s , i s i n many w a y s a v e r y d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e t o A f t e r g l o w . A t t h e same t i m e t h e p r e d o m i n a n c e o f o r a n g e a n d t h e v e r y r e s t r i c t e d use of c o l o u r deny t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . The sharpness of the shadows and the a n g u l a r i t y of the t r e e s would have no place i n an E n g l i s h landscape. The very l i g h t n e s s of the background and the h i n t s o f sky and sea suggest the vastness beyond. The c a r e f u l design and the use of analogous c o l o u r s are examples of techniques encouraged by Weston's B r i t i s h t r a i n i n g . As d i d other B r i t i s h immigrants i n Canada, Weston used h i s t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l s to produce new v i s i o n s . The p a i n t i n g s which r e s u l t e d from the summer of intense a c t i v i t y undoubtedly were the work of a mature and c o n f i d e n t a r t i s t , but they were not p a i n t i n g s which could be i n s t a n t l y r e c o g n i s e d as "W.P. Westons." In l a t e r years Weston would be accused of having an unchanging s t y l e , but i n f a c t h i s s t y l e continued to develop. Weston saw h i s p a i n t i n g as r e f l e c t i n g the su b j e c t matter. I t wasn't r e a l l y so much a change i n approach but as I moved around I'd see something new. I'd move around the province and f o r a while I would be p a i n t i n g a d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t . . . .1 had a s p e l l of those [beach] p a i n t i n g s and before that I used to get up i n the mountains with the students and then I p a i n t e d q u i t e a l o t of snow p i c t u r e s Undoubtedly these 1923 p a i n t i n g s are the r e s u l t of a new departure f o r Weston, but they r e p r e s e n t the beginning of a new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r a t h e r than i t s completion. The 1917 p a i n t i n g , From My Window, showed no h i n t of the development to come and there i s only one other Weston 181 Figure 2. Camp a t Granthams L a n d i n g . P a i n t e d i n 1923 as Weston s o u g h t new ways t o i n t e r p r e t Canada, i t i s i n marked c o n t r a s t t o h i s 1910 p a i n t i n g , On t h e C o r n i s h C o a s t . i o n p i c t u r e f r o m t h i s p e r i o d w h i c h i s s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e . T h i s i s T u g - V a n c o u v e r H a r b o u r p a i n t e d i n 1 9 1 9 . I n t h e b o l d a n d g l o w i n g t r e a t m e n t o f t h e s k y a n d t h e s w i r l i n g s m o k e f r o m t h e t u g ' s s t a c k , we c a n s e e t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f c h a n g e a n d a n a t t e m p t t o i n t e r p r e t t h e l o c a l s c e n e m o r e b o l d l y , b u t i n t h e s o f t n e s s o f t h e s t y l e t h e p a i n t i n g i s m o r e i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e E n g l i s h t r a d i t i o n . I n A u g u s t 1 9 1 8 s i x y e a r o l d D o r i s c a u g h t h e r f i r s t s a l m o n , u s i n g t h e w o r s t f i s h i n g l i n e i n t h e f a m i l y ' s p o s s e s s i o n b e c a u s e n o - o n e t h o u g h t s u c h a y o u n g c h i l d c o u l d c a t c h a n y t h i n g . S h e s t i l l k e e p s a p h o t o g r a p h o f t h e e v e n t . I n O c t o b e r B i l l W e s t o n b o u g h t h i s f i r s t c a r . B i l l a n d h i s d a u g h t e r s p o s e d i n i t p r o u d l y o u t s i d e t h e i r new g a r a g e w h i l e J e s s i e t o o k t h e i r p i c t u r e . I t a l l was p a r t o f a n u n r u f f l e d f a m i l y l i f e . T h e p h o t o s o f t h i s l i f e h a d a n a d d i t i o n a l r o l e . T h e y w e r e e v i d e n c e o f t h e f a m i l y ' s , s u c c e s s a n d c o p i e s w e r e s e n t b a c k t o t h e i r p a r e n t s i n t h e L o n d o n s u b u r b s a s p r o o f . I n N o v e m b e r t h e w a r f i n a l l y e n d e d . T h i s m e a n t l i t t l e t o t h e l i f e o f t h e f a m i l y , b u t p r o f e s s i o n a l l y i t l e d t o c h a n g e . A l t h o u g h t h e e n d i n g o f t h e w a r c o i n c i d e d w i t h a s m a l l d r o p i n s t u d e n t e n r o l m e n t a t t h e N o r m a l S c h o o l , w i t h i n a y e a r o r t w o t h e n u m b e r s c r e p t u p . T h e new b u i l d i n g h a d b e e n o p e r a t i n g a t c l o s e t o o r a l i t t l e a b o v e i t s c a p a c i t y o f 250 s t u d e n t s a l m o s t s i n c e i t s o p e n i n g ; b y 1 9 2 1 t h e r e w e r e o n e h u n d r e d m o r e s t u d e n t s t h a n c o u l d e a s i l y be a c c o m m o d a t e d a n d f o r t h e n e x t f o u r y e a r s t h e 1 8 3 s i t u a t i o n w orsened. The peak y e a r was i n 1923 when, i n September, 405 s t u d e n t s s q u e e z e d i n t o t h e b u i l d i n g . T h e r e had been some change t o o i n t h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e s t u d e n t body. R e t u r n i n g s o l d i e r s , a n x i o u s t o c o m p l e t e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n s , c o i n c r e a s e d t h e p e r c e n t a g e of s t u d e n t s who were male. Such s t u d e n t s were a l s o more m a t u r e . A c h a n g i n g of e n r o l m e n t s t a n d a r d s a t t h e end o f 1920 and t h e e l i m i n a t i o n of t h e h a l f - y e a r c o u r s e t e n d e d t o l e s s e n f u r t h e r t h e number of immature s t u d e n t s . The p r e s s u r e o f numbers c a n n o t have made t h e t a s k of t e a c h i n g e a s y , b u t t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s took t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s t r i d e . F o r s t a f f i t meant c l a s s e s of f i f t y , or even s i x t y , so t h a t " o n l y t h e v e r y s p l e n d i d a t t i t u d e o f t h e s t u d e n t s towards 59 e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s made i t p o s s i b l e t o c a r r y on." T h i s d i d n o t l e a v e a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e f o r p l a n n i n g much v a r i a t i o n i n c o u r s e s but t h e r e was s t i l l a f u l l r a n g e of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , e a c h one s p o n s o r e d by a d i f f e r e n t s t a f f member. B i l l Weston s p o n s o r e d a h i k i n g c l u b , t a k i n g t h e s t u d e n t s on l o n g r a m b l e s i n t h e C o a s t m o u n t a i n s . A f a v o u r i t e d e s t i n a t i o n was Grouse M o u n t a i n and t h e s k e t c h e s he made on t h e s e e x c u r s i o n s would p r o v i d e the raw m a t e r i a l f o r l a t e r p a i n t i n g s . Weston t h o r o u g h l y e n j o y e d s u c h s o c i a l c o n t a c t w i t h h i s s t u d e n t s . E a c h y e a r he a l s o i n v i t e d s t u d e n t s t o go s a i l i n g and would- crowd as many as he c o u l d i n t o t h e s a i l b o a t f o r a c r u i s e a r o u n d E n g l i s h Bay. O t h e r e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s s p o n s o r e d by s t a f f 184 i n c l u d e d l i t e r a r y , d e b a t i n g , d r a m a t i c a n d a t h l e t i c s o c i e t i e s . T h i s t y p e o f s o c i a l i n v o l v e m e n t m u s t h a v e d o n e much t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e v e r y h i g h l e v e l o f e n t h u s i a s m d i s p l a y e d b y s t u d e n t s i n t h e S c h o o l A n n u a l a n d f o r t h e w a r m t h o f s t u d e n t m e m o r i e s . U n t i l h i s r e t i r e m e n t i n 1 9 2 0 , t h e r e was a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t o n t h e p a r t o f t h e p r i n c i p a l , W i l l i a m B u r n s , t o f o s t e r s c h o o l s p i r i t a n d h i s s u c c e s s o r , M r . D o n a l d R o b i n s o n , c o n t i n u e d " t o d e v e l o p a m ong t h e 60 s t u d e n t s t h e b e s t s c h o o l s p i r i t . " E v e n t h o u g h s t u d e n t s a t t e n d e t h e N o r m a l S c h o o l f o r o n l y o n e y e a r , t h e y d i d i d e n t i f y w i t h i t c l o s e l y . F o r W e s t o n c e r t a i n l y i t p r o v i d e d a n e x c e l l e n t w o r k i n g e n v i r o n m e n t , a n d t h e v e r y l o w t u r n - o v e r i n s t a f f s u g g e s t s t h a t h i s c o l l e a g u e s w e r e s i m i l a r l y c o n t e n t . T h e e n d i n g o f t h e w a r l e d t o t h o u g h t s o f t h e f u t u r e a n t o r e n e w e d p r e s s u r e f o r a n a r t s c h o o l i n V a n c o u v e r . I n 1 3 2 1 t h e 3.C. A r t L e a g u e was f o u n d e d t o w o r k t o w a r d s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f 61 s u c h a s c h o o l . B i l l W e s t o n b e c a m e a member a s d i d C h a r l e s S c o t t , who h a d r e p l a c e d W e s t o n a s D r a w i n g S u p e r v i s o r i n 1 3 1 4 b u t h a d a c t u a l l y b e e n a b s e n t o n m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e f o r m o s t o f t h e w a r . T h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d e x p r e s s e d some i n t e r e s t i n s t a r t i n g s u c h a s c h o o l a n d S c o t t was i n a g o o d p o s i t i o n t o e n c o u r a g e t h i s i n t e r e s t . B e l i e f i n t h e n e e d f o r a n a r t s c h o o l was a l l p a r t o f a m o r e g e n e r a l f e e l i n g i n V a n c o u v e r t h a t t h e c i t y h a d g r o w n - u p . A W e s t o n , t h e B r i t i s h a r t i s t , h a d g r o w n a n d m a t u r e d b y 1 3 2 3 t o 1 0 5 b e c o m e a C a n a d i a n p a i n t e r a n d i n t e r p r e t e r o f 3.C., s o t o o h a d t h e a l m o s t B r i t i s h c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r g r o w n t o b e c o m e t h e C a n a d i a n m e t r o p o l i s o n t h e w e s t c o a s t . I t was " t h e d i z z y d e c a d e " o f 62 g r o w t h a n d c h a n g e . P o s t - w a r d e p r e s s i o n g a v e way t o e x p a n s i o n a n d p r o s p e r i t y a n d V a n c o u v e r s e e m e d a g o o d p l a c e t o b e . W e s t o n h a d d e c i d e d t h a t t h i s was s o y e a r s b e f o r e , b u t t h e v e r y c o n f i d e n c e o f V a n c o u v e r m u s t h a v e b e e n e n c o u r a g i n g t o a n a r t i s t who f e l t h e was s u c c e s s f u l l y b r e a k i n g new g r o u n d . T h a t W e s t o n k e p t h i s p a i n t i n g s f r o m 1 3 2 3 i s a s t r o n g i n d i c a t o r t h a t h e f e l t h e h a d a c h i e v e d t h e new a p p r o a c h he was s e e k i n g i n h i s a r t . B y t h i s t i m e t o o he was s e c u r e i n h i s w o r k w i t h n i n e y e a r s o f s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h i n g a t t h e V a n c o u v e r N o r m a l S c h o o l a n d s e c u r e i n h i s f a m i l y l i f e . He h a d t w o h e a l t h y c h i l d r e n a n d a s u p p o r t i v e w i f e . He o w n e d h i s own home a n d h a d a summer home a s w e l l . I t was a t i m e w h e n t h e f u t u r e s e e m e d p r o m i s i n g . F o r W e s t o n a t a n y r a t e , t h e f u t u r e w o u l d l i v e up t o t h i s p r o m i s e . 1 3 6 1. W.P. W e s t o n , D a l l a s T a p e s . He was t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e o f B.C. f r o m b o t h E a s t e r n C a n a d a a n d t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d . 2. W.P. W e s t o n , D a l l a s T a p e s . 3. S e e W.P. W e s t o n , F r o m My W i n d o w p a i n t e d i n 1 9 1 7 w h i c h s h o w s w h a t c a n be c a l l e d t h e r u r a l v i e w . 4. P r o v i n c e , S e p t . 2 6 , 1 9 0 8 , p . 2 6 , q u o t e d i n J o h n C a l a m , " T e a c h i n g t h e T e a c h e r s : E s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d E a r l y Y e a r s o f t h e B.C. P r o v i n c i a l N o r m a l S c h o o l s , " B.C. S t u d i e s , S p r i n g 1 9 3 4 , p . 3 6 . 5.. P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e P u b l i c  S c h o o l s , ( h e r e a f t e r A R P 3 ) 1 9 1 0 . U n n u m b e r e d p a g e s h o w i n g p h o t o g r a p h o f P r o v i n c i a l N o r m a l S c h o o l . 6. R. C o l e H a r r i s , " L o c a t i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " B.C. S t u d i e s , n o . 3 2 , W i n t e r 1 9 7 6 - 7 7 , p p . 1 0 6 - 1 2 5 , h a s a n i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y . 7. A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d , ( h e r e a f t e r A R V S B ) , 1 9 0 9 , p p . 1 2 - 1 4 , p . 2 6 . •8. S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , " R e p o r t o f t h e C h a i r m a n , A R V S B , 1 9 0 3 , p . 3. 9. A R V S B , 1 9 1 2 , p . 3 5 . 1 0 . A R V S B , 1 9 0 3 , p . 5 . 1 1 . A R P 3 , 1 9 1 0 , p . A l x x x v i i i . 1 2 . A R V S B , 1 9 1 0 , p p . 2 2 - 3 . 1 3 . I b i d . 1 4 . W e s t o n ' s s t a r t i n g s a l a r y w i t h t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d was $ 1 0 0 . 0 0 p e r m o n t h . I t was i n c r e a s e d t o $ 1 3 0 . 0 0 o n h i s p r o m o t i o n a n d w e n t u p t o $ 1 5 0 . 0 0 t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . A R P S , 1 3 1 0 , p . A l x x x v i i i ; A R P S , 1 9 1 1 , p . A c i i ; A R P S , 1 3 1 2 , p . A c x v . 1 3 7 15. The B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i e t y of Fine A r t s , C o n s t i t u t i o n and  By-laws, Vancouver 1310, p. 3. 15. W.P. Weston, D a l l a s Tapes. 17. BCSFA, C o n s t i t u t i o n and By-laws, p. 7. 13. W.P. Weston, D a l l a s tapes. 13. W.P. Weston, D a l l a s Tapes. 20. W.P. Weston. Undated handwritten note prepared f o r a l e c t u r e on B.C. a r t , probably on beha l f of UBC Ex t e n s i o n Department. Weston worked f o r the Ex t e n s i o n Department d u r i n g WWII and a f t e r h i s r e t i r e m e n t i n 1345. 21. W.P. Weston, D a l l a s Tapes. 22. Census of Canada, 1911, v o l . 2, pp.426-7, shows 75% of the men and 84% of the women as being of 3 r i t i s h s t o c k . 23. W.P. Weston, D a l l a s Tapes. 24. W.P. Weston, On the Co r n i s h Coast, 1909. The catalogue shows that he a l s o e x h i b i t e d Eastbourne from Beachy Head, Sunset  E f f e c t , and Fe r r y b o a t . 25. W.P. Weston, D a l l a s Tapes. His r e f u s a l to keep work with which he was d i s s a t i s f i e d has a l s o been confirmed by both h i s daughters. 26. W.P. Weston, D a l l a s Tapes. 27. He s a i d t h i s a number of times. For example, a handwritten note to Dr. Ben Kanee, December 23, 1965. 28. W.P. Weston, D a l l a s Tapes: h i s f i r s t known p a i n t i n g of mountains i s Western L i o n s from Grantham's Landing, 1923. 29. His l i k i n g to be surrounded by young women became a f a m i l y joke. F r i e n d s have a l s o o f t e n r e f e r r e d to i t . See, f o r example: Elmore Ozard, i n t e r v i e w October 1983; Betty Marsh, i n t e r v i e w with Cal Opre, 1974; K. P r a t t , i n t e r v i e w November 1934. 30. Minnie Weston, i n t e r v i e w December 1933. 31. L e t t e r to L i l l i a n Weston w r i t t e n May 21, 1314 but never d e l i v e r e d . I t sank with the wreck of the S.3. Empress of I r e l a n d , was recovered by d i v e r s and retu r n e d to Weston i n December 1314 by the Dead L e t t e r O f f i c e . 133 32. In 1941 Weston a t t e n d e d an a r t e d u c a t i o n c o n f e r e n c e i n K i n g s t o n and Ottawa. A p p a r e n t l y i t was t h e p r o m i s e of a p l a n e r i d e , h i s f i r s t , r a t h e r t h a n t h e c o n f e r e n c e or t h e v i s i t t o O n t a r i o t h a t a p p e a l e d t o him. 33. W i t h most s c h o o l s b e i n g s m a l l t h e r e was a l m o s t no p l a t o o n i n g and e a c h t e a c h e r would have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t e a c h i n g the whole c u r r i c u l u m . Even as l a t e as 1929 t h e t h e n D r awing S u p e r v i s o r f o u n d t h a t h a l f t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h e d i s t r i c t t a u g h t a r t . ARVSB, 1929, p. 103. 34. ARVSB, 1911, p. 26. 35. U n t i l J a n u a r y 1929 t h e a r e a now c o v e r e d by V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e p a r a t e b o a r d s , V a n c o u v e r , S o u t h V a n c o u v e r and P o i n t G r e y . 36. A n n u a l R e p o r t o f Thomas Duke, C h a i r m a n Management Committee, ARVSB, 1912, p. 17. 37. ARVSB, 1910, p. 22. 38. ARVSB, 1911, p. 32 39 . 1905 S u g g e s t i o n s , p. 66. 40. ARVSB, 1912, p. 38. 41. I b i d . 42. D o m i n i o n E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n , " P r o c e e d i n g s and A d d r e s s e s of A n n u a l G e n e r a l M e e t i n g , " V i c t o r i a , 1909, pp. 142-9. 43. ARVSB, 1913, p. 40. 44. D a v i d B l a i r , B l a i r ' s C a n a d i a n D r awing S e r i e s . T o r o n t o , Copp C l a r k and Company, u n d a t e d . 45. D o r i s Wood, Weston's d a u g h t e r . I n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 1933 a t P o r t Moody, B.C. 46. I s o b e l J o h n s t o n ( 1 9 2 0 ) , M a r j o r i e C l a r k ( 1 9 3 4 ) , J o a n Thompson Warn (1942) . 47. I n t e r v i e w w i t h B e t t e P a r s o n . Okanagan L a n d i n g , B.C. A u g u s t 1933 . 48. I b i d . 49. F o r example, E l m o r e O z a r d i n i n t e r v i e w a t E a g l e H a r b o u r , 189 O c t o b e r 1933 . 50. W.P. Weston i n a p e r s o n a l n o t e to Dr. Ben Xanee w r i t t e n on December 23, 1965. 51. W.P. Weston. D a l l a s t a p e s . 52. I b i d . 53. W.P. Weston. U n p u b l i s h e d n o t e s w r i t t e n a b o u t 1335 on P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l n o t e p a p e r . 54. I b i d . 55. W.P. Weston i n a p e r s o n a l n o t e t o Dr. Ben Kanee w r i t t e n on December 23, 1365. 56. W.P. Weston. D a l l a s t a p e s . 57. W.P. Weston. D a l l a s t a p e s . 53. ARPS, 1922, p.C48. 59. I b i d . , D.M. R o b i n s o n , P r i n c i p a l , V a n c o u v e r Normal S c h o o l . 60. ARPS, 1921, p. F45. 61. A n n u a l R e p o r t o f C h a i r m a n , F . J . N i c h o l s o n , ARVSB, 1925, p. 10 . 62. A l a n M o r l e y , V a n c o u v e r , From M i l l t o w n t o  M e t r o p o l i s , ( V a n c o u v e r : M i t c h e l l P r e s s , 1974) p. 136. 130 CHAPTER SEVEN "The very essence of good t e a c h i n g and good l e a d e r s h i p " : a f e e l i n g of success. 1 I f Weston saw t h e summer of 1923 as a s i g n i f i c a n t one f o r h i m s e l f as an a r t i s t , he may have s e e n t h e p r e v i o u s w i n t e r as b e i n g e q u a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r h i m s e l f as an e d u c a t o r . The p r o v i n c i a l D e partment of E d u c a t i o n had p e r c e i v e d t h e need f o r a new a r t t e x t f o r t e a c h e r s and d e c i d e d t h a t t h e y would p r e f e r a l o c a l l y - p r o d u c e d book. A c c o r d i n g l y t h e y a p p r o a c h e d B i l l Weston and C h a r l e s S c o t t and a s k e d them t o w r i t e one. No d o u b t t h e two men were p l e a s e d a t t h e r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r t a l e n t s t h a t was i m p l i e d by t h e r e q u e s t , b u t i n f a c t i t was no g r e a t h o n o u r . The D e partment r e a l l y d i d n o t have any o t h e r l o c a l e d u c a t o r whom t h e y c o u l d a s k . J o hn K y l e i n V i c t o r i a had t h e f i n e a r t s t r a i n i n g , b u t was f u l l y o c c u p i e d as D i r e c t o r of T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i on. Haro111 D u n n e l l , A r t M a s t e r a t V i c t o r i a Normal S c h o o l , was a m i s p l a c e d Manual T r a i n i n g t e a c h e r . T h e r e were v e r y few s e c o n d a r y a r t t e a c h e r s w h i l e e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s , even i n t h e few l a r g e c i t y s c h o o l s , were n o t s u b j e c t s p e c i a l i s t s . O n l y Weston and S c o t t had b o t h f i n e a r t s t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e of t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n . They a g r e e d t o p r o d u c e t h e book and Weston was l a u n c h e d cn a new 191 a s p e c t o f h i s c a r e e r . He was now