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Japanese schools overseas : their development and a case study of a supplementary school in Vancouver,… Ota, Midori 1988

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JAPANESE SCHOOLS OVERSEAS: THEIR DEVELOPMENT AND A CASE STUDY OF A SUPPLEMENTARY SCHOOL IN VANCOUVER, CANADA by MIDORI OTA  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Social a n d Educational Studies  W e accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 30 March 1 9 8 8  © Midori Ota, 1 9 8 8  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  University  available  copying  of  department publication  for  this or of  thesis  partial  of  British  reference  thesis by  this  in  for  his thesis  and  or for  her  University Main  Vancouver, V6T Date  DE-6(3/81)  1Y3  of  Mall Canada  British  study.  Columbia  I  of I  further  purposes  gain  the  requirements  agree  that  agree  may  be  It  is  representatives.  financial  Department  1956  Columbia,  scholarly  permission.  The  fulfilment  shall  not  that  the  Library  permission  granted  by  understood be  for  allowed  an  advanced  shall for  the that  without  head  make  extensive of  copying my  it  my or  written  ABSTRACT  The n u m b e r of Japanese students who experience overseas schooling is increaing. After a few years overseas, these children a c c o m p a n i e d by their families return to Japan. Because of serious schooling competition and exclusive social against foreginers and returnees, those children s o m e t i m e s find it  climate extremely  difficult to readjust to the Japanese school and society.  One of the reasons for this condition lie in misconceptions about the returnees and the lack of concern by school teachers in Japan. Concurrently, teachers in local schools overseas have s o m e difficulty understanding the situation and n e e d s of their Japanese students who temporarily stay in their schools.  This thesis discusses the background of Japanese overseas schools, and reviews governmental documentations on these institutions. It investigates a case study of the Vancouver Hoshu Jugyo Kou, a supplementary Saturday school.  Survey  questionnaires w e r e administered to 99 students in Grades 4 to 9 in this school, interviews w e r e conducted with the principal, twelve mothers, a consulate  from  Japan, and ESL specialists of the Vancouver School Board. The HJK school report in 1 9 8 6 7 has b e e n analyzed.  Study findings indicated the distincitve role of the HJK for Japanese students in Vancouver and the particularities of its locating in the Vancouver  Japanese  community. S o m e suggestions for the future d e v e l o p m e n t of overseas  Japanese  schools are examined.  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  ii  LIST OF FIGURES  .  LIST OF TABLES  vi vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  ix  I. INTRODUCTION A. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM B. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AND ITS RATIONALE C. PURPOSES OF THE STUDY D. DEFINITION OF TERMS E. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 1. Research Developments 2. The D e v e l o p m e n t of Cultural Identity 3. Socialization and Schooling Patterns F. ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS  1 1 2 7 8 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 4 1 8  II. EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO 2 4 A. INTRODUCTION 2 4 B. BACKGROUND 2 5 1. Japanese Population Overseas 2 5 2. Expanding Overseas Workforce 2 6 3. Increased Kaigai Shijyo and Kikoku Shijyo 2 8 4. Features of Kaigai Shijyo 3 0 5. Educational Options for Kaigai Shijyo 3 1 6. Legal Status of Japanese Schools Overseas 3 4 C. JAPANESE S C H O O L OVERSEAS 3 6 1. History of Japanese School Overseas 3 6 2. Different Types of Japanese Schools 3 8 3. Organization of Japanese Schools 4 1 a. Administration 4 1 b. Students 4 2 c. Teachers 4 3 d. Curriculum 4 4 e. Textbooks 4 4 D. DEVELOPMENT OF GOVERNMENTAL POLICIES AND O T H E R SERVICES 4 4 1. Governmental Perspectives on Education for Kaigai Shijyo .... 4 4 2. Budget for Overseas Japanese Schools 4 5 3. Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Shinkou Zaidan 4 7 4. Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Center 4 8 E. JAPANESE S C H O O L S IN CANADA 4 8 1. Local C o m m u n i t y and Japanese Schools in Canada 4 8 2. Hoshu  Jyugyo  Kou (HJK) in C a n a d a  F. SUMMARY  5 0  5 2  iii  III. M E T H O D O L O G Y A. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY B. DATA COLLECTION M E T H O D O L O G Y 1 . Outline 2 . Investigation of Publications 3. Personal Contacts 4 . Questionnaire 5 . Interviews a. The Principal of the Vancouver HJK b . Teachers c . Mothers d . The Japanese Consulate in Vancouver e . ESL Specialists from the Vancouver School Board C. SUMMARY IV. RESULTS OF THE STUDY A. INTRODUCTION B. SCHOOLING PROVISION FOR JAPANESE STUDENTS IN B . C . C. DEVELOPMENT OF THE VANCOUVER HJK 1 . Japanese Companies in Vancouver 2. Brief Outline of the Vancouver HJK D . PROFILE OF THE VANCOUVER HJK 1 . The Organization of the Vancouver HJK 2. Purpose of the Vancouver HJK 3 . Enrollment Procedure 4 . School Facilities 5. Students 6 . Finance 7. Teachers 8 . Curriculum E. RESULTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE 1 . Profile of HJK Students 2 . The Attitude Towards the N e w Environment 3. English Language Fluency 4. Canadian School Life 5. After-School in Canada 6 . Life at HJK 7. Impressions of Living in B . C F. SUMMARY  5 7 5 7 5 9 5 9 6 0 6 0 6 1 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 4 6 5 6 6 6 6 6 9 6 9 .. 7 0 7 2 7 2 7 5 7 6 7 6 7 7 7 7 7 9 8 0 8 0 8 1 8 3 8 5 8 6 8 9 9 0 9 5 9 7 1 0 0 1 0 5 1 0 9  V. CONCLUSION 1 1 4 A. INTRODUCTION 1 1 4 B. SUMMARY OF THE STUDY 1 1 4 1 . Overview 1 1 4 2 . HJK as a Psychological Stabilizer 1 1 7 3 . Discriminatory Feature of the Vancouver HJK 1 1 8 C. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR JAPANESE SCHOOLS OVERSEAS ... 1 2 2 1 . Introduction 1 2 2 2. O p e n S c h o o l Model 1 2 4 3 . S o m e R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s for the Vancouver HJK 1 2 5 iv  4. R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s for the Vancouver School Board D. S U M M A R Y  127 128  Appendix I : Survey (English Translation)  132  Appendix II : Survey (Original in Japanese)  142  Appendix III: The Result of Survey  151  Appendix IV: Japanese - English Glossary  166  References  169  v  LIST  O F FIGURES  Title  p a g e  Figure 2-1: N u m b e r of Japanese Overseas Figure 2-2: Location of Choki Figure 2-3: N u m b e r of  Taizaisha  Kaigai  Shijyo  2 6  (1984)  2 7  (Elementary + Junior High)  2 8  Figure 2 4 :N u m b e r of Children Returning to Japan Figure 2-5: World Distribution of  Kaigai  Shijyo  Figure 2 6 : Schooling Distribution of Kaigai  2 9  (1985)  Shijyo  3 3  (1985)  3 5  Figure 2 7 :N u m b e r of Japanese Schools Overseas  3 9  Figure 2 8 : Budget for Overseas Japanese Schools  4 6  Figure 4 1 : N u m b e r of Japanese Companies in Vancouver  7 3  Figure 4 2 : Growth of Japanese Population in Vancouver  7 4  Figure 4 3 : Enrollment of Japanese Students at Vancouver HJK  7 6  Figure 4 4 : Organization of the Vancouver HJK  7 8  Figure 4 5 : N u m b e r of Students in Vancouver HJK (1987)  8 1  Figure 4 6 : Percentage of HJK students Taking Private English Lessons Length of Residence in Canada  v s .  1 0 1  Figure 4 7 : HJK Students Desire to Return to Japan vs. Length of Residence in Canada  1 0 8  Figure 5 1 : Structure of Japanese Schools in Vancouver (1987)  1 2 0  vi  LIST  OF  TABLES  Title  p a g e  Table 2-1: Japanese Schools in the World (1986)  3 8  Table 2 2 : Population of Japanese in Canada (1985)  4 9  Table 2 3 : HJKs a n d their Enrolment in Canada (1986)  5 1  Table 4 1 : School Fees (1987)  8 2  Table 4 2 : Teaching Subjects a n d Weekly Teaching Periods (1987)  8 4  Table 4 3 :N u m b e r of Students Sampled  8 5  Table 4 4 : Residential Distribution of HJK Students (1986)  8 7  Table 4 5 : Length of Stay in B . C  8 8  Table 4 6 : Cross Tabulation: Communication vs. Length of Stay in B . C  9 1  Table 4 7 : Cross Tabulation: Language Preference vs. Length of Stay  9 2  Table 4 8 : Cross Tabulation: Grade at HJK vs. N u m b e r of Japanese Books Read :  Table 4 9 : Cross Tabulation: HJK Grade vs. English Books Read Table 4 1 0 : Cross Tabulation: English vs. Japanese Books Read  94  9 5 . . . 9 6  Table 4-11: Cross Tabulation: Feeling Left Out vs. Length of Stay  9 7  Table 4 1 2 : Cross Tabulation: Canadian Friends vs. Length of Stay  9 8  Table 4 1 3 : Cross Tabulation: Lessons vs. Length of Stay  9 9  Table 4 1 4 : Cross Tabulation: HJK Grade vs. Correspondence Course  1 0 0  Table 4 1 5 : Cross Tabulation: Left Out vs. Length of Stay  1 0 2  Table 4 1 6 : Cross Tabulation: Left Out vs. Gender  1 0 3  Table 4 1 7 : Cross Tabulation: School W o r k in HJK vs. Length of Stay in B . C . 1 0 5 vii  Table 4 1 8 : Cross Tabulation: HJK Grade vs. HJK attendence Table 4 1 9 : Cross Tabulation: Gender vs.. Attitude towards HJK  1 0 6 107  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I a m very grateful to Dr. Vincent D ' O y l e ya n d Dr. Jean Berman of the Social and Educational Studies Department, a n d Dr. D o u g J. Willms of the Educational Psychology Department, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia, for their continued academic guidance a n dw a r m assistance during preparation of this thesis.  I a m also thankful to the students and mothers of the Vancouver Hoshu Jyugyo Kou w h o participated in this investigation, the principal Mr. Nobuaki Ishihara of the Vancouver HJK w h o provided governmental documentations a n d  useful  suggestions. All teachers a n d staff helped and encouraged me. Also special thanks are d u e t o Mr. Hironobu Yamaoka, MITSUI & C O . (CANADA) LTD., assisting with access to the Japanese families with Kaigai  f o r  Shijyo.  I also thank m y friends w h o shared m y time at UBC a n d in  Vancouver.  Especially I a m grateful to Madoka, Jaclyn, Mamiko, and Peter for a variety of assistance and e n c o u r a g e m e n t . Without their support, I could not finish this w o r k on schedule.  And, o f course, from Japan t h e great e n c o u r a g e m e n t o fm y family (Father Hirooki, brother Kou, a n d Mother Kyoko) remains invaluable. I respect a n d love t h e m always.  ix  I.  A.  INTRODUCTION  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  One  of the recent interests in the field of international and cross-cultural  education in Japan is the development of schooling for Japanese children growing up outside Japan and their subsequent acculturation or re-acculturation u p o n their re-entry into the Japanese school system and Japanese society. Many studies on the process of socialization and the d e v e l o p m e n t of personality in cross-cultural settings are proceeding. An increasing n u m b e r of school-age children are leaving and returning to Japan annually. It is important for professionals in Japan to have a g o o dk n o w l e d g e and understanding of the realities of schooling of these children overseas in order to resolve difficulties which often occur during the re-acculturation period.  Canada is a country which claims to be applying multiculturalism in its national policy. In this country, ethnic schools are accepted as an instrument  for  maintaining the heritage language and culture. According to the study of D'Oyley, Willms, and Ota, there w e r e 13 Japanese schools in Vancouver B.C.  1  The  study found that one of t h e m had different goals from the others. It was a Nihongo  Hoshu  Gakkou  (Japanese L a n g u a g e School) serving the children of  Japanese businessmen temporarily staying in Vancouver. This supplementary school served 204 Japanese students, a g e d six to eighteen, in 1987.  2  T h o s e  students attended this supplementary school every Saturday, as well as a Canadian public or private school on w e e k d a y s .  1  INTRODUCTION / 2 This study examines the policy a n d operations of this supplementary school a n d the perspectives of the students, parents and staff in order to portray life of the Japanese children growing u p overseas. These children temporarily staying overseas a r ea s s u m e d t ob e struggling with language barriers a t their local school and suffering from pressures to prepare for re-entry into school in Japan; that is, to maintain academic levels with their counterparts in Japan.  Topics t o  b e discussed in this thesis include a history a n d development  o f  Japanese schools overseas in post World War II, a case study of the goals a n d the curricula at the Japanese supplementary school in Vancouver; its purpose, operation, a n d policies, a n d the attitudes of students a n d parents of this school toward their two schools; a Canadian local school and a Japanese supplementary school.  B. B A C K G R O U N D  OF  T H E STUDY  AND  ITS  RATIONALE  Most industrial countries h a v e experienced a radical development in  technology  and communication since the late 1 9 5 0 ' s . As a result, productivity has increased and international trading has b e c o m em o r e active. T h e index of the total gross a m o u n t of export in the world e x p a n d e d 33 times by 1980 c o m p a r e d with 1 9 5 0 . 3  This indicates the increased " e c o n o m i c interdependence" " b e t w e e n  countries,  which m e a n s there are constant exchanges of: (1) natural resources, energy, food, g o o d s , (2) finance, investments, (3) communication, high technology and (4) h u m a n resources (e.g., businessmen,  bankers, engineers, workers, students, diplomats).  Japan is one of the countries which has experienced radical e c o n o m i c growth and  5  INTRODUCTION / 3 m u s t trade with other countries in order to survive. McKeating wrote: Japan, nearly void of natural resources, save her great n u m b e r o f highly skilled a n d motivated workers, remains a delicately balanced system dependant o n foreign markets for her e c o n o m i c a n d social survival. 6  The gross national product of Japan in 1980 w a s 1 7 times greater than in 1950.  This h a s l e dt o considerable expansion o f exports.  7  Continuous  international exchanges have e m e r g e d as important factors in m a n y sectors o f Japanese society. Education is not an exception.  An Organization of Economic Cooperation a n d Development (OECD)  report  in  1970 criticized Japan's internationalization and her activities because they w e r e promoting only her o w n interests.  8  T h e report suggested that Japan  n e e d e d  fundamental changes of attitude to the world. Examples suggested w e r e opening educational institutions to foreigners, enhancing international co-operative programs, encouraging students to study abroad a n d improving foreign language  education  programs. Hara states that national education in Japan is facing its  third  substantial transformation in m o d e r n history. First c a m e westernization in the 9  Meiji  era, followed  b y democratization  after  World  War II, a n dn o w  internationalization.  The n u m b e r of  Kaigai  or "the children growing up overseas" has increased  Shijyo  greatly since 1960, approximately a b o u t t h e time w h e n Japan b e g a n  t o  experience rapid e c o n o m i c growth. The concerns about education for these children have also gradually grown. 1  0  The increased n u m b e r of  Kaigai  Shijyo  has b e e n  due to the enlarged Japanese population engaging in business overseas.  INTRODUCTION / 4 "Children growing u p overseas" w a s considered a special case o f  children  belonging to a n elite class. But this perspective has b e e n undermined as  the  nature of the population of overseas workers h a s changed quantitatively  a n d  quantitatively. Prior to 1960, those w h o h a db e e n sent abroad w e r e small in . n u m b e r ;  they w e r e probably selected 'elite' people. Parents often left school a g e  children in Japan with their relatives.  1 1  F o r  those people, raising children  overseas o r leaving t h e m behind w a s the price they h a d to p a y for  their  enviable social status overseas.  Living overseas w a s an experience that only a few people could enjoy. H o w e v e r as travelling abroad b e c a m e easier and m a n y people started to live overseas, the situation b e g a n to change.  N o longer w a s it considered a benefit to experience  schooling overseas, but at times a handicap towards competing in the Japanese school race which is the m o s t effective vehicle for upward mobility in Japanese society. Reischeuer wrote: Formal education and e x a m s have taken the place of class and birth in determining which organizations and career patterns one is qualified for ... in other words, o n e ' s function a n d status i n Japan's meritocracy 2 1  Inoguchi states that enthusiasm for education is a reflection of a middle class mind-set which strongly believes in the efficacy of schooling.  3 1  S h e considers  that the middle class s p e n d s energy on their children's education and discipline in order to maintain their family identity. In a society w h o s e middle class has b e e n increased b ye c o n o m i c growth as in Japan, the value placed o n education h a s g r o w n substantially.  4 1  INTRODUCTION / 5 Vogel characterized the middle class in Japan as "the white-collar e m p l o y e e s o f the large business corporations and g o v e r n m e n t bureaucracies", and called it the "new middle class". Parents of 5 1  Kaigai  Shijyo,  w h o are usually themselves the  winners in the schooling race and belong to this n e w middle class in Japan, try desperately n o tt o retard their children a s they c o m p e t e t o maintain their socioeconomic status.  In 1985, of all Japanese children a g e d six to fourteen (N= 1 6 , 8 0 9 , 1 6 4 ) , the a g e of compulsory attendence at school, the  Kaigai  Shijyo  n u m b e r e d 3 8 , 0 1 1 . It 6 1  w a s almost nine times m o r e than the 1 9 6 6 figure of 4 , 1 5 9 which  included  kindergarten and high school students as well. There w e r e also about 6 , 8 0 0 7 1  preschool children (ages four tofive)and about 2 , 7 0 0 high school students (ages sixteen to eighteen) Shijyo  in 1985, w h ow e r e not counted in the category of  Kaigai  officially.  In 1985 over 9 , 0 0 0 children are called  Kaigai  Kikoku  Shijyo  w e r e returning to Japan annually. T h o s e 8 1  o r returnees. For  Shijyo  Ministry of Education in Japan) defines Kikoku overseas workers or others  9 1  Shijyo  example M o m b u s h o (the for 1986 as: "children of  w h o stayed in an overseas country continuously  m o r e than o n e year, a n d returned b e t w e e n April 1st 1 9 8 5a n d March 31st 1 9 8 6 . " 2  0  There w e r e 6,481  Kikoku  at the junior high school level.  2 1  Shijyo  at the elementary level and 2 , 6 8 8  T h e experiences of these children differ  depending o n their residential area overseas, length o f stay, a n d patterns. It is often difficult for t h e m to re-enter the Japanese school and, to a larger extent, into Japanese society.  schooling system  INTRODUCTION / 6 Kobayashi suggests that the n e e d s of the  Kaigai  Shijyo  should b e studied  three sections: (1) before going abroad, (2) while being abroad, a n d (3) returning from abroad. 2  2  in after  He states that the data o n education for returnees  h a v eb e e n collected b y school teachers a n d researchers in Japan. H o w e v e r the data o n the local schools of host countries are m o r e difficult to obtain. proposes that this issue b e looked at with the cooperation of the  H e  educational  institutions in the host countries. 3 2  Wakabayashi claims that there have b e e n few studies d o n e on the relationship b e t w e e n the h o m e and the educational environment of the  Kaigai  and o n  Shijyo,  difficulties o f re-adjustment into Japanese society. H e points out that it important for educators to k n o w children's experiences in the host country  i s a s  m u c h as possible. He explains the significance of such study as follows : 2 4  1.  It will b e very difficult for Japanese teachers t o help  t h e  returnee children t o re-adjust into Japanese society without knowing their educational experiences a n d background in  t h e  overseas culture in which they have lived. 2.  It will be useful to give effective guidance to the children a n d families w h o will g o abroad, (i.e., they c a nh a v e a firm educational policy in advance so that they can e n h a n c e desirable changes and avoid undesirable o n e s . )  Most studies o n experiences overseas have b e e n conducted in Japan after  the  students returned from the host country. F e w investigations have examined the  INTRODUCTION / 7 on-going experiences of students overseas. This investigation includes a case study of dual schooling; that is, a local school and a Japanese school, experienced b y Kaigai  Shijyo.  Students w h o attend a supplementary school attempt to  balance  two cultures b y going to t w o different educational institutions which belong  t o  different cultures.  C. P U R P O S E S  OF T H E STUDY  The case study presented in this paper examines the experiences of the students w h o attend a supplementary school in Vancouver. It examines t h e role a supplementary school plays for both the students and the local community. T h e study will profile this type of schooling in the Canadian context; it will also provide data for the further study of the education for  Kaigai  Shijyo.  Data w e r e collected b y reviewing g o v e r n m e n t publications, b y administrating survey questionnaire to students of the Vancouver Nihongo interviewing the staff and parents of the Vancouver  Hoshu  Nihongo  Gakko,  Hoshu  a  and by a  Gakkou,  Japanese consular official, specialists of English a sa S e c o n d Language  (ESL)  from the Vancouver School Board.  The o u t c o m e of this study will offer s o m e suggestions for policy-making for the schooling of Japanese children overseas. It will give teachers in Japan  a n  in-depth understanding by examining a particular case study in Vancouver. It will also provide useful suggestions to apply to the curricula and special programs for returnees from Vancouver to Japan. This study will also give B.C. educators a  INTRODUCTION / 8 profile of o n em e t h o d of Japanese education a n d of one group of Japanese students w h o stay in B.C. temporarily.  D. DEFINITION OF TERMS  Internationalization  Inoguchi defines internationalization a s a set of processes of social c h a n g e order t o actualize: (1) interchanges o fh u m a n resources, merchandise,  in a n d  information, (2) social m a n a g e m e n tb y simple and clear rules, (3) adherence to universal morals c o m m o n in h u m a n beings, a n d (4) contribution toward world p e a c e and prosperity.  2  5  In this century, the development of m a s s transportation a n d communication b y technological innovations h a sm a d e possible the active interchanges of h u m a n , natural, and financial resources b e t w e e n different countries. In m a n y cases s o m e d e g r e e of cultural friction is involved in these interchanges. That is,  w h e n  different cultures encounter each other, contentions arise; one tries to assimilate the other or to reject it. Through the process of these conflicts, two or m o r e cultures expand the universal system, and eventually they b e c o m e acculturated to each  other  a n d  develop  constructive  communication.  Ebuchi considers  internationalization as the process of attaining this relationship. 6 2  The  internationalization  o f education  aims  a t t h e establishment o f  INTRODUCTION / 9 interchangeability b e t w e e n different systems in each country. That i s collaboration  o f t h e curricula  a n d  systems.  2  7  At a  t h e  micro level,  internationalization m e a n s taking a broader view a n d holding a m o r e  generous  attitude toward other cultures without being occupied with biases or having t o o m u c h rivalry.  8 2  Kaigai  Shijyo  The term literally m e a n s "children and w o m e n overseas". M o m b u s h o defines 9 2  "Kaigai  as children living overseas accompanied b y a family that works  Shijyo"  abroad.  Thus  0 3  Kaigai  Shijyo  are children of Japanese businessmen,  skilled  workers, scholars and diplomats w h o stay in other countries temporarily, usually two to five years, for their assigned term of w o r k or research. According to the survey in 1982, the average length of time a w a y from Japan was 3 years a n d 11 m o n t h s .  Kaigai  Shijyo  1 3  d o e s not include the children of immigrants. This is  because these immigrant Japanese students a i mt o live in the host  basically country  permanently a n d will not return t o Japan. Even though s o m e aspects of the language maintenance problem are still the s a m e ,  parental expectations of the  levels of performance are different. Kobayashi explains that the expectation returning t o Japan is what sets children.  3  Kaigai  Shijyo  o f  apart from immigrant Japanese  2  The children of Japanese nationals living temporarily in foreign countries  with  INTRODUCTION / 1 0 their families,  Kaigai  Shijyo,  should also be defined differently from the students  attending schools in foreign countries voluntarily. T h e s e latter students, Ryugaku  Sei,  called  or students w h o stay abroad to study, s e e k a foreign educational  environment in order to gain s o m e special skills or to enrich their experiences. They tend to b e older, at least 1 5 years old, and h a v e strong motivation to study overseas.  3  3  O n the other hand  Kaigai  Shijyo  are brought to a foreign  environment as a result of their family's m o v e to the overseas country.  Thus  they are transferred "accidentally" or "involuntarily" n o matter what their o w n desire was.  4 3  Their families m o v e to the overseas workplaces, often with  considerable anxiety about cultural differences a n d concerns about  maintaining  language c o m p e t e n c e .  The  Kaigai  Shijyo  arrive in t h en e w country with inadequate language  c o m p e t e n c e in the native language. Theirfirsttask is to learn the instructional language of the n e w school, unless they go to a full-time Japanese school. the s a m e time, b e c a u s e they expect t o return t o  Japan w h e n t h e  At father  completes his assignment, they must also maintain their Japanese language. Upon leaving Japan they are expected to k e e p a balance b e t w e e n the host country's culture and the Japanese culture a n d to b e prepared to re-enter the Japanese school system on their return.  Hoshu  Jugyo  Kou  There are two types of overseas schools for the Japanese government. O n e is  Zen'nichi-sei  Kaigai  Shijyo  Nihonjin  supported partially by Gakkou  or  Nihonjin  INTRODUCTION / 1 1 Gakkou, Hoshu  a full-time Japanese school. T h e other is Jyugyo  Kou,  Nihon-go  Hoshu  a part-time or supplementary school. (Hoshu  Jugyo  o r  Gakkou Kou  will  b e called HJK in abbreviation form in this thesis.) There w e r e 7 8 full time schools in 56 countries and 109 part-time schools in 47 countries in 1985.  5 3  Students attending HJK usually g o to local schools in the host country.  Originally these Japanese schools provided only Japanese language education for children overseas. The primary intent was t o have a part-time after-hours class for maintaining a n d improving students' Japanese language taught by volunteer mothers. Realizing the high level of educational competition in Japan, b e g a n to d e m a n d the teaching of other academic subjects ( e . g . ,  parents  mathematics,  science and social studies) to k e e p academic levels equivalent to the standard in Japan. Thereby children would face fewer problems u p o n their re-entry. 6 3  Historically HJKs w e r e considered initial steps towards t h e establishment  o f  full-time schools. As s o o n as the n u m b e r of students b e c a m e sufficient, staff and facilities w e r ee n h a n c e d and u p g r a d e d t o full-time institutions. T h e priority w a s given to the schools located in developing countries.  E.  REVIEW  1. Research  OF T H E LITERATURE  Developments  Until the 1 9 7 0 ' s , m o s t practical research dealt with h o w to m a k e children with overseas education re-adjust into the Japanese society. It w a s directed towards  INTRODUCTION / 1 2 fitting returned children into the school environment a n d educational style Japanese schools.  3  7  At that time education for returnees w a s considered  o f t o  h a v e a compensative function; b e c a u s e students lacked Japanese experiences a n d skills, special programs w e r e necessary for t h e m to catch up on what they had missed.  the n u m b e r of researchers a n d scholars  w h o  s h o w e d interest in this issue increased a n d the topics studied varied. In  t h e  3  8  In the late 1 9 7 0 ' s ,  1 9 8 0 ' s the research field has expanded, b e c o m i n g better organised. 9 3  Very few studies with an academic framework w e r e conducted in the 1 9 7 0 ' s . In 1973, a pilot study o n the acculturation of Kobayashi and a group from Kyoto University.  4  Kaigai 0  Shijyo  w a s started  b y  This study was the start of  the basic academic research on the education problems of the  Kaigai  Shijyo.  They  tried to estimate what conditions affect the formation of patterns of acculturation of  Kaigai  Shijyo.  This group has categorized their patterns of adjustment using  sociological a n d psychological m e t h o d s .T h es a m e g r o u p also studied Japanese communities in Manila (Philippines) a n d Singapore. Their research included the study of the Japanese schools and characteristics of children, and the degree of adjustment to the local community in the late 1970s.  The first survey on education for  Kaigai  Shijyo  1 4  b yM o m b u s h o ,  the Ministry of  Education, w a s conducted in 1974. Surveys w e r em a d e on overseas schools, o n students staying behind in Japan, o n the individual overseas experiences  o f  returnees, and on companies which had b e e n sending workers overseas. 2 4  An increasing n u m b e r of professionals, ( e . g . , educators, sociologists, anthropologists,  INTRODUCTION / 1 3 psychologists and policy-makers) have s h o w n interest in the problems of Shijyo.  Kaigai  Studies on the process of socialization, the development of personality and  language acquisition outside Japan, a n d the social impacts b y  Kikoku  Shijyo  (returnees) o n the public, both at school and in the society, are s o m e current research  topics. T h o s e studies a r e taking  psychological approaches.  sociological, anthropological,  o r  Businessmen, their families, and personnel of the firms  which are sending people to overseas w o r k places also pay substantial attention to this issue.  N o d a listed significant features relating to research in this field: "  3  1.  It" is a n e w field of study  2.  It takes on an inter-academic coloration. This m e a n s multilateral, comprehensive  approaches  a r e taken  within  pedagogical,  psychological and sociological frameworks. 3.  There has b e e n ac h a n g e of focus and point of view for goal o ft h e research, that is, from forcing adjustment eliminating foreign experiences from  the o r  in the  1 9 7 0 ' s  to accepting diversities a n d making the best u s eo f  foreign  Kaigai  Shijyo  experiences in the 1 9 8 0 ' s .  2. T h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f C u l t u r a l  Identity  Children w h o have spent their childhood overseas h a v e less opportunity  for  enculturation to the Japanese culture c o m p a r e d to their Japanese counterparts. In  INTRODUCTION / 1 4 s o m e cases, before they accomplish enculturation to their o w n culture, they h a v e to face acculturation due to moving t o a foreign environment. And w h e n  they  c o m e back to Japan, they are expected to readjust. For those w h ow e r e born overseas, it would be theirfirstencounter with the h o m e country. In the process of re-enculturation, m a n y problems c a n arise in a classroom situation:  f o r  example, communication skills including Japanese language as well as behaviours, classroom discipline, and socializing with friends.  Minoura conducted research o n the acquisition of cultural identity of Japanese children growing up in the United States. She analyzed the development of the g r a m m a r of interpersonal relations depending on the a g e of entry and the length of the stay. According to her study, assimilation to the American culture occurs simultaneously with language learning. She confirmed that the age b e t w e e n nine and fourteen is the critical period to gain cultural g r a m m a r . Children w h o spend any four years b e t w e e n the a g e of nine and fourteen in o n e location will tend to develop a personality related to the local culture.  4  4  3. Socialization and Schooling Patterns  Ebuchi et al. o f Fukuoka Kyoiku University studied Japanese p e o p l e Japanese communities in South East Asia.  5 4  a n d  They c o m p a r e d the development  and structure of the Japanese c o m m u n i t y in seven major cities in South East Asian countries, discussing the m e c h a n i s m s of adjustment to the local community, features o ft h e schooling patterns o f the Japanese children, a n d  parental  expectations. They argue that schools abroad a r e supposed t o have  a n  INTRODUCTION / 1 5 international orientation, but actually they hold on to a very strong "nationalistic" perspective. They believe this characteristic is stronger in a full-time Japanese school.  Ebuchi points out that the d e g r e e of the children's acculturation varies according to the life styles of their parents. Parental attitude toward the local c o m m u n i t y and the host country limit or expand children's cultural experiences. T h e m o s t significant aspect which affects children's life style is the schooling. They claim that students attending HJK (and thus w h o are a s s u m e d to attend the  local  schools in the host country as well) have m o r e chances to encounter the foreign culture than those w h o attend full-time Japanese schools only. 6 4  Kawabata et al. studied what the expansion of the educational service overseas (i.e. attending Japanese schools instead of local schools or international schools) brought to the education of children overseas. They questioned whether this 7 4  expansion should be w e l c o m e d as a real enrichment of educational environments for  t h e Japanese children overseas. Their research studied t h e  educational  consciousness of parents overseas because the parents decide the schooling of the child. They found that 24 percent of those children in Japanese school overseas do not have a n y friends in the host country. A n d hardly o n e half of the children sampled answered that they have m o r e than three local friends.  A study of Kawabata et al. determined that 22.6 percent of Japanese children overseas use only Japanese at h o m e and school. They found that this correlated with parents' educational attitude in that t h e  education overseas should  b e  INTRODUCTION / 1 6 provided b y the Japanese school which keeps the s a m e quality of education a s the counterpart in Japan. This g r o u p of parents had less contact with the local community in the host country. T h e s e parents tended to h a v e a lesser ability in foreign languages, especially the mothers. Kawabata points out that preventing the children from encountering t h e different culture i s structured in  t h e  consciousness of the parents' view. 8 4  The experiences of children and parents from both a full time Japanese school and the HJKs in N e w York w a sc o m p a r e d by Kunieda. 4  9  In the N e w York  area, the Japanese population staying temporarily in the United States is  s o  large that there are several Japanese schools. She found that the students of a supplementary school have m u c h better qualitative and quantitative cross cultural experiences than the students in a full time school. S h e also found that the life-style a n d attitudes of parents could limit children's cultural experiences  a n d  that the schooling also affects the childrens' behaviour patterns.  According to Kunieda's research,fiveyears w a s a critical length of time terms of acculturation into the local culture for Kaigai  Shijyo.  in  She suggests that  if children stay only two or three years and then go back to Japan, it would be easier for t h e m to stay in a full-time Japanese school, so that it is less difficult to adjust to the Japanese school w h e n they return.  Kunieda explains the reasons that m a n y parents still prefer sending their children to a local school in N e w York rather than to a full time Japanese school: 0 5  1.  America is an advanced country and the level of the local school  INTRODUCTION / 1 7 is reliable. 2.  Local schools have an atmosphere which w e l c o m e s n e w c o m e r s .  3.  English is a n international language, s o that it will b e  a n  advantage for children to master it. She summarizes the purpose of supplementary schools as: maintaining Japanese language a n d training in Japanese school discipline. Both maintaining  t h e  language and the discipline are intended to help the Japanese children to adjust easily to the Japanese school u p o n their return. 1 5  To maximize the opportunity for the children's international experiences and to maintain the Japanese language at the s a m e time, a combination of attending a HJK and a local school s e e m s the m o s t effective. H o w e v e r there are usually 2 5  very few links b e t w e e n an HJK and a local school; thus these two educational institutions do not yet s e e m to be having the best effects on each other or o n students. There m u s t be s o m er o o m for improvement in their collaboration;  for  example, sharing educational resources, exchanging information on curricula.  Farkas studied a case of schooling of Kagai Shijyo in Ohio. S h e used a 3 5  psychological framework t o investigate the process of cultural assimilation  o f  Japanese students into elementary schools. She found that misunderstandings d u e to a lack of communication a m o n g teachers, parents, and students caused serious problems in students' social and academic development.  She points out that the  local schools in the Ohio area do not obtain e n o u g h demographic and instructional data about incoming Japanese students. S h e also observed that there w a s insufficient understanding toward the educational perspectives of different cultures  INTRODUCTION / 1 8 a m o n g both teachers and parents.  Lack of appropriate information m a y cause local school teachers to have certain misconceptions about Japanese students w h o attend full-time. Although several of the studies dealing with readjustment problems of returnees to Japan have b e e n written in English, few studies have provided comprehensive data in English o n the d e v e l o p m e n t of overseas Japanese schools, the increasing Japanese  overseas  student population, and the difficulties and n e e d s of these students.  Japanese schools overseas are still in their period of evolution; opening  n e w  schools annually, seeking effective curricula a n d school m a n a g e m e n t styles.  A  series o f case studies o n Japanese schools overseas will present different perspectives o f schooling o f Japanese children  overseas b y geographical,  socio-economical, and political limitations. Currently data on overseas schools  a r e  based on reports b y an administrative staff of each school. H o w e v e r there exist few research-oriented case studies on overseas schools.  F. ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS  An attempt has b e e n m a d e in this chapter to outline the background of the educational difficulties experienced b y Kaigai  Shijyo  from a Japanese perspective  and to indicate the rationale of the study. S o m e key w o r d s have b e e n defined and s o m e related literature was reviewed. Chapter II presents perspectives on the social a n d cultural background of emerging services provided for t h e m .  Kaigai  Shijyo  a n d the educational  It also introduces the Japanese schools in Canada.  INTRODUCTION / 1 9 Chapter III examines t h e research design a n d survey instrument used.  In  Chapter IV, the results of the study including profiles of the Vancouver HJK and the results o f the survey are reported. Chapter V, t h e  final chapter,  provides a s u m m a r y of the major findings of the study and a proposal for a n ideal m o d e l of a n overseas Japanese school. That chapter is followed b y appendices and references.  the  INTRODUCTION / 20 NOTE: N a m e s of the articles and b o o k s in italics in the endnotes of this thesis indicate those which w e r e written in Japanese. Most of the English subtitles in parentheses w e r e translated by the researcher for reference purposes only.  Notes from unpublished paper, Vincent D'Oyley, Willms, a n d Ota, "After-hours Japanese Schools in B.C. 1 9 8 5 8 6 . " Vancouver Nihongo Hoshu Gakkou, : n . p . , 1987), n. pag.  Gakkou  Youran  (The School Report) ( n . p .  Matsundo Kawabata, "Rekishi-teki Tembou ni yoru Kikoku Shijyo Mondai" (Issues o n returnees from Historical Perspectives) in Kokusai-ka Jidai no Kyoiku (Education for Epoch of Internationalization) (Tokyo: Soyusha, 1986), p . 2 3 . This concept was introduced by R . H . C o o p e r , an economist, in (Kawabata, Ibid., 1986, p . 2 7 . ) Kawabata, Ibid.,  1968.  1986, p . 2 6 .  Robert McKeating, " T h e Role of International School Graduates in Japan" in Kikoku  Shijyo  no Kyoiku  Mondai  ni kansuru  Sogo-tekilJissho-teki  Kenkyu  Houkokusho (Report o n Education for Returnees) (Nagoya: Nagoya University, Faculty of Education, 1985), p p . 5 9 6 5 . K a w a b a t a , Op.cit.,  1986, p . 2 3 .  Tetsuya Kobayashi, Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku/Kikoku Shijyo Kyoiku (Education for the children overseas a n d returnees) (Tokyo: Yuhikaku 1981), p . 2 0 3 . Makoto Hara, "Kikoku Shijyo no Rinen to Jissen-mokuhyo" (Idea a n d practice for t h e returnees) in Kokusai-ka Jidai no Kyoiku (Education f o r Epoch of Internationalization) (Tokyo: Soyusha 1986), p . 4 1 . S u s u m u Inui, a n d Kazuhiko Sono, Kaigai Chuzai-in no Shijyo Kyoiku; Kage o otosu Shingaku Kyousou (Education for children o f overseas workers; influences of entrance examination) (Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Shimbunsha, 1977), p . 1 6 0 . Kouki Sato, Kaigai Shijyo no Kyoiku Mondai (Educational Problems on Children Overseas) (Tokyo: Gakuensha, 1978), p. 18. Edwin O . Reischeuer, The Japanese (Cambridge, M a s s . : The Belknap Press  INTRODUCTION / 2 1 of Harvard University Press, 1977). Kuniko Inoguchi, Posuto Haken Sisutemu to Nihon no Sentaku (The Emerging P o s t H e g e m o n i c System: Choices for Japan) (Tokyo: Chikuma S h o b o u , 1987), p . 1 5 1 . Inoguchi, Ibid.,  1987, p . 4 0 .  Ezra F . Vogel, Japan's N e w Middle Class (Berkeley a n dL o s University of California Press., 1963), p . 4 . M o m b u s h o ,  Kaigai  Shijyo  Kyoiku  no Genjyo  Angeles:  ( A R e p o r t o n Education  f o r  Children Overseas) (Tokyo: M o m b u s h o , 1986), p . 3 . Kobayashi,  Kaigai  Shijyo  KyoikulKikoku  Shijyo  Kyoiku,  1981, p . 6 .  M o m b u s h o , Gakkou Kihon Chosa Hokoku-sho (School Basic Survey (Tokyo: M o m b u s h o , 1986), p p . 7 6 and 136.  Report)  "Others" mainly refers to the Japanese left in China. M o m b u s h o ,  Gakkou  M o m b u s h o ,  Ibid.,  Kobayashi,  Kaigai  Kobayashi,  Ibid.,  Kihon  Chosa  Hokoku-sho,  1 9 8 6 .  1986, p p . 7 6 and 136. Shijyo  KyoikulKikoku  Shijyo  Kyoiku,  1981, p p . 2 3 2 4 .  1981, p.28.  Mitsuru Wakabayashi, "Kaigai Chuzai-in no Katei to Kyoiku Mondai" (Issues on H o m e environment of Oversea Workers and Education) in Kikoku Shijyo no Kyoiku Mondai ni kansuru Sogo-tekilJissho-teki Kenkyu Hokokusho (Report on Education f o r Returnees) (Nagoya: Nagoya University, Faculty o f Education, 1985), p p . 9 4 1 1 1 . K u n i k oI n o g u c h i , Posuto  Haken  Sisutemu  to Nihon  no Sentaku,  1 9 8 7 , p. 118.  Kazuhiro Ebuchi, "Tonan Ajia no Nihonjin Gakkou" (Japanese Schools in South East Asia) in Kokusaika Jidai ni okeru Ningen Keisei ( H u m a n Development in Internatioal Age), ed. Bunkichi Iwahashi (Tokyo: Gyosei, 1986), p p . 2 7 6 4 . Kazuhiro Ebuchi, "Shudai-settei no Shushi to TeianlTougi no Sokatsu" (Proposal of the t h e m e a n ds u m m a r y of the discussion) in Ibunka-kan Kyoiku (Inter-Cultural Education), ed. Ibunka-kan Kyoiku Gakkai (Kyoto: Academia Press, 1987), p.21. Kobayashi,  Kaigai  Kobayashi,  Ibid.,  Shijyo  KyoikulKikoku  1981, p . 142.  Shijyo  Kyoiku,  1981, p. 157.  INTRODUCTION / 2 2  0 3  M o m b u s h o , Kikoku Shijyo Kyoiku no Tebiki - Sho Chu Gakkou hen ( A guide b o o k for education for returnees - elementary a n d junior high school level) (Tokyo: M o m b u s h o , 1986), p.l.  3 1  M o m b u s h o , Ibid.,  1986, p. 133.  3 2  Kobayashi,  Shijyo  3 3  Merry I. White, "Schools for Japanese Children Abroad" in Encyclopedia of Japan VII (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1983), p . 3 6 .  3 4  Merry I. White, "Stranger in His Native Land: Group Boundaries and t h e Japenese International Returnee", P h . D . dissertation, Harvard University, 1 9 8 0 .  3 5  M o m b u s h o , Kaigai  3 6  M o m b u s h o , Ibid.,  3 7  Inui a n dS o n o ,  3 8  Kobayashi,  3 9  Ichirou Noda, "Kikoku Shijyo Kyoiku no Kiso-teki Kenkyu no Ayumi" ( D e v e l o p m e n t of Basic Research o n Education for Returnees) in Kokusai-ka Jidai no Kyoiku (Education for Epoch of Internationalization), ed. Tokyo Gakugei Daigaku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Srnta'a (Tokyo: Soyusha, 1986), p . 2 3 9 .  40  K o b a y a s h i et al., Zaigai Kikoku Chosa - Houkoku" (Report on  Kaigai  KyoikulKikoku  Shijyo  Kyoiku  Shijyo  no Genjyo,  1981, p . 3 .  Kyoiku,  1 9 8 6 ,  Koadansha  p . 3 .  1986, p. 18. Kaigai  Kaigai  Shijyo  Chuzai-in  no Shijyo  KyoikulKikoku  Shijyo  1977, p . 133.  Kyoiku,  Shijyo  Kyoiku,  no Tekiou  1981, p. 142.  ni kansuru  Chosa  -  Yobi  a research on assimilation of returnees - pilot study) (Kyoto: Kyoto University, Faculty o f Education, Comparative Educational Studies, 1975). 41  K o b a y a s h i et al., Zaigai Kikoku Shijyo ni okeru Zaigai Komyunitii Kyoiku ni kansuru Kenkyu III, IV ( Research o n returnees, their  to sono  education and Japanese community overseas) (Kyoto: Kyoto University, Faculty o f Education, Comparative Educational Studies, 1978 a n d 1979).  4 2  M o m b u s h o ,  Kaigai  Kinmusha  Shijyo  Kyoiku  ni kansuru  Sogo-teki  Jittai  Chosa  Hokoku-sho (Survey o n education for children of overseas workers) M o m b u s h o , 1982).  (Tokyo:  4 3  Ichirou Noda, p . 2 4 2 2 4 3 .  1 9 8 6 ,  4 4  Yasuko Minoura, "Life in Between: T h e Acquisition o f Cultural Identity a m o n g Japanese Children Living in the United States", P h . D . dissertation, UCLA, 1979, p . 6 7 .  "Kikoku  Shijyo  Kyoiku  no Kiso-teki  Kenkyu  no Ayumi",  INTRODUCTION / 2 3 Kazuhiro Ebuchi, "Tonan Ajia no Nihonjin Gakkou" in Kokusai-ka Jidai no Keisei ( H u m a nD e v e l o p m e n t in International Age) (Tokyo: Gyosei, 1982), p p . 2 7 6 4 .  Ningen  Kazuhiro Ebuchi, "Kodomo-tachi no Ibunka Sesshoku" (Cross-cultural encounter experienced b y children) in Ibunka ni Sodatsu Kodomo-tachi (Children Growing Up in Foreign Cultures), ed. Kobayashi Tetsya (Tokyo: Yuhikaku, 1983), p . 18. Matsundo Kawabata a n d Keizo Nagata, "Kaigai Nihonjin JidolSeito no Rikai to Oya no Ishiki" (Cross cultural understanding of students overseas a n dt h e consiousness of their parents) in Nihon Hikaku Kyoiku Gakkai Kiyou (Bulletin of Japan Comparative Education Society) VIII (March 1982), p p . 4 3 5 0 .  Ibunka  Kawabata, et al., Ibid.,  Mari Kunieda,  1982, p . 4 8 .  "A Study to American Life"  on Japanese  Children  in New York:  The  in Research Report No. 10, (March 1985), T h e National Institute for Educational Research, p p . 8 1 9 5 .  Assimilation  Kunieda,  Ibid.,  Kunieda,  Ibid.,  1985, p . 8 5 . 1985.  This notion is supported m a n y educators a n d scholars, e.g., Inui a n d S o n o , 1977; Kawabata 1982, Kobayashi 1983. Jennifer Farkas a n d Morio Kouno, Amerika no Nihon-jin Seito-tachi, Ibunka Kyoiku-ron (Japanese Overseas Children's American Schooling Experience: A Study of Cross-Cultural Transitions) (Tokyo: Tokyo Shoseki, 1987).  II. E D U C A T I O N F O R K A I G A I  A.  SHIJYO  INTRODUCTION  The d e v e l o p m e n t of education for  Kaigai  Shijyo  can be explained in e c o n o m i c and  social terms. First, because the fathers of these children play significant roles in Japan's e c o n o m i c development,  it is important that fathers are able to  themselves to their work to achieve best results.  1  devote  In order to k e e p overseas  e m p l o y e e s satisfied and productive, companies and government take care of s o m e of their personal worries, such as their children's education. Education for Shijyo  Kaigai  has developed as part of a welfare service for overseas Japanese workers.  Second, Japan as a country is faced with the n e e d for internationalization of its social customs. T h o s e children w h o encounter foreign cultures at a young age are expected to b e c o m e international in their mannerisms and outlook. There is also a m o v e m e n t to use t h e m as a resource of international education in Japanese schools. H o w e v e r because the concept of "being international" is not yet firmly established a s being a n advantage, returning children have suffered m a n y difficulties in Japanese society.  This chapter reviews the background of emerging the features of  Kaigai  Shijyo.  Kaigai  Shijyo  and c h a n g e s  It introduces the organization a n d operation  in o f  Japanese schools overseas and the perspectives of the Japanese government and the d e v e l o p m e n t of various types of assistance for education of Then it overviews Japanese schools in Canada.  2 4  Kaigai  Shijyo.  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 25 B.  1.  BACKGROUND  Japanese  Population  Overseas  In 1985, 4 8 0 , 7 3 9 Japanese w e r e living abroad.  2  Gaimusho,  the Ministry of  Foreign Affairs, defines two categories of these overseas residents. One is Taizai-sha  or a long term resident, and the other is Eizhu-sha,  resident. Gaimusho categorizes the Eizhu-sha status and k e e p Japanese nationality. who  Choki  Choki  or a permanent  as those who have landed immigrant Taizai-sha  is defined as a Japanese  stays in the s a m e country for m o r e than three m o n t h s but is not an  Eizhu-sha.  3  Figure 2 1 s h o w s the growth of the Japanese population overseas b e t w e e n 1972 and 1985. The n u m b e r of the the n u m b e r of Eizhu-sha  Choki  Taizai-sha  has grown dramatically whereas  has remained relatively constant. The impact that this  trend has had on overseas education will be discussed in a later section. Prior to 1968 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs had no concrete definition of what being "Japanese" m e a n t . Thus G a i m u s h o had  also included Japanese who w e r e  naturalized foreign citizens as Japanese residents overseas. This population has b e e n excluded from the statistics since 1968.  Figure 2 2 s h o w s that the  Choki  Taizai-sha  are distributed around the world  according to the frequency of e c o n o m i c and cultural interchange b e t w e e n Japan and  the region concerned. The  Taizai-sha  are  s a m e survey s h o w s that 67.4%  workers for private  c o m p a n i e s and  their  of  Choki  families, with  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 2 6 500,000 400,000 Number o f Japanese Overseas  J  U  U  '  1 U  U  i  I 1  U  200,000 100,000  1970  1975  Choki  1985  1980  Taizai-sha  Eizhu-sha  Figure  2-1:  Number  Source:  o fJapanese  Overseas  Kaigai Zai r yu Houj i n Ni nzu Chosa Toukei (1986)  Gaimusho,  scholars/students accounting for 16.4%, and diplomats 7 . 9 % .  2. Expanding Overseas Workforce  There h a v eb e e n three stages in the expansion of Japan's overseas workforce after World W a r II. T h e first stage took place during the 1960s, w h e n Japan was in a period of rapid e c o n o m i c growth. Japanese workers w e r e sent overseas to look for prospective markets a n d cheaper resources. Consequently they w e r e mostly e n g a g e d in trade, transportation (shipping or aviation) or w e r e diplomats. The first stage was the direct result of increased productivity inside Japan.  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 2 7  Oceania (3%) A f r i c a (3%) Middle East (5%) C e n t r a l / S o u t h America (6% North America (34%)  A s i a (23%) Total Choki is  Number o f  Europe (26%)  Taizai-sha  228,914 Figure  2-2:  Location  o f Choki  Taizai-sha  S o u r c e : G a i m u s h o , Kai?ai  i n 1984  Zai r Houji n Ninzu Chosa Toukei (1984) y  u  The second stage took place during the 1 9 7 0 sw h e n Japanese companies started building factories in developing countries, mainly in South East Asia, in  t h e  search f o rm o r e cost efficient results. Engineers a n d technicians were sent overseas t o instruct a n d supervise local employees. In this period,  overseas  workers w e r e posted in m a n y" n e w " geographic areas.  tt  In the third stage, banks, stock companies, service industries (restaurants, hotels, travel agents) developed their overseas divisions a n d sent staff from Japan. Concurrently the job categories o f Choki n u m b e r s of Choki  Taizai-sha  Taizai-sha  b e c a m em o r e diverse.  are increasing annually.  T h e  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 28 3. Increased  K a i g a i Shijyo  and K i k o k u  Shijyo  As the n u m b e r of overseas workers increased, there was a dramatic increase in the n u m b e r of children growing up overseas. In 1980  there w e r e  5 5 , 5 9 6  Japanese children under the age of 18 living overseas. Figure 2 3 s h o w s how 5  the n u m b e r of elementary and junior high  Kaigai  b e t w e e n 1977 and 1985. The children of Choki  has increased  Shijyo  steadily  including under age six  Taizai-sha  and over 15 w e r e estimated at almost 6 0 , 0 0 0 by 1985.  Concern for Kaigai  Shijyo  education heightened around 1960.  time that rapid e c o n o m i c growth began,  6  It was at that  and m o r e Japanese c o m m e n c e d working  in other countries, looking for m o r e resources and prospective markets. At that time there was a dramatic increase in the n u m b e r , of children growing up  50,000 - i 40,000 Number of K a g a i Shi j y o  30,000 20,000 10,000 • 0 1976  Figure  2-3: Number o f K a i g a i (Elementary  82  80  78  86  Shijyo  + Junior  Source  84  High)  Mombusho, Gakkou  Chosa  Houkoku-s  Kihon ho  (1986)  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 2 9 overseas. In this period,  Kikoku  n u m b e r of Kikoku  enlarged rapidly, the structural care systems for these  Shijyo  Shijyo  o r returnees also increased. While  t h e  children w e r e not well established in Japan. O n e of the problems in education for  Kaigai  w a s the rapid increase in their n u m b e r . Systems to integrate  Shijyo  returnees into Japanese schools d i dn o t follow t h e rapid expansion in n u m b e r .  7  their  Figure 2 4s h o w sh o w the increasing n u m b e r of returnees parallels  the growth of the  Kagai  Shijyo  as seen in Figure 2 3 .  1 5,000 - i  10,000 Number o f Returnees 5000 -  0 1977  78 79 80 81 82 83 84  85  Elementary  n Figure  2 - 4 : Number o f C h i l d r e n Source  Junior  High  Senior  High  Returning  t o Japan  : Mombusho, Gakkou  Chosa Houkoku-sho  Ki hon (1978-86)  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 3 0 4. Features  of K a i g a i  In the 1 9 6 0 ' s ,  Kaigai  Shijyo  Shijyo  w e r e the children of an elite class. Most of t h e  fathers w o r k e d for large corporations, and they had high educational backgrounds. Their backgrounds w e r e relatively h o m o g e n e o u sa n d their s o c i o e c o n o m i c  status  was generally high. T w o significant changes since the 1 9 6 0 ' s are the lowering o f the average a g e of the household a n d the diversity of job  categories. W h e n m o r e  people started to work overseas, the nature of the overseas population c h a n g e d . At t h es a m e time, perspectives o n education for overseas children h a v e  b e e n  transformed.  According to Takahagi, w h o studied 1719 returnees in 1980, a family profile o f Kaigai  was: the h e a d of the household was the father w h o held Japanese  Shijyo  nationality; the level of schooling attained by the father was university or a b o v e ; 81% of the sample w e r e in their 40's; 75% w e r ee n g a g e d either in a trading c o m p a n y , manufacturing, or a bank, with 9% being diplomats a n d 5% researchers or educators. 8  The length o f stay overseas has b e e n increasing. According to t h e survey  in  1 9 8 2b yM o m b u s h o , the Ministry of Education, the length of residence overseas was three to four years. The average was three years a n d eleven m o n t h s .  9  I n  Takahagi's study in the s a m e year the average was e v e n higher at four years and five months. 0 1  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 31 5. Educational Options for Kaigai Shijyo  Parents h a v e several options for schooling of their children. As long as the host country allows it, parents d o not necessarily have to send their children  t o  school. According to the Japanese constitution, parents have a responsibility  t o  send their children to school. The Japanese Constitution states: All people shall have t h e right t o receive a n equal education correspondent to their ability, as provided by law. (2) All people shall b e obligated to have all boys a n d girls under their protection receive ordinary educations a s provided for b y l a w . Such compulsory education shall be free. (The Constitution of Japan Chapter III Rights a n d Duties of t h e People, Article 26) 1 1  The Basic Education Law decrees that all Japanese citizens residing in Japan should h a v e nine years o f compulsory education. This educational  obligation  applies both to parents w h o must send their children to school, a n d to  t h e  Japanese g o v e r n m e n t which must help t h e m to do so, i.e. b y encouraging local (prefectural) governments to o p e n schools and giving them financial aid.  In the m o d e r n legal system, m o s t countries follow the territorial principle.  This  m e a n s that the Japanese overseas are n o longer b o u n d b y the Japanese legal system. That is, parents d o not carry the legal obligation to send children  t o  school and the State of Japan is not obligated to be responsible for them. 2 1  Thus . the legal right to receive education which is guaranteed b y the Japanese Constitution d o e s not apply to children overseas as it d o e s to those inside Japan. Consequently the schooling of the children overseas d e p e n d su p o n the decision and the legal obligations of the host country.  parents'  EDUCATION F O R KAIGAI SHIJYO / 3 2 W h e n the parents decide t o send their children to school there a r e  several  alternatives depending o n their place of residence A local school in the  host  country is o n e of the choices. W h e r e it is available a n international school is another alternative. W h e n parents think that the local language is difficult  t o  learn or that it is less useful for the children's future, they m a y prefer to send their children to a n international school w h e r e the instructional language is  a  m o r e universal one, such as English or French. Or parents m a y be able to find a  full-time Japanese school, which will provide "Japanese-style" education.  Full-time Japanese schools use the s a m e curriculum as schools in Japan, instruct with similar class disciplines, and teach in Japanese using professional Japanese teachers. S o m e parents m a y o p tt o send children t o a boarding school  in  England or Switzerland.  1 3  Another possibility is sending children to a local or an international school during the day and a Japanese supplementary school (HJK) after school hours. In this way, children are able not only to learn about the local culture but also maintain their Japanese language a n d school discipline. Correspondence  t o  courses  from Japan a r e also available. Japanese parents overseas c a nc h o o s e combination of these schooling options depending on their living area a n d  a n y their  educational aspirations for the children. " 1  Figure 2 5 s h o w s both the world distribution of Kaigai  Shijyo  and the types of  schools they attend. Note that almost 40% of all overseas Japanese students are located in North America a n d that over 40% of attend Japanese full-time schools.  Kaigai  Shijyo  in the world  7 1G 2.0 # Location  Figure  of K a i g a i  > Shijo  2-5: W o r l d D i s t r i b u t i o n  T  of K a i g a i  y  p  e  o  Shijyo  f  S  c  h  °  o  1  Attended  £ O ^ w w  (1985)  Source: Mombusho, Kyoi  ku  no  Kaigai  Genj  Shijyo yo  (1985)  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 3 4 Figure 2 6 s h o w s the schooling options c h o s e n by parents of Kaigai  w h o .  Shijyo  reside in North America are vastly different from the rest of the world. Only 5% of overseas children in North America attend Japanese full-time school, a n d almost 75% attend both an HJK and a local school. An additional benefit is that English is the m o s t important foreign language in Japan and m a n y parents are eager to have their children learn it. T h e reason that the parents of North American  Kaigai  Shijyo  have chosen a local school plus HJK could be due  to  their desire to expose children to North American culture, or their trust in the relatively high quality of the local schools. The influence of world location on the choice of education m e t h o d is discussed later in this paper.  6. L e g a l Status of Japanese  Schools  Overseas  The legal status o f full-time Japanese schools differ depending o n the countries.  5 1  host  I n 1985, 3 6 out of 78 full-time Japanese schools h a d the host  country's official governmental approval. Others are not legally authorized schools as far a s t h e host country is concerned. Thus t h e graduates o f n o n a p p r o v e d schools cannot receive official diplomas from t h e host  these  country.  Although the full-time Japanese schools are privately administered, they follow the official course o f study provided b y t h e Japanese government. Thus their graduates are considered to have finished the compulsory nine years schooling.  In the case of HJKs, they are m o r e likely to be a private institution focused on language education. Thus their programs do not have any authority provided b y either the Japanese government or the host country.  V/ Z ///\Attend  Japanese  I  Supplementary  /  /  :  I A t t e n d - —  Attend  Local  Full-Time  School  School  School  Only  (HJK) and Local  School  Only  Source:  M o m b u s h o , Kai tat Kyoi  ku  no  Gen/  yo  Shi  /  y  0  (1985)  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 3 6 C. J A P A N E S E  SCHOOL  OVERSEAS  1. History o f Japanese School Overseas  The first overseas Japanese school was established in 1897 in Manchuria. By 6 1  1905, about 5 0 schools w e r e serving the children of colonialists in Manchuria, Taiwan a s well a s immigrants in Hawaii, the west coast areas o f  North  America, a n d Brazil. There w e r es o m e schools in Singapore, H o n g Kong, Manila. They  w e r e recognized  o r supervised  a n d  b y t h e Imperial Japanese  government. T h e main purpose o f these Japanese schools w a s t o language and t o educate " g o o d Japanese citizens".  7 1  maintain  T h o s e schools aimed not  only t o teach Japanese language but also t o pass Japanese traditions t o children growing u p in overseas countries. T h e s e Japanese schools before World W a r II followed the idea of  Kyoiku  Chokugo,  t h e  established  the Imperial Rescript  on Education. Most of these schools in Hawaii and North America w e r e closed during World W a r II, and schools in colonial areas also disappeared with Japan's defeat of this war.  8 1  After World W a r II, s o m e of the Japanese language schools for  immigrant  children r e o p e n e d in North America. Tanaka found that in the U . S . A . enrollment in  t h e private after-school-hour type language schools for s e c o n d a n d  generation children decreased b e t w e e n 1963 and 1985.  9 1  third  Instead the Japanese  language program in the public school system had developed under the bilingual education policies of the state governments. O n the other hand, the n u m b e r of full-time Japanese schools and HJKs for Kaigai  Shijyo  had notably increased. 0 2  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 37 The development of Japanese schools overseas and the Japanese language schools for immigrant children after World War II should, according t o Kobayashi,  b e  considered as two separate p h e n o m e n a , because they have different features and goals.  2 1  However, as Tanaka found, in the earliest development stage (1960's),  both the Kaigai  Shijyo  and immigrant children w e n t to the s a m e school. The two  different types of schools only e m e r g e d as the  Kaigai  Shijyo  population increased,  and the distinct educational goals of the two groups b e c a m e clarified.  Postwar Japanese schools w e r e established without government assistance. A Japanese language class overseas c o m m e n c e d unofficially in Taiwan in 1947 and was authorized as a school by the Japanese government later in 1965. The first authorized Japanese school after the war started in Bangkok (Thailand) in 1956 as an attached school t o the Japanese e m b a s s y .  Simultaneously early  attempts  by volunteer mothers t o maintain their children's language ability occurred  in  different places in the world. For example, voluntary language classes b e g a n in H a m b u r g (West Germany) in 1957, in Washington D . C . (United States America) in 1958.  2 2  Atfirst,there was n o financial support from  of  the  Japanese government.  Japanese g o v e r n m e n t assistance quickly brought a rapid expansion in Japanese schools. In 1959 financial aid for the expense of classroom rent was initiated by Gaimusho,  the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the dispatching of professional  teachers to overseas schools b e g a n in 1962. The establishment of  Japanese  schools that relied on governmental aid b o o m e d after 1964 as s h o w n in Figure 2 7 .M a n y Japanese schools w e r e established in the late 1 9 6 0 ' s to early 1 9 7 0 ' s .  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 38 Full-time Japanese schools existed in 7 8 cities a n d HJKs in 109 cities in 1 9 8 5 .  2. D i f f e r e n t T y p e s o f J a p a n e s e  Schools  As previously defined in Chapter I, there a r et w o types of overseas Japanese schools. O n e is Zen'nichi-sei other is  Nihon-go  Hoshu  Nihonjin Jyugyo-ko  a full-time Japanese school, a n d the  Gakko,  (HJK), a part-time supplementary school.  In  1 9 8 6 full-time schools held 1 5 , 8 9 1 or 4 1 . 8 percent of the population of children overseas, a n d HJKs enrolled 1 4 , 3 2 1 or 3 7 . 7 percent of t h e m . Yet 7 , 7 9 9 or 2 0 . 5 percent o f the children could attend only local schools o rh a d n o chance  o f  schooling due to geographic limitations.  2 3  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  Table 2-1: Japanese Schools in the World (1986) Region  Full-time  (countries)  HJK  (countries)  Asia North America Central/South America Europe Oceania Middle East Africa  24 2 1 7 1 7 2 1 1 5  (14) ( 1 ) (12) (14) ( 1 ) ( 9 ) ( 5 )  1 0 46 7 25 7 5 9  ( 8 ) ( 2 ) ( 5 ) ( 1 5 ) ( 3 ) ( 5 ) ( 9 )  Total  78  (56)  1 0 9  (47)  Source: M o m b u s h o ,  Kaigai  Shijyo  Kyoiku  no Genjyo,  (1986)  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  EDUCATION F O R KAIGAI SHIJYO / 3 9 120 100 80 Number o f J a p a n e s e 60 Schools 40 20 0 1955  Figure  6 0 6 5 7 0 75 80  2-7: Number o f J a p a n e s e Overseas Source:  85  Schools  Mombusho,  Kai gai  Kyoi kit no Gen/ yo  Until about 1 9 6 6m o s t full-time Japanese schools w e r e located in  Shi j yo (1986)  developing  countries, w h e r e a sm o s t HJKs w e r e in developed countries. M o m b u s h o explains that: In t h e case of developed regions, t h e educational level is generally high, a n d the educational system is well developed, thus it is c o m m o n to receive education in local schools... I nt h e case o f developing regions, generally m a n y difficulties a r e encountered in educating Japanese children in local schools. Thus full-time Japanese schools a r e provided almost o n e in each country to give an equivalent quality o f education to elementary and junior high schools in Japan. 2 ft  In other w o r d s in developing countries, the poor quality of education, such as the lack of educational facilities, l o w academic standards, a n d the difficulties of local languages as the language of instruction have caused Japanese parents to seek a full-time Japanese school t o give a n appropriate education t o their children.  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 40 H o w e v e r this principle s e e m s to have collapsed. More full-time Japanese schools have recently o p e n e d in developed countries. It is caused by the anxiety  of  parents overseas that their children would be at a disadvantage in applying for a prestigious school in Japan. Also the parents may  distrust the teaching  m e t h o d s which the local. school applies.  After 1975, s o m e of the HJKs w e r e transformed into full-time Japanese schools. For example in 1986, HJKs in Barcelona (Spain) and in Melbourne  (Australia)  w e r e upgraded to full-time Japanese schools. The reason for upgrading these and m a n y similar HJKs into full-time schools is due to strong d e m a n d by parents. T h o s e who worry about the maladjustment of their children to Japanese society at their return prefer to send t h e m to a full-time school even in  developed  countries w h e r e Japanese people used to send children to local schools. In s o m e cities like New York, Chicago ( U . S . A . ) or London (England) both full-time schools and HJK exist. Parents there m a k e the choice about which type of school fits their educational goal.  There is a d e m a n d by Japanese parents that m o r e full-time Japanese  schools  should be established to minimize local cultural friction for children. Against this d e m a n d ,  there is the argument that those schools are the product of parents'  ethno-centric ideology and they prevent children from encountering local culture.  The  combination of schooling in an HJK  with a local school has several  advantages. It e x p a n d s children's cross cultural experiences. Because children can speak Japanese there, the HJK is a place w h e r e they can relax.  2  5  In that  EDUCATION F O R KAIGAI SHIJYO / 4 1 case, HJK has a significant psychological role. HJKs also contain the potential to function as a laison institute b e t w e e n the local c o m m u n i t y and Japanese culture.  3. Organization  of Japanese  Schools  a. Administration  Japanese schools are defined a s private voluntary institutions b y the Japanese government. According to M o m b u s h o , the Ministry of Education: A Japanese school is a full-time educational institution aimed at giving education at the compulsory level for Japanese children overseas in a foreign country w h e r e the sovereign p o w e r of Japan d o e s not govern. In these schools, as a general rule, classes are given comforming to a course o f study ( b yM o m b u s h o ) , following t h e educational acts o f Japan. 6 2  Most Japanese schools are established a n d run b y a business society or similar organization reflecting parents d e m a n d s in the local Japanese community. 2  7  I n  m a n y cases the societies consist of major Japanese based multi-national companies which e m p l o y fathers of  Kaigai  Shijyo.  These Japanese schools a r e  m a n a g e d a n d t h e Japanese government supports their  privately  m a n a g e m e n t  a n d  administration b y providing teaching materials a n d dispatching professional teachers.  Up to two thirds of the rent for the school building or the cost of building the school is usually provided from governmental assistance, with the remainder 8 2  m a d e u p from  school  fees  a n d donations  from  Japanese companies.  Representatives from the local Japanese community form the board a n d m a n a g e  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 4 2 the school. School expenses are financed with students' tuition fees. T h e salaries of professional teachers dispatched from Japan are provided b y the  Japanese  g o v e r n m e n t .T h e salaries of locally hired HJK teachers are subsidized b y Japanese g o v e r n m e n t . In the case of full-time Japanese schools, the  t h e  Japanese  g o v e r n m e n t pays 71% of the personnel expenses. For an HJK, 29% is covered. 9 2  Additional donations are solicited from the local Japanese business community.  b. Students  Criteria for enrollment in the Japanese school differs b e t w e e n schools, depending on the policy of the committee governing the school. Thus s o m e schools as in Mexico or Australia accept non-native Japanese students while others as in the Philippines or England d o not. HJKs also h a v ee m e r g e d with different policies o n student selection.  The policies governing a Japanese school are closely aligned with the attitude of the Japanese business community towards the local community in which it  is  centered. Usually the Japanese business community continues t o sponsor  t h e  Japanese school in the area because it was the business community that initially established the Japanese schools for  their o w n children. W h e r em a n y Japanese  immigrants live, Japanese schools for the Japanese w h o stay temporarily  a n d  Japanese language schools for immigrant children can coexist. In s o m e places the two types of schools cooperate while in other places they ignore each other.  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 4 3 c. Teachers  M o m b u s h o ,t h e Ministry of Education, started sending professional teachers  t o  both full-time Japanese and supplementary schools in 1962. Currently M o m b u s h o provides the entire teaching staff to the full time schools. An HJK which h a s m o r e than 1 0 0 students can receive o n e teacher, usually a sa n  administrator.  Ninety six percent of the dispatched teachers are already o n the staff of public schools in Japan.  The dispatching o f teachers overseas is performed jointly b y M o m b u s h o ,  t h e  Ministry of Education, and Gaimusho, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In  1 9 8 6 ,  of 950 candidates interviewed, 3 6 0 teachers w e r e selected for assignments.  0  The n u m b e r of teachers w h o are sent overseas is also increasing. For  3  1 9 8 7 8 8 ,  M o m b u s h o a d d e d twenty-five n e w postings. T h e teachers are recruited from  all  parts of Japan. This reflects t h e policy of M o m b u s h o that teachers w h o  s p e n d  s o m e time overseas b e c o m e leaders f o r international education in t h e  local  community w h e n . they return to Japan.  Most teachers in HJK are non-professional a n dm a n y are housewives. T h e 3 1  local committees hire them from local Japanese holding a teaching certificate or equivalent qualifications in the local community. A f e wo f these people teaching certificates have taught previously in schools in Japan. 2 3  with  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 4 4 d. Curriculum  The curricula o f a full-time Japanese school follows a course o f study M o m b u s h o ,t h e  Ministry o f Education. I n HJKs, t h e focus is o n  language education. Depending o n the HJK, class hours a n d teaching  b y  Japanese subjects  vary. T h e average HJK provides about 4 0 days of instruction per year for a total of about 112 hours.  3  3  e. Textbooks  M o m b u s h o ,t h e Ministry o f Education, h a s distributed free textbooks t o students in Grade 1 to Grade 9 in Japanese schools a n d HJKs since  all  1 9 6 7 .  M o m b u s h o claims that it s e n d s textbooks to all children of Japanese nationality during the a g eo f  compulsory education through t h e Japanese embassies  consulates including children w h o only attend local schools. ' Since 1973, 3  m o s t popular textbooks in Japan h a v e b e e n chosen for overseas schools M o m b u s h o .  D.  3  o r  t h e b y  5  DEVELOPMENT  O F GOVERNMENTAL  POLICIES  A N D OTHER  SERVICES  1. Governmental  Perspectives  o n Education for K a i g a i  G o v e r n m e n t assistance for the education of Kaigai  Shijyo  Shijyo  developed as a w a y of  protecting Japanese w h ow o r k overseas. It w a s intended to enable the overseas  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 4 5 workers to concentrate u p o n their w o r k without worrying about their family.  It  eliminated those Japanese w h o intend to live in the host country permanently or second a n d third generation Japanese descendents. It never aimed to  provide  Japanese language education to local people or to present Japanese culture to the local community.  6 3  Governmental concern about education for  Kaigai  Shijyo  started about 20 years  ago. M o m b u s h o conducted thefirstdemographic survey on 3 7  Kaigai  in 1966.  Shijyo  I n 1974, a comprehensive survey o n education for children overseas  completed with a second following in 1982.  Chuou  Kyoiku  Shingi-kai,  Educational Council, in 1974 presented a report on education for  w a s  the Central Kaigai  Shijyo.  It  r e c o m m e n d e d the promotion of education for children overseas, and provisions of a better educational environment for returnees. Based o n this report, enforcement of this policy w a s discussed in Kaigai sesaku  for  ni kansuru  Kenkyu  Kyogi-kai,  Promoting Education of  Kaigai  Shijyo  Kyoiku  no  actual  Kihon-teki  the Council on Fundamental Policy Studies Shijyo,  b e t w e e n 1 9 7 5a n d 1976.  8 3  council suggested taking urgent action o n establishing measures for  T h e securing  teachers for Japanese schools overseas and founding high schools mainly a i m e d at returnees. 9 3  2. B u d g e t  for Overseas Japanese  Schools  Thefinancialassistance provided by the Japanese government to overseas schools in 1985 increased seven times w h e nc o m p a r e d to the 1975 support level. It w a s 2 , 3 6 6 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 yen in 1975, c o m p a r e d to 1 6 , 8 9 9 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 yen in 1985.  4 0  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 46 Figure 2 8 illustrates the continuous increase in the b u d g e t for overseas schools especially b e t w e e n 1974 a n d 1 9 8 2 . The dramatic decrease in  t h e Ministry  o f  Foreign Affairs b u d g e t in 1981 was d u e to shifting the expenses of dispatching teachers to the Ministry of Education. The moving of the majority of the b u d g e t to t h e Ministry o f Education reflects a change in attitude that education overseas Japanese was n o longer just a small consideration given t o Taizai-sha.  o f  Choki  The Japanese g o v e r n m e n t began t o recognize t h e importance  o f  providing a Japanese-style education for children of overseas residents. ' ft  M i 11 i o n s o f Yen 20, 000 "[  15,000 -  10,000  5000 -  0 1 974  T 76  Figure  78  2-8: B u d g e t  80  82  f o r Overseas  (millions  84  86  Japanese Schools  of yen)  S o u r c e : Mombusho, Kai gai Kyoi  ku no Genjyo  Shijyo  (1986)  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 4 7 3. K a i g a i Shijyo  K y o i k u Shinkou  The  Kyoiku  for  Kaigai Kaigai  Shijyo  Shinkou  Zaidan  Zaidan,  the Foundation for Promoting Education  is a private institution established in 1971 by non-governmental  Shijyo,  companies which send m a n y e m p l o y e e s to overseas workplaces. Its a i m is provide assistance and research to p r o m o t e education for the  Kaigai  This  Shijyo.  foundation is supervised b y both M o m b u s h oa n d Gaimusho. It not only  t o  assists  governmental w o r k but also provides services that the government d o e s not cover.  The main roles of this foundation are: to  2 4  provide correspondence courses for those a m o n g  n o n  full-time Japanese students overseas w h o want t o  take  them. in  Materials are mailed to the students o n c ea m o n t h  four subjects (Japanese, mathematics, social studies,  science). to  prepare educational materials a n d facilities for  schools  overseas. to  provide counselling services for those w h o are  leaving  and returning. to  deliver medical benefits to teachers working in  schools  overseas. (all of the  a b o v e are with M o m b u s h o )  to provide financial assistance to build Japanese schools.  White h a s studied Japanese returnees extensively a n d notes that the  Kaigai  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 48 Shijyo  Kyoiku  Shinkou  Zaidan  is "attempting to upgrade and develop centralized  control of the overseas schools to ensure that their students will be able  to  m o v e smoothly into Japanese schools".  43  4. K a i g a i S h i j y o  Kyoiku  Center  In 1978, following the suggestion in a report by Kihon-teki  Shisaku  ni Kansuru  Kenkyu  Kyogi  kai  Policy Studies for Promoting Education of Kaigai f o u n d e d  Kaigai  Shijyo  Kyoiku  Senta'a  Kaigai  Shijyo  (the Council on  Kyoiku  no  Fundamental  the Japanese g o v e r n m e n t  Shijyo),  (The Center of Education for Kaigai Shijyo)  in the c a m p u s of Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo. This center aims  to  stimulate education for children overseas, including returnees. It p r o m o t e s practical study and research, develops effective curricula and  teaching m e t h o d s ,  and  provides special training and other services. Simultaneously the faculty of national universities as well as those who perform research in thisfieldare eligible to use the center as a national c o o p facility.  44  E. J A P A N E S E  SCHOOLS I N CANADA  I. L o c a l C o m m u n i t y a n d J a p a n e s e  In Canada only, there w e r e5 , 2 8 4 II, 711  Eizhu-sha,  Schools  Choki  i n Canada  Taizai-sha,  or long term residents, and  or permanent residents, in 1985. (See Table 2 2 . ) The n u m b e r  of Japanese living and working in Canada is increasing, but there is a s k e w e d distribution of the Japanese population. Eighty six percent of the  Japanese  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 49 population in Canada lives either in B . C . or Ontario. And m o s t of them reside in urban areas. Vancouver has the eleventh biggest Japanese population in any o n e city in the world outside Japan.  4 5  Eizhu-sha,  Including both  Choki  Taizai-sha  a larger n u m b e ro f Japanese nationals reside in Greater  and Vancouver  than in the Metropolitan Toronto area.  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  Table 2 2 : Population of Japanese in Canada (1985) Province  Total  British Columbia (Greater Vancouver) Saskatchewan Manitoba Alberta Ontario (Metropolitan Toronto) Q u e b e c Newfoundland New Brunswick Nova Scotia Prince Edward Island North W e s t Territory Yukon Total  6 , 9 7 6 ( 1 0 0 % ) ( 5 , 5 1 7 ) 107(100%) 128(100%) • 1 , 3 3 6 ( 1 0 0 % ) 7 , 4 6 5 ( 1 0 0 % ) ( 4 , 3 1 5 ) 848(100%) 24(100%) 23(100%) 74(100%) 14(100%) 0 16,995(100%)  Source: G a i m u s h o  Kaigai  Zairyu  Choki Taizai-sha 1 , 6 2 1 ( 2 3 % ) ( 1 , 4 8 7 ) 55(51%) 75(59%) 290(22%) 2 , 7 4 0 ( 3 7 % ) ( 1 , 6 1 2 ) 439(52%) 17(70.8%) 4(17.4%) 43(58.1%) 0(0%) 0 5 , 2 8 4 ( 3 1 . 1 % )  Houjin  Ninzu  Eizhu-sha 5 , 3 5 5 (77%) ( 4 , 0 3 0 ) 52 (49%) 53 (41%) 1 , 0 4 6 (78%) 4 , 7 2 5 (63%) ( 2 , 7 0 3 ) 409 (48%) 7(29.2%) 19(82.6%) 31(41.9%) 14(100%) 0 11,711(68.9%)  Chosa  Toukei  (1986)  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 50 In Vancouver the first Japanese language school was established on Alexander Street in 1906. At that time this school was widely supported b y the Japanese community. The n u m b e r of students g r e w as the n u m b e r of immigrants increased early in this century. During World War II all Japanese schools w e r e closed. In the 1 9 6 0 ' s the language school restarted with the n e w w a v e of immigrants. In the last ten years the d e m a n d for Japanese language schools has increased markedly. This reflects the increased n u m b e r of young Japanese immigrants in Vancouver. S o m e of these new Japanese language schools are supported b y the Japanese w h o immigrated to Canada after World War II.  4 6  The HJK in Vancouver keeps its distance from other Japanese language schools. It is the only Japanese school in which the teachers d o not belong to the B. C. shu  Nihon-go  Shinkou-kai  (The Association for Promoting Teaching Japanese in  B . C . ) . All 1 2 of the other Japanese schools in B . C . are m e m b e r s . Although the HJK calls itself " T h e Vancouver Japanese Language School" for its English n a m e , it d o e s not teach the Japanese as a second language. Because all of the other Japanese schools in B . C . teach the Japanese language, the goals of the HJK set it apart from the other schools.  2. Hoshu  Jyugyo  Kou (HJK) in C a n a d a  In North America, a m o n g the 1 5 , 1 1 2  Kaigai  Shijyo  (1985), 1 1 , 2 9 6 or 74.8% of  t h e m are enrolled in HJK, while 3 , 0 3 8 or 20.1% attended full-time Japanese schools. This was illustrated in Figure 2-6.  4 7  The percentage of Japanese  students attending local schools is the highest c o m p a r e d to other regions such a s  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 51 Asia or Central and South America. Although Canada has no full time Japanese schools, it d o e s h a v e six HJKs. The n u m b e r of students in these schools is s h o w n in Table 2 3 .S o m e of the HJKs in Canada have different features from the Vancouver HJK. The n u m b e r of students c o m p a r e d to the n u m b e r of Choki Taizai-sha  s h o w s each HJK's policy toward the local community.  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  Table 2-3: HJKs and their Enrollment in Canada (1986)  Location  Student  Vancouver, B . C . Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Edmonton, Alberta Calgary, Alberta Toronto, Ontario Montreal, Q u e b e c  197 7 60 51 375 82  Source: M o m b u s h o ,  Start  (Choki Taizai-sha)  1973 1978 1977 1976 1974 1973  Kaigai  Shijo  1 , 4 3 5 41 84 179 1 , 6 8 3 448  Kyoiku  (1986)  no Genjyo  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx c  There are HJKs which receive grants from provincial and federal government. For example the Saskatoon Japanese School for Children, which started in 1978, has received grants from both the federal and provincial governments. This school was originally started by Japanese immigrants. Teachers in this school participate in meetings for multi-culturalism and language maintenance sponsored by the provincial g o v e r n m e n t .  4 8  The Metro E d m o n t o n Japanese Community School was  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 5 2 granted approval as a social corporation by the provincial g o v e r n m e n t in 1977. This school also received grants from both provincial a n d federal governments in 1978.  An HJK in Toronto, The Japanese School of Toronto Shokokai Inc., is the only other HJK in Canada beside the Vancouver HJK with a M o m b u s h o dispatched teacher. This school obtained corporate status from the Ontario g o v e r n m e n t in 1982.  9 4  A notable feature of this school is that the Japanese class at a high  school level is authorized as a credit course of Grade 12 Japanese since 1987.  In the case of the Vancouver HJK, n o grant has ever b e e n received from the Canadian government. The only governmental program in which the school has b e e n involved was a small art exhibition. The Vancouver HJK s e e m s to have the least connection with the local public education system in Canada or a local community in the school locates. The Vancouver HJK appears to have less connection with the government agencies in Canada and local public education system than any other HJK in this country.  F. SUMMARY  In this chapter the background of the development of education for Kaigai  Shijyo  and the concurrent situation of the Japanese schools overseas w e r e reviewed. Behind the development of education for Japanese children overseas was a rapid expansion of Japanese population working overseas. The Japanese government did not take a supportive attitude, however, until the late 1 9 6 0 ' s w h e n public  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 5 3 concern started research a n d prodded the government into providing s o m e services. T h e unavailability of statistics on Kaigai  Shijyo  I Kikoku  Shijyo  prior t o  1 9 7 6 symbolically indicates the Japanese g o v e r n m e n t ' s lack of concern.  In 1 9 8 5 there w e r e 78 full-time Japanese schools in 56 countries a n d 1 0 9 supplementary schools (HJK) in 47 countries. As m o r e Japanese h a v e t h e opportunity to work overseas, m o r e Japanese children will g r o wu p overseas. As a result the d e m a n d for the overseas schools will b e enlarged. As well there is a tendency for supplementary schools to be upgraded into full-time schools d u e to parents' strong concern over the education of their children.  In North America, quite a f e w Japanese students are enrolled in supplementary schools as well as local schools, a n d the n u m b e r are increasing annually. T h e desire to learn English, which is usually the instructional language in North American schools, is o n e of the reasons for the popularity of this schooling pattern. English is desirable not only because it is an important international business language but also because it is a required subjects for entrance examinations for high schools a n d universities in Japan. In Canada, HJKs s h o w different features depending on their location. The features of each HJK are closely related to its historical origin, the Japanese population in the area, a n d the school policy towards Canadian governmental support a n d programs. T h e Vancouver HJK has developed the least in terms of its public relations in Canada.  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 54 M o m b u s h o , Kaigai  Shijyo  Kyoiku  no Genjyo  ( A R e p o r t o n Education for  Children Overseas) (Tokyo: M o m b u s h o , 1986), p . 105. 2  3  Gaimusho, Kaigai Zairyu Houjinsuu Chosa Tokei (Statistics o nN u m b e r s of Japanese Overseas) (Tokyo: Gaimusho, 1986), p . 3 8 . G a i m u s h o , Ibid.,  1986, p.l.  "  Tetsuya Kobayashi, Kaigai Shijyo KyoikulKikoku Shijyo Kyoiku (Education for the children overseas a n d returnees) (Tokyo: Yuhikaku 1981), p . 6 .  5  M o m b u s h o , Gakkou Kihon Chosa (Tokyo: M o m b u s h o , 1981).  6  Hokoku-sho  (School Basic Survey Report)  S u s u m u Inui, a n d Kazuhiko S o n o , Kaigai Chuzai-in no Shijyo Kyoiku; Kage otosu Shingaku Kyousou (Education for children of overseas workers; influences of entrance examination) (Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Shimbunsha, 1977), p . 1 6 0 . o  7  Tetsuya Kobayashi, "Kaigai-Kikoku Shijyo no Kyoiku no Kaizen ni tsuite" (Regarding the reform of education for children overseas a n d returnees) in Nihon Hikaku Kyoiku Gakkai Kiyou VIII (March 1982), p . 3 9 .  8  Yasuji Takahagi et Youin  Bunseki  al., Kaigai Kikoku to Tekiou Puroguramu  Shijyo ni okeru no Kaihatsu/Shikou  Karucha'a Syokku no (Analysis o f c a u s e s  of cultural shocks in returnees a n dd e v e l o p m e n t of programs and practices for their adjustment) (Tokyo: Tokyo Gakugei Daigaku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Senta's, Karucha'a Syokku Kenkyu kai, 1982), p p . 6 7 . 9  0 1  M o m b u s h o , Kikoku Shijyo Kyoiku no Tebiki - Sho Chu Gakkou hen ( A guide b o o k for education for returnees - elementary and junior high school level) (Tokyo: M o m b u s h o , 1986). Takahagi, et al., Op.cit,  1982, p . 5 .  11  The Constitution of Japan Promulgated o nN o v e m b e r 3, 1946; put into effect on May 3, 1947.  2 1  This notion was confirmed in the Japanese Diet on Feburuary 14, 1978. ( M o m b u s h o , Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku no Genjyo, 1986, pp. 1 2 8 1 2 9 ) .  3 1  Kouki Sato, "Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku no Ayumi" (The development of education for Kaigai Shijyo) in Kaigai ni okeru Nihon no Kyoiku Hinon-jin GakkoulHoshu Jyugyo Kou ( Japanese Education Overseas - full time schools/part time schools), ed. Zenkoku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Kenkyu Kyogi-kai (Tokyo: Zenkoku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Kemkyu Kyogi-kai, 1983), p . 2 .  4 1  Kouki Sato,  Kaigai  Shijyo  no Kyoiku  Mondai  (Educational Problems for  EDUCATION FOR KAIGAI SHIJYO / 55 Children Overseas) (Tokyo: Gakuensha, 1978), p . 2 5 . 1 5  Inui a n dS o n o ,  1 6  Merry I. White, "Schools for Japanese Children Abroad" in Koadansha Encyclopedia of Japan VII (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1983), p . 3 7 .  1 7  Tsutae Sato, Beika ni okeru dai-nisei no Kyoiku (Education for the S e c o n d Generation in USA and Canada), (Vancouver: Jikyodo, 1932).  1 S  Kenjirou Tanaka, Kyoiku ni okeru Bunkateki Douka (Cultural Assimilation in Education) (Tokyo: H o m p o u Shoseki, 1986), pp. 1 1 1 1 3 3 . Tanaka,  9 1  2 0  Chuzai-in  no Shijyo  Kyoiku,  1977, p . 3 1 .  1986, p . 8 7 .  Ibid.,  Tanaka,  Kaigai  1986, p p . 9 5 1 0 4 .  Ibid.,  21  Kobayashi,  2 2  Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Zaidan, Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Zaidan Jyu-nen-shi ( A D e c a d e of Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Zaidan) (Tokyo: Kaigai Shijyo Kuyoiku Zaidan, 1980), p . 2 5 .  Shijyo  M o m b u s h o , Kaigai  23  2  Kaigai  4  KyoikulKikoku  Shijyo  M o m b u s h o , Ibid.,  Kyoiku  no Genjyo,  Kobayashi,  2 6  M o m b u s h o , Op.cit.,  1986, p . 3 5 .  27  M o m b u s h o , Op.cit.,  1986, p . 4 .  2 8  Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Zaidan,  9  3  0  Op.cit.,  Kyoin  Op.cit.,  Inui a n dS o n o ,  3  1986, p . 4 .  4  3 5  1986.  M o m b u s h o , Op.cit,  Inui a n dS o n o ,  1977, p . 5 0 .  Op.cit,  M o m b u s h o , Op.cit,  33  1980, p . 3 6 1 .  Asahi Shimbun Tokyo: International Version, 1 3  no Senko",  M o m b u s h o , Op.cit,  3 2  1986, p . 3 .  1986, p . 3 6 .  Feburuary, 1987. 31  1981, p . 3 .  1981, p . 7 2 .  M o m b u s h o , Op.cit, "Haken  Kyoiku,  1986, p. 11.  2 5  2  Shijyo  1986, p . 2 4 .  Op.cit.,  1977, p . 9 6 .  EDUCATION F O R KAIGAI SHIJYO / 5 6 3 6  Sato,  3 7  Morihiro Kubota, a n d Akira Nakanishi, "Kikoku Shijyo Kyoiku no Kenkyu Taisei" (Research environment on education for returnees) in Kokusai-ka Jidai no Kyoiku (Education for Epoch of Internationalization), ed. Tokyo Gakugei Daigaku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Srnta'a (Tokyo: Soyusha, 1986), p . 2 0 8 .  3 8  This council was formed in September, 1 9 7 5 with 1 7 m e m b e r s .  3 9  M o m b u s h o , Kaigai  Shijyo  Kyoiku  no Genjyo,  1 9 8 6 , p. 105.  4 0  M o m b u s h o , Kaigai  Shijyo  Kyoiku  no Genjyo,  1 9 8 6 ,  41  M o m b u s h o , Op.cit.,  1986, p . 3 .  4 2  M o m b u s h o , Op.cit.,  1986, p . 2 7 .  4 3  White, "Schools for Japanese Children Abroad", 1983, p . 3 7 .  44  M o m b u s h o ,  4 5  The biggest is S a o Paulo: 2 7 , 2 9 4 ; followed b y Los Angeles: 2 6 , 7 7 9  4 6  e.g. s o m e schools are run by Shin-Izhusha no Kai, ( The Associtation of N e w Immigrants, which has m a n ym e m b e r s w h o immigranted relatively recently.  4 7  N e w York has the largest population ( 1 7 , 8 1 5 ) of Choki Taizai-sha, followed by Los Angeles ( 1 3 , 3 9 3 ) in 1985. In these cities which have big Choki Taizai-sha populations, there are several HJKs. In N e w York, there is a full-time Japanese school also. Apart from these schools which receive government assistance, there are also m a n y Juku, private tutoring institutions directly focused on preparing for entrance e x a m s . In these cities a full-time Japanese school or an HJK are considered not sufficient t o c o m p e t e in e x a m s in Japan. As well as the Japanese schools, m a n y parents therefore send their children to the prestigeous Juku which are systematically m a n a g e d by Japanese educational business corporations.  4 8  Kaigai  Shijyo  Op.cit.,  no Kyoiku  Mondai,  1978, p . 3 6 .  p . 3 1 .  1986, p p . 1 4 3 1 4 4 .  Zenkoku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Kenkyu Kyogi-kai, Kaigai ni okeru Nihon no (Japanese Education in Overseas) (Tokyo: Zenkoku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Kenkyu Kyogi-kai, 1980), p . 3 6 7 .  Kyoiku  4 9  Zenkoku Kaigai Shijyo Kyiiku Kenkyu Kyugi-kai,  Ibid.,  1980, p p . 3 7 2 3 7 3 .  III.  METHODOLOGY  A. P U R P O S E O F T H E S T U D Y  This study originated from the researcher's concern over the type of schooling experienced by Japanese children growing up overseas. W h a t are the Shijyo's  Kaigai  perspectives o n attending both a local school and a part-time Japanese  supplementary school? How has the Japanese school evolved in the local community? W h a t are the links b e t w e e n an ethnic school and a public school? This chapter explains the m e t h o d s utilized to answer these questions.  Examination of annual reports by M o m b u s h o , b y Gaimusho,  2  1  the Ministry of Education, a n d  the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, provided an outline of the  education of Japanese children overseas. Policy statements issued by the Japanese g o v e r n m e n t indicated the direction that changes in governmental attitude h a d 3  b e e n taking. Analysis of w o r k by selected scholars s h o w e d the current state o f research as it applied to the education of  Kaigai  Shijyo.  Taken together, this  information lead to the conclusion that to p r o m o t e internationalization of Japanese overseas education, the HJK is in a unique position and its role should b e e n h a n c e d .  This researcher strongly supports the notion that attending a local school is useful to expand the children's international experiences. W h e n appropriate guidance is given it has a desirable impact on personality development, especially regarding cultural biases. This study looks at the case of Japanese students w h o  57  M E T H O D O L O G Y/ 5 8 attend both a local school and Hoshu  Jyugyo  Kou  (HJK), a supplementary school,  in Vancouver, B . C . Accordingly, the research w a s designed to investigate characteristics of the perspectives of Kaigai  Shijyo  in Vancouver towards different  aspects of their life; namely daily life in Canada, as well as the schooling experience at both Canadian local schools a n d at the Japanese supplementary school.  S o m e of the information n e e d e d about the supplementary school (HJK) is a s follows: The purpose of the Vancouver HJK. T h e goal at this HJK. Background of students in HJK. Criteria to attend HJK. Exsistence of entrance examination or any kind of selection for enrolling. The structure of the Vancouver HJK. Administration of the school. B o d y of m a n a g e m e n t of the school. Financial issues; w h o pays the general expenses; w h o pays the teachers' salaries? T h e curricula of the HJK. Teaching subjects a n d m e t h o d . In what m a n n e r it is related to the corresponding curricula in Japan. In what w a y s its curricula are related to the curricula of the public schools in B . C . W h o serves as teachers at the HJK: n u m b e r of teaching staffs, their  M E T H O D O L O G Y / 59 educational and social background. Who takes the role of the principal: w h o assigns this job,  what is t h e  responsibility. W h a t kind of qualifications the teachers hold in order to teach at the Vancouver HJK. W h a t the students' perspectives regarding their attendance at both HJK and their local school are. H o w the students language ability affect their perspectives toward their schooling experience.  Because of the nature of the HJK, the n u m b e r of students c h a n g e almost every w e e k . This is d u e to the fathers' job assignments which c h a n g e and involve relocation of their w o r k place. The overall characteristics of the student population and the school are a s s u m e d to b e stable.  B. D A T A  1.  COLLECTION  METHODOLOGY  Outline  A profile of the Vancouver HJK has b e e n developed based o n data acquired by the researcher b e t w e e n May 1986 and January 1988. The m e t h o d s u s e d included interviews with students, parents, teachers, a consul of the Japanese consulate 4  in Vancouver, and ESL specialists in the Vancouver School Board. A questionnaire to students, various forms of personal contact, as well a s investigation of publications (such as Japanese government d o c u m e n t s a n d  M E T H O D O L O G Y / 60 especially the Vancouver HJK annual school report) w e r e used. Also the result of a survey o n the teachers of the Japanese schools in B.C. by D'Oyley, Willms, and Ota in 1986 is adapted for this study. Each of these m e t h o d s is explained in the following sections.  2. I n v e s t i g a t i o n  of Publications  Statistics o n the growth of population overseas a n d the increase in Japanese schools worldwide was obtained from Gaimusho, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Changes in attitude towards overseas education a n d corresponding budgetary information was provided by M o m b u s h o , the Ministry of Education. The Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) library in Vancouver was a useful source of statistics o n the d e v e l o p m e n t of the local Japanese business community in Vancouver.  Gakkou  Youran,  form of annual report to  the Vancouver HJK school report is intended as a Gakkou  Kyokai,  the association of businesses that  supports the HJK. It contains information o n the history of the school a n d roles of the educators in this HJK.  3. P e r s o n a l  Contacts  The researcher spent several hours each Saturday as a participant and an observer from S e p t e m b e r1 9 8 6 to January 1988. She volunteered in the HJK school library. This was useful to gain rapport with students as well as 5  teachers. Differing viewpoints towards the dual schooling w e r e collected through informal conversations.  M E T H O D O L O G Y / 61 The researcher also tutored two HJK students. O n e was a female in Grade 6 . Conversation with her and her mother helped to develop the student questionnaire described in the following section. The second student was a male in Grade 5 . He participated in a pre-test trial of the questionnaire which provided useful suggestions for improvement of the survey.  4. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  The questionnaire was designed by the researcher to determine the perspectives of HJK students on their t w o schools, a local school and an HJK, a n d adapting to a n e w country. It was 8 p a g e s in length, and took about 1 5 to 20 minutes to fill out. The questionnaires given to the students w e r e in the Japanese language.  The questionnaire consisted of eight parts: (A) Personal data (I) ; grade, place of birth, sex, residential area. (B) Attitude at entry to Canada (C) Language (D) Life at the local school (E) After-school-hour life (F) Life at the HJK (G) Impression of life in B . C . (H) Personal data (II) ; overseas experiences, length of stay,  M E T H O D O L O G Y / 62 English as a S e c o n d Language (ESL) instruction. /  The survey questionnaire was given to all Grade 4 to Grade 9 students (91 students) in the Vancouver HJK in October 1987.  There are t w o reasons that this researcher c h o s e Grade 4 to Grade 9 as the study sample. The first reason is that  "Kaigai  Shijyo"  defined by  M o m b u s h o is "Japanese children in compulsory education age"; that is b e t w e e n Grade 1 a n d Grade 9. H o w e v e r data obtained from Grade 1 t o Grade 3 using a written questionnaire was a s s u m e d to b e unreliable b e c a u s e the students might have difficulty understanding the questions. Thus Grade 1 to Grade 3 students w e r e omitted in this study.  Also research by Minoura suggests that the a g eb e t w e e n nine and fourteen is the critical period for the formation of cultural g r a m m a r in personality. Students in Grade 4 to Grade 9 are usually b e t w e e na g e 9 to 15; thus the experience in this a g e period might be significant in shaping permanent attitudes.  The data obtained by questionnaire was input to the University of British Columbia mainframe c o m p u t e r under Michigan Terminal System (MTS) in order to use Statistics Package for Social Science, Extended Version (SPSS:X) for further analysis.  The questions asked in the questionnaire are presented in Appendix 1 with English translation. The tabulated results are presented in Appendix 2 and  M E T H O D O L O G Y / 63 s o m e results of cross-tabulation are included in Chapter IV along with interpretation.  5. I n t e r v i e w s  Several interviews w e r e conducted with different participants; the principal of the HJK, teachers, mothers, a consul in the Japanese Consulate General in Vancouver, and ESL specialists from the Vancouver School Board. All the interviews except with ESL specialists w e r ed o n e in the Japanese language.  a. The Principal of the Vancouver HJK  Several meetings w e r e held with the principal of the Vancouver HJK to ask about school life in the Vancouver HJK. The current principal arrived in April 1986. He has b e e n teaching for the last 30 years in elementary and junior high schools in Japan and was involved in educational research o n a local school board. He was very cooperative to this study. Being the only official appointed directly from Japan, h e was able to provide insights as to h o w the education in the HJK compared with the education system in Japan.  b. Teachers  The basic data on teachers w e r e adapted from the study on the Japanese schools in B . C . by D ' O y l e y , Willms, a n d Ota in 1986. In that study, questionnaires were given to a n u m b e r of selected teachers in 13 Japanese  M E T H O D O L O G Y / 64 language schools in B . C . From the Vancouver HJK, three teachers w e r e selected by the principal and asked to answer in detail concerning their educational qualifications and role as a teacher in the HJK.  The questions asked were: Their language backgroud Their educational background; degree, diploma, certificate If they had teacher training in Japan or in Canada If they had teaching experience in Japan or in Canada Subjects that they teach Language of instruction they use in the class K n o w l e d g e about the educational system and services for the youth in B . C . or in Canada The teachers' understandings of why the children are attending the HJK N u m b e r s of students they teach in one class Length of teaching in their particular school Age group, gender  Additional information on attitudes was obtained through informal conversations,  c . Mothers  Interviews w e r e conducted with a total of twelve mothers. This consisted of pairs of mothers each with children in Grade 4 to Grade 9. Interviewing of these  M E T H O D O L O G Y / 6 5 mothers was d o n e by telephone in October 1 9 8 7 .  The researcher intended to interview mothers living only in the Vancouver area to focus o n the Vancouver School Board; h o w e v e r b e c a u s e the selection of mothers was arranged b y the president of the parents' organization, committee m e m b e r s w h o lived in various school districts w e r e scheduled. As a result, 6  different policies of several schools districts w e r e collected.  The prepared questions were: N u m b e r of children Ages a n d grades of children Children's a g e at their entry to Canada Procedure taken in order to register at a local school Parents' experience after sending children to a local school; if the child attended ESL classes or not Impression towards registration policies a n d practices in British Columbia schools If they pay any school fees  Opinions on attending school in B . C . ; g o o d points, b a d points  d. The Japanese Consulate in Vancouver An interview with a Japanese consul in charge of protection of Japanese overseas in Vancouver was arranged in October 1987. The interview focussed o n the policy of the Japanese consulate regarding assistance to the HJK in  M E T H O D O L O G Y / 66 Vancouver and free textbook distribution to the Japanese children. Because the consul was newly arrived, the interview was limited in terms of obtaining new information.  e . ESL Specialists from the Vancouver School Board  Ms. A n n e Shorthouse, an ESL program coordinator in the Vancouver School Board, provided useful information regarding the policy and operations of public schools in Vancouver. She arranged an opportunity for the researcher and the principal of the Vancouver HJK to observe and talk to an ESL teacher at Point Grey Junior High School.  Ms. Irene LeGallais, an ESL specialist and head of the ESL team at Point Grey High School, gave examples of how Japanese students w e r e performing academically in this school. S o m e new information about extracurricular ESL educational services at public schools was collected from this interview.  C. SUMMARY  This chapter introduced the methodology for data collection. Details w e r e given about the questionnaire used (See Appendix 1) and on the people interviewed for this research. These subjects included school staffs, mothers, a Japanese consulate, and ESL specialists from Vancouver School Board.  The Vancouver HJK has m a n yc o m m o n characteristics with other HJKs; that is,  M E T H O D O L O G Y / 67 it is a school for  Kaigai  Shijyo  preparing to return Japan. Japanese companies  initiated establishment of the school which teaches Japanese subjects in the Japanese language, and the principal is assigned to the post by the Japanese government.  H o w e v e r the Vancouver HJK is unique: it locates in a city with a g o o d sized Japanese population and it also has m o r e permanent-type Japanese residents than residents with temporary status. Historically also m a n y Japanese language schools have existed for m a n y years. Because British Columbia adopts multi-culturalism , local schools have m o r e capability towards n e w c o m e r students. Japanese students in Vancouver receive various institutional and societal supports unique to the Pacific Rim.  M E T H O D O L O G Y / 68  M o m b u s h o , Kaigai Tebiki, 1986; Gakkou  Gaimusho, M o m b u s h o ,  Kaigai Kaigai  Shijyo Kyoiku Kihon Chosa Zairyu Shijyo  Hojin Kyoiku  no Genjyo, Hokoku-sho, Ninzu  Chosa  no Genjyo,  1986; Kikoku  Shijyo  Kyoiku  no  1 9 7 7 1 9 8 6 . Tokei,  1 9 6 7 1 9 8 6 .  1986, p p . 2 3 3 1 , a n d 1 0 3 1 2 9 .  There are usually three to four consuls in the Japanese Consulate General in Vancouver under the consul general. They are diplomats from the Japanese government. Each consul has special field to cover; e.g. industry, trading, or education. This researcher has a background of librarianship. At the Vancouver HJK, t w o committee m e m b e r s are elected from each grade a n d serve for o n e year. Normally different people are elected every year. Although this parents' organization consists of mothers only, it is called an organization of "fathers and mothers".  IV.  A.  RESULTS  OF  THE  STUDY  INTRODUCTION  In this chapter a case study of an HJK in Vancouver is presented. Vancouver is the third largest city in Canada. It is located o n the west coast of British Columbia and has a high percentage of immigrants from Asian countries like H o n g Kong a n d India.  Canada is a country where s o m e d e g r e e of multiculturalism is a part of the social context. British Columbia, a province of Canada, also applies the s a m e policy. Schools in B . C . are a s s u m e d to have a multi-cultural climate, that is B . C . schools tend to have a g e n e r o u s attitude towards foreign students who are a part of n e w Canadian families.  The development of the Vancouver HJK relates strongly to the development of Japanese business society in Vancouver. The profile of this school will s h o w h o w the school has created a focal point for a division within the local Japanese community. A s u m m a r y of the survey is presented in the following section. The questionnaire depicts the students of the HJK in Vancouver a n d their perspectives towards their dual schooling in B . C .  69  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 7 0 B. SCHOOLING PROVISION FOR JAPANESE STUDENTS IN B . C .  In Japan limited information about B.C. education is available for Japanese w h o intend to live in Canada prior to their relocation. Education of Japanese children in B.C. is introduced as follows by the former principal of the Vancouver HJK: Schools in B.C. are supervised b y the Provincial Ministry of Education. Children b e t w e e n age 7 to 1 5 have to attend school. 93% of schools are public schools. School days are five days a w e e k , from 9 : 0 0 to 3 : 0 0 . Education is free. T o attend public school, contact the local school board.  1  This gives s o m e idea of schooling in B.C. although the information provided is insufficient. According to interviews with mothers of the HJK students, while there is no written guide b o o ko n education in B.C. for Japanese parents, information about education a n d the school system is passed orally a m o n g Japanese businessmen's families. T h e information is usually delivered through a c o m p a n y unit which the father works for. In the case w h e r e a father d o e s not belong to a big c o m p a n y and has n o seniors or colleagues, he would not be part of a network providing information about educational services available in an overseas community.  2  The British Columbia School Act defines schooling for foreigners in B.C. a s follows:  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 7 1 1 . 3 . VISITORS TO B . C . S c h o o l a g e Canadian visitors to B.C. or school-age persons of other nationalities w h o have the right to b e in Canada m a y attend public school at the discretion of the school board, and the board m a y charge a fee. (Section 158(a)SA)  3  N o n e of the interviewed mothers reported that they are paying school fees at the time of this research. S o m e mothers consider that this is because their husbands are paying taxes to the B.C. government. The "tax" they m e a n t here is a s s u m e d to b e" i n c o m e tax". Although n o n e of t h e m acknowledged that they are paying school fees, s o m e k n e w of cases w h e r e parents w e r e asked to pay school fees as a international student. Those w h o are paying school fees are 4  students w h o stay in B.C. alone in order to complete a school year after their parents have left B.C.  i  To g o to school in B . C . , all foreign students have to obtain student authorization (a student visa). Only o n e out of the twelve mothers interviewed k n e w this fact. They probably paid n o attention to their legal status in B.C. and never read their travel d o c u m e n t s . Japanese m e n staying overseas temporarily with their families tend to take stronger initiatives compared with those w h o stay in Japan. They look after legal issues m o r e thoroughly. Japanese w o m e n staying overseas temporarily with their h u s b a n d s have less interest and concern towards these issues. This d e p e n d e n c y on husbands is partially d u e to the mothers' inferior communication skills d u e to poorer English language ability.  RESULTS O F THE STUDY / 7 2 The general c o m m e n t s m a d e b y mothers interviewed u p o n education in B . C . w e r e favourable. They appreciate the learning assistance at school for their children, especially in^English language, a n d helpful teachers. O n em o t h e r mentioned that a different approach is taken in mathematics education c o m p a r e d to that in Japan, a n d she felt it would b e useful for her child in the long run. A couple of mothers pointed out that schools in B . C . were stricter c o m p a r e d to their experiences in sending their children to schools in the United States. All of t h e m w e r e grateful that their children enjoy going to local schools in B . C .  C. DEVELOPMENT OF THE VANCOUVER HJK  I. Japanese Companies in Vancouver  The development of Japanese schools for Kaigai  Shijyo  has a strong correlation  with the development of the Japanese business society as was s h o w n in chapter II. In order to examine the Vancouver HJK, a look at the development of the Japanese business society in Vancouver is necessary.  Japanese business society in B . C . has a parallel structure. O n e branch is t h e local business in B . C . run b y Japanese immigrants. The other is Japanese based multi-national corporations. The "Japanese business society" is used here indicates the latter group. This dual structure is c o m m o n l y observed in m a n y overseas Japanese communities where the Japanese immigrated before World War II.  In the late 1950s and early 1960s, a f e w branches of Japanese trading  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 7 3 companies, shipping a n d airline companies a n d insurance companies were located in Vancouver. T h en u m b e r increased rapidly in the 1980s. In afiveyear period b e t w e e n1 9 8 0a n d 1985, thirteen offices w e r e newly o p e n e d . Most of those were related to banking a n dfinanceservices. Figure 4 1s h o w s the steady increase in Japanese multi-national businesses locating in Vancouver.  In Vancouver the n u m b e r of Eizhu-sha,  or p e r m a n e n t residents, increased after  the introduction of a n e w immigrant policy using a "points" system in 1978. The influx of p e r m a n e n t residents affected the development of Japanese language schools in Vancouver; h o w e v e r it did not have a direct influence o n the development of the HJK.  5  T h e growth of Eizhu-sha  has stopped since 1983 d u e  to the restriction of n e w immigrants as workers in an effort to reduce high u n e m p l o y m e n t rates in Canada.  Figure  4-1:  Number o f J a p a n e s e  Source:  Companies  in Vancouver  1986 D i r e c t o r y : A f f i l i a t e s and O f f i c e s o f J a p a n e s e F i r m s i n USA and Canada" JETRO ( 1 986)  RESULTS O F THE STUDY / 7 4 W h e n the HJK o p e n e d in Vancouver in 1973, there w e r e 23 companies and the n u m b e r of Choki  Taizai-sha,  or long term residents was 579. In 1985, the  n u m b e r of companies e x c e e d e d 40 and over 1 , 5 0 0 Choki  Taizai-sha  w e r e living in  the Greater Vancouver area. Figure 4 2 s h o w s h o w the n u m b e r of Japanese in Vancouver has increased dramatically. This can b ec o m p a r e d to Figure 2 1 which s h o w s the total n u m b e r of Japanese w h o live overseas.  5000 1 Number o f Japanese i n Vancouver  4  0  0  0  3000 2000 1000  1 970  I 1975  Choki  1 980  1985  Taizai-sha  E i zhu-sha  Figure  4 - 2 : Growth o f J a p a n e s e P o p u l a t i o n  Source  i n Vancouver  : Gaimusho, Kaigai Zairyu  Ni nzu Chosa Tokei  (1986)  Houjin  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 7 5 2. Brief  Outline of the V a n c o u v e r H J K  The Vancouver HJK, formally April 1973.  6  Vancouver  Nihongo  Hoshu  Gakkou,  w a so p e n e d in  Atfirstthe school w a s located at 5 0 2 5 Willow St., renting space  from the Eric H a m b e r School on Saturdays. T h e school w a s started with 8 6 students a n d 7 teachers. At that time there w a sn o professional teacher assigned by the Japanese government. T h e following year, a school library w a so p e n e d in a different location d o w n t o w n . Both the classes a n d the library m o v e d to 1 3 7 0 W e s t 73rd Ave., in 1977, w h e r e the St. Anthony private school had previously b e e n located. By 1979, enrollment e x c e e d e d 1 5 0 .  Figure 4 3s h o w s the development of enrollment at the Vancouver HJK. In t h e last twelve years b e t w e e n 1973 to 1985, the n u m b e r of HJK students in Vancouver has doubled. This expansion corresponds to the enlargement o f J a p a n e s e Choki  Taizai-sha  population in V a n c o u v e r .  In 1980, thefirstprofessional teacher w a s dispatched from Japan by M o m b u s h o , the Ministry of Education. Since then, every three years a n e w teacher has b e e n sent a n d supersedes the previous principal. Also, in 1980, classes at the Japanese high school level, which is equivalent to Grade 1 0 to Grade 1 2 in B . C . ,w e r e started. Originally there w a so n e class each for Grade 10 and for Grades 1 1 1 2 . In 1987, separate classes for Grade 1 1a n d1 2w e r e established.  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 7 6 D.  PROFILE OFT H E VANCOUVER HJK  1. T h e  Organization  of the Vancouver H J K  The organization of the Vancouver HJK is very similar to the m a n a g e m e n t flow chart of a Japanese c o m p a n y .  Boeki  Konwa-kai,  a gathering of businessmen from  major Japanese based multi-national c o m p a n i e s and branches of major Japanese companies, consists of about 250 businessmen from 90 m e m b e r firms. From this group, a league called  Gakkou  Kyokai  or School Association is formed. A m o n g  250 n  0  I  1972  F i g u r e  4-3:  i  1  74  E n r o l l m e n t  1  i  i  76  1  1  78  o fJ a p a n e s e  80  S t u d e n t s  Source:  1  1  i 82  i  \  %  84  a tV a n c o u v e r H J K  Gakkou Youran (Vancouver HJK S c h o o l R e p o r t ) (1986)  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 7 7 this School Association, a governing board of school m a n a g e m e n t is appointed. Major c o m p a n i e s take turns fulfilling the required roles. Figure 4 4s h o w s the linkage b e t w e e n the administration, operation, and parent groups within the Vancouver HJK.  2. Purpose o f the V a n c o u v e r H J K  According to  Gakkou  Youran,  the HJK school report, the educational goal is set  as : To foster students w h o are healthy mentally and physically, respect both oneself and others, possess affluent sentiment and creativity, a n d practice persistently. 7  The school is m a n a g e d under a policy that the students would b e able to adjust to schools in Japan immediately w h e n they return. 8  3. Enrollment Procedure  T h o s e w h o wish their children to attend the Vancouver HJK contact the h e a d of the school m a n a g e m e n t committee in person. In the  Gakkou  Youran,  the HJK  school report, there is n o written restriction as to w h o can attend the HJK. There is n o entrance examination nor interview. There is h o w e v e r an actual restriction of enrollment. Because this school w a s originated by a Japanese business society for their children w h o will return to Japan, and because the acceptance decision is m a d e by the governing board which is chosen from the Japanese business community, children of immigrants w h o intend to live in  School Association - r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from Japanese b u s i n e s s community  I  Governing Board - a p p o i n t e d from S c h o o l A s s o c i a t i o n members  Di r e c t o r - e l e c t e d from Board  Parents Association -all parents  I  Principal -appointed  Governing  General A f f a i r s Commi t t e e  by  Mombusho  Head T e a c h e r - e l e c t e d from  teachers  P a r e n t s Committee -two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t e d from e a c h grade  S3  W  CO  Accounting  a  Committee  CO  Management  O  Committee  H K  Secretary  W CO  H d D Figure  4-4:  Organization  of t h e V a n c o u v e r  HJK oo  Source:  Gakkou Youran HJK  School  (Vancouver  Report)  (1987)  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 79 Canada permanently are not considered for acceptance. The principal has n o authority to alter this pattern of student selection.  T h e decision as to w h o is admitted into the Vancouver HJK is m a d e b y Un'ei Iinkai,  the Governing Board, which consists of the m e m b e r s of  Boeki  Konwa  Kai.  The restriction in admission to the school is explained as d u e to the limited space of enrollment b y the Vancouver HJK. The first priority is given to the children of employees w h o w o r k for m e m b e r companies of Boeki  Konwa-kai.  Also  it is explained that the educational goal is different from other Japanese language schools; children w h o d o not intend to return to Japan d o not fit the purpose of this school.  4. School Facilities  T h e Vancouver HJK is very well equipped as an HJK. It d o e s not share the school building or playground with other institutions. This m a k e s the m a n a g e m e n t of school very easy. The teaching materials are kept safely in the s a m e place and d o not n e e d to be carried to the class every teaching day. For m o s t HJKs in the world, ensuring class space is one of the m o s t crucial problems. In the case of the Vancouver HJK, although the space is getting smaller for the n u m b e r of the students, sufficient facilities exist to provide an acceptable independent educational institution.  The HJK library holds about 6,000 books, all in Japanese for various a g e groups a n d levels from kindergarten to adult. They have the biggest collection of  RESULTS O F THE STUDY / 8 0 juvenile b o o k s in the Japanese language in B.C. These b o o k s are also available to the parents of HJK students.  A video cassette recorder (VCR) is often used to exhibit Japanese m a d e educational programs in science and social studies to the students. There is only one VCR machine in the school and video watching is scheduled by classes.  5. Students  Figure 4 5 s h o w s the b r e a k d o w n of n u m b e r s of students by grade and g e n d e r in the Vancouver HJK in 1987. There w e r e 204 students in total including both males and females from Grade 1 to Grade 1 2 .  Students are categorized into two groups according to their parents' (usually fathers') occupation. Category I is the children of businessmen w h o are m e m b e r s of Boeki  Konwa-kai,  a gathering of major Japanese companies, which supports  this school. Category II is the children of diplomats in the Japanese consulate in Vancouver, professionals sent to UBC by g o v e r n m e n t or invited by UBC or equivalent, and teachers at this Japanese school. In 1986 about 15 percent of the HJK students w e r e classified as Category II students.  6.  Finance  T h eV a n c o u v e r HJK is s u p p o r t e db y the m e m b e r c o m p a n i e s of Boeki  Konwa-kai.  The Japanese g o v e r n m e n t through the consulate provides partial assistance to pay  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 8 1  30  1  Number o f Students  Figure  4 - 5 : Number  o fStudents  i nVancouver  HJK i n  1987  S o u r c e : Gakkou Youran ( V a n c o u v e r HJK  School Report)  (1987)  for teachers' salaries. H o w e v e r the normal operating expenses of the school are supported by the school fees from students. There are t w o sets of school fees and students pay according to their categorization as s h o w n in Table 4 1 .  7. T e a c h e r s  There w e r e 11 h o m e r o o m teachers (4 males, 7 females) in 1987. Four after-school curricula teachers (1 male, 3 females), arts or calligraphy specialists, also w o r k in this school. All of these 1 6 teachers in the Vancouver HJK are  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 8 2 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-1: School Fees (1987)  Enrollment Fee Tuition(Gl-G9) ( G 1 0 G 1 2 )  CATEGORY I  CATEGORY II  $ 1 0 . 0 0 $ 3 5 . 0 0 / m o n t h $ 4 5 . 0 0 / m o n t h  $ 1 0 . 0 0 $ 6 0 . 0 0 / m o n t h $ 7 0 . 0 0 / m o n t h  S o u r c e : the V a n c o u v e r HJK Gakkou  Youran  ( 1 9 8 7 )  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Japanese w h oh a v e immigrated to Canada. There are no Canadian born teachers.  All of the teachers at the Vancouver HJK have at least associate or bachelor degrees from Japanese colleges. They received teachers training a n d teaching certificates from Japanese prefectural government which are valid in all prefectures in Japan. S o m e of t h e m held teaching appointments in Japan. They instruct in Japanese language, mathematics, a n d social studies, as is appropriate for the grade being instructed, using the Japanese language only. For students under Grade 6, a h o m e r o o m teacher gives lessons in all the subjects to o n e class. For students of Grade 7 a n d above, each teachers instructs in o n e subject.  The a g e range of the teachers is b e t w e e n late 20s a n d early 50s. The average period spent teaching at the Vancouver HJK in 1987 was about 7 years. 9  They w o r k every Saturday, 8 : 4 5a . m . to 4 : 3 0p . m . Their salary is paid from student fees, Japanese governmental assistance, and Boeki Data on their salaries was not obtainable. .  Konwa-kai  contributions.  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 83 The principal is a teacher w h o is assigned b y the Japanese g o v e r n m e n t through M o m b u s h o , the Ministry of Education. A dispatched teacher is issued an official passport b y the Japanese government a n d his status is as an extra chancellor. The length of assigned period is three years. The principal d o e s not teach: his major task is that of managing the school according to the pattern approved b y Un'ei  Iinkai,  t h e Governing Board.  8. Curriculum  The Vancouver HJK aims to help students adjust to schools in Japan immediately u p o n their return to Japan. It includes both a c a d e m i ca n d social training. T o accomplish this the school is m a n a g e d under the Japanese system; for example, the HJK uses the s a m e textbooks as schools in Japan, follows the s a m e course of study b yM o m b u s h o , the Ministry of Education, adopts the teacher-centered teaching m e t h o d as m o s t schools in Japan do. Teachers assign a large a m o u n t of h o m e w o r k so that students can k e e p their study discpline, a n d post a list of students' n a m e s on the wall according to their examination performance.  The Vancouver HJK gives classes Saturdays from 9 : 0 0a . m . to 3 : 0 0p . m . Length of one class period a n d starting time varies depending on grades. O n e class unit is 5 0 minutes at the elementary level a n d 90 minutes at the secondary level. Staggering the time of elementary a n d secondary outdoor periods allows the playground to be used safely a n d effectively. After-school curricula in arts a n d calligraphy are provided b e t w e e n3 : 1 5p . m . to 4 : 1 5p . m . after regular Saturday  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 8 4 school hours.  Table 4 2s h o w s the teaching subjects and weekly teaching periods in the Vancouver HJK. At an elementary school level, 225 class hours are given in one year, and at the junior high school level there are 270 class hours. Textbooks distributed by the Japanese g o v e r n m e n t are used in this school. Although there is not as m u c h class time as in Japan, an effort is m a d e t o complete a w h o l e textbook in each subject, thus h o m e w o r k is always assigned.  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  Table 4 2 : Teaching Subjects and Weekly Teaching Periods (1987)  Elementary (50 minutes)  Junior High (90 minutes)  G G G G G G G G G  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  Japanese  Math  2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1  2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1  Social Studies  Fine Art/ Science 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  Source: The Vancouver HJK Gakkou  Youran,  (1987)  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  Classroom m a n a g e m e n t is very similar to schools in Japan. For example,  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 8 5 students are to formally a n d ritualistically greet the teacher before a n d after every lesson, they are not permitted to m o v e about the classroom, a n d they cannot leave the classroom during the lesson.  E. R E S U L T S  O FTHE  QUESTIONNAIRE  The survey was conducted October 17th, 1987. As s h o w n in Table 4-3, all students in Grade 4 to Grade 9 in the Vancouver HJK w e r e studied except those w h ow e r e absent that day. The tabulated results are presented in Appendix II.  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4 3 :N u m b e r of Students Sampled N in the class  Absent  Spoiled  4 5 6 7 8 9  2 2 2 0 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1  1 1 2 2 1 0  0 1 0 0 0 0  2 1 1 8 1 0 2 0 1 1 1 1  Total  9 9  7  1  9 1  G G G G G G  Valid Samples  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 8 6 1. Profile  of H J K  Students  There w e r e 41 female a n d 49 male students participating in the study. Sixty seven students (75.3%) w e r e Japanese born, a n d 22 (24.7%) were born outside Japan. Eight Canadian born students were included. These Canadian born students are a s s u m e d to b e either children of teachers in this school or of e m p l o y e e s w h o are hired locally in Vancouver not in Japan.  Fifty eight students (64%) were living in Vancouver. This is because the h o u s e s provided b yc o m p a n i e s which have offices in d o w n t o w n Vancouver are usually located in the Vancouver area. Richmond a n d North Vancouver are also popular as c o m p a n yh o u s e locations. Ninety six percent of HJK students live in these three Lower Mainland municipalities. Data from 1986 also s h o w s t h e concentration in these s a m e three municipalities. ( S e e Table 4 4 )  Because the HJK follows the Japanese academic year, the grade in a local school a n d in HJK are sometimes different. T h e academic year at the HJK follows the Japanese school year a n d starts in April whereas Canadian schools start in September. In Japanese schools, both in Japan and overseas, children strictly stay in the grade of the physical year and are not placed according to academic performance. There is n o skipping or repeating grades in HJK. T h e average n u m b e r in each class in Vancouver HJK is 15. C o m p a r e d to the average class size in Japan, which is 4 0 4 5 , this is very small.  Most of the Vancouver HJK students g o to public schools in B . C .  Point Grey,  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 8 7 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4 4 : Residential Distribution of HJK Students (1986) Gl G2 G3 G4 G 5G 6G 7G 8G 9 G10 Gil G12 VANCOUVER R I C H M O N D N . V A N W . V A N BURNABY SURREY COQUITLAM LANGLEY TOTAL  24 1 9 4 8 1 1 1 1 1  1 8 16 1 0 6 5 4 1 3 4 1 1  1 9 12 3 2 1 4 1  6 3 3 1  1  1  7 7 2 1 1  5 2 1 1  4  9  5  1  1  1 1 30 30 26 26 1 8 26 1 8 1 5 1 0 8  Source :  Address  Book  of Vancouver  HJK  TOTAL 147(66%) 40(18%) 20( 9 % ) 6( 3 % ) 2( 1 % ) 2( 1 % ) 2( 1 % ) 2( 1 % ) 221(100%)  (1986 July)  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Jamieson, Maple Grove, Churchill, McKechinie (all Vancouver School Board) and Burnett (Richmond School Board) h a v em o r e than 5 students in each school. Only two students g o to private schools, a n d they are both female.  Thirtyfivestudents (38.5%) said that they h a v e lived in a foreign country before Canada. The U . S . A . (9 students) and Republic of South Africa ( R . S . A . ) (8) w e r e the m o s t frequent places of previous residence, followed by W e s t G e r m a n y (2), Papua N e w Guinea (2), and Australia (2). There are two students who had c o m e to B . C . for the second time.  T h o s e who have b e e n to the R . S . A . w e n t to a full-time Japanese school. In a  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 8 8 full-time Japanese school, opportunities to use English w e r e limited even though they lived in an English speaking country. Thus those students claimed that they h a v e difficulty with English language although they had lived in an English speaking country. For children w h o have spent time outside Japan prior to arriving in Canada, the average length of stay in another foreign country w a s 3 . 2 years.  For those w h oc a m e to Canada as their first foreign country to live, Vancouver w a s the first place inside Canada. According to the data of entry in B . C . , five groups w e r e categorized depending on the length of stay as s h o w n in Table 4 5 . The shortest length of stay was 2 m o n t h s and the longest was 14 years at the point of research in October 1987. The average w a s 2 years and 9 m o n t h s in B . C .  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-5: Length of stay in B . C . N u m b e r of Students Less than one year O n e to three years Three to five years Over five years Canadian born  2 1 3 5 1 6 1 1 8  Percent 23.1% 38.5% 1 7 . 6 % 1 2 . 1 % 8 . 8 %  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  O n this survey questionnaire, fifty nine students (67%) answered that they  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 8 9 attended English as a S e c o n dL a n g u a g e (ESL) classes w h e n they first w e n t to school in B.C. The criteria of attending an ESL class varies depending on the school board and its ESL class situation in terms of capacity. The Vancouver School Board (VSB) r e c o m m e n d s that non-native English speaking students over Grade 4 should attend an ESL class. W h e r e there is no ESL class at the student's h o m e school, the VSB arranges to send the student to the nearest school with ESL classes or to k e e p the student at the h o m e school and use the text for a lower grade.  2. T h e Attitude  Towards the N e w Environment  Before the children c a m e to Canada, while still living in Japan, they probably could not have a clear i m a g e of the life they would lead in Canada and h o w they would c o p e with the Canadian school system. The children m u s t h a v e had mixed feelings of anxiety and expectation toward the n e w environment. T h e survey s h o w e d 29 students (34.5%) had a positive attitude towards moving to Canada, while 21 (20.0%) recalled that they had an unfavorable attitude.  For children, schools are one of the biggest influences in their life. T h e expectation towards an HJK was higher than to a local school. Twice as m a n y students surveyed had a negative attitude towards attending a local school c o m p a r e d with the HJK. The researcher a s s u m e s that the reason for the higher expectation is that the children w e r e informed that the HJK would be the only institution in Canada that was the s a m e as in Japan.  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 90 To investigate what was the students' m o s t significant problem during their entryperiod into a new culture they w e r e asked an o p e n e n d e d question to determine the m o s t b o t h e r s o m e issue for t h e m after their arrival in B . C . Of the 65 students who listed at least o n e problem,fiftystudents (76.9%) recalled that they had a problem with English. Six students (9.2%) listed problems relating to friends, andfivestudents (7.7%) claimed that they had b e e n bullied or suffered from discrimination. For overseas Japanese students in Vancouver, language ability is the m o s t crucial problem at the time of entry.  3. English Language Fluency  In this section the researcher investigated how the HJK students' language fluency affects their life styles and schooling perspectives. Although the questions asked w e r e subjective, the results are useful to determine the language environment of the Japanese students at the HJK in B . C . Their language preference was measured by different sets of scales in their daily life, e . g . watching TV or reading books. The differences in language preference depending on the length of stay was studied by cross tabulation.  Only 26% of students studied English before coming to Canada. In Japan English class starts in Grade 7 at public schools. The researcher had a s s u m e d that those who answered that they had studied English before they c a m e to B . C . would b e a b o v e grade 7 u p o n their arrival; h o w e v e r their answers did not s h o w any relation with the grade at the entry. Thus it appears to be r a n d o m selection as to which children studied English prior to arriving in Canada.  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 91 Most students (80.9%) found they h a v en o problem communicating in English at the m o m e n t . Table 4 6s h o w s the result of cross tabulation b e t w e e n their communication ability in English a n d the length of stay in B.C. T h o s e w h o answered that they could not c o m m u n i c a t e with teachers in English w e r e in the group of students who had b e e n in Canada less than o n e year. In three years time or less, students are able to c o m m u n i c a t e with teachers in English.  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4 6 : Cross Tabulation: Communication vs. Length of Stay in B . C . (C3) : Are you able to c o m m u n i c a t e with your teacher in English without any difficulty? (H3a) : Length of stay in B . C . Up to 1 yr. Yes/ Yes s o m e w h a t Neutral No No s o m e w h a t Total  7  (33.3%) 6 (28.6%) 8 (38.1%) 21 (100.0%)  1-3 yrs. 32 (91.4%)  3 - 5 yrs.  Over 5 yrs.  1 6 (100.0%)  1 0 (100.0%)  1 6 (100.0%)  1 0 (100.0%)  3 (8 . 6 % )  35 (100.0%)  (missing 9 cases) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  To the question concerning which language they usually use at h o m e , only  five  students (5.6%) say they usually use English at h o m e . For m o s t families in this  RESULTS O F THE STUDY / 9 2 school, Japanese is the c o m m o n household language. To maintain the Japanese language, the Japanese government r e c o m m e n d s the family s p e a k Japanese a s m u c h as possible. 1  0  Although in m o s t families Japanese is used, twenty t w o  students (24.4%) answered they feel m o r e comfortable in English. This language preference pattern changes as their stay in B . C . longer. (See Table 4 7 )  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  Table 4 7 : Cross Tabulation: Language Preference vs. Length of Stay (C6) : D o you feel m o r e comfortable in English than in Japanese? (H3a) : Length of stay U p to 1 yr.  1 - 3 yrs.  3 - 5 yrs.  Yes/ .2 Yes s o m e w h a t(9 . 5 % ) Neutral 4 (19.0%) N o / 1 5 N os o m e w h a t (71.5%)  8 (22.8%) 5 (14.3%) 2 2 (62.9%)  3 (18.7%) 5 (31.3%) 8 (50.0%)  4 (40.0%) 3 (30.0%) 3 (30.0%)  Total  3 5 (100.0%)  1 6 (100.0%)  1 0 (100.0%)  2 1 (100.0%)  Over 5 yrs.  (missing 9 cases) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  Watching television (TV) a n d reading b o o k s are c o m m o n activities to represent language preference. Sixty six students (72.5%) say they often watch TV or video cassett recorder (VCR). This particular question was s o m e w h a t a m b i g u o u s  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 9 3 so the answers obtained w e r e very subjective. For s o m e students 6 hours a w e e k is not "often", while for other it is a lot. The average time watching Japanese TV programs was about 4 hours, a n d English TV programs about 5 hours. Although there are not as m a n y Japanese programs o n the air in B . C . as English programs, the availability of a VCR gives easy access to recorded Japanese programs.  Seventy students (76.9%) said their families h a v e VCR machines. T h e popularization of V C R ' s has h a d an influence o n overseas education. As a n audio-visual aid, a VCR is a very powerful tool. Students in the HJK watch videos o n science a n d social studies at school. The VCR is currently used m o r e for entertainment than education in the Japanese community. This is b e c a u s e educational TV programs are available only through friends or relatives staying in Japan.  Reading b o o k s is another indication of language preference. Because reading tastes vary, the researcher suggested that students count all the b o o k s they read in o n e month, including magazines a n d comic books. Table 4 8s h o w s the result of cross tabulation of grade at the HJK and the n u m b e r of Japanese language b o o k s the students h a d read in one m o n t h .  According to this survey, students in lower grades read m o r e Japanese b o o k s p e r m o n t h . This result supports the researcher's observation in the school library. Students in HJK can borrow a m a x i m u m of 5 b o o k s per w e e k from the school library; h o w e v e r students in the upper grades d o not borrow b o o k s as often a s  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 9 4 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4 8 : Cross Tabulation: Grade at HJK vs. N u m b e r of Japanese Books R e a d (Al) : Grade at the HJK (Cll) : N u m b e r of b o o k s you read in Japanese G4 G5 G6 0 1 1 to 1 0 1 0 6 4 11 to 20 3 6 1 21 to 50 5 3 2 51 or m o r e 1 1 1 Average n u m b e r of b o o k s read  1 8 . 6  1 9 . 2.  1 8 . 5  G7 1 6 3  6 . 5  G8 1 8 2 1  G9 2 7 1 1  8 . 8  7 . 4  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx the lower grade students. T h e possible reasons are that the upper grade students d o not have extra time for fun reading, or there are not m a n y b o o k s which attract them. Comparing Table 4 8 to Table 4 9s h o w s that the average n u m b e r of b o o k s read, in the Japanese language is m u c h larger than for English b o o k s even though it is not as easy to obtain b o o k s in the Japanese language as in Japan.  Table 4 1 0 illustrates that there is a significant correlation b e t w e e n the n u m b e r of Japanese and the n u m b e r of English b o o k s a student reads. Those students w h o read m a n y b o o k s in Japanese tend to read a larger n u m b e r of b o o k s in English also. Conversely the student w h o dislikes reading in his native language also d o e s not like reading English. Reading g o o db o o k s in the students' first  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 9 5 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-9: Cross Tabulation: HJKGrade vs. English Books Read (Al) : Grade at the HJK (C12) : N u m b e rof b o o k s read iE nnglish  0 1 to 5 6 to 1 0 11 to 20 21 or m o r e Average n u m b e r of b o o k read  G4 2 9 4 3 2  G5 1 9 4 2 1  G6  8 . 1  9 . 2  5 . 5  5 2 1  G7 2 1 4 3  G8 2 7 2  G9 1 8 1 1  2 . 7  2 . 7  3 . 5  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx language is strongly r e c o m m e n d e d by an ESL teacher to develop their second language as well.  1 1  4. Canadian School  Life  Students at HJK h a v e a generally positive attitude towards attending local schools in B . C .  HJK students feel that their friends at Canadian local schools  are friendly to them, a n d their teachers at their local school are helpful. Ten students replied that they felt left out in the class at their local school. Two of t h e mw h o feel strongly that way have stayed in Canada less than o n e year. (See Table 4 1 1 )T h e shortness of the time in Canada has not given t h e m an opportunity to assimilate in school yet. On the other hand, there is o n e student w h o feels strongly left out of the local school class even though h e or she has  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 9 6 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4 1 0 : Cross Tabulation: English vs. Japanese B o o k s R e a d (Cll) : N u m b e r of b o o k s read in Japanese (C12) : N u m b e r of b o o k s read in English (English) (Japanese) 0 1 to 5 6 to 1 0 11 to 20 21 to 50 50 or m o r e  0  1 5  6 1 0  0 4 2 2 0 0  1 2 5 1 1 9 3 1  5 3 2 4 3 1  1 1 2 0 1 0 0 1 4 1  21-50 5.0 or m o r e 0 0 0 0 2 0  0 0 1 0 0 0  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx b e e n in Canada m o r e than five years.  Twenty t w o students (25.0%) answered that the school work at a local school is difficult to follow. The researcher a s s u m e d that the students in higher grades would find the school work in a local school m o r e difficult to follow, but there w a sn o significant difference by grades u p to grade 9. T w o out of three grade 10 students claimed that the school work in their local school is difficult for t h e m to follow. It is probably caused b yag a pb e t w e e n their cognitive level o f learning a n d their language skill.  Most students at HJK enjoy going to a local school in B . C .T h o s ew h o said that they d o not enjoy going to a local school w e r e found in grades 8 to 1 0 . Seventy t w o students (68.9%) consider that they are fortunate that they could g o to school in Canada.  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 9 7 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4 1 1 : Cross Tabulation: Feeling Left Out vs. Length of Stay (D3) : D o you feel that you are left out in the class? (H3a) : Length of stay Up to 1 yr. Yes/ Yes s o m e w h a t Neutral N o / N os o m e w h a t Total  1 - 3 yrs.  3 (14.3%) 5 (23.8%) 1 3 (61.9%)  5 (14.3%) 9 (25.7%) 2 1 (60.0%)  2 1 (100%)  3 4 (100%)  3 - 5 yrs.  Over 5 yrs. 1  (6 . 3 % ) 1 (6 . 3 % ) 1 4 (87.4%)  1 (10.0%) 1 (10.0%) 8 (80.0%)  1 6 1 1 (100%) (100%) (missing 9 cases)  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 5. After-School  i n Canada  O n ew a y to m e a s u r e the d e g r e e of assimilation to Canadian culture is b y the structure of friendships. A m o n g those students w h o stayed in Canada less than three years, 29 students (52.7%) answered that they play with non-Canadian students m o r e often than with Canadian students. H o w e v e r this percentage changes with those students w h o have stayed in Canada m o r e than 3 years. Since Vancouver has such a large visibly ethnic community, the specific answers to this question are s o m e w h a t ambiguous. H o w e v e r Table 4 1 2s h o w s a clear trend towards playing m o r e with Canadian friends as length of stay in Canada increases.  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 9 8 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  Table 4 1 2 : Cross Tabulation: Canadian Friends vs. Length of Stay (E2) : D o you play with Canadian friends m o r e often than with Japanese friends? (H3a) : Length of stay  Up to 1 yr. Yes/ Yes s o m e w h a t Neutral N o / N os o m e w h a t Total  1-3 yrs.  3 - 5 yrs.  Over 5 yrs.  4 (19.0%) 5 (23.8%) 1 2 (57.2%)  8 (23.5%) 9 (26.5%) 1 7 (50.0%)  8 (50.0%) 5 (31.3%) 3 (18.7%)  8 (72.7%) 2 (18.2%) 1 (9.1%)  21 (100%)  3 4 (100%)  1 6 (100%)  1 1 (100%)  (missing 9 cases) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  Taking private lessons after school-hours is very c o m m o n a m o n g Japanese students at the HJK in Vancouver. Sixty seven students (70.3%) are taking sports lessons and forty seven (52.2%) are taking music lessons. T h e longer t h e students stay, the m o r e they tend to take lessons as is illustrated in Table 4 1 3 .  Forty two students (46.2%) are taking private English lessons now. Including the 28 students w h o have taken English lessons previously in Canada, almost 78%  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 9 9 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4-13 : Cross Tabulation: Lessons vs. Length of Stay (E7) : D o you take sports lessons or belong to a sports club? (E8) : D o you take music lessons or belong to a school b a n d ? (H3a) : Length of stay  Sports Music  Up to 1 yr.  1-3 yrs.  8 (38.1%) 4 (19.0%)  2 7 (77.1%) 1 9 (55.9%)  5 yrs.  Over 5 yrs.  1 4 (87.5%) 3 (68.8%)  9 (81.8%) 6 (54.5%)  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx of the HJK students take English lessons in addition to local school work a n d HJK work. In the first year of living in B . C . ,m o r e students take private English lessons; h o w e v e r this percentage decreases as they stay longer. ( S e e Figure 4 6 ) Especially for those in higher grades, the ability to c o m p r e h e n d English is o n e of the m o s t important factors to performing better in school.  Sixty o n e students (67.0%) take a correspondence course from Japan. This is s h o w n in Table 4 1 4 . The correspondence course b y Kaigai Zaidan  Shijyo  Kyoiku  Sjinko  (Foundation for Promoting Education for Kaigai Shijyo) provides a  w o r k b o o k on 4 to 5 core subjects, (Japanese, mathematics, science, social studies, and English) plus e x a m s every m o n t h . It is getting popular to take private lessons o n mathematics or other subjects to prepare for entrance e x a m s in Japan. Forty o n e students (45.5%) feel they are busier than w h e n they w e r e in Japan, while 2 7 (30.7%) d o not think so.  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 1 0 0 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4 1 4 : Cross Tabulation: HJK Grade vs. Correspondence Course (Al) : Grade at the HJK (E5) : D o you take a correspondence course from Japan?  Yes N o Total  G4  G5  G6  G7  G8  1 4 (66.7%) 7 ' (33.3%) 21 (100.0%)  1 2  5  1 4  8  (70.6%) 5 (29.4%) 1 7 (100.0%)  (50.0%) 5 (50.0%) 1 0 (100.0%)  (70.0%) 6 (30.0%) 2 0 (100.0%)  (72.7%) 3 (27.3%) 11 (100%)  G9  (72.7%) 3 (27.3%) 11 (100%)  (missing 1 case) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Students list various things as the m o s t attractive aspect of Canadian school life from C a n a d a ' s wonderful natural environment to computer education. M a n y point out that there is a liberal atmosphere in school (16 students), people are o p e n minded (22) including 'teachers are m o r e friedly and accessible c o m p a r e d t o Japan' and 'little bullying is observed'. S o m e note that mathematics is easier, physical education is enjoyable, and English language education is well organized. O n e student appreciates there is n o pressure for entrance examinations.  6. Life  at H J K  Students at the Vancouver HJK are considered friendly and teachers at the HJK are helpful. Eight students felt that they w e r e left out of the class at the HJK.  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 1 0 1 (See Table 4 1 5 . ) T w o of those w h o felt strongly so have b e e n in Canada less than o n e year. T w o others w h o felt at least s o m e w h a t left out have stayed over five years. It is understandable that those who joined the HJK recently have n o t yet settled into a class.  There are other reasons w h y two students w h o have stayed this long feel that they are left out of the class. O n e of these two students is a male in Grade 10. He c a m e to Canada w h e n h e was o n e year old. In his case his limited Japanese language ability probably affects his feeling towards the HJK. He wrote that studying at the HJK is difficult a n d he is not looking forward to going to the HJK. The biggest reason to g o to the HJK for him is to study t h e  1 00%  Percentage of Students Taking Private English Lessons  <1yr Length  Figure  1-3 3-5 >5yr of Residence  i n Canada  4 - 6 : P e r c e n t a g e o f HJK S t u d e n t s Taking P r i v a t e E n g l i s h Lessons v s . L e n g t h o f R e s i d e n c e i n Canada Source:  Results of survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e (1987)  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 1 0 2 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4 1 5 : Cross Tabulation: Left Out vs. Length of Stay (F3) : D o you feel that you are left out in the class at HJK? (H3a) : Length of stay Up to 1 yr.  1-3 yrs.  3 - 5 yrs.  Yes/ 4 Yes s o m e w h a t (19.0%) Neutral 5 (23.8%) N o / 1 2 No s o m e w h a t (57.1%)  2 ( 5.7%) 5 . (14.3%) 2 8 (80.0%)  0 ( 0.0%)  Total  3 5 (100.0%)  2 1 (100.0%)  Over 5 yrs.  ( 6.2%) 1 5 (93.8%)  2 (18.2%) 2 (18.2%) 7 (63.6%)  1 6 (100.0%)  1 0 (100.0%)  1  (missing 8 cases) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Japanese language. Although he did not say he w a sm o r e comfortable in English than in Japanese, his reading habits clearly s h o w his preference of language. He said that he read 15 English b o o k s a month, but n o n e in Japanese. In addition he responded on the questionnaire that from the beginning he w a s not looking forward to going to the HJK.  The other case is a female in Grade 8 w h o arrived in 1980. She enjoys attending the HJK and finds no problem for her study there. In her case n o significant possible reasons for feeling left out of the class w e r e observed. It might be a temporary feeling which adolescent girls often experience.  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 103 Table 4 1 6s h o w s the gender differences of students who felt left out of the HJK classes. It is interesting to note that m o r e m a l e students feel that they are left out of the class at the HJK. Only o n e female student (2.4%) felt she w a s left out whereas 7 male students out of 49 (14.3%) felt that way. These male students w e r e concentrated in Grade 3 and Grade 4. There m u s t b e s o m e gender differences existing in the playing groups in the HJK or s o m e negative aspects of h o m e r o o m class m a n a g e m e n t involved. There w e r en o differences observed b e t w e e n Canada-born and non Canada-born students.  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  Table 4 1 6 : Cross Tabulation: Left Out vs. G e n d e r (F3) : Do you feel that you are left out in the class at HJK? (A2) : G e n d e r Female Yes/Yes s o m e w h a t1 ( 2 . 4 % ) Neutral 6 (14.6%) N o / N o s o m e w h a t 3 4 (82.9%) Total 4 1 (100.0%)  Male 7 (14.3%) 1 3 (26.5%) 29 (59.2%) 49 (100.0%) (1 case missing)  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  W h e n asked if the school w o r k at the HJK is difficult for them, about 20% of  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 1 0 4 the students responded that they felt that way. T h e researcher a s s u m e d students answering that they h a d difficulty at the HJK would be those w h oh a d stayed in Canada longer, d u e to c h a n g e s in study habits a n d less use of Japanese language. Table 4 1 7s h o w s that this w a s not the case. A higher proportion of students w h oh a d stayed less than three years answered that they found the school w o r k difficult. It might be explained that those w h o joined the HJK recently are not yet used to a faster teaching p a c e of HJK c o m p a r e d to schools in Japan, so that they feel the study m o r e difficult than those w h o have stayed in this school longer. There w a s n o significant difference by gender or place of birth.  Sixty students (68.2%) admitted that they enjoy going to the HJK, while 2 8 students (31.8%) denied liking the school. Looking at this attitude by the grades, all grades except Grade 5 s h o w e d over 60 percent affirmative attitude toward the HJK. (See Table 4 1 8 . ) T h e length of stay did not affect this result. Male students s h o w e d slightly higher enthusiasm for going to the HJK as s h o w n in Table 4 1 9 .  Students provided various answers as to what they felt was the biggest purpose for attending HJK. Forty four students (48.4%) listed "to catch u p with school w o r k in Japan or to prepare for returning to Japan". Twenty students (22.2%) believed the main purpose was "to m e e t friends a n d speak Japanese" while 1 9 (21.1%) listed "to study Japanese language". The remaining seven people n a m e d other reasons. N o significant differences w e r e found in the listed purposes of attending the HJK by the length of stay or place of birth.  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 1 0 5 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4 1 7 : Cross Tabulation: School W o r k in HJK vs. Length of Stay in B . C . (F4) : Is school w o r k at the HJK too difficult for you? (H3a) : Length of stay in B . C .  Up to 1  1-3 yrs.  3 - 5 yrs. Over 5  yr. Yes/ Yes s o m e w h a t Neutral N o / No s o m e w h a t Total  yrs.  5 (23.8%) 7 (33.3%) 9 (42.9%)  9 (26.4%) 9 (26.4%) 1 6 (47.2%)  1 (6 . 2 % ) 4 (25.0%) 1 1 (68.8%)  1 ( 9 . 0 % ) 3 (27.3%) 7 (63.6%)  21 (100.0%)  3 4 (100.0%)  1 6 (100.0%)  1 1 (100.0%) (missing 9 cases)  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Many students list the m o s t attractive aspect of HJK is that they can s p e a k Japanese as m u c h as they want to. Meeting friends and chatting about Japanese topics helps to release the tension and frustration caused by speaking and studying in a second language in the local school.  7. I m p r e s s i o n s  o f L i v i n g i n B.C.  Seventy students (77.8%) consider that they are fortunate to have an opportunity to g o to school in B.C. There w e r e no students w h os h o w e d a strong adverse opinion. Although they enjoy schooling in B . C . , quite a few miss being in Japan.  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 106 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4 1 8 : Cross Tabulation: HJK Grade vs. HJK attendence (Al) : Grade at the HJK (E5) : Do you enjoy going to the HJK?  Yes No Total  G4  G5  G6  G7  G8  G9  1 8 (85.7%) 3 (14.2%) 21 (100.0%)  6 (37.5%) 10 (62.5%) 1 6 (100.0%)  6 (66.7%) 3 (33.3%) 9 (100.0%)  1 4 (70.0%) 6 (30.0%) 20 (100.0%)  9 (81.9%) 2 (18.2%) 11 (100.0%)  7 (63.6%) 4 (36.4%) 11 (100.0%)  (missing 3 cases) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  While thirty eight students (41.5%) d o not s h o w an interest returning to Japan at the m o m e n t , twenty five (27.5%) say they want to g o back to Japan as soon as possible.  The percentage of students who desire to g o back to Japan was affected by the length of stay in Canada. Figure 4 7 illustrates clearly that the longer the students stay, the less they want g o back to Japan. This is o n e indication of h o w well Japanese students in Vancouver are adapting into Canadian society.  Students' responses to the question asking if they want to c o m e back to B . C .  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 1 0 7 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Table 4 1 9 : Cross Tabulation: G e n d e r vs. Attitude towards HJK (A5) : G e n d e r (F5) : D o you enjoy going to the HJK? Female 24 (58.5%) No 1 7 (41.5%) Total 41 (100.0%)  Male  Yes  '  3 6 (76.6%) 1 1 (23.4%) 49 (100.0%) (1 case missing)  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  for further education directly indicates the students' perspective towards educational service in B . C . Affirmative answers probably represent strong support of what they are receiving at the m o m e n t . Forty students (48.9%) s h o w interest in coming back to school in B.C. Students w h oo n c e received education overseas tend to return to overseas schools. This p h e n o m e n o n can b e ascribed either t o maladjustment towards the Japanese school system u p o n reentry, or a result of a positive educational experience during the first overseas period. These students are thus potential international students a n dh a v e a higher probability of receiving m o r e education overseas than students w h oh a v e never b e e n to school overseas. 2 1  The students' biggest concern at school remains "English". T h e students in higher  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 1 0 8  <1 y e a r (n=21)  Length of stay i n Canada (number o f students)  1-3 y e a r s (n=35)  3  " (n=16) 5  v  e  a  r  s  >5 y e a r s (n=ll) 0%  50%  Do y o u d e s i r e t o r e t u r n as soon as p o s s i b l e ? Yes/Yes  100%  to Japan  somewhat  Neutral No/No  F i g u r e  4-7:  somewhat  HJK Students D e s i r e t oR e t u r n t o Japan v e r s u s L e n g t h o f R e s i d e n c e i n Canada  Source:  Results of survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e (1987)  grades worry about school w o r k for local schools which is getting complicated a n d the fact that they d o not h a v ee n o u g h time to preparation. There is hardly a n y worry about friends. O n e student w h o listed problems with friends was a n e w c o m e r .  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 1 0 9 F. SUMMARY  In this chapter, the development of the Vancouver HJK and the profile of the students in this school in 1987 w e r e introduced based on the results of a survey questionnaire. This chapter described the features of the Vancouver HJK and o n e side of the life of Japanese students in Vancouver and their perspectives towards the dual schooling experience. T h e development of the Vancouver HJK is closely related to the growth of Choki  Taizai-sha,  long term residents. Both the n u m b e r  of students attending the HJK and the n u m b e r of Choki  Taizai-sha  in Vancouver  have b e e n increasing over the period from 1 9 7 6 1 9 8 7 . This trend is not likely to abate in the foreseeable future.  The purpose of the Vancouver HJK is to prepare the  Kaigai  Shijyo  in Vancouver  for a s m o o t h readjustment on their return to Japan. T h e program aims not only to maintain the Japanese language ability but also to e n h a n c e the academic ability of students b y following the Japanese education system. A considerable n u m b e r of students in the HJK w e r e born in countries other than Japan, a n d s o m e h a v e spent m o s t of their lives outside of Japan. For the majority of students, Japanese is the m o s t comfortable language. Fluency in English is the biggest problem for the HJK students not only u p o n their entry into Canada but even after several years of living here.  Enrollment into this school is controlled by the which is a part of  Boeki  Konwa-kai,  Gakkou  Kyokai,  school association,  a gathering of Japanese businesses in  Vancouver. Neither an entrance examination nor an interview is required t o  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 1 1 0 register in this school, h o w e v e r the student's parents must be m e m b e r s of Boeki Konwa-kai  to obtain admission. The only other w a y to get into the HJK is b y  getting special permission for enrollment from the Gakkou  Kyokai.  Usually these  special cases apply only to children of diplomats, scholars at UBC or teachers at the HJK, a n d not to children of immigrants.  Although this school basically excludes children of immigrants from its student population, the teaching staff are all Japanese with landed immigrant status. All staff h a v e completed at least a two-year college education in Japan. T h e principal of the school, w h o is sent by a n dw h o s e salary is paid b y M o m b u s h o , the Ministry of Education, d o e s not participate in teaching the class. T h e teacher's salaries are paid for b y school fees from students with an appropriation from Boeki  Konwa-kai  and also a subsidy from the Japanese government.  School life in the HJK follows Japanese style classroom discipline which m e a n s adhering to the teacher-centered teaching m e t h o d . Thus the students formally greet the teacher before a n d after every lesson. The curriculum is based on a course of study provided by M o m b u s h o , the Ministry of Education, h o w e v e r the time spent on each unit is m u c h shorter d u e to the limited n u m b e r of teaching hours. The curricula at the HJK bears no relationship to the curricula of the public schools in B.C. There is very little concern as to the correlation b e t w e e n the HJK's curricula a n d that of the local public schools. Although all Japanese schools overseas are s u p p o s e d to collect data on overseas educational systems for research purposes, it s e e m s that this has not b e e n established yet in this school.  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 111 Results of the survey questionnaire portray the life of Japanese students at the HJK in Vancouver. Students consider that the main reason for attending the HJK is "to catch up with school w o r k in Japan or to prepare for returning to Japan". However, m a n y students found that the HJK was the place w h e r e they could speak Japanese without any hesitation and that was the m o s t attractive aspect of the HJK. Students at the HJK s h o w a strong preference for t h e Japanese language. This was measured by their answers as to h o w comfortable they are at speaking English, reading, and watching TV or VCR programs. Although their language preference is still Japanese, all students w h o have stayed in Canada for m o r e than three years report n o difficulty in communicating in English with teachers and friends.  The language barrier may affect students' assimilation to the Canadian society to s o m e extent. The d e g r e e of assimilation, depending o n the length of stay, is measured by their preference of friends to socialize with (Canadian or Japanese) and whether or not they feel left out of the class. This is illustrated in Tables 4 1 1 and 4 1 2 .  In their first year in Vancouver, nearly 75% of the HJK students took private English lessons. This percentage declines as the students stay longer, whereas the percentage taking extracurricular music or sports lessons increases correspondingly. Over 70% of Grade 4 to Grade 9 HJK students are taking correspondence courses from Japan. The correspondence course is designed as a self-study program for the Japanese children w h o d o not have an opportunity to attend full-time Japanese school. This course requires at least one hour of h o m e study  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 1 1 2 every day. The students n e e d strong self-discipline to complete the required workload of this correspondence course every m o n t h .  T w o thirds of the HJK students say they enjoy going to the HJK. This is about the s a m e n u m b e r that respond positively towards attending the local school. N o particular preference toward either school w a s found in this study. T h e Japanese students appreciate the opportunity to experience a Canadian style education in B.C. About half of the surveyed students s h o w interest in coming b a c k to school in B.C. for further education. This suggests the schooling experience in B.C. is positively accepted and their interest in Canada will continue.  RESULTS OF THE STUDY / 1 1 3 Toshio Takahashi, "Vancouver Hoshu Jyugyo Kou" in Kaigai ni Okeru no Kyoiku (Tokyo: Zenkoku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Kenkyu Kyogi Kai, 1983), p . 3 6 5 .  Nihon  From interview with Mrs Hino, October 19, 1 9 8 7 . Alan C. Nicholls, A Guide to the School Act of B.C. (Vancouver: The B . C . School Trustees Association, 1984), p . 4 . The definition of the International students varies b e t w e e n school boards. In the case of the Vancouver School Board, the international student program started in 1985. Only those w h o have relatives or responsible persons in B . C . are accepted. In 1987, there w e r e 42 international students a n d 3 w e r e Japanese. An international student is charged 4 , 9 0 0 Canadian dollars per year for school fee. (From interview with Ms. Irene Gallais, D e c e m b e r 1987. JETRO, 1 9 8 6 Directory, Affiliates & Offices of Japanese firms in USA & Canada, 1986, p p . 4 1 4 4 1 9 . The Vancouver HJK, Gakkou The Vancouver HJK, Ibid.,  Youran  (The School Report) 1987, n . p a g .  1987, n . p a g .  Yoko Okunuki, "Nihongo Gakkou Homon-ki (A visiting Report of Japanese Schools), in Vancouver Shimpo, S e p t e m b e r 26, 1 9 8 6 . Notes from unpublished paper, Vincent D'Oyley, Willms, a n d Ota, "After-hours Japanese Schools in B . C . 1 9 8 5 8 6 . " M o m b u s h o , Kaigai Seikatsu to Katei Kyoiku (Life in Overseas a n d Education at H o m e ) (Tokyo: M o m b u s h o , 1985), p . 3 2 . From interview with Ms. Irene Gallais at Point Grey Junior High School, Vancouver. Her notion is based on theory of Jim C u m m i n g s in the University of Toronto. This isuue was not studied in detail. This p h e n o m e n o n is an interesting study topic for international educational migration in future.  V.  A.  CONCLUSION  INTRODUCTION  This thesis has examined the development of Japanese schools overseas a n d presented a case history of a supplementary school located in Vancouver B . C . Thisfinalchapter presents a s u m m a r y of the study. Conclusions from this research are e m b e d d e d in recommendations for improving the Japanese school in Vancouver.  B. S U M M A R Y  1.  OF T H E STUDY  Overview  The education system for Kaigai Shijyo was developed initially as a fringe benefit to those e m p l o y e e s sent overseas as a result of Japan's active international exchanges of people, g o o d s , a n dfinance.S o m e features of Japanese society and of Japanese perspectives on education are reflected in the education system for Kaigai Shijyo. Education for Kaigai Shijyo aims both at promoting internationalization of Japanese children and preparing t h e m for a s m o o t h readjustment back into the Japanese education system.  T h e Vancouver HJK tends to focus solely on preparing children for readjustment into Japanese society. This is d o n e to the detriment of the international aspect of the students' education. While the Japanese students do learn s o m e Canadian  114  CONCLUSION / 1 1 5 cultural values in the local schools, the Vancouver HJK is very ethnocentric and misses the opportunity to e n h a n c e the local k n o w l e d g e that the students h a v e obtained.  This case study confirmed that very little information is shared b e t w e e n public schools in B.C. and the HJK in Vancouver. The only information the HJK teachers h a v e about public schools is what they are able to obtain through students or by the teachers' personal experience of sending their o w n children to a local school. Even in the latter case, the HJK teachers' information about local schools is no better than that of a typical parent. Conversely, for B.C. school teachers, the existence of the HJK d o e s not s e e m to be a well k n o w n fact. 1  Also, teachers in B.C. do not have a comprehensive understanding of the n e e d s of Japanese students in local schools (especially those w h o stay in Vancouver only for a few years).  In the B.C. school system there exists no curriculum guidelines printed in the Japanese language. Differences b e t w e e n the Japanese school system and the Canadian system can be a source of consternation to families w h o s e first language is not English and w h o have limited k n o w l e d g e of local culture. In Japan all schools are strictly controlled by M o m b u s h o , the Ministry of Education, and all classes in the s a m e grade of all schools in Japan follow the s a m e course of study. Thus w h e n theyfirstarrive m a n y Japanese parents h a v e s o m e difficulty understanding the less structured system of schools in B . C .  Japanese students and parents alike appreciate the educational services which  CONCLUSION / 1 1 6 they receive in B.C. Although m o s t Japanese students arrive with little or n o English language ability, m o s t of t h e m enjoy school life and s e e m to adjust to the. Canadian lifestyle quite well. N o case of maladjustment to a local school w a s reported in this research, although s o m e cases w e r e discovered through the researcher's personal network.  2  Students enjoy attending the HJK. For m a n y students the HJK has a stronger social purpose than an academic one. Most Japanese students attending an extra educational institution in addition to the public school find this pattern to be n o great burden. In Japan, going to an after-hours school (called  Juku)  is very  c o m m o n . In order to obtain a successful performance at the entrance examination for a prestigious Japanese school, attending Juku  at least 8 to 10 hours a w e e k  with an additional 3 to 4 hours daily h o m e study is the normal requirement.  3  Thus s o m e parents of HJK students have the impression that the Japanese students in Vancouver do not study as m u c h as they would in Japan.  The socio-economic background of the students at the HJK is generally high, a n d the expectation for their school performance is also high. The parents expect g o o d results not only at the Japanese school but also at the local school. For this reason parents willingly spend m o n e y on tutoring for their children. Over 75% of HJK students taking private English lessons clearly s h o w s this tendency.  Students at the HJK s e e m to adapt well to two different schools which belong to two contrasting cultures. As the students enter higher grades, the w o r k at their local school requires m o r e preparation time. S o m e students in higher grades  CONCLUSION / 1 1 7 feel that they do not have e n o u g h time for  both programs.  M a n y students say that they attend HJK in order to prepare for their return to Japan. One of the m o s t attractive aspects of the HJK is the fact that there t h e students can s p e a k Japanese without any hesitation or anxiety. The HJK plays an important role for  Japanese children w h og o to local schools o nw e e k d a y s in  order to release tensions that m a y be built u pb y living in a foreign cultural environment.  2. H J K  as  a Psychological  Stabilizer  The HJK plays an important role for  Japanese children w h o suffer from the  stress of not being able to use English fluently in the local schools. Foreign students are often restricted from speaking languages other than English at school. ESL teachers discourage the use of native language in the classrooms. The HJK is a place w h e r e they can speak Japanese with friends without any hesitation a n d release the tension which has built up at local schools.  An HJK is a g o o d location to exchange information about other local schools. S o m e t i m e s sharing experiences is a useful w a y to help the students survive academically a n d socially in their o w n local schools. T i m e spent with Japanese speaking friends saves the students from isolation caused by language barriers. With additonal information about Canadian culture provided b y Japanese friends, the students' assimilation into Canadian schools m a yb e accelerated.  CONCLUSION / 1 1 8 T h e HJK also assists parents as an important source of information o n education in B.C. Although the HJK itself provides s o m e information, the informal network of parents supplies a great deal m o r e . T h e HJK network is a very important n e w s source especially for those families w h e r e the father d o e s not have m a n y collegues in the office a n d thus d o e s not h a v e a strong c o m p a n y network o n which to draw.  3. Discriminatory Feature  of the Vancouver H J K  Students in the HJK are generally from h o m o g e n o u s social backgrounds; that is their fathers w o r k in big firms which are m e m b e r s of Boeki  Konwa  Kai,  a  gathering of businessmen from major Japanese based multi-national c o m p a n i e s a n d branches of major Japanese companies. T h e HJK claims that it is a private school; however since it receives support from the Japanese government, it should respond to the n e e d s of all Japanese living in the area, not just the children of businessmen.  In Vancouver, there are three different types of Japanese schools. Each has a distinct purpose a n d goal. Figure 5 1s h o w s that the first type of school teaches Japanese as a second language. T h e students at this school c o m e from a wide variety of backgrounds, ranging from the children of Japanese immigrants to n o n J a p a n e s e children w h o s e m o t h e rt o n g u e is s o m e other language such a s English or Chinese.  The second type of Japanese school is also a language school. This school  CONCLUSION / 1 1 9 restricts enrollment to the children of native Japanese speaking families in order to maintain a high level of language instruction. * The level of Japanese composition at this school is comparable to that taught in Japan. Most of the students in this school are children of Japanese immigrants. The rest of the student population is c o m p o s e d of children of businessmen w h od o not belong to Boeki  Konwa-kai  and are thus excluded from the HJK. In addition the HJK d o e s  not offer a kindergarten program and thus the Boeki  Konwa-kai  children under  Grade 1 occasionally attend this school.  T h e final type of Japanese school in Vancouver is the Hoshu Jyugyo Kou (HJK). This school restricts enrollment depending on the father's occupation. Only children w h o s e fathers belong to the Boeki  Konwa-kai,  a group of businesses  which support the HJK, are allowed to attend. The Vancouver HJK explains the enrollment restrictions b y pointing out that this school originated privately a n d still is a private institution run b ym e m b e r companies. The limited capacity of the school and budget are emphasized. The d o o r to this school is closed to Japanese students w h o s e fathers w o r k for n o n m e m b e r companies or o w n their o w n businesses.  As s h o w n in Figure 5 1 there are s o m e children w h o s e fathers d o not w o r k for the m e m b e r companies, but those cases are exceptions due to either their personal connections or to their being children of teachers in this school. This discriminative policy is justified by the school association in that the goals of the HJK a n d the other Japanese language schools are different. That is, the students at the Vancouver HJK will eventually g o back to Japan, whereas immigrants  Japanese  1. Types of Schools:  Typical Student Background:  Japanese  Language  School  - t e a c h e s J a p a n e s e as a second language to a wide variety of children  Non-Japanese  2.  Schools  Japanese  in  Language  Vancouver  School  -teaches Japanese to native Japanese speaking children  Japanese  immigrants  3.  Hoshu  Jyugyo  Kou  -teaches various subjects using J a p a n e s e as the language of instruct ion  (HJK) school  Japanese temporarily residing i n Canada (Choki taizai-sha)  o o O  d CO  Figure  5 - 1 : S t r u c t u r e of Japanese S c h o o l s i n Vancouver ( b a s e d on 19B7 d a t a )  o 2 o  CONCLUSION / 1 2 1 are in Canada intending to live here permanently. H o w e v e r the fact remains that the father's occupation or social status prevents children from joining this school.  This study did not ask the visa status of the students' fathers; h o w e v e r if w e a s s u m e that all the Canadian born students are children of immigrants, approximately 10% of HJK students are enrolled as special cases. The survey result s h o w e d there was n o significant difference b e t w e e n Canadian born students and non-Canadian students in terms of their perspectives on schooling.  Kobayashi explains what sets education for  Kaigai  Shijyo  apart from for  immigrants is the expectation of returning to Japan. The researcher h o w e v e r a s s u m e s that s o m e class consciouness in Choki  Taizai-sha  is involved in this  distinction. Horoiwa, w h og r e wu p overseas a n d studies identity problems of Kaigai  Shijyo  points out an interesting feature that is c o m m o n l y observed a m o n g  people growing u p overseas. She notes that it is c o m m o n for Japanese 5  communities outside Japan to h a v e divided viewpoints. For example, in a typical overseas Japanese community, the businessmen assigned from the main office in Japan  (Chuzai-sha)  immigrants (Imin)  k e e p themselves as a distinct group apart from the Japanese and the local people (Genchi-jin).  This causes social barriers t o  be erected in the community. In the s a m e w a y the Japanese nationals  {Nihon-jin)  set themselves apart from the second or third generation Japanese descendents (Nikkei-jin).  The restriction of enrollment at the Vancouver HJK is another example of unnecessary social barriers within the Japanese community. While the school  CONCLUSION / 1 2 2 claims to p r o m o t e internationalization, the reality is that the school is discriminatory. This illustrates H o r o i w a ' s argument that there is a strong distinction b e t w e e n that of the "real" Japanese and those w h oh a v e left Japan as immigrants. The fact that the HJK maintains these discriminatory practices helps to reinforce the boundaries b e t w e e n the previously mentioned groups {Chuzai-sha  versus Imin,  etc.).  Although M o m b u s h o explains that the school textbooks are distributed free of cost to all school age children of Japanese nationality w h o are living overseas,  6  here  in Vancouver this service is limited only to the HJK students. Thus Japanese children cannot receive the textbooks unless they are HJK students. Children of the immigrants, w h o are usually not accepted into the HJK, do not have the opportunity to receive this service. Immigrant children do n e e d textbooks, 7  especially  Kokugo  The Eizhu-sha,  or the Japanese language, for their Japanese language study. permanent residents, thus cannot obtain textbooks from M o m b u s h o  even though they hold Japanese nationality. This is an example of providing different services to Choki  Taizai-sha  and  Eizhu-sha  by the Japanese Consulate  General in Vancouver.  C. R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S  1.  FOR J A P A N E S E SCHOOLS  OVERSEAS  Introduction  Kobayashi points out that one of the major causes of development of Japanese schools overseas was psychological resolution of anxiety for Japanese parents  CONCLUSION / 123 overseas. That is, the Japanese parents w e r e concerned that their children 8  would drop out from the social ladder and not attain the s a m e e c o n o m i c status as the parents b e c a u s e they did not g o through prestigious Japanese schools.  Japanese schools overseas have b e e n developed by the Japanese c o m m u n i t y overseas. Historically the Japanese school developed due to strong n e e d s by residents of the area to maintain the Japanese language and tradition. For example, the first Japanese school established in Vancouver was in 1906. It involved the whole Japanese community in Vancouver at that time and served as a community center. 9  In general, m o s t Japanese schools would be defined as " c o m m u n i t y schools." Their character is different from m o s t other Japanese language schools. This "community" that supports the Japanese schools overseas including HJKs consists of a particular group of people w h o s e occupations are as businessmen for Japanese based multi-national c o m p a n i e s and banks, or other professionals. Although these community schools developed as private institutions, parents have enlarged their i m a g e as reliable educational institutions by transforming s o m e of t h e m into semi-public schools. And this "public" character has b e c o m e stronger than before d u e to the increasing social importance of Japanese residing overseas as well as financial assistance from the Japanese government.  According to M o m b u s h o the purpose of education for  Kaigai  Shijyo  is to provide  an appropriate education as a Japanese national to students who reside at a different educational environment from that inside Japan. H o w e v e r there is 0 1  C O N C L U S I O N / 124  no description of what "an appropriate education for Japanese" is. In m a n y cases it is interpreted as "a sufficient ability to c o m p e t e in the schooling race back in Japan." W h e n the aim for education of  Kaigai  Shijyo  is preparation for reentry  into Japan, the students tend to ignore natural and cultural resources of local communities. It is unfortunate that Japanese students would not have international experiences even though they had lived overseas.  2. Open-School  Model  Many different m o d e l s of overseas Japanese schools has b e e n proposed. One of t h e m is the "open-school" model. For example, O h n o suggests that the functions of overseas Japanese schools should be:  1 1  to accept all applicants without limitation by race or nationality, to o p e n school facilities to the local community, to serve as a Japanese cultural center, to provide a Japanese language class.  Inui suggests opening the d o o r of Japanese schools to the children of the local community. This would add international color to the Japanese school 2 1  overseas. He also suggests making Japanese schools a cultural e x c h a n g e center with the host country, introducing Japanese culture and education to the local community and providing an orientation of the host country to the newly arrived Japanese. He lists examples of the u s a g e of the center as:  3 1  providing Japanese language classes for residents of the local  CONCLUSION / 1 2 5 community teaching classes of local language a n d history of the host country for the families, mainly for wives of the overseas workers opening a supplementary school for children on w e e k e n d s ; providing a bi-lingual class to accept non-native Japanese speaking children.  Overseas schools can also b e designed for introducing Japanese education a n d culture to foreign countries. In developing countries, school facilities can be used as training centers for co-operative educational programs. At the s a m e time, the school can be an information center to collect educational data in overseas countries. M a s a m u n e also believes that Japanese schools a n d HJK should play a nuclear role for the diffusion of Japanese culture.  4 1  3. Some Recommendations  for the V a n c o u v e r H J K  First of all, the Vancouver HJK should o p e n its doors to the entire Japanese speaking population in Vancouver. Thus those w h o want to enroll in this school should be given an equal opportunity with n o discrimination b y father's occupation. H o w e v e r to maintain an appropriate language level a n d function as a psychological stabilizer, adequate knowledge and ability in speaking Japanese is required by all. The school could give an entrance examination to m e a s u r e the language level of the candidates. 5 1  CONCLUSION / 1 2 6 Another r e c o m m e n d a t i o n is that the Japanese school should be used as a Japanese resource center. At the m o m e n t the Japanese community in Vancouver d o e s not posses a comprehensive center for introducing Japanese culture t o Canadians. T h e researcher proposes that the Vancouver HJK could play a central role. In order to d o so, they would n e e d a permanent facility and m o r e full-time staff. If the Japanese c o m m u n i t y in Vancouver desired to have a Japanese culture center, the HJK should expand its service and b e the core of a n e w cultural center. This would be a desirable long-term goal of the HJK which would help reunite the divided factions of the Japanese community.  T h e following are s o m e practical short term recommendations that would b e useful to the entire c o m m u n i t y and can be implemented almost immediately at very low cost:  T h e school library at HJK has an excellent collection of juvenile literature written in or translated into Japanese. T h e researcher's librarianship background leads her to believe that it has not b e e n used as effectively as it could h a v e been. There are m a n y b o o k s at the kindergarten level even though this HJK d o e s not offer a kindergarten program. It is unfortunate that such a nice collection is closed to the young Japanese population in the local community. M o r e use of c o m m u n i t y events such as storytelling and other Japanese cultural events according to the calender would encourage children t o participate m o r e actively in the library. T h e VCR is currently used m o r e for entertainment purposes than for  CONCLUSION / 127 education in the Japanese community. H o w e v e r the VCR could be used for m o r e educational purposes at h o m e . The researcher's survey s h o w e d a high percentage of access to the VCR machine at the students' h o m e s . If a video library of educational programs could b e provided by the HJK, m a n y students would receive benefits in the future. This would b e a useful educational resource for both the Japanese and the local Canadian community.  It is very important that the Vancouver HJK e x p a n d its social connections to the local community. Otherwise this school will remain a symbol of Japanese ethno-centricity.  4. Recommendations for the V a n c o u v e r School Board  There is n o written curriculum guide on the B . C . school system in the Japanese language. A g o o d understanding of schools and the school system is essential for all parents. In 1986 over 5000 Japanese nationals lived in Greater Vancouver. It is a s s u m e d over 1000 families with school a g e children resided in this area. A Japanese language booklet describing the B . C . education system would benefit those families who are not familiar with the school system in B . C . and especially those w h o h a v e a significant language barrier.  CONCLUSION / 1 2 8 D. SUMMARY  "Rich international experience" is often described as one g o o d feature of Shijyo.  Kaigai  Inui concludes that the internationality which children gain overseas is  based on personal experience. Through the process of making friends, a child 6 1  w h o had previously b e e n isolated b e c a u s e of a lack of communication skills would learn m a n yn e w life style patterns. Children especially would appreciate "kindness", "love", and "trust", which would be very significant given that they had b e e n previously apprehensive due t o their inability to c o m m u n i c a t e in both verbally and non-verbally. Also children growing up overseas begin to b e conscious of their h o m e country and of being Japanese in a foreign land.  The experience of attending both an HJK and a local school gives an overseas Japanese student the opportunity to gain wider insight into a foreign culture. It is unfortunate that the severe Japanese educational competition which is fostered by parents, and is the reason for the existence of the HJK, prevents s o m e children from having leisure time to enjoy their overseas experience. H o w e v e r this has not prevented m o s t Japanese students from performing well in both the local schools and the HJK.  The central role adopted by the Vancouver HJK is to prepare students for reentry into Japan. Through the use of Japanese classroom discipline, Japanese textbooks, and Japanese teaching m e t h o d s it achieves this objective quite well. T o date the school has not yet seriously b e g u n to develop the desirable secondary objective of promoting links within the Japanese community and becoming a  CONCLUSION / 1 2 9 Japanese cultural diffusion centre. O n e of the aspects which prevent the development of these links is the segregative attitude taken by the school m a m a g e m e n t b o d y towards the local Japanese community of Japanese Canadians and Japanese immigrants  (Eizhu-sha).  Currently Japanese schools overseas d o not aim to b e cultural diffusion centers. As Japanese e c o n o m i cp o w e r increases, interests in Japan a n d Japanese culture has grown. Japan has the resource which should m a k e the introduction of its culture a n d perspectives to other countries o n e of its priorities. Because the network of Japanese schools already exists, these schools could constitute the core of the program. For this to happen, teachers sent by the Japanese g o v e r n m e n t should at least be fluent in the local language with sufficient background in teaching.  This thesis has presented both short term programs and long term objectives that would improve the overseas experience of  Kaigai  Shijyo  a n de n h a n c e the  s c o p e of the HJK in a beneficial m a n n e r . Japanese schools overseas have m a n y possibilities to contribute to the internationalization of education. Policy making o n overseas education should b e based o n long term a n d global vision.  CONCLUSION / 1 3 0 The researcher did not investigate the public school teachers w h o a r e teaching the Japanese students attending the HJK. H o w e v e r this is confirmed by personal contacts with several ESL/regular classroom teachers. The researcher heard a case of behaviour problems in an ESL class from an ESL teacher personally, a n d a case of running a w a y from school during school hours because of miscommunication with the h o m e r o o m teacher w a s reported by an HJK student w h e n h e was in Grade 3. In both cases problems e m e r g e d within six m o n t h s time after the students' arrival. Tadahiko Abiko and Paul S. George, "Education for Early Adolescents in Japan, U.S. : Cross-Cultural Observations" in NASSP Bulletin, D e c e m b e r , 1986, p . 7 5 . Notes from unpublished paper, Vincent D'Oyley, Willms, and Ota, "After-hours Japanese Schools in B.C. 1 9 8 5 8 6 . " Naomi Horoiwa, "Kaigai Seisho Nihon-jin no Tekiou ni okeru Naibu ("Conflict within" a m o n g the Japanese Raised Abroad) in Ibunka-ka (Intercultural Education) 1987, No.l. p . 7 1 . M o m b u s h o ,  Kaigai  Shijyo  Kyoiku  no Genjyo  (Tokyo: M o m b u s h o ,  Kattou" Kyoiku  1986), p . 2 4 .  There was a service of distributing the Japanese textbook for language schools overseas until 1 9 8 5 8 6 academic year by the Japan Foundation. Tetsuya Kobayashi, "Kaigai/'Kikoku Shijyo no Kyoiku no Kaizen ni tsuite" (Regarding the reform of education for children overseas and returnees) in Nihon Hikaku Kyoiku Gakkai Kiyou VIII (March 1982), p . 4 0 . Tsutae Sato, Beika ni okeru dai-nisei no Kyoiku (Education for the S e c o n d Generation in USA a n d Canada) (Vancouver: Jikyodo, 1932). M o m b u s h o , Kaigai  Shijyo  Kyoiku  no Genjyo,  1 9 8 6 , p. 11.  M a s a o O h n o , "Kyoiku no Kokusai-ka to Kaigai Nihon-jin Gakkou no Yakuwari" (Internationalization of Education a n d Roles of Japanese Schools Overseas) in Ibunka-kan Kyoiku (Intercultural Education) 1987, No.l. p p . 3 5 3 6 . S u s u m u Inui, and Kazuhiko Sono, Kaigai Chuzai-in no Shijyo Kyoiku; Kage otosu Shingaku Kyousou (Education for children of overseas workers; influences of entrance examination) (Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Shimbunsha, 1977), p . 1 1 7 . o  Inui a n dS o n o ,  Ibid.,  1977, p. 116.  Isao M a s a m u n e , "Nentou n o Goaisatsu" ( N e w Year's Greeting) in Shijyo Kyoiku (Education for Kaigai Shijyo) No. 119, 1983, p . 3 0 .  Kaigai  C O N C L U S I O N / 131  In the HJK in Los Angeles, b y law the school can not discriminate against a person because of his nationality, gender, or his beliefs. S oa n y o n e can enroll in this school as long as they can speak Japanese. M a n y children with different ethnic background study together, (by Toshio Takada, "Daikibo Hoshu Kyoiku  Jugyo Kou ni okeru Gakkou Un'ei to sono Mondai-ten" Shisetsu ni okeru Shido Jissen Kiroku V o l u m e VII  in  Zaigai  (Tokyo: Tokyo Gakugei Daigaku Kaigai Shijyo Kyoiku Senta'a, 1985), p . 3 2 .  Inui and Sono,  Op.cit.,  1977, pp. 1 5 7 1 5 8 .  APPENDIX  I : SURVEY  (ENGLISH  TRANSLATION)  This is a questionnaire to determine the perspectives of the Japanese children w h o experience dual schooling in B . C .  The purposes of this questionnaire are: 1 .  to portrait the daily life of the  2 .  to study the process of acculturation  Kaigai  Shijyo  in Vancouver  In this questionnaire, "school" indicates local school in B . C . ,a n d "HJK" is the Japanese Language H o s h u J u g y o K o in Vancouver, B . C .  The actual survey will b e conducted in Japanese. This is an English version for reference.  132  / 1 3 3 Dear students in the Vancouver HJK; October 1 9 8 7  This is a survey to study s o m e aspects of your life in Vancouver. You have a n unique experience of attending two schools which belong to different cultures, that is, a Canadian local school and HJK. Here you study in two languages; in English and in Japanese.  W e would like to k n o w about your experiences s o that m o r e people, such a s teachers in both Canada and Japan, can understand you better.  This questionnaire contains the following questions: 1 . questions about your background like age, sex, place of birth, before you c a m e to Canada your language 2. life at school in the local school and HJK, and after-school-hours 3. life generally in B . C .  It will take about ten tofifteenminutes tofillin this questionaire. You do not n e e d to write your n a m e . Please read the questions and check appropriately in the s a m e p a g e or write your c o m m e n t .  W e appreciate your participation in this survey. Your action being voluntary m a y be withdrawn at anytime. The data collected by this study is confidential and will be used only for research purposes.  Thank you for your cooperation.  University of British Columbia Department of Social and Educational Studies M . A . Student Midori Ota  / 134 Survey of the students in HJK in Vancouver, 1987  Please answers i n the space  provided (  ) and check the appropriate  box.  1 .  (Al) I am in Grade  in Vancouver HJK.  2 .  (A2)(A7) I am in Grade in ( School N a m e ) (A3) My birthday is ( day / m o n t h / year )  4 .  (A4) I was born in  Japan other country(  5 .  (A5) I am  a girl a boy.  6 .  (A6) I am now living in  Vancouver Richmond North Vancouver West Vancouver Burnaby Surrey New Westminster other location(  / 1 3 5 Please read the instructions on this page and answer the questions. You can write you answer in the right side of the each page.  NOTE: 1.  Use the following scale to answer the questions, (example) Strongly  Strongly  Yes 1  Neutral 2  3  No 4  5  1 : "Yes" 2 : "Yes" somewhat 3 : Neutral 4 : "No" somewhat 5 : "No" Check one number which is most agreeable. There are questions to answer Yes/No, or numbers. There are some open-ended questions, too. 2.  Those who were born and raised in Canada, and do not have any experience in living outside Canada, can omit the questions with * mark.  Before you c a m e to Canada  1 .  (Bl) * W e r e you glad to hear that your familyw a s moving to Canada?  2 . ' (B2) * W e r e you looking forward to attending aCanadian school in B . C . ? 3 .  looking forward to attending aHJK in B . C . ? (B3) * W e r e you  4 .  o s tb o t h e r s o m e issue foryou w h e n you first c a m e (B4) * W h a t w a sthe m to B . C . ?  / 1 3 6 About language  1 .  (Cl) * Did you study English before you c a m e to C a n a d a ?  2 .  (C2) Could you understand what teachers a n d friends said w h e n you first w e n t to school in Canada?  3 .  (C3) Are you n o w able to communicate in English with your teachers at school?  4.  (C4) Are you n o w able to communicate in English with your friends at school?  5 .  (C5) D o you usually speak English at h o m e with your family?  6 .  (C6) D o you feel m o r e comfortable in English than in Japanese?  7 .  (C7) D o you often watch TV or VCR?  8 .  (C8) H o wm a n y hours do you watch Japanese TV s h o w s or video every w e e k ?  9 .  (C9) H o wm a n y hours do you watch English TV s h o w s or video every w e e k ?  10. (CIO) D o e s your family have a VCR ? 11. (Cll) H o wm a n yb o o k s do you read in Japanese every m o n t h besides your school books? 12. (C12) H o wm a n yb o o k s do you read in English every m o n t h besides your school books?  Now  y o u are attending  Please  both C a n a d i a n a n d Japanese  tell us your experience  i n both  schools.  schools.  Canadian school life  1 .  (Dl) Are students in your school friendly to you?  2 .  (D2) Is your teacher at school helpful and understanding of you?  3 .  (D3) Do you feel that you are left out in the class?  4 .  (D4) Is school w o r k too difficult for you to follow?  5 .  (D5) Do you enjoy going to a local school in Canada?  6 .  (D6) Do you think you are fortunate that you have the opportunity experience school life in Canada?  / 1 3 8 After-school-time in Canada  1 .  (El) * D o you think you are busier than you w e r e in Japan?  2 .  (E2) Do you play with Canadian friends m o r e often than with Japanese friends?  3 .  (E3) Are you taking private English lessons to catch u p on the school w o r k in your Canadian school?  4 .  (E4) Have you taken private English lessons to catch u po n the school work in your Canadian school?  5 .  (E5) D o you take a correspondence course from Japan.  6 .  (E6) Do you also take private lesson(s) in subjects taught in school in Japan?  7 .  (E7) D o you take sports lessons or belong to a sports club?  8 .  (E8) D o you take music lessons or belong to a school b a n d ?  9 .  (E9) W h a t do you think the m o s t attractive aspect of Canadian school life is?  / 1 3 9 Life at HJK  1 .  (Fl) Are the students in the HJK friendly to y o u ?  2 .  (F2) Is you teacher at the HJK helpful a n d understands you well?  3 .  (F3) D o you feel that you are left out of the class?  4 .  (F4) Is school w o r k at HJK too difficult for you to follow?  5 .  (F5) D o you enjoy going to HJK?  6 .  (F6) W h a t is your purpose for attending HJK? N u m b e r the priorities according to your o w n case. If there is any personal reason besides the prepared answers, please write it d o w n . to study Japanese language. to catch u p with school w o r k in Japan or to prepare for returning to Japan to m e e t friends a n d speak in Japanese other  7 .  (F7) W h a t do you think is the m o s t attractive aspect of HJK?  / 140 Impression of Living in B . C .  1 .  (Gl) Are you glad that you h a v e the opportunity to live in B . C . ?  2.  (G2) Do you want to g o back to Japan as s o o n as possible?  3 .  (G3) If you were told that your family will return to Japan next month, will you b e sorry to hear that?  4 .  (G4) If you have the opportunity would you s e e k to c o m e back to B . C . for your further education? (e.g. high school/college/university)  5 .  (G5) W h a t is the m o s t b o t h e r s o m e issue for you (at school) NOW ?  We will ask you about yourself m o r e  1 .  (Hla) Have you ever lived foreign country before coming to Canada? YES  NO  (Hlb) * If YES, write w h e n and w h e r e you have been.  /1 4 1 2 .  (H2) H o w long have you b e e n living overseas? (Add all the m o n t h s you h a v e b e e n outside Japan.) year(s)  3 .  (H3) W h e n did you c o m e to Canada? in  4 .  /1 9  ( Month / Year )  (H4) W h e n did you c o m e to B . C . ? in  5 .  month(s)  / ' 19  ( Month / Year )  Did you g o to ESL class w h e n you first w e n t to school in B . C . ? YES  N O  5 a (H5a) If it is YES, tell us W H E N(H O W LONG ) a n d WHICH S C H O O L you attended. If you h a v e transfered, n a m e all ESL classes you attended. I  School N a m e Start / Finish  II  School N a m e Start / Finish  III  School N a m e Start / Finish  5 b (H5b) if it is N O , tell us the reason you did N O T go to ESL class.  APPENDIX  II  : SURVEY  (ORIGINAL  IN  JAPANESE)  19 8 7 ^ 1 0 ^  ®  ^ ' i f o ^ a - a n  B.C.JH-eo^Ecoc^-r  ifl&ft  yt'7A¥  *¥R*lt¥8Mraa:&W  Social and Educational Studies Faculty of Education University of British Columbia  km  m 142  / 143  1 9 8 7 * 1 0 / !  1 2  o ^ i / -  -JofcLtts  3  h f c t c i ^ B t t , J_9  4  JofcLtt  •  F3*T  •  H  ¥  £  B?^  K  "ct.  9  4 t n t L f c .  (i'ctiinjtfc^. 5  )  n & A , £  •  A ' - n -  •  ~*-  n x ^ v x ? -  •  *o«s  (  )  / 144  (#1)  t i n  1  5  (in)  *$®  m>  ft"btoi>xtn»  tH>*  rat^j  =>  UH>*_J  At^titnt^^  *^-^£i^-ose^^c:<»:©^^Att  ««|-?*^^c5lo*|-rc:4*IH^fc^  ®1.....2  3.....4  5  «Jftttcft<®*«*L.*-eL.fcfr.  ©1.....2  3  4  5  «Stt«ftCft<OA<*L.*TLfc*>.  ®1  3  4  5  2  / 145  D ®  ®  5  L £ Ltifr. ttLs*TS»ttcff-ofcl5.  *«tt©*4i$S"ff^S*<  ®  © 1  2  3  4  5  (D 1  2  3  4  5  ® 1  2  3  4  5  ® 1  2  3  4  5  ©  •J-fcTtt^fc'^fciiySTftL.*-*-*.  ©1.....2  3  4  5  ©  $S©tt^3&<B*SJ:*)t>tt^'rt^-r^.  © 1  3  4  5  ®  £t*<P^ufc-^b-T*£flffiSlll3<  ®  5 ^  (i^fc»xTiH^t.)  2  fl  5 H < f c ^ M * * .  / 146  i  —  —  I  ®  SttRo&fc'^ttftttfccfc^LTaw-ff-T**.  ® S«!ttw5fe*tt.  «k<*ttfc**3^o-r  ® 1  2  3  4  5  © 1  2  3  4  5  ®  h t z t t t t . ? 7.x©*-?JR»ja*nfc«fc 7tt  ® 1  2  3  4  5  ®  3Httfc©JBaco^T^  ® 1  2  3  4  5  <  ©  $>KKK.mi&&tzfT<  ©  * * f c t t * * ^ - ? f « K : f f < t^TttWtkW  (DtfZLLk'Ctfr.  © 1  © 1  2  2  3  3  4  4  5  5  / 147 !  »>  ®  fcfcfctiB^cnfclt.fc'K § B © £ & # n * # L <  ©  &*fcitftti>  i t *  ® 1  2  3  4  5  ® 1  2  3  4  5  ^ o f c i S ^ i t ^ ,  fc£fcKH*A0&rt£^ck*K  ®  &£fcti£lft&©J»&(Con-c:n<rt:*K  (D  •  tin  •  IH^  ®  &£fctiSta#®»*£onTn<  ®  •  tin  •  n n i  ©  &Kiz&B£fr*<Dmm&lj£sLi)x^itfr  © •  tin  •  nn*_  ©  *£fctitl*03&Kigftftn<fc.9£  ©  •  ttn  •  nn*.  ®  feftfcti^.-ff-yg)?  ©  •  tin  •  nn*.  •  tin  •  n n *  B  ^yEtinofc*?  tfnc£LTn ®  fctffctt^'y  K  e  t  t  l  e  <  D  / 148  ®  «g«©&i£ttfc£fcCfc^LT««-?-f7K  ® 1  2  3  4  5  ®  S = g # i © & £ f c U J : <i>ts.1t*t>ir~,X  ® 1  2  3.....4  5  ®  7XOd3-c?IX»)Sc>nfc«fc-9^  ® l  2  3  4  5  ®  «g#®i&&C^T^<0ttX£-c?1-fr.  ® 1  2  3  4  5  £ i i | £ & ^ T . B * t * T & £ * S C <»: *©te (  .  ;  )  /  J  149  I  '  1 »>  ©  ^ ' J f ^  •3 n y f 7 J H C t t t ; C i * <  0  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  ®1  2  3  4  5  ® 1  2  3  4  5  TST-jntn-C-rfr.  ®  feH>*^B*c»4c:iK:8it-,fci  ®  bLbH&ifi*tot£.m+j&(Dm&(Dizib  *  ranj  <bg;ifci><be.  t&tt*^ Wvl  / 150  *  E S L©*  ®-a  r  tttM  7  *RM<  x c A *) £ L-fcK  J:^fel>J:t:, r  ^oj  • r^tt^gftftj  "e\  •  © b  •  tm  •  mm  r^^^j  £?g?LJtr}££  r  <t*©< £ t » © M I H j  -Cl<fcfr  APPENDIX  THE  III:  THE  RESULTS  RESULTS  OF SURVEY  1. Personal  Data (I)  (Al)  in the Vancouver  Grade  G4  21  G5  18  G6  I UK.  10  G7  20  G9  11  G8  (A2)  OF  11  Grade  in a Local  G4  4  G5  25  G6  14  G8  18  G7  G9  G10  9  15 3  missing  3  151  School  in B.C.  SURVEY  (A7)  Local  Schools  Attended  Area  Elementary  Vancouver  Carr  (2)  School  ;  Jamieson  Kerrisdale Laurier  (1)  (1)  Wolfe (Total  56)  Richmond  (total  Bridge  North  Vancouver  Lonsdale  1)  (total  2)  (total  Burnaby  Private (Total  2)  (6)  ; (2)  Britannia  (1)  ;  Churchill  Gladstine  (1)  ;  Magee  Point  Grey  (total  20)  (9)  ;  (5)  (3)  Prince  ; ;  of  Wales  (1)  ;  Home  (4)  ;  Maple  lane  (1)  Burnett (5) ; Palmer (3) ;  ;  (3)  (total (1) (1)  4)  Lynnmore  (1)  West Over  ; (1)  (1)  ;  9)  Carson  Graham  Wmdser (total  Cambie  (1)  (3)  ;  Suthemland  (1)  ;  ;  5)  (1)  1)  Davidson  Schools  Van  ; Tomsett (1)  7)  Brentwood  Surrey (Total  ;  (1)  Ridgeway  (Total  ;  William  (total  (total  Grove  ;  Oppenheimer  Quilchena (1)  (2)  (1)  16)  9)  ;  (2)  36)  (Total  (Total  ;  School  (1)  Kilgour  MaKay  ;  (8)  Kitchener  Maple  (5)  (1)  Trafalgar  ;  ;  McKechnie Osier  Secondary  1)  (1)  Johnstone (total St.  Height  (1)  1)  Aquinas  York  House  (total  2)  /  North  /  Vancouver  Vancouver  (1)  (1)  (missing  5 cases)  Ol  (A3)  Year  of Birth  1972  9  1973  10  1974  18  1975  9  1976  17  1977 (missing  (A4)  1 case)  Place  27  of Birth  Japan  67  Canada  8  other  14  (  (75.3%)  9.0%)  (15.7%)  (missing 2 cases)  (A5) Gender  (45.0%)  Female  41  Male  49  (55.0%)  Vancouver  58  (64.4%)  Richmond  18  North  10  (missing 1 case)  (A6)  Residencial Area  West  Vancouver Vancouver  1  Bumaby  1  Surrey  1  (missing 1 case)  (20.0%) (11.1%) (1.1%) (1.1%) (1.1%)  2. Attitude  before  came  to  Canada  Questions  Yes  Yes  Neutral  (Bl) to  'Were  you  glad  to hear  that your  family  was  moving  Canada?  (B2) school  *Were in  you  looking forward  (B3)  'Were  you  looking forward  (B4)  'What  was  the  B.C.?  to  attending  a Canadian  B.C.?  none/  to attending  most bothersome  a  issue for  HJK  in  you  when  answered  (  English 9  16  13  19.0%  15.5%  18  14  21.4%  16.7%  23  28  28.0%  you first came  Friend  34.1%  to  B.C.?  discrimination  balnk G4  5  16  (  G5  5  9  (  9  0  2  0  G6  1  9  (  6  2  1  G7  1  18  (  G8  2  8  (  G9  5  5  (  total  19  65  (  16 6 4 50  1 1  1  3 0  0  0 6  5  No  No  missing  7  somewhat  somewhat 34  8  13  40.5%  9.5%  15.5%  27  8  17  32.1%  9.5%  20.2%  17  4  10  20.7%  4.9%  12.2%  (*  students  may  wrote  School  other  3  2  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  1  4  5  ) ) ) ) ) ) )  two  or  7  9  more answers.)  3.  Language  Question  Yes  Yes  Neutral  (Cl)  'Did  you  study  English  before  you  came  to  Canada?  16 18.8%  (C2)  Could you  understand  when XOJJ fJISI a e n t (C3)  your  Are  you  teachers  (C4)  Are  your  friends  (C5)  Do  now  at  you  you  able  school?  now  at  what teachers  Jo school in  able  and  friends said  Canada?  to communicate  in  English  with  to communicate  in  English  with  Do  you  feel  speak  more  63 70.8%  English  at  home  with  your  family? (C6)  60 67.4%  school?  usually  18 20.2%  comfortable  in  English  than  in  8  7  9.4%  8.2%  8  13  9.0%  14.6%  No  missing  10 11.8%  44  6  12 13.5%  51.8% 38  12  9  1  7  10.1%  1.1%  7.9%  13  7  1  5  14.6%  7.7%  1.1%  5.5%  1  4  16  4.4%  17.8%  16  6  17  6.7%  18.9%  Japanese?  15 16.7% 10 11.1%  2  42.7%  13.5%  1.1%  17.8%  No somewhat  somewhat  54  2  2  1  60.0% 41 45.6%  1  (C7)  Do  (CIO)  you  Does  often  your  watch TV  family  or  have a  Yes  VCR?  VCR  ?  or  How video  (C9)  many every  How  hours  (75.0%)  (25.0%)  70  18  (80.0%)  (20.0%)  many  hours  every  week?  (Cll)  How  many  (C12) month  besides How  books  your  many  besides  watch Japanese T V  do you  watch  shows  MODO  3  MINIMUM  MAXIMUM  .9 hours  0.0  hour  0.0 hour  25 hours  0.0 hour  30 hours  0.0  book  99 books  0.0 book  61 books  week?  video  month  do you  3  22  MEAN (C8)  missing  No  66  TV  shows  .3 hours  2.0 hour  every  .1 books  10.0 books  read  in  Japanese  read  in  English  school books?  books  your  do you  English  do you  school books?  every  5  books  1.0  books  4. Canadian school life  Questions  Yes  Yes  Neutral  (Dl)  (D2)  Are  Is  students  your  in  teacher  your  at  school friendly  to  you?  school helpful and understanding of  you?  (D3)  Do  you  feel  that  (D4)  Is  (D5)  Do  you  enjoy  going to a local school in  (D6)  Do  you  think  you  school work  opportunity  too  you  are  difficult  are  left  out  for  you  fortunate  to experience school life  in  in  that  to  Canada?  you have  Canada?  57  18  13  3  0  19.8%  14.3%  3.3%  0.0%  40  21  19  8  2  44.4%  23.3%  21.1%  8.9%  2.2%  3.3%  follow?  the  No  62.6%  3  the class?  No  7  7.8%  missing  somewhat  somewhat  16  17.8%  12  13  19  13.2%  14.3%  20.9%  39  20  21  43.8%  22.5%  23.6%  12  52  13.3%  57.8%  16  17.6%  31  4  5 5.61%  50  12  24  1  13.3%  26.7%  1.1%  1  34.1% '  4.5%  55.6%  1  3 3.3%  2  1  5.  After-school-time jn  Canada  Question  Yes  Yes  Neutral  somewhat (El)  *Do  you  think  you  are  busier  than  you  were in  Do  with  Japanese  friends?  (E3)  Are  taking private  the  (E4) on  you play  you  school work  Have  the  you  school  with Canadian  in  your  taken  work  (E5)  Do  you  take  a  (E6)  Do  you  also  take  your  up on  school?  English  lessons to catch  Canadian school?  correspondence course  private  than  lessons to catch  English  Canadian  private  in  friends more often  lesson(s)  from  up  Japan.  in subjects  laughl  No  missing 3  31  9  21  7  20  35.2%  10.2%  23.9%  8.0%  22.7%  25  8  22  13  22  27.8%  8.9%  24.4%  14.4%  24.4%  Japan?  (E2)  No somewhat  1  Yes  No  missing  42  48  1  46.7%  53.3%  28  62  31.1%  68.9%  61  30  67.0%  33.0%  8  81  9.0%  91.0%  64  27  70.3%  29.7%  47  43  52.2%  47.8%  1  0  2  in school in Japan?  (E7)  Do  you  take  sports lessons or  belong to a sports  club?  (E8) band?  Do  you  take  music lessons or  belong to a school  0  1  (E9)  What  do  you  think  the  most attractive aspect of Canadian  Liberal  Open  Minded  Atmosphere  People  0  3  G4  school life  is?  Environment  Multi-cultural  School  Work  Others*  Experience 0  0  10  1  math  is easy  computer English  (4)  (1) (3)  P.E.(2) G5  1  2  2  0  7  7  math  is  computer English G6  1  6  1  0  5  2  (1) (2) 2  Art(l)  English 5  (1)  2 Fine  G7  easy  0  (1)  1  2  ESL/ECL G8  3  4  0  2  1  1  English G9  6  2  0  1  1  1 electives  Total  *  no  16  pressure  there  is a  for  entrance  school  22  examination (1)  band (1),  everything  5  , no school uniforms (1)  is practical  (1),  everything  3  , no school on  is good (7).  Saturdays  22  (1),  14  long holidays  (2),  6. Life at HJK  Question (Fl)  Yes  Are  the  students  in  the  HJK  friendly  to  Yes  you?  55  20  61.1% (F2)  Is  you  you  well?  (F3)  Do  (F4) Is follow?  (F5)  teacher  at  HJK  helpful and understands  22.2%  35  23  39.3% you  feel  that  school work  Do  the  you  enjoy  you are  at  HJK  going to  left  too  out of the  difficult  for  Neutral  somewhat  25.8%  4  class?  you to  13 14.4% 25  28.1%  4  4.4%  4.4%  (1) (2)  What to  is your  study  Japanese  or  to catch  to  prepare  up  (3)  to  meet  friends  (4)  other*  * To  Reasons  To  it  check  language.  with school work  for  listed as  and  speak in  by  result  of Japanese  To  exam. (1);  play No  people. (1);  soccer. (2); comment  (1);  3 3.4%  2 0  54 59.3%  9  9  27  22  23  10.0%  30.0%  24.4%  25.6%  Yes  No  60  29  Japan  (1);  3 3.4% 10  Because  it  is compulsory. (1);  1  missing 2  (32.6%)  HJK?  studying with Japanese  1 1.1%  11.0%  "other" well  1  1 1.1%  19  Japanese  is minimum requirement the  in  returning to Japan  understand Japan  Because  attending  missing  10.0%  HJK?  purpose for  No  20.9%  (67.4%) (F6)  No somewhat  19  21.1%  44  48.9%  20 7  22.2% 7.8%  (F7)  What  do  you  think  is the  most attractive  aspect of  HJK?  G4 be  able  to speak  in  Japanese  1  be  able  to study  in  Japanese  2  be  able  to study  Japanese  to meet  Japanese  friends  be  to  able  teachers to  watch  language  G5  G6  G7  3  3  10  3  3  1  0  3  2  0  0  0  1  2  G8  G9  1  1  5  5  5  5  2  3  1  0  0  4  0  2  is nice  1  1  0  0  0  0  video  takeover  schoolwork in  Japan  3  0  0  0  0  0  long recess  3  5  1  0  0  0  once  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  a  useful subjects  week to  release  are  easy  tension  7.  oS Living in ML  Impression  Question (Gl) in  Yes  Are  you  glad  that  you have  the  opportunity  to live  Do  (G3)  Japan  If  14.4%  63.3% you  want  to  go back  to  Japan  as soon as  20  possible?  22.0%  you  next  were  told  month, will  that you  your  be  family  sorry  will  to hear  return  to  that?  Neutral  11  38 42.2%  No  No  missing 1  somewhat  13  57  B.C.?  (G2)  Yes somewhat  18  2  0  20.0%  2.2%  0.0%  28  12  26  30.8%  13.2%  28.6%  20  6  12.2%  22.2%  28  15  31.8%  17.0%  30 34.1%  15 16.7%  6.7% (G4)  If  you  back  to  B.C.  have  the  for  your  opportunity further  would  education?  you  seek  to come  (e.g. high  school/college/university) (G5)  What  is  the  most  bothersome  None  at  study  at  study  for  local school HJK  schools in  9.1%  8.0%  English study  8 7  issue for  (at  Total  G4  42  8  16  3  15 17 Japan  you  6  2 3  5  3  personnal issues  3  2  1  ?  G5  G6  G7  G8  G9  11  7  9  2  5  3  2  3  3  2  6  5  3  6  5  3  1  2  1  1  1 3  5  language  NOW  1  friend  test  school)  1  1  1  8.  Personal  Data  (II)  (Hla) Have Canada?  you  ever  (Hlb)  YES,  • If  lived  foreign country  write when  and  where  before coming to  you  have been.  Yes  35  United  (40.2%)  States of  No  52  (59.8%)  9  America Republic  of  South  West Germany Papua  (H2)  How  long have  you  been living  overseas?  New  Guiana  Africa 8 3 2  Australia  2  Canada  2  Egypt  1  Switzerland  1  Belgiune  1  Iran  1  Indonesia  1  England  1  (  4  missing  average  3.2  ) years  missing  (H3)  When  did you come to Canada?  by year  by month  1973  1  4  1979  January  3  February  4  1980  2  1981  2  1983  7  May  2  1984  June  9  8  1985  22  July  12  1986  16  1982  March April  3  1987  August  16  When  did you come to  (H5) Did you go to B.C.?  ESL  B.C.?  class when you first went  Same as in  to school  Yes  17  September  4  October  2  November (H4)  10 13  1  December  4  29 33.0%  missing  (H3)  59 (67.0%)  G4  :  12 out of 21 (57.1%)  G5  :  10 out of 20 (50.0%)  G6  : 6 out of 10 (60.0%)  G7  :  16 out of 20 (80.0%)  G8  :  8 out of 11 (72.7%)  G9  :  8 out of 11 (72.7%)  No  (H5-a)  If  tell  WHEN  us  attended.  it If  is  YES, (  you  HOW  Vancouver LONG  )  and  have transfered, name  WHICH  SCHOOL  all  classes you attended.  ESL  you  Jaimieson  (10)  Kitchener  (1)  Laurier  (1)  Maple  Grove  McKechnie  Wolfe  (3)  (3)  Home  Waverley Richmond  (6)  (1)  (7)  Kilgour  Burnett  (3)  Cambie  Manoah  Steveston  (3)  North  (1)  Vancouver  Landsdale  (1)  Lynnmore  (2)  Ridgeway West  (H5-b)  If  tell  the  us  it  is  NO,  reason  you  did  NOT  go  to  ESL  class.  (5)  Over  Carson  (1)  Graham  (3)  Burnaby  Brentwood  *  Arrived  *  Could understand  at  *  No  *  Bom  *  Grade  ESL  under  classes  Grade English available  in Canada down  one  year  3  (3)  William  Bridge Steves  Grey  (2)  Tecumseh Van  Point  Parkcrest  (1) (1)  Palmer  (1) (2) (1)  (8)  APPENDIX  IV: J A P A N E S E  - ENGLISH  GLOSSARY  Japanese  English  Boeki  - a gathering of businessmen from  Konwa-kai  major Japanese based multi-national companies and branches of major Japanese companies. B.C.  shu Nihongo  Shinkou-kai  - The Association for Promoting Teaching Japanese in B . C .  Choki  Taizai-sha  - (i) a long term resident. - (ii) Japanese nationals w h o stay at the s a m e area overseas m o r e than three months, ( b y Gaimusho)  Chuou  Kyoiku  Shingi-kai  - the Central Educational Council.  Chuzai-sha  - businessmen assigned from the main office in Japan  Eizhu-sha  - (ii) a permanent resident. - (ii) Japanese nationals with landed immigrant status, (by Gaimusho)  Gaimusho  - the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.  Gakkou  Kyokai  - School Association.  Gakkou  Youran  - the HJK school report.  Genchi-jin  - local people, local residents  Imin  - immigrants.  166  / 1 6 7  - an private after-hours school for  Juku  following up or studying m o r e advanced materials in order to prepare an entrance examination. Kaigai  - (i) Japanese children living overseas  Shijyo  accompanied by their parents. - (ii) children living overseas with Japanese national in their compulsory school age of Japan, (by M o m b u s h o ) Kaigai  Shijyo  Kyoiku  sesaku  ni kansuru  no Kihon-teki  Kenkyu  Kyogi-kai  - the Council on Fundamental Policy Studies for Promoting Education of Kaigai  Kaigai  Shijyo  Kyoiku  Senta'a  Shijyo.  - the Center of Education for Kaigai Shijyo.  Kaigai  Shijyo  Kyoiku  Shinkou  Zaidan  - the Foundation for Promoting Education for Kaigai Shijyo.  Kikoku  Shijyo  - (i) returnees. - (ii) Children of overseas workers or others w h o stayed in an overseas country continuously m o r e than one year, and returned b e t w e e n the previous academic year, (by M o m b u s h o )  Kokugo Kyoiku  - the Japanese Language. Chokugo  M o m b u s h o  - the Imperial Rescript on Education. - the Ministry of Education.  / Nihongo  Hoshu  (Hoshu  Jyugyo  Gakkou Kou)  - Japanese Language Supplementary School.  Nihon-jin  - the Japanese nationals.  Nikkei-jin  - the s e c o n d or third generation Japanese descendents.  Un'ei  -the Governing Board.  Iinkai  Zen'nichi (Nihon-jin  Sei Gakkou Gakkou)  - a full-time Japanese school.  REFERENCES  Abiko, Tadahiko a n d Paul S. George. "Education for Early Adolescents in Japan, U . S . : Cross-Cultural Observations". In NASSP Bulletin. Nagoya: D e c e m b e r , 1986, pp. 1 1 2 1 2 3 . Ebuchi, Kazuhiro. "Kodomo-tachi  no Ibunka  Sesshoku"  e x p e r i e n c e db y children). In Ibunka  (Cross-cultural encounter  ni Sodatsu  Kodomo-tachi  (Children Growing Up in Foreign Cultures). Kobayashi Tetsya e d . Tokyo: Yuhikaku, 1983, p p . 2 2 8 . "Shudai-settei  no Shushi  to TeianlTougi  no Sokatsu"  (Proposal of t h e  t h e m e a n ds u m m a r y of the discussion). 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