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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The role of mothers and firstborn female siblings in teaching and encouraging language skills Thew, Carol 1979

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9? THE ROLE OF MOTHERS AND FIRSTBORN FEMALE SIBLINGS IN TEACHING AND ENCOURAGING LANGUAGE SKILLS B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a M,Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( i n t h e Departments o f E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n and L i n g u i s t i c s ) C a r o l L a r s o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1 9 7 9 (c) C a r o l L a r s o n Thew, 1 979 In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers ity of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shal l make i t f ree ly avai lable for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publ icat ion of th i s thesis for f inanc ia l gain shal l not be allowed without my written permission. Departments of E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n and L i n g u i s t i c s The Univers ity of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date " L . H- } 1413 ABSTRACT A l t h o u g h mothers and s i b l i n g s a r e p r e v a l e n t s o u r c e s of language f o r t h e l e a r n i n g c h i l d i n Western c u l t u r e s , t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e r a t e or t h e c o u r s e of language development have n o t been d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . R e g i s t e r a n a l y s e s of s i b l i n g s ' speech have f a i l e d t o d i s c r i m i n a t e be-tween t h e l i n g u i s t i c i n p u t p r o v i d e d by s i b l i n g s and by mothers. U s i n g a speech a c t a n a l y s i s o f t r a n s c r i p t s based on 19 h o u r s of a u d i o t a p e s and v i d e o t a p e s i n a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 mixed model d e s i g n , t h i s s t u d y d i s c e r n e d 28 s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s ( a l l p - 0 . 0 2 5 ) between mothers and f i r s t b o r n female s i b l i n g s (^-5 y e a r s o l d ) as. c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p a r t n e r s w i t h 1 9 seeondborn boys and 19 seeondborn g i r l s ( 2 - 3 y e a r s o l d ) i n p l a y t i m e and p u z z l e s e s s i o n s . The f i n d i n g s s u pport th e h y p o t h e s e s t h a t t h e mother-c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s c o n c e n t r a t e on language t e a c h i n g and t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n of language l e a r n i n g , s o l i d a r i t y f u n c t i o n s , and p o s i t i v e f e edback, and t h a t t h e s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e marked by a g r e a t e r f r e q u e n c y of d i s a g r e e m e n t s , p r o h i b i t i o n s , i n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e s , and r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e . C o n t r a r y t o t h e s t a t e d h y p o t h e s e s , mothers i s s u e d more o r d e r s and more n e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s of t r u t h v a l u e and b e h a v i o r t h a n t h e f i r s t b o r n s i s t e r s . The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r a s t s between mothers and f i r s t b o r n f e m a l e s i b l i n g s as language s o c i a l i z e r s . The c o n t r a s t s i d e n t i f i e d have c o n s i d e r -a b l e c r e d e n c e as major s o u r c e s o f v a r i a n c e i n l i n g u i s t i c achievement. The s t u d y c o n c l u d e s t h a t f i r s t b o r n f emale p r e -s c h o o l s i b l i n g s a r e n o t as good as mothers i n s e t t i n g up o p t i m a l l a n g u a g e - l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r younger s i b l i n g s . TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENT x INTRODUCTION 1 C h a p t e r I THE PROBLEM AND RELEVANT LITERATURE 6 The Problem 6 S i b l i n g - S t r u c t u r e V a r i a b l e s and Performance on Language Measures 7 Hypotheses 9 Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e on M o t h e r - C h i l d and S i b l i n g I n t e r a c t i o n s 9 M o t h e r s ' Speech A d j u s t m e n t s , . 9 S i b l i n g I n t e r a c t i o n s 10 P r e s c h o o l e r s ' C o d e - S w i t c h i n g A b i l i t i e s . . 12 The Problem R e s t a t e d 13 C r i t i q u e of R e g i s t e r A n a l y s e s . . . . . . . 13 S y n o p s i s ,. 14 R e q u i s i t e D a t a and A n a l y s e s 15 T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s and Problems . . 16 The S p e c i f i c Problem 21 G e n e r a l Hypotheses 21 Summary 22 I I THE CHOSEN APPROACH 24 TESTING THE HYPOTHESES: FUNCTIONAL CONTINGENCY ANALYSES AND MEASURES . 24 Language T e a c h i n g ( C l a r i f i c a t i o n ) 25 C o n c e p t u a l A n a l y s i s 25 Language T e a c h i n g : O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s 30 D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e Language-Teaching Measures 37 Tone of L i n g u i s t i c Feedback 4 l O p t i o n s 41 A f f e c t i v e Feedback: O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s 42 D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e Tone o f Feedback Measures 44 Power R e l a t i o n s h i p s 45 C o n s i d e r a t i o n s . . 45 Power Measures: O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s . . 47 D o m i n a t i n g Speech A c t s 47 S o l i d a r i t y Speech A c t s 47 D i s c u s s i o n of the D o m i n a t i n g and S o l i d a r i t y Measures 51 i v Overt D e m o n s t r a t i o n o f Language L e a r n i n g . . 53 C l a i m s 53 Language L e a r n i n g : O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s 54 D i s c u s s i o n o f L e a r n i n g - D e m o n s t r a t i n g Measures 60 R e f e r e n t i a l F a i l u r e 62 Summary 63 TESTING THE HYPOTHESES: DESIGN, VARIABLES, AND SPECIFIC HYPOTHESES 64 DESIGN 64 DEPENDENT VARIABLES 68 SPECIFIC HYPOTHESES AND THEIR RATIONALE . . . ?0 Independent V a r i a b l e s 70 Sex o f Secondborn 70 E x p e r i m e n t a l Order: S i b l i n g I n t e r a c t i o n F i r s t o r Second .74 I n t e r a c t i o n between Independent V a r i a b l e s 75 C o v a r i a t e s 75 D i s a d v a n t a g e s i n U s i n g C o v a r i a t e s i n a Repeated-Measures D e s i g n 75 Advantage o f U s i n g C o v a r i a t e s i n a Repeated-Measures D e s i g n 77 Hypotheses 77 T r i a l V a r i a b l e s 79 P a r t n e r 79 T e a c h i n g . 79 Tone o f L i n g u i s t i c Feedback 79 Dominance 80 S o l i d a r i t y 80 R e f e r e n t i a l F a i l u r e 80 L e a r n i n g D e m o n s t r a t i n g . . . . 81 R e f e r e n t i a l F a i l u r e 81 Task 81 Hypotheses R e l a t i n g t o I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s . 82 Summary 83 D i s c l a i m e r s 84 A s s u m p t i o n s 8 5 I I I METHODOLOGY: DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS . . . . 87 DATA COLLECTION . 87 SAMPLING METHOD AND SAMPLE 87 PROCEDURES 101 Overview o f Research P r o c e d u r e s 101 D e c i s i o n s Based on P i l o t S t u d i e s 1 02 Some L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study 104 S u c c e s s i n T a p i n g 105 F i n a l S e l e c t i o n o f the Sample 106 DATA ANALYSIS 107 T r a n s c r i p t i o n P r o c e d u r e s . 1 07 C o d i n g P r o c e d u r e s . 110 C o d i n g R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y I l l Other Measurement Problems and Their Solutions 114 v IV THE RESULTS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION 117 P r e l i m i n a r i e s 117 A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e R e s u l t s f o r F i r s t b o r n and Mother Dependent Measures 118 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e R e s u l t s f o r F i r s t b o r n and Mother Dependent Measures 122 Language-Teaching Measures 122 A f f e c t i v e l y - T o n e d Feedback 127 N e g a t i v e l y - T o n e d Feedback Measures . . . 1 27 P o s i t i v e l y - T o n e d Feedback Measures . . . 130 D o m i n a t i n g Measures 134 S o l i d a r i t y Measures . 137 R e f e r e n t i a l F a i l u r e Measure . 138 A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e R e s u l t s f o r Second-b o r n Measures 140 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e R e s u l t s f o r Seeondborn Measures 143 L e a r n i n g - D e m o n s t r a t i n g Measures 143 R e f e r e n t i a l F a i l u r e Measure . 149 Summary of t h e R e s u l t s o f the A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e and V a r i a n c e 150 D i s c u s s i o n 153 F u r t h e r A n a l y s i s 162 D e s c r i p t i o n s o f V e r b a l I n t e r a c t i o n s . . . 162 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r L e a r n i n g Paradigms . . . 178 The T r a n s c r i p t s 180 Summary . 183 CONCLUSION 184 LITERATURE CITED 188 APPENDIX I T y p i c a l N o t i c e Sent t o P r e s c h o o l D i r e c t o r s 199 APPENDIX I I F a m i l y Data Sheet •. 200 APPENDIX I I I Data C o l l e c t i o n 201 APPENDIX IV I n t e l l i g i b i l i t y of t h e Tapes . . . 206 v i LIST OF TABLES Tab l e 1 Language-Teaching Speech A c t s : P o s s i b l e R o l e s i n A c q u i s i t i o n . . . . 38 2 The 2 x 2 Between-Groups and 2 x 2 W i t h i n - G r o u p s D e s i g n and t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s 65 3 C e l l Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e F i v e C o v a r i a t e s 89 4 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e R e s u l t s f o r One Measure o f F i r s t b o r n and Mother B e h a v i o r s . . . 120 5 C e l l Means f o r One Measure of F i r s t b o r n and Mother B e h a v i o r s A d j u s t e d f o r t h e I n f l u e n c e o f a C o v a r i a t e 121 6 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r S i x Language-T e a c h i n g Measures o f F i r s t b o r n and Mother B e h a v i o r s 123 7 C e l l Means f o r S i x Language-Teaching Measures o f F i r s t b o r n and Mother B e h a v i o r s 124 8 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r Nine A f f e c t i v e l y - T o n e d Feedback Measures o f F i r s t b o r n and Mother B e h a v i o r s . . . 128 9 C e l l Means f o r Four Negative-Feedback Measures o f F i r s t b o r n and Mother B e h a v i o r s 129 10 C e l l Means f o r F i v e P o s i t i v e - F e e d b a c k Measures o f F i r s t b o r n and Mother B e h a v i o r s 131 11 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r D o m i n a t i n g and S o l i d a r i t y Measures and a R e f e r e n t i a l F a i l u r e Measure o f F i r s t b o r n and Mother B e h a v i o r s . . . 135 12 C e l l Means f o r D o m i n a t i n g and S o l i d a r i t y Measures of F i r s t b o r n and Mother B e h a v i o r s . . . . . . . 136 13 C e l l Means f o r F i r s t b o r n s ' and Mothers' E g o c e n t r i c D e f i n i t i o n s 1 39 14 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e R e s u l t s f o r Two Measures o f Secondborn B e h a v i o r 141 v i i 15 C e l l Means f o r Two Measures of Seeondborn B e h a v i o r s A d j u s t e d f o r t h e I n f l u e n c e o f C o v a r i a t e s 142 16 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r S i x Measures of Seeondborn B e h a v i o r s 144 17 C e l l Means f o r F i v e Measures o f Seeondborn B e h a v i o r s 145 18 Summary T a b l e o f the S i g n i f i c a n t I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s 154 19 Summary T a b l e o f t h e E x p l a n a t i o n s f o r F o u r V a r i o u s F i r s t - O r d e r I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s . . . . 160 20 Summary T a b l e o f the E x p l a n a t i o n s f o r 10 S i g n i f i c a n t P a r t n e r x Task I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s . l 6 l 21 Rank Order o f t h e Means o f 21 M a t e r n a l Measures Based on F i v e - M i n u t e P l a y S e s s i o n s 165 22 Rank Order o f t h e Means o f 21 M a t e r n a l Measures Based on F i v e - M i n u t e P u z z l e S e s s i o n s 166 23 Mean Number o f M a t e r n a l Acts- a c c o r d i n g t o C a t e g o r i e s and P e r c e n t a g e o f T o t a l Mean Number of A c t s t h a t the C a t e g o r i e s Represent . . 167 24 Rank Order o f the Means o f 21 F i r s t b o r n Measures Based on F i v e - M i n u t e P l a y S e s s i o n s 1 69 25 Rank Order o f t h e Means o f 21 F i r s t b o r n Measures Based on F i v e - M i n u t e P u z z l e S e s s i o n s 170 26 Mean Number o f F i r s t b o r n A c t s a c c o r d i n g t o C a t e g o r i e s and P e r c e n t a g e o f T o t a l Mean Number of A c t s t h a t the C a t e g o r i e s R e p r e s e n t 172 27 Rank Order of t h e Means o f E i g h t Seeondborn Measures w i t h Mothers and P e r c e n t a g e o f T o t a l Mean Number of A c t s t h a t t h e E i g h t Measures R e p r e s e n t . . . 174 28 Rank Order o f t h e Means o f E i g h t Seeondborn Measures w i t h F i r s t b o r n and P e r c e n t a g e o f T o t a l Mean Number o f A c t s t h a t t h e E i g h t Measures R e p r e s e n t . 1 75 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Frequency of Secondborn according to Age i n Months and Sex 91 2. Frequency of F i r s t b o r n according to Age i n Months . . . . . . . 91 3 . D i s t r i b u t i o n of Secondborn and F i r s t b o r n Dyads according to the Two S i b l i n g s ' Ages . . . 92 4. Frequency of Age-Spacing D i f f e r e n c e s Measured i n Months 94 5. Number of Fathers i n the Seven P o s s i b l e Socioeconomic Score D e c i l e s . 97 6. Frequency of Mothers Completing 12-20 Years of Schooling 99 ix: ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Many i n d i v i d u a l s and departments have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y p r o j e c t . F i r s t o f a l l , I must e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o the members o f the E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n d e p a r t -ment who p r o v i d e d w h o l e - h e a r t e d s u p p o r t over many, many y e a r s and t o t h e members o f t h e r e s e a r c h committee who showed so much i n t e r e s t and c o o p e r a t i o n . S p e c i a l t h a n k s a r e extended t o Dr. B e r n a r d A. Mohan, c h a i r p e r s o n , f o r h i s s u p e r v i s i o n o f the r e s e a r c h and h i s t h e o r e t i c a l a i d i n d e l i n e a t i n g t h e hypo-t h e s e s and measures; t o Dr. Seong-Soo Lee, C o o r d i n a t o r o f t h e E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e C e n t r e , f o r h i s i n t e n s i v e c o n s u l t a -t i o n on m a t t e r s o f d e s i g n and s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s ; f o r Dr. Ruth E. M c C o n n e l l , f o r h e r l o n g - t e r m s u p p o r t and f o r h e r courage i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the d o c t o r a l program i n E n g l i s h Educa-t i o n ; t o Dr. R.J. Gregg of t h e Department o f L i n g u i s t i c s f o r h i s a c t i v e f o s t e r i n g o f i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y programs; t o Dr. D e n i s Rodgers f o r h i s p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n s t o t h e r e s e a r c h p r o -p o s a l and t h e s i s which r e s u l t e d i n i m p o r t a n t changes; and t o Dr. S a l l y Rogow f o r h e r e n t h u s i a s t i c r e a c t i o n s t o t h e p r o j e c t and f o r h e r a s s i s t a n c e i n c l a r i f y i n g many i s s u e s . D ata c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s would have been i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t s p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s , equipment, and teams of knowledge-a b l e p e o p l e . The E d u c a t i o n C l i n i c was a v e r y c h e e r f u l and e f f i c i e n t p l a c e t o do v i d e o t a p i n g ; c r e d i t f o r i t s f r i e n d l y , p r o f e s s i o n a l atmosphere must go t o Dr. O.A. O l d r i d g e , d i r e c t o r , and I r e n e M a r t i n , s e c r e t a r y . The Audio V i s u a l Department o f the F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e d e x p e r t i s e and equipment. x I a n F r a n k s , head, and Dor o t h y T a l b o t a r e thank e d f o r t h e i r h e l p i n s c h e d u l i n g t h e t a p i n g s ; P a u l D a r q u i n d i d a t h o r o u g h l y p r o f e s s i o n a l job as cameraman. As r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s , J u d i M a k i and S a l l y C l i n t o n a r e thank e d f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e and c o r d i a l i t y i n k e e p i n g the s e s s i o n s r u n n i n g smoothly. J i l l H u t c h i n s d i d t h e l i o n ' s share o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s ; h e r f o r t i t u d e and a c c u r a c y were commendable. S h e e l a J h a , B a r r y James Warne, and H e a t h e r Robinson a r e thanked f o r t h e i r check-i n g o f the t a l l i e s and c o u n t i n g o f u t t e r a n c e s . I am g r a t e f u l t o F rank Ho, computer programmer o f the E d u c a t i o n R esearch S e r v i c e C e n t r e , f o r h i s f a s t and a c c u r a t e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of the d a t a , and to t h e many computing c e n t r e c o n s u l t a n t s who p r o v i d e d a d v i c e . The f a m i l i e s , many o f whom t r a v e l e d c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s -t a n c e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the t a p i n g s , a r e thanked f o r t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n . We a p p l a u d t h e p r e s c h o o l d i r e c t o r s t h r o u g h o u t Vancouver and Richmond f o r h e l p i n g us t o r e a c h t h e n e c e s s a r y number o f f a m i l i e s . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o acknowledge t h e s u p p o r t o f my own f a m i l y , George and C o r a l Thew, as t h e y p a t i e n t l y a w a i t e d t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s l a r g e s t u d y . T h i s r e s e a r c h was conducted w h i l e t h e a u t h o r was t h e r e c i p i e n t o f Canada C o u n c i l D o c t o r a l F e l l o w s h i p s and U n i v e r -s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Graduate F e l l o w s h i p s ; i t was s u p p o r t e d , i n p a r t , by a D i s c r e t i o n a r y Grant from t h e E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h Columbia. x i INTRODUCTION t F o r o ver a decade, i n v e s t i g a t o r s c o n cerned w i t h t h e r o l e o f i n p u t and d i a l o g u e i n language a c q u i s i t i o n have been c a t a l o g u i n g the f e a t u r e s o f the l i n g u i s t i c environments o f young c h i l d r e n . H a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e speech d i r e c t e d towards t h e young from a v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s c o n s t i t u t e s a s i m p l i f i e d r e g i s t e r , t h e y now aim t o d i s c o v e r t h e f e a t u r e s of t h e r e g i s t e r w hich a r e t h e most i m p o r t a n t i n a d v a n c i n g c h i l d r e n ' s communicative competence, competence f o r a p p r o p r i a t e use o f language i n t h e r e a l w o r l d . T h e i r aim i s t o d e t e c t q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s among the l i n g u i s t i c e x p e r i e n c e s p r o -v i d e d by many s o u r c e s - - f a m i l y members and o u t s i d e r s - - a n d t o i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s o f language t e a c h i n g , an i s s u e t h a t remains c o n t r o v e r s i a l . T h e i r i n t e n t i s t o d evelop a t h e o r y which a c c o u n t s f o r the phenomena and p r o d u c t s of f i r s t -language a c q u i s i t i o n . Contemporary t h i n k e r s (Mahoney & S e e l y 1976) c l a i m t h a t a t h e o r y o f language development must t r y t o r e s o l v e t h e p a r t s p l a y e d by c o g n i t i v e , l i n g u i s t i c , and s o c i a l f a c t o r s . I f t h e f a c t o r s a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , i t i s no l o n g e r s u f f i c i e n t t o f o c u s e x c l u s i v e l y on c h i l d r e n ' s c o g n i t i v e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s o r t o s t u d y c h i l d r e n ' s p h o n o l o g i c a l , s y n t a c t i c , and semantic systems as autonomous e n t i t i e s . To a v o i d d i s t o r t i n g the a c t u a l 1 p a t t e r n s o f language development, t h e o r i s t s must i n t e g r a t e knowledge about c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s and d e v e l o p i n g l i n g u i s t i c systems w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e l i n g u i s t i c and s o c i a l m i l i e u i n which c h i l d r e n s e r v e t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c a p p r e n t i c e -s h i p s . By means of a f o c u s on t h e l i n g u i s t i c s u r r o u n d i n g s , the i n f l u e n c e s o f s e v e r a l f a c t o r s on language development have been e s t i m a t e d . D e s c r i p t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n ' s exposure t o language p r o v i d e p o r t r a i t s o f the d a t a from which c h i l d r e n must fathom t h e ways a p a r t i c u l a r language works. F o r r e -s e a r c h e r s , t h e 'exposure' d a t a p r o v i d e t h e means whereby hypotheses about t h e r e l a t i o n s between t h e l i n g u i s t i c i n p u t t o c h i l d r e n and t h e i r o u t p u t can be t e s t e d ; the d a t a p r o v i d e the means whereby s t r o n g c l a i m s about c h i l d r e n ' s i n n a t e endow-ment f o r language ' m a t u r a t i o n ' can be u p h e l d o r muted; t h e y p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e whereby s t a t e m e n t s about c h i l d r e n ' s c o g n i t i v e c a p a c i t i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s can be a f f i r m e d o r q u a l i f i e d . I n f o r m a t i o n about t h e l i n g u i s t i c environment i s n e c e s s a r y to account f o r t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s i n g e n e r a l and t o e x p l a i n i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n l i n g u i s t i c achievement. But s u r r o u n d i n g s a r e s o c i a l as w e l l as l i n g u i s t i c i n n a t u r e . A f t e r a l l , p e o p l e t a l k w i t h c h i l d r e n and p r o v i d e t h e language d a t a . The r o l e s p l a y e d by mothers, f a t h e r s , s i b l i n g s k i n , f r i e n d s , c a r e t a k e r s , t e a c h e r s , and s t r a n g e r s , i n c h i l d r e n language development have y e t t o be e x p l i c a t e d b u t a r e of v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e , because s o c i a l a g e n t s d i s p l a y more t h a n 3 g r a m m a t i c a l o r u n g r a m m a t i c a l s e n t e n c e s : t h e y model th e use of speech a p p r o p r i a t e f o r d e f i n e d s o c i a l r o l e s , e v e n t s , t o p i c s , and s e t t i n g s . How p e o p l e v i e w t h e i r own s o c i a l r o l e s a f f e c t s t h e t h e o r i e s t h a t t h e y h o l d about th e speech w h i c h i s s u i t -a b l e f o r c h i l d r e n ; how t h e y f u l f i l l t h e i r r o l e s a f f e c t s t h e l i n g u i s t i c e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t t h e y p r o v i d e . S o c i o l i n g u i s t s and e t h n o g r a p h e r s o f s p e a k i n g (Gumperz & Hymes 1 964 ) a r e t o be c r e d i t e d w i t h e x t e n d i n g t h e c o n c e r n s of language a c q u i s i t i o n r e s e a r c h beyond th e m a s t e r y o f grammar towards t h e s t u d y o f communicative competence. Hymes ( 1 9 7 2 : 277) r e s t a t e s t h e g o a l o f a t h e o r y o f communicative competence i n t h i s way: We have t h e n to a c c o u n t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t a normal c h i l d a c q u i r e s knowledge of s e n t e n c e s , not o n l y as g r a m m a t i c a l , b u t a l s o as a p p r o p r i -a t e . He or she a c q u i r e s competence as t o when t o speak, when n o t , and as t o what to t a l k about w i t h whom, when, where, i n what manner. Hymes c l a i m s t h a t c h i l d r e n i n t e r n a l i z e r u l e s o f use a l o n g w i t h t h e r u l e s o f grammar. But t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of s o c i a l l i f e and language i s e x c e e d i n g l y i n t r i c a t e and how c h i l d r e n a s s i m i l a t e t a c i t c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c knowledge r e m a i n s a mystery. A p p a r e n t l y , c h i l d r e n d e velop a t h e o r y o f s p e a k i n g a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i r community by e x p e r i e n c i n g a f i n i t e s e t o f speech a c t s i n d i v i s i b l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s o c i o c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s o f t h a t community. E x p l a i n i n g how c h i l d r e n become c o m m u n i c a t i v e l y com-p e t e n t i s a d i f f i c u l t v e n t u r e and may n e v e r be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y a c c o m p l i s h e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , advances i n t h e t h e o r i e s of 4 s e v e r a l d i s c i p l i n e s and i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a r e a s now p r o v i d e c o n c e p t u a l t o o l s and methods of a n a l y s i s ( b e h a v i o r a l , l i n g u i s -t i c , s t a t i s t i c a l ) w hich p e r m i t s o p h i s t i c a t e d approaches and i n t e g r a t i o n s o f knowledge. W h i l e t h e r e i s a p l a c e f o r r e s e a r c h w hich d e l i m i t s a problem s t r i c t l y , w h i c h c o n s i d e r s a few v a r i a b l e s , and w h i c h u s e s c a r e f u l , f i n e - g r a i n e d a n a l y s e s , com-p r e h e n s i v e m u l t i v a r i a t e approaches t o r e s e a r c h problems e v e n t u -a l l y have t o be a t t e m p t e d t o o b t a i n c l e a r , a c c u r a t e , g l o b a l r e s o l u t i o n s and e x p l a n a t i o n s . The purpose o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s t o d i s c e r n q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e l i n g u i s t i c environments e x p e r i -enced by c h i l d r e n under t h e age of t h r e e y e a r s . I t r e l a t e s d i f f e r e n c e s i n l i n g u i s t i c environments t o language s o u r c e s , b i r t h o r d e r , gender, age, and s o c i a l c l a s s v a r i a b l e s . I t e x p l o r e s t h e r o l e s of two t y p e s of language s o u r c e s — m o t h e r s and f i r s t b o r n f emale s i b l i n g s - - i n t e a c h i n g and e n c o u r a g i n g t h e language s k i l l s development o f younger s i b l i n g s . C h a p t e r I i d e n t i f i e s t h e r e s e a r c h problem and c i t e s r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e . C h a pter I I e l a b o r a t e s upon t h e chosen approach t o the problem. I t d e f i n e s and j u s t i f i e s t h e s e l e c t e d measures; i t e x p l a i n s t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , t h e v a r i a b l e s and t h e hypo-t h e s e s . As r e f e r e n c e s t o p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h a r e i n t e r s p e r s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c h a p t e r , t h e r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e c o n t i n u e s . C h a p t e r I I I r e p o r t s the methods of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s . I t d e s c r i b e s t h e s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the sample, and s u r v e y s t h e r e s e a r c h p r o -5 cedures. I t n o t e s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d "by two p i l o t s t u d i e s and some l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y . The d a t a a n a l y s i s s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n and c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e s , the problems of c o d i n g r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y , and o t h e r measurement i s s u e s and t h e i r s o l u t i o n s . C h a p t e r IV p r e s e n t s t h e e m p i r i c a l r e s u l t s , d i s c u s s e s t h e f i n d i n g s , and employs d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s t o i l l u s t r a t e t he d i f f e r e n c e s between s i b l i n g and m o t h e r - c h i l d v e r b a l t r a n s a c t i o n s . The c o n c l u s i o n b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e s t h e i m p o r t o f t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , i n d i c a t e s a r e a s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n c h i l d language development, and n o t e s t h e l o n g - r a n g e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e s t u d y f o r t h e c o n c e p t u a l a n a l y s i s of t e a c h i n g . 6 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND RELEVANT LITERATURE The Problem I n Western c u l t u r e s , mothers and s i b l i n g s a r e p r e v a l e n t s o u r c e s o f language f o r t h e l e a r n i n g c h i l d . W h i l e d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of mothers' v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e i r m u l t i - a g e d c h i l d r e n a r e a v a i l a b l e (Andersen 1 9 7 7 ) , p r o f i l e s o f s i b l i n g s ' v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e i n c o m p l e t e . A l t h o u g h P i a g e t ' s o r i g i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s ( 1 926 ) ' o f c h i l d r e n ' s e g o c e n t r i c and communicative speech have been f o l l o w e d by many e x p e r i m e n t a l and t h e o r e t i c a l s t u d i e s which r e i n t e r p r e t h i s c o n c e p t s o f e g o c e n t r i s m ( c f . Abrahamsen 1 9 7 7 ) . v e r y few s t u d i e s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y observe c h i l d r e n ' s spontaneous speech t o each o t h e r , s i b l i n g o r p e e r . I n p a r t i c u l a r , c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h l e a r n e r s d u r i n g t h e p r i m a r y a c q u i s i t i o n s t a g e s - - p r i o r t o age t h r e e - - h a v e n o t been e x p l o r e d c a r e f u l l y and a r e now r e g a r d e d as f r o n t i e r a r e a s f o r r e s e a r c h (Lewis & Rosenblum F r i e n d s h i p and P e e r R e l a t i o n s 1 9 7 5 )• Only t h e u n u s u a l i n t e r a c t i o n s o f a few t w i n s have been s u b j e c t e d t o minute l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s (Keenan 1 9 7 ^ ; S a v i c 1 9 7 9 ) . Thus i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o compare t h e l i n g u i s t i c en-v i r o n m e n t s c o n t r i b u t e d by mothers and s i b l i n g s o r t o e v a l u a t e 7 t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e r a t e o r the c o u r s e of language development. The s c a r c i t y o f d a t a on s i b l i n g v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s i s u n f o r t u n a t e , y s i n c e language s o u r c e s appear t o be i m p o r t a n t m e d i a t i n g v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d i n com-p l i c a t e d ways t o l e v e l s o f l i n g u i s t i c achievement. S i b l i n g - S t r u c t u r e V a r i a b l e s and Performance on Language Measures B e g i n n i n g w i t h G a l t o n (1874) and A d l e r (1927), p s y c h o l o g i s t s have been f a s c i n a t e d by th e i n f l u e n c e of b i r t h o r d e r on p e r s o n a l i t y development, b e h a v i o r , and achievement. They have now produced more t h a n 1000 s t a t i s t i c a l s t u d i e s w hich c o n t a i n n e g a t i v e as w e l l a s p o s i t i v e f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f b i r t h - o r d e r s e q u e l a e ( F o r e r & S t i l l 1976)• The b i r t h - o r d e r l i t e r a t u r e i d e n t i f i e s o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s and concom i t a n t f a c t o r s which a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r s c o r e s on measures o f language a b i l i t y f o r b o t h c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s . F a c t o r s which o p e r a t e t o i n c r e a s e c h i l d r e n ' s c o n t a c t w i t h a d u l t s and t o dec r e a s e t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h s i b l i n g s and p e e r s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s e v e r a l i n d i c e s m a r k i n g s u p e r i o r m a s t e r y o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c code ( D a v i s 1937; L u r i a & Y u d o v i c h 1959; N e l s o n 1973). Degree of c o n t a c t w i t h the p a r e n t a l o r s i b l i n g g e n e r a t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n o f c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s -and t h e s i b l i n g s t r u c t u r e of th e f a m i l y , which i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e number o f c h i l d r e n , t h e i r sex, b i r t h o r d e r s , ages, and d i f f e r e n c e s i n ages. The s i b l i n g s t r u c t u r e , t h e network o f 8 p o s i t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y , a l s o e s t a b l i s h e s t h e language s o u r c e s t h a t l e a r n e r s encounter. R e t a r d a t i o n i n language development i s l i n k e d w i t h m u l t i p l e b i r t h s . A t l e a s t d u r i n g t h e e a r l y s t a g e s , t h e language of t w i n s i s i m p o v e r i s h e d when compared w i t h t h a t of s i n g l e t o n s o f t h e same age and s o c i a l c l a s s (Day 1 9 3 2 ; D a v i s 1 9 3 7 ; D a l e s 1 9 6 9 ) ; r e t a r d a t i o n i n t h e language o f t r i p l e t s i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o b s e r v e d f o r t w i n s (Howard 1 9 4 6 ) . F a m i l y s i z e appears t o be n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l : c h i l d r e n from l a r g e f a m i l i e s t e n d t o make p o o r e r showings on e d u c a t i o n a l measures and i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s ( e s p e c i a l l y t h e v e r b a l t e s t s ) t h a n do c h i l d r e n from s m a l l f a m i l i e s , a l t h o u g h t h i s n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n i s l e s s pronounced i n the upper s o c i a l c l a s s e s (Belmont & M a r o l l a 1973 ) . M o t h e r - i n f a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s have been-found t o v a r y depending upon t h e b i r t h o r d e r and t h e sex of t h e i n f a n t s (Jacobs & Moss 1 9 7 6 ) . G e n e r a l l y , l a t e r b o r n c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e l e s s d i r e c t p a r e n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n and i n f l u e n c e t h a n o n l y c h i l d r e n and f i r s t b o r n (Lasko 1 9 5 4 ; H i l t o n 1 9 6 7 ; L i n g & L i n g 1 9 7 4 ) . W h i l e a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f l a t e r b o r n s have been found among c o l l e g e language majors ( F o r e r & S t i l l 1 9 7 6 : 8 6 ) , o n l y c h i l d r e n and o l d e s t c h i l d r e n a r e more l i k e l y t o d e velop h i g h v e r b a l a b i l i t y , a c h i e v e s c h o l a s t i c a l l y , and become eminent i n p r o f e s s i o n s such as s c i e n c e , p s y c h o l o g y , m e d i c i n e , and c o l l e g e t e a c h i n g ( F o r e r & S t i l l 1 9 7 6 ; S u t t o n - S m i t h & Rosen-b e r g 1 9 7 0 ; G o e r t z e l , G o e r t z e l , & G o e r t z e l 1 9 7 8 ) . 9 Hypotheses W h i l e s e v e r a l h y p otheses have "been p r o p o s e d t o account f o r t he complex r e l a t i o n s h i p s "between s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s , s i b l i n g - s t r u c t u r e v a r i a b l e s , and language measures, t h e hypo-t h e s e s o f i n t e r e s t h e r e a r e t h a t mothers a r e b e t t e r language s o u r c e s t h a n s i b l i n g s and t h a t , i n many i n s t a n c e s , t h e l i n g u i s -t i c environment changes a d v e r s e l y w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f each c h i l d t o the f a m i l y . So f a r , however, the s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f mothers' speech w h i c h enhance l i n g u i s t i c p r o g r e s s have n o t been a s c e r t a i n e d e x p e r i m e n t a l l y . Perhaps mothers a r e b e t t e r s o u r c e s t h a n s i b l i n g s because t h e y p r o v i d e s t a n d a r d models, o r r i c h e r language e x p e r i e n c e s , o r l i n g u i s t i c t u i t i o n . Review o f the L i t e r a t u r e on M o t h e r - C h i l d and S i b l i n g I n t e r a c t i o n s M others' Speech A d j u s t m e n t s To d e t e c t mothers' p r o s o d i c , l e x i c a l , s y n t a c t i c , p r a g -m a t i c , and d i s c o u r s e a d j u s t m e n t s as t h e y t a l k w i t h t h e i r young, e x p e r i m e n t e r s have o b s e r v e d m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r c h a n g e s e x t e n s i v e -l y (Snow & F e r g u s o n 1977)• They n o t e t h a t t h e d e s i g n c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f mothers' speech i n c l u d e s a l i e n t p i t c h and i n t o n a t i o n c o n t o u r s , emphatic s t r e s s i n g o f c o n t e n t words, c o n c r e t e n e s s o f v o c a b u l a r y , ease o f seg m e n t a t i o n , s h o r t n e s s o f u t t e r a n c e l e n g t h , r e d u c e d r a t e , redundancy, a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of i n t e r r o g a t i v e s and i m p e r a t i v e s , and semantic c o n t i n g e n c y t o the l e a r n e r s ' e x p r e s s i o n s ( F a r w e l l 1 9 7 3 ; C r o s s 1 9 7 5 ; Snow 1 9 7 7 ) . They speculate 10 upon the c o n d i t i o n s which e l i c i t t h e s e f e a t u r e s and t h e m e r i t s o f t h e s e f e a t u r e s i n f a c i l i t a t i n g language a c q u i s i t i o n (Ferguson 1 9 6 4 , 1 9 7 7 ; Snow 1 9 7 7 ; Brown 1 9 7 7 ; McTear 1 9 7 8 ) . T h e o r i s t s argue t h a t mothers' speech a d j u s t m e n t s have t h e p o t e n t i a l t o a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n , f o s t e r "bonding, encourage t u r n - t a k i n g , and p r e s e n t model language l e s s o n s . A few s t u d i e s use c o r r e l a t i o n s t o a s s e s s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between m a t e r n a l speech m o d i f i c a t i o n s and c h i l d l i s t e n e r v a r i a b l e s ( C r o s s 1 9 7 5 . 1 9 7 7 ; Newport 1 9 7 7 ; Newport, G l e i t m a n & G l e i t m a n 1 9 7 7 ) . W h i l e s y n t a c t i c p a r a m e t e r s show an uneven p a t t e r n of s e n s i t i v i t y t o l i s t e n e r v a r i a b l e s , d i s c o u r s e p a r a m e t e r s (which i n c l u d e t u t o r -i a l d e v i c e s such as e x p a n s i o n s and p a r a p h r a s e s ) appear t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h one o r s e v e r a l l i s t e n e r v a r i a b l e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y measures o f c h i l d r e n ' s language growth, p r o d u c t i v e and r e c e p t i v e ( C r o s s 1977)• S i b l i n g I n t e r a c t i o n s The l i t e r a t u r e on s i b l i n g s f o c u s e s on s o c i a l r a t h e r t h a n v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s ; i t m a i n l y c o m p r i s e s n o n - o b s e r v a t i o n a l d a t a , such as c l i n i c a l h i s t o r i e s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f i l l e d i n by s i b l i n g s , and p a r e n t s ' o r t e a c h e r s ' r e p o r t s and r a t i n g s . E v i d e n c e about s i b l i n g s ' speech c o n s i s t s o f comments about s i b l i n g s ' v e r b a l exchanges made d u r i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f o t h e r t o p i c s . Hence t h e d a t a on s i b l i n g s ' speech a r e much s p a r s e r t h a n t h o s e on m o t h e r - c h i l d ' s speech and a r e of an i n d i r e c t n a t u r e . P s y c h i a t r i s t s have been c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s of s i b l i n g r i v a l r y — j e a l o u s y , anger, h o s t i l i t y , b i t t e r -11 n e s s , and q u a r r e l s o m e n e s s — e m a n a t i n g from c l i n i c a l d a t a ( A d l e r 1 9 2 7 ) . S i n c e p s y c h i a t r i s t s d e a l w i t h t h e p a t h o l o g i c a l , t h e i r f i n d i n g s must he tempered w i t h t h o s e of s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s s t u d y i n g the 'normal' i n development and "behavior. U s i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , n o n d i r e c t i v e i n t e r v i e w s , and f a m i l y l i f e - h i s t o r y documents ( m a i n l y w r i t t e n by female i n f o r m a n t s ) , B o s s a r d and B o l l ( i 9 6 0 ) champion an uncommon p o s i t i o n : t h e y commend s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r t h e i r s o l i -d a r i t y f u n c t i o n s . S i b l i n g s , t h e y d e c i d e , keep each o t h e r from the u n n a t u r a l environments f u r n i s h e d by p a r e n t s and a d u l t s , who a r e o f t e n u n s u i t a b l e companions f o r c h i l d r e n . S i b l i n g s h e l p to meet needs f o r a f f e c t i o n ; t h e y a c t as c o u n s e l o r s , l e a d e r s , and p r o t e c t o r s . They o c c a s i o n a l l y s e r v e as s u r r o g a t e p a r e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n l a r g e f a m i l i e s . A l e s s p o s i t i v e v i e w of s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s i s put f o r t h by S u t t o n - S m i t h and Rosenberg ( 1 9 7 0 ) . S i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s a p p a r e n t l y u n f o l d as p a r t of a dominance h i e r a r c h y : o l d e r s i b l i n g s e x e r c i s e more power over younger s i b l i n g s t h a n v i c e v e r s a ; u n e q u a l dominance a f f e c t s v e r b a l b e h a v i o r . I n t h e s p e c i f i c case of f i r s t b o r n and seeondborn s i b l i n g s , i n v e n t o r i e s a s s e s s i n g s i b l i n g power were f i l l e d out by m i d d l e - c l a s s c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s ( 1 9 y e a r s o l d ) and c h i l d r e n (Grades 5 and 6 ) . The f i n d i n g s were as f o l l o w s : A l l f i r s t b o r n p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s and were p e r -c e i v e d by second b o r n as e x e r c i s i n g h i g h e r p o w e r -t h a t i s , t h e y commanded, reprimanded, s c o l d e d , and bossed. R e c i p r o c a l l y , t h e second b o r n p l e a d e d , whined, s u l k e d , and a p p e a l e d f o r h e l p and sympathy from the f i r s t b o r n and o t h e r s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e 12 f i r s t b o r n u sed more p h y s i c a l r e s t r a i n t and p h y s i c a l i a t t a c k , though t h e r e had been more of t h i s a t t h e c h i l d l e v e l , where i t had i n v o l v e d b e a t i n g up, w r e s t l i n g , and h u r t i n g . The f i r s t b o r n a l s o gave more rewards and d e p r i v e d t h e second b o r n of more p r i v i l e g e s . The second b o r n responded by g e t t i n g angry, b e i n g s t u b b o r n , and by h a r a s s i n g , p e s t e r i n g , and b o t h e r i n g the f i r s t b o r n ( S u t t o n - S m i t h & Rosen-b e r g 1970:57). F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e f i r s t b o r n tended t o d e f l a t e t h e younger b o r n w i t h v e r b a l c r i t i c i s m . P r e s c h o o l e r s ' C o d e - S w i t c h i n g A b i l i t i e s One a r e a of s t u d y o b s e r v e s s i b l i n g s ' speech d i r e c t l y : i t l o o k s a t t h e c o d e - s w i t c h i n g a b i l i t i e s of p r e s c h o o l e r s t o a d j u s t amount o f speech, v o c a b u l a r y , and s y n t a x t o t h e age o f the l i s t e n e r (Shatz & 'Gel-man 1973). The c o d e - s w i t c h i n g r e s e a r c h depends upon a s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s w h i c h c o u n t s and c o n s i d e r s p a r a m e t e r s of s i m p l i c i t y . I t l o c a t e s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e f r e q u e n c i e s o f 4 - y e a r - o l d s ' speech as t h e y accompany d i f f e r e n t - a g e d l i s t e n e r s : a d u l t , p e e r , and 2 - y e a r - o l d s ( e i g h t s i b l i n g s u b j e c t s and many n o n - s i b l i n g sub-j e c t s ) . The speech to t h e 2 - y e a r - o l d s c o n t a i n s s h o r t e r , s i m p l e r u t t e r a n c e s and more a t t e n t i o n a l s . The r e p o r t s of t h e t h r e e S h atz and Gelman s t u d i e s and t h o s e o f Andersen and J o h n -son (1973), Sachs and D e v i n ( 1 9 7 3 . 1976) [who a l l o b s e r v e d n o n - s i b l i n g s ] c o n f i r m a n e c d o t a l comments by S l o b i n ( 1 9 7 5 ) and G l e a s o n (1973) t h a t c h i l d r e n can use a s i m p l i f i e d speech r e g i s t e r when a d d r e s s i n g v e r y young l i s t e n e r s . The Problem R e s t a t e d 13 C r i t i q u e o f R e g i s t e r A n a l y s e s C i t i n g t h e c o d e - s w i t c h i n g r e s e a r c h (based on a v e r y s m a l l sample o f c h i l d r e n from American u p p e r - m i d d l e and m i d d l e c l a s s p r o f e s s i o n a l f a m i l i e s ) , r e v i e w e r s commonly remark t h a t c h i l d r e n s i m p l i f y t h e i r speech i n e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same way as a d u l t s do ( V o r s t e r 1 9 7 5 ; Bloom & Lahey 1 978 ) and c l a i m t h a t t h e s e f i n d i n g s w i t h f o u r - y e a r - o l d s g a i n f u r t h e r i m p o r t a n c e from the f a c t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n non-Western c u l t u r e s t h e p r i m a r y c a r e t a k e r s o f young c h i l d r e n a r e o f t e n t h e i r o l d e r s i b l i n g s (de V i l l i e r s & de V i l l i e r s 1 9 7 8 : 1 9 3 , 1 9 5 ) . The i m p l i c a t i o n s t o be d e r i v e d from t h e s e remarks and s i m i l a r ones by S l o b i n ( 1 9 6 9 , 1975 ) a r e t h a t t h e p r o f i l e s of mothers' and s i b l i n g s ' l i n g u i s t i c i n p u t a r e v e r y s i m i l a r and t h a t s i b l i n g s i n d i v e r s e c u l t u r e s can be c o u n t e d on t o p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t and ' a p p r o p r i a t e ' l i n g u i s t i c d a t a . The a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t a s i m p l i f i e d exposure t o language i s an adequate exposure. The remarks deserve t o be c h a l l e n g e d . F i r s t o f a l l , s i b l i n g s ' l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r a c t i o n s and c h i l d r e n ' s l i n g u i s t i c m astery have n o t been s t u d i e d s c i e n t i f i -c a l l y i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l work (Harkness 1 9 7 7 . amongst t h e Kokwet i n Kenya, i s one e x c e p t i o n ) . Second, the d a t a o f t h e code-s w i t c h i n g r e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g s i b l i n g s were r e c o r d e d when a d u l t s were on t h e scene (Shatz & Gelman 1 9 7 3 : 7 - 8 ) . I f no c o n v e r s a t i o n 14 was o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g t h e t o y e x p l a n a t i o n t a s k i n one of t h e Shatz and Gelman s t u d i e s , the c h i l d r e n were 'prompted' t o c a r r y out t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r s ' i n s t r u c t i o n s . L e f t a l o n e , t h e p r e s c h o o l e r s might have d e c i d e d n o t to p r o v i d e any e x p l a n a t i o n s . T h i r d , s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s e s which count measures of s i m p l i c i t y n o t deemed as good p r e d i c t o r s of l i n g u i s t i c growth do n o t p e r m i t a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the language s o c i a l i z a t i o n engaged i n by d i f f e r e n t f a m i l y members. The use of o n l y l e x i c a l and s y n t a c t i c measures of c h i l d r e n ' s 'provoked' e x p l a n a t i o n s and spontaneous p l a y r e s u l t s i n t h e o m i s s i o n of some i m p o r t a n t q u a l i t a t i v e d i s t i n c t i o n s t h a t c o u l d and t h a t s h o u l d be made. The l i m i t a t i o n s o f s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s e s r e s u l t i n t h e f a i l u r e to account f o r major s o u r c e s of v a r i a n c e i n l i n g u i s t i c achievement. S y n o p s i s To d a t e , t h e n , the l i n g u i s t i c i n f l u e n c e o f s i b l i n g s upon each o t h e r has n o t been i n v e s t i g a t e d t h o r o u g h l y and d i f f e r -ences between mothers and s i b l i n g s as language s o c i a l i z e r s have no t been n o t i c e d . The w i d e s p r e a d c l a i m t h a t " m o s t . o i f not a l l , o f language development i s based on l e a r n i n g from a d u l t models" (Moerk 1972:229) cannot be a d j u d i c a t e d , n o r can i t be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h t h e i n f e r e n c e s d e r i v e d from the c o d e - s w i t c h i n g r e s e a r c h on c h i l d r e n ' s s e n s i t i v i t y t o l i s t e n e r v a r i a b l e s . E x c e p t f o r t h e d a t a on the r e l a t i v e e g o c e n t r i s m o f c h i l d - c h i l d speech, t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o account f o r t h e d e d u c t i o n t h a t " c h i l d r e n who r e c e i v e most of t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c i n p u t from p e e r s 15 a r e a t a r e l a t i v e d i s a d v a n t a g e when compared w i t h c h i l d r e n who l e a r n p r i m a r i l y from a d u l t s " ( B a t e s 1 9 7 5 s 2 8 1 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , f o r v a r i o u s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s o f language development s e l e c t f i r s t b o r n c h i l d r e n (Brown 1 9 7 3 ; Bloom 1 970 ) whose back-ground and d e v e l o p m e n t a l h i s t o r y may be a t y p i c a l . I f f i r s t -b o r n have e n v i r o n m e n t a l advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s n o t u n i v e r s a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d by c h i l d r e n i n o t h e r b i r t h o r d e r s , t h e n r e s e a r c h e r s may h o l d ' b i a s e d ' n o t i o n s of t h e phenomena of language development. N e l s o n ( 1 973 ) i n h e r s t u d y of 11 f i r s t -b o r n and seven seeondborn s u r m i s e s as much when she d e t e c t s d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b i r t h o r d e r . R e q u i s i t e Data and A n a l y s e s D a t a u s e f u l t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e emphasis on t h e f i r s t b o r n and to u n d e r s t a n d t h e l i n g u i s t i c consequences of s i b l i n g v e r s u s p a r e n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s would be samples of t h e speech o f t h e same c h i l d p a i r e d w i t h o l d e r s i b l i n g ( s ) and w i t h t h e mother. However, th e samples would have t o be i n s p e c t e d i n a d i f f e r e n t way. I n l i e u of an a n a l y s i s which emphasizes i n p u t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r how speech i s used f o r communicating. I t i s c r u c i a l t o examine c a t e g o r i e s o f l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r a c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the i n t e n t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s u n d e r l y i n g speech, t h e f u n c t i o n s o f speech, and s h o r t - r a n g e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . C l u e s as t o how t o make d i f f e r e n t a n a l y s e s can be d e r i v e d from t h e r e - a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o d e - s w i t c h i n g d a t a i t s e l f ( Shatz & Gelman 1 9 7 7 ; Gelman & Shatz 1 977 ) w h e r e i n t h e a u t h o r s use con-16 temporary p r a g m a t i c t h e o r y t o a s s e s s t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e s y n t a c t i c a l l y e l a b o r a t e d s t r u c t u r e s which o c c u r r e d . Even t h e o r i g i n a l P i a g e t i a n f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s e s ( 1 926 ) p r o v i d e h i n t s on what t o c o n s i d e r , f o r i n s t a n c e , c a t e g o r i e s such as 'adapted i n f o r m a t i o n , q u e s t i o n s and answers, c r i t i c i s m , d e r i s i o n , commands, r e q u e s t s , and t h r e a t s ' . Advances i n t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f language and p r a g m a t i c t h e o r y a r e now d i s c u s s e d " b r i e f l y . T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s and Problems To a n a l y z e i n t e n t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , and f u n c t i o n s ex-p r e s s e d o r i m p l i c a t e d by speech, we must r e f e r t o t h e t h e o r y o f communicative speech a c t s f o r m u l a t e d by p h i l o s o p h e r s of language, e s p e c i a l l y A u s t i n ( 1 9 6 2 ), S e a r l e ( 1 9 6 5 , 1 9 6 9 ) 1 and G r i c e ( 1 9 6 8 , 1 9 7 5 ) - Of p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e a r e A u s t i n ' s c o n s t r u c t s o f t h e p e r f o r m a t i v e , the i l l o c u t i o n a r y a c t , and t h e p e r l o c u -t i o n a r y a c t ; S e a r l e ' s model o f speech a c t s ; and G r i c e ' s c o o p e r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e and t h e o r y o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t u r e . A u s t i n became i n t e r e s t e d i n u t t e r a n c e s as s o c i a l a c t s , t h i n g s t h a t a r e done by b e i n g s a i d , r a t h e r t h a n as p r o p o s i t i o n s d e s t i n e d f o r l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . He began by r e a s o n i n g t h a t t h e c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e o f a p e r f o r m a t i v e a c t such as c o n g r a t u l a t i n g , b e t t i n g , o r d e r i n g , p r o m i s i n g , b e q u e a t h i n g , o r c h r i s t e n i n g , r e v o l v e s around t h e s o c i a l a c t t h a t t h e speaker p e r f o r m s by s a y i n g something i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Of l e s s e r immediate i m p o r t a n c e i s t h e t r u t h o r f a l s i t y of the p r o p o s i t i o n e x p r e s s e d by t h e p e r f o r m a t i v e a c t . P e r f o r m a t i v e s p r o v i d e t h e names o f 17 i l l o c u t i o n a r y a c t s . Examples o f e x p l i c i t p e r f o r m a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s i n c l u d e " I g r a n t you t h i s w i s h , " " I "bid you welcome," and " I thank you." O p e r a t i o n a l l y , p e r f o r m a t i v e s r e q u i r e a f i r s t p e r s o n s i n g u l a r pronoun a n t e c e d e n t and t a k e t h e p r e s e n t , i n d i c a t i v e tense." 1" S c h o l a r s (Ross 1 970 ) l a t e r argued t h a t p e r f o r m a t i v e s may e x p l i c i t l y o r i m p l i c i t l y u n d e r l i e a s s e r t i o n s ("I d e c l a r e t o you, t h a t p_," or "That p_ i s t h e case") and commands ("I o r d e r you, you do X," or "Do X.") I n A u s t i n ' s a n a l y s i s , a p e r l o c u t i o n a r y a c t r e f e r s t o the e f f e c t a speaker a c h i e v e s by s a y i n g something. E f f e c t s i n c l u d e c o n v i n c i n g , p e r s u a d i n g , d e t e r r i n g , s u r p r i s i n g , and m i s l e a d i n g . I n h i s t h e o r y of speech a c t s , S e a r l e i d e n t i f i e s t h r e e v a r i e t i e s o f speech a c t s : u t t e r a n c e a c t s , p r o p o s i t i o n a l a c t s , and i l l o c u t i o n a r y a c t s . H i s n o t i o n o f i l l o c u t i o n a r y a c t de v e l o p s out o f A u s t i n ' s theory-. S e a r l e s u b d i v i d e s t h e i l l o c u t i o n a r y a c t i n t o two components: a p r o p o s i t i o n a l c o n t e n t (composed o f , e.g., a r e f e r r i n g e x p r e s s i o n and a p r e d i c a t i n g e x p r e s s i o n ) and an i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e o r f u n c t i o n w i t h which th e p r o p o s i t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d . I l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e i n d i c a t o r s i n c l u d e word o r d e r , s t r e s s , i n t o n a t i o n a l c o n t o u r , mood of v e r b , p e r f o r m a t i v e v e r b , and t h e c o n t e x t i t s e l f . I n w r i t t e n language, p u n c t u a t i o n can be a f o r c e i n d i c a t o r . The most c o n s t r a i n e d t e s t f o r a p e r f o r m a t i v e i s whether the v e r b t a k e s t h e e x p r e s s i o n hereby, as i n , " I h e r e b y g r a n t . " N o n - i n s t a n c e s of p e r f o r m a t i v e s I n c l u d e " I t h i n k t h a t " and " I want." 18 A u s t i n and S e a r l e c o n c l u d e t h a t a h e a r e r must i n f e r a s p e a k e r ' s " b e l i e f s , knowledge, i n t e n t i o n s , and d e s i r e s i n o r d e r t o c o n s t r u e t h e i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e o f a s p e a k e r ' s u t t e r a n c e . Competent members of a speech community use i n t u i t i v e knowledge of l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e t o i n f e r a s p e a k e r ' s t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s . However, p h i l o s o p h e r s go beyond i n t u i t i o n and attempt t o make e x p l i c i t a l l o f t h e f a c t o r s which e n t e r i n t o t h e competent h e a r e r ' s i n t u i t i o n s . They determine t h a t the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e knowledge of s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t s such as p r o c e d u r e s , r o l e s , r i g h t s , and o b l i g a t i o n s , c o e x i s t i n g w i t h d e d u c t i v e a b i l i t i e s t o r e a d s i t u a t i o n a l c l u e s . S e a r l e , i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e of i l l o c u t i o n a r y a c t s , s t a t e s t h a t each i l l o c u t i o n a r y a c t i s d e f i n e d by a u nique c o m b i n a t i o n of b e l i e f c o n d i t i o n s s p e c i f i c t o t h e a c t and a l s o by a s e t o f more g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s h o l d i n g f o r t h e c o r r e c t performance of many i l l o c u t i o n a r y a c t s . The f o r c e of an u t t e r a n c e d e r i v e s from t h a t s e t of n e c e s s a r y and s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s o f t h e s p e a k e r and t h e h e a r e r and t o t h e i r m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e use of l i n g u i s t i c forms f o r communication. I n A u s t i n ' s t erms, the c o n d i t i o n s a r e c a l l e d ' f e l i c i t y c o n d i t i o n s ' . I n g e n e r a l usage, t h e term 'speech a c t ' i s used i n t e r -c h a n g e a b l y w i t h t h e term ' i l l o c u t i o n a r y a c t ' . The terms w i l l a l s o be t r e a t e d as synonyms h e r e . G r i c e goes beyond t h e t h e o r y of speech a c t s i n h i s a ttempt t o advance t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e complex f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g s p e a k e r s ' a b i l i t i e s t o produce and comprehend speech 19 (Katz 1972). G r i c e a t t e m p t s t o c o n s t r u c t a t h e o r y of con-v e r s a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t u r e . F o l l o w i n g from h i s "basic p r i n c i p l e , t h e ' C o o p e r a t i v e P r i n c i p l e ' , G r i c e s p e l l s out t h e o b l i g a -t i o n s w h i c h must be met i n o r d e r f o r a speaker t o c o n t r i b u t e t o a c o n v e r s a t i o n i n an a p p r o p r i a t e way. Four maxims f i l l out h i s n o t i o n s o f a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s : 1. t h e maxim o f q u a n t i t y — o n e ought t o be as i n f o r m a t i v e as r e q u i r e d ; 2. t h e maxim o f q u a l i t y - - o n e ought t o t r y t o make a t r u e c o n t r i b u t i o n ; 3. t h e maxim o f r e l a t i o n — o n e ought t o make a r e l e v a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n ; 4. t h e maxim o f manner—one ought t o be c l e a r and c o n c i s e ; one ought t o a v o i d c r e a t i n g c o n f u s i o n . The maxims s t i p u l a t e t h e n o n - l i n g u i s t i c a s sumptions which c o o p e r a t i v e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t s must s h a r e . G r i c e d i s t i n g u i s h e s between t h e s e t o f i m p l i c a t i o n s d e r i v a b l e from t h e p r o p o s i -t i o n a l meaning ( l i t e r a l / c o n v e n t i o n a l ) i n t h e u t t e r i n g o f a sentence and t h e s e t o f i m p l i c a t u r e s d e r i v a b l e from t h e l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f a sentence i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e maxims t h a t t h e sp e a k e r i s presumed t o be f o l l o w i n g (Mohan 1974). C o n v e r s a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t u r e s , t h a t i s , c o n v e r s a t i o n a l l y conveyed meanings, make e s s e n t i a l r e f e r e n c e t o c o n v e r s a t i o n a l maxims. When what i s s a i d i s d i s s o n a n t w i t h a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e , what i s i m p l i c a t e d must r e s o l v e t h e d i s s o n a n c e . G r i c e o n l y a d m i t s t h o s e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t u r e s w h e r e i n 20 i n t u i t i o n i s r e p l a c e a b l e by argument. Speech a c t t h e o r y and t h e c o o p e r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e form the t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s f o r t h e r e s e a r c h u n d e r t a k e n h e r e . The speech a c t was chosen as t h e u n i t of a n a l y s i s . The t h e o r e t i c a l s t u d y o f t h e c o n s t r u a l s t h a t s p e a k e r s p l a c e on t h e i r u t t e r a n c e s i n r e a l speech s i t u a t i o n s i s an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e f i e l d o f ' l i n g u i s t i c p r a g m a t i c s ' . L i n g u i s t i c p r a g m a t i c t h e o r y examines the i n t e n t i o n s o f s p e a k e r s , t h e r e l a t i o n s o f u t t e r a n c e s t o c o n t e x t s , c o n v e r s a -t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s , and c o n v e r s a t i o n a l l y - c o n v e y e d meanings. . . 2 L i n g u i s t i c p r a g m a t i c s i s a p r o m i s i n g a r e a because i t i n t e -g r a t e s t h e m o t i v e f o r c e s and n o n - l i n g u i s t i c a s sumptions under-l y i n g communication w i t h the development of s y s t e m a t i c means, namely, the c o n v e n t i o n a l l i n g u i s t i c code. However, l i n g u i s t i c p r a g m a t i c t h e o r y i s a new and d i f f i c u l t f i e l d . Numerous t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s need to be r e s o l v e d , such as t h e d e m a r c a t i o n between l i n g u i s t i c p r a g -m a t i c s and s e m a n t i c s . I n . e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h , s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s e s o f p r a g -m a t i c c a t e g o r i e s have improved because o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l achievements. But the e m p i r i c a l work i s f r a u g h t w i t h m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems because p r a g m a t i c c a t e g o r i e s a r e i n h e r e n t l y m e n t a l i s t i c . A f t e r s t r u g g l i n g w i t h the d e c i s i o n s of what p r a g -m a t i c c a t e g o r i e s deserve t o be examined, i n v e s t i g a t o r s t h e n f a c e the problem of o b t a i n i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l s o f i n t e r -r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s i n c o d i n g . When the e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h l o o k s a t s e v e r a l p r a g m a t i c v a r i a b l e s , r e l i a b i l i t y becomes a s e r i o u s problem ( c f . Dore 1 9 7 7 )• Sometimes p e r l o c u t i o n a r y e f f e c t s a r e used as t h e grounds t o i n f e r i l l o c u t i o n a r y i n t e n t s . 21 The S p e c i f i c Problem The problem i n v e s t i g a t e d here i s whether language-l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s d i f f e r when mothers or f i r s t b o r n female p r e s c h o o l s i b l i n g s are secondborn boys' and g i r l s ' speech p a r t n e r s . The data i n c l u d e samples of the speech of second-born, f i r s t b o r n , and mothers i n dyadic s i t u a t i o n s . The mode of data a n a l y s i s i s to compare the nature and the frequency of the speech a c t s which take p l a c e between speech p a r t n e r s of a s i m i l a r or d i s s i m i l a r g e n e r a t i o n . The aim i s to uncover q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n l i n g u i s t i c environments, a t t r i b u t a b l e to p a r t i c i p a n t s , which a f f e c t r a t e of a c q u i s i t i o n of l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s and which a f f e c t the q u a l i t y of l e a r n e r s ' l i n g u i s t i c comprehension and performance. F i v e g e n e r a l hypotheses are s t a t e d . General Hypotheses 1. Mothers engage i n language t e a c h i n g ( c l a r i f i c a t i o n ) more f r e q u e n t l y than do f i r s t b o r n p r e s c h o o l g i r l s . 2 . Mothers e s t a b l i s h more p o s i t i v e l e a r n i n g c l i m a t e s than do f i r s t b o r n p r e s c h o o l g i r l s : they produce not o n l y more i n s t a n c e s of ' p o s i t i v e l y - t o n e d ' behavior, but a l s o fewer i n s t a n c e s of 'n e g a t i v e l y - t o n e d ' behavior than the g i r l s do. 3 . Mothers e s t a b l i s h l e s s dominating l e a r n i n g c l i m a t e s than do f i r s t b o r n p r e s c h o o l g i r l s : they produce more s o l i -d a r i t y b e h a v i o r s but fewer c o n t r o l l i n g b ehaviors than g i r l s do. 22 4 . Secondborn boys and g i r l s demonstrate t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c knowledge more f r e q u e n t l y w i t h t h e i r mothers t h a n w i t h t h e i r o l d e r s i s t e r s . 5. R e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e o c c u r s more f r e q u e n t l y w i t h p r e s c h o o l g i r l s t h a n w i t h mothers. S i n c e i t seems i m p o s s i b l e t o d e f i n e e x p l i c i t l y what c o n s t i t u t e s a s e n s i t i v e , s u p e r i o r - i n - q u a l i t y exposure t o language f o r i n d i v i d u a l s a t t h i s s t a g e o f r e s e a r c h , t h e hypo-t h e s e s a r e p h r a s e d i n q u a n t i t a t i v e terms. However, t h e e v e n t u -a l aim i s t o e s t a b l i s h q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n exposure and t o e s t i m a t e t h e r e l a t i v e impact o f m a t e r n a l and s i b l i n g speech on younger s i b l i n g s ' language development. The h y p o t h e s e s d e r i v e p l a u s i b l y from t h e f i n d i n g s on t h e v a l u e of p r i v i l e g e d a c c e s s t o a d u l t s t h r o u g h o u t language a c q u i s i t i o n ; t h e n a t u r e , i n c i d e n c e , and t i m i n g o f m a t e r n a l language t e a c h i n g ; t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a f f e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s i n f o s t e r i n g m e n t a l h e a l t h and a l l l e a r n i n g ; t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l n a t u r e of s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e subsequent d o m i n a t i o n and c o u n t e r - r e a c t i o n ; t h e o b l i q u e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between b i r t h o r d e r and l i n g u i s t i c / i n t e l l e c t u a l eminence; and t h e o r i e s o f c h i l d r e n ' s communicative a b i l i t i e s and e g o c e n t r i s m . Summary To i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r o l e s o f mothers and s i b l i n g s i n p r o v i d i n g l a n g u a g e - l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r younger s i b l i n g s , 23 t h i s c h a p t e r p r o p o s e s t h e c o n t r a s t o f samples o f t h e speech of dyads a t t h e speech a c t l e v e l . The p h i l o s o p h y o f language and l i n g u i s t i c p r a g m a t i c t h e o r y p r o v i d e the t h e o r e t i c a l frame-work f o r t h e speech a c t a n a l y s i s . T h i s c h a p t e r l i s t s f i v e g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s e s which p r e d i c t how t h e speech a c t s o f mothers and f i r s t b o r n g i r l s and t h e speech a c t s o f secondborn w i t h mothers and w i t h o l d e r s i s t e r s d i f f e r i n n a t u r e and i n f r e q u e n c y . The n e x t c h a p t e r o u t l i n e s t h e approach which was de-v i s e d t o t e s t t h e hypotheses. I t e l a b o r a t e s upon th e chosen speech a c t measures under t h e r u b r i c s o f language t e a c h i n g , tone o f l i n g u i s t i c f eedback, power, language l e a r n i n g , and r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e . I t d e f i n e s and i l l u s t r a t e s i n d i v i d u a l speech a c t measures and defends t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e s t u d y . Then th e c h a p t e r e l a b o r a t e s upon th e chosen r e s e a r c h d e s i g n and s p e c i f i e s s u b s t a n t i v e h y p o t h e s e s which r e f e r t o p a r t i c u -l a r c a t e g o r i e s of speech a c t measures. 24 CHAPTER I I THE CHOSEN APPROACH TESTING THE HYPOTHESES: FUNCTIONAL CONTINGENCY ANALYSES AND MEASURES P r a g m a t i c , a f f e c t i v e , and d i s c o u r s e measures a r e among t h e measures s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o i n d i c e s o f l i n g u i s t i c p r o g r e s s i n m o t h e r - c h i l d speech s t u d i e s , c l a s s r o o m i n t e r a c t i o n r e s e a r c h (Amidon & Hough 1 9 6 ? ) , and second-language l e a r n i n g ( R a r d i n 1 9 7 7 )• They deserve t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n any a n a l y s i s o f l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r a c t i o n . P r a g m a t i c and a f f e c t i v e measures l o o k a t t h e i n t e n t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s -conveyed by speech. By d e f i n i t i o n , d i s c o u r s e measures r e f l e c t t o what e x t e n t u t t e r a n c e s , a r e f u n c t i o n a l l y c o n t i n g e n t t o one a n o t h e r : t h e y , a r e measures o f d i a l o g u e r a t h e r t h a n o f mono-l o g u e . D i s c o u r s e measures c a p t u r e how r e s p o n s i v e speech p a r t n e r s a r e t o each o t h e r . I n t e n t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , f u n c t i o n s , and c o n t i n g e n c y appear t o be more i m p o r t a n t a n t e c e d e n t s t h a n s y n t a c t i c form f o r subsequent l i n g u i s t i c development. F i v e c a t e g o r i e s r e l a t e t o t h e h y p o t h e s e s t o be t e s t e d and w a r r a n t d i s c u s s i o n : language t e a c h i n g , t one o f l i n g u i s t i c f e edback, power r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r t n e r s , o v e r t demonstra-t i o n o f language l e a r n i n g , and r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e . 25 The problem i n v e s t i g a t e d h e r e i s b r o a d l y c o n c e i v e d : the f i v e c a t e g o r i e s employed, w h i l e i n t e r r e l a t e d , c o v e r a v a s t a r e a . R e s e a r c h o f t h e f u t u r e w i l l have t o d e a l w i t h s p e c i f i c s i n a f i n e r way. Each c a t e g o r y i s now d i s c u s s e d . Reasons a r e g i v e n f o r each i n c l u s i o n . Language T e a c h i n g ( C l a r i f i c a t i o n ) C o n c e p t u a l A n a l y s i s T e a c h i n g can be d e f i n e d as ' a c t i v i t y w hich causes someone t o l e a r n by example o r e x p e r i e n c e ' (The American  H e r i t a g e D i c t i o n a r y of the E n g l i s h Language 1 969 ) . •. I t can be i n t e n t i o n a l l y c a u s a t i v e o r o n l y i n c i d e n t a l l y so."*" T e a c h i n g can i n v o l v e t h e i n d i c a t i n g , d i s p l a y i n g , q u e s t i o n i n g , o r e x p l a i n i n g o f t h e c o n t e n t or p r o c e d u r e s t o be l e a r n e d . ^The i s s u e of the i n t e n t i o n a l i t y of t e a c h i n g poses some problems. B u t , f o l l o w i n g S e a r l e ( " I n t e n t i o n and A c t i o n , " a t a l k g i v e n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, F e b r u a r y 1979 )» i t can be argued t h a t t h e i n t e n t i o n t o b r i n g about l e a r n i n g o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g can be a p r i o r i o r s i m u l t a n e o u s t o the moment of a c t i o n . That i s , a speaker may i n t e n d t o 'teach ' t h e l a b e l f o r an o b j e c t and may a c t u a l l y do so by p o i n t i n g t o the o b j e c t and g i v i n g i t s name, o r , i n the second c a s e , a speaker may i n t e n d t o f u l f i l l t h e s i n c e r i t y c o n d i t i o n s f o r a speech a c t o t h e r t h a n o s t e n s i v e l a b e l i n g , b u t w h i l e d o i n g so a c t u a l l y p o i n t s t o an o b j e c t and names i t , t h e r e b y m o d e l i n g the l a b e l - s e n s e a s s o c i a t i o n which i s t o be c l a r i f i e d and t o be mastered by t h e l e a r n e r . By r e f e r r i n g t o t h e o b j e c t , t h e speaker f u l f i l l s h i s i n t e n t i o n s . Hence t h e c l a i m i s made t h a t t e a c h i n g can be ' i n t e n t i o n a l l y ' o r ' i n c i d e n t a l l y ' c a u s a t i v e . 26 I n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on second language a c q u i s i t i o n , 'minimal language t e a c h i n g ' r e q u i r e s t h e use o f language w h e r e i n communications a r e e i t h e r c l e a r o r c l a r i f i e d f o r t h e l e a r n e r (Mohan 1 9 7 9 ) . I t i n v o l v e s two l o g i c a l l y n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s : f i r s t , t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t i t d i s p l a y s t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n , form, meaning, r u l e o f s y n t a x or c o n v e r s a t i o n t o he l e a r n e d ; and second, the c o n d i t i o n t h a t i t does so i n a way which i s i n t e l l i g i b l e to the l e a r n e r ( a f t e r P e t e r s & H i r s t 1 9 7 0 : 8 1 ; H i r s t 1 9 7 3 ) . F o r m a l language a n a l y s e s o r 2 e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s f o r language t e a c h -i n g , hut i n some i n s t a n c e s may o c c u r . Many t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l - g e n e r a t i v e l i n g u i s t s (Chomsky 1 9 7 6 ; Newport 1 9 7 7 ; Newport, G l e i t m a n & G l e i t m a n 1 977 ) f i n d i t m i s l e a d i n g t o p h i l o s o p h i z e about t h e ways i n which language and i t s use might be t a u g h t . T h e i r d i s l i k e f o r t h e n o t i o n of language t e a c h i n g stems from t h e i r r e j e c t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n i n g as an adequate e x p l a n a t i o n f o r language l e a r n i n g and t h e i r i m p l i c i t d e f i n i t i o n o f t e a c h i n g as n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v i n g ' f o r m a l e x p l a n a t i o n , i n s t r u c t i o n ' . Fodor, Bever & G a r r e t t ( 197^ ) argue t h a t s i n c e no one knows enough about t h e opaque . r e l a t i o n s h i p s between deep s t r u c t u r e s and s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e s (whether o f a s y n t a c t i c o r a p h o n o l o g i c a l n a t u r e ) , t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p s a r e ' i n e x p l i c a b l e ' . Moreover, a d u l t s have l i t t l e i n c l i n a -t i o n t o e x p l a i n ^ s u c h r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c h i l d r e n have l i m i t e d a b i l i t i e s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s . I concur t h a t most l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s and r u l e s cannot be e x p l a i n e d , but t h a t i s n o t a t i s s u e . My argument i s t h a t f e a t u r e s and r u l e s can be d i s p l a y e d i n a r e l a t i v e l y h e l p f u l o r h i n d e r i n g manner. L e a r n e r s a c c o m p l i s h a g r e a t d e a l : i n B r u n e r ' s terms ( 1973)> l e a r n e r s always have t o "go beyond t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n " i n an example or d i s p l a y i n o r d e r t o form t h e c o n c e p t , s t o r e t h e image, o r i n t e r n a l i z e t h e p r i n c i p l e . But examples and d i s p l a y s can be judged on t h e i r adequacy i n g i v i n g some of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n from which l e a r n e r s must e x t r a p o l a t e . 27 O r d i n a r i l y , i n a d u l t c o n v e r s a t i o n s , a c t s o f c l a r i f i c a -t i o n (as i n "Do you mean now?") do n o t b e l o n g t o a c l a s s o f i n f o r m a l t e a c h i n g a c t s b u t a r e normal ways t o s u s t a i n communica-t i o n . However, g i v e n a s i t u a t i o n w h e r e i n an ad d r e s s e e l a c k s r e q u i s i t e i n f o r m a t i o n o r c o d i n g o r c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s , c l a r i f i c a t i o n s must be deemed as i n f o r m a l l y i n s t r u c t i o n a l a t some l e v e l . I f a h e a r e r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n an everyday c o n v e r s a t i o n i s i g n o r a n t o f what a -parabola i s and needs t o know i t s d e f i n i -t i o n i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d and c o n t r i b u t e t o the d i a l o g u e , the knowledgeable speaker i s o b l i g a t e d by G r i c e ' s f i r s t and f o u r t h c o n v e r s a t i o n a l maxims o f q u a n t i t y and manner ( 1 : be as i n f o r m a t i v e as r e q u i r e d ; 4: be c l e a r and c o n c i s e ) t o c l a r i f y .. the sense o f the term f o r the h e a r e r . H i s c l a r i f i c a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a n a t u r a l t e a c h i n g a c t . C l a r i f i c a t i o n s have a d o u b l e - f a c e t e d beauty: t h e y c omprise c o n v e n t i o n a l means t o conduct c o n v e r s a t i o n s and t h e y can, on o c c a s i o n , a l s o s e r v e as n o n - c o n t r i v e d , i n f o r m a l t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s . F o l l o w i n g the l e a d o f Brown and B e l l u g i (1964), Snow (1972), and Moerk (1972) who eschewed t h e s t r o n g n a t i v i s t p o s i t i o n t h a t a s p e c t s o f language cannot be t a u g h t (Chomsky 1 9 6 5 . 1 9 7 6 ; Lenneberg 1 9 6 7 ) . p s y c h o l i n g u i s t s now deem i t r e s p e c t a b l e t o d i s c u s s language l e s s o n s and t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s , C l a r k and C l a r k ( 1 977 ) d i s c u s s ' c o n v e r s a t i o n a l ' , 'map-p i n g ' , and 'segmentation' l e s s o n s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n a d u l t s ' speech m o d i f i c a t i o n s ; t h e y c h a r t b e h a v i o r s w h i c h f a l l i n t o each t y p e 28 o f l e s s o n . I n a s t r i c t sense, however, many o f t h e g l o b a l changes which t a k e p l a c e d u r i n g a l e s s o n do not meet t h e two l o g i c a l l y n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s o f t e a c h i n g and t h u s cannot be c o n s t r u e d as ' t e a c h i n g ' . F o r example, some d e v i c e s used t o get t h e c h i l d ' s a t t e n t i o n — h i g h p i t c h , w h i s p e r i n g , c a l l i n g t h e c h i l d ' s name and i n v i t i n g t h e c h i l d t o o b s e r v e - - a r e p r o l o g u e s t o t h e d i s p l a y o f c o n t e n t . The d e v i c e s a r e not t e a c h i n g a c t s t h e m s e l v e s : f o r example, t h e y do not i n t e n d t o t e a c h t h e c h i l d t o use h i g h p i t c h o r t o w h i s p e r . However, as G a r n i c a ( 1 977 ) and Sachs ( 1 977 ) h y p o t h e s i z e , h i g h p i t c h and e x a g g e r a t e d i n t o n a t i o n c o n t o u r s may be more e a s i l y p e r c e i v e d by i n f a n t s and t h u s a s s i s t a n a l y s i s and s e g m e n t a t i o n . N i n i o and B r uner ( 1 9 7 8 : 6 - 7 ) r e f e r t o t h e forms of language pedagogy among mothers and i l l u s t r a t e t h e ' s c a f f o l d i n g d i a l o g u e ' c o n s t r u c t e d by a mother and c h i l d d u r i n g book-r e a d i n g s e s s i o n s which f o s t e r s t h e t e a c h i n g of v o c a b u l a r y and t h e e a r l y use o f n o m i n a l s . They l i s t f o u r key u t t e r a n c e t y p e s u sed by t h e mother--the a t t e n t i o n a l v o c a t i v e Look, t h e query What's t h a t ? , t h e l a b e l I t ' s an X, and t h e feedback u t t e r a n c e Yes--and examine t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s o f o c c u r r e n c e i n t h e d i a l o g u e . Moerk ( 1 9 7 2 , 1 9 7 ^ , 1 9 7 6 , 1977 ) p r o p o s e s t h a t i n normal i n t e r a c t i o n s between mother and c h i l d a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f t e a c h -i n g d e v i c e s a r e used. He c l a i m s t h a t t h e phenomena o f i m i t a t i o n t h r o u g h e x p a n s i o n , m o d e l i n g , o c c a s i o n a l q u e s t i o n s , i n c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e s , q u e s t i o n -answer games, n u r s e r y rhymes and s t r u c t u r i n g t h r o u g h p i c t u r e books do not y e t d e s c r i b e e x h a u s t i v e l y a l l t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n and t e a c h i n g a p p l i e d by t h e mother. ( 1 9 7 2 : 2 5 5 ) 29 The concept o f t e a c h i n g espoused h e r e c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e l a b e l i n g , m o d e l i n g , q u e r y i n g , and feedback t a c t i c s used by mothers i n N i n i o and B r u n e r ' s , and Moerk's s t u d i e s . But t h e v i e w which i s r e j e c t e d h e r e i s t h a t t e a c h i n g t a k e s p l a c e d u r i n g a l l d i s p l a y s o f l i n g u i s t i c d a t a .' The problem t h e n becomes t o s p e c i f y a few speech a c t s which verge towards b e i n g i n t e n t i o n -a l l y c a u s a t i v e i n t h e sense o f ' h e l p i n g a l e a r n e r t o l e a r n ' o r 'making a l e a r n e r u n d e r s t a n d ' and t o s e l e c t t h o s e a c t s which d i f f e r e n t i a t e between language s o u r c e s . I t can be argued t h a t language t e a c h i n g o c c u r s when l e a r n e r s a r e shown how t o map l i n g u i s t i c c a t e g o r i e s onto p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e c o n t e x t , a r e g i v e n c o n f i r m i n g o r c o r r e c t i v e feedback about t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n s , a r e prompted t o c l a r i f y t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , and a r e shown how t o b u i l d c o n v e r s a t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , c o n d i t i o n s a r e p r o p i t i o u s f o r l i n g u i s t i c improvement when l e a r n e r s a r e encouraged t o r e h e a r s e and r e v e a l t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c knowledge, because by so d o i n g t h e y a r e a l e r t e d t o t h e l i n g u i s t i c r u l e s which r e m a i n t o be d i s c e r n e d . S p e c i f i c l a n g u a g e - t e a c h i n g a c t s i n c l u d e o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s , c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e and l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s -s i o n , c o n f i r m a t i o n s o f e x p r e s s i o n , i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , r e s p o n s e s t o s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , and r e s p o n s e s t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s . O p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e a c t s and examples now f o l l o w . 30 Language T e a c h i n g : O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s 1. p r o v i d i n g an o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n i n which some o b j e c t i s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e c o n t e x t and g i v e n a name so t h a t i t s meaning becomes c l e a r . E x p r e s s i o n s such as "That's a r o c k i n g c h a i r , " " I s t h a t a r o c k i n g c h a i r ? " "Look a t t h a t r o c k i n g c h a i r , " and " R o c k i n g c h a i r " a r e examples o f o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s i f t h e p r e d i c a t i o n s a r e t r u e . 2. c o r r e c t i n g t h e t r u t h v a l u e o f t h e o t h e r ' s p r o p o s i -t i o n o r c o r r e c t i n g t h e l i n g u i s t i c form o f t h e o t h e r ' s mal-formed u t t e r a n c e by g i v i n g t h e p r o p e r form o r p r o n u n c i a t i o n . C o r r e c t i o n s can be made e x p l i c i t l y by dr a w i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e e r r o r ( s ) and n o t i n g t h e r e q u i r e d change(s) o r t h e y can be made i n f o r m a l l y by s i m p l y s u p p l y i n g t h e a c c u r a t e l a b e l o r r e p a i r i n g t h e u t t e r a n c e ( i n an expanded o r re d u c e d form) i n s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h . I t i s assumed t h a t some r e p e t i t i o n s of t h e o t h e r ' s u t t e r a n c e a r e e x p r e s s e d a l o u d , w i t h o u t r i s i n g i n t o n a t i o n , i n an attempt t o d e c i p h e r t h e i n a c c u r a t e o r i n c o m p l e t e o r u n c l e a r e x p r e s s i o n and a r e t h u s m o t i v a t e d by an urge t o u n d e r s t a n d r a t h e r t h a n by an a p r i o r i c o n s c i o u s i n t e n t t o ' s t r a i g h t e n out' t h e l e a r n e r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e y r e s u l t i n t h e m o d e l i n g o f a c c e p t a b l e forms. E x p a n s i o n s o f t h e c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e which s u p p l y o b l i g a t o r y morphemes must be c o n s i d e r e d as c o r r e c t i o n s even though r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h e p a s t have n ot always deemed them as such. Examples o f c o r r e c t i o n ' s i n c l u d e : 31 a. C h i l d : " S t a r f i s h . " ( p o i n t i n g t o o b j e c t s on a piano-book c o v e r ) Mother: "No, t h e y ' r e n o t s t a r f i s h , t h e y ' r e f l o w e r s . " F u n c t i o n : e x p l i c i t c o r r e c t i o n o f t h e t r u t h v a l u e o f t h e o t h e r ' s p r e d i c a t i o n : statement of n e g a t i v e i n s t a n c e s and p o s i t i v e i n s t a n c e s . b. C h i l d : "De shame." Mother: "The same." F u n c t i o n : c o r r e c t i o n o f p r o n u n c i a t i o n v i a r e p e t i t i o n i n s t a n d a r d " E n g l i s h . c. Younger C h i l d : "Care p u l l . " O l d e r C h i l d : " C a r e f u l , L ." Younger C h i l d : " C a r e f u l . " F u n c t i o n : p o s s i b l y i n a d v e r t e n t c o r r e c t i o n o f p r o n u n c i a t i o n v i a r e p e t i t i o n p l u s t h e r e p e t i t i o n of t h e c o r r e c t i o n . 3 . c o n f i r m i n g t h e t r u t h v a l u e o f a p r o p o s i t i o n by s i m p l y r e p e a t i n g t h e o t h e r ' s statement e x a c t l y o r p a r t i a l l y a nd/ o r v a l i d a t i n g t h e statement w i t h a "yes" o r a "That's r i g h t . " C h i l d : "See a r e p u ( s s ) y c a ( t ) s . " (=These a r e p u s s y c a t s . ) - ^ 3AII o f t h e s e examples were c u l l e d from t h e speech r e -c o r d e d i n t h e s t u d y . The t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t a p e s i n v o l v e d t h e b r o a d p h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h had u n u s u a l phonology. S i n c e t h e use o f p h o n e t i c s would be v e r y awkward i n g i v i n g t h e s e examples and a r e n o t c r u c i a l t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n , we a r e u s i n g 'eye' s p e l l i n g and a r e r e p r e s e n t -i n g sounds which were n o t p e r c e i v e d by t h e t r a n s c r i b e r s by l e t t e r s p l a c e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s . 32 Mother: " P u s s y c a t s , y e s . " C h i l d : " C a t s . " F u n c t i o n : The mother's u t t e r a n c e c o n s t i t u t e s a c o n f i r m a t i o n , p l u s a c o r r e c t i o n o f p r o n u n c i a t i o n by s u p p l y i n g t h e d e n t a l f r i c a t i v e s and s t o p t . The c h i l d acknowledges the c o r r e c t i o n . 4 . p h r a s i n g an: i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n which t e s t s the knowledge o r a b i l i t i e s o f t h e l e a r n e r . An i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t v i o l a t e s t h e m i n i m a l s e t o f n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e performance o f t h e r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n (as f o r m u l a t e d by Garvey 1977 ) i n t h a t a. t h e speaker a l r e a d y knows t h e answer o r knows what c o u l d count as a p o s s i b l e answer-; b. the s p e a k e r does n o t r e a l l y want t o know t h e answer but wants t o h e a r how t h e l i s t e n e r w i l l r e s p o n d ; and c. t h e speaker does n o t assume t h e l i s t e n e r ' s a b i l i t y o r w i l l i n g n e s s t o d i v u l g e t h e answer but p r o c e e d s t o check out t h a t a b i l i t y o r w i l l i n g n e s s . I n my v i e w, t h e r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , i n i t s c e n t r a l c a s e , i s p h r a s e d as an i n t e r r o g a t i v e . But o t h e r g r a m m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s a r e u s e d a l s o . Some examples f o l l o w . i . The i n t e r r o g a t i v e "What i s a cop?" f u n c t i o n s as an i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n when t h e speaker a l r e a d y knows t h e sense o f t h e term 'cop'. i i . The e l l i p t i c a l "Humpty Dumpty had a g r e a t . . . . " prompts th e c h i l d t o f i n i s h t h e p h r a s e and complete t h e rhyme. 33 i i i . The o c c a s i o n a l q u e s t i o n s which p l a c e Wh-question words i n a n o n - i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n i n an u t t e r a n c e (Brown 1968) can sometimes be i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s . F o r example, i f t h e o c c a s i o n a l q u e s t i o n i n t r o d u c e s a new t o p i c i n t h e d i a l o g u e and t e s t s t h e knowledge o f t h e l e a r n e r , i t i s an i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n : Mother: "We pour w a t e r m a what?" ( w i t h f a l l i n g i n t o n a t i o n on what.) E x p r e s s i o n s w i t h v e r b s such as t a l k , t e l l and say r e q u e s t t h e l e a r n e r t o demonstrate l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s . Examples i n c l u d e : i v . " T a l k on t h e t e l e p h o n e . " v. " T e l l me t h e name o f t h i s a n i m a l . " v i . "Say microphone." A l t h o u g h c a s e s o f "Say X"and "Can you say X?" p r o d t h e c h i l d t o demonstrate p h o n e t i c i m i t a -t i o n and a r e t h u s i n s t a n c e s o f t h e most d i r e c t and i n t e n t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e y a r e v e r y l i k e l y t o be r a r e i n o c c u r r e n c e . I n d i r e c t r e q u e s t s t o demonstrate knowledge can be conveyed by s t a t e m e n t s w i t h t h e v e r b wonder. Examples i n c l u d e : v i i . " I wonder i f t h a t i s a sewing machine" o r " I wonder what t h a t c o u l d be." 5. r e s p o n d i n g t o a s i n c e r e r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n by g i v i n g t h e r e q u i s i t e answer. Responding w i t h a n o t h e r i n t e r -r o g a t i v e , a f a v o r i t e p l o y o f t e a c h e r s ( M i s h l e r 1 975 ) and an o p t i o n o c c a s i o n a l l y used by mothers (Moerk 1 9 7 6 ), u s u a l l y does n o t p r o v i d e a r e q u i s i t e answer. Only r e s p o n s e s which p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n a r e r e g a r d e d as t e a c h i n g a c t s . 34 c , • 4 6. p o s i n g a c o n t i n g e n t query which r e q u e s t s the p a r t n e r t o r e p e a t , c o n f i r m , s p e c i f y , e l a b o r a t e upon, c o r r e c t , o r j u s t i f y d e t a i l s o f h i s p r e v i o u s u t t e r a n c e . T h e c o n t i n g e n t "''Elsewhere i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , v a r i a n t s o f the c o n t i n g e n t query a r e c a l l e d t h e query 'to r e a f f i r m c o r r e c t n e s s o f u n d e r -s t a n d i n g ' (Moerk 1 9 7 2 ) ; the ' c l a r i f i c a t i o n r e q u e s t ' ( L o n g h u r s t & S t e p a n i c h 1 9 7 5 ; C o r s a r o 1 9 7 7 ; C h e r r y 1 9 7 8 ) ; and the ' o c c a s i o n -a l q u e s t i o n ' (Brown 1 9 6 8 ) . •^Garvey ( 1 9 7 7 ) proposes a d e s c r i p t i v e model o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n , s t r u c t u r e , and use of t h e c o n t i n g e n t query i n d i s c o u r s e . The c o n t i n g e n t query i s deemed t o be a s p e c i a l i z e d v a r i a n t o f t h e r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n because i t r e s t s upon a s i m i l a r s e t o f f e l i c i t y c o n d i t i o n s . I n Garvey's model, two t y p e s o f c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d — t h e s o l i c i t e d and the u n s o l i c i t e d . W ith t h e f i r s t t y p e , t h e s p e a k e r e n g i n e e r s t h e s i t u a t i o n so t h a t he s o l i c i t s a query from the l i s t e n e r w h ich t h e n p e r m i t s him to make t h e remark t h a t he o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d t o make. S o l i c i t e d q u e r i e s o c c u r i n t h r e e c i r c u m -s t a n c e s and a r e a s t e r i s k e d i n the f o l l o w i n g examples: (1 ) i n summons-answer r o u t i n e s ("Mom?" #"What?"); ( 2 ) i n r h e t o r i c a l gambits ("Know what?" *"What?"); and ( 3 ) i n a p p r e c i a t i o n s e -quences ("Humpity dumpity." *"Humpity d u n t i t y ? " "That's funny, e h ? " ) . S i n c e s o l i c i t e d q u e r i e s a r e s a i d i n o r d e r t o p r o v o k e a t t e n t i o n and n o t t o r e s u l t i n c l a r i f i c a t i o n , t h e y do n o t q u a l i f y as t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s . I n c o n t r a s t , t h e second t y p e of c o n t i n g e n t query, t h e u n s o l i c i t e d , f u n c t i o n s t o c l a r i f y o r t o c o r r e c t : i t m a i n t a i n s mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g and r e p a i r s f a i l u r e s i n communication. I n Garvey's a n a l y s i s , each u n s o l i -c i t e d query has a s e l e c t i v i t y f u n c t i o n ( n o n s p e c i f i c , s p e c i f i c , p o t e n t i a l ) and a d e t e r m i n i n g f u n c t i o n ( r e p e t i t i o n , s p e c i f i c a -t i o n , c o n f i r m a t i o n , and e l a b o r a t i o n ) . W h i l e t h i s s t u d y acknowledges th e t h e o r y b u i l t by Garvey and uses h e r c r i t e r i a and examples t o i d e n t i f y a c o n t i n g e n t query, i t d i f f e r s i n some r e s p e c t . That i s , i t r e s t r i c t s i t s a n a l y s i s t o u n s o l i c i t e d c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s . The a n a l y s i s h e r e i s r a t h e r g e n e r a l : i t does n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e between f u n c t i o n s . But i n an a t t e m p t t o n e t a l l c a s e s , i t adds r e q u e s t s f o r c o r r e c t i o n s and j u s t i f i c a t i o n s . The s t u d y a l s o p e r m i t s ' i n -s i n c e r e ' r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n embedded i n d i s c o u r s e t o be c o u n t e d a s c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s . The s e t o f p o s s i b l e c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s i s t h u s e n l a r g e d . The ontogeny of c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s i n t h e speech o f v e r y young l e a r n e r s d e s e r v e s t o be s t u d i e d but i s n o t a t t e m p t e d h e r e . The acronym CQ i s sometimes u s e d h e r e t o r e f e r to t h e c o n t i n g e n t query c a t e g o r y . 35 query, a c o n t e x t u a l l y dependent speech a c t , i s deemed t o be a s p e c i a l i z e d v a r i a n t o f the r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n because i t r e s t s upon a s i m i l a r s e t o f f e l i c i t y c o n d i t i o n s . I n t h e a n a l y s i s s e t f o r t h h e r e , the c o n t i n g e n t query may be ' i n s i n c e r e ' o r ' s i n c e r e ' i n i n t e n t . The c o n t i n g e n t query i s i d e n t i f i e d by t h r e e n e c e s s a r y c r i t e r i a : a. i n t e r r o g a t i v e s t r u c t u r e w hich b. q u e s t i o n s d e t a i l s mentioned or p o t e n t i a l l y 'presumed'^ i n t h e i m m e d i a t e l y a n t e c e d e n t u t t e r a n c e and w h i c h c. f u n c t i o n s t o c l a r i f y o r c o r r e c t d e t a i l s e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d or i m p l i c i t l y presupposed or p a r a t a c t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e i n t h e p r e v i o u s u t t e r a n c e . aThe p o t e n t i a l l y 'presumed' d e t a i l s c o u l d be the f e l i c i t y c o n d i t i o n s h o l d i n g f o r the i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e of t h e a n t e c e d e n t u t t e r a n c e . F o r example, the a s s e r t i o n "I'm g o i n g t o do t h a t p u z z l e " i s based on t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t t h e s p e a k e r i s s a y i n g what s/he b e l i e v e s t o be t r u e - - t h a t s/he i s w i l l i n g and a b l e t o do i t . The c o n t i n g e n t query can check on t h e s p e a k e r ' s w i l l i n g n e s s and a b i l i t y : "Are you?" o r "Can y o u ? " / "Do you need any h e l p ? " . S e c o n d l y , ' p o t e n t i a l ' d e t a i l s c o u l d b e a r a p a r a t a c t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p t o d e t a i l s a l r e a d y mentioned. I n t h i s c a s e , the CQ can prompt f o r d e t a i l s not c o m p l e t e l y l i s t e d . C h i l d : "A doggie, a t i g e r , a b e a r . " Mother: "And what e l s e ? " F u n c t i o n : I n Garvey's t e r m i n o l o g y t h i s i s a ( p o t e n t i a l ) r e q u e s t f o r e l a b o r a t i o n . 36 Examples of u n s o l i c i t e d c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s i n c l u d e t h e u t t e r -ances marked by an a s t e r i s k . a. C h i l d : g a r b l e d u t t e r a n c e Mother: *"Hmmm?" ( w i t h r i s i n g i n t o n a t i o n ) F u n c t i o n : n o n s p e c i f i c r e q u e s t f o r r e p e t i t i o n . b. ( i ) C h i l d : "The v i l l a g e goes t h e r e . " Mother: *"The what goes t h e r e ? " F u n c t i o n : r e q u e s t f o r r e p e t i t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c c o n s t i t u e n t , ( i i ) C h i l d : " F a s h i n g . " Mother: *"You're d o i n g what?" F u n c t i o n : a g a i n a r e q u e s t f o r r e p e t i t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c c o n s t i t u e n t framed by an emphatic s e n t e n c e - f i n a l i n t e r r o g a t i v e , t h e s t r u c t u r e c a l l e d an o c c a s i o n a l q u e s t i o n . c. C h i l d : "Here's a p o c k e t . " Mother: * " I s t h a t a p o c k e t ? " F u n c t i o n : r e q u e s t f o r c o n f i r m a t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c i t e m . d. C h i l d : "Give me t h e hammer." Mother: *"Which one?" F u n c t i o n : r e q u e s t f o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n . e. C h i l d : "A r e d h a t . " Mother: *"And what e l s e ? " F u n c t i o n : r e q u e s t f o r e l a b o r a t i o n . f . C h i l d : "Dat's a paper." Mother: * " I s t h a t a p a per, n o t a b l a n k e t f o r t h e d o l l i e s t o s l e e p ? " F u n c t i o n : r e q u e s t f o r a c o n f i r m a t i o n / c o r r e c t i o n o f t r u t h v a l u e , (The o b j e c t i s a p i e c e o f c l o t h . ) 37 g. C h i l d : " I need more p e o p l e . " Second C h i l d : *"Why?" F u n c t i o n : r e q u e s t f o r . j u s t i f i c a t i o n . h. I n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n a r e c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s i f t h e y s e m a n t i c a l l y o r p r a g m a t i c a l l y l i n k up w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s u t t e r a n c e , as i n : Mother: "Which one does t h e b u t t e r f l y go i n ? " C h i l d : " I dunno." Mother: *"Dpes i t go i n t h a t one?" F u n c t i o n : p r o v i d e s a c l u e y e t a l s o r e q u e s t s t h e c h i l d t o demonstrate more knowledge. 7. r e s p o n d i n g t o a c o n t i n g e n t query i n which t h e l i s t e n e r r e p e a t s , c o n f i r m s , s p e c i f i e s , e l a b o r a t e s upon, c o r r e c t s or j u s t i f i e s d e t a i l s o f h i s / h e r own speech and i n t e n t i o n s f o r the b e n e f i t o f t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p a r t n e r . D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e Language-Teaching Measures T a b l e 1 summarizes t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t h a t t h e seven t y p e s o f t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s p o t e n t i a l l y make t o t h e under-s t a n d i n g o f language c o n t e n t , t h e i n t e r n a l i z i n g o f p r o c e d u r e s to conduct d i a l o g u e s , and the r e h e a r s a l and d i s p l a y o f know-l e d g e . I t presumes t h a t t h e t e a c h i n g o f language c o n t e n t i n -v o l v e s more t h a n the t e a c h i n g o f l a b e l s and t h e g e n e r a l i z i n g and c l a r i f y i n g o f c o n c e p t s - - i t i n v o l v e s t h e t e a c h i n g o f morph-o l o g y , c o n s t i t u e n t s t r u c t u r e , and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s , t o o . 38 TABLE 1 LANGUAGE-TEACHING SPEECH ACTS POSSIBLE ROLES IN ACQUISITION PROMOTES UNDERSTANDING OF LINGUISTIC CONTENT CONVERSATIONAL PROCEDURES ACTS; A a B D E G H CAUSES REHEARSAL OF KNOWLEDGE 1 . o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s 2. c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e c o r r e c t i o n s o f l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n 3. c o n f i r m a t i o n s o f t r u t h 'value X [ X X (X)' X X (X)(X) X c o n f i r m a t i o n s o f l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n 4 . i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n X X (X)(X) 5. r e s p o n s e s t o s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n ( X ) ( X ) 6. c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s 7. r e s p o n s e s t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X a A = l e x i c o n ; B = p r o n u n c i a t i o n ; C=morphology; D=syntax, e i t h e r p h r a s e s t r u c t u r e r u l e s o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e s ; E = i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t o p i c ; F = t u r n - t a k i n g ; G=discourse c o h e s i o n ; H=remedying n o i s e o r c h a n n e l p roblems; I=causes ( l i n g u i s t i c ) p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . denotes t h e p r e s e n c e o f a p o s s i b l e r o l e . C ( X ) denotes 'sometimes'. 3 9 The p o s s i b l e m e r i t s o f each t e a c h i n g a c t a r e now d i s c u s s e d . O s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s a r e an i m p o r t a n t e m p i r i c a l means by which a language l e a r n e r can i n f e r m e a n i n g f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l a b e l s and examples. S i n c e o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s must f u l f i l l t h e s i n c e r i t y c o n d i t i o n t h a t t h e speaker and t h e h e a r e r a r e m u t u a l l y a t t e n d i n g t o t h e example w h i l e i t i s b e i n g l a b e l e d , o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s a r e measures o f communicative speech. When the l e a r n e r i s s u p p l i e d numerous examples o f o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s , s/he has many o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o master v o c a b u l a r y , t o n e g o t i a t e t h e sense o f c o n c e p t s , and t o g e n e r a l -i z e c o n c e p t s t o new exemplars. I n Newport's s t u d y ( 1 9 7 7 ) i i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n o f d e i c t i c u t t e r a n c e s by mothers (as i n "That's an a p p l e " ) c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s i n c r e a s e d v o c a b u l a r y s i z e ( r = . 7 6 ) and w i t h noun p h r a s e e l a b o r a t i o n ( r = . 5 6 ) . I t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t t h e f r e q u e n c y of t h e i n d e f i n i t e "What's t h a t ? " r e q u e s t i n which t h e l a b e l i s n o t modeled f a i l s t o p r e d i c t language growth. Newport's f i n d i n g r e g a r d i n g t h e noun p h r a s e e l a b o r a t i o n i s i n t e r e s t i n g because i t s u g g e s t s t h a t d e i c t i c u t t e r a n c e s / o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s have a s y n t a c t i c e f f e c t as w e l l as a l e x i c a l e f f e c t : by m o d e l i n g f o r t h e l e a r n e r t h e use of s p e c i f i c n o m i n a l s r a t h e r t h a n t h e use o f c o n t e x t - b o u n d pronouns, t h e y promote t h e growth o f t h e noun p h r a s e . I n t h e p a s t , b e h a v i o r i s t s have c l a i m e d a fundamental r o l e f o r t h e s o c i a l environment i n v o c a b u l a r y development. However, i t seems t h a t t h e s o c i a l environment may i n f l u e n c e s y n t a c t i c d e v e l o p -ment and use as w e l l . 40 W h i l e o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s can he g i v e n f o r o b j e c t s , a t t r i b u t e s , a c t s , and s t a t e s , t h i s s t u d y f o c u s e s on t h e c e n t r a l c a s e - - o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s f o r o b j e c t s but w i t h a s i d e l i n e c o n c e r n w i t h one t y p e o f a t t r i b u t e - - c o l o r . Immediate feedback on l i n g u i s t i c performance f a c i l i t a t e s communication a c c u r a c y and u n d o u b t e d l y has l o n g - r a n g e con-sequences. As w e l l - t i m e d f eedback, c o r r e c t i o n s / c o n f i r m a t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e and l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n can a s s i s t t h e l e a r n e r t o match l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n s w i t h c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t o c l a r i f y t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f c o n c e p t s , and t o l e a r n t h e s t a n d a r d forms of e x p r e s s i o n j u s t a t t h e t i m e t h a t t h e c h i l d i s t r y i n g t o e x p r e s s h i s c o n c e r n s . C o r r e c t i o n s / c o n f i r m a t i o n s o f l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n p o s s i b l y cause t h e l e a r n e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e o p e r a -t i o n o f s y n t a c t i c and m o r p h o l o g i c a l r u l e s . S i n c e feedback f o l l o w s p r e v i o u s c l a i m s , i t a l s o shows t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t u r n -t a k i n g , d i s c o u r s e c o h e s i o n , and o c c a s i o n a l l y t h e c l e a r i n g - u p of c h a n n e l problems. Requests and t h e i r r e s p o n s e s r e v e a l t h e i n i t i a t i o n and maintenance of d i s c o u r s e . Requests f o r i n f o r m a t i o n impose o b l i g a t i o n s on t h e h e a r e r and have a h i g h c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p u l l v a l u e : t h e y p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l i n g u i s t i c p r a c t i c e and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . The g r e a t v a r i e t y of i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n r e v e a l s t h e d i v e r s e ways t h a t t e a c h e r s can engage l e a r n e r s . F o r example, t h e e l l i p t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h prompt f o r c o m p l e t i o n a r e good i n s t r u m e n t s f o r t r a i n i n g i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f s e n t e n c e c o n s t i t u e n t s (Moerk's c l a i m 1974). Responses t o s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e w o r l d l y i n f o r m a t i o n and l e x i c a l and p r o n u n c i a t i o n models when t h e l e a r n e r e x p r e s s e s 41 a need t o know. C o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s a r e s p e c i a l i z e d r e q u e s t s which remedy c h a n n e l problems: t h e y seek t o c l a r i f y messages which a r e unheard, ambiguous, i n c o r r e c t , i n c o m p l e t e , o r un-j u s t i f i a b l e . Responses t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s r e a d j u s t c a s e s o f f a i l u r e i n comprehension. S i n c e r e q u e s t s a r e o f t e n p h r a s e d as i n t e r r o g a t i v e s and t h e i r r e s p o n s e s as s t a t e m e n t s , r e q u e s t s and t h e i r r e s p o n s e s a r e s y n t a c t i c a l l y r e l a t e d . Q u e s t i o n and answer i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o o l s t o h e l p t h e c h i l d t o u n d e r s t a n d and e x e r -c i s e t h e r u l e s o f q u e s t i o n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n a l l t h e i r d i v e r s i t y - - y e s / n o , t a g , Wh-, and o c c a s i o n a l q u e s t i o n s . S h i f t i n g from l a n g u a g e - t e a c h i n g examples, we t u r n t o the c l i m a t e o f t h e t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n and d i s c u s s t h e tone o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c feedback and t h e power r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r t n e r s . Tone o f L i n g u i s t i c Feedback O p t i o n s One way t o a s s e s s t h e a t t i t u d e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p a r t n e r s t oward each o t h e r i s t o l o o k a t t h e tone o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c f e edback t h a t t h e y t y p i c a l l y convey. F o l l o w i n g a t t e m p t s t o a c c o m p l i s h some t a s k or make some c l a i m , p a r t n e r s can be p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e , a c c e p t i n g o r r e j e c t i n g , a g r e e -a b l e o r d i s a g r e e a b l e . I n d o i n g so, t h e y can employ v o i c e m o d u l a t i o n s , l e x i c o n (Dummy, wrong, g r e a t ) , and 'charged' speech a c t s . S i n c e t h e p h o n e t i c measurement and t h e i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f superimposed p a r a l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s — v a r i a t i o n s 42 i n l o u d n e s s , p i t c h , d u r a t i o n , openness, c l i p p i n g - - i s a new a r e a i n communication t h e o r y (Lyons 1977). t h e assessment o f t h e c l i m a t e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s by e x c l u s i v e l y c o n s i d e r i n g v o i c e m o d u l a t i o n s cannot be at t e m p t e d h e r e . I n s t e a d , t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e mothers and f i r s t b o r n g i r l s a r e gauged by t h e i r p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n s which s u r f a c e i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y - t o n e d speech a c t s . S i n c e c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s of i n t o n a t i o n and s t r e s s have s t r u c t u r a l and i n t e r p r e t i v e i m p o r t a n c e , t h e y must be c o n s i d e r e d as c l u e s i n i n f e r r i n g t h e f o r c e o f speech a c t s . P a r a l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s a r e i n d e e d n o t e d but a r e i n t e r p r e t e d 1 i n t u i t i v e l y ' , a s a d j u n c t s t o t h e c e n t r a l l i n g u i s t i c d e v i c e s which s i g n a l i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e - - w o r d o r d e r , s t r e s s , i n t o n a -t i o n a l c o n t o u r , mood o f v e r b , o r p e r f o r m a t i v e v e r b . A f f e c t i v e Feedback: O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s Measures s e l e c t e d to i n d i c a t e n e g a t i v e - a f f e c t speech a c t s i n c l u d e : 1. c o r r e c t i n g t h e t r u t h v a l u e o f t h e o t h e r ' s p r o p o s i -t i o n i n n e g a t i v e ways by s t a t i n g t h a t t h e i n s t a n c e i s n o t an a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t a n c e . C h i l d : " A f f e . " Mother: "That's n o t a g i r a f f e . " 2. c o r r e c t i n g t h e l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n of t h e o t h e r i n n e g a t i v e ways by s t a t i n g "That's n o t how to say X." 3. c o r r e c t i n g the b e h a v i o r o f t h e o t h e r i n n e g a t i v e ways by s t a t i n g e x p r e s s i o n s such as "That's n o t how i t i s done," o r "You're n o t supposed t o s i t on t h e t a b l e . " 4 3 4 . d i s a g r e e i n g w i t h o r r e j e c t i n g o r r e f u s i n g t h e o t h e r ' s c l a i m . F o r example: Younger C h i l d : " I ' l l show y'how, okay?" O l d e r C h i l d : "No, I'm gonna show you how." 5. c r i t i c i z i n g t h e o t h e r ' s q u a l i t i e s , a b i l i t i e s , o r manner o f a c t i n g , as i n "You're n ot v e r y smart, a r e you?" o r "You don't know how t o do t h i s . " Measures s e l e c t e d t o i n d i c a t e p o s i t i v e - a f f e c t speech a c t s a r e t h e r e v e r s e o f t h e n e g a t i v e ones and i n c l u d e : 1. c o r r e c t i n g t h e t r u t h v a l u e o f t h e o t h e r ' s p r o p o s i -t i o n i n n e u t r a l o r p o s i t i v e ways by p r o v i d i n g o n l y an a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t a n c e i n r e s p o n s e t o an i n c o r r e c t one. F o r example: C h i l d : "That's a b a r r e l . " Mother: " I t ' s a b l o c k , I t h i n k . " 2. c o r r e c t i n g t h e l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e o t h e r i n n e u t r a l o r p o s i t i v e ways by s i m p l y r e p e a t i n g o r r e p h r a s i n g t h e o t h e r ' s u t t e r a n c e i n s t a n d a r d form, as i n , C h i l d : "My t a teemo mus t e e . " Mother: "That's r i g h t , t h a t i s a C h r i s t m a s t i m e t r e e . " 3 . c o r r e c t i n g t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e o t h e r i n n e u t r a l o r p o s i t i v e 'ways by s t a t i n g how t h e t a s k s h o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d , as i n , " I t would work b e t t e r i f you s a t on t h e c h a i r . " 4 . p r a i s i n g t h e o t h e r ' s q u a l i t i e s o r a b i l i t i e s , as i n , "Good f o r you," "You a r e r i g h t on," "You're a c l e v e r g i r l , a r e n ' t you?" 44 5. e n c o u r a g i n g the o t h e r t o improve or p r o v i d i n g p o s i t i v e c o n f i r m a t i o n t h a t t h e o t h e r ' s p r o g r e s s i s s a t i s f a c t o r y , as i n , "Keep on t r y i n g now," "Good, good," o r "That's i t . " D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e Tone of Feedback Measures ' A c c e p t i n g ' feedback i s assumed t o be more f a c i l i t a t i v e f o r e m o t i o n a l and l i n g u i s t i c growth t h a n ' r e j e c t i n g ' feedback f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s ( N e l s o n 1 9 7 3 ; Amidon & Giammatteo 1 9 6 7 ; R a r d i n 1 9 7 7 )• F i r s t of a l l , n e g a t i v e feedback i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l -l y d i f f i c u l t t o t a k e . Disagreements a r e u n p l e a s a n t ; c r i t i c i s m s can be s c a t h i n g . Second, n e g a t i v e feedback i s s e m a n t i c a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o comprehend. N e g a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s c o n t r a d i c t t h e v i e w s o f the l e a r n e r and a r e d i f f i c u l t t o accommodate t o . There i s a l s o e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t h a t n e g a t i v e c a s e s may not be n e c e s s a r y i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f words but even may be c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e ( G r u e n d e l 1 9 7 7 ) . I n a r e v i e w , N e l s o n ( 1 9 7 9 : 144) w r i t e s : p r e s e n t i n g t h e c h i l d w i t h a statement such as t h a t ' s  n o t a dog, i t ' s a h o r s e may have a p a r a d o x i c a l e f f e c t i f t h e c h i l d i s n o t y e t s y n t a c t i c a l l y p r o f i c i e n t . The c h i l d may f a i l to code the n e g a t i v e , n o t e i n s t e a d t h a t h i s own word (dog) has been a f f i r m e d by t h e a d u l t and i f he n o t e s th e c o r r e c t i o n h o r s e , may assume t h a t i t i s an a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m u l a t i o n f o r dog. J u s t as c h i l d r e n do n o t seem t o be b o t h e r e d by h a v i n g a s i n g l e f o rm f o r s e v e r a l r e f e r e n t s (da f o r dad, duck and dog, f o r example) t h e y do n o t seem to be c o n c e r n -ed a t f i r s t about more t h a n one word f o r a s i n g l e r e f e r e n t . U s u a l l y , though, p a r t n e r s ' a c t s o f r e j e c t i o n and r e f u s a l a r e n o t s y n t a c t i c a l l y e l a b o r a t e d ( E r v i n - T r i p p 1 9 7 7 ) and t h u s t h e y f a i l t o model s t r u c t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y which l e a d s 45 to f u r t h e r growth. N e l s o n (1973) o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d ' r e j e c t i o n ' as a v e r b a l i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e words o r a c t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n were i n a p p r o p r i a t e ; h e r d e f i n i t i o n subsumes t h e n e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e , l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n , and b e h a v i o r d i s t i n g u i s h -ed above. N e l s o n (1973s91) d e t e c t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n (-.43, p=0 .05 ) between m a t e r n a l r a t e of r e j e c t i o n and c h i l d r e n ' s mean l e n g t h of u t t e r a n c e f o r c h i l d r e n aged 24 months. C o n s i d e r a b l e c o n s t r a i n t i s r e q u i r e d t o r e a c t t o p r e -s c h o o l e r s i n s u p p o r t i v e ways s i n c e t h e y behave im m a t u r e l y and o f t e n c a n t a n k e r o u s l y and u n p r e d i c t a b l y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , ob-s e r v a t i o n s r e v e a l a number of p o s i t i v e o p t i o n s i n r e s p o n d i n g t o a . c h i l d who o v e r g e n e r a l i z e s a word o r e x p r e s s e s an unconven-t i o n a l view. The s e n s i t i v e p a r t n e r can a l l o w t h e o v e r g e n e r a l -i z a t i o n t o p a s s , on the grounds t h a t t h e c h i l d i s not r e a d y f o r the c o n t r a r y n o t i o n o r does n o t need t h e c o r r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n a t t h e ti m e . On the o t h e r hand, t h e p a r t n e r can p r o v i d e a p o s i t i v e i n s t a n c e ( h o r s e ) , o r use a p a r e n t h e t i c a l v e r b ("I t h i n k t h a t ' s a h o r s e , " " I wonder i f t h a t i s a h o r s e , " "That's a ho r s e , I suppose") which g i v e s t h e c h i l d some leeway t o r e a s o n i n an u n u s u a l way. Power R e l a t i o n s h i p s C o n s i d e r a t i o n s Power depends upon s t a t u s d e t e r m i n e d by one's age, 46 s i z e , degree o f knowledge, w e a l t h , p r e s t i g e . Power may be d i s t r i b u t e d i n h i e r a r c h i c a l ( d o m i n a n t / s u b o r d i n a t e ) o r e g a l i -t a r i a n ways. Dominant p e r s o n s may choose t o i n i t i a t e i n t e r -a c t i o n s and t o c o n t r o l t h e o t h e r s ' b e h a v i o r by p r o h i b i t i n g , o r d e r i n g , making h i n t s o r f i r s t p e r s o n a s s e r t i o n s o r n o r m a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s . S u b o r d i n a t e s a w a i t t h e i r t u r n t o speak and a r e f o r c e d t o comply, t o f o l l o w t h e o r d e r s , t o t a k e the h i n t s , and to f o l l o w t h e r u l e s . I n c o n t r a s t , e g a l i t a r i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e v e a l a sense o f s o l i d a r i t y and a r e marked by a u n i t y of purpose, i n t e r e s t , o r sympathy. E q u a l p a r t n e r s use s i m i l a r forms o f a d d r e s s t o each o t h e r and have e q u a l r i g h t s t o i n i t i a t e a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l t u r n . I n s t e a d o f i s s u i n g o r d e r s , t h e y may i n i t i a t e a p o l i t e r e q u e s t or s u g g e s t i o n o r o f f e r . They may or may n o t choose t o re s p o n d to t h e r e q u e s t o r s u g g e s t i o n o r o f f e r . The o p t i o n s a r e not p r e s c r i b e d . I n t e r a c t i o n s among f a m i l y members can be a t e i t h e r extremes of t h e power d i s t r i b u t i o n . P a r e n t s can deny t h e i r customary a u t h o r i t a r i a n p o s i t i o n s i n f a v o r o f s o l i d a r i t y ones w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n . S i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be h i e r a r c h i c a l w i t h t h e e l d e s t c h i l d u s i n g age, s t a t u r e , g r e a t e r l i n g u i s t i c f a c i l i t y and c o g n i t i v e powers t o p r e s s u r e t h e younger c h i l d r e n . But s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s a l s o have t h e p o t e n t i a l t o become e g a l i t a r i a n because t h e f r e q u e n t i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e d u r a b i l i t y o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the g r e a t commonality o f e x p e r i e n c e s and v a l u e s ( C i c i r e l l i 1976) f o s t e r s o l i d a r i t y . S i b l i n g r e l a -t i o n s a r e s p e c i a l : t h e y a r e u s u a l l y much more i n t e n s e t h a n p e e r r e l a t i o n s and e x t e n d over l i f e t i m e s . 47 Power Measures: O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s Measures o f power r e l a t i o n s f a l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : d o m i n a t i n g speech a c t s and s o l i d a r i t y a c t s . D e f i n i t i o n s and examples f o r t h e d o m i n a t i n g speech a c t s now f o l l o w . D o m i n a t i n g Speech A c t s 1. p r o h i b i t i o n s — a c t s , i m p e r a t i v e i n mood, which f o r b i d o r debar, e.g. "Don't do t h a t , " "Hold i t , " "Wait a m inute," o r "Stop i t . " 2. o r d e r s — a c t s , i m p e r a t i v e i n mood, e x p r e s s e d t o an e q u a l or more l i k e l y t o a l i s t e n e r downward i n r a n k , w h i c h expect t h e l i s t e n e r t o comply. Examples i n c l u d e "Put i t h e r e , " and "You w i l l put i t h e r e . " 3. i n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e s - - a c t s which i n d i r e c t l y c o n t r o l t h e i n t e r a c t i o n . Examples i n c l u d e e x p r e s s i o n s o f needs ("I want X " ) , f i r s t - p e r s o n a s s e r t i o n s ( " I ' l l do t h i s " and " W e ' l l go h e r e " ) , n o r m a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s ("The c a r b e l o n g s h e r e " ) , and s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h h i n t a t t h e r e q u i r e d a c t s ("A d r i n k o f w a t e r would be n i c e " = "Get me a d r i n k o f w a t e r " ) . S o l i d a r i t y Speech A c t s I n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e d o m i n a t i n g speech a c t s a r e a s e t of s o l i d a r i t y speech a c t s which i n d i c a t e a g r e a t e r degree of e g a l i t a r i a n i s m and d e f e r e n c e between p a r t n e r s . F o u r t e e n speech a c t s can be defended as s o l i d a r i t y a c t s : s i n c e r e , R e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n ; r e q u e s t s f o r a c t i o n , p e r m i s s i o n , a s s e n t , and a t t e n t i o n ; o f f e r s ; s u g g e s t i o n s ; and c o n v e r s a t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s 48 t o t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d r e q u e s t s , o f f e r s , and s u g g e s t i o n s . As a group, s o l i d a r i t y a c t s can be i d e n t i f i e d e a s i l y . But some p a i r s o f s o l i d a r i t y a c t s cannot be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from each o t h e r unambiguously. F o r example, t h e e x p r e s s i o n "Are you t h i r s t y ? " c o u l d be a s i n c e r e r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , o r , i n some c o n t e x t s , i t c o u l d be an o f f e r . S i m i l a r l y , t h e sentence "Do you want t o p u t t h a t on t h e t a b l e ? " c o u l d be c o n s t r u e d as a s i n c e r e r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and/or a r e q u e s t f o r a c t i o n . S i n c e f i n e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s amongst t h e s o l i d a r i t y a c t s a r e n o t e s s e n t i a l t o a s s e s s degree o f s o l i d a r i t y , t h e e n t i r e s e t o f a c t s i s c o n s i d e r e d as one c a t e g o r y . The - f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e t h e v a r i e t y o f r e -q u e s t s , o f f e r s , s u g g e s t i o n s and t h e i r r e s p o n s e s w h i c h f a l l i n t o t h e s o l i d a r i t y c l a s s . I n i t i a t i n g and re s p o n s e a c t s o f a s i m i l a r t y p e a r e l i s t e d t o g e t h e r . a . ( i ) O l d e r C h i l d : "What a r e dese? M i c r o p h o n e s ? " F u n c t i o n : s i n c e r e r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . The g i r l g e n u i n e l y wants h e r b r o t h e r t o c o n f i r m t h e t r u t h v a l u e o f h e r guess. To a s s i g n t h i s f u n c t i o n , t h e coder must impute i g n o r a n c e t o t h e speaker. ( i i ) C h i l d : " W i l l you t a l k about i t ? " Mother: "Okay, I t h i n k i t must be w i n t e r 'cause t h e r e ' s snow." F u n c t i o n : r e s p o n s e t o s i n c e r e , n o n - s p e c i f i c r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r -m a t i o n . The s o l i d a r i t y f u n c t i o n i s a s s i g n e d o n l y when t h e response f o l l o w s a n o n - s p e c i f i c r e q u e s t . When t h e r e s p o n s e 4-9 answers a s p e c i f i c r e q u e s t w i t h s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n , i t i s deemed a t e a c h i n g ; a c t , as mentioned e a r l i e r . b. ( i ) Mother: "Want t o put t h a t on t h e t a b l e o r on t h e f l o o r ? " F u n c t i o n : r e q u e s t f o r a c t i o n . The d i s j u n c t i v e r e q u e s t p r o v o k e s more t h a n a v e r b a l r e s p o n s e . ( i i ) C h i l d : "Mom, l e t ' s r e a d t h i s . " Mother: "Okay, l e t ' s t a k e a l o o k now." F u n c t i o n : r e s p o n s e t o r e q u e s t f o r a c t i o n . c. ( i ) O l d e r C h i l d : "Can I p l a y de p i a n o ? " F u n c t i o n : r e q u e s t f o r p e r m i s s i o n . • ( i i ) Younger C h i l d : " I gonna t a l k t o t h e microphone, kay? " O l d e r C h i l d : "Kay." F u n c t i o n : r e s p o n s e t o r e q u e s t f o r p e r m i s s i o n . d. ( i ) O l d e r C h i l d : "You l o v e d a t , don't you?" F u n c t i o n : r e q u e s t f o r a s s e n t . ( i i ) Younger C h i l d : "You c a ( l l ) me on d i s phone, okay?" O l d e r C h i l d : "Kay." F u n c t i o n : r e s p o n s e t o r e q u e s t f o r a s s e n t . e. ( i ) Mother: "Look a t a l l t h e f u r he's got t h e r e . " 7 F u n c t i o n : r e q u e s t f o r a t t e n t i o n . ' ''imperatives such as "Watch me:" "Look," "See," " S n i f f , " " S m e l l , " and "Touch t h i s " a r e l a b e l e d s o l i d a r i t y a c t s i n t h i s s t u d y r a t h e r t h a n o r d e r s , on t h e grounds t h a t t h e s p e a k e r s a r e making e f f o r t s t o s e t up communication. Many of t h e r e q u e s t s f o r a t t e n t i o n a r e p r e l u d e s t o t e a c h i n g ; t h e y deserve t o be c o n s i d e r e d as s u p p o r t i v e a c t s r a t h e r t h a n d o m i n a t i n g a c t s . 50 ( i i ) C h i l d : "Watch how I p l a y d i s p i a n o . " Mother: " A l l r i g h t , one tune." F u n c t i o n : r e s p o n s e t o r e q u e s t f o r a t t e n t i o n . f . (1) O l d e r C h i l d : "Now i f you need h e l p o r want a s t o r y about Bamhi, I ' l l r e a d you one." F u n c t i o n : o f f e r . ( i i ) C h i l d : " I wan' you have t h i s one," Mother: "Okay, t h a n k s . " F u n c t i o n : r e s p o n s e t o o f f e r . g. ( i ) O l d e r C h i l d : "You can do dem up i f you want again." ( C o n t e x t : Dem r e f e r s t o the p u z z l e s which th e younger c h i l d i s h o l d i n g . ) F u n c t i o n : s u g g e s t i o n . ( i i ) C h i l d : "Wan1 me t o show you de p ( l ) a y d i s ? " Mother: "Sure." F u n c t i o n : r e s p o n s e to s u g g e s t i o n . Examples b, c_, d, f , and g i n d i c a t e t h a t w h i l e s y n t a c -t i c e l a b o r a t i o n i s t y p i c a l o f t h e s o l i d a r i t y speech a c t s which i n i t i a t e t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l t u r n ( t h e r e q u e s t s f o r a c t i o n , p e r -m i s s i o n , a s s e n t , and the o f f e r s and s u g g e s t i o n s ) , s i n g l e -word r e p l i e s a r e common f o r the c o n v e r s a t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s W h i l e t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e of t h i s u t t e r a n c e r e -sembles t h a t o f the a c t c a l l e d t h e i n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e i n t h i s s t u d y , t h i s u t t e r a n c e i s an example o f a s o l i d a r i t y a c t be-cause th e p u t a t i v e i n t e n t i o n o f the speaker i s to s h a r e . I f t h e i n t e n t i s t o o f f e r somebody something, t h e u t t e r a n c e i s coded as a s o l i d a r i t y a c t . 51 t o the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d r e q u e s t s , o f f e r s , and s u g g e s t i o n s . D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e D o m i n a t i n g and S o l i d a r i t y Measures U n l i k e t h e p r o h i b i t i o n s and o r d e r s which a r e i m p e r a t i v e i n mood and expect n o n - v e r b a l c o m p l i a n c e from a h e a r e r s u b j e c t t o t h e a u t h o r i t y o f a sp e a k e r , r e q u e s t s a r e more l i k e l y t o be i n t e r r o g a t i v e s w h i c h s o l i c i t v e r b a l r e s p o n s e s from a l i s t e n e r who s h a r e s a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n a l o n g t h e continuum o f power d i s t r i b u t i o n . R e q u e s t s a r e v e r s a t i l e i n form and f u n c t i o n . A speaker can ' p u l l o f f a r e q u e s t by q u e s t i o n i n g a l i s t e n e r ' s b e l i e f s ("Do you b e l i e v e t h a t . . . " ) , knowledge ("Do you know w h e t h e r . . . " ) , a b i l i t i e s ("Can y o u . . . " ) , immediate i n t e n t i o n s ("Are you g o i n g t o . . . " ) , o r w i l l i n g n e s s ("Would y o u . . . " ) . That i s , t h e speaker can query t h e l i s t e n e r - b a s e d f e l i c i t y c o n d i -t i o n s upon which t h e r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n o r a c t i o n h o l d s and t h e r e b y he might get t h e l i s t e n e r t o p e r f o r m t h e d e s i r e d a c t , c l e a r away p o t e n t i a l impasses, o r g i v e t h e l i s t e n e r j u s t cause t o r e s p o n d w i t h " I don't b e l i e v e t h a t , " " I don't know," " I c a n ' t , " "Yeah, I am," or " I ' d o n ' t wanna." P r o h i b i t i o n s and o r d e r s demand ob e d i e n c e ; i n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e s a r e u s e f u l f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g needs, t e r r i t o r i e s , and norms. I n t h e a n a l y s i s s e t f o r t h h e r e , r e q u e s t s a r e produced i n c a s e s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l s e n s i t i v i t y : t h e y g i v e t h e l i s t e n e r o p t i o n s and t h u s a r e m i t i g a t e d , p o l i t e forms ( L a k o f f 1 9 7 3 ) . O f f e r s and s u g g e s t i o n s may be s t r u c t u r e d as i n t e r r o g a -t i v e s and t h u s r e s e m b l e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n ("Would you l i k e a n o t h e r candy?" "Can we p u t t h e lawn c h a i r s h e r e ? " ) . 52 Indeed, i n t e r r o g a t i v e s a r e prone t o ambiguous i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s as o f f e r s , s u g g e s t i o n s or r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n even when the l i n g u i s t i c and s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e x t of t h e u t t e r a n c e i s probed t o i n f e r t h e s p e a k e r s ' p r a g m a t i c i n t e n t i o n s . But o f f e r s and s u g g e s t i o n s may a l s o be p h r a s e d as d e c l a r a t i v e s ("Here's a n o t h e r candy f o r you" "We c o u l d p u t t h e lawn c h a i r s h ere") or as e n j o i n i n g i m p e r a t i v e s ("Let's have a n o t h e r candy" " L e t ' s p u t the lawn c h a i r s h e r e " ) . C o n v e r s a t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s to r e q u e s t s , o f f e r s , and s u g g e s t i o n s show t h a t t h e l i s t e n e r s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n or-s y m p a t h e t i c to t h e c o n c e r n s of t h e s p e a k e r s . The a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e to i g n o r e t h e c o n c e r n s or t o t a k e o f f on d i f f e r e n t t a n g e n t s . The ' dominating' and ' s o l i d a r i t y ' measures resemble th e 'tone o f l i n g u i s t i c feedback' measures i n t h a t t h e y a l l gauge the c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f i n t e n t i o n s , . a t t i t u d e s , and rank of p a r t -n e r s . Why be c o n cerned w i t h t h a t c o n f i g u r a t i o n ? D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n r e f l e c t predominant d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e ways t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e s o c i a l i z e d , which i n t u r n have conse-quences f o r language development, e l a b o r a t i o n , and use. B e r n s t e i n ( 1 9 7 2 : 4 8 5 - 4 8 9 ) d i s t i n g u i s h e s between impera-t i v e modes of s o c i a l c o n t r o l and c o n t r o l s based upon a p p e a l s . The i m p e r a t i v e mode of c o n t r o l r e d u c e s t h e r o l e d i s c r e t i o n a c c o r d e d t o t h e c h i l d : i t i s r e a l i z e d t h r o u g h a l e x i c a l l y and g r a m m a t i c a l l y p r e d i c t a b l e ' r e s t r i c t e d ' code ("Shut up," "Get out") o r e x t r a v e r b a l l y t h r o u g h p h y s i c a l c o e r c i o n . S o c i a l c o n t r o l w hich r e s t s upon a p p e a l s p e r m i t s t h e c h i l d " v a r y i n g degrees o f d i s c r e t i o n i n t h e sense t h a t t h e range of a l t e r n a -t i v e s , e s s e n t i a l l y l i n g u i s t i c , a r e a v a i l a b l e t o him" (p. 4 8 5 ) . Two b r o a d t y p e s o f a p p e a l s can be p o s t u l a t e d — p o s i t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l . W h i l e " p o s i t i o n a l a p p e a l s r e f e r the b e h a v i o r o f t h e c h i l d t o t h e norms which i n h e r e i n a p a r t i c u l a r o r u n i v e r s a l s t a t u s " (p. 4 8 5 ) . p e r s o n a l a p p e a l s f o c u s upon t h e c h i l d as an i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r t h a n upon h i s f o r m a l s t a t u s based on r a n k , age, or sex. The b a s i s o f p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l l i e s i n l i n g u i s t i c -a l l y e l a b o r a t e d i n d i v i d u a l i z e d meanings. Of t h e d o m i n a t i n g / s o l i d a r i t y measures, p r o h i b i t i o n s and o r d e r s r e f l e c t t h e i m p e r a t i v e mode of c o n t r o l ; i n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e s which r e f e r t o norms r e f l e c t p o s i t i o n a l a p p e a l s ; s o l i d a r i t y measures r e f l e c t p e r s o n a l a p p e a l s . Modes of s o c i a l c o n t r o l i n f l u e n c e t h e r i c h n e s s o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c environment. Speech a c t s which f u n c t i o n t o d e t e r or c o n t r o l l a c k s y n t a c t i c e l a b o r a t i o n and a r e t h e o r e t i c a l l y l e s s c o n d u c i v e f o r language l e a r n i n g t h a n t h o s e w h i c h p e r m i t t h e s e l e c t i o n among a s e t o f o p t i o n s o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of f r e s h a l t e r n a t i v e s . Indeed, Newport, G l e i t m a n and G l e i t m a n ( 1 975 ) r e p o r t t h a t t h e more f r e q u e n t l y mothers produce i m p e r a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s , the more s l o w l y normal c h i l d r e n l e a r n t o produce b o t h noun p h r a s e c o n s t r u c t i o n s and a u x i l i a r i e s . The f o u r t h c a t e g o r y i s now examined: o v e r t demonstra-t i o n of language l e a r n i n g . O v ert D e m o n s t r a t i o n of Language L e a r n i n g C l a i m s S y m m e t r i c a l to o v e r t c a s e s o f language t e a c h i n g a r e 5k c o n s p i c u o u s i n s t a n c e s o f language l e a r n i n g . Young c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t e i n d i a l o g u e s i n ways which d e v i a t e from t h e norms f o r a d u l t c o n v e r s a t i o n s ( t h a t i s , t h e y v i o l a t e a l l f o u r o f G r i c e ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n a l m a x i m s — q u a n t i t y , q u a l i t y , r e l a t i o n , and manner). Thereby t h e y r e v e a l a s p e c t s of t h e i r language-l e a r n i n g t a c t i c s . C h i l d r e n a t a p r i m i t i v e l e v e l of l i n g u i s t i c f u n c t i o n i n g n o t o r i o u s l y s t a t e what t h e y know or what t h e y a r e d o i n g i n s t e a d o f s t a t i n g what t h e l i s t e n e r wants o r needs t o know (Bloom & Lahey 1978). So when l e a r n e r s u n u s u a l l y l i n k up l i n g u i s t i c c a t e g o r i e s w i t h p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e c o n t e x t , when t h e y r e p e a t l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s , when t h e y acknowledge t h a t t h e y have a s s i m i l a t e d p r e v i o u s l y unknown e x p r e s s i o n s , when t h e y make s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , when t h e y r e s p o n d t o i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , and when t h e y use q u e r i e s t o m a i n t a i n c o n v e r s a t i o n s , t h e y o v e r t l y demonstrate t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s t o l e a r n and to u n d e r s t a n d language. S p e c i f i c a c t s which q u a l i f y as i n d i c a t o r s of language l e a r n i n g f o l l o w , a l o n g w i t h o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s and examples. Language l e a r n i n g : O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s 1. g i v i n g an o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n by p o i n t i n g t o an o b j e c t i n t h e c o n t e x t and g i v i n g i t a name a l t h o u g h t h e l i s t e n e r a l r e a d y knows i t s name. O v e r g e n e r a l i z e d , i n a c c u r a t e d e f i n i t i o n s a l s o q u a l i f y as examples because t h e c h i l d seems t o i n t e n d t o share and v e r i f y the l a b e l s w i t h o t h e r s . 2. r e p e a t i n g a l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n o f t r u t h v a l u e o r e x p r e s s i o n . 55 i a. Mother: "Who does i t l o o k l i k e ? " C h i l d : "Um, i t ' s Pun g l e s . " Mother: "Looks l i k e Humpty..." C h i l d : "Yeah." Mother: "Humpty Dumpty." C h i l d : "Yeah Humpty Dumpty, ha', ha', had a g r e a t t a ' . " F u n c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r c h a n g e : the c h i l d g i v e s an i n a c c u r a t e guess t o the mother's t e s t q u e s t i o n . A f t e r the t r u t h v a l u e of the c h i l d ' s guess i s c o r r e c t e d , the c h i l d r e p e a t s t h e c o r r e c -t i o n . b. C h i l d : "De shame." Mother: "The same." C h i l d : "Dat n o t same as your l i p s . " F u n c t i o n : t h e c h i l d r e p e a t s t h e mother's c o r r e c t i o n o f l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n , t h a t i s , t h e c h i l d d e p a l a t a l i z e s h e r s i n same f o l l o w i n g t h e mother's example. 3. a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h a t p r e v i o u s l y unmentioned/unknown words have been p a r t i a l l y or t o t a l l y a s s i m i l a t e d , o r t h a t u n a c c e p t a b l e p r o n u n c i a t i o n s have been improved over a s t r e t c h of t i m e . a. Mother: "What e l s e i s i n h e r e ? " Mother: "What o t h e r t o y s ? " Mother: " I s t h e r e a book t h e r e ? " C h i l d : " B o o ( k ) . " (Looks a t t h e book.) F u n c t i o n : by f i n a l l y r e s p o n d i n g t o one o f the mother's t e s t q u e s t i o n s , t h e c h i l d acknowledges t h a t t h e r e i s a book and t h a t he knows i t s r e f e r e n t . 56 b. C h i l d : Mother: C h i l d : " B ( l ) u e one?" "Yeah and t h e n t h e green one." " G ( r ) e e n one?" F u n c t i o n : u n t i l green i s mentioned,- t h e c h i l d does n ot name i t , a l t h o u g h he t a l k s about o t h e r c o l o r s - - b r o w n , orange, and b l u e - - d u r i n g a f i v e - m i n u t e p e r i o d . c. Mother: C h i l d : Mother: Ten u t t e r a n c e s l a t e r : C h i l d : "What's t h a t ? " " ( S ) t o v e . " " Stove, l i k e Mommy's s t o v e , i s n ' t i t ? " "Wa' s t o v e . " F u n c t i o n : t h e c h i l d acknowledges t h a t h i s p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e word s t o v e has improved. 4. making a s i n c e r e r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n : t h e l e a r n e r seems to need some i n f o r m a t i o n . 5. r e s p o n d i n g t o an i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n which p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e of how t h e c h i l d i n t e r p r e t s h i s w o r l d and s t r u c t u r e s h i s knowledge o f the language. a. Mother: C h i l d : b. Mother: "What a r e you p l a y i n g ? " (Mother can see what t h e c h i l d i s p l a y i n g . ) "A p i a n o . " " L e t ' s p l a y , h e r e ' s one, do you know t h i s ? " (Mother p l a y s " J i n g l e B e l l s " on t h e pi a n o . ) 57 C h i l d s i n g s : " J i n g l e B e l l s , ..." 6. p o s i n g a c o n t i n g e n t query which r e q u e s t s t h e p a r t n e r t o r e p e a t , c o n f i r m , s p e c i f y , e l a b o r a t e o r j u s t i f y d e t a i l s o f t h e p r e v i o u s u t t e r a n c e . The s i n c e r e c o n t i n g e n t query, whether o f a t e a c h i n g o r o f a l e a r n i n g nature", has t h e same s e t o f f e l i c i t y c o n d i t i o n s h o l d i n g f o r t h e r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n p l u s an a d d i t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n r e l a t i n g t o c o n t e x t u a l dependency. I n t h e examples below, t h e c o n t i n g e n t query i s s t a r r e d . a. O l d e r C h i l d : "Answer your t e l e p h o n e . " Younger C h i l d : *"What?" O l d e r C h i l d : "Answer your t e l e p h o n e . " Younger C h i l d : "Oh." F u n c t i o n : r e q u e s t f o r r e p e t i t i o n , s i g n a l l e d p a r t i a l l y by r i s i n g i n t o n a t i o n . b. O l d e r C h i l d : "That goes, j e s ' , t e d d y b e a r goes i n t o t h e y e l l o w . " Younger C h i l d : *"Dere bunbobear h e r e r i g h t ? " O l d e r C h i l d : "Yeah." F u n c t i o n : r e q u e s t f o r c o n f i r m a t i o n . c. O l d e r C h i l d : "Do you want me t o do i t a l l o ver a g a i n , M.?" Younger C h i l d : •"What?" F u n c t i o n : r e q u e s t f o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n , p a r t i a l l y s i g n a l l e d by f a l l i n g i n t o n a t i o n . d. Mother: C h i l d : "Oh t h a t l o o k s l i k e a sewing machine." *"Wha(t) f o r ? " 58 Mother: "For sewing c l o t h e s and t h i n g s . " C h i l d : t * " F o r what?" F u n c t i o n : r e q u e s t s f o r e l a b o r a t i o n . e. Mother: " I t h i n k t h i s man i s t r y i n g t o f r i g h t e n t h a t man." C h i l d : *"Why?" F u n c t i o n : r e q u e s t f o r e x p l a n a t i o n . 7. r e s p o n d i n g t o a c o n t i n g e n t query which r e q u e s t s a r e p e t i t i o n , c o n f i r m a t i o n , s p e c i f i c a t i o n , e l a b o r a t i o n , c o r r e c t i o n , j u s t i f i c a t i o n , o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f knowledge. I n t h e examples below, t h e u t t e r a n c e f o l l o w i n g t h e s t a r r e d c o n t i n g e n t query i s a r e s p o n s e t o a c o n t i n g e n t query. a. ( i ) C h i l d : "Aa y e l l a go on h e r e . " (= "A l a d d e r go on here.") Mother: *"What d a r : l i n g ? " C h i l d : "Yadduh." (= "Ladder.") Mother: "Oh, t h e l a d d e r goes i n t h e r e . " F u n c t i o n : r e s p o n s e t o n o n s p e c i f i c r e q u e s t f o r r e p e t i t i o n . ( i i ) C h i l d : "Where does d a t ? " Mother: *"Huh?" C h i l d : "Wha(t) i s d i s t h i n g ? F u n c t i o n : r e s p o n s e t o n o n s p e c i f i c r e q u e s t f o r r e p e t i t i o n . b. C h i l d : "Mom, t h i s t h i n g c a n ' t come o u t . " Mother: *"Can't i t ? " C h i l d : "No, i t c a n ' t . " F u n c t i o n : r e s p o n s e t o r e q u e s t f o r c o n f i r m a t i o n . 59 c. C h i l d A: C h i l d B: C h i l d A: F u n c t i o n : r e s p o n s e t o d. C h i l d : Mother: C h i l d : F u n c t i o n : r e s p o n s e t o e. C h i l d : Mother: C h i l d : F u n c t i o n : r e s p o n s e t o c o r r e c t i o n . f . Mother: C h i l d : Mother: C h i l d : F u n c t i o n : r e s p o n s e t o g. Mother: C h i l d : Mother: C h i l d : F u n c t i o n : r e s p o n s e t o "Give me t h e hammer." *"Which one?" "That one." ( p o i n t s ) r e q u e s t f o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n . "A r e d h a t . " *"And what e l s e ? " "A j e e p . " r e q u e s t f o r e l a b o r a t i o n . " I s i t d'other way?" * " I t h i n k you h a f t a go, t h a t , no, i t ' s g o i n g t o f a l l down t h a t way, i s n ' t i t ? " "Des." (="Yes. H) r e q u e s t f o r t h e c o n f i r m a t i o n o f a "Which i s y o u r f a v o r i t e , w hich do you t h i n k i s t h e n i c e s t ? " " D i s one." *"Why?" "'cause i t i s : " r e q u e s t f o r e x p l a n a t i o n . "Which one does t h e b u t t e r f l y go i n ? " " I dunno." *"Does i t go i n t h a t one?" "No. " a r e q u e s t t o demonstrate knowledge. D i s c u s s i o n of the L e a r n i n g - D e m o n s t r a t i n g Measures 60 What do t h e seven t y p e s of l e a r n i n g b e h a v i o r s r e v e a l about th e l e a r n e r s ' c o n c e r n s w i t h language c o n t e n t and con-v e r s a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s ? O s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s become t h e v e h i c l e s f o r l e a r n e r s t o show the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e y have a s s i m i l a t e d and t o check up on i t s a c c u r a c y . The r e p e t i t i o n s o f c o r r e c t i o n s and acknowledgements a r e s i g n s t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s a r e a t t u n e d t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n and forms t h a t t h e y a r e b e i n g s u p p l i e d . R e p e t i t i o n s and acknowledge-ments i n v o l v e immediate and d e l a y e d i m i t a t i o n , ' r e s p e c t i v e l y . Q 7The v a l u e g i v e n t o i m i t a t i o n as a l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g y i n language a c q u i s i t i o n f l u c t u a t e s a c c o r d i n g to t h e l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s p r e v a i l i n g a t t h e t i m e , t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f language f a v o r e d , and t h e e m p i r i c a l d a t a a v a i l a b l e . E a r l y r e s e a r c h (McCarthy 1 954 ) s u b s c r i b e d t o b e h a v i o r i s t l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s and assumed t h a t i m i t a t i o n p l a y s a c r i t i c a l r o l e i n b a s i c v o c a l and l i n g u i s t i c t r a i n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g i n f a n c y . E r v i n ( 1 9 6 4 ) f o u n d , i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y , t h a t f o r f o u r out o f f i v e c h i l d r e n between the ages of 22 and Jk months, the g r a m m a t i c a l r u l e s g o v e r n i n g spontaneous speech a l s o a c -c ounted f o r i m i t a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s . She c o n c l u d e d t h a t i m i t a t i o n was n o t a f u n c t i o n a l p r o c e s s i n s y n t a c t i c o r m o r p h o l o g i c a l development. Her c o n c l u s i o n s were w i d e l y c i t e d . S l o b i n ( 1 9 6 6 ) n o t e d t h a t Adam and Eve's i m i t a t i o n s of p a r e n t a l e x p a n s i o n s ( i n t h e H a r v a r d s t u d i e s ) were g r a m m a t i c a l l y p r o g r e s s i v e . ' I m i t a t i o n s o f p a r e n t a l e x p a n s i o n s ' a r e r e l a t e d t o the ' r e p e t i t i o n s of c o r r e c t i o n s ' used h e r e . C u r r e n t s t u d i e s ( N e l s o n 1 9 7 3 ; Bloom, Hood, & Lightbown 1 9 7 4 ; W h i t e h u r s t & V a s t a 1 975 ) a r e r e a s s e s s i n g the f u n c t i o n s o f i m i t a t i o n . A l t h o u g h spontaneous i m i t a t i o n appears t o be a r e l a t i v e l y i n e f f i c i e n t language l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g y , Bloom e t a l . suggest t h a t some c h i l d r e n s e l e c t i v e l y i m i t a t e t h o s e words and s t r u c t u r e s i n speech which t h e y a r e i n the p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g and t h a t i m i t a t i n g h e l p s them to r e p r e s e n t t h e l i n g u i s t i c i n -f o r m a t i o n i n t e r n a l l y . 61 C h i l d r e n u n d e r s t a n d and produce r e q u e s t s i n t h e b e g i n n i n g s t a g e s of language a c q u i s i t i o n (Dore 1975 )» t h e y master t h e r e q u e s t f o r a c t i o n p r i o r t o t h e r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a -t i o n . I n f a n t s make use o f i n t o n a t i o n c o n t o u r s t o d e c i p h e r and produce r e q u e s t s (Tonkova-Yampol'skaya 1973). I n t e r r o g a t i v e s a r e one way t o phrase r e q u e s t s . R a t e s of f o r m i n g i n t e r r o g a t i v e s r i s e p r o n o u n c e d l y between t h e ages of two and f o u r (Moerk 197*0.. The a b i l i t y t o frame i n t e r r o g a -t i v e s i s s u b j e c t t o development ( B e l l u g i 1965) because i t r e l i e s upon t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e m a stery of components of t h e a u x i l i a r y system, s e n t e n t i a l n e g a t i v e s , and c o m p l i c a t e d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s (Wh- term p r e p o s i n g s , a u x i l i a r y - i n v e r s i o n s , t a g f o r m a t i o n s ) . A l t h o u g h " . . . i t t a k e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d of ti m e u n t i l t h e 'Question-answer' game as f o r m a l i z e d by l i n g u i s t i c means i s u n d e r s t o o d and ma s t e r e d by t h e c h i l d " (Moerk 1974:110), t h e a b i l i t y t o check on communication d y s f u n c t i o n s d e v e l o p s e a r l y : c h i l d r e n as young as two y e a r s p h r a s e p r i m i t i v e c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s (Thew 1975)- L e a r n e r s as w e l l as f u l l y - f l e d g e d c o n v e r -s a t i o n a l i s t s can use c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s t o c l a r i f y messages and i n t e n t s . Because c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s can r e f e r t o many d i f f e r e n t c o n s t i t u e n t s , r e s p o n s e s w i t h t h e c o r r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d i r e c t e v i d e n c e o f comprehension a b i l i t i e s and aware-ne s s o f c o n s t i t u e n t f u n c t i o n (Garvey 1977). O f t e n , i f t h e p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t i t u e n t b e i n g q u e r i e d i s s i g n a l l e d by i n t o n a -t i o n a l o n e , c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e of t h e comprehen-s i o n o f v e r y s u b t l e p r o s o d i c c o n s t r a s t s somewhat u n a i d e d by s i t u a t i o n a l l y - s i g n a l l e d cues. 62 Responses t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s a l s o " p r o v i d e oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r t h e c h i l d t o l e a r n t o p l a c e c o n s t i t u e n t s i n t o s entence frames" (Moerk 1 9 7 4 : 1 0 2 ) . Responses t o q u e s t i o n s show t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e w i l l i n g t o p l a y t h e l i n g u i s t i c - p r a c t i c e and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g game. The f i n a l c a t e g o r y , r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e , i s now d i s c u s s e d . R e f e r e n t i a l F a i l u r e When a speaker t a k e s p a r t i n a p r i v a t e o r c o l l e c t i v e monologue and names an o b j e c t w i t h o u t p o i n t i n g to i t o r w i t h -out e n s u r i n g m u t u a l f o c u s o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i t h a n o t h e r p e r -son i n t h e s i t u a t i o n , r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e o c c u r s . The s p e a k e r t h e r e b y e x p r e s s e s what w i l l be termed h e r e as an ' e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n ' . C o m m u n i c a t i v e l y u n s u c c e s s f u l c o u n t e r p a r t s t o o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s , e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s a r e t h e p r e r o g a -t i v e o f everyone. W h i l e c h i l d r e n beyond t h e age o f 3 § y e a r s do r e v e a l a h i g h l e v e l o f m u t u a l r e s p o n s i v e n e s s i n speech and b e h a v i o r (Garvey & Hogan 1 973 ) a n d a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l meaning f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g t h e r e q u e s t f o r a c t i o n (Garvey 1975 )» t h e y do have d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a d a p t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r t h e needs o f l i s t e n e r s ( F l a v e l l , B o t k i n , F r y , W r i g h t , & J a r v i s 1 9 6 8 ) . Counts o f e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s r e -f l e c t t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s and t h e i r use o f p r i v a t e speech. 63 Amount o f p r i v a t e speech a p p e a r s t o he a f u n c t i o n o f a c h i l d ' s m e n t a l age and t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e t a s k b e i n g p e r f o r m e d ( K o h l b e r g , Yaeger, & H j e r t h o l m 1 9 6 8 ) . The h y p o t h e s i s b e i n g t e s t e d h e r e i s t h a t t h e i n c i d e n c e o f p r i v a t e speech i s a l s o a f u n c t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e s i t u a t i o n . Summary The measures were chosen t o c o n t r a s t t h e l a n g u a g e -l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h a t secondborn e x p e r i e n c e w i t h mothers-v e r s u s t h o s e t h a t t h e y e x p e r i e n c e w i t h f i r s t b o r n s i s t e r s . The 30 k i n d s o f dependent measures can be more f i n e l y grouped i n t o s i x c a t e g o r i e s : language t e a c h i n g , n e g a t i v e f e e d b a c k , p o s i -t i v e f e edback, d o m i n a t i n g , s o l i d a r i t y , and r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e . The c a t e g o r i e s a r e o b v i o u s l y d i v e r s e i n n a t u r e . Each c a t e g o r y a c t s as a p r i s m t o break up t h e spectrum o f v a r i a b l e s which might be i n f l u e n t i a l i n l i n g u i s t i c l e a r n i n g and p r o c e s s i n g . I t i s now n e c e s s a r y t o s p e c i f y t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n chosen, t h e v a r i a b l e s , and the s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s e s . D e d u c t i o n s based on t h e f i n d i n g s o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h a r e p r o v i d e d t o j u s t i f y t h e p h r a s i n g o r o m i s s i o n o f d i r e c t i o n a l h y p o t h e s e s . 64 TESTING THE HYPOTHESES: DESIGN, VARIABLES, AND SPECIFIC HYPOTHESES DESIGN A 2 x 2 between-groups and 2 x 2 w i t h i n - g r o u p s d e s i g n wasschosen h a v i n g one s u b j e c t f a c t o r (sex o f seeondborn), one t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r ( e x p e r i m e n t a l o r d e r ) , and two t r i a l f a c t o r s ( p a r t n e r and t a s k ) . The mixed model d e s i g n used r e p e a t e d measures- seeondborn boys and g i r l s ( 1 9 o f each) were o b s e r v e d on f o u r t r i a l s e a c h - - p l a y and p u z z l e t r i a l s w i t h t h e i r f i r s t -b o r n s i s t e r s and p l a y and p u z z l e t r i a l s w i t h t h e i r mothers. The f i r s t b o r n and mothers were ob s e r v e d on two t r i a l s each. The d e s i g n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s u b j e c t s a r e i n d i c a t e d i n t a b l e 2. There were 9 i 10, 10, and 9 s u b j e c t s i n t h e f o u r c e l l s o f t h e d e s i g n . T h i r t y - e i g h t f a m i l i e s (114 p e o p l e ) comprise a l a r g e sample f o r c h i l d language r e s e a r c h e s p e c i a l l y when t h e 76 c h i l d r e n a r e l i k e l y t o be a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f l i n g u i s t i c development and when t h e measures a r e based on t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s judgments of t h e i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e o f u t t e r a n c e s . However, the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e sample i s w a r r a n t e d by t h e number of independent v a r i a b l e s (two) and t r i a l v a r i a b l e s ( t w o ) , each h a v i n g two l e v e l s . I f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s do e x i s t , use o f a s m a l l e r sample r e d u c e s th e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l show up. 65 TABLE 2 THE 2 x 2 BETWEEN-GROUPS AND 2 x 2 WITHIN-GROUPS DESIGN AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS Independent V a r i a b l e s T r i a l V a r i a b l e s Sex of Seeondborn E x p e r i m e n t a l Order S i b l i n g P l a y P u z z l e Mother P l a y P u z z l e S i b l i n g s f i r s t S l S 2 • S l 2 S l S 2 • S l S 2 • s 9 *9 G i r l S i b l i n g s second S 10 S I l • b l l • S 10 s l l • ^10 s l l • t S 1 9 • S 19 • S 19 t S 19 S i b l i n g s f i r s t ^20 b 2 1 t %Z0 b 21 • ^20 b 21 §20 b 21 « • s 2 9 • s 2 9 • s 2 9 a s 2 9 Boy S i b l i n g s second o30 b 3 l • ho b 3 l • ho b 3 l • b o b 3 l • • S 38 t S 38 • S 38 S 38 The q u e s t i o n o f e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y i s a l s o o f i m p o r t -ance. The main purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s to e x p l o r e whether s i b l i n g s p r o v i d e a c l e a r , c o n t i n g e n t , and p o s i t i v e l y - t o n e d language model f o r younger s i b l i n g s o r an i m p o v e r i s h e d , non-c o n t i n g e n t , and r e j e c t i n g one. S i n c e we a l r e a d y know a g r e a t d e a l about m a t e r n a l models, o b s e r v a t i o n s o f m a t e r n a l language models were employed f o r c o n c e p t u a l and s t a t i s t i c a l c o n t r a s t . Now i t i s h i g h l y m i s l e a d i n g t o generalize"*" 0 about s i b l i n g language models from a sample o f one s i b l i n g dyad o r even t e n s i b l i n g dyads. To a v o i d t h e problem somewhat, t h i s s t u d y used a l a r g e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l sample of s i b l i n g s a t v a r i o u s ages (2 t o 5 y e a r s o f ag e ) . F i v e c o v a r i a t e s were employed: 'age o f secondborn', 'age o f f i r s t b o r n ' , ' a g e - s p a c i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s i b -l i n g dyads', s c o r e s based on ' p a t e r n a l o c c u p a t i o n s ' , and 'mother's y e a r s o f schooling'."'""'" The l a s t two c o v a r i a t e s were used t o c o n t r o l f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f socioeconomic s t a t u s (hence-f o r t h r e f e r r e d t o as SES). Yet u n j u s t i f i e d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s appear to be v e r y common i n r e v i e w s of c h i l d language r e s e a r c h . Waterhouse (1978) d i s c u s s e s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i n a d e q u a c i e s i n t h e f i e l d : g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a r e made on t h e b a s i s o f case s t u d i e s ( o f t e n w i t h a sample s i z e of one) which have n o t been r e p l i c a t e d o r f o l l o w e d up w i t h l a r g e r , c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s . "'""'"Details about t h e sample summarized by t h e d a t a f o r the c o v a r i a t e s a r e p r o v i d e d i n C h a p t e r I I I , as a r e the i n d i c a -t o r s u sed t o dete r m i n e SES. 67 F o r t h i s s t u d y , i t was more i n f o r m a t i v e t o use co-v a r i a t e s t h a n an a d d i t i o n a l number of independent v a r i a b l e s . As c o v a r i a t e s , t h e s c o r e s f o r age, age d i f f e r e n c e s , o c c u p a t i o n , and s c h o o l i n g a r e based on i n t e r v a l o r r a t i o s c a l e s o f measure-ment and t a k e on c o n t i n u o u s v a l u e s w i t h i n c e r t a i n r a n g e s . C o n v e r t i n g a c o n t i n u o u s v a r i a b l e i n t o a c a t e g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e ( i n t h i s c a s e , i n t o an independent v a r i a b l e ) i n v o l v e s t h e s h i f t i n g t o an o r d i n a l o r n o m i n a l s c a l e of measurement and the subsequent t h r o w i n g away of i n f o r m a t i o n . F o r example, i f t h e r e i s a s u b t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between age and a dependent v a r i a b l e , use o f a c o v a r i a t e (which i s based on t h e measurement o f t h e a c t u a l age) i s more l i k e l y t o c a p t u r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a n use of an independent v a r i a b l e (based on c a t e g o r i e s such as o l d v e r s u s young). A l s o , u s i n g t h e c o v a r i a t e s as independent v a r i a b l e s would have c o m p l i c a t e d t h e f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n — i n s t e a d of two f a c t o r s w i t h two l e v e l s t h e r e would have been seven f a c t o r s w i t h from two t o f o u r l e v e l s each. C e l l s i z e would have been i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n t r o l : f a c t o r i a l a n a l y s i s i s hampered o r made i m p o s s i b l e by an u n e q u a l o r i n s u f f i c i e n t number o f c a s e s p e r c e l l . A dvantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s i n u s i n g c o v a r i a t e s i n a r e p e a t e d measures d e s i g n a r e s t a t e d below i n t h e s p e c i f i c h y p o theses s e c t i o n . 68 Dependent v a r i a b l e s were 22 measures o f mother and f i r s t b o r n speech a c t s and 8 measures of secondborn speech a c t s . The dependent v a r i a b l e s a r e l i s t e d below under major h e a d i n g s so t h a t we may c o n v e n i e n t l y r e f e r t o them when s t a t i n g t h e s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s . DEPENDENT VARIABLES B e h a v i o r s of Mothers o r F i r s t b o r n  Language T e a c h i n g 1. o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s 2 . l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s 3 . c o n f i r m a t i o n s 4. i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n 5. r e s p o n s e s t o s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n 6. c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s 7. r e s p o n s e s t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s Tone o f L i n g u i s t i c Feedback N e g a t i v e Feedback 8 . n e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e 9. n e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n 1 0 . n e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r 1 1 . d i s a g r e e m e n t s / r e j e c t i o n s / r e f u s a l s 1 2 . c r i t i c i s m s P o s i t i v e Feedback 1 3 . p o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e 14. p o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s of l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n 1 5 . p o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r 69 DEPENDENT VARIABLES (Continued) 1 6 . p r a i s e 1 7 . encouragements D o m i n a t i n g Speech A c t s 1 8 . p r o h i b i t i o n s 1 9 . o r d e r s 2 0 . i n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e s S o l i d a r i t y Speech A c t s 2 1 . a s e t o f 14 speech a c t s : r e q u e s t s , o f f e r s , s u g g e s t i o n s , and t h e i r r e s p o n s e s R e f e r e n t i a l F a i l u r e 2 2 . e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s B e h a v i o r s of Seeondborn D e m o n s t r a t i n g of Language L e a r n i n g 2 3 . o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s 2 4 . r e p e t i t i o n s o f l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s 2 5 . acknowledgements 26 . s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n 2 7 . r e s p o n s e s t o i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r . i n f o r m a t i o n 2 8 . c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s 2 9 . r e s p o n s e s t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s R e f e r e n t i a l F a i l u r e 3 0 . e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s S p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s e s a r e now l & s t e d r e g a r d i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e independent v a r i a b l e s , t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e independent v a r i a b l e s , t h e c o v a r i a t e s , t h e t r i a l v a r i a b l e s , and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f independent and t r i a l v a r i a b l e s . 70 SPECIFIC HYPOTHESES AND THEIR RATIONALE Independent V a r i a b l e s : Sex o f Secondborn S u b j e c t s and E x p e r i m e n t a l Order The independent v a r i a b l e s 'sex o f secondborn' and ' e x p e r i m e n t a l o r d e r ' were n o t o f i n t r i n s i c i n t e r e s t to t h i s s t u d y but had t o be c o n t r o l l e d n e v e r t h e l e s s . Sex o f Secondborn I n s p i t e o f t h e vaunted s u p e r i o r i t y of f e m a l e s i n language achievement, a r e c e n t r e v i e w f a i l s t o d e t e c t any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e language development o f boys and g i r l s (Macaulay 1 9 7 8 ) . Thus i t i s u n n e c e s s a r y t o s e a r c h f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l causes o f d i f f e r e n c e s which a r e o n l y presumed to e x i s t . I t i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t whether c a r e g i v e r s s o c i a l i z e male and f e m a l e c h i l d r e n i n d i f f e r -ent ways and whether boys and g i r l s i n d i c a t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g - d e m o n s t r a t i n g t a c t i c s . A few s t u d i e s which have examined s t y l i s t i c a s p e c t s of m a t e r n a l s p e e c h - - i t s q u a n t i t y , l e x i c a l v a r i a t i o n , and s y n t a c t i c c o m p l e x i t y , have r e p o r t e d no d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e ways t h a t mothers a d d r e s s boys and g i r l s ( F r a s e r & R o b e r t s 1 9 7 5 ; P h i l l i p s 1 9 7 0 , 1 9 7 3 ) . Some s t u d i e s do r e p o r t sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o t h e r - i n f a n t v o c a l / v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n : mothers and f e m a l e i n f a n t s have been found to v o c a l i z e and v e r b a l i z e more t o one a n o t h e r and i n r e s p o n s e t o one a n o t h e r t h a n mothers and male i n f a n t s ( G o l d b e r g & L e w i s 1 9 6 9 ; L e w i s & F r e e d l e 1 9 7 3 ; Moss 1 9 6 7 ) ; 71 however, t h e s e t e n d e n c i e s a r e n o t u n i v e r s a l l y r e p o r t e d (Maccoby & J a c k l i n 1 9 7 4 ) . C h e r r y and L e w i s ( 1978 ) f o u n d t h a t mothers o f s i x g i r l s t a l k e d more t o t h e i r d a u g h t e r s t h a n mothers of s i x hoys (matched f o r b i r t h o r d e r and a g e - - 2 4 months), had g r e a t e r MLU's, asked more q u e s t i o n s , and r e -p e a t e d the g i r l s ' e x p r e s s i o n s more o f t e n ; none o f t h e c h i l d measures showed s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s . C a u t i o n a r y s t a t e m e n t s must be made. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about s e x - d i f f e r e n t i a t e d v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s must always be q u a l i f i e d c a r e f u l l y s i n c e b o t h b i r t h o r d e r and gender o f c h i l d r e n i n f l u e n c e m a t e r n a l b e h a v i o r , p a r e n t - p a r e n t i n t e r a c -t i o n s ( C i c i r e l l i 1 9 7 6 ) , and s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s . F o r example, "same-sex s i b l i n g s appear t o i n d u l g e i n more p o w e r f u l i n t e r -a c t i o n s t h a n do o p p o s i t e - s e x s i b l i n g s ( S u t t o n - S m i t h & Rosen-b e r g 1 9 7 0 : 5 2 ) . Indeed, i n t e r a c t i o n s between f a m i l y members a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e i n f l u e n c e s of a l l o f t h e s i b l i n g - s t r u c t u r e v a r i a b l e s o p e r a t i n g i n tandem and t h e t y p e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s p o s s i b l e i n i n t a c t f a m i l i e s . The c o m p l e x i t y o f the i s s u e s can be s k e t c h e d b r i e f l y . J a c o b s and Moss ( 1 9 7 6 ) c o l l e c t e d d a t a on m a t e r n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h f i r s t b o r n i n f a n t s and t h e n , 25 months l a t e r , o b s e r v e d m a t e r n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h seeondborn i n f a n t s . M o t h e r s spent s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s t i m e i n s o c i a l , a f f e c t i o n a t e , and c a r e t a k i n g i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r seeondborn t h a n t h e y d i d w i t h t h e i r f i r s t b o r n ( e x c e p t f o r f e e d i n g a c t i v i t i e s ) . The d i f f e r e n c e 72 was g r e a t e r i f t h e secondborn was f e m a l e . L e s s of a d e c r e -ment i n m a t e r n a l a t t e n t i o n took p l a c e i f t h e secondborn was a male and/or a gender o p p o s i t e t o t h a t o f the f i r s t b o r n . C i c i r e l l i ( 1 976 ) s t u d i e d m o t h e r - c h i l d and s i b l i n g -s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s on a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t a s k . (The c h i l d r e n i n the m o t h e r - c h i l d groups were from th e f i r s t grade; th e p a i r s i n the s i b l i n g groups were from th e t h i r d o r f o u r t h grade and from t h e f i r s t grade.) He d e t e c t e d an i n t e r e s t i n g i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t o f t h e t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r (mother o r o l d e r s i b l i n g as h e l p e r ) w i t h t h e sex o f t h e o l d e r s i b l i n g . Not o n l y d i d t h e sex of t h e o l d e r s i b l i n g a f f e c t t h e o l d e r s i b l i n g ' s b e h a v i o r s and t h e younger s i b l i n g ' s r e s p o n s e s , but i t a f f e c t e d the mother's b e h a v i o r s as w e l l . The mother tended to g i v e h e l p t o t h e c h i l d w i t h an o l d e r b r o t h e r but tended t o d e l e g a t e t h e h e l p where t h e c h i l d had an o l d e r s i s t e r . Koch ( 1 9 5 4 ) p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e b road c a t e g o r y o f f i r s t b o r n o r secondborn i s n o t r e a l l y a u n i f i e d c a t e g o r y p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y . I n t h e r e l a t i v e l y ' u n c o m p l i c a t e d ' t w o - c h i l d f a m i l y , t h e r e i s e i t h e r a f i r s t b o r n male who has a younger b r o t h e r o r a f i r s t b o r n male who has a younger s i s t e r or a f i r s t b o r n female who has a younger b r o t h e r or a f i r s t b o r n f e male who has a younger s i s t e r . S u t t o n - S m i t h and Rosenberg ( 1970 ) i d e n t i f y e i g h t t y p e s o f o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n i n the two-c h i l d f a m i l y . They f o r m a l i z e n o t a t i o n s f o r o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n t h u s : M1M (=focus on f i r s t b o r n male w i t h a younger b r o t h e r ) , MM2 (=focus on secondborn male w i t h an o l d e r b r o t h e r ) , M1F, MF2, F1F, FF2, F1M, and. FM2. Thus o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s a r e a 73 f u n c t i o n of t h e b i r t h o r d e r and sex of a c h i l d i n c o n j u n c t i o n  w i t h t h e b i r t h o r d e r s and sex o f t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n t h e f a m i l y . A g e - s p a c i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between the c h i l d r e n f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e the p o s s i b l e t y p e s of o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n . Koch (I960) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t s o f an under two-year s p a c i n g , a t w o - t o - f o u r - y e a r s p a c i n g , and an o v e r - f o u r - y e a r s p a c i n g be-tween s i b l i n g s and d e t e c t e d i n t e r e s t i n g , c o n s i s t e n t e f f e c t s . The o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s o f i n t e r e s t f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h a r e F1F, FF2, F1M, and FM2. D e s c r i p t i v e and c l i n i c a l psycho-l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h (Koch 1 9 5 6 ; F o r e r & S t i l l 1 976 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e o l d e r o f two g i r l s , the younger of two g i r l s , t h e o l d e r s i s t e r of a b r o t h e r , and t h e younger b r o t h e r o f a s i s t e r a r e l i k e l y t o d e v e l o p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s and v e r b a l s t y l e s . The c l a i m s made about the consequences of o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n f o r p e r s o n a l i t y development and i n t e r a c t i o n s t y l e a r e s t i l l open f o r s c i e n t i f i c v a l i d a t i o n . But t h e c l a i m s do suggest t h a t r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s a r e numerous and t h a t v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w hich s u p e r f i c i a l l y share c e r t a i n a t t r i b u t e s may be p r e c i p i t a t e d by d i v e r s e f a c t o r s i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h o t h e r f a c t o r s i n complex ways. I n t h i s s t u d y , I t h i n k t h a t a number of f a c t o r s c a n c e l each o t h e r out or a t l e a s t reduce t h e degree of sex d i f f e r e n c e s . To w i t : w h i l e mothers might, i n g e n e r a l , t a l k more t o d a u g h t e r s t h a n to sons, i t i s l i k e l y t h e case t h a t seeondborn sons who f o l l o w s i s t e r s h o l d c h e r i s h e d p o s i t i o n s and a r e l a v i s h e d w i t h a t t e n t i o n . W h i l e same sex s i b l i n g s might, i n g e n e r a l , engage i n more p o w e r f u l i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a n o p p o s i t e - s e x ones, i t seems t o be t h e case t h a t t h e o l d e r s i s t e r o f a b r o t h e r i s s e r i o u s l y c h a l l e n g e d by him and becomes ' a g g r e s s i v e , t a l k a -t i v e , and q u a r r e l s o m e ' ; he, i n t u r n , r e c i p r o c a t e s q u a r r e l s o m e -n e s s and t r i e s t o dominate h e r ( F o r e r & S t i l l 1 9 7 6 ). W h i l e the o l d e r s i s t e r o f two g i r l s may mother h e r s i s t e r and t r y to be good t o h o l d h e r p a r e n t s ' r e s p e c t , when t h e younger s i s t e r i s e s p e c i a l l y charming, the f i r s t b o r n i s l i k e l y t o r e j e c t t h e a t t e n t i o n s o f o t h e r s and become s t r i d e n t l y a s s e r t i v e ( F o r e r & S t i l l 1 9 7 6 ) . S i n c e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e sex o f secondborn on t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s a r e not c l e a r - c u t , the f o l l o w i n g hypo-t h e s e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d the most a p p r o p r i a t e : 1. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean number of a c t s a d d r e s s e d t o boys and t h e mean number of- a c t s a d d r e s s e d t o g i r l s . ( T h i s h y p o t h e s i s a p p l i e s , t o each of t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s # 1 - 2 2 . ) 2 . There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean number of speech a c t s of boys and t h e mean number of speech a c t s o f g i r l s . ( T h i s h y p o t h e s i s a p p l i e s t o each of t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s # 2 3 - 3 0 i ) E x p e r i m e n t a l Order: S i b l i n g I n t e r a c t i o n F i r s t o r Second P i l o t work i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e secondborn s u b j e c t s e n j o y e d r u n n i n g t h r o u g h the complete experiment t w i c e and t h a t t h e i r b e h a v i o r d i d not seem to be a f f e c t e d by whether 75 t h e y i n t e r a c t e d w i t h t h e i r s i b l i n g s p r i o r t o o r a f t e r t h e y i n t e r a c t e d w i t h t h e i r mothers. T h e r e f o r e , t h e p r e f e r r e d h y p o t h e s i s on t h e e f f e c t s of e x p e r i m e n t a l o r d e r ( s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n f i r s t o r second, a s s i g n e d a t random) r e a d s as f o l l o w s : 3. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean number o f b e h a v i o r s i n t h e s i b l i n g - f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t a l o r d e r and t h e mean number o f b e h a v i o r s i n t h e s i b l i n g - s e c o n d e x p e r i m e n t a l o r d e r . ( T h i s h y p o t h e s i s a p p l i e s t o each o f t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s . ) I n t e r a c t i o n between Independent V a r i a b l e s S i n c e no d i r e c t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s have been s t a t e d r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f sex o f seeondborn and o r d e r , t h e r e a r e no s u b s t a n t i a l r e a s o n s t o c i t e d i r e c t i o n a l e x p e c t a n c i e s f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e independent v a r i a b l e s . The f o l l o w i n g i s t h e r e l e v a n t h y p o t h e s i s : 4 . There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e independent v a r i a b l e s , sex of seeondborn and e x p e r i m e n t a l o r d e r . ( T h i s h y p o t h e s i s a p p l i e s t o each o f t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s . ) C o v a r i a t e s D i s a d v a n t a g e s i n U s i n g C o v a r i a t e s i n a Repeated-Measures D e s i g n The b a s i c d i s a d v a n t a g e i n u s i n g c o v a r i a t e s i n a r e p e a t -ed measures d e s i g n a c c r u e s because c e l l means a r e a d j u s t e d f o r 76 c o v a r i a t e s o n l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e b e t w e e n - s u h j e c t s v a r i a b l e s (sex o f seeondborn and o r d e r ) , but n o t i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e w i t h i n - s u b j e c t s v a r i a b l e s ( p a r t n e r and t a s k ) . I w i l l a t t e m pt t o e x p l a i n t h i s d i s a d v a n t a g e i n o t h e r words, u s i n g 'age of seeondborn' as t h e example of t h e co-v a r i a t e and ' t e a c h i n g o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s ' as t h e example of t h e dependent v a r i a b l e . F o l l o w i n g upon t h e g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t mothers a r e b e t t e r , more s e n s i t i v e language s o u r c e s t h a n f i r s t b o r n , i t i s h i g h l y l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between 'age of seeondborn' measures and i n d i v i d u a l measures of m a t e r n a l t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r , f o r example, o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s . But i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g -n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between 'age of seeondborn' measures and measures of f i r s t b o r n s ' o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s . The problem i s t h a t i n t h e a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e ( c o n c e p t u a l l y b u t . n o t c o m p u t a t i o n a l l y ) , a c o r r e l a t i o n i s r u n between t h e measure of t h e 'age of seeondborn' f o r each s u b j e c t and t h e average s c o r e o f the two m a t e r n a l and two f i r s t b o r n s c o r e s of o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s p o o l e d t o g e t h e r f o r each s u b j e c t , w i t h i n each of t h e f o u r Sex x Order subgroups. G i v e n t h e g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s about p a r t n e r s ' r o l e s , i t i s i m p r o b a b l e t h a t 'age of seeondborn' w i l l be c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h an average of f o u r s c o r e s f o r each s u b j e c t . Only i n t h o s e c a s e s where t h e r e i s a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e r tween t h e c o v a r i a t e and t h e b e h a v i o r s of the f a m i l y as a whole w i l l t h e r e be a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e o f t h e c o v a r i a t e . 77 One more i l l u s t r a t i o n i s g i v e n . I t i s h i g h l y l i k e l y t h a t i n d i c a t o r s o f SES a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e be-h a v i o r s o f t h e secondborn when s/he i s w i t h t h e mother but not when s/he i s w i t h t h e s i b l i n g . Hence, w h i l e t h e r e may be an o s t e n s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between SES i n d i c a t o r s and second-b o r n s ' b e h a v i o r , t h e n i c e t i e s of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p cannot be r e v e a l e d w i t h t h e d e s i g n used. Nor can t h e n i c e t i e s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be a d j u s t e d f o r . Advantage o f U s i n g C o v a r i a t e s i n a Repeated-Measures D e s i g n Of c o u r s e , a r e s e a r c h e r has t h e o p t i o n t o d i s r e g a r d t h e c o v a r i a b l e s e n t i r e l y . T h i s i s not such a p e r i l o u s o p t i o n w i t h a r e p e a t e d measures d e s i g n i n wh i c h t h e b a s i c d i s a d v a n t a g e of t h e d e s i g n can a l s o be viewed as an advantage. There i s no way i n which we can impute d i f f e r e n c e s t o p a r t n e r which a r e i n r e a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s i n SES i n d i c a t o r s o r age or a g e - s p a c i n g , s i n c e f o r each o f t h e f o u r measures p e r s u b j e c t each s c o r e f o r each o f t h e c o v a r i a t e s i s t h e same. T e c h n i c a l l y , each s u b j e c t i s h i s own c o n t r o l f o r t h e c o v a r i a b l e s . A r e s e a r c h e r a l s o has t h e o p t i o n t o s e l e c t a r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous sample which e l i m i n a t e s t h e need t o use ^ c o v a r i a b l e s . Hypotheses S i n c e p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e s no w e l l - d e f i n e d 78 g u i d e l i n e s on how t h e c o v a r i a t e s a f f e c t t h e Sex x Order groups, t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s a r e p u t f o r w a r d : 5. F o r each dependent v a r i a b l e , w i t h i n t h e f o u r Sex x Order subgroups ( g i r l , s i b - f i r s t ; g i r l , s i b - s e c o n d ; boy, s i b - f i r s t ; boy, s i b - s e c o n d ) , t h e r e i s no i n f l u e n c e o f any o f t h e c o v a r i a t e s on t h e average s c o r e o f a s u b j e c t . 6. F o r each dependent v a r i a b l e , w i t h i n t h e f o u r Sex x Order subgroups, t h e i ^ * 1 c o v a r i a t e has no a d d i t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e above t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e o t h e r f o u r . -^'Reference t o t h e e f f e c t o f 'age o f secondborn' on two r e c i p r o c a l dependent v a r i a b l e s w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h e s i t u a t i o n . C l a r i f i c a t i o n r e q u e s t s ( t y p e s of c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s ) i n a s t u d y o f mothers' q u e s t i o n i n g of t h e i r 1 - , 2 - , and 3 -y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n by L o n g h u r s t and S t e p a n i c h ( 1 975 ) r e a c h e d t h e i r h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e when the c h i l d r e n were age 2 . Thus we might r e a s o n t h a t m a t e r n a l c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s would be more p r e v a l e n t f o r t h e youngest secondborn of t h i s sample t h a n f o r t h e o l d e s t ; moreover, t h e youngest would t h u s be r e s p o n d i n g t o more m a t e r n a l c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s t h a n t h e o l d e s t . W h i l e t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t c h i l d r e n v a r y t h e t y p e of q u e s t i o n s t h e y a s k — i n t e r n a l - s t a t e q u e s t i o n s t o b a b i e s and e x t e r n a l - s t a t e q u e s t i o n s t o p e e r s and a d u l t s — (Sachs & D e v i n 1 9 7 6 ) , t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t f i r s t b o r n s ' q u e s t i o n s ( i n s i n c e r e / s i n c e r e / c o n t i n g e n t ) v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e age o f t h e secondborn. F o r each dependent v a r i a b l e , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c o v a r i a t e and b e h a v i o r s 'by f i r s t b o r n ' and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c o v a r i a t e and b e h a v i o r s ' w i t h f i r s t b o r n ' a r e unknown. Thus d i r e c t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s e s f o r t h e c o v a r i a t e s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o s t a t e . T r i a l V a r i a b l e s : P a r t n e r and Task P a r t n e r The t r i a l v a r i a b l e p a r t n e r i s the major v a r i a b l e o f i n t e r e s t . So as n o t t o confound sex w i t h g e n e r a t i o n , the f i r s t b o r n have t o be f e m a l e , the same sex as t h e mothers. F u t u r e r e s e a r c h must t r e a t o f t h e r o l e of b r o t h e r s i n younger s i b l i n g s ' l i n g u i s t i c development. S u b s t a n t i v e d i r e c t i o n a l h y p o t h e s e s a r e s p e c i f i e d f o r each c a t e g o r y o f dependent v a r i a b l e . T e a c h i n g 7. The mean number o f t e a c h i n g a c t s p r o v i d e d by mothers i s g r e a t e r t h a n the mean number o f t e a c h i n g a c t s p r o v i d e d by f i r s t b o r n g i r l s ( f o r each dependent v a r i a b l e #1-7: o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s , l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s , c o n f i r m a t i o n s , i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , r e s p o n s e s t o s i n c e r e r e -q u e s t s , c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , and r e s p o n s e s t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s ) . Tone o f L i n g u i s t i c Feedback 8. The mean number of n e g a t i v e l y - t o n e d speech a c t s i s s u e d by f i r s t b o r n g i r l s i s g r e a t e r t h a n the mean number o f n e g a t i v e l y - t o n e d speech a c t s i s s u e d by mothers ( f o r each dependent v a r i a b l e #8-12: n e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e , l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n , a n d ' b e h a v i o r ; d i s a g r e e m e n t s / r e j e c t i o n s / r e f u s a l s ; and c r i t i c i s m s ) . But i t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t the p o s i t i v e feedback w i l l f o l l o w an o p p o s i t e p a t t e r n . 9. The mean number of p o s i t i v e l y - t o n e d speech a c t s 8 0 . o f f e r e d by mothers I s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e mean number o f p o s i -t i v e l y - t o n e d speech a c t s o f f e r e d by f i r s t b o r n g i r l s ( f o r each dependent v a r i a b l e # 1 3 - 1 7 : p o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s of t r u t h v a l u e , l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n , and b e h a v i o r ; p r a i s e ; and encouragement). Dominance The d o m i n a t i n g p a t t e r n s a r e p r e d i c t e d t o o p e r a t e i n the same way as t h e n e g a t i v e feedback. 10. The mean number of d o m i n a t i n g speech a c t s i s s u e d by f i r s t b o r n g i r l s i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e mean number o f dominat-i n g speech a c t s i s s u e d by mothers ( f o r each dependent v a r i a b l e #18-20: p r o h i b i t i o n s , o r d e r s , and i n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e s ) . S o l i d a r i t y The i n c i d e n c e o f s o l i d a r i t y a c t s i s p r e d i c t e d t o f o l l o w t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e i n c i d e n c e of t h e p o s i t i v e feedback. 11. The mean number of s o l i d a r i t y speech a c t s o f f e r e d by mothers i s g r e a t e r t h a n the mean number o f s o l i d a r i t y speech a c t s o f f e r e d by f i r s t b o r n g i r l s ( f o r t h e dependent v a r i a b l e #21). R e f e r e n t i a l F a i l u r e 12. The mean number o f e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s e x p r e s s e d by f i r s t b o r n g i r l s i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e mean number o f ego-c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s e x p r e s s e d by mothers ( f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e #22). That completes t h e hypotheses r e g a r d i n g the p r e d i c t e d b e h a v i o r of the mothers and the f i r s t b o r n . We now t u r n t o t h e f o r e c a s t s f o r the seeondborn. 81 L e a r n i n g - D e m o n s t r a t i n g 1 3 . The mean number o f l e a r n i n g - d e m o n s t r a t i n g speech a c t s e x p r e s s e d by secondborn i n the p r e s e n c e o f mothers i s g r e a t e r t h a n the mean number o f l e a r n i n g - d e m o n s t r a t i n g speech a c t s e x p r e s s e d by secondborn i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f f i r s t b o r n s i b l i n g s ( f o r each dependent v a r i a b l e # 2 3 - 2 9 : o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s , r e p e t i t i o n s o f l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s , acknow-ledgements, s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , r e s p o n s e s t o i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , and r e s p o n s e s to c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s ) . The l a s t h y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e of p a r t n e r i s now s t a t e d . R e f e r e n t i a l F a i l u r e 14. The mean number of e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s e x p r e s s e d by secondborn i n t h e p r e s e n c e of f i r s t b o r n s i b l i n g s i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e mean number o f e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s ex-p r e s s e d by secondborn i n the p r e s e n c e o f mothers ( f o r t h e dependent v a r i a b l e # 3 0 ) . Task Two d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i m e n t a l t a s k s — f r e e p l a y and p u z z l e -were used to o b t a i n some v a r i a t i o n i n t h e co r p u s o f speech. S i n c e the f r e e p l a y s e s s i o n was based on a c r i t e r i o n o f 10 minutes d u r a t i o n and the p u z z l e s e s s i o n on f i v e m i n u t e s , t h e t a s k s were equated on t h e time d i m e n s i o n by h a l v i n g t h e p l a y -t i me f r e q u e n c y s c o r e s . T h i s a d j u stment o f s c o r e s was made to 82 r e a l l y get a t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e t a s k upon t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s . But s i n c e no o b v i o u s p r e d i c t i o n s can be made r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e t a s k s , t h e f o l l o w i n g becomes t h e a p p r o p r i a t e h y p o t h e s i s : 1 5 . There i s no d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean number o f b e h a v i o r s i n t h e f r e e p l a y t r i a l s and t h e mean number of b e h a v i o r s i n t h e p u z z l e . t r i a l s . ( T h i s h y p o t h e s i s a p p l i e s t o each o f t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s . ) The h y p o t h e s e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s have y e t t o be s p e l l e d o u t . Hypotheses R e l a t i n g t o I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s No p r e d i c t i o n s a r e f a v o r e d r e g a r d i n g t h e i n t e r a c t i o n ( s ) between t h e independent v a r i a b l e s and t h e t r i a l v a r i a b l e s , and between t h e t r i a l v a r i a b l e s . The f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s a r e put f o r w a r d : 1 6 . There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e independent v a r i a b l e s , sex and e x p e r i m e n t a l o r d e r , and t h e t r i a l v a r i a b l e s , p a r t n e r and t a s k . ( T h i s h y p o t h e s i s a p p l i e s t o each of t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s . ) The s i x t e e n t h h y p o t h e s i s c o v e r s a l l p o s s i b l e combina-t i o n s o f independent and t r i a l i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s : P a r t n e r x Sex, P a r t n e r x Order, P a r t n e r x Sex x Order, Task x Sex, Task x Order, Task x Sex x Order, P a r t n e r x Task x Sex, P a r t n e r x Task x Order, and P a r t n e r x Task x Sex x Order, n i n e combina-t i o n s i n a l l . 1 7 . There i s no i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e t r i a l v a r i a b l e s , 83 p a r t n e r and t a s k . ( T h i s h y p o t h e s i s a p p l i e s t o each o f t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s . ) Summary The h y p o t h e s e s a r e now r e v i e w e d s i m p l y . C a t e g o r i e s o f dependent v a r i a b l e s which share s i m i l a r p r e d i c t i o n s a r e grouped t o g e t h e r so t h a t t h e o v e r a l l p a t t e r n s o f p r e d i c t i o n s a r e c l a r i f i e d . T e a c h i n g , p o s i t i v e f e edback, and s o l i d a r i t y c a t e g o r i e s a r e p l a c e d t o g e t h e r as a r e t h e n e g a t i v e f e edback, d o m i n a t i n g , and r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e c a t e g o r i e s . The h y p o t h e s e s o f major i n t e r e s t p e r t a i n t o t h e e f f e c t s o f p a r t n e r . I t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t mothers w i l l produce more i n s t a n c e s o f s p e c i f i c t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s , p o s i t i v e f e e d b a c k , and s o l i d a r i t y a c t s , b u t fewer i n s t a n c e s of n e g a t i v e feedback, d o m i n a t i n g a c t s , and r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e t h a n f i r s t b o r n . I t i s a l s o p r e d i c t e d t h a t secondborn e x h i b i t more examples o f l e a r n i n g - d e m o n s t r a t i n g a c t s and fewer examples o f r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e w i t h mothers t h a n w i t h o l d e r s i s t e r s . No p r e f e r r e d d i r e c t i o n a l p r e d i c t i o n s a r e e x p r e s s e d r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f the sex o f secondborn, e x p e r i m e n t a l o r d e r , t h e c o v a r i a t e s , t h e t a s k , and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s o f the independent and t r i a l v a r i a b l e s . I f p a r a m e t r i c assumptions h o l d t r u e , t h e s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s a r e f i r s t t e s t e d by an a n a l y s i s o f co-v a r i a n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e hypotheses r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t s of 8 4 p a r t n e r a r e d i r e c t i o n a l i n n a t u r e , a l l a l t e r n a t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s e s a r e p h r a s e d i n n o n - d i r e c t i o n a l terms (namely, t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n means f o r measures of i n t e r e s t a r e n o t e q u a l ) . Each o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l n u l l h y p o t h e s e s ( t h a t p o p u l a t i o n means f o r measures o f i n t e r e s t a r e equal) i s t e s t e d w i t h an a l p h a l e v e l o f 0 .025. S i n c e a l a r g e number of s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s i s performed, the s t r i n g e n t c h o i c e o f a l p h a l e v e l i s n e c e s s a r y to reduce t h e o v e r a l l Type I e r r o r . Then, f o r t h o s e dependent v a r i a b l e s w h e r e i n t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f the c o v a r i a t e s a r e n o t r e j e c t e d , we r e s o r t to an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . The a l p h a l e v e l remains t h e same - -0 ,025• The r e s e a r c h problems, the measures, t h e d e s i g n , and the s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h hypotheses have been s e t f o r t h . B e f o r e we t u r n t o the methodology of the r e s e a r c h ( t h e p r o c e d u r e s of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s ) , we must n o t e what t h i s s t u d y does n o t attempt t o a c c o m p l i s h . We must a l s o mention t h e assumptions which u n d e r l i e r e s e a r c h o f the k i n d c o n ducted h e r e . D i s c l a i m e r s T h i s s t u d y does n o t aim t o d i s p o s e o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t o n l y " m i n i m a l c o n d i t i o n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n , exposure and c a r e " a r e r e q u i r e d f o r the growth o f grammar (Chomsky 1 9 7 6 : 1 4 4 ) . I n s t e a d i t a t t e m p t s t o d e t e c t c o n d i t i o n s beyon" t h e minimum which advance language s k i l l s . I t a t t e m p t s t o make e x p l i c i t the n a t u r e o f language t e a c h i n g and t o e x p l o r e t h e r o l e s t h a t 85 mothers and female s i b l i n g s p l a y i n e s t a b l i s h i n g l anguage-l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s . The p r o j e c t does n o t t r y to measure degree of l i n g u i s -t i c o r communicative competence. Nor does i t measure any e f f e c t s o f v a r i a b l e s such as f a m i l y s i z e , b i r t h o r d e r , s o c i a l -i z a t i o n s t y l e s , t e a c h i n g t a c t i c s , o r a t t i t u d i n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . The a n a l y s i s o f the s i b l i n g and p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n -s h i p s i s based on a l i n g u i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e , n o t a p s y c h i a t r i c one. The s t u d y i s n o t c o n c e i v e d as a t r e a t i s e on s o c i a l i z a -t i o n . W h i l e many measures used i n t h e s t u d y a r e based on the f u n c t i o n a l c o n t i n g e n c y of u t t e r a n c e s , t h e y do n o t deserve t o be r e g a r d e d as an a t t e mpt by t h e a u t h o r t o espouse a r e v i s e d c o n d i t i o n i n g t h e o r y to account f o r language l e a r n i n g . The measures a r e chosen t o examine c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . A ssumptions The t h e o r y of language development w h i c h i s i m p l i c i t l y h e l d by t h e a u t h o r i s t h a t t h e p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g t o under-s t a n d and to use a language i s a s y n e r g i s t i c p r o c e s s i n which a f o r m i d a b l e number of f a c t o r s work t o g e t h e r . The f a c t o r s a r e b o th i n t r i n s i c and e x t r i n s i c to t h e l e a r n e r . I n t r i n s i c f a c t o r s i n c l u d e g e n e t i c and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l makeup; p e r c e p t u a l , c o g n i t i v e , and a r t i c u l a t o r y a b i l i t i e s . E x t r i n s i c f a c t o r s i n c l u d e s o c i a l m i l i e u and t y p e o f l i n g u i s t i c exposure, i t s i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y , amount and c o n t i n -86 gency to t h e l e a r n e r . But t h e i n t r i n s i c and e x t r i n s i c f a c t o r s c o n s t a n t l y i n t e r a c t : f o r i n s t a n c e , c h i l d r e n ' s non-comprehension and i n a t t e n t i o n a t g i v e n s t a g e s p l a y a major r o l e i n p r o m p t i n g mothers t o p r o v i d e c e r t a i n s i m p l i f i e d and r e p e t i t i v e t y p e s of exposure t o language (Snow 1972). That humans have a s t r o n g i n b u i l t endowment t o develop language systems i s acknowledged. However, t h e fu n d a m e n t a l a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e r e s e a r c h c o nducted h e r e a r e t h a t speech a c t s a r e l e a r n e d c a t e g o r i e s a r i s i n g out o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and t h a t some i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e more f a c i l i t a t i v e t h a n o t h e r s i n f o s t e r i n g language growth. I n t h e c o n t r o v e r s y o v er n a t i v i s t and b e h a v i o r i s t t h e o r i e s o f language d e v e l o p -ment, t h e a u t h o r t a k e s a m i d d l e p o s i t i o n : b o t h i n b o r n and e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r language growth. 87 CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY: DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS DATA COLLECTION: SAMPLING METHOD AND SAMPLE F a m i l i e s were c o n t a c t e d v i a l e t t e r s , phone c a l l s , and p e r s o n a l v i s i t s t o 45 p r e s c h o o l s , one h e a l t h u n i t and one d r o p - i n c e n t r e i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia ( p o p u l a t i o n 420,000) p l u s 13 p r e s c h o o l s i n Richmond, an a d j a c e n t suburban a r e a w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l z o n i n g ( p o p u l a t i o n 95.000). A copy o f the t y p i c a l l e t t e r s e n t t o t h e p r e s c h o o l d i r e c t o r s i s i n -c l u d e d i n Appendix I . I t was d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n t h e r e q u i s i t e l a r g e sample because t h e p e o p l e o f Canada a r e o f d i v e r s e l i n g u i s t i c backgrounds, t h e b i r t h r a t e t h r o u g h o u t N o r t h A m e r i c a i s d r o p p i n g , and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e q u i r e d f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a -t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e d r a t h e r s t r i c t c o n d i t i o n s . F a m i l i e s d i s p a r a t e i n socioeconomic s t a t u s and r e s i -d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n were i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y and were n o t p r e s c r e e n e d f o r v a r i a b l e s such as s o c i a l s t a t u s , i n t e l l i g e n c e , i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y , o r language development. B u t f a m i l i e s w h e r e i n t h e c h i l d r e n were e n r o l l e d i n f u l l - t i m e group d a y c a r e , were becoming b i l i n g u a l , o r were han d i c a p p e d by sev e r e h e a r i n g l o s s were n o t i n c l u d e d because i t was t h e i n t e n t t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e 'normal' v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s between E n g l i s h 88 sp e a k e r s who spend much time t o g e t h e r . The 38 f a m i l i e s s e l e c t e d were s t r a n g e r s t o t h e a u t h o r and c o n s i s t e d of two p a r e n t s , a f i r s t b o r n girls;sand a secondborn boy or g i r l . Two f a m i l i e s a l s o had 1 - y e a r - o l d g i r l s . A l l c h i l d r e n were l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h . Two c h i l d r e n were exposed t o H u n g a r i a n and German; two, t o Japanese; two, t o F r e n c h ; and two, t o Chinese:.; E i g h t mothers were of r e c e n t B r i t i s h e m i g r a t i o n (which posed problems f o r t r a n s c r i p t i o n ) . Twenty-seven of t h e f a m i l i e s l i v e d i n Vancouver; 1 1 , i n Richmond. The f i r s t b o r n a t t e n d e d some t y p e o f p r e s c h o o l a p o r -t i o n of one day o r t h r e e t o f i v e days p e r week; t h e y d i d not a t t e n d p u b l i c - s c h o o l k i n d e r g a r t e n . The secondborn remained a t home. The 76 c h i l d r e n were judged by t h e i r mothers t o have normal h e a r i n g and t o be r e a c h i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a l m i l e s t o n e s a t a normal o r an a c c e l e r a t e d r a t e . P h y s i c i a n s a s s e s s e d one boy (29.4 months) t o be l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d e l a y e d and one g i r l ( 2 3 . 7 months) t o be l i n g u i s t i c a l l y p r e c o c i o u s . As t h e a t t r i b u t e s o r background o f t h e s u b j e c t s were used as c o v a r i a t e s , c e l l means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r the f i v e c o v a r i a t e s i n f o u r c e l l s o f t h e d e s i g n a r e g i v e n i n t a b l e 3 . I n s p i t e o f t h e l i b e r a l s a m p l i n g method used, t h e sample which c o n s e n t e d t o be t a p e d appeared t o be r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous on a number o f v a r i a b l e s . The secondborn ( 1 9 boys and 19 g i r l s ) were e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e age range o f 2 2 . 0 t o 3 6 . 2 months. The c e l l means f o r age o f secondborn a c c o r d i n g t o sex and o r d e r c o n d i t i o n s were 3 0 . 3 3 ( g i r l , s i b - f i r s t ) , 30.46 ( g i r l , 8 9 TABLE 3 CELL MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE FIVE COVARIATES Independent V a r i a b l e s C o v a r i a t e s Sex o f Seeondborn E x p e r i m e n t a l Order C e l l S t a n d a r d Means D e v i a t i o n s Age o f Seeondborn G i r l Boy S i b l i n g s S i b l i n g s S i b l i n g s S i b l i n g s f i r s t second f i r s t second 3 0 . 3 3 k.k5 30 . 4 6 5 . 10 2 9 . 6 7 4 . 3 4 2 9 . 3 6 4 . 6 5 Age o f F i r s t b o r n - G i r l Boy S i b l i n g s S i b l i n g s S i b l i n g s S i b l i n g s f i r s t second f i r s t second 5 5 . 3 3 5 . 1 2 55.65 7 . 0 1 5 3 . 5 7 6 . 9 8 5 6 . 9 1 6 . 07 A g e - S p a c i n g D i f f e r e n c e s between S i b l i n g s G i r l Boy S i b l i n g s S i b l i n g s S i b l i n g s S i b l i n g s f i r s t second f i r s t second 2 5 . 0 0 6 . 0 4 2 5 . 2 9 5 . 0 5 2 3 . 9 0 7 . 0 3 2 7 . 5 6 4 . 8 5 P a t e r n a l O c c u p a t i o n S c o r e s G i r l Boy S i b l i n g s S i b l i n g s S i b l i n g s S i b l i n g s f i r s t second f i r s t second 5 . 5 6 1 .01 5 . 2 0 2 . 3 5 5 . 5 0 1 .58 -5 . 6 7 1 . 12 M o t h e r s ' Y e a r s o f F o r m a l S c h o o l i n g G i r l Boy S i b l i n g s S i b l i n g s S i b l i n g s S i b l i n g s f i r s t second f i r s t second 1 5 . 0 0 1 . 94 1 4 .40 2 . 1 2 1 4 . 8 0 2 . 1 5 1 5 . 2 2 2 . 5 4 90 s i b - s e c o n d ) , 2 9 . 6 7 (boy, s i b - f i r s t ) , and 29.36 (boy, s i b -second) . The c e l l means r e v o l v e v e r y c l o s e l y around t h e average age o f secondborn - - 3 0.0 months. The e q u i t a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f secondborn a c c o r d i n g t o age and sex i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1. The 38 f i r s t b o r n g i r l s c o v e r e d a w i d e r age span t h a n t h e secondborn: t h e y ranged from 44.3 t o 64.4 months o f age. A c c o r d i n g t o sex and o r d e r c o n d i t i o n s , t h e c e l l means f o r age o f f i r s t b o r n were 55-33 ( g i r l , s i b - f i r s t ) , 55.6$ ( g i r l , s i b - s e c o n d ) , 53-57 (boy, s i b - f i r s t ) , and 5 6 . 9 1 (boy, s i b -se c o n d ) ; t h e r e s p e c t i v e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were 5-12, 7.01, 6 . 9 8 , and 6 .07. The average age o f f i r s t b o r n was 55.4 months. F i g u r e 2 p r e s e n t s t h e f r e q u e n c y o f f i r s t b o r n a c c o r d i n g t o age i n months. Each o f t h e months ( e x c e p t 4 9 and 50 months) was r e p r e s e n t e d o v e r the age span; h a l f of t h e f i r s t b o r n were o l d e r t h a n 56 months (4 2/3 y e a r s ) . The t h i r d c o v a r i a t e r e l a t e d t o t h e age d i f f e r e n c e s between s i b l i n g dyads. A c c o r d i n g t o sex and o r d e r c o n d i t i o n s , t h e c e l l means f o r a g e - s p a c i n g d i f f e r e n c e s were 25.00 ( g i r l , s i b - f i r s t ) , 25.29 ( g i r l , s i b - s e c o n d ) , 2 3 . 9 0 (boy, s i b - f i r s t ) , and 2 7 . 5 6 (boy, s i b - s e c o n d ) ; t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r the c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o n d i t i o n s were 6.04, 5.05> 7 - 03 . and 4.85. The average d i f f e r e n c e was 25.4 months; t h e d i f f e r e n c e s ranged from 14.7 months t o 37.7 months. I n h a l f o f t h e c a s e s (19), t h e age d i f f e r e n c e was 24 months and under. F i g u r e 3 r e c o r d s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f secondborn and f i r s t b o r n p a i r s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e two s i b l i n g s ' ages i n months; i t h e l p s t o fi u o r Q 'd fi o o CD W <H o U CD S 6-5-4-3 2 1-1 0 m m m m m m m m m m m f m m m f m f m m f f f f f f .• f f f m f m f f f f f f 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Age i n Months F i g u r e 1. F r e q u e n c y o f Seeondborn a c c o r d i n g t o Age i n Months and Sex (NOTE: m=male; f=female. n=38.) fi u o r Q •P to U •H PH CH o U CD fi s 6-5-4-3-2-1-oJ -v 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 5^ 55 56 57 58 59 6o 61 62 63 Age i n Months F i g u r e 2. Frequency o f F i r s t b o r n a c c o r d i n g to Age i n Months (NOTE: n=38.) 64 M3 o o o o 0 co o 37-1 36-35-34-33-32-31-30-29 28-27-26 25 24-23-22 o Ly + + + + + + + + + + + + + 4-+ + + + + + + 4 + + ++ + + + H- + + 46 47 48 5b 5'1 5'2 5'3 5'4 1 ? l6~W~& i9- 60 "oT 6r2 63 64 Age of F i r s t b o r n i n Months Figur e 3 . D i s t r i b u t i o n of Secondborn and F i r s t b o r n Dyads according to Two S i b l i n g s ' Ages ^ (NOTE: n=38 dyads.) ro 93 v i s u a l i z e t h e complex p a t t e r n of the a g e - s p a c i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between s i b l i n g p a i r s . F i g u r e 4 i s a h i s t o g r a m r e c o r d i n g t h e f r e q u e n c y of a g e - s p a c i n g d i f f e r e n c e s measured i n months. Because i n d i c e s of s o c i o e c o n o m ic s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n t l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e w i t h measures of l i n g u i s t i c development ( T e m p l i n 1957) Loban 1 963 ) and w i t h measures of m a t e r n a l t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s (Laosa 1 9 7 8 ) , background about each f a m i l y ' s SES was necessary."*" I n t h e p a s t , i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s (such as o c c u p a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n of mothers and f a t h e r s ) have been employed i n t e r -c h a n geably o r a g g r e g a t e l y subsumed under a g e n e r a l 'index of I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t s ocioeconomic s t a t u s , b i r t h o r d e r , and f a m i l y s i z e a r e n o t independent v a r i a b l e s i n the t r a d i t i o n a l sense. B i r t h o r d e r does n o t cause v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f v e r b a l a b i l i t y : i t can o n l y a f f e c t one's e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h o t h e r members of t h e f a m i l y , the r o l e s a s c r i b e d , and one's a c c e s s to e n v i r o n m e n t a l and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . S i m i l a r l y , s ocioeconomic s t a t u s i s n e i t h e r a c a u s a t i v e agent n o r an e x p l a n a t o r y i d e a . B u t , s i n c e c l u s t e r s o f p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s , e x p e c t a n c i e s , and p r a c t i c e s (Kagan & T u l k i n 1971 )» as w e l l as e n v i r o n m e n t a l advantages and d i s -advantages c o r r e l a t e w i t h s o c i o e c o n o m ic s t a t u s , i n d i c e s o f s o cioeconomic s t a t u s c o n t i n u e t o be v a l u a b l e t o o l s i n r e s e a r c h . But t h e o r e t i c a l problems p e r s i s t i n a s s e s s i n g s o c i o -economic s t a t u s . C a n a d i a n s o c i o l o g i s t s do n o t share unanimous views r e g a r d i n g t h e v a r i a b l e s b e s t s u i t e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between s o c i a l c l a s s e s ( F o r c e s e 1 9 7 5 ) -3-2-1-- i — • — i — • — i i 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 A g e - S p a c i n g D i f f e r e n c e s i n Months F i g u r e 4. Frequency o f Age-Spacing D i f f e r e n c e s Measured i n Months (NOTE: n = 3 8 . ) VO 95 s o c i a l c l a s s 1 . Contemporary s o c i o l o g i s t s , however, r e g a r d s o c i a l c l a s s n o t as a u n i t a r y d i m e n s i o n but as a conglomerate of d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l and s p e c i f i c s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s w h i c h must be examined s e p a r a t e l y (Deutsch 1 9 7 3 ) . They emphasize t h a t t h e measurable components on which s o c i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a r e based a r e c o n t i n u o u s v a r i a b l e s ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , the c u t - o f f p o i n t s between a d j a c e n t c l a s s d e s i g n a t i o n s a r e somewhat a r b i t r a r y ( F o r c e s e 1 9 7 5 ) ' Thus, l a b e l s such as ' l o w e r ' w o r k i n g c l a s s ' and 'lower m i d d l e c l a s s ' a r e a r b i t r a r i l y a s s i g n e d and a r e o f t e n n o t as h e l p f u l t o the r e s e a r c h e r as gauges of i n d i v i d u a l , s p e c i f i c s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . C a nadian r e s e a r c h r e l i e s upon o c c u p a t i o n as t h e major i n d i c a t o r of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , t h e f undamental d i m e n s i o n s of which a r e p r e s t i g e , power, and p r i v i l e g e . I t . u s e s t h e s c a l e s d e v i s e d by B l i s h e n ( 1 9 5 8 , 1 9 6 7 . 1 9 7 ° ) based upon census d a t a . O c c u p a t i o n measures a r e u s e f u l i n d i c e s because t h e y mediate between t h e l e v e l o f a p e r s o n ' s e d u c a t i o n and income. The most r e c e n t s c a l e , B l i s h e n and McRobert's i n d e x f o r 480 male o c c u p a t i o n s i n Canada ( 1 976 ) a l s o i n c l u d e s a ' p r e s t i g e ' w e i g h t i n g d e t e r m i n e d f o r 85 o c c u p a t i o n s by P i n e o and P o r t e r ( 1 9 6 7 ) . ' P a t e r n a l o c c u p a t i o n ' was chosen as a c o v a r i a t e f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h . I n t h i s sample, the f a t h e r s ' s c o r e s on B l i s h e n and McRoberts' i n d e x v a r i e d between the l o w e s t c l a s s i n t e r v a l ( r e p r e s e n t i n g s e m i - s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d o c c u p a t i o n s ) and t h e h i g h e s t c l a s s i n t e r v a l ( r e p r e s e n t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s ) . F o r t h e a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e , each f a t h e r was g i v e n 2 a s c o r e from one t o seven a c c o r d i n g t o the d e c i l e i n which h i s o c c u p a t i o n f e l l . A s c o r e o f seven, f o r example, r e p r e -s e n t e d o c c u p a t i o n s h a v i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s . As t h e sample was h e a v i l y w e i g h t e d w i t h f a t h e r s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and w h i t e c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s ( t h e c e l l means were 5 * 5 6 , 5 - 2 0 , 5 - 5 0 , and 5 . 6 7 ) , the f a t h e r s ' mean o c c u p a t i o n a l s c o r e was r e l a t i v e l y h i g h — 5 » ^ 7 . F i g u r e 5 i s a f r e q u e n c y p o l y g o n o f the number of f a t h e r s s c o r i n g i n t h e seven p o s s i b l e d e c i l e s . F a t h e r s s c o r e d from t h e second t o t h e seventh d e c i l e , t h e s i x t h d e c i l e b e i n g the mode. (One f a t h e r was unemployed; he was g i v e n a s c o r e o f z e r o . ) The t y p i c a l f a t h e r i n c h i l d language r e s e a r c h — t h e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t — w a s u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e . Only one o f t h e f a t h e r s and none of t h e mothers f e l l i n t o t h e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t c a t e g o r y . S i n c e t h a t f a t h e r was a l s o employed, he c o u l d be a s s i g n e d . a socioeconomic s c o r e . T h i r t y - s i x o f the mothers were t h e prime c a r e t a k e r s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Two worked f u l l t i me but had f l e x i b l e s c h e d u l e s so t h a t t h e y had much c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n , one e mploying a r e g u l a r b a b y s i t t e r and one u s i n g a f a m i l y day-care home ( w i t h one a d u l t and fewer t h a n f i v e c h i l d r e n i n c a r e ) . S i x o f t h e mothers worked p a r t - t i m e . T h i r t y o f t h e mothers d e s c r i b e d themselves as f u l l - t i m e homemakers. S i n c e t h e r e i s no p u b l i s h e d Canadian s c a l e f o r female l a b o u r f o r c e comparable to t h a t o f t h e male l a b o u r f o r c e , i t 2 . • • T h i s s i m p l e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f c l a s s i n t e r v a l s was suggested by B l i s h e n ( 1 9 6 7 ) . 97 1 2 3 ^ 5 6 7 D e c i l e s of Socioeconomic S c o r e s based on B l i s h e n and M c R o b e r t 1 s Index ( 1976 ) F i g u r e 5-Number o f F a t h e r s i n t h e Seven P o s s i b l e SES D e c i l e s (NOTE: n = 3 8 . ) 98 i s n o t f e a s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r mother's o c c u p a t i o n as a c o v a r i a t e . ^ A n o t h e r major problem i s t h a t t h e s t a t u s o f h o u s e w i f e i s n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e o c c u p a t i o n s . Thus, t o a s s e s s each mother's i n d i v i d u a l SES, one has t o r e v e r t t o a measure f o r each mother's e d u c a t i o n . The y e a r s o f f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g t h a t each mother com-p l e t e d became t h e measure f o r t h e f i f t h c o v a r i a t e . The c e l l means f o r m a t e r n a l y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g were 1 5 . 0 0 , 1 4 . 4 0 , 1 4 . 8 0 , and 1 5 . 2 2 ; t h e average number of y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g was 14 . 8 4 y e a r s . F i g u r e 6 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e number of mothers c o m p l e t i n g from 12 t o 20 y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g . I t i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l l o f t h e mothers g r a d u a t e d from h i g h s c h o o l ( 12 y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g ) and t h a t about o n e - h a l f g r a d u a t e d from u n i v e r s i t y . Modes appear a t 12 y e a r s and 16 y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g . Over 70% o f t h e mothers were between t h e ages o f 30 and 34 y e a r s ; o v e r 25$ were between 25 and 29 y e a r s ; none of t h e mothers were under 25 o r over 39 y e a r s of age. I n f o r m a t i o n about th e f a m i l i e s was c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e mothers and was checked by them when t h e i r c h i l d r e n were b e i n g t a p e d . ^ 3 B l i s h e n r e c e n t l y c o n s t r u c t e d a s c a l e f o r t h e f e m a l e l a b o u r f o r c e i n Canada but i t was so s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o r male o c c u p a t i o n ( c o r r e l a t i o n . 87 ) t h a t he "thought i t not worth p u b l i s h i n g " ( p e r s o n a l communication, September 1 9 7 7 ) . ^The form used t o r e c o r d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e f a m i l y background i s r e p l i c a t e d i n Appendix I I . 99 In-completed Y e a r s o f S c h o o l i n g F i g u r e 6. Frequency o f Mothers C o m p l e t i n g 12-20 Y e a r s o f S c h o o l i n g (NOTE: n = 3 8 . ) 100 As a whole, t h e sample c o m p r i s e s f a m i l i e s s h a r i n g a number o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - - f i r s t b o r n g i r l s aged 4 - 5 y e a r s who a t t e n d p r e s c h o o l , seeondborn c h i l d r e n aged 2 - 3 y e a r s who remain a t home w i t h mothers, f a t h e r s who t e n d t o have h i g h -r a n k i n g o c c u p a t i o n s ( a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r t h a n average l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n and income), and mothers who a r e r e l a t i v e l y w e l l - e d u c a t e d and of a s i m i l a r age. The means i n t h e f o u r c e l l s of t h e d e s i g n f o r each of t h e c o v a r i a t e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e sex and o r d e r combina-t i o n s have an e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n on t h e v a l u e s f o r t h e ages o f the seeondborn, f i r s t b o r n , a g e - s p a c i n g d i f f e r e n c e s , p a t e r n a l o c c u p a t i o n s c o r e s , and mothers' y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e f a m i l i e s a r e o f d i v e r s e e t h n i c and l i n g u i s t i c background, a l l o f t h e c h i l d r e n a r e becoming m o n o l i n g u a l E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s . The f a m i l i e s l i v e i n u r b a n , suburban, and s e m i - r u r a l a r e a s . The s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e and sample h a v i n g been d e s c r i b e d , we now t u r n t o t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . 101 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES T h i s s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s an o v e r v i e w of t h e r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e s , d i s c u s s e s t h e p r o c e d u r a l d e c i s i o n s which were based on i n f o r m a t i o n g l e a n e d i n two p i l o t s t u d i e s , n o t e s some l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e s t u d y , r e p o r t s t h e s u c c e s s r a t e i n t a p i n g a l a r g e sample and t h e f i n a l s e l e c t i o n of t h e sample. The s e t t i n g , s t i m u l i , and p r o c e d u r e s were h i g h l y i m p o r t a n t because o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n : s i b l i n g s were t o amuse t h e m s e l v e s o v e r a f i f t e e n - m i n u t e p e r i o d w i t h o u t any a d u l t s on t h e scene. S i n c e d e t a i l s o f the s e t t i n g , t o y s , p u z z l e s , p u z z l e i n s t r u c t i o n s , p r o c e d u r e s , equipment and r e s e a r c h team would be d i s t r a c t i n g a t t h i s p o i n t , t h e y a r e r e p o r t e d i n Appendix I I I . Overview of R e s e a r c h P r o c e d u r e s F a m i l i e s t r a v e l l e d t o a u n i v e r s i t y c l i n i c t o be a u d i o - and v i d e o - t a p e d (from b e h i n d one-way m i r r o r s ) i n t h e mornings and e a r l y a f t e r n o o n s when t h e c h i l d r e n would be most a l e r t . 102 Each dyad was f i r s t p l a c e d i n an u n s t r u c t u r e d s i t u a t i o n i n t h e ' f i s h b o w l ' w i t h t o y s . Ten-minute samples were s e l e c t e d f o r each p l a y t i m e . S i n c e t h e s i b l i n g I n t e r -a c t i o n s were o f t e n i n t e r r u p t e d , t h e t i m e s f o r s e v e r a l samples were t o t a l l e d t o meet t h e 10-minute r e q u i r e m e n t . Then the a u t h o r brought seven p u z z l e s and r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e o l d e r p a r t n e r t e l l t h e younger how t o do them. The p u z z l e sample became the dyads' speech which r e l a t e d t o t h e p u z z l e s w h i l e t h e p u z z l e s were b e i n g h a n d l e d d u r i n g t h e n e x t f i v e m i n u t e s . The second dyad t h e n went t h r o u g h t h e same p r o c e d u r e . When t h e f a m i l i e s watched t h e i r v i d e o t a p e s , t h e a u t h o r made no t e o f nicknames, f a m i l y h i s t o r y , and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e s u b j e c t s * phonology so t h a t t r a n s c r i p t i o n would be f a c i l i t a t e d . The t a p i n g o f each f a m i l y took lj? h o u r s . D e c i s i o n s Based on P i l o t S t u d i e s F o r t h e f i r s t p i l o t s t u d y , t h e home was the s e t t i n g f o r t h e t a p i n g . But t h e home was r e c o g n i z e d as b e i n g a l e s s t h a n i d e a l s e t t i n g f o r t h e major s t u d y f o r t h e s e r e a s o n s : 1. The ambient n o i s e i n h o u s e h o l d s i s h i g h , i n c r e a s i n g t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t r a n s c r i p t i o n . 2. V i d e o t a p e s a r e i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r speech a c t 103 a n a l y s e s because the context i s one i n d i c a t o r of i l l o c u t i o n -a r y f o r c e . Videotape equipment i s unwieldy: i t and the r e s e a r c h team become h i g h l y i n t r u s i v e and o b t r u s i v e , d i s r u p t -i n g the n a t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t should be t a k i n g p l a c e . 3 . With camera and t a p e r e c o r d e r i n f u l l view, the c h i l d r e n and mothers are f u l l y aware of when and how they are b e i n g f i l m e d and taped; they are v e r y l i k e l y to 'act up' and monitor t h e i r non-acceptable behavior. Some mothers might a l s o become unduly concerned about the appearances of t h e i r home. 4 . In the home, i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t c h i l d r e n s o l i -c i t a i d from a l l of the a v a i l a b l e a d u l t s r a t h e r than from each other. With p a r e n t ( s ) and r e s e a r c h team on the scene, the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i s no l o n g e r dyadic but h i g h l y dynamic with f o u r or more people i n t e r a c t i n g . 5. In the l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g , i t i s e a s i e r to s e t up s i m i l a r s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n s . T h i s i s important because the s e t t i n g and the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n f l u e n c e the t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d , which i n t u r n a f f e c t v o l u b i l i t y , emotional involvement, and the l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s produced. For our second p i l o t study, we taped the f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n s i n a u n i v e r s i t y c l i n i c w ith the cameraman r i g h t i n the room. At the time, we were t r y i n g to get h i g h - q u a l i t y videotapes., From the second p i l o t we decided to have the bearded cameraman o u t s i d e of the room behind the one-way m i r r o r because he was very f r i g h t e n i n g and d i s t r a c t i n g to the c h i l d r e n , and we r e a l i z e d t h a t we had to work out v e r y 104 c a r e f u l p r o c e d u r e s about p a r k i n g . The p i l o t mother (who worked on campus) d i s r e g a r d e d s u g g e s t i o n s about p a r k i n g and a t t e m p t e d t o 'drop o f f t h e . c h i l d r e n w h i l e she p a r k e d . The r e s u l t was t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n e v e n t u a l l y r e f u s e d t o be l e f t a l o n e i n t h e t a p i n g room. G i v e n t h e r e s e a r c h on m o t h e r - c h i l d a t t a c h m e n t , we knew t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n ' s sense o f s e c u r i t y i n t h e s i t u a t i o n was v e r y i m p o r t a n t and t h a t g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r e s s h o u l d f o l l o w a c a r e f u l f o r m a t . (As mentioned above, t h e p r o c e d u r e s a r e d e t a i l e d i n Appendix I I I . ) Some L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e c h o i c e o f t h e u n f a m i l i a r l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g was one o f t h e u n r e s o l v a b l e weaknesses o f t h i s s t u d y . Our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s w i l l n o t be complete u n t i l we have o b s e r v e d s i b l i n g s i n a v a r i e t y o f d i f -f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s — i n c l u d i n g t h e home, t h e supermarket, and o u t d o o r s - - a n d w i t h o t h e r m u l t i - a g e d groups of c h i l d r e n . A second weakness i s t h a t t h e mothers knew t h a t t h e y were b e i n g t a p e d but t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n were unaware o f what was happening. Most o f t h e c h i l d r e n r e c o g n i z e d t h e m i c r o -phones and t o y e d w i t h them, b u t t h e y were u n c e r t a i n about t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e microphones i n t h e s i t u a t i o n . However, one c o u l d argue t h a t w h i l e t h e mothers would c e n s o r t h e i r own a c t i o n s , t h e y c o u l d n o t c o m p l e t e l y r e n o v a t e t h e i r b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s or a t t i t u d e s f o r t h e s t u d y . I t was 105 my impression t h a t t h e r e were no d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the ' mothers' a c t i o n s o u t s i d e of the t a p i n g room and t h e i r a c t i o n s i n s i d e of the t a p i n g room. I t appeared t h a t t h e i r behavior was c o n s i s t e n t . Since the o b s e r v a t i o n s of mothers' behavior r e p o r t e d here have been documented i n many other s t u d i e s (Broen 1 9 7 2 ; Snow 1977)i "the ' d i f f e r i n g ' awareness aspect does not appear to be a severe weakness of the study. The two t a s k s which were s e l e c t e d — s p o n t a n e o u s p l a y i n a r e l a t i v e l y ' n a t u r a l i s t i c ' s e t t i n g and manipulable p u z z l e s — c o m p r i s e another l i m i t a t i o n o f the study. The c h o i c e of those two types o f task d e l i m i t s the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t h a t can be made about the speech of the c h i l d r e n and of the mothers. Success i n Taping Of the 4 l f a m i l i e s who were taped i n a d d i t i o n to the two p i l o t f a m i l i e s , we l o s t o n l y t h r e e f a m i l i e s because of an i n s u f f i c i e n t number of t r i a l s . In the case where we d i d not completely o b t a i n any of the f o u r t r i a l s , the mother d i d not f o l l o w p a r k i n g suggestions. By the time t h a t the problem was s e t t l e d , the ve r y young secondborn was too f r e t f u l to be taped. In two other cases, we obtained the m o t h e r - c h i l d t r i a l s but not both of the s i b l i n g t r i a l s . In one f a m i l y , the second-born ( 24 months old) had never l e f t her mother's s i d e and r e -fu s e d to be l e f t alone with her s i s t e r . In the t h i r d case, we obtained a l l of the t r i a l s except the s i b l i n g p l a y t i m e , a g a i n because of secondborn i n s e c u r i t y . 106 F i n a l S e l e c t i o n o f t h e Sample The two f a m i l i e s w i t h m i s s i n g s i b l i n g t r i a l s c o u l d have been i n c l u d e d i n the sample. T h e i r i n c l u s i o n would have b o o s t e d t h e sample s i z e to 40 f a m i l i e s ( t h e i n t e n d e d s i z e ) and e q u a l i z e d t h e c e l l s i z e s a t 10 f a m i l i e s . I t was d e c i d e d t o use o n l y t h o s e f a m i l i e s who had a complete s e t o f f o u r t r i a l s p e r s u b j e c t . The two f a m i l i e s w i t h m i s s i n g d a t a were t h u s e x c l u d e d . They d i d n o t d i f f e r from t h e sample as a whole on the c o v a r i a t e s . I n b o t h f a m i l i e s , t h e mothers and f a t h e r s were w e l l - e d u c a t e d , and t h e f a t h e r s had h i g h - s t a t u s o c c u p a t i o n s . The problems of d a t a a n a l y s i s a r e now a d d r e s s e d . T r a n s c r i p t i o n and c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e s a r e s p e c i f i e d , c o d i n g r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y problems a r e d i s c u s s e d , and some measurement problems a r e r e s o l v e d . 107 DATA ANALYSIS T r a n s c r i p t i o n P r o c e d u r e s One a s s i s t a n t u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e pu r p o s e s o f the r e s e a r c h spent 4 00 h o u r s t r a n s c r i b i n g and t y p i n g up t h e v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s o f 28 t a p e s . The a s s i s t a n t was s e l e c t e d f o r h e r s t a m i n a , p e r s e v e r a n c e , and f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the s u b - c u l t u r e o f Canadian c h i l d h o o d . As w e l l as b e i n g s u p p l i e d c o n t e x t u a l and p h o n o l o g i c a l n o t e s r e c o r d e d by t h e a u t h o r w h i l e o b s e r v i n g the a c t u a l i n t e r a c t i o n s , t h e a s s i s t a n t was p r o v i d e d w i t h a l i s t of sounds which a r e troublesome f o r p r e s c h o o l e r s , t h e i r t y p i c a l sound s u b s t i t u t i o n s and p h o n o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s (as i d e n t i f i e d by Ingram; 1 9 7 6 ) . The a s s i s t a n t r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t e l y t o the a u d i o t a p e s and v i d e o t a p e s . The a u d i o t a p e s were t h e p r i m a r y s o u r c e s ; t h e y were t e c h n i c a l l y e a s i e r t o t r a n s c r i b e from, because t h e y conveyed l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was d i s t r a c t -i n g and because t h e pause, s t o p and r e w i n d keys were s i m p l e r to m a n i p u l a t e on t h e UHER t a p e r e c o r d e r t h a n on t h e Sanyo v i d e o t a p e p l a y b a c k . But t h e v i d e o t a p e s were e s s e n t i a l t o d e m y s t i f y what was r e a l l y g o i n g on and were always t h e f i n a l r e s o r t . A l s o , t h e sound q u a l i t y on t h e v i d e o t a p e s was s u p e r i o r to t h a t on t h e a u d i o t a p e s , p o s s i b l y because t h e S e n n h e i s e r microphone was o f a b e t t e r q u a l i t y t h a n t h e AKG microphone. The a u t h o r checked t h e 28 t r a n s c r i p t s , r e t i m e d t h e 108 samples, and made s e v e r a l changes; t h e a s s i s t a n t t h e n r e -examined seven o f t h e checked t r a n s c r i p t s . Between t h e a s s i s t -ant and t h e a u t h o r , t h e r e was s u b s t a n t i a l agreement t h a t an u t t e r a n c e had i n i t i a l l y been t r a n s c r i b e d a c c u r a t e l y , o r t h a t a g i v e n change s h o u l d be made, o r t h a t an u t t e r a n c e was s t i l l i n d e c i p h e r a b l e . The disa g r e e m e n t s which emerged were t h o s e which were i r r e l e v a n t t o a speech a c t a n a l y s i s . The a u t h o r t r a n s c r i b e d t h e 10 t a p e s w i t h the youngest o f t h e seeondborn, s i n c e t h e i r speech was most l i k e l y t o be a t t h e h o l o p h r a s t i c s t a g e and t o have d e v i a n t phonology. R e l i a b i l i t i e s between t r a n s c r i b e r s - ' were n o t s t r i c t l y computed i n t h i s s t u d y , b u t o t h e r i n d i c a t o r s t h a t the t r a n -s c r i p t i o n s , - were c a r e f u l l y done w i l l be s u p p l i e d . D u r i n g t h e c o d i n g p e r i o d t h e t r a n s c r i p t s were checked--a g a i n and a g a i n and a g a i n . B o t h the a u d i o t a p e s and v i d e o t a p e s were r e f e r r e d t o . Needed emendations t o t h e t r a n s c r i p t s were made even d u r i n g t h e f i n a l c o d i n g stages.' I n t e r - r a t e r r e -l i a b i l i t i e s computed between an e a r l y t r a n s c r i p t and a l a t e t r a n s c r i p t o r between a ' s i n g l e - s h o t * t r a n s c r i b e r and an 'immersed' t r a n s c r i b e r / c o d e r would be u n f a i r , because t h e y would p e n a l i z e t h e a c c u r a c y of t h e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t . t r e a t i s e on the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems i n v o l v e d i n g e t t i n g r e l i a b l e t r a n s c r i p t s and i n a s s e s s i n g r e l i a b i l i t i e s of t r a n s c r i p t s d e s e r v e s t o be w r i t t e n . To a s s e s s d e p e n d a b i l i t y , one has to d e c i d e upon which measures a r e t o be used; i n communication s t u d i e s , t h i s i s n o t easy. Does one compute agreement on speake r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s of a segment, number o f s y l l a b l e s , number o f morphemes p e r u t t e r -ance, a c t u a l words, p h r a s e s , u t t e r a n c e s , o r on o t h e r measures? As w e l l as b e i n g d i f f i c u l t t o compute, r e l i a b i l i t y measures depend upon t h e c o d i n g t h a t one i s a t t e m p t i n g t o do.' 1 0 9 I n t h i s s t u d y , some a s p e c t s o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s were e x c e e d i n g l y i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e c o d i n g and o t h e r s were of l e s s e r i m p o r t a n c e . C a r e f u l r e n d i t i o n s were r e q u i r e d t o d e t e c t c o r r e c t i o n s , r e p e t i t i o n s o f l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s , and n e g a t i v e feedback ( s i n c e t_'s as i n c a n ' t a r e o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o p e r c e i v e . ) But f o r o t h e r dependent v a r i a b l e s , a p e r f e c t t r a n s c r i p t i o n was not as u r g e n t , because a coder uses redundant s i g n a l s t o deduce whether an u t t e r a n c e i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y communicative o r n o t and s/he uses redundant s i g n a l s t o i n f e r i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e . Redundant cues a r e p r o v i d e d by l i n g u i s t i c forms and s t r u c t u r e s (mood of v e r b , p e r f o r m a t i v e v e r b , word o r d e r , i n t o n a t i o n , t a g f o r m a t i o n ) ; by p a r a l i n g u i s t i c d e v i c e s (tone of v o i c e , i n t e n s i t y , volume); and by f a c i a l , g e s t u r a l , and p o s t u r a l s i g n a l s . I n t e l l i g i b i l i t y s t a t i s t i c s were e s t i m a t e d f o r t h e e n t i r e s e t o f p r o t o c o l s ; t h e y gauge t h e a c o u s t i c c l e a n n e s s of t h e sample and the e x t e n s i v e t i m e t h a t was devoted t o t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s . How t h e i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s were d e t e r m i n e d i s d i s c u s s e d i n Appendix IV. I n g e n e r a l , almost 9 3 $ o f t h e u t t e r a n c e s o f t h e e n t i r e sample were i n t e l l i g i b l e . C o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y o f u t t e r a n c e s was a f u n c t i o n o f age, p a r t n e r , t a s k , and i n c i d e n c e o f p r i v a t e speech. The secondborns' u t t e r a n c e s were more i n t e l l i g i b l e w i t h mothers t h a n w i t h f i r s t b o r n . A l l s p e a k e r s were more u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i n t h e f o c u s s e d 110 p u z z l e s e s s i o n s t h a n i n t h e u n s t r u c t u r e d p l a y s e s s i o n s . An i n c r e a s e i n p r i v a t e speech r e s u l t e d i n a l o s s o f i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y . The r e a d e r s h o u l d keep i n mind t h a t a h y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e can he formed even when an u t t e r a n c e i s n o t t o t a l l y i n t e l l i g i b l e . C o d i n g P r o c e d u r e s W i t h speech a c t analyses,, s e v e r e problems o f r e -l i a b i l i t y o f c o d i n g appear. To improve t h e c o n s i s t e n c y i n making c o d i n g judgments, e x p l i c i t c r i t e r i a and examples a r e e s s e n t i a l . D e f i n i t i o n s and examples of t h e dependent measures a r e g i v e n i n Chapter I I . The taxonomy used h e r e e x c l u d e d songs, f a l s e s t a r t s , and a r e s t r i c t e d l i s t o f speech a c t s -summons, g r e e t i n g s , f a r e w e l l s , and t h e i r r e p l i e s ; j o k e s and t e a s i n g s ; and v e r b a l c o m p l i a n c e t o o r d e r s . P r i v a t e speech was d i s r e g a r d e d e x c e p t f o r t h e e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s w hich were r e t a i n e d i n t h e r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e c a t e g o r y . A d j a c e n t u t t e r -ances which encoded t h e same p r o p o s i t i o n a l c o n t e n t and had t h e same i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e r e c e i v e d o n l y a s i n g l e c o d i n g . Thus e x a c t r e p e t i t i o n s o f u t t e r a n c e s o f a speaker c o u l d n o t u n d u l y i n f l a t e t h e s c o r e s . The a u t h o r went over t h e p r o t o c o l s a minimum o f f o u r t i m e s , o ver a p e r i o d of 15 months, t o code f o r t h e 30 dependent measures. The f i n a l c h e c k i n g o f t h e c o d i n g t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g a 23-day p e r i o d so t h a t t h e c r i t e r i a p l u s memory o f p a s t c o d i n g d e c i s i o n s would i n c r e a s e t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f s t a b l e c o d i n g judgments. F o r t h e f i n a l c h e c k i n g , t h e 38 v i d e o t a p e s were used; t h u s t h e c o n t e x t s of t h e u t t e r a n c e s were r e v i e w e d to r e a f f i r m o r r e v i s e d e c i s i o n s about speaker i n t e n t i o n s . C o d i n g R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y I n s p i t e o f the c a r e t h a t was t a k e n to ensure an a c c u r a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of speaker i n t e n t i o n s , measurement e r r o r s due to c o d i n g i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and misjudgments were i n e v i t a b l e . B u t , an e x t e n s i v e r e l i a b i l i t y check o f t h e c o d i n g was n o t f e a s i b l e . I t t o o k t h e a u t h o r over a y e a r t o r e f i n e t h e taxonomy. M i l l e r (1977) n o t e s t h a t an e x t e n s i v e p e r i o d i s t h e norm t o d e f i n e and r e f i n e taxonomies used i n communication r e s e a r c h . To recode p o r t i o n s o f the t r a n s c r i p t s , a new coder would have t o be t r a i n e d v e r y c a r e f u l l y . To a c h i e v e s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t e r -r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s , t h e new coder would have, t o a s s i m i l a t e t h e same background o f knowledge as t h e f i r s t c o d e r . S i n c e i t has t a k e n t h e f i r s t c oder y e a r s t o a t t a i n a g i v e n l e v e l o f knowledge ( v i a c o u r s e work i n t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f language, l i n g u i s t i c s , and s o c i o l o g y , and v i a p r a c t i c a l e x p er-i e n c e ) , i t becomes i m p r a c t i c a b l e t o educate and t r a i n a new c o d e r . ^ C o d i n g f o r speech a c t s i s v e r y arduous; because i t t a k e s a l o n g time to i n f e r i n t e n t s , i t i s a l s o v e r y e x p e n s i v e . ^ F e l l o w g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s and^cplleagues i n l i n g u i s t i c s were d e e p l y e n g r o s s e d i n t h e i r own e m p i r i c a l work and p r o f e s -s i o n a l d u t i e s ; i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o exchange e x p e r t i s e w i t h them t o r e c i p r o c a l l y check c o d i n g s . The time i n v o l v e d was p r o h i b i t i v e . 112 Support f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f t h e c o d i n g system d e r i v e s from two s o u r c e s . The c o d i n g scheme was based on a c o n s i d e r a b l e body of knowledge e l a b o r a t e d upon i n t h e l i n g u i s t i c , p h i l o s o p h i c a l , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e s . The scheme was n e i t h e r 'home-made' n o r ad hoc. I t s l i n g u i s t i c , p h i l o s o p h i c a l and p s ycho-l o g i c a l h e r i t a g e p r o v i d e s s u b s t a n t i a l s u p p o r t f o r i t s v a l i d i t y . S e c o n d l y , an i n f o r m a l check on t h e c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y of t h e c o d i n g system was c o nducted by t h e r e s e a r c h s u p e r -v i s o r a f t e r a l l o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t s had been coded f o r t h e l a s t t i m e . The s u p e r v i s o r has e x t e n s i v e knowledge of speech a c t t h e o r y and s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s and has c o n d u c t e d e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h i n t h o s e f i e l d s (Mohan 1 9 7 ^ ; T u r n e r & Mohan 1 9 7 0 ) . He was t h e c o n s u l t a n t f o r t h e p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l d e c i s i o n s made t h r o u g h o u t t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of t h e taxonomy and was somewhat f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h were used. The s u p e r v i s o r one day chose a random sample o f t h e (38 x 4 =) 152 t r i a l s , spent an hour l e a r n i n g d e t a i l s o f t h e system, and i n d e p e n d e n t l y coded t h e p r o t o c o l s w i t h r e f e r -ence t o t h e v i d e o t a p e s . He d i d not n o t e any t r a n s c r i p t i o n a b e r r a t i o n s . A t t h e o u t s e t , t h e two c o d e r s a g r e e d upon t h e c o d i n g s f o r 6 5$ o f t h e u t t e r a n c e s . The major d i s c r e p a n c y c e n t r e d on t h e measure 'request f o r a t t e n t i o n ' (as i n "Look" or " S m e l l t h i s " ) . I t had n o t been made c l e a r t o t h e s u p e r -v i s o r t h a t t h i s measure was c l a s s e d as a s o l i d a r i t y a c t 113 r a t h e r t h a n as an o r d e r . A f t e r t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y was c l a r i f i e d and a few o v e r l o o k e d u t t e r a n c e s of the seeondborn were coded, th e two c o d e r s agreed on t h e c o d i n g f o r 90% o f the u t t e r a n c e s . The f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s were d e r i v e d from t h e i n f o r m a l check on t h e c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e c o d i n g system: 1. A s i z a b l e degree of r a t e r consensus c o u l d be r e a c h e d a t t h e o u t s e t and c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d a f t e r t h e r a t e r s c l a r i f i e d t h e c o d i n g f o r one measure and d i s c u s s e d t h e omis-s i o n s o f some c o d i n g s . The e v i d e n c e was s t r o n g t h a t t h e a u t h o r ' s c o d i n g judgments were n o t i d i o s y n c r a t i c but were r u l e - g o v e r n e d and based on e x p l i c i t c r i t e r i a . That i s , t h e e v i d e n c e was c l e a r t h a t a ' s i n c e r e r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n ' , f o r example, would be i d e n t i f i e d as such by t h e a u t h o r and by a coder w e l l - v e r s e d i n l i n g u i s t i c p r a g m a t i c t h e o r y . 2. The a u t h o r had i n c u r r e d m i s t a k e s i n c o d i n g ( p o s s i -b l y a t the r a t e o f 2 .5 e r r o r s p e r l O O e c o d i n g s ) . 3 . One day or one week o r one month i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t i m e t o i n t e r n a l i z e a l l of the d e t a i l s o f the c o d i n g scheme. S i n c e t h e c o d i n g of d i s c o u r s e f o r a h o s t o f f e a t u r e s i n v o l v e s f i n e t e x t u a l judgments, the a n a l y s i s i s v e r y dense and must be reworked over and over. A one-shot a n a l y s i s i s i n d e f e n s i b l e . Moreover, dyads d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h e t a c t i c s t h a t t h e y use t o i n t e r a c t . Coders must be f l e x i b l e ; t h e y must be p r e p a r e d t o t a k e a f r e s h t a c k w i t h each change of dyad. The n a t u r e o f t h e r e s e a r c h u n d e r t a k e n h e r e f o r c e d t h e 114 t r a n s c r i b e r and t h e c o d e r ( s ) t o s h i f t p e r s p e c t i v e s f o r t h e 76 d i f f e r e n t dyads i n t h e sample. Hymes ( 1 9 7 4 : 1 0 2 ) p r o v i d e s sound a d v i c e : The f i r s t commandment i n t h e s t u d y o f d i s c o u r s e must be: l e t p e o p l e s u r p r i s e you, as t o what t h e y can do, and what t h e y can use t o do i t . We were i n d e e d s u r p r i s e d . The d i f f i c u l t i e s we had i n c o d i n g and i n c h e c k i n g t h e c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e c o d i n g were good r e f l e c t i o n s o f t h e a s t o n i s h i n g a r r a y of d e v i c e s t h a t the s p e a k e r s used t o e x p r e s s and to i m p l i c a t e meanings c o n v e r -s a t i o n a l l y . A d d i t i o n a l measurement problems a r e now d i s c u s s e d . Other Measurement Problems and T h e i r S o l u t i o n s F o r t h e 30 dependent measures, s i m p l e f r e q u e n c y s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d . The a u t h o r ' s t a l l i e s were checked by a team of t h r e e s t u d e n t s and were changed when a r i t h m e t i c a l e r r o r s were d i s c o v e r e d . As n o t e d i n C h a p t e r I I d u r i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s r e g a r d i n g t a s k e f f e c t s , t h e p l a y t a s k was o r i g i n -a l l y based on a c r i t e r i o n of 1 0-minutes d u r a t i o n and t h e p u z z l e t a s k on f i v e m i n u t e s . To t r u l y get a t t h e e f f e c t o f t a s k upon t h e dependent measures, t h e s c o r e s were a d j u s t e d : the t a s k s were equated on t h e time d i m e n s i o n by h a l v i n g t h e p l a y t i m e f r e q u e n c y s c o r e s . F i v e m i n u t e s was a l e i s u r e l y amount o f t i m e f o r t h e dyads t o work o v e r t h e p u z z l e s once o r a number of t i m e s and seemed t o be an i d e a l c u t - o f f p o i n t . A f t e r t h a t p o i n t , most 115 o f t h e p a i r s ' a t t e n t i o n was d i v e r t e d e l s e w h e r e . To e s t a b l i s h a c u t - o f f e a r l i e r t h a n f i v e m i n u t e s would have p e n a l i z e d t h o s e dyads who e s t a b l i s h e d a p a t i e n t , p r o b l e m -s o l v i n g approach t o t h e t a s k and who r e v i e w e d t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e p u z z l e s l a t e i n t h e s a m p l i n g p e r i o d . P l a y s e s s i o n s of o n l y f i v e - m i n u t e d u r a t i o n were f e l t t o be too s h o r t t o get a t t h e n a t u r e of t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s and were t h u s extended t o double t h a t d u r a t i o n . O b s e r v i n g t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s would have been p r o h i b i t i v e l y e x p e n s i v e and had t o be d i s -c o u n t e d as a s a m p l i n g p o s s i b i l i t y . I n c r e a s i n g t h e number of o b s e r v a t i o n t i m e s a l s o i n c r e a s e s t h e . l i k e l i h o o d t h a t s c o r e s would be m i s s i n g : t h i s causes problems i n a r e p e a t e d measures d e s i g n . To reduce t h e s u b j e c t i v i t y i n d e c i d i n g what s h o u l d c o n s t i t u t e t h e 1 0-minute sample of t h e p l a y s e s s i o n s , t h e c o d e d - . t r a n s c r i p t s always began w i t h t h e e n t r a n c e o f t h e p a i r s i n t o t h e ' f i s h b o w l ' and t h e i r f i r s t o v e r t u r e s towards each o t h e r . The t a p e s t h u s c a p t u r e d t h e i r f i r s t r e a c t i o n s t o t h e t o y s and s e t t i n g . To c o n t r o l f o r t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n l o q u a c i t y o f t h e s p e a k e r s , t h e f o u r r e p e a t e d measures f o r each s u b j e c t f o r each dependent v a r i a b l e were t o t a l l e d and t h e n each t r i a l measure was c o n v e r t e d i n t o a p r o p o r t i o n o f i t s p e r t i n e n t t o t a l . An a r c - s i n e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was t h e n p e r f o r m e d on each p r o p o r t i o n a l s c o r e t o p e r m i t an a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e / v a r i a n c e . 116 The c o n v e r s i o n and t h e n t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s c o r e s were f e l t t o he n e c e s s a r y s o l u t i o n s t o measurement problems. W i t h o u t t h e c o n v e r s i o n s , e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y t a l k a -t i v e f a m i l i e s would have i n o r d i n a t e l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e r e s u l t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , th e r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s f o r t h e a n a l y s e s o f c o v a r i a n c e and v a r i a n c e a r e based on t h e c o n v e r t e d and t r a n s f o r m e d s c o r e s . A l s o i t was t h e case t h a t t h e measures c o u l d n o t be m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e m a i n l y because a s i n g l e u t t e r a n c e can convey more t h a n one speech a c t . F o r example, t h e i n t e r r o g a -t i v e "Do you t h i n k t h a t t h i s boat i s r e d ? " f u n c t i o n s as a t e s t q u e s t i o n and p r o v i d e s an o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n . As a r e s u l t , i n d i v i d u a l measures c o u l d n o t be p o o l e d w i t h o t h e r measures i n t o l a r g e r c a t e g o r i e s such as ' t e a c h i n g * . To p e r f o r m p a r a m e t r i c t e s t s , each dependent measure had t o be c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y . 1 1 7 CHAPTER IV THE RESULTS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION P r e l i m i n a r i e s The s u b s t a n t i v e h y p o t h e s e s a r e b r i e f l y r e v i e w e d b e f o r e t h e r e s u l t s a r e r e p o r t e d . The major hypotheses p e r t a i n e d t o t h e e f f e c t s of p a r t n e r . I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t mothers would produce more i n s t a n c e s o f s p e c i f i c t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s , p o s i t i v e f eedback, and s o l i d a r i t y a c t s , but fewer i n s t a n c e s o f n e g a t i v e f eedback, d o m i n a t i n g a c t s , and r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e t h a n f i r s t b o r n . I t was a l s o p r e d i c t e d t h a t secondborn would e x h i b i t more examples o f l e a r n i n g - d e m o n s t r a t i n g a c t s and fewer examples o f r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e w i t h mothers t h a n w i t h t h e i r o l d e r s i s t e r s . No p r e f e r r e d d i r e c t i o n a l p r e d i c t i o n s were e x p r e s s e d r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e sex o f secondborn, t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l o r d e r , t h e c o v a r i a t e s , t h e t a s k , and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s o f t h e independent and t r i a l v a r i a b l e s . A f t e r t h e s c o r e s were t a l l i e d , t h e c a t e g o r y ' n e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n o f l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n ' was d i s c a r d e d because i t o c c u r r e d so rarely" 1"--once amongst t h e f i r s t b o r n and once amongst t h e mothers. The t o t a l number o f dependent v a r i a b l e s was t h u s r e d u c e d t o 2 9 . 2 U s i n g t r a n s f o r m e d s c o r e s , an a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e f o r each o f t h e 29 dependent v a r i a b l e s was pe r f o r m e d i n t h e 2 x 2 x -2 x 2 d e s i g n . The between-group v a r i a b l e s (sex o f seeondborn, e x p e r i m e n t a l o r d e r ) were independent and t h e w i t h i n - g r o u p v a r i a b l e s ( p a r t n e r , t a s k ) were n o t independent. The B i o m e d i c a l Computer Program BMDP2V was used. .To s i m p l i f y t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s , f i r s t b o r n and mothers a r e sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as p a r t n e r s , and second-b o r n , as l e a r n e r s . The r e s u l t s r e g a r d i n g p a r t n e r s a r e now r e p o r t e d p r i o r t o t h o s e f o r l e a r n e r s . A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e R e s u l t s  f o r F i r s t b o r n and Mother Dependent Measures The a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e d e t e c t e d o n l y one s i g n i f i -c a n t e f f e c t o f one c o v a r i a t e on one dependent measure o f The r a r i t y o f t h e ' n e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n o f l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n ' c a t e g o r y s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h e r e p o r t s t h a t p a r e n t s r e a c t n e g a t i v e l y t o t h e t r u t h v a l u e o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s p r o -p o s i t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e i m m a t u r i t y o f t h e i r s y n t a x (Cazden & Brown 1 9 7 5 ) • 2 As n o t e d m Cha p t e r I I I , each s c o r e was c o n v e r t e d i n t o a p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l s c o r e p e r s u b j e c t and t h e n t r a n s f o r m e d by an a r c - s i n e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . 3 . • •^The BMDP2V program r e v i s i o n d a t e was December, 1 9 7 7 -1 1 9 p a r t n e r s ' b e h a v i o r s . F o r t h e measure o f c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , t a b l e 4 l i s t s t h r e e F t e s t s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0 . 0 2 5 l e v e l : one f o r t h e c o v a r i a t e ' p a t e r n a l o c c u p a t i o n ' ( F = 5 . 8 3 ; df 1 , 3 0 ; p = 0 . 0 2 2 ) , and two f o r t h e t r i a l v a r i a b l e s , p a r t n e r ( F = 1 1 2 3 . 2 3 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p=0) and t a s k ( F = 8 . 7 8 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p = 0 . 0 0 6 ) . 4 C e l l means f o r p a r t n e r s ' c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s a r e g i v e n a c c o r d i n g t o independent and t r i a l v a r i a b l e subgroups i n t a b l e 5 . S i n c e t r a n s f o r m e d s c o r e s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o a s s i g n a meaning t o , t he raw s c o r e means a d j u s t e d f o r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e co-v a r i a t e a r e r e p o r t e d . The a d j u s t e d raw score - imeans d i r e c t l y e x p r e s s the amount and r a t e o f f i r s t b o r n s ' and m a t e r n a l c o n t i n -gent q u e r i e s f o r f i v e - m i n u t e t r i a l s . As p r e d i c t e d , mothers s c o r e d more c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s t h a n f i r s t b o r n (a m a t e r n a l a v e r -age o f 1 2 . 5 3 CQ ' s i n the p l a y p e r i o d and 1 0 . 5 3 i n t h e p u z z l e p e r i o d compared w i t h a f i r s t b o r n average o f 0 . 6 o and 0 . 4 2 r e -s p e c t i v e l y ) . - ^ M others t h u s produced from 2 0 . 8 8 t o 2 5 . 0 ? t i m e s as many c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s as f i r s t b o r n . T h i s s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d -i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t mothers a r e p r o d u c i n g many c o n t e x t u a l l y -dependent speech a c t s o f a c l a r i f y i n g n a t u r e . F o r t h e t a s k e f f e c t , t h e p l a y t r i a l s r e s u l t e d i n more CQ ' s t h a n t h e p u z z l e t r i a l s . ^The i m p o r t of t h e c e l l means f o r a l l o f t h e dependent measures a r e d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y a t the end o f t h i s c h a p t e r d u r i n g the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n s o f t h e v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s between s i b l i n g s and m o t h e r - c h i l d . I n t a b l e s 2 1 , 22 , 24, 2 5 , 2 7 , and 28 , c e l l means f o r each dependent measure a r e r e g i s t e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o p a r t n e r and t a s k . ^Averages a r e e x p r e s s e d t o two d e c i m a l p l a c e s ; t h e y were based on subgroup means c a l c u l a t e d t o f i v e d e c i m a l p l a c e s . Re-p o r t e d subgroup c e l l means (as i n t a b l e 5 ) a r e c a l c u l a t e d t o two d e c i m a l p l a c e s ; t h e y do n o t y i e l d p r e c i s e group a v e r a g e s . 120 TABLE 4 SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR ONE MEASURE OF FIRSTBORN AND MOTHER BEHAVIORS Dependent V a r i a b l e Source F P C o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s P a t e r n a l o c c u p a t i o n 5 - 8 3 0 . 0 22 P a r t n e r 1 1 2 3 . 2 3 0 . 006 Task 8 . 7 8 0 NOTES: The p a r a m e t r i c a s s u m p t i o n s f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e were checked and were n ot found t o be p r o b l e m a t i c . The a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e was based on p r o p o r t i o n a l s c o r e s w h i c h were t r a n s f o r m e d by an a r c - s i n e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Those s c o r e s w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as ' t r a n s f o r m e d s c o r e s ' . F o r each t a b l e , t h e r e l e v a n t degrees o f freedom w i l l be s p e c i f i e d . F o r t h i s t a b l e , n=38; d f = l , 3 0 f o r each c o v a r i a t e ; d f = l , 3 4 f o r each t r i a l v a r i a b l e . 1 2 1 TABLE 5 CELL MEANS* FOR ONE MEASURE OF FIRSTBORN AND MOTHER BEHAVIORS ADJUSTED FOR THE INFLUENCE OF A COVARIATE Independent V a r i a b l e s T r i a l V a r i a b l e s Sex o f E x p e r i m e n t a l S i b l i n g Mother Seeondborn Order P l a y P u z z l e P l a y P u z z l e Dependent V a r i a b l e C o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s G i r l S i b 1 s t 0 . 3 1 0 . 3 7 1 3 - 7 6 1 2 . 3 7 S i b 2 nd 0.48 O.63 1 0 . 8 3 9 . 03 Boy S i b 1 s t 0 . 4 5 0 . 3 0 1 5 . 7 5 1 1 . 8 0 S i b 2 nd 1 .15 O.38 9 . 76 8 . 9 3 * C e l l means a r e based on raw s c o r e s (equated on t h e time c r i t e r i o n o f f i v e m inutes) and a d j u s t e d f o r t h e c o v a r i a t e . 122 S i n c e the c o v a r i a t e s f a i l e d , t o show numerous s i g n i f i -c a n t i n f l u e n c e s , an a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was t h e r e c o u r s e . The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e r e s u l t s f o r p a r t n e r measures a r e d i s c u s s e d and t a b u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o c a t e g o r i e s — l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g , a f f e c t i v e f e edback, d o m i n a t i n g , s o l i d a r i t y , and r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e R e s u l t s  f o r F i r s t b o r n and Mother Dependent Measures Language-Teaching Measures The r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r s i x l a n g u a g e - t e a c h i n g measures a r e summarized i n t a b l e 6; h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s o f p a r t n e r a r e t a l l i e d f o r each measure, each F r a t i o h a v i n g a z e r o p r o b a b i l i t y o f o c c u r r i n g by chance. The subgroup c e l l means a r e r e p o r t e d i n t a b l e 7; p e r u s a l o f the means r e v e a l s t h a t mothers produced more i n s t a n c e s f o r each of t h e l a n g u a g e - t e a c h i n g measures t h a n d i d f i r s t b o r n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e measure o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s showed a p a r t n e r (F=52 .36 ; df 1 ,34; p=0) and a p a r t n e r x t a s k i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t (F=11 .46 ; df 1 ,34; p = 0 . 0 0 2 ) . On t h e average, f i r s t b o r n p r o v i d e d 1.37 o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s i n the p l a y t i m e and 2 .79 i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e , and mothers p r o v i d e d 6.68 and 5 - 0 5 r e s p e c t i v e l y . S i n c e t h e r e was a w i d e r gap between 123 TABLE 6 SUMMARY OF. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE* FOR SIX LANGUAGE-TEACHING MEASURES OF FIRSTBORN AND MOTHER BEHAVIORS Dependent V a r i a b l e s Source F p O s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s L i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s C o n f i r m a t i o n s I n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n Responses t o s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n Responses t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s P a r t n e r P a r t n e r x Task P a r t n e r P a r t n e r P a r t n e r P a r t n e r P a r t n e r x Task P a r t n e r P a r t n e r x Task x Sex x Order 5 2 . 3 6 0 11 . 46 0 . 0 0 2 3 1 0 , 8 9 0 673.16 0 5 ^ 9 . 4 4 0 5 9 . 6 7 0 6.64 0 . 0 1 4 7 6 . 6 6 0 7 . 0 3 0 . 0 1 2 Based on t r a n s f o r m e d s c o r e s . n=38. d f = l , 3 4 f o r each t r i a l v a r i a b l e ; f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t r i a l v a r i a b l e s , ; f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f independent and t r i a l v a r i a b l e s . 124 TABLE 7 CELL MEANS* FOR SIX LANGUAGE-TEACHING MEASURES OF FIRSTBORN AND MOTHER BEHAVIORS Independent V a r i a b l e s T r i a l V a r i a b l e s Sex o f E x p e r i m e n t a l S i b l i n g Mother Seeondborn Order P l a y P u z z l e P l a y P u z z l e Dependent V a r i a b l e s O s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s G i r l S i b 1st 1.56 1.78 7.22 4.56 S i b 2nd 2.25 3.10 6.35 6.30 Boy S i b 1st 1.05 2.80 6.45 4. 90 S i b 2nd O.56 3-44 6.78 4 .33 L i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s 3.44 G i r l S i b 1st 0.22 0.33 3-83 S i b 2nd 0.20 0.20 3.00 3.50 Boy S i b 1st 0.15 0.70 4.85 5.70 S i b 2nd 0.06 0.11 2.22 1.89 C o n f i r m a t i o n s 4.50 G i r l S i b 1st 0.33 0.11 6.33 S i b 2nd 0.10 0.20 3.80 4. 60 Boy S i b 1st 0.15 0.60 4 .05 6.00 S i b 2nd 0.11 O.67 4.06 3-33 I n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s G i r l S i b 1st 0.28 0 6.61 8.11 S i b 2nd 0.40 0.40 6.35 9.00 Boy S i b 1st 0.15 1.40 5.15 9.20 S i b 2nd 0.06 O.56 4.78 6.67 Responses t o s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s G i r l S i b 1st 0.22 1.00 2.89 1.33 S i b 2nd 0.15 0.10 1.85 0.80 -Boy S i b 1st 0.25 0.50 1.10 0.90 S i b 2nd 0.11 0.11 I . 6 7 0.89 Responses t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s 2.56 G i r l S i b 1st 0.44 0.22 2.22 S i b 2nd 0.40 0.20 2.90 1.20 Boy S i b 1st 0.40 1.10 2.75 3.10 S i b 2nd 0.22 0.33 2.06 2.78 * C e l l means based on raw s c o r e s equated on t h e t i m e c r i t e r i o n , u n a d j u s t e d f o r c o v a r i a t e s . 125 p a r t n e r s * s c o r e s i n t h e p l a y t r i a l s t h a n i n t h e p u z z l e t r i a l s , t h e p a r t n e r x t a s k i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t o c c u r r e d . W h i l e t h e f o c u s s e d p u z z l e t a s k i n c r e a s e d t h e f i r s t b o r n s ' p r o v i s i o n of o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s , t h e u n s t r u c t u r e d p l a y t i m e w i t h i t s g r e a t v a r i e t y of t o y s and r e a l - l i f e o b j e c t s i n c r e a s e d t h e mothers' p r o v i s i o n o f names f o r o b j e c t s . The measure l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s showed a p a r t n e r e f f e c t (F = 3 1 0 . 8 9 : df 1 , 3 4 ; p=0).. Mothers c o r r e c t e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s p r o p o s i t i o n s and e x p r e s s i o n s an average of 3 - 5 0 t i m e s i n t h e p l a y t r i a l s and 3 - 6 8 t i m e s i n t h e p u z z l e t r i a l s . The f i r s t b o r n d i d n o t s u p p l y many l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s — a n average of 0 . 1 6 i n the p l a y t r i a l s and 0 . 3 4 i n t h e p u z z l e t r i a l s . . A n o t h e r t y p e of response measure, c o n f i r m a t i o n s , showed a p a r t n e r e f f e c t ( F = 6 7 5 . l 6 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p=0). Mothers c o n f i r m e d an average o f 4 . 0 9 of t h e secondborns' e x p r e s s i o n s d u r i n g the p l a y t i m e and 5 - 0 8 , d u r i n g t h e p u z z l e t i m e . F i r s t -b o r n p r o v i d e d a low r a t e of c o n f i r m a t i o n s - - a v e r a g e s of 0 . 1 ? and 0 . 3 9 . The measure i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n showed a p a r t n e r e f f e c t (F = 5 4 9 . 4 4 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p=0). Mothers i n i t i a t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n s and new t o p i c s w i t h many t e s t q u e s t i o n s : an average o f 5 - 7 2 i n t h e p l a y t i m e and a h i g h average o f 8 . 2 9 i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e . F i r s t b o r n d i d not produce many t e s t q u e s t i o n s — o n l y 0 . 2 2 , on t h e averag e , i n t h e p l a y t i m e and 0 . 6 1 , i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e . The r e s p o n s e s t o s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n measure showed two s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s : p a r t n e r (F = 5 9 - 6 7 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p=0) and p a r t n e r x t a s k (F=.6.64; df 1 , 3 4 ; p = 0 . 0 l 4 ) . 126 W h i l e f i r s t b o r n p r o d u c e d more r e s p o n s e s t o s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e t h a n i n the p l a y t i m e (an average of 0.42 v e r s u s 0.18), mothers produced more of them i n t h e p l a y t i m e t h a n i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e (an average o f 1 .86 v s . 0 . 9 7 ) . The low a verages f o r b o t h t y p e s of p a r t n e r s were a f u n c t i o n o f how many s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s t h a t the secondborn made; t h e y a l s o r e f l e c t e d how w i l l i n g t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p a r t n e r s were to r e s p o n d w i t h the needed i n f o r m a t i o n when i t was r e q u e s t e d . ^ F o r t h e l a s t l a n g u a g e - t e a c h i n g measure, r e s p o n s e s t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , p a r t n e r showed a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t (F= 7 6 . 6 6 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p=0) as d i d a t h i r d - o r d e r i n t e r a c t i o n ^ o f p a r t n e r x t a s k x sex x o r d e r (F = 7 . 0 3 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p = 0 . 0 1 2 ) . The number of r e s p o n s e s t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s depended upon the secondborns' r a t e of a s k i n g them. Mothers responded to an average of 2 . 5 0 CQ's i n t h e p l a y t i m e and 2 . 3 9 i n t h e p u z z l e -t i m e ; f i r s t b o r n , t o an average of 0 . 3 7 i n t h e p l a y t i m e and 0 . 4 7 i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e . F o r t h e seven language t e a c h i n g measures, th e s i g n i f i -c a n t r e s u l t s f o r the a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e and v a r i a n c e r e a d as f o l l o w s : a s i n g l e c o v a r i a t e e f f e c t ( p a t e r n a l o c c u p a t i o n ) , seven e f f e c t s o f p a r t n e r , one e f f e c t o f t a s k , two i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s o f p a r t n e r x t a s k , and one t h i r d - o r d e r i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . P a r t n e r s ' r e s p o n s e s t o s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a -t i o n and t o CQ's a r e d i s c u s s e d more t h o r o u g h l y d u r i n g the a n a l y s i s o f t h e secondborn measures. 7 Second- and t h i r d - o r d e r i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t and a r e n o t a n a l y z e d . 127 A f f e c t i v e l y - T o n e d Feedback The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e r e s u l t s f o r t h e a f f e c t i v e l y -t o n e d feedback measures, n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e , a r e l i s t e d i n t a b l e 8. The t r i a l v a r i a b l e s , p a r t n e r and t a s k , m o n o p o l i z e d the s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s . N e g a t i v e l y - T o n e d Feedback Measures F o r t h e measures, n e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s of t r u t h v a l u e and n e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r , p a r t n e r was a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t ( t h e r e s p e c t i v e s o u r c e s were F= 3 0 . 7 7 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p=0; and F= 6 . 1 0 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p = 0 . 0 1 ° ) . The c e l l means r e g i s t e r e d i n t a b l e 9 i n d i c a t e t h e p a r t n e r e f f e c t t u r n e d out t o be'.contrary t o what was p r e d i c t e d : mothers produced more n e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e t h a n f i r s t b o r n (a mean o f 1 .17 v s . 0 . 2 1 ) and more c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r t h a n f i r s t b o r n (a mean o f 0 . 6 7 v s . 0.40). The measure disa g r e e m e n t s r e s u l t e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f t a s k (F = 1 7 . 6 2 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p=0) and an i n t e r a c t i o n o f p a r t n e r x t a s k (F = 8 . 1 1 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p = 0 . 0 0 7 ) . There were a g r e a t e r number of d i s a g r e e m e n t s i n t h e p l a y s e s s i o n t h a n i n t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n . W h i l e t h e f i r s t b o r n d i s a g r e e d more i n t h e p l a y -time (a mean o f 0 . 7 2 t i m e s ) t h a n i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e ( 0 . 2 1 ) , mothers d i s a g r e e d more i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e ( 0 . 3 9 ) t h a n i n t h e p l a y t i m e ( 0 . 2 9 ) . S i n c e t h e v a r i a b l e p a r t n e r approached s i g n i f i -cance (F = 5 . 1 7 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p = 0 . 0 2 9 ) , t h i s w i l l be c o u n t e d as a s i g -n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . The f i r s t b o r n behaved as p r e d i c t e d ; t h e y d i s -a g r e e d ( r e j e c t e d , r e f u s e d ) more o f t e n w i t h t h e seeondborn t h a n d i d t h e mothers. 128 TABLE 8 SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE* FOR NINE AFFECTIVELY-TONED.FEEDBACK MEASURES OF FIRSTBORN AND MOTHER BEHAVIORS Dependent V a r i a b l e s Source F P N e g a t i v e l y - T o n e d Measures N e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e P a r t n e r 3 0 . 7 7 0 N e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r P a r t n e r 6 . 1 0 0 . 0 1 9 D i s a g r e e m e n t s * * Task 1 7 . 6 2 0 Partner, x Task 8 . 1 1 0 . 0 0 7 C r i t i c i s m s P o s i t i v e l y - T o n e d Measures P o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e P a r t n e r 7 0 . 4 5 0 P a r t n e r X Task 1 6 . 94 0 P a r t n e r X Task x Sex x Order 1 2 . 4 9 0 P o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f l i n g u i s t i c 1 4 5 . 1 7 e x p r e s s i o n P a r t n e r .0 P o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r P a r t n e r 1 5 2 . 8 4 0 Task 4 5 . 7 6 0 P a r t n e r X Task 2 2 . 3 6 0 P r a i s e P a r t n e r 97.18 0 Task 2 5 . 3 1 0 P a r t n e r "x Task 1 1 . 1 3 0 Encouragements P a r t n e r 2 1 9 . 0 4 0 Task 5 6 . 7 8 0 P a r t n e r X Task 1 4 . 8 7 0 *Based on t r a n s f o r m e d s c o r e s . n=38. d f = l , 3 4 f o r each t r i a l v a r i a b l e ; f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t r i a l v a r i a b l e s ; f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f independent and t r i a l v a r i a b l e s . * * P a r t n e r approached s i g n i f i c a n c e (F = 5 . 1 7 ; p = 0 . 0 2 9 ) a n d i s c o u n t e d as a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . 129 TABLE 9 CELL MEANS* FOR FOUR NEGATIVE-FEEDBACK MEASURES OF FIRSTBORN AND MOTHER BEHAVIORS Independent V a r i a b l e s T r i a l V a r i a b l e s Sex o f Secondborn E x p e r i m e n t a l Order S i b l i n g Mother P l a y P u z z l e P l a y P u z z l e Dependent V a r i a b l e s N e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e G i r l S i b 1 s t 0 . 0 6 0 . 4 4 1 .17 ' 1. 22 S i b 2nd 0 . 1 5 0 . 20 0 . 8 5 1 . 0 0 Boy S i b 1 s t 0 . 0 5 0 . 3 0 0 . 7 5 1 .50 S i b 2nd 0 . 0 6 0 . 4 4 1 . 2 2 1 . 6 ? N e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r G i r l S i b 1 s t 0 0 . 3 3 O .56 0 . 7 8 S i b 2nd 0 . 0 5 0 . 4 0 0 . 5 5 0 .40 Boy S i b 1 s t 0 . 2 0 1 .10 0 . 6 5 1 . 0 0 S i b 2nd 0 .17 0 . 8 9 0 . 3 9 1 . 0 0 Disagreements G i r l S i b 1 s t 0 . 6 1 0 . 1 1 0.28 0 . 3 3 . S i b 2nd 0 . 6 5 0 . 3 0 0 . 1 5 0 . 3 0 Boy S i b 1 s t 1 . 0 0 0 . 3 0 0 . 4 0 0 . 9 0 S i b 2nd 0 . 6 1 0 . 1 1 0 . 3 3 0 C r i t i c i s m G i r l S i b 1 s t 0 . 1 1 0 . 3 3 0 0 . 1 1 S i b 2nd 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 0 0 . 0 5 0 Boy S i b 1 s t 0 . 1 0 0 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 0 S i b 2nd 0 . 1 1 0 . 2 2 0 0 . 1 1 * C e l l means based on raw s c o r e s equated on t h e ti m e c r i t e r i o n , u n a d j u s t e d f o r c o v a r i a t e s . NOTE: The ' n e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n o f l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n ' was d i s c a r d e d as a c a t e g o r y because o f i t s i n f r e q u e n c y . 130 The c r i t i c i s m s measure d i d n o t d e t e c t any s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s because v e r y few c r i t i c a l remarks were made i n t h e t o t a l c o r p u s o f speech--a grand average of 0 . 1 0 p e r f i v e min-u t e s . W h i l e t h e f i r s t b o r n d i d produce downgrading remarks about t h e seeondborn, t h e y d i d so d u r i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r th e p u z z l e t a s k . S i n c e t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s t i m e was n o t p a r t o f th e speech sample, t h e c r i t i c i z i n g a c t s which ensued were not i n c l u d e d . P o s i t i v e l y - T o n e d Feedback Measures P o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e showed s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s of p a r t n e r (F = 7 0 . 4 5 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p= 0 ) , p a r t n e r x t a s k ( F = l 6 . 9 4 ; d f 1 , 3 4 ; p=0) and p a r t n e r x t a s k x sex x o r d e r (F= 1 2 . 4 9 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p = 0 . 0 0 1 ) . The p a r t n e r e f f e c t happened because mothers s u p p l i e d more p o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s of t r u t h v a l u e t h a n f i r s t b o r n (a m a t e r n a l mean o f 0.88 compared w i t h a f i r s t b o r n mean o f 0 . 1 1 ) . A l t h o u g h the mothers p r o v i d e d more p o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e i n t h e p l a y t r i a l t h a n t h e p u z z l e t r i a l (a mean o f 0 . 9 6 v s . 0 . 7 9 ) . f i r s t b o r n p r o v i d e d more t r u t h v a l u e c o r r e c t i o n s ( p o s i t i v e ) i n t h e p u z z l e t r i a l t h a n t h e p l a y t r i a l (a mean of 0.18 v s . 0 . 0 4 ) . (See t a b l e 10 f o r c e l l means.) A p a r t n e r e f f e c t showed up on t h e p o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n measure ( F = l 4 5 . 1 7 i df 1 , 3 4 ; p=0 ) . W h i l e f i r s t b o r n s u p p l i e d an average of 0.21 c o r r e c t i o n s , mothers s u p p l i e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r average o f p o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n , namely, 2 . 9 4 . Three s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s appeared on t h e p o s i t i v e  c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r measure: p a r t n e r (F=152.84; df 1 , 3 ^ ; 131 TABLE 10 CELL MEANS* FOR FIVE POSITIVE-FEEDBACK MEASURES OF FIRSTBORN AND MOTHER BEHAVIORS Independent V a r i a b l e s T r i a l V a r i a b l e s Sex o f Secondborn E x p e r i m e n t a l Order S i b l i n g Mother P l a y P u z z l e P l a y P u z z l e Dependent V a r i a b l e s ' P o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e G i r l S i b 1 s t 0 0 . 3 3 0 . 94 0 . 3 3 S i b 2nd 0 . 1 5 0 . 1 0 1 . 25 1 .50 Boy S i b 1 s t 0 0 . 1 0 0 . 8 5 0 . 8 0 S i b 2nd 0 0 . 2 2 0 . 7 8 0 . 4 4 P o s i t i v e . c o r r e c t i o n s o f l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n G i r l S i b 1 s t 0 . 2 2 0 . 22 3 . 4 4 3 . 3 3 S i b 2 n d 0 . 2 5 0 . 1 0 1 . 95 2 . 90 Boy S i b 1 s t 0 . 1 5 0 . 5 0 3 - 90 4 . 6 0 S i b 2nd 0 . 0 6 0 . 1 1 1 .56 I . 6 7 P o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r G i r l S i b 1 s t 0 . 1 1 0 . 7 8 0 . 8 3 3 . 8 9 S i b 2nd 0 . 1 0 0 . 3 0 0 . 8 5 3 . 10 Boy S i b 1 s t 0 0 . 7 0 1 . 45 4 . 20 S i b 2nd 0 . 0 6 O.67 0 . 6 7 3 . 8 9 P r a i s e G i r l S i b 1 s t 0 0 . 4 4 0 . 5 6 4 . 1 1 S i b 2nd 0 . 0 5 0 . 3 0 0 . 8 0 2 . 4 0 Boy S i b 1 s t 0 0 . 8 0 O.50 3 . 60 S i b 2nd 0 0 0 . 1 7 2 . 1 1 Enc ouragements G i r l S i b 1 s t 0 1.00 2 . 3 3 6 . 8 9 S i b 2nd 0 0 . 8 0 1 .60 5 . 30 Boy S i b 1 s t 0 . 0 5 1 .20 2 . 4 0 7 . 7 0 S i b 2nd 0 . 2 2 O.67 1.61 7 . 1 1 * C e l l means based on raw s c o r e s equated on t h e t i m e c r i t e r i o n , u n a d j u s t e d f o r c o v a r i a t e s . 1 3 2 p=0), t a s k ( F = 4 5 . ? 6 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p=0) and p a r t n e r x t a s k (F= 2 2 . 3 6 ; df 1 , 3 ^ ; p = 0 ) . O v e r a l l , mothers p r o d u c e d more p o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r t h a n f i r s t b o r n and t h e p u z z l e t a s k e l i c i t e d more p o s i t i v e b e h a v i o r a l c o r r e c t i o n s t h a n t h e play-t a s k . I n t h e p l a y t i m e , t h e f i r s t b o r n made an average o f 0 . 0 7 c o r r e c t i o n s and t h e mothers, 0 . 9 6 ; i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e , t h e f i r s t -b o r n made an average o f 0 . 6 l and t h e mothers, a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h average o f 3 - 7 6 p o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r . The d i s -o r d i n a l p a t t e r n o f s c o r e s r e s u l t e d i n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . o f p a r t n e r x t a s k . The p r a i s e measure had t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s : p a r t n e r (F=97.18; df 1 , 3 4 ; p = 0 ) , t a s k ( F = 2 5 . 3 1 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p=0), and p a r t n e r x t a s k ( F = 1 1 . 1 3 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p = 0 . 0 0 2 ) , and so d i d t h e encouragements measure: p a r t n e r ( F = 2 1 9 « o 4 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p = 0 ) , t a s k ( F = 5 6 . 7 8 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p=0) and p a r t n e r x t a s k ( F = l 4 . 8 7 ; i df 1 , 3 4 ; p = 0 ) . Mothers produced s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p r a i s e and encouragements t h a n f i r s t b o r n ; t h e p u z z l e t r i a l prompted more p r a i s e and encouragements t h a n t h e p l a y t r i a l . The i n t e r -a c t i o n e f f e c t of p a r t n e r x t a s k f o r t h e p r a i s e measure ensued because f i r s t b o r n p r a i s e d t h e secondborn an average o f 0 . 0 1 t i m e s i n t h e p l a y t i m e and 0 . 3 9 i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e ( the d i f f e r -ence i n t h e avera g e s b e i n g q u i t e s m a l l ) , b u t mothers p r a i s e d an average o f 0 . 5 1 i n t h e p l a y t i m e and 3 - 0 5 i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e (the d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g much l a r g e r ) . The i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t f o r t h e encouragement measure r e s u l t e d because of t h i s p a t t e r n : f i r s t b o r n ( 0 . 0 7 p l a y t i m e , 0 . 9 2 p u z z l e s ) and mothers ( 1 . 9 9 p l a y t i m e , 6 . 7 4 p u z z l e s ) , t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two mater-133 n a l a v e r a g e s b e i n g r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r t h a n t h e d i f f e r e n c e between the two f i r s t b o r n a v e r a g e s . I n summary, t h e tone o f l i n g u i s t i c f eedback measures had e i g h t e f f e c t s o f p a r t n e r (out o f n i n e p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s a f t e r t h e c a t e g o r y ' n e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s -s i o n ' w a s d i s c a r d e d ) . A l l f i v e o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s about p o s i -t i v e l y - t o n e d f e e d b a c k were c o n f i r m e d : mothers d i d produce s i g -n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e , l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n , and b e h a v i o r ; p r a i s e ; and encouragements t h a n f i r s t -b o r n . The r e s u l t s f o r t h e n e g a t i v e l y - t o n e d f e e d b a c k measures were n o t as c l e a r - c u t . F o r t h e di s a g r e e m e n t s measure, t h e e f f e c t o f p a r t n e r was almost s i g n i f i c a n t (p=0.029)» w i t h t h e f i r s t b o r n d i s a g r e e i n g more o f t e n t h a n mothers, as was p r e d i c t e d . The c r i t i c i s m s measure showed no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s . Two o f th e s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t n e r e f f e c t s f o r t h e n e g a t i v e l y - t o n e d measures were based on means which were t h e o p p o s i t e t o what was p r e -d i c t e d : i n s t e a d of p r o d u c i n g fewer n e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e and b e h a v i o r t h a n f i r s t b o r n , mothers produ c e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more. Four s i g n i f i c a n t t a s k e f f e c t s appeared: s c o r e s f o r t h e dis a g r e e m e n t s measure were g r e a t e r i n t h e p l a y s e s s i o n t h a n i n t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n , b u t s c o r e s f o r t h e p o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r , p r a i s e , and encouragements were g r e a t e r i n t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n t h a n i n t h e p l a y s e s s i o n . The f i v e p a r t n e r x t a s k i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s had two s o u r c e s : f o r t h e disa g r e e m e n t s and t h e p o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f 134 t r u t h v a l u e , t h e r e was a w i d e r d i s c r e p a n c y between p a r t n e r s ' s c o r e s i n the p l a y s e s s i o n t h a n i n t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n , b u t f o r t h e p o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r , p r a i s e , and encour-agements, t h e r e was a w i d e r d i s c r e p a n c y between p a r t n e r s ' s c o r e s i n t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n t h a n i n t h e p l a y s e s s i o n . The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e r e s u l t s f o r t h e d o m i n a t i n g and s o l i d a r i t y measures a r e now r e p o r t e d . D o m i n a t i n g Measures The independent v a r i a b l e s began t o show s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s on t h e d o m i n a t i n g measures; p a r t n e r and t a s k v a r i a b l e s c o n t i n u e d to show s i g n i f i c a n t main and i n t e r -a c t i o n e f f e c t s . As r e p o r t e d i n t a b l e 1 1 , p r o h i b i t i o n s had t h r e e s i g -n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s : p a r t n e r (F = 1 9 - 5 9 ; t]f 1 , 3 4 ; p= 0 ) , p a r t n e r x o r d e r (F = 5 . 8 5 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p = 0 . 0 2 1 ) , and t a s k (F = 1 5 . 1 9 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p= 0 ) . C o n f i r m i n g the p r e d i c t i o n , f i r s t b o r n p r o h i b i t e d more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n mothers: t h e f i r s t b o r n average was 0 . 9 1 ; t h e m a t e r n a l a v e r a g e , 0 . 2 5 . (See t a b l e 12 f o r c e l l means f o r the d o m i n a t i n g and s o l i d a r i t y measures.) The p a r t n e r x o r d e r e f f e c t appeared because t h e r e was a w i d e r d i s c r e p a n c y between f i r s t b o r n and m a t e r n a l averages i n t h e s i b l i n g - f i r s t o r d e r ( 1 . 0 4 v s . 0 . 1 6 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) t h a n between t h e i r a v e r a g e s i n t h e s i b l i n g - s e c o n d o r d e r (a 0 . 7 ° f i r s t b o r n average v s . a 0 . 3 4 m a t e r n a l a v e r a g e ) . S c o r e s o f p r o h i b i t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r i n t h e p l a y s e s s i o n t h a n i n t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n . 135 TABLE 11 SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE* FOR DOMINATING AND SOLIDARITY MEASURES AND A REFERENTIAL FAILURE MEASURE OF FIRSTBORN AND MOTHER BEHAVIORS Dependent V a r i a b l e s Source F p D o m i n a t i n g Measures P r o h i b i t i o n s P a r t n e r 1 9 - 5 9 0 P a r t n e r x Order 5 . 8 5 0 . 021 .Task 1 5 . 1 9 0 Orders P a r t n e r 5 . 6 2 0 . 024 Task 2 5 . 2 0 0 I n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e s Sex x Order 7 . 2 2 0 . 011 P a r t n e r 6 7 . 5 0 0 P a r t n e r x Task x Sex 15.18 0 S o l i d a r i t y Measures S o l i d a r i t y P a r t n e r 1 0 9 . 6 8 0 R e f e r e n t i a l F a i l u r e Measure E g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s P a r t n e r 2 6 1 . 4 5 0 *Based on t r a n s f o r m e d s c o r e s . n=38. d f = 1 , 3 4 f o r each t r i a l v a r i a b l e ; f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f independent v a r i a b l e s ; f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f independent and t r i a l v a r i a b l e s . 136 TABLE 12 CELL MEANS* FOR DOMINATING AND SOLIDARITY MEASURES OF FIRSTBORN AND MOTHER BEHAVIORS Independent V a r i a b l e s T r i a l V a r i a b l e s Sex o f E x p e r i m e n t a l Secondborn Order S i b l i n g Mother P l a y P u z z l e P l a y P u z z l e Dependent V a r i a b l e s D o m i n a t i n g Measures P r o h i b i t i o n s G i r l S i b 1 s t 1 . 33 0 . 4 4 0 . 0 6 0 . 1 1 S i b 2nd 1 .15 0 . 4 0 0 . 2 5 0 . 2 0 Boy S i b 1 s t 1 .30 1 .10 0 . 3 5 0 . 1 0 S i b 2nd 1 .06 0 . 4 4 0 . 6 7 0 . 22 Orders G i r l S i b 1 s t 2 . 1 7 4 . 0 0 3 . 0 6 6 . 0 0 S i b 2nd 1.20 3 - 90 2 . 6 5 4 . 3 0 Boy S i b 1 s t 1.80 3 . 6 0 2. 20 5 . 30 S i b 2nd 2 . 1 7 3 - 78 2 . 5 0 4 . 8 9 I n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e s G i r l S i b 1 s t 6 . 3 9 4 . 2 2 1 . 7 2 1 . 56 S i b 2nd 6 . 4 5 4 . 7 0 0 . 9 5 2 . 6 0 Boy S i b 1 s t 6 . 0 0 8 . 0 0 2 . 3 5 2 . 4 0 S i b 2 n d 3 - 3 3 9 . 67 1 . 8 9 2 . 1 1 S o l i d a r i t y Measures S o l i d a r i t y 1 1 . 9 4 1 2 . 4 4 G i r l S i b 1 s t 4 . 1 7 3 . 2 2 S i b 2 n d 5 .40 6 .40 1 0 . 7 0 14.4o Boy S i b 1 s t 3 . 0 5 6 . 90 1 2 . 8 5 1 5 . 4 0 S i b 2 n d 2 . 8 3 3 . 22 IO . 6 7 1 4 . 5 6 * C e l l means based on raw s c o r e s equated on t h e t i m e c r i t e r i o n , u n a d j u s t e d f o r c o v a r i a t e s . 137 The measure o r d e r s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f p a r t n e r (F=5 . 6 2 ; d f 1,34; p=0.024) and t a s k (F=25.20; d f 1,34; p=0). D i s c o n f i r m i n g t h e s u b s t a n t i v e h y p o t h e s i s , f i r s t b o r n p r oduced fewer o r d e r s t h a n mothers (an average of 2.82 o r d e r s compared w i t h 3-85)• More o r d e r s were i s s u e d i n t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n t h a n i n t h e p l a y s e s s i o n . Three s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s showed up f o r the i n d i r e c t  d i r e c t i v e s - - s e x x o r d e r (F=7.22; df 1,34; p=0.011), p a r t n e r (F = 6 7 . 5 0 ; df 1,34; p=0) and p a r t n e r x t a s k x sex (F=15.18; df 1,34; p=0). The sex x o r d e r i n t e r a c t i o n o c c u r r e d because o f t h i s p a t t e r n o f s c o r e s : w i t h seeondborn g i r l s , t h e s i b l i n g -f i r s t o r d e r r e s u l t e d i n l o w e r p a r t n e r s c o r e s t h a n the s i b l i n g -second o r d e r , b u t w i t h seeondborn boys th e s i b l i n g - f i r s t o r d e r r e s u l t e d i n h i g h e r p a r t n e r s c o r e s t h a n t h e s i b l i n g - s e c o n d o r d e r . As p r e d i c t e d , f i r s t b o r n s t a t e d more i n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e s t h a n mothers: f i r s t b o r n a v eraged 6.11 i n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e s ; mothers, 1.95-S o l i d a r i t y Measure The s o l i d a r i t y measure showed a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f p a r t n e r (F=109.68; df 1,34; p=0). As h y p o t h e s i z e d , mothers produced more s o l i d a r i t y a c t s t h a n f i r s t b o r n , on t h e average of 12.90 s o l i d a r i t y a c t s as compared w i t h 4.46 a c t s . Most of t h e i m p e r a t i v e s i n t h e p r o t o c o l s were coded as o r d e r s r a t h e r t h a n as r e q u e s t s f o r a c t i o n because f i r s t b o r n presumed t o be and mothers were i n a p o s i t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y over t h e seeondborn. .138 I n summary, t h e s e were t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r t h e d o m i n a t i n g and s o l i d a r i t y measures: f o u r p a r t n e r e f f e c t s were d e t e c t e d — t h r e e which c o n f i r m e d and one which d i s c o n f i r m e d the p r e d i c t i o n s . F i r s t b o r n p r o -duced more p r o h i b i t i o n s and i n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e s and fewer s o l i d a r i t y a c t s t h a n mothers, r e s u l t s w hich were p r e d i c t e d . F i r s t b o r n p r o d u c e d fewer o r d e r s t h a n mothers, a r e s u l t which was not p r e d i c t e d . Two m e a s u r e s — p r o h i b i t i o n s and o r d e r s — h a d t a s k e f f e c t s . The e f f e c t s d e r i v e d from d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s : t h e r e we're more p r o h i b i t i o n s i n t h e p l a y t r i a l s t h a n i n t h e p u z z l e t r i a l s , but t h e r e were more o r d e r s i n t h e p u z z l e t r i a l s t h a n i n t h e p l a y t r i a l s . Three i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s were r e g i s t e r e d f o r t h e d o m i n a t i n g measures: p a r t n e r x o r d e r ( p r o h i b i t i o n s measure), sex x o r d e r and p a r t n e r x t a s k x sex ( i n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e s measure). The l a s t p a r t n e r c a t e g o r y , r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e , i s now d i s c u s s e d . R e f e r e n t i a l F a i l u r e Measure The s i n g l e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e r e s u l t f o r e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s i s r e c o r d e d i n t a b l e 11 and t h e c e l l means a r e l i s t e d i n t a b l e 1 3. The s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of p a r t n e r on t h e e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s measure ( F = 2 6 l . 4 5 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p=0) was as 139 p r e d i c t e d : f i r s t b o r n p roduced more c a s e s o f e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s t h a n mothers.. The f i r s t b o r n average was 1.9 e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s ; t h e mothers' average was 0 . 0 7 -The r e l a t i v e l y c o m p l i c a t e d r e s u l t s f o r the a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e f o r t h e secondborn measures a r e now r e p o r t e d . R e f e r t o t a b l e 14 f o r a summary of t h e r e s u l t s . TABLE 13 CELL MEANS* FOR FIRSTBORNS' AND MOTHERS' EGOCENTRIC DEFINITIONS Independent V a r i a b l e s T r i a l V a r i a b l e s Sex of E x p e r i m e n t a l S i b l i n g Mother Secondborn Order P l a y P u z z l e P l a y P u z z l e G i r l S i b 1 s t I . 6 7 0 . 0 6 0 S i b 2 nd 1 .15 1 .30 0 . 1 5 0 Boy S i b 1 s t 2 . 2 5 1 .40 0 . 3 5 0 S i b 2 nd 1.50 I . 6 7 0 0 * C e l l means based on raw s c o r e s equated on t h e time c r i t e r i o n , u n a d j u s t e d f o r c o v a r i a t e s . l 4 o A n a l y s i s of Covariance R e s u l t s f o r Seeondborn Measures Two measures of seeondborn behaviors showed s i g n i f i -cant i n f l u e n c e s of the c o v a r i a t e s . Secondborns' o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s showed s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s of age of seeondborn ( F = 6 . 7 4 ; df 1 , 3 0 ; p = 0 . 0 l 4 ) , p a r t n e r ( F = 3 1 5 . 6 6 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p = 0 ) and task x order ( F = 5 . 5 5 ; df 1 > 3 4 ; p = 0 . 0 2 4 ) . The seeondborn produced more o s t e n s i v e def-i n i t i o n s with mothers (an average of 6 . 8 0 ) than they d i d with f i r s t b o r n (an average of 1 . 1 5 ) . The task x order i n t e r a c t i o n accrued because f o r the pl a y t i m e , the s i b l i n g - f i r s t order r e -s u l t e d i n fewer scores than the s i b l i n g - s e c o n d order; but f o r the p u z z l e s , the s i b l i n g - f i r s t order r e s u l t e d i n more scores than the s i b l i n g - s e c o n d order. (Refer to t a b l e 1 5 f o r the c e l l means f o r l e a r n e r s ' o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s and r e -sponses to c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s . ) Secondborns' responses to co n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s showed s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s of age of seeondborn ( F = 7 . 3 9 ; df 1 , 3 0 ; p = 0 . 0 1 1 ) , p a t e r n a l o c c u p a t i o n ( F = 1 1 . 0 6 ; df 1 , 3 0 ; p = 0 . 0 0 2 ) , ' a l l ' c o v a r i a t e s ( F = 5 . 2 0 ; df 4 , 3 0 ; p = 0 . 0 0 3 ) , p a r t n e r (F= 1 1 3 7 . 9 7 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p = 0 ) , task ( F = 1 9 . 7 2 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p = 0 ) , task x sex ( F = 9 . 0 4 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p = 0 . 0 0 5 ) , and p a r t n e r x task ( F = 6 . 3 5 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p = 0 . 0 1 7 ) . More responses to co n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s were gi v e n with mothers (an average of 6.84) than with f i r s t -born (an average of 0 . 3 0 ) . For the task e f f e c t , more responses to CQ's were g i v e n i n the p l a y s e s s i o n than i n the p u z z l e s e s s i o n . Since the g i r l s scored lower than the boys i n the 141 TABLE 1 4 SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE RESULTS FOR TWO MEASURES OF SECONDBORN BEHAVIOR Dependent V a r i a b l e s Source P O s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s Age o f secondborn P a r t n e r Task x Order 6.74 0.014 3 1 5 . 6 6 0 5 . 5 5 0.024 Responses t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s Age of secondborn 7 - 3 9 0 . 0 1 1 P a t e r n a l o c c u p a t i o n 1 1 . 0 6 0 . 0 0 2 • A l l * c o v a r i a t e s 5 - 20 0 . 0 0 3 P a r t n e r Task Task x:Sex P a r t n e r x Task 1 1 3 7 - 9 7 1 9 . 7 2 9 . 0 4 : 6 . 3 5 0 0 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 1 7 NOTES: The a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e was based on p r o p o r t i o n a l s c o r e s s u b j e c t e d t o a r c - s i n e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . n=38. d f = l , 3 0 f o r each independent v a r i a b l e and c o v a r i a t e ; df = 4 , 3 0 f o r ' a l l ' c o v a r i a t e s combined; d f = l , 3 4 f o r each t r i a l v a r i a b l e ; f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f independent v a r i a b l e s ; f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t r i a l v a r i a b l e s ; f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f independent v a r i a b l e ( s ) and t r i a l v a r i a b l e ( s ) . 142 TABLE 15 CELL MEANS* FOR TWO MEASURES OF SECONDBORN BEHAVIORS ADJUSTED FOR THE INFLUENCE OF COVARIATES Independent V a r i a b l e s T r i a l V a r i a b l e s Sex of E x p e r i m e n t a l Seeondborn Order S i b l i n g Mother P l a y P u z z l e P l a y P u z z l e Dependent V a r i a b l e s O s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s G i r l S i b 1 s t 0 . 9 7 1.14 5 . 75 1 0 . 3 6 S i b 2 n d 1.10 0 . 6 0 7 . 0 0 7 . 3 0 Boy S i b 1 s t 0.89 1.59 5-59 7.59 S i b 2 nd 1.10 1 .77 5 . 6 6 5 . 1 0 Responses t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s G i r l S i b 1 s t 0.19 - 0 . 0 9 8 . 8 0 7.91 S i b 2 nd 0 . 2 7 0 . 2 2 5 . 9 7 5 . 8 2 Boy S i b 1 s t 0 . 2 7 0 . 1 7 9.17 6 . 3 7 S i b 2nd 1 .05 0 . 3 3 5 - 7 7 4.88 * C e l l means a r e based on raw s c o r e s (equated on t h e ti m e c r i t e r i o n of f i v e m inutes) and a d j u s t e d f o r t h e c o v a r i a t e s . 143 p l a y t i m e but h i g h e r t h a n t h e boys i n the p u z z l e t i m e , t h e t a s k x sex i n t e r a c t i o n o c c u r r e d . The p a r t n e r x t a s k r e s u l t e d because t h e r e was a s m a l l e r d i s c r e p a n c y between s c o r e s w i t h p a r t n e r s i n t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n t h a n between s c o r e s w i t h p a r t n e r s i n the p l a y s e s s i o n . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e R e s u l t s f o r Secondborn Measures L e a r n i n g - D e m o n s t r a t i n g Measures F o r t h e f i v e r e m a i n i n g l a n g u a g e - l e a r n i n g measures o f secondborn, f i v e s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s o f p a r t n e r appeared, a l l o f t h e r e s u l t s h a v i n g a z e r o p r o b a b i l i t y o f o c c u r r i n g by chance and a l l c o n f i r m i n g t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t secondborn would e v i d e n c e more l e a r n i n g - d e m o n s t r a t i n g a c t s w i t h mothers t h a n w i t h s i b ^ l i n g s . Two e f f e c t s o f t a s k and two e f f e c t s of p a r t n e r x t a s k i n t e r a c t i o n a l s o showed up. The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e r e s u l t s a r e r e p o r t e d i n t a b l e 16.; c e l l means,, i n t a b l e 1 7 . The r e p e a t i n g l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s measure showed s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s o f p a r t n e r ( F = l 6 . 6 5 ; df 1 ,34; p= 0 ) , t a s k (F = 9 - 6 0 ; df 1 ,34; p = 0 . 0 0 4 ) , and p a r t n e r x t a s k (F = ? . 1 7 ; df 1 ,34; p = 0 . 0 1 1 ) . W h i l e t h e s c o r e s f o r t h i s measure were not l a r g e (an average of 0 . 3 2 w i t h mothers and 0 . 0 7 w i t h s i b l i n g s ) , t h e d i f f e r e n c e between p a r t n e r s was s i g n i f i c a n t . The p l a y s e s s i o n prompted more r e p e t i t i o n s of l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s t h a n d i d t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n . The p a r t n e r x t a s k i n t e r a c t i o n appeared because secondborns' s c o r e s w i t h b o t h p a r t n e r s were more a l i k e i n the p u z z l e s e s s i o n (means of 0 . 1 6 and 0 . 0 5 ) t h a n i n t h e 144 TABLE 16 SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR SIX MEASURES* OF SECONDBORN BEHAVIORS Dependent V a r i a b l e Source F P Language - L e a r n i n g Measures R e p e a t i n g l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s P a r t n e r Task P a r t n e r x Task 1 6 . 6 5 9 .60 7 . 1 7 0 0 . p-004 O i l Acknowledgements P a r t n e r Task 2 5 . 6 0 6 . 1 9 0 0 . 018 S i n c e r e r e q u e s t s P a r t n e r P a r t n e r x Task 2 6 . 7 5 7 . 85 0 0 . 008 Responses t o i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s P a r t n e r 5 3 3 . 2 2 0 C o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s P a r t n e r 1 5 2 . 0 2 0 R e f e r e n t i a l F a i l u r e Measure E g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s P a r t n e r 4 5 . 9 3 0 *Based on t r a n s f o r m e d s c o r e s . n=38. d f = l , 3 4 f o r each t r i a l v a r i a b l e . 145 TABLE 17 CELL MEANS* FOR FIVE MEASURES OF SECONDBORN BEHAVIORS Independent V a r i a b l e s T r i a l V a r i a b l e s Sex o f Seeondborn E x p e r i m e n t a l Order S i b l i n g Mother P l a y P u z z l e P l a y P u z z l e Dependent V a r i a b l e s R e p e a t i n g l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s 0 . 44 G i r i S i b 1 s t 0. 06 0 0 . 1 1 S i b 2nd 0 . 1 0 0 0 . 3 0 0 . 3 0 Boy S i b 1 s t 0 . 1 5 0 . 2 0 0 . 6 0 0 . 2 0 S i b 2nd 0 0 0 . 5 6 0 Acknowledgements G i r l S i b 1 s t 0 . 3 9 0 . 4 4 2 . 8 3 2 . 0 0 S i b 2nd 0 . 4 5 0 . 4 0 1 . 25 1 .50 Boy S i b 1 s t 0 . 6 5 1 .10 2 . 1 0 1 .70 S i b 2nd 0 . 5 0 0 . 2 2 1 . 72 0 . 7 8 S i n c e r e r e q u e s t s 4 . 1 1 3 . 6 7 G i r l S i b 1 s t 0 . 5 6 3 . 4 4 S i b 2nd 0 . 9 5 1 -30 3 . 00 1 .30 Boy S i b 1 s t 1 .00 2 . 0 0 2 . 5 0 2 . 5 0 S i b 2nd O.56 0 . 4 4 2 . 78 2. 22 Responses t o i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s 3 . 6 1 G i r l S i b 1 s t 0 0 5 . 2 2 S i b 2nd 0 0 2 . 9 5 5 . 00 Boy S i b 1 s t 0 0 . 7 0 2 . 4 0 4 . 3 0 S i b 2nd 0 0 . 1 1 1 . 67 2 . 8 9 C o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s 4 . 2 8 4 . 2 2 G i r l S i b 1 s t O.78 0 . 2 2 S i b 2nd O.65 0 . 4 0 3 . 6 5 2 . 5 0 Boy S i b 1 s t 0 . 7 0 1 .80 3 . 60 4 . 2 0 S i b 2nd 0 . 3 9 O.67 2 . 8 9 4 . 1 1 * C e l l means based on raw s c o r e s equated on t h e ti m e c r i t e r i o n , u n a d j u s t e d f o r c o v a r i a t e s . 146 p l a y s e s s i o n (means o f 0 . 4 7 and 0 . 0 8 ) . Acknowledgements showed e f f e c t s o f p a r t n e r (F = 2 5 . 6 0 ; df.</.l,34; p=o) and t a s k (F = 6 . 1 9 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p=0.0l8). Second-b o r n acknowledged mothers an average o f I . 9 6 i n the p l a y t i m e and 1 .50 i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e ; t h e y acknowledged s i b l i n g s an average of 0 . 5 0 and 0 . 5 5 r e s p e c t i v e l y . More acknowledgements took p l a c e i n t h e p l a y t i m e t h a n i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e . S i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n had s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s o f p a r t n e r (F = 2 6 . 7 5 ; d f 1 , 3 4 ; p=0) and p a r t n e r x t a s k (F = 7 . 8 5 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p=0 .008 ) . . On the average , secondborn r e -que s t e d mothers $ 0 p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n 3'-08 t i m e s i n t h e p l a y -t i m e and 2 . 3 9 t i m e s i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e ; t h e y r e q u e s t e d s i b l i n g s t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n O.78 and 1 . 7 9 t i m e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . S i n c e t h e y q u e r i e d mothers more f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e p l a y t i m e t h a n t h e p u z z l e t i m e , but t h e y q u e r i e d s i b l i n g s more f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e t h a n t h e p l a y t i m e , t h e p a r t n e r x t a s k i n t e r a c t i o n r e s u l t e d . A f u l l e r a c c o u n t now f o l l o w s o f how o f t e n p a r t n e r s r e -sponded t o s e c o n d b o r n s 1 s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . I f one r e a d s t h e c e l l means f o r se c o n d b o r n s 1 s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n i n t a b l e 17 and compares them w i t h the c e l l means f o r p a r t n e r s ' r e s p o n s e s t o s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s i n t a b l e 7 , one can determine how o f t e n t h e p a r t n e r s d i d r e s p o n d w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n . I n t h e p l a y t i m e , secondborn a d d r e s s e d an average o f O .56, 0 . 9 5 . 1 . 0 0 , and O.56 s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s ^ t o o ' C e l l means broke n down i n t o subgroups a r e always r e -p o r t e d i n t h i s ' f o r m a t — c e l l means f o r g i r l s : s i b - l s t / s i b - 2 n d ; c e l l means f o r boys: s i b - l s t / s i b - 2 n d . 147 f i r s t b o r n , who r e c i p r o c a t e d w i t h an average of 0 . 2 2 , 0 . 1 5 . 0 . 2 5 , and 0 . 1 1 r e s p o n s e s . I n t h e p u z z l e t i m e , t h e secondborn a d d r e s s e d an average o f 3 -44 , 1 . 3 0 , 2 . 0 0 , and 0 . 44 r e q u e s t s t o f i r s t b o r n who answered an average o f 1 . 0 0 , 0 . 1 0 , 0 . 5 0 , and 0 . 1 1 t i m e s . A l t h o u g h t h e secondborn d i d make r e q u e s t s , t h e f i r s t b o r n answered o n l y 1 i n 4 . 2 4 r e q u e s t s f o r t h e two t a s k c o n d i t i o n s . . ( T h i s r a t e was based on means h a v i n g f i v e d e c i m a l s . ) S i n c e one o f t h e g e n e r a l c r i t e r i a f o r c o d i n g was t h a t r e p e t i t i o n s o f u t t e r a n c e s h a v i n g t h e same i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e would be coded o n l y once, t h e means f o r t h e s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e s i b l i n g - p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s were under-e s t i m a t e s : we watched t h e secondborn r e p e a t e d l y a s k i n g f o r h e l p u s i n g t h e same s y n t a c t i c c o n s t r u c t i o n s and p r o p o s i t i o n s . The f i r s t b o r n c o n t i n u e d t o be i n d i f f e r e n t , more so t h a n t h e 1 i n 4 . 24 v r e s p o n s e r a t e would i n d i c a t e . A g a i n l o o k i n g a t t h e c e l l means i n t a b l e s 17 and 7, one can n o t e t h a t i n t h e p l a y t i m e t h e secondborn r e q u e s t e d i n f o r m a t i o n an average o f 4 . 1 1 , 3 - 0 0 , 2 . 5 0 , and 2 . 7 8 t i m e s w i t h mothers, who i n t u r n responded an average o f 2 . 8 9 . 1 . 8 5 , 1 . 1 0 , and I . 6 7 t i m e s . I n t h e p u z z l e t i m e , secondborn r e q u e s t e d i n f o r m a t i o n an ave r a g e o f 3 . 6 7 , 1 . 3 0 , 2 . 5 0 , and 2 . 2 2 t i m e s ; mothers responded w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n an average o f 1 . 3 3 . 0 . 8 0 , 0 . 9 0 , and 0 . 8 9 t i m e s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e r esponse f i g u r e s seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t mothers were o n l y a n s w e r i n g an average o f 1 i n 1.66 r e q u e s t s i n t h e p l a y t i m e , and 1 i n 2 .46 r e q u e s t s i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e , t h e f i g u r e s a r e d e c e p t i v e and b e l i e what was r e a l l y g o i n g on i n the i n t e r a c t i o n s . M others i n d e e d were 148 r e p l y i n g t o t h e y o u n g s t e r s ' r e q u e s t s , but t h e y were n o t s u p p l y i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n d i r e c t l y . They tended t o adopt t h e s t r a t e g y o f s t r u c t u r i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n so t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n would d i s c o v e r t h e f a c t s t h e m s e l v e s . T y p i c a l l y , mothers r e p l i e d w i t h a c o n t i n g e n t query which r e t u r n e d t h e problem t o t h e l e a r n e r s . When t h e l e a r n e r s would s o l v e p a r t o f t h e problem i n t h e i r r e p l y t o t h e c o n t i n g e n t query, t h e mothers would t h e n ask a n o t h e r c o n t i n g e n t query. G r a d u a l l y , the l e a r n e r s a r r i v e d a t t h e f a c t s w i t h o u t b e i n g t o l d them e x p l i c i t l y . S i n c e t h e c o d i n g system was v e r y s t r i c t and o n l y coded r e s p o n s e s t o s i n c e r e i n f o r m a t i o n as such when t h e y g e n u i n e l y s u p p l i e d t h e r e q u e s t e d i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e p r a g m a t i c f u n c t i o n o f r e s p o n d i n g was n o t p i c k e d up i n t h e r e s p o n s e s t o s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n c a t e g o r y , but i t was p i c k e d up i n o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s , u s u a l l y i n the c o n t i n g e n t query o r i n t h e s o l i d a r i t y c a t e g o r y . There was a s i n g l e e f f e c t o f p a r t n e r on t h e r e s p o n s e s t o i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s measure (F = 5 3 3 - 2 2 ; d f 1 , 3 4 ; p= 0 ) . The f i r s t b o r n asked v e r y few t e s t q u e s t i o n s i n t h e p l a y t i m e (an average o f 0 . 2 2 ) ; t h e seeondborn answered none o f them. I n the p u z z l e t i m e , t h e seeondborn answered an average o f 0 . 2 0 f i r s t b o r n t e s t q u e s t i o n s . The p i c t u r e changed c o m p l e t e l y w i t h mothers as p a r t n e r s . I n t h e p l a y t i m e , seeondborn answered an average o f 2 . 6 6 m a t e r n a l t e s t q u e s t i o n s ; i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e , t h e y answered an average of 4 . 3 7 t e s t q u e s t i o n s . Secondborns' c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s showed a s i n g l e e f f e c t of p a r t n e r (F = 1 5 2 . 0 2 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p = 0 ) . On t h e average , second-149 b o r n posed 0 . 7 1 c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s t o s i b l i n g s and 3 . 6 8 t o mothers. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e how o f t e n p a r t n e r s r e -sponded t o secondborns' c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s . I n g e n e r a l , f i r s t b o r n responded t o 1 i n e v e r y I . 6 9 o f t he secondborns' OQ's. T h e i r r e s p o n s e r a t e t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s was s t r o n g e r t h a n t h e i r r e s p o n s e r a t e t o s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n (which was c a l c u l a t e d as 1 r e s p o n s e to e v e r y 4 . 2 4 s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s ) . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e f i r s t b o r n were more l i k e l y t o r e s p o n d when t h e secondborn were q u e r y i n g some a s p e c t o f t h e f i r s t b o r n s ' speech o r i n t e n t i o n s t h a n when t h e secondborn were i n i t i a t i n g t o p i c s o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e m s e l v e s . Mothers d i r e c t l y answered 1 i n e v e r y I . 5 0 o f t h e secondborns' CQ's, a r a t e of r e s p o n d i n g t o CQ's which was s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f f i r s t b o r n . R e c a l l i n g t h a t t h e m a t e r n a l r e s p o n s e r a t e t o s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n was 1 i n 1 .66 i n t h e p l a y t i m e and 1 i n 2 .46 i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e , one can s t a t e t h a t mothers were more l i k e l y t o p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s e s to c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s t h a n t o s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s . We now t u r n t o the r e s u l t f o r t h e f i n a l dependent measure. R e f e r e n t i a l F a i l u r e Measure F o r t he secondborns' e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s , p a r t n e r was the s i n g l e s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t (F = 4 5 . 9 3 ; df 1 , 3 4 ; p=0). W i t h s i b l i n g s , t h e secondborn produced an average o f 0 . 5 5 ego-c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s ; w i t h mothers, t h e y produced 0 . 0 1 . The 150 c e l l means w i t h s i b l i n g s r e a d as f o l l o w s : g i r l s / s i b - l s t = O.67 p l a y , 1 .00 p u z z l e ; g i r l s / s i b - 2 n d = 1.00 p l a y , 0.40 p u z z l e ; b o y s / s i b - l s t = 0 . 3 5 p l a y , 0 . 5 0 p u z z l e ; b o y s / s i b - 2 n d = 0 . 3 9 p l a y , 0 . 1 1 p u z z l e . Mean s c o r e s w i t h mothers were zer o e x c e p t f o r t he b o y s / s i b - l s t / p l a y mean s c o r e which was 0 . 1 0 . S i n c e t h e complete: r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s of co-v a r i a n c e and v a r i a n c e a r e complex, a summary and f u r t h e r d i s -c u s s i o n a r e n e c e s s a r y . Summary of t h e R e s u l t s  o f t h e A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e and V a r i a n c e The a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e d e t e c t e d s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s o f two and ' a l l ' of t h e f i v e c o v a r i a t e s on o n l y t h r e e dependent v a r i a b l e s : . p a r t n e r s ' c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s and l e a r n e r s ' o s t e n -s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s and r e s p o n s e s t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s . The c o v a r i a t e ' p a t e r n a l o c c u p a t i o n ' was s i g n i f i c a n t on t h e p a r t n e r s ' c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s and t h e l e a r n e r s ' r e s p o n s e s t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s ; t h e c o v a r i a t e 'age o f seeondborn' was s i g n i f i c a n t on th e two l e a r n e r s ' measures c i t e d . ' A l l ' o f t h e c o v a r i a t e s t o g e t h e r were s i g n i f i c a n t on: l e a r n e r s ' r e s p o n s e s t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s . Other t h a n t h e ' a l l ' c o v a r i a t e e f f e c t , the c o v a r i a t e s 'mothers' y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g ' , 'age o f f i r s t b o r n ' , and 'age-s p a c i n g d i f f e r e n c e s ' d i d n o t show s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t some o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e mothers' e d u c a t i o n a l background was p a r t i a l l e d out when t a l k a t i v e n e s s was s t a t i s -t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d f o r by u s i n g s c o r e s which were p r o p o r t i o n s 151 o f t h e t o t a l o f t h e f o u r repeated, measures f o r each s u b j e c t . The major f i n d i n g s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e independent and t r i a l v a r i a b l e s can be comprehended more e a s i l y i f we combine the r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e ( f o r t h r e e dependent measures) and v a r i a n c e ( f o r 26 dependent measures). No main e f f e c t s were a t t r i b u t a b l e t o sex o f secondborn and e x p e r i m e n t a l o r d e r ; 28 main e f f e c t s were a t t r i b u t a b l e t o p a r t -n e r ; and 1 0 , t o t a s k ( a l l p - 0 . 0 2 5 , except one e f f e c t of p a r t -n e r which was 0 . 0 2 9 ) . None of t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e independent v a r i a b l e s even approached s i g n i f i c a n c e and no a d d i t i o n a l t a s k e f f e c t s were al m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t . The r e s u l t s f o r 25 measures c o n f i r m e d t h e h y p o t h e s e s about t h e e f f e c t s o f p a r t n e r . As h y p o t h e s i z e d , f i r s t b o r n p roduced more d i s a g r e e m e n t s , p r o h i b i t i o n s , i n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e s , and e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s t h a n d i d mothers. As h y p o t h e s i z e d , mothers produ c e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n s t a n c e s of b e h a v i o r s t h a n d i d f i r s t b o r n f o r e v e r y one of t h e l a n g u a g e - t e a c h i n g , p o s i t i v e l y - t o n e d feedback, and s o l i d a r i t y measures ( 13 s e p a r a t e measures i n a l l ) . Mothers produced more o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s , l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s , c o n f i r m a t i o n s , i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , r e s p o n s e s t o s i n c e r e r e -q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , r e s p o n s e s t o con-t i n g e n t q u e r i e s ; p o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s of t r u t h v a l u e , U n g u i s -152 t i c e x p r e s s i o n , and. b e h a v i o r ; p r a i s e , encouragements; and s o l i d a r i t y . As p r e d i c t e d , seeondborn demonstrated t h e i r knowledge o f language and i t s use more o f t e n w i t h t h e i r mothers t h a n w i t h t h e i r o l d e r s i s t e r s . F o r each o f t h e seven language-l e a r n i n g m e a s u r e s - - o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s , r e p e t i t i o n s o f l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s , acknowledgements, s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , r e s p o n s e s t o i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , and r e s p o n s e s t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s — seeondborn produced s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n s t a n c e s w i t h t h e i r mothers t h a n w i t h t h e i r s i b l i n g s . Seeondborn produced more e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s i n the p r e s e n c e o f s i b l i n g s t h a n i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f mothers, a r e s u l t which f o l l o w e d t h e p r e d i c t i o n . Three s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s o f p a r t n e r r a n c o n t r a r y t o the p r e d i c t e d e f f e c t s . A l t h o u g h i t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t f i r s t -b o r n would produce more n e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e , n e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r , and o r d e r s t h a n mothers, t h e c o n v e r s e was t h e r e s u l t . No s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s were d e t e c t e d f o r t h e c r i t i c i s m s measure, so the h y p o t h e s i s about p a r t n e r was n o t c o n f i r m e d f o r t h i s measure. F o r t h e 10 t a s k e f f e c t s , the s c o r e s on s i x m e a s u r e s -p a r t n e r s ' c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , d i s a g r e e m e n t s , p r o h i b i t i o n s , l e a r n e r s ' r e p e t i t i o n s o f l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s , acknowledge-ments, and r e s p o n s e s t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s — w e r e g r e a t e r i n t h e p l a y t r i a l s t h a n i n t h e p u z z l e t r i a l s . The s c o r e s on f o u r m e a s u r e s — p a r t n e r s ' p o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r , p r a i s e , 153 encouragements, and o r d e r s — w e r e g r e a t e r i n the p u z z l e t r i a l s t h a n i n t h e p l a y t r i a l s . Of t h e 11 k i n d s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s p o s s i b l e between t h e independent and t h e t r i a l v a r i a b l e s ; t h e r e were 17 s i g n i f i -c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . T a b l e 18 summarizes th e f r e q u e n c y of s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s a c c o r d i n g t o t y p e o f i n t e r -a c t i o n . I t does n o t l i s t any s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s o f p a r t n e r x sex, p a r t n e r x sex x o r d e r , t a s k x sex x o r d e r , and p a r t n e r x t a s k x o r d e r . There was one s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t each f o r sex x o r d e r , p a r t n e r x o r d e r , t a s k x sex, t a s k x o r d e r , and p a r t n e r x t a s k x sex. There were two s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s f o r p a r t n e r x t a s k x sex x o r d e r and 10 f o r p a r t n e r x t a s k . The r e s u l t s have been r e p o r t e d ; now t h e y must be i n t e r p r e t e d . D i s c u s s i o n The major q u e s t i o n of t h i s s t u d y was whether t e x t s p r o v i d e d f o r and by secondborn boys and g i r l s d i f f e r e d when f i r s t b o r n p r e s c h o o l s i s t e r s o r mothers were t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p a r t n e r s . The overwhelming c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h e t e x t s do d i f f e r on a number of speech a c t v a r i a b l e s because o f d i f f e r -ences i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p a r t n e r . Out o f 29 dependent measures, t h e r e were 28 s i g n i f i -c a n t e f f e c t s due t o p a r t n e r , 25 w i t h F r a t i o s h a v i n g a z e r o p r o b a b i l i t y o f o c c u r r i n g by chance. Because th e sex o f second-b o r n and the e x p e r i m e n t a l o r d e r v a r i a b l e s d i d n o t show any 154 TABLE 18 SUMMARY TABLE OF THE SIGNIFICANT* INTERACTION EFFECTS I n t e r a c t i o n Number o f S i g n i f i c a n t E f f e c t s ANACOVA ANOVA BOTH TESTS Sex x Order 0 1 1 P a r t n e r x Sex 0 0 0 P a r t n e r x Order 0 1 1 P a r t n e r x Sex x Order 0 0 . 0 Task x Sex 1 0 1 Task x Order 1 0 1 Task x Sex x Order 0 0 0 P a r t n e r x Task 1 9 10 P a r t n e r x Task x Sex 0 1 1 P a r t n e r x Task x Order 0 0 0 P a r t n e r x Task x Sex x Order 0 2 2 T o t a l s 3 14 17 Type o f I n t e r a c t i o n ANACOVA ANOVA BOTH TESTS F i r s t o r d e r 3 11 14 Second o r d e r 0 1 1 T h i r d o r d e r 0 2 2 T o t a l s 3 14 17 ^ S i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0 . 0 2 5 l e v e l . 155 s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s and c o n t r i b u t e d o n l y f o u r f i r s t -o r d e r i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s , t h e p a r t n e r e f f e c t s a r e h i g h l y g e n e r a l i z a b l e . C o v a r i a t e s a p p a r e n t l y p l a y e d a minor r o l e i n t h i s s t u d y . The n a t u r e o f t h e repeated-measures d e s i g n i t s e l f c o u l d have been one sou r c e o f t h i s minor r o l e . C h a p t e r I I n o t e d one weakness i n u s i n g c o v a r i a t e s i n a repeated-measures d e s i g n : namely, c o r r e l a t i o n s which a r e s i g n i f i c a n t between measures o f a c o v a r i a t e and measures f o r i n d i v i d u a l s on s i n g l e t r i a l s a r e v e r y l i k e l y t o become i n s i g n i f i c a n t when c o r r e l a -t i o n s a r e r u n between measures o f a c o v a r i a t e and p o o l e d s c o r e s f o r two k i n d s o f p a r t n e r on two k i n d s of t r i a l s . S t i l l , i t was a d v i s a b l e t o a d j u s t f o r c o v a r i a t e i n f l u e n c e s i f t h e y d i d e x i s t . I t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t t h e c o v a r i a t e 'age o f secondborn' would i n f l u e n c e t h e secondborns' s c o r e s on r e -sponses t o c o n t i n g e n t queries" 1" 0 s i n c e p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s n o t e d t h a t c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s a r e s t a g e - r e l a t e d : t h e y a r e d i r e c t e d more f r e q u e n t l y t o c h i l d r e n a t age 2 t h a n t o c h i l d r e n a t age 1 or a t age 3 ( L o n g h u r s t & S t e p a n i c h 1 9 7 5 )• I t i s more d i f f i -c u l t t o guess t h e s o u r c e s of t h e ' p a t e r n a l o c c u p a t i o n ' and ' a l l ' c o v a r i a t e s i n f l u e n c e on secondborns' r e s p o n s e s to c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s . F o r p a r t n e r s ' s c o r e s of c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , 'age o f secondborn' and ' a l l ' c o v a r i a t e s approached s i g n i f i c a n c e (p= 0 . 0 3 9 and 0 . 0 3 5 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . I t i s v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h e c o v a r i a t e t r e n d s were t h e same f o r p a r t n e r s ' c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s and secondborns' r e s p o n s e s t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s . 156 I t i s l o g i c a l t h a t 'age o f secondborn' would s i g n i f i -c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e t h e secondborns' r a t e o f p r o d u c i n g o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s . Younger c h i l d r e n have a g r e a t e r need t h a n o l d e r c h i l d r e n t o check on p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s and t o v e r i f y a l l o f t h e l a b e l s t h a t t h e y a t t r i b u t e t o o b j e c t s . So age i s l i k e l y t o be a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s . No s a t i s f a c t o r y r e a s o n s can be o f f e r e d t o account f o r th e e f f e c t o f ' p a t e r n a l o c c u p a t i o n ' on t h e s c o r e s o f p a r t n e r s ' c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s . What can be c o n c l u d e d about t h e n a t u r e o f m o t h e r - c h i l d and s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s from t h e f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d ? Because mothers produced o r prompted more i n s t a n c e s f o r each o f t h e l a n g u a g e - t e a c h i n g , s o l i d a r i t y , p o s i t i v e l y - t o n e d f e edback, and l e a r n i n g - d e m o n s t r a t i n g measures, we can c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s r e v e a l e d t h e t e a c h i n g o f language and t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f language l e a r n i n g i n c l i m a t e s which had a g r e a t e r degree o f s u p p o r t i v e a n d p p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s t h a n t h e c l i m a t e s of t h e s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s . S i n c e f i r s t b o r n p roduced more d i s a g r e e m e n t s , p r o h i b i -t i o n s , and i n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e s t h a n mothers, t h e s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a g r e a t e r degree o f argumenta-t i v e n e s s , r e s t r i c t i o n s , and i n d i r e c t c o n t r o l . The f i r s t b o r n p r o d u c e d more e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s t h a n mothers and t h e secondborn p r o d u c e d more o f them w i t h s i s t e r s t h a n w i t h mothers. The s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s were t h u s marked by a g r e a t e r i n c i d e n c e o f r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e t h a n t h e m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s . 157 A t t h i s p o i n t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n t h e t o t a l p i c t u r e o f t h e n e g a t i v e - f e e d b a c k q u a l i t i e s o f t h e s i b l i n g and m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s because t h e r e s u l t s o f p a r t n e r approached s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the d i s a g r e e m e n t s measure, were i n c o n c l u s i v e f o r the c r i t i c i s m s measure, and were c o n t r a -d i c t o r y f o r t h e n e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s of t r u t h v a l u e and be-h a v i o r measures. What e x p l a n a t i o n s can be g i v e n f o r t h e two c o n t r a d i c t o r y r e s u l t s ? S i n c e mothers t a l k e d more and were more r e s p o n s i v e t o seeondborn, t h e y would be more l i k e l y t o p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r number of i n s t a n c e s o f n e g a t i v e feedback t h a n f i r s t b o r n . Comparison of a v e r a g e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t m a t e r n a l and f i r s t b o r n a v e r a g e s were v e r y c l o s e f o r t h e n e g a t i v e c o r -r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r (O . 6 7 v s . 0 . 4 0 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . T h e i r a v e r a g e s f o r n e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e ( 1 . 1 7 f o r mothers and 0 . 2 1 f o r f i r s t b o r n ) were somewhat more d i s p a r a t e . I n r e t r o s p e c t , i t can be seen t h a t p r o v i s i o n o f n e g a t i v e c o r -r e c t i o n s of t r u t h v a l u e a r e n o t a l w a y s e v i d e n c e o f a n e g a t i v e l e a r n i n g c l i m a t e . A t some d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l s , c h i l d r e n need n e g a t i v e examples to a t t a i n f u l l c o n c e p t m a s t e r y ( N i n i o & B r u n e r 1 9 7 8 ) . What s h o u l d be made of t h e c o n t r a d i c t o r y r e s u l t t h a t mothers p r o v i d e d more o r d e r s t h a n f i r s t b o r n ? I t c o u l d be t h e case t h a t mothers always g i v e more o r d e r s t h a n f i r s t b o r n and t h a t t h e l a t t e r o p t f o r p r o h i b i t i o n s and i n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e s . Comparison of t h e averages f o r o r d e r s ( 3 - 8 5 m a t e r n a l and 2 . 8 2 f i r s t b o r n ) r e v e a l s t h a t t h e i r a verages were f a i r l y c l o s e . 158 S i n c e no p r e d i c t i o n s were g i v e n f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f t a s k , t h e causes o f t h e 10 s i g n i f i c a n t t a s k e f f e c t s can o n l y he s p e c u l a t e d upon. I t appears as i f t h e spontaneous p l a y s e s s i o n s were more c o n d u c i v e t o s t r u c t u r i n g genuine c o n v e r -s a t i o n s (note t h e g r e a t e r number of p a r t n e r s ' c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s and l e a r n e r s ' r e s p o n s e s t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s ) and t o d e v e l o p i n g t h e secondborns' c o n t r o l o ver t h e w h e r e w i t h a l s of l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n ( v i a t h e r e p e t i t i o n s o f l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s and acknowledgements). On the o t h e r hand, t e r -r i t o r i a l c o n c erns i n t h e s i b l i n g ; . - c o n d i t i o n s might have p r e -c i p i t a t e d t h e g r e a t e r f r e q u e n c y of t h e d i s a g r e e m e n t s and p r o -h i b i t i o n s i n t h e p l a y s e s s i o n s . The s i b l i n g s expended much energy v y i n g f o r p r i v i l e g e d t o y s and t e r r i t o r y . S i n c e the p o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r , p r a i s e , encouragements and o r d e r s e v i d e n c e d h i g h e r s c o r e s i n t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n , t h e f o c u s s e d p u z z l e t a s k seemed t o be more p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y s u p p o r t i v e , b u t i t was a l s o more d i r e c t i v e i n n a t u r e . G i v e n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l i n s t r u c t i o n s i n w hich the o l d e r o f t h e dyad was t o h e l p out t h e younger by t e l l i n g him o r h e r how t o do t h e p u z z l e s , t h e t a s k e f f e c t s f o r t h e t h r e e p o s i t i v e l y - t o n e d v a r i a b l e s and t h e o r d e r s measure a r e c o m p l e t e l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . A b r i e f , p o s t hoc a n a l y s i s o f i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s i s now conducted, s i n c e no d i r e c t i o n a l p r e d i c t i o n s were made r e -g a r d i n g t h e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . 1 5 9 The d i s o r d i n a l p a t t e r n s o f s c o r e s w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n t h e f i r s t - o r d e r i n t e r a c t i o n s o f sex x o r d e r (on the i n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e s measure), p a r t n e r x o r d e r ( p r o h i b i t i o n s ) , t a s k x sex ( l e a r n e r s ' r e s p o n s e s t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s ) , and t a s k x o r d e r ( l e a r n e r s ' o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s ) a r e summarized i n t a b l e 1 9 . S i n c e t h e p a t t e r n s have been n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y i n the r e p o r t s o f t h e r e s u l t s and s i n c e t h e s e f o u r f i r s t - o r d e r i n t e r a c t i o n s d i d not u n d u l y q u a l i f y t h e r e s u l t s of t h e main e f f e c t s o f p a r t n e r , t h e y a r e n o t d i s c u s s e d any f u r t h e r . Because t h e p a r t n e r x t a s k i n t e r a c t i o n a c c u m u l a t e d 10 s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s and i n f l u e n c e d t h e main e f f e c t s o f t h e t r i a l v a r i a b l e s , we must d i s c u s s t h e p a t t e r n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e p a r t n e r x t a s k i n t e r a c t i o n s some more. T a b l e 20 p r o v i d e s s i m p l e e x p l a n a t i o n s for t h e p a r t n e r x t a s k i n t e r a c t i o n s f o r seven measures of p a r t n e r s and t h r e e measures of l e a r n e r s . F o r f o u r p a r t n e r m e a s u r e s — p a r t n e r s ' o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s , r e s p o n s e s t o s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , d i s a g r e e m e n t s , and p o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s of t r u t h v a l u e , mothers and f i r s t b o r n had more s i m i l a r s c o r e s i n t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n s t h a n i n t h e p l a y s e s s i o n s . F o r t h r e e m e a s u r e s — p o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r , p r a i s e , and encouragements--the r e v e r s e was t r u e : mothers and f i r s t b o r n had more s i m i l a r s c o r e s i n t h e p l a y s e s s i o n s t h a n i n t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n s . F o r t h e t h r e e secondborn m e a s u r e s — r e p e t i t i o n s o f l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s , s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , and r e s p o n s e s t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s — t h e secondborns' s c o r e s were 160 TABLE 19 SUMMARY OF THE EXPLANATIONS FOR FOUR VARIOUS FIRST-ORDER SIGNIFICANT* INTERACTION EFFECTS S i g n i f i c a n t I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t Dependent V a r i a b l e E x p l a n a t i o n s Sex x Order"*" I n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e F o r g i r l s , t he s i b l i n g - f i r s t o r d e r r e s u l t e d i n l o w e r p a r t n e r 3 s c o r e s t h a n t h e s i b -l i n g - s e c o n d o r d e r ; f o r boys, th e s i b l i n g - f i r s t o r d e r r e -s u l t e d i n h i g h e r p a r t n e r s c o r e s t h a n t h e s i b l i n g -second o r d e r . P a r t n e r x Order P r o h i b i t i o n s P a r t n e r s ' s c o r e s were more s i m i l a r i n t h e s i b l i n g - s e c o n d o r d e r t h a n i n the s i b l i n g -f i r s t o r d e r . Task x S e x 2 L e a r n e r s ' 3 F o r t h e p l a y t i m e , g i r l s r e s p o n s e s s c o r e d l o w e r t h a n boys; t o f o r t h e p u z z l e s , g i r l s c o n t i n g e n t s c o r e d h i g h e r t h a n boys, q u e r i e s Task x O r d e r 2 L e a r n e r s ' F o r the p l a y t i m e , t h e s i b l i n g -o s t e n s i v e f i r s t o r d e r r e s u l t e d i n fewer d e f i n i t i o n s s c o r e s t h a n t h e s i b l i n g -second o r d e r ; f o r t h e p u z z l e s , t h e s i b l i n g - f i r s t o r d e r r e s u l t e d i n more s c o r e s t h a n the s i b l i n g - s e c o n d o r d e r . ^ S i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0 . 0 2 5 l e v e l . Result from ANOVA. 2 R e s u l t from ANACOVA. •^Partners = f i r s t b o r n and mothers; l e a r n e r s = second-born. 161 TABLE 20 SUMMARY OF. THE EXPLANATIONS FOR 10 SIGNIFICANT* PARTNER X TASK INTERACTIONS Dependent V a r i a b l e E x p l a n a t i o n s P a r t n e r s * 1 o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s Responses t o s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r -m a t i o n Disagreements P o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e P o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r P r a i s e Enc ouragement s P a r t n e r s ' s c o r e s were more s i m i l a r i n the p u z z l e s e s s i o n t h a n i n t h e play-s e s s i o n . P a r t n e r s ' s c o r e s were more s i m i l a r i n the p u z z l e s e s s i o n t h a n i n t h e p l a y s e s s i o n . P a r t n e r s ' s c o r e s were more s i m i l a r i n th e p u z z l e s e s s i o n t h a n i n t h e p l a y ' s e s s i o n . P a r t n e r s ' s c o r e s were more s i m i l a r i n the p u z z l e s e s s i o n t h a n i n t h e p l a y s e s s i o n . P a r t n e r s ' s c o r e s were more s i m i l a r i n the p l a y s e s s i o n t h a n i n t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n . P a r t n e r s ' s c o r e s were more s i m i l a r i n the p l a y s e s s i o n t h a n i n t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n . P a r t n e r s ' s c o r e s were more s i m i l a r i n the p l a y s e s s i o n t h a n i n t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n . R e p e a t i n g l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s S i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n L e a r n e r s ' 1 r e s p o n s e s t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s ' Secondborns* s c o r e s were more s i m i l a r i n t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n t h a n i n t h e p l a y s e s s i o n . Secondborns' s c o r e s were more s i m i l a r i n t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n t h a n i n t h e p l a y s e s s i o n . Secondborns 1 s c o r e s were more s i m i l a r i n t he p u z z l e s e s s i o n t h a n i n t h e p l a y s e s s i o n . ^ S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0 . 0 2 5 l e v e l . 1 P a r t n e r s = f i r s t b o r n and mothers; l e a r n e r s = second-born. 2 R e s u l t from ANACOVA; th e o t h e r r e s u l t s f r om ANOVA. 162 more s i m i l a r d u r i n g t h e p u z z l e t a s k t h a n d u r i n g t h e p l a y t a s k . Of t h e 10 p a r t n e r x t a s k i n t e r a c t i o n s , the p u z z l e s e s s i o n s r e s u l t e d i n more s i m i l a r s c o r e s f o r f o u r p a r t n e r measures and t h r e e l e a r n e r measures. These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p u z z l e t a s k c o n s t r a i n e d t h e b e h a v i o r s o f t h e c h i l d r e n and t h e a d u l t s and d i d n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e between p a r t n e r s as w e l l as t h e spontaneous p l a y t i m e d i d . B u t , t h e p u z z l e t a s k d i d i n f l a t e t h e m a t e r n a l s c o r e s f o r p o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r , p r a i s e and encouragements. The s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e and v a r i a n c e r e v e a l s u b s t a n t i a l and c l e a r - c u t d i f f e r e n c e s between p a r t n e r s f o r t h e l a n g u a g e - t e a c h i n g , p o s i t i v e l y - t o n e d f e e d b a c k , s o l i d a r i t y , l a n g u a g e - l e a r n i n g , and r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l -u r e measures. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s would be a s s i s t e d by f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . The n e x t s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s t h e v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s o f s i b l i n g s and p a r e n t - c h i l d i n a new way so t h a t q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s between p a r t n e r s a r e c l a r i f i e d . From t h i s f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s , i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e d e r i v e d r e g a r d i n g t h e impact o f g e n e r a t i o n s upon l e a r n i n g p a r a -digms. F u r t h e r A n a l y s i s D e s c r i p t i o n s o f V e r b a l I n t e r a c t i o n s The s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s used so f a r i s based on c o n t r a s t s between sex e s , o r d e r s , p a r t n e r s , and t a s k s . I t de-t e c t s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l dependent v a r i a b l e s 163 but i t f a i l s t o p r o v i d e g l o b a l p i c t u r e s of t h e v e r b a l i n t e r -a c t i o n s . G l o b a l d e s c r i p t i o n s become a v a i l a b l e when we com-p u t e c e l l means f o r each dependent v a r i a b l e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c l a s s e s of p a r t n e r and t a s k , rank t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s a c c o r d i n g t o c e l l means, and c a l c u l a t e t h e p e r c e n t a g e s t h a t t h e major c a t e g o r i e s and t h e minor c a t e g o r i e s c o n t r i b u t e t o th e t o t a l s . I n t h e case o f mothers 'and f i r s t b o r n , t h e major c a t e g o r i e s a r e t e a c h i n g , p o s i t i v e f eedback, n e g a t i v e f e e d b a c k , power ( i . e . d o m i n a t i n g ) , s o l i d a r i t y , and t h e minor c a t e g o r y , r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e . I n t h e case o f seeondborn, t h e minor c a t e g o r i e s a r e t h e s u b d i v i s i o n s o f t h e l e a r n i n g - d e m o n s t r a t i n g c a t e g o r y p l u s t h e r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e c a t e g o r y . What f o l l o w s i s a comparison o f rank o r d e r s f o r d e s c r i p t i v e r a t h e r t h a n i n f e r e n t i a l p u r p o s e s : s t a t i s t i c s f o r the c a t e g o r i e s a r e used to d e s c r i b e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s of the sample, n o t t o i n f e r t h e t y p i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s of t h e p o p u l a -t i o n s from which t h e sample d e r i v e s . Only t h e t r u e c e l l means, as summarized i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e p r i n t o u t s , a r e u t i l i z e d . F o r t h e mothers' speech, t a b l e s 21 and 22 rank depend-ent measures a c c o r d i n g t o the t r u e c e l l means f o r t h e p l a y and S i n c e i t i s u n a c c e p t a b l e t o lump c e l l ' means . a d j u s t e d f o r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f c o v a r i a t e s w i t h t r u e c e l l means, o n l y the l a t t e r a r e used. As the a d j u s t e d c e l l means u s u a l l y d i f f e r from t h e t r u e (raw s c o r e ) c e l l means by 0.01 o r 0.02, t h e use of t r u e c e l l means does not r e s u l t i n a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s . 164 p u z z l e s e s s i o n s s e p a r a t e l y . T a b l e 23 p r o v i d e s t o t a l s f o r the mean number o f a c t s a c c o r d i n g t o c a t e g o r i e s and g i v e s p e r c e n t -ages o f t o t a l s t h a t t h e c a t e g o r i e s r e p r e s e n t . F o r t h e p l a y s e s s i o n , t h e m a t e r n a l c a t e g o r i e s r a n k 1. t e a c h i n g , 2. s o l i d a r i t y , 3 . p o s i t i v e feedback, 4 . power, 5. n e g a t i v e feedback, and 6. r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e . The f i r s t t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s c o mprise over 8 9$ o f t h e t o t a l mean number of b e h a v i o r s . E x p r e s s e d as r a t e s p e r mi n u t e , mothers produced, on t h e average, 7 . 3 8 t e a c h i n g , 2 . 3 1 s o l i d a r i t y , and 1 .43 p o s i t i v e feedback a c t s . F o r t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n , t h e m a t e r n a l c a t e g o r i e s rank 1. t e a c h i n g , 2. p o s i t i v e feedback, 3 . s o l i d a r i t y , 4 . power, 5. n e g a t i v e feedback, and 6. r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e . Three c o n t r a s t s a r i s e between t h e m a t e r n a l p l a y and p u z z l e s e s s i o n s , each based on f i v e - m i n u t e samples: 1. F o r t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n , t h e p o s i t i v e feedback and s o l i d a r i t y c a t e g o r i e s s w i t c h r a n k s , r e f l e c t i n g t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h e t a s k a t hand. The p o s i t i v e feedback s c o r e s i n c r e a s e 165 TABLE 21 RANK ORDER OF THE MEANS*OF 21 MATERNAL MEASURES BASED ON FIVE-MINUTE PLAY SESSIONS Rank Measure Mean 1 C o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s 1 2 . 5 7 2 S o l i d a r i t y 1 1 . 5 5 3 O s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s 6 . 68 4 I n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n 5 - 7 2 5 C o n f i r m a t i o n s 4 . 0 9 6 L i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s 3 - 5 0 7 P o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n 2 . 7 2 8 O r d e r s 2 . 5 9 9 Responses t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s 2 . 5 0 10 Encouragements 1 . 9 9 11 Responses t o s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n 1 . 86 12 I n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e s 1 . 72 13 N e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e 0 . 9 9 14 P o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e O.96 14 P o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r O.96 16 N e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r 0 . 5 4 17 P r a i s e 0 . 5 1 18 P r o h i b i t i o n s O.33 1 9 Disagreements 0 . 2 9 20 E g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s 0.14 21 C r i t i c i s m s 0 . 0 4 T o t a l 6 2 . 2 5 *Based on u n a d j u s t e d c e l l means. 166 TABLE 22 RANK ORDER OF THE MEANS* OF 21 MATERNAL MEASURES BASED ON FIVE-MINUTE PUZZLE SESSIONS Rank Measure Mean 1 S o l i d a r i t y 14.24 2 C o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s 1 0 . 5 3 3 I n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s 8 . 2 9 4 Encouragements 6 . 7 4 5 Orders 5 » H 6 C o n f i r m a t i o n s 5 - 08 7 O s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s 5 . 0 5 8 P o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r 3 - 7 6 9 L i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s 3 . 6 8 10 P o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n 3 . 1 6 11 P r a i s e 3 - 0 5 12 Responses to c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s 2 . 3 9 13 I n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e s 2.18 14 N e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s of t r u t h v a l u e 1 . 34 15 Responses t o s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s 0 . 9 7 16 P o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e 0 . 7 9 16 N e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s of b e h a v i o r 0 . 7 9 18 Disagreements 0 . 3 9 1 9 P r o h i b i t i o n s 0 . 1 6 20 C r i t i c i s m s 0 . 0 8 21 E g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s 0 T o t a l 7 7 . 7 8 *Based on u n a d j u s t e d c e l l means. 167 TABLE 23 MEAN NUMBER OF MATERNAL ACTS ACCORDING TO CATEGORIES AND PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MEAN NUMBER OF ACTS THAT THE CATEGORIES REPRESENT P r o f i l e o f Mothers' Speech P l a y S e s s i o n P u z z l e S e s s i o n C a t e g o r y Mean $ Mean* $ Te a c h i n g S o l i d a r i t y P o s i t i v e Feedback Power N e g a t i v e Feedback ^ R e f e r e n t i a l F a i l u r e 3 6 . 9 2 5 9 . 3 1 $ 1 1 . 5 5 1 8 . 5 5 $ 7 . 1 4 1 1 . 4 7 $ 4 . 6 4 7 . 4 5 $ 1.86 2 . 9 9 $ 0 . 1 4 0 . 2 2 $ 3 5 . 9 9 4 6 . 2 7 $ 1 4 . 2 4 1 8 . 3 1 $ 1 7 . 5 0 2 2 . 5 0 $ 7 . 4 5 9 . 5 8 $ 2 . 6 0 3 . 3 4 $ 0 0 T o t a l s 6 2 . 2 5 1 0 0 . 0 1 $ 7 7 . 7 8 1 0 0 . 0 0 $ *Mean numbers o f a c t s a r e f o r f i v e - m i n u t e p e r i o d s . 168 a p p r e c i a b l y from 7 . 1 4 i n t h e p l a y s e s s i o n t o 1 7 . 5 0 i n t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n . S i n c e t h e surge i n p o s i t i v e feedback s c o r e s i n c r e a s e s t h e t o t a l , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f p o s i t i v e feedback changes from 1 1 . 4 7 $ t o 2 2 . 5 0 $ , and t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h i n g drops from 5 9 - 3 1 $ t o 4 6 . 2 7 $ . 2 . The f i r s t t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n c o n t r i b u t e 8 7 $ o f t h e t o t a l mean number o f b e h a v i o r s , about t h e same as i n t h e p l a y s e s s i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e s show up i n th e mean number o f b e h a v i o r s p e r minute: mothers produced, on the a v e r a g e , 7 - 2 0 t e a c h i n g , 2 . 8 5 s o l i d a r i t y , and 3 - 5 0 p o s i t i v e feedback a c t s d u r i n g t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n . 3- The p u z z l e s e s s i o n s e l i c i t e d more measurable a c t s t h a n t h e p l a y s e s s i o n s - - a t o t a l o f 7 7 - 7 8 mean number o f a c t s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h 6 2 . 2 5 . Other t h a n t h e p o s i t i v e feedback s c o r e s , the mean s c o r e s f o r t h e c a t e g o r i e s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same f o r t h e two t a s k s and r e f l e c t t h e s t a b i l i t y of t h e mothers' a c t i o n s : t e a c h i n g c o n t r i b u t e s 3 6 . 9 2 i n t h e p l a y s e s s i o n v e r s u s 3 5 - 9 9 i n the p u z z l e s e s s i o n ; s o l i d a r i t y , 1 1 . 5 5 v s . 1 4 . 2 4 ; power, 4 . 6 4 v s . 7 . 4 5 ; n e g a t i v e feedback, 1 .86 v s . 2 . 6 0 ; and always on t h e bottom, r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e , 0 . 1 4 v s . z e r o . The p a t t e r n o f the f i r s t b o r n s ' r a n k s p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r -ent p i c t u r e as summarized i n t a b l e s 24 and 2 5 . F o r t h e p l a y s e s s i o n , t h e f i r s t b o r n c a t e g o r i e s r a n k e d 1. power, 2. s o l i d a r i t y , 169 TABLE 2 4 RANK ORDER OF THE MEANS* OF 21 FIRSTBORN MEASURES BASED ON FIVE-MINUTE PLAY SESSIONS Rank Measure Mean 1 I n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e s 5 - 58 2 S o l i d a r i t y - 3 . 8 8 3 E g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s 2 . 3 0 4 Orders 1 .82 5 O s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s 1 .37 6 P r o h i b i t i o n s 1. 21 7 D i s a g r e e m e n t s 0 . 7 2 8 C o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s 0 . 5 9 9 Responses t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s 0 . 3 7 10 I n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s 0 . 2 2 n Responses t o s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s • 0 . 1 8 12 C o n f i r m a t i o n s 0 . 1 7 12 P o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f 0 . 1 7 l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n 1 4 L i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s 0 . 1 6 15 N e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r 0 . 1 1 15 C r i t i c i s m s 0 . 1 1 17 N e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s of t r u t h v a l u e 0 . 0 8 1 8 Encouragements 0 . 0 7 1 8 P o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r 0 . 0 7 20 P o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e 0 . 0 4 21 P r a i s e 0 . 0 1 T o t a l 1 9 . 2 3 *Based on u n a d j u s t e d c e l l means. 1 7 0 TABLE 2 5 RANK ORDER OF THE MEANS* OF 2 1 FIRSTBORN MEASURES BASED ON FIVE-MINUTE PUZZLE SESSIONS Rank Measure Mean 1 I n d i r e c t d i r e c t i v e s 6 . 6 3 2 S o l i d a r i t y 5 . 0 3 3 O r d e r s 3.82 4 O s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s 2 . 7 9 5 E g o c e n t r i c D e f i n i t i o n s 1 . 5 0 6 Enc ouragement s 0 . 9 2 7 N e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s of b e h a v i o r 0 . 6 8 8 P r o h i b i t i o n s 0 . 6 1 8 P o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r 0 . 6 1 8 I n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s 0 . 6 1 1 1 Responses t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s 0 . 4 7 1 2 C o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s 0.42 1 2 Responses t o s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s 0.42 14 C o n f i r m a t i o n s 0 . 3 9 14 P r a i s e 0 . 3 9 1 6 N e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e 0 . 3 4 r 6 L i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s 0 . 3 4 18 P o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f 0.24 l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n 1 9 Disagreements 0 . 2 1 2 0 P o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e 0.18 2 1 C r i t i c i s m s 0 . 1 6 T o t a l 2 6 . 7 6 *Based on u n a d j u s t e d c e l l means. 3. t e a c h i n g , 4. r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e , 5. n e g a t i v e feedback, and 6. p o s i t i v e feedback. Over 6 5 $ o f t h e f i r s t b o r n s ' t o t a l mean number o f b e h a v i o r s r e v o l v e s around e s t a b l i s h i n g power ( 44 .77$ ) and a c h i e v i n g s o l i d a r i t y ( 2 0 . 1 8 $ ) . About 1 5 . 9 1 $ o f t h e i r t o t a l mean number of b e h a v i o r s c e n t r e s on t e a c h i n g . The h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s ( 1 1 . 96$ ) r e f l e c t s t h e i n c i d e n c e of p r i v a t e speech d u r i n g t h e spontaneous p l a y . ( R e f e r t o t a b l e 2 6 . ) F o r t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n , t h e f i r s t b o r n c a t e g o r i e s r a n k e d 1. power, 2 . t e a c h i n g , 3 . s o l i d a r i t y , 4 . p o s i t i v e f e edback, 5. r e f e r e n t i a l f a i l u r e , and 6. n e g a t i v e feedback. The f i r s t b o r n c a t e g o r i e s t h u s rank d i f f e r e n t l y i n t h e two s e s s i o n s : t h e t e a c h i n g and s o l i d a r i t y measures r e v e r s e r a n k s and t h e p o s i t i v e feedback measures move up from s i x t h t o f o u r t h p o s i t i o n . I n t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n s , power and s o l i d a r i t y a r e s t i l l i n t h e top t h r e e and r e s p e c t i v e l y c o n t r i b u t e 4 1 . 3 3 $ and 1 8 . 8 0 $ ; t e a c h i n g p e r c e n t a g e s i n c r e a s e t o 2 0 . 3 3 $ - I n t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n s , t h e e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s d e c l i n e , r e f l e c t -i n g a more f o c u s s e d i n t e r a c t i o n . Y e t i t i s r e m a r k a b l e t h a t ' e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s ' rank t h i r d o f t h e 29 dependent measures i n t h e p l a y s e s s i o n and f i f t h o f 29 i n t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n . The 172 TABLE 26 MEAN NUMBER OF FIRSTBORN ACTS ACCORDING TO CATEGORIES AND PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MEAN NUMBER OF ACTS THAT THE CATEGORIES REPRESENT P r o f i l e o f F i r s t b o r n Speech P l a y S e s s i o n P u z z l e S e s s i o n C a t e g o r y Mean* $ Mean* $ Power S o l i d a r i t y T e a c h i n g R e f e r e n t i a l F a i l u r e P o s i t i v e Feedback N e g a t i v e Feedback T o t a l s 8 . 6 1 4 4 . 7 7 $ 3.88 20.18$ 3 . 06 1 5 . 9 1 $ 2 . 3 0 0 . 3 6 1 . 02 1 1 . yoyo 1 . 8 7 $ 5 . 3 0 $ 1 1 . 0 6 4 1 . 3 3 $ 5 . 0 3 1 8 . 8 0 $ 5 . 4 4 2 0 . 3 3 $ 1 . 50 5 . 6 1 $ 2 . 3 4 8 . 7 4 $ 1 . 3 9 5 . 1 9 $ 1 9 . 2 3 9 9 . 9 9 $ 2 6 . 7 6 1 0 0 . 0 0 $ *Mean numbers o f a c t s a r e f o r f i v e - m i n u t e p e r i o d s . 173 r a t e o f n e g a t i v e feedback appears t o remai n c o n s t a n t i n t h e two k i n d s o f s e s s i o n — a l i t t l e o v e r 5 $ . The p u z z l e s e s s i o n s a g a i n e l i c i t e d more measurable f i r s t b o r n a c t s t h a n the p l a y s e s s i o n - - a t o t a l o f 2 6 . 7 6 mean a c t s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h 1 9 . 2 3 . Rank o r d e r s o f secondborn measures w i t h mothers on two t a s k s and p e r c e n t a g e s o f the t o t a l mean number o f a c t s t h a t each o f the e i g h t secondborn measures r e p r e s e n t a r e r e g i s t e r e d i n t a b l e 2 7 . The comparable i n f o r m a t i o n ' w i t h f i r s t b o r n ' i s g i v e n i n t a b l e 2 8 . On t h e two t a s k s , the secondborns' r a t e o f b e h a v i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h mothers ( 2 5 . 2 5 mean number o f a c t s and 2 5 « 9 7 ) » as i s t h e i r r a t e w i t h f i r s t b o r n ( 4 . 0 4 mean number o f a c t s and 5 - 3 1 )• The measurable number o f secondborn b e h a v i o r s w i t h mothers i s about 6 . 2 5 t i m e s t h a t w i t h f i r s t b o r n f o r t h e p l a y t a s k and 4 . 8 9 t i m e s t h a t w i t h f i r s t b o r n f o r t h e p u z z l e t a s k . The r a n k o r d e r s o f t h e measures do d i f f e r between t a s k s and between p a r t n e r s . W i t h mothers d u r i n g t h e p l a y s e s s i o n , t h e r a n k o r d e r s a r e ( 1 ) r e s p o n s e s to c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , ( 2 ) o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i -t i o n s , ( 3 ) c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , (4) s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a -t i o n , ( 5 ) r e s p o n s e s t o i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , (6 ) acknowledgements, ( 7 ) r e p e a t i n g l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s , and (8) e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s . W i t h mothers d u r i n g t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n , t h e r a n k s o f the f i r s t f i v e measures s h i f t : (1 ) o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s , (2 ) r e s p o n s e s t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , ( 3 ) r e s p o n s e s t o i n s i n c e r e 174 TABLE 27 . RANK ORDER OF THE MEANS* OF EIGHT SECONDBORN MEASURES WITH MOTHERS AND PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MEAN NUMBER OF ACTS THAT THE EIGHT MEASURES REPRESENT P l a y S e s s i o n * * Rank Measure Mean $ 1. Responses t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s 7 . 4 3 2 9 . 4 3 $ 2 O s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s 6 . 0 1 2 3 . 8 0 $ 3 C o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s 3 . 6 1 14 . 3 0 $ 4 S i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n 3 . 08 1 2 . 2 0 $ 5 Responses t o i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s 2 . 6 6 1 0 . 5 3 $ 6 Acknowledgements 1 .96 7 . 7 6 $ 7 R e p e a t i n g l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s 0 . 4 7 1 . 8 6 $ 8 E g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s 0 . 0 3 0 . 1 2 $ T o t a l 2 5 - 2 5 1 0 0 . 0 0 $ P u z z l e S e s s i o n * * 1 O s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s 7 . 5 8 2 9 . 1 9 $ 2 Responses t o c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s 6 . 2 3 ' 2 3 . 9 9 $ 3 Responses t o i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s 4 . 3 7 1 6 . 8 3 $ 4 C o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s 3 . 7 4 14 . 4 0 $ 5 S i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n 2 . 3 9 9 . 2 0 $ 6 Acknowledgements 1 .50 5 - 7 8 $ 7 R e p e a t i n g l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s 0 . 1 6 0 . 6 2 $ 8 E g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s 0 0 T o t a l 2 5 . 9 7 1 0 0 . 0 1 $ *Based on u n a d j u s t e d c e l l means. **Based on a f i v e - m i n u t e p e r i o d . 175 TABLE 28 RANK ORDER OF THE MEANS* OF EIGHT SECONDBORN MEASURES WITH FIRSTBORN AND PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MEAN NUMBER OF ACTS THAT THE EIGHT MEASURES REPRESENT P l a y Session** Rank Measure Mean $ 1 Ostensive d e f i n i t i o n s 1 .01 2 5 . 0 0 $ 2 Sincere requests f o r informa t i o n 0 . 7 8 1 9 . 3 1 $ 3 Contingent queries 0 . 6 3 1 5 . 5 9 $ 4 E g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s 0 . 6 1 1 5 . 1 0 $ 5 Acknowledgements 0 . 5 0 1 2 . 3 8 $ 6 Responses to contingent queries 0 . 4 3 10.64$ 7 Repeating l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s 0 . 0 8 1. 98$ 8 Responses to i n s i n c e r e requests 0 0 T o t a l 4 . 0 4 1 0 0 . 0 0 $ Puzzle Session** 1 Sincere requests f o r informa t i o n 1 . 7 9 3 3 . 7 1 $ 2 Ostensive d e f i n i t i o n s 1 . 26 2 3 . 7 3 $ 3 Contingent queries 0 . 7 9 14 . 8 8 $ 4 Acknowledgements 0 . 5 5 1 0 . 3 6 $ 5 E g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s 0 . 5 0 9.42$ 6 Responses to i n s i n c e r e requests 0 . 2 1 3 . 9 5 $ 7 Responses to contingent queries 0 . 1 6 3 . 0 1 $ 8 Repeating l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s 0 . 0 5 0 . 9 4 $ T o t a l 5 . 31 1 0 0 . 0 0 $ *Based on unadjusted c e l l means. **Based on a five-minute p e r i o d . 176 r e q u e s t s , (4 ) c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , and (5) s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s . The l a s t t h r e e r a n k s r e m a i n the same as i n t h e p l a y s e s s i o n . W i t h f i r s t h o r n d u r i n g the p l a y s e s s i o n , t h e rank o r d e r s o f t h e seeondborn measures a r e (1 ) o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s , (2) s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , (3) c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , (4 ) e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s , (5 ) acknowledgements, ( 6 ) r e s p o n s e s to c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , ( 7 ) r e p e a t i n g l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s , and (8 ) r e s p o n s e s t o i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . W i t h f i r s t b o r n d u r i n g the p u z z l e s e s s i o n , t h e rank o r d e r s o f t h e seeondborn measures a r e ( l ) s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , ( 2 ) o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s , ( 3 ) c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , (4 ) acknowledgements, (5 ) e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s , ( 6 ) r e s p o n s e s to i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , ( 7 ) r e s p o n s e s to con-t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , and ( 8 ) r e p e a t i n g l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s . A f t e r r a n k i n g t h e measures a c c o r d i n g t o magnitude o f c e l l means and f i g u r i n g out t h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f the t o t a l mean number o f a c t s t h a t t h e v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s r e p r e s e n t , we can d e s c r i b e t h e v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s i n a more comprehensive way and we can d e r i v e new i m p l i c a t i o n s . I n g e n e r a l , we can s t a t e once more t h a t t h e m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t h e w i t n e s s e d s i t u a t i o n s c o n c e n t r a t e d on language t e a c h i n g and language l e a r n i n g . B o t h p a r t n e r s a c t e d i n c o l l u s i o n t o form c o n v e r s a t i o n s . I n t h e p r e s e n c e o f mothers, t h e secondborns' h i g h e s t r a n k e d measures (among t h e top f i v e ) i n c l u d e d b oth i n i t i a t i n g measures ( o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i -t i o n s , s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s ) and response measures ( r e s p o n s e s t o 177 12 c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , r e s p o n s e s t o i n -s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s ) . Mothers e x h i b i t e d many b e h a v i o r s which s u s t a i n e d s o l i d a r i t y and p r o v i d e d a c c e p t i n g , p o s i t i v e f e e d -back. They m a n i f e s t e d few c a s e s of e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s . I t i s now c l e a r t h a t mothers d i d n o t devote l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e s of t h e i r speech t o power speech a c t s and to n e g a t i v e feedback. I n g e n e r a l , we can c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e s i b l i n g i n t e r -a c t i o n s were c o n c e r n e d w i t h power and s o l i d a r i t y — t h e s e t t i n g up o f t e r r i t o r y and r i g h t s and norms a l o n g s i d e s o l i c i t o u s r e q u e s t s t o p l a y , t o s h a r e , and t o se c u r e m u t u a l c o n s e n t . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e mothers, t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e r e s e a r c h were v a g u e l y s t a t e d : we were s t u d y i n g c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s and l e a r n i n g . A t t h e t i m e , some o f the mothers v o l u n t e e r e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' p i c k e d up' a l o t o f knowledge and b e h a v i o r from each o t h e r . T h e i r c l a i m has some t r u t h i n t h e l i n g u i s t i c r e a l m , because t h e f i r s t b o r n s ' t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s rank t h i r d out o f s i x c a t e g o r i e s i n t h e p l a y p e r i o d and second out o f s i x c a t e -g o r i e s i n t h e p u z z l e p e r i o d . ' F i r s t b o r n g i r l s c an be c r e d i t e d 13 w i t h some i n t e n t i o n a l o r i n c i d e n t a l t e a c h i n g a c t s . i^The c o n t i n g e n t query has a d o u b l e - b a r r e l l e d purpose. As a c o n t e x t u a l l y dependent speech a c t , i t responds t o t h e p r e v i o u s u t t e r a n c e . Because o f i t s i n t e r r o g a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , i t prompts t h e l i s t e n e r t o resume h e r c o n v e r s a t i o n a l t u r n . So i t a l s o has an i n i t i a t i n g f u n c t i o n . 13 ^The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g t h e t e a c h i n g of language must be r e s t r i c t e d t o f i r s t b o r n g i r l s of the age group s t u d i e d (4-5 y e a r s ) . S u t t o n - S m i t h and Rosenberg (1970:45) r e p o r t t h a t t h e p o l i t e and perhaps s t r a t e g i c t e c h n i q u e s o f ex-p l a i n i n g , a s k i n g , and t a k i n g t u r n s a r e a t t r i b u t e d o n l y t o f i r s t b o r n g i r l s (F1F, p<.05; F1M, p<.01). 178 F i r s t b o r n g i r l s seemed t o be w i l l i n g to model and show t h e l i t t l e ones what t o say and do, b u t t h e low r a n k s o f t h e i r f e edback c a t e g o r i e s , n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e , i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i r b e h a v i o r was n o t t h a t c o n t i n g e n t upon t h e younger c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s . They d i d n o t appear t o be t o o c o n c e r n e d w i t h what the seeondborn were d o i n g o r t r y i n g t o do. T h i s l a c k o f c o n c e r n showed up i n t h e secondborns' h i g h e s t r a n k e d measures ( t h a t i s , among t h e top f i v e ) . The t o p two c a t e -g o r i e s i n i t i a t e d t o p i c s ( o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s , s i n c e r e r e -q u e s t s ) . The t h i r d c a t e g o r y , c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , a t t e m p t e d t o g e t t h e f i r s t b o r n t o c l a r i f y what she had s a i d ; i t had b o t h an i n i t i a t i n g f u n c t i o n and a r e s ponse f u n c t i o n . The f o u r t h and f i f t h r a n k s f l u c t u a t e d between e g o c e n t r i c d e f i n i t i o n s , r e f l e c t i n g p r i v a t e speech, and acknowledgements, c o p y c a t k i n d s o f a c t s . S i n c e t h e f i r s t b o r n r a r e l y a s k ed i n s i n c e r e q u e s t i o n s o r c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , t h e seeondborn d i d n o t have t o r e s p o n d t o them and t h e d i a l o g u e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s were reduc e d . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r L e a r n i n g Paradigms The d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e n a t u r e of t h e s i b l i n g i n t e r -a c t i o n s and t h e m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s s u p p o r t t h e t h e o r e -t i c a l p o s i t i o n s p u t f o r t h by S u t t o n - S m i t h and Rosenberg (1970) whereby t h e y s u r m i s e t h a t t h e g e n e r a t i o n s of t h e p e o p l e i n an i n t e r a c t i o n d e t e r m i n e t h e l e a r n i n g paradigm w h i c h h o l d s t r u e f o r t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n . Namely, s i b l i n g s model a f t e r each o t h e r ( n o t e the means f o r the o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s and a c -knowledgements i n t h i s study) and c o u n t e r a c t each o t h e r ' s i n f l u e n c e (see t h e d o m i n a t i n g and s o l i d a r i t y m e asures). As w e l l as m o d e l i n g b e h a v i o r , p a r e n t s shape t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r i n c e r t a i n s y s t e m a t i c ways (note t h e means f o r t h e c o n t i n g e n t q u e r i e s , t h e i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e c o n f i r m a t i o n s , t h e l i n g u i s t i c c o r r e c t i o n s , t h e p o s i t i v e feedback, the n e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n s o f t r u t h v a l u e , and t h e s o l i d a r i t y m e asures). The f i r s t b o r n a r e i n t h e most complex l e a r n i n g s i t u a -t i o n because t h e y a r e shaped by a d u l t s and modeled a f t e r a d u l t s . They e x e r c i s e "both s u r r o g a t e and a c t u a l power o v e r l e s s p o w e r f u l s i b l i n g s " ( S u t t o n - S m i t h & Rosenberg 1 9 7 0 : 1 5 8 ) , w h i l e p r o v i d i n g a model f o r the younger s i b l i n g s and b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d i n t u r n by t h e younger s i b models. P a r t o f t h e a l l e g e d g r e a t e r v e r b a l f a c i l i t y of f i r s t b o r n s may be due t o t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t t h e y have t o l e a r n more complex com-m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s w i t h p a r e n t s and t o p r a c t i s e and model s i m p l e r e x p r e s s i o n s w i t h younger born. They must push t h e i r s k i l l s t o match t h e p a r e n t s ' c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g y e t work a t a l o w e r l e v e l o f p r o c e s s i n g t o communicate w i t h younger c h i l d r e n . To round out t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e v e r b a l i n t e r -a c t i o n s , some g e n e r a l comments about t h e t r a n s c r i p t s a r e i n c l u d e d . 180 The T r a n s c r i p t s Q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e t r a n s c r i p t s a r e mentioned because t h e y summarize the t r e n d s of t h e s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s and c o m p a r i s o n s . The m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s were r e l a t i v e l y easy t o t r a n s c r i b e . They had a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l b a s i s : mothers and t h e i r c h i l d r e n c o l l a b o r a t e d t o s t r u c t u r e d i a l o g u e s and the semantic c o h e s i v e n e s s of t h e i r t e x t s f a c i l i t a t e d t r a n -14 s c r i p t i o n . As w e l l , mothers spoke c l e a r l y and r e p e a t e d t h e i r own and t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s u t t e r a n c e s . I n c o n t r a s t , t h e s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s were d i f f i c u l t t o t r a n s c r i b e . The ' d i s c o u r s e ' was amorphous: p a i r s engaged i n p r i v a t e speech o r k e p t s i l e n t o r t a l k e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o r d e s u l t o r i l y . The p a i r s a t the upper ends o f t h e age c o n t i n u a ( t h a t i s , 3 - y e a r - o l d s t a l k i n g w i t h 5 - y e a r - o l d s ) were t h e ones who engaged i n d i a l o g u e s . The a c o u s t i c c l a r i t y f l u c t u a t e d , f o r the c h i l d r e n o f t e n t a l k e d i n u n d e r t o n e s ; most had n o t mastered t h e c o mplete p h o n o l o g i c a l i n v e n t o r y of E n g l i s h . S i n g i n g was common--often w i t h t h e wrong l y r i c s . S i b l i n g r i v a l -r y showed up o c c a s i o n a l l y i n p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n . The b e h a v i o r of t h e c h i l d r e n was h i g h l y v a r i a b l e . As e v i d e n c e d by t h e i r speech, some c h i l d r e n c o o p e r a t e d w h i l e o t h e r s i g n o r e d o r r e j e c t e d o v e r t u r e s . The e m o t i o n a l t i e s between t h e s i b l i n g s appeared t o d i f f e r w i d e l y . R e f e r t o C h apter I I I , T r a n s c r i p t i o n P r o c e d u r e s , and Appendix IV f o r d a t a on the i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y o f t h e t a p e s . 181 The t r a n s c r i p t s o f t h e s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s were much s h o r t e r t h a n t h e m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s . D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s r e g a r d i n g t h e v o l u b i l i t y and communicativeness of the t h r e e k i n d s o f f a m i l y members were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the two k i n d s o f t a s k s . The t r e n d s a r e r e p o r t e d h e r e b r i e f l y . M others t e n d e d t o produce, on t h e av e r a g e , 3 . 2 5 t i m e s as many communicative u t t e r a n c e s as t h e f i r s t b o r n d u r i n g t h e p l a y p e r i o d s and 2 . 6 5 t i m e s as many d u r i n g t h e p u z z l e p e r i o d s . The l o w e s t t o t a l number of communicative u t t e r a n c e s a d d r e s s e d to secondborn by f o u r f i r s t b o r n d u r i n g a 10-minute p l a y p e r i o d was 0, 1, 3 . and 8 u t t e r a n c e s . I n some c a s e s , the l i n g u i s t i c d a t a and p r a c t i c e p r o v i d e d by o l d e r s i b l i n g s was n e g l i g i b l e , o r , a t b e s t , haphazard. Secondborn d i d not t a l k as much w i t h t h e i r o l d e r s i s t e r s as t h e y d i d w i t h t h e i r mothers because t h e i r speech was not a c t i v e l y e l i c i t e d and t h e i r r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n o f t e n went unanswered. On t h e average, t h e secondborn a d d r e s s -ed 3.28 t i m e s as many communicative u t t e r a n c e s t o t h e i r mothers as t h e y d i d t o t h e i r o l d e r s i s t e r s d u r i n g the p l a y s e s s i o n and 2 . 3 8 t i m e s as many u t t e r a n c e s t o t h e i r mothers as t o t h e i r s i s t e r s d u r i n g t h e p u z z l e s e s s i o n . W h i l e t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t t i n g c o u l d have d e f l a t e d t h e amount of t a l k i n g between s i b l i n g s , t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s o f s i b l i n g s and p e e r s have been d e s c r i b e d e l s e -where as c o n s i s t i n g o f n o n - v e r b a l r a t h e r t h a n v e r b a l communica-t i o n (Harkness 1 9 7 7 ; B r a n n i g a n & Humphries 1972). D u r i n g t h e 182 f i r s t p i l o t s t u d y i n t h e home, the s i b l i n g s d i d n o t t a l k v e r y much w i t h each o t h e r over a 9 0-minute p e r i o d , so I do n o t r e g a r d t h e s e t t i n g as t h e c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n r e d u c i n g t h e amount of s i b l i n g speech. I p r e f e r t o i n t e r p r e t t h e low u t t e r a n c e t o t a l s o f some f i r s t b o r n and some secondborn w i t h s i b s as e v i d e n c e which s u b s t a n t i a t e s Lamb's r e c e n t f i n d i n g s (1978a,b) t h a t i n f a n t and p r e s c h o o l s i b l i n g s would r a t h e r i n t e r a c t w i t h p a r e n t s t h a n w i t h each o t h e r . """^Lamb's a r t i c l e s were p u b l i s h e d a f t e r t h e d a t a f o r the r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d h e r e were c o l l e c t e d and a n a l y z e d , hence h i s work d i d n o t i n f l u e n c e my h y p o t h e s e s . I n two s t u d i e s , Lamb ob s e r v e d 48 i n f a n t s ( a t 12 months and a t 18 months) accompanied by t h e i r s i b l i n g s ( 3 0 - 7 0 months) and p a r e n t s . The r e s e a r c h d e s i g n s c o n t r a s t e d s i b l i n g and p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s , the e f f e c t s o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f one o r two p a r e n t s , and sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e r a c t i o n s . F i v e g e n e r a l f i n d i n g s were n o t e d : 1. t h e i n f a n t s d r a m a t i c a l l y p r e f e r r e d t o i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s r a t h e r t h a n w i t h t h e i r s i b l i n g s ; 2. s i n c e b o t h i n f a n t s and o l d e r s i b l i n g s i n t e r a c t e d p r e f e r e n t i a l l y w i t h p a r e n t s r a t h e r t h a n w i t h one a n o t h e r , r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e d i r e c t i n t e r a c t i o n o c c u r r e d between s i b l i n g s ; 3 . t h e r e was more p a r e n t - c h i l d and s i b l i n g - i n f a n t i n t e r a c t i o n when o n l y one p a r e n t was p r e s e n t t h a n when b o t h were p r e s e n t ; 4. t h e r o l e s assumed by the two s i b l i n g s o f each f a m i l y were a s y m m e t r i c a l : t h e i n f a n t s watched and i m i t a t e d t h e o l d e r s i b l i n g s and took over the t o y s d i s c a r d e d by t h e o l d e r ones, whereas t h e o l d e r s i b l i n g s drew t h e i n f a n t s ' a t t e n -t i o n , a s s e r t e d dominance, o f f e r e d t o y s , and v o c a l i z e d to t h e i n f a n t s ; and 5 . o n l y one sex d i f f e r e n c e r e a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e : i n t h e second, s h o r t - t e r m l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y (1978b), t h e o l d e r g i r l s d i r e c t e d more s o c i a l b e h a v i o r s to t h e i n f a n t s t h a n t h e boys d i d . The f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t s i b l i n g s may f a c i l i t a t e m a s t ery of t h e o b j e c t environment. 183 Other q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e t r a n s c r i p t s i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : t h e l i n g u i s t i c model p r o v i d e d by-f i r s t b o r n i s o f t e n n o t s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h — t h e model i s one modus o p e r a n d i f o r l i n g u i s t i c change and c o u l d f e a s i b l y s i m p l i f y o r c o m p l i c a t e t h e language a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e s s ; t h e c a l i b r a t i o n o f r e f e r e n c e by f i r s t b o r n i s n o t as complete nor as c a r e f u l as t h a t by mothers; t h e f i r s t b o r n s ' t i m i n g seemed t o be o f f , f o r t h e y k e p t on p r o v i d i n g vague i n f o r m a -t i o n when t h e seeondborn were not r e a d y f o r i t . Summary T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e d c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between mothers and f i r s t b o r n p r e s c h o o l g i r l s as language s o c i a l i z e r s . The i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t mothers and f i r s t b o r n s i s t e r s have w i t h seeondborn boys and g i r l s d i f f e r r e m a r k a b l y i n f u n c t i o n , as i n d i c a t e d by t h e 28 s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r a s t s on t h e speech a c t measures. D e s c r i p -t i v e s t a t i s t i c s a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s d i f f e r i n i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y o f t h e speech produced and i n t h e amount o f communicative speech. The c o n t r a s t s i d e n t i f i e d have c o n s i d e r -a b l e credence as major s o u r c e s o f v a r i a n c e i n l i n g u i s t i c achievement. The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t mothers and f i r s t b o r n female s i b l i n g s p l a y d i f f e r e n t r o l e s i n t h e t e a c h i n g and e n c o u r a g i n g of language s k i l l s . 184 CONCLUSION What a r e t h e o s t e n s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o knowledge made by t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , i t s i m p o r t f o r c h i l d language r e s e a r c h , and i t s l o n g - r a n g e s i g n i f i c a n c e ? F i r s t o f a l l , t h e e m p i r i c a l p a r t o f t h e s t u d y d e t e c t e d c l e a r and s t r o n g l y - m a r k e d d i f f e r e n c e s between s i b l i n g and m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s on a wide spectrum o f v a r i a b l e s . S i n c e p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h f a i l e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h between s i b l i n g s ' and mothers* l i n g u i s t i c i n p u t , t h e mas s i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s which were d i s c o v e r e d a r e h i g h l y i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g s . We can d e f i n i t e l y c o n c l u d e t h a t p r e s c h o o l f e m a l e s i b l i n g s , i n g e n e r a l , a r e n o t as good as mothers i n s e t t i n g up o p t i m a l l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r younger s i b l i n g s . Language-l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s w i t h f i r s t b o r n s i s t e r s a r e l e s s t h a n i d e a l : speech l a c k s c l a r i t y , a m p l i t u d e , and communicativeness; i t ten d s n o t t o be c o n t i n g e n t t o the younger s i b l i n g s ' speech; the l e a r n i n g c l i m a t e v a c i l l a t e s between b e i n g r e s t r i c t i v e , a r g u m e n t a t i v e , c o e r c i v e , and s o l i c i t o u s . When f i r s t b o r n do t e a c h language c o n t e n t and use, t h e y a r e most l i k e l y t o p r o v i d e t h e names f o r o b j e c t s and t o ask and r e s p o n d to c l a r i f i c a t i o n r e q u e s t s . L a n g u a g e - l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s w i t h mothers a p p r o x i m a t e the i d e a l : communications a r e c l e a r and r e s p o n s i v e ; the l e a r n i n g c l i m a t e i s s u p p o r t i v e , a f f i r m a t i v e , and d e f e r e n t i a l . M o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e marked by h i g h r a t e s o f com-m u n i c a t i v e speech, language t e a c h i n g , and t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f language l e a r n i n g . B a s i c a l l y , s i b l i n g s a c t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h what one would expect o f bad t e a c h i n g and mothers a c t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h what one would expect o f good t e a c h i n g . Second, t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between i n t e r a c t i o n s w hich have been u n c o v e r e d a r e t h e o r e t i c a l l y v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r c h i l d language r e s e a r c h . There were v e r y s t r o n g c o n c e p t u a l r e a s o n s why t h i s s t u d y t o o k t h e m u l t i f a r i o u s d i r e c t i o n s t h a t i t d i d . The s t u d y d e l i b e r a t e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d a wide range o f v a r i a b l e s w hich might enhance o r h i n d e r language growth. A l l of the v a r i a b l e s r e v o l v e around communicative f u n c t i o n s . Now t h a t pronounced d i f f e r e n c e s between s i b l i n g s and mothers as c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p a r t n e r s have been i s o l a t e d , o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s can use the i d e n t i f i e d v a r i a b l e s t o e x p l o r e language d e v e l o p -ment i n l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s . R e s e a r c h e r s can e x p l o r e speech a c t measures as w e l l as s y n t a c t i c measures (MLU, c o u n t s o f yes/no q u e s t i o n s , c o u n t s o f d e c l a r a t i v e s e n t e n c e s , and so on). The c e l l means from t h e e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d h e r e p r o -v i d e s u g g e s t i o n s as t o which v a r i a b l e s a r e most l i k e l y t o be i m p o r t a n t . R e s e a r c h e r s can now r u n c o r r e l a t i o n s between i n d i v d u a l t y p e s o f t e a c h i n g , feedback, d o m i n a t i n g , and s o l i d a r i t y measures, and i n d i c e s of language growth. Or, i n c a s e s where e t h i c a l c o n c e r n s c a n be s a t i s f i e d , t h e y can conduct e x p e r i -ments. F o r example, i n c a s e s where c h i l d r e n a r e l i k e l y t o m a n i f e s t poor language growth (because o f m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n , l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s , o r p h y s i c a l h a n d i c a p s such as m i n i m a l h e a r i n g l o s s ) , r e s e a r c h e r s can s e t up t r e a t m e n t groups i n w h i c h p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , o r t h e r a p i s t s can be shown how t o change t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h c h i l d r e n i n a number of b e n e f i c i a l ways. Some e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s have r e p o r t e d l i n g u i s t i c im-provement i n l a n g u a g e - d e l a y e d c h i l d r e n ( c f . S c h i e f e l b u s c h & L l o y d 1 97^ ) and r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n (MacDonald, B l o t t , Gordon, S p i e g e l & Hartmann 1 9 7 4 ) f o l l o w i n g r e m e d i a t i o n programs which have i n t e r v e n e d i n t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p . The l o n g - r a n g e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n l i e s i n i t s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f t e a c h i n g . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , t h i s t r e a t i s e a t t e m p t e d t o c l a r i f y t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f what c o n s t i t u t e s t e a c h i n g , namely, t h e d i s p l a y o f i n f o r m a t i o n or p r o c e d u r e s i n a manner which i s i n t e l l i g i b l e t o t h e l e a r n e r . I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s t r e a t i s e a t t e m p t e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f good t e a c h i n g , namely, c l e a r d i s p l a y s w h i c h a r e c o n t i n g e n t t o t h e l e a r n e r ' s a c t i o n s , r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e l e a r n e r ' s l e v e l o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and p o s i t i v e i n a f f e c t . The e m p i r i c a l p a r t o f t h e s t u d y e x p l o r e d t h e n a t u r e o f i n f o r m a l t e a c h i n g i n a r e l a t i v e l y n a t u r a l i s t i c s e t t i n g ; i t documented the h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f m a t e r n a l language t e a c h i n g a c t s i n everyday l i f e . S i n c e t h e r e i s no d i s c o n t i n u i t y between c l a r i f y -i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n d a i l y c o n v e r s a t i o n s and i n f o r m a l t e a c h i n g , many i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e p a s t have n o t even r e c o g n i z e d t h a t o n - t h e - s p o t t e a c h i n g i s t a k i n g p l a c e . The t h e o r y o f language development espoused h e r e i s midway between n a t i v i s t and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p o s i t i o n s : i t i s based on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t both i n b o r n and e n v i r o n m e n t a l 18? f a c t o r s a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e growth o f communicative com-pe t e n c e . However, t h i s t r e a t i s e o b v i o u s l y c o n t r a v e n e s t h e n a t i v i s t n o t i o n t h a t 'language i s l e a r n e d but n o t t a u g h t ' . W h i l e t h e t r e a t i s e does not attempt t o r e f u t e t h e n a t i v i s t c l a i m t h a t mere exposure t o language i n some m i n i m a l c o n t e x t i s adequate f o r language development, i t does presume t h a t some i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e b e t t e r t h a n o t h e r s i n f o s t e r i n g language development t h r o u g h o u t c h i l d h o o d . The t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n t a k e n h e r e r e g a r d i n g language l e a r n i n g has c l e a r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r speech t h e r a p y programs and e d u c a t i o n . 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F o r m a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f speech w h i c h mothers a d d r e s s t o t h e i r young c h i l d r e n . U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n . John Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 0 . 197 P h i l l i p s , J.R. S y n t a x and v o c a b u l a r y of mothers' speech t o young c h i l d r e n : Age and sex compari s o n s . C h i l d  Development, 1 9 7 3 , 44> 1 8 2 - 1 8 5 . P i a g e t , J . The language and thought o f t h e c h i l d . New York: H a r c o u r t B r a c e , 1 9 2 6 . P i n e o , P.C. & P o r t e r , J . O c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e i n Canada. Can a d i a n Review o f S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y , 1 9 6 7 , 4, 24-40. R a r d i n , J . The language t e a c h e r as f a c i l i t a t o r . TESOL Q u a r t e r -ly., 1 9 7 7 , 11 ( 4 ) , 3 8 3 - 3 8 8 . Ross, J.R. On d e c l a r a t i v e s e n t e n c e s . I n R o d e r i c k A. J a c o b s & P e t e r S. Rosenbaum, eds., Readings i n E n g l i s h t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n a l grammar. Waltham, Mass.: Gi n n & Co. 1 9 7 0 , 2 2 2 - 2 7 2 . Sachs, J . The a d a p t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f l i n g u i s t i c i n p u t t o p r e l i n g u i s t i c i n f a n t s . I n C E . Snow & C.A. Fe r g u s o n , eds., T a l k i n g t o c h i l d r e n : Language i n p u t and a c q u i -s i t i o n . London: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 , 5 1 - 6 1 . Sachs, J . & D e v i n , J . Young c h i l d r e n ' s knowledge o f age-a p p r o p r i a t e speech s t y l e s . Paper p r e s e n t e d a t t h e L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y of A m e r i c a , December, 1 9 7 3 -. Young c h i l d r e n ' s use o f a g e - a p p r o p r i a t e speech s t y l e s . J o u r n a l o f C h i l d Language, 1 9 7 6 , _3_, 8 1 - 9 8 . S a v i c , Svenka. M o t h e r - c h i l d v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n : t h e f u n c t i o n -i n g of c o m p l e t i o n s i n the t w i n s i t u a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f C h i l d Language, 1 9 7 9 , 6 , 1 5 3 - 1 5 8 . S c h i e f e l b u s c h , R. & L l o y d , L., eds. Language p e r s p e c t i v e s -A c q u i s i t i o n , r e t a r d a t i o n and i n t e r v e n t i o n . London: M a c m i l l a n , 19W. S e a r l e , John R. What i s a speech a c t ? I n M. B l a c k , ed., P h i l o s o p h y i n Am e r i c a . A l l e n & Unwin and C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 , 2 2 1 - 2 3 9 . . Speech a c t s An essay i n the p h i l o s o p h y o f language. London: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 . S h a t z , M. & Gelman, R. The development o f communication s k i l l s : M o d i f i c a t i o n s i n the speech of young c h i l d r e n as a f u n c t i o n o f l i s t e n e r . Monographs o f t h e S o c i e t y f o r Re s e a r c h i n C h i l d Development, 1 9 7 3 , ^8 ( 5 , S e r i a l No. 1 5 2 ) . . Beyond s y n t a x : The i n f l u e n c e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l con-s t r a i n t s on speech m o d i f i c a t i o n s . I n C.E. Snow & C.A. Fer g u s o n , eds., T a l k i n g t o c h i l d r e n : Language i n p u t  and a c q u i s i t i o n . London: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 , 189-198. 198 S l o b i n , D.I. Comments on "Developmental P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s . " In Frank Smith & George A. M i l l e r , eds., The genesis  of language A p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c approach. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1966, 85-91. . Questions of language development i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Working Paper #14, Language Behavior Re-search Laboratory, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, 1 9 6 9 . . On the nature of t a l k to c h i l d r e n . In E. Lenneberg & E. Lenneberg, eds., Foundations of language develop-ment : A m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y approach. Volume 1. New York: Academic Press, 1 9 7 5 , 2 8 3 - 2 9 7 . Snow, C.E. Mothers' speech to c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g language. C h i l d Development, 1 9 7 2 , 4 C 5 4 9 - 5 6 5 . . Mothers' speech research: from input to i n t e r a c t i o n . In C.E. Snow & CA. Ferguson, eds., T a l k i n g to c h i l d r e n : Language input and a c q u i s i t i o n . London: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 7 7 , 3 1 - 4 9 . Snow, C.E. & Ferguson, CA., eds. T a l k i n g to c h i l d r e n : Language input and a c q u i s i t i o n . London: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 7 7 -Sutton-Smith, B. & Rosenberg, B.G. The s i b l i n g . New York: H o l t , Rinehart & Winston, 1 9 7 0 . Templin, M.C C e r t a i n language s k i l l s i n c h i l d r e n : Their  development and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Minneapolis: U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota Press, 1 9 5 7 -Thew, C. Theories about l i n g u i s t i c i nput. Paper given a t the Western Conference on L i n g u i s t i c s , October, 1 9 7 5 -Tonkova-Yampol'skaya, R.V. Development of speech i n t o n a t i o n i n i n f a n t s during the f i r s t two years of l i f e . In C.A. Ferguson & D.I. S l o b i n , eds., Studies of c h i l d language  development. New York: H o l t , Rinehart & Winston, 1 9 7 3 , 128 - 138 . Turner, Geoffrey & Mohan, B.A. A l i n g u i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n and  computer pro gram f o r c h i l d r e n ' s speech. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1 9 7 0 . V o r s t e r , J . Mommy l i n g u i s t : the case f o r motherese. Lingua, 1 9 7 5 , 21. 281 - 312 . Waterhouse, Lynn H. C h i l d language research methodology. Paper given at the F i r s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress f o r the Study of C h i l d Language, August, 1 9 7 8 , Japan. Whitehurst, Grover J . & Vasta, Ross. I s language acquired through i m i t a t i o n ? J o u r n a l of P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c Re-search, 1 9 7 5 , 4 , 3 7 - 5 9 . Winer, B.J. S t a t i s t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s i n experimental design. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1 9 6 2 . 1 9 9 APPENDIX I TYPICAL NOTICE SENT TO THE PRESCHOOL DIRECTORS ATTENTION: PARENTS WITH CHILDREN AGED 4-5 YEARS AND Z-ZJ YEARS I f you speak E n g l i s h and have a dau g h t e r ( 4 - 5 y e a r s o l d , f i r s t b o r n ) and a younger c h i l d (2-2-g- y e a r s o l d , boy o r g i r l ) , we i n v i t e you t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n one r e s e a r c h s t u d y on c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g and i n t e r a c t i o n s a t UBC. T h i s r e s e a r c h i s now i n p r o g r e s s and w i l l be c o n t i n u i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e m a i n d e r o f May and t h e f i r s t p a r t o f June. We would l i k e t h e mother o f t h e f a m i l y and t h e two c h i l d r e n t o v i s i t our p l e a s a n t c l i n i c a t UBC once. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e i f t h a t poses a problem. The r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v e s t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e two c h i l d r e n i n a s h o r t p l a y s e s s i o n and t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e mother and t h e younger c h i l d . V i d e o t a p e s and a u d i o t a p e s a r e made of t h e s e s s i o n s which do not exceed f o r t y m i n u t e s . I t has been our p o l i c y t o show t h e f a m i l i e s t h e v i d e o -t a p e s d i r e c t l y a f t e r t h e t a p i n g . A s h o r t r e p o r t on t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y w i l l be sent t o p a r t i c i p a t i n g f a m i l i e s . S i n c e a l a r g e sample o f f a m i l i e s i s r e q u i r e d , we urge f a m i l i e s t o v o l u n t e e r . Over tw e n t y f a m i l i e s a r e a l r e a d y i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y . More t h a n t e n have been t a p e d . The c h i l d r e n have e n j o y e d t h e new t o y s . I f you a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h , you may c o n t a c t me a t ... ( S i g n a t u r e ) APPENDIX I I 200 FAMILY DATA SHEET F a m i l y name: A d d r e s s : Telephone number: R e f e r r a l : F i r s t b o r n c h i l d name: b i r t h d a t e : sex: Seeondborn c h i l d name: b i r t h d a t e : sex: T h i r d b o r n c h i l d ( i f r e l e v a n t ) b i r t h d a t e : sex: F a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n : F a t h e r ' s e d u c a t i o n a l background: number of y e a r s of f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g : Grade 8, h i g h s c h o o l , t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l , c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y Mother's o c c u p a t i o n : Mother's e d u c a t i o n a l background: number o f y e a r s o f f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g : Grade 8, h i g h s c h o o l , t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l , c o l l e g e , n u r s i n g , u n i v e r s i t y Mother's age: 2 0 - 2 4 , 2 5 - 2 9 , 3 0 - 3 4 , 3 5 - 3 9 , 4 0 - 4 4 I s E n g l i s h t h e o n l y language spoken i n t h e home? What o t h e r l a n g u a g e s do you speak i n t h e home? Have your c h i l d r e n a t t e n d e d daycare c e n t r e s ? I f y e s , f o r how long? Have your c h i l d r e n a t t e n d e d p r e s c h o o l , n u r s e r y s c h o o l o r p l a y s c h o o l ? I f y e s , i s t h e p l a y s c h o o l t h a t y o ur c h i l d a t t e n d s a "parent p a r t i c i p a t i o n " o r " c o - o p e r a t i v e " p l a y s c h o o l ? Has t h e f a m i l y p h y s i c i a n n o t e d any speech o r h e a r i n g problems? I n t h e mother's o p i n i o n , have t h e c h i l d r e n been d e v e l o p i n g a t a normal pace ( t e e t h i n g , c r a w l i n g , w a l k i n g , and s o c i a l d e v e l o p -ment)? 201 APPENDIX I I I DATA COLLECTION D e t a i l s o f t h e s e t t i n g , t o y s , p u z z l e s , and p r o c e d u r e s were v e r y i m p o r t a n t because o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n : t h e s i b l i n g s were t o amuse t h e m s e l v e s f o r a 1 0-minute p l a y s e s s i o n and a f i v e - m i n u t e p u z z l e s e s s i o n w i t h o u t any a d u l t s on t h e scene. D e t a i l s a r e r e p o r t e d here i n case o t h e r s would l i k e t o tape v e r y young c h i l d r e n a l o n e w i t h each o t h e r i n s t r a n g e s e t t i n g s . They a r e a l s o r e p o r t e d t o i n d i c a t e why we had a good t r a c k r e c o r d i n r e t a i n i n g f a m i l i e s w i t h complete r o s t e r s o f s c o r e s . I n f o r m a t i o n about t h e r e s e a r c h equipment and p e r -s o n n e l i s a l s o s p e c i f i e d . The S e t t i n g The s e t t i n g was a l a r g e c a r p e t e d room f l a n k e d on one s i d e by two d o o r s , on t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e by cupboards and s t e p s l e a d i n g up t o a s i n k , and on two o p p o s i n g s i d e s by draped, one-way m i r r o r s below which were walk-on l e d g e s . M i r r o r , f a n s , l i g h t s , and a microphone boom were overhead. The f u r n i t u r e i n c l u d e d two t a b l e s l a d e n w i t h t o y s and two microphones, two c o r d s , an a d u l t - s i z e d c h a i r , and f o u r c h i l d - s i z e d c h a i r s - - t w o wooden s t a c k i n g c h a i r s , a r o c k i n g c h a i r , and a w i c k e r c h a i r . The room was s e t up i n as i n t e r e s t i n g , c o m f o r t a b l e , and s a f e a way as p o s s i b l e , g i v e n t h e c l i n i c a l s e t t i n g . 202 The Toys The t o y s c o n s i s t e d o f a F i s h e r - P r i c e A-frame house complete w i t h f a t h e r , mother, t w i n g i r l s , hoy, baby, cowboy ( f i r e m a n ) , dog, two c a r s , l a d d e r , d o o r b e l l , p i c n i c t a b l e , k i t c h e n t a b l e , two benches, barbecue, two l o u n g e c h a i r s , couch, t e l e v i s i o n s e t , washer and d r y e r , sewing machine, bunk beds, c l o t h f o r b e d d i n g , b a t h t u b , s i n k , t o i l e t , bathroom s c a l e s , s t r o l l e r , c r a d l e , and c h a n g i n g t a b l e ; s t a c k i n g b a r r e l s , a xylophone and p i a n o ; a s t u f f e d monkey and a l a r g e Humpty Dumpty; two b l o c k s w i t h b e l l s ; one r e d and one b l u e t e l e p h o n e ; two b o o k s — B a m b i , a ' s c r a t c h and s m e l l ' book, and The O l d West, a pop-up book w i t h movable p a r t s . P u z z l e s and P u z z l e I n s t r u c t i o n s The P u z z l e s , F a m i l i a r T h i n g s #2113 ( c o m m e r c i a l l y p r o -duced by L a u r i , I n c . o f P h i l l i p s - A v o n , Maine, 0 4 Q 6 6 ) , were made of foam r u b b e r ( r e d , b l u e , green, y e l l o w ) and came i n 16 s i m p l e shapes: a p p l e , b e a r , b i r d , boy, b u t t e r f l y , c a r , c a t , dog, f i s h , f l o w e r , g i r l , house, p l a n e , t r e e , and t r i c y c l e . The dog shape was u s e d as t h e example i n a l l o f t h e p u z z l e i n s t r u c -t i o n s ; t h e r e m a i n i n g s i x p u z z l e s f o r each p a i r p e r f a m i l y were s e l e c t e d a t random w i t h o u t r e p l a c e m e n t . I t was d i f f i c u l t t o word t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s e x a c t l y i n t h e s i b l i n g and m o t h e r - c h i l d p u z z l e t r i a l s , s i n c e s t a t u s o f a d d r essee a f f e c t s use o f modals, use of g r a m m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s d i f f e r i n g i n p o l i t e n e s s , and p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s p r e sumably s h a r e d 20 3 by speaker and a d d r e s s e e . G e n e r a l l y , t h e form o f t h e i n s t r u c -t i o n u sed w i t h t h e f i r s t b o r n was a r e s t r i c t e d p e r m i s s i o n s t a t e -ment ("You can") c o u p l e d w i t h a r e q u e s t i n i m p e r a t i v e form ( " T e l l , " "You t e l l " ) but t h e form used w i t h mothers was a r e q u e s t i n i n t e r r o g a t i v e form ("Would you t e l l . . . " ) . I n p i l o t work, when t h e f i r s t b o r n were q u e r i e d on t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o e x p l a i n t h e t a s k ( " W i l l you..." "Would y o u . . . " ) , t h e y s t a t e d t h a t t h e y were n o t w i l l i n g ("Not now" o r " I don't wanna"). To reduce t h e i r say i n t h e m a t t e r , t h e y were bestowed w i t h impera-t i v e s . M o t h e r s , on t h e o t h e r hand, were presumed t o be w i l l i n g p a r t n e r s . They were a l s o n o t i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e p u z z l e s were o n l y f o r t h e i r secondborn. The i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the p u z z l e t a s k s f o l l o w e d t h i s f o r m u l a i n t h e s i b l i n g s e s s i o n s : "Here a r e some p u z z l e s t o do. Can you see t h i s dog? The dog goes w i t h t h e dog shape. ( f i r s t b o r n c h i l d ' s name), t h e s e p u z z l e s a r e f o r (secondborn c h i l d ' s name) t o do. But you c a n t e l l him/her what t o do. You t e l l him/her what t o do." The f i r s t b o r n were r e m a r k a b l y adept a t engaging t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n c o n v e r s a t i o n s ; t h e y o f t e n b o a s t e d about t h e i r own accomplishments and downgraded t h e a b i l i t i e s o f t h e i r young-er s i b l i n g s . The p o l i c y o f d e l i v e r i n g t h e f o r m u l a i c i n s t r u c -t i o n s , g i v i n g n o n - c o m m i t t a l r e p l i e s ("Mhm"), and l e a v i n g t h e room w i t h i n a 3 0-second time l a p s e was o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o c a r r y out. 204 G e n e r a l P r o c e d u r e s As t h e c h i l d r e n were v e r y young and l i k e l y t o r e a c t t o t h e s t r a n g e n e s s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , we a t t e m p t e d t o p u t them a t ease by a d d r e s s i n g them by name, knowing t h e i r e x a c t ages and b i r t h d a y s , and t a l k i n g w i t h t h e i r mothers i n a f r i e n d l y , r e -l a x e d way. We f o l l o w e d a format o f h a n g i n g up t h e i r wraps by t h e p l a y room and c o f f e e c o r n e r , so t h a t t h e y were s e c u r e i n knowing where t h e i r garments and t h e i r mothers were. I n t h e r e c e p t i o n a r e a w h i c h was v e r y p l e a s a n t and r e s e m b l e d t h a t o f a w e l l - o u t f i t t e d m e d i c a l o f f i c e , t h e r e was a c o n s t a n t box o f t o y s (a l a r g e s t u f f e d Snoopy, p u p p e t s , s t a c k i n g c u p s ) . C o p i e s o f Sesame S t r e e t magazines and a m a g n i f y i n g g l a s s s e t i n t o a t h r e e - l e g g e d s t o o l a t t r a c t e d t h e c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t . W h i l e t h e mother and secondborn were b e i n g t a p e d , i t was customary f o r t h e r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t t o t a k e t h e f i r s t b o r n a f l i g h t u p s t a i r s t o see t h e s c i e n c e d i s p l a y s — t h e l i v e i g u a n a , q u a i l , and a n i m a l s i n t h e aquarium. F o r t h o s e f a m i l i e s who t r a v e l l e d t o g e t h e r (two a t a t i m e ) , we p r o v i d e d a t r i c y c l e and a r i d i n g h o r s e c a l l e d 'Marvel t h e Mustang' f o r t h e c h i l d r e n t o r i d e on o u t s i d e . The c h i l d r e n were s e r v e d a p p l e j u i c e and t h e mothers t e a or c o f f e e . The r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s were n o t aware o f t h e p u r p o s e s of t h e r e s e a r c h . 205 Equipment and R e s e a r c h Team The v i d e o t a p e camera, a VCM 2000 Sanyo, w i t h a Sony 1 2 . 5 - 7 5 m.m. zoom l e n s , f 1 / 1 . 8 , was c o n n e c t e d t o a Sanyo tapedeck Model VTR - 2000 and a S e n n h e i s e r microphone, Model 421-U - 4 . Sony (V - 3 2 and V - 30H ) v i d e o t a p e s were used. The t a p e r e c o r d e r was an UHER 4000 R e p o r t - L c o n n e c t e d by an a d a p t -er t o an AKG Model D202 E l microphone ( s e t t o p i c k up t h e c h i l d r e n ' s h i g h f r e q u e n c i e s ) . The r e e l - t o - r e e l t a p e s were Ampex 6 31 i " x 6 0 0 ' p r o f e s s i o n a l t a p e s (24 o f t h e s e ) and S c o t c h brand pro-pack 176 Low N o i s e ^ ' x 6 0 0 ' magnetic t a p e s (2 o f t h e s e ) . The r e c o r d i n g speed was s e t a t 3 3/4 i n c h e s p e r second. The d a t a c o l l e c t i o n team c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e p e o p l e : the p r o f e s s i o n a l cameraman, th e a u t h o r ( r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r e s and t h e a u d i o t a p i n g ) , and t h e r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t ( r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making t h e f i r s t b o r n and t h e mother f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e when t h e y were n o t b e i n g t a p e d ) . The d a t a a n a l y s i s team a l s o i n c l u d e d s t u d e n t s who checked t h e t a l l i e s o f t h e measures and c o u n t e d u t t e r a n c e f r e q u e n c i e s , a computer programmer, and numerous c o n s u l t a n t s from t h e computer s c i e n c e department. APPENDIX IV 206 INTELLIGIBILITY OF THE TAPES I n t e l l i g i b i l i t y s t a t i s t i c s were e s t i m a t e d f o r t h e e n t i r e s e t o f p r o t o c o l s ; t h e y gauge t h e a c o u s t i c ' c l e a n n e s s ' of t h e sample and t h e e x t e n s i v e t i m e t h a t was d e v o t e d t o t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s . The b e s t e s t i m a t e o f t h e t o t a l number o f u t t e r a n c e s v o c a l i z e d i n t h e e n t i r e s e t of p r o t o c o l s was 20,062. Two f i r s t b o r n t a l k e d t o themselves s o t t o voce, so o n l y guesses of t h e i r u t t e r a n c e t o t a l s c o u l d be made u s i n g i n t o n a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s . W h i l e t h e u t t e r a n c e t o t a l s f o r t h e o t h e r s p e a k e r s were c o u n t e d r e l i a b l y (a team o f t h r e e s t u d e n t s checked and r e c h e c k e d t h o s e d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s and t h e a u t h o r went over them a g a i n t h o r o u g h l y ) , t h e t o t a l number of u t t e r a n c e s r e m a i n s an e s t i m a t e , s u b j e c t t o a m a r g i n o f measurement e r r o r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h a t t o t a l was used t o e s t i m a t e i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y s t a t i s t i c s . I n s p i t e o f t h e v a r y i n g a c o u s t i c c l a r i t y o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s speech, p r i v a t e and s o c i a l , and i n s p i t e o f t h e i r d e v i a n t p h onology, a l m o s t 93$ o f t h e u t t e r a n c e s o f t h e sample were i n t e l l i g i b l e i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y . S t r i c t c r i t e r i a f o r i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y were employed: i f a s y l l a b l e i n an u t t e r a n c e was not p e r c e p t i b l e o r i f a c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e c o u l d n o t be r e n d e r e d i n p h o n e t i c s , t h a t u t t e r a n c e was deemed t o be un-i n t e l l i g i b l e . (The r e a d e r s h o u l d keep i n mind t h a t a h y p o t h -e s i s r e g a r d i n g i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e can be formed even when an 207 u t t e r a n c e i s n ot t o t a l l y I n t e l l i g i b l e . ) The mothers' speech tended t o be al m o s t p e r f e c t l y i n t e l l i g i b l e - - 9 7 . 7 2 $ i n the p l a y t i m e and 9 8 . 4 0 $ i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e . The c h i l d r e n ' s speech ranged c o n s i d e r a b l y i n i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y . On t h e average, t h e secondborns' speech was 8 1 . 2 6 $ i n t e l l i g i b l e w i t h s i b l i n g s i n t h e p l a y t i m e and 8 7 . 5 2 $ i n t e l l i g i b l e , i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e . T h e i r speech was 94 .16$ i n t e l l i g i b l e w i t h mothers i n t h e p l a y t i m e and 9 4 . 2 0 $ i n t e l l i g i b l e , i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e . The f i r s t b o r n s ' speech was d e c i p h e r a b l e f o r 8 4 . 1 6 $ of t h e u t t e r a n c e s I n t h e p l a y t i m e and f o r 9 1 . 2 1 $ , i n t h e p u z z l e t i m e . I n t e l l i g i b i l i t y o f u t t e r a n c e s was t h u s a f u n c t i o n o f age, p a r t n e r , and t a s k . The secondborns' u t t e r a n c e s were more i n t e l l i g i b l e w i t h mothers t h a n w i t h f i r s t b o r n . A l l spe a k e r s were more u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i n t h e f o c u s s e d p u z z l e s e s s i o n t h a n i n t h e u n s t r u c t u r e d p l a y s e s s i o n . An i n c r e a s e i n t h e i n c i d e n c e of p r i v a t e speech r e s u l t e d i n t h e l o s s of d e c i p h e r a b i l i t y ; an i n c r e a s e i n t h e i n c i d e n c e o f communicative speech would r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s e i n i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y . I f t h e 1 8 , 2 5 7 u t t e r a n c e s judged t o be communicative were s c o r e d f o r i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y , t h e gauges would be more a c c u r a t e t h a n t h o s e s t i p u l a t e d above and t h e i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y p e r c e n t a g e s would i n c r e a s e f o r a l l p a r t n e r and t a s k c o n d i t i o n s . 

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