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Japanese schools overseas : their development and a case study of a supplementary school in Vancouver,.. Ota, Midori 1988

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JAPANESE SCHOOLS OVERSEAS: THEIR DEVELOPMENT AND A CASE STUDY OF A SUPPLEMENTARY SCHOOL IN VANCOUVER, CANADA by MIDORI OTA A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Social and Educational Studies We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 30 March 1988 © Midori Ota, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date DE-6(3/81) ABSTRACT The number of Japanese students who experience overseas schooling is increaing. After a few years overseas, these children accompanied by their families return to Japan. Because of serious schooling competition and exclusive social climate against foreginers and returnees, those children sometimes find it extremely difficult to readjust to the Japanese school and society. One of the reasons for this condition lie in misconceptions about the returnees and the lack of concern by school teachers in Japan. Concurrently, teachers in local schools overseas have some difficulty understanding the situation and needs of their Japanese students who temporarily stay in their schools. This thesis discusses the background of Japanese overseas schools, and reviews governmental documentations on these institutions. It investigates a case study of the Vancouver Hoshu Jugyo Kou, a supplementary Saturday school. Survey questionnaires were administered to 99 students in Grades 4 to 9 in this school, interviews were conducted with the principal, twelve mothers, a consulate from Japan, and ESL specialists of the Vancouver School Board. The HJK school report in 1986-7 has been analyzed. Study findings indicated the distincitve role of the HJK for Japanese students in Vancouver and the particularities of its locating in the Vancouver Japanese community. Some suggestions for the future development of overseas Japanese schools are examined. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ii LIST OF FIGURES . vi LIST OF TABLES viACKNOWLEDGEMENT ix I. INTRODUCTION 1 A. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 B. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AND ITS RATIONALE 2 C. PURPOSES OF THE STUDY 7 D. DEFINITION OF TERMS 8 E. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 11 1. Research Developments2. The Development of Cultural Identity 13 3. Socialization and Schooling Patterns 4 F. ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS 18 II. EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO 2A. INTRODUCTION 2B. BACKGROUND 5 1. Japanese Population Overseas 22. Expanding Overseas Workforce 6 3. Increased Kaigai Shijyo and Kikoku Shijyo 28 4. Features of Kaigai Shijyo 30 5. Educational Options for Kaigai Shijyo 31 6. Legal Status of Japanese Schools Overseas 34 C. JAPANESE SCHOOL OVERSEAS 36 1. History of Japanese School Overseas 32. Different Types of Japanese Schools 8 3. Organization of Japanese Schools 41 a. Administration 4b. Students 2 c. Teachers 3 d. Curriculum 4 e. Textbooks 4D. DEVELOPMENT OF GOVERNMENTAL POLICIES AND OTHER SERVICES1. Governmental Perspectives on Education for Kaigai Shijyo .... 44 2. Budget for Overseas Japanese Schools 45 3. Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Shinkou Zaidan 7 4. Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Center 48 E. JAPANESE SCHOOLS IN CANADA1. Local Community and Japanese Schools in Canada 48 2. Hoshu Jyugyo Kou (HJK) in Canada 50 F. SUMMARY 52 iii III. METHODOLOGY 57 A. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 5B. DATA COLLECTION METHODOLOGY 59 1. Outline2. Investigation of Publications 60 3. Personal Contacts 64. Questionnaire 1 5. Interviews 3 a. The Principal of the Vancouver HJK 6b. Teachers 6c. Mothers 4 d. The Japanese Consulate in Vancouver 65 e. ESL Specialists from the Vancouver School Board 66 C. SUMMARY 6IV. RESULTS OF THE STUDY 69 A. INTRODUCTIONB. SCHOOLING PROVISION FOR JAPANESE STUDENTS IN B.C. .. 70 C. DEVELOPMENT OF THE VANCOUVER HJK 72 1. Japanese Companies in Vancouver2. Brief Outline of the Vancouver HJK 75 D. PROFILE OF THE VANCOUVER HJK 6 1. The Organization of the Vancouver HJK 72. Purpose of the Vancouver HJK 77 3. Enrollment Procedure 74. School Facilities 9 5. Students 80 6. Finance7. Teachers 1 8. Curriculum 3 E. RESULTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE 85 1. Profile of HJK Students 86 2. The Attitude Towards the New Environment 89 3. English Language Fluency 90 4. Canadian School Life 5 5. After-School in Canada 7 6. Life at HJK 107. Impressions of Living in B.C 105 F. SUMMARY 109 V. CONCLUSION 114 A. INTRODUCTION 11B. SUMMARY OF THE STUDY 111. Overview2. HJK as a Psychological Stabilizer 117 3. Discriminatory Feature of the Vancouver HJK 118 C. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR JAPANESE SCHOOLS OVERSEAS ... 122 1. Introduction 122. Open-School Model 124 3. Some Recommendations for the Vancouver HJK 125 iv 4. Recommendations for the Vancouver School Board 127 D. SUMMARY 128 Appendix I : Survey (English Translation) 132 Appendix II : Survey (Original in Japanese) 14Appendix III: The Result of Survey 151 Appendix IV: Japanese - English Glossary 166 References 169 v LIST OF FIGURES Title page Figure 2-1: Number of Japanese Overseas 26 Figure 2-2: Location of Choki Taizaisha (1984) 7 Figure 2-3: Number of Kaigai Shijyo (Elementary + Junior High) 28 Figure 2-4: Number of Children Returning to Japan 29 Figure 2-5: World Distribution of Kaigai Shijyo (1985) 33 Figure 2-6: Schooling Distribution of Kaigai Shijyo (1985) 35 Figure 2-7: Number of Japanese Schools Overseas 39 Figure 2-8: Budget for Overseas Japanese Schools 46 Figure 4-1: Number of Japanese Companies in Vancouver 73 Figure 4-2: Growth of Japanese Population in Vancouver 74 Figure 4-3: Enrollment of Japanese Students at Vancouver HJK 76 Figure 4-4: Organization of the Vancouver HJK 78 Figure 4-5: Number of Students in Vancouver HJK (1987) 81 Figure 4-6: Percentage of HJK students Taking Private English Lessons vs. Length of Residence in Canada 101 Figure 4-7: HJK Students Desire to Return to Japan vs. Length of Residence in Canada 108 Figure 5-1: Structure of Japanese Schools in Vancouver (1987) 120 vi LIST OF TABLES Title page Table 2-1: Japanese Schools in the World (1986) 38 Table 2-2: Population of Japanese in Canada (1985) 49 Table 2-3: HJKs and their Enrolment in Canada (1986) 51 Table 4-1: School Fees (1987) 82 Table 4-2: Teaching Subjects and Weekly Teaching Periods (1987) 84 Table 4-3: Number of Students Sampled 85 Table 4-4: Residential Distribution of HJK Students (1986) 87 Table 4-5: Length of Stay in B.C 88 Table 4-6: Cross Tabulation: Communication vs. Length of Stay in B.C 91 Table 4-7: Cross Tabulation: Language Preference vs. Length of Stay 92 Table 4-8: Cross Tabulation: Grade at HJK vs. Number of Japanese Books Read : 94 Table 4-9: Cross Tabulation: HJK Grade vs. English Books Read 95 Table 4-10: Cross Tabulation: English vs. Japanese Books Read ...96 Table 4-11: Cross Tabulation: Feeling Left Out vs. Length of Stay 97 Table 4-12: Cross Tabulation: Canadian Friends vs. Length of Stay 98 Table 4-13: Cross Tabulation: Lessons vs. Length of Stay 99 Table 4-14: Cross Tabulation: HJK Grade vs. Correspondence Course 100 Table 4-15: Cross Tabulation: Left Out vs. Length of Stay 102 Table 4-16: Cross Tabulation: Left Out vs. Gender 103 Table 4-17: Cross Tabulation: School Work in HJK vs. Length of Stay in B.C. 105 vii Table 4-18: Cross Tabulation: HJK Grade vs. HJK attendence 106 Table 4-19: Cross Tabulation: Gender vs.. Attitude towards HJK 107 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am very grateful to Dr. Vincent D'Oyley and Dr. Jean Berman of the Social and Educational Studies Department, and Dr. Doug J. Willms of the Educational Psychology Department, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia, for their continued academic guidance and warm assistance during preparation of this thesis. I am also thankful to the students and mothers of the Vancouver Hoshu Jyugyo Kou who participated in this investigation, the principal Mr. Nobuaki Ishihara of the Vancouver HJK who provided governmental documentations and useful suggestions. All teachers and staff helped and encouraged me. Also special thanks are due to Mr. Hironobu Yamaoka, MITSUI & CO. (CANADA) LTD., for assisting with access to the Japanese families with Kaigai Shijyo. I also thank my friends who shared my time at UBC and in Vancouver. Especially I am grateful to Madoka, Jaclyn, Mamiko, and Peter for a variety of assistance and encouragement. Without their support, I could not finish this work on schedule. And, of course, from Japan the great encouragement of my family (Father Hirooki, brother Kou, and Mother Kyoko) remains invaluable. I respect and love them always. ix I. INTRODUCTION A. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM One of the recent interests in the field of international and cross-cultural education in Japan is the development of schooling for Japanese children growing up outside Japan and their subsequent acculturation or re-acculturation upon their re-entry into the Japanese school system and Japanese society. Many studies on the process of socialization and the development of personality in cross-cultural settings are proceeding. An increasing number of school-age children are leaving and returning to Japan annually. It is important for professionals in Japan to have a good knowledge and understanding of the realities of schooling of these children overseas in order to resolve difficulties which often occur during the re-acculturation period. Canada is a country which claims to be applying multiculturalism in its national policy. In this country, ethnic schools are accepted as an instrument for maintaining the heritage language and culture. According to the study of D'Oyley, Willms, and Ota, there were 13 Japanese schools in Vancouver B.C. 1 The study found that one of them had different goals from the others. It was a Nihongo Hoshu Gakkou (Japanese Language School) serving the children of Japanese businessmen temporarily staying in Vancouver. This supplementary school served 204 Japanese students, aged six to eighteen, in 1987. 2 Those students attended this supplementary school every Saturday, as well as a Canadian public or private school on weekdays. 1 INTRODUCTION / 2 This study examines the policy and operations of this supplementary school and the perspectives of the students, parents and staff in order to portray life of the Japanese children growing up overseas. These children temporarily staying overseas are assumed to be struggling with language barriers at their local school and suffering from pressures to prepare for re-entry into school in Japan; that is, to maintain academic levels with their counterparts in Japan. Topics to be discussed in this thesis include a history and development of Japanese schools overseas in post World War II, a case study of the goals and the curricula at the Japanese supplementary school in Vancouver; its purpose, operation, and policies, and the attitudes of students and parents of this school toward their two schools; a Canadian local school and a Japanese supplementary school. B. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AND ITS RATIONALE Most industrial countries have experienced a radical development in technology and communication since the late 1950's. As a result, productivity has increased and international trading has become more active. The index of the total gross amount of export in the world expanded 33 times by 1980 compared with 1950. 3 This indicates the increased "economic interdependence" " between countries, which means there are constant exchanges of: (1) natural resources, energy, food, goods, (2) finance, investments, (3) communication, high technology and (4) human resources (e.g., businessmen, bankers, engineers, workers, students, diplomats). 5 Japan is one of the countries which has experienced radical economic growth and INTRODUCTION / 3 must trade with other countries in order to survive. McKeating wrote: Japan, nearly void of natural resources, save her great number of highly skilled and motivated workers, remains a delicately balanced system dependant on foreign markets for her economic and social survival. 6 The gross national product of Japan in 1980 was 17 times greater than in 1950. This has led to considerable expansion of exports. 7 Continuous international exchanges have emerged as important factors in many sectors of Japanese society. Education is not an exception. An Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) report in 1970 criticized Japan's internationalization and her activities because they were promoting only her own interests. 8 The report suggested that Japan needed fundamental changes of attitude to the world. Examples suggested were opening educational institutions to foreigners, enhancing international co-operative programs, encouraging students to study abroad and improving foreign language education programs. Hara states that national education in Japan is facing its third substantial transformation in modern history. 9 First came westernization in the Meiji era, followed by democratization after World War II, and now internationalization. The number of Kaigai Shijyo or "the children growing up overseas" has increased greatly since 1960, approximately about the time when Japan began to experience rapid economic growth. The concerns about education for these children have also gradually grown. 10 The increased number of Kaigai Shijyo has been due to the enlarged Japanese population engaging in business overseas. INTRODUCTION / 4 "Children growing up overseas" was considered a special case of children belonging to an elite class. But this perspective has been undermined as the nature of the population of overseas workers has changed quantitatively and quantitatively. Prior to 1960, those who had been sent abroad were small in .number; they were probably selected 'elite' people. Parents often left school age children in Japan with their relatives. 1 1 For those people, raising children overseas or leaving them behind was the price they had to pay for their enviable social status overseas. Living overseas was an experience that only a few people could enjoy. However as travelling abroad became easier and many people started to live overseas, the situation began to change. No longer was it considered a benefit to experience schooling overseas, but at times a handicap towards competing in the Japanese school race which is the most effective vehicle for upward mobility in Japanese society. Reischeuer wrote: Formal education and exams have taken the place of class and birth in determining which organizations and career patterns one is qualified for ... in other words, one's function and status in Japan's meritocracy 1 2 Inoguchi states that enthusiasm for education is a reflection of a middle class mind-set which strongly believes in the efficacy of schooling. 1 3 She considers that the middle class spends energy on their children's education and discipline in order to maintain their family identity. In a society whose middle class has been increased by economic growth as in Japan, the value placed on education has grown substantially. 1 4 INTRODUCTION / 5 Vogel characterized the middle class in Japan as "the white-collar employees of the large business corporations and government bureaucracies", and called it the "new middle class". 1 5 Parents of Kaigai Shijyo, who are usually themselves the winners in the schooling race and belong to this new middle class in Japan, try desperately not to retard their children as they compete to maintain their socioeconomic status. In 1985, of all Japanese children aged six to fourteen (N= 16,809,164), the age of compulsory attendence at school, the Kaigai Shijyo numbered 38,011. 1 6 It was almost nine times more than the 1966 figure of 4,159 which included kindergarten and high school students as well. 1 7 There were also about 6,800 preschool children (ages four to five) and about 2,700 high school students (ages sixteen to eighteen) in 1985, who were not counted in the category of Kaigai Shijyo officially. In 1985 over 9,000 Kaigai Shijyo were returning to Japan annually. 1 8 Those children are called Kikoku Shijyo or returnees. For example Mombusho (the Ministry of Education in Japan) defines Kikoku Shijyo for 1986 as: "children of overseas workers or others 1 9 who stayed in an overseas country continuously more than one year, and returned between April 1st 1985 and March 31st 1986." 20 There were 6,481 Kikoku Shijyo at the elementary level and 2,688 at the junior high school level. 2 1 The experiences of these children differ depending on their residential area overseas, length of stay, and schooling patterns. It is often difficult for them to re-enter the Japanese school system and, to a larger extent, into Japanese society. INTRODUCTION / 6 Kobayashi suggests that the needs of the Kaigai Shijyo should be studied in three sections: (1) before going abroad, (2) while being abroad, and (3) after returning from abroad. 22 He states that the data on education for returnees have been collected by school teachers and researchers in Japan. However the data on the local schools of host countries are more difficult to obtain. He proposes that this issue be looked at with the cooperation of the educational institutions in the host countries. 2 3 Wakabayashi claims that there have been few studies done on the relationship between the home and the educational environment of the Kaigai Shijyo, and on difficulties of re-adjustment into Japanese society. He points out that it is important for educators to know children's experiences in the host country as much as possible. He explains the significance of such study as follows 2 4: 1. It will be very difficult for Japanese teachers to help the returnee children to re-adjust into Japanese society without knowing their educational experiences and background in the overseas culture in which they have lived. 2. It will be useful to give effective guidance to the children and families who will go abroad, (i.e., they can have a firm educational policy in advance so that they can enhance desirable changes and avoid undesirable ones.) Most studies on experiences overseas have been conducted in Japan after the students returned from the host country. Few investigations have examined the INTRODUCTION / 7 on-going experiences of students overseas. This investigation includes a case study of dual schooling; that is, a local school and a Japanese school, experienced by Kaigai Shijyo. Students who attend a supplementary school attempt to balance two cultures by going to two different educational institutions which belong to different cultures. C. PURPOSES OF THE STUDY The case study presented in this paper examines the experiences of the students who attend a supplementary school in Vancouver. It examines the role a supplementary school plays for both the students and the local community. The study will profile this type of schooling in the Canadian context; it will also provide data for the further study of the education for Kaigai Shijyo. Data were collected by reviewing government publications, by administrating a survey questionnaire to students of the Vancouver Nihongo Hoshu Gakko, and by interviewing the staff and parents of the Vancouver Nihongo Hoshu Gakkou, a Japanese consular official, specialists of English as a Second Language (ESL) from the Vancouver School Board. The outcome of this study will offer some suggestions for policy-making for the schooling of Japanese children overseas. It will give teachers in Japan an in-depth understanding by examining a particular case study in Vancouver. It will also provide useful suggestions to apply to the curricula and special programs for returnees from Vancouver to Japan. This study will also give B.C. educators a INTRODUCTION / 8 profile of one method of Japanese education and of one group of Japanese students who stay in B.C. temporarily. D. DEFINITION OF TERMS Internationalization Inoguchi defines internationalization as a set of processes of social change in order to actualize: (1) interchanges of human resources, merchandise, and information, (2) social management by simple and clear rules, (3) adherence to universal morals common in human beings, and (4) contribution toward world peace and prosperity. 25 In this century, the development of mass transportation and communication by technological innovations has made possible the active interchanges of human, natural, and financial resources between different countries. In many cases some degree of cultural friction is involved in these interchanges. That is, when different cultures encounter each other, contentions arise; one tries to assimilate the other or to reject it. Through the process of these conflicts, two or more cultures expand the universal system, and eventually they become acculturated to each other and develop constructive communication. Ebuchi considers internationalization as the process of attaining this relationship. 2 6 The internationalization of education aims at the establishment of INTRODUCTION / 9 interchangeability between different systems in each country. That is the collaboration of the curricula and systems. 27 At a micro level, internationalization means taking a broader view and holding a more generous attitude toward other cultures without being occupied with biases or having too much rivalry. 2 8 Kaigai Shijyo The term literally means "children and women overseas". 2 9 Mombusho defines "Kaigai Shijyo" as children living overseas accompanied by a family that works abroad. 3 0 Thus Kaigai Shijyo are children of Japanese businessmen, skilled workers, scholars and diplomats who stay in other countries temporarily, usually two to five years, for their assigned term of work or research. According to the survey in 1982, the average length of time away from Japan was 3 years and 11 months. 3 1 Kaigai Shijyo does not include the children of immigrants. This is basically because these immigrant Japanese students aim to live in the host country permanently and will not return to Japan. Even though some aspects of the language maintenance problem are still the same, parental expectations of the levels of performance are different. Kobayashi explains that the expectation of returning to Japan is what sets Kaigai Shijyo apart from immigrant Japanese children. 32 The children of Japanese nationals living temporarily in foreign countries with INTRODUCTION / 10 their families, Kaigai Shijyo, should also be defined differently from the students attending schools in foreign countries voluntarily. These latter students, called Ryugaku Sei, or students who stay abroad to study, seek a foreign educational environment in order to gain some special skills or to enrich their experiences. They tend to be older, at least 15 years old, and have strong motivation to study overseas. 33 On the other hand Kaigai Shijyo are brought to a foreign environment as a result of their family's move to the overseas country. Thus they are transferred "accidentally" or "involuntarily" no matter what their own desire was. 3 4 Their families move to the overseas workplaces, often with considerable anxiety about cultural differences and concerns about maintaining language competence. The Kaigai Shijyo arrive in the new country with inadequate language competence in the native language. Their first task is to learn the instructional language of the new school, unless they go to a full-time Japanese school. At the same time, because they expect to return to Japan when the father completes his assignment, they must also maintain their Japanese language. Upon leaving Japan they are expected to keep a balance between the host country's culture and the Japanese culture and to be prepared to re-enter the Japanese school system on their return. Hoshu Jugyo Kou There are two types of overseas schools for Kaigai Shijyo supported partially by the Japanese government. One is Zen'nichi-sei Nihonjin Gakkou or Nihonjin INTRODUCTION / 11 Gakkou, a full-time Japanese school. The other is Nihon-go Hoshu Gakkou or Hoshu Jyugyo Kou, a part-time or supplementary school. (Hoshu Jugyo Kou will be called HJK in abbreviation form in this thesis.) There were 78 full time schools in 56 countries and 109 part-time schools in 47 countries in 1985. 3 5 Students attending HJK usually go to local schools in the host country. Originally these Japanese schools provided only Japanese language education for children overseas. The primary intent was to have a part-time after-hours class for maintaining and improving students' Japanese language taught by volunteer mothers. Realizing the high level of educational competition in Japan, parents began to demand the teaching of other academic subjects (e.g., mathematics, science and social studies) to keep academic levels equivalent to the standard in Japan. Thereby children would face fewer problems upon their re-entry. 3 6 Historically HJKs were considered initial steps towards the establishment of full-time schools. As soon as the number of students became sufficient, staff and facilities were enhanced and up-graded to full-time institutions. The priority was given to the schools located in developing countries. E. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 1. Research Developments Until the 1970's, most practical research dealt with how to make children with overseas education re-adjust into the Japanese society. It was directed towards INTRODUCTION / 12 fitting returned children into the school environment and educational style of Japanese schools. 37 At that time education for returnees was considered to have a compensative function; because students lacked Japanese experiences and skills, special programs were necessary for them to catch up on what they had missed. 38 In the late 1970's, the number of researchers and scholars who showed interest in this issue increased and the topics studied varied. In the 1980's the research field has expanded, becoming better organised. 3 9 Very few studies with an academic framework were conducted in the 1970's. In 1973, a pilot study on the acculturation of Kaigai Shijyo was started by Kobayashi and a group from Kyoto University. 40 This study was the start of the basic academic research on the education problems of the Kaigai Shijyo. They tried to estimate what conditions affect the formation of patterns of acculturation of Kaigai Shijyo. This group has categorized their patterns of adjustment using sociological and psychological methods. The same group also studied Japanese communities in Manila (Philippines) and Singapore. Their research included the study of the Japanese schools and characteristics of children, and the degree of adjustment to the local community in the late 1970s. 4 1 The first survey on education for Kaigai Shijyo by Mombusho, the Ministry of Education, was conducted in 1974. Surveys were made on overseas schools, on students staying behind in Japan, on the individual overseas experiences of returnees, and on companies which had been sending workers overseas. 4 2 An increasing number of professionals, (e.g., educators, sociologists, anthropologists, INTRODUCTION / 13 psychologists and policy-makers) have shown interest in the problems of Kaigai Shijyo. Studies on the process of socialization, the development of personality and language acquisition outside Japan, and the social impacts by Kikoku Shijyo (returnees) on the public, both at school and in the society, are some current research topics. Those studies are taking sociological, anthropological, or psychological approaches. Businessmen, their families, and personnel of the firms which are sending people to overseas work places also pay substantial attention to this issue. Noda listed significant features relating to research in this field: " 3 1. It" is a new field of study 2. It takes on an inter-academic coloration. This means multilateral, comprehensive approaches are taken within pedagogical, psychological and sociological frameworks. 3. There has been a change of focus and point of view for the goal of the research, that is, from forcing adjustment or eliminating foreign experiences from Kaigai Shijyo in the 1970's to accepting diversities and making the best use of foreign experiences in the 1980's. 2. The Development of Cultural Identity Children who have spent their childhood overseas have less opportunity for enculturation to the Japanese culture compared to their Japanese counterparts. In INTRODUCTION / 14 some cases, before they accomplish enculturation to their own culture, they have to face acculturation due to moving to a foreign environment. And when they come back to Japan, they are expected to readjust. For those who were born overseas, it would be their first encounter with the home country. In the process of re-enculturation, many problems can arise in a classroom situation: for example, communication skills including Japanese language as well as behaviours, classroom discipline, and socializing with friends. Minoura conducted research on the acquisition of cultural identity of Japanese children growing up in the United States. She analyzed the development of the grammar of interpersonal relations depending on the age of entry and the length of the stay. According to her study, assimilation to the American culture occurs simultaneously with language learning. She confirmed that the age between nine and fourteen is the critical period to gain cultural grammar. Children who spend any four years between the age of nine and fourteen in one location will tend to develop a personality related to the local culture. 44 3. Socialization and Schooling Patterns Ebuchi et al. of Fukuoka Kyoiku University studied Japanese people and Japanese communities in South East Asia. 4 5 They compared the development and structure of the Japanese community in seven major cities in South East Asian countries, discussing the mechanisms of adjustment to the local community, features of the schooling patterns of the Japanese children, and parental expectations. They argue that schools abroad are supposed to have an INTRODUCTION / 15 international orientation, but actually they hold on to a very strong "nationalistic" perspective. They believe this characteristic is stronger in a full-time Japanese school. Ebuchi points out that the degree of the children's acculturation varies according to the life styles of their parents. Parental attitude toward the local community and the host country limit or expand children's cultural experiences. The most significant aspect which affects children's life style is the schooling. They claim that students attending HJK (and thus who are assumed to attend the local schools in the host country as well) have more chances to encounter the foreign culture than those who attend full-time Japanese schools only. 4 6 Kawabata et al. studied what the expansion of the educational service overseas (i.e. attending Japanese schools instead of local schools or international schools) brought to the education of children overseas. 4 7 They questioned whether this expansion should be welcomed as a real enrichment of educational environments for the Japanese children overseas. Their research studied the educational consciousness of parents overseas because the parents decide the schooling of the child. They found that 24 percent of those children in Japanese school overseas do not have any friends in the host country. And hardly one half of the children sampled answered that they have more than three local friends. A study of Kawabata et al. determined that 22.6 percent of Japanese children overseas use only Japanese at home and school. They found that this correlated with parents' educational attitude in that the education overseas should be INTRODUCTION / 16 provided by the Japanese school which keeps the same quality of education as the counterpart in Japan. This group of parents had less contact with the local community in the host country. These parents tended to have a lesser ability in foreign languages, especially the mothers. Kawabata points out that preventing the children from encountering the different culture is structured in the consciousness of the parents' view. 4 8 The experiences of children and parents from both a full time Japanese school and the HJKs in New York was compared by Kunieda. 49 In the New York area, the Japanese population staying temporarily in the United States is so large that there are several Japanese schools. She found that the students of a supplementary school have much better qualitative and quantitative cross cultural experiences than the students in a full time school. She also found that the life-style and attitudes of parents could limit children's cultural experiences and that the schooling also affects the childrens' behaviour patterns. According to Kunieda's research, five years was a critical length of time in terms of acculturation into the local culture for Kaigai Shijyo. She suggests that if children stay only two or three years and then go back to Japan, it would be easier for them to stay in a full-time Japanese school, so that it is less difficult to adjust to the Japanese school when they return. Kunieda explains the reasons that many parents still prefer sending their children to a local school in New York rather than to a full time Japanese school: 5 0 1. America is an advanced country and the level of the local school INTRODUCTION / 17 is reliable. 2. Local schools have an atmosphere which welcomes newcomers. 3. English is an international language, so that it will be an advantage for children to master it. She summarizes the purpose of supplementary schools as: maintaining Japanese language and training in Japanese school discipline. Both maintaining the language and the discipline are intended to help the Japanese children to adjust easily to the Japanese school upon their return. 5 1 To maximize the opportunity for the children's international experiences and to maintain the Japanese language at the same time, a combination of attending a HJK and a local school seems the most effective. 5 2 However there are usually very few links between an HJK and a local school; thus these two educational institutions do not yet seem to be having the best effects on each other or on students. There must be some room for improvement in their collaboration; for example, sharing educational resources, exchanging information on curricula. Farkas studied a case of schooling of Kagai Shijyo in Ohio. 5 3 She used a psychological framework to investigate the process of cultural assimilation of Japanese students into elementary schools. She found that misunderstandings due to a lack of communication among teachers, parents, and students caused serious problems in students' social and academic development. She points out that the local schools in the Ohio area do not obtain enough demographic and instructional data about incoming Japanese students. She also observed that there was insufficient understanding toward the educational perspectives of different cultures INTRODUCTION / 18 among both teachers and parents. Lack of appropriate information may cause local school teachers to have certain misconceptions about Japanese students who attend full-time. Although several of the studies dealing with readjustment problems of returnees to Japan have been written in English, few studies have provided comprehensive data in English on the development of overseas Japanese schools, the increasing Japanese overseas student population, and the difficulties and needs of these students. Japanese schools overseas are still in their period of evolution; opening new schools annually, seeking effective curricula and school management styles. A series of case studies on Japanese schools overseas will present different perspectives of schooling of Japanese children overseas by geographical, socio-economical, and political limitations. Currently data on overseas schools are based on reports by an administrative staff of each school. However there exist few research-oriented case studies on overseas schools. F. ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS An attempt has been made in this chapter to outline the background of the educational difficulties experienced by Kaigai Shijyo from a Japanese perspective and to indicate the rationale of the study. Some key words have been defined and some related literature was reviewed. Chapter II presents perspectives on the social and cultural background of emerging Kaigai Shijyo and the educational services provided for them. It also introduces the Japanese schools in Canada. INTRODUCTION / 19 Chapter III examines the research design and survey instrument used. In Chapter IV, the results of the study including profiles of the Vancouver HJK and the results of the survey are reported. Chapter V, the final chapter, provides a summary of the major findings of the study and a proposal for an ideal model of an overseas Japanese school. That chapter is followed by the appendices and references. INTRODUCTION / 20 NOTE: Names of the articles and books in italics in the endnotes of this thesis indicate those which were written in Japanese. Most of the English subtitles in parentheses were translated by the researcher for reference purposes only. Notes from unpublished paper, Vincent D'Oyley, Willms, and Ota, "After-hours Japanese Schools in B.C. 1985-86." Vancouver Nihongo Hoshu Gakkou, Gakkou Youran (The School Report) (n.p. : n.p., 1987), n. pag. Matsundo Kawabata, "Rekishi-teki Tembou ni yoru Kikoku Shijyo Mondai" (Issues on returnees from Historical Perspectives) in Kokusai-ka Jidai no  Kyoiku (Education for Epoch of Internationalization) (Tokyo: Soyusha, 1986), p.23. This concept was introduced by R.H.Cooper, an economist, in 1968. (Kawabata, Ibid., 1986, p.27.) Kawabata, Ibid., 1986, p.26. Robert McKeating, "The Role of International School Graduates in Japan" in Kikoku Shijyo no Kyoiku Mondai ni kansuru Sogo-tekilJissho-teki Kenkyu  Houkokusho (Report on Education for Returnees) (Nagoya: Nagoya University, Faculty of Education, 1985), pp.59-65. Kawabata, Op.cit., 1986, p.23. Tetsuya Kobayashi, Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku/Kikoku Shijyo Kyoiku (Education for the children overseas and returnees) (Tokyo: Yuhikaku 1981), p.203. Makoto Hara, "Kikoku Shijyo no Rinen to Jissen-mokuhyo" (Idea and practice for the returnees) in Kokusai-ka Jidai no Kyoiku (Education for Epoch of Internationalization) (Tokyo: Soyusha 1986), p.41. Susumu Inui, and Kazuhiko Sono, Kaigai Chuzai-in no Shijyo Kyoiku; Kage  o otosu Shingaku Kyousou (Education for children of overseas workers; influences of entrance examination) (Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Shimbunsha, 1977), p.160. Kouki Sato, Kaigai Shijyo no Kyoiku Mondai (Educational Problems on Children Overseas) (Tokyo: Gakuensha, 1978), p. 18. Edwin O. Reischeuer, The Japanese (Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press INTRODUCTION / 21 of Harvard University Press, 1977). Kuniko Inoguchi, Posuto Haken Sisutemu to Nihon no Sentaku (The Emerging Post-Hegemonic System: Choices for Japan) (Tokyo: Chikuma Shobou, 1987), p.151. Inoguchi, Ibid., 1987, p.40. Ezra F. Vogel, Japan's New Middle Class (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press., 1963), p.4. Mombusho, Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku no Genjyo (A Report on Education for Children Overseas) (Tokyo: Mombusho, 1986), p.3. Kobayashi, Kaigai Shijyo KyoikulKikoku Shijyo Kyoiku, 1981, p.6. Mombusho, Gakkou Kihon Chosa Hokoku-sho (School Basic Survey Report) (Tokyo: Mombusho, 1986), pp.76 and 136. "Others" mainly refers to the Japanese left in China. Mombusho, Gakkou Kihon Chosa Hokoku-sho, 1986. Mombusho, Ibid., 1986, pp.76 and 136. Kobayashi, Kaigai Shijyo KyoikulKikoku Shijyo Kyoiku, 1981, pp.23-24. Kobayashi, Ibid., 1981, p.28. Mitsuru Wakabayashi, "Kaigai Chuzai-in no Katei to Kyoiku Mondai" (Issues on Home environment of Oversea Workers and Education) in Kikoku Shijyo  no Kyoiku Mondai ni kansuru Sogo-tekilJissho-teki Kenkyu Hokokusho (Report on Education for Returnees) (Nagoya: Nagoya University, Faculty of Education, 1985), pp.94-111. Kuniko Inoguchi, Posuto Haken Sisutemu to Nihon no Sentaku, 1987, p. 118. Kazuhiro Ebuchi, "Tonan Ajia no Nihonjin Gakkou" (Japanese Schools in South East Asia) in Kokusaika Jidai ni okeru Ningen Keisei (Human Development in Internatioal Age), ed. Bunkichi Iwahashi (Tokyo: Gyosei, 1986), pp.27-64. Kazuhiro Ebuchi, "Shudai-settei no Shushi to TeianlTougi no Sokatsu" (Proposal of the theme and summary of the discussion) in Ibunka-kan  Kyoiku (Inter-Cultural Education), ed. Ibunka-kan Kyoiku Gakkai (Kyoto: Academia Press, 1987), p.21. Kobayashi, Kaigai Shijyo KyoikulKikoku Shijyo Kyoiku, 1981, p. 157. Kobayashi, Ibid., 1981, p. 142. INTRODUCTION / 22 3 0 Mombusho, Kikoku Shijyo Kyoiku no Tebiki - Sho Chu Gakkou hen (A guide book for education for returnees - elementary and junior high school level) (Tokyo: Mombusho, 1986), p.l. Mombusho, Ibid., 1986, p. 133. Kobayashi, Kaigai Shijyo KyoikulKikoku Shijyo Kyoiku, 1981, p.3. 3 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 6 3 7 3 8 3 9 4 0 4 1 4 2 4 3 4 4 Merry I. White, "Schools for Japanese Children Abroad" in Koadansha  Encyclopedia of Japan VII (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1983), p.36. Merry I. White, "Stranger in His Native Land: Group Boundaries and the Japenese International Returnee", Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1980. Mombusho, Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku no Genjyo, 1986, p.3. Mombusho, Ibid., 1986, p. 18. Inui and Sono, Kaigai Chuzai-in no Shijyo Kyoiku, 1977, p. 133. Kobayashi, Kaigai Shijyo KyoikulKikoku Shijyo Kyoiku, 1981, p. 142. Ichirou Noda, "Kikoku Shijyo Kyoiku no Kiso-teki Kenkyu no Ayumi" (Development of Basic Research on Education for Returnees) in Kokusai-ka  Jidai no Kyoiku (Education for Epoch of Internationalization), ed. Tokyo Gakugei Daigaku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Srnta'a (Tokyo: Soyusha, 1986), p.239. Kobayashi et al., Zaigai Kikoku Shijyo no Tekiou ni kansuru Chosa - Yobi  Chosa - Houkoku" (Report on a research on assimilation of returnees - pilot study) (Kyoto: Kyoto University, Faculty of Education, Comparative Educational Studies, 1975). Kobayashi et al., Zaigai Kikoku Shijyo ni okeru Zaigai Komyunitii to sono  Kyoiku ni kansuru Kenkyu III, IV (Research on returnees, their education and Japanese community overseas) (Kyoto: Kyoto University, Faculty of Education, Comparative Educational Studies, 1978 and 1979). Mombusho, Kaigai Kinmusha Shijyo Kyoiku ni kansuru Sogo-teki Jittai Chosa  Hokoku-sho (Survey on education for children of overseas workers) (Tokyo: Mombusho, 1982). Ichirou Noda, "Kikoku Shijyo Kyoiku no Kiso-teki Kenkyu no Ayumi", 1986, p.242-243. Yasuko Minoura, "Life in Between: The Acquisition of Cultural Identity among Japanese Children Living in the United States", Ph.D. dissertation, UCLA, 1979, p.67. INTRODUCTION / 23 Kazuhiro Ebuchi, "Tonan Ajia no Nihonjin Gakkou" in Kokusai-ka Jidai no  Ningen Keisei (Human Development in International Age) (Tokyo: Gyosei, 1982), pp.27-64. Kazuhiro Ebuchi, "Kodomo-tachi no Ibunka Sesshoku" (Cross-cultural encounter experienced by children) in Ibunka ni Sodatsu Kodomo-tachi (Children Growing Up in Foreign Cultures), ed. Kobayashi Tetsya (Tokyo: Yuhikaku, 1983), p. 18. Matsundo Kawabata and Keizo Nagata, "Kaigai Nihonjin JidolSeito no Ibunka Rikai to Oya no Ishiki" (Cross cultural understanding of students overseas and the consiousness of their parents) in Nihon Hikaku Kyoiku  Gakkai Kiyou (Bulletin of Japan Comparative Education Society) VIII (March 1982), pp.43-50. Kawabata, et al., Ibid., 1982, p.48. Mari Kunieda, "A Study on Japanese Children in New York: The Assimilation to American Life" in Research Report No. 10, (March 1985), The National Institute for Educational Research, pp.81-95. Kunieda, Ibid., 1985, p.85. Kunieda, Ibid., 1985. This notion is supported many educators and scholars, e.g., Inui and Sono, 1977; Kawabata 1982, Kobayashi 1983. Jennifer Farkas and Morio Kouno, Amerika no Nihon-jin Seito-tachi, Ibunka  Kyoiku-ron (Japanese Overseas Children's American Schooling Experience: A Study of Cross-Cultural Transitions) (Tokyo: Tokyo Shoseki, 1987). II. EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO A. INTRODUCTION The development of education for Kaigai Shijyo can be explained in economic and social terms. First, because the fathers of these children play significant roles in Japan's economic development, it is important that fathers are able to devote themselves to their work to achieve best results. 1 In order to keep overseas employees satisfied and productive, companies and government take care of some of their personal worries, such as their children's education. Education for Kaigai Shijyo has developed as part of a welfare service for overseas Japanese workers. Second, Japan as a country is faced with the need for internationalization of its social customs. Those children who encounter foreign cultures at a young age are expected to become international in their mannerisms and outlook. There is also a movement to use them as a resource of international education in Japanese schools. However because the concept of "being international" is not yet firmly established as being an advantage, returning children have suffered many difficulties in Japanese society. This chapter reviews the background of emerging Kaigai Shijyo and changes in the features of Kaigai Shijyo. It introduces the organization and operation of Japanese schools overseas and the perspectives of the Japanese government and the development of various types of assistance for education of Kaigai Shijyo. Then it overviews Japanese schools in Canada. 24 B. BACKGROUND EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 25 1. Japanese Population Overseas In 1985, 480,739 Japanese were living abroad. 2 Gaimusho, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, defines two categories of these overseas residents. One is Choki Taizai-sha or a long term resident, and the other is Eizhu-sha, or a permanent resident. Gaimusho categorizes the Eizhu-sha as those who have landed immigrant status and keep Japanese nationality. Choki Taizai-sha is defined as a Japanese who stays in the same country for more than three months but is not an Eizhu-sha. 3 Figure 2-1 shows the growth of the Japanese population overseas between 1972 and 1985. The number of the Choki Taizai-sha has grown dramatically whereas the number of Eizhu-sha has remained relatively constant. The impact that this trend has had on overseas education will be discussed in a later section. Prior to 1968 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs had no concrete definition of what being "Japanese" meant. Thus Gaimusho had also included Japanese who were naturalized foreign citizens as Japanese residents overseas. This population has been excluded from the statistics since 1968. Figure 2-2 shows that the Choki Taizai-sha are distributed around the world according to the frequency of economic and cultural interchange between Japan and the region concerned. The same survey shows that 67.4% of Choki Taizai-sha are workers for private companies and their families, with EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 26 500,000 400,000 Number of Japanese Overseas JUU'UUU 200,000 100,000 1970 1 1975 i 1980 I 1 1985 Choki Taizai-sha Eizhu-sha Figure 2-1: Number of Japanese Overseas Source: Gaimusho, Kaigai Zai r yu Houj i n Ni nzu Chosa Toukei (1986) scholars/students accounting for 16.4%, and diplomats 7.9%. 2. Expanding Overseas Workforce There have been three stages in the expansion of Japan's overseas workforce after World War II. The first stage took place during the 1960s, when Japan was in a period of rapid economic growth. Japanese workers were sent overseas to look for prospective markets and cheaper resources. Consequently they were mostly engaged in trade, transportation (shipping or aviation) or were diplomats. The first stage was the direct result of increased productivity inside Japan. EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 27 Oceania (3%) Africa (3%) Middle East (5%) Central/South America (6% Asia (23%) Total Number of Choki Taizai-sha is 228,914 North America (34%) Europe (26%) Figure 2-2: Location of Choki Taizai-sha in 1984 Source: Gaimusho, Kai?ai Zai r yu Houji n  Ninzu Chosa Toukei (1984) The second stage took place during the 1970s when Japanese companies started building factories in developing countries, mainly in South East Asia, in the search for more cost efficient results. Engineers and technicians were sent overseas to instruct and supervise local employees. In this period, overseas workers were posted in many "new" geographic areas. tt In the third stage, banks, stock companies, service industries (restaurants, hotels, travel agents) developed their overseas divisions and sent staff from Japan. Concurrently the job categories of Choki Taizai-sha became more diverse. The numbers of Choki Taizai-sha are increasing annually. EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 28 3. Increased Kaigai Shijyo and Kikoku Shijyo As the number of overseas workers increased, there was a dramatic increase in the number of children growing up overseas. In 1980 there were 55,596 Japanese children under the age of 18 living overseas. 5 Figure 2-3 shows how the number of elementary and junior high Kaigai Shijyo has increased steadily between 1977 and 1985. The children of Choki Taizai-sha including under age six and over 15 were estimated at almost 60,000 by 1985. Concern for Kaigai Shijyo education heightened around 1960. 6 It was at that time that rapid economic growth began, and more Japanese commenced working in other countries, looking for more resources and prospective markets. At that time there was a dramatic increase in the number, of children growing up 50,000 -i 40,000 -Number of Kagai Shi jyo 30,000 20,000 -10,000 • 0 1976 78 80 82 84 86 Figure 2-3: Number of Kaigai Shijyo (Elementary + Junior High) Source Mombusho, Gakkou Kihon Chosa Houkoku-s ho (1986) EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 29 overseas. In this period, Kikoku Shijyo or returnees also increased. While the number of Kikoku Shijyo enlarged rapidly, the structural care systems for these children were not well established in Japan. One of the problems in education for Kaigai Shijyo was the rapid increase in their number. Systems to integrate returnees into Japanese schools did not follow the rapid expansion in their number. 7 Figure 2-4 shows how the increasing number of returnees parallels the growth of the Kagai Shijyo as seen in Figure 2-3. 1 5,000 -i Number of Returnees 10,000 -5000 -0 1977 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 Elementary Junior High n Senior High Figure 2-4: Number of Children Returning to Japan Source : Mombusho, Gakkou Ki hon Chosa Houkoku-sho (1978-86) EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 30 4. Features of Kaigai Shijyo In the 1960's, Kaigai Shijyo were the children of an elite class. Most of the fathers worked for large corporations, and they had high educational backgrounds. Their backgrounds were relatively homogeneous and their socio-economic status was generally high. Two significant changes since the 1960's are the lowering of the average age of the household and the diversity of job categories. When more people started to work overseas, the nature of the overseas population changed. At the same time, perspectives on education for overseas children have been transformed. According to Takahagi, who studied 1719 returnees in 1980, a family profile of Kaigai Shijyo was: the head of the household was the father who held Japanese nationality; the level of schooling attained by the father was university or above; 81% of the sample were in their 40's; 75% were engaged either in a trading company, manufacturing, or a bank, with 9% being diplomats and 5% researchers or educators. 8 The length of stay overseas has been increasing. According to the survey in 1982 by Mombusho, the Ministry of Education, the length of residence overseas was three to four years. The average was three years and eleven months. 9 In Takahagi's study in the same year the average was even higher at four years and five months. 1 0 EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 31 5. Educational Options for Kaigai Shijyo Parents have several options for schooling of their children. As long as the host country allows it, parents do not necessarily have to send their children to school. According to the Japanese constitution, parents have a responsibility to send their children to school. The Japanese Constitution states: All people shall have the right to receive an equal education correspondent to their ability, as provided by law. (2) All people shall be obligated to have all boys and girls under their protection receive ordinary educations as provided for by law. Such compulsory education shall be free. (The Constitution of Japan Chapter III Rights and Duties of the People, Article 26) 1 1 The Basic Education Law decrees that all Japanese citizens residing in Japan should have nine years of compulsory education. This educational obligation applies both to parents who must send their children to school, and to the Japanese government which must help them to do so, i.e. by encouraging local (prefectural) governments to open schools and giving them financial aid. In the modern legal system, most countries follow the territorial principle. This means that the Japanese overseas are no longer bound by the Japanese legal system. That is, parents do not carry the legal obligation to send children to school and the State of Japan is not obligated to be responsible for them. 1 2 Thus . the legal right to receive education which is guaranteed by the Japanese Constitution does not apply to children overseas as it does to those inside Japan. Consequently the schooling of the children overseas depends upon the parents' decision and the legal obligations of the host country. EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 32 When the parents decide to send their children to school there are several alternatives depending on their place of residence A local school in the host country is one of the choices. Where it is available an international school is another alternative. When parents think that the local language is difficult to learn or that it is less useful for the children's future, they may prefer to send their children to an international school where the instructional language is a more universal one, such as English or French. Or parents may be able to find a full-time Japanese school, which will provide "Japanese-style" education. Full-time Japanese schools use the same curriculum as schools in Japan, instruct with similar class disciplines, and teach in Japanese using professional Japanese teachers. Some parents may opt to send children to a boarding school in England or Switzerland. 1 3 Another possibility is sending children to a local or an international school during the day and a Japanese supplementary school (HJK) after school hours. In this way, children are able not only to learn about the local culture but also to maintain their Japanese language and school discipline. Correspondence courses from Japan are also available. Japanese parents overseas can choose any combination of these schooling options depending on their living area and their educational aspirations for the children. 1 " Figure 2-5 shows both the world distribution of Kaigai Shijyo and the types of schools they attend. Note that almost 40% of all overseas Japanese students are located in North America and that over 40% of Kaigai Shijyo in the world attend Japanese full-time schools. 7 1G > 2.0 # Location of Kaigai Shijo Type of Sch°o1 Attended £ O Figure 2-5: World Distribution of Kaigai Shijyo (1985) ^ w w Source: Mombusho, Kaigai Shijyo  Kyoi ku no Genj yo (1985) EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 34 Figure 2-6 shows the schooling options chosen by parents of Kaigai Shijyo who. reside in North America are vastly different from the rest of the world. Only 5% of overseas children in North America attend Japanese full-time school, and almost 75% attend both an HJK and a local school. An additional benefit is that English is the most important foreign language in Japan and many parents are eager to have their children learn it. The reason that the parents of North American Kaigai Shijyo have chosen a local school plus HJK could be due to their desire to expose children to North American culture, or their trust in the relatively high quality of the local schools. The influence of world location on the choice of education method is discussed later in this paper. 6. Legal Status of Japanese Schools Overseas The legal status of full-time Japanese schools differ depending on the host countries. 1 5 In 1985, 36 out of 78 full-time Japanese schools had the host country's official governmental approval. Others are not legally authorized schools as far as the host country is concerned. Thus the graduates of these non-approved schools cannot receive official diplomas from the host country. Although the full-time Japanese schools are privately administered, they follow the official course of study provided by the Japanese government. Thus their graduates are considered to have finished the compulsory nine years schooling. In the case of HJKs, they are more likely to be a private institution focused on language education. Thus their programs do not have any authority provided by either the Japanese government or the host country. V//Z////\Attend Japanese Full-Time School Only I : IAttend Supplementary School (HJK) and Local School -— Attend Local School Only Source: Mombusho, Kai tat Shi /y0  Kyoi ku no Gen/ yo (1985) EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 36 C. JAPANESE SCHOOL OVERSEAS 1. History of Japanese School Overseas The first overseas Japanese school was established in 1897 in Manchuria. 1 6 By 1905, about 50 schools were serving the children of colonialists in Manchuria, Taiwan as well as immigrants in Hawaii, the west coast areas of North America, and Brazil. There were some schools in Singapore, Hong Kong, and Manila. They were recognized or supervised by the Imperial Japanese government. The main purpose of these Japanese schools was to maintain language and to educate "good Japanese citizens". 1 7 Those schools aimed not only to teach Japanese language but also to pass Japanese traditions to the children growing up in overseas countries. These Japanese schools established before World War II followed the idea of Kyoiku Chokugo, the Imperial Rescript on Education. Most of these schools in Hawaii and North America were closed during World War II, and schools in colonial areas also disappeared with Japan's defeat of this war. 1 8 After World War II, some of the Japanese language schools for immigrant children re-opened in North America. Tanaka found that in the U.S.A. enrollment in the private after-school-hour type language schools for second and third generation children decreased between 1963 and 1985. 1 9 Instead the Japanese language program in the public school system had developed under the bilingual education policies of the state governments. On the other hand, the number of full-time Japanese schools and HJKs for Kaigai Shijyo had notably increased. 2 0 EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 37 The development of Japanese schools overseas and the Japanese language schools for immigrant children after World War II should, according to Kobayashi, be considered as two separate phenomena, because they have different features and goals. 2 1 However, as Tanaka found, in the earliest development stage (1960's), both the Kaigai Shijyo and immigrant children went to the same school. The two different types of schools only emerged as the Kaigai Shijyo population increased, and the distinct educational goals of the two groups became clarified. Postwar Japanese schools were established without government assistance. A Japanese language class overseas commenced unofficially in Taiwan in 1947 and was authorized as a school by the Japanese government later in 1965. The first authorized Japanese school after the war started in Bangkok (Thailand) in 1956 as an attached school to the Japanese embassy. Simultaneously early attempts by volunteer mothers to maintain their children's language ability occurred in different places in the world. For example, voluntary language classes began in Hamburg (West Germany) in 1957, in Washington D.C. (United States of America) in 1958. 2 2 At first, there was no financial support from the Japanese government. Japanese government assistance quickly brought a rapid expansion in Japanese schools. In 1959 financial aid for the expense of classroom rent was initiated by Gaimusho, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the dispatching of professional teachers to overseas schools began in 1962. The establishment of Japanese schools that relied on governmental aid boomed after 1964 as shown in Figure 2-7. Many Japanese schools were established in the late 1960's to early 1970's. EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 38 Full-time Japanese schools existed in 78 cities and HJKs in 109 cities in 1985. 2. Different Types of Japanese Schools As previously defined in Chapter I, there are two types of overseas Japanese schools. One is Zen'nichi-sei Nihonjin Gakko, a full-time Japanese school, and the other is Nihon-go Hoshu Jyugyo-ko (HJK), a part-time supplementary school. In 1986 full-time schools held 15,891 or 41.8 percent of the population of children overseas, and HJKs enrolled 14,321 or 37.7 percent of them. Yet 7,799 or 20.5 percent of the children could attend only local schools or had no chance of schooling due to geographic limitations. 2 3 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 2-1: Japanese Schools in the World (1986) Region Full-time (countries) HJK (countries) Asia 24 (14) 10 (8) North America 2 (1) 46 (2) Central/South America 17 (12) 7 (5) Europe 17 (14) 25 (15) Oceania 2 (1) 7 (3) Middle East 11 (9) 5 (5) Africa 5 (5) 9 (9) Total 78 (56) 109 (47) Source: Mombusho, Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku no Genjyo, (1986) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 39 120 100 -80 Number of Japanese 60 Schools 40 20 0 1955 60 65 70 75 80 85 Figure 2-7: Number of Japanese Schools Overseas Source: Mombusho, Kai gai Shi j yo  Kyoi kit no Gen/ yo (1986) Until about 1966 most full-time Japanese schools were located in developing countries, whereas most HJKs were in developed countries. Mombusho explains that: In the case of developed regions, the educational level is generally high, and the educational system is well developed, thus it is common to receive education in local schools... In the case of developing regions, generally many difficulties are encountered in educating Japanese children in local schools. Thus full-time Japanese schools are provided almost one in each country to give an equivalent quality of education to elementary and junior high schools in Japan. 2 ft In other words in developing countries, the poor quality of education, such as the lack of educational facilities, low academic standards, and the difficulties of local languages as the language of instruction have caused Japanese parents to seek a full-time Japanese school to give an appropriate education to their children. EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 40 However this principle seems to have collapsed. More full-time Japanese schools have recently opened in developed countries. It is caused by the anxiety of parents overseas that their children would be at a disadvantage in applying for a prestigious school in Japan. Also the parents may distrust the teaching methods which the local. school applies. After 1975, some of the HJKs were transformed into full-time Japanese schools. For example in 1986, HJKs in Barcelona (Spain) and in Melbourne (Australia) were upgraded to full-time Japanese schools. The reason for upgrading these and many similar HJKs into full-time schools is due to strong demand by parents. Those who worry about the maladjustment of their children to Japanese society at their return prefer to send them to a full-time school even in developed countries where Japanese people used to send children to local schools. In some cities like New York, Chicago (U.S.A.) or London (England) both full-time schools and HJK exist. Parents there make the choice about which type of school fits their educational goal. There is a demand by Japanese parents that more full-time Japanese schools should be established to minimize local cultural friction for children. Against this demand, there is the argument that those schools are the product of parents' ethno-centric ideology and they prevent children from encountering local culture. The combination of schooling in an HJK with a local school has several advantages. It expands children's cross cultural experiences. Because children can speak Japanese there, the HJK is a place where they can relax. 25 In that EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 41 case, HJK has a significant psychological role. HJKs also contain the potential to function as a laison institute between the local community and Japanese culture. 3. Organization of Japanese Schools a. Administration Japanese schools are defined as private voluntary institutions by the Japanese government. According to Mombusho, the Ministry of Education: A Japanese school is a full-time educational institution aimed at giving education at the compulsory level for Japanese children overseas in a foreign country where the sovereign power of Japan does not govern. In these schools, as a general rule, classes are given comforming to a course of study (by Mombusho), following the educational acts of Japan. 2 6 Most Japanese schools are established and run by a business society or similar organization reflecting parents demands in the local Japanese community. 27 In many cases the societies consist of major Japanese based multi-national companies which employ fathers of Kaigai Shijyo. These Japanese schools are privately managed and the Japanese government supports their management and administration by providing teaching materials and dispatching professional teachers. Up to two thirds of the rent for the school building or the cost of building the school is usually provided from governmental assistance, 2 8 with the remainder made up from school fees and donations from Japanese companies. Representatives from the local Japanese community form the board and manage EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 42 the school. School expenses are financed with students' tuition fees. The salaries of professional teachers dispatched from Japan are provided by the Japanese government. The salaries of locally hired HJK teachers are subsidized by the Japanese government. In the case of full-time Japanese schools, the Japanese government pays 71% of the personnel expenses. For an HJK, 29% is covered. 2 9 Additional donations are solicited from the local Japanese business community. b. Students Criteria for enrollment in the Japanese school differs between schools, depending on the policy of the committee governing the school. Thus some schools as in Mexico or Australia accept non-native Japanese students while others as in the Philippines or England do not. HJKs also have emerged with different policies on student selection. The policies governing a Japanese school are closely aligned with the attitude of the Japanese business community towards the local community in which it is centered. Usually the Japanese business community continues to sponsor the Japanese school in the area because it was the business community that initially established the Japanese schools for their own children. Where many Japanese immigrants live, Japanese schools for the Japanese who stay temporarily and Japanese language schools for immigrant children can coexist. In some places the two types of schools cooperate while in other places they ignore each other. EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 43 c. Teachers Mombusho, the Ministry of Education, started sending professional teachers to both full-time Japanese and supplementary schools in 1962. Currently Mombusho provides the entire teaching staff to the full time schools. An HJK which has more than 100 students can receive one teacher, usually as an administrator. Ninety six percent of the dispatched teachers are already on the staff of public schools in Japan. The dispatching of teachers overseas is performed jointly by Mombusho, the Ministry of Education, and Gaimusho, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 1986, of 950 candidates interviewed, 360 teachers were selected for assignments. 30 The number of teachers who are sent overseas is also increasing. For 1987-88, Mombusho added twenty-five new postings. The teachers are recruited from all parts of Japan. This reflects the policy of Mombusho that teachers who spend some time overseas become leaders for international education in the local community when . they return to Japan. Most teachers in HJK are non-professional and many are housewives. 3 1 The local committees hire them from local Japanese holding a teaching certificate or equivalent qualifications in the local community. A few of these people with teaching certificates have taught previously in schools in Japan. 3 2 EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 44 d. Curriculum The curricula of a full-time Japanese school follows a course of study by Mombusho, the Ministry of Education. In HJKs, the focus is on Japanese language education. Depending on the HJK, class hours and teaching subjects vary. The average HJK provides about 40 days of instruction per year for a total of about 112 hours. 33 e. Textbooks Mombusho, the Ministry of Education, has distributed free textbooks to all students in Grade 1 to Grade 9 in Japanese schools and HJKs since 1967. Mombusho claims that it sends textbooks to all children of Japanese nationality during the age of compulsory education through the Japanese embassies or consulates including children who only attend local schools. 3' Since 1973, the most popular textbooks in Japan have been chosen for overseas schools by Mombusho. 35 D. DEVELOPMENT OF GOVERNMENTAL POLICIES AND OTHER SERVICES 1. Governmental Perspectives on Education for Kaigai Shijyo Government assistance for the education of Kaigai Shijyo developed as a way of protecting Japanese who work overseas. It was intended to enable the overseas EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 45 workers to concentrate upon their work without worrying about their family. It eliminated those Japanese who intend to live in the host country permanently or second and third generation Japanese descendents. It never aimed to provide Japanese language education to local people or to present Japanese culture to the local community. 3 6 Governmental concern about education for Kaigai Shijyo started about 20 years ago. Mombusho conducted the first demographic survey on Kaigai Shijyo in 1966. 37 In 1974, a comprehensive survey on education for children overseas was completed with a second following in 1982. Chuou Kyoiku Shingi-kai, the Central Educational Council, in 1974 presented a report on education for Kaigai Shijyo. It recommended the promotion of education for children overseas, and provisions of a better educational environment for returnees. Based on this report, actual enforcement of this policy was discussed in Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku no Kihon-teki sesaku ni kansuru Kenkyu Kyogi-kai, the Council on Fundamental Policy Studies for Promoting Education of Kaigai Shijyo, between 1975 and 1976. 3 8 The council suggested taking urgent action on establishing measures for securing teachers for Japanese schools overseas and founding high schools mainly aimed at returnees. 3 9 2. Budget for Overseas Japanese Schools The financial assistance provided by the Japanese government to overseas schools in 1985 increased seven times when compared to the 1975 support level. It was 2,366,000,000 yen in 1975, compared to 16,899,000,000 yen in 1985. 4 0 EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 46 Figure 2-8 illustrates the continuous increase in the budget for overseas schools especially between 1974 and 1982. The dramatic decrease in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs budget in 1981 was due to shifting the expenses of dispatching teachers to the Ministry of Education. The moving of the majority of the budget to the Ministry of Education reflects a change in attitude that education of overseas Japanese was no longer just a small consideration given to Choki Taizai-sha. The Japanese government began to recognize the importance of providing a Japanese-style education for children of overseas residents. ft ' Mi 11 ions of Yen 20, 000 "[ 15,000 -10,000 5000 -0 T 1 974 76 78 80 82 84 86 Figure 2-8: Budget for Overseas Japanese Schools (millions of yen) Source: Mombusho, Kai gai Shijyo  Kyoi ku no Genjyo (1986) EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 47 3. Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Shinkou Zaidan The Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Shinkou Zaidan, the Foundation for Promoting Education for Kaigai Shijyo, is a private institution established in 1971 by non-governmental companies which send many employees to overseas workplaces. Its aim is to provide assistance and research to promote education for the Kaigai Shijyo. This foundation is supervised by both Mombusho and Gaimusho. It not only assists governmental work but also provides services that the government does not cover. The main roles of this foundation are: 4 2 to provide correspondence courses for those among non full-time Japanese students overseas who want to take them. Materials are mailed to the students once a month in four subjects (Japanese, mathematics, social studies, science). to prepare educational materials and facilities for schools overseas. to provide counselling services for those who are leaving and returning. to deliver medical benefits to teachers working in schools overseas. (all of the above are with Mombusho) to provide financial assistance to build Japanese schools. White has studied Japanese returnees extensively and notes that the Kaigai EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 48 Shijyo Kyoiku Shinkou Zaidan is "attempting to upgrade and develop centralized control of the overseas schools to ensure that their students will be able to move smoothly into Japanese schools". 4 3 4. Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Center In 1978, following the suggestion in a report by Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku no Kihon-teki Shisaku ni Kansuru Kenkyu Kyogi kai (the Council on Fundamental Policy Studies for Promoting Education of Kaigai Shijyo), the Japanese government founded Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Senta'a (The Center of Education for Kaigai Shijyo) in the campus of Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo. This center aims to stimulate education for children overseas, including returnees. It promotes practical study and research, develops effective curricula and teaching methods, and provides special training and other services. Simultaneously the faculty of national universities as well as those who perform research in this field are eligible to use the center as a national co-op facility. 4 4 E. JAPANESE SCHOOLS IN CANADA I. Local Community and Japanese Schools in Canada In Canada only, there were 5,284 Choki Taizai-sha, or long term residents, and II, 711 Eizhu-sha, or permanent residents, in 1985. (See Table 2-2.) The number of Japanese living and working in Canada is increasing, but there is a skewed distribution of the Japanese population. Eighty six percent of the Japanese EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 49 population in Canada lives either in B.C. or Ontario. And most of them reside in urban areas. Vancouver has the eleventh biggest Japanese population in any one city in the world outside Japan. 4 5 Including both Choki Taizai-sha and Eizhu-sha, a larger number of Japanese nationals reside in Greater Vancouver than in the Metropolitan Toronto area. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 2-2: Population of Japanese in Canada (1985) Province British Columbia (Greater Vancouver) Saskatchewan Manitoba Alberta Ontario (Metropolitan Toronto) Quebec Newfoundland New Brunswick Nova Scotia Prince Edward Island North West Territory Yukon Total Total 6,976(100%) (5,517) 107(100%) 128(100%) • 1,336(100%) 7,465(100%) (4,315) 848(100%) 24(100%) 23(100%) 74(100%) 14(100%) 0 16,995(100%) Choki Taizai-sha 1,621(23%) (1,487) 55(51%) 75(59%) 290(22%) 2,740(37%) (1,612) 439(52%) 17(70.8%) 4(17.4%) 43(58.1%) 0(0%) 0 Eizhu-sha 5,355 (77%) (4,030) 52 (49%) 53 1,046 4,725 (2,703) 409 (41%) (78%) (63%) (48%) 7(29.2%) 19(82.6%) 31(41.9%) 14(100%) 0 5,284(31.1%) 11,711(68.9%) Source: Gaimusho Kaigai Zairyu Houjin Ninzu Chosa Toukei (1986) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 50 In Vancouver the first Japanese language school was established on Alexander Street in 1906. At that time this school was widely supported by the Japanese community. The number of students grew as the number of immigrants increased early in this century. During World War II all Japanese schools were closed. In the 1960's the language school restarted with the new wave of immigrants. In the last ten years the demand for Japanese language schools has increased markedly. This reflects the increased number of young Japanese immigrants in Vancouver. Some of these new Japanese language schools are supported by the Japanese who immigrated to Canada after World War II. 4 6 The HJK in Vancouver keeps its distance from other Japanese language schools. It is the only Japanese school in which the teachers do not belong to the B. C. shu Nihon-go Shinkou-kai (The Association for Promoting Teaching Japanese in B.C.). All 12 of the other Japanese schools in B.C. are members. Although the HJK calls itself "The Vancouver Japanese Language School" for its English name, it does not teach the Japanese as a second language. Because all of the other Japanese schools in B.C. teach the Japanese language, the goals of the HJK set it apart from the other schools. 2. Hoshu Jyugyo Kou (HJK) in Canada In North America, among the 15,112 Kaigai Shijyo (1985), 11,296 or 74.8% of them are enrolled in HJK, while 3,038 or 20.1% attended full-time Japanese schools. This was illustrated in Figure 2-6. 4 7 The percentage of Japanese students attending local schools is the highest compared to other regions such as EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 51 Asia or Central and South America. Although Canada has no full time Japanese schools, it does have six HJKs. The number of students in these schools is shown in Table 2-3. Some of the HJKs in Canada have different features from the Vancouver HJK. The number of students compared to the number of Choki Taizai-sha shows each HJK's policy toward the local community. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 2-3: HJKs and their Enrollment in Canada (1986) Location Student Start (Choki Taizai-sha) Vancouver, B.C. 197 1973 1,435 Saskatoon, Saskatchewan 7 1978 41 Edmonton, Alberta 60 1977 84 Calgary, Alberta 51 1976 179 Toronto, Ontario 375 1974 1,683 Montreal, Quebec 82 1973 448 Source: Mombusho, Kaigai Shijo Kyoiku no Genjyo (1986) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx c There are HJKs which receive grants from provincial and federal government. For example the Saskatoon Japanese School for Children, which started in 1978, has received grants from both the federal and provincial governments. This school was originally started by Japanese immigrants. Teachers in this school participate in meetings for multi-culturalism and language maintenance sponsored by the provincial government. 4 8 The Metro Edmonton Japanese Community School was EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 52 granted approval as a social corporation by the provincial government in 1977. This school also received grants from both provincial and federal governments in 1978. An HJK in Toronto, The Japanese School of Toronto Shokokai Inc., is the only other HJK in Canada beside the Vancouver HJK with a Mombusho dispatched teacher. This school obtained corporate status from the Ontario government in 1982. 4 9 A notable feature of this school is that the Japanese class at a high school level is authorized as a credit course of Grade 12 Japanese since 1987. In the case of the Vancouver HJK, no grant has ever been received from the Canadian government. The only governmental program in which the school has been involved was a small art exhibition. The Vancouver HJK seems to have the least connection with the local public education system in Canada or a local community in the school locates. The Vancouver HJK appears to have less connection with the government agencies in Canada and local public education system than any other HJK in this country. F. SUMMARY In this chapter the background of the development of education for Kaigai Shijyo and the concurrent situation of the Japanese schools overseas were reviewed. Behind the development of education for Japanese children overseas was a rapid expansion of Japanese population working overseas. The Japanese government did not take a supportive attitude, however, until the late 1960's when public EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 53 concern started research and prodded the government into providing some services. The unavailability of statistics on Kaigai Shijyo I Kikoku Shijyo prior to 1976 symbolically indicates the Japanese government's lack of concern. In 1985 there were 78 full-time Japanese schools in 56 countries and 109 supplementary schools (HJK) in 47 countries. As more Japanese have the opportunity to work overseas, more Japanese children will grow up overseas. As a result the demand for the overseas schools will be enlarged. As well there is a tendency for supplementary schools to be upgraded into full-time schools due to parents' strong concern over the education of their children. In North America, quite a few Japanese students are enrolled in supplementary schools as well as local schools, and the number are increasing annually. The desire to learn English, which is usually the instructional language in North American schools, is one of the reasons for the popularity of this schooling pattern. English is desirable not only because it is an important international business language but also because it is a required subjects for entrance examinations for high schools and universities in Japan. In Canada, HJKs show different features depending on their location. The features of each HJK are closely related to its historical origin, the Japanese population in the area, and the school policy towards Canadian governmental support and programs. The Vancouver HJK has developed the least in terms of its public relations in Canada. EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 54 Mombusho, Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku no Genjyo (A Report on Education for Children Overseas) (Tokyo: Mombusho, 1986), p. 105. 2 Gaimusho, Kaigai Zairyu Houjinsuu Chosa Tokei (Statistics on Numbers of Japanese Overseas) (Tokyo: Gaimusho, 1986), p.38. 3 Gaimusho, Ibid., 1986, p.l. " Tetsuya Kobayashi, Kaigai Shijyo KyoikulKikoku Shijyo Kyoiku (Education for the children overseas and returnees) (Tokyo: Yuhikaku 1981), p.6. 5 Mombusho, Gakkou Kihon Chosa Hokoku-sho (School Basic Survey Report) (Tokyo: Mombusho, 1981). 6 Susumu Inui, and Kazuhiko Sono, Kaigai Chuzai-in no Shijyo Kyoiku; Kage  o otosu Shingaku Kyousou (Education for children of overseas workers; influences of entrance examination) (Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Shimbunsha, 1977), p.160. 7 Tetsuya Kobayashi, "Kaigai-Kikoku Shijyo no Kyoiku no Kaizen ni tsuite" (Regarding the reform of education for children overseas and returnees) in Nihon Hikaku Kyoiku Gakkai Kiyou VIII (March 1982), p.39. 8 Yasuji Takahagi et al., Kaigai Kikoku Shijyo ni okeru Karucha'a Syokku no  Youin Bunseki to Tekiou Puroguramu no Kaihatsu/Shikou (Analysis of causes of cultural shocks in returnees and development of programs and practices for their adjustment) (Tokyo: Tokyo Gakugei Daigaku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Senta's, Karucha'a Syokku Kenkyu kai, 1982), pp.6-7. 9 Mombusho, Kikoku Shijyo Kyoiku no Tebiki - Sho Chu Gakkou hen (A guide book for education for returnees - elementary and junior high school level) (Tokyo: Mombusho, 1986). 1 0 Takahagi, et al., Op.cit, 1982, p.5. 1 1 The Constitution of Japan Promulgated on November 3, 1946; put into effect on May 3, 1947. 1 2 This notion was confirmed in the Japanese Diet on Feburuary 14, 1978. (Mombusho, Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku no Genjyo, 1986, pp. 128-129). 1 3 Kouki Sato, "Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku no Ayumi" (The development of education for Kaigai Shijyo) in Kaigai ni okeru Nihon no Kyoiku - Hinon-jin  GakkoulHoshu Jyugyo Kou (Japanese Education Overseas - full time schools/part time schools), ed. Zenkoku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Kenkyu Kyogi-kai (Tokyo: Zenkoku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Kemkyu Kyogi-kai, 1983), p.2. 1 4 Kouki Sato, Kaigai Shijyo no Kyoiku Mondai (Educational Problems for 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 S EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 55 Children Overseas) (Tokyo: Gakuensha, 1978), p.25. Inui and Sono, Kaigai Chuzai-in no Shijyo Kyoiku, 1977, p.31. Merry I. White, "Schools for Japanese Children Abroad" in Koadansha  Encyclopedia of Japan VII (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1983), p.37. Tsutae Sato, Beika ni okeru dai-nisei no Kyoiku (Education for the Second Generation in USA and Canada), (Vancouver: Jikyodo, 1932). Kenjirou Tanaka, Kyoiku ni okeru Bunkateki Douka (Cultural Assimilation in Education) (Tokyo: Hompou Shoseki, 1986), pp. 111-133. 1 9 Tanaka, Ibid., 1986, p.87. 20 Tanaka, Ibid., 1986, pp.95-104. 2 1 Kobayashi, Kaigai Shijyo KyoikulKikoku Shijyo Kyoiku, 1981, p.3. 2 2 Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Zaidan, Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Zaidan Jyu-nen-shi (A Decade of Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Zaidan) (Tokyo: Kaigai Shijyo Kuyoiku Zaidan, 1980), p.25. 2 3 Mombusho, Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku no Genjyo, 1986, p.3. 24 Mombusho, Ibid., 1986, p. 11. Kobayashi, Op.cit., 1981, p.72. Mombusho, Op.cit., 1986, p.35. Mombusho, Op.cit., 1986, p.4. Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Zaidan, Op.cit., 1980, p.361. 29 Mombusho, Op.cit, 1986, p.36. 30 "Haken Kyoin no Senko", Asahi Shimbun Tokyo: International Version, 13 Feburuary, 1987. 3 1 Mombusho, Op.cit, 1986, p.4. 3 2 Inui and Sono, Op.cit, 1977, p.50. 3 3 Mombusho, Op.cit, 1986. 34 Mombusho, Op.cit, 1986, p.24. 35 Inui and Sono, Op.cit., 1977, p.96. 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8 EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 56 3 6 3 7 3 8 3 9 4 0 4 1 4 2 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 6 4 7 4 8 4 9 Sato, Kaigai Shijyo no Kyoiku Mondai, 1978, p.36. Morihiro Kubota, and Akira Nakanishi, "Kikoku Shijyo Kyoiku no Kenkyu Taisei" (Research environment on education for returnees) in Kokusai-ka  Jidai no Kyoiku (Education for Epoch of Internationalization), ed. Tokyo Gakugei Daigaku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Srnta'a (Tokyo: Soyusha, 1986), p.208. This council was formed in September, 1975 with 17 members. Mombusho, Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku no Genjyo, 1986, p. 105. Mombusho, Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku no Genjyo, 1986, p.31. Mombusho, Op.cit., 1986, p.3. Mombusho, Op.cit., 1986, p.27. White, "Schools for Japanese Children Abroad", 1983, p.37. Mombusho, Op.cit., 1986, pp.143-144. The biggest is Sao Paulo: 27,294; followed by Los Angeles: 26,779 e.g. some schools are run by Shin-Izhusha no Kai, (The Associtation of New Immigrants, which has many members who immigranted relatively recently. New York has the largest population (17,815) of Choki Taizai-sha, followed by Los Angeles (13,393) in 1985. In these cities which have big Choki Taizai-sha populations, there are several HJKs. In New York, there is a full-time Japanese school also. Apart from these schools which receive government assistance, there are also many Juku, private tutoring institutions directly focused on preparing for entrance exams. In these cities a full-time Japanese school or an HJK are considered not sufficient to compete in exams in Japan. As well as the Japanese schools, many parents therefore send their children to the prestigeous Juku which are systematically managed by Japanese educational business corporations. Zenkoku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Kenkyu Kyogi-kai, Kaigai ni okeru Nihon no  Kyoiku (Japanese Education in Overseas) (Tokyo: Zenkoku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Kenkyu Kyogi-kai, 1980), p.367. Zenkoku Kaigai Shijyo Kyiiku Kenkyu Kyugi-kai, Ibid., 1980, pp.372-373. III. METHODOLOGY A. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This study originated from the researcher's concern over the type of schooling experienced by Japanese children growing up overseas. What are the Kaigai Shijyo's perspectives on attending both a local school and a part-time Japanese supplementary school? How has the Japanese school evolved in the local community? What are the links between an ethnic school and a public school? This chapter explains the methods utilized to answer these questions. Examination of annual reports by Mombusho, 1 the Ministry of Education, and by Gaimusho, 2 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, provided an outline of the education of Japanese children overseas. Policy statements issued by the Japanese government 3 indicated the direction that changes in governmental attitude had been taking. Analysis of work by selected scholars showed the current state of research as it applied to the education of Kaigai Shijyo. Taken together, this information lead to the conclusion that to promote internationalization of Japanese overseas education, the HJK is in a unique position and its role should be enhanced. This researcher strongly supports the notion that attending a local school is useful to expand the children's international experiences. When appropriate guidance is given it has a desirable impact on personality development, especially regarding cultural biases. This study looks at the case of Japanese students who 57 METHODOLOGY / 58 attend both a local school and Hoshu Jyugyo Kou (HJK), a supplementary school, in Vancouver, B.C. Accordingly, the research was designed to investigate characteristics of the perspectives of Kaigai Shijyo in Vancouver towards different aspects of their life; namely daily life in Canada, as well as the schooling experience at both Canadian local schools and at the Japanese supplementary school. Some of the information needed about the supplementary school (HJK) is as follows: The purpose of the Vancouver HJK. The goal at this HJK. Background of students in HJK. Criteria to attend HJK. Exsistence of entrance examination or any kind of selection for enrolling. The structure of the Vancouver HJK. Administration of the school. Body of management of the school. Financial issues; who pays the general expenses; who pays the teachers' salaries? The curricula of the HJK. Teaching subjects and method. In what manner it is related to the corresponding curricula in Japan. In what ways its curricula are related to the curricula of the public schools in B.C. Who serves as teachers at the HJK: number of teaching staffs, their METHODOLOGY / 59 educational and social background. Who takes the role of the principal: who assigns this job, what is the responsibility. What kind of qualifications the teachers hold in order to teach at the Vancouver HJK. What the students' perspectives regarding their attendance at both HJK and their local school are. How the students language ability affect their perspectives toward their schooling experience. Because of the nature of the HJK, the number of students change almost every week. This is due to the fathers' job assignments which change and involve relocation of their work place. The overall characteristics of the student population and the school are assumed to be stable. B. DATA COLLECTION METHODOLOGY 1. Outline A profile of the Vancouver HJK has been developed based on data acquired by the researcher between May 1986 and January 1988. The methods used included interviews with students, parents, teachers, a consul of the Japanese consulate 4 in Vancouver, and ESL specialists in the Vancouver School Board. A questionnaire to students, various forms of personal contact, as well as investigation of publications (such as Japanese government documents and METHODOLOGY / 60 especially the Vancouver HJK annual school report) were used. Also the result of a survey on the teachers of the Japanese schools in B.C. by D'Oyley, Willms, and Ota in 1986 is adapted for this study. Each of these methods is explained in the following sections. 2. Investigation of Publications Statistics on the growth of population overseas and the increase in Japanese schools worldwide was obtained from Gaimusho, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Changes in attitude towards overseas education and corresponding budgetary information was provided by Mombusho, the Ministry of Education. The Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) library in Vancouver was a useful source of statistics on the development of the local Japanese business community in Vancouver. Gakkou Youran, the Vancouver HJK school report is intended as a form of annual report to Gakkou Kyokai, the association of businesses that supports the HJK. It contains information on the history of the school and roles of the educators in this HJK. 3. Personal Contacts The researcher spent several hours each Saturday as a participant and an observer from September 1986 to January 1988. She volunteered in the HJK school library. 5 This was useful to gain rapport with students as well as teachers. Differing viewpoints towards the dual schooling were collected through informal conversations. METHODOLOGY / 61 The researcher also tutored two HJK students. One was a female in Grade 6. Conversation with her and her mother helped to develop the student questionnaire described in the following section. The second student was a male in Grade 5. He participated in a pre-test trial of the questionnaire which provided useful suggestions for improvement of the survey. 4. Questionnaire The questionnaire was designed by the researcher to determine the perspectives of HJK students on their two schools, a local school and an HJK, and adapting to a new country. It was 8 pages in length, and took about 15 to 20 minutes to fill out. The questionnaires given to the students were in the Japanese language. The questionnaire consisted of eight parts: (A) Personal data (I) ; grade, place of birth, sex, residential area. (B) Attitude at entry to Canada (C) Language (D) Life at the local school (E) After-school-hour life (F) Life at the HJK (G) Impression of life in B.C. (H) Personal data (II) ; overseas experiences, length of stay, METHODOLOGY / 62 English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction. / The survey questionnaire was given to all Grade 4 to Grade 9 students (91 students) in the Vancouver HJK in October 1987. There are two reasons that this researcher chose Grade 4 to Grade 9 as the study sample. The first reason is that "Kaigai Shijyo" defined by Mombusho is "Japanese children in compulsory education age"; that is between Grade 1 and Grade 9. However data obtained from Grade 1 to Grade 3 using a written questionnaire was assumed to be unreliable because the students might have difficulty understanding the questions. Thus Grade 1 to Grade 3 students were omitted in this study. Also research by Minoura suggests that the age between nine and fourteen is the critical period for the formation of cultural grammar in personality. Students in Grade 4 to Grade 9 are usually between age 9 to 15; thus the experience in this age period might be significant in shaping permanent attitudes. The data obtained by questionnaire was input to the University of British Columbia mainframe computer under Michigan Terminal System (MTS) in order to use Statistics Package for Social Science, Extended Version (SPSS:X) for further analysis. The questions asked in the questionnaire are presented in Appendix 1 with English translation. The tabulated results are presented in Appendix 2 and METHODOLOGY / 63 some results of cross-tabulation are included in Chapter IV along with interpretation. 5. Interviews Several interviews were conducted with different participants; the principal of the HJK, teachers, mothers, a consul in the Japanese Consulate General in Vancouver, and ESL specialists from the Vancouver School Board. All the interviews except with ESL specialists were done in the Japanese language. a. The Principal of the Vancouver HJK Several meetings were held with the principal of the Vancouver HJK to ask about school life in the Vancouver HJK. The current principal arrived in April 1986. He has been teaching for the last 30 years in elementary and junior high schools in Japan and was involved in educational research on a local school board. He was very cooperative to this study. Being the only official appointed directly from Japan, he was able to provide insights as to how the education in the HJK compared with the education system in Japan. b. Teachers The basic data on teachers were adapted from the study on the Japanese schools in B.C. by D'Oyley, Willms, and Ota in 1986. In that study, questionnaires were given to a number of selected teachers in 13 Japanese METHODOLOGY / 64 language schools in B.C. From the Vancouver HJK, three teachers were selected by the principal and asked to answer in detail concerning their educational qualifications and role as a teacher in the HJK. The questions asked were: Their language backgroud Their educational background; degree, diploma, certificate If they had teacher training in Japan or in Canada If they had teaching experience in Japan or in Canada Subjects that they teach Language of instruction they use in the class Knowledge about the educational system and services for the youth in B.C. or in Canada The teachers' understandings of why the children are attending the HJK Numbers of students they teach in one class Length of teaching in their particular school Age group, gender Additional information on attitudes was obtained through informal conversations, c. Mothers Interviews were conducted with a total of twelve mothers. This consisted of pairs of mothers each with children in Grade 4 to Grade 9. Interviewing of these METHODOLOGY / 65 mothers was done by telephone in October 1987. The researcher intended to interview mothers living only in the Vancouver area to focus on the Vancouver School Board; however because the selection of mothers was arranged by the president of the parents' organization, committee members 6 who lived in various school districts were scheduled. As a result, different policies of several schools districts were collected. The prepared questions were: Number of children Ages and grades of children Children's age at their entry to Canada Procedure taken in order to register at a local school Parents' experience after sending children to a local school; if the child attended ESL classes or not Impression towards registration policies and practices in British Columbia schools If they pay any school fees Opinions on attending school in B.C.; good points, bad points d. The Japanese Consulate in Vancouver An interview with a Japanese consul in charge of protection of Japanese overseas in Vancouver was arranged in October 1987. The interview focussed on the policy of the Japanese consulate regarding assistance to the HJK in METHODOLOGY / 66 Vancouver and free textbook distribution to the Japanese children. Because the consul was newly arrived, the interview was limited in terms of obtaining new information. e. ESL Specialists from the Vancouver School Board Ms. Anne Shorthouse, an ESL program coordinator in the Vancouver School Board, provided useful information regarding the policy and operations of public schools in Vancouver. She arranged an opportunity for the researcher and the principal of the Vancouver HJK to observe and talk to an ESL teacher at Point Grey Junior High School. Ms. Irene LeGallais, an ESL specialist and head of the ESL team at Point Grey High School, gave examples of how Japanese students were performing academically in this school. Some new information about extracurricular ESL educational services at public schools was collected from this interview. C. SUMMARY This chapter introduced the methodology for data collection. Details were given about the questionnaire used (See Appendix 1) and on the people interviewed for this research. These subjects included school staffs, mothers, a Japanese consulate, and ESL specialists from Vancouver School Board. The Vancouver HJK has many common characteristics with other HJKs; that is, METHODOLOGY / 67 it is a school for Kaigai Shijyo preparing to return Japan. Japanese companies initiated establishment of the school which teaches Japanese subjects in the Japanese language, and the principal is assigned to the post by the Japanese government. However the Vancouver HJK is unique: it locates in a city with a good sized Japanese population and it also has more permanent-type Japanese residents than residents with temporary status. Historically also many Japanese language schools have existed for many years. Because British Columbia adopts multi-culturalism , local schools have more capability towards newcomer students. Japanese students in Vancouver receive various institutional and societal supports unique to the Pacific Rim. METHODOLOGY / 68 Mombusho, Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku no Genjyo, 1986; Kikoku Shijyo Kyoiku no  Tebiki, 1986; Gakkou Kihon Chosa Hokoku-sho, 1977-1986. Gaimusho, Kaigai Zairyu Hojin Ninzu Chosa Tokei, 1967-1986. Mombusho, Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku no Genjyo, 1986, pp.23-31, and 103-129. There are usually three to four consuls in the Japanese Consulate General in Vancouver under the consul general. They are diplomats from the Japanese government. Each consul has special field to cover; e.g. industry, trading, or education. This researcher has a background of librarianship. At the Vancouver HJK, two committee members are elected from each grade and serve for one year. Normally different people are elected every year. Although this parents' organization consists of mothers only, it is called an organization of "fathers and mothers". IV. RESULTS OF THE STUDY A. INTRODUCTION In this chapter a case study of an HJK in Vancouver is presented. Vancouver is the third largest city in Canada. It is located on the west coast of British Columbia and has a high percentage of immigrants from Asian countries like Hong Kong and India. Canada is a country where some degree of multiculturalism is a part of the social context. British Columbia, a province of Canada, also applies the same policy. Schools in B.C. are assumed to have a multi-cultural climate, that is B.C. schools tend to have a generous attitude towards foreign students who are a part of new Canadian families. The development of the Vancouver HJK relates strongly to the development of Japanese business society in Vancouver. The profile of this school will show how the school has created a focal point for a division within the local Japanese community. A summary of the survey is presented in the following section. The questionnaire depicts the students of the HJK in Vancouver and their perspectives towards their dual schooling in B.C. 69 RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 70 B. SCHOOLING PROVISION FOR JAPANESE STUDENTS IN B.C. In Japan limited information about B.C. education is available for Japanese who intend to live in Canada prior to their relocation. Education of Japanese children in B.C. is introduced as follows by the former principal of the Vancouver HJK: Schools in B.C. are supervised by the Provincial Ministry of Education. Children between age 7 to 15 have to attend school. 93% of schools are public schools. School days are five days a week, from 9:00 to 3:00. Education is free. To attend public school, contact the local school board. 1 This gives some idea of schooling in B.C. although the information provided is insufficient. According to interviews with mothers of the HJK students, while there is no written guide book on education in B.C. for Japanese parents, information about education and the school system is passed orally among Japanese businessmen's families. The information is usually delivered through a company unit which the father works for. In the case where a father does not belong to a big company and has no seniors or colleagues, he would not be part of a network providing information about educational services available in an overseas community. 2 The British Columbia School Act defines schooling for foreigners in B.C. as follows: RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 71 1.3. VISITORS TO B.C. School-age Canadian visitors to B.C. or school-age persons of other nationalities who have the right to be in Canada may attend public school at the discretion of the school board, and the board may charge a fee. (Section 158(a)SA) 3 None of the interviewed mothers reported that they are paying school fees at the time of this research. Some mothers consider that this is because their husbands are paying taxes to the B.C. government. The "tax" they meant here is assumed to be "income tax". Although none of them acknowledged that they are paying school fees, some knew of cases where parents were asked to pay school fees as a international student. 4 Those who are paying school fees are students who stay in B.C. alone in order to complete a school year after their parents have left B.C. i To go to school in B.C., all foreign students have to obtain student authorization (a student visa). Only one out of the twelve mothers interviewed knew this fact. They probably paid no attention to their legal status in B.C. and never read their travel documents. Japanese men staying overseas temporarily with their families tend to take stronger initiatives compared with those who stay in Japan. They look after legal issues more thoroughly. Japanese women staying overseas temporarily with their husbands have less interest and concern towards these issues. This dependency on husbands is partially due to the mothers' inferior communication skills due to poorer English language ability. RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 72 The general comments made by mothers interviewed upon education in B.C. were favourable. They appreciate the learning assistance at school for their children, especially in^English language, and helpful teachers. One mother mentioned that a different approach is taken in mathematics education compared to that in Japan, and she felt it would be useful for her child in the long run. A couple of mothers pointed out that schools in B.C. were stricter compared to their experiences in sending their children to schools in the United States. All of them were grateful that their children enjoy going to local schools in B.C. C. DEVELOPMENT OF THE VANCOUVER HJK I. Japanese Companies in Vancouver The development of Japanese schools for Kaigai Shijyo has a strong correlation with the development of the Japanese business society as was shown in chapter II. In order to examine the Vancouver HJK, a look at the development of the Japanese business society in Vancouver is necessary. Japanese business society in B.C. has a parallel structure. One branch is the local business in B.C. run by Japanese immigrants. The other is Japanese based multi-national corporations. The "Japanese business society" is used here indicates the latter group. This dual structure is commonly observed in many overseas Japanese communities where the Japanese immigrated before World War II. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, a few branches of Japanese trading RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 73 companies, shipping and airline companies and insurance companies were located in Vancouver. The number increased rapidly in the 1980s. In a five year period between 1980 and 1985, thirteen offices were newly opened. Most of those were related to banking and finance services. Figure 4-1 shows the steady increase in Japanese multi-national businesses locating in Vancouver. In Vancouver the number of Eizhu-sha, or permanent residents, increased after the introduction of a new immigrant policy using a "points" system in 1978. The influx of permanent residents affected the development of Japanese language schools in Vancouver; however it did not have a direct influence on the development of the HJK. 5 The growth of Eizhu-sha has stopped since 1983 due to the restriction of new immigrants as workers in an effort to reduce high unemployment rates in Canada. Figure 4-1: Number of Japanese Companies in Vancouver Source: 1986 Directory: Affiliates and Offices of Japanese Firms in USA  and Canada" JETRO ( 1 986) RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 74 When the HJK opened in Vancouver in 1973, there were 23 companies and the number of Choki Taizai-sha, or long term residents was 579. In 1985, the number of companies exceeded 40 and over 1,500 Choki Taizai-sha were living in the Greater Vancouver area. Figure 4-2 shows how the number of Japanese in Vancouver has increased dramatically. This can be compared to Figure 2-1 which shows the total number of Japanese who live overseas. 5000 1 Number of 4000 Japanese in Vancouver 3000 2000 1000 1 970 1975 I 1 980 1985 Choki Taizai-sha Ei zhu-sha Figure 4-2: Growth of Japanese Population in Vancouver Source : Gaimusho, Kaigai Zairyu Houjin  Ni nzu Chosa Tokei (1986) RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 75 2. Brief Outline of the Vancouver HJK The Vancouver HJK, formally Vancouver Nihongo Hoshu Gakkou, was opened in April 1973. 6 At first the school was located at 5025 Willow St., renting space from the Eric Hamber School on Saturdays. The school was started with 86 students and 7 teachers. At that time there was no professional teacher assigned by the Japanese government. The following year, a school library was opened in a different location downtown. Both the classes and the library moved to 1370 West 73rd Ave., in 1977, where the St. Anthony private school had previously been located. By 1979, enrollment exceeded 150. Figure 4-3 shows the development of enrollment at the Vancouver HJK. In the last twelve years between 1973 to 1985, the number of HJK students in Vancouver has doubled. This expansion corresponds to the enlargement of Japanese Choki Taizai-sha population in Vancouver. In 1980, the first professional teacher was dispatched from Japan by Mombusho, the Ministry of Education. Since then, every three years a new teacher has been sent and supersedes the previous principal. Also, in 1980, classes at the Japanese high school level, which is equivalent to Grade 10 to Grade 12 in B.C., were started. Originally there was one class each for Grade 10 and for Grades 11-12. In 1987, separate classes for Grade 11 and 12 were established. RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 76 D. PROFILE OF THE VANCOUVER HJK 1. The Organization of the Vancouver HJK The organization of the Vancouver HJK is very similar to the management flow chart of a Japanese company. Boeki Konwa-kai, a gathering of businessmen from major Japanese based multi-national companies and branches of major Japanese companies, consists of about 250 businessmen from 90 member firms. From this group, a league called Gakkou Kyokai or School Association is formed. Among 250 n 0 I i 1 1 i i 1 1 1 1 i i \ % 1972 74 76 78 80 82 84 Figure 4-3: Enrollment of Japanese Students at Vancouver HJK Source: Gakkou Youran (Vancouver HJK School Report) (1986) RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 77 this School Association, a governing board of school management is appointed. Major companies take turns fulfilling the required roles. Figure 4-4 shows the linkage between the administration, operation, and parent groups within the Vancouver HJK. 2. Purpose of the Vancouver HJK According to Gakkou Youran, the HJK school report, the educational goal is set as : To foster students who are healthy mentally and physically, respect both oneself and others, possess affluent sentiment and creativity, and practice persistently. 7 The school is managed under a policy that the students would be able to adjust to schools in Japan immediately when they return. 8 3. Enrollment Procedure Those who wish their children to attend the Vancouver HJK contact the head of the school management committee in person. In the Gakkou Youran, the HJK school report, there is no written restriction as to who can attend the HJK. There is no entrance examination nor interview. There is however an actual restriction of enrollment. Because this school was originated by a Japanese business society for their children who will return to Japan, and because the acceptance decision is made by the governing board which is chosen from the Japanese business community, children of immigrants who intend to live in School Association -representatives from Japanese business community I Governing Board -appointed from School Association members Parents Association -all parents Di rector -elected from Governing Board Principal -appointed by Mombusho General Affairs Commi ttee I Parents Committee -two representatives elected from each grade Head Teacher -elected from teachers Accounting Committee Management Committee Secretary Figure 4-4: Organization of the Vancouver HJK S3 W CO a CO O H K W CO H d D oo Source: Gakkou Youran (Vancouver HJK School Report) (1987) RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 79 Canada permanently are not considered for acceptance. The principal has no authority to alter this pattern of student selection. The decision as to who is admitted into the Vancouver HJK is made by Un'ei Iinkai, the Governing Board, which consists of the members of Boeki Konwa Kai. The restriction in admission to the school is explained as due to the limited space of enrollment by the Vancouver HJK. The first priority is given to the children of employees who work for member companies of Boeki Konwa-kai. Also it is explained that the educational goal is different from other Japanese language schools; children who do not intend to return to Japan do not fit the purpose of this school. 4. School Facilities The Vancouver HJK is very well equipped as an HJK. It does not share the school building or playground with other institutions. This makes the management of school very easy. The teaching materials are kept safely in the same place and do not need to be carried to the class every teaching day. For most HJKs in the world, ensuring class space is one of the most crucial problems. In the case of the Vancouver HJK, although the space is getting smaller for the number of the students, sufficient facilities exist to provide an acceptable independent educational institution. The HJK library holds about 6,000 books, all in Japanese for various age groups and levels from kindergarten to adult. They have the biggest collection of RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 80 juvenile books in the Japanese language in B.C. These books are also available to the parents of HJK students. A video cassette recorder (VCR) is often used to exhibit Japanese made educational programs in science and social studies to the students. There is only one VCR machine in the school and video watching is scheduled by classes. 5. Students Figure 4-5 shows the breakdown of numbers of students by grade and gender in the Vancouver HJK in 1987. There were 204 students in total including both males and females from Grade 1 to Grade 12. Students are categorized into two groups according to their parents' (usually fathers') occupation. Category I is the children of businessmen who are members of Boeki Konwa-kai, a gathering of major Japanese companies, which supports this school. Category II is the children of diplomats in the Japanese consulate in Vancouver, professionals sent to UBC by government or invited by UBC or equivalent, and teachers at this Japanese school. In 1986 about 15 percent of the HJK students were classified as Category II students. 6. Finance The Vancouver HJK is supported by the member companies of Boeki Konwa-kai. The Japanese government through the consulate provides partial assistance to pay RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 81 30 1 Number of Students Figure 4-5: Number of Students in Vancouver HJK in 1987 Source: Gakkou Youran (Vancouver HJK School Report) (1987) for teachers' salaries. However the normal operating expenses of the school are supported by the school fees from students. There are two sets of school fees and students pay according to their categorization as shown in Table 4-1. 7. Teachers There were 11 homeroom teachers (4 males, 7 females) in 1987. Four after-school curricula teachers (1 male, 3 females), arts or calligraphy specialists, also work in this school. All of these 16 teachers in the Vancouver HJK are RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 82 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-1: School Fees (1987) CATEGORY I CATEGORY II Enrollment Fee Tuition(Gl-G9) (G10-G12) $10.00 $35.00/month $45.00/month $10.00 $60.00/month $70.00/month Source : the Vancouver HJK Gakkou Youran (1987) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Japanese who have immigrated to Canada. There are no Canadian born teachers. All of the teachers at the Vancouver HJK have at least associate or bachelor degrees from Japanese colleges. They received teachers training and teaching certificates from Japanese prefectural government which are valid in all prefectures in Japan. Some of them held teaching appointments in Japan. They instruct in Japanese language, mathematics, and social studies, as is appropriate for the grade being instructed, using the Japanese language only. For students under Grade 6, a homeroom teacher gives lessons in all the subjects to one class. For students of Grade 7 and above, each teachers instructs in one subject. The age range of the teachers is between late 20s and early 50s. The average period spent teaching at the Vancouver HJK in 1987 was about 7 years. 9 They work every Saturday, 8:45 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Their salary is paid from student fees, Japanese governmental assistance, and Boeki Konwa-kai contributions. Data on their salaries was not obtainable. . RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 83 The principal is a teacher who is assigned by the Japanese government through Mombusho, the Ministry of Education. A dispatched teacher is issued an official passport by the Japanese government and his status is as an extra chancellor. The length of assigned period is three years. The principal does not teach: his major task is that of managing the school according to the pattern approved by Un'ei Iinkai, the Governing Board. 8. Curriculum The Vancouver HJK aims to help students adjust to schools in Japan immediately upon their return to Japan. It includes both academic and social training. To accomplish this the school is managed under the Japanese system; for example, the HJK uses the same textbooks as schools in Japan, follows the same course of study by Mombusho, the Ministry of Education, adopts the teacher-centered teaching method as most schools in Japan do. Teachers assign a large amount of homework so that students can keep their study discpline, and post a list of students' names on the wall according to their examination performance. The Vancouver HJK gives classes Saturdays from 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. Length of one class period and starting time varies depending on grades. One class unit is 50 minutes at the elementary level and 90 minutes at the secondary level. Staggering the time of elementary and secondary outdoor periods allows the playground to be used safely and effectively. After-school curricula in arts and calligraphy are provided between 3:15 p.m. to 4:15 p.m. after regular Saturday RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 84 school hours. Table 4-2 shows the teaching subjects and weekly teaching periods in the Vancouver HJK. At an elementary school level, 225 class hours are given in one year, and at the junior high school level there are 270 class hours. Textbooks distributed by the Japanese government are used in this school. Although there is not as much class time as in Japan, an effort is made to complete a whole textbook in each subject, thus homework is always assigned. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-2: Teaching Subjects and Weekly Teaching Periods (1987) Japanese Math Social Fine Art/ Studies Science Elementary G 1 2 2 1 (50 minutes) G 2 2 2 1 G 3 2 2 1 G 4 2 2 1 G 5 2 2 1 G 6 2 2 1 Junior High G 7 1 1 1 (90 minutes) G 8 1 1 1 G 9 1 1 1 Source: The Vancouver HJK Gakkou Youran, (1987) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Classroom management is very similar to schools in Japan. For example, RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 85 students are to formally and ritualistically greet the teacher before and after every lesson, they are not permitted to move about the classroom, and they cannot leave the classroom during the lesson. E. RESULTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE The survey was conducted October 17th, 1987. As shown in Table 4-3, all students in Grade 4 to Grade 9 in the Vancouver HJK were studied except those who were absent that day. The tabulated results are presented in Appendix II. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-3: Number of Students Sampled N in the class Absent Spoiled Valid Samples G 4 22 1 0 21 G 5 0 1 1 18 G 6 12 2 0 10 G 7 22  2G 8 12 1 0 11 G 9 1 0  1Total 99 7 1 91 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 86 1. Profile of HJK Students There were 41 female and 49 male students participating in the study. Sixty seven students (75.3%) were Japanese born, and 22 (24.7%) were born outside Japan. Eight Canadian born students were included. These Canadian born students are assumed to be either children of teachers in this school or of employees who are hired locally in Vancouver not in Japan. Fifty eight students (64%) were living in Vancouver. This is because the houses provided by companies which have offices in downtown Vancouver are usually located in the Vancouver area. Richmond and North Vancouver are also popular as company house locations. Ninety six percent of HJK students live in these three Lower Mainland municipalities. Data from 1986 also shows the concentration in these same three municipalities. (See Table 4-4) Because the HJK follows the Japanese academic year, the grade in a local school and in HJK are sometimes different. The academic year at the HJK follows the Japanese school year and starts in April whereas Canadian schools start in September. In Japanese schools, both in Japan and overseas, children strictly stay in the grade of the physical year and are not placed according to academic performance. There is no skipping or repeating grades in HJK. The average number in each class in Vancouver HJK is 15. Compared to the average class size in Japan, which is 40-45, this is very small. Most of the Vancouver HJK students go to public schools in B.C. Point Grey, RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 87 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-4: Residential Distribution of HJK Students (1986) Gl G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 G10 Gil G12 TOTAL VANCOUVER 24 19 18 16 10 19 12 6 7 7 5 4 147(66%) RICHMOND 4 8 6 5 4 3 2 3 2 1 2 40(18%) N.VAN 1 1 1 3 4 1 4 3 1 1 20( 9%) W.VAN 1 1 1 1 1 1 6( 3%) BURNABY 1 1 2( 1%) SURREY 1 1 2( 1%) COQUITLAM 1 1 2( 1%) LANGLEY 1 1 2( 1%) TOTAL 30 30 26 26 18 26 18 15 10 8 9 5 221(100%) Source : Address Book of Vancouver HJK (1986 July) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Jamieson, Maple Grove, Churchill, McKechinie (all Vancouver School Board) and Burnett (Richmond School Board) have more than 5 students in each school. Only two students go to private schools, and they are both female. Thirty five students (38.5%) said that they have lived in a foreign country before Canada. The U.S.A. (9 students) and Republic of South Africa (R.S.A.) (8) were the most frequent places of previous residence, followed by West Germany (2), Papua New Guinea (2), and Australia (2). There are two students who had come to B.C. for the second time. Those who have been to the R.S.A. went to a full-time Japanese school. In a RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 88 full-time Japanese school, opportunities to use English were limited even though they lived in an English speaking country. Thus those students claimed that they have difficulty with English language although they had lived in an English speaking country. For children who have spent time outside Japan prior to arriving in Canada, the average length of stay in another foreign country was 3.2 years. For those who came to Canada as their first foreign country to live, Vancouver was the first place inside Canada. According to the data of entry in B.C., five groups were categorized depending on the length of stay as shown in Table 4-5. The shortest length of stay was 2 months and the longest was 14 years at the point of research in October 1987. The average was 2 years and 9 months in B.C. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-5: Length of stay in B.C. Number of Students Percent Less than one year 21 23.1% One to three years 35 38.5% Three to five years 16 17.6% Over five years 1 12.1% Canadian born 8 8.8xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx On this survey questionnaire, fifty nine students (67%) answered that they RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 89 attended English as a Second Language (ESL) classes when they first went to school in B.C. The criteria of attending an ESL class varies depending on the school board and its ESL class situation in terms of capacity. The Vancouver School Board (VSB) recommends that non-native English speaking students over Grade 4 should attend an ESL class. Where there is no ESL class at the student's home school, the VSB arranges to send the student to the nearest school with ESL classes or to keep the student at the home school and use the text for a lower grade. 2. The Attitude Towards the New Environment Before the children came to Canada, while still living in Japan, they probably could not have a clear image of the life they would lead in Canada and how they would cope with the Canadian school system. The children must have had mixed feelings of anxiety and expectation toward the new environment. The survey showed 29 students (34.5%) had a positive attitude towards moving to Canada, while 21 (20.0%) recalled that they had an unfavorable attitude. For children, schools are one of the biggest influences in their life. The expectation towards an HJK was higher than to a local school. Twice as many students surveyed had a negative attitude towards attending a local school compared with the HJK. The researcher assumes that the reason for the higher expectation is that the children were informed that the HJK would be the only institution in Canada that was the same as in Japan. RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 90 To investigate what was the students' most significant problem during their entry-period into a new culture they were asked an open-ended question to determine the most bothersome issue for them after their arrival in B.C. Of the 65 students who listed at least one problem, fifty students (76.9%) recalled that they had a problem with English. Six students (9.2%) listed problems relating to friends, and five students (7.7%) claimed that they had been bullied or suffered from discrimination. For overseas Japanese students in Vancouver, language ability is the most crucial problem at the time of entry. 3. English Language Fluency In this section the researcher investigated how the HJK students' language fluency affects their life styles and schooling perspectives. Although the questions asked were subjective, the results are useful to determine the language environment of the Japanese students at the HJK in B.C. Their language preference was measured by different sets of scales in their daily life, e.g. watching TV or reading books. The differences in language preference depending on the length of stay was studied by cross tabulation. Only 26% of students studied English before coming to Canada. In Japan English class starts in Grade 7 at public schools. The researcher had assumed that those who answered that they had studied English before they came to B.C. would be above grade 7 upon their arrival; however their answers did not show any relation with the grade at the entry. Thus it appears to be random selection as to which children studied English prior to arriving in Canada. RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 91 Most students (80.9%) found they have no problem communicating in English at the moment. Table 4-6 shows the result of cross tabulation between their communication ability in English and the length of stay in B.C. Those who answered that they could not communicate with teachers in English were in the group of students who had been in Canada less than one year. In three years time or less, students are able to communicate with teachers in English. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-6: Cross Tabulation: Communication vs. Length of Stay in B.C. (C3) : Are you able to communicate with your teacher in English without any difficulty? (H3a) : Length of stay in B.C. Up to 1 yr. 1-3 yrs. 3 - 5 yrs. Over 5 yrs. Yes/ Yes somewhat Neutral No No somewhat 7 (33.3%) 6 (28.6%) 8 (38.1%) 32 (91.4%) 3 ( 8.6%) 16 (100.0%) 10 (100.0%) Total 21 (100.0%) 35 (100.0%) 16 (100.0%) 10 (100.0%) (missing 9 cases) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx To the question concerning which language they usually use at home, only five students (5.6%) say they usually use English at home. For most families in this RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 92 school, Japanese is the common household language. To maintain the Japanese language, the Japanese government recommends the family speak Japanese as much as possible. 10 Although in most families Japanese is used, twenty two students (24.4%) answered they feel more comfortable in English. This language preference pattern changes as their stay in B.C. longer. (See Table 4-7) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-7: Cross Tabulation: Language Preference vs. Length of Stay (C6) : Do you feel more comfortable in English than in Japanese? (H3a) : Length of stay Up to 1 yr. 1 - 3 yrs. 3 - 5 yrs. Over 5 yrs. Yes/ .2 8 3 4 Yes somewhat ( 9.5%) (22.8%) (18.7%) (40.0%) Neutral 4 5 5 3 (19.0%) (14.3%) (31.3%) (30.0%) No/ 15 22 8 3 No somewhat (71.5%) (62.9%) (50.0%) (30.0%) Total 21 35 16 10 (100.0%) (100.0%) (100.0%) (100.0%) (missing 9 cases) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Watching television (TV) and reading books are common activities to represent language preference. Sixty six students (72.5%) say they often watch TV or video cassett recorder (VCR). This particular question was somewhat ambiguous RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 93 so the answers obtained were very subjective. For some students 6 hours a week is not "often", while for other it is a lot. The average time watching Japanese TV programs was about 4 hours, and English TV programs about 5 hours. Although there are not as many Japanese programs on the air in B.C. as English programs, the availability of a VCR gives easy access to recorded Japanese programs. Seventy students (76.9%) said their families have VCR machines. The popularization of VCR's has had an influence on overseas education. As an audio-visual aid, a VCR is a very powerful tool. Students in the HJK watch videos on science and social studies at school. The VCR is currently used more for entertainment than education in the Japanese community. This is because educational TV programs are available only through friends or relatives staying in Japan. Reading books is another indication of language preference. Because reading tastes vary, the researcher suggested that students count all the books they read in one month, including magazines and comic books. Table 4-8 shows the result of cross tabulation of grade at the HJK and the number of Japanese language books the students had read in one month. According to this survey, students in lower grades read more Japanese books per month. This result supports the researcher's observation in the school library. Students in HJK can borrow a maximum of 5 books per week from the school library; however students in the upper grades do not borrow books as often as RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 94 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-8: Cross Tabulation: Grade at HJK vs. Number of Japanese Books Read (Al) : Grade at the HJK (Cll) : Number of books you read in Japanese G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 0 1 12 1 to 10 10 6 4 16 8 7 11 to 20 3 6 1 3 2 1 21 to 50 5 3 2 1 1 51 or more 111 Average number 18.6 19.2 . 18.5 6.5 8.8 7.4 of books read xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx the lower grade students. The possible reasons are that the upper grade students do not have extra time for fun reading, or there are not many books which attract them. Comparing Table 4-8 to Table 4-9 shows that the average number of books read, in the Japanese language is much larger than for English books even though it is not as easy to obtain books in the Japanese language as in Japan. Table 4-10 illustrates that there is a significant correlation between the number of Japanese and the number of English books a student reads. Those students who read many books in Japanese tend to read a larger number of books in English also. Conversely the student who dislikes reading in his native language also does not like reading English. Reading good books in the students' first RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 95 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-9: Cross Tabulation: HJK Grade vs. English Books Read (Al) : Grade at the HJK (C12) : Number of books read in English G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 0 2 1 2 2 1 1 to 5 9 9 5 14 7 8 6 to 10 4 4 2 3 2 1 11 to 20 3 2 1 1 21 or more 2 1 Average number 8.1 9.2 5.5 2.7 2.7 3.5 of book read xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx language is strongly recommended by an ESL teacher to develop their second language as well. 1 1 4. Canadian School Life Students at HJK have a generally positive attitude towards attending local schools in B.C. HJK students feel that their friends at Canadian local schools are friendly to them, and their teachers at their local school are helpful. Ten students replied that they felt left out in the class at their local school. Two of them who feel strongly that way have stayed in Canada less than one year. (See Table 4-11) The shortness of the time in Canada has not given them an opportunity to assimilate in school yet. On the other hand, there is one student who feels strongly left out of the local school class even though he or she has RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 96 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-10: Cross Tabulation: English vs. Japanese Books Read (Cll) : Number of books read in Japanese (C12) : Number of books read in English (English) 0 1-5 6-10 11-20 21-50 5.0 or more (Japanese) 0 0 1 10 0 1 to 5 4 25 50 0 0 6 to 10 2 11 32 0 0 1 11 to 20 2 9 4 1 0 0 21 to 50 0 3 3 4 2 0 50 or more 0 1 1 1 0 0 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx been in Canada more than five years. Twenty two students (25.0%) answered that the school work at a local school is difficult to follow. The researcher assumed that the students in higher grades would find the school work in a local school more difficult to follow, but there was no significant difference by grades up to grade 9. Two out of three grade 10 students claimed that the school work in their local school is difficult for them to follow. It is probably caused by a gap between their cognitive level of learning and their language skill. Most students at HJK enjoy going to a local school in B.C. Those who said that they do not enjoy going to a local school were found in grades 8 to 10. Seventy two students (68.9%) consider that they are fortunate that they could go to school in Canada. RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 97 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-11 : Cross Tabulation: Feeling Left Out vs. Length of Stay (D3) : Do you feel that you are left out in the class? (H3a) : Length of stay Up to 1 yr. 1 - 3 yrs. 3 - 5 yrs. Over 5 yrs. Yes/ 3 5 11 Yes somewhat (14.3%) (14.3%) ( 6.3%) (10.0%) Neutral 5 9 1 1 (23.8%) (25.7%) ( 6.3%) (10.0%) No/ 13 21 14 8 No somewhat (61.9%) (60.0%) (87.4%) (80.0%) Total 21 34 16 11 (100%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (missing 9 cases) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 5. After-School in Canada One way to measure the degree of assimilation to Canadian culture is by the structure of friendships. Among those students who stayed in Canada less than three years, 29 students (52.7%) answered that they play with non-Canadian students more often than with Canadian students. However this percentage changes with those students who have stayed in Canada more than 3 years. Since Vancouver has such a large visibly ethnic community, the specific answers to this question are somewhat ambiguous. However Table 4-12 shows a clear trend towards playing more with Canadian friends as length of stay in Canada increases. RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 98 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-12 : Cross Tabulation: Canadian Friends vs. Length of Stay (E2) : Do you play with Canadian friends more often than with Japanese friends? (H3a) : Length of stay Up to 1 yr. 1-3 yrs. 3 - 5 yrs. Over 5 yrs. Yes/ 4 8 8 8 Yes somewhat (19.0%) (23.5%) (50.0%) (72.7%) Neutral 5 9 5 2 (23.8%) (26.5%) (31.3%) (18.2%) No/ 12 17 3 1 No somewhat (57.2%) (50.0%) (18.7%) (9.1%) Total 21 34 16 11 (100%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (missing 9 cases) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Taking private lessons after school-hours is very common among Japanese students at the HJK in Vancouver. Sixty seven students (70.3%) are taking sports lessons and forty seven (52.2%) are taking music lessons. The longer the students stay, the more they tend to take lessons as is illustrated in Table 4-13. Forty two students (46.2%) are taking private English lessons now. Including the 28 students who have taken English lessons previously in Canada, almost 78% RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 99 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-13 : Cross Tabulation: Lessons vs. Length of Stay (E7) : Do you take sports lessons or belong to a sports club? (E8) : Do you take music lessons or belong to a school band? (H3a) : Length of stay Sports Music Up to 1 yr. 1-3 yrs. 8 (38.1%) 4 (19.0%) 27 (77.1%) 19 (55.9%) 5 yrs. Over 5 yrs. 14 (87.5%) 3 (68.8%) 9 (81.8%) 6 (54.5%) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx of the HJK students take English lessons in addition to local school work and HJK work. In the first year of living in B.C., more students take private English lessons; however this percentage decreases as they stay longer. (See Figure 4-6) Especially for those in higher grades, the ability to comprehend English is one of the most important factors to performing better in school. Sixty one students (67.0%) take a correspondence course from Japan. This is shown in Table 4-14. The correspondence course by Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Sjinko Zaidan (Foundation for Promoting Education for Kaigai Shijyo) provides a workbook on 4 to 5 core subjects, (Japanese, mathematics, science, social studies, and English) plus exams every month. It is getting popular to take private lessons on mathematics or other subjects to prepare for entrance exams in Japan. Forty one students (45.5%) feel they are busier than when they were in Japan, while 27 (30.7%) do not think so. RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 100 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-14: Cross Tabulation: HJK Grade vs. Correspondence Course (Al) : Grade at the HJK (E5) : Do you take a correspondence course from Japan? Yes No Total G4 14 (66.7%) 7 ' (33.3%) 21 (100.0%) G5 12 (70.6%) 5 (29.4%) 17 (100.0%) G6 5 (50.0%) 5 (50.0%) 10 (100.0%) G7 14 (70.0%) 6 (30.0%) 20 (100.0%) G8 8 (72.7%) 3 (27.3%) 11 (100%) G9 (72.7%) 3 (27.3%) 11 (100%) (missing 1 case) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Students list various things as the most attractive aspect of Canadian school life from Canada's wonderful natural environment to computer education. Many point out that there is a liberal atmosphere in school (16 students), people are open minded (22) including 'teachers are more friedly and accessible compared to Japan' and 'little bullying is observed'. Some note that mathematics is easier, physical education is enjoyable, and English language education is well organized. One student appreciates there is no pressure for entrance examinations. 6. Life at HJK Students at the Vancouver HJK are considered friendly and teachers at the HJK are helpful. Eight students felt that they were left out of the class at the HJK. RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 101 (See Table 4-15.) Two of those who felt strongly so have been in Canada less than one year. Two others who felt at least somewhat left out have stayed over five years. It is understandable that those who joined the HJK recently have not yet settled into a class. There are other reasons why two students who have stayed this long feel that they are left out of the class. One of these two students is a male in Grade 10. He came to Canada when he was one year old. In his case his limited Japanese language ability probably affects his feeling towards the HJK. He wrote that studying at the HJK is difficult and he is not looking forward to going to the HJK. The biggest reason to go to the HJK for him is to study the 1 00% Percentage of Students Taking Private English Lessons <1yr 1-3 3-5 >5yr Length of Residence in Canada Figure 4-6: Percentage of HJK Students Taking Private English Lessons vs. Length of Residence in Canada Source: Results of survey questionnaire (1987) RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 102 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-15: Cross Tabulation: Left Out vs. Length of Stay (F3) : Do you feel that you are left out in the class at HJK? (H3a) : Length of stay Up to 1 yr. 1-3 yrs. 3 - 5 yrs. Over 5 yrs. Yes/ 4 2 0 2 Yes somewhat (19.0%) ( 5.7%) ( 0.0%) (18.2%) Neutral 5 5.1 2 (23.8%) (14.3%) ( 6.2%) (18.2%) No/ 12 28 15 7 No somewhat (57.1%) (80.0%) (93.8%) (63.6%) Total 21 35 16 10 (100.0%) (100.0%) (100.0%) (100.0%) (missing 8 cases) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Japanese language. Although he did not say he was more comfortable in English than in Japanese, his reading habits clearly show his preference of language. He said that he read 15 English books a month, but none in Japanese. In addition he responded on the questionnaire that from the beginning he was not looking forward to going to the HJK. The other case is a female in Grade 8 who arrived in 1980. She enjoys attending the HJK and finds no problem for her study there. In her case no significant possible reasons for feeling left out of the class were observed. It might be a temporary feeling which adolescent girls often experience. RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 103 Table 4-16 shows the gender differences of students who felt left out of the HJK classes. It is interesting to note that more male students feel that they are left out of the class at the HJK. Only one female student (2.4%) felt she was left out whereas 7 male students out of 49 (14.3%) felt that way. These male students were concentrated in Grade 3 and Grade 4. There must be some gender differences existing in the playing groups in the HJK or some negative aspects of homeroom class management involved. There were no differences observed between Canada-born and non Canada-born students. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-16 : Cross Tabulation: Left Out vs. Gender (F3) : Do you feel that you are left out in the class at HJK? (A2) : Gender Female Male Yes/Yes somewhat 1 ( 2.4%) Neutral 6 (14.6%) No/No somewhat 34 (82.9%) Total 41 (100.0%) 7 (14.3%) 13 (26.5%) 29 (59.2%) 49 (100.0%) (1 case missing) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx When asked if the school work at the HJK is difficult for them, about 20% of RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 104 the students responded that they felt that way. The researcher assumed students answering that they had difficulty at the HJK would be those who had stayed in Canada longer, due to changes in study habits and less use of Japanese language. Table 4-17 shows that this was not the case. A higher proportion of students who had stayed less than three years answered that they found the school work difficult. It might be explained that those who joined the HJK recently are not yet used to a faster teaching pace of HJK compared to schools in Japan, so that they feel the study more difficult than those who have stayed in this school longer. There was no significant difference by gender or place of birth. Sixty students (68.2%) admitted that they enjoy going to the HJK, while 28 students (31.8%) denied liking the school. Looking at this attitude by the grades, all grades except Grade 5 showed over 60 percent affirmative attitude toward the HJK. (See Table 4-18.) The length of stay did not affect this result. Male students showed slightly higher enthusiasm for going to the HJK as shown in Table 4-19. Students provided various answers as to what they felt was the biggest purpose for attending HJK. Forty four students (48.4%) listed "to catch up with school work in Japan or to prepare for returning to Japan". Twenty students (22.2%) believed the main purpose was "to meet friends and speak Japanese" while 19 (21.1%) listed "to study Japanese language". The remaining seven people named other reasons. No significant differences were found in the listed purposes of attending the HJK by the length of stay or place of birth. RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 105 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-17: Cross Tabulation: School Work in HJK vs. Length of Stay in B.C. (F4) : Is school work at the HJK too difficult for you? (H3a) : Length of stay in B.C. Up to 1 1-3 yrs. 3 - 5 yrs. Over 5 yr. yrs. Yes/ 5 9 11 Yes somewhat (23.8%) (26.4%) ( 6.2%) ( 9.0%) Neutral 7 9 4 3 (33.3%) (26.4%) (25.0%) (27.3%) No/ 9 16 11 7 No somewhat (42.9%) (47.2%) (68.8%) (63.6%) Total 21 34 16 11 (100.0%) (100.0%) (100.0%) (100.0%) (missing 9 cases) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Many students list the most attractive aspect of HJK is that they can speak Japanese as much as they want to. Meeting friends and chatting about Japanese topics helps to release the tension and frustration caused by speaking and studying in a second language in the local school. 7. Impressions of Living in B.C. Seventy students (77.8%) consider that they are fortunate to have an opportunity to go to school in B.C. There were no students who showed a strong adverse opinion. Although they enjoy schooling in B.C., quite a few miss being in Japan. RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 106 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-18 : Cross Tabulation: HJK Grade vs. HJK attendence (Al) : Grade at the HJK (E5) : Do you enjoy going to the HJK? G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 Yes 18 6 6 14 9 7 (85.7%) (37.5%) (66.7%) (70.0%) (81.9%) (63.6%) No 3 10 3 6 2 4 (14.2%) (62.5%) (33.3%) (30.0%) (18.2%) (36.4%) Total 21 16 9 20 11 11 (100.0%) (100.0%) (100.0%) (100.0%) (100.0%) (100.0%) (missing 3 cases) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx While thirty eight students (41.5%) do not show an interest returning to Japan at the moment, twenty five (27.5%) say they want to go back to Japan as soon as possible. The percentage of students who desire to go back to Japan was affected by the length of stay in Canada. Figure 4-7 illustrates clearly that the longer the students stay, the less they want go back to Japan. This is one indication of how well Japanese students in Vancouver are adapting into Canadian society. Students' responses to the question asking if they want to come back to B.C. RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 107 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-19 : Cross Tabulation: Gender vs. Attitude towards HJK (A5) : Gender (F5) : Do you enjoy going to the HJK? Female Male Yes 24 36 (58.5%) (76.6%) No 17 11 (41.5%) ' (23.4%) Total 41 9 (100.0%) (100.0%) (1 case missing) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx for further education directly indicates the students' perspective towards educational service in B.C. Affirmative answers probably represent strong support of what they are receiving at the moment. Forty students (48.9%) show interest in coming back to school in B.C. Students who once received education overseas tend to return to overseas schools. This phenomenon can be ascribed either to maladjustment towards the Japanese school system upon reentry, or a result of a positive educational experience during the first overseas period. These students are thus potential international students and have a higher probability of receiving more education overseas than students who have never been to school overseas. 1 2 The students' biggest concern at school remains "English". The students in higher RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 108 <1 year (n=21) 1-3 years Length of (n=35) stay in Canada (number of students) 3"5 vears (n=16) >5 years (n=ll) 0% 50% 100% Do you desire to return to Japan as soon as possible? Yes/Yes somewhat Neutral No/No somewhat Figure 4-7: HJK Students Desire to Return to Japan versus Length of Residence in Canada Source: Results of survey questionnaire (1987) grades worry about school work for local schools which is getting complicated and the fact that they do not have enough time to preparation. There is hardly any worry about friends. One student who listed problems with friends was a newcomer. RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 109 F. SUMMARY In this chapter, the development of the Vancouver HJK and the profile of the students in this school in 1987 were introduced based on the results of a survey questionnaire. This chapter described the features of the Vancouver HJK and one side of the life of Japanese students in Vancouver and their perspectives towards the dual schooling experience. The development of the Vancouver HJK is closely related to the growth of Choki Taizai-sha, long term residents. Both the number of students attending the HJK and the number of Choki Taizai-sha in Vancouver have been increasing over the period from 1976-1987. This trend is not likely to abate in the foreseeable future. The purpose of the Vancouver HJK is to prepare the Kaigai Shijyo in Vancouver for a smooth readjustment on their return to Japan. The program aims not only to maintain the Japanese language ability but also to enhance the academic ability of students by following the Japanese education system. A considerable number of students in the HJK were born in countries other than Japan, and some have spent most of their lives outside of Japan. For the majority of students, Japanese is the most comfortable language. Fluency in English is the biggest problem for the HJK students not only upon their entry into Canada but even after several years of living here. Enrollment into this school is controlled by the Gakkou Kyokai, school association, which is a part of Boeki Konwa-kai, a gathering of Japanese businesses in Vancouver. Neither an entrance examination nor an interview is required to RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 110 register in this school, however the student's parents must be members of Boeki Konwa-kai to obtain admission. The only other way to get into the HJK is by getting special permission for enrollment from the Gakkou Kyokai. Usually these special cases apply only to children of diplomats, scholars at UBC or teachers at the HJK, and not to children of immigrants. Although this school basically excludes children of immigrants from its student population, the teaching staff are all Japanese with landed immigrant status. All staff have completed at least a two-year college education in Japan. The principal of the school, who is sent by and whose salary is paid by Mombusho, the Ministry of Education, does not participate in teaching the class. The teacher's salaries are paid for by school fees from students with an appropriation from Boeki Konwa-kai and also a subsidy from the Japanese government. School life in the HJK follows Japanese style classroom discipline which means adhering to the teacher-centered teaching method. Thus the students formally greet the teacher before and after every lesson. The curriculum is based on a course of study provided by Mombusho, the Ministry of Education, however the time spent on each unit is much shorter due to the limited number of teaching hours. The curricula at the HJK bears no relationship to the curricula of the public schools in B.C. There is very little concern as to the correlation between the HJK's curricula and that of the local public schools. Although all Japanese schools overseas are supposed to collect data on overseas educational systems for research purposes, it seems that this has not been established yet in this school. RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 111 Results of the survey questionnaire portray the life of Japanese students at the HJK in Vancouver. Students consider that the main reason for attending the HJK is "to catch up with school work in Japan or to prepare for returning to Japan". However, many students found that the HJK was the place where they could speak Japanese without any hesitation and that was the most attractive aspect of the HJK. Students at the HJK show a strong preference for the Japanese language. This was measured by their answers as to how comfortable they are at speaking English, reading, and watching TV or VCR programs. Although their language preference is still Japanese, all students who have stayed in Canada for more than three years report no difficulty in communicating in English with teachers and friends. The language barrier may affect students' assimilation to the Canadian society to some extent. The degree of assimilation, depending on the length of stay, is measured by their preference of friends to socialize with (Canadian or Japanese) and whether or not they feel left out of the class. This is illustrated in Tables 4-11 and 4-12. In their first year in Vancouver, nearly 75% of the HJK students took private English lessons. This percentage declines as the students stay longer, whereas the percentage taking extracurricular music or sports lessons increases correspondingly. Over 70% of Grade 4 to Grade 9 HJK students are taking correspondence courses from Japan. The correspondence course is designed as a self-study program for the Japanese children who do not have an opportunity to attend full-time Japanese school. This course requires at least one hour of home study RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 112 every day. The students need strong self-discipline to complete the required workload of this correspondence course every month. Two thirds of the HJK students say they enjoy going to the HJK. This is about the same number that respond positively towards attending the local school. No particular preference toward either school was found in this study. The Japanese students appreciate the opportunity to experience a Canadian style education in B.C. About half of the surveyed students show interest in coming back to school in B.C. for further education. This suggests the schooling experience in B.C. is positively accepted and their interest in Canada will continue. RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 113 Toshio Takahashi, "Vancouver Hoshu Jyugyo Kou" in Kaigai ni Okeru  Nihon no Kyoiku (Tokyo: Zenkoku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Kenkyu Kyogi Kai, 1983), p.365. From interview with Mrs Hino, October 19, 1987. Alan C. Nicholls, A Guide to the School Act of B.C. (Vancouver: The B.C. School Trustees Association, 1984), p.4. The definition of the International students varies between school boards. In the case of the Vancouver School Board, the international student program started in 1985. Only those who have relatives or responsible persons in B.C. are accepted. In 1987, there were 42 international students and 3 were Japanese. An international student is charged 4,900 Canadian dollars per year for school fee. (From interview with Ms. Irene Gallais, December 1987. JETRO, 1986 Directory, Affiliates & Offices of Japanese firms in USA &  Canada, 1986, pp.414-419. The Vancouver HJK, Gakkou Youran (The School Report) 1987, n.pag. The Vancouver HJK, Ibid., 1987, n.pag. Yoko Okunuki, "Nihongo Gakkou Homon-ki (A visiting Report of Japanese Schools), in Vancouver Shimpo, September 26, 1986. Notes from unpublished paper, Vincent D'Oyley, Willms, and Ota, "After-hours Japanese Schools in B.C. 1985-86." Mombusho, Kaigai Seikatsu to Katei Kyoiku (Life in Overseas and Education at Home) (Tokyo: Mombusho, 1985), p.32. From interview with Ms. Irene Gallais at Point Grey Junior High School, Vancouver. Her notion is based on theory of Jim Cummings in the University of Toronto. This isuue was not studied in detail. This phenomenon is an interesting study topic for international educational migration in future. V. CONCLUSION A. INTRODUCTION This thesis has examined the development of Japanese schools overseas and presented a case history of a supplementary school located in Vancouver B.C. This final chapter presents a summary of the study. Conclusions from this research are embedded in recommendations for improving the Japanese school in Vancouver. B. SUMMARY OF THE STUDY 1. Overview The education system for Kaigai Shijyo was developed initially as a fringe benefit to those employees sent overseas as a result of Japan's active international exchanges of people, goods, and finance. Some features of Japanese society and of Japanese perspectives on education are reflected in the education system for Kaigai Shijyo. Education for Kaigai Shijyo aims both at promoting internationalization of Japanese children and preparing them for a smooth readjustment back into the Japanese education system. The Vancouver HJK tends to focus solely on preparing children for readjustment into Japanese society. This is done to the detriment of the international aspect of the students' education. While the Japanese students do learn some Canadian 114 CONCLUSION / 115 cultural values in the local schools, the Vancouver HJK is very ethnocentric and misses the opportunity to enhance the local knowledge that the students have obtained. This case study confirmed that very little information is shared between public schools in B.C. and the HJK in Vancouver. The only information the HJK teachers have about public schools is what they are able to obtain through students or by the teachers' personal experience of sending their own children to a local school. Even in the latter case, the HJK teachers' information about local schools is no better than that of a typical parent. Conversely, for B.C. school teachers, the existence of the HJK does not seem to be a well known fact. 1 Also, teachers in B.C. do not have a comprehensive understanding of the needs of Japanese students in local schools (especially those who stay in Vancouver only for a few years). In the B.C. school system there exists no curriculum guidelines printed in the Japanese language. Differences between the Japanese school system and the Canadian system can be a source of consternation to families whose first language is not English and who have limited knowledge of local culture. In Japan all schools are strictly controlled by Mombusho, the Ministry of Education, and all classes in the same grade of all schools in Japan follow the same course of study. Thus when they first arrive many Japanese parents have some difficulty understanding the less structured system of schools in B.C. Japanese students and parents alike appreciate the educational services which CONCLUSION / 116 they receive in B.C. Although most Japanese students arrive with little or no English language ability, most of them enjoy school life and seem to adjust to the. Canadian lifestyle quite well. No case of maladjustment to a local school was reported in this research, although some cases were discovered through the researcher's personal network. 2 Students enjoy attending the HJK. For many students the HJK has a stronger social purpose than an academic one. Most Japanese students attending an extra educational institution in addition to the public school find this pattern to be no great burden. In Japan, going to an after-hours school (called Juku) is very common. In order to obtain a successful performance at the entrance examination for a prestigious Japanese school, attending Juku at least 8 to 10 hours a week with an additional 3 to 4 hours daily home study is the normal requirement. 3 Thus some parents of HJK students have the impression that the Japanese students in Vancouver do not study as much as they would in Japan. The socio-economic background of the students at the HJK is generally high, and the expectation for their school performance is also high. The parents expect good results not only at the Japanese school but also at the local school. For this reason parents willingly spend money on tutoring for their children. Over 75% of HJK students taking private English lessons clearly shows this tendency. Students at the HJK seem to adapt well to two different schools which belong to two contrasting cultures. As the students enter higher grades, the work at their local school requires more preparation time. Some students in higher grades CONCLUSION / 117 feel that they do not have enough time for both programs. Many students say that they attend HJK in order to prepare for their return to Japan. One of the most attractive aspects of the HJK is the fact that there the students can speak Japanese without any hesitation or anxiety. The HJK plays an important role for Japanese children who go to local schools on weekdays in order to release tensions that may be built up by living in a foreign cultural environment. 2. HJK as a Psychological Stabilizer The HJK plays an important role for Japanese children who suffer from the stress of not being able to use English fluently in the local schools. Foreign students are often restricted from speaking languages other than English at school. ESL teachers discourage the use of native language in the classrooms. The HJK is a place where they can speak Japanese with friends without any hesitation and release the tension which has built up at local schools. An HJK is a good location to exchange information about other local schools. Sometimes sharing experiences is a useful way to help the students survive academically and socially in their own local schools. Time spent with Japanese speaking friends saves the students from isolation caused by language barriers. With additonal information about Canadian culture provided by Japanese friends, the students' assimilation into Canadian schools may be accelerated. CONCLUSION / 118 The HJK also assists parents as an important source of information on education in B.C. Although the HJK itself provides some information, the informal network of parents supplies a great deal more. The HJK network is a very important news source especially for those families where the father does not have many collegues in the office and thus does not have a strong company network on which to draw. 3. Discriminatory Feature of the Vancouver HJK Students in the HJK are generally from homogenous social backgrounds; that is their fathers work in big firms which are members of Boeki Konwa Kai, a gathering of businessmen from major Japanese based multi-national companies and branches of major Japanese companies. The HJK claims that it is a private school; however since it receives support from the Japanese government, it should respond to the needs of all Japanese living in the area, not just the children of businessmen. In Vancouver, there are three different types of Japanese schools. Each has a distinct purpose and goal. Figure 5-1 shows that the first type of school teaches Japanese as a second language. The students at this school come from a wide variety of backgrounds, ranging from the children of Japanese immigrants to non-Japanese children whose mother tongue is some other language such as English or Chinese. The second type of Japanese school is also a language school. This school CONCLUSION / 119 restricts enrollment to the children of native Japanese speaking families in order to maintain a high level of language instruction. * The level of Japanese composition at this school is comparable to that taught in Japan. Most of the students in this school are children of Japanese immigrants. The rest of the student population is composed of children of businessmen who do not belong to Boeki Konwa-kai and are thus excluded from the HJK. In addition the HJK does not offer a kindergarten program and thus the Boeki Konwa-kai children under Grade 1 occasionally attend this school. The final type of Japanese school in Vancouver is the Hoshu Jyugyo Kou (HJK). This school restricts enrollment depending on the father's occupation. Only children whose fathers belong to the Boeki Konwa-kai, a group of businesses which support the HJK, are allowed to attend. The Vancouver HJK explains the enrollment restrictions by pointing out that this school originated privately and still is a private institution run by member companies. The limited capacity of the school and budget are emphasized. The door to this school is closed to Japanese students whose fathers work for non-member companies or own their own businesses. As shown in Figure 5-1 there are some children whose fathers do not work for the member companies, but those cases are exceptions due to either their personal connections or to their being children of teachers in this school. This discriminative policy is justified by the school association in that the goals of the HJK and the other Japanese language schools are different. That is, the students at the Vancouver HJK will eventually go back to Japan, whereas immigrants Japanese Schools in Vancouver Types of Schools: 1. Japanese Language School -teaches Japanese as a second language to a wide variety of children 2. Japanese Language School -teaches Japanese to native Japanese speaking children 3. Hoshu Jyugyo Kou (HJK) -teaches various school subjects using Japanese as the language of instruct ion Typical Student Background: Non-Japanese Japanese immigrants Japanese temporarily residing in Canada (Choki taizai-sha) Figure 5-1: Structure of Japanese Schools in Vancouver (based on 19B7 data) o o O d CO o 2 o CONCLUSION / 121 are in Canada intending to live here permanently. However the fact remains that the father's occupation or social status prevents children from joining this school. This study did not ask the visa status of the students' fathers; however if we assume that all the Canadian born students are children of immigrants, approximately 10% of HJK students are enrolled as special cases. The survey result showed there was no significant difference between Canadian born students and non-Canadian students in terms of their perspectives on schooling. Kobayashi explains what sets education for Kaigai Shijyo apart from for immigrants is the expectation of returning to Japan. The researcher however assumes that some class consciouness in Choki Taizai-sha is involved in this distinction. Horoiwa, who grew up overseas and studies identity problems of Kaigai Shijyo points out an interesting feature that is commonly observed among people growing up overseas. 5 She notes that it is common for Japanese communities outside Japan to have divided viewpoints. For example, in a typical overseas Japanese community, the businessmen assigned from the main office in Japan (Chuzai-sha) keep themselves as a distinct group apart from the Japanese immigrants (Imin) and the local people (Genchi-jin). This causes social barriers to be erected in the community. In the same way the Japanese nationals {Nihon-jin) set themselves apart from the second or third generation Japanese descendents (Nikkei-jin). The restriction of enrollment at the Vancouver HJK is another example of unnecessary social barriers within the Japanese community. While the school CONCLUSION / 122 claims to promote internationalization, the reality is that the school is discriminatory. This illustrates Horoiwa's argument that there is a strong distinction between that of the "real" Japanese and those who have left Japan as immigrants. The fact that the HJK maintains these discriminatory practices helps to reinforce the boundaries between the previously mentioned groups {Chuzai-sha versus Imin, etc.). Although Mombusho explains that the school textbooks are distributed free of cost to all school age children of Japanese nationality who are living overseas, 6 here in Vancouver this service is limited only to the HJK students. Thus Japanese children cannot receive the textbooks unless they are HJK students. Children of the immigrants, who are usually not accepted into the HJK, do not have the opportunity to receive this service. 7 Immigrant children do need textbooks, especially Kokugo or the Japanese language, for their Japanese language study. The Eizhu-sha, permanent residents, thus cannot obtain textbooks from Mombusho even though they hold Japanese nationality. This is an example of providing different services to Choki Taizai-sha and Eizhu-sha by the Japanese Consulate General in Vancouver. C. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR JAPANESE SCHOOLS OVERSEAS 1. Introduction Kobayashi points out that one of the major causes of development of Japanese schools overseas was psychological resolution of anxiety for Japanese parents CONCLUSION / 123 overseas. 8 That is, the Japanese parents were concerned that their children would drop out from the social ladder and not attain the same economic status as the parents because they did not go through prestigious Japanese schools. Japanese schools overseas have been developed by the Japanese community overseas. Historically the Japanese school developed due to strong needs by residents of the area to maintain the Japanese language and tradition. For example, the first Japanese school established in Vancouver was in 1906. It involved the whole Japanese community in Vancouver at that time and served as a community center. 9 In general, most Japanese schools would be defined as "community schools." Their character is different from most other Japanese language schools. This "community" that supports the Japanese schools overseas including HJKs consists of a particular group of people whose occupations are as businessmen for Japanese based multi-national companies and banks, or other professionals. Although these community schools developed as private institutions, parents have enlarged their image as reliable educational institutions by transforming some of them into semi-public schools. And this "public" character has become stronger than before due to the increasing social importance of Japanese residing overseas as well as financial assistance from the Japanese government. According to Mombusho the purpose of education for Kaigai Shijyo is to provide an appropriate education as a Japanese national to students who reside at a different educational environment from that inside Japan. 1 0 However there is CONCLUSION / 124 no description of what "an appropriate education for Japanese" is. In many cases it is interpreted as "a sufficient ability to compete in the schooling race back in Japan." When the aim for education of Kaigai Shijyo is preparation for reentry into Japan, the students tend to ignore natural and cultural resources of local communities. It is unfortunate that Japanese students would not have international experiences even though they had lived overseas. 2. Open-School Model Many different models of overseas Japanese schools has been proposed. One of them is the "open-school" model. For example, Ohno suggests that the functions of overseas Japanese schools should be: 1 1 to accept all applicants without limitation by race or nationality, to open school facilities to the local community, to serve as a Japanese cultural center, to provide a Japanese language class. Inui suggests opening the door of Japanese schools to the children of the local community. 1 2 This would add international color to the Japanese school overseas. He also suggests making Japanese schools a cultural exchange center with the host country, introducing Japanese culture and education to the local community and providing an orientation of the host country to the newly arrived Japanese. He lists examples of the usage of the center as: 1 3 providing Japanese language classes for residents of the local CONCLUSION / 125 community teaching classes of local language and history of the host country for the families, mainly for wives of the overseas workers opening a supplementary school for children on week-ends; providing a bi-lingual class to accept non-native Japanese speaking children. Overseas schools can also be designed for introducing Japanese education and culture to foreign countries. In developing countries, school facilities can be used as training centers for co-operative educational programs. At the same time, the school can be an information center to collect educational data in overseas countries. Masamune also believes that Japanese schools and HJK should play a nuclear role for the diffusion of Japanese culture. 1 4 3. Some Recommendations for the Vancouver HJK First of all, the Vancouver HJK should open its doors to the entire Japanese speaking population in Vancouver. Thus those who want to enroll in this school should be given an equal opportunity with no discrimination by father's occupation. However to maintain an appropriate language level and function as a psychological stabilizer, adequate knowledge and ability in speaking Japanese is required by all. The school could give an entrance examination to measure the language level of the candidates. 1 5 CONCLUSION / 126 Another recommendation is that the Japanese school should be used as a Japanese resource center. At the moment the Japanese community in Vancouver does not posses a comprehensive center for introducing Japanese culture to Canadians. The researcher proposes that the Vancouver HJK could play a central role. In order to do so, they would need a permanent facility and more full-time staff. If the Japanese community in Vancouver desired to have a Japanese culture center, the HJK should expand its service and be the core of a new cultural center. This would be a desirable long-term goal of the HJK which would help reunite the divided factions of the Japanese community. The following are some practical short term recommendations that would be useful to the entire community and can be implemented almost immediately at very low cost: The school library at HJK has an excellent collection of juvenile literature written in or translated into Japanese. The researcher's librarianship background leads her to believe that it has not been used as effectively as it could have been. There are many books at the kindergarten level even though this HJK does not offer a kindergarten program. It is unfortunate that such a nice collection is closed to the young Japanese population in the local community. More use of community events such as storytelling and other Japanese cultural events according to the calender would encourage children to participate more actively in the library. The VCR is currently used more for entertainment purposes than for CONCLUSION / 127 education in the Japanese community. However the VCR could be used for more educational purposes at home. The researcher's survey showed a high percentage of access to the VCR machine at the students' homes. If a video library of educational programs could be provided by the HJK, many students would receive benefits in the future. This would be a useful educational resource for both the Japanese and the local Canadian community. It is very important that the Vancouver HJK expand its social connections to the local community. Otherwise this school will remain a symbol of Japanese ethno-centricity. 4. Recommendations for the Vancouver School Board There is no written curriculum guide on the B.C. school system in the Japanese language. A good understanding of schools and the school system is essential for all parents. In 1986 over 5000 Japanese nationals lived in Greater Vancouver. It is assumed over 1000 families with school age children resided in this area. A Japanese language booklet describing the B.C. education system would benefit those families who are not familiar with the school system in B.C. and especially those who have a significant language barrier. CONCLUSION / 128 D. SUMMARY "Rich international experience" is often described as one good feature of Kaigai Shijyo. Inui concludes that the internationality which children gain overseas is based on personal experience. 1 6 Through the process of making friends, a child who had previously been isolated because of a lack of communication skills would learn many new life style patterns. Children especially would appreciate "kindness", "love", and "trust", which would be very significant given that they had been previously apprehensive due to their inability to communicate in both verbally and non-verbally. Also children growing up overseas begin to be conscious of their home country and of being Japanese in a foreign land. The experience of attending both an HJK and a local school gives an overseas Japanese student the opportunity to gain wider insight into a foreign culture. It is unfortunate that the severe Japanese educational competition which is fostered by parents, and is the reason for the existence of the HJK, prevents some children from having leisure time to enjoy their overseas experience. However this has not prevented most Japanese students from performing well in both the local schools and the HJK. The central role adopted by the Vancouver HJK is to prepare students for reentry into Japan. Through the use of Japanese classroom discipline, Japanese textbooks, and Japanese teaching methods it achieves this objective quite well. To date the school has not yet seriously begun to develop the desirable secondary objective of promoting links within the Japanese community and becoming a CONCLUSION / 129 Japanese cultural diffusion centre. One of the aspects which prevent the development of these links is the segregative attitude taken by the school mamagement body towards the local Japanese community of Japanese Canadians and Japanese immigrants (Eizhu-sha). Currently Japanese schools overseas do not aim to be cultural diffusion centers. As Japanese economic power increases, interests in Japan and Japanese culture has grown. Japan has the resource which should make the introduction of its culture and perspectives to other countries one of its priorities. Because the network of Japanese schools already exists, these schools could constitute the core of the program. For this to happen, teachers sent by the Japanese government should at least be fluent in the local language with sufficient background in teaching. This thesis has presented both short term programs and long term objectives that would improve the overseas experience of Kaigai Shijyo and enhance the scope of the HJK in a beneficial manner. Japanese schools overseas have many possibilities to contribute to the internationalization of education. Policy making on overseas education should be based on long term and global vision. CONCLUSION / 130 The researcher did not investigate the public school teachers who are teaching the Japanese students attending the HJK. However this is confirmed by personal contacts with several ESL/regular classroom teachers. The researcher heard a case of behaviour problems in an ESL class from an ESL teacher personally, and a case of running away from school during school hours because of miscommunication with the homeroom teacher was reported by an HJK student when he was in Grade 3. In both cases problems emerged within six months time after the students' arrival. Tadahiko Abiko and Paul S. George, "Education for Early Adolescents in Japan, U.S. : Cross-Cultural Observations" in NASSP Bulletin, December, 1986, p.75. Notes from unpublished paper, Vincent D'Oyley, Willms, and Ota, "After-hours Japanese Schools in B.C. 1985-86." Naomi Horoiwa, "Kaigai Seisho Nihon-jin no Tekiou ni okeru Naibu Kattou" ("Conflict within" among the Japanese Raised Abroad) in Ibunka-ka Kyoiku (Intercultural Education) 1987, No.l. p.71. Mombusho, Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku no Genjyo (Tokyo: Mombusho, 1986), p.24. There was a service of distributing the Japanese textbook for language schools overseas until 1985-86 academic year by the Japan Foundation. Tetsuya Kobayashi, "Kaigai/'Kikoku Shijyo no Kyoiku no Kaizen ni tsuite" (Regarding the reform of education for children overseas and returnees) in Nihon Hikaku Kyoiku Gakkai Kiyou VIII (March 1982), p.40. Tsutae Sato, Beika ni okeru dai-nisei no Kyoiku (Education for the Second Generation in USA and Canada) (Vancouver: Jikyodo, 1932). Mombusho, Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku no Genjyo, 1986, p. 11. Masao Ohno, "Kyoiku no Kokusai-ka to Kaigai Nihon-jin Gakkou no Yakuwari" (Internationalization of Education and Roles of Japanese Schools Overseas) in Ibunka-kan Kyoiku (Intercultural Education) 1987, No.l. pp.35-36. Susumu Inui, and Kazuhiko Sono, Kaigai Chuzai-in no Shijyo Kyoiku; Kage  o otosu Shingaku Kyousou (Education for children of overseas workers; influences of entrance examination) (Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Shimbunsha, 1977), p.117. Inui and Sono, Ibid., 1977, p. 116. Isao Masamune, "Nentou no Goaisatsu" (New Year's Greeting) in Kaigai  Shijyo Kyoiku (Education for Kaigai Shijyo) No. 119, 1983, p.30. CONCLUSION / 131 In the HJK in Los Angeles, by law the school can not discriminate against a person because of his nationality, gender, or his beliefs. So anyone can enroll in this school as long as they can speak Japanese. Many children with different ethnic background study together, (by Toshio Takada, "Daikibo Hoshu Jugyo Kou ni okeru Gakkou Un'ei to sono Mondai-ten" in Zaigai  Kyoiku Shisetsu ni okeru Shido Jissen Kiroku Volume VII (Tokyo: Tokyo Gakugei Daigaku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Senta'a, 1985), p.32. Inui and Sono, Op.cit., 1977, pp. 157-158. APPENDIX I : SURVEY (ENGLISH TRANSLATION) This is a questionnaire to determine the perspectives of the Japanese children who experience dual schooling in B.C. The purposes of this questionnaire are: 1. to portrait the daily life of the Kaigai Shijyo in Vancouver 2. to study the process of acculturation In this questionnaire, "school" indicates local school in B.C., and "HJK" is the Japanese Language Hoshu-Jugyo-Ko in Vancouver, B.C. The actual survey will be conducted in Japanese. This is an English version for reference. 132 / 133 Dear students in the Vancouver HJK; October 1987 This is a survey to study some aspects of your life in Vancouver. You have an unique experience of attending two schools which belong to different cultures, that is, a Canadian local school and HJK. Here you study in two languages; in English and in Japanese. We would like to know about your experiences so that more people, such as teachers in both Canada and Japan, can understand you better. This questionnaire contains the following questions: 1. questions about your background like age, sex, place of birth, before you came to Canada your language 2. life at school in the local school and HJK, and after-school-hours 3. life generally in B.C. It will take about ten to fifteen minutes to fill in this questionaire. You do not need to write your name. Please read the questions and check appropriately in the same page or write your comment. We appreciate your participation in this survey. Your action being voluntary may be withdrawn at anytime. The data collected by this study is confidential and will be used only for research purposes. Thank you for your cooperation. University of British Columbia Department of Social and Educational Studies M.A. Student Midori Ota / 134 Survey of the students in HJK in Vancouver, 1987 Please answers in the space provided ( ) and check the appropriate box. 1. (Al) I am in Grade in Vancouver HJK. 2. (A2)(A7) I am in Grade in ( School Name ) (A3) My birthday is ( day / month / year ) 4. (A4) I was born in Japan other country( 5. (A5) I am a girl a boy. 6. (A6) I am now living in Vancouver Richmond North Vancouver West Vancouver Burnaby Surrey New Westminster other location( / 135 Please read the instructions on this page and answer the questions. You can write you answer in the right side of the each page. NOTE: 1. Use the following scale to answer the questions, (example) Strongly Strongly Yes Neutral No 1 2 3 4 5 1 : "Yes" 2 : "Yes" somewhat 3 : Neutral 4 : "No" somewhat 5 : "No" Check one number which is most agreeable. There are questions to answer Yes/No, or numbers. There are some open-ended questions, too. 2. Those who were born and raised in Canada, and do not have any experience in living outside Canada, can omit the questions with * mark. Before you came to Canada 1. (Bl) * Were you 2. ' (B2) * Were you 3. (B3) * Were you 4. (B4) * What was to B.C.? glad to hear that your family looking forward to attending a looking forward to attending a the most bothersome issue for was moving to Canada? Canadian school in B.C.? HJK in B.C.? you when you first came / 136 About language 1. (Cl) * Did you study English before you came to Canada? 2. (C2) Could you understand what teachers and friends said when you first  went to school in Canada? 3. (C3) Are you now able to communicate in English with your teachers at school? 4. (C4) Are you now able to communicate in English with your friends at school? 5. (C5) Do you usually speak English at home with your family? 6. (C6) Do you feel more comfortable in English than in Japanese? 7. (C7) Do you often watch TV or VCR? 8. (C8) How many hours do you watch Japanese TV shows or video every week? 9. (C9) How many hours do you watch English TV shows or video every week? 10. (CIO) Does your family have a VCR ? 11. (Cll) How many books do you read in Japanese every month besides your school books? 12. (C12) How many books do you read in English every month besides your school books? Now you are attending both Canadian and Japanese schools. Please tell us your experience in both schools. Canadian school life 1. (Dl) Are students in your school friendly to you? 2. (D2) Is your teacher at school helpful and understanding of you? 3. (D3) Do you feel that you are left out in the class? 4. (D4) Is school work too difficult for you to follow? 5. (D5) Do you enjoy going to a local school in Canada? 6. (D6) Do you think you are fortunate that you have the opportunity experience school life in Canada? / 138 After-school-time in Canada 1. (El) * Do you think you are busier than you were in Japan? 2. (E2) Do you play with Canadian friends more often than with Japanese friends? 3. (E3) Are you taking private English lessons to catch up on the school work in your Canadian school? 4. (E4) Have you taken private English lessons to catch up on the school work in your Canadian school? 5. (E5) Do you take a correspondence course from Japan. 6. (E6) Do you also take private lesson(s) in subjects taught in school in  Japan? 7. (E7) Do you take sports lessons or belong to a sports club? 8. (E8) Do you take music lessons or belong to a school band? 9. (E9) What do you think the most attractive aspect of Canadian school life is? / 139 Life at HJK 1. (Fl) Are the students in the HJK friendly to you? 2. (F2) Is you teacher at the HJK helpful and understands you well? 3. (F3) Do you feel that you are left out of the class? 4. (F4) Is school work at HJK too difficult for you to follow? 5. (F5) Do you enjoy going to HJK? 6. (F6) What is your purpose for attending HJK? Number the priorities according to your own case. If there is any personal reason besides the prepared answers, please write it down. to study Japanese language. to catch up with school work in Japan or to prepare for returning to Japan to meet friends and speak in Japanese other 7. (F7) What do you think is the most attractive aspect of HJK? / 140 Impression of Living in B.C. 1. (Gl) Are you glad that you have the opportunity to live in B.C.? 2. (G2) Do you want to go back to Japan as soon as possible? 3. (G3) If you were told that your family will return to Japan next month, will you be sorry to hear that? 4. (G4) If you have the opportunity would you seek to come back to B.C. for your further education? (e.g. high school/college/university) 5. (G5) What is the most bothersome issue for you (at school) NOW ? We will ask you about yourself more 1. (Hla) Have you ever lived foreign country before coming to Canada? YES NO (Hlb) * If YES, write when and where you have been. / 141 2. (H2) How long have you been living overseas? (Add all the months you have been outside Japan.) year(s) month(s) 3. (H3) When did you come to Canada? in / 19 ( Month / Year ) 4. (H4) When did you come to B.C.? in / ' 19 ( Month / Year ) 5. Did you go to ESL class when you first went to school in B.C.? YES NO 5-a (H5a) If it is YES, tell us WHEN ( HOW LONG ) and WHICH SCHOOL you attended. If you have transfered, name all ESL classes you attended. I School Name Start / Finish II School Name Start / Finish III School Name Start / Finish 5-b (H5b) if it is NO, tell us the reason you did NOT go to ESL class. APPENDIX II : SURVEY (ORIGINAL IN JAPANESE) 19 8 7^10^ ® B.C.JH-eo^Ecoc^-r ^'ifo^a-an yt'7A¥ ifl&ft Social and Educational Studies *¥R*lt¥8Mraa:&W Faculty of Education University of British Columbia km m 142 / 143 1 9 8 7*10/! 1 2 -JofcLtts o^i/- K "ct. 3 hfctci^Btt, J_9 ¥ £ B?^9 4 JofcLtt • F3*T • H 4tntLfc. (i'ctiinjtfc^. ) 5 n &A,£ • A'-n-• ~ * - nx^vx?-• *o«s ( ) / 144 (#1) tin ft"btoi>xtn» tH>* 1 rat^j 5 => UH>*_J (in) At^titnt^^ *^-^£i^-ose^^c:<»:©^^Att *$® ««|-?*^^c5lo*|-rc:4*IH^fc^ ®1.....2 3.....4 5 «Jftttcft<®*«*L.*-eL.fcfr. ©1.....2 3 4 5 m> «Stt«ftCft<OA<*L.*TLfc*>. ®1 2 3 4 5 / 145 D 5 L£ Ltifr. ©1 2 3 4 5 ® ttLs*TS»ttcff-ofcl5. (D 1 2 3 4 5 ® *«tt©*4i$S"ff^S*< ® 1 2 3 4 5 ® ® 1 2 3 4 5 © •J-fcTtt^fc'^fciiySTftL.*-*-*. ©1.....2 3 4 5 © $S©tt^3&<B*SJ:*)t>tt^'rt^-r^. ©1 2 3 4 5 ® £t*<P^ufc-^b-T*£flffiSlll3< 5^ ® fl 5H<fc^M**. (i^fc»xTiH^t.) / 146 i—— I ® SttRo&fc'^ttftttfccfc^LTaw-ff-T**. ® 1 2 3 4 5 ® S«!ttw5fe*tt. «k<*ttfc**3^o-r ©1 2 3 4 5 ® htztttt.? 7.x©*-?JR»ja*nfc«fc<7tt ®1 2 3 4 5 ® 3Httfc©JBaco^T^ ®1 2 3 4 5 © $>KKK.mi&&tzfT< (DtfZLLk'Ctfr. ©1 2 3 4 5 © **fctt**^-?f«K:ff < t^TttWtkW ©1 2 3 4 5 / 147 ! »> &*fcitftti> it* ® fcfcfctiB^cnfclt.fc'K ®1 2 3 4 5 §B©£&#n*#L< ^ofciS^it^, © fc£fcKH*A0&rt£^ck*K ® 1 2 3 4 5 ® &£fcti£lft&©J»&(Con-c:n<rt:*K (D • tin • IH^ ® &£fctiSta#®»*£onTn< ® • tin • nni © &Kiz&B£fr*<Dmm&lj£sLi)x^itfrB © • tin • nn*_ © *£fctitl*03&Kigftftn<fc.9£ © • ttn • nn*. ® feftfcti^.-ff-yg)? ^yEtinofc*? © • tin • nn*. tfnc£LTn ® fctffctt^'y Kettle<D • tin • nn* / 148 ® «g«©&i£ttfc£fcCfc^LT««-?-f7K ® 1 2 3 4 5 ® S=g#i©&£fcU J: <i>ts.1t*t>ir~,X ® 1 2 3.....4 5 ® 7XOd3-c?IX»)Sc>nfc«fc-9^ ®l 2 3 4 5 ® «g#®i&&C^T^<0ttX£-c?1-fr. ®1 2 3 4 5 £ii|£&^T. B*t*T&£*SC <»: *©te ( . ; ) / 149 J I ' 1 »> t&tt*^ Wvl © ^'Jf^ • 3nyf7JHCttt;Ci*< 0 1 2 3 4 5 TST-jntn-C-rfr. 1 2 3 4 5 ® feH>*^B*c»4c:iK:8it-,fci ®1 2 3 4 5 ® bLbH&ifi*tot£.m+j&(Dm&(Dizib ® 1 2 3 4 5 * ranj <bg;ifci><be. / 150 * *RM< E S L © * 7 x c A *) £ L- fc K ®-a rtttM J:^fel>J:t:, r^oj • r^tt^gftftj "e\ r<t*©< £t»©MIHj -Cl<fcfr • • tm • mm ©b r^^^j £?g?LJtr}££ APPENDIX III: THE RESULTS OF SURVEY THE RESULTS OF SURVEY 1. Personal Data (I) (Al) Grade in the Vancouver I UK. G4 21 G5 18 G6 0 G7 2G8 11 G9(A2) Grade in a Local School in B.C. G4 4 G5 25 G6 14 G7 9 G8 18 G9 5 G10 3 missing151 (A7) Local Schools Attended Area Vancouver (Total 56) Richmond (Total 16) North Vancouver (Total 9) Burnaby (Total 1) Surrey (Total 2) Private Schools (Total 2) Elementary School Secondary School Carr (2) ; Jamieson (8) ; Kerrisdale (1) ; Kitchener (2) ; Laurier (1) ; Maple Grove (6) ; McKechnie (5) ; Oppenheimer (2) Osier (1) ; Quilchena (1) ; Trafalgar (2) ; Van Home (4) ; Wolfe (1) (total 36) Britannia (1) ; Churchill (5) ; Gladstine (1) ; Magee (3) ; Point Grey (9) ; Prince of Wales (1) (total 20) Kilgour (1) ; Maple lane (1) MaKay (1) ; Tomsett (1) ; Bridge William (3) (total 7) Burnett (5) ; Cambie (1) ; Palmer (3) ; (total 9) Lonsdale (1) Ridgeway (1) (total 4) Lynnmore (1) ; West Over (1) Carson Graham (3) ; Suthemland (1) ; Wmdser (1) ; (total 5) Brentwood (1) (total 1) Davidson (1) (total 1) Johnstone Height (1) (total 1) St. Aquinas / North Vancouver (1) York House / Vancouver (1) (total 2) (missing 5 cases) Ol (A3) Year of Birth 1972 9 1973 10 1974 8 1975 9 1976 17 1977 2(missing 1 case) (A4) Place of Birth Japan 67 Canada 8 other 14 (missing 2 cases) (A5) Gender Female 41 Male 9 (missing 1 case) (A6) Residencial Area Vancouver 58 Richmond 1North Vancouver 10 West Vancouver 1 BumabySurrey(missing 1 case) (75.3%) ( 9.0%) (15.7%) (45.0%) (55.0%) (64.4%) (20.0%) (11.1%) (1.1%) (1.1%) (1.1%) 2. Attitude before came to Canada Questions Yes Yes somewhat (Bl) 'Were you glad to hear that your family was moving 16 13 to Canada? 19.0% 15.5% (B2) *Were you looking forward to attending a Canadian 18 14 school in B.C.? 21.4% 16.7% (B3) 'Were you looking forward to attending a HJK in 23 28 B.C.? 28.0% 34.1% (B4) 'What was the most bothersome issue for you when you first came to B.C.? none/ answered ( English Friend discrimination balnk G4 5 16 ( 9 2 1 G5 5 9 (90 0 G6 1  (62 1 G7 1 18 ( 16 1 3 G8 2 8 (61 0 G9 5 5 (40total 19 65 ( 50 6 5 Neutral No No missing somewhat 34 8 13 7 40.5% 9.5% 15.5% 27 8 17 7 32.1% 9.5% 20.2% 17 4 10 9 20.7% 4.9% 12.2% (* students may wrote two or more answers.) School other 3 2 ) 0 1 ) 0 0 ) 0 0 ) 1 1 ) 0 1 ) 4 5 ) 3. Language Question (Cl) 'Did you study English before you came to Canada? (C2) Could you understand what teachers and friends said when XOJJ fJISI aent Jo school in Canada? (C3) Are you now able to communicate in English with your teachers at school? (C4) Are you now able to communicate in English with your friends at school? (C5) Do you usually speak English at home with your family? (C6) Do you feel more comfortable in English than in Japanese? Yes Yes Neutral somewhat 16 8 7 18.8% 9.4% 8.2% 18 8 13 20.2% 9.0% 14.6% 60 12 9 67.4% 13.5% 10.1% 63 13 7 70.8% 14.6% 7.7% 1 4 16 1.1% 4.4% 17.8% 16 6 17 17.8% 6.7% 18.9% No No missing somewhat 10 44 6 11.8% 51.8% 12 38 2 13.5% 42.7% 1 7 2 1.1% 7.9% 1 5 2 1.1% 5.5% 15 54 1 16.7% 60.0% 10 41 1 11.1% 45.6% (C7) Do you often watch TV or VCR? (CIO) Does your family have a VCR ? (C8) How many hours do you watch Japanese TV shows or video every week? (C9) How many hours do you watch English TV shows video every week? (Cll) How many books do you read in Japanese every month besides your school books? (C12) How many books do you read in English every month besides your school books? Yes 66 (75.0%) 70 (80.0%) No 22 (25.0%) 18 (20.0%) missing 3 3 MEAN MODO .9 hours 0.0 hour .3 hours 2.0 hour .1 books 10.0 books MINIMUM MAXIMUM 0.0 hour 25 hours 0.0 hour 30 hours 0.0 book 99 books 5 books 1.0 books 0.0 book 61 books 4. Canadian school life Questions (Dl) Are students in your school friendly to you? (D2) Is your teacher at school helpful and understanding of you? (D3) Do you feel that you are left out in the class? (D4) Is school work too difficult for you to follow? (D5) Do you enjoy going to a local school in Canada? (D6) Do you think you are fortunate that you have the opportunity to experience school life in Canada? Yes Yes Neutral somewhat 57 18 13 62.6% 19.8% 14.3% 40 21 19 44.4% 23.3% 21.1% 3 7 16 3.3% 7.8% 17.8% 12 13 19 13.2% 14.3% 20.9% 39 20 21 43.8% 22.5% 23.6% 50 12 24 55.6% 13.3% 26.7% No No missing somewhat 3 0 3.3% 0.0% 8 2 1 8.9% 2.2% 12 52 1 13.3% 57.8% 16 31 17.6% 34.1% ' 4 5 2 4.5% 5.61% 1 3 1 1.1% 3.3% 5. After-school-time jn Canada Question (El) *Do you think you are busier than you were in Japan? (E2) Do you play with Canadian friends more often than with Japanese friends? (E3) Are you taking private English lessons to catch up on the school work in your Canadian school? (E4) Have you taken private English lessons to catch up on the school work in your Canadian school? (E5) Do you take a correspondence course from Japan. (E6) Do you also take private lesson(s) in subjects laughl in school in Japan? (E7) Do you take sports lessons or belong to a sports club? (E8) Do you take music lessons or belong to a school band? Yes Yes Neutral somewhat 31 9 21 35.2% 10.2% 23.9% 25 8 22 27.8% 8.9% 24.4% Yes 42 46.7% 28 31.1% 61 67.0% 8 9.0% 64 70.3% 47 52.2% No No missing somewhat 7 20 3 8.0% 22.7% 13 22 1 14.4% 24.4% No missing 48 1 53.3% 62 1 68.9% 30 0 33.0% 81 2 91.0% 27 0 29.7% 43 1 47.8% (E9) What do you think the most attractive aspect of Canadian school life is? Liberal Open Minded Environment Multi-cultural School Work Others* Atmosphere People Experience G4 0 3 0 0 10 1 math is easy (4) computer (1) English (3) P.E.(2) G5 12 2 0 7 7 math is easy (1) computer (1) English (2) G6 16 10 2 2 Fine Art(l) English (1) G7 5 5 2 0 1 2 ESL/ECL G8 3 4 0 2 1 1 English G9 6 2 0 11electives Total 16 22 5 3 22 14 * no pressure for entrance examination (1) , no school uniforms (1) , no school on Saturdays (1), long holidays (2), there is a school band (1), everything is practical (1), everything is good (7). 6. Life at HJK Question Yes Yes Neutral No No missing somewhat somewhat (Fl) Are the students in the HJK friendly to you? 55 20 13 1 1 1 61.1% 22.2% 14.4% 1.1% 1.1% (F2) Is you teacher at the HJK helpful and understands 35 23 25 3 3 2 you well? 39.3% 25.8% 28.1% 3.4% 3.4% (F3) Do you feel that you are left out of the class? 4 4 19 10 54 0 4.4% 4.4% 20.9% 11.0% 59.3% (F4) Is school work at HJK too difficult for you to 9 9 27 22 23 1 follow? 10.0% 10.0% 30.0% 24.4% 25.6% Yes No missing (F5) Do you enjoy going to HJK? 60 29 2 (67.4%) (32.6%) (F6) What is your purpose for attending HJK? (1) to study Japanese language. 19 21.1% (2) to catch up with school work in Japan 44 48.9% or to prepare for returning to Japan (3) to meet friends and speak in Japanese 20 22.2% (4) other* 7 7.8% * Reasons listed as "other" To understand Japan well by studying with Japanese people. (1); Because it is compulsory. (1); Because it is minimum requirement (1); To play soccer. (2); To check the result of Japanese exam. (1); No comment (1); (F7) What do you think is the most attractive aspect of HJK? G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 be able to speak in Japanese 1 3 3 10 3 3 be able to study in Japanese 2 1 0 3 2 0 be able to study Japanese language 1 1 0 0 1 2 to meet Japanese friends 5 5 5 5 2 3 be able to takeover schoolwork in Japan 1 0 0 4 0 2 teachers is nice 1 1 0 0 0 0 to watch video 3 0 0 0 0 0 long recess 3 5 1 0 0 0 once a week 0 0 0 2 0 0 useful to release tension 0 0 0 0 1 0 subjects are easy 0 1 0 0 0 0 7. Impression oS Living in ML Question Yes (Gl) Are you glad that you have the opportunity to live 57 in B.C.? 63.3% Yes somewhat 13 14.4% (G2) Do you want to go back to Japan as soon as possible? 20 22.0% (G3) If you were told that your family will return to Japan next month, will you be sorry to hear that? 38 42.2% 11 12.2% (G4) If you have the opportunity would you seek to come 28 15 back to B.C. for your further education? (e.g. high 31.8% 17.0% school/college/university) (G5) What is the most bothersome issue for you (at school) NOW ? Total G4 G5 G6 None 42 8 11 7 English 16 3 3 2 study at local school 15 1 study at HJK 17 2 1 study for schools in Japan 6 3 test 5 3 friend 5 3 1 language 1 personnal issues 3 2 Neutral No No missing somewhat 18 2 0 1 20.0% 2.2% 0.0% 28 12 26 30.8% 13.2% 28.6% 20 22.2% 30 34.1% 6 6.7% 7 8.0% 15 16.7% 8 9.1% G7 G8 G9 9 2 5 3 3 2 6 5 3 6 51 2 1 1 1 1 8. Personal Data (II) (Hla) Have you ever lived foreign country before coming to Canada? (Hlb) • If YES, write when and where you have been. (H2) How long have you been living overseas? Yes 35 (40.2%) No 52 (59.8%) missing United States of 9 America Republic of South Africa 8 West Germany 3 Papua New Guiana 2 Australia 2 CanadaEgypt 1 Switzerland 1 BelgiuneIran 1 Indonesia 1 England( missing 4 ) average 3.2 years (H3) When did you come to Canada? (H4) When did you come to B.C.? (H5) Did you go to ESL class when you first went to school B.C.? by year by month 1973 1 January 4 1979 3 February 4 1980 2 March 10 1981 2 April 13 1982 3 May 2 1983 7 June 8 1984 9 July 12 1985 22 August 17 1986 16 September 4 1987 16 October 2 November 1 December 4 Same as in (H3) Yes 59 (67.0%) No 29 33.0% missing G4 : 12 out of 21 (57.1%) G5 : 10 out of 20 (50.0%) G6 : 6 out of 10 (60.0%) G7 : 16 out of 20 (80.0%) G8 : 8 out of 11 (72.7%) G9 : 8 out of 11 (72.7%) (H5-a) If it is YES, tell us WHEN ( HOW LONG ) and WHICH SCHOOL you attended. If you have transfered, name all ESL classes you attended. Vancouver Richmond North Vancouver (H5-b) If it is NO, tell us the reason you did NOT go to ESL class. Burnaby * Arrived at under Grade 3 * Could understand English * No ESL classes available * Bom in Canada * Grade down one year Jaimieson (10) Kitchener (1) Laurier (1) Maple Grove (3) McKechnie (2) Tecumseh (3) Van Home (6) Waverley (1) Wolfe (7) Kilgour (3) Bridge William (3) Steves Manoah (1) Landsdale (1) Lynnmore (2) Ridgeway (5) West Over (1) Carson Graham (3) Brentwood (1) Parkcrest (1) Point Grey (8) Burnett (3) Cambie (1) Palmer (2) Steveston (1) APPENDIX IV: JAPANESE - ENGLISH GLOSSARY Japanese Boeki Konwa-kai B.C. shu Nihongo Shinkou-kai Choki Taizai-sha Chuou Kyoiku Shingi-kai Chuzai-sha Eizhu-sha Gaimusho Gakkou Kyokai Gakkou Youran Genchi-jin Imin English - a gathering of businessmen from major Japanese based multi-national companies and branches of major Japanese companies. - The Association for Promoting Teaching Japanese in B.C. - (i) a long term resident. - (ii) Japanese nationals who stay at the same area overseas more than three months, (by Gaimusho) - the Central Educational Council. - businessmen assigned from the main office in Japan - (ii) a permanent resident. - (ii) Japanese nationals with landed immigrant status, (by Gaimusho) - the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. - School Association. - the HJK school report. - local people, local residents - immigrants. 166 / 167 Juku Kaigai Shijyo Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku no Kihon-teki sesaku ni kansuru Kenkyu Kyogi-kai Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Senta'a Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Shinkou Zaidan Kikoku Shijyo Kokugo Kyoiku Chokugo Mombusho - an private after-hours school for following up or studying more advanced materials in order to prepare an entrance examination. - (i) Japanese children living overseas accompanied by their parents. - (ii) children living overseas with Japanese national in their compulsory school age of Japan, (by Mombusho) - the Council on Fundamental Policy Studies for Promoting Education of Kaigai Shijyo. - the Center of Education for Kaigai Shijyo. - the Foundation for Promoting Education for Kaigai Shijyo. - (i) returnees. - (ii) Children of overseas workers or others who stayed in an overseas country continuously more than one year, and returned between the previous academic year, (by Mombusho) - the Japanese Language. - the Imperial Rescript on Education. - the Ministry of Education. / Nihongo Hoshu Gakkou (Hoshu Jyugyo Kou) Nihon-jin Nikkei-jin Un'ei Iinkai Zen'nichi Sei Gakkou (Nihon-jin Gakkou) - Japanese Language Supplementary School. - the Japanese nationals. - the second or third generation Japanese descendents. -the Governing Board. - a full-time Japanese school. REFERENCES Abiko, Tadahiko and Paul S. George. "Education for Early Adolescents in Japan, U.S. : Cross-Cultural Observations". In NASSP Bulletin. Nagoya: December, 1986, pp. 112-123. Ebuchi, Kazuhiro. "Kodomo-tachi no Ibunka Sesshoku" (Cross-cultural encounter experienced by children). In Ibunka ni Sodatsu Kodomo-tachi (Children Growing Up in Foreign Cultures). Kobayashi Tetsya ed. Tokyo: Yuhikaku, 1983, pp.2-28. "Shudai-settei no Shushi to TeianlTougi no Sokatsu" (Proposal of the theme and summary of the discussion). In Ibunka-kan Kyoiku (Inter-Cultural Education), Ibunka-kan Kyoiku Gakkai ed. Kyoto: Academia Press, 1987, pp. 19-26. "Tonan Ajia no Nihonjin Gakkou" (Japanese Schools in South East Asia). In Kokusaika Jidai ni okeru Ningen Keisei (Human Development in Internatioal Age). Bunkichi Iwahashi ed. Tokyo: Gyosei, 1986, pp.27-64. Farkas, Jennifer B. and Morio Kouno. Amerika no Nihon-jin Seito-tachi (The Japanese Students in the U.S.A.). Tokyo: Tokyo Shoseki, 1987. Hara, Makoto. "Kikoku Shijyo no Rinen to Jissen-mokuhyo" (Idea and practice for the returnees). In Kokusai-ka Jidai no Kyoiku (Education for Epoch of Internationalization). Tokyo: Soyusha, 1986. Horoiwa, Naomi. "Kaigai Seisho Nihon-jin no Tekioul ni okeru Naibu Kattou" ("Conflict within" among the Japanese Raised Abroad). In Ibunka-ka Kyoiku No.l (Intercultural Education). Kyoto: Academia Press, 1987, p.67-80 Inoguchi, Kuniko. Posuto Haken Sisutemu to Nihon no Sentaku (The Emerging Post-Hegemonic System: Choices for Japan). Tokyo: Chikuma Shobou, 1987. / 170 Inui, Susumu and Kazuhiko Sono. Kaigai Chuzai-in no Shijyo Kyoiku; Kage o  otosu Shingaku Kyousou (Education for children of overseas workers; influences of entrance examination). Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Shimbunsha, 1977. Japan, Gaimusho. Kaigai Zairyu Houjinsuu Chosa Tokei (Statistics on Numbers of Japanese Overseas). Tokyo: Gaimusho, 1986. Japan, Mombusho. Gakkou Kihon Chosa Hokoku-sho (School Basic Survey Report). Tokyo: Mombusho, 1986. Kaigai Kinmusha Shijyo Kyoiku ni kansuru Sogo-teki Jittai Chosa Hokoku-sho (Survey on education for children of overseas workers). Tokyo: Mombusho, 1982. Kaigai Seikatsu to Katei Kyoiku (Life in Overseas and Education at Home). Tokyo: Mombusho, 1985. Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku no Genjyo (A Report on Education for Children Overseas). Tokyo: Mombusho, 1986. Kikoku Shijyo Kyoiku no Tebiki - Sho Chu Gakkou hen (A guide book for education for returnees - elementary and junior high school level). Tokyo: Mombusho, 1986. JETRO. 1986 Directory, Affiliates & Offices of Japanese firms in USA & Canada. 1986. Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Zaidan. Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Zaidan Jyu-nen-shi (A Decade of Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Zaidan). Tokyo: Kaigai Shijyo Kuyoiku Zaidan, 1980. Kawabata, Matsundo. "Rekishi-teki Tembou ni yoru Kikoku Shijyo Mondai" (Issues on returnees from Historical Perspectives). In Kokusai-ka Jidai no  Kyoiku (Education for Epoch of Internationalization). Tokyo: Soyusha, 1986, pp. 12-31. and Keizo Nagata. "Kaigai Nihonjin JidolSeito no Ibunka Rikai to Oya no / 171 Ishiki" (Cross cultural understanding of students overseas and the consiousness of their parents). In Nihon Hikaku Kyoiku Gakkai  Kiyou (Bulletin of Japan Comparative Education Society) VIII. (March 1982), pp.43-50. Kobayashi, Tetsuya. Kaigai Shijyo KyoikulKikoku Shijyo Kyoiku (Education for the children overseas and returnees). Tokyo: Yuhikaku, 1981. "Kaigai-Kikoku Shijyo no Kyoiku no Kaizen ni tsuite" (Regarding the reform of education for children overseas and returnees). In Nihon Hikaku Kyoiku Gakkai Kiyou VIII. March 1982, p.40. et al., Zaigai Kikoku Shijyo no Tekiou ni kansuru Chosa - Yobi Chosa -Houkoku" (Report on a research on assimilation of returnees -pilot study). Kyoto: Kyoto University, Faculty of Education, Comparative Educational Studies, 1975. et al., Zaigai Kikoku Shijyo ni okeru Zaigai Komyunitii to sono Kyoiku ni kansuru Kenkyu III, IV (Research on returnees, their education and Japanese community overseas). Kyoto: Kyoto University, Faculty of Education, Comparative Educational Studies, 1978 and 1979. Kubota, Morihiro and Akira Nakanishi. "Kikoku Shijyo Kyoiku no Kenkyu Taisei" (Research environment on education for returnees). In Kokusai-ka  Jidai no Kyoiku (Education for Epoch of Internationalization). Tokyo Gakugei Daigaku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Srnta'a ed. Tokyo: Soyusha, 1986. Kunieda, Mari. "A Study on Japanese Children in New York: The Assimilation to American Life". In Research Report No. 10. March 1985, Tokyo: The National Institute for Educational Research, pp.81-95. Masamune, Isao. "Nentou no Goaisatsu" (New Year's Greeting). In Kaigai Shijyo  Kyoiku (Education for Kaigai Shijyo) No. 119. Tokyo: Kaigai Shijyo / 172 Kyoiku Shinkou Zaidan, 1983, p.30. McKeating, Robert. "The Role of International School Graduates in Japan". In Kikoku Shijyo no Kyoiku Mondai ni kansuru Sogo-tekilJissho-teki Kenkyu Houkokusho (Report on Education for Returnees). Nagoya: Nagoya University, Faculty of Education, 1985, pp.59-65. Minoura, Yasuko. "Life in Between: The Acquisition of Cultural Identity among Japanese Children Living in the United States", Ph.D. dissertation, UCLA, 1979. Nicholla, Alan C. A Guide to the School Act of B.C. Vancouver: The B.C. School Trustees Association, 1984. Noda, Ichirou. "Kikoku Shijyo Kyoiku no Kiso-teki Kenkyu no Ayumi" (Development of Basic Research on Education for Returnees). In Kokusai-ka Jidai no Kyoiku (Education for Epoch of Internationalization). Tokyo Gakugei Daigaku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Srnta'a ed. Tokyo: Soyusha, 1986. Okunuki, Yoko. "Nihongo Gakkou Homon-ki (A visiting Report of Japanese Schools). In Vancouver Shimpo. September 26, 1986. Ohno, Masao. "Kyoiku no Kokusai-ka to Kaigai Nihon-jin Gakkou no Yakuwari" (Internationalization of Education and Roles of Japanese Schools Overseas). In Ibunka-kan Kyoiku No.l. (Intercultural Education) Kyoto: Academia Press, 1987, pp.35-36. Reischeuer, Edwin O.The Japanese. Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1977. Sato, Kouki. Kaigai Shijyo no Kyoiku Mondai (Educational Problems on Children Overseas). Tokyo: Gakuensha, 1978. "Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku no Ayumi" (The development of education for Kaigai Shijyo). In Kaigai ni okeru Nihon no Kyoiku - Hinon-jin  GakkoulHoshu Jyugyo Kou (Japanese Education Overseas - full / 173 time schools/part time schools). Zenkoku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Kenkyu Kyogi-kai ed. Tokyo: Zenkoku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Kemkyu Kyogi-kai, 1983. Sato, Tsutae. Beika ni okeru dai-nisei no Kyoiku (Education for the Second Generation in USA and Canada). Vancouver: Jikyodo, 1932. Takada, Toshio. "Daikibo Hoshu Jugyo Kou ni okeru Gakkou Un'ei to sono Mondai-ten" (Management of the large enrollment school and problems). In Zaigai Kyoiku Shisetsu ni okeru Shido Jissen Kiroku Volume VII. Tokyo: Tokyo Gakugei Daigaku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Senta'a, 1985. Takahagi, Yasuji et al., Kaigai Kikoku Shijyo ni okeru Karucha'a Syokku no Youin Bunseki to Tekiou Puroguramu no KaihatsulShikou (Analysis of causes of cultural shocks in returnees and development of programs and practices for their adjustment). Tokyo: Tokyo Gakugei Daigaku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Senta's, Karucha'a Syokku Kenkyu kai, 1982. Takahashi, Toshio. "Vancouver Hoshu Jyugyo Kou" in Kaigai ni Okeru Nihon no  Kyoiku. Tokyo: Zenkoku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Kenkyu Kyogi Kai, 1983, p.365. Tanaka, Kenjirou. Kyoiku ni okeru Bunkateki Douka (Cultural Assimilation in Education). Tokyo: Hompou Shoseki, 1986. The Vancouver HJK. Gakkou Youran (The School Report), n.p.: n.p. 1987. Vogel, Ezra F. Japan's New Middle Class. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press., 1963. Wakabayashi, Mitsuru. "Kaigai Chuzai-in no Katei to Kyoiku Mondai" (Issues on Home environment of Oversea Workers and Education). In Kikoku Shijyo no Kyoiku Mondai ni kansuru Sogo-tekilJissho-teki  Kenkyu Hokokusho (Report on Education for Returnees). Nagoya: / 174 Nagoya University, Faculty of Education, 1985, pp.94-111. White, Merry I. "Schools for Japanese Children Abroad" In Koadansha Encyclopedia of Japan VII. Tokyo: Kodansha, 1983, pp.36-37. "Stranger in His Native Land: Group Boundaries and the Japenese International Returnee". Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1980. Zenkoku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Kenkyu Kyogi-kai. Kaigai ni okeru Nihon no Kyoiku (Japanese Education in Overseas). Tokyo: Zenkoku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Kenkyu Kyogi-kai, 1980. 

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