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An exploration of the construct validity of Durrell Visual memory of words, intermediate Booth, Janice Ann 1978

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AN EXPLORATION OF THE CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF DURRELL VISUAL MEMORY OF WORDS: INTERMEDIATE by JANICE ANN BOOTH B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1978 '' j ;. •• B o o t h r i IS 7 8 © J a n i c e Ann Booth, 1978 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of this thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of yCPQCPrC i The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 Date ^ y o > a ^ ^ C \ \ , \°C\% i ABSTRACT The purpose o f the study was to expl o r e the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f the D u r r e l l s u b t e s t V i s u a l Memory of Words: Intermediate. The study was designed to i n v e s t i g a t e whether the D u r r e l l V i s u a l Memory o f Words: Intermediate measures v i s u a l memory, as i t i s purported or i n c l u d e s a measure o f an a u d i t o r y - v i s u a l i n t e g r a t i o n process i n short-term memory. The study was conducted i n f o u r s t a ges: Stage One des-c r i b e d the paradigm f o r the study and i d e n t i f i e d t e s t s to re p r e s e n t the c o n s t r u c t s , of- a u d i t o r y memory, v i s u a l memory and a u d i t o r y - v i s u a l i n t e g r a t i o n . Stage Two.of the study r e q u i r e d a d m i n i s t e r i n g two t e s t s o f a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and three t e s t s o f a u d i t o r y - v i s u a l i n t e g r a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l l y to 6 0 grade f o u r s tudents. The sample was s t r a t i f i e d by age, gender and r e a d i n g l e v e l . The r e s u l t s of Stage Two l e d to the develop-ment of a new paradigm f o r the study and the r e t e n t i o n o f two measures of a u d i t o r y - v i s u a l i n t e g r a t i o n f o r use i n f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d i e s . In Stage Three of the study two t e s t s each of a u d i t o r y memory, v i s u a l memory and a u d i t o r y - v i s u a l i n t e g r a t i o n were administered t o 22 grade f o u r students, con-t r o l l i n g f o r t e s t order e f f e c t . The same s i x t e s t s were g i v e n to 120 grade f i v e students d u r i n g Stage Four of the study. The d a t a were sub j e c t e d t o t e s t , item and m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n i i analysis. Results of the tes t and item analysis indicated the • v, C a l i f o r n i a Phonics-Visua 1 and the: G-F^ -W Auditory Memory were too easy for the grade f i v e age students. Multiple regression analysis of the data revealed 55 percent of the variance of the Pur re 11 Visual Memory of Words;' Intermediate was accounted for by general reading a b i l i t y plus tests of auditory memory, v i s u a l memory and auditory-visual integration. It was concluded that there was s u f f i c i e n t evidence from the exploratory study to raise the question of whether the Durrell V i s u a l Memory of Words: Intermediate, does i n fact contain a measure of auditory-visual integration. Some implications and suggestions for further research were stated. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I INTRODUCTION .......... ...... .......... ... . 1 Background to the Problem ......................... 1 Statement of the Problem . 3 Purpose of the Study 4 J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the Study ....... ......... 5 D e f i n i t i o n s 5 Population ,.. 6 Organization of the Thesis ............ 8 I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . 9 Short-Term Memory .9 Organization of Memory ...,10 :.< Organization of Short-Term Memory •-, 11 Mackworth Model of the Reading Process 14 Studies i n R e l a t i o n to the Mackworth Model .... 15 Studies of the I c o n i c Store ... 17 Verbal Coding . . . . . 20 Cross-Model F u n c t i o n i n g : A u d i t o r y - V i s u a l I n t e g r a t i o n 24 I I I DESIGN OF THE STUDY • 28 Stage One 31 I n i t i a l Paradigm of the Study ................. 31 Constructs to be Measured 31 M a t e r i a l s 32 Stage Two . • 37 Purpose i 37 Sample 37 M a t e r i a l s 39 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 39 A n a l y s i s of Data • 40 Results 40 Conclusions 42 In s i g h t s R e s u l t i n g from Stage Two 42 Stage Three .. 46 S amp'lle': ps> .i s». ......... -, . 41 M a t e r i a l s 47 Admi'-ni-S't'r.a.t.iori'.. ... ,50 Codln'gixan.d'tS.G.o.ring .Procedures , . . v . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 AnalysUsieo f i •D'ateaio^ 'i^ g.- Procedure. . . 51 Resul-Lt?s.yt>'i>3« "jate? ;.5I Conc>LuSjiojis \ '52 " o n c l u s i ' • ....... -i v Stage Four . . . . . . .. . . . .-. ......... .... . .......... 53 Purpose ........... .... .. . . . .. ..... . . . ... .... 53 Sample .. .... . . ..-.... ............ 53 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 53 Coding and S c o r i n g Procedures 54 A n a l y s i s o f Data * . 55 IV ANALYSIS AND RESULTS OF DATA FROM THE FINAL STUDY. 56 Item and Tes t A n a l y s i s 56 M u l t i p l e Regression A n a l y s i s 57 V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . 65 Summary o f the Study 65 D i s c u s s i o n o f Results 68 Con c l u s i o n ; 70 L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study . . . . 71 I m p l i c a t i o n s o f the Study •••• 72-Suggestions f o r F u r t h e r Research , 73; BIBLIOGRAPHY 7 4 APPENDICES 8 7 A. Model of Memory Processes 87 B. Tests Used i n the Study 89 LIST OF TABLES v Table 1: M a t e r i a l s Used i n Stage Two 39 Table 2: Te s t S t a t i s t i c s f o r Stage Two M a t e r i a l s 42 Table 3: M a t e r i a l s Used i n Stage Three 5 0 Table 4: Stage Three: Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of Tests 51 Table 5: M a t e r i a l s Used i n Stage Four -5 4 Table 6: Test S t a t i s t i c s f o r Stage Four M a t e r i a l s 61 Table 7: Summary o f Step-Wise Regression A n a l y s i s 64 v i LIST OF FIGURES Fi g u r e l j I n i t i a l paradigm of the study . 30 F i g u r e 2'- Stages Three and Four: Paradigm of the study 46 F i g u r e 3: Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n o f raw scores on the GFW A u d i t o r y Memory t e s t - 5.8 F i g u r e 4 : Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n o f raw scores on the C a l i f o r n i a P h o n i c s - V i s u a l Test 5 9 . F i g u r e 5 : Paradigm o f the study ; 65 F i g u r e 6 ; Twv~:_ - •— '.io-m o f the s^-noV . , , v i i LIST OF DIAGRAMS Diagram 1: M. C o l t h e a r t , V i s u a l Information P r o c e s s i n g . (1972) 13 Diagram 2 J . Mackworth: Schematic Model of the Reading. Process 16 Diagram 3 : Sample Stage One, 38 Diagram 4 The l a r g e s t c o n t r i b u t o r s to the v a r i a n c e of the D u r r e l l V i s u a l Memory of Words: Intermediate • 62 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The w r i t e r expresses her a p p r e c i a t i o n to her a d v i s o r , Dr. F l o r e n c e Pieronek, f o r her a s s i s t a n c e and d i r e c t i o n through-out the study. She would a l s o l i k e to thank Dr. Todd Rogers f o r h i s support and advice on design and s t a t i s t i c a l procedures. A p p r e c i a t i o n i s extended a l s o to Dr. Bryan C l a r k e and Dr. Jane C a t t e r s o n f o r t h e i r encouragement i n the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the study. A s p e c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f thanks i s a f f o r d e d to the sch o o l board members, p r i n c i p a l s , t e a c h e r s , students and resource c e n t r e s t a f f o f Maple Ridge School D i s t r i c t whose 100 pe r c e n t c o o p e r a t i o n enabled the study t o be conducted. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background to the Problem What i s Reading? A search of the l i t e r a t u r e to attempt to answer t h i s question emphasizes the i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y nature of reading. Indeed, d e f i n i t i o n s and models of reading r e f l e c t the d i s c i p l i n e s from which they were derived; for example physiology (Holmes, 1970), psychology (Gagne, 1970; Gibson, 1970) and l i n g u i s t i c s (Goodman, 1970). I t i s important, therefore to be aware- of the th e o r e t i c a l base on which a reading model i s b u i l t . Thus, when attempting to explain v i s u a l and auditory processing beyond simple acuity i n either channel, the reading model should be based on cognitive aspects of memory, (.-"-:. J2irg"".- 2) -The a b i l i t y to process v i s u a l and auditory s t i m u l i and the integration of the two channels has been shown to be a major factor i n beginning reading success (Murphy, 194 0; Crossley, 1952; Zajac, 1958); i n reading d i s a b i l i t i e s (Bateman, 1968; Halton, 1970) and i n reading across grade and achievement level s (Katz and Deutsch, 1963; Dornbush and Basow, 1970). i 2 Throughout reading and psychology l i t e r a t u r e studies dealing with modality processing (visual discrimination, v i s u a l memory, auditory discrimination, and auditory memory) are shown to d i f f e r i n three fundamental ways: 1. The type of stimulus used, whether non-verbal or verbal, d i g i t s , designs, l e t t e r s or words. 2. The v a r i a b i l i t y of the time of exposure for the stimulus (from 250 msecs. to 5 sees). 3. The time and type of response, whether immediate recognition or delayed r e c a l l . Thus, although the tests used i n the studies require v i s u a l or auditory processing the type of r e c a l l demanded i s so d i f f e r e n t that the processes involved cannot be considered equivalent. Each task enables the accompaniment of varying rehearsal systems. Consequently, the basic question arises for the researcher who wishes to measure memory processes: Which l e v e l of v i s u a l or auditory processing does the test measure? Given these kinds of d i f f i c u l t i e s , the average reading teacher would probably f e e l most secure simply to accept the general statement that v i s u a l and auditory processes should be trained and design teaching techniques that attempt to develop both. The problem becomes less simple, however, where the notion of diagnostic testing i s introduced. I t i s sometimes suggested that i f a teacher can detect a weakness i n one channel or the 3 other, a program can be designed to teach through the stronger channel while the weaker i s strengthened. On the surface t h i s i s an a t t r a c t i v e notion and very worthwhile i f tests are available that provide v a l i d and r e l i a b l e measures of the memory processes for each modality. Unfortunately few of the tests a v a i l a b l e , while r e l i a b l e , have.been subjected to the appropriate tests of v a l i d i t y that seem almost to be demanded given the remediation programs designed around test r e s u l t s . Statement of the Problem Tests of short-term v i s u a l memory developed to diagnose a chi l d ' s strengths and weaknesses i n that area are often used by school personnel. Data obtained from such tests are used to develop remediation programmes. Visual memory may be measured i n terms of non-literacy based symbols (designs) and l i t e r a c y based symbols (words). Amonguthe most widely used tests of v i s u a l memory of design are the Benton Visual Retention Test (Benton, 1963) and the Memory for Designs Test (Graham & Kendall, 1960). One of the most extensively u-sed tests of v i s u a l memory of words i s the Visual Memory of Words: Intermediate subtest of the D u r r e l l  Analysis of Reading D i f f i c u l t y (1937,1955). 4 The subtest, Visual Memory of Words: Intermediate, i s a test designed for children whose reading l e v e l i s Grade three or above. I t consists of 15 si x , eight, nine and ten l e t t e r words not i n the child's sight vocabulary. The words are ex-posed v i a a manually operated tachistoscope at the rate of one word per three seconds. A motor response i s required by i i u immediate written r e c a l l of the l e t t e r s . Studies of short-term memory processes seem to indicate the existence of a fast-decaying v i s u a l trace l a s t i n g less than one or two seconds, aft e r which the v i s u a l memory i s strengthened by integration with verbal coding. I f thi s process i s functioning during the administration of the test, i t may be that the Dur r e l l V i s u a l Memory of Words: Intermediate i s measuring a process known as auditory-visual integration rather than v i s u a l memory. Because the quality of remediation i s dependent, upon the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the measuring instruments, i t i s important to investigate these aspects of any te s t . Purpose of the Study The study investigated the construct being measured by the Durrell.Visual. Memory of Words: Intermediate, to i d e n t i f y more s p e c i f i c a l l y the process involved i n the test i n order that i n diagnosis of an indiv i d u a l ' s strengths and weaknesses, the reading teacher becomes aware of the process^ involved i n the observed performance or behavior. "We should begin to t ry to look at the process rather than focusing e n t i r e l y on the output." ( C a r r o l l , 1974) 5. The purpose of the study i s to attempt to answer the question, Does the Du r r e l l Analysis Subtest Visual Memory of  Words: Intermediate measure v i s u a l memory or an auditory-v i s u a l integration i n short-term memory? J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the Study J u s t i f i c a t i o n for the study, therefore, i s summarized by the following points: 1. Studies reveal that v i s u a l memory i s an important factor i n the reading process. 2. From studies of short-term memory i t appears that there i s a relationship between r e c a l l and coding, — v i s u a l and verbal. 3. Remediation programs are developed based on the results of memory tests. 4. I t i s important that users and interpreters of tests be aware of the test-.sllimitations and attr i b u t e s , i . e . does the test measure what i t purports to measure? 5. The Du r r e l l Analysis of Reading D i f f i c u l t y i s currently under revision. Consequently, the study w i l l add to the body of knowledge relevant to the re v i s i o n of the tests. Definitions For the purpose of the study, the following terms are defined. v i s u a l recognition - matching response of words presented v i s u a l l y . . ., 6 v i s u a l r e c a l l - written r e c a l l of a word presented v i s u a l l y . auditory- recognition - matching of words presented o r a l l y with those words stored i n memory,.and an o r a l response. auditory r e c a l l - o r a l r e c a l l of words presented o r a l l y . auditory-visual integration - the a b i l i t y to recognize or r e c a l l words v i s u a l l y which have been presented o r a l l y . Population The defined population comprised 576 Grade four students attending 15 schools i n Maple Ridge School D i s t r i c t , B r i t i s h Columbia. The school d i s t r i c t includes the area defined by the P i t t River on i t s western boundary and Mission on i t s eastern boundary. Within the l a s t ten years th i s previously r u r a l area has been affected by suburban settlement growth as a r e s u l t of movement by families from the metropolitan area of Vancouver and immediate v i c i n i t y . For the purpose of the study three samples of Grade four and Grade f i v e students were drawn from th i s heterogeneous school population. The three separate samples are described i n d e t a i l at each stage of the study. Schools were s t r a t i f i e d according to socio-economic status and classes of Grade four and Grade f i v e students assigned randomly to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. 7 As outlined i n Chapter I I , reading achievement, gender and age appear to have an influence on performance on tests of auditory and v i s u a l memory and auditory-visual integration. Consequently reading achievement scores, gender and age were obtained from the children's permanent records and used as covariates i n the analysis, thereby providing for control of these variables. Excluded from the study were those students with known v i s u a l and auditory impairments and those students who had repeated a previous grade. 8 Organization of the Thesis The f i r s t chapter includes a general background of the problem, a statement of the problem, j u s t i f i c a t i o n for the study, d e f i n i t i o n s of terms used and an outline of the organi-zation of the study. Chapter Two consists of a review of the related l i t e r a t u r e and the s p e c i f i c questions to be answered by the study. The t h i r d chapter provides a description of the general design of the study. Chapter Four presents the re s u l t s of the study and an analysis of the data. The f i f t h and f i n a l chapter i s a summary of the findings with conclusions and i m p l i -cations for further research. 9 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The problem o f measuring short-term memory of s k i l l e d readers may be r e l a t e d to measuring a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l memory independently. I t may be -the case t h a t t e s t s which p u r p o r t t o measure e i t h e r a u d i t o r y or v i s u a l memory u s i n g words, may be measuring an a u d i t o r y - v i s u a l i n t e g r a t i o n p r o c e s s . In order t o i n v e s t i g a t e the dimensions o f t h i s , problem i t i s necessary to exp l o r e b r i e f l y the body of theory and r e s e a r c h which d e a l s w i t h short-term memory proce s s e s . The l i t e r a t u r e i s presented i n the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : t h e o r i e s o f short-term memory;(visual and a u d i t o r y coding, a u d i t o r y - v i s u a l , i n t e g r a t i o n ) , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the rea d i n g p r o c e s s . Short-Term Memory As an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the t h e o r i e s of short-term memory, Conrad (1970) c l a r i f i e s the nature o f the r e s e a r c h . He puts the p o s i t i o n o f the short-term memory r e s e a r c h e r i n a c l e a r p e r s p e c t i v e : 10 The question now becomes something l i k e t h i s : regardless of the sensory nature of the input of the test material, when the moment for r e t r i e v a l (recall) comes, i n what form, state, color, image, etc., i s the memory of the material stored or retained or held. Connoisseurs of the l i t e r a t u r e on short-term memory w i l l appreciate the need for these uneommitting descriptions. Most readers we hope w i l l accept that short-term memory experiments require something to go i n , something to be i n t e r n a l l y present for a while, and something to come out. The l o g i c of the experiment assumes that the experimenter has control over the f i r s t ; the subject's report has to be assumed to represent the l a s t . Here we are concerned to see what the discrepancy between the two can t e l l us about the second. (p. 80) Two areas of short-term memory research which contain contrasting theories involve: (1) The pos i t i o n of short-term memory within the organization of' memory generally, and (2) The question of whether there i s a separate and independent storage of auditory and v i s u a l material within short-term memory. Organization.of Memory Tra d i t i o n a l approaches to the study of organization of memory owe much to the work? of Ebbinghaus (1975). His approach emphasized associative connections as the sole basis for organi-zation i n memory. The organization of memory was seen as being unitary i n form and depending most importantly upon the p a r t i c u l a r network of associations previously acquired by the i n d i v i d u a l . Support for t h i s theory has been shown by word-association studies (Postman & Keppel, 1970) where the r e l a t i v e frequencies of occurences have been interpreted as an index of the strength of associative connections. The basic assumption underlying the study of word association has been that output d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t s 11 input. This behaviorist view of the human organism has been rejected by some contemporary psychologists whose view i s that inputs are often translated and reorganized i n such a way as to prevent straightforward relationships between input and out-put from being observed, except under rather limited circum-stances. (.Glanzer.-&j.Slark;,ul966g?Tul>ving .& Thomson, 1971) Organization of Short-Term Memory A number of psychologists, . (Neisser, 1971; Posner, 1974; Paivio, 1971) believe there are three separate memories, of which long term memory constitutes the most permanent. Sperling (1970) also views short-term memory as representing a d i f f e r e n t storage system which i s i t s e l f divided i n i t s functions (see Appendix A). An early and popular conception of short-term memory i n -volved a verbal acoustic temporary store, d i s t i n c t from long term memory. This verbal short-term memory maintains i n f o r -mation by rehearsal, and i s of limited capacity (Neisser, 1967). However, a number of studies provide evidence of a short-term retention not soley verbal but involving a d i s t i n c t v i s u a l modality. These studies have for the most part concentrated on masking, shadowing and interference techniques for tasks of verbal or v i s u a l retention. For example, Y u i l l e and Ternes (1975) measured the amount of r e c a l l for each modality and across modalities from tasks of purely v i s u a l and verbal character aft e r s p e c i f i c interferences d i f f e r i n g i n required concentration. •In- the dgs-igR of fefeSiSts-tedy^^Sxpebiment^'one -involved a v i s u a l task which was^f oM-owedsi|jynJjr^ -^rafted.-, as low or high 12 v i s u a l interference, v i s u a l motor, low or high verbal interference. There was also an immediate r e c a l l nO-interference group, and a rehearsal no-interference group for comparison. Experiment two was of the same design but with only verbal tasks being measured. A comparison of response trends across both experi-ments showed retention loss due to modality s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s . I t appears that v i s u a l motor interference accounted for the most retention loss on v i s u a l tasks, whereas high verbal-interference accounted for the most retention loss on verbal tasks. Y u i l l e and Ternes (1975) concluded that models of short-term memory should, therefore, take into account the storage o f ; v i s u a l and verbal information separately. In the Y u i l l e s and Ternes experiment the sti m u l i were non-verbal and presented at 1.75 seconds, which i s an important factor i n evidence for the existence of separate auditory and vi s u a l storage systems, i . e . , dual coding. This dual coding of information i n short-term memory i s shown i n Sperling's model of v i s u a l information processing (1967,1970) (see Appendix A). • Goltheart's model (1972), (see Diagram I) : conceptualizes p a r a l l e l coding through the v i s u a l code and verbal (name) code. I t should be noted that both models contain a purely v i s u a l storage memory area, i d e n t i f i e d i n the Sperling (1970) model as v i s u a l short-term memory, VSTM, and i n the Coltheart (1972) model as "iconic memory". The significance of these areas w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n r e l a t i o n to. the reading process model. display i c o n i c memory high capacity fast passive decay maskable v i s u a l information v i s u a l code low capacity f l e x i b l e decay not maskable v i s u a l information name code moderate capacity n e g l i g i b l e decay notlmaskable auditory information Diagram 1. M. Coltheart, Visual Information Processing (1972) Further evidence i n support of the theory of dual coding i n short-term memory has been provided through the research findings of Paivio and Csapo (1971) and Ro,we and Rogers (1975). Results obtained from a study conducted by Rowe and Rogers (1975) that investigated the ef f e c t s of concurrent auditory shadowing on free r e c a l l and recognition of pictures and words, supported the Paivio dual coding hypothesis. Likewise, Snodgrass and McClure (1975) found that adult subjects i n t h e i r experiments naturally stored both p i c t o r i a l and verbal codes of the simple pictures, whereas they did not naturally encode words. 14 It appears, therefore, that there exists d i f f e r i n g coding processes i n short-term memory for the storage and r e t r i e v a l of verbal and non-verbal materials. This i s a major factor to be taken into account when assessing d i f f i c u l t i e s of v i s u a l and auditory memory i n r e l a t i o n to the reading process. '. Ago l i e at ion 'Mafbkwfor tihatMo'deltlo fMcthel -Re ading Process ' 1,1,1 • - • • 1 •-• . I L . . I ........... -., m_ 1 Mackworth (1971) developed a Schematic Model of the Reading Process (Diagram 2) which has been adopted for t h i s study. Mackworth views reading as: a three-way synthesis between the s p a t i a l signs, the spoken word, and meaning. Again, there i s a p a r a l l e l processing of input, t h i s time v i s u a l , followed by the sequential verbal processing. The primary task for the normal c h i l d i n learning to read i s to learn the rules necessary to transform the s p a t i a l signs into verbal equivalents, either as overt or as subvocal speech, followed by the l i n k i n g of the written material to meaning. Memory i s an es s e n t i a l part of t h i s a c t i v i t y at a l l l e v e l s . (p. 70) Her model, (see Diagram 2), c l e a r l y shows a relationship between the cognitive, short-term memory process, and reading. To explain t h i s relationship Mackworth uses the following terms: Visual Input - an active process involving s e l e c t i o n , attention,aexpectancyeandcpEedictidnpredic_. . . Sensory Visual trace - represents the primary storage of v i s u a l input i n a v i s u a l form. This form l a s t s h of a second and i s masked by the next v i s u a l input. Iconic store - results from recognition and matching of the primary v i s u a l input with stored data. At t h i s stage a v i s u a l percept i s formed which l a s t s between one and two seconds. 15 Acoustic Input - the coding of the written word to the spoken word gives meaning to the percept. Recognition of the spoken word involves the mediation of the a r t i c u l a t o r y system (motor-speech neural patterns stored i n the speech area). In s k i l l e d readers the acoustic input disappears and a r t i c u l a t o r y neural a c t i v i t y only remains, Short-Term Memory - the v i s u a l input enters short-term memory as the coded verbal form. At thi s stage occurs the synthesis of v i s u a l , a r t i c u l a t o r y and auditory forms which are activated from long term memory into short-term memory by the coding process (Mackworth, 1971, p. 70). The above description represents the part of the model that i s relevant to thi s study. The Dur r e l l Visual Memory of  Words: Intermediate purports to measure v i s u a l memory of words whereas the length of the presentation (3 seconds) and the stimuli used (words) may r e s u l t i n r e c a l l of a "synthesis of v i s u a l , a r t i c u l a t o r y and auditory forms" i n terms of Mackworth's model. It must be remembered that input from long term memory i s a con-tinuous process through-out the stages outlined. Although Mackworth (1971) sees reading as b a s i c a l l y a coding process she emphasizes ..... i t s important aspect, l i k e language and other codes, i s the r e l a t i o n between these codes and the primary sense data that the c h i l d has already trans-formed into i n t e r n a l models" (p. 70) Studies i n Relation to the Mackworth Model The Mackworth model emphasizes the most important con-siderations i n the area of measuring v i s u a l memory, auditory memory and an integration of auditory and v i s u a l . The following studies deal with symbols of l i t e r a c y only ( i . e . l e t t e r s and words). The research i s organized into those studies dealing with the ico n i c store and those dealing with the coding process. 16 eye movements •> Stimulus WRITTEN WORDS SPOKEN* WORDS v/suol auditory o Sensory visuolTrace 250 m s c c s matching recognition a CJ Si ~o Iconic store 1 -2 sees 7) attention Sensory image "Echo Box" 4-o \ visual Codinq verba/ 4, verbal motor programs 4\ Short-term memory v/suai verba/ Q c CL c 5 auditory Long-term memory meaning prediction Diagram 2: Model of Reading Process (After Mackworth, .1571) Studies of the Iconic Stores Both Posner and Keele (1967) hypothesized that the rate at which a subject responded to two l e t t e r s being the same, would r e f l e c t the information being used to make that match. In a study, using p h y s i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l l e t t e r s AA and same name l e t t e r s Aa, they found that immediately after presentation, a physical i d e n t i t y match was faster than one which was based on name. However, t h i s difference disappeared af t e r 1.5 seconds. Posner and Keele (1967) f e l t that the physical i d e n t i t y conditions were confounded by the fact that upper case l e t t e r s were used i n the same name condition. This condition was corrected i n the experiments conducted by Posner, Boies, Eichelman & Taylor (1969) that sought to re p l i c a t e the previous findings. Results obtained from t h e i r three experiments .showedhth-atvuinifiedia-ftely •"after the exposure of a v i s u a l l e t t e r , subjects had a complete v i s u a l . description of that stimulus. However, results also indicated that the matches based on the v i s u a l information become r e l a t i v e l y less e f f i c i e n t over time. Posner et a l . (1969) explained the rate of decay of v i s u a l information as being dependent upon: 1. The degree of attention subjects focused on the v i s u a l experience. 2. The amount of rehearsal available - r e c a l l was more e f f i c i e n t a f t e r a one second i n t e r v a l . 3. The generation of v i s u a l information with auditory information. It appears that the.findings of Posner et a l . (1967, 1969) support those discussed i n e a r l i e r reports (Sperling, 196 0; 18 Neisser, 1967) suggesting the existence of; a v i s u a l trace and ico n i c store i n memory organization. Studies of the Coding Process The work of Gibson (1962, 1963, 1966) has added a great deal to the body of knowledge concerning the reading process of beginning readers. However, she has made s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i -butions also i n the investigation of the processes being used by the s k i l l e d reader. In an attempt to define the unit of perception i n written English, Gibson, Pick, Osser and Hammond (1962) presented t a c h i s t o s c o p i c a l l y a l i s t of 25 unpronouncable pseudo-words (TNPA) and a l i s t of 25 pronouncable pseudo-words, at speeds of 50ms to 250ms to college students. Results indicated that there was a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the amounts of pronouncable words recognized and the amounts of unpronouncable words recognized. Based on these results they (Gibson et a l , 1962) concluded that " s k i l l e d readers are more apt to perceive c o r r e c t l y l e t t e r strings which follow the rules of English orthography and spelling-to-sound correspondence". (p. 26) The subjects of t h i s f i r s t experiment were of college age. A sim i l a r study was conducted with children at the end of the f i r s t and t h i r d grade (Gibson et a l , 1962). The children were presented with t h r e e - l e t t e r words (RAN), pronouncable trigrams (NAP), unpronouncable trigrams (RNA) and four and f i v e l e t t e r pseudo-words used i n the previous experiment. Results indicated f i r s t and t h i r d grade students recognized three l e t t e r words most accurately, followed by pronouncable trigrams and then 19 unpronouncable trigrams. Of the pseudo-words i t was found that t h i r d grade children recognized the pronouncable pseudo-words s i g n i f i c a n t l y more accurately than the unpronouncable. Gibson (1963) explained these results i n r e l a t i o n to, 1. The students' f a m i l i a r i t y with the rules of English orthography. 2. Auditory accompaniment aided r e c a l l . In another study conducted by Gibson, S h u r c l i f f and Yonas (1966) the hypothesis that auditory accompaniment to the v i s u a l stimulus f a c i l i t a t e d r e c a l l was tested with hearing and con-g e n i t a l l y deaf students. Results indicated that although deaf students read fewer pronouncable pseudo-words than hearing students, the trend remained the same for both groups. Pro-nouncable words were recognized s i g n i f i c a n t l y more accurately than unpronouncable words by the deaf students as well as the hearing students. Gibson et a l , (1966) sugge§tednthat~deaf students were possibly assisted i n r e c a l l by t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y with English s p e l l i n g patterns that enabled them to process strings of l e t t e r s i n chunks. Gibson (1966) .QonqludeJ:: The deaf students had picked up a knowledge of English s p e l l i n g patterns and were using i t to process strings of l e t t e r s i n chunks, even though they had never heard the sounds to which the l e t t e r s mapped. (p. 28) Similar findings to those of Gibson et a l , (1966) were obtained by Carey and Blake (1974). They presented verbal materials (letters) , f a m i l i a r and'nameable materials (geometric shapes), unfamiliar and not e a s i l y nameable materials (nonsense figures) to hearing and deaf students. The following hypotheses 20 were tested: 1. Deaf students who are d e f i c i e n t i n l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s , w i l l achieve lower r e c a l l scores. ' 2. Within the deaf population, those subjects with the poorest l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s w i l l achieve lower scores than those who are somewhat more verbally adept. 3. Deaf subjects' errors with l e t t e r s w i l l display many vi s u a l confusions and few auditory confusions by comparison to error data on hearing subjects. (p. 4) An analysis of correct responses showed the order of stimulus d i f f i c u l t y was s i m i l a r for hearing and deaf subjects. Letters were recognized more frequently followed by shapes and nonsense figures. Both groups made more v i s u a l than auditory confusions,. with the l e t t e r s V and X confused most frequently, and D and Q were confused least frequently. As hypothesized, better readers among the deaf obtained higher scores. Carey and Blake (197 4) explained t h e i r findings i n r e l a t i o n to r e c a l l from i c o n i c store rather than from short-term memory. Exposure of the stimulus was from 10 to 320 seconds which may explain the greater number of v i s u a l errors compared with auditory errors. They explained the results showing higher scores for better readers among the deaf subjects as i n d i c a t i v e of better memories, not of the existence of a l i n g u i s t i c coding, (Conrad, 1964, 1970). The investigation of short-term memory coding processes i n hearing impaired students adds insight to those processes i n hearing students. The following section presents studies con-cerned with the coding of verbal material. Verbal Coding Conrad (1964, 1970) asks the question, What do the deaf think in? He uses memorize synonomously with think. In contrast to the results of Carey and Blake (1974) Conrad found that the primary code for l i s t s of verbal material i s a verbal one -the l i n g u i s t i c coding hypothesis. According to Conrad, memory for words i n sustained by acoustic and a r t i c u l a t o r y imagery i n hearing subjects. In a study by Conrad and Rush (1965) using deaf and hearing subjects i t was discovered that the error matrices d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . This indicated that the deaf subjects used a d i f f e r e n t memory code than the hearing subjects. However, i t was reported that a number of subjects finger spelled during presentation and r e c a l l of the l e t t e r sequences, thus in d i c a t i n g the existence of a s p e l l i n g memory code among the deaf subjects. In an attempt to eliminate the s p e l l i n g memory code Conrad (1970) conducted a study with deaf students educated i n an o r a l school. He worked with 36 boys aged between 12 and 17 years of age attending a private school for the deaf, that required high standards of educability and very severe hearing lo s s . From the l e t t e r s BCHKLTXYZ he designed two tes t s , one test comprised 45 sequences of 5 l e t t e r sequences and another test 45 sequences of 6 l e t t e r sequences. He exposed the l e t t e r s at the rate of 1 second per l e t t e r to groups of 3 boys. The boys were instructed every nine sequences to either read the l e t t e r s s i l e n t l y or out loud. Letters were re c a l l e d by writing i n the l e f t to r i g h t order of sequence. In t h i s study Conrad (19 70) also used 75 Cambridge housewives as. a control group. An analysis of errors indicated the errors could be divided into two groups, . 22 1.) a r t i c u l a t o r y e r r o r s : BCT, XH and 2.) non-articulatory errors: KXYZ A s i g n i f i c a n t r elationship was found between subjects who spoke well and a r t i c u l a t o r y errors, and subjects who spoke less well and non-articulatory errors. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n was made of the subjects into those apparently memorizing by a r t i c u l a t o r y cues and those who code by non-articulatory means, such as shape. In addition, Conrad (.1970) presented these a r t i c u l a t o r y and non-articulatory groups with two word l i s t s . One word l i s t consisted of f i v e homophonous pairs of words, words that sound the same but look d i f f e r e n t - f o r t , fought; way, weigh raw, roar; past, passed; sum, some. The other word l i s t comprised f i v e non-homophonous pairs of words, words that look a l i k e but sound d i f f e r e n t ; seem, scan; den, ham; cup, say; race, care; beach, hoard. The words were exposed at the rate of lh seconds per word with immediate written r e c a l l . The results revealed that although the a r t i c u l a t o r y group made s i g n i f i c a n t l y more errors on the homophone l i s t , (suggesting acoustic confusability) there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the two vocabularies and the non-articulatory group. Conrad (1970) states the r e s u l t s may have been confounded by the s i m i l a r i t y of sounds on the non-homophone l i s t , thus producing biased word l i s t s . In explaining his r e s u l t s , Conrad (1964, 1965, 1970) pre-sented support for his l i n g u i s t i c coding hypothesis, stressing that: 23 The profoundly deaf person, however, i s unique i n r e l a t i o n to verbal memory function, i n that he lacks auditory mediatory opportunity, acquiring a r t i c u l a t i o n either with great d i f f i c u l t y or often hardly at a l l . Because these processes are so i n t r i c a t e l y involved with memory i n hearing persons, memory models which aspire beyond super-f i c i a l i t y must also describe processes i n persons who have never heard language, and may rarely use overt speech To understand memory processes f u l l y , we have to be able to conceive of a verbal memory store which may be f u l l of pictures of words as written, or as they might appear on f i n g e r - s p e l l i n g hands, on "signing" hands, on speaking l i p s , not to mention the kinaesthetic tactual analogues of these. (p. 192) Both Glanzer and Clark (196 4) indicate the importance of verbal coding i n memory. They have formulated the verbal loop hypothesis i n which a l l kinds of v i s u a l l y presented materials, including nonsense figures, are retained i n short-term memory by t h e i r verbal coding. K r o l l (1975), i n agreement with Glanzer and Clark, reaffirmed the role of vo c a l i z a t i o n i n re-hearsal of v i s u a l stimulus, whereas Posner (1969) showed rehearsal of verbally presented stimulus v i a v i s u a l imagery. C a r r o l l ' s study (1974) f o r which he developed a motor-free multiple choice recognition Visual Memory Scale for 5 and 6 year olds, gives further evidence of the importance of the acoustic memory i n v i s u a l memory. Results from his study i n -volving 198, 5 and 6 year olds, plus groups of non-neurologically and neurologically impaired children revealed a rel a t i o n s h i p between high reading achievement and low errors on the Visual Memory Scale. C a r r o l l (1974) explained the results i n terms of an information process: 24 After information i s encoded successfully i t may have d i f f i c u l t y a r r i v i n g at, or entering the short-term memory. If i t does successfully enter primary memory, i t i s possible that defects i n the rehearsal loop may cause the information to decay rather than be retained and reinforced. (p. 158) Research (Bateman, 1968; C a r r o l l , 1975) seems to indicate a r e l a t i o n s h i p exists between poor reading achievement and low scores on a v i s u a l memory test. The studies i n v e s t i g a t i n g the manner of that relationship point to a dual coding of v i s u a l and verbal s t i m u l i with subvocalization f a c i l i t a t i n g greater r e c a l l of v i s u a l l y presented material. This suggests the existence of an auditory-visual integration process involved when the v i s u a l stimuli i s verbal. As described i n the studies of Posner et a l , (1969) and Gibson et a l , (1962) the longer the v i s u a l stimulus was presented the greater opportunity for auditory accompaniment to aid i n more e f f i c i e n t r e c a l l . To r e i t e r a t e Conrad' sitheoryienmemory/rf o'rxw.ords'es'eems" bo be ^sustained by acoustic and a r t i c u l a t o r y imagery i n hearing subjects. Derevensky (1977 described t h i s process as cross-modal functioning. The following section presents studies which considered the relationship between cross-modal functioning and the reading process. Cross-Modal Functioning: Auditory-Visual Integration Derevensky (1977) presents a comprehensive review of research l i t e r a t u r e i n the area of auditory-visual integration and reading achievement. Birch and Belmont (1964) developed a measure of auditory-v i s u a l integration which has since been found, through further research, to be a r e l i a b l e discriminatory measure between good and poor readers, (Beery, 1967; Jorgenson and Hyde, 1974). The Birch and Belmont task consists of three samples and ten test items. A sound pattern consisting of short (% second) inter v a l s and a long (1 second) i n t e r v a l i s tapped on a table top. The response required i s to match one of three v i s u a l patterns with the previously presented auditory pattern. From t h e i r study, Birch and Belmont found auditory-visual integration a b i l i t y rapidly increased i n children between kindergarten and Grade two but reached an asymptote by the f i f t h grade. Conversely, Kahn and Birch (1968) found that:, auditory-visual integration continues to improve throughout the elementary school years. Auditory-visual integration a b i l i t y also appears to be a s i g n i f i c a n t factor i n reading achievement (Kahn and Birch, 1968; Beery, 1967; Jones, 1971). In reviewing the research Derevensky states: In general, the data support the sensory integration hypothesis that auditory-visual integration i s p o s i t i v e l y correlated and educationally meaningful to reading performance. (p. 238) The review of research i n the area of short-term memory and the reading process, suggests the importance of cross-modal functioning. However, several studies found no meaningful relationship between auditory memory and auditory-visual i n t e -gration s k i l l s (Birch and Belmont, 1964; Ford, 1967; Jorgenson and Hyde, 1974). Furthermore, Kahn and Birch (1968) found no s i g n i f i c a n t relationship between v i s u a l memory and auditory-visual 26 integration s k i l l s . It appears, therefore that there i s enough evidence from the review of related research to suggest a paradigm may be drawn around two main points : 1. There are d i f f e r e n t processes involved i n the coding of non-literacy based stimuli compared to l i t e r a c y based s t i m u l i . Therefore, any paradigm must recognize t h i s d i v i s i o n . 2. There i s evidence to support the theory that auditory memory, v i s u a l memory and auditory-visual integration are independent constructs. (Posner et a l , 196 9; Kahn and Birch, 1968) . It i s to the measurement of the construct v i s u a l memory of words that t h i s study i s focused. Chapter II has presented a review of related l i t e r a t u r e i n the area of short-term memory (auditory memory, v i s u a l memory and auditory-visual integration) i n "^relation'-ctorcthe re. -'-*- -• reading process. From th i s review has evolved hypotheses stated i n the form of questions. The design of the study formed to investigate these hypotheses i s presented i n Chapter I I I . The following questions are investigated: 1. Does the Pur re 11 Visual Memory of Words:1 Intermediate measure purely v i s u a l memory? 27 2. Does the Durrell 1 Visual Memory of Words : Intermediate measure an auditory-visual integration process i n short term memory with a v i s u a l input? These questions are attended to i n Chapter III where the four stages of the study are presented, Chapter IV with d i s -cussion of the analysis and results of the data and Chapter V which includes conclusions, l i m i t a t i o n s and implications of the study. 28 CHAPTER III DESIGN OF THE STUDY The major purpose of the study was an attempt to answer the question, Does the Durrell Visual Memory of Words: Intermediate measure v i s u a l memory or an auditory-visual integration process i n short-term memory? The study was conducted i n four stages. Stage one of the study involved the development of the i n i t i a l paradigm of the study (see Figure 1). Based on the review of l i t e r a t u r e the paradigm involved the separate constructs of auditory memory, v i s u a l memory and auditory-visual integration, using l i t e r a c y -based and non-literacy based materials. The measurement instruments considered to measure the constructs pertinent to the research question, were also i d e n t i f i e d during Stage One. In Stage Two the f i v e tests i d e n t i f i e d as measuring auditory discrimination and auditory-visual integration were p i l o t tested and either modified or discarded and a new paradigm developed on the basis of the insights that resulted from the procedures of Stage One. • Stage Three of the study involved p i l o t t e s t i n g two tests each of auditory memory, v i s u a l memory and auditory-v i s u a l integration. The research question was then attended d i r e c t l y i n the fourth and f i n a l stage of the study. This chapter i s organized i n terms of these four stages with the procedures of the f i n a l study i n the l a s t section t h i s chapter. The re s u l t s of the f i n a l study are presented Chapter IV. LITERACY BASED VISUAL MEMORY AUDITORY/VISUAL INTEGRATION AUDITORY MEMORY Monroe-Sherman Durr e l l Visual Memory NON-LITERACY BASED Y u i l l e & Ternes Matrices McCullough C a l i f o r n i a Phonics Durrell Phonic Spelling ^ Figure 1: I n i t i a l paradigm of the study 31 STAGE ONE Stage One of the study involved the development of a paradigm and the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of measuring instruments within that paradigm. I n i t i a l Paradigm of the Study The i n i t i a l paradigm of the study i s presented i n Figure 1. Based on the review of research i n the area of memory, as outlined i n Chapter II three constructs were i d e n t i f i e d ; auditory memory, vi s u a l memory and auditory-visual integration. Research studies suggest there may ex i s t a d i f f e r e n t cognitive process for the coding of verbal and non-verbal s t i m u l i . The paradigm, there-fore accounts for t h i s difference by separating l i t e r a c y based materials from non-literacy based materials. Constructs to be Measured The study required appropriate tests of v i s u a l and auditory memory and auditory-visual integration. The search of these tests was based on the i n i t i a l paradigm of the study with the exception that only non-literacy based v i s u a l memory and l i t e r a c y based v i s u a l memory were compared. The rationale f o r . t h i s decision i s based on the fact that the measurement of v i s u a l memory i s the focus of the study. Tests of auditory discrimination were chosen to represent aspects of auditory memory. Therefore, the s p e c i f i c tests were chosen with two considerations i n mind: the statements by s p e c i a l i s t s about the p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l to be measured, and the question of the study. 32 Materials The format of each test and scoring procedures are described i n t h i s section. Sample tests with instructions for t h e i r administration and sample answer sheets are provided i n Appendix B. 1. Visual Memory Matrices Y u i l l e and Ternes, 1975 This task comprises ten 4x4 matrices containing 8 black and 8 white squares printed on a white card. The stimulus configuration to be remembered for reproduction i s the pattern created by the eight black squares i n each matrix. The patterns used i n the study were generated by Y u i l l e and Ternes (1975) through p i l o t studies: The presentation rates were varied u n t i l a duration was obtained with which almost no ver b a l i z a t i o n was reported (1.75 s e c ) . Then only those patterns for which no labels were given were retained for the subsequent experiments. (p. 363) Scores are calculated on the number of correct patterns re-produced. Although no published v a l i d i t y data wereaavailable, the matrices were used i n the study to provide scores assumed to r e f l e c t purely v i s u a l modality coding of form. 2. Group Diagnostic Reading Aptitude and Achievement  Tests, (1939) M. Monroe and E.E. Sherman 33 V i s u a l Test 2-Form Memory The form memory t e s t c o n s i s t s of a s e t of f o u r white cards on which f o u r designs are p r i n t e d s e q u e n t i a l l y i n b l a c k i n k . Each c a r d i s shown f o r ten seconds and the student responds by drawing the designs r e c a l l e d . Scores are c a l c u l a t e d on the number of s i n g l e designs c o r r e c t , g i v i n g a t o t a l p o s s i b l e score o f 16. Norms are p u b l i s h e d by p e r c e n t i l e rank f o r ages 8 through 15+ ye a r s . Although no p u b l i s h e d v a l i d i t y data vyere a a v a i l a b i e , ti&cor.es from t h i s t e s t were assumed to r e f l e c t s e q u e n t i a l v i s u a l memory of de s i g n . 3. D u r r e l l A n a l y s i s o f Reading D i f f i c u l t y , Subtest; V i s u a l Memory o f Words: Intermediate (1936, 1955) The t e s t c o n s i s t s o f 15 s i x , e i g h t , nine and ten l e t t e r words not i n the student's s i g h t v o c a b u l a r y . The words are shown by t a c h i s t o s c o p e , manually operated, at the r a t e of one word per three seconds. The r e q u i r e d response i s immediate w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f the word viewed. Scores are c a l c u l a t e d on the number o f words r e c a l l e d c o r r e c t l y s p e l l e d , g i v i n g a p o s s i b l e t o t a l score of 15. The s u b t e s t was s t a n d a r d i z e d on a p o p u l a t i o n of 1,000 students and norms are given i n the form o f grade e q u i v a l e n t s f o r grades f o u r , f i v e and s i x . 34 In the absence of published v a l i d i t y data, scores on t h i s test are purported to be a measure of v i s u a l memory of words. 4. McCullough Word-Analysis Tests (196 0, 1962, 1963) CM. McCullough Test 1. I n i t i a l Blends and Digraphs This test "tests the pupil's a b i l i t y to hear a consonant blend or digraph, and to i d e n t i f y the l e t t e r s which make the sound." (McCullough, 1963, p. 3) The test consists of 3 words having the same i n i t i a l blend or digraph repeated o r a l l y at 1 second i n t e r v a l s . The words are taped to ensure consistancy i n timing and accent of the administrator. There i s a response i n t e r v a l of 5 seconds between each word l i s t i n which time the student c i r c l e s the correct blend or digraph from a l i s t of 5 on the response sheet. Test 1, I n i t i a l Blends and Digraphs with Grade four students, has an i n t e r n a l consistancy r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of .96. McCullough (1963) advises: The tests w i l l prove d i a g n o s t i c a l l y most valuable i f the user employs the separate scores for the seven subtests . . . -. (p. 7) This i s also the recommendation of E. Bliesmer (1972) i n his review of the McCullough Word-Analysis Tests.-Scores are based on the correct i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the vi s u a l form of the i n i t i a l blend or digraph from the words given 1 orally - " a lAlthou'ghhth.ejf.e tTOas-endsvailudl^ty.ddataf =rc scores on .this test' were'iassumedtitomme.asure>auditory-visual in t e -gration. 35 5. C a l i f o r n i a Phonics 1 Survey (1963) G.M. Brown and A.B. C o t t r e l l Exercise 1 3, Form 1 The C a l i f o r n i a Phonics Survey Exercise B, .was modified by the researcher as suitable for Grade four and f i v e students. The task consists of 10 items, each item being a word repeated three times at one second i n t e r v a l s . The test was taped to keep time in t e r v a l s and the accent of tester consistent. There was a 5 second response i n t e r v a l between each item. Students responded by attempting to i d e n t i f y the v i s u a l form of the word heard aufiail'lyzfrom*a-?'listi©.-four«i words. If the word heard was not among the four options the student chose the f i f t h option "None". Scores were calculated on the number of correct auditory-v i s u a l matches. Although published v a l i d i t y information was not available, the scores on th i s task were assumed to measure auditory-visual integration. 6. Durrell Analysis of Reading D i f f i c u l t y  Subtest Phonic Spelling of Words. (1937, 1955) D.D. Durrell "The purpose of th i s t e s t i s to discover the child ' s a b i l i t y to s p e l l words as they sound" (Durrell, 1955, p. 23). Fifteen m u l t i - s y l l a b l e words were recorded i n d i v i d u a l l y on tape with an eight second response interval.. The student wrote the oral-ly^preserited-wofd as-iV asoundeai? n d s • Each word was scored as correct i f a l l of the sounds of the word were i n the student's s p e l l i n g . For example polarize should be marked correct i f 36 spelled polerize or po l a r i s e . Scores on th i s test were assumed to measure auditory-visual integration, although no published evidence of v a l i d i t y was found. 7. Domain Auditory Discrimination Test (1968) J. McLeod This t e s t i s used to assess "consonantal phonemic d i s -crimination" (McLeod, 196 8). Word pairs were recorded on tape with a 3 second response i n t e r v a l between each one-syllable word pair. The student's response was an oral.reply of "same" i f the two words heard o r a l l y were the same word repeated and " d i f f e r e n t " i f the two words were not a l i k e . The tester recorded the student's response to the words i d e n t i f i e d c o r r e c t l y as being the same or d i f f e r e n t . The t o t a l possible score was 50, 'No r e l i a b i l i t y or v a l i d i t y data has been published. Scores on t h i s test were assumed to measure auditory discrimination. 8. Murphy Auditory Discrimination Test (1973) H. Murphy This non-standardized test consists of m u l t i - s y l l a b l e words taped i n d i v i d u a l l y with a 3 second response i n t e r v a l between each word. The student was asked to l i s t e n for the occurrence of a predetermined consonant and record i t s p o s i t i o n and frequency i n the word heard. Scores were calculated on the correct number of words i n which the consonants were f u l l y i d e n t i f i e d by f r e -quency and pos i t i o n i n the word. The t o t a l possible score was 65. Although there was no v a l i d i t y information available, scores on t h i s test were assumed to measure auditory discrimination. 37 STAGE TWO A p i l o t study was undertaken using only those tests i d e n t i f i e d as measuring auditory discrimination and auditory-visual i n t e -gration. Purpose The purpose of Stage Two of the study was to evaluate the behavior of f i v e tests of auditory discrimination and auditory-v i s u a l integration for the purpose of determining the following: 1. The v a r i a b i l i t y of each test for the p a r t i c u l a r population considered i n t h i s study. 2. The appropriateness of each test to the given age l e v e l of students, Grade 4. 3. The s u i t a b i l i t y of one or more tests for use i n a further study which would include tests of v i s u a l memory. Sample From the population of elementary schools i n Maple Ridge school d i s t r i c t , B r i t i s h Columbia, three schools were chosen according to low,.middle and high socio-economic status. Socio-economic areas were determined by a person knowledgeable of the school d i s t r i c t who chose the schools randomly from within those areas. From these three schools a sample of 6 0 Grade four students was drawn and s t r a t i f i e d on the basis of reading l e v e l and gender. Twelve students were randomly selected from each class as shown i n Diagram 2. School 1 Low Reading Level Mid Reading Level High Reading Level Male Female Male Female Male Female School 2 Low Reading Level Mid Reading Level High Reading Level Male Female Male Female Male Female School 3 Lev; —Re adij: Low Reading Level Male Female Mid Reading Level Male Female High Reading Level Male Female Diagram 3: Sample for Stage Two M a t e r i a l s M a t e r i a l s used i n Stage Two were t h e - f i v e t e s t s of a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and a u d i t o r y - v i s u a l i n t e g r a t i o n d e s c r i b e d under Stage One of the study. These are summarized i n Table 1 below. Table 1 M a t e r i a l s used i n Stage Two Test Admin. Response I n t e r v a l Response Recording McLeod A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m . taped 3 sees. o r a l by teacher Murphy A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m . taped 5 sees. v i s u a l / by student motor C a l i f o r n i a Phonics Test. taped 5 sees. v i s u a l by student matching McCullough Word A n a l y s i s . taped 5 sees. v i s u a l / by student motor D u r r e l l Phonic S p e l l i n g taped 8 sees. w r i t t e n by student A d m i n i s t r a t i o n A l l t e s t i n g was conducted d u r i n g May and June, 1977. The t e s t s were administered i n d i v i d u a l l y to 45 students i n the following-•-order sefcs.fi SMcLe6d>.tMcCullbugh -and D u r r e l l i n one set/-and "'Murphy and-iCali'f o r n i a Phonics i n another s e t . 40 The researcher, plus one trained tester were assigned set one and set two tests randomly, alternating every six students. The students were assigned to test order haphazardly; those students who received set one i n the morning received set two i n the afternoon and those students who received set two i n the morning, received set one i n the afternoon. One student did not complete the procedure and data were therefore discarded from the analysis. Analysis of Data The following analysis were conducted on the raw scores of the f i v e t e s t s . 1. An item analysis using Laboratory of Educational  Research Test Analysis Package (LERTAP) computer program. The raw scores of those students administered the tests i n d i v i d u a l l y were analyzed separately from those receiving administration i n a group se t t i n g . 2. A test of significance between the scores of those students administered the tests i n d i v i d u a l l y compared to those receiving group administration. Results The means, standard deviations, i n t e r n a l consistency r e l i a b i l i t i e s and correlations of the f i v e tests are presented i n Table 2. From an analysis of these data i t was shown that the McLeod Auditory Discrimination test and the McCullough Word  Analysis test produced a c e i l i n g e f f e c t , suggesting these tests 41 were too easy for the age group of students i n the study. The lack of variance i n the score d i s t r i b u t i o n on the McLeod could explain the low correlation of this test with the other tests i n the study (Table 1). Item analysis revealed the Murphy Auditory Discrimination . test was too d i f f i c u l t for the age group tested. Some question-able items appeared from the analysis, for example "g" as i n geography, where g i s represented by the sound of j and g. The item analysis further showed that the P u r r e l l Phonic  Spelling was suitable up to item nine, after which the students found the items too d i f f i c u l t . The p o i n t - b i s e r i a l s revealed the fact that the students who did well on the test as a whole performed poorly from item 9 to item 15. 42 Conclusions The conclusions reached i n r e l a t i o n to the results and purpose of the f i r s t p i l o t study were: 1. The C a l i f o r n i a Phonics test and the D u r r e l l Phonic  Sp e l l i n g test were judged to be appropriate tests for the age l e v e l tested. 2. The McGullough Word Analysis, McLeod Auditory  Discrimination and the Murphy Auditory Pis crimination tests were judged to be inappropriate for intermediate grade students. Insights Resulting from -Stage Two : The recommendations that resulted from Stage Two of the study are presented: 1. Further studies should be lim i t e d to the use of words as the mode of s t i m u l i , l i m i t i n g the study to literacy-based t e s t s . I t was decided that to attend to the research question. Does the Du r r e l l Visual Memory of Words: Intermediate measure v i s u a l memory or an auditory-visual integration process? then comparable stimuli must be presented i n the auditory and v i s u a l modalities. i . e . words. Furthermore, control of the response mode was found to be necessary for comparison of tasks. A new paradigm 43 Table 2 Test S t a t i s t i c s for Stage Two Materials Variable i-JtaJ. Score 1 2 3 4 5 Total Score 10 50 15 30 65 Indiv. Admin(n=45) x 5.42 43.02 3.50 30.00 26.93 S.D. 2.18 4.59 2.60 6.73 8.30 Hoyt Est. of R e l i a b i l i t y .58 K .77 .72 .97 .78 -1.21- -1.41 , '*2.30 • *2.08 **1.86 Correlation Matrix Ind. Admin 1- 1.000 2 0.295 1.000 3 0.456 0.284 1.000 4 0.183 0.150 0.103 1.000 5 0.464 0.222 0.255 0.132 1.000 * sig- at p<^05 Variable 1 = C a l i f o r n i a Phonics ** s i g . at p<r05 2 = McLeod Auditory Discrimination 3 = Durrell Phonic S p e l l i n g 4 = McCullough Word Analysis 5 = Murphy Auditory Discrimination 44 : r f o r the study was therefore developed (see Figure 3) based on the following: a) The existence of the three constructs auditory memory, v i s u a l memory and auditory-visual integration. b) Instruments for measuring these constructs were limited to the use of words. c) Each construct should have a task requiring a matching response to r e f l e c t a recognition process ( C a r r o l l , 1971) and a task requiring sequential r e c a l l . 2. The C a l i f o r n i a Phonics and the Durrell- Phonic Spelling should be further investigated as measures of the construct auditory-visual integration. 3. The administration of the Du r r e l l Phonic SpVlUi-ng should be modified to a l l e v i a t e the r i s e i n d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l a f t e r item nine as outlined i n the analysis. I t was decided that the response i n t e r v a l per item should be lengthened from 8 seconds to 10 seconds. 4. The Murphy Auditory Discrimination, McCullough Word  Analysis and McLeod Auditory Discrimination should be 45 discarded from further exploratory studies and a search should be made for more appropriate measures of auditory discrimination/memory. 46 STAGE THREE As a r e s u l t o f Stage Two, the D u r r e l l Phonic S p e l l i n g and the C a l i f o r n i a Phonics t e s t s were accepted as measures o f a u d i t o r y - v i s u a l i n t e g r a t i o n f i t t i n g i n t o the f o l l o w i n g new paradigm (Figure 2). JITasky -Modaiity RECOGNITION AUDITORY ORAL AUDITORY VISUAL GFW AUDITORY RECOG. CALIFORNIA MEMORY PHONICS AUDITORY VISUAL VISUAL CALIFORNIA PHONICS: VISUAL RECALL AUDITORY ORAL JARMAN SERIAL RECALL AUDITORY VISUAL DURRELL PHONIC SPELL. VISUAL VISUAL DURRELL VISUAL MEMORY Eigjurei 2i:; SJtag.es; Three! and Eo'.urirligP.'arJa^di'gm- ©if-Ufeh'e Study 47 Purpose • A second p i l o t study was undertaken for the following purposes: 1. to evaluate the appropriateness of the tests for the age l e v e l chosen and 2. to refine f i e l d procedures for t e s t administration. Sample Taking into account the age of the students during the Spring t e s t i n g , i t was decided t h i s stage of the study be conducted using Grade f i v e students i n the F a l l of 1977. A class of 22 Grade f i v e students attending a Maple Ridge elementary school were i n d i v i d u a l l y tested over a three-day period. Materials Sample tests with instructions for t h e i r administration and sample answer sheets are provided i n Appendix B. An extensive search of tests purporting to measure the construct auditory memory, revealed two instruments: G-F-W Auditory Memory Tests (1974) Test 1 Recognition Memory R. Goldman, M. F r i s t o e , R. Woodcock This test consists of 110 mono-syllable words presented 48 audi t o r a l l y at one. second i n t e r v a l s , i n sets of 22 words. The words were recorded on tape to r e t a i n consistent time i n t e r v a l s and accent of the female administrator. The student responded "yes" o r a l l y i f they had heard the taped voice say the word pre-viously and "no" i f he/she had not heard the word said before. The number of correct responses are calculated to reach a t o t a l number correct out of 110. The G-F-W Auditory Recognition Memory Test was standardized on a population ranging i n age from three to 85 years and has an i n t e r n a l consistency r e l i a b i l i t y for 9-12 year olds of .96. Although there was no published v a l i d i t y data available, scores from t h i s t e s t were assumed to measure auditory recog-n i t i o n memory. Jarman.Auditory S e r i a l Recall (1977) R.F. Jarman The s e r i a l r e c a l l task consists of a set of 12 word l i s t s , with f i v e words i n each l i s t . Of these l i s t s , s i x contain words which are semantically s i m i l a r to one another, and the other si x contain f i v e unrelated words. The two types of word l i s t s are randomly ordered i n the test. Each l i s t was presented by the use of a cassette tape recording, following which the subject was asked to r e c a l l the l i s t i n the order given. The t o t a l score for each l i s t i s the number of words i n the correct p o s i t i o n , with a possible t o t a l score of f i v e per l i s t , g iving a maximum t e s t score of 60. The o r i g i n a l Jarman s e r i a l r e c a l l task of 2 4 words l i s t s with four words i n each l i s t has been used extensively i n experi-mental studies involving Grade four and primary-^-grade students. Under the d i r e c t i o n of Dr. Ron Jarman, the task was modified as described for use with Grade f i v e students. In 1977 Jarman reported the results of a p r i n c i p a l com-ponents analysis using the s e r i a l r e c a l l task .in conjunction with f i v e other cognitive tasks. He found evidence to support the inc l u s i o n of the s e r i a l r e c a l l task as a representative of successive synthesis. Therefore for the purpose of t h i s study scores.on the Jarman s e r i a l r e c a l l task are assumed to measure auditory s e r i a l r e c a l l of words. C a l i f o r n i a Phonics.Survey (1963) Exercise 3 Form 2 G.M. Brown and A.B. C o t r r e l l A t e s t which measures v i s u a l recognition memory was not available for the intermediate-age l e v e l students. I t was therefore decided to use a modification of Form 2 of the C a l i f o r n i a Phonics t e s t , exercise 3. The words were not i n the student's sight vocabulary and were presented v i s u a l l y by tachistoscope for a 1 second duration. The student matched the word shown i n the tachistoscope to a l i s t of four, with a "None" option i f the word was not one of the four l i s t e d . / Correctly i d e n t i f i e d words and "none" options were calculated for the t o t a l scores. Although there was no v a l i d i t y data 50 available, for the purpose of the study the scores on thi s task were assumed to measure v i s u a l recognition memory. The three tasks mentioned above, plus the D u r r e l l Visual  Memory of Words and the C a l l f o r n i a Phonics 1 Form 1 presented v i s u a l l y , required p i l o t i n g p r i o r to acceptance as appropriate measures within the current paradigm of the study (see Figure 2). Administration Table 3 presents the f i v e tests used i n the t h i r d stage, the administration format, responses and recording procedures. Table 3 Materials Used i n Stage Three P p q n o n S G - . Test Admin. Response Response Recording Interval GFW Auditory Memory: taped 2 sees. o r a l by tester C a l i f o r n i a Phonics V i s : t a c h i s t . 2 sees v i s u a l / matching by student Durrell Phonic S p e l l i n g : taped i 1 0 sees'-u sees. written written by student r e c a l l C a l i f o r n i a Phonics Aud: taped 5 sees. vvisual'/ matching by student Durrell V i s u a l Memory: tach i s t . 3 sees. written by student r e c a l l Jarman Auditory Recall: taped 5 V sees. o r a l r e c a l l by tester The tests were i n d i v i d u a l l y administered to 21 students i n the following sets: GFW, C a l i f o r n i a Phonics - Visual i n one set and C a l i f o r n i a Phonics - Auditory, D u r r e l l Visual Memory and the Jarman Auditory Recall i n another set. Two testers administered both sets of tests with students being assigned randomly to set and tester. 5 1 Eight students received the 1 1 0 item GFW Auditory Memory' test and seventeen students received 6 6 items on the test i n order to ascertain the required t e s t length for t h i s age population. Coding and Scoring Procedure A l l tests were coded by the researcher, keypunched and 1 0 0 % v e r i f i c a t i o n obtained. Analysis of Data. In r e l a t i o n to the purpose of the p i l o t study the t o t a l raw scores from each of the f i v e measures were analyzed using com-puter program U.B.C. Triangular Regression Package (TRP). The results are presented i n Table 4 . Table 4 StageaThre~e: Means and Standard Deviations of Tests Name Mean Stand. Dev. % Mean Total Score GFW Auditory Memory 6 2 . 5 7 2 . 3 8 9 5 6 6 C a l i f o r n i a Phonics-Vis: 7 . 9 0 1 . 6 4 7 9 1 0 Durrell Visual Memory 8 . 1 9 3. 9 1 5 5 1 5 C a l i f o r n i a Phonics-Aud: 5 . 6 6 2 . 7 4 5 7 1 0 Jarman Auditory Reca l l : 3 0 . 1 9 1 4 . 7 4 5 0 6 0 Results The GFW Auditory Memory tes t and the C a l i f o r n i a Phonics- Visual produce high mean scores ( 9 5 %,and 7 9 %) suggesting an easy task for this age l e v e l . However, high means, together with lack of variance may also have been an a r t i f a c t of the small sample si z e . Performance on the Purre11.Visual Memory,•California. Phonics-Auditory and Jarman Auditory - Recall- was .. shown. to be appropriate for th i s age l e v e l (See Table 4). Conclusions Based on the results of Stage 2, i t was decided: 1. To adopt the paradigm as described at the beginning of Stage 2. 2. To employ the 6 te s t s , namely, GFW Auditory Memory, C a l l f o r n i a Phonics—Vi sua! ,: Pur re 11 Phonic . S p e l l i n g , C a l i f o r n i a Phonics-Auditory, Purre11 Visual Memory, and Jarman Auditory Recall, with a larger sample of grade f i v e students. Therefore, although the data was l i m i t e d , the preliminary stages indicated that these tests were appropriate to answer the major research question posed for t h i s study; namely, Poes the P u r r e l l V i s u a l Memory of Words: Intermediate measure v i s u a l memory or an auditory-visual integration aspect of short-term memory? To further investigate t h i s question, Stage Four of the study was conducted i n November/Pecember 1977. 53 STAGE FOUR Purpose The purpose of the t h i r d stage o f the study was t o continue to e x p l o r e the. c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f the D u r r e l l V i s u a l Memory  of Words: Intermediate. Sample From the d e f i n e d p o p u l a t i o n of 575 Grade f i v e students i n f i f t e e n s c h o o l s i n Maple Ridge s c h o o l d i s t r i c t the schools were s t r a t i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to socio-economic s t a t u s and a random sample o f s i x c l a s s e s drawn from f i v e s c h o o l s . Excluded from the study were those s t u d e n t s : 1. whose primary language i s not E n g l i s h . 2. w i t h v i s u a l o r a u d i t o r y impairment. 3. who have repeated p r e v i o u s grades. The sample f o r Stage Four o f the study c o n s i s t e d of 12 0 grade f i v e students i n s i x c l a s s e s . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Table 5 p r e s e n t s t e s t s used i n the t h i r d stage, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was c o n s i s t e n t with Stage Three (See Table 3 ) . 54 Table 5 M a t e r i a l s Used i n Stage Four C o n s t r u c t Measured Name of Test Auditory Memory - Recognition - R e c a l l Auditory V i s u a l I n t e g r a t i o n - Recognition A u d i t o r y - V i s u a l I n t e g r a t i o n .Ss-Recall V i s u a l Memory - Recognition - R e c a l l Goodman-Fristoe-Woodcock Auditory Recognition Memory (1914) Jarman Auditory S e r i a l R e c a l l (1977) C a l i f o r n i a Phonics Survey (1963) D u r r e l l Phonic S p e l l i n g C a l i f o r n i a Phonics Survey (1963) D u r r e l l V i s u a l Memory of Words: Intermediate (1955) Tests were administered i n d i v i d u a l l y i n the order and procedure described i n Stage three\>of 'thedstudybe The 110\ titem GFW Auditory Memory t e s t was given to a l l 12 0 students. Ten t e s t e r s were t r a i n e d by the researcher i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n techniques of a l l s i x t e s t s . As four of the t e s t s were recorded on tape and two were presented v i s u a l l y by t a c h i s t o s c o p e , t e s t e r -student i n t e r a c t i o n was minimal. The researcher took p a r t i n t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n a l l three stages of the study. Gjgding^anji,^Scor4.;ngT P^ r.offed.iur.eJs, One student d i d not complete the t e s t i n g procedures and t h i s data were not inc l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s . The s i x t e s t s of 119 students were coded, checked and keypunched w i t h 10 0% v e r i f i -c a t i o n . 55 Analysis of Data .... . . _.• The data were co l l e c t e d and analyzed using the following s t a t i s t i c a l procedures: a) Zero-order c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were examined to conduct a preliminary investigation of the strength of relationships between the construct being measured. b) The data were subjected to multiple regression analysis using the scores on the Durrell Visual 1 Memory of Words as the dependent variable and the scores on the GFW,; Jarman, Durrell Phonic Spelling and the C a l i f o r n l a Phonics as independent variables. A detailed description of the results of the data for the fourth stage i s reported i n Chapter IV of this thesis. 56 CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS AND RESULTS OF DATA FROM THE FINAL STUDY Chapter III presented the study i n four stages. The pur-poses, execution and r e s u l t s of Stages One, Two and Three are described. Chapter IV i s devoted to the analysis of data and presentation of the results of Stage Four of the study. Dis-cussion of the r e s u l t s , together with a summary and conclusions i s presented i n Chapter V. Item and Test Analysis An. item analysis was performed for each of the tests using LERTAP computer program.- Inspection of the p o i n t - b i s e r i a l s for each item i n a given test revealed that a l l items.were performing c o r r e c t l y : that i s , those students.who performed well on the test as a whole chose the correct option on the.individual test r e l i a b i l i t i e s and correlations are presented i n Table 6. A look at the mean and standard deviation of each test.revealed the C a l i f o r n i a Phonics—Visual and thevGFW Auditory Memory tests were easy tests for the age l e v e l tested. For example, the. GFjW has a mean of 101.94 with a t o t a l possible score of 110, and the C a l i f o r n i a  Phonics-Visual has a mean of 7.08 with a t o t a l possible score of 10. The frequency. polygons, presented i n Figures 3 and 4 substantiate the fact that these two tests have l i t t l e variance i n t h i s population of Grade f i v e students. Item analysis showed that over 74% of a l l students, responded co r r e c t l y to a l l items on the GFW Auditory Memory t e s t . Test order was shown to have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on performance on the Jarman Auditory Recall t e s t (t= 3.6 8, p. .05). Test order did not have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the performance on other tests. However, i t was decided to control for t e s t order i n the multiple regression analysis by including i t as an independent variable. Multiple Regres^MujIrtipl^iylLeigression Analysis The zero-order c o r r e l a t i o n matrix i s presented i n Table 6. It i s important to note the generally low correlations among the tests and the fact that the Durrell Visual Memory of Words; Intermediate has the highest c o r r e l a t i o n with the C a l i f o r n i a  Phonics-Auditory (r= .61) and the Durrell Phonics Spelling (r= .49) These relationships between the tests are relevant to the multiple regression analysis. A summary of the step-wise regression i s presented i n Table 7. Using the Durrell Visual Memory of Words: Intermediate as the dependent variable and the GFW, C a l i f o r n i a Phonics-Visual, Jarman Auditory Recall, C a l i f o r n i a Phonics-Auditory-, gender, reading score and test order as independent variables, a multiple regression analysis was conducted to ascertain how much of the variance of the D u r r e l l Visual Memory of Words was accounted for 58 Figure 3];. Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of raw scores on the G-F-W Auditory Recognition Test 59 30 r 0 1 2 3 V' 5 6 * 7 8 9 io C a l i f o r n i a P h o n i c s - V i s u a l (Raw Score) F i g u r e 4;> Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of raw scores on the C a l i f o r n i a P h o n i c s - V i s u a l T e s t 60 by the independent variables described. The students reading score on the Canadian Test of Basic  S k i l l s (CTBS.) was assumed to measure general reading competence. This variable was therefore entered f i r s t i n the multiple. regression equation.in order to.take out the unique variance of " v \( the D u r r e l l Visual Memory attributable to the.general reading, a b i l i t y of the.student. It was found that-18.4 .percent.of the variance of the Durrell Visual Memory i s . a t t r i b u t a b l e to.the general reading a b i l i t y of the student as measured by the CTBS. An additional 28.8 percent of the variance .of. the Durrell: Visual  Memory i s accounted for ,by the C a l i f o r n i a Phonics^-Auditory. The GFW accounted for an additional 3 percent., Jarman Auditory Recall 2 percent and C a l i f o r n i a Phonics-Visual 1 percent. This results i n a total, of 55 percent of the variance of the Dur r e l l  Visual Memory attributable to general reading a b i l i t y plus tests of auditory-visual, auditory and v i s u a l memory. The Du r r e l l Phonic Spelling t e s t did not enter i n the regression equation when the reading score and t h e \ C a l i f o r n i a  Phonics-Auditory were entered. This suggests, that the.Durrell  Phonic Spelling influence on the Durrell. Visual:- Memory i s . , accounted for by general reading a b i l i t y as measured by CTBS and an auditory-visual integration. measure , California:. Phonics- Auditory. The major contribution made by Reading: and C a l i f o r n i a  Phonics-Auditory to the variance i s shown, by the step-wise regression (Table 7) and i l l u s t r a t e d i n Diagram 4. By the.end-of. step 2 47 percent of the variance of the Dur r e l l Visual Memory i s accounted for 61'; Table 6 Test S t a t i s t i c s for Stage Four Materials Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 Possible Total •'.-110 .7108 .4151 4100 •. £ 15' - 60 X 101.94 7. 08 4. 90 4.40 6 . 76 29. 73 S.D. - 4.73 2. 00 3.18 2.39 4 .54 14.56 Rel. . 69 .58 .79 .67 . 90 . 87 Correlation Matrix 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1.000 2 .109 1. 000 3 .265 . 259 1. 000 4 .166 . 369 . 460 1. 000 5 .343 .416 .488 . 612 1. 000 6 .140 .121 . 309 . 314 .402 1. 000 7 .249 . 331 . 364 .200 .429 . 226 1 . 000 8 .142 .132 . 025 .109 .160 . 321 .221 1. 000 9 . 041 .198 .118 . 222 .234 -.057 .226 • 081 1. 000 1 = GFW Auditory Memory 2 = C a l i f o r n i a Phonics - Visual 3 = Du r r e l l Phonic Spelling 4 = C a l i f o r n i a Phonics - Auditory 5 = Durrell Visual Memory 6 = Jarman Auditory Recall 7 = Reading score 8 = Test order 9 = Gender 62 Diagram 4: The largest contributors to the variance of the Durrell Visual Memory of Words: Intermediate by the two measures mentioned previously. Furthermore, the reduction i n the p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n between the Dur r e l l V i s u a l  Memory and the Dur r e l l Phonic Spelling p r i o r to step 1 (r= .39) and a f t e r step 2 (r= .16) substantiates the fact that the Du r r e l l  Phonic Spelling i s accounted for i n the regression equation by the C a l i forn i a Phon i cs-Audi to ry. Chapter IV has presented the analysis and results of data for Stage Four of the study. A discussion of these results and a summary of conclusions i s presented i n Chapter V. 64 Table 7 Summary of Step-Wise Regression Analysis for Stage Four Data • • . • • . \ Variables i n Equation Variables Not i n Equation Step Variable R2 df F Variable P a r t i a l Entered Correlation RDNG 183 1/117 26.325 CALAUD 471 1/116 63.261 GFW 504 1/115 7.-485 JMANSR CALVIS .529 4/114 546 5/113 6.187 4.255 GFW .270 CALVIS .321 DURSP .394 CALAUD .594 JMANSR .347 GENDER .156 TEST ORDER .073 GFW .247 CALVIS .167 DURSP .195 JMANSR . 233 GENDER .058 TEST ORDER .041 CALVIS .175 DURSP - .163 JMANSR- .227 GENDER . 07 0 TEST ORDER . 021 CALVIS .190 DURSP .135 GENDER .114 TEST ORDER -.044 DURSP .132 GENDER .102 TEST ORDER . --.0.56^  430 GFW.+ .177 JMANS Y = -0.0 + .179 RDING + + .2 09 CALVIS Forced i n to serve as covariate. A l l others free to enter at any stage. p<£01. RDNG + CTBS Reading Score; CALAUD = C a l i f o r n i a Phonics - Auditory; GFW = GFW Auditory Memory; JMANSR = Jarman Auditory Recall; CALVIS= C a l i f o r n i a Phonics - V i s u a l ; DURSP = Dur r e l l Phonic Spelling No attempt was made to set the Y intercept at 0, therefore i t can be concluded the additive constant i n the model i s 0. (Kerlinger and Pedhazur, 1973, 293) 65 CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The purpose of the study was an attempt to answer the question, Does the Durrell Visual Memory of Words: Intermediate measure v i s u a l memory or an auditory-visual integration process i n short-term memory? Summary of the Study To address t h i s question two measures each.of auditory memory,, v i s u a l memory and auditory-visual.integration were used. The results of the p i l o t studies revealed: 1. the paradigm of the study should include only l i t e r a c y based measures. and 2. which measures were most appropriate for the age l e v e l being tested within the constructs of auditory memory, v i s u a l memory and auditory-visual integration. Thus the f i n a l stage of the study was conducted using the following measures: GFW Auditory Recognition Memory, Jarman Auditory Recall, C a l i f o r n i a Phonics-Auditory, D u r r e l l Phonic S p e l l i n g , C a l i f o r n i a Phonics-Visual, D u r r e l l Visual Memory. The measures were i n d i v i d u a l l y administered to 119 Grade f i v e students, con-, t r o l l i n g f or the e f f e c t of tes t order. Scores from the Canadian Test of Basic S k i l l s were used post-hoc to represent general reading a b i l i t y Item analysis and multiple regression analysis were per-formed on the data. Item analysis revealed the p o i n t - b i s e r i a l s on any given t e s t were i n the correct order. Analysis of the test s t a t i s t i c s showed the GFW Auditory Memory and the C a l i f o r n i a 66; Phonics - Vis u a l were easy tests for the age-level students tested. Multiple regression analysis resulted i n the f i n a l equation which states that 55% of the variance of the D u r r e l l V i s u a l  Memory of Words:. Intermediate i s accounted for by CTBS Reading Score, C a l i f o r n i a Phonics-Auditory, GFW Auditory Memory, Jarman  Auditory Reca11 and C a l i f o r n i a Phonics-Visual. I t was concluded from these results that there was s u f f i c i e n t evidence to question the placing of the Du r r e l l Visual Memory of  Words: Intermediate within the construct of v i s u a l memory. Discussion of Results The summary i s presented i n terms of the paradigm presented. I t i s important to keep.in mind the basic conceptual framework of the study and the assumptions derived therefrom. . T h e paradigm as outlined i n Chapter III and represented .in Figure 5. To adopt t h i s paradigm one must accept: 1) that the constructs auditory memory, v i s u a l memory, auditory-visual integration as presented i n Chapter II are independent of each other. 2) that response modes may r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t memory processes i . e . matching r e f l e c t s recognition whereas s e r i a l responses r e f l e c t r e c a l l functions i n memory. 3) that the tests outlined r e f l e c t measurement of the constructs as shown. 67,-Task Modality RECOGNITION AUDITORY ORAL GFW AUDITORY RECOG. MEMORY AUDITORY VISUAL CALIFORNIA PHONICS: AUDITORY VISUAL VISUAL CALIFORNIA PHONICS VISUAL AUDITORY AUDITORY VISUAL RECALL ORAL VISUAL VISUAL JARMAN SERIAL RECALL DURRELL PHONIC SPELL. DURRELL VISUAL MEMORY Figure 5: Paradigmxof 5 thePstudygia o f the study Given that i t i s the construct v a l i d i t y of the Dur r e l l  V i s u a l Memory of Words which i s being investigated, i n i t i a l discussion of the paradigm w i l l exclude t h i s t e s t . Taking statements one and three as correct assumptions, one would anticipate that the measures of auditory memory would have low correlations with the measure of v i s u a l memory (ex-cluding the Durrell Visual Memory of Words at thi s point). I t was found that c o r r e l a t i o n between GFW and the C a l i f o r n i a Phonics - Visual was .109 and the co r r e l a t i o n between Jarman  Auditory Recall and the C a l i f o r n i a Phonics-Visual was .121. Auditory-visual integration may be considered to have an auditory and v i s u a l memory function. I t could be anticipated therefore, that measures of auditory and v i s u a l modalities would 68 have a low positi v e c o r r e l a t i o n with measures of auditory-v i s u a l integration. The results as shown i n Table 7 substantiate th i s expectation. The range of corr e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i s from .166 (the corr e l a t i o n between thev GFW and C a l i f o r n i a Phonics: Auditory) to .369 (the correlation.between the California: Phonics, Visual and California: Phonics-Auditory) . Therefore, i f the Dur r e l l V i s u a l Memory of Words; . Inter-mediate was indeed a pure measure of v i s u a l memory, a si m i l a r c o r r e l a t i o n a l pattern as described would be expected. However, results revealed that the Dur r e l l Visual Memory of Words correlated p o s i t i v e l y with each measure of auditory memory (GFW r=.343 ; Jarman r=.402) , .with the measure of visual, memory (California.Phonics-Visual r=.416) and most highly with the measures of auditory^visual integration (Durrell Spelling r=.488; C a l i f o r n i a Phonics, Auditory r=.612). This pattern questions the placement of the Dur r e l l V i s u a l Memory of Words; Intermediate within the construct v i s u a l memory. Further substantiation for t h i s question i s provided by the. multiple regression analysis (Table 7) where i t was shown that 4 percent of the variance was accounted for by tests of auditory memory, 29 percent by tests of auditory-visual integration and only 1 percent by a tes t of v i s u a l memory. It would appear, therefore, that the Dur r e l l V i s u a l Memory  of Words:' Intermediate does not f i t into the paradigm of the study as shown i n Figure 5. The test does not only measure 69 r e c a l l of words from a v i s u a l modality but includes a measure of auditory v i s u a l integration. The d e f i n i t i o n of auditory-visual integration given for the purpose of this.study.was - the a b i l i t y to recognize or r e c a l l words v i s u a l l y which have been presented o r a l l y . This d e f i n i t i o n should be expanded to include the a b i l i t y to recognize or r e c a l l words v i s u a l l y or o r a l l y which have been presented to v i s u a l or auditory modalities. The res u l t s supported the existence of d i f f e r e n t processes being measured by a recognition (matching) task compared with a s e r i a l r e c a l l task. This i s most c l e a r l y shown by the low corr e l a t i o n of .140 between GFW and Jarman Recall. From.the analysis i t appears that the C a l i f o r n i a Phonics-Auditory may also be measuring a r e c a l l function rather than a recognition function i n memory, thus accounting for the moderate p o s i t i v e correlations with the measures of r e c a l l and v i s u a l recognition but low co r r e l a t i o n with the measure of auditory recognition memory (GFW r=.166). Therefore, the C a l i f o r n i a Phonics-Auditory may not be measuring a recognition process, for the task involves words not i n the student's sight vocabulary. Consequently when a word i s not part of a,student's sight, vocabulary the word i s re c a l l e d i n parts (using phonetic cues) rather than recognized by i t s whole shape. There seems to be j u s t i f i c a t i o n for considering the C a l i f o r n i a Phonics-Auditory as requiring a r e c a l l task i n the auditory-visual integration modality. 70 Conclusions The conclusions are stated i n r e l a t i o n to the hypotheses. Thus, based on the analysis there appears to be evidence that: 1. the Du r r e l l Visual Memory of Words:— Intermediate does not measure a purely v i s u a l memory process. and 2. the Du r r e l l Visual Memory of Words: Intermediate contains a measure of an auditory-visual integration process with a v i s u a l input. I t may be that the measuring instruments we have for te s t i n g v i s u a l and auditory processing of words are not refined enough to assess each modality. However, i t may be that i n dealing with the s k i l l e d reader rehearsal systems are aiding r e c a l l of v i s u a l and auditory input to such an extent that any measure-ment of modalities w i l l automatically include an integration of the two. L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study The search f o r measuring instruments, while thorough, produced a l i m i t e d number of t e s t s s u i t a b l e . f o r the con-s t r u c t s being measured wi t h students of grade 4 and 5 age l e v e l . Thus non-standardized t e s t s were used t o . r e p r e s e n t the c o n s t r u c t being measured: f o r example, Jarman A u d i t o r y R e c a l l and C a l i f o r n i a Phonics presented v i s u a l l y . The number o f t e s t e r s used i n the study i s seen as a l i m i t a t i o n , but i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t e s t s were minimal and f o u r out o f the s i x t e s t s were taped, to m a i n t a i n c o n s i s t e n c y of time i n t e r v a l s and p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f the words. The g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s from the r e s u l t s are l i m i t e d to r a i s i n g the q u e s t i o n as to whether we can indeed t e s t v i s u a l , memory of words without measurement o f an a u d i t o r y — v i s u a l i n t e g r a t i o n p r o c e s s . 72 Implications of the Study The study raises the question of i f there i s a way of t e s t i n g v i s u a l and auditory memory of words independently or whether indeed each includes a measurement of an auditory-visual integration process. Psychometric implications of the study are that a tester should specify the process to be measured, and ensure that the test being used measures that process. U n t i l v a l i d a t i o n studies are included i n a test's technical report the c l i n i c i a n must be aware of the l i m i t a t i o n s of any such t e s t s . Educational implications of the study for the classroom teacher are l i m i t e d to the knowledge that auditory-visual pro-cessing i s of importance i n the approach to reading i n s t r u c t i o n . Therefore, any techniques for the teaching of reading to intermediate grade students should include the integration of auditory and v i s u a l s t i m u l i . Implications for diagnosticians of reading d i f f i c u l t i e s who also recommend remediation programs, are that exercises of auditory-visual integration, using auditory input and v i s u a l input, should be included i n those programs. 73 Suggestions for Further Research The study suggests some p o s s i b i l i t i e s for further research. 1. Further explorations of the construct v a l i d i t y of tests of s p e c i f i c modality and cross-modal functioning. 2. 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APPENDIX A MODEL OF MEMORY PROCESSES Q Sound p Light Pattern o— VIS R ) Buffer Rehearsal AIS -( T )-->-Q Written Letters Schematic representation of model of visual-information processing (Sperling, 1967, p. 290). Schematic representation of model of visual-information processing (Sperling, 1970, p. 199). APPENDIX B TESTS USED I N THE STUDY V i s u a l T e s t - Form 2 (Monroe & Sherman, 1939) o Monroe & Sherman 91 V i s u a l Test - Form 2 - - L •-• * D i r e c t i o n s : The tea c h e r w i l l show you designs on a card. Study these designs u n t i l the tea c h e r removes the card. Then draw as many o f them as you can remember. Show each car d 10 seconds. Card 1. Card 2. Card 3. Card 4. Score (Number of s i n g l e designs c o r r e c t ) 2 . 6 BITS 6.1 M W V i s u a l Memory M a t r i c e s T.(Yuille & Ternes, 19 75) 93 MURPHY AUDITORY DISCRIMINATION DIRECTIONS SAY: You are going to hear some words and w i l l be t o l d the —• - ~°rletterryou are to l i s t e n for i n those words. If you hear the sound of that l e t t e r at the beginning of the word, write the number 1. THE VERY BEGINNING If you hear the sound of the l e t t e r i n the middle of the word, write the number 2. ANYWHERE ELSE If you hear the sound of the l e t t e r at the end of the word, write the number 3. THE VERY END Listen c a r e f u l l y , sometimes you may hear the sound once i n a word, sometimes two or three times i n one word. Be sure to record each time you- hear the sound of the l e t t e r you are t o l d . Let's t r y some examples: Turn tape on: a - antique Turn tape o f f , THEN SAY: Did you hear the a sound at the beginning or the middle or the end of the word antique? Yes, i t was at the beginning, so you record a number 1 on your recording sheet. If the student does not understand repeat the explanation. THEN SAY: Let's t r y another word. Turn tape on: 1 - balcony Turn tape o f f , repeat the procedure as for example one. When the student understands the task proceed with the test. 94 MURPHY AUDITORY DISCRIMINATION TEST The l e t t e r s the children are to l i s t e n for are l i s t e d before the words, and the expected responses are given a f t e r each word. "Listen to t e l l where you hear the sound made by the l e t t e r - i n t h i s word ...." Example: a - antique - 1 1 - balcony - 2 1. b - Bambino - 1,2 2. g - geography - 1,2 3. e - Bethlehem - 2,2,2 4. . i - b i s c u i t - 2,2 5. d - dandelion - 1,2 6. o - chocolate - 2,2 7. m - complement - 2,2 8. f - fanfare --1,2 9. z - horizon,- 2 10. 0 - Acropolis -2,2 11. r - agriculture - 2,3 12. a - alabaster - 1 ,2,2 13. n - alagonquin - 2,3 14. 1 - Alleghany - 2 ,2 15. e - r e f l e c t i o n - 2,2 16. d - Bagdad - 2,3 17. b - bibliography - 1, 2 18. n - convenient - 2,2, 2 19. g - genealogical - 1, 2 20. p - hippopotamus - 2, 2,2 95 MURPHY AUDITORY. DISCRIMINATION School ' ' ; i • Teacher: Name - Date Examples 1. 11. 2. 3. 4. 5. 7. 8. 9. 10. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 96 MCLEOD AUDITORY DISCRIMINATION DIRECTIONS SAY: You are going to hear some words. Two words at a time. List e n c a r e f u l l y and t e l l me i f the two words you hear are the same words said twice or two d i f f e r e n t words. If the two words are exactly the same you say SAME. I f they are not exactly the same you say DIFFERENT. Let's t r y some pairs for p r a c t i c e . 1 Turn tape on: MAN - MAN Turn tape o f f , THEN SAY: Did you hear the same word twice or two d i f f e r e n t words? Wait for the pupil to answer. If he says same or yes say THAT'S RIGHT, and switch on the tape recorder for the next p a i r of words. If he says d i f f e r e n t , or no or I don't know, repeat the instructions. When you are sure he understands, SAY, Let's try another pai r . Turn tape on: HAR - PAT Turn tape o f f , THEN SAY: Did you hear the same word twice or two d i f f e r e n t words? Wait for the pupil to answer. Follow the same procedure as for the f i r s t p a i r . When you are sure the p u p i l understands go on with the test. SCORING THE TEST: On the tes t form are two response columns, one headed Different and the other headed Same. Make a mark (+) or (-) in.the response column corresponding to each word-pair as the subject responds. Mark only i n the unshaded box after each word-pair. 97 Auditory Discrimination Test P5 1. put put 2. wish with 3. back — bag 4. pair — care 5. him — him 6. shop — shot 7. done — none 8- wood — wood Wm 9. leg — led io. short — caught n. beat — meet 12. god — got 13. get — yet 14. bed — dead 15. gold — told 16. might — night 17. will — wing 18. thus — thus 19. thing — thin 20. ten — then 21. tell — sell 22. town — down 23. race — raise 24. chair — care 25. board — born 32. said — said 43. talk — talk 26. big - bit 27. short — thought 28. could — good 29. take — take 30. wife — wise 31. few — view 33. feet — seat 34. sing — thing 35. well — well • 36. had — • had _\_\ 37. both — boat 38. chair — share 39. wish — wing 40. tear — pair 41. part — pass 42. have — hat 44. pUll — full 1 45. face — case 46. right — rise 47. pair — bear 48. gate — date 49. dare — their so. seem — seen s D Error Score / 9 Domain A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test (McLeod, 1968). 98 MCCULLOUGH INITIAL BLENDS AND DIGRAPHS DIRECTIONS Read the directions given on the answer sheet. Turn tape on: the thi s them Turn tape o f f . Have the pupils t e l l what l e t t e r s these words begin with and put a cross on the th i n the row of l e t t e r s i n the sample on t h e i r t e s t . When i t i s certain that the directions are c l e a r l y under-stood, proceed with the test. 1. truck t r a i n trunk 2. grass green grow 3. steps s t a i r s stars 4.- cherries chair chicks 5. crowd crow crumbs 6. flower f l a g f l o o r 7. pretty prize proud 8. sleep sled s l i g h t 9. smile small smooth 10. f r u i t fresh f r i e n d 11. sheep shawl shoes 12. black blew blow 13. skip s k i r t sky 14. spider spots spoon 15. plant plate plane McCULLOUGH INITIAL BLENDS AND DIGRAPHS yy NAME. This is a test of your ability to remember the letters that form the sounds in words. Your teacher will say three words. All of the words will begin with the same two or three letters. You are to decide what letters they are. Look at the sample and listen for the begin-ning sound in the words your teacher says. Find the letters that make the beginning sound you hear. Put a cross (X) on them. Complete the test in the same way. SAMPLE: ch sh th cl 1. th dr tr fr 16. sh sp cl sc 2. cr gr ch 17. qu wr ch cl 3. si fr St cl 18. cl dr kn br 4. cl ch sh th 19. sh bl th ph 5. cr dr ch wr 20. ch br pr cl 6. ph gr fr fl 21. wh wr ch t h 7. pr br dr pl 22. dr pr gl gr 0. St cl si sh 23. ph ch th si 9. sp sm ch SW 24. br dr Pl pr 10. fr ch fi pr 25. sw wh sh cr 11. si St cl sh 26. gh k n ch sm 12. fl Pi bl dr 27. sh ch ph pl 13. cl sk St sh 28. sh St str sch 14. si ch cl sp 29. si str spr tr 15. bl br dr Pl 30. str tr si thr • 100 G.F.W. AUDITORY MEMORY TEST INSTRUCTIONS TRAINING SECTION TEST 1 - RECOGNITION MEMORY The volume of the tape player should be adjusted before s t a r t i n g the t r a i n i n g even though the tape player i s not used u n t i l the Test Section. The examiner should play a portion of the test tape while adjusting the volume to a "comfortably loud" l e v e l . I f earphones are being used, the examiner should wear the subject's earphones while making the adjustment. After adjusting the volume, say: I AM GOING TO SAY SOME WORDS. I WANT YOU TO LISTEN CAREFULLY BECAUSE I WILL SAY SOME OF THE WORDS AGAIN. AFTER I SAY EACH WORD, I WANT YOU TO SAY "YES" IF YOU HAVE HEARD ME SAY THAT WORD BEFORE. BUT IF YOU HAVE NOT HEARD ME SAY THAT WORD BEFORE, I WANT YOU TO SAY "NO". Let's begin by tr y i n g a few words -Kitten...... Have you heard me say that word before? No(examiner shakes head), you couldn't have heard i t before because i t i s the f i r s t word I have said. Kitten......Have you heard me say that word before? Pause for subject to respond. Nod your head and say: Yes, I have said i t before. 101 Stranger Pause f o r s u b j e c t to respond. No, I have not s a i d i t b e f o r e . A r t i s t Pause. Yes, I have s a i d i t b e f o r e . Say: Now we are going to l i s t e n t o some other words. But t h i s time you w i l l hear the words... through the earphones Cor) from t h i s tape p l a y e r . A f t e r you hear each word, say "yes" i f you have heard the word be f o r e o r say "no" i f you have not heard the word b e f o r e . I f earphones are being used, p l a c e them on the s u b j e c t . * S t a r t the tape p l a y e r and p l a y the p r a c t i c e s e t o f f i v e words. Do not r e c o r d the responses. P r a c t i c e C o r r e c t Word Response money n o v i v i d n o money Y e s c o r a l n o v i v i d Y e s A f t e r the p r a c t i c e s e t o f f i v e words has been presented, stop the tape p l a y e r ( i n most cases i t w i l l not be necessary to remove the earphones), and say: NOW WE WILL TRY SOME OTHER WORDS. THE LIST OF WORDS WILL BE LONGER THIS TIME. ANSWER IN THE SAME WAY YOU HAVE BEEN, BY SAYING""YES" OR SAYING "NO". 102 Test 1 -Recognition Memory TEST SECTION Score Test Correct tern Word Response 1 d i s p l a y . . no 2 prospect. no 3 problem . no 4 m a g i c . . . no 5 problem . yes 6 display . . yes 7 r o l l i n g . . . no 8 wretched. .no 9 m a g i c . . . .yes 10 r o l l i n g . . . .yes 11 prospect. .yes 12 husband. . no 13 service . . .no 14 barga in . . .no 15 error .no 16 wretched. .yes 17 service . . .yes 18 husband. .yes 19 sugar . . . . no 20 sugar .yes 21 barga in . . .yes 22 error .yes Items 1-22 Number Correct 23 h o r r o r . . . . no 24 b l a n k e t . . .no 25 h o r r o r . . . .yes 26 issue .no 27 issue .yes 28 far ther . . . .no 29 b u c k e t . . . .no 30 far ther . . . .yes 31 lovely . . . .no 32 b l a n k e t . . .yes 33 c h o s e n . . .no 34 w e d d i n g . .no 35 bucket . . .yes 36 lovely . . . .yes 37 crooked . .no Test Correct Item Word Response 38 s leep ing . no 39 peacefu l . no 40 crooked . yes 41 wedd ing . yes 42 chosen . . .yes 43 peaceful . .yes 44 sleeping . .yes 45 soldier. . . no 46 captive . . no 47 captive . . .yes 48 soldier . . .yes 49 charming no 50 adult . no . 51 bullet . . . . no 52 victim . . . .no 53 hover . . . no 54 adult .yes 55 charming yes 56 p u r p l e . . . . no 57 wicked . . no 58 m e m b e r . .no 59 victim . . . .yes 60 bullet . . . .yes 61 hover . . . .yes 62 wicked . . .yes 63 member . .yes 64 bottom . . . no 65 p u r p l e . . . .yes 66 bottom . . .yes Items 1-66 Number Correct 67 poison . . .no 68 rustle . . . . no 69 decent . . .no 70 tor ture . . . .no 71 rustle . . . .yes 72 tor ture . . . .yes 73 shepherd .no 74 s u r f a c e . . .no 75 mut te r . . . .no 76 poison . . .yes Score Test Item Correct Score Word Response (1 or 0) 77 decent . . .yes 78 s u r f a c e . . .yes 79 h a t r e d . . . .no 80 shepherd .yes 81 mutter. . . .yes 82 prayer. . . .no 83 prayer. . . .yes 84 hatred. . . .yes 85 uncle . . . .no 86 anger . . . . no 87 anger . . . .yes 88 uncle . . . .yes 89 beaver . . .no 90 ribbon. . . .no 91 coffee. . . .no 92 coffee. . . .yes 93 cabin . . . . no 94 final . no 95 beaver . . .yes 96 mantle . . .no 97 cabin . . . .yes 98 satin .no 99 r i b b o n . . . .yes 100 after . no 101 satin .yes 102 final .yes 103 mantle . . • / .yes 104 darken . . . no 105 th icket . . . .no 106 si lence . . . no 107 . th i cket . . . .yes 108 after .yes 109 darken . . .yes 110 silence . . .yes Test 1 -RECOGNITION NUMB ER C O R R E C T * Refer to Table 1 in the manual for an estimate of the subject's total test score. Record this estimate as the "Number Correct" in the Summary of Scores section. G-F-W A u d i t o r y Memory Tes t s / (Goldman, F r i s t o e & Woodcock, 1974) 103 JARMAN AUDITORY RECALL DIRECTIONS SAY: You are going to hear l i s t s of f i v e words. As soon as the f i v e words have been said you are to repeat them to me in the order you remember them. Let's t r y the examples for practice: Turn on the tape recorder and work through the three examples. When the c h i l d understands the procedure turn on the tape for the te s t . JARMAN AUDITORY RECALL EXAMPLES: A. big long great t a l l high B. cow day key few wall C. wide big high t a l l long 1. key hot can pen bar 2. wide large big high great 3. day few wall bar pen 4. long b ig fat great t a l l 5. pen wall book key few 6. book bar wall hot cow 7. key few hot book wall 8. high f a t huge wide long 9. huge great fat large wide 10. key day cow bar few 11. wide t a l l large huge big 12. bar pen few day cow Name Date School 105 CALIFORNIA PHONICS SURVEY: AUDITORY EXERCISE 3 DIRECTIONS SAY: You are going t o hear some words. A l l of the words i n t h i s e x e r c i s e are r e a l words. Some of them may not be f a m i l i a r to you, but most o f them probably are. You are to see i f you can f i n d the word you hear among the answer choices on your r e c o r d i n g sheet. Put a c r o s s on the answer you t h i n k i s c o r r e c t . I f none of the p r i n t e d words seems to match the spoken word, mark the number 5. None. Look at sample E on your sheet. Turn tape on: applause - applause - applause Turn tape. o f f . THEN SAY: You see t h a t the c o r r e c t answer i s Number 4, because t h i s s p e l l s out the word applause. Now look at sample F. Turn tape on: propose - propose - propose Turn tape o f f . THEN SAY: Can you f i n d the word propose? The c o r r e c t answer i s 5, because none o f the words p r i n t e d i n sample F c o u l d be pronounced propose. You are t o answer the r e s t o f the items i n t h i s e x e r c i s e i n the same way as you d i d the samples. Do you understand? I f the p u p i l does not understand repeat the i n s t r u c t i o n s . When he understands the task proceed w i t h the t e s t . 106 CALIFORNIA PHONICS - AUDITORY SAMPLES: E. "'"aplomb „ 1 '. applesauce proposition ponderous plausible ^portrait applause ^predicate None None 1. " h o s t i l i t y 2. "'"brandy 'hospitality 'blemish inhospitable i n s t a b i l i t y bandage blandish None None 3. s a d i s t i c 4. desperate ' s a t i r i c 'deprivation 5. inopportune opportunity Satanic "^disparage "^importune s t a t i s t i c s None separate None ^important ^None 6. advantages advantageous misadventures adventitious None 7. determined 'undermined 'terminated detrimental None 8. maniacal 9. demiurge 'monocle 'dredge mangle ^dirge manacle demurrage None None 10. persecution perseveration perversion prevision None Name Date School DURRELL PHONIC SPELLING DIRECTIONS SAY: You are going to hear some words one at a time on the tape. Write what you hear i n this space; Point to l i n e 1 on the chi l d ' s answer sheet. Start the tape recorder. WORD LIST: 1. intervent 2. car p o l i t e 3. tonometer 4. in t r o v e r t 5. blastment 6. l i g u l a t e 7. polarize 8. stimulus 9. t i t r a t i o n 10. explicate 11. isotherm 12« astrolabe 13. epithet 14. dissonant 15. retrograde DURRELL PHONIC SPELLING School -. • Teacher Name • • : -• ; : ; ; ; ; : • : : ; : ; ; : • • Date 1. 2. 3. • . ' 4. , .  5. . -6. - 7. • . 8. ' . . • 9. . ,.  10. 11. . . 12. . . 13.. . 14. \ • 15. 109 CALIFORNIA PHONICS: VISUAL DIRECTIONS SAY: I am going to show you a word for one second and then turn i t away. Show the tachistoscope window without a word showing. SAY: If the word you see i If the word you see i s i n the l i n e of words on your sheet, Point to l i n e 1 on the answer sheet, mark i t with a cross(X). If the word you see i s not i n that l i s t of words, put a cross on "None". 1 h o s p i t a l i t y 2 bremish 3 s t a t i s t i c s 4 disparage 5 inopportune 6 adventitious 7 determination 8 monocle 9 demiurge 10 perversion 110 CALIFORNIA PHONICS: VISUAL 1. ''"hostility 2 h o p i t a l i t y 3 inhospitable 4 i n s t a b i l i t y . ^None 2. "'"brandy 2 blemish ^bandage 4 blandish ^None 3. s s a d i s t i c 2 ... . s a t i r i c 3^ _ Satanic s t a t i s t i c s ^None 4. adegperate ^deprivation disparage ^separate ^None 5. "''inopportune ^opportunity "^importune ^important ~*None 6. "^advantages ^advantageous "^misadventures ^adventitious ^None 7. ^"determined ^undermined "^terminated 4 detrimental 5None 8. maniacal monocle mangle 4 , manacle 5 None 9. "'"demiurge ^dredge dirge ^demurrage ^None 10. 1 persecution 2 ,. perseveration 3 perversion 4 prevision ^None Name Date School I l l DURRELL VISUAL MEMORY OF WORDS DIRECTIONS Place i n the tachistoscope the card " V i s u a l Memory of Words - Intermediate." Show the c h i l d the f i r s t word f o r three seconds, saying. "Look at t h i s word, then w r i t e i t beside Number 1 on t h i s l i n e . " Do not pronounce the word or ask the c h i l d t o read i t , As soon as the c h i l d has looked at the word, t u r n the card over and have him w r i t e i t from memory. Continue w i t h the r e s t of the words on the card. 1. w e l k i n 2. ampersand 3. c a n a l i z e 4. denotable 5. v a r i f o r m 6. wainscot 7. i n c e p t i o n 8. monochord 9. t r i b u n a l 10. contingent 11. v e r b a l i s t 12. b r i g a n t i n e 13. g a n g l i a t e 14. quadruped 15. hydrostat DURRELL VISUAL MEMORY OF WORDS S c h o o l : Teacher: Name: Date : 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 

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